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  1. Dual mechanisms of sHA 14-1 in inducing cell death through endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria.

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    Hermanson, David; Addo, Sadiya N; Bajer, Anna A; Marchant, Jonathan S; Das, Sonia Goutam Kumar; Srinivasan, Balasubramanian; Al-Mousa, Fawaz; Michelangeli, Francesco; Thomas, David D; Lebien, Tucker W; Xing, Chengguo

    2009-09-01

    HA 14-1 is a small-molecule Bcl-2 antagonist that promotes apoptosis in malignant cells, but its mechanism of action is not well defined. We recently reported that HA 14-1 has a half-life of only 15 min in vitro, which led us to develop a stable analog of HA 14-1 (sHA 14-1). The current study characterizes its mode of action. Because of the antiapoptotic function of Bcl-2 family proteins on the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and mitochondria, the effect of sHA 14-1 on both organelles was evaluated. sHA 14-1 induced ER calcium release in human leukemic cells within 1 min, followed by induction of the ER stress-inducible transcription factor ATF4. Similar kinetics and stronger intensity of ER calcium release were induced by the sarcoendoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase (SERCA) inhibitor thapsigargin, accompanied by similar kinetics and intensity of ATF4 induction. sHA 14-1 directly inhibited SERCA enzymatic activity but had no effect on the inositol triphosphate receptor. Evaluation of the mitochondrial pathway showed that sHA 14-1 triggered a loss of mitochondrial transmembrane potential (Delta psi m) and weak caspase-9 activation, whereas thapsigargin had no effect. (R)-4-(3-Dimethylamino-1-phenylsulfanylmethyl-propylamino)-N-{4-[4-(4'-chloro-biphenyl-2-ylmethyl)-piperazin-1-yl]-benzoyl}-3-nitrobenzenesulfonamide (ABT-737), a well established small-molecule Bcl-2 antagonist, rapidly induced loss of Delta psi m and caspase-9 activation but had no effect on the ER. The pan-caspase inhibitor N-benzyloxycarbonyl-Val-Ala-Asp-fluoromethyl ketone had some protective effect on sHA 14-1-induced cell death. These collective results suggest a unique dual targeting mechanism of sHA 14-1 on the apoptotic resistance machinery of tumor cells that includes antiapoptotic Bcl-2 family proteins and SERCA proteins.

  2. Is 58% sensitivity for detection of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 3 and invasive cervical cancer optimal for cervical screening?

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    R. Marshall Austin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent Food and Drug Administration (FDA approval of a Roche cobas human papillomavirus (HPV test application as a first line primary cervical screening tool in women 25 and older introduces a new era of complex cervical screening choices. Perhaps the most surprising findings in Roche′s supporting ATHENA trial data were the unexpectedly low verification bias-adjusted CIN3+ sensitivities documented by the FDA for both the proposed cobas HPV testing algorithm (58.26% and Pap testing algorithm (42.63%. These unexpectedly low sensitivity estimates suggest intuitively that there is still considerable room for improvement in cervical screening, and available data from large systems point to routine cytology and HPV co-testing as offering the greatest protection against development of cervical cancer. Observational studies of large populations screened over time remain essential to document actual protection from development of cervical cancer with any new cervical screening options, as natural history studies and available data from large systems indicate that most CIN2/3 cases detected in short term clinical trials would not progress to invasive cervical cancer. Interpretation of ATHENA trial data and its application to routine clinical practice is further limited by published studies which document that a significant proportion of CIN2/3 biopsy diagnoses in the ATHENA trial could not be confirmed as accurate when evaluated with p16 immunohistochemistry and that cytology laboratory performance in the trial was notably suboptimal.

  3. Is pressure pain sensitivity over the cervical musculature associated with neck disability in individuals with migraine?

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    Gonçalves, Maria Claudia; Chaves, Thaís Cristina; Florencio, Lidiane Lima; Carvalho, Gabriela Ferreira; Dach, Fabíola; Fernández-De-Las-Penãs, Cesar; Bevilaqua-Grossi, Débora

    2015-01-01

    The objective was to determine if disability due to neck pain is correlated with pressure pain sensitivity in the cervical muscles in patients with migraine. Thirty-two volunteers with migraine completed the Neck Disability Index (NDI). Pressure pain thresholds (PPT) over the sternocleidomastoid, upper trapezius and suboccipital muscles were also assessed. Data were analyzed using the Spearman correlation coefficient (rs) and linear regression models (α cervical muscles correlated moderately and was inversely proportional in patients with migraine, but the association was not linear, so both outcomes should be considered in the assessment of this population.

  4. Motion analysis study on sensitivity of finite element model of the cervical spine to geometry.

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    Zafarparandeh, Iman; Erbulut, Deniz U; Ozer, Ali F

    2016-07-01

    Numerous finite element models of the cervical spine have been proposed, with exact geometry or with symmetric approximation in the geometry. However, few researches have investigated the sensitivity of predicted motion responses to the geometry of the cervical spine. The goal of this study was to evaluate the effect of symmetric assumption on the predicted motion by finite element model of the cervical spine. We developed two finite element models of the cervical spine C2-C7. One model was based on the exact geometry of the cervical spine (asymmetric model), whereas the other was symmetric (symmetric model) about the mid-sagittal plane. The predicted range of motion of both models-main and coupled motions-was compared with published experimental data for all motion planes under a full range of loads. The maximum differences between the asymmetric model and symmetric model predictions for the principal motion were 31%, 78%, and 126% for flexion-extension, right-left lateral bending, and right-left axial rotation, respectively. For flexion-extension and lateral bending, the minimum difference was 0%, whereas it was 2% for axial rotation. The maximum coupled motions predicted by the symmetric model were 1.5° axial rotation and 3.6° lateral bending, under applied lateral bending and axial rotation, respectively. Those coupled motions predicted by the asymmetric model were 1.6° axial rotation and 4° lateral bending, under applied lateral bending and axial rotation, respectively. In general, the predicted motion response of the cervical spine by the symmetric model was in the acceptable range and nonlinearity of the moment-rotation curve for the cervical spine was properly predicted.

  5. Interactive cervical motion kinematics: sensitivity, specificity and clinically significant values for identifying kinematic impairments in patients with chronic neck pain.

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    Sarig Bahat, Hilla; Chen, Xiaoqi; Reznik, David; Kodesh, Einat; Treleaven, Julia

    2015-04-01

    Chronic neck pain has been consistently shown to be associated with impaired kinematic control including reduced range, velocity and smoothness of cervical motion, that seem relevant to daily function as in quick neck motion in response to surrounding stimuli. The objectives of this study were: to compare interactive cervical kinematics in patients with neck pain and controls; to explore the new measures of cervical motion accuracy; and to find the sensitivity, specificity, and optimal cutoff values for defining impaired kinematics in those with neck pain. In this cross-section study, 33 patients with chronic neck pain and 22 asymptomatic controls were assessed for their cervical kinematic control using interactive virtual reality hardware and customized software utilizing a head mounted display with built-in head tracking. Outcome measures included peak and mean velocity, smoothness (represented by number of velocity peaks (NVP)), symmetry (represented by time to peak velocity percentage (TTPP)), and accuracy of cervical motion. Results demonstrated significant and strong effect-size differences in peak and mean velocities, NVP and TTPP in all directions excluding TTPP in left rotation, and good effect-size group differences in 5/8 accuracy measures. Regression results emphasized the high clinical value of neck motion velocity, with very high sensitivity and specificity (85%-100%), followed by motion smoothness, symmetry and accuracy. These finding suggest cervical kinematics should be evaluated clinically, and screened by the provided cut off values for identification of relevant impairments in those with neck pain. Such identification of presence or absence of kinematic impairments may direct treatment strategies and additional evaluation when needed.

  6. MiR-214 inhibits cell migration, invasion and promotes the drug sensitivity in human cervical cancer by targeting FOXM1.

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    Wang, Jian-Mei; Ju, Bao-Hui; Pan, Cai-Jun; Gu, Yan; Li, Meng-Qi; Sun, Li; Xu, Yan-Ying; Yin, Li-Rong

    2017-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play key roles in progression of cervical cancer. In the present study, we investigated the role of miR-214 in the process of migration, invasion and drug sensitivity to cisplatin in cervical cancer. We detected the differential expression of miR-214 in 19 cases cervical cancer tissues and normal tissues as well as 4 cervical cancer cells and one normal cervical cells by Real-time PCR. Then, wound healing assay, transwell invasion assay and MTT were used to detect the effects of migration, invasion and sensitivity to cisplatin of cervical cancer when miR-214 was overexpressed. Western blot, immunofluorescence and Flow Cytometry were used to detect the mechanism of migration, invasion and sensitivity to cisplatin. Next, bioinformatics analysis was used to find the target of miR-214. Through the luciferase reporter assay, Real-time PCR and western blot, we confirmed the binding relationship of miR-214 and FOXM1. In cervical cancer tissues, the expression of FOXM1 was detected by western blot and Immunohistochemistry. We also knocked down FOXM1 in cervical cancer cells, wound healing assay, transwell invasion assay and MTT were performed to detect the migration, invasion and sensitivity to cisplatin abilities of FOXM1. Western blot and Flow Cytometry were used to detect the mechanism of migration, invasion and sensitivity to cisplatin by FOXM1. Finally, we performed rescue expriments to confirm the function relationship between miR-214 and FOXM1. 1. Our results showed that miR-214 was frequently downregulated in tumor tissues and cancer cells especially in CIN III and cervical cancer stages. 2. Overexpression of miR-214 significantly inhibited migration and invasion of cervical cancer cells and prompted the sensitivity to cisplatin. 3. FOXM1 was identified as a target of miR-214 and down-regulated by miR-214. 4. Knocking down FOXM1 could inhibited migration and invasion of cervical cancer cells and prompted the sensitivity to cisplatin. 5. FOXM1 was

  7. Pre-treatment with new kynurenic acid amide dose-dependently prevents the nitroglycerine-induced neuronal activation and sensitization in cervical part of trigemino-cervical complex.

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    Fejes-Szabó, Annamária; Bohár, Zsuzsanna; Vámos, Enikő; Nagy-Grócz, Gábor; Tar, Lilla; Veres, Gábor; Zádori, Dénes; Szentirmai, Márton; Tajti, János; Szatmári, István; Fülöp, Ferenc; Toldi, József; Párdutz, Árpád; Vécsei, László

    2014-07-01

    The systemic administration of nitroglycerine induces attacks in migraineurs and is able to activate and sensitize the trigeminal system in animals involving glutamate and α7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, among others. Kynurenic acid is one of the endogenous glutamate receptor antagonists, and exerts inhibitory action on the α7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. Since kynurenic acid penetrates the blood-brain barrier poorly, therefore a newly synthesized kynurenic acid amide, N-(2-N-pyrrolidinylethyl)-4-oxo-1H-quinoline-2-carboxamide hydrochloride (KYNAa) was used with such a side-chain substitution to facilitate brain penetration in our study. We evaluated its modulatory effect on kynurenic acid concentration in the cervical part of trigemino-cervical complex (C1-C2) and in the model of nitroglycerine-induced trigeminal activation using male Sprague-Dawley rats. One hour after 1 mmol/kg bodyweight KYNAa administration, the kynurenic acid level increased significantly in C1-C2, which returned to the basal level at 300 min measured by high-performance liquid chromatography. KYNAa pre-treatment had dose-dependent, mitigating action on nitroglycerine-induced decrease in calcitonin gene-related peptide and increase in c-Fos, neuronal nitric oxide synthase and calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II alpha expression in the C1-C2. KYNAa also mitigated the behavioural changes after nitroglycerine. Thus, in this model KYNAa is able to modulate in a dose-dependent manner the changes in neurochemical markers of activation and sensitization of the trigeminal system directly and indirectly--via forming kynurenic acid, possibly acting on peripheral and central glutamate or α7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. These results suggest that application of kynurenic acid derivatives could be a useful therapeutic strategy in migraine headache in the future with a different mechanism of action.

  8. Deceleration during 'real life' motor vehicle collisions – a sensitive predictor for the risk of sustaining a cervical spine injury?

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    Hartwig Erich

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The predictive value of trauma impact for the severity of whiplash injuries has mainly been investigated in sled- and crash-test studies. However, very little data exist for real-life accidents. Therefore, the predictive value of the trauma impact as assessed by the change in velocity of the car due to the collision (ΔV for the resulting cervical spine injuries were investigated in 57 cases after real-life car accidents. Methods ΔV was determined for every car and clinical findings related to the cervical spine were assessed and classified according to the Quebec Task Force (QTF. Results In our study, 32 (56% subjects did not complain about symptoms and were therefore classified as QTF grade 0; 25 (44% patients complained of neck pain: 8 (14% were classified as QTF grade I, 6 (10% as QTF grade II, and 11 (19% as QTF grade IV. Only a slight correlation (r = 0.55 was found between the reported pain and ΔV. No relevant correlation was found between ΔV and the neck disability index (r = 0.46 and between ΔV and the QTF grade (r = 0.45 for any of the collision types. There was no ΔV threshold associated with acceptable sensitivity and specificity for the prognosis of a cervical spine injury. Conclusion The results of this study indicate that ΔV is not a conclusive predictor for cervical spine injury in real-life motor vehicle accidents. This is of importance for surgeons involved in medicolegal expertise jobs as well as patients who suffer from whiplash-associated disorders (WADs after motor vehicle accidents. Trial registration The study complied with applicable German law and with the principles of the Helsinki Declaration and was approved by the institutional ethics commission.

  9. Effects of Smac gene over-expression on the radiotherapeutic sensitivities of cervical cancer cell line HeLa

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    ZHENG Li-duan; XIONG Zhou-fang; ZHU Jian-wen; WANG Ze-hua

    2005-01-01

    Background The second mitochondria-derived activator of caspases (Smac) is a novel proapoptotic gene, which plays an important role in the apoptosis-inducing effects of irradiation on tumor cells. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of extrinsic Smac gene transfer and its over-expression in radiotherapeutic sensitivities of cervical cancer cells. Methods After the Smac gene was transferred into the cervical cancer cell line HeLa, subcloned cells were obtained by persistent G418 selection. Cellular Smac gene expression was detected by RT-PCR and Western blot, while in vitro cell viabilities were detected by trypan blue staining assay. After treatment with X-ray irradiation, cellular radiotherapeutic sensitivities were investigated by tetrazolium bromide colorimetry. Cellular apoptosis and its rate were determined by electronic microscopy, annexin V-FITC and propidium iodide staining flow cytometry. The expression and activities of cellular caspase-3 were assayed by Western blot and colorimetry. Results Smac mRNA and protein levels in HeLa/Smac cells and the selected subclone cell line of cervical cancer were significantly higher than those of HeLa (P0.05). However, after irradiation with 8 Gy X-ray, growth activities of HeLa/Smac were reduced by 22.42% (P<0.01). When compared with those of HeLa, partial HeLa/Smac cells presented characteristic morphological changes of apoptosis under electronic microscope, with higher apoptosis rates (16.4% vs. 6.2%, P<0.01); the caspase-3 expression levels in HeLa/Smac cells were improved significantly (P<0.01), while its activities were increased by 3.42 times (P<0.01).Conclusions Stable transfer of the extrinsic Smac gene and its over-expression in cervical cancer cell line could significantly enhance the expression and activities of cellular caspase-3 and ameliorate apoptosis-inducing effects of irradiation on cancer cells, which was a novel strategy to improve radiotherapeutic effects on cervical cancer.

  10. Signal intensity loss of the intervertebral discs in the cervical spine of young patients on fluid sensitive sequences

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    Bruin, F. de; Horst, S. ter; Bloem, J.L.; Reijnierse, M. [Leiden University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, C2-S, Albinusdreef 2, PO box 9600, Leiden (Netherlands); Berg, R. van den; Hooge, M. de; Gaalen, F. van; Heijde, D. van der [Leiden University Medical Center, Department of Rheumatology, Leiden (Netherlands); Fagerli, K.M. [Diakonhjemmet Hospital, Department of Rheumatology, Oslo (Norway); Landewe, R. [Amsterdam Medical Center, Department of Rheumatology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Oosterhout, M. van [Groene Hartziekenhuis, Department of Rheumatology, Gouda (Netherlands)

    2016-03-15

    To evaluate the signal intensity (SI) of the intervertebral discs of the cervical spine on magnetic resonance (MR) fluid sensitive sequences, and correlate this to secondary signs of degeneration on MR and radiographs as well as to age. A total of 265 patients aged ≥16 with back pain (≥3-months, <2-year, onset <45-years) from the SPondyloArthritis Caught Early (SPACE) cohort were included. Sagittal 1.5 T MR images and lateral radiographs of the cervical spine were independently evaluated by two readers for: SI of the intervertebral discs using a grading system based of Pfirrmann (grade 1 normal/bright SI; 2 inhomogeneous/bright SI; 3 inhomogeneous/mildly decreased SI; 4 inhomogeneous/markedly decreased SI; 5 signal void), disc herniation and Modic changes (MRI) and disc space narrowing, osteophytes and sclerosis (radiograph). Readers were blinded for clinical information. Descriptive statistics were used for characteristics and prevalence of findings, and regression analysis was used for age and grades. Of 265 patients (36 % male, mean age 30), 221 (83 %) patients had 1 to 6 discs (median 4) with decreased SI. Of 1,590 discs, 737 (46 %) were grade 1; 711 (45 %) grade 2; 133 (8 %) grade 3; 8 (1 %) grade 4 and 1 (0 %) grade 5. Secondary signs of degeneration were rare and seen predominantly in C5-C7 and appear to be related to signal loss grade 3 and 4. Low signal intensity of intervertebral discs in absence of secondary degenerative signs in the cervical spine on fluid sensitive MR images might be pre-existing and part of the natural course. (orig.)

  11. Aminopeptidase N (APN/CD13 inhibitor, Ubenimex, enhances radiation sensitivity in human cervical cancer

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    Nawa Akihiro

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Radiotherapy can be used to treat all stages of cervical cancer. For improving local control via radiotherapy, it is important to use additional antitumor agents. Aminopeptidase N (APN/CD13, a 150-kDa metalloproteinase, is a multifunctional cell surface aminopeptidase with ubiquitous expression. Recent studies have suggested that APN/CD13 plays an important role in tumor progression in several human malignancies. Methods We investigated whether the suppression of APN/CD13 using Ubenimex, an inhibitor of APN/CD13 activity, may affect tumor radiosensitivity in cervical cancer cells both in vitro and in vivo. Cell surface APN/CD13 activity in HeLa cells was calculated using alanine-p-nitroanilido as a substrate. For colony formation assays, single-dose radiation and/or Ubenimex were administered to each dish of HeLa cells, and these dishes were cultured for 14 days. Molecular changes of apoptosis were determined by Western blot. Apoptosis was evaluated by Annexin-V PI staining (flow cytometry analysis and the Tunel method. Moreover, we investigated the effect of combining Ubenimex and low-dose radiation on tumor growth using nude mice. Results We demonstrated that Ubenimex enhanced the effectiveness of radiotherapy, acting as a radiosensitizer both in vitro and in vivo. In colony formation assays, a significant decline in clonogenic survival was observed in Ubenimex-treated cells. Mice treated with a combination of radiation and Ubenimex showed a significant prolongation of the tumor-doubling time compared with the control, Ubenimex, or radiation-alone groups. We also showed that ubenimex enhanced radiation-induced apoptosis in vitro and in vivo. Conclusion Although further studies are needed, this report suggests that Ubeniemx acts as a radiosensitizer in cervical cancer treatment, and that the inhibition of APN/CD13 activity may represent a new approach for improving the therapeutic efficacy of radiotherapy for uterine

  12. Bayesian probabilistic sensitivity analysis of Markov models for natural history of a disease: an application for cervical cancer

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    Giulia Carreras

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: parameter uncertainty in the Markov model’s description of a disease course was addressed. Probabilistic sensitivity analysis (PSA is now considered the only tool that properly permits parameter uncertainty’s examination. This consists in sampling values from the parameter’s probability distributions.

    Methods: Markov models fitted with microsimulation were considered and methods for carrying out a PSA on transition probabilities were studied. Two Bayesian solutions were developed: for each row of the modeled transition matrix the prior distribution was assumed as a product of Beta or a Dirichlet. The two solutions differ in the source of information: several different sources for each transition in the Beta approach and a single source for each transition from a given health state in the Dirichlet. The two methods were applied to a simple cervical cancer’s model.

    Results : differences between posterior estimates from the two methods were negligible. Results showed that the prior variability highly influence the posterior distribution.

    Conclusions: the novelty of this work is the Bayesian approach that integrates the two distributions with a product of Binomial distributions likelihood. Such methods could be also applied to cohort data and their application to more complex models could be useful and unique in the cervical cancer context, as well as in other disease modeling.

  13. Demethylation restores SN38 sensitivity in cells with acquired resistance to SN38 derived from human cervical squamous cancer cells

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    TANAKA, TETSUJI; BAI, TAO; TOUJIMA, SAORI; UTSUNOMIYA, TOMOKO; MATSUOKA, TOSHIHIDE; KOBAYASHI, AYA; YAMAMOTO, MADOKA; SASAKI, NORIYUKI; TANIZAKI, YUKO; UTSUNOMIYA, HIROTOSHI; TANAKA, JUNKO; YUKAWA, KAZUNORI

    2012-01-01

    Using seven monoclonal SN38-resistant subclones established from ME180 human cervical squamous cell carcinoma cells, we examined the demethylation effects of 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine (5-aza-CdR) on the SN38-sensitivity of the cells as well as the expression of death-associated protein kinase (DAPK) in the SN38-resistant cells. The DAPK expression levels were evaluated among parent ME180 cells, SN38-resistant ME180 cells and cisplatin-resistant ME180 cells by methylation-specific DAPK-PCR, quantitative RT-PCR and western blot analysis. The SN38-resistant cells co-treated with SN38 and 5-aza-CdR strongly exhibited enhanced SN38-sensitivities resembling those found in the parent cells. In the SN38-resistant subclones, no relationships were found between the restored SN38 sensitivity and hypermethylation of the DAPK promoter, DAPK mRNA expression, DAPK protein expression and induction of DAPK protein after 5-aza-CdR treatment, unlike the strong suppression of 5-aza-CdR-induced DAPK protein expression in the cisplatin-resistant subclones. These findings indicate that reversibly methylated molecules, but not DAPK, may regulate SN38 resistance, and that demethylating agents can be strong sensitizing anticancer chemotherapeutic drugs for SN38-resistant cancers. PMID:22246465

  14. Evaluation of Five Tests for Sensitivity to Functional Deficits following Cervical or Thoracic Dorsal Column Transection in the Rat.

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    Nitish D Fagoe

    Full Text Available The dorsal column lesion model of spinal cord injury targets sensory fibres which originate from the dorsal root ganglia and ascend in the dorsal funiculus. It has the advantages that fibres can be specifically traced from the sciatic nerve, verifiably complete lesions can be performed of the labelled fibres, and it can be used to study sprouting in the central nervous system from the conditioning lesion effect. However, functional deficits from this type of lesion are mild, making assessment of experimental treatment-induced functional recovery difficult. Here, five functional tests were compared for their sensitivity to functional deficits, and hence their suitability to reliably measure recovery of function after dorsal column injury. We assessed the tape removal test, the rope crossing test, CatWalk gait analysis, and the horizontal ladder, and introduce a new test, the inclined rolling ladder. Animals with dorsal column injuries at C4 or T7 level were compared to sham-operated animals for a duration of eight weeks. As well as comparing groups at individual timepoints we also compared the longitudinal data over the whole time course with linear mixed models (LMMs, and for tests where steps are scored as success/error, using generalized LMMs for binomial data. Although, generally, function recovered to sham levels within 2-6 weeks, in most tests we were able to detect significant deficits with whole time-course comparisons. On the horizontal ladder deficits were detected until 5-6 weeks. With the new inclined rolling ladder functional deficits were somewhat more consistent over the testing period and appeared to last for 6-7 weeks. Of the CatWalk parameters base of support was sensitive to cervical and thoracic lesions while hind-paw print-width was affected by cervical lesion only. The inclined rolling ladder test in combination with the horizontal ladder and the CatWalk may prove useful to monitor functional recovery after experimental

  15. Enhancement of cisplatin sensitivity of cisplatin-resistant human cervical carcinoma cells by bryostatin 1.

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    Mohanty, Sanghamitra; Huang, Jie; Basu, Alakananda

    2005-09-15

    Bryostatin 1, a unique protein kinase C (PKC) activator, is already in the clinical trials. An understanding of complex regulation of PKC by bryostatin 1 is essential for effective use of bryostatin 1 in the clinic. We have previously shown that the ability of bryostatin 1 to enhance cisplatin sensitivity correlated with its ability to down-regulate PKCdelta in HeLa cells. We have investigated how bryostatin 1 influences PKCdelta regulation in cisplatin-resistant HeLa (HeLa/CP) cells, and if bryostatin 1 could be used to reverse cisplatin resistance. Phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate (PDBu), bryostatin 1, and small interfering RNA were used to manipulate PKC level/activation status. Cell death was monitored by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, Annexin V dye-binding assay, and analysis of hypodiploid peak in a flow cytometer. Bryostatin 1 elicited a biphasic concentration response on PKCdelta down-regulation and cisplatin-induced cell death in HeLa/CP cells; the maximum effect was achieved with 1 nmol/L bryostatin 1. Down-regulation of PKCalpha increased with increasing concentrations of bryostatin 1. PDBu induced down-regulation of PKCalpha in HeLa and HeLa/CP cells but it had little effect on PKCdelta down-regulation in HeLa/CP cells. However, both PDBu and bryostatin 1 enhanced the sensitivity of HeLa/CP cells to cisplatin. Knockdown of PKCdelta by small interfering RNA inhibited cisplatin-induced apoptosis but knockdown of PKCalpha enhanced cisplatin-induced cell death. These results suggest that although PKCdelta acts as a proapoptotic protein, full-length PKCdelta may inhibit cisplatin-induced cell death. Thus, persistent activation/down-regulation of PKCdelta by bryostatin 1 was associated with cisplatin sensitization. Furthermore, PKCalpha acts as an antiapoptotic protein and down-regulation of PKCalpha by PDBu was associated with cellular sensitization to cisplatin.

  16. Cisplatin sensitivity and mechanisms of anti-HPV16 E6-ribozyme on cervical carcinoma CaSKi cell line

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    Zhiguo Rao; Jianfei Gao; Bicheng Zhang; Bo Yang; Jiren Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to study the cisplatin sensitizing effect and mechanism of anti-HPV16 E6- ribozyme on cervical carcinoma cell line.Methods: The anti-HPV16E6-ribozyme and empty eucaryotic expressing plasmids were transfected into CaSKi cell, which named as CaSKi-R, CaSKi-P respectively.E6 mRNA, the sensitivity to cisplatin, apoptosis rates, expression of p53, Bcl-2, Bax and C-myc proteins and mRNA were examined by Northern blot, MTT colorimetric assay, PI/Annexin V stained methods, flow cytometry anslysis and RT-PCR, respectively.Results: E6 mRNA was less in CaSKi-R than in CaSKi.The sensitivity of CaSKi-R cells to cisplatin was 2.28 and 2.21 times than that of CaSKi and CaSKi-P cells.The apoptotic rates in CaSKi, CaSKi-P and CaSKi-R cells was (18.9 ± 3.5)%, (19.7 ± 4.8)% and (40.4 ± 4.5)%.The apoptotic rates was increased in CaSKi-R than that of CaSKi cells treated with cisplatin (P = 0.003).Comapred with CaSKi cell, the expression of p53 (P = 0.000), Bax protein (P = 0.002) was significantly higher and the expression of Bcl-2 protein (P = 0.005), C-myc protein (P = 0.005) was significantly lower in CaSKi-R than that of CaSKi cell treated with cisplatin.Comapred with CaSKi cell, the expression of p53, Bax mRNA in CaSKi-R cell treated with cisplatin increased, while Bcl-2, C-myc mRNA decreased.Conclusion: CaSKi-R cells transfected by anti-HPVE6-ribozyme increased the sensitivity to cisplatin.The increase of sensitivity to cisplatin in CaSKi-R cells may be associated with increasing expression of p53, Bax protein, and decreasing expression of C-myc, Bcl-2 proteins.

  17. Analysis of Sensitivity, Specificity, and Positive and Negative Predictive Values of Smear and Colposcopy in Diagnosis of Premalignant and Malignant Cervical Lesions.

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    Barut, Mert Ulaş; Kale, Ahmet; Kuyumcuoğlu, Umur; Bozkurt, Murat; Ağaçayak, Elif; Özekinci, Server; Gül, Talip

    2015-12-10

    BACKGROUND This study aimed to examine the positive and negative predictive value in the diagnosis of premalignant and malignant lesions of cervical colposcopy, the sensitivity and specificity of smear, and to evaluate the correlation with histopathology of abnormal cytology and colposcopy. MATERIAL AND METHODS The criteria for inclusion of patients with unhealthy cervix in the study were: Erosion, Chronic cervicitis, and Healed lacerations, Hypertrophied cervix, bleeding on touch, suspicious growth/ulcer/polyp on the cervix, and abnormal discharges from the cervix. Women with frank carcinoma cervix, pregnant females, patients with bleeding per vaginum at the time of examination, and those who had used vaginal medications, vaginal contraceptives or douches in the last 48 h of examination were excluded from the study. Demographic analysis was performed for 450 patients who were admitted to the clinic. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive values of patients to identify cervical pathologies of smear and colposcopy were histopathologically calculated. The statistical software package SPSS 15.0 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA) and Spearman's and Chi-Square tests were used for statistical analysis. RESULTS Sensitivity, specificity, PPD and NDP of smear were 0.57%, 0.76%, 0.26%, 0.92% respectively. Sensitivity, specificity, PPD and NDP of colposcopy were 0.92%, 0.67%, 0.52%, 0.96% respectively. A statistically significant correlation was found between abnormal cytology and histopathology, and abnormal colposcopy finding and histopathology. CONCLUSIONS Women with clinical diagnosis of unhealthy cervix should be evaluated by cytology to detect any premalignant or malignant lesions. It was concluded that Pap smear, colposcopy and histopathology should be collectively evaluated to evaluate cervical findings in low socio-economic regions.

  18. Cervical Cap

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    ... I Help Someone Who's Being Bullied? Volunteering Cervical Cap KidsHealth > For Teens > Cervical Cap Print A A ... and a female's egg. How Does a Cervical Cap Work? The cervical cap keeps sperm from entering ...

  19. Proteasomal inhibition sensitizes cervical cancer cells to mitomycin C-induced bystander effect: the role of tumor microenvironment.

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    Singh, S V; Ajay, A K; Mohammad, N; Malvi, P; Chaube, B; Meena, A S; Bhat, M K

    2015-10-22

    Inaccessibility of drugs to poorly vascularized strata of tumor is one of the limiting factors in cancer therapy. With the advent of bystander effect (BE), it is possible to perpetuate the cellular damage from drug-exposed cells to the unexposed ones. However, the role of infiltrating tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs), an integral part of the tumor microenvironment, in further intensifying BE remains obscure. In the present study, we evaluated the effect of mitomycin C (MMC), a chemotherapeutic drug, to induce BE in cervical carcinoma. By using cervical cancer cells and differentiated macrophages, we demonstrate that MMC induces the expression of FasL via upregulation of PPARγ in both cell types (effector cells) in vitro, but it failed to induce bystander killing in cervical cancer cells. This effect was primarily owing to the proteasomal degradation of death receptors in the cervical cancer cells. Pre-treatment of cervical cancer cells with MG132, a proteasomal inhibitor, facilitates MMC-mediated bystander killing in co-culture and condition medium transfer experiments. In NOD/SCID mice bearing xenografted HeLa tumors administered with the combination of MMC and MG132, tumor progression was significantly reduced in comparison with those treated with either agent alone. FasL expression was increased in TAMs, and the enhanced level of Fas was observed in these tumor sections, thereby causing increased apoptosis. These findings suggest that restoration of death receptor-mediated apoptotic pathway in tumor cells with concomitant activation of TAMs could effectively restrict tumor growth.

  20. Surgery for Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stage Cervical Cancer Treating Cervical Cancer Surgery for Cervical Cancer Many women with cervical cancer will have some ... Options for Cervical Cancer, by Stage More In Cervical Cancer About Cervical Cancer Causes, Risk Factors, and Prevention ...

  1. Sensitization of Cervical Cancer Cells to Cisplatin by Genistein: The Role of NFB and Akt/mTOR Signaling Pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Sahin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cervical cancer is among the top causes of death from cancer in women. Cisplatin-based chemotherapy has been shown to improve survival; however, cisplatin treatment is associated with toxicity to healthy cells. Genistein has been used as an adjunct to chemotherapy to enhance the activity of chemotherapeutic agents without causing increased toxicity. The present study was designed to investigate the effect of genistein (25 μM on antitumor activity of cisplatin (250 nM on HeLa cervical cancer cells. We have examined the alterations in expression of NF-B, p-mTOR, p-p70S6K1, p-4E-BP1, and p-Akt protein levels in response to treatment. The combination of 25 μM genistein with 250 nM cisplatin resulted in significantly greater growth inhibition (. Genistein enhanced the antitumor activity of cisplatin and reduced the expression of NF-B, p-mTOR, p-p70S6K1, p-4E-BP1, and p-Akt. The results in the present study suggest that genistein could enhance the activity of cisplatin via inhibition of NF-κB and Akt/mTOR pathways. Genistein is a promising nontoxic nutritional agent that may enhance treatment outcome in cervical cancer patients when given concomitantly with cisplatin. Clinical trials of genistein and cisplatin combination are warranted to test this hypothesis.

  2. The concept of platinum sensitivity could be applied to recurrent cervical cancer: a multi-institutional retrospective study from the Japanese Gynecologic Oncology Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takekuma, Munetaka; Mori, Keita; Iida, Tetsuji; Kurihara, Kazuko; Saitou, Motoaki; Tokunaga, Hideki; Kawana, Kei; Ikeda, Masae; Satoh, Toyomi; Saito, Toshiaki; Miyagi, Etsuko; Nagai, Yutaka; Furusawa, Akiko; Kawano, Yoshiaki; Kawano, Kouichiro; Tabata, Tsutomu; Ota, Yukinobu; Hayase, Ryoji; Mikami, Mikio; Sugiyama, Toru

    2017-08-07

    This study aimed at evaluating the applicability of the concept of platinum sensitivity to recurrent cervical cancer. The clinical information of patients with recurrent cervical cancer, who were initially treated with platinum-based chemotherapy and received second-line platinum-based chemotherapy at the time of recurrence between January 2008 and December 2012, was retrospectively reviewed. A total of 677 patients from 71 medical centers were analyzed. The median overall survival (OS) for patients with platinum-free interval (PFI) of <6, 6-11, 12-17, and ≥18 months was 12.1 (95% CI 11.0-14.1) months, 17.4 (15.5-20.4) months, 20.2 (17.9-27.6) months, and 29.9 (26.7-36.0) months, respectively (P < 0.0001, log-rank). The best cut-off value of PFI that affected OS was 7 months, analyzed by the minimum P value method. The median progression-free survival (PFS) for patients with less than and more than PFI of 7 months was 6.2 months (95% CI 4.8-9.3) and 21.0 months (18.9-24.8) (P < 0.0001, log-rank), respectively, and the median OS for patients with less than and more than PFI of 7 months was 12.3 months (11.2-14.1) and 24.2 months (20.8-25.8) (P < 0.0001, log-rank). Multivariate analysis revealed that PFI (P < 0.0001, HR 0.449, 95% CI 0.369-0.548) alone had a statistically significant association with OS. This study showed that the concept of platinum sensitivity could be applied to recurrent cervical cancer and PFI could be one of the independent prognostic factors for patients with recurrent cervical cancer who have previously been treated with platinum-based chemotherapy.

  3. Sensitivity of APTIMA HPV E6/E7 mRNA test in comparison with hybrid capture 2 HPV DNA test for detection of high risk oncogenic human papillomavirus in 396 biopsy confirmed cervical cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Partha; Banerjee, Dipanwita; Mittal, Srabani; Dutta, Sankhadeep; Ghosh, Ishita; Chowdhury, Nilarun; Abraham, Priya; Chandna, Puneet; Ratnam, Sam

    2016-07-01

    The sensitivity of E6/E7 mRNA-based Aptima HPV test (AHPV; Hologic, Inc.) for detection of cervical cancer has been reported based on only a small number of cases. We determined the sensitivity of AHPV in comparison with the DNA-based Hybrid Capture 2 HPV test (HC2; Qiagen) for the detection of oncogenic HPV in a large number of cervical cancers at the time of diagnosis using cervical samples obtained in ThinPrep (Hologic). Samples yielding discordant results were genotyped using Linear Array assay (LA; Roche). Of 396 cases tested, AHPV detected 377 (sensitivity, 95.2%; 95%CI: 93.1-97.3), and HC2 376 (sensitivity, 94.9%; 95%CI: 92.7-97.1) with an agreement of 97.2% (kappa 0.7; 95%CI: 0.54-0.87). Among six AHPV+/HC2- cases, LA identified oncogenic HPV types in four including a type 73 and was negative in two. Among five AHPV-/HC2+ cases, LA detected oncogenic HPV types in two including a type 73 and was negative in three. Of 14 AHPV-/HC2- cases, 13 were genotyped. LA detected oncogenic HPV types in six, non-oncogenic types in three, and was negative in four. This is the largest study to demonstrate the sensitivity of AHPV for the detection of invasive cervical cancer and this assay showed equal sensitivity to HC2.

  4. Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the place where a baby grows during pregnancy. Cervical cancer is caused by a virus called HPV. The ... for a long time, or have HIV infection. Cervical cancer may not cause any symptoms at first. Later, ...

  5. Cervical Cancer

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2007-03-06

    Did you know that cervical cancer rates differ by race/ethnicity and region? Or that cervical cancer can usually be prevented if precancerous cervical lesions are found by a Pap test and treated? Find out how getting regular Pap tests can save a woman's life.  Created: 3/6/2007 by National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program.   Date Released: 4/25/2007.

  6. Classification of Sensitivity or Resistance of Cervical Cancers to Ionizing Radiation According to Expression Profiles of 62 Genes Selected by cDNA Microarray Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osamu Kitahara

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available To identify a set of genes related to radiosensitivity of cervical squamous cell carcinomas and to establish a predictive method, we compared expression profiles of 9 radiosensitive and 10 radioresistant tumors obtained by biopsy before treatment, on a cDNA microarray consisting of 23,040 human genes. We identified 121 genes whose expression was significantly greater in radiosensitive cells than in radioresistant cells, and 50 genes that showed higher levels of expression in radioresistant cells than in radiosensitive cells. Some of these genes had already known to be associated with the radiation response, such as aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 (ALDH1 and X-ray repair cross-complementing 5 (XRCC5 (P<.05, Mann-Whitney test. The validity of the total of 171 genes as radiosensitivity related genes were certified by permutation test (P<.05. Furthermore, we selected 62 genes on the basis of a clustering analysis, and confirmed the validity of these genes with cross-validation test. The cross-validation test also indicates the possibility of making prediction of radiosensitivity for discriminating radiation-sensitive from radiation resistant biopsy samples by predicting score (PS values calculated from expression values of 62 genes in 19 samples, because the prediction successfully and unequivocally discriminated the radiosensitive phenotype from the radioresistant phenotype in our test panel of 19 cervical carcinomas. The extensive list of genes identified in these experiments provides a large body of potentially valuable information for studying the mechanism(s of radiosensitivity, and selected 62 genes opens the possibility of providing appropriate and effective radiotherapy to cancer patients.

  7. Retraction Statement: 'MicroRNA-218 increases cellular sensitivity to Rapamycin via targeting Rictor in cervical cancer' by Li J, Wang J, Wang Y, Qiu H.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-01

    The above article from APMIS, published online on 24 April 2015 in Wiley Online Library (wileyonlinelibrary.com) and in Volume 123, pp. 562-570, has been retracted by agreement between the authors, the journal Editors in Chief, Professors Bodil Norrild, Ben Vainer and Elisabeth Ralfkiaer, and John Wiley & Sons Ltd. The article has been retracted due to errors in the reported results. In this study, the authors used HeLa and SiHa cell lines to investigate the biological roles of miR-218. However, subsequently it emerged that the two cell lines were contaminated in the laboratory by other unknown cell lines. When repeating the experiments, it was found that the functions of miR-218 were not as significant as had been previously reported, especially its effects on rapamycin sensitivity. Reference Li J, Li X, Wang J, Wang Y, Qiu H. MicroRNA-218 increases cellular sensitivity to Rapamycin via targeting Rictor in cervical cancer. APMIS 2015; 123:562-570. doi: 10.1111/apm.12387.

  8. Horizontal transfer of miR-106a/b from cisplatin resistant hepatocarcinoma cells can alter the sensitivity of cervical cancer cells to cisplatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raji, Grace R; Sruthi, T V; Edatt, Lincy; Haritha, K; Sharath Shankar, S; Sameer Kumar, V B

    2017-10-01

    Recent studies indicate that horizontal transfer of genetic material can act as a communication tool between heterogenous populations of tumour cells, thus altering the chemosensitivity of tumour cells. The present study was designed to check whether the horizontal transfer of miRNAs released by cisplatin resistant (Cp-r) Hepatocarcinoma cells can alter the sensitivity of cervical cancer cells. For this exosomes secreted by cisplatin resistant and cisplatin sensitive HepG2 cells (EXres and EXsen) were isolated and characterised. Cytotoxicity analysis showed that EXres can make Hela cells resistant to cisplatin. Analysis of miR-106a/b levels in EXres and EXsen showed that their levels vary. Mechanistic studies showed that miR-106a/b play an important role in EXsen and EXres mediated change in chemosensitivity of Hela cells to cisplatin. Further SIRT1 was identified as a major target of miR-106a/b using in silico tools and this was proved by experimentation. Also the effect of miR-106a/b in chemosensitivity was seen to be dependent on regulation of SIRT1 by miR-106a/b. In brief, this study brings into light, the SIRT1 dependent mechanism of miR-106a/b mediated regulation of chemosensitivity upon the horizontal transfer from one cell type to another. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Anthelminthic drug niclosamide sensitizes the responsiveness of cervical cancer cells to paclitaxel via oxidative stress-mediated mTOR inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Liping; Wang, Li; Shen, Haibin; Lin, Hui; Li, Dan

    2017-03-04

    Drug repurposing represents an alternative therapeutic strategy to cancer treatment. The potent anti-cancer activities of a FDA-approved anthelminthic drug niclosamide have been demonstrated in various cancers. However, whether niclosamide is active against cervical cancer is unknown. In this study, we investigated the effects of niclosamide alone and its combination with paclitaxel in cervical cancer in vitro and in vivo. We found that niclosamide significantly inhibited proliferation and induced apoptosis of a panel of cervical cancer cell lines, regardless of their cellular origin and genetic pattern. Niclosamide also inhibited tumor growth in cervical cancer xenograft mouse model. Importantly, niclosamide significantly enhanced the responsiveness of cervical cancer cell to paclitaxel. We further found that niclosamide induced mitochondrial dysfunctions via inhibiting mitochondrial respiration, complex I activity and ATP generation, which led to oxidative stress. ROS scavenge agent N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC) completely reversed the effects of niclosamide in increasing cellular ROS, inhibiting proliferation and inducing apoptosis, suggesting that oxidative stress induction is the mechanism of action of niclosamide in cervical cancer cells. In addition, niclosamide significantly inhibited mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway in cervical cancer cells and its inhibitory effect on mTOR is modulated by oxidative stress. Our work suggests that niclosamide is a useful addition to the treatment armamentarium for cervical cancer and induction of oxidative stress may be a potential therapeutic strategy in cervical cancer.

  10. Cervical Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Treatment Cervical Cancer Prevention Cervical Cancer Screening Research Cervical Cancer Prevention (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is prevention? Go ... to keep cancer from starting. General Information About Cervical Cancer Cervical cancer is a disease in which malignant ( ...

  11. Cervical Angina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sussman, Walter I.; Makovitch, Steven A.; Merchant, Shabbir Hussain I.

    2015-01-01

    Cervical angina has been widely reported as a cause of chest pain but remains underrecognized. This series demonstrates the varied clinical presentation of patients with cervical angina, the delay in diagnosis, and the extensive cardiac examinations patients with this condition typically undergo prior to a definitive diagnosis. Recognition of this condition in patients with acute chest pain requires a high index of suspicion and an awareness of the common presenting features and clinical findings of cervical angina. PMID:25553225

  12. Critérios de positividade para cervicografia digital: melhorando a sensibilidade do diagnóstico do câncer cervical Digital cervicography criteria: improving sensitivity in uterine cervical cancer diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugênio Santana Franco

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi validar critérios de positividade para cervicografia digital. Estudo realizado com 300 mulheres submetidas a protocolo clínico composto por exame citológico, uma avaliação por meio de cervicografia digital sem ampliação de imagem (Avaliação 1, e outra avaliação também usando cervicografia digital mas com ampliação adicional de imagem e os critérios de positividade propostos neste estudo (Avaliação 2. A idade média das mulheres foi de 27,6 anos. Os critérios de positividade para cervicografia digital foram identificados em 111 casos (100% dos testes positivos para lesões precursoras do câncer do colo uterino e em 8 casos (2,6% considerados falso-positivos. As avaliações 1 e 2 classificaram os exames como positivos (163; 54,3% e suspeitos (146; 48,6%, respectivamente. Os resultados revelam que a cervicografia digital foi mais sensível (99,1% e a citologia mais específica (100%. O desempenho alcançado pela cervicografia digital, quando aplicado os critérios de positividade, alcançou sensibilidade 4,5 vezes superior ao desempenho da citologia oncológica, além do baixo custo, sugerindo ser uma técnica factível.This study aimed to validate the scoring criteria for digital cervicography. The study enrolled 300 women submitted to a clinical protocol using cytological examination alone, digital cervicography without image magnification (Evaluation 1, and digital cervicography plus additional image magnification and considering the positive criteria (Evaluation 2. Women's mean age was 27.6 years. Positive criteria for digital cervicography were identified in 111 positive cases with pre-cancerous cervical lesions (100% and in 8 cases classified as false positives (2.6%. Evaluations 1 and 2 classified the tests as positive (163; 54.3% and suspected (146; 48.6%, respectively. According to the findings, digital cervicography was more sensitive (99.1% and cytology more specific (100%. Digital

  13. Tooth sensitivity and whitening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swift, Edward J

    2005-09-01

    This article presents a review of the basic concepts of tooth sensitivity and how those concepts apply to cervical dentin hypersensitivity and the sensitivity frequently associated with tooth whitening. The etiology and treatment of cervical dentin hypersensitivity are described. The clinical presentation, incidence, and predisposing factors for sensitivity associated with tooth whitening also are discussed.

  14. Cervical dysplasia - series (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to detect cervical cancer. Limited or early cervical cancer (carcinoma in situ, or cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, or dysplasia) requires treatment with ablation therapy, usually in the form of ...

  15. Short-term changes in neck pain, widespread pressure pain sensitivity, and cervical range of motion after the application of trigger point dry needling in patients with acute mechanical neck pain: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejuto-Vázquez, María J; Salom-Moreno, Jaime; Ortega-Santiago, Ricardo; Truyols-Domínguez, Sebastián; Fernández-de-Las-Peñas, César

    2014-04-01

    Randomized clinical trial. To determine the effects of trigger point dry needling (TrPDN) on neck pain, widespread pressure pain sensitivity, and cervical range of motion in patients with acute mechanical neck pain and active trigger points in the upper trapezius muscle. TrPDN seems to be effective for decreasing pain in individuals with upper-quadrant pain syndromes. Potential effects of TrPDN for decreasing pain and sensitization in individuals with acute mechanical neck pain are needed. Methods Seventeen patients (53% female) were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 groups: a single session of TrPDN or no intervention (waiting list). Pressure pain thresholds over the C5-6 zygapophyseal joint, second metacarpal, and tibialis anterior muscle; neck pain intensity; and cervical spine range-of-motion data were collected at baseline (pretreatment) and 10 minutes and 1 week after the intervention by an assessor blinded to the treatment allocation of the patient. Mixed-model analyses of variance were used to examine the effects of treatment on each outcome variable. Patients treated with 1 session of TrPDN experienced greater decreases in neck pain, greater increases in pressure pain threshold, and higher increases in cervical range of motion than those who did not receive an intervention at both 10 minutes and 1 week after the intervention (PTherapy, level 1b-.

  16. Cervical cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to cervical cancer. Other strains can cause genital warts . Others do not cause any problems at all. ... or radiation. Support Groups You can ease the stress of illness by joining a cancer support group . ...

  17. Cervical spondylosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervical osteoarthritis; Arthritis - neck; Neck arthritis; Chronic neck pain; Degenerative disk disease ... therapist). Sometimes, a few visits will help with neck pain. Cold packs and heat therapy may help your ...

  18. Cervical Spondylosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... appear to increase the risk of cervical spondylosis. Genetic factors. Some individuals in certain families will experience more of these changes over time, while others will not. Smoking. Smoking has been linked to increased neck pain. ...

  19. Cervical Laminoplasty

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... spine showing extension of the spine following a cervical laminoplasty. B) Post-operative lateral x-rays of the same patient showing flexion. Note that the range of motion is maintained after the laminoplasty and that no ...

  20. Cervical Cerclage

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... bleeding A tear in the cervix (cervical laceration) Prolapse of the fetal membranes into the vagina Preterm ... have preterm premature rupture of membranes and a uterine infection, depending on your stage of pregnancy. Before ...

  1. Cervical Stenosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... on the cervix When doctors cannot insert an instrument into the cervix to obtain a sample of tissue from the cervix for a Papanicolaou (Pap) or human papilloma virus (HPV) test (called cervical cytology testing) or a sample ...

  2. Comparative proteomic study of cervical cancer with different radiotherapy sensitivity%放疗敏感性不同宫颈癌的蛋白质组学比较研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liang Zeng; Hong Zhu; Dajun Li; Haiping Pei; Yaping Deng; Jun Yuan

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the proteomic differences between the high-sensitivity (HS) group and low-sensitivity (LS) group of cervical cancer treated by radiotherapy and confirm the radiotherapy sensitivity associated proteins in early cer-vical cancer. Methods: The fresh carcinoma tissues were collected from 10 untreated cervical cancer patients and preserved in the-80℃ refrigeratory. The tissues were classified into two groups: high sensitivity group (HS) and low sensitivity group (LS), according to their response to radiotherapy. In the first part of our experiment, protein separating was performed by using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) with Amersham 18 cm linear pH 3-10 immobilized pH gradient (IPG) strips. The images of the gels were acquired by the scanner and then analyzed by using PD-quest7.3 software to find the differentially expression protein-spots in each group. Then the differentially expressed protein-spots was incised from the gels and digested by trypsin. The peptide mass fingerprintings (PMF) was acquired by matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) and the proteins were identified by data searching in the Mascot-database. Part of dif-ferentially expression proteins were assayed by Western Blot. Results: Most of the gels were clear and successfully analyzed by PD-quest7.3 software. Most of the protein-spots concentrated on the area of 20-100Kda (Mw) and pH4-8. The averagetwo groups. Five high expression proteins were found in HS group which were low expression in LS group, 3 high expres-z sion protein were found in LS group which were low expression in HS group. Reselts of Western Blot were in coincidence to proteomic result. Conclusion: The 2-DE gels image of HS group and LS group with early cervical cancer tissues treated by radiotherapy are successfully acquired. Some differentially expression proteins between the two groups are further confirmed by immunohistochemical assay.

  3. Get Tested for Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Print This Topic En español Get Tested for Cervical Cancer Browse Sections The Basics Overview Cervical Cancer Pap ... Cervical Cancer 1 of 5 sections The Basics: Cervical Cancer What is cervical cancer? Cervical cancer is cancer ...

  4. Cervical cancer control, priorities and new directions.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monsonego, J; Bosch, F.X.; Coursaget, P.; Cox, JT; Franco, E; Frazer, I; Sankaranarayanan, R; Schiller, J; Singer, A; Wright, TCJr; Kinney, W; Meijer, C.J.L.M.; Linder, J

    2004-01-01

    99% of cervical cancer is initiated by HPV infection. The estimated lifetime risk of cervical cancer is nevertheless relatively low (less than 1 in 20 for most community based studies). Although sensitivity and specificity of the available diagnostic techniques are suboptimal, screening for persiste

  5. Nanotechnology in the management of cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiezhong; Gu, Wenyi; Yang, Lei; Chen, Chen; Shao, Renfu; Xu, Kewei; Xu, Zhi Ping

    2015-03-01

    Cervical cancer is a major disease with high mortality. All cervical cancers are caused by infection with human papillomaviruses (HPV). Although preventive vaccines for cervical cancer are successful, treatment of cervical cancer is far less satisfactory because of multidrug resistance and side effects. In this review, we summarize the recent application of nanotechnology to the diagnosis and treatment of cervical cancer as well as the development of HPV vaccines. Early detection of cervical cancer enables tumours to be efficiently removed by surgical procedures, leading to increased survival rate. The current method of detecting cervical cancer by Pap smear can only achieve 50% sensitivity, whereas nanotechnology has been used to detect HPVs with greatly improved sensitivity. In cervical cancer treatment, nanotechnology has been used for the delivery of anticancer drugs to increase treatment efficacy and decrease side effects. Nanodelivery of HPV preventive and therapeutic vaccines has also been investigated to increase vaccine efficacy. Overall, these developments suggest that nanoparticle-based vaccine may become the most effective way to prevent and treat cervical cancer, assisted or combined with some other nanotechnology-based therapy. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. [Primary cervical cancer screening].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas-Hernández, Víctor Manuel; Vargas-Aguilar, Víctor Manuel; Tovar-Rodríguez, José María

    2015-01-01

    Cervico-uterine cancer screening with cytology decrease incidence by more than 50%. The cause of this cancer is the human papilloma virus high risk, and requires a sensitive test to provide sufficient sensitivity and specificity for early detection and greater interval period when the results are negative. The test of the human papilloma virus high risk, is effective and safe because of its excellent sensitivity, negative predictive value and optimal reproducibility, especially when combined with liquid-based cytology or biomarkers with viral load, with higher sensitivity and specificity, by reducing false positives for the detection of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 or greater injury, with excellent clinical benefits to cervical cancer screening and related infection of human papilloma virus diseases, is currently the best test for early detection infection of human papillomavirus and the risk of carcinogenesis. Copyright © 2015 Academia Mexicana de Cirugía A.C. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  7. Cervical Cancer Stage IVA

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... historical Searches are case-insensitive Cervical Cancer Stage IVA Add to My Pictures View /Download : Small: 756x576 ... Large: 3150x2400 View Download Title: Cervical Cancer Stage IVA Description: Stage IVA cervical cancer; drawing and inset ...

  8. Diagnostic sensitivity for invasive cervical carcinoma of high risk HPV tests performed on SurePath™ liquid-based pap specimens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nance KV

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Keith V NanceDepartment of Cytology, Rex Hospital, Raleigh, and Department of Pathology, The University of North Carolina School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, NC, USARecently I communicated with the Editor regarding Drs Naryshkin and Austins’ article entitled "Limitations of widely used high-risk human papillomavirus laboratory-developed testing in cervical carcinoma screening."1,2 As noted previously, this article is based on a single case report of squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix diagnosed in a patient who had abnormal Pap results but had negative Hybrid Capture 2 (HC2(Qiagen NV, Hilden, Germany high risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV testing from SurePath™ (Becton-Dickinson, Franklin Lakes, NJ, USA samples. The authors concluded that such testing should not be done using this collection medium. Interestingly, they also mentioned a 10% false negative rate for similar testing performed on FDA-approved Preservcyt® media on three of 31 invasive cervical carcinoma patients at Dr Austin’s own laboratory.View original paper by Naryshkin and Austin

  9. Analysis of digitized cervical images to detect cervical neoplasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferris, Daron G.

    2004-05-01

    Cervical cancer is the second most common malignancy in women worldwide. If diagnosed in the premalignant stage, cure is invariably assured. Although the Papanicolaou (Pap) smear has significantly reduced the incidence of cervical cancer where implemented, the test is only moderately sensitive, highly subjective and skilled-labor intensive. Newer optical screening tests (cervicography, direct visual inspection and speculoscopy), including fluorescent and reflective spectroscopy, are fraught with certain weaknesses. Yet, the integration of optical probes for the detection and discrimination of cervical neoplasia with automated image analysis methods may provide an effective screening tool for early detection of cervical cancer, particularly in resource poor nations. Investigative studies are needed to validate the potential for automated classification and recognition algorithms. By applying image analysis techniques for registration, segmentation, pattern recognition, and classification, cervical neoplasia may be reliably discriminated from normal epithelium. The National Cancer Institute (NCI), in cooperation with the National Library of Medicine (NLM), has embarked on a program to begin this and other similar investigative studies.

  10. Melatonin sensitizes human cervical cancer HeLa cells to cisplatin-induced cytotoxicity and apoptosis: effects on oxidative stress and DNA fragmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pariente, Roberto; Pariente, José A; Rodríguez, Ana B; Espino, Javier

    2016-01-01

    Melatonin has antitumor activity via several mechanisms including its antiproliferative and pro-apoptotic effects as well as its potent antioxidant actions, although recent evidence has indicated that melatonin may perform pro-oxidant actions in tumor cells. Therefore, melatonin may be useful in the treatment of tumors in association with chemotherapy drugs. This study was intended to evaluate the in vitro effect of melatonin on the cytotoxic and pro-apoptotic actions of various chemotherapeutic agents in cervical cancer HeLa cells. Herein, we found that both melatonin and three of the chemotherapeutic drugs tested, namely cisplatin (CIS), 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), and doxorubicin, induced a decrease in HeLa cell viability. Furthermore, melatonin significantly increased the cytotoxic effect of such chemotherapeutic agents. Consistently, costimulation of HeLa cells with any chemotherapeutic agent in the presence of melatonin further increased caspase-3 activation, particularly in CIS- and 5-FU-challenged cells. Likewise, concomitant treatments with melatonin and CIS significantly enhanced the ratio of cells entering mitochondrial apoptosis due to reactive oxygen species (ROS) overproduction, substantially augmented the population of apoptotic cells, and markedly enlarged DNA fragmentation compared to the treatments with CIS alone. Nonetheless, melatonin only displayed moderate chemosensitizing effects in 5-FU-stimulated HeLa cells, as suggested by slight increments in the percentage of cells stimulated for ROS production and in the proportion of early apoptotic cells compared to the treatments with 5-FU alone. In summary, our findings provided evidence that in vitro melatonin strongly enhances CIS-induced cytotoxicity and apoptosis in HeLa cells and, hence, the indoleamine could be potentially applied to cervical cancer treatment as a powerful synergistic agent.

  11. Human papillomavirus testing and genotyping in cervical screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rebolj, Matejka; Lynge, Elsebeth; Bonde, Jesper

    2011-01-01

    the incidence of cervical cancer, but has a low sensitivity for high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and requires frequent testing. Several HPV tests have become available commercially. They appear to be more sensitive for high-grade CIN, and may further reduce the incidence of cervical cancer......Mass vaccination against human papillomavirus (HPV) genotypes 16 and 18 will, in the long term, reduce the incidence of cervical cancer, but screening will remain an important cancer control measure in both vaccinated and unvaccinated women. Since the 1960s, cytology screening has helped to reduce...

  12. A lectin-based diagnostic system using circulating antibodies to detect cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yingji; Kim, Seung Cheol; Kim, Hyoung Jin; Ju, Woong; Kim, Yun Hwan; Kim, Hong-Jin

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, we developed serological strategies using immunoglobulin fractions obtained by protein A chromatography to screen for cervical cancer and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia I (CIN I). The reactivities of the immunoglobulins purified from sera of women with normal cytology, CIN I and cervical cancer were compared in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) and enzyme-linked lectin assays (ELLAs). To capture the immunoglobulins, ELISAs and ELLAs were performed in protein A immobilized microplates. The reactivity of immunoglobulin in ELISA was in the increasing order normal cytology, CIN I and cervical cancer, while that in ELLAs for detecting fucosylation was in the decreasing order normal cytology, CIN I and cervical cancer. It was confirmed that women with CIN I were distinguishable from women with normal cytology or women with cervical cancer in the ELISA or the ELLA for detecting fucosylation with considerable sensitivity and specificity. Women with cervical cancer were also distinguishable from women with normal cytology with high sensitivity (ELISA: 97%, ELLA: 87%) and specificity (ELISA: 69%, ELLA: 72%). Moreover, the logistic regression model of the ELISA and the ELLA discriminated cervical cancer from normal cytology with 93% sensitivity and 93% specificity. These results indicate that the ELISAs and the ELLAs have great potential as strategies for primary screening of cervical cancer and CIN. It is expected that the ELISA and the ELLA can provide new insights to understand systemic changes of serum immunoglobulins during cervical cancer progression.

  13. Insulin on cisplatin sensitivity of human cervical cancer cell HeLa line%胰岛素对人宫颈癌Hela细胞化疗敏感性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵婷; 张蓓

    2013-01-01

    目的 探讨胰岛素能否增强人宫颈癌Hela细胞对顺铂(DDP)的化疗敏感性及其相关机制.方法体外培养人宫颈癌Hela细胞株,MTT法检测 5 U/L胰岛素作用3、6、9、12、15、18、21 h后,联合DDP(7.26 mg/L)对人宫颈癌Hela细胞增殖抑制率的影响.流式细胞仪检测对照组、DDP组、胰岛素组及联合组(胰岛素化疗前作用6 h)的细胞周期时相变化情况.结果 DDP组、胰岛素化疗前作用不同时间组与对照组相比,Hela细胞的增殖抑制率明显上升(P<0.01);且胰岛素于化疗前提前作用3、6、9、12、15 h后加入 DDP,宫颈癌Hela细胞的增殖抑制率明显高于DDP组(P<0.01).流式分析显示DDP组及胰岛素组的S期细胞比例较对照组高(P均<0.01),联合组S期细胞比例较DDP组高(P<0.01).结论 胰岛素具有较显著的DDP化疗增敏作用,胰岛素作用时机选择是胰岛素对宫颈癌细胞化疗增敏作用的关键.%Objective To investigate the ability of insulin to enhance sensitivity to chemotherapy of human cervical cancer HeLa cells to cisplatin and its associated mechanisms . Methods The inhibition rate of giving insulin at 5 U/L at different times before combining with cisplatin at 7. 26 mg/L was calculated by MTT assay. Flow cytometry was used to study the cell cycle distribution of the Hela cells of control group,DDP group,insulin group and the combination group. Results After being cultured with 5 U/L insulin for 3 h,6 h,9h,12,15 h,respectively,the inhibition rate was significantly higher than the DDP group ( P < 0.01 ). Flow cytometry showed insulin could increase the S phase arrest induced by DDP. Conclusion The timing of the action of insulin is the key of enhancing the sensitivity to chemotherapy of cervi-cal cancer cell line. The mechanism may be as follows : the toxic effects of cisplatin on cervical cancer HeLa cells are as-sociated with S phase arrest,and insulin can also cause cervical cancer cells in S phase arrest,there is

  14. Comparison of the Symmetry of Right and Left Lateral Cervical Flexion and Rotation and the Cervical FRR in Young Computer Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Won-Gyu

    2014-05-01

    [Purpose] This study compared the symmetry of right and left lateral cervical flexion and rotation, and the cervical flexion-relaxation ratio (FRR) in young computer workers in Korea. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty computer workers (14 males and 6 females) participated in this study. We measured their right and left lateral cervical flexion, rotation, and FRR. [Results] Right and left lateral flexion and right and left rotation showed no significant differences between the sides. The left cervical FRR was significantly lower than the right cervical FRR. [Conclusion] The cervical FRR, expressed as a numerical value, is a more sensitive marker for measuring neuromuscular changes associated with mild asymmetry than CROM.

  15. Cervical cancer - screening and prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer cervix - screening; HPV - cervical cancer screening; Dysplasia - cervical cancer screening; Cervical cancer - HPV vaccine ... Almost all cervical cancers are caused by HPV (human papilloma virus). HPV is a common virus that spreads through sexual contact. Certain ...

  16. Age, gender and normalization covariates for spinal cord gray matter and total cross-sectional areas at cervical and thoracic levels: A 2D phase sensitive inversion recovery imaging study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nico Papinutto

    Full Text Available The source of inter-subject variability and the influence of age and gender on morphometric characteristics of the spinal cord, such as the total cross-sectional area (TCA, the gray matter (GM and white matter (WM areas, currently remain under investigation. Understanding the effect of covariates such as age, gender, brain volumes, and skull- and vertebra-derived metrics on cervical and thoracic spinal cord TCA and GM areas in healthy subjects would be fundamental for exploring compartment specific changes in neurological diseases affecting the spinal cord. Using Magnetic Resonance Imaging at 3T we investigated 32 healthy subjects using a 2D phase sensitive inversion recovery sequence and we measured TCA, GM and WM areas at 4 cervical and thoracic levels of the spinal cord. We assessed age and gender relationships of cord measures and explored associations between cord measures and a brain volumes and b skull- and vertebra-derived metrics. Age and gender had a significant effect on TCA, WM and GM areas (with women and elderly having smaller values than men and younger people respectively, but not on the GM area/TCA ratio. The total intracranial volume and C3 vertebra dimensions showed the highest correlations with cord measures. When used in multi-regression models, they reduced cord areas group variability by approximately a third. Age and gender influences on cord measures and normalization strategies here presented might be of use in the study of compartment specific changes in various neurological diseases affecting the spinal cord.

  17. Cervical cancer: screening and therapeutic perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankaranarayanan, Rengaswamy; Thara, Somanathan; Esmy, Pulikottil Okkuru; Basu, Partha

    2008-01-01

    Cervical cancer is a major cause of mortality and premature death among women in their most productive years in low- and medium-resourced countries in Asia, Africa and Latin America, despite the fact that it is an eminently preventable cancer. While cytology screening programmes have resulted in a substantial reduction of cervical cancer mortality in developed countries, they have been shown to have a wide range of sensitivity in most routine settings including in developing countries. Although liquid-based cytology improves sample adequacy, claims on improved sensitivity remain controversial. Human papillomavirus testing is more sensitive than cytology, but whether this gain represents protection against future cervical cancer is not clear. Recently, in a randomized trial, the use of visual inspection with 4% acetic acid was shown to reduce cervical cancer incidence and mortality. Cryotherapy and large loop excision of the transformation zone are effective and safe treatment methods for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. The clinical stage of cancer is the single most important prognostic factor and should be carefully evaluated in choosing optimal treatment between surgery and radiotherapy, with or without chemotherapy. At the public health level, health care infrastructure, affordability and capacity for initiating and sustaining vaccination and screening programmes are critical factors in cervical cancer control. On the other hand, an informed practitioner can utilize the multiple opportunities in routine primary care interactions for prevention, screening, early detection and prompt referral for treatment.

  18. Sperm counts in enzymatically liquefied cervical mucus: quantitative validation using donor cervical mucus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Agostini, A; Campana, A

    1996-02-01

    The post-coital test evaluates the penetration of spermatozoa into cervical mucus; it relies on subjective measurements and therefore lacks precision. Enzymatic liquefaction of cervical mucus allows sperm concentration to be measured in post-coital test samples, but the reliability of such measurements is not known. Donor cervical mucus was used as a model to test the accuracy and sensitivity of sperm quantification in liquefied cervical mucus. Donor cervical mucus was dissolved by enzymatic treatments in the presence of known numbers of spermatozoa and the recovery of sperm cells was assessed after liquefaction of the samples. Enzymatic treatment of cervical mucus with a combination of bromelin and glycosidases resulted in reliable and fast liquefaction of the samples. The accuracy of sperm concentration measurements was 89 +/- 10% (mean +/- SD, n = 50), and the sensitivity limits were 1 x 10(6) and 0.2 x 10(6) spermatozoa/ml for quantitative concentration measurement and qualitative sperm detection respectively. This study demonstrates that liquefaction of cervical mucus by combined protease and glycosidases allows accurate and sensitive determination of sperm concentration in the sample. Therefore we believe that valuable data can be obtained for sperm concentration and total sperm counts in post-coital tests, that should help to improve the reliability of the post-coital test.

  19. WELL WOMAN CLINIC - SCREENING PROGRAM FOR CERVICAL C ARCINOMAS

    OpenAIRE

    Vani Padmaja

    2014-01-01

    Cervical cancer is a common cancer occurring in women in the reproductive age group. It is also a cancer that can be easily prevented by taking Cervical Smears, staining them by the Papanicalou’s stain, diagnosing and treating them at an early stage . It is a very cost effective, sensitive, specific and easy method of early detection of cervical canc er and thereby helps in preventing the mortality and morbidity caused by invasive carcinomas. This screening program ...

  20. Incidence of cervical dysplasia and cervical cancer in women living with HIV in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsteinsson, Kristina; Ladelund, Steen; Jensen-Fangel, Søren

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Women living with HIV (WLWH) are reportedly at increased risk of invasive cervical cancer (ICC). WLWH in Denmark attend the National ICC screening program less often than women in the general population. We aimed to estimate the incidence of cervical dysplasia and ICC in WLWH...... and hazard ratios (HRs) for time from inclusion to first cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN)/ICC and time from first normal cervical cytology to first CIN/ICC were estimated. Sensitivity analyses were performed to include prior screening outcome, screening intensity and treatment of CIN...... with normal baseline cytology, incidences of CIN1+ and CIN2+ were higher in WLWH. However, incidences were comparable between WLWH and controls adherent to the National ICC screening program. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, WLWH develop more cervical disease than controls. However, incidences of CIN are comparable...

  1. Cervical Cancer Stage IVB

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of the body, such as the lymph nodes, lung, liver, intestine, or bone. Stage IVB cervical cancer. Topics/Categories: Anatomy -- Gynecologic Cancer Types -- Cervical Cancer Staging Type: Color, ...

  2. Cervical Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer found early may be easier to treat. Cervical cancer screening is usually part of a woman's health ... may do more tests, such as a biopsy. Cervical cancer screening has risks. The results can sometimes be ...

  3. Prevent Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... professional printing [PDF-1.5MB] Cancer Home “Prevent Cervical Cancer” Infographic Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Prevent Cervical Cancer with the Right Test at the Right Time ...

  4. Screening for Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding Task Force Recommendations Screening for Cervical Cancer The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (Task Force) has issued final recommendations on Screening for Cervical Cancer . These recommendations are for women ...

  5. Stages of Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is found early. Signs and symptoms of cervical cancer include vaginal bleeding and pelvic pain. These and other signs and symptoms may be caused by cervical cancer or by other conditions . Check with your doctor ...

  6. Cervical Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are at increased risk for HPV infections. Other risk factors for cervical cancer include: Giving birth to many children. Smoking cigarettes. Using oral contraceptives ("the Pill"). Having a weakened immune system . Cervical Cancer Screening ...

  7. Cervical Cancer Stage IIIB

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... hyphen, e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Cervical Cancer Stage IIIB Add to My Pictures View /Download : ... 1425x1326 View Download Large: 2850x2651 View Download Title: Cervical Cancer Stage IIIB Description: Stage IIIB cervical cancer; drawing ...

  8. Cervical Cancer Stage IB

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... hyphen, e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Cervical Cancer Stage IB Add to My Pictures View /Download : ... 1613x1200 View Download Large: 3225x2400 View Download Title: Cervical Cancer Stage IB Description: Stage IB1 and IB2 cervical ...

  9. Cervical Cancer Stage IIIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... hyphen, e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Cervical Cancer Stage IIIA Add to My Pictures View /Download : ... 1275x1275 View Download Large: 2550x2550 View Download Title: Cervical Cancer Stage IIIA Description: Stage IIIA cervical cancer; drawing ...

  10. Cervical Cancer Stage IA

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... hyphen, e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Cervical Cancer Stage IA Add to My Pictures View /Download : ... 1500x1200 View Download Large: 3000x2400 View Download Title: Cervical Cancer Stage IA Description: Stage IA1 and IA2 cervical ...

  11. A Virtual Microscopy System to Scan, Evaluate and Archive Biomarker Enhanced Cervical Cytology Slides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niels Grabe

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although cytological screening for cervical precancers has led to a reduction of cervical cancer incidence worldwide it is a subjective and variable method with low single-test sensitivity. New biomarkers like p16 that specifically highlight abnormal cervical cells can improve cytology performance. Virtual microscopy offers an ideal platform for assisted evaluation and archiving of biomarker-stained slides.

  12. Discovery of new methylation markers to improve screening for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2/3

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boers, A; Wang, R; van Leeuwen, R W; Klip, H G; de Bock, G H; Hollema, H; van Criekinge, W; de Meyer, T; Denil, S; van der Zee, A G J; Schuuring, E; Wisman, G B A

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Assessment of DNA promoter methylation markers in cervical scrapings for the detection of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and cervical cancer is feasible, but finding methylation markers with both high sensitivity as well as high specificity remains a challenge. In this study, w

  13. [Surgical treatment of cervical rib syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultanov, D D; Usmanov, N U; Kurbanov, N R; Abdulloev, N K

    2011-01-01

    The authors report herein the results of examination and surgical management of fifty-one patients presenting with cervical ribs. Of these, there were 33 women. Compression of the neurovascular bundle (NVB) was found to be caused by a supplementary cervical rib in twenty-three patients while in the remaining 28 patients by a rudimentary cervical rib. Twenty-two patients were found to have clinical manifestations of Raynaud's syndrome. The presence of abnormal cervical ribs was determined roentgenologically. All the patients with rudimentary cervical ribs and twelve of the 23 patients with supplementary cervical ribs were diagnosed as having bilateral abnormalities. Haemodynamics was studied by Doppler ultrasonography revealing blood flow impairments in upper-limb arteries in Edson's test in patients with supplementary cervical ribs and Raynaud's syndrome. In rudimentary cervical rib - only in the development of Raynaud's syndrome. The nervous function was studied by means of electroneuromyography (ENMG). All the patients were diagnosed as having a significant decrease in both motor and sensitive nervous conductivity of the radial and median nerves. All patients were operated on under endotracheal anaesthesia. Decompression operations were carried out in fifty-one patients, with selective thoracocervical sympathectomy performed in twelve. For treating rudimentary cervical rib, we worked out a combined method of an operative intervention. Analysing the obtained surgical outcomes showed the following: forty-four patients (86.3%) endured the operation with no complications. Intraoperative complications were noted to occur in 5.9% of patients and complications in the immediate postoperative period were observed to develop in 7.8% of patients. All the encountered complications turned out transient, easily amendable to treatment, and did not influence the final outcome of the operation. In the remote period up to 5 years positive results remained in 90.2% of the patients.

  14. Sensitivity, specificity, and clinical value of human papillomavirus (HPV) E6/E7 mRNA assay as a triage test for cervical cytology and HPV DNA test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benevolo, Maria; Vocaturo, Amina; Caraceni, Donatella; French, Deborah; Rosini, Sandra; Zappacosta, Roberta; Terrenato, Irene; Ciccocioppo, Lucia; Frega, Antonio; Giorgi Rossi, Paolo

    2011-07-01

    There is evidence that testing for human papillomavirus (HPV) E6/E7 mRNA is more specific than testing for HPV DNA. A retrospective study was carried out to evaluate the performance of the PreTect HPV-Proofer E6/E7 mRNA assay (Norchip) as a triage test for cytology and HPV DNA testing. This study analyzed 1,201 women, 688 of whom had a colposcopy follow-up and 195 of whom had histology-confirmed high-grade intraepithelial neoplasia or worse (CIN2+). The proportion of positive results and the sensitivity and specificity for CIN2+ were determined for HPV mRNA in comparison to HPV DNA and cytology. All data were adjusted for follow-up completeness. Stratified by cytological grades, the HPV mRNA sensitivity was 83% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 63 to 94%) in ASC-US (atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance), 62% (95% CI = 47 to 75%) in L-SIL (low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion), and 67% (95% CI = 57 to 76%) in H-SIL (high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion). The corresponding figures were 99, 91, and 96%, respectively, for HPV DNA. The specificities were 82, 76, and 45%, respectively, for HPV mRNA and 29, 13, and 4%, respectively, for HPV DNA. Used as a triage test for ASC-US and L-SIL, mRNA reduced colposcopies by 79% (95% CI = 74 to 83%) and 69% (95% CI = 65 to 74%), respectively, while HPV DNA reduced colposcopies by 38% (95% CI = 32 to 44%) and by 15% (95% CI = 12 to 19%), respectively. As a HPV DNA positivity triage test, mRNA reduced colposcopies by 63% (95% CI = 60 to 66%), having 68% sensitivity (95% CI = 61 to 75%), whereas cytology at the ASC-US+ threshold reduced colposcopies by 23% (95% CI = 20 to 26%), showing 92% sensitivity (95% CI = 87 to 95%). In conclusion, PreTect HPV-Proofer mRNA can serve as a better triage test than HPV DNA to reduce colposcopy referral in both ASC-US and L-SIL. It is also more efficient than cytology for the triage of HPV DNA-positive women. Nevertheless, its low sensitivity demands a strict follow-up of

  15. Anterior cervical plating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonugunta V

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Although anterior cervical instrumentation was initially used in cervical trauma, because of obvious benefits, indications for its use have been expanded over time to degenerative cases as well as tumor and infection of the cervical spine. Along with a threefold increase in incidence of cervical fusion surgery, implant designs have evolved over the last three decades. Observation of graft subsidence and phenomenon of stress shielding led to the development of the new generation dynamic anterior cervical plating systems. Anterior cervical plating does not conclusively improve clinical outcome of the patients, but certainly enhances the efficacy of autograft and allograft fusion and lessens the rate of pseudoarthrosis and kyphosis after multilevel discectomy and fusions. A review of biomechanics, surgical technique, indications, complications and results of various anterior cervical plating systems is presented here to enable clinicians to select the appropriate construct design.

  16. Clinical correlation of cervical myelopathy and the hyperactive pectoralis reflex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paholpak, Permsak; Jirarattanaphochai, Kitti; Sae-Jung, Surachai; Wittayapairoj, Kriangkrai

    2013-12-01

    A diagnostic study. To validate the correlation between hyperactive pectoralis reflex and the level of cervical myelopathy. The hyperactive pectoralis reflex was proposed to be present in patients with spinal cord compression at the C2-3 and/or C3-4 level. Nevertheless, in a validation study on the correlation of various hyperactive reflexes and the cervical myelopathic level, this particular reflex was not evaluated. All patients presenting with cervical myelopathy between August 2009 and June 2012 were included in this study. Each patient underwent neurological examination for cervical myelopathy focusing on the examination of pathologic reflexes, including the hyperactive pectoralis reflex. We recorded the presence or absence of these reflexes and the level of cervical myelopathy as detected on magnetic resonance imaging. We used the level of spinal cord compression-cranial to C4 of the vertebral body-as the reference level to validate a hyperactive pectoralis reflex. The study included 95 cervical myelopathy patients: 33 patients had most of their compressed cervical cord somewhere above the C4 vertebral body. The hyperactive pectoralis reflex for cervical myelopathy at this level had a respective sensitivity, specificity, positive likelihood ratio, and negative likelihood ratio of 84.8%, 96.7%, 26.67, and 0.16. The high sensitivity and specificity of the hyperactive pectoralis reflex is very useful for screening and diagnosis of the cervical myelopathic level when it is above the C4 vertebral body.

  17. Comparison of the sensitivity and specificity of real-time PCR and in situ hybridization in HPV16 and 18 detection in archival cervical cancer specimens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Biesaga

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analyze the correlation between real-time PCR (RT-PCR treated as a reference method and in situ hybridization with tyramide amplification system (ISH-TSA in the detection of HPV16 and 18 infection and the assessment of viral genome status. The study was performed on cervical cancer biopsies fixed in 10% neutral buffered formalin and embedded in paraffin obtained from 85 women. TaqMan-based 5’exonuclease RT-PCR with type-specific primers was used to assess HPV16 and 18 infections and genome status. Viral infection and genome status was also assessed by ISH-TSA. RT-PCR revealed 76 (89.4%, and ISH-TSA 81 (95.3% cancers with HPV16 and 18 infections. The ISH-TSA sensitivity and specificity were: 96.1% and 11.1% compared to RT-PCR. The difference between these techniques in HPV detection was significant (p = 0.000. Among 76 HPV16/18 positive cancers in RT-PCR, there were 30 (39.5% with integrated and 46 (60.5% with mixed viral genome form. According to ISH-TSA, there were 39 (51.3% samples with integrated and 37 with mixed form (48.7%. The sensitivity and specificity of ISH-TSA in genome status assessment were 70.0% and 60.9%, respectively. The difference between RT-PCR and ISH-TSA in genome state detection was not statistically significant (p = 0.391. These results suggest that ISH-TSA shows insufficient specificity in HPV detection for use in clinical practice. However, this assay could be applied for viral genome status assessment.

  18. Cervical insufficiency and cervical cerclage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Richard; Gagnon, Robert; Delisle, Marie-France; Gagnon, Robert; Bujold, Emmanuel; Basso, Melanie; Bos, Hayley; Brown, Richard; Cooper, Stephanie; Crane, Joan; Davies, Gregory; Gouin, Katy; Menticoglou, Savas; Mundle, William; Pylypjuk, Christy; Roggensack, Anne; Sanderson, Frank; Senikas, Vyta

    2013-12-01

    Objectif : La présente directive clinique a pour but de fournir un cadre de référence que les cliniciens pourront utiliser pour identifier les femmes qui sont exposées aux plus grands risques de connaître une insuffisance cervicale, ainsi que pour déterminer les circonstances en présence desquelles la mise en place d’un cerclage pourrait s’avérer souhaitable. Résultats : La littérature publiée a été récupérée par l’intermédiaire de recherches menées dans PubMed ou MEDLINE, CINAHL et The Cochrane Library en 2012 au moyen d’un vocabulaire contrôlé (p. ex. « uterine cervical incompetence ») et de mots clés appropriés (p. ex. « cervical insufficiency », « cerclage », « Shirodkar », « cerclage », « MacDonald », « cerclage », « abdominal », « cervical length », « mid-trimester pregnancy loss »). Les résultats ont été restreints aux analyses systématiques, aux essais comparatifs randomisés / essais cliniques comparatifs et aux études observationnelles. Aucune restriction n’a été appliquée en matière de date ou de langue. Les recherches ont été mises à jour de façon régulière et intégrées à la directive clinique jusqu’en janvier 2011. La littérature grise (non publiée) a été identifiée par l’intermédiaire de recherches menées dans les sites Web d’organismes s’intéressant à l’évaluation des technologies dans le domaine de la santé et d’organismes connexes, dans des collections de directives cliniques, dans des registres d’essais cliniques et auprès de sociétés de spécialité médicale nationales et internationales. Valeurs : La qualité des résultats est évaluée au moyen des critères décrits dans le rapport du Groupe d’étude canadien sur les soins de santé préventifs (Tableau). Recommandations 1. Les femmes qui sont enceintes ou qui planifient connaître une grossesse devraient faire l’objet d’une évaluation visant les facteurs de

  19. Cervical cancer screening in primary health care setting in Sudan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibrahim, Ahmed; Aro, Arja R.; Rasch, Vibeke;

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the feasibility of visual inspection with the use of acetic acid (VIA) as a screening method for cervical cancer, an alternative to the Pap smear used in primary health care setting in Sudan, and to compare sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values....../119 (73.9%) were positive for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. VIA had higher sensitivity than Pap smear (74.2% versus 72.9%; P = 0.05) respectively. Out of 88 confirmed positive cases, 22 (25.0%) cases were invasive cervical cancer in stage 1, of which 19 versus three were detected by VIA and Pap...... of this study showed that VIA has higher sensitivity and lower specificity compared to Pap smear, but a combination of both tests has greater sensitivity and specificity than each test independently. It indicates that VIA is useful for screening of cervical cancer in the primary health care setting in Sudan...

  20. Treatment Option Overview (Cervical Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer Prevention Cervical Cancer Screening Research Cervical Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Cervical Cancer ... Certain factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery) depends on ...

  1. Signs and Symptoms of Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Detection, Diagnosis, and Staging Signs and Symptoms of Cervical Cancer Women with early cervical cancers and pre-cancers ... Ask Your Doctor About Cervical Cancer? More In Cervical Cancer About Cervical Cancer Causes, Risk Factors, and Prevention ...

  2. Cervical Total Disc Arthroplasty

    OpenAIRE

    Basho, Rahul; Hood, Kenneth A.

    2012-01-01

    Symptomatic adjacent segment degeneration of the cervical spine remains problematic for patients and surgeons alike. Despite advances in surgical techniques and instrumentation, the solution remains elusive. Spurred by the success of total joint arthroplasty in hips and knees, surgeons and industry have turned to motion preservation devices in the cervical spine. By preserving motion at the diseased level, the hope is that adjacent segment degeneration can be prevented. Multiple cervical disc...

  3. Acupoints for cervical spondylosis

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Jihe; Arsovska, Blagica; Vasileva, Dance; Petkovska, Sofija; Kozovska, Kristina

    2015-01-01

    Cervical spondylosis is a chronic degenerative condition of the cervical spine that affects the vertebral bodies and intervertebral disks of the neck, as well as the contents of the spinal canal. This is one of the most common degenerative disorders of the spine. The disease can be symptomatic and asymptomatic. Symptoms that are distinctive for cervical spondylosis are: tingling, numbness and weakness in the limbs, lack of coordination, stiff neck, shoulder pain, occipital pain, vertigo, poor...

  4. Identification of differentially expressed proteins and validation of the changes of N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor in rats with focal cerebral ischemia after transection of the cervical sympathetic trunk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Yao; Ma, Ke-ning; Li, Xing-zhi

    2014-12-01

    Stellate ganglion blockade (SGB) protects patients from focal cerebral ischemic injury, and transection of the cervical sympathetic trunk (TCST) in a rat model can mimic SGB in humans. The purpose of this study was to investigate the mechanisms underlying the neuroprotective effects of TCST on neuronal damage in the hippocampus in a rat model of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) in an attempt to elucidate the neuroprotective effects of SGB. The modified method of Zea Longa was used to establish the permanent MCAO model. Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups: sham-operated group, MCAO group, and TCST group. The animals in TCST group were sacrificed 48 h after TCST which was performed after the establishment of the MCAO model. Proteins were extracted from the ipsilateral hippocampus and analyzed by two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) and peptide mass fingerprinting (PMF). The levels of N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor (NSF) were measured as well. The results showed that 11 types of proteins were identified by 2D-DIGE. The expressions of eight proteins were changed both in the sham-operated and TCST groups, and the expressions of the other three proteins were changed in all three groups. Moreover, the expression of NSF was higher in the TCST group than in the MCAO group but lower in the MCAO group than in sham-operated group. The ratio of NSF expression between the MCAO group and shamoperated group was -1.37 (PSGB to patients with permanent cerebral ischemia.

  5. Preventing cervical cancer globally.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmeler, Kathleen M

    2012-11-01

    Cervical cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer and cancer-related deaths among women worldwide. More than 85% of cases and deaths occur in the developing world where the availability of effective screening is limited. In this issue of the journal, Pierce and colleagues (beginning on page 1273) describe a novel technique using a high-resolution microendoscope (HRME) to diagnose cervical dysplasia. This perspective reviews the limitations of existing cervical cancer screening methods currently in use in low-resource settings and the potential for HRME imaging to contribute to cervical cancer prevention in the developing world.

  6. Cervical screening and cervical cancer death among older women: a population-based, case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rustagi, Alison S; Kamineni, Aruna; Weinmann, Sheila; Reed, Susan D; Newcomb, Polly; Weiss, Noel S

    2014-05-01

    Recent research suggests that cervical screening of older women is associated with a considerable decrease in cervical cancer incidence. We sought to quantify the efficacy of cervical cytology screening to reduce death from this disease. Among enrollees of 2 US health plans, we compared Papanicolaou smear screening histories of women aged 55-79 years who died of cervical cancer during 1980-2010 (cases) to those of women at risk of cervical cancer (controls). Controls were matched 2:1 to cases on health plan, age, and enrollment duration. Cytology screening during the detectable preclinical phase, estimated as the 5-7 years before diagnosis during which cervical neoplasia is asymptomatic but cytologically detectable, was ascertained from medical records. A total of 39 cases and 80 controls were eligible. The odds ratio of cervical cancer death associated with screening during the presumed detectable preclinical phase was 0.26 (95% confidence interval: 0.10, 0.63) after adjustment for matching characteristics, smoking, marital status, and race/ethnicity using logistic regression. We estimate that cervical cytology screening of all women aged 55-79 years in the United States could avert 630 deaths annually. These results provide a minimum estimate of the efficacy of human papillomavirus DNA screening-a more sensitive test-to reduce cervical cancer death among older women.

  7. [Intact cervical pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habek, D; Bobic, M V; Dosen, L

    2003-01-01

    The authors describe a case of intact cervical pregnancy in a 24-year-old secundigravida. The patient was treated successfully with Methotrexate. Conservative treatment is the first choice in the therapy of uncomplicated cervical pregnancy. Conservative and operative therapeutic procedures are discussed.

  8. [A clinical study on 10 cases of cervical tuberculous lymphadenitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mada, Yusuke; Ueki, Yuji; Konno, Akiyoshi

    2012-11-01

    Cervical tuberculous lymphadenitis is sometimes difficult to differentiate from sarcoidosis. We treated 10 patients with cervical tuberculous lymphadenitis from April 2002 to December 2011. Their ages ranged from 42 to 78 years old (mean 63.2 years), and the male-to-female ratio was 4: 6. All patients presented to our hospital with the chief complaint of a cervical mass. All patients underwent open biopsy of the cervical lymph nodes, and 8 patients were diagnosed histopathologically as having cervical tuberculous lymphadenitis. In the remaining 2 patients, caseous necrosis could not be recognized histopathologically and they were diagnosed as having sarcoidosis. However 8 weeks later, the culture of the acid-fast bacilli turned positive, and the diagnosis was corrected to cervical tuberculous lymphadenitis. In our cases, the culture of acid-fast bacilli was positive in 6 out of 9 cases (66.7%), and TB-PCR was positive in 4 out of 9 cases (44.4%). These results show that sensitivity of individual tests is rather low. For the diagnosis of cervical tuberculous lymphadenitis, it is important to suspect this disease from the findings of the sedimentation rate, tuberculin test, and ultrasonography with fine needle aspiration cytology. On performing an open biopsy of the cervical lymph nodes in the suspected patients, it is essential to combine histopathological study, TB-PCR and the culture of the acid-fast bacilli simultaneously.

  9. The cervical cap (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The cervical cap is a flexible rubber cup-like device that is filled with spermicide and self-inserted over the cervix ... left in place several hours after intercourse. The cap is a prescribed device fitted by a health ...

  10. Immunotherapy for Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    In an early phase NCI clinical trial, two patients with metastatic cervical cancer had a complete disappearance of their tumors after receiving treatment with a form of immunotherapy called adoptive cell transfer.

  11. Cervical Radiculopathy (Pinched Nerve)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... help relieve pain, strengthen neck muscles, and improve range of motion. In some cases, traction can be used to ... Learn more about surgery for radiculopathy online at Cervical ... a wide range of musculoskeletal conditions and injuries. All articles are ...

  12. Cervical spine CT scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... defects of the cervical spine Bone problems Fracture Osteoarthritis Disc herniation Risks Risks of CT scans include: ... Ma, MD, Assistant Professor, Chief, Sports Medicine and Shoulder Service, UCSF Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, San Francisco, ...

  13. Dolor cervical incoercible

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrián F Narváez-Muñoz

    2014-03-01

    Astrocytomas are relatively common glial neoplasm of the central nervous system, but only a small percentage of them are located in the spinal cord, with a predilection for the cervical and dorsal regions. In most cases, extend longitudinally, affecting several cord segments. Pain is a frequent symptom of local character bone segments involving the tumor, associated with sensory deficit and / or motor. The following is the case of a 60 year old woman with cervical cord astrocytoma extended to the brainstem.

  14. Molecular tests to detect human papillomavirus infection in patients with cervical dysplasia and invasive cervical cancer in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sait KH

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Khalid H Sait1, Faten S Gazzaz21Obstetrics and Gynecology Department, 2Medical Virology Department, Faculty of Medicine, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi ArabiaPurpose: The aim of this study was to determine the actual human papillomavirus (HPV subtype that presents in cervical dysplasia and invasive carcinoma in the Saudi population, and the feasibility of using Hybrid Capture 2 technique (HC2 on biopsy specimens to detect certain HPV subtypes.Patients and methods: A prospective study was conducted from March 2007 to December 2008. The subjects studied were women with a mean age of 48.18 years, who attended the hospital for cervical biopsy due to the suspected diagnosis of cervical dysplasia or an invasive disease, based on previous suspicious Pap smear. HPV DNA hybridization by HC2 was performed on the cervical biopsies of these patients, to detect HPV infection.Results: During the period of this study, 45 patients had cervical biopsies taken for HPV testing. Seven patients had a negative HC2 result and were found to have no cervical dysplasia on the final pathology review. Seventeen cases with cervical dysplasia and 21 patients with invasive disease were presented; the mean age was 48 years. HC2 testing for HPV were found to be positive in patients with cervical dysplasia, invasive carcinoma, and all in 5 (29.4%, 13 (61.9% and 18 (47.4%, respectively. The sensitivity of the test is 47% and specificity is 100%.Conclusion: The use of molecular detection of HPV DNA by HC2 in biopsy is feasible and effective. These results confirm the finding that HPV contributes to the etiology of cervical cancer in Muslim society.Keywords: HPV, subtyping, cervical neoplasia

  15. Diagnostic accuracy of MRI in staging of cervical cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soheila Aminimoghaddam

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cervical cancer is the third most common gynecologic cancer in women worldwide. Cervical cancer has lower incidence and mortality rates than uterine corpus and ovarian cancer, as well as many other cancer sites. Unfortunately, in countries that do not have access to cervical cancer screening and prevention programs, cervical cancer remains the second most common type of cancer. Staging of the disease is made clinically. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI for diagnosing the invasion of cancer to organs and staging of cervical cancer and the relationship between clinical and pathological findings and the sensitivity and specificity of the assay in cervical cancer. Methods: The study included records of 40 patients with cervical cancer that undergo surgery or Chemoradiation in Firoozgar University Hospital. In this study that made retrospectively, non-randomized, the MRI reports and clinical findings records and pathology results was discussed. The sensitivity and specificity of MRI for diagnosing the invasion to parameters, bladder, rectum, vagina, pelvic wall and it’s accuracy to determine tumor stage has been set. Results: A total of 40 patients with pathology information of cervical cancer was retrospectively reviewed in the study. The patients were 28-83 years old by mean age of 49.3 Pathology of cervical cancer in 80% of cases was SCC, 15% adenocarcinoma and 5% melanoma. The sensitivity and specificity of MRI for diagnosing invasion of parameter was 76% and 88%. The sensitivity of MRI in the detection of bladder invasion was 100% and specificity of 100%. The sensitivity of MRI in the diagnosis of rectal invasion was 50% and specificity of 100%. The sensitivity of MRI in the diagnosis of pelvic wall invasion was 100% and specificity of 86%. Sensitivity in detecting invasion into the upper third of the vagina was 100%. Conclusion: Overall, this study showed a good sensitivity and

  16. What`s New in Cervical Cancer Research and Treatment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cervical Cancer About Cervical Cancer What's New in Cervical Cancer Research and Treatment? New ways to prevent and ... in Cervical Cancer Research and Treatment? More In Cervical Cancer About Cervical Cancer Causes, Risk Factors, and Prevention ...

  17. What Are the Key Statistics about Cervical Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cervical Cancer What Are the Key Statistics About Cervical Cancer? The American Cancer Society's estimates for cervical cancer ... in Cervical Cancer Research and Treatment? More In Cervical Cancer About Cervical Cancer Causes, Risk Factors, and Prevention ...

  18. Incidence of cervical dysplasia and cervical cancer in women living with HIV in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsteinsson, Kristina; Ladelund, Steen; Jensen-Fangel, Søren

    2014-01-01

    and hazard ratios (HRs) for time from inclusion to first cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN)/ICC and time from first normal cervical cytology to first CIN/ICC were estimated. Sensitivity analyses were performed to include prior screening outcome, screening intensity and treatment of CIN....../ICC in the interpretation of results. RESULTS: We followed 1,143 WLWH and 17,145 controls with no prior history of ICC for 9,509 and 157,362 person-years. Compared to controls, the overall incidence of CIN1 or worse (CIN1+), CIN2+ and CIN3+ was higher in WLWH and predicted by young age and CD4 count ... with normal baseline cytology, incidences of CIN1+ and CIN2+ were higher in WLWH. However, incidences were comparable between WLWH and controls adherent to the National ICC screening program. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, WLWH develop more cervical disease than controls. However, incidences of CIN are comparable...

  19. Cervical syphilitic lesions mimicking cervical cancer: a rare case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoqing Zhu

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available A woman presented to the hospital due to postcoital vaginal bleeding. The patient was initially diagnosed with cervical carcinoma by clinicians at a local hospital. However, a biopsy of the cervical lesions revealed chronic inflammation and erosion of the cervical mucosa, and the rapid plasma reagin ratio titer was 1:256. The patient was eventually diagnosed with syphilitic cervicitis and treated with minocycline 0.1 g twice a day. The patient was cured with this treatment.

  20. Cervical perineural cyst masquerading as a cervical spinal tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Vijay P; Zanwar, Atul; Karande, Anuradha; Agrawal, Amit

    2014-04-01

    Tarlov (perineural) cysts of the nerve roots are common and usually incidental findings during magnetic resonance imaging of the lumbosacral spine. There are only a few case reports where cervical symptomatic perineural cysts have been described in the literature. We report such a case where a high cervical perineural cyst was masquerading as a cervical spinal tumor.

  1. Cervical Perineural Cyst Masquerading as a Cervical Spinal Tumor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Vijay P; Zanwar, Atul; Karande, Anuradha

    2014-01-01

    Tarlov (perineural) cysts of the nerve roots are common and usually incidental findings during magnetic resonance imaging of the lumbosacral spine. There are only a few case reports where cervical symptomatic perineural cysts have been described in the literature. We report such a case where a high cervical perineural cyst was masquerading as a cervical spinal tumor. PMID:24761204

  2. Risks of Cervical Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are at increased risk for HPV infections. Other risk factors for cervical cancer include: Giving birth to many children. Smoking cigarettes. Using oral contraceptives ("the Pill"). Having a weakened immune system . Cervical Cancer Screening ...

  3. The utility of diffusion-weighted MR imaging in cervical cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Jianyu, E-mail: Chenjianyu5562@163.co [Department of Radiology, Second Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, 107 Yanjiangxi Road, Guangzhou 510120 (China); Zhang Yun, E-mail: Zhangyun.7@163.co [State Key Laboratory of Oncology in Southern China, Guangzhou, 510060 (China) and Imaging Diagnosis and Interventional Center, Cancer Center, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, 510060 (China); Liang Biling, E-mail: liangbil@126.co [Department of Radiology, Second Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, 107 Yanjiangxi Road, Guangzhou 510120 (China); Yang Zehong, E-mail: Yangzehong2000@163.co [Department of Radiology, Second Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, 107 Yanjiangxi Road, Guangzhou 510120 (China)

    2010-06-15

    Purpose: To investigate the value of diffusion-weighted MR imaging (DWI) in detection of cervical cancer, and to determine the diagnostic accuracy of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values for evaluating cervical cancer before and after chemoradiotherapy. Materials and methods: Thirty-three patients with cervical squamous carcinoma and 20 patients with other pelvic abnormalities underwent diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in addition to routine MR imaging. The ADC values of normal cervical tissue, cervical area before and after chemoradiotherapy were measured and compared. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was employed to investigate whether ADC values could help in discrimination among normal cervical tissue, cervical cancer before and after therapy, and to obtain the optimal ADC threshold value. Results: Cervical cancer lesion demonstrated obviously hyperintensity on DWI images. The mean ADC value of cervical carcinoma (1.110 {+-} 0.175 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s) was significantly lower than that of normal cervical tissue (1.593 {+-} 0.151 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s) (P < 0.001). The mean ADC value of the cervical area in 22 patients treated by chemoradiotherapy (1.436 {+-} 0.129 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s) was significantly higher than that before therapy (1.013 {+-} 0.094 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s) (P < 0.001). The difference of ADC values between normal cervical tissue and cervical area after therapy was statistically significant (P < 0.01). The optimal ADC threshold values for distinguishing between normal cervical tissue and cervical carcinoma was 1.359 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s, between cervical area before and after therapy was 1.255 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s, between normal cervical tissue and cervical area after therapy was 1.525 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s. The sensitivity and specificity were 100% and 84.8%, 95.5% and 100%, 70% and 81.8%, respectively. Conclusion: DWI can be applied for the detection of cervical cancer because of its superior

  4. Invasive cervical resorption: treatment challenges

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Invasive cervical resorption is a relatively uncommon form of external root resorption. It is characterized by invasion of cervical region of the root by fibrovascular tissue derived from the periodontal ligament. This case presents an invasive cervical resorption occurring in maxillary lateral incisor, following damage in cervical cementum from avulsion and intracoronal bleaching procedure. Flap reflection, debridement and restoration with glass ionomer cement were performed in an attempt to...

  5. Deep cervical infection?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo T

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Inflammatory cervical swelling may have several causes. The jugular vein thrombosis is a rare entity, often forgotten. Most frequently arises due to a cervical sepsis by the use of a central venous catheter or intravenous drug abuse (drug addicts. Rarely, is secondary to a hypercoagulability state associated with a visceral carcinoma (Trousseau Syndrome. Material and Methods: The authors present the case of a 65 years old male, who used the ENT Emergency Service due to a painful left cervical swelling with local and systemic inflammatory signs of 3 days duration. Results: An cervical ultrasound suggested a neck abscess. CT was performed and confirmed the ultrasound results. Because of its location in the path of the internal jugular vein, we requested re-evaluation by CT with intravenous contrast and doppler ultrasound, obtaining the diagnosis of thrombosis of the internal jugular vein. Further studies were conduct to clarify the hypercoagulability state, since the patient had no known predisposing factor. Finally the diagnosis of unresectable gastric carcinoma was made. Discussion and Conclusion: The ENT must be aware and be able to understand any cervical imagiologic studies. A deep knowledge of the anatomical imagiología is important for the diagnosis of jugular thrombosis. When we have a case of spontaneous jugular thrombosis, we must look for possible visceral carcinoma.

  6. Prognostic factors in cervical cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biewenga, P.

    2015-01-01

    Surgery is the standard of care for women with early stage cervical cancer; radiotherapy is the cornerstone in patients with advanced stages of disease. Recent changes in the treatment of cervical cancer involve less radical surgery in early stage cervical cancer, concomitant chemo- and radiotherapy

  7. Prognostic factors in cervical cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biewenga, P.

    2015-01-01

    Surgery is the standard of care for women with early stage cervical cancer; radiotherapy is the cornerstone in patients with advanced stages of disease. Recent changes in the treatment of cervical cancer involve less radical surgery in early stage cervical cancer, concomitant chemo- and radiotherapy

  8. Cervical deciduosis imitating dysplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Diepen, Diederik Anthony; Hellebrekers, Bart; van Haaften, Anne-Marie; Natté, Remco

    2015-09-22

    Ectopic cervical deciduosis is generally an accidental finding during pregnancy, and usually presents without any symptoms or need for therapeutic intervention. However, it can sometimes imitate dysplasia or carcinoma. We report a case of a 34-year-old G2P0, with a history of cervical dysplasia, presenting at 11 weeks of gestation, with vaginal blood loss. During examination, lesions mimicking dysplasia were found on the cervix. Histological examination reported cervical deciduosis. Deciduosis is a benign change during pregnancy and will resolve spontaneously. With the increasing use of cytology and colposcopy, the reported incidence is growing. When it is hard to differentiate between dysplasia and deciduosis, histological confirmation should be considered.

  9. Positron emission tomography-computed tomography has a clinical impact for patients with cervical cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandvik, Rikke Mulvad; Jensen, Pernille Tine; Hendel, Helle W

    2011-01-01

    Many studies have found that positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) has a high sensitivity and specificity in the identification of metastasis in cervical cancer. Herlev Hospital, Denmark, has been performing PET-CTs in stage I-IV cervical cancer since 1 May 2006. The present...

  10. Positron emission tomography-computed tomography has a clinical impact for patients with cervical cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandvik, Rikke Mulvad; Jensen, Pernille Tine; Hendel, Helle W

    2011-01-01

    Many studies have found that positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) has a high sensitivity and specificity in the identification of metastasis in cervical cancer. Herlev Hospital, Denmark, has been performing PET-CTs in stage I-IV cervical cancer since 1 May 2006. The present...

  11. Optoelectronic method for detection of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and cervical cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruski, D.; Przybylski, M.; Kędzia, W.; Kędzia, H.; Jagielska-Pruska, J.; Spaczyński, M.

    2011-12-01

    The optoelectronic method is one of the most promising concepts of biophysical program of the diagnostics of CIN and cervical cancer. Objectives of the work are evaluation of sensitivity and specificity of the optoelectronic method in the detection of CIN and cervical cancer. The paper shows correlation between the pNOR number and sensitivity/specificity of the optoelectronic method. The study included 293 patients with abnormal cervical cytology result and the following examinations: examination with the use of the optoelectronic method — Truscreen, colposcopic examination, and histopathologic biopsy. Specificity of the optoelectronic method for LGSIL was estimated at 65.70%, for HGSIL and squamous cell carcinoma of cervix amounted to 90.38%. Specificity of the optoelectronic method used to confirm lack of cervical pathology was estimated at 78.89%. The field under the ROC curve for the optoelectronic method was estimated at 0.88 (95% CI, 0.84-0.92) which shows high diagnostic value of the test in the detection of HGSIL and squamous cell carcinoma. The optoelectronic method is characterised by high usefulness in the detection of CIN, present in the squamous epithelium and squamous cell carcinoma of cervix.

  12. Stanniocalcin 2 promotes cell proliferation and cisplatin resistance in cervical cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yuxia; Gao, Ying; Cheng, Hairong; Yang, Guichun [Department of Gynecology, Harbin Medical University Cancer Hospital, Harbin, Heilongjiang, 150081 (China); Tan, Wenhua, E-mail: tanwenhua1962@163.com [Department of Gynecology, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University, Harbin, Heilongjiang, 150086 (China)

    2015-10-23

    Cervical cancer is one of the most common carcinomas in the female reproductive system. Treatment of cervical cancer involves surgical removal and chemotherapy. Resistance to platinum-based chemotherapy drugs including cisplatin has increasingly become an important problem in the treatment of cervical cancer patients. We found in this study that stanniocalcin 2 (STC2) expression was upregulated in both cervical cancer tissues and cell lines. The levels of STC2 expression in cervical cancer cell lines were positively correlated with the rate of cell proliferation. Furthermore, in cisplatin resistant cervical cancer cells, the levels of STC2 expression were significantly elevated. Modulation of STC2 expression by siRNA or overexpression in cisplatin resistant cells resulted in altered cell survival, apoptosis, and cisplatin resistance. Finally, we found that there was significant difference in the activity of the MAPK signaling pathway between cisplatin sensitive and resistant cervical cancer cells, and that STC2 could regulate the activity of the MAPK signaling pathway. - Highlights: • STC2 was upregulated in cervical cancer and promoted cervical cancer cell proliferation. • Cisplatin resistant cells had elevated STC2 levels and enhanced proliferation. • STC2 regulated cisplatin chemosensitivity in cervical cancer cells. • STC2 regulated the activity of the MAPK signaling pathway.

  13. Helical CT in the primary trauma evaluation of the cervical spine: an evidence-based approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blackmore, C.C. [Washington Univ., Seattle, WA (United States). Dept. of Radiology; Center for Cost and Outcomes Research, Univ. of Washington, Seattle (United States); Dept. of Radiology, Harborview Medical Center, Seattle, WA (United States); Mann, F.A. [Washington Univ., Seattle, WA (United States). Dept. of Radiology; Harborview Injury Prevention and Research Center, University of Washington, Seattle (United States); Wilson, A.J. [Washington Univ., Seattle, WA (United States). Dept. of Radiology

    2000-11-01

    This review provides a summary of the cost-effectiveness, clinical utility, performance, and interpretation of screening helical cervical spine CT for trauma patients. Recent evidence supports the use of helical CT as a cost-effective method for screening the cervical spine in high-risk trauma patients. Screening cervical spine CT can be performed at the time of head CT to lower the cost of the evaluation, and when all short- and long-term costs are considered, CT may actually save money when compared with traditional radiographic screening. In addition to having higher sensitivity and specificity for cervical spine injury, CT screening also allows more rapid radiological clearance of the cervical spine than radiography. Patients who are involved in high-energy trauma, who sustain head injury, or who have neurological deficits are candidates for CT screening. Screening with CT may enhance detection of other potentially important injuries of the cervical region. (orig.)

  14. Cervical cytology and the diagnosis of cervical cancer in older women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landy, Rebecca; Castanon, Alejandra; Dudding, Nick; Lim, Anita Wey Wey; Hollingworth, Antony; Hamilton, Willie; Sasieni, Peter D

    2015-12-01

    Most non-screen-detected cervical cancers are advanced stage. We assess the potential for cytology to expedite diagnosis when used outside of routine call and recall screening for cervical cancer. Two cohorts of women with cytology that did not appear to have been taken as part of routine screening, nested within a census of cervical cytology, in England between April 2007 and March 2010 were studied: 93,322 women aged 40-69 at first cytology, and 14,668 women aged ≥70. The diagnostic performance of high grade cervical squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL) or worse cytology was estimated. We also estimated case-fatality from stage distribution in women aged ≥66 with and without cytology in the year prior to diagnosis. There were 259 cancers diagnosed in women aged 40-69 at first cytology, and 78 in women aged ≥70. The sensitivity of cytology ≥ HSIL for cancer was 89% and 83% respectively, and the number of women needed to test to identify one cancer was 404 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 355-462) and 226 (95% CI: 177-292) respectively. Women aged ≥66 with cytology within a year of diagnosis had earlier stage cancers than those without, corresponding to a 17-22% reduction in case fatality. Cervical cytology is an excellent identifier of cancer among women tested outside routine screening call and recall. Its use as a triage tool, for instance in women with vague gynaecological symptoms, could facilitate earlier stage diagnosis and reduce cervical cancer mortality. © The Author(s) 2015.

  15. Prevent Cervical Cancer!

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-01-08

    Cervical cancer can be prevented. Listen as two friends—one a doctor—talk about screening tests and early detection. Learn what test you might need.  Created: 1/8/2015 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 1/8/2015.

  16. Diabetes and cervical myelopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houten, John K; Lenart, Christopher

    2016-05-01

    Diabetes may affect the typical physical findings associated with cervical spondylotic myelopathy, as coexisting diabetic neuropathy may dampen expected hyperreflexia and also produce non-dermatomal extremity numbness. Most large studies of surgically treated diabetic patients with cervical spondylotic myelopathy have focused upon infection rates rather than exploring any differences in the presenting physical signs. We conducted a retrospective study of the pattern of presenting neurological signs and symptoms and of the clinical outcomes in 438 patients surgically treated for cervical spondylotic myelopathy, 79 of whom had diabetes. Compared with non-diabetic patients, those with diabetes were slightly older and had lower preoperative modified Japanese Orthopaedic Association (mJOA) scores. Those with diabetes also had a significantly higher incidence of hyporeflexia and a higher incidence of a positive Babinski sign, but there was no difference in the appearance of the Hoffman sign. The magnitude of mJOA improvement after surgery was comparable. We conclude that diabetes may alter the typical signs and symptoms of cervical spondylotic myelopathy and suggest that knowledge of the differences may aid in securing a prompt and accurate diagnosis.

  17. Flexion/extension cervical spine views in blunt cervical

    OpenAIRE

    Nasir Sadaf; Hussain Manzar; Mahmud Roomi

    2012-01-01

    【Abstract】Objective: To examine the contribution of flexion and extension radiographs in the evaluation of ligamentous injury in awake adults with acute blunt cervical spine trauma, who show loss of cervical lordosis and neck pain. Methods: All patients who presented to our emer-gency department following blunt trauma were enrolled in this study, except those with schiwora, neurological defi-cits or fracture demonstrated on cross-table cervical spine X-rays, and tho...

  18. Cervical spine reposition errors after cervical flexion and extension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xu; Lindstroem, René; Carstens, Niels Peter Bak; Graven-Nielsen, Thomas

    2017-03-13

    Upright head and neck position has been frequently applied as baseline for diagnosis of neck problems. However, the variance of the position after cervical motions has never been demonstrated. Thus, it is unclear if the baseline position varies evenly across the cervical joints. The purpose was to assess reposition errors of upright cervical spine. Cervical reposition errors were measured in twenty healthy subjects (6 females) using video-fluoroscopy. Two flexion movements were performed with a 20 s interval, the same was repeated for extension, with an interval of 5 min between flexion and extension movements. Cervical joint positions were assessed with anatomical landmarks and external markers in a Matlab program. Reposition errors were extracted in degrees (initial position minus reposition) as constant errors (CEs) and absolute errors (AEs). Twelve of twenty-eight CEs (7 joints times 4 repositions) exceeded the minimal detectable change (MDC), while all AEs exceeded the MDC. Averaged AEs across the cervical joints were larger after 5 min' intervals compared to 20 s intervals (p cervical spine. The cervical spine returns to the upright positions with a 2° average absolute difference after cervical flexion and extension movements in healthy adults.

  19. Cisplatin and Radiation Therapy Followed by Paclitaxel and Carboplatin in Treating Patients With Stage IB-IVA Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-03

    Cervical Adenocarcinoma; Cervical Adenosquamous Carcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma, Not Otherwise Specified; Stage IB Cervical Cancer; Stage IIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage IIIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIIB Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer

  20. Cetuximab, Cisplatin, and Radiation Therapy in Treating Patients With Stage IB, Stage II, Stage III, or Stage IVA Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-29

    Cervical Adenocarcinoma; Cervical Adenosquamous Carcinoma; Cervical Small Cell Carcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IB Cervical Cancer; Stage IIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage III Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer

  1. Abnormal Cervical Cancer Screening Test Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS FAQ187 GYNECOLOGIC PROBLEMS Abnormal Cervical Cancer Screening Test Results • What is cervical cancer screening? • What causes abnormal cervical cancer screening test results? • ...

  2. Breaking the DNA damage response to improve cervical cancer treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieringa, Hylke W; van der Zee, Ate G J; de Vries, Elisabeth G E; van Vugt, Marcel A T M

    2016-01-01

    Every year, cervical cancer affects ∼500,000 women worldwide, and ∼275,000 patients die of this disease. The addition of platin-based chemotherapy to primary radiotherapy has increased 5-year survival of advanced-stage cervical cancer patients, which is, however, still only 66%. One of the factors thought to contribute to treatment failure is the ability of tumor cells to repair chemoradiotherapy-induced DNA damage. Therefore, sensitization of tumor cells for chemoradiotherapy via inhibition of the DNA damage response (DDR) as a novel strategy to improve therapy effect, is currently studied pre-clinically as well as in the clinic. Almost invariably, cervical carcinogenesis involves infection with the human papillomavirus (HPV), which inactivates part of the DNA damage response. This HPV-mediated partial inactivation of the DDR presents therapeutic targeting of the residual DDR as an interesting approach to achieve chemoradio-sensitization for cervical cancer. How the DDR can be most efficiently targeted, however, remains unclear. The fact that cisplatin and radiotherapy activate multiple signaling axes within the DDR further complicates a rational choice of therapeutic targets within the DDR. In this review, we provide an overview of the current preclinical and clinical knowledge about targeting the DDR in cervical cancer. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa cervical osteomyelitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujeet Kumar Meher

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a rare cause of osteomyelitis of the cervical spine and is usually seen in the background of intravenous drug use and immunocompromised state. Very few cases of osteomyelitis of the cervical spine caused by pseudomonas aeruginosa have been reported in otherwise healthy patients. This is a case presentation of a young female, who in the absence of known risk factors for cervical osteomyelitis presented with progressively worsening neurological signs and symptoms.

  4. Mucopurulent cervicitis: a clinical entity?

    OpenAIRE

    Willmott, F E

    1988-01-01

    Of 297 women attending a sexually transmitted disease clinic who were examined for the presence of mucopurulent cervicitis, 96 (32%) satisfied the diagnostic criteria. Mucopurulent cervicitis was strongly associated with the isolation of Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae. It was also associated with bacterial vaginosis, the use of oral contraceptives, and sexual contact with men who had non-gonococcal urethritis. Conversely, the presence of opaque cervical secretions did not sho...

  5. Os Odontoideum: Rare Cervical Lesion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    the articulation between C1 and the os odontoideum on flexion imaging. The remainder of his cervical vertebral bodies had normal alignment with no...appears normal. Figure 3. Flexion view of plain cervical spine. This image shows abnormal translation of the articulation between C1 and the C2 os...worldwide. Peer Reviewed Title: Os Odontoideum: Rare Cervical Lesion Journal Issue: Western Journal of Emergency Medicine, 12(4) Author: Robson

  6. The Biomechanics of Cervical Spondylosis

    OpenAIRE

    Ferrara, Lisa A.

    2012-01-01

    Aging is the major risk factor that contributes to the onset of cervical spondylosis. Several acute and chronic symptoms can occur that start with neck pain and may progress into cervical radiculopathy. Eventually, the degenerative cascade causes desiccation of the intervertebral disc resulting in height loss along the ventral margin of the cervical spine. This causes ventral angulation and eventual loss of lordosis, with compression of the neural and vascular structures. The altered posture ...

  7. [Measurement and clinical significance of cervical lordosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu-ting; Wang, Xiang; Zhan, Hong-sheng

    2014-12-01

    Measurement of cervical lordosis is the basic method for evaluating cervical function, and important reference for determine treatment decision. However, how to choose appropriate measurement in accordance with different situation, as well as the relationship among these methods is not clear. An increasing number of studies suggested that different measurements could directly affect the judgment of cervical lordosis. Therefore, comparative study of cervical vertebrae plays an important role in clinical treatment for cervical spondylosis under different cervical curvature conditions.

  8. [Preventing cervical cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, P; Noël, J-C

    2015-09-01

    The incidence of cervical cancer has hopefully been dropping down in our industrialized countries since the introduction of both primary and secondary prevention. Nevertheless, it is still lethal in one out of two affected women though the introduction of cytological screening has dramatically reduced the mortality. Progressive diffusion of anti-HPV vaccination, the broadening of the viral types concerned, its association with existing screening measures and finally the introduction of viral detection as a screening tool must optimize the results already obtained.

  9. Preinduction cervical ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiery, M

    1983-01-01

    This work reviews the evolution of cervical ripening procedures and discusses the most effective current techniques. Current knowledge of the process of spontaneous ripening of the cervix is briefly assessed, but the review concentrates on methodological aspects and the clinical results of preinduction cervical ripening. The historical development of mechanical and pharmacologic ripening procedures is examined, including enzymes, oxytocin, relaxin, corticosteriods, estrogens administered parenterally or locally, and prostaglandins (PGs) administered intravenously, orally, locally, and intravaginally. 3 effective procedures for preinduction cervical ripening are identified and described in greater detail: the catheter technique and local and vaginal administration of PGs. The extraamniotic catheter technique is simple, effective, and safe and is recommended for patients with not totally unripe cervixes and for whom PGs are unavailable or contraindicated. Single-dose extraamniotic instillation of PGE2 in Tylose gel was found to be highly effective for priming the unfavorable cervix before conventional labor induction. In some patients the procedure induces labor. The technique is easy to use, well accepted by the woman, and safe when applied appropriately to carefully selected patients. PGF2alpha gel has been less thoroughly studied. Electronic monitoring at the ripening stage is recommended for patients at risk, and even in low-risk cases much larger series will require study before conclusions can be reached about safety. Injection of PG gel into the cervical canal is less invasive than extraamniotic instillation, but no definite conclusions about its safety are possible due to small series and dissimilar clinical protocols. Pericervical administration of PGE2 and PGF2 alpha and intracervical and intraamniotic tablets of PGE2 are briefly assessed. Adoption of the intravaginal route has been a major step in the development of ripening techniques. 3 types of media

  10. Future Directions - Cervical Cancer

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-10-15

    Dr. Alan Waxman, a professor of obstetrics and gynecology at the University of New Mexico and chair of the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) committee for the underserved, talks about possible changes in cervical cancer screening and management.  Created: 10/15/2009 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP), Division of Cancer Prevention and Control (DCPC).   Date Released: 6/9/2010.

  11. Case Studies - Cervical Cancer

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-10-15

    Dr. Alan Waxman, a professor of obstetrics and gynecology at the University of New Mexico and chair of the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) committee for the underserved, talks about several case studies for cervical cancer screening and management.  Created: 10/15/2010 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP), Division of Cancer Prevention and Control (DCPC).   Date Released: 6/9/2010.

  12. Achondroplasia and cervical laminoplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshii, June; Traynelis, Vincent C

    2009-10-01

    Achondroplasia is associated with short pedicles that predispose individuals with this trait to develop symptomatic spinal canal stenosis. Laminoplasty is an excellent means of treating cervical myelopathy due to stenosis in selected individuals. Laminoplasty preserves segmental motion and stability, both of which are of benefit to all individuals. The authors report the successful surgical treatment of an achondroplastic adult woman with laminoplasty. This procedure alleviated her symptoms, and she was doing well at 2-year follow-up.

  13. SUPERFICIAL CERVICAL PLEXUS BLOCK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komang Mega Puspadisari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Superficial cervical plexus block is one of the regional anesthesia in  neck were limited to thesuperficial fascia. Anesthesia is used to relieve pain caused either during or after the surgery iscompleted. This technique can be done by landmark or with ultrasound guiding. The midpointof posterior border of the Sternocleidomastoid was identified and the prosedure done on thatplace or on the level of cartilage cricoid.

  14. An occult cervical spine fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosla, R

    1997-12-01

    A 16-year-old athlete developed neck pain after being dropped on his head with his neck flexed while recreationally wrestling. Initial cervical spine radiographs were negative, but he continued to have neck and arm pain, especially after heading a wet soccer ball. Two months after the initial injury, he had a positive Spurling test; cervical spine CT then revealed a parasagittal linear fracture through the body of C-7. The patient avoided contact and collision activities and had no further physical problems. For patients who suffer cervical spine trauma, adequate visualization of the cervical spine can help prevent catastrophic outcomes.

  15. Drugs Approved for Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Nonavalent Vaccine Recombinant Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Quadrivalent Vaccine Drugs Approved to Treat Cervical Cancer Avastin (Bevacizumab) Bevacizumab Blenoxane (Bleomycin) Bleomycin Hycamtin (Topotecan ...

  16. Cervical spinal canal narrowing and cervical neurologi-cal injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHANG Ling

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】Cervical spinal canal narrowing can lead to injury of the spinal cord and neurological symptoms in-cluding neck pain, headache, weakness and parasthesisas. According to previous and recent clinical researches, we investigated the geometric parameters of normal cervical spinal canal including the sagittal and transverse diameters as well as Torg ratio. The mean sagittal diameter of cervical spinal canal at C 1 to C 7 ranges from 15.33 mm to 20.46 mm, the mean transverse diameter at the same levels ranges from 24.45 mm to 27.00 mm and the mean value of Torg ratio is 0.96. With respect to narrow cervical spinal canal, the following charaterstics are found: firstly, extension of the cervical spine results in statistically significant stenosis as compared with the flexed or neutral positions; secondly, females sustain cervical spinal canal narrowing more easily than males; finally, the consistent narrowest cervical canal level is at C 4 for all ethnicity, but there is a slight variation in the sagittal diameter of cervical spinal stenosis (≤14 mm in Whites, ≤ 12 mm in Japanese, ≤13.7 mm in Chinese. Narrow sagittal cervical canal diameter brings about an increased risk of neurological injuries in traumatic, degenerative and inflam-matory conditions and is related with extension of cervical spine, gender, as well as ethnicity. It is hoped that this re-view will be helpful in diagnosing spinal cord and neuro-logical injuries with the geometric parameters of cervical spine in the future. Key words: Spinal cord injuries; Spinal stenosis; Trauma, nervous system

  17. Cervical spinal canal narrowing and cervical neurological injuries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Ling; CHEN Hai-bin; WANG Yi; ZHANG Li-ying; LIU Jing-cheng; WANG Zheng-guo

    2012-01-01

    Cervical spinal canal narrowing can lead to injury of the spinal cord and neurological symptoms including neck pain,headache,weakness and parasthesisas.According to previous and recent clinical researches,we investigated the geometric parameters of normal cervical spinal canal including the sagittal and transverse diameters as well as Torg ratio.The mean sagittal diameter of cervical spinal canal at C1 to C7 ranges from 15.33 mm to 20.46 mm,the mean transverse diameter at the same levels ranges from 24.45 mm to 27.00 mm and the mean value of Torg ratio is 0.96.With respect to narrow cervical spinal canal,the following charaterstics are found:firstly,extension of the cervical spine results in statistically significant stenosis as compared with the flexed or neutral positions; secondly,females sustain cervical spinal canal narrowing more easily than males;finally,the consistent narrowest cervical canal level is at C4 for all ethnicity,but there is a slight variation in the sagittal diameter of cervical spinal stenosis(≤ 14 mm in Whites,≤12 mm in Japanese,≤ 13.7 mm in Chinese).Narrow sagittal cervical canal diameter brings about an increased risk of neurological injuries in traumatic,degenerative and inflammatory conditions and is related with extension of cervical spine,gender,as well as ethnicity.It is hoped that this review will be helpful in diagnosing spinal cord and neurological injuries with the geometric parameters of cervical spine in the future.

  18. Detection of hTERC and c-MYC genes in cervical epithelial exfoliated cells for cervical cancer screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tian; Tang, Liangdan; Bian, Duhong; Jia, Ying; Huang, Xin; Zhang, Xinhua

    2014-05-01

    Cervical cancer is the principal cause of mortality due to cancer in women worldwide. New predictive markers may increase survival rates by improving the treatment of patients at a high risk for cancer. This study was carried out to investigate the amplification of human telomerase RNA component (hTERC) or/and c-MYC in cervical epithelial exfoliated cells for cervical carcinoma screening. We collected 171 specimens. including speciments from normal cervix, benign lesions, cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN)1, CIN2 and CIN3, or carcinoma in situ, as well as invasive cervical squamous cell carcinoma. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) was performed to detect alterations in hTERC and c-MYC expression. We analyzed the area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve (AUC), as well as the sensitivity and specificity of single screening and conjoined screening. There was a trend toward an increasing amplification of 2 genes with the increasing severity of cervical lesions. ROC curve analysis demonstrated that the AUC values of the hTERC gene for the screening of different cervical lesions were >0.8. Compared with the hTERC gene, the AUC of the c-MYC gene for the screening of ≥CIN3 was >0.8 and the AUC for the screening of other cervical lesions was >0.7. For the screening of cervical lesions above the grade of benign lesions, cytological diagnosis was superior to the gene detection with significant differences. For the screening of cervical lesions >CIN1, there were no statistically significant differences (P>0.05) between the hTERC gene and cytological diagnosis, whereas the screening results of c-MYC detection and cytological diagnosis differed significantly (PCIN2 or >CIN3, the detection of hTERC and c-MYC genes and cytological diagnosis had similar screening results with no statistically significant differences (P>0.05). In conclusion, using FISH to detect the amplification of hTERC or/and c-MYC on cervical epithelial exfoliated cells may be

  19. A panel of autoantibodies as potential early diagnostic serum biomarkers in patients with cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huangfu, Mingmei; Xu, Shuang; Li, Siyao; Sun, Baosheng; Lee, Kuang-Hui; Liu, Linlin; Sun, Shilong

    2016-07-01

    The study was designed to test whether circulating autoantibodies against associated antigens (TAAs) were altered in early cervical cancer and benign cervical tumors. A total of 111 cervical cancer patients, 137 cervical benign tumor patients, and 160 healthy volunteers matched in age were recruited in this study. The expression of autoantibodies was tested using in-house developed enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) with linear peptide envelope antigens derived from TAAs. One-way ANOVA test showed that there was no difference in the CD25 autoantibody expression among the cervical cancer group, benign tumor group, and healthy control group (P = 0.063; P = 0.191). The expression of autoantibodies against survivin and TP53 in the cervical cancer group was significantly higher than that in the benign tumor group (P cervical cancer group than in the healthy control group (P = 0.010; P = 0.001), while autoantibodies in the cervical cancer group showed no difference in expression compared with that in the benign tumor group. The panel of five TAAs showed a sensitivity of 37.8 % and a specificity of 90 %, which was much higher than the sensitivity of the single-TAA testing group. The data from this study further support our previous hypothesis that the detection of autoantibodies for the diagnosis of a specific cancer type can be enhanced using a panel of several selected TAAs as target antigens.

  20. Spondilitis Tuberkulosa Cervical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roni Eka Saputra

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak Spondilitis tuberkulosa servikalis adalah penyakit yang cukup jarang dijumpai, hanya berkisar 2-3% dariseluruh kasus spondilitis tuberkulosa. Gambaran klinis sangat bervariasi, mulai dari gejala ringan dan tidak spesifikhingga komplikasi neurologis yang berat. Seorang wanita berusia 29 tahun datang dengan keluhan lemah keempatanggota gerak yang semakin memberat dalam 10 hari terakhir yang didahului oleh nyeri leher yang menjalar ke bahudan lengan sejak 6 bulan sebelumnya. Nyeri awalnya dirasakan sebagai keterbatasan gerakan leher saat menolehkesamping kiri dan kanan serta menundukkan kepala. Nyeri dirasakan semakin berat dengan pergerakan danberkurang jika istirahat. Pasien mengalami penurunan berat badan sejak 2 bulan terakhir. Tidak dijumpai riwayat batukatau nyeri dada. Pemeriksaan neurologis menunjukkan kelemahan  pada keempat ekstremitas. Hasil laboratoriumditemukan peningkatan Laju Endap Darah (LED. Rontgen foto toraks dalam batas normal. Roentgen foto cervicalmenunjukkan destruksi setinggi C5. MRI cervical menunjukkan destruksi pada korpus C5-6 dengan penyempitan padadiscus intervertebrae C5-6 disertai dengan  massa/abses paravertebral dengan penekanan ke posterior. MRI Thorakaltampak destruksi corpus verebre T4,5 dengan diskus intervertebralis yang menyempit. Sugestif suatu spondilitistuberkulosa. Pasien dilakukan tindakan pembedahan anterior corpectomi melalui microscopic surgery dengan graftdari iliac sinistra, serta insersi anterior plate 1 level. Hasil pemeriksaan patologi anatomi menunjukkan spodilitis TBCkaseosa. Pada spondilitis vertebre T4,5 dilakukan laminectomi, debridement costotrasversektomi, dan stabilisasidengan pedicle screw T2, T3, dan T5. Pasien diterapi dengan obat antituberkulosis. Keadaan pasien saat ini, pasiensudah bisa beraktifitas normal dengan motorik dan sensorik baik. Spondilitis tuberkulosa merupakan bentuktuberkulosa tulang yang paling sering dijumpai. Spondilitis tuberkulosa cervical berkisar 2

  1. Significance of cervical length and cervical gland area in cervical maturation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Channaveeregowda Savitha

    2016-08-01

    Results: Amongst 160 pregnant women who were induced (20 women were excluded has they underwent LSCS for some other reasons during latent phase cervical length by sonography 4. Cervical length 4. Conclusions: Sonographically detected cervical gland area and cervical length was evaluated in predicting response to induction. Absent CGA and CL < 2cm was associated with greater incidence of successful labor induction. This results show the CL and CGA has significant role in predicting outcome of labor. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2016; 5(8.000: 2634-2639

  2. Diagnostic accuracy of high-risk HPV genotyping in women with high-grade cervical lesions: evidence for improving the cervical cancer screening strategy in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Huihui; Lin, Aifen; Shao, Xiujuan; Shi, Weiwu; Zhang, Yang; Yan, Weihua

    2016-12-13

    Currently, clinical data for primary HPV screening alone are lacking in China. Here, we evaluate cervical cancer screening with primary HPV genotyping, as well as possible future screening strategy. Overall, high-risk HPV (hrHPV) prevalence was 18.2% among hospital-based population in Taizhou area. For cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 2 or worse (CIN2+), the sensitivity of primary hrHPV genotyping strategy and current cervical cancer screening strategy were 93.5%, and 71.1%, respectively; whereas the specificity was 17.5%, and 62.4%, respectively. Current cervical screening strategy had slightly higher positive predictive values (28.4%) for CIN2+ than hrHPV genotyping strategy (21.9%), whereas primary hrHPV genotyping strategy demonstrated higher negative predictive values (94.7%) than current cervical screening strategy (91.1%). Compared to HPV35/39/45/51/56/59/66/68 genotypes, the odds ratios (OR) for CIN2+ in HPV16/18/31/33/52/58 infection women were 3.2 (95% confidence interval [CI] 2.3-4.1). Primary hrHPV genotyping strategy provides a better predictive value than HPV16/18 genotyping alone in guiding the clinical management of the current cervical cancer screening. HPV testing without adjunctive cytology may be sufficiently sensitive for primary cervical cancer screening.

  3. Flexion/extension cervical spine views in blunt cervical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasir Sadaf

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】Objective: To examine the contribution of flexion and extension radiographs in the evaluation of ligamentous injury in awake adults with acute blunt cervical spine trauma, who show loss of cervical lordosis and neck pain. Methods: All patients who presented to our emer-gency department following blunt trauma were enrolled in this study, except those with schiwora, neurological defi-cits or fracture demonstrated on cross-table cervical spine X-rays, and those who were either obtunded or presented after cervical spine surgery. Adequacy of flexion and exten-sion views was checked by the neurosurgery and radiology team members. All these patients underwent cross-table cervical spine view followed by flexion/extension views based on the loss of lordosis on cross-table imaging and the presence of neck pain. Results: A total of 200 cases were reviewed, of whom 90 (45% underwent repeat X-rays because of either inadequate exposure or limited motion. None of the patients with loss of lordosis on cross-table view had positive flexion and extension views of cervical spine for instability. Conclusions: Our results show that in patients who underwent acute radiographic evaluation of blunt cervical spine trauma, flexion and extension views of the cervical spine are unlikely to yield positive results in the presence of axial neck pain and/or loss of cervical lordosis. We can also hypothesize that performing flexion and extension views will be more useful once the acute neck pain has settled. Key words: X-rays; Cervical vertebrae; Lordosis

  4. Practical aspects of cervical cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tillaart, Sabrina Ada Hendrika Maria van den

    2013-01-01

    The thesis describes studies on practical aspects of cervical cancer, concering surgical considerations, and aspects of tumour behaviour and tumour spread. The thesis comprises studies on: the comparison of nerve-sparing and non-nerve-sparing radical hysterectomy for cervical cancer; a new surgical

  5. Extreme cervical elongation after sacrohysteropexy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vierhout, M.E.; Futterer, J.J.

    2013-01-01

    We present a case of extreme cervical elongation with a cervix of 12 cm after an unusual operation in which the uterine corpus was directly fixed to the promontory, and which became symptomatic after 8 years. The possible pathophysiology of cervical elongation is discussed. Diagnosing a case of seve

  6. [Anterior cervical hypertrichosis: case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orozco-Gutiérrez, Mario H; Sánchez-Corona, José; García-Ortiz, José E; Castañeda-Cisneros, Gema; Dávalos-Rodríguez, Nory O; Corona-Rivera, Jorge R; García-Cruz, Diana

    2016-10-01

    The non-syndromic anterior cervical hypertrichosis (OMIM N° 600457) is a genetic disorder characterized by a patch of hair at the level of the laryngeal prominence. We present a 12-year-old boy with anterior cervical hypertrichosis and mild generalized hypertrichosis. He has no neurological, ophthalmological or skeletal anomalies. The clinical follow up is 10 years.

  7. EXPRESSION OF INTRON 9 IN CD44 GENE IN CERVICAL CANCER AND CIN AND ITS CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To detect the retention of intron 9 in CD44 mRNA in cervical cancer tissue, CIN, cervicitis and their exfoliated cells, and to study their clinical significance in diagnosis and treatment of early-stage, non-invasive cervical cancer. Methods: RT-PCR methods were used to detect the retention of intron 9 in CD44 mRNA in 30 cases of cervical cancer tissue, 11 cases of CIN tissue, 30 cases of cervicitis tissue and their exfoliated cells. Results: The retention rate of intron 9 in CD44 gene transcripts were 76.7% in cervical cancer tissue, 89.8% in corresponding exfoliated cells, 70.8% in CIN tissue, and 60.0% in CIN exfoliated cells, but undetected in neither cervicitis tissue nor exfoliated cells. The relative quantity of intron 9 in CD44 gene transcripts was 1.10 ( 0.12 in cervical cancer tissue, 1.21 ( 0.11 in CIN tissue, 1.11 ( 0.19 in cervical cancer exfoliated cells, 1.17 ( 0.12 in CIN exfoliated cells respectively, but undetected in neither cervicitis tissue nor exfoliated cells. The retention rate and relative content of intron 9 in CD44 gene transcripts in cervical cancer and CIN tissue and their exfoliated cells were statistically higher than that in cervicitis and their exfoliated cells (P0.05). Conclusion: Detecting the retention of intron 9 in CD44 mRNA in cervical exfoliated cells was more sensitivity than traditional cytology exam for diagnosing cervical cancer, and the techniques was worth clinical application.

  8. MRI and PET Imaging in Predicting Treatment Response in Patients With Stage IB-IVA Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-27

    Cervical Adenocarcinoma; Cervical Adenosquamous Carcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma, Not Otherwise Specified; Cervical Undifferentiated Carcinoma; Recurrent Cervical Carcinoma; Stage IB2 Cervical Cancer; Stage II Cervical Cancer; Stage IIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage III Cervical Cancer; Stage IIIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIIB Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer

  9. Surface activity, lipid profiles and their implications in cervical cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preetha A

    2005-01-01

    component. Conclusion: The Langmuir monolayer technique was sensitive to detect changes in tensiometric profiles of cervical cancers and these could be modulated by alterations in phosphatidylcholine and sphingomyelin levels. Therapeutic strategies may be designed to modulate these tensiometric profiles and lipid constituents of cancerous tissues.

  10. The biomechanics of cervical spondylosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrara, Lisa A

    2012-01-01

    Aging is the major risk factor that contributes to the onset of cervical spondylosis. Several acute and chronic symptoms can occur that start with neck pain and may progress into cervical radiculopathy. Eventually, the degenerative cascade causes desiccation of the intervertebral disc resulting in height loss along the ventral margin of the cervical spine. This causes ventral angulation and eventual loss of lordosis, with compression of the neural and vascular structures. The altered posture of the cervical spine will progress into kyphosis and continue if the load balance and lordosis is not restored. The content of this paper will address the physiological and biomechanical pathways leading to cervical spondylosis and the biomechanical principles related to the surgical correction and treatment of kyphotic progression.

  11. The Biomechanics of Cervical Spondylosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa A. Ferrara

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aging is the major risk factor that contributes to the onset of cervical spondylosis. Several acute and chronic symptoms can occur that start with neck pain and may progress into cervical radiculopathy. Eventually, the degenerative cascade causes desiccation of the intervertebral disc resulting in height loss along the ventral margin of the cervical spine. This causes ventral angulation and eventual loss of lordosis, with compression of the neural and vascular structures. The altered posture of the cervical spine will progress into kyphosis and continue if the load balance and lordosis is not restored. The content of this paper will address the physiological and biomechanical pathways leading to cervical spondylosis and the biomechanical principles related to the surgical correction and treatment of kyphotic progression.

  12. Antisperm antibodies in cervical mucus in an unselected subfertile population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggert-Kruse, W; Böckem-Hellwig, S; Doll, A; Rohr, G; Tilgen, W; Runnebaum, B

    1993-07-01

    To determine the incidence and the clinical significance of antisperm antibodies (ASA) in cervical secretions in an unselected subfertile population, cervical mucus samples of 192 patients with long-standing infertility were screened by means of the indirect mixed antiglobulin reaction (MAR) test allowing differentiation for immunoglobulin (Ig)A and IgG in a parallel test setting. In addition, the indirect MAR IgG test in cervical mucus was evaluated by means of IgG coated latex particles instead of sensitized erythrocytes as the indicator system. All cervical mucus samples were taken under standardized conditions. Results of ASA determination were related to microbial findings in the cervix and the outcome of sperm-mucus interaction testing in vivo and in vitro, and the subsequent fertility in a prospective study. The total incidence of cervical mucus ASA within this population was low (testing with latex microspheres as indicator particles. Results were not influenced by microbial colonization of the cervix and were not markedly related to lymphocytes subset testing. All ASA positive women had a negative outcome of the post-coital test, but the majority of negative post-coital tests was not caused by local mucus antibodies of the IgG and/or IgA class. In patients with positive indirect MAR testing in cervical mucus, there was no pregnancy within an observation period of > 12 months. In conclusion, the results indicate the ASA in cervical secretions are not frequent but nevertheless are a severe cause of infertility when present.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  13. Fractures of the cervical spine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphael Martus Marcon

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to review the literature on cervical spine fractures. METHODS: The literature on the diagnosis, classification, and treatment of lower and upper cervical fractures and dislocations was reviewed. RESULTS: Fractures of the cervical spine may be present in polytraumatized patients and should be suspected in patients complaining of neck pain. These fractures are more common in men approximately 30 years of age and are most often caused by automobile accidents. The cervical spine is divided into the upper cervical spine (occiput-C2 and the lower cervical spine (C3-C7, according to anatomical differences. Fractures in the upper cervical spine include fractures of the occipital condyle and the atlas, atlanto-axial dislocations, fractures of the odontoid process, and hangman's fractures in the C2 segment. These fractures are characterized based on specific classifications. In the lower cervical spine, fractures follow the same pattern as in other segments of the spine; currently, the most widely used classification is the SLIC (Subaxial Injury Classification, which predicts the prognosis of an injury based on morphology, the integrity of the disc-ligamentous complex, and the patient's neurological status. It is important to correctly classify the fracture to ensure appropriate treatment. Nerve or spinal cord injuries, pseudarthrosis or malunion, and postoperative infection are the main complications of cervical spine fractures. CONCLUSIONS: Fractures of the cervical spine are potentially serious and devastating if not properly treated. Achieving the correct diagnosis and classification of a lesion is the first step toward identifying the most appropriate treatment, which can be either surgical or conservative.

  14. Fractures of the cervical spine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcon, Raphael Martus; Cristante, Alexandre Fogaça; Teixeira, William Jacobsen; Narasaki, Douglas Kenji; Oliveira, Reginaldo Perilo; de Barros Filho, Tarcísio Eloy Pessoa

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to review the literature on cervical spine fractures. METHODS: The literature on the diagnosis, classification, and treatment of lower and upper cervical fractures and dislocations was reviewed. RESULTS: Fractures of the cervical spine may be present in polytraumatized patients and should be suspected in patients complaining of neck pain. These fractures are more common in men approximately 30 years of age and are most often caused by automobile accidents. The cervical spine is divided into the upper cervical spine (occiput-C2) and the lower cervical spine (C3-C7), according to anatomical differences. Fractures in the upper cervical spine include fractures of the occipital condyle and the atlas, atlanto-axial dislocations, fractures of the odontoid process, and hangman's fractures in the C2 segment. These fractures are characterized based on specific classifications. In the lower cervical spine, fractures follow the same pattern as in other segments of the spine; currently, the most widely used classification is the SLIC (Subaxial Injury Classification), which predicts the prognosis of an injury based on morphology, the integrity of the disc-ligamentous complex, and the patient's neurological status. It is important to correctly classify the fracture to ensure appropriate treatment. Nerve or spinal cord injuries, pseudarthrosis or malunion, and postoperative infection are the main complications of cervical spine fractures. CONCLUSIONS: Fractures of the cervical spine are potentially serious and devastating if not properly treated. Achieving the correct diagnosis and classification of a lesion is the first step toward identifying the most appropriate treatment, which can be either surgical or conservative. PMID:24270959

  15. The trigemino-cervical reflex in tension-type headache.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardone, R; Tezzon, F

    2003-05-01

    To investigate the pathophysiology of tension-type headache (TTH) with special reference to central mechanisms and to the involvement of the trigeminal system. Short latency responses can be recorded in tonically active sternocleidomastoid muscle after stimulation of the infraorbital branch of the trigeminal nerve (the trigemino-cervical reflex). This brainstem reflex was studied in 15 healthy subjects, in 15 patients with episodic tension-type headache (ETTH) and in 15 patients with chronic tension-type headache (CTTH) outside of the pain attacks. The trigemino-cervical response was abnormal, in the size or latency, in 13 patients with CTTH and in only one patient with ETTH. This finding strongly suggests that only in the CTTH the underlying pathophysiology involves the trigeminal system. The trigemino-cervical reflex is a sensitive method to evaluate the involvement of the trigeminal brainstem neurones in TTH and their assessment may provide useful diagnostic and prognostic information.

  16. Risk factors for vertebral artery injuries in cervical spine trauma

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    Nanjundappa S. Harshavardhana

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Blunt cerebrovascular injuries (i.e. involvement of carotid and vertebral arteries are increasingly being recognized in setting of cervical spine trauma/fractures and are associated with high incidence of stroke/morbidity and mortality. The incidence of vertebral artery injuries (VAI is more common than previously thought and regular screening is seldom performed. However there exists no screening criteria and conflicting reports exists between spine and trauma literature. Many clinicians do not routinely screen/evaluate patients presenting with cervical spine trauma for potential VAI. This article provides a brief summary of existing evidence regarding the incidence of VAI in the background of cervical trauma/fractures. The type and fracture pattern that is associated with a high risk of VAI warranting mandatory screening/further work-up is discussed. A brief overview of diagnostic modalities and their respective sensitivity/specificity along with available treatment options is also summarized.

  17. Cervical spine clearance in obtunded patients after severe polytrauma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN Hong-xing; LI Ming

    2009-01-01

    To provide clinicians with data support-ing three different clearance techniques in the obtunded patients after severe polytrauma, Methods: This study gave an overview of the avail-able and pertinent literature regarding cervical spine clear-ance in obtunded patients after severe polytrauma. Results: Currently, there were three accepted tech-niques for clearance of the cervical spine in obtunded pa-tients after severe polytrauma. Each of these methods has advantages and disadvantages to both of the patients and the clinicians. Condusions: There are continuous improvements in both computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques that increase their sensitivities. The continued use of plain radiographs is called into ques-tion with respect to cost and time requirements. An algo-rithmic approach to the evaluation of the cervical spine in the obtunded patients will lead to fewer missed injuries.

  18. DETECTION OF SENTINEL LYMPH NODE IN EARLY CERVICAL CANCER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘琳; 李斌; 章文华

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To assess the value of sentinel lymph node (SLN) localization by lymphoscintigraphy and gamma probe detection in early cervical cancer. Methods: A total of 27 patients with operable invasive early cervical cancer and clinically proved negative pelvic lymph nodes were included in this study. The 99Tcm-dextran of 74 MBq (2 mCi) was injected around the cervix at 2( and 10(. Lymphoscintigraphy and gamma probe detection were used to find the SLN. Results: The SLN was identified in 27 patients. The sensitivity and specificity of the SLN detection to predict the metastasis of the pelvic lymph node were 100% and 100% respectively. Conclusion: Identification of the SLN using radionuclide is feasible and possible in women with early cervical cancer.

  19. Concurrent chemoradiotherapy for advanced cervical cancer. A pilot study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kodama, Junichi; Hashimoto, Ichiro; Seki, Noriko; Hongo, Atsushi; Mizutani, Yasushi; Miyagi, Yasunari; Yoshinouchi, Mitsuo; Kudo, Takafumi [Okayama Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    2001-03-01

    Recently, attempts have made to use radiotherapy in combination with chemotherapy in various solid tumors including cervical cancer. Twenty-four patients with locally advanced cervical cancer were treated with concurrent Carboplatin (16-24 mg/m{sup 2}/day) or Nedaplatin (20 mg/m{sup 2}/week) and conventional radiotherapy. Of 13 evaluable patients, there were nine complete responders and four partial responders. There was no renal damage or grade 4 hematological toxicity. Gastrointestinal adverse reactions were mild. One patient had grade 3 dermatologic toxicity after delayed radiation therapy. This pilot study suggests that daily Carboplatin or weekly Nedaplatin administered with standard radiation therapy is safe, well-tolerated, and thus may be useful as a radiation sensitizer in the treatment of locally advanced cervical cancer. (author)

  20. Human papillomavirus and cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosbie, Emma J; Einstein, Mark H; Franceschi, Silvia; Kitchener, Henry C

    2013-09-07

    Cervical cancer is caused by human papillomavirus infection. Most human papillomavirus infection is harmless and clears spontaneously but persistent infection with high-risk human papillomavirus (especially type 16) can cause cancer of the cervix, vulva, vagina, anus, penis, and oropharynx. The virus exclusively infects epithelium and produces new viral particles only in fully mature epithelial cells. Human papillomavirus disrupts normal cell-cycle control, promoting uncontrolled cell division and the accumulation of genetic damage. Two effective prophylactic vaccines composed of human papillomavirus type 16 and 18, and human papillomavirus type 16, 18, 6, and 11 virus-like particles have been introduced in many developed countries as a primary prevention strategy. Human papillomavirus testing is clinically valuable for secondary prevention in triaging low-grade cytology and as a test of cure after treatment. More sensitive than cytology, primary screening by human papillomavirus testing could enable screening intervals to be extended. If these prevention strategies can be implemented in developing countries, many thousands of lives could be saved.

  1. Clinical Usefulness of serum total cholesterol as an index of hypothyroidism in patients after cervical radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iguma, Yoko; Iwai, Chikako; Okuyama, Masako; Futami, Takahiro; Inui, Ken-ichi [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Hospital; Asato, Ryo [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Graduate School of Medicine

    2003-02-01

    Cervical radiation therapy is often applied to patients with head and neck cancers because radiation has a high sensitivity to these cancers and permits the preservation of functions and physical form. However, it has been shown that various complications can result from radiation therapy. We have encountered some patients who showed hypercholesterolemia resulting from cervical radiation. Therefore, we have paid close attention to the relationship between hypercholesterolemia after cervical radiation and hypothyroidism. Thyroid hormone tests in these patients with hypercholesterolemia after cervical radiation showed high thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and low free thyroxine (fT{sub 4}), indicating the presence of hypothyroidism. After administration of levothyroxine Na, their fT{sub 4} levels increased and both TSH levels and serum total cholesterol levels decreased. In conclusion, in patients who have received cervical radiation, we recommend monitoring serum total cholesterol periodically to detect hypothyroidism easily before the appearance of its symptoms. (author)

  2. Electrodiagnosis of cervical radiculopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakimi, Kevin; Spanier, David

    2013-02-01

    Cervical radiculopathy is a common diagnosis with a peak onset in the fifth decade. The most commonly affected nerve root is C7, C6, and C8. The etiology is often compressive, but may arise from noncompressive sources. Patients commonly complain of pain, weakness, numbness, and/or tingling. Examination may reveal sensory or motor disturbance in a dermatomal/myotomal distribution. Neural compression and tension signs may be positive. Diagnostic tests include imaging and electrodiagnostic study. Electrodiagnostic study serves as an extension of the neurologic examination. Electrodiagnostic findings can be useful for patients with atypical symptoms, potential pain-mediated weakness, and nonfocal imaging findings.

  3. The association between methylated CDKN2A and cervical carcinogenesis, and its diagnostic value in cervical cancer: a meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li J

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Jinyun Li,1,2,* Chongchang Zhou,1,* Haojie Zhou,3,* Tianlian Bao,1 Tengjiao Gao,1 Xiangling Jiang,1 Meng Ye1,2 1Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, School of Medicine, Ningbo University, 2Department of Medical Oncology, Affiliated Hospital, Ningbo University, 3Department of Molecular Diagnosis, Ningbo Diagnostic Pathology Center, Ningbo, Zhejiang, People’s Republic of China *These authors are co-first authors of this work Background: Cervical cancer is the second deadliest gynecologic malignancy, characterized by apparently precancerous lesions and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN, and having a long course from the development of CIN to cervical cancer. Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2A (CDKN2A is a well-documented tumor suppressor gene and is commonly methylated in cervical cancer. However, the relationship between methylated CDKN2A and carcinogenesis in cervical cancer is inconsistent, and the diagnostic accuracy of methylated CDKN2A is underinvestigated. In this study, we attempted to quantify the association between CDKN2A methylation and the carcinogenesis of cervical cancer, and its diagnostic power.Methods: We systematically reviewed four electronic databases and identified 26 studies involving 1,490 cervical cancers, 1,291 CINs, and 964 controls. A pooled odds ratio (OR with corresponding 95% confidence intervals (95% CI was calculated to evaluate the association between methylated CDKN2A and the carcinogenesis of cervical cancer. Specificity, sensitivity, the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, and the diagnostic odds ratio were computed to assess the effect of methylated CDKN2A in the diagnosis of cervical cancer.Results: Our results indicated an upward trend in the methylation frequency of CDKN2A in the carcinogenesis of cervical cancer (cancer vs control: OR =23.67, 95% CI =15.54–36.06; cancer vs CIN: OR =2.53, 95% CI =1.79–3.5; CIN vs control: OR =9.68, 95% CI =5.82–16.02. The

  4. CDC Vital Signs: Cervical Cancer is Preventable

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... HPV vaccine can reduce risk of cervical cancer. HPV causes most cervical cancers. Only 1 in 3 girls and 1 in ... Signs – Cervical Cancer [PSA - 0:60 seconds] Cervical Cancer Preteen and Teen Vaccines Human Papillomavirus (HPV)-Associated Cancers What Should I Know About ...

  5. Evaluation of MCM-2 expression in TMA cervical specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicol, Alcina F; Lapa e Silva, José R; Cunha, Cynthia B; Amaro-Filho, Sergio M; Oliveira, Nathalia; Grinsztejn, Beatriz; Friedman, Ruth Khalili; Khalil, Ruth; Russomano, Fabio; Pires, Andrea; Golub, Jonathan E; Nuovo, Gerard J

    2012-01-01

    Minichromosome maintenance proteins (MCM) are highly expressed in actively replicating cells. The need for biological markers for cervical carcinoma and its precursor lesions is emerging. Our main aim was to determine the immunohistochemical expression of MCM-2 in HIV-positive and -negative dysplastic cervical specimens. Immunohistochemical analysis of MCM-2 was performed in a total of 352 cervical TMA specimens of normal control, low-grade CIN, high-grade CIN and invasive tumor. 38 specimens were from HIV-positive women. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was constructed to determine the best cutoff to diagnose high-grade CIN and invasive cervical cancer. In the progression from normal epithelium to high-grade CIN and invasive tumor we found significant differences in the MCM-2 expression (p<0.05). Based on the ROC curve of 80% with an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.78, expression of MCM-2 to diagnose high-grade CIN and invasive tumor resulted in sensitivity of 81%, specificity of 66%, a positive predictive value (PPV) of 86% and a negative predictive value (NPV) of 57%. HIV-positive cervices revealed a decreasing expression of MCM-2 in both LGCIN and HGCIN compared with HIV-negative specimens (p<0.0001). The present study suggests that immunohistochemical MCM-2 may not be a promising biomarker for diagnosing high-grade CIN and invasive cancer.

  6. Flexion/extension cervical spine views in blunt cervical trauma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sadaf Nasir; Manzar Hussain; Roomi Mahmud

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To examine the contribution of flexion and extension radiographs in the evaluation of ligamentous injury in awake adults with acute blunt cervical spine trauma,who show loss of cervical lordosis and neck pain.Methods: All patients who presented to our emergency department following blunt trauma were enrolled in this study,except those with schiwora,neurological deficits or fracture demonstrated on cross-table cervical spine X-rays,and those who were either obtunded or presented after cervical spine surgery.Adequacy of flexion and extension views was checked by the neurosurgery and radiology team members.All these patients underwent cross-table cervical spine view followed by flexion/extension views based on the loss of lordosis on cross-table imaging and the presence of neck pain.Results: A total of 200 cases were reviewed,of whom 90 (45%) underwent repeat X-rays because of either inadequate exposure or limited motion.None of the patients with loss of lordosis on cross-table view had positive flexion and extension views of cervical spine for instability.Conclusions: Our results show that in patients who underwent acute radiographic evaluation of blunt cervical spine trauma,flexion and extension views of the cervical spine are unlikely to yield positive results in the presence of axial neck pain and/or loss of cervical lordosis.We can also hypothesize that performing flexion and extension views will be more useful once the acute neck pain has settled.

  7. [Cervical spine instability in the surgical patient].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbeito, A; Guerri-Guttenberg, R A

    2014-03-01

    Many congenital and acquired diseases, including trauma, may result in cervical spine instability. Given that airway management is closely related to the movement of the cervical spine, it is important that the anesthesiologist has detailed knowledge of the anatomy, the mechanisms of cervical spine instability, and of the effects that the different airway maneuvers have on the cervical spine. We first review the normal anatomy and biomechanics of the cervical spine in the context of airway management and the concept of cervical spine instability. In the second part, we review the protocols for the management of cervical spine instability in trauma victims and some of the airway management options for these patients.

  8. Development of a self-administered questionnaire to screen patients for cervical myelopathy

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    Sekiguchi Yasufumi

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In primary care, it is often difficult to diagnose cervical myelopathy. However, a delay in treatment could cause irreversible aftereffects. With a brief and effective self-administered questionnaire for cervical myelopathy, cervical myelopathy may be screened more easily and oversight may be avoided. As there is presently no screening tool for cervical myelopathy, the aim of this study was to develop a self-administered questionnaire for the screening of cervical myelopathy. Methods A case-control study was performed with the following two groups at our university hospital from February 2006 to September 2008. Sixty-two patients (48 men, 14 women with cervical myelopathy who underwent operative treatment were included in the myelopathy group. In the control group, 49 patients (20 men, 29 women with symptoms that could be distinguished from those of cervical myelopathy, such as numbness, pain in the upper extremities, and manual clumsiness, were included. The underlying conditions were diagnosed as carpal tunnel syndrome, cubital tunnel syndrome, thoracic outlet syndrome, tarsal tunnel syndrome, diabetes mellitus neuropathy, cervical radiculopathy, and neuralgic amyotrophy. Twenty items for a questionnaire in this study were chosen from the Japanese Orthopaedic Association Cervical Myelopathy Evaluation Questionnaire, which is a new self-administered questionnaire, as an outcome measure for patients with cervical myelopathy. Data were analyzed by univariate analysis using the chi-square test and by multiple logistic regression analysis. According to the resulting odds ratio, β-coefficients, and p value, items were chosen and assigned a score. Results Eight items were chosen by univariate and multiple logistic regression analyses and assigned a score. The Hosmer-Lemeshow statistic showed p = 0.805. The area under the receiver operation characteristic curve was 0.86. The developed questionnaire had a sensitivity of 93.5% and a

  9. Cervical extravasation of bevacizumab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dréanic, Johann; Coriat, Romain; Mir, Olivier; Perkins, Géraldine; Boudou-Rouquette, Pascaline; Brezault, Catherine; Dhooge, Marion; Goldwasser, François; Chaussade, Stanislas

    2013-04-01

    Monoclonal antibodies such as bevacizumab are widely used in medical oncology, either alone or in combination with chemotherapy. No specific recommendations on the management of monoclonal antibodies extravasation exist. Incidence rates vary considerably. Estimates of 0.5-6% have been reported in the literature. Also, patient-associated and procedure-associated risk factors of extravasation are multiple, such as bolus injections or poorly implanted central venous access. We report on an 86-year-old woman with colon cancer with liver metastasis who was treated with 5-fluorouracil, folinic acid, and bevacizumab. Extravasation occurred during chemotherapy infusion because of a catheter migration of the port outside of the superior vena cava, causing cervical pain without skin modifications. Diagnosis was confirmed with the appearance of clinical right cervical tumefaction and cervicothoracic computed tomography scan indicated a perijugular hypodense collection, corresponding to the extravasation. Conservative management was proposed. The patient recovered within 3 weeks from all symptoms. Physicians should be aware that in cases of bevacizumab extravasation, a nonsurgical approach might be effective.

  10. Pretreatment plasma levels and diagnostic utility of hematopoietic cytokines in cervical cancer or cervical intraepithelial neoplasia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ławicki, Sławomir; Będkowska, Grażyna E; Gacuta-Szumarska, Ewa; Knapp, Paweł; Szmitkowski, Maciej

    2012-07-04

    In this study, we compared plasma levels and the diagnostic utility of hematopoietic growth factors (HGFs) with SCC-Ag in cervical cancer patients in relation to control groups and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) patients and healthy subjects. Pretreatment plasma levels of HGFs (SCF, GM-CSF, G-CSF and M-CSF) were determined by the use of immunoenzyme assay (ELISA), and SCC-Ag by chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay (CMIA). Significantly different concentrations of GM-CSF, G-CSF and M-CSF were observed in the group of patients with cervical cancer and CIN compared to the healthy controls. Significant differences in plasma levels of GM-CSF and M-CSF between cervical cancer and benign lesions patients were also found. The HGFs and SCC-Ag diagnostic specificities received high values. The diagnostic sensitivity and the predictive value of a positive and negative test result were higher for M-CSF than for antigen SCC in the cancer group. The M-CSF area under the ROC curve (AUC) was the largest from hematopoietic cytokines and SCC-Ag. These results suggest the potential utility of M-CSF as a good candidate for a marker of cervical cancer as well as benign lesions of this organ (CIN).

  11. GENETIC INSTABILITY IN CERVICAL CARCINOMA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵旻; 伍欣星; 邱小萍; 李晖; 戴天力; 谭云

    2002-01-01

    Objective: The role of human papillomavirus (HPV) in the development of cervical carcinoma has been clearly established but other factors could be involved in cervical tumorigenesis such as loss of heterozygosity (LOH) and microsatellite instability (MI). The aim of the present study was to investigate the genetic instability in cervical carcinoma tissues and provide evidence for discoveringnew tumor suppressor genes and screening diagnostic molecular marker of cervical carcinoma. Methods: Fifty primary cervical carcinoma samples from high-incidence area were analyzed by PCR for HPV16 infection, LOH and microsatellite instability. Results: HPV16 was detected in 88% of the cases. Sixty-six percent of total cases showed LOH with no more than 3 different loci per case. The highest frequency of the allelic loss was found in D18S474 (18q21, 40.5%). MI was detected in 4 cases (8%) only. Conclusion: Different percentages of LOH on specific chromosomal regions were found and MI was very infrequent in cervical carcinoma. The putative suppressor gene(s) could be located on specific chromosome regions such as 18q, and genetic instability could be involved in cervical tumorigenesis.

  12. Tuina treatment in cervical spondylosis

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    Florin Mihai Hinoveanu

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Cervical spondylosis is a common, chronic degenerative condition of the cervical spine that affects the vertebral bodies and intervertebral disks of the neck as well as the contents of the spinal canal. Common clinical syndromes associated with cervical spondylosis include cervical pain, cervical radiculopathy and/or mielopathy. This study show the main principles, indication and side effects of tuina in cervical spondylosis´ treatment; tuina is one of the external methods based on the principles of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM, especially suitable for use on the elderly population and on infants. While performing Tuina, the therapist concentrates his mind, regulates his breathing, and actuates the Qi and power of his entire body towards his hands. For a better result is recommended to try to combine acupuncture with tuina treatment. Tuina can help relieve the pain associated with spondylosis. After this kind of treatment, the symptomes produced by irritated nerves and sore muscles can find some relief. Tuina helps patients with cervical spondylosis regain muscle control, nerve function and flexibility, all through the restoration of the life force flow.

  13. Cervical Cancer Screening after Perimenopause: How Is Human Papillomavirus Test Performed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Soo-Ho

    2016-08-01

    Cervical cancer is the third most prevalent cancer in women around the world. Recently in Korea, the incidence of cervical cancer has decreased, but in all stages of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN), CIN has shown a 91% increase from 1999 to 2008. Persistent human papillomavirus (HPV) infection has been found to be the main cause of cervical cancer. HPV types 16 and 18 have been found in 70% of cervical cancer patients around the world. Cervical cancer screening such as cytology has limitations in terms of sensitivity and specificity. A discussion about the need for the HPV test is becoming active in order to compensate for the limitation of cytology. After the role of HPV in cervical cancer was identified, the importance of HPV detection test as a screening was emphasized. Several tests have been developed and each test has its own advantages and disadvantages, and new test method to overcome the disadvantages is still being developed. Today's guidelines and tests are those you would choose from among the large number of cervical cancer screening guidelines and tests, based on the consideration that the selected guidelines and the test are effective.

  14. Twin transvaginal cervical length at 16-20 weeks and prediction of preterm birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hester, Ashley E; Ankumah, Nana-Ama E; Chauhan, Suneet P; Blackwell, Sean C; Sibai, Baha M

    2017-09-24

    Our objective was to determine if transvaginal cervical length at 16-20 weeks is predictive of preterm birth preterm birth. Transvaginal cervical length was performed at 16-20-week gestation. The inclusion criteria were nonanomalous twins with transvaginal cervical length at 16-20 weeks. Receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curves were generated to determine the transvaginal cervical length associated with preterm birth. Of 655 pregnancies, 27% (N = 178) women met our inclusion criteria. The rate of spontaneous preterm birth before 34 weeks was 16% (N = 29). A receiver operator characteristic curve was generated for all preterm birth preterm birth (n = 15) were excluded, the area under the curve was 0.59 (95% CI 0.47-0.70), indicating that transvaginal cervical length values were not a clinically useful test for prediction of spontaneous preterm birth. A transvaginal cervical length of 30 mm from this model would produce a sensitivity of detecting spontaneous preterm birth of 95% and a specificity of 14%. In an asymptomatic twin population, a single transvaginal cervical length between 16-20 weeks was not predictive of spontaneous preterm birth before 34 weeks. Thus, our findings suggest that routine transvaginal cervical length screening of twins should not be performed between 16-20 weeks.

  15. Value and Feasibility of HPV DNA Test in Cervical Scraping Smears

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Sufang; LIAO Guoning; MA Ding; CHEN Gang; WANG Wei; XU Qian; GU Hainian; LU Yunping; ZHOU Liping; DU Juan; LI Fujun

    2005-01-01

    To investigate the reliability and feasibility of human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA test in cervical scraping smears with polymerase chain reaction (PCR), 131 cases of cervical scraping specimens were collected, and the positive rates and accuracy of HPV infection were determined in normal subjects and cervical cancer patients. GP5+/GP6+ and E7 primer pairs designed for detecting HPV L1 and HPV type 16 E7 were tested in this study. Our results showed that positive rates of HPV DNA in normal population and cervical cancer patients were 32.99 % and 73.53 % respectively and there was significant difference between them (P<0. 001). In normal subjects, detection rates of HPV DNA with GP5+/GP6+ and E7 primer pairs were 27.84 % and 16.49 % respectively, with statistically significant difference between them (P>0.05). However the detection rates in cervical cancer patients were 38.24 % and 67.65 % for the two markers, with a significant difference found between them (P<0.05). It is concluded that HPV DNA test with PCR for cervical scraping smears was feasible. GP5+/GP6+ primer pairs may be a useful probe to screen HPV infection in normal population, but they are not sensitive enough in cervical cancer patients. It is suggested that high risk type HPV DNA test was very useful in population with high risk of cervical cancer.

  16. Neural network-assisted ("NNA") analysis of cervical smears: pooled effectiveness results and economic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mango; Radensky

    1998-07-01

    Objective: To determine the sensitivity of cervical cancer smear screening with neural network-assisted ("NNA") rescreening.Methods: The Papnet system of NNA analysis of cervical smears has been in clinical use worldwide for over 3 years and has been the subject of over 22 published manuscripts reporting on data from over 202,000 smears. This investigation reviewed the results of these studies and classified each study according to study design using a systematic protocol based on reference validation, diagnostic threshold for abnormal, and outcome metric. This classification taxonomy allowed for weighted (based on number of cases in each study) pooling of studies for each study design class. The pooled effectiveness metrics were used to derive the sensitivity of cervical cancer screening with NNA rescreening, using a baseline unassisted screening sensitivity of 85%. Other effectiveness metrics determined by this analysis include NNA's sensitivity as a primary screener, comparisons with primary unassisted screening, and comparisons of NNA rescreening and unassisted rescreening.Results: Analyses of the weighted, pooled mean estimates for each of the principal outcome metrics indicate the sensitivity of cervical cancer screening with NNA ranges from 90% to 99%; most pooled estimates fall in the range of 97-99%. An economic analysis using the APL-based "Cervical Cancer Screen" computer model developed by Eddy (Eddy DM. Screening for cervical cancer. Ann Intern Med 1990;113:214-26) and these effectiveness estimates as inputs showed that NNA analysis involves an accepted level of resource expenditure (approximately $40,000 per life year saved) when added to unassisted screening on a triennial basis.Conclusion: The sensitivity of cervical cancer screening with NNA rescreening using the Papnet system yields sensitivities in excess of 90% and approaching 99%.

  17. Improving the Utilization of Human Papillomavirus and Cervical Cytology Co-testing for Cervical Cancer Screening in an Obstetrics and Gynecology Resident Clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshino, Kurt; Karimoto, Maxine; Marzo, Christina; Kaneshiro, Bliss; Hiraoka, Mark

    2015-08-01

    Human Papillomavirus (HPV) testing in combination with cervical cytology (HPV co-testing) has been recommended for cervical cancer screening for women 30 to 65 years of age. In several studies, HPV co-testing increased sensitivity for detecting high grade dysplasia and resulted in cost-savings. This retrospective cohort study assessed the prevalence of HPV co-testing in an obstetrics and gynecology resident clinic before and after a brief educational intervention which was designed to reinforce current cervical cancer screening recommendations. The intervention consisted of a short presentation that was given to all residents and medical assistants in October 2011. The proportion of women age 30-65 years of age who had cervical cancer screening with HPV co-testing as compared to cervical cytology alone was compared before and after the intervention using chi-square tests. The goal of the intervention was to increase the percentage of patients receiving co-testing from 0.5% to 7.8%. Each arm (pre- and post-intervention) required 130 subjects to achieve 80% power with a significance of P = .05. No significant differences in demographics including age, insurance type, and cytology were noted. HPV co-testing increased from 0% to 55% (P cervical cancer screening for another 5 years. HPV co-testing represents an underutilized cervical cancer screening modality for women 30 years and older. This brief educational intervention, adaptable to any clinical setting, significatnly increased co-testing at the clinical site.

  18. Cost of the Cervical Cancer Screening Program at the Mexican Social Security Institute

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    Víctor Granados-García

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To estimate the annual cost of the National Cervical Cancer Screening Program (CCSP of the Mexican Institute of Social Security (IMSS. Materials and methods. This cost analysis examined regional coverage rates reported by IMSS. We estimated the number of cytology, colposcopy, biopsy and pathology evaluations, as well as the diagnostic test and treatment costs for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade II and III (CIN 2/3 and cervical cancer. Diagnostic test costs were estimated using a micro-costing technique. Sensitivity analyses were performed. Results. The cost to perform 2.7 million cytology tests was nearly 38 million dollars, which represents 26.1% of the total program cost (145.4 million. False negatives account for nearly 43% of the program costs. Conclusion. The low sensitivity of the cytology test generates high rates of false negatives, which results in high institutional costs from the treatment of undetected cervical cancer cases.

  19. Cost of the Cervical Cancer Screening Program at the Mexican Social Security Institute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granados-García, Víctor; Flores, Yvonne N; Pérez, Ruth; Rudolph, Samantha E; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Salmerón, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    To estimate the annual cost of the National Cervical Cancer Screening Program (CCSP) of the Mexican Institute of Social Security (IMSS). This cost analysis examined regional coverage rates reported by IMSS. We estimated the number of cytology, colposcopy, biopsy and pathology evaluations, as well as the diagnostic test and treatment costs for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade II and III (CIN 2/3) and cervical cancer. Diagnostic test costs were estimated using a micro-costing technique. Sensitivity analyses were performed. The cost to perform 2.7 million cytology tests was nearly 38 million dollars, which represents 26.1% of the total program cost (145.4 million). False negatives account for nearly 43% of the program costs. The low sensitivity of the cytology test generates high rates of false negatives, which results in high institutional costs from the treatment of undetected cervical cancer cases.

  20. Correlation between pyramidal signs and the severity of cervical myelopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chikuda, Hirotaka; Seichi, Atsushi; Takeshita, Katsushi; Shoda, Naoki; Ono, Takashi; Matsudaira, Ko; Kawaguchi, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Kozo

    2010-10-01

    A retrospective study was performed to determine the sensitivities of the pyramidal signs in patients with cervical myelopathy, focusing on those with increased signal intensity (ISI) in T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The relationship between prevalence of the pyramidal signs and the severity of myelopathy was investigated. We reviewed the records of 275 patients with cervical myelopathy who underwent surgery. Of these, 143 patients were excluded from this study due to comorbidities that might complicate neurological findings. The MR images of the remaining 132 patients were evaluated in a blinded fashion. The neurological findings of 120 patients with ISI (90 men and 30 women; mean age 61 years) were reviewed for hyperreflexia (patellar tendon reflex), ankle clonus, Hoffmann reflex, and Babinski sign. To assess the severity of myelopathy, the motor function scores of the upper and lower extremities for cervical myelopathy set by the Japanese Orthopaedic Association (m-JOA score) were used. The most prevalent signs were hyperreflexia (94%), Hoffmann reflex (81%), Babinski sign (53%), and ankle clonus (35%). Babinski sign (P Babinski sign, and ankle clonus. The prevalence of the pyramidal signs correlated with increasing severity of myelopathy. Considering their low sensitivity in patients with mild disability, the pyramidal signs may have limited utility in early diagnosis of cervical myelopathy.

  1. Tuberculosis ganglionar cervical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osmany Leonel Mendoza Cruz

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available La tuberculosis es una enfermedad reemergente en la actual sociedad globalizada y puede presentarse prácticamente ante cualquier especialista. Las formas extrapulmonares pueden representar hasta la cuarta parte de los casos, y entre ellos la afectación ganglionar se ubica entre las más frecuentes. Se reportan dos pacientes estudiados y tratados en el Servicio de Otorrinolaringología del Hospital General de Bata, Litoral de Guinea Ecuatorial, África Central, afectados por tumoraciones laterocervicales subagudas, con escasos síntomas y excelente evolución, tras su diagnóstico de tuberculosis ganglionar cervical y terapéutica antibiótica. Aunque la punción y aspiración con aguja fina no fue concluyente, ambos casos resultaron positivos por medio de la tinción de Ziehl-Neelsen

  2. Cervical necrotizing fasciitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maisel, R H; Karlen, R

    1994-07-01

    Nine cases of cervical necrotizing faciitis are presented. Five were odontogenic, three were pharyngeal in origin, and one developed from a soft-tissue spider bite. The bacteriology represented a polyculture of gram-positive, gram-negative, as well as anaerobic bacteria, and initial medical treatment by third-generation cephalosporin and metronidazole or clindamycin was successful and is recommended. Airway control is necessary early, as is a wide exploration of the fascial spaces of the neck, with frequent reexploration in either the operating room or at the bedside to evaluate the effects of treatment and to prevent further progression of the disease. Intensive medical support is crucial, and hyperbaric oxygen is advised for patients who are deteriorating under standard therapy.

  3. Positron emission tomography-computed tomography has a clinical impact for patients with cervical cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandvik, Rikke Mulvad; Jensen, Pernille Tine; Hendel, Helle Westergren;

    2011-01-01

    Many studies have found that positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) has a high sensitivity and specificity in the identification of metastasis in cervical cancer. Herlev Hospital, Denmark, has been performing PET-CTs in stage I-IV cervical cancer since 1 May 2006. The present...... study investigates the positive (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) of PET-CT in stage I disease and the clinical impact of the scan results in all disease stages....

  4. The diagnostic value of PET/CT scanning in patients with cervical cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loft, Annika; Berthelsen, Anne Kiil; Roed, Henrik

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the clinical value of PET/CT as a supplement to FIGO staging in patients with cervical cancer stage >or=1B. METHODS: This prospective study included 120 consecutive patients. After staging, a whole-body PET/CT scan was performed and these examinations were divided into two....../CT scanning for newly diagnosed cervical cancer FIGO stage >or=1B has a high sensitivity and specificity, and can be a valuable supplement to the FIGO staging procedure....

  5. Molecular diagnosis of human papillomavirus in the development of cervical cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Lourdes Gutiérrez-Xicoténcatl; Tanya Plett-Torres; Claudia L Madrid-González; Vicente Madrid-Marina

    2009-01-01

    Cervical cancer (CC) is a major public health problem in developing countries and its most significant etiological risk factor is infection by the human papillomavirus (HPV). The main approach to date for the prevention of CC has been through screening programs, using the cervical smear (PAP test) to detect precursory lesions. The sensitivity and specificity of the PAP smear depend on the skills of the observer to recognize and classify a variety of cellular abnormalities. The development of ...

  6. Selection of women at risk for cervical cancer in an HIV-infected South African population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Zummeren, Marjolein; Kremer, Wieke W; Van Aardt, Matthys C; Breytenbach, Erika; Richter, Karin L; Rozendaal, Lawrence; Witte, Birgit I; De Strooper, Lise M A; Hesselink, Albertus T; Heideman, Daniëlle A M; Snijders, Peter J F; Steenbergen, Renske D M; Dreyer, Greta; Meijer, Chris J L M

    2017-09-10

    Cervical cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related death in women in South Africa. This study evaluates DNA methylation levels in cervical (pre)cancer and aims to assess the value of high-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV) testing and methylation analysis, alone or in combination, on physician-taken cervical scrapes to detect cervical cancer, and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 (CIN3) in an HIV-infected South African population. Prospective observational multicentre cohort study. Women from a cohort of women living with HIV (n = 355) and a referral cohort (n = 109, 60% HIV seropositive) were included. Cervical scrapes were collected for hrHPV testing and methylation analysis of cell adhesion molecule 1, T-lymphocyte maturation-associated protein, and microRNA124-2 genes. Histologic endpoints were available for all participants. Performance for detection of CIN3 or worse (CIN3+) was determined in the cohort of women living with HIV and different testing strategies were compared. HrHPV and methylation positivity rates increased with severity of cervical disease in the two study cohorts, each reaching 100% in samples of women with carcinoma. HrHPV testing showed a sensitivity for CIN3+ of 83.6%, at a specificity of 67.7%. Methylation analysis showed a comparable CIN3+ sensitivity of 85.2%, but a significantly lower specificity of 49.6%. HrHPV testing with reflex methylation analysis showed a CIN3+ sensitivity of 73.8%, at a specificity of 81.5%. In this HIV-infected South African population, stratifying hrHPV-positive women with reflex methylation analysis detects all cervical carcinomas and yields an acceptable sensitivity and specificity for CIN3+.

  7. Screening for cervical cancer precursors with p16/Ki-67 dual-stained cytology: results of the PALMS study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ikenberg, Hans; Bergeron, Christine; Schmidt, Dietmar; Griesser, Henrik; Alameda, Francisco; Angeloni, Claudio; Bogers, Johannes; Dachez, Roger; Denton, Karin; Hariri, Jalil; Keller, Thomas; von Knebel Doeberitz, Magnus; Neumann, Heinrich H; Puig-Tintore, Luis M; Sideri, Mario; Rehm, Susanne; Ridder, Ruediger

    2013-01-01

    ...) for the detection of high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN2+). We assessed whether p16/Ki-67 dual-stained cytology, a biomarker combination indicative of transforming HPV infections, can provide high sensitivity for CIN2...

  8. Cervical cancer screening at crossroads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynge, Elsebeth; Rygaard, Carsten; Baillet, Miguel Vazquez-Prada

    2014-01-01

    Cervical screening has been one of the most successful public health prevention programmes. For 50 years, cytology formed the basis for screening, and detected cervical intraepithelial lesions (CIN) were treated surgically to prevent progression to cancer. In a high-risk country as Denmark......, screening decreased the incidence of cervical cancer from 34 to 11 per 100,000, age-standardized rate (World Standard Population). Screening is, however, also expensive; Denmark (population: 5.6 million) undertakes close to half a million tests per year, and has 6-8 CIN-treated women for each prevented...... cancer case. The discovery of human papillomavirus (HPV) as the cause of cervical cancer dramatically changed perspectives for disease control. Screening with HPV testing was launched around 1990, and preventive HPV vaccination was licensed in 2006. Long-term randomized controlled trials (RCT...

  9. Current Cervical Carcinoma Screening Guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan J. Schlichte

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A formidable threat to the health of women, cervical carcinoma can be prevented in many cases with adequate screening. The current guidelines for cervical carcinoma screening were created as joint recommendations of the American Cancer Society (ACS, the American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology (ASCCP and the American Society for Clinical Pathology (ASCP in 2012, and later accepted and promoted by the American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG. The 2012 recommendations underscore the utility of molecular testing as an adjunct to cytology screening for certain women and provide guidance to clinicians based on different risk-benefit considerations for different ages. This manuscript will review screening techniques and current recommendations for cervical cancer screening and human papilloma virus (HPV testing, as well as possible future screening strategies.

  10. Hemangiopericytoma of the cervical spine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raghvendra V Ramdasi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A 28-year-old male presented with neck pain and dysesthesias in the right upper limb. On examination, he had a firm, well-defined midline posterior cervical mass discernible on palpation at the mid-cervical level. He had no neurological deficit. Neuroradiology revealed a variegated enhancing cervical mass is arising from C3 lamina. The mass extended into the right extradural space eroding the C3 lamina and posteriorly into the intermuscular plane. The tumor was excised totally. Histopathology of the tumor showed features of hemangiopericytoma (HPC. The patient underwent postoperative radiotherapy. Primary osseous spinal HPC are rare malignant extra-axial tumors that tend to recur and metastasize. Only two cases of primary osseous HPC have been reported earlier to involve the cervical spine. The clinical presentation and management of the present case with a review of the literature is presented.

  11. Isolated Echinococcosis of cervical region

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Khare, Pratima; Kala, Pooja; Gupta, Renu; Chauhan, Nidhi

    2014-01-01

    .... We report here a very rare case of isolated hydatid cyst in a 45-year-old female patient, who presented with swelling in right cervical region about 5 cm below the angle of mandible with no evidence...

  12. Sensitivity, Specificity, and Clinical Value of Human Papillomavirus (HPV) E6/E7 mRNA Assay as a Triage Test for Cervical Cytology and HPV DNA Test ▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benevolo, Maria; Vocaturo, Amina; Caraceni, Donatella; French, Deborah; Rosini, Sandra; Zappacosta, Roberta; Terrenato, Irene; Ciccocioppo, Lucia; Frega, Antonio; Rossi, Paolo Giorgi

    2011-01-01

    There is evidence that testing for human papillomavirus (HPV) E6/E7 mRNA is more specific than testing for HPV DNA. A retrospective study was carried out to evaluate the performance of the PreTect HPV-Proofer E6/E7 mRNA assay (Norchip) as a triage test for cytology and HPV DNA testing. This study analyzed 1,201 women, 688 of whom had a colposcopy follow-up and 195 of whom had histology-confirmed high-grade intraepithelial neoplasia or worse (CIN2+). The proportion of positive results and the sensitivity and specificity for CIN2+ were determined for HPV mRNA in comparison to HPV DNA and cytology. All data were adjusted for follow-up completeness. Stratified by cytological grades, the HPV mRNA sensitivity was 83% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 63 to 94%) in ASC-US (atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance), 62% (95% CI = 47 to 75%) in L-SIL (low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion), and 67% (95% CI = 57 to 76%) in H-SIL (high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion). The corresponding figures were 99, 91, and 96%, respectively, for HPV DNA. The specificities were 82, 76, and 45%, respectively, for HPV mRNA and 29, 13, and 4%, respectively, for HPV DNA. Used as a triage test for ASC-US and L-SIL, mRNA reduced colposcopies by 79% (95% CI = 74 to 83%) and 69% (95% CI = 65 to 74%), respectively, while HPV DNA reduced colposcopies by 38% (95% CI = 32 to 44%) and by 15% (95% CI = 12 to 19%), respectively. As a HPV DNA positivity triage test, mRNA reduced colposcopies by 63% (95% CI = 60 to 66%), having 68% sensitivity (95% CI = 61 to 75%), whereas cytology at the ASC-US+ threshold reduced colposcopies by 23% (95% CI = 20 to 26%), showing 92% sensitivity (95% CI = 87 to 95%). In conclusion, PreTect HPV-Proofer mRNA can serve as a better triage test than HPV DNA to reduce colposcopy referral in both ASC-US and L-SIL. It is also more efficient than cytology for the triage of HPV DNA-positive women. Nevertheless, its low sensitivity demands a strict follow-up of

  13. Radiculopatía cervical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Murillo Calderón

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available La patología cervical traumática y su relación con el quehacer de la medicina legal tiene gran importancia y vigencia, principalmente cuando se hace necesario realizar valoraciones a pacientes con alteraciones cervicales y se debe definir si estas están en relación a un trauma determinado o repetitivo en el tiempo como puede ocurrir en algunos casos de riesgos de trabajo. El médico forense debe estar muy bien preparado, conocer la anatomía cervical y de los miembros superiores, realizar un interrogatorio y un examen físico neurológico exhaustivo para orientar las posibilidades diagnósticas; es fundamental además el análisis de los estudios diagnósticos. En este caso en particular se realizará una revisión de la radiculopatía cervical, su fisiopatología, mecanismos de producción y las implicaciones médico legales al realizar la valoración en pacientes con cervicobraquialgiaTraumatic cervical pathology and its relationship to the work of forensic medicine is of great importance and relevance, especially when it is necessary to make assessments in patients with cervical changes and must be defined if they are in relation to a specific trauma or repetitive in time as may occur in some cases of occupational hazards. The medical examiner must be very well prepared, know the anatomy of the cervical and upper limbs, perform an examination and a thorough neurological physical examination to guide the diagnostic possibilities, it is also fundamental analysis of diagnostic studies. In this particular case there will be a review of cervical radiculopathy, pathophysiology, mechanisms of production and the medico-legal implications when doing the assessment in patients with cervical braquial pain

  14. [Current perspectives in cervical cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdespino Gómez, Víctor M; Valdespino Castillo, Víctor E

    2004-01-01

    Cervical cancer is a Public Health problem among women worldwide, especially in the developing world. The understanding of the HPV association with the high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions and cervical cancer and the knowledge of the pre-invasive lesions natural history have strengthened the justification of different means of cancer prevention and screening programs, the application of different pre-invasive lesion treatments and particularly advances in conventional treatments of cervical cancer. In the last thirty years, cervical cancer's incidence and mortality rates have decreased in more than 75% in developed nations due to efficient application of secondary prevention based on cytology and colposcopy screening programs plus to in-office implementation of precursor lesions treatment methods. In the developing nations, these achievements can be obtained using specific steps of primary prevention, massive participation of risk patients in screening programs and improving ambulatory application of pre-invasive cervical lesion treatments. In Mexico several indicators suggest that this condition has began. New knowledge paradigms of the local immune response to HPV-cervical cancer pre-invasive and invasive lesions are being added to the construction of new preventive and therapeutic anti-cancer strategies. The preventive vaccines anti-high risk oncogenic-HPVs offer a good perspective in short term, also the use of different cellular immunotherapy strategies anti-cervical cancer as adyuvant of conventional treatments offer an encouraging panorama in not long term. In the next years, the improving of specific genes determination and their correlation with biologic features of the specific tumor which are involved on pre-invasive and invasive stages of cervical cancer will raise the understanding and the treatment of these patients.

  15. Glycoprotein and Glycan in Tissue and Blood Samples of Patients With Stage IB-IVA Cervical Cancer Undergoing Surgery to Remove Pelvic and Abdominal Lymph Nodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-23

    Cervical Adenocarcinoma; Cervical Adenosquamous Carcinoma; Cervical Small Cell Carcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma, Not Otherwise Specified; Stage IB Cervical Cancer; Stage IIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage III Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer

  16. Cervical spine movement during intubation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amlan Swain

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available There have been growing concerns following documented instances of neurological deterioration in patients with cervical spine injury as a result of intubation. A significant body of evidence has since evolved with the primary objective of ascertaining the safest way of securing the endotracheal tube in patients with suspected and proven cervical injury. The search for a mode of intubation producing the least movement at the cervical spine is an ongoing process and is limited by logistic and ethical issues. The ensuing review is an attempt to review available evidence on cervical movements during intubation and to comprehensively outline the movement at the cervical spine with a wide plethora of intubation aids. Literature search was sourced from digital libraries including PubMed, Medline and Google Scholar in addition to the standard textbooks of Anaesthesiology. The keywords used in literature search included 'cervical spine motion,' 'neurological deterioration,' 'intubation biomechanics,' 'direct laryngoscopy,' 'flexible fibreoptic intubation,' 'video laryngoscopes' and 'craniocervical motion.' The scientific information in this review is expected to assist neuroanaesthesiologists for planning airway management in patients with neurological injury as well as to direct further research into this topic which has significant clinical and patient safety implications.

  17. Quantitative DNA methylation analysis of candidate genes in cervical cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin M Siegel

    Full Text Available Aberrant DNA methylation has been observed in cervical cancer; however, most studies have used non-quantitative approaches to measure DNA methylation. The objective of this study was to quantify methylation within a select panel of genes previously identified as targets for epigenetic silencing in cervical cancer and to identify genes with elevated methylation that can distinguish cancer from normal cervical tissues. We identified 49 women with invasive squamous cell cancer of the cervix and 22 women with normal cytology specimens. Bisulfite-modified genomic DNA was amplified and quantitative pyrosequencing completed for 10 genes (APC, CCNA, CDH1, CDH13, WIF1, TIMP3, DAPK1, RARB, FHIT, and SLIT2. A Methylation Index was calculated as the mean percent methylation across all CpG sites analyzed per gene (~4-9 CpG site per sequence. A binary cut-point was defined at >15% methylation. Sensitivity, specificity and area under ROC curve (AUC of methylation in individual genes or a panel was examined. The median methylation index was significantly higher in cases compared to controls in 8 genes, whereas there was no difference in median methylation for 2 genes. Compared to HPV and age, the combination of DNA methylation level of DAPK1, SLIT2, WIF1 and RARB with HPV and age significantly improved the AUC from 0.79 to 0.99 (95% CI: 0.97-1.00, p-value = 0.003. Pyrosequencing analysis confirmed that several genes are common targets for aberrant methylation in cervical cancer and DNA methylation level of four genes appears to increase specificity to identify cancer compared to HPV detection alone. Alterations in DNA methylation of specific genes in cervical cancers, such as DAPK1, RARB, WIF1, and SLIT2, may also occur early in cervical carcinogenesis and should be evaluated.

  18. Quantitative DNA methylation analysis of candidate genes in cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Erin M; Riggs, Bridget M; Delmas, Amber L; Koch, Abby; Hakam, Ardeshir; Brown, Kevin D

    2015-01-01

    Aberrant DNA methylation has been observed in cervical cancer; however, most studies have used non-quantitative approaches to measure DNA methylation. The objective of this study was to quantify methylation within a select panel of genes previously identified as targets for epigenetic silencing in cervical cancer and to identify genes with elevated methylation that can distinguish cancer from normal cervical tissues. We identified 49 women with invasive squamous cell cancer of the cervix and 22 women with normal cytology specimens. Bisulfite-modified genomic DNA was amplified and quantitative pyrosequencing completed for 10 genes (APC, CCNA, CDH1, CDH13, WIF1, TIMP3, DAPK1, RARB, FHIT, and SLIT2). A Methylation Index was calculated as the mean percent methylation across all CpG sites analyzed per gene (~4-9 CpG site) per sequence. A binary cut-point was defined at >15% methylation. Sensitivity, specificity and area under ROC curve (AUC) of methylation in individual genes or a panel was examined. The median methylation index was significantly higher in cases compared to controls in 8 genes, whereas there was no difference in median methylation for 2 genes. Compared to HPV and age, the combination of DNA methylation level of DAPK1, SLIT2, WIF1 and RARB with HPV and age significantly improved the AUC from 0.79 to 0.99 (95% CI: 0.97-1.00, p-value = 0.003). Pyrosequencing analysis confirmed that several genes are common targets for aberrant methylation in cervical cancer and DNA methylation level of four genes appears to increase specificity to identify cancer compared to HPV detection alone. Alterations in DNA methylation of specific genes in cervical cancers, such as DAPK1, RARB, WIF1, and SLIT2, may also occur early in cervical carcinogenesis and should be evaluated.

  19. Human papillomavirus testing in primary cervical screening and the cut-off level for hybrid capture 2 tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rebolj, Matejka; Bonde, Jesper; Njor, Sisse Helle

    2011-01-01

    To determine the trade-off between the sensitivity and the specificity for high grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia at hybrid capture 2 cut-off values above the standard = 1 relative light units/cut-off level (rlu/co).......To determine the trade-off between the sensitivity and the specificity for high grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia at hybrid capture 2 cut-off values above the standard = 1 relative light units/cut-off level (rlu/co)....

  20. Propofol enhances the cisplatin-induced apoptosis on cervical cancer cells via EGFR/JAK2/STAT3 pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haoran; Lu, Yan; Pang, Yangyang; Li, Mengjiao; Cheng, Xi; Chen, Jiawei

    2017-02-01

    The main purpose of this study was to evaluate propofol and its combined effect with cisplatin on apoptosis of cervical cancer cells and molecular mechanisms of this phenomenon. The effects of propofol and cisplatin on cell viability and apoptosis were detected by cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) assay, colony formation assay and flow cytometry assay. Besides, protein expression of EGFR/JAK2/STAT3 pathway was determined by western blot. STAT3 was over-expressed in cervical cancer cells by STAT3 cDNA. Expression of EGFR and STAT3 protein of human tissues was evaluated by immunohistochemistry (IHC) assay. In this study, we found that not only propofol alone could inhibit cervical cancer cells viability but also could increase the inhibitory effect of cisplatin on cervical cancer cells growth. Meanwhile, propofol sensitized cervical cancer cells to cisplatin-induced apoptosis but not affected normal cervical cells. In genetic level, propofol could enhance the anti-tumor effect of cisplatin through EGFR/JAK2/STAT3 pathway. Further studies indicated that overexpression of EGFR and STAT3 is related to poor prognoses in cervical cancer patients, which contributed to confirm the clinical role of combined application of propofol and cisplatin. Propofol enhances the cisplatin-induced cell apoptosis cervical cancer cells via EGFR/JAK2/STAT3 pathway and may be developed as a potential therapeutic agent to treat cervical cancer. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Pathogenesis, Diagnosis, and Treatment of Cervical Vertigo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yongchao; Peng, Baogan

    2015-01-01

    Cervical vertigo is characterized by vertigo from the cervical spine. However, whether cervical vertigo is an independent entity still remains controversial. In this narrative review, we outline the basic science and clinical evidence for cervical vertigo according to the current literature. So far, there are 4 different hypotheses explaining the vertigo of a cervical origin, including proprioceptive cervical vertigo, Barré-Lieou syndrome, rotational vertebral artery vertigo, and migraine-associated cervicogenic vertigo. Proprioceptive cervical vertigo and rotational vertebral artery vertigo have survived with time. Barré-Lieou syndrome once was discredited, but it has been resurrected recently by increased scientific evidence. Diagnosis depends mostly on patients' subjective feelings, lacking positive signs, specific laboratory examinations and clinical trials, and often relies on limited clinical experiences of clinicians. Neurological, vestibular, and psychosomatic disorders must first be excluded before the dizziness and unsteadiness in cervical pain syndromes can be attributed to a cervical origin. Treatment for cervical vertigo is challenging. Manual therapy is recommended for treatment of proprioceptive cervical vertigo. Anterior cervical surgery and percutaneous laser disc decompression are effective for the cervical spondylosis patients accompanied with Barré-Liéou syndrome. As to rotational vertebral artery vertigo, a rare entity, when the exact area of the arterial compression is identified through appropriate tests such as magnetic resonance angiography (MRA), computed tomography angiography (CTA) or digital subtraction angiography (DSA) decompressive surgery should be the chosen treatment.

  2. [Therapy of cervical rheumatoid arthritis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kothe, R; Wiesner, L; Rüther, W

    2004-08-01

    The rheumatoid involvement of the cervical spine can be divided into three phases. In the early stage of the disease there is an isolated atlantoaxial subluxation (AAS), followed by vertical instability and subaxial instability. If patients show clear symptoms of cervical myelopathy, which can occur during any stage of the disease, the progression cannot be stopped by conservative treatment, which is of great importance at the beginning of the cervical manifestation. Patient education, physiotherapy and immobilization with a stiff collar can significantly reduce pain. Early and effective DMARD therapy can have a positive effect on the natural history of the disease. In case of progressive instability, cervical myelopathy or severe pain operative treatment is indicated. If there is an isolated AAS, fusion can be restricted to the C1/C2 segment. The Magerl transarticular screw fixation is the preferred technique for stabilization. If there is evidence for vertical instability or severe destruction of the C0/C1 joints, occipital cervical fusion has to be performed. Durin the preoperative planning it is necessary to look for signs of subaxial instability. If this is the case, fusion should include the entire cervical spine. Transoral decompression may be necessary when there is persistent anterior compression of the myelon, typically seen in fixed AAS. Non-ambulatory myelopathic patients are more likely to develop severe surgical complications. Therefore, it is important to avoid the development of severe cervical instability by early surgical intervention. The right timing for surgery is still a matter of controversy. Future prospective randomized trials should address this topic to improve the treatment concept for the rheumatoid patient.

  3. 腹针结合热敏化灸及功能锻炼治疗颈型颈椎病的临床研究%Clinical Effect of Comprehensive Treatment Combined with Abdominal Acupuncture,Heat-sensitive Moxibustion and Functional Exercise on Cervical Spondylosis with Neck Type

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋芙蓉

    2014-01-01

    To study the clinical effect of comprehensive treatment combined with abdominal acu -puncture,heat -sensitive moxibustion and functional exercise on cervical spondylosis with neck type .Methods:According to randomized controlled method ,the patients that met the criteria were divided into therapy groupand control group.While therapy group was treated with abdominal acupuncture ,heat -sensitive moxibustionand functional exercise;control group was treated with normal acupuncture treatment .The clinical symptoms andsigns were scored, and overall analgesic effect and therapeutic effect were evaluated after the treatment .Re- sults:The two groups were decreased in the scores of each symptoms and each signs and in composite score aftertreatment(P<0.01),but therapy group was decreased more than control group in the score of pain degree ,inthe score of pain range, in the score of neck mobility rates (P <0.05),and it was better than control group inthe analgesic effect and overall effect (P <0.05).Conclusion:As to the effect on the cervical spondylosis withneck type,the comprehensive treatment combined with abdominal acupuncture ,heat -sensitive moxibustion andfunctional exercise is more prominent than the normal acupuncture therapy in relieving the symptoms or in over -all effect.%目的:研究腹针结合热敏化灸及功能锻炼对颈型颈椎病的临床疗效。方法:采用随机对照的方法,将符合纳入标准的患者分为治疗组、对照组,治疗组采用薄氏腹针结合热敏化灸及功能锻炼的综合治疗,对照组采用普通针刺治疗。治疗后,对两组的临床症状、体征进行评分,并进行总体的镇痛和综合疗效评价。结果:两组的症状体征各项评分和综合评分在治疗后均降低(P<0.01),但治疗组与对照组相比较,疼痛程度评分、疼痛范围评分、颈部活动受限评分和总体症状评分更低( P<0.05),镇痛疗效和综合疗效更好(P<0.05

  4. Burden of cervical cancer and role of screening in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobdey, Saurabh; Sathwara, Jignasa; Jain, Aanchal; Balasubramaniam, Ganesh

    2016-01-01

    Background: Cervical cancer is a major cause of cancer mortality in women and more than a quarter of its global burden is contributed by developing countries. In India, in spite of alarmingly high figures, there is no nationwide government-sponsored screening program. This study was conducted to assess the burden of cervical cancer in India and review the performance characteristics of available cervical cancer screening tools, so as to provide evidence-based recommendations for application of most practically suited screening test to be used in resource-poor field settings. Materials and Methods: MEDLINE and Web of Science electronic database were searched from January 1990 to December 2015, using the keywords such as “cervical cancer”, “screening”, “early detection”, “cervical cytology” and “visual inspection”, and their corresponding MeSH terms in combination with Boolean operators “OR, AND.” Two authors independently selected studies that are published in English and conducted in India. A total of 11 studies were found to be relevant and eligible to be included in the present study. Results: In India, cervical cancer contributes to approximately 6–29% of all cancers in women. The age-adjusted incidence rate of cervical cancer varies widely among registries; highest is 23.07/100,000 in Mizoram state and the lowest is 4.91/100,000 in Dibrugarh district. The pooled estimates of sensitivity and specificity of visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA), magnified VIA, visual inspection with Lugol's iodine (VILI), cytology (Pap smear), and human papillomavirus DNA were found to be 67.65% and 84.32%, 65.36% and 85.76%, 78.27% and 87.10%, 62.11% and 93.51%, and 77.81% and 91.54%, respectively. Conclusions: In developing countries because of lack of necessary infrastructure and quality control, high-quality cytology screening may not be feasible for wide-scale implementation. Hence, cervical cancer screening program based on visual screening test

  5. Burden of cervical cancer and role of screening in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saurabh Bobdey

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cervical cancer is a major cause of cancer mortality in women and more than a quarter of its global burden is contributed by developing countries. In India, in spite of alarmingly high figures, there is no nationwide government-sponsored screening program. This study was conducted to assess the burden of cervical cancer in India and review the performance characteristics of available cervical cancer screening tools, so as to provide evidence-based recommendations for application of most practically suited screening test to be used in resource-poor field settings. Materials and Methods: MEDLINE and Web of Science electronic database were searched from January 1990 to December 2015, using the keywords such as “cervical cancer”, “screening”, “early detection”, “cervical cytology” and “visual inspection”, and their corresponding MeSH terms in combination with Boolean operators “OR, AND.” Two authors independently selected studies that are published in English and conducted in India. A total of 11 studies were found to be relevant and eligible to be included in the present study. Results: In India, cervical cancer contributes to approximately 6–29% of all cancers in women. The age-adjusted incidence rate of cervical cancer varies widely among registries; highest is 23.07/100,000 in Mizoram state and the lowest is 4.91/100,000 in Dibrugarh district. The pooled estimates of sensitivity and specificity of visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA, magnified VIA, visual inspection with Lugol's iodine (VILI, cytology (Pap smear, and human papillomavirus DNA were found to be 67.65% and 84.32%, 65.36% and 85.76%, 78.27% and 87.10%, 62.11% and 93.51%, and 77.81% and 91.54%, respectively. Conclusions: In developing countries because of lack of necessary infrastructure and quality control, high-quality cytology screening may not be feasible for wide-scale implementation. Hence, cervical cancer screening program based on

  6. Value and feasibility of HPV DNA test in cervical scraping smears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Sufang; Chen, Gang; Wang, Wei; Xu, Qian; Gu, Hainian; Lu, Yunping; Zhou, Liping; Du, Juan; Li, Fujun; Liao, Guoning; Ma, Ding

    2005-01-01

    To investigate the reliability and feasibility of human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA test in cervical scraping smears with polymerase chain reaction (PCR), 131 cases of cervical scraping specimens were collected, and the positive rates and accuracy of HPV infection were determined in normal subjects and cervical cancer patients. GP5+/GP6+ and E7 primer pairs designed for detecting HPV L1 and HPV type 16 E7 were tested in this study. Our results showed that positive rates of HPV DNA in normal population and cervical cancer patients were 32.99% and 73.53% respectively and there was significant difference between them (P 0.05). However the detection rates in cervical cancer patients were 38.24% and 67.65% for the two markers, with a significant difference found between them (P scraping smears was feasible. GP5+/GP6+ primer pairs may be a useful probe to screen HPV infection in normal population, but they are not sensitive enough in cervical cancer patients. It is suggested that high risk type HPV DNA test was very useful in population with high risk of cervical cancer.

  7. Cytology in the diagnosis of cervical cancer in symptomatic young women: a retrospective review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Anita Ww; Landy, Rebecca; Castanon, Alejandra; Hollingworth, Antony; Hamilton, Willie; Dudding, Nick; Sasieni, Peter

    2016-12-01

    Cervical cancer in young women presents a diagnostic challenge because gynaecological symptoms are common but underlying disease is rare. To explore the potential for using cytology as a diagnostic aid for cervical cancer in young women. Retrospective review of primary care records and cytology data from the national cervical screening database and national audit of cervical cancers. Four datasets of women aged 20-29 years in England were examined: primary care records and national screening data from an in-depth study of cervical cancers; cytology from the national audit of cervical cancers; whole-population cytology from the national screening database; and general-population primary care records from the Clinical Practice Research Datalink. The authors explored the sensitivity and positive predictive value (PPV) of symptomatic cytology (earliest cytology. Cytology has value beyond screening, and could be used as a diagnostic aid for earlier detection of cervical cancer in young women with gynaecological symptoms by ruling in urgent referral. © British Journal of General Practice 2016.

  8. Preventing Cervical Cancer with HPV Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervical cancer can be prevented with HPV vaccines. NCI-supported researchers helped establish HPV as a cause of cervical cancer. They also helped create the first HPV vaccines, were involved in the vaccine trials, and contribute to ongoing studies.

  9. NIH Research Leads to Cervical Cancer Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Issues Sexually Transmitted Diseases NIH Research Leads to Cervical Cancer Vaccine Past Issues / Fall 2008 Table of Contents ... in women, the cause of the majority of cervical cancers. Photo courtesy of Judy Folkenberg, NLM Writer By ...

  10. Treatment Options by Stage (Cervical Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is found early. Signs and symptoms of cervical cancer include vaginal bleeding and pelvic pain. These and other signs and symptoms may be caused by cervical cancer or by other conditions . Check with your doctor ...

  11. A Combined Therapy for Cervical Spondylopathy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李佳

    2004-01-01

    @@ Cervical spondylopathy is a common disease frequently encountered in the middle-aged and old people. It is a consequence of degeneration, strain or deformation of the physiological curvature of the cervical vertebral body.

  12. Cervical Spondylosis (Arthritis of the Neck)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... section view). (Left) Side view of a healthy cervical vertebra and disk. (Right) A disk that has degenerated and collapsed. Symptoms For most people, cervical spondylosis causes no symptoms. When symptoms do occur, ...

  13. X-Ray Exam: Cervical Spine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the bones in the back of the neck (cervical vertebrae). During the examination, an X-ray machine sends ... or hand. It can detect fractures in the cervical vertebrae or dislocation of the joints between the vertebrae. ...

  14. Post laminoplasty cervical kyphosis—Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.E. Dugoni

    2014-01-01

    CONCLUSION: The anterior approach is a good surgical option in flexible cervical kyphosis. It is of primary importance the sagittal alignment of the cervical spine in order to decompress the nervous structures and to guarantee a long-term stability.

  15. Three-level cervical disc herniation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    St. Iencean Andrei

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Multilevel cervical degenerative disc disease is well known in the cervical spine pathology, with radicular syndromes or cervical myelopathy. One or two level cervical herniated disc is common in adult and multilevel cervical degenerative disc herniation is common in the elderly, with spinal stenosis, and have the same cause: the gradual degeneration of the disc. We report the case of a patient with two level cervical disc herniation (C4 – C5 and C5 – C6 treated by anterior cervical microdiscectomy both levels and fusion at C5 – C6; after five years the patient returned with left C7 radiculopathy and MRI provided the image of a left C6 – C7 disc herniation, he underwent an anterior microsurgical discectomy with rapid relief of symptoms. Three-level cervical herniated disc are rare in adults, and the anterior microdiscectomy with or without fusion solve this pathology.

  16. Treatments for hypersensitive noncarious cervical lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veitz-Keenan, Analia; Barna, Julie Ann; Strober, Brad; Matthews, Abigail G.; Collie, Damon; Vena, Donald; Curro, Frederick A.; Thompson, Van P.

    2014-01-01

    Background The Practitioners Engaged in Applied Research and Learning (PEARL) Network conducted a three-armed randomized clinical study to determine the comparative effectiveness of three treatments for hypersensitive noncarious cervical lesions (NCCLs): use of a potassium nitrate dentifrice for treatment of hypersensitivity, placement of a resin-based composite restoration and placement of a sealant. Methods Seventeen trained practitioner-investigators (P-Is) in the PEARL Network enrolled participants (N = 304) with hypersensitive posterior NCCLs who met enrollment criteria. Participants were assigned to treatments randomly. Evaluations were conducted at baseline and at one, three and six months thereafter. Primary outcomes were the reduction or elimination of hypersensitivity as measured clinically and by means of patient-reported outcomes. Results Lesion depth and pretreatment sensitivity (mean, 5.3 on a 0- to 10-point scale) were balanced across treatments, as was sleep bruxism (present in 42.2 percent of participants). The six-month participant recall rate was 99 percent. Treatments significantly reduced mean sensitivity (P dentifrice group. The dentifrice group’s mean (standard deviation) sensitivity at six months was 2.1 (2.1); those of the sealant and restoration groups were 1.0 (1.6) and 0.8 (1.4), respectively. Patient-reported sensitivity (to cold being most pronounced) paralleled clinical measurements at each evaluation. Conclusions Sealing and restoration treatments were effective overall in reducing NCCL hypersensitivity. The potassium nitrate dentifrice reduced sensitivity with increasing effectiveness through six months but not to the degree offered by the other treatments. Practical Implications Sealant or restoration placement is an effective method of immediately reducing NCCL sensitivity. Although a potassium nitrate dentifrice did reduce sensitivity slowly across six months, at no time was the reduction commensurate with that of sealants or

  17. Quiste dermoide cervical

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    Yurian Gbenou Morgan

    Full Text Available Los quistes dermoides presentan una incidencia de 1,6 hasta 6,9 % en la región de cabeza y cuello. Se realiza el siguiente reporte de caso clínico con el objetivo de enfatizar en la importancia de un adecuado manejo diagnóstico preoperatorio, para establecer una acertada planificación quirúrgica en la exéresis de este tipo de lesiones de la región cervicofacial. Se presenta el caso clínico de un paciente masculino, de 13 años de edad, quien hacía 3 años se notaba un crecimiento redondeado en región submentoniana, lo cual le ocasionaba molestias al hablar y ligera afectación de su estética facial. Una vez realizados los estudios complementarios preoperatorios, se decide tratamiento quirúrgico, empleando una cervicotomía medial para la extirpación de la lesión quística, dada la ubicación anatómica por debajo del músculo milohiodeo y su gran dimensión. El diagnóstico histopatológico se corresponde con un quiste epidérmico. Se concluye que resulta imprescindible realizar un exhaustivo examen físico e imagenológico, para lograr resultados satisfactorios en el tratamiento quirúrgico del quiste dermoide cervical.

  18. Anterior cervical fusion and Caspar plate stabilization for cervical trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caspar, W; Barbier, D D; Klara, P M

    1989-10-01

    A technique for anterior cervical iliac graft fusion with standardized, commercially available screw and plate fixation (Caspar plating) has been developed. The step-by-step procedure, as well as the instruments designed to facilitate the procedure, are described in this report. Sixty cases of cervical trauma (fractures, subluxations, ligamentous instability, or a combination of these problems) were treated with Caspar plating. All patients obtained fusion, and stability was achieved immediately after surgery without external stabilization. No unusual surgical complications occurred, and the most dreaded complication of dural penetration by drilling or screw placement was not observed. This report details the neurological presentation, anatomical lesions, surgical therapy, and outcome of these patients. Caspar plating combines the advantage of an anterior surgical approach with immediate postoperative stabilization without external stabilization. This advantage persists even in the presence of posterior ligamentous instability. The technique is an important addition to the surgical treatment of cervical trauma.

  19. Cervical interfacet spacers and maintenance of cervical lordosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Lee A; Straus, David C; Traynelis, Vincent C

    2015-05-01

    OBJECT The cervical interfacet spacer (CIS) is a relatively new technology that can increase foraminal height and area by facet distraction. These offer the potential to provide indirect neuroforaminal decompression while simultaneously enhancing fusion potential due to the relatively large osteoconductive surface area and compressive forces exerted on the grafts. These potential benefits, along with the relative ease of implantation during posterior cervical fusion procedures, make the CIS an attractive adjuvant in the management of cervical pathology. One concern with the use of interfacet spacers is the theoretical risk of inducing iatrogenic kyphosis. This work tests the hypothesis that interfacet spacers are associated with loss of cervical lordosis. METHODS Records from patients undergoing posterior cervical fusion at Rush University Medical Center between March 2011 and December 2012 were reviewed. The FacetLift CISs were used in all patients. Preoperative and postoperative radiographic data were reviewed and the Ishihara indices and cervical lordotic angles were measured and recorded. Statistical analyses were performed using STATA software. RESULTS A total of 64 patients were identified in whom 154 cervical levels were implanted with machined allograft interfacet spacers. Of these, 15 patients underwent anterior-posterior fusions, 4 underwent anterior-posterior-anterior fusions, and the remaining 45 patients underwent posterior-only fusions. In the 45 patients with posterior-only fusions, a total of 110 levels were treated with spacers. There were 14 patients (31%) with a single level treated, 16 patients (36%) with two levels treated, 5 patients (11%) with three levels treated, 5 patients (11%) with four levels treated, 1 patient (2%) with five levels treated, and 4 patients (9%) with six levels treated. Complete radiographic data were available in 38 of 45 patients (84%). On average, radiographic follow-up was obtained at 256.9 days (range 48-524 days

  20. WELL WOMAN CLINIC - SCREENING PROGRAM FOR CERVICAL C ARCINOMAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vani Padmaja

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Cervical cancer is a common cancer occurring in women in the reproductive age group. It is also a cancer that can be easily prevented by taking Cervical Smears, staining them by the Papanicalou’s stain, diagnosing and treating them at an early stage . It is a very cost effective, sensitive, specific and easy method of early detection of cervical canc er and thereby helps in preventing the mortality and morbidity caused by invasive carcinomas. This screening program was conducted in the outpatient department of Gandhi hospital. All th e women between the age of 21 and 65years were included. The antenatal women were excluded. A total of 2864 women were screened and 2562 Pap smears were done. 228 High grade intraepithelial lesions [HSIL ] and 365 Low Grade intraepithelial lesions [LSIL] were diagnosed. Cervical biopsy was done. Curative treatment was offered to all those who had intraepithelial lesions on biopsy. Hence such screening programs are of great help in detecting early cancer and preventing invasive cancers. Thus reducing mortality and morbidity associated with invasive cancers

  1. Tourette's syndrome with cervical disc herniation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jainn-Jim; Wang, Huei-Shyong; Wong, Mun-Ching; Wu, Chieh-Tsai; Lin, Kuang-Lin

    2007-03-01

    Tourette's syndrome is manifested in a broad spectrum of motor, vocal, and behavioral disturbances. Movement disorders, such as tics, may contribute to the development of cervical myelopathy owing to the effects of involuntary movements on the neck. However, the association of cervical myelopathy with motor tics of the head and neck is rare. We report here a case of a violent, repetitive neck extension due to Tourette's syndrome that developed cervical myelopathy caused by cervical disc herniation.

  2. Course prognosis of cervical osteochondrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolesov V.N.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available

    Today we can state that in spite of a considerable number of cervical osteochondrosis studies, there is a lack of research devoted to analysis of its course. There is no correlation between initial expert evaluations of cervical osteo-chondrosis cases and further course of pathological process. Goal of the research is to develop system of course prognosis of cervical osteochondrosis taking into account environmental infuence, heredity, living conditions, psychological profle of patient’s personality. Materials and methods. Dynamics of degenerative-dystrophic changes progressing of cervical vertebrae in 236 patients was analyzed. Results. Received data demonstrated that probability of stage I changing to stage II, III and IV depended on patients’ sex, age and type of labour activity, frequent supercooling and stress. Probability of fast progression of cervical osteochondrosis (5-year cycle of stage I changing to stage III and IV was to a great extent associated with heredity, urban living, presence of endocrine system diseases, syndrome of nonspecifc dysplasia of connective tissue and low indices of quality of life. Conclusion. Proposed system allows making prognosis of morphologic changes in spinal cord, and is based on radiation methods of verifcation without taking into consideration dynamics of neurological symptomatology.

  3. Preliminary comparative proteomics study of cervical carcinoma tissues with different sensitivity to concurrent chemoradiotherapy%同时放化疗敏感性不同中晚期宫颈癌蛋白质组学比较的初步研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱红; 曾亮; 廖遇平; 肖志强

    2008-01-01

    Objective To investigate the proteomics differences between the high-sensitivity(HS) and the low-sensitivity(LS)groups of cervical carcinoma treated by concurrent chemoradiotherapy,and to confirm the sensitivity associated proteins in intermediate stage and advanced cervical carcinoma.Methods Fresh carcinoma tissues were collected from 10 untreated cervical carcinoma patients.According to the response to concurrent chemoradiotherapy,the tissues were classified into HS group and LS group.In the first part of our experiment,protein separation was performed using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis(2-DE)with Amersham 18 am linear pH 3-10 immobilized pH gradient(IPG)strips.The images of the gels were analyzed by PD-quest 7.0 software to find the differentially expressed protein-spots in each group.Then the differentially expressed protein-spots were incised from the gels and digested by trypsin.The peptide mass flngerprintings(PMF)was acquired by matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry(MALDI-TOF-MS).The proteins were identified by data searched in the Mascot-database.Two differentially expressed proteins were assayed by western blot and immunohistochemical methods.Results Most of the gels were clear and successfully analyzed by PD-quest 7.0 software.Most of the protein-spots concentrated on the area of 20-100 KDa(Mw)and pH4-8.The average number of the protein-spots was 781±74 in HS group and 766±52 in LS group.The match rate was 87.6%between the two groups.Eight proteins highly in HS group but lowly expressed in LS group included hemoglobin subunit beta,caspase-14 precursor,calmodulin-like,S100-A9 protein(MRP-14),galectin-7,HSKERC4,keratin 19 and actin.Ten proteins highly in LS group but lowly expression in HS group included anti HBs antibody light-chain Fab,laminB1,WARS protein,flavin reductase,glutamate dehydrogenase 1,nuclear matrix protein 238,retinal dehydrogenase 1,AFl 65172,subunit of replicative DNA polymerase and HSP70

  4. Use of Cervical Pessary in the Management of Cervical Insufficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timofeev, Julia

    2016-06-01

    Prevention of spontaneous preterm birth is an important public health priority. Pessary may be a potential therapy in cases of cervical insufficiency, in singleton and multiple gestations. Availability of transvaginal sonography for accurate assessment of cervical length is allowing for the tailoring of therapy to a more specific subset of patients who may benefit from this treatment. Pessary therapy is attractive given the favorable side effect profile, low cost, and ease of placement and removal. Large randomized trials are ongoing to validate initial favorable findings.

  5. An special epithelial staining agents: folic acid receptor-mediated diagnosis (FRD) effectively and conveniently screen patients with cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Meng-Han; Hu, Ling-Yun; Du, Xin-Xin; Yang, Min; Zhang, Wei-Yi; Huang, Ke; Li, Li-An; Jiang, Shu-Fang; Li, Ya-Li

    2015-01-01

    High-quality screening with cytology has markedly reduced mortality from cervical cancer. However, it needs experienced pathologists to review and make the final decisions. We have developed folic acid receptor-mediated diagnosis (FRD) kits to effectively and conveniently screen patients with cervical cancer. We conduct present study aim to assess clinical significances of FRD in screening cervical cancer. A total of 169 patients were enrolled at Chinese People's liberation Army (PLA) general hospital. We compared diagnostic significances of FRD with thinprep cytology test (TCT). Meanwhile, colposcopy was also performed to confirm any lesion suspicious for cervical cancer. The sensitivity and specificity of FRD were 71.93% and 66.07% in diagnosis cervical cancer, respectively. Meanwhile, the positive predictive values (PPV), negative predictive values (NPV), Youden index were 51.90%, 82.22%, 0.38, respectively. On the other hand, the sensitivity and specificity of TCT in diagnosis cervical cancer were 73.68% and 61.61% respectively. PPV, NPV and Youden index for TCT were 49.41%, 82.14% and 0.35 respectively. Overall, FRD have high values of sensitivity, specificity and Youden index. However, this difference failed to statistical significance. FRD have comparable diagnostic significance with TCT. Therefore, FRD might serve as one effective method to screen cervical cancer. Especially for those patients living in remote regions of China, where cytology was unavailable.

  6. Efficacy of home cervical traction therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swezey, R L; Swezey, A M; Warner, K

    1999-01-01

    Cervical traction is administered by various techniques ranging from supine mechanical motorized cervical traction to seated cervical traction using an over-the-door pulley support with attached weights. Duration of cervical traction can range from a few minutes to 20 to 30 min, once or twice weekly to several times per day. Anecdotal evidence suggests efficacy and safety, but there is no documentation of efficacy of cervical traction beyond short-term pain reduction. Because of a clinical impression that a simplified, inexpensive, over-the-door home cervical traction method of treatment requiring 5 min of cervical traction twice daily was efficacious for both cervical pain and radiculopathic syndromes, we undertook a retrospective study of 58 outpatients treated between 1994 and 1996. Age range was 29 to 84 (mean, 56) yr. Twenty-three males and 35 females were classified as Grade 1 to Grade 3 according to the Quebec Task Force of Whiplash-Associated Disorders Cohort Study. Outcomes were as follows: Grade 1 (mild)--4 of 4 (100%) patients improved; Grade 2 (moderate)--34 of 44 (77%) patients improved (P cervical traction; Grade 3 (patients with radiculopathy)--9 of 10 (90%) patients improved (P cervical traction modality provided symptomatic relief in 81% of the patients with mild to moderately severe (Grade 3) cervical spondylosis syndromes. Prospective, randomized assessment of cervical traction for this and other methods is needed.

  7. Role of Brushing and Occlusal Forces in Non-Carious Cervical Lesions (NCCL).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadaf, Durre; Ahmad, Zubair

    2014-12-01

    To assess the association of occlusal forces and brushing with non-carious cervical lesions (NCCL). It was a Cross-sectional study. The study was conducted in Dental clinics, Department of Surgery, The Aga Khan University Hospital Karachi. The study duration was from 1(st) January 2009 to 28(th) Feb 2009. Ninety patients visiting dental clinic were examined clinically. Presence of Non- carious cervical lesions, broken restorations, fractured cusps, presence of occlusal facets, brushing habits, Para functional habits were assessed. All the relevant information and clinical examination were collected on a structured Performa and was analyzed using SPSS version 14.0. . Chi square χ(2) test was applied to assess association among different categorical variables. Twenty three (26%) females and 67 (74%) males were included in the study. Thirty five of them (38.9%) were found to have Non-carious cervical lesions. Presence of NCCL has no association with gender (P value 0.458). A significant association was found between NCCL and teeth sensitivity (P value 0.002).The association between use of hard tooth brush and Non-carious cervical lesions was found significant (P value carious cervical lesions and fractured cups, broken restoration, teeth grinding, jaw clenching, pan chalia chewing and frequency of teeth brushing were insignificant. Hard tooth brushing and teeth sensitivity have significant association with Non-carious cervical lesions. The role of occlusal wear in the formation of NCCL is not significant.

  8. Cervical SPECT Camera for Parathyroid Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2012-08-31

    Primary hyperparathyroidism characterized by one or more enlarged parathyroid glands has become one of the most common endocrine diseases in the world affecting about 1 per 1000 in the United States. Standard treatment is highly invasive exploratory neck surgery called Parathyroidectomy. The surgery has a notable mortality rate because of the close proximity to vital structures. The move to minimally invasive parathyroidectomy is hampered by the lack of high resolution pre-surgical imaging techniques that can accurately localize the parathyroid with respect to surrounding structures. We propose to develop a dedicated ultra-high resolution (~ 1 mm) and high sensitivity (10x conventional camera) cervical scintigraphic imaging device. It will be based on a multiple pinhole-camera SPECT system comprising a novel solid state CZT detector that offers the required performance. The overall system will be configured to fit around the neck and comfortably image a patient.

  9. Relationship of the changes of cervical MRI, TCD and BAEP in patients with "isolated" vertigo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Wenzhen; Zhang, Xueqing

    2014-01-01

    To study the relationship and changes of cervical MRI, TCD and BAEP in patients with "isolated" vertigo. The relationship and changes of cervical MRI, TCD and BAEP were investigated respectively in 125 patients with "isolated" vertigo and 100 healthy controls. There were statistically significant differences between two groups for overall abnormalities of TCD (X(2) = 61.96, Pvertigo group, results showed significant correlations between TCD and cervical MRI, TCD and BAEP as well. And analysis on TCD PI and some items of BAEP demonstrated positive linear correlations. There were no statistical differences or correlations in control group. TCD is a sensitive method of "isolated" vertigo screening. A combined test protocol of cervical MRI, TCD and BAEP has superiorities to assess "isolated" vertigo.

  10. [The trigemino-cervical complex. Integration of peripheral and central pain mechanisms in primary headache syndromes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busch, V; Frese, A; Bartsch, T

    2004-10-01

    The activation of the trigeminal nociceptive system is the neural substrate of pain in primary headache syndromes such as migraine and cluster headache. The nociceptive inflow from the meninges to the spinal cord is relayed in brainstem neurones of the trigemino-cervical complex (TCC). Two important mechanisms of pain transmission are reviewed: convergence of nociceptive trigeminal and cervical afferents and sensitization of trigemino-cervical neurones. These mechanisms have clinical correlates such as hyperalgesia, allodynia, spread and referral of pain to trigeminal or cervical dermatomes. Neurones in the TCC are subject to a modulation of pain-modulatory circuits in the brainstem such as the periaqueductal grey (PAG). Recent experimental and clinical findings of a modulation of these pain processes are discussed. The review focuses on TCC neurones as integrative relay neurones between peripheral and central pain mechanisms. The understanding of these mechanisms has implications for the understanding of the clinical phenomenology in primary headache syndromes and the development of therapeutical options.

  11. Cervical cancer survival prediction using hybrid of SMOTE, CART and smooth support vector machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purnami, S. W.; Khasanah, P. M.; Sumartini, S. H.; Chosuvivatwong, V.; Sriplung, H.

    2016-04-01

    According to the WHO, every two minutes there is one patient who died from cervical cancer. The high mortality rate is due to the lack of awareness of women for early detection. There are several factors that supposedly influence the survival of cervical cancer patients, including age, anemia status, stage, type of treatment, complications and secondary disease. This study wants to classify/predict cervical cancer survival based on those factors. Various classifications methods: classification and regression tree (CART), smooth support vector machine (SSVM), three order spline SSVM (TSSVM) were used. Since the data of cervical cancer are imbalanced, synthetic minority oversampling technique (SMOTE) is used for handling imbalanced dataset. Performances of these methods are evaluated using accuracy, sensitivity and specificity. Results of this study show that balancing data using SMOTE as preprocessing can improve performance of classification. The SMOTE-SSVM method provided better result than SMOTE-TSSVM and SMOTE-CART.

  12. Multilevel noncontiguous cervical spine injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adetunji Mapaderun Toluse

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This case report highlights the successful combination of operative and nonoperative management of a patient with noncontiguous cervical spine fractures and incomplete spinal cord injury. A case report of a 40-year-old male victim of a motor vehicular accident who presented with noncontiguous cervical spine fractures (Anderson and D'Alonzo Type III odontoid fracture and traumatic spondylolisthesis of C4/C5 and incomplete spinal cord injury. The odontoid fracture was managed nonoperatively, whereas anterior cervical discectomy and fusion were done at the C4/C5 vertebral level. The patient made full neurologic recovery with radiologic evidence of successful fusion and fracture healing at 12 weeks postoperation in both levels of injuries. Operative and nonoperative modalities can be utilized to manage selected patients.

  13. The statics of cervical traction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pio, A; Rendina, M; Benazzo, F; Castelli, C; Paparella, F

    1994-08-01

    The statics of a sliding body was used to study the distribution of forces during the application of cervical traction in supine patients. This theoretical analysis was completed using a dynamometer to determine the static friction between bed surface and patient head. Therefore, we measured the head weight in 12 inpatients and the minimum force that causes impending motion of the head on the bed surface. The static friction coefficient was calculated from the ratio of the two quantities. The forces acting on the cervical spine were determined by inserting the former data into a specifically designed algorithm that forecasted a progressively increasing traction angle. The coefficient of static friction was 0.62, whereas the maximum available force acting on the cervical spine was obtained with a 35 degrees traction inclination. In contrast, the forces dissipated by the plane progressively decreased with larger angles.

  14. Treatment of cervical dislocation with locked facets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Ze-sheng; James J.Yue; WEI Feng; LIU Zhong-jun; CHEN Zhong-qiang; DANG Geng-ting

    2007-01-01

    Background Lower cervical dislocation with locked facets is common in cervical injury. The locked facets include unilateral and bilateral types. Different successful closed reduction rates has been achieved between unilateral and bilateral types by using rapid skull traction, which was commonly used to reduce the cervical dislocation. It is important to investigate a suitable management specific to patients with different types of cervical locked facets.Methods A total of 38 patients with cervical dislocation with locked facet due to cervical injury treated by rapid skull traction and operation from 1988 to 2005 were reviewed. Rapid skull traction was used in all the patients. Successful closed reduction rate was 88.0% in patients with bilateral cervical locked facets and that was 15.4% in those with unilateral cervical locked facets. These data were then statistically compared by Chi-square test. Patients who were reduced successfully underwent anterior cervical discectomy and fusion at the injured level, and those who failed in closed reduction received posterior open reduction and fixation.Results In this series, there was statistically significant difference (P<0.05) in the rate of successful closed skull traction reduction between unilateral and bilateral locked facets dislocation. Unilateral cervical locked facets dislocation was not easily reduced by skull traction which was suitable for reduction of bilateral cervical locked facets dislocation. However,unilateral cervical locked facets dislocation can be reduced by posterior open reduction.Conclusions Unilateral cervical locked facets dislocation should be treated immediately with posterior open reduction and instrumentation. Bilateral cervical locked facets dislocation can be reduced by rapid skull traction firstly and anterior cervical discectomy and interbody fusion later.

  15. Imaging of cervical spine injuries of childhood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khanna, Geetika; El-Khoury, Georges Y. [University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics, Department of Radiology, 3951 JPP, Iowa, IA (United States)

    2007-06-15

    Cervical spine injuries of children, though rare, have a high morbidity and mortality. The pediatric cervical spine is anatomically and biomechanically different from that of adults. Hence, the type, level and outcome of cervical spine injuries in children are different from those seen in adults. Normal developmental variants seen in children can make evaluation of the pediatric cervical spine challenging. This article reviews the epidemiology of pediatric cervical spine trauma, normal variants seen in children and specific injuries that are more common in the pediatric population. We also propose an evidence-based imaging protocol to avoid unnecessary imaging studies and minimize radiation exposure in children. (orig.)

  16. Cervical spine in Treacher Collins syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pun, Amy Hoi-Ying; Clark, Bruce Eric; David, David John; Anderson, Peter John

    2012-05-01

    Treacher Collins syndrome is a congenital syndrome with characteristic craniofacial malformations, which are well described in the literature. However, the presence of cervical spine dysmorphology in this syndrome has been minimally described. This study reviews cervical spine radiographs of 40 patients with Treacher Collins syndrome. In this sample, 7 of 40 patients displayed cervical spine anomalies, with 3 of these patients displaying multiple cervical spine anomalies. The patterns of spinal anomalies were variable, suggesting that the underlying genetic mutation has variable expressivity in cervical spine development as it does elsewhere in the craniofacial skeleton.

  17. [Lithopedion in cervical pregnancy: a case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustamante Sarabia, J; Flores Gil, O; Rubio, J E; Plata Nuñez, P

    1989-12-01

    One clinical case of cervical pregnancy studied, at the Hospital Regional ISSSTE in Acapulco, Guerrero, México, is presented. Clinically it was manifested as a true cervical pregnancy, with intermittent vaginal bleeding, fetid leukorrhea and slight pelvic pain. Literature reveals that diagnosis is rarely, if ever made, except by direct observation of the cervix. The case fulfills the Rubin's criteria for cervical pregnancy. Cervical pregnancy is extremely rare as evidenced by the paucity of cases in literature. Although it is an abnormal gestation, cervical pregnancy and a lithopedion formation makes this report rare and unique in world literature.

  18. Percutaneous cervical nucleoplasty in the treatment of cervical disc herniation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian; Yan, Deng-lu; Zhang, Zai-Heng

    2008-12-01

    Percutaneous disc decompression procedures have been performed in the past. Various percutaneous techniques such as percutaneous discectomy, laser discectomy, and nucleoplasty have been successful. Our prospective study was directly to evaluate the results of percutaneous cervical nucleoplasty (PCN) surgery for cervical disc herniation, and illustrate the effectiveness of PCN in symptomatic patients who had cervical herniated discs. From July of 2002 to June of 2005, 126 consecutive patients with contained cervical disc herniations have presented at the authors' clinic and treated by PCN. The patients' gender distribution for PCN was 65 male, 61 female. The age of patients ranged from 34 to 66 years (mean 51.9 +/- 10.2 years). The levels of involvement were 21 cases at C3-4, 30 cases at C4-5, 40 cases at C5-6, and 35 cases at C6-7. The clinical outcomes, pain reduction and the segment stability were all recorded during this study. A clinical outcome was quantified by the Macnab standard and using VAS. The angular displacement (AD) > or =11 degrees or horizontal displacement (HD) > or =3 mm was considered to be radiographically unstable. In the results of this study, puncture of the needle into the disc space was accurately performed under X-ray guidance in all cases. There was one case where the Perc-D Spine Wand had broken in the disc space during the procedure. The partial Perc-D Spine Wand, which had broken in the disc space could not be removed by the percutaneous cervical discectomy and thus remained there. There were no recurrent cases or complications in our series. Macnab standard results were excellent in 62 cases, good in 41 cases and fair in 23 cases. The rate of excellent and good was 83.73%. The VAS scores demonstrated statistically significant improvement in PCN at the 2-week, 1, 3, 6, and 12-month follow-up visits when compared to preoperational values (P PCN procedure. There was no significant difference in stability either preoperatively or

  19. Double Balloon Cervical Ripening Catheter for Control of Massive Hemorrhage in a Cervical Ectopic Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambrano, Nabila; Reilly, James; Moretti, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Cervical pregnancy can be complicated by perfuse vaginal bleeding. Mechanical compression directed at tamponing the cervical vessels can control hemostasis. There are several types of balloon catheters that have been described for cervical compression. However use of a double balloon catheter is a novel approach for cervical tamponade, as one balloon is positioned below the external cervical os and the second balloon is situated above in the internal cervical os. This compresses the cervix from internal os to external os between the two balloons, forming a “cervical sandwich.” We describe this method of cervical tamponade using a silicone double balloon cervical ripening catheter that rapidly controlled hemorrhage in a patient that failed conservative management with methotrexate. PMID:28261511

  20. Cervical cancer: A global health crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small, William; Bacon, Monica A; Bajaj, Amishi; Chuang, Linus T; Fisher, Brandon J; Harkenrider, Matthew M; Jhingran, Anuja; Kitchener, Henry C; Mileshkin, Linda R; Viswanathan, Akila N; Gaffney, David K

    2017-07-01

    Cervical cancer is the fourth most common malignancy diagnosed in women worldwide. Nearly all cases of cervical cancer result from infection with the human papillomavirus, and the prevention of cervical cancer includes screening and vaccination. Primary treatment options for patients with cervical cancer may include surgery or a concurrent chemoradiotherapy regimen consisting of cisplatin-based chemotherapy with external beam radiotherapy and brachytherapy. Cervical cancer causes more than one quarter of a million deaths per year as a result of grossly deficient treatments in many developing countries. This warrants a concerted global effort to counter the shocking loss of life and suffering that largely goes unreported. This article provides a review of the biology, prevention, and treatment of cervical cancer, and discusses the global cervical cancer crisis and efforts to improve the prevention and treatment of the disease in underdeveloped countries. Cancer 2017;123:2404-12. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  1. The Prevalence of Human Papillomavirus in Cervical Cancer in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortazavi, SH; Zali, MR; Raoufi, M; Nadji, M; Kowsarian, P; Nowroozi, A

    2002-01-01

    Background: The human papiloma virus (HPV), which is sexually transmitted, and most commonly causes genital warts, has been linked to cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and invasive carcinoma. Of ninety plus types of HPV, HPV-16 is the most prevalent in cervical cancer, followed by HPV-18, and HPV-33. As HPV's implication has not been assessed in the Middle East the main focus of this retrospective study was to determine the prevalence of HPV -16,18, and 33 in cases of cervical cancer from Iran. Material and Methods: This retrospective study covered 100 patients with uterine cervical carcinomas who were referred to two referral centers for cancer in Tehran-Iran. Pathological blocks were collected for these cases and initial review of the blocks showed poor specimens in 18 cases, which left 82 cases for the study. These samples were histologically examined to verify the presence and the type of carcinoma. The next step was in situ hybridzation for the detection of HPV common DNA. In Situ hybridization was preformed on all samples. Finally, Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) was preformed for the HPV types 16, 18, and 33. PCR amplification of exon 5 of the p53 gene was used as an internal control for the integrity of DNA. Takara PCR Human papilloma Detection method was used which includes primer for HPV 16, 18, and 33. Three primers were used alone, or in combination, in order to increase the sensitivity of the detection. Results: The majority of tumors were squamous cell carcinomas (87%). The rest were adenosquamous carcinoma and adenocarcinomas. None of the 82 different cervical carcinoma tissue samples were found to be positive by in situ hybridization. In the PCR samples, amplification of DNA was observed for 69 tumor specimens. In the remainning13 cases, the DNA in fixed tissue was degraded, as verified by the absence of an internal control band (p53). Out of the total 69 tumors (85.5%) with adequate DNA contained HPV band on PCR. The majority (73.9%) of HPV

  2. Comparison of Efficacy in Abnormal Cervical Cell Detection between Liquid-based Cytology and Conventional Cytology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanabodee, Jitraporn; Thepsuwan, Kitisak; Karalak, Anant; Laoaree, Orawan; Krachang, Anong; Manmatt, Kittipong; Anontwatanawong, Nualpan

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to 1206 women who had cervical cancer screening at Chonburi Cancer Hospital. The spilt-sample study aimed to compare the efficacy of abnormal cervical cells detection between liquid-based cytology (LBC) and conventional cytology (CC). The collection of cervical cells was performed by broom and directly smeared on a glass slide for CC then the rest of specimen was prepared for LBC. All slides were evaluated and classified by The Bethesda System. The results of the two cytological tests were compared to the gold standard. The LBC smear significantly decreased inflammatory cell and thick smear on slides. These two techniques were not difference in detection rate of abnormal cytology and had high cytological diagnostic agreement of 95.7%. The histologic diagnosis of cervical tissue was used as the gold standard in 103 cases. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, false positive, false negative and accuracy of LBC at ASC-US cut off were 81.4, 75.0, 70.0, 84.9, 25.0, 18.6 and 77.7%, respectively. CC had higher false positive and false negative than LBC. LBC had shown higher sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV and accuracy than CC but no statistical significance. In conclusion, LBC method can improve specimen quality, more sensitive, specific and accurate at ASC-US cut off and as effective as CC in detecting cervical epithelial cell abnormalities.

  3. Treatment protocols for cervical cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vujkov Tamara

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Cervical cancer is the second most common cancer in women worldwide and the second cause of cancer death among women. About 95% (90% in developed countries of invasive carcinomas are of sqamous types, and 5% (10% in developed countries are adenocarcinomas. FIGO classification of cervical carcinomas, based on clinical staging and prognostic factor dictate therapeutic procedures and help in designing treatment protocols. Therapeutic modalities Surgical therapy includes conization, radical hysterectomy with pelvic lymphadenectomy and palliative operation urinary diversion and colostomy. Radiotherapy, brachytherapy and teletherapy are most recently combined with chemotherapy as concurrent chemoradiation. Discussion and conclusion No change in therapeutic modalities will ever decrease mortality rate of cervical carcinoma as much as education, prevention and early screening. The 5-year survival for locally advanced disease has not improved during the last 40 years as a result of failure to deliver therapy to the paraaortic region. Paraaortic lymph nodes should be evaluated before therapy planning by different imaging procedures, or more exactly by surgical staging: laparoscopy or laparotomy. Radical operations of cervical carcinoma should be performed by experienced surgeons, educated for this type of operation, with sufficient number of cases.

  4. Cervical synovial cyst: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Found, Ernest; Bewyer, Dennis

    2011-01-01

    A 47-year-old female school teacher with a six-week history of left-sided scapular and arm pain is presented. We report her evaluation and treatment Although lumbar degenerative synovial cysts have been reported over 200 times in the literature,6 cervical synovial cysts are much more rare. This case reports a cervicothoracic junction degenerative synovial cyst presenting as radiculopathy.

  5. Cervical stenosis following electrosurgical conization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aparecida Cristina Sampaio Monteiro

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Cervical stenosis is a postoperative complication of procedures for treating preinvasive lesions of the cervix and takes on particular importance due to the clinical repercussions associated with it. Furthermore, it causes limitations in relation to cytological and colposcopic follow-up. The aim here was to assess the incidence of cervical stenosis among a cohort of patients who underwent electrosurgical conization and to identify possible prognostic factors associated with its occurrence. DESIGN AND SETTING: Retrospective study at Gynecology and Obstetrics Department, Instituto Fernandes Figueira, Rio de Janeiro. METHODS:This was an observational study among a cohort of patients who underwent electrosurgical conization of the uterine cervix. The possible predictive variables were analyzed as bivariate means between the groups with and without stenosis. We also calculated the incidence density rate ratio for cervical stenosis in relation to each possible predictive variable and the respective confidence intervals (95%. Levels of 5% were considered significant. RESULTS: 274 patients who underwent electrosurgical conization of the uterine cervix with a minimum follow-up period of six months were included. The crude incidence of cervical stenosis was 7.66% and the incidence density was 3.3/1,000 patients-month. CONCLUSIONS: We did not find associations between the variables for stenosis. However, we observed borderline significance levels relating to hemorrhagic complications before and after the operation (p = 0.089.

  6. Nonoperative Management of Cervical Radiculopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childress, Marc A; Becker, Blair A

    2016-05-01

    Cervical radiculopathy describes pain in one or both of the upper extremities, often in the setting of neck pain, secondary to compression or irritation of nerve roots in the cervical spine. It can be accompanied by motor, sensory, or reflex deficits and is most prevalent in persons 50 to 54 years of age. Cervical radiculopathy most often stems from degenerative disease in the cervical spine. The most common examination findings are painful neck movements and muscle spasm. Diminished deep tendon reflexes, particularly of the triceps, are the most common neurologic finding. The Spurling test, shoulder abduction test, and upper limb tension test can be used to confirm the diagnosis. Imaging is not required unless there is a history of trauma, persistent symptoms, or red flags for malignancy, myelopathy, or abscess. Electrodiagnostic testing is not needed if the diagnosis is clear, but has clinical utility when peripheral neuropathy of the upper extremity is a likely alternate diagnosis. Patients should be reassured that most cases will resolve regardless of the type of treatment. Nonoperative treatment includes physical therapy involving strengthening, stretching, and potentially traction, as well as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, muscle relaxants, and massage. Epidural steroid injections may be helpful but have higher risks of serious complications. In patients with red flag symptoms or persistent symptoms after four to six weeks of treatment, magnetic resonance imaging can identify pathology amenable to epidural steroid injections or surgery.

  7. Cervical Cancer Risk Prediction Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Developing statistical models that estimate the probability of developing cervical cancer over a defined period of time will help clinicians identify individuals at higher risk of specific cancers, allowing for earlier or more frequent screening and counseling of behavioral changes to decrease risk.

  8. Clinical aspects of cervical insufficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lotgering, F.K.

    2007-01-01

    Fetal loss is a painful experience. A history of second or early third trimester fetal loss, after painless dilatation of the cervix, prolapse or rupture of the membranes, and expulsion of a live fetus despite minimal uterine activity, is characteristic for cervical insufficiency. In such cases the

  9. Cervical Stenosis, Myelopathy and Radiculopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are gently moved to the side and the cervical vertebrae easily accessed. The structures impinging on the nerve ... on one side of the back of the vertebra and the lamina lifted up on this hinge to make room for the ... How is this diagnosed? You should ...

  10. Incidence of cervical dysplasia and cervical cancer in women living with HIV in Denmark: comparison with the general population

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    Kristina Thorsteinsson

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Women living with HIV (WLWH are reportedly at increased risk of invasive cervical cancer (ICC. WLWH in Denmark attend the National ICC screening program less often than women in the general population. We aimed to estimate the incidence of cervical dysplasia and ICC in WLWH in Denmark. Methods: We studied a nationwide cohort of WLWH and a cohort of age-matched females from the general population in the period 1999–2010. Pathology samples were obtained from The Danish Pathology Data Bank containing nationwide records of all pathology specimens. The cumulative incidence and hazard ratios (HRs for time from inclusion to first cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN/ICC and time from first normal cervical cytology to first CIN/ICC were estimated. Sensitivity analyses were performed to include prior screening outcome, screening intensity and treatment of CIN/ICC in the interpretation of results. Results: We followed 1,143 WLWH and 17,145 controls with no prior history of ICC for 9,509 and 157,362 person-years. Compared to controls, the overall incidence of CIN1 or worse (CIN1+, CIN2+ and CIN3+ was higher in WLWH and predicted by young age and CD4 count <200 cells/µL. In women with normal baseline cytology, incidences of CIN1+ and CIN2+ were higher in WLWH. However, incidences were comparable between WLWH and controls adherent to the National ICC screening program. Conclusions: Overall, WLWH develop more cervical disease than controls. However, incidences of CIN are comparable amongst WLWH and controls adherent to the National ICC screening program and with a normal baseline cytology.

  11. Biomarkers in Cervical Cancer Screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Wentzensen

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In industrialized countries, population wide cytological screening programs using the Pap test have led to a substantial reduction of the incidence of cervical cancer. Despite this evident success, screening programs that rely on Pap-stained cytological samples have several limitations. First, a number of equivocal or mildly abnormal test results require costly work up by either repeated retesting or direct colposcopy and biopsy, since a certain percentage of high grade lesions that require immediate treatment hide among these unclear test results. This work up of mildly abnormal or equivocal cytological tests consumes a large amount of the overall costs spent for cervical cancer screening. Improved triage of these samples might substantially reduce the costs. Cervical cancer is induced by persistent infections with oncogenic human papilloma viruses (HPV. While HPV infection is an indispensable factor, it is not sufficient to cause cancer. The majority of acute HPV infections induce low grade precursor lesions that are cleared spontaneously after several months in more than 90% of cases, and less than 10% eventually progress to high grade lesions or invasive cancer. Progression is characterized by the deregulated expression of the viral oncogenes E6 and E7 in infected basal and parabasal cells. Novel biomarkers that allow monitoring these essential molecular events in histological or cytological specimens are likely to improve the detection of lesions that have a high risk of progression in both primary screening and triage settings. In this review, we will discuss potential biomarkers for cervical cancer screening with a focus on the level of clinical evidence that supports their application as novel markers in refined cervical cancer screening programs.

  12. [Therapeutic effect and mechanism of the surgical treatment for cervical vertigo with cervical spondylosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Zhuolin; Hu, Jianhua; Zhai, Jiliang; Tian, Ye; Qiu, Guixing; Weng, Xisheng; Wu, Gui; Zhu, Qiankun; Zhao, Lijuan

    2015-07-07

    To investigate the therapeutic effect and mechanism of the surgical treatment for cervical vertigo with cervical spondylosis. Thirty-five patients in Department of Orthopaedics, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Peking Union Medical College, who received surgical treatment for cervical spondylosis concomitant with cervical vertigo from 2004 to 2013 were reviewed retrospectively. The preoperative cervical curvature index (CCI), slip distance and intervertebral angle, as well as the pre-and-postoperative Cobb angle were measured. The pre-and-postoperative degree of vertigo was reported according to the American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery Committee on Hearing and Equilibrium standard. The therapeutic effect and mechanism for patients with different imaging features and thus underwent various surgical approaches were analyzed. The mean follow-up was 40.6 months. Cervical instability was found in 33 patients. 29 of 35 (82.9%) patients had a satisfied recovery from cervical vertigo. The difference in Cobb angle in pre- and postoperative neutral cervical X-ray images was positively associated with the improvement for the vertigo (Pearson's test, P vertigo in the context of cervical spondylosis. Cervical sympathetic nerves may have played an important role in the cervical vertigo. Surgery may relieve the cervical vertigo accompanying the cervical spondylosis.

  13. Cervical cancer: screening, diagnosis and staging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsikouras, Panagiotis; Zervoudis, Stefanos; Manav, Bachar; Tomara, Eirini; Iatrakis, George; Romanidis, Constantinos; Bothou, Anastasia; Galazios, George

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Despite the widespread screening programs, cervical cancer remains the third most common cancer in developing countries. Based on the implementation of cervical screening programs with the referred adoption of improved screening methods in cervical cytology with the knowledge of the important role of the human papilloma virus (HPV) it's incidence is decreased in the developed world. Even if cervical HPV infection is incredibly common, cervical cancer is relatively rare. Depending on the rarity of invasive disease and the improvement of detection of pre-cancerous lesions due to the participation in screening programs, the goal of screening is to detect the cervical lesions early in order to be treated before cancer is developed. In populations with many preventive screening programs, a decrease in cervical cancer mortality of 50-75% is mentioned over the past 50 years. The preventive examination of vagina and cervix smear, Pap test, and the HPV DNA test are remarkable diagnostic tools according to the American Cancer Association guidelines, in the investigation of asymptomatic women and in the follow up of women after the treatment of pre-invasive cervical cancer. The treatment of cervical cancer is based on the FIGO 2009 cervical cancer staging.

  14. Chlamydia trachomatis detection in cervical PreservCyt specimens from an Irish urban female population.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Keegan, H

    2012-02-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of cervical Chlamydia trachomatis infection by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in urban women undergoing routine cervical cytological screening and to investigate the relationship with age, cytology, smoking status and concurrent human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. METHODS: A total of 996 women (age range 16-69 years) attending general practitioners for routine liquid-based cervical smear screening in the Dublin area were recruited in the study of prevalence of C. trachomatis. Informed consent was obtained and liquid-based cytology (LBC) specimens were sent for cytological screening. DNA was extracted from residual LBC and tested for C. trachomatis by PCR using the highly sensitive C. trachomatis plasmid (CTP) primers and for HPV infection using the MY09\\/11 primers directed to the HPV L1 gene in a multiplex format. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of C. trachomatis was 5.4%. Prevalence was highest in the <25 years age group (10%). Coinfection with HPV and C. trachomatis occurred in 1% of the screening population. A higher rate of smoking was observed in women positive for C. trachomatis, HPV infections or those with abnormal cervical cytology. Chlamydia trachomatis infection was not associated with abnormal cytology. CONCLUSIONS: Women (5.4%) presenting for routine cervical screening are infected with C. trachomatis. Opportunistic screening for C. trachomatis from PreservCyt sample taken at the time of cervical cytological screening may be a possible strategy to screen for C. trachomatis in the Irish female population.

  15. EFFECTIVENESS OF CRANIO-CERVICAL TRAINING OVER MYOFACIAL PAIN SYNDROME: A CASE STUDY

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    Jeyanthi. S

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Myofascial pain syndrome (MPS is a syndrome presenting with acute or chronic regional pain originating from trigger points (TPs localized in the muscles or the fascia. TPs are local points showing high irritability, sensitivity to finger pressure and causing characteristic referred pain. The aim of this case study is to assess the effectiveness of cranio-cervical training on neck disability, endurance of deep cervical muscles and pressure pain threshold in a patient with cervical myofascial pain syndrome. Case description: A 36 year old female who was diagnosed with myofascial pain syndrome. She received cranio cervical training, a low load endurance exercises in order to train and/or to regain muscle control of the cervicoscapular and craniocervical regions. The patient received the treatment program for 10 to 15 minutes. The frequency of treatment is five days in a week for a period of 3 weeks. Outcome: The outcome measures were neck disability index, pressure pain threshold and deep cervical endurance test, which were measured prior to treatment and at the end of third week. Conclusion: The craniocervical training programme for a patient with myofascial pain syndrome found to be effective in reducing neck disability, improving the pressure pain threshold and deep cervical flexor muscle endurance.

  16. Arsenic trioxide inhibits cell proliferation and human papillomavirus oncogene expression in cervical cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Hongtao [Department of Pathology, School of Medicine, Southeast University, Nanjing 210009 (China); Gao, Peng [Department of Internal Medicine, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States); Zheng, Jie, E-mail: jiezheng54@126.com [Department of Pathology, School of Medicine, Southeast University, Nanjing 210009 (China)

    2014-09-05

    Highlights: • As{sub 2}O{sub 3} inhibits growth of cervical cancer cells and expression of HPV oncogenes in these cells. • HPV-negative cervical cancer cells are more sensitive to As{sub 2}O{sub 3} than HPV-positive cervical cancer cells. • HPV-18 positive cervical cancer cells are more sensitive to As{sub 2}O{sub 3} than HPV-16 positive cancer cells. • Down-regulation of HPV oncogenes by As{sub 2}O{sub 3} is partially due to the diminished AP-1 binding. - Abstract: Arsenic trioxide (As{sub 2}O{sub 3}) has shown therapeutic effects in some leukemias and solid cancers. However, the molecular mechanisms of its anticancer efficacy have not been clearly elucidated, particularly in solid cancers. Our previous data showed that As{sub 2}O{sub 3} induced apoptosis of human papillomavirus (HPV) 16 DNA-immortalized human cervical epithelial cells and cervical cancer cells and inhibited the expression of HPV oncogenes in these cells. In the present study, we systemically examined the effects of As{sub 2}O{sub 3} on five human cervical cancer cell lines and explored the possible molecular mechanisms. MTT assay showed that HPV-negative C33A cells were more sensitive to growth inhibition induced by As{sub 2}O{sub 3} than HPV-positive cervical cancer cells, and HPV 18-positive HeLa and C4-I cells were more sensitive to As{sub 2}O{sub 3} than HPV 16-positive CaSki and SiHa cells. After As{sub 2}O{sub 3} treatment, both mRNA and protein levels of HPV E6 and E7 obviously decreased in all HPV positive cell lines. In contrast, p53 and Rb protein levels increased in all tested cell lines. Transcription factor AP-1 protein expression decreased significantly in HeLa, CaSki and C33A cells with ELISA method. These results suggest that As{sub 2}O{sub 3} is a potential anticancer drug for cervical cancer.

  17. Anterior cervical discectomy and fusion for noncontiguous cervical spondylotic myelopathy

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    Sun Qizhi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Noncontiguous cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM is a special degenerative disease because of the intermediate normal level or levels between supra and infraabnormal levels. Some controversy exists over the optimal procedure for two noncontiguous levels of CSM. The study was to evaluate the outcomes of the anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF with zero-profile devices for two noncontiguous levels of CSM. Materials and Methods: 17 consecutive patients with two noncontiguous levels of CSM operated between December 2009 and August 2012 were included in the study. There were 12 men and 5 women with a mean age of 60.7 years (range 45-75 years. Involved disc levels were C3/4 and C5/6 in 11 patients and C4/5 and C6/7 in six patients. Preoperative plain radiographs, computed tomography (CT with 3-D reconstruction and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI of the cervical spine were taken in all patients. All radiographs were independently evaluated by 2 spine surgeons and 1 radiologist. The outcomes were assessed by the average operative time, blood loss, Japanese Orthopedic Association (JOA score, improvement rate, neck dysfunction index (NDI, swallowing quality of life (SWAL-QOL score, the cervical lordosis and complications. Results: The mean followup was 48.59 months (range 24-56 months. The average operative time and blood loss was 105.29 min and 136.47 ml, respectively. The preoperative JOA score was 8.35, which significantly increased to 13.7 at the final followup ( P 0.05. Cerebrospinal fluid leak, dysphagia and radiological adjacent segment degeneration occurred in one patient, respectively. Conclusion: The ACDF with zero-profile devices is generally effective and safe in treating two noncontiguous levels of CSM.

  18. Measurement of cervical biometry using transvaginal ultrasonography in predicting preterm labor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanvir; Ghose, Seetesh; Samal, Sunita; Armugam, Sedhilcoumari; Parida, Pallavee

    2014-07-01

    Preterm delivery is associated with high perinatal mortality and morbidity. Although detection of fetal fibronectin in cervical can predict preterm labor, but it is not available in lower source setting area. So, cervical length measurement by ultrasound can be used as an alternative to fetal fibronectin for predicting preterm labor. To find out the effectiveness of assessment of cervical length by endovaginal ultrasonography in predicting preterm delivery. The study was conducted in the infertility clinic of Mahatma Gandhi Medical College and Research Institute, Pondicherry from January 2010 to July 2011. A total of 130 women with singleton gestation were studied with transvaginal ultrasonography (TVS) to assess the cervical changes (cervical length, dilation of internal os, presence of funneling) between 22 weeks and 24 weeks of gestation. The gestational age at delivery in women with cervical length with ≥25 mm were compared with those of <25 mm. Statistical analysis was done using Chi-square test. The P value is <0.001 which is statistically significant. The mean cervical length in the study population was 33.16 mm. 16 women had cervical length <25 mm at mid trimesters can out of which 13 (40.62%) went for spontaneous preterm delivery. The relative risk of preterm delivery increased as the length of the cervix decreased. The P value is <0.001 which is statistically significant. A significant difference was found between multigravida at risk of preterm being 62.5% compared to primigravida which was 37.5%. The risk of spontaneous preterm delivery is increased in women who are found to have a short cervix by TVS during pregnancy and it is a sensitive, simple and cost effective method of assessing risk of preterm delivery.

  19. Epidemiology of cervical cancer with special focus on India

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    Sreedevi A

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Aswathy Sreedevi, Reshma Javed, Avani Dinesh Community Medicine, AIMS, Kochi, Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham, Kerala, India Abstract: Cervical cancer is on the declining trend in India according to the population-based registries; yet it continues to be a major public health problem for women in India. Multifactorial causation, potential for prevention, and the sheer threat it poses make cervical cancer an important disease for in-depth studies, as has been attempted by this paper. This paper attempts to review the available knowledge regarding the epidemiology and pattern of cervical cancer; types of HPV (human papilloma virus prevalent among cervical cancer patients and among women in general, high-risk groups such as commercial sex workers, and HIV (human immunodeficiency virus-positive women; and the role of the national program on cancer in control efforts. The peak age of incidence of cervical cancer is 55–59 years, and a considerable proportion of women report in the late stages of disease. Specific types of oncogenic HPV-16, 18 have been identified in patients with cervical cancer. Other epidemiological risk factors are early age at marriage, multiple sexual partners, multiple pregnancies, poor genital hygiene, malnutrition, use of oral contraceptives, and lack of awareness. A multipronged approach is necessary which can target areas of high prevalence identified by registries with a combination of behavior change communication exercises and routine early screening with VIA. Sensitizing the people of the area, including menfolk, is necessary to increase uptake levels. Vaccination against types 16 and 18 can also be undertaken after taking into confidence all stakeholders, including the parents of adolescent girls. Preventing and treating cervical cancer and reducing the burden are possible by targeting resources to the areas with high prevalence. Keywords: cervical cancer, HPV, screening, prevention, epidemiology, India

  20. Human papillomavirus (HPV detected in restored plasma DNA from women diagnosed with pre-invasive lesions and invasive cervical cancer

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    Yazmín Rocío Arias

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To improve the sensitivity of Human Papillomavirus (HPV detection in plasma from high-grade cervical neoplasia patients (CIN III and cervical cancer (CC evaluating any likely correlation with disease stage. Method: We subjected plasma DNA isolates from 112 patients (CIN and ICC to a pre-PCR restoration treatment to improve detection sensitivity. HPV-specific sequences were detected by conventional PCR both in cervical scrapes and plasma DNA obtained from each patient. For every single DNA sample, both non-restored and restored isolates were PCR analyzed. Results: We detected HPV in plasma DNA isolates with significantly higher efficiency on restored plasma-DNA as compared to each non-restored equivalent, still maintaining close correlation with the clinical stage of the cases. By analyzing plasma-DNA isolates we could classify as HPV positive >50.0% of the cases that were previously known to be positive from the cervical scrape based assay. Interestingly, 100% of the cases in which subtype HPV18 was detected in cervical scrapes were also positive in plasma DNA. Conclusions: Restoration of plasma DNA from cervical cancer patients allows a more sensitive PCR-based HPV detection, maintaining the correlation to disease stage traditionally observed.

  1. Human papillomavirus (HPV detected in restored plasma DNA from women diagnosed with pre-invasive lesions and invasive cervical cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward Fabián Carrillo

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To improve the sensitivity of Human Papillomavirus (HPV detection in plasma from high-grade cervical neoplasia patients (CIN III and cervical cancer (CC evaluating any likely correlation with disease stage.Method: We subjected plasma DNA isolates from 112 patients (CIN and ICC to a pre-PCR restoration treatment to improve detection sensitivity. HPV-specific sequences were detected by conventional PCR both in cervical scrapes and plasma DNA obtained from each patient. For every single DNA sample, both non-restored and restored isolates were PCR analyzed.Results: We detected HPV in plasma DNA isolates with significantly higher efficiency on restored plasma-DNA as compared to each non-restored equivalent, still maintaining close correlation with the clinical stage of the cases. By analyzing plasma-DNA isolates we could classify as HPV positive >50.0% of the cases that were previously known to be positive from the cervical scrape based assay. Interestingly, 100% of the cases in which subtype HPV18 was detected in cervical scrapes were also positive in plasma DNA.Conclusions: Restoration of plasma DNA from cervical cancer patients allows a more sensitive PCR-based HPV detection, maintaining the correlation to disease stage traditionally observed.

  2. An Inquiry into Acupuncture Treatment on Cervical Vertebral Disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ Introduction: The cervical vertebral diseases are the diseases of cervical osteoarticular and ligament hypertrophy that cause stenosis of vertebral canals and intervertebral foraminae and compression of nerve roots or cervical segments.

  3. Cervical cytology in serous and endometrioid endometrial cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelofsen, T.; Geels, Y.P.; Pijnenborg, J.M.A.; Ham, M.A.P.C. van; Zomer, S.F.; Tilburg, J.M. van; Snijders, M.P.; Siebers, A.G.; Bulten, J.; Massuger, L.F.A.G.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of abnormal cervical cytology in preoperative cervical cytology of patients diagnosed with uterine papillary serous carcinoma (UPSC) and endometrioid endometrial carcinoma (EEC). In addition, associations between abnormal cervical cytology and

  4. Simulated Pain and Cervical Motion in Patients with Chronic Disorders of the Cervical Spine

    OpenAIRE

    Zeevi Dvir; Noga Gal-Eshel; Boaz Shamir; Evgeny Pevzner; Chava Peretz; Nachshon Knoller

    2004-01-01

    The primary objective of the present study was to determine how simulated severe cervical pain affects cervical motion in patients suffering from two distinct chronic cervical disorders: whiplash (n=25) and degenerative changes (n=25). The second objective was to derive an index that would allow the differentiation of maximal from submaximal performances of cervical range of motion. Patients first performed maximal movement of the head (maximal effort) in each of the six primary directions an...

  5. Cervical spondylosis anatomy: pathophysiology and biomechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shedid, Daniel; Benzel, Edward C

    2007-01-01

    Cervical spondylosis is the most common progressive disorder in the aging cervical spine. It results from the process of degeneration of the intervertebral discs and facet joints of the cervical spine. Biomechanically, the disc and the facets are the connecting structures between the vertebrae for the transmission of external forces. They also facilitate cervical spine mobility. Symptoms related to myelopathy and radiculopathy are caused by the formation of osteophytes, which compromise the diameter of the spinal canal. This compromise may also be partially developmental. The developmental process, together with the degenerative process, may cause mechanical pressure on the spinal cord at one or multiple levels. This pressure may produce direct neurological damage or ischemic changes and, thus, lead to spinal cord disturbances. A thorough understanding of the biomechanics, the pathology, the clinical presentation, the radiological evaluation, as well as the surgical indications of cervical spondylosis, is essential for the management of patients with cervical spondylosis.

  6. Sentinel lymph node mapping in early stage of endometrial and cervical cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tajossadat Allameh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The sentinel lymph node (SLN is defined as the first chain node in the lymphatic basin that receives primary lymphatic flow. If the SLN is negative for metastatic disease, then other nodes are expected to be disease-free. SLN techniques have been extensively applied in the staging and treatment of many tumors, including melanoma, breast and vulvar cancers. This study aims to evaluate our technique in SLN mapping in early stage endometrial and cervical cancers. Materials and Methods: We scheduled a cross-sectional pilot study for patients undergoing staging surgery for endometrial and cervical cancer from November 2012 to February 2014 in Beheshti and Sadoughi Hospitals. Our SLN mapping technique included 1 h preoperative or intraoperative injection of 4 ml of 1% methylene blue dye in the tumor site. At the time of surgery, blue lymph nodes were removed and labeled as SLNs. Then systematic lymph node dissection was completed, and all of the nodes were sent for pathologic examination concerning metastatic involvement. All of the sentinel nodes were first stained with hematoxylin and eosin and examined. Those negative in this study were then stained with immunohistochemistry using anti-keratin antibody. Descriptive statistics, sensitivity, negative predictive values (NPV, false negative (FN and detection rates were calculated. Results: Twenty-three patients including 62% endometrial and 38% cervical cancers enrolled in the study. Median of SLN count in the endometrial and cervical cancers was 3 and 2, respectively. Among endometrial and cervical cancers, detection rate of metastatic disease was 80% and 87.5%, respectively. The FN rate for this technique was 0 and the sensitivity and NPV are 100% for both endometrial and cervical cancers. Conclusion: Considering the lower risk of metastases in early stage of both endometrial and cervical cancers, SLN technique allows for confident and accurate staging of cancer.

  7. Utility of STIR MRI in pediatric cervical spine clearance after trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Mark; Scarlata, Katherine; Riesenburger, Ron I; Kryzanski, James; Rideout, Leslie; Samdani, Amer; Jea, Andrew; Hwang, Steven W

    2013-07-01

    Although MRI with short-term T1 inversion recovery (STIR) sequencing has been widely adopted in the clearance of cervical spine in adults who have sustained trauma, its applicability for cervical spine clearance in pediatric trauma patients remains unclear. The authors sought to review a Level 1 trauma center's experience using MRI for posttraumatic evaluation of the cervical spine in pediatric patients. A pediatric trauma database was retrospectively queried for patients who received an injury warranting radiographic imaging of the cervical spine and had a STIR-MRI sequence of the cervical spine performed within 48 hours of injury between 2002 and 2011. Demographic, radiographic, and outcome data were retrospectively collected through medical records. Seventy-three cases were included in the analysis. The mean duration of follow-up was 10 months (range 4 days-7 years). The mean age of the patients at the time of trauma evaluation was 8.3 ± 5.8 years, and 65% were male. The majority of patients were involved in a motor vehicle accident. In 70 cases, the results of MRI studies were negative, and the patients were cleared prior to discharge with no clinical suggestion of instability on follow-up. In 3 cases, the MRI studies had abnormal findings; 2 of these 3 patients were cleared with dynamic radiographs during the same admission. Only 1 patient had an unstable injury and required surgical stabilization. The sensitivity of STIR MRI to detect cervical instability was 100% with a specificity of 97%. The positive predictive value was 33% and the negative predictive value was 100%. Although interpretation of our results are diminished by limitations of the study, in our series, STIR MRI in routine screening for pediatric cervical trauma had a high sensitivity and slightly lower specificity, but may have utility in future practices and should be considered for implementation into protocols.

  8. Comparative analysis of cervical spine management in a subset of severe traumatic brain injury cases using computer simulation.

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    Kimbroe J Carter

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: No randomized control trial to date has studied the use of cervical spine management strategies in cases of severe traumatic brain injury (TBI at risk for cervical spine instability solely due to damaged ligaments. A computer algorithm is used to decide between four cervical spine management strategies. A model assumption is that the emergency room evaluation shows no spinal deficit and a computerized tomogram of the cervical spine excludes the possibility of fracture of cervical vertebrae. The study's goal is to determine cervical spine management strategies that maximize brain injury functional survival while minimizing quadriplegia. METHODS/FINDINGS: The severity of TBI is categorized as unstable, high risk and stable based on intracranial hypertension, hypoxemia, hypotension, early ventilator associated pneumonia, admission Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS and age. Complications resulting from cervical spine management are simulated using three decision trees. Each case starts with an amount of primary and secondary brain injury and ends as a functional survivor, severely brain injured, quadriplegic or dead. Cervical spine instability is studied with one-way and two-way sensitivity analyses providing rankings of cervical spine management strategies for probabilities of management complications based on QALYs. Early collar removal received more QALYs than the alternative strategies in most arrangements of these comparisons. A limitation of the model is the absence of testing against an independent data set. CONCLUSIONS: When clinical logic and components of cervical spine management are systematically altered, changes that improve health outcomes are identified. In the absence of controlled clinical studies, the results of this comparative computer assessment show that early collar removal is preferred over a wide range of realistic inputs for this subset of traumatic brain injury. Future research is needed on identifying factors in

  9. Arsenic trioxide inhibits cell proliferation and human papillomavirus oncogene expression in cervical cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongtao; Gao, Peng; Zheng, Jie

    2014-09-05

    Arsenic trioxide (As2O3) has shown therapeutic effects in some leukemias and solid cancers. However, the molecular mechanisms of its anticancer efficacy have not been clearly elucidated, particularly in solid cancers. Our previous data showed that As2O3 induced apoptosis of human papillomavirus (HPV) 16 DNA-immortalized human cervical epithelial cells and cervical cancer cells and inhibited the expression of HPV oncogenes in these cells. In the present study, we systemically examined the effects of As2O3 on five human cervical cancer cell lines and explored the possible molecular mechanisms. MTT assay showed that HPV-negative C33A cells were more sensitive to growth inhibition induced by As2O3 than HPV-positive cervical cancer cells, and HPV 18-positive HeLa and C4-I cells were more sensitive to As2O3 than HPV 16-positive CaSki and SiHa cells. After As2O3 treatment, both mRNA and protein levels of HPV E6 and E7 obviously decreased in all HPV positive cell lines. In contrast, p53 and Rb protein levels increased in all tested cell lines. Transcription factor AP-1 protein expression decreased significantly in HeLa, CaSki and C33A cells with ELISA method. These results suggest that As2O3 is a potential anticancer drug for cervical cancer.

  10. Detection of Recurrent Cervical Cancer by Whole-body FDG PET Scans

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiaxin Yang; Jinhui Wang; Zhaohui Zhu; Keng Shen; Bocheng Wang

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the role of whole-body {18F} fluro-2-dexoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) scans in the detection of recurrent cervical cancer.METHODS Between June, 2000 and January, 2006, 25 patients had undergone a PET scan at the Peking Union Medical College Hospital to evaluate possible recurrent cervical cancer. All the PET findings were reviewed and compared to available clinical data to classify each PET scan result as a true positive, true negative, false positive, or false negative.RESULTS A total of 38 PET scans were conducted on the 25patients whose median age was 46 years. The Stage distributions were IA (n = 1), IB (n = 11), IIA (n = 5), IIB (n = 4), IIIB (n = 2), WB (n= 1), and unknown Stage (n = 1). There were 22 cases of squamous cell carcinoma and 3 cases of adenocarcinoma resulting in 9 true positive PET scans, 27 true negatives, 2 false positives and no false negatives. The sensitivity of the FDG PET scans for detecting recurrent cervical cancer was 100%, specificity 93.1%, positive predictive value 81.8%, and negative predictive value 100%.CONCLUSION The whole body FDG PET scans are a sensitive and specific imaging modality for the detection of recurrent cervical cancer. However the cost of PET scans is too high at this time. A large prospective study will determine whether this modality should be used routinely and take the place of other imaging methods in the early detection of recurrent cervical carcinoma

  11. Detecting cervical cancer by quantitative promoter hypermethylation assay on cervical scrapings : A feasibility study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reesink-Peters, N; Wisman, G.B.A.; Jeronimo, C; Tokumaru, CY; Cohen, Y; Dong, SM; Klip, HG; Buikema, HJ; Suurmeijer, AJH; Hollema, H; Boezen, HM; Sidransky, D; van der Zee, AGJ

    2004-01-01

    Current morphology-based cervical cancer screening is associated with significant false-positive and false-negative results. Tumor suppressor gene hypermethylation is frequently present in cervical cancer. It is unknown whether a cervical scraping reflects the methylation status of the underlying ep

  12. Detecting cervical cancer by quantitative promoter hypermethylation assay on cervical scrapings : A feasibility study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reesink-Peters, N; Wisman, G.B.A.; Jeronimo, C; Tokumaru, CY; Cohen, Y; Dong, SM; Klip, HG; Buikema, HJ; Suurmeijer, AJH; Hollema, H; Boezen, HM; Sidransky, D; van der Zee, AGJ

    Current morphology-based cervical cancer screening is associated with significant false-positive and false-negative results. Tumor suppressor gene hypermethylation is frequently present in cervical cancer. It is unknown whether a cervical scraping reflects the methylation status of the underlying

  13. Detecting cervical cancer by quantitative promoter hypermethylation assay on cervical scrapings : A feasibility study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reesink-Peters, N; Wisman, G.B.A.; Jeronimo, C; Tokumaru, CY; Cohen, Y; Dong, SM; Klip, HG; Buikema, HJ; Suurmeijer, AJH; Hollema, H; Boezen, HM; Sidransky, D; van der Zee, AGJ

    2004-01-01

    Current morphology-based cervical cancer screening is associated with significant false-positive and false-negative results. Tumor suppressor gene hypermethylation is frequently present in cervical cancer. It is unknown whether a cervical scraping reflects the methylation status of the underlying ep

  14. Cervical Rib causing Thrombosis of Subclavian Atery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Sharma

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available We describe here an unusual case of thrombosis of left subclavian artery in a patient with cervical rib. The patient presented with features of ischaemia of left upper limb. X-ray chest revealed bilateral cervical ribs, longer on the left side. Color Doppler studies showed echogenic thrombus within the left subclavian artery. Angiography revealed complete occlusion of left subclavian artery. Embolectomy was done. She was planned for excision of rib. KEYWORDS: cervical rib, thrombosis of subclavian artery.

  15. Telomerase activity in cervical intraepithelial neoplasia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王淑珍; 孙建衡; 张伟; 金顺钱; 王洪平; 金玉生; 曲萍; 刘毅; 李茉

    2004-01-01

    Background It was reported that telomerase expression is closely associated with cellular immortality and cancer. This study was designed to investigate the relationship between telomerase expression and the carcinogenesis of cervical cancer, the possible use of telomerase as a marker of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) progression or regression, and the natural history of CIN. Methods Telomeric repeat amplification protocol (TRAP) assay was used to measure telomerase activity in cervical scrapings and biopsy samples obtained from 105 cases affected with various cervical conditions, including chronic cervicitis (n=20), CIN (n=64, 16 cases of CIN Ⅰ , 20 cases of CIN Ⅱ, and 28 cases of CIN Ⅲ ), and invasive squamous cell carcinoma (n =21 ).Results In exfoliated cell samples, telomerase activity was detected in 5 of 20 (25. 0% ) cases of cervicitis, 10 of 16 (62.5%) cases of CIN Ⅰ , 11 of 20 (55.0%) cases of CIN Ⅱ, 23 of 28 (82.1%) cases of CIN Ⅲ, and 13 of 21 (61.9%) cases of carcinoma. In cervical biopsy samples, telomerase activity was detected in 6 of 20 (30. 0%) cases of cervicitis, 8 of 16 (50. 0%) cases of CIN Ⅰ , 9 of 20 (45.0%) cases of (CIN Ⅱ, 27 of 28 (96. 4%) cases of CIN Ⅲ, and 20 of 21 (95. 2%) cases of carcinoma. Telomerase activation was significantly higher in CIN samples than in cervicitis samples. Telomerase activity was detected at similar frequency in samples from cervical scrapings and cervical biopsies.Conclusion These results seem to suggest that telomerase expression may be associated with carcinogenesis of the cervix. TRAP assay of cervical scraping samples could be used to monitor and predict the development of CIN in clinical practice.

  16. Post laminoplasty cervical kyphosis—Case report

    OpenAIRE

    D.E. Dugoni; Mancarella, C.; Landi, A.; R. Tarantino; Ruggeri, A. G.; R. Delfini

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Cervical kyphosis is a progressive cervical sagittal plane deformity that may cause a reduction in the ability to look horizontally, breathing and swallowing difficulties, sense of thoracic oppression and social isolation. Moreover, cervical kyphosis can cause myelopathy due to a direct compression by osteo-articular structures on the spinal cord or to a transitory ischaemic injury. The treatment of choice is surgery. The goals of surgery are: nervous structures decompression, c...

  17. CRYOTHERAPY IN CERVICAL INTRAEPITHELIAL NEOPLASIA

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    Naina Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cryotherapy is a time proven ablative method of treating lower grades of cervical dysplasia. It  is done using compressed CO2 or N2O refrigerant with the aim of creating an ice ball with a depth of freeze denoted by a peripheral margin of 4-5 mm of frost. It is performed using a double freeze or single freeze technique. Currently the double freeze technique of cryotherapy is an accepted treatment for mild and focal moderate dysplasia of the uterine cervix. The success of cryotherapy is determined by five factors : patient anatomy, pathology, equipment, technique and physician skill. Here we have a brief review of cryotherapy as an effective modality in treatment of lower grades of cervical intraepithelial neoplasias.

  18. Preventive vaccines for cervical cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WHEELER COSETTE M

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available The potential use of vaccines for the human papillomavirus (HPV in the prevention and treatment of cervical cancer is a possibility in the near future. Close to 20 genotypes of HPV, of the 75 that have been identified, infect the femine genital tract, but four subtypes (16, 18, 31 and 45 have been associated in close to 80% of cervical cancers. this article proposes that in order to design an effective prophylactic vaccine against HPV infection, an adequate immune response should be guaranteed through four goals; a activation of antigens present in the cell; b overcoming the host response and viral genetic variability in the T cell response; c generation of high levels of T and B memory cells; and d persistence of antigens.

  19. PROGNOSTIC FACTORS IN CERVICAL CARCINOMA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    路平; 梁秋冬; 魏磊; 郑全庆

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate factors for prognosis of cervical carcinoma. Methods: Expressions of mn23- HI, erbB3 and erbB4 were examined by immunohistochemical staining. The apoptosis was detected in situ by the TdT mediated duip-biotin nick end-labeling (TUNEL) technique. Mitotic cell were counted by HE dyeing. Results: FIGO stage and lymph node metastasis were the most important factors for evaluating prognosis in adenocarcinoma or squamous cell carcinoma. AI/MI was positively correlated with 5-year survival of cervical carcinoma. Positive expression of nm23-H1 combed with negative expression of erbB4 [nm23-H1(+)/erbB4(-)] predicted good prognosis for adeno-carcinoma. In multivariable Cox regression analysis, only FIGO stage and AI/MI were into equation. Conclusion: FIGO stage and AI/MI were independent evaluating parameter for adenocarcinoma or squamous cell carcinoma.

  20. Working capacity and cervical dystonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martikainen, Kirsti K; Luukkaala, Tiina H; Marttila, Reijo J

    2010-03-01

    The objective of this questionnaire study was to assess the effect of cervical dystonia on patients' working capacity. Of the 303 working-aged members of the Finnish Dystonia Association (N = 433) who participated in the study 247 (82%) had cervical dystonia. Their median age was 50 years, the median duration of CD symptoms was 12.3 years. Most (78%) subjects were on botulinum toxin treatment. Ninety-seven (39%) had retired because of CD at a median age of 48 years; 96 (39%) of the subjects were working: 87 full-time and 9 part-time. The remaining participants were on sick leave, unemployed, studying or retired of other reasons. Retirement occurred more than ten years earlier compared with the general Finnish population. All possibilities to help CD patients to continue longer in work should be considered early.

  1. Isolated Echinococcosis of cervical region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pratima Khare

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Echinococcosis, commonly called as hydatid disease, is a parasitic infestation caused by the larva of the genus Echinococcus in human. Isolated occurrence of Echinococcosis without any evidence of visceral disease is very rare. A thorough search of the literature revealed only 11 cases of isolated cervical Echinococcosis. We report here a very rare case of isolated hydatid cyst in a 45-year-old female patient, who presented with swelling in right cervical region about 5 cm below the angle of mandible with no evidence of the disease elsewhere in the body. The case was diagnosed on fine needle aspiration cytology. The diagnosis was further supported by histopathology. We propose that the treating physician should also consider the differential diagnosis of Echinococcosis in the presence of an asymptomatic soft tissue mass, especially when the patient lives in an endemic area.

  2. c-myc Gene Copy Number Variation in Cervical Exfoliated Cells Detected on Fluorescence in situ Hybridization for Cervical Cancer Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wei-Hong; Hao, Min; Cheng, Xiao-Tong; Yang, Xin; Wang, Zhi-Lian; Cheng, Ke-Yan; Liu, Fang-Li; Bai, Yao-Xian

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed the clinical significance of c-myc gene copy number gain detected by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) in the prediction of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) progression. We retrospectively investigated 140 Thinprep cytologic test (TCT) specimens that were histopathologically diagnosed with various stages of cervical neoplasia or malignancy. The specimens were subjected to TCT, human papillomavirus (HPV) testing, and FISH analysis with a c-myc-specific probe. The diagnostic reliability of these methods in determining progression was assessed according to sensitivity, specificity, and κ coefficients. The gene copy number gain of c-myc was significantly higher in the cervical lesion of advanced histologic grade (p c-myc gene test and either the TCT or the HPV DNA test were 0.538 and 0.399, respectively (p c-myc oncogene could be a useful adjunct screening method for the early diagnosis of high-grade cervical lesions. Moreover, c-myc may be a new molecular biomarker for the early diagnosis of cervical lesion progression. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. HPV DNA testing in population-based cervical screening (VUSA-Screen study) : results and implications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijkaart, D. C.; Berkhof, J.; van Kemenade, F. J.; Coupe, V. M. H.; Rozendaal, L.; Heideman, D. A. M.; Verheijen, R. H. M.; Bulk, S.; Verweij, W.; Snijders, P. J. F.; Meijer, C. J. L. M.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Human papillomavirus (HPV) testing is more sensitive than cytology for detecting high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN). We evaluated the performance of high-risk HPV (hrHPV) testing in routine screening. METHODS: In all, 25 871 women (29-61) enrolled in our population-based

  4. Diagnostic Accuracy of the Neck Tornado Test as a New Screening Test in Cervical Radiculopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Juyeon; Park, Woo Young; Hong, Seungbae; An, Jiwon; Koh, Jae Chul; Lee, Youn-Woo; Kim, Yong Chan; Choi, Jong Bum

    2017-01-01

    The Spurling test, although a highly specific provocative test of the cervical spine in cervical radiculopathy (CR), has low to moderate sensitivity. Thus, we introduced the neck tornado test (NTT) to examine the neck and the cervical spine in CR. The aim of this study was to introduce a new provocative test, the NTT, and compare the diagnostic accuracy with a widely accepted provocative test, the Spurling test. Retrospective study. Medical records of 135 subjects with neck pain (CR, n = 67; without CR, n = 68) who had undergone cervical spine magnetic resonance imaging and been referred to the pain clinic between September 2014 and August 2015 were reviewed. Both the Spurling test and NTT were performed in all patients by expert examiners. Sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy were compared for both the Spurling test and the NTT. The sensitivity of the Spurling test and the NTT was 55.22% and 85.07% (P < 0.0001); specificity, 98.53% and 86.76% (P = 0.0026); accuracy, 77.04% and 85.93% (P = 0.0423), respectively. The NTT is more sensitive with superior diagnostic accuracy for CR diagnosed by magnetic resonance imaging than the Spurling test.

  5. HPV DNA testing in population-based cervical screening (VUSA-Screen study) : results and implications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijkaart, D. C.; Berkhof, J.; van Kemenade, F. J.; Coupe, V. M. H.; Rozendaal, L.; Heideman, D. A. M.; Verheijen, R. H. M.; Bulk, S.; Verweij, W.; Snijders, P. J. F.; Meijer, C. J. L. M.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Human papillomavirus (HPV) testing is more sensitive than cytology for detecting high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN). We evaluated the performance of high-risk HPV (hrHPV) testing in routine screening. METHODS: In all, 25 871 women (29-61) enrolled in our population-based

  6. Screening for cervical cancer precursors with p16/Ki-67 dual-stained cytology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ikenberg, Hans; Bergeron, Christine; Schmidt, Dietmar

    2013-01-01

    Pap cytology is known to be more specific but less sensitive than testing for human papillomavirus (HPV) for the detection of high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN2+). We assessed whether p16/Ki-67 dual-stained cytology, a biomarker combination indicative of transforming HPV infections...

  7. Structural alterations of transforming growth factor-beta receptor genes in human cervical carcinoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, TP; De Vries, EGE; Hollema, H; Yegen, HA; Vellucci, VF; Strickler, HD; Hildesheim, A; Reiss, M

    1999-01-01

    The development and progression of invasive uterine cervical carcinomas appear to be associated with the progressive loss of sensitivity to transforming growth factor-beta (TGF beta)-mediated cell cycle arrest. In order to identify possible molecular mechanisms responsible for TGF beta resistance, w

  8. Os Odontoideum: Rare Cervical Lesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristie A Robson

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available We report the case of a 22-year-old Marine who presented to the emergency department, after a martial arts exercise, with transient weakness and numbness in all extremities. Computed tomography cervical spine radiographs revealed os odontoideum. Lateral flexion–extension radiographs identified atlanto-axillary instability. This abnormality is rare and can be career ending for military members who do not undergo surgical fusion. [West J Emerg Med. 2011;12(4:520–522.

  9. Methods for Cervical Cancer Screening

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    Tatiana Vargas-Revilla

    2014-12-01

    This article is divided in three sections: the first one focuses on the general impact of cervical cancer has hadin CostaRica, these condsection gathers information about different methodologies used around the world to detect this cancer and the third one makes reference to the current development of the screening devise in Mexico that works as a monitoring system and can used by women without external assistance.

  10. Surgery for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Hirsch, Pierre PL; Paraskevaidis, Evangelos; Bryant, Andrew; Dickinson, Heather O; Keep, Sarah L

    2014-01-01

    Background Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) is the most common pre-malignant lesion. Atypical squamous changes occur in the transformation zone of the cervix with mild, moderate or severe changes described by their depth (CIN 1, 2 or 3). Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia is treated by local ablation or lower morbidity excision techniques. Choice of treatment depends on the grade and extent of the disease. Objectives To assess the effectiveness and safety of alternative surgical treatments for CIN. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Gynaecological Cancer Group Trials Register, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library), MEDLINE and EMBASE (up to April 2009). We also searched registers of clinical trials, abstracts of scientific meetings and reference lists of included studies. Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of alternative surgical treatments in women with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently abstracted data and assessed risks of bias. Risk ratios that compared residual disease after the follow-up examination and adverse events in women who received one of either laser ablation, laser conisation, large loop excision of the transformation zone (LLETZ), knife conisation or cryotherapy were pooled in random-effects model meta-analyses. Main results Twenty-nine trials were included. Seven surgical techniques were tested in various comparisons. No significant differences in treatment failures were demonstrated in terms of persistent disease after treatment. Large loop excision of the transformation zone appeared to provide the most reliable specimens for histology with the least morbidity. Morbidity was lower than with laser conisation, although the trials did not provide data for every outcome measure. There were not enough data to assess the effect on morbidity when compared with laser ablation. Authors’ conclusions The evidence

  11. EXAMINATION RESULTS OF CHILDREN WITH CERVICAL SYNDROME

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    N. H. Bakhteeva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available By the example of examination of 80 children aged from 4 to 18 with cervical syndrome it is indicated, that the diagnosed abnormalities of hemodynamics in vertebrobasilar basin in patients of all age groups are connected both with bone and vascular pathology of the cervical part of the spine. The pathology has functional or congenital character. Early detection of discicirculatory vascular injuries in the cervical part of the spine in children with cervical syndrome will allow to define the therapeutic management of patients and to prolong juvenile osteochondrosis clinical behaviour.

  12. ANTERIOR OSTEOPHYTE IDENTIFICATION IN CERVICAL VERTEBRAE

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    A. T. Chougale

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Radiologist always examines X-ray to determine abnormal changes in cervical, lumbar & thoracic vertebrae. Osteophyte (bony growth may appear at the corners of vertebrae so that vertebral shape becomes abnormal. This paper presents the idea from Image processing techniques such as customised Hough transform which will be used for segmentation which should be independent of rotation, scale, noise & shape. This segmented image will be then used for computing size invariant, convex hull based features to differentiate normal cervical vertebrae from cervical vertebrae containing anterior osteophyte. This approach effectively finds anterior osteophytes in cervical vertebrae.

  13. Inflammatory Bowel Disease and Cervical Neoplasia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rungoe, Christine; Simonsen, Jacob; Riis, Lene

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: We examined the risk of cervical neoplasia (dysplasia or cancer) in women with ulcerative colitis (UC) or Crohn's disease (CD). We also calculated the reverse, the risk for diagnosis with cervical neoplasia before development of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). METHODS: We...... with IBD were assessed by Cox proportional hazards regression analysis. Odds ratios (ORs) of cervical neoplasia before diagnosis of IBD were calculated by using conditional logistic regression. RESULTS: Women with CD underwent cervical cancer screening as often as women in the general population (IRR, 0...

  14. Laparoscopic Fertility Sparing Management of Cervical Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Facchini

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Fertility can be preserved after conservative cervical surgery. We report on a 29-year-old woman who was obese, para 0, and diagnosed with cervical insufficiency at the first trimester of current pregnancy due to a previous trachelectomy. She underwent laparoscopic transabdominal cervical cerclage (LTCC for cervical cancer. The surgery was successful and she was discharged two days later. The patient underwent a caesarean section at 38 weeks of gestation. Laparoscopic surgery is a minimally invasive approach associated with less pain and faster recovery, feasible even in obese women.

  15. Landscape of Genomic Alterations in Cervical Carcinomas

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Cervical cancer is responsible for 10–15% of cancer-related deaths in women worldwide1,2. The etiological role of infection with high-risk human papilloma viruses (HPV) in cervical carcinomas is well established3. Previous studies have implicated somatic mutations in PIK3CA, PTEN, TP53, STK11 and KRAS4–7 as well as several copy number alterations in the pathogenesis of cervical carcinomas8,9. Here, we report whole exome sequencing analysis of 115 cervical carcinoma-normal paired samples, tran...

  16. Clinical technique for invasive cervical root resorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Fernando Machado Silveira

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This clinical case report describes the diagnosis and treatment of an external invasive cervical resorption. A 17-year-old female patient had a confirmed diagnosis of invasive cervical resorption class 4 by cone beam computerized tomography. Although, there was no communication with the root canal, the invasive resorption process was extending into the cervical and middle third of the root. The treatment of the cervical resorption of the lateral incisor interrupted the resorptive process and restored the damaged root surface and the dental functions without any esthetic sequelae. Both the radiographic examination and computed tomography are imperative to reveal the extent of the defect in the differential diagnosis.

  17. CERVICAL VERTEBRAL SYNOSTOSIS: AN OSTEOLOGICAL STUDY

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    Ajay

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Congenital anomalies affecting the craniovertebral or cervical region are common. Among these congenital anomalies the important ones are the fused cervical vertebrae which can be due to either congenital or acquired causes. Fused cervical vertebrae can b e asymptomatic or it can produce a myriad of clinical symptoms from mild to severe. Hence a knowledge of the prevalence of these variations are essential . METHOD: 147 dry adult human skulls with 280 adult, dried cervical vertebrae were observed in this stu dy for evidence of fusion. The morphologic details of the fusion were also noted. RESULTS: The total prevalence of fusion of cervical vertebrae was 1.4% which included fusion between occiput and atlas, atlas and axis vertebra, axis and third cervical verte bra and fusion between the typical cervical vertebrae . CONCLUSION AND SUMMA RY: Fused cervical vertebrae limit neck movements and cause signs of nerve or spinal cord compression. Evaluation of patients who need surgeries of the head and neck region should i nvolve radiographic examination of the cervical region to prevent accidental intra - operative and post - operative complications .

  18. Cervical accelerometry in preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Eric W; Vice, Frank L; Bosma, James F; Gewolb, Ira H

    2002-09-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a method to use digital signal processing (DSP) technology to describe quantitatively and statistically swallow-associated sounds in preterm infants and to use this method to analyze changes as infants mature. Twelve recordings of accelerometric and physiological data on bottle-feeding preterm infants between 32 and 39 weeks' postmenstrual age (PMA) were analyzed. Cervical auscultation was performed using an accelerometer attached over the larynx. Acoustic data were recorded and graphically displayed using DSP software. Initial discrete sounds (IDSs) were identified and used to construct an average waveform from which a 'variance index' (VI) was calculated for each infant. The shape of the IDS waveforms became progressively more uniform with advancing PMA, as indicated by a significant inverse correlation between VI and PMA (r=0.739; p=0.006). DSP technology facilitated the development of a new method to quantitatively analyze feeding in preterm infants. This method provides an elegant tool to track maturation of infant feeding and assessing feeding readiness. This technique makes the interpretation of cervical auscultation data less subjective by replacing the verbal description of the sounds of feeding with quantitative numeric values. It is anticipated that this method can be automated to facilitate further the analysis of cervical accelerometry data.

  19. Challenges in automated detection of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Yeshwanth; Yang, Shuyu; Nutter, Brian; Mitra, Sunanda; Phillips, Benny; Long, Rodney

    2007-03-01

    Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia (CIN) is a precursor to invasive cervical cancer, which annually accounts for about 3700 deaths in the United States and about 274,000 worldwide. Early detection of CIN is important to reduce the fatalities due to cervical cancer. While the Pap smear is the most common screening procedure for CIN, it has been proven to have a low sensitivity, requiring multiple tests to confirm an abnormality and making its implementation impractical in resource-poor regions. Colposcopy and cervicography are two diagnostic procedures available to trained physicians for non-invasive detection of CIN. However, many regions suffer from lack of skilled personnel who can precisely diagnose the bio-markers due to CIN. Automatic detection of CIN deals with the precise, objective and non-invasive identification and isolation of these bio-markers, such as the Acetowhite (AW) region, mosaicism and punctations, due to CIN. In this paper, we study and compare three different approaches, based on Mathematical Morphology (MM), Deterministic Annealing (DA) and Gaussian Mixture Models (GMM), respectively, to segment the AW region of the cervix. The techniques are compared with respect to their complexity and execution times. The paper also presents an adaptive approach to detect and remove Specular Reflections (SR). Finally, algorithms based on MM and matched filtering are presented for the precise segmentation of mosaicism and punctations from AW regions containing the respective abnormalities.

  20. Suppurative cervical lymphadenitis in infancy: microbiology and sociology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worley, Mitchell L; Seif, Joseph M; Whigham, Amy S; Mims, James W; Shetty, Avinash K; Evans, Adele K

    2015-06-01

    To investigate the associations between patient age, sociological factors, and the microbiology of pediatric neck infections. Retrospective chart review of children up to 5 years old who underwent surgical management of suppurative cervical lymphadenitis. A total of 76 individuals met inclusion criteria; 93% of culture-positive infections were caused by Staphylococcus aureus in infants, compared with 59% in children between 13 months and 5 years of age (P = .002). Of the S aureus isolates, 51% were methicillin-resistant S aureus (MRSA) and 49% were methicillin-sensitive S aureus. Methicillin resistance was associated with African American race (P = .004); 67% of participants received empirical antibiotics prior to admission. Of these, 73% received antibiotics in the β-lactam class, and 25% received treatment with clindamycin. Incidence of MRSA is high in infants with cervical lymphadenitis who fail empirical antibiotic therapy and require surgical management. Empirical coverage for cervical lymphadenitis with β-lactam antibiotics may provide inadequate coverage for early infection in this population. © The Author(s) 2015.

  1. Correlation of DNA Ploidy with Progression of Cervical Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Singh

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The majority of squamous cell carcinomas of cervix are preceded by visible changes in the cervix, most often detected by cervical smear. As cervical cancer is preceded by long precancerous stages, identification of the high-risk population through detection of DNA ploidy may be of importance in effective management of this disease. Here we attempted to correlate aneuploid DNA patterns and their influence on biological behavior of flow-cytometry analysis of DNA ploidy which was carried out in cytologically diagnosed cases of mild (79, moderate (36, and severe (12 dysplasia, as well as “atypical squamous cells of unknown significance (ASCUS” (57 along with controls (69, in order to understand its importance in malignant progression of disease. Cytologically diagnosed dysplasias, which were employed for DNA ploidy studies, 39 mild, 28 moderate, and 11 severe dysplasia cases were found to be aneuploid. Out of the 69 control subjects, 6 cases showed aneuploidy pattern and the rest 63 subjects were diploid. An aneuploidy pattern was observed in 8 out of 57 cases of cytologically evaluated ASCUS. The results of the followup studies showed that aberrant DNA content reliably predicts the occurrence of squamous cell carcinoma in cervical smear. Flow cytometric analysis of DNA ploidy may provide a strategic diagnostic tool for early detection of carcinoma cervix. Therefore, it is a concept of an HPV screening with reflex cytology in combination with DNA flow cytometry to detect progressive lesions with the greatest possible sensitivity and specificity.

  2. CLINICOPATHOLOGICAL STUDY OF CERVICAL LYMPHADENOPATHY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradeep Kulal

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE : The analysis of lymph node enlargement in the neck is not a n easy task. It is challenge for surgeon to assess its clinical behaviour and come to a final diagnosis. These diseases which can be neoplastic also demands correct diagnosis for further management. The study intends to find out systematically the various p athological conditions presenting with enlarged lymph nodes in the neck, also various modes of clinical presentation and behaviour of these conditions. Relevant investigations have also been studied. METHODS AND MATERIALS : The study population consisted of patients above 12 years presenting with cervical lymph node enlargement. The material consists of patients during the period of January 2011 to J uly 2012. This study consists of 100 consecutive cases. Diagnosis is made on the basis of histopathological fi ndings. Patient was examined systemically giving utmost importance to local examination. After making a clinical diagnosis, further relevant investigations were done to confirm the diagnosis. Treatment was instituted appropriately and followed up the patie nts. RESULTS : Majority of the cases in this study had non - neoplastic causes for cervical lymphadenopathy in which tuberculosis is most common. Male and female ratio of 1.38:1 is noted with most cases between 12 and 30 years. Posterior triangle group of lym ph nodes was most commonly affected in tuberculosis. In lymphomas level 2 group of among the groups of lesions, with regard to local characteristics like number, laterality , mobility and involvement of other group of lymph nodes etc .FNAC by virtue of it being inexpensive, quick in getting results and easy to perform , is one of the important and essential diagnostic procedures. INTERPRETATION AND CONCLUSION : Clinical symptoms in cervical lymphadenopathy is of limited significance because clinical behaviour can be highly variable As cervical lymphadenopathy is an important disease, it always

  3. One-year clinical evaluation of tooth-coloured materials in non-carious cervical lesions

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    Stojanac Igor

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The restoration of non-carious cervical lesions is specific, mostly because of the location of their margins, especially the cervical margin, which is determined in cement and/or dentine. This feature makes the cervical margin more susceptible to micro-leak­age, causing marginal discoloration, postoperative sensitivity, development of the secondary caries and loss of the restoration. Material and methods. One of the criteria for inclusion of a patient in this study was the presence of at least two non-carious cervical lesions to be restored with the minimum depth of 1mm, independently of their location in the dental arch. A total of 60 restorations were placed in 30 patients, and every patient received both tested materials (composite resins and compomer on their non-carious cervical lesions. The clinical evaluation of the therapeutic success was performed six months and then one year after the day of the placement of restorations using the modified-United States Public Health Service criteria. The following was evaluated: retention, marginal integrity, marginal discoloration, wear, postoperative sensitivity and secondary caries. Results. A statistically significant high percent of restorations/teeth with postoperative sensitivity was found in the group of resin composite restorations after six months. At the end of the evaluation period, that is after one year, there were no statistically significant differences between materials for all evaluated criteria. Conclusion. The results of this study show the identical quality of both examined materials one year after the readjustment of non-carious cervical lesions.

  4. Pediatric cervical spine marrow T2 hyperintensity: a systematic analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gefen, Ron [Cooper University Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Candem, NJ (United States); Schweitzer, Mark E. [The Ottawa Hospital and University of Ottawa, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Ottawa (Canada); Shabshin, Nogah [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Chaim Sheba Medical Center, Tel-HaShomer (Israel); Hospital of University of Pennsylvania, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2011-08-15

    Hyperintense areas of vertebral bone marrow on fluid-sensitive sequences are at times seen on pediatric MRI of the cervical spine in children without suspicious clinical conditions to explain marrow pathology. Although these likely have no clinical significance they may be mistaken for pathology. The purpose of this study is to systematically evaluate the locations and patterns of marrow T2 hyperintensity in the pediatric cervical spine, with respect to age. At 1.5 T, the C2 through T3 vertebrae of 82 children aged 0-17 years without clinically suspicious marrow abnormality were retrospectively reviewed by two musculoskeletal radiologists, who were blinded to patients' age. The frequency, intensity, and location of the foci of marrow T2 hyperintensity were recorded for each vertebra on a 12-point scoring system and were correlated with the patients' age. Foci of marrow hyperintensity were seen in 46/82 (56.1%) patients and in 241/734 (32.8%) vertebrae. Foci were most common in C4 (42% of patients), C5 (45.7%), and C6 (37.8%). The foci of T2 hyperintensity were more common inferiorly (188 foci) and adjacent to the anterior cortex (123). Analysis revealed no significant correlation between age and marrow score (Spearman = -0.147, P = 0.19), but did find a trend towards increased presence of marrow T2 hyperintensity in the ages of most rapid growth, 8-14 years (81.5% of patients). Vertebral body marrow T2 hyperintensity was most common endosteally and in the mid-cervical spine with a slight peak in adolescence. We therefore believe that these pediatric cervical marrow changes may be related to rapid bone growth at the point of maximal kyphotic stress. (orig.)

  5. Effect of mifepristone in cervical ripening for induction of labour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rutuja Athawale

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Mifepristone is potentially a method of inducing labour in late pregnancy by increasing uterine contractility and by increasing the sensitivity of the uterus to the actions of prostaglandins. Present study was done to portrait the beneficial of mifepristone induction of labour. The objective was to study the effect of mifepristone in induction of labour with the outcome of induction of labour (IOL. Methods: 100 patients (term were included, after their informed consent. Patients were categorized by BISHOP SCORE at the beginning of induction for comparison of BS, mode of delivery, induction delivery interval (IDI. Women undergoing induction with RU486 (200mg PO were grouped in one and those with placebo control group into another. Statistical analysis of categorical variables was done. Results: Rate of successful IOL or vaginal delivery was 76% in study group and only 36% in control group. After induction with mifepristone for cervical ripening in study group 76% patient who had cervical score 8 within 24 hours, whereas in control group 2% female’s cervical score was>8. Among the babies, 44% in the control group required baby unit admission as compared to 36% in the study group. Conclusions: In the present study, the women who were induced with mifepristone 200 mg per orally showed drastic improvement in cervical score within 24-48 hours and decreased the cesarean rate in the study group and amount of dose requirement of augmentation of labour with Misoprostol or Oxytocin, lesser NICU admission and maternal complication. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2013; 2(1.000: 35-38

  6. Review on the medical and health economic evidence for an inclusion of colposcopy in primary screening programs for cervical cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nocon, Marc; Mittendorf, Thomas; Roll, Stephanie; Greiner, Wolfgang; Willich, Stefan N.; von der Schulenburg, Johann-Matthias

    2007-01-01

    Introduction With 3.2% of all cancer cases in 2002, cervical carcinoma is the tenth most common cancer in Germany and causes 1.8% of all cancer deaths in women in Germany. To date diagnosis in Germany solely has been based on cervical cytology which has been criticised due to its low sensitivity and consequently high rate of false negative results. Objectives How does colposcopy compare to cytological tests in terms of sensitivity and specificity, and what may be the effects of changes in screening for cervical carcinoma in Germany? Is there health economic evidence that may foster an inclusion of colposcopy into national screening programms? Methods A systematic literature review was performed, including studies that compared colposcopy to cervical cytology in terms of sensitivity and specificity. In addition, a systematic review of the relevant health economic literature was performed to analyse cost-effectiveness issues relevant to the German setting. Results A total of four studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria, of which only two were of high methodologic quality. In all studies, the sensitivity of colposcopy was lower than that of cytology. In three studies the specificity of colposcopy was lower than that of cytology, in one study specificity of colposcopy and cytology was similar. No health economic data suggesting positive effects of adding colposcopy in primary screening could be identified. Discussion Only few studies have compared the test criteria of colposcopy with those of cytology for screening in cervical cancer. In all studies, sensitivity of colposcopy was even lower than the sensitivity of cytology, which has been critisized because of its low sensitivity. Conclusion Based on the present data, an inclusion of colposcopy in primary cervical cancer screening programmes can not be recommended. PMID:21289941

  7. Hyperextension strain of ``whiplash`` injuries to the cervical spine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffiths, H.J. [Dept. of Radiology, Univ. of Minnesota Hospital and Clinic, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Olson, P.N. [Dept. of Radiology, Univ. of Minnesota Hospital and Clinic, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Everson, L.I. [Dept. of Radiology, Univ. of Minnesota Hospital and Clinic, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Winemiller, M. [Dept. of Radiology, Univ. of Minnesota Hospital and Clinic, Minneapolis, MN (United States)

    1995-05-01

    A full cervical spine radiographic series (including flexion and extension views) was reviewed in 40 patients with clinically proven ``whiplash`` injuries and compared to the radiographs in 105 normal controls. The level and degree of kinking or kyphosis, subluxation, and the difference in the amount of fanning between spinous processes on flexion and extension films were measured in each patient. Localized kinking greater than 10 and over 12 mm of fanning, often occurring at the level below the kinking or kyphosis, occurred mainly in the group of whiplash patients (sensitivity 81%, specificity 76%, accuracy 80%). (orig./VHE)

  8. Impact of Isometric Contraction of Anterior Cervical Muscles on Cervical Lordosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorchuk, Curtis A; McCoy, Matthew; Lightstone, Douglas F; Bak, David A; Moser, Jacque; Kubricht, Brett; Packer, John; Walton, Dustin; Binongo, Jose

    2016-09-01

    This study investigates the impact of isometric contraction of anterior cervical muscles on cervical lordosis. 29 volunteers were randomly assigned to an anterior head translation (n=15) or anterior head flexion (n=14) group. Resting neutral lateral cervical x-rays were compared to x-rays of sustained isometric contraction of the anterior cervical muscles producing anterior head translation or anterior head flexion. Paired sample t-tests indicate no significant difference between pre and post anterior head translation or anterior head flexion. Analysis of variance suggests that gender and peak force were not associated with change in cervical lordosis. Chamberlain's to atlas plane line angle difference was significantly associated with cervical lordosis difference during anterior head translation (p=0.01). This study shows no evidence that hypertonicity, as seen in muscle spasms, of the muscles responsible for anterior head translation and anterior head flexion have a significant impact on cervical lordosis.

  9. Synchronous luminescence spectroscopic characterization of blood elements of normal and patients with cervical cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthuvelu, K.; Shanmugam, Sivabalan; Koteeswaran, Dornadula; Srinivasan, S.; Venkatesan, P.; Aruna, Prakasarao; Ganesan, Singaravelu

    2011-03-01

    In this study the diagnostic potential of synchronous luminescence spectroscopy (SLS) technique for the characterization of normal and different pathological condition of cervix viz., moderately differentiated squamous cell carcinoma (MDSCC), poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma (PDSCC) and well differentiated squamous cell carcinoma (WDSSC). Synchronous fluorescence spectra were measured for 70 abnormal cases and 30 normal subjects. Characteristic, highly resolved peaks and significant spectral differences between normal and MDSCC, PDSCC and WDSCC cervical blood formed elements were obtained. The synchronous luminescence spectra of formed elements of normal and abnormal cervical cancer patients were subjected to statistical analysis. Synchronous luminescence spectroscopy provides 90% sensitivity and 92.6% specificity.

  10. 宫颈刮片脱落细胞学检查在筛选宫颈癌中的应用分析%Application Analysis the Cervical Scraping Cytology in Screening of Cervical Cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张鸥

    2016-01-01

    目的:对宫颈刮片脱落细胞学检查在筛选宫颈癌中的应用进行观察分析。方法选取我院2014年1月~2015年12月收治的214例进行宫颈癌筛查患者作为研究对象,进行宫颈刮片脱落细胞学检查,将宫颈刮片脱落细胞学检查结果同宫颈活组织病理检查相比较,观察分析宫颈刮片脱落细胞学检查在诊断宫颈癌、癌前病变的敏感度、特异度、阴性预测值和阳性预测值等。结果宫颈刮片脱落细胞学检查诊断宫颈癌、癌前病变敏感度为90.43%,特异度为89.17%,阳性预测值为86.73%,阴性预测值为92.24%,诊断准确率为89.72%。结论宫颈刮片脱落细胞学检查在筛查宫颈癌方面具有较高的敏感度。%Objective To observe and analyze the application of cervical scraping cytology in screening of cervical cancer.Methods Selected 214 cases of patients with cervical cancer screening from January 2014 to December 2015 in our hospital, for example, cervical scraping cytology, cervical scraping cytology results with cervical biopsy compared toobserve and analyze the cervical scraping off cytology in the diagnosis of cervical cancer and precancerous lesions of sensitivity, speciifcity, negative predictive and positive predictive value.Results The sensitivity of cervical cancer and precancerous lesion was 90.43%, the speciifcity was 89.17%, the positive predictive value was 86.73%, the negative predictive value was 92.24%, the diagnostic accuracy rate was 89.72%.Conclusion Cervical scraping cytology test in the screening of cervical cancer has a high sensitivity.

  11. Chemoradiation Therapy and Ipilimumab in Treating Patients With Stages IB2-IIB or IIIB-IVA Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-28

    Cervical Adenocarcinoma; Cervical Adenosquamous Carcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma, Not Otherwise Specified; Positive Para-Aortic Lymph Node; Positive Pelvic Lymph Node; Stage IB2 Cervical Cancer; Stage II Cervical Cancer; Stage IIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage IIIB Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer

  12. Cervical spine alignment, sagittal deformity, and clinical implications: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheer, Justin K; Tang, Jessica A; Smith, Justin S; Acosta, Frank L; Protopsaltis, Themistocles S; Blondel, Benjamin; Bess, Shay; Shaffrey, Christopher I; Deviren, Vedat; Lafage, Virginie; Schwab, Frank; Ames, Christopher P

    2013-08-01

    This paper is a narrative review of normal cervical alignment, methods for quantifying alignment, and how alignment is associated with cervical deformity, myelopathy, and adjacent-segment disease (ASD), with discussions of health-related quality of life (HRQOL). Popular methods currently used to quantify cervical alignment are discussed including cervical lordosis, sagittal vertical axis, and horizontal gaze with the chin-brow to vertical angle. Cervical deformity is examined in detail as deformities localized to the cervical spine affect, and are affected by, other parameters of the spine in preserving global sagittal alignment. An evolving trend is defining cervical sagittal alignment. Evidence from a few recent studies suggests correlations between radiographic parameters in the cervical spine and HRQOL. Analysis of the cervical regional alignment with respect to overall spinal pelvic alignment is critical. The article details mechanisms by which cervical kyphotic deformity potentially leads to ASD and discusses previous studies that suggest how postoperative sagittal malalignment may promote ASD. Further clinical studies are needed to explore the relationship of cervical malalignment and the development of ASD. Sagittal alignment of the cervical spine may play a substantial role in the development of cervical myelopathy as cervical deformity can lead to spinal cord compression and cord tension. Surgical correction of cervical myelopathy should always take into consideration cervical sagittal alignment, as decompression alone may not decrease cord tension induced by kyphosis. Awareness of the development of postlaminectomy kyphosis is critical as it relates to cervical myelopathy. The future direction of cervical deformity correction should include a comprehensive approach in assessing global cervicalpelvic relationships. Just as understanding pelvic incidence as it relates to lumbar lordosis was crucial in building our knowledge of thoracolumbar deformities, T

  13. Comparison between {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT and EMG Mapping for Identifying Dystonic Superficial Muscles in Primary Cervical Dystonia: Preliminary Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Su Jin [Seoul National University School, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Joon Young; Sung, Duk Hyun; Park, Kwang Hong; Lee, Ji Young; Cho, Sook Kyung; Yu, Jang; Lee, Kyung Han; Kim, Byung Tae [Sungkyunkawn University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-04-15

    This study was conducted to compare {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT and electromyography (EMG) mapping in patients with primary cervical dystonia (PCD) to find dystonic superficial cervical muscles. Ten consecutive patients with PCD (M:F=5:5, age 44{+-}13 years) whose dystonic posture was not relieved with conventional muscle relaxant therapy were included. Target cervical muscles for the comparison between {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT and EMG mapping were four representative superficial bilateral cervical muscles: splenius capitis muscle, sternocleidomstoid muscle, upper trapeziums muscle, and levitator scapulae muscle. The diagnostic efficacy was compared between {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT and EMG mapping using physical exam and measurement of rotation angle as the gold standard. Among 80 muscles evaluated, there were 21 (26%) dystonic superficial cervical muscles assessed with physical exam and motion analysis. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy for localizing dystonic muscles were 76, 92, and 88% for {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT, and 95, 66, and 74% for EMG mapping, respectively. The sensitivity of EMG mapping was significantly higher than that of {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT. In contrast, {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT is more specific and accurate than EMG mapping for finding superficial dystonic cervical muscles. The high sensitivity of EMG mapping suggests that {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT and EMG mapping are complementary for finding dystonic superficial cervical muscles.

  14. 21 CFR 884.5250 - Cervical cap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cervical cap. 884.5250 Section 884.5250 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES... cap. (a) Identification. A cervical cap is a flexible cuplike receptacle that fits over the cervix to...

  15. ORIGINAL ARTICLES The agreement between cervical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Human papilloma virus (HPV) is ... the prevalence of high-risk HPV in cervical specimens, and ... those with low-grade squamous intraepitheliallesions (LSIL) ..... Squamous Cells of Undetermined Significance/Low-Grade Squamous Intraepithelial Lesions ... Moberg M. Human papillomavirus load and cervical carcinoma.

  16. Relationship of the changes of cervical MRI, TCD and BAEP in patients with “isolated” vertigo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Wenzhen; Zhang, Xueqing

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To study the relationship and changes of cervical MRI, TCD and BAEP in patients with “isolated” vertigo. Methods: The relationship and changes of cervical MRI, TCD and BAEP were investigated respectively in 125 patients with “isolated” vertigo and 100 healthy controls. Results: There were statistically significant differences between two groups for overall abnormalities of TCD (X2 = 61.96, Pvertigo group, results showed significant correlations between TCD and cervical MRI, TCD and BAEP as well. And analysis on TCD PI and some items of BAEP demonstrated positive linear correlations. There were no statistical differences or correlations in control group. Conclusions: TCD is a sensitive method of “isolated” vertigo screening. A combined test protocol of cervical MRI, TCD and BAEP has superiorities to assess “isolated” vertigo. PMID:25197392

  17. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF CYTOLOGIC AND COLPOSCOPIC FINDINGS IN PRECLINICAL CERVICAL CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Penagaluru

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND The cytologic diagnosis of cervical smears has become a very important screening test for the detection of pre-invasive and invasive cervical epithelial abnormalities. MATERIALS AND METHODS It is a prospective study conducted for a period of 1 year in 100 women who fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Colposcopy, PAP smear and biopsy were done. RESULTS Majority 70.5% i.e., (12/17 of CIN occurred in the age group of 30-49 years. Among the 9 women who took OCP, 12% (2/17 had CIN. Incidence of CIN in the permanently sterilized group was 59% (10/17 and among IUCD user was 5.9% (1/17. Among women who were diagnosed to have CIN, 70.5% (12/17 complained of excessive vaginal discharge 11.7% (2/17 of women had post-coital bleeding. PAP smear had a sensitivity of 29% and a specificity of 88% which was attributed to the high number of false, negative smears. Colposcopy showed a sensitivity of 82% and a specificity of 81%. Sensitivity was more than pap smear but specificity was less than pap smear. Accuracy of Colposcopy was found to be 82% which was comparatively more accurate than pap smear (78%. CONCLUSIONS COLPOSCOPY offers an excellent tool in evaluating cervical lesions. It is an easy and perspective method and its importance lies in teaching, diagnosis and management of cervical lesions, both neoplastic and non-neoplastic.

  18. A study of the impact of adding HPV types to cervical cancer screening and triage tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiffman, Mark; Khan, Michelle J; Solomon, Diane; Herrero, Rolando; Wacholder, Sholom; Hildesheim, Allan; Rodriguez, Ana Cecilia; Bratti, Maria C; Wheeler, Cosette M; Burk, Robert D

    2005-01-19

    Use of human papillomavirus (HPV) testing in cervical cancer prevention is increasing rapidly. A DNA test for 13 HPV types that can cause cervical cancer is approved in the United States for co-screening with cytology of women >or=30 years old and for triage of women of all ages with equivocal cytology. However, most infections with HPV are benign. We evaluated trade-offs between specificity and sensitivity for approximately 40 HPV types in predicting cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 3 and cancer in two prospective studies: a population-based screening study that followed 6196 women aged 30-94 years from Costa Rica for 7 years and a triage study that followed 3363 women aged 18-90 years with equivocal cytology in four U.S. centers for 2 years. For both screening and triage, testing for more than about 10 HPV types decreased specificity more than it increased sensitivity. The minimal increases in sensitivity and in negative predictive value achieved by adding HPV types to DNA tests must be weighed against the projected burden to thousands of women falsely labeled as being at high risk of cervical cancer.

  19. Cervical cancer incidence in elderly women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynge, Elsebeth; Lönnberg, Stefan; Törnberg, Sven

    2017-01-01

    Aim: In many countries, the age-specific pattern of cervical cancer incidence is currently bipolar with peaks at for instance 45 and 65 years of age. Consequently, a large proportion of cervical cancer cases are presently diagnosed in women above the screening age. The purpose of the study...... was to determine whether this bipolar pattern in age-specific incidence of cervical cancer reflects underlying biology or can be explained by the fact that the data come from birth cohorts with different screening histories. Methods: Combination of historical data on cervical screening and population-based cancer...... incidence data from Denmark 1943–2013, Finland and Norway 1953–2013, and Sweden 1958–2013. Results: Since the implementation of screening, the incidence of cervical cancer has decreased for each successive birth cohort. All birth cohorts showed a unipolar age-specific pattern. In unscreened women in Denmark...

  20. Operative techniques for cervical radiculopathy and myelopathy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Moran, C

    2012-02-01

    The surgical treatment of cervical spondylosis and resulting cervical radiculopathy or myelopathy has evolved over the past century. Surgical options for dorsal decompression of the cervical spine includes the traditional laminectomy and laminoplasty, first described in Asia in the 1970\\'s. More recently the dorsal approch has been explored in terms of minimally invasive options including foraminotomies for nerve root descompression. Ventral decompression and fusion techniques are also described in the article, including traditional anterior cervical discectomy and fusion, strut grafting and cervical disc arthroplasty. Overall, the outcome from surgery is determined by choosing the correct surgery for the correct patient and pathology and this is what we hope to explain in this brief review.

  1. Cervical cancer screening in the Faroe Islands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammer, Turið; Lynge, Elsebeth; Djurhuus, Gisela W;

    2014-01-01

    Background. The Faroe Islands have had nationally organised cervical cancer screening since 1995. Women aged 25-60 years are invited every third year. Participation is free of charge. Although several European overviews on cervical screening are available, none have included the Faroe Islands. Our...... aim was to provide the first description of cervical cancer screening, and to determine the screening history of women diagnosed with cervical cancer in the Faroe Islands. Material and methods. Screening data from 1996 to 2012 were obtained from the Diagnostic Centre at the National Hospital...... 1999. At present, 7.0% of samples have abnormal cytology. Of all ASCUS samples, 76-95% were tested for HPV. A total of 58% of women diagnosed with cervical cancer did not participate in screening prior to their diagnosis, and 32% had normal cytology in the previous four years. Conclusion. Despite...

  2. Sport injuries of the cervical spine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bargon, G.

    1981-03-01

    The article reports on injuries of the cervical spine occurring during sports activities. An attempt is made to reconstruct the movements which led to the cervical spine injuries in question. In two cases of accidents occuring during bathing, one football accident and a toboggan accident, the injuries concerned point to hyperextension of the cervical spine as cause of the injury. In another football accident and a riding accident, the changes observed allow us to conclude that the movement leading to the injury must have been a hyperflexion. One accident occurring while jumping on the trampolin resulted in an injury of the upper cervical spine pointing to the action of a compressive force on the cervical spine in addition to the force resulting in hyperflexion.

  3. Oral contraceptives, human papillomavirus and cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Vecchia, Carlo; Boccia, Stefania

    2014-03-01

    Oncogenic human papillomavirus is the key determinant of cervical cancer, but other risk factors interact with it to define individual risk. Among these, there is oral contraceptive (OC) use. A quantitative review of the link between OCs and cervical cancer was performed. Long-term (>5 year) current or recent OC use has been related to an about two-fold excess risk of cervical cancer. Such an excess risk, however, levels off after stopping use, and approaches unity 10 or more years after stopping. The public health implications of OC use for cervical cancer are limited. In any case, such implications are greater in middle-income and low-income countries, as well as in central and eastern Europe and Latin America, where cervical cancer screening and control remain inadequate.

  4. The Research of Artificial Cervical Disc Replacement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Zhua; Qiang Shenb

    2008-01-01

    Cervical arthroplasty after anterior decompression with insertion of a prosthetic total disc replacement has been suggested as an alternate to anterior cervical fusion. It develops quickly during recent years. Currently there are several cervical arthroplasty devices. Each device varies in terms of materials, range of motion and constraint. Early studies suggest that in the short term, the complication rate and efficacy is no worse than fusion surgery. Long-term results have not yet been reported. This review examines the current prostheses as well as discussing issues regarding indications and technique. It is hoped that an improvement of cervical arthroplasty occurs in terms of materials and design as spinal surgeons enter a new dines of the management of cervical spine disease.

  5. Immunosuppression and risk of cervical cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dugué, Pierre-Antoine; Rebolj, Matejka; Garred, Peter

    2013-01-01

    increase the risk of cervical cancer, while poor diet only moderately increased the risk. It is difficult to determine whether sexually transmitted infections other than human papillomavirus infection are independent risk factors. Identifying those groups of women likely to fail in clearing persistent......A markedly increased risk of cervical cancer is known in women immunosuppressed due to AIDS or therapy following organ transplantation. The aim of this review is to determine the association between other conditions affecting the immune system and the risk of cervical cancer. Patients with end......-stage renal disease seem to be at an increased risk of cervical cancer. A higher risk of cervical precancerous lesions was found in patients with some autoimmune diseases; particularly if treated with immunosuppressants. Among behavioral factors weakening the immune system, smoking appeared to strongly...

  6. Triapine, Cisplatin, and Radiation Therapy in Treating Patients With Cervical Cancer or Vaginal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-21

    Recurrent Cervical Cancer; Recurrent Vaginal Cancer; Stage IB Cervical Cancer; Stage II Vaginal Cancer; Stage IIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage III Cervical Cancer; Stage III Vaginal Cancer; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Vaginal Cancer; Stage IVB Cervical Cancer; Stage IVB Vaginal Cancer; Therapy-related Toxicity

  7. Post laminoplasty cervical kyphosis—Case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugoni, D.E.; Mancarella, C.; Landi, A.; Tarantino, R.; Ruggeri, A.G.; Delfini, R.

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Cervical kyphosis is a progressive cervical sagittal plane deformity that may cause a reduction in the ability to look horizontally, breathing and swallowing difficulties, sense of thoracic oppression and social isolation. Moreover, cervical kyphosis can cause myelopathy due to a direct compression by osteo-articular structures on the spinal cord or to a transitory ischaemic injury. The treatment of choice is surgery. The goals of surgery are: nervous structures decompression, cervical and global sagittal balance correction and vertebral stabilization and fusion. PRESENTATION OF CASE In October 2008 a 35 years old woman underwent surgical removal of a cervical-bulbar ependymoma with C1–C5 laminectomy and a C2–C5 laminoplasty. Five months after surgery, the patient developed a kyphotic posture, with intense neck and scapular girdle pain. The patients had a flexible cervical kyphosis. Therefore, we decided to perform an anterior surgical approach. We performed a corpectomy C4–C5 in order to achieve the anterior decompression; we placed a titanium expansion mesh. DISCUSSION Cervical kyphosis can be flexible or fixed. Some authors have reported the use of anterior surgery only for flexible cervical kyphosis as discectomy and corpectomy. This approach is useful for anterior column load sharing however it is not required for deformity correction. CONCLUSION The anterior approach is a good surgical option in flexible cervical kyphosis. It is of primary importance the sagittal alignment of the cervical spine in order to decompress the nervous structures and to guarantee a long-term stability. PMID:25462050

  8. Post laminoplasty cervical kyphosis-Case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugoni, D E; Mancarella, C; Landi, A; Tarantino, R; Ruggeri, A G; Delfini, R

    2014-01-01

    Cervical kyphosis is a progressive cervical sagittal plane deformity that may cause a reduction in the ability to look horizontally, breathing and swallowing difficulties, sense of thoracic oppression and social isolation. Moreover, cervical kyphosis can cause myelopathy due to a direct compression by osteo-articular structures on the spinal cord or to a transitory ischaemic injury. The treatment of choice is surgery. The goals of surgery are: nervous structures decompression, cervical and global sagittal balance correction and vertebral stabilization and fusion. In October 2008 a 35 years old woman underwent surgical removal of a cervical-bulbar ependymoma with C1-C5 laminectomy and a C2-C5 laminoplasty. Five months after surgery, the patient developed a kyphotic posture, with intense neck and scapular girdle pain. The patients had a flexible cervical kyphosis. Therefore, we decided to perform an anterior surgical approach. We performed a corpectomy C4-C5 in order to achieve the anterior decompression; we placed a titanium expansion mesh. Cervical kyphosis can be flexible or fixed. Some authors have reported the use of anterior surgery only for flexible cervical kyphosis as discectomy and corpectomy. This approach is useful for anterior column load sharing however it is not required for deformity correction. The anterior approach is a good surgical option in flexible cervical kyphosis. It is of primary importance the sagittal alignment of the cervical spine in order to decompress the nervous structures and to guarantee a long-term stability. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  9. Cervical disc hernia operations through posterior laminoforaminotomy

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    Coskun Yolas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The most common used technique for posterolateral cervical disc herniations is anterior approach. However, posterior cervical laminotoforaminomy can provide excellent results in appropriately selected patients with foraminal stenosis in either soft disc prolapse or cervical spondylosis. The purpose of this study was to present the clinical outcomes following posterior laminoforaminotomy in patients with radiculopathy. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively evaluated 35 patients diagnosed with posterolateral cervical disc herniation and cervical spondylosis with foraminal stenosis causing radiculopathy operated by the posterior cervical keyhole laminoforaminotomy between the years 2010 and 2015. Results: The file records and the radiographic images of the 35 patients were assessed retrospectively. The mean age was 46.4 years (range: 34-66 years. Of the patients, 19 were males and 16 were females. In all of the patients, the neurologic deficit observed was radiculopathy. The posterolaterally localized disc herniations and the osteophytic structures were on the left side in 18 cases and on the right in 17 cases. In 10 of the patients, the disc level was at C5-6, in 18 at C6-7, in 2 at C3-4, in 2 at C4-5, in 1 at C7-T1, in 1 patient at both C5-6 and C6-7, and in 1 at both C4-5 and C5-6. In 14 of these 35 patients, both osteophytic structures and protruded disc herniation were present. Intervertebral foramen stenosis was present in all of the patients with osteophytes. Postoperatively, in 31 patients the complaints were relieved completely and four patients had complaints of neck pain and paresthesia radiating to the arm (the success of operation was 88.5%. On control examinations, there was no finding of instability or cervical kyphosis. Conclusion: Posterior cervical laminoforaminotomy is an alternative appropriate choice in both cervical soft disc herniations and cervical stenosis.

  10. Current status of sentinel lymph node mapping in the management of cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rob, Lukas; Lukas, Rob; Robova, Helena; Helena, Robova; Halaska, Michael Jiri; Jiri, Halaska Michael; Hruda, Martin; Martin, Hruda; Skapa, Petr; Petr, Skapa

    2013-07-01

    The status of regional lymph nodes is the most important prognostic factor in early cervical cancer patients. Pelvic lymph node dissections are routinely performed as a part of standard surgical treatment. Systematic pelvic lymphadenectomy is associated with short- and long-term morbidities. This review discusses single components of the sentinel lymph node mapping (SLNM) technique and results of the detection of sentinel lymph nodes. SLNM biopsy performed by an experienced team for small volume tumors (<2 cm) has high specific side detection rate, excellent negative-predictive value and high sensitivity. Uncommon lymphatic drainage has been reported in 15% of cervical cancer patients. There is sufficient data now to suggest that SLNM with 99mTc plus blue dye in the hands of a surgeon with extensive experience should prove to be an important part of individualized cervical cancer surgery and increase the safety of less radical or fertility-sparing surgery.

  11. LIF analysis of cervical mucus and amniotic fluid for maturity monitoring in pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaitkuviene, Aurelija; Auksorius, Egidijus; Ramasauskaite, Diana; Smilgeviciute, Ale; Tamasauskas, Oldas; Vanseviciute, Rasa; Veleckas, Doras

    2004-09-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of autoflorescence spectroscopy in the diagnosis of cervix maturity through cervical mucus florescence and foetal lung maturity through amniotic fluid fluorescence. LED and broadband Mercury light were used to induce fluorescence in cervical mucus and amniotic fluid respectively. Mature specimens compared to immature ones showed a significant decrease in cervical mucus fluorescence values measured at 420 nm (p = 0.0004) and in measured amniotic fluid fluorescence values at 410 nm (p = 0.0686). Probability-based classification algorithm was developed to identify samples 'maturity' through analysis of the fluorescence spectra. Employing fluorescence intensity at 420 nm for cervix maturity diagnosis rendered optimal sensitivity of 92.9%, specificity of 83.3% and area under the ROC curve of 91.1%.

  12. Modulating the DNA Damage Response to Improve Treatment Response in Cervical Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cossar, L H; Schache, A G; Risk, J M; Sacco, J J; Jones, N J; Lord, R

    2017-09-01

    Cervical cancer is the fourth most common cause of cancer-related death in women worldwide and new therapeutic approaches are needed to improve clinical outcomes for this group of patients. Current treatment protocols for locally advanced and metastatic disease consist of ionising radiation and chemotherapy. Chemoradiation induces cytotoxic levels of DNA double-strand breaks, which activates programmed cell death via the DNA damage response (DDR). Cervical cancers are unique given an almost exclusive association with human papillomavirus (HPV) infection; a potent manipulator of the DDR, with the potential to alter tumour sensitivity to DNA-damaging agents and influence treatment response. This review highlights the wide range of therapeutic strategies in development that have the potential to modulate DDR and sensitise cervical tumours to DNA-damaging agents in the context of HPV oncogenesis. Copyright © 2017 The Royal College of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Prediction of prolonged pregnancy in nulliparous women by transvaginal ultrasonographic measurement of cervical length at 20-24 weeks and 37 weeks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Young Hoon; Park, Kyo Hoon; Hong, Joon-Seok; Noh, Jae Hong

    2007-02-01

    This study was done to evaluate transvaginal ultrasonographic measurement of cervical length at 20 to 24 weeks and 37 weeks as a predictor of prolonged pregnancy (defined as a pregnancy that extended beyond 41+2 weeks of gestation [289 days]) in nulliparous women. This prospective observational study enrolled 149 consecutive nulliparous women with singleton gestation at 37 weeks. Cervical length was measured by transvaginal ultrasonography at 20 to 24 weeks and 37 weeks. Cervical length at 37 weeks, but not at 20 to 24 weeks, was significantly longer in women delivered at >41+2 weeks than in those delivered at prolonged pregnancy was 30 mm, with a sensitivity of 78% and a specificity of 62%. Cervical length assessed by transvaginal ultrasonography at 37 weeks can predict the likelihood of prolonged pregnancy in nulliparous women. However, there is no association between cervical length at 20 to 24 weeks and the occurrence of prolonged pregnancy.

  14. [Therapy of recurrent cervical cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekiba, K; Hayase, R

    1990-09-01

    1,122 uterine cancer patients above FIGO stage I a were treated at our hospital in the decade from 1980 to 1989. Total 69 patients diagnosed as recurrent cervical cancer had 82 lesions in 11 sites. The most frequent recurrent sites were uterus, vaginal stump and vaginal wall; the second sites were parametrium and pelvic wall. Radiotherapy and hyperthermia were done to patients with these lesions. Chemotherapy and radiotherapy were used to patients with distant metastatic lesions to left supraclavicular lymph nodes and lung. But there has been no good results.

  15. CLINICAL-DIAGNOSTIC AND PATHOGENETIC ASPECTS OF CERVICAL DIZZINESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.V. Zelentsova

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Questions of occurrence of cervical dizziness at 190 patients with cervical osteochondrosis, anomalies ofcraniovertebral transition and "switch" trauma of a cervical partof the backbone are discussed. On the basis of the results of complex examination with use of ultrasonic and neurovisualization techniques pathogenetic mechanisms of the developmentof cervical dizziness are discussed.

  16. Validation of cervical cancer screening methods in HIV positive women from Johannesburg South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia Firnhaber

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: HIV-infected women are at increased risk for developing cervical cancer. Women living in resource-limited countries are especially at risk due to poor access to cervical cancer screening and treatment. We evaluated three cervical cancer screening methods to detect cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 and above (CIN 2+ in HIV-infected women in South Africa; Pap smear, visual inspection with 5% acetic acid (VIA and human papillomavirus detection (HPV. METHODS: HIV-infected women aged 18-65 were recruited in Johannesburg. A cross-sectional study evaluating three screening methods for the detection of the histologically-defined gold standard CIN-2 + was performed. Women were screened for cervical abnormalities with the Digene HC2 assay (HPV, Pap smear and VIA. VIA was performed by clinic nurses, digital photographs taken and then later reviewed by specialist physicians. The sensitivity, specificity and predictive valves for CIN-2 + were calculated using maximum likelihood estimators. RESULTS: 1,202 HIV-infected women participated, with a median age of 38 years and CD4 counts of 394 cells/mm(3. One third of women had a high grade lesion on cytology. VIA and HPV were positive in 45% and 61% of women respectively. Estimated sensitivity/specificity for HPV, Pap smear and VIA for CIN 2+ was 92%/51.4%, 75.8%/83.4% and 65.4/68.5% (nurse reading, respectively. Sensitivities were similar, and specificities appeared significantly lower for the HPV test, cytology and VIA among women with CD4 counts ≤200 cells/mm(3 as compared to CD4 counts >350 cells/mm(3. CONCLUSIONS: Although HPV was the most sensitive screening method for detecting CIN 2+, it was less specific than conventional cytology and VIA with digital imaging review. Screening programs may need to be individualized in context of the resources and capacity in each area.

  17. Detection of STAT2 in early stage of cervical premalignancy and in cervical cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liang Zeng; Li-Hua Gao; Li-Jun Cao; De-Yun Feng; Ya Cao; Qi-Zhi Luo; Ping Yu; Ming Li

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To measure the expression pattern ofSTAT2 in cervical cancer initiation and progression in tissue sections from patients with cervicitis, dysplasia, and cervical cancer. Methods:Antibody against humanSTAT2 was confirmed by plasmids transient transfection andWestern blot.Immunohistochemistry was used to detectSTAT2 expression in the cervical biopsies by using the confirmed antibody againstSTAT2 as the primary antibody.Results:It was found that the overall rate of positiveSTAT2 expression in the cervicitis, dysplasia and cervical cancer groups were38.5%,69.4% and76.9%, respectively.TheSTAT2 levels are significantly increased in premalignant dysplasia and cervical cancer, as compared to cervicitis(P<0.05). Noticeably,STAT2 signals were mainly found in the cytoplasm, implying thatSTAT2 was not biologically active.Conclusions:These findings reveal an association between cervical cancer progression and augmentedSTAT2 expression.In conclusion,STAT2 increase appears to be an early detectable cellular event in cervical cancer development.

  18. Surgery in cervical disc herniation: anterior cervical discectomy without fusion or with fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iencean Andrei Stefan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The study included a group of anterior cervical microdiscectomy without fusion performed at one level (either C5-C6 level or at the C6-C7 level and a second group of patients with same single-level of anterior cervical discectomy with fusion. The kinematic analysis included the range of motion, anteroposterior translation and disc height assessed for the cervical functional spinal units at the operated level and adjacent levels. At the operated level the range of motion and the translation were minimal in the anterior cervical discectomy without fusion group, both for the C5-C6 and C6-C7 levels, and absent in the cervical discectomy with fusion group. The superior adjacent levels translations were greater in the ACDF group compared with the ACD group. The clinical results of both types of cervical discectomy were comparable. In cervical microdiscectomy without fusion the elastic fibrous intradiscal scar at the operated level allows a small degree of mobility and the adjacent cervical levels are not overstressed. No need for anterior cervical discectomy with fusion to trait a single level cervical disc herniation than in selected cases.

  19. Ultrasonographic Evaluation of Cervical Lymph Nodes in Thyroid Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Maria Regina Marrocos; Tavares, Marcos Roberto; Buchpiguel, Carlos Alberto; Chammas, Maria Cristina

    2017-02-01

    Objective To determine what ultrasonographic features can identify metastatic cervical lymph nodes, both preoperatively and in recurrences after complete thyroidectomy. Study Design Prospective. Setting Outpatient clinic, Department of Head and Neck Surgery, School of Medicine, University of São Paulo, Brazil. Subjects and Methods A total of 1976 lymph nodes were evaluated in 118 patients submitted to total thyroidectomy with or without cervical lymph node dissection. All the patients were examined by cervical ultrasonography, preoperatively and/or postoperatively. The following factors were assessed: number, size, shape, margins, presence of fatty hilum, cortex, echotexture, echogenicity, presence of microcalcification, presence of necrosis, and type of vascularity. The specificity, sensitivity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of each variable were calculated. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted. A receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curve was plotted to determine the best cutoff value for the number of variables to discriminate malignant lymph nodes. Results Significant differences were found between metastatic and benign lymph nodes with regard to all of the variables evaluated ( P < .05). Logistic regression analysis revealed that size and echogenicity were the best combination of altered variables (odds ratio, 40.080 and 7.288, respectively) in discriminating malignancy. The ROC curve analysis showed that 4 was the best cutoff value for the number of altered variables to discriminate malignant lymph nodes, with a combined specificity of 85.7%, sensitivity of 96.4%, and efficiency of 91.0%. Conclusion Greater diagnostic accuracy was achieved by associating the ultrasonographic variables assessed rather than by considering them individually.

  20. Evidence of disrupted high-risk human papillomavirus DNA in morphologically normal cervices of older women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Sarah M; Pereira, Merlin; Roberts, Sally; Cuschieri, Kate; Nuovo, Gerard; Athavale, Ramanand; Young, Lawrence; Ganesan, Raji; Woodman, Ciarán B

    2016-02-15

    High-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) causes nearly 100% of cervical carcinoma. However, it remains unclear whether HPV can establish a latent infection, one which may be responsible for the second peak in incidence of cervical carcinoma seen in older women. Therefore, using Ventana in situ hybridisation (ISH), quantitative PCR assays and biomarkers of productive and transforming viral infection, we set out to provide the first robust estimate of the prevalence and characteristics of HPV genomes in FFPE tissue from the cervices of 99 women undergoing hysterectomy for reasons unrelated to epithelial abnormality. Our ISH assay detected HR-HPV in 42% of our study population. The majority of ISH positive samples also tested HPV16 positive using sensitive PCR based assays and were more likely to have a history of preceding cytological abnormality. Analysis of subsets of this population revealed HR-HPV to be transcriptionally inactive as there was no evidence of a productive or transforming infection. Critically, the E2 gene was always disrupted in those HPV16 positive cases which were assessed. These findings point to a reservoir of transcriptionally silent, disrupted HPV16 DNA in morphologically normal cervices, re-expression of which could explain the increase in incidence of cervical cancer observed in later life.

  1. An opto-electronic joint detection system based on DSP aiming at early cervical cancer screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weiya; Jia, Mengyu; Gao, Feng; Yang, Lihong; Qu, Pengpeng; Zou, Changping; Liu, Pengxi; Zhao, Huijuan

    2015-02-01

    The cervical cancer screening at a pre-cancer stage is beneficial to reduce the mortality of women. An opto-electronic joint detection system based on DSP aiming at early cervical cancer screening is introduced in this paper. In this system, three electrodes alternately discharge to the cervical tissue and three light emitting diodes in different wavelengths alternately irradiate the cervical tissue. Then the relative optical reflectance and electrical voltage attenuation curve are obtained by optical and electrical detection, respectively. The system is based on DSP to attain the portable and cheap instrument. By adopting the relative reflectance and the voltage attenuation constant, the classification algorithm based on Support Vector Machine (SVM) discriminates abnormal cervical tissue from normal. We use particle swarm optimization to optimize the two key parameters of SVM, i.e. nuclear factor and cost factor. The clinical data were collected on 313 patients to build a clinical database of tissue responses under optical and electrical stimulations with the histopathologic examination as the gold standard. The classification result shows that the opto-electronic joint detection has higher total coincidence rate than separate optical detection or separate electrical detection. The sensitivity, specificity, and total coincidence rate increase with the increasing of sample numbers in the training set. The average total coincidence rate of the system can reach 85.1% compared with the histopathologic examination.

  2. Grading of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia using spatial frequency for optical histology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pu, Yang; Jagtap, Jaidip; Pradhan, Asima; Alfano, Robert R.

    2014-03-01

    It is important to detect cervical dysplasia, Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia (CIN). CIN is the potentially premalignant and abnormal squamous cells on surface of cervix. In this study, the spatial frequency spectra of pre-cancer cervical tissues are used to detect differences among different grades of human cervical tissues. Seven sets of thick tissue sections of human cervix of normal, CIN 1, CIN 2, and CIN 3 tissues are studied. The confocal microscope images of the stromal region of normal and CIN human tissues were analyzed using Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) to generate the spatial spectra. It is observed that higher frequency components exist in CIN tissues than those in normal tissue, as well as those in higher grade CIN tissue than those in lower grade CIN tissue. The width of the spatial frequency of different types of tissues is used to create a criterion for CIN grading by training a support vector machine (SVM) classifier. The results show that the randomness of tissue structures from normal to different stages of precancer in cervical tissue can be recognized by fingerprints of the spatial frequency. The efficacy of spatial frequency analysis for CIN grading is evaluated as excellent since high AUC (area under the ROC curve), sensitivity and specificity are obtained by the statistics study. This works lays the foundation of using spatial frequency spectra for a histology evaluation.

  3. Are upright lateral cervical radiographs in the obtunded trauma patient useful? A retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bolles Gene

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The best method for radiographic "clearance" of the cervical spine in obtunded patients prior to removal of cervical immobilization devices remains debated. Dynamic radiographs or MRI are thought to demonstrate unstable injuries, but can be expensive and cumbersome to obtain. An upright lateral cervical radiograph (ULCR was performed in selected patients to investigate whether this study could provide this same information, to enable removal of cervical immobilization devices in the multiple trauma patient. Methods We retrospectively reviewed our experience with ULCR in 683 blunt trauma victims who presented over a 3-year period, with either a Glasgow Coma Score Results ULCR was performed in 163 patients. Seven patients had studies interpreted to be abnormal, of which six were also abnormal, by either CT or MRI. The seventh patient's only abnormality was soft tissue swelling; MRI was otherwise normal. Six patients had ULCR interpreted as normal, but had abnormalities on either CT or MRI. None of the missed injuries required surgical stabilization, although one had a vertebral artery injury demonstrated on subsequent angiography. ULCR had an apparent sensitivity of 45.5% and specificity of 71.4%. Conclusion ULCR are inferior to both CT and MRI in the detection of cervical injury in patients with normal plain radiographs. We therefore cannot recommend the use of ULCR in the obtunded trauma patient.

  4. A review of topotecan in combination chemotherapy for advanced cervical cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minoo Robati

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Minoo Robati, David Holtz, Charles J DuntonDepartment of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Main Line Gynecologic Oncology, Lankenau Hospital, Wynnewood, PA, USAAbstract: Treatment of advanced, recurrent or persistent cervical cancer includes radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Radiation has been the primary treatment modality for locoregionally advanced cervical cancer. Concomitant systemic cisplatin chemotherapy and radiation have shown high response rates with improvements in durable remissions and overall survival. Cisplatin has been the standard medication for the treatment of advanced cervical cancer. Combinations with other chemotherapeutic agents have been the subject of clinical trials with varying results. The toxicity of combination chemotherapy and tolerability of patients are other factors that should be considered in the management of patients with advanced disease. Recently topotecan, in combination with cisplatin, achieved increased response and overall survival rates without further compromising the patients’ quality of life. This review focuses on the mechanism of action and toxicities of topotecan, as well as its role as a radio-sensitizer and chemotherapeutic agent in the management of advanced, recurrent, or persistent cervical cancer. Other combination modalities and dosages are also discussed.Keywords: topotecan, combination chemotherapy, advanced cervical cancer

  5. Detecting uterine glandular lesions: Role of cervical cytology

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    Baneet Bansal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The sensitivity of cervical cytology for detection of glandular lesions is reported to be low. We conducted this study to assess the diagnostic accuracy of cervical Papanicolaou (Pap smears for uterine glandular lesions and to compare the diagnostic utility of conventional and liquid-based cytology (LBC smears for glandular lesions. Materials and Methods: Archived histopathology records of all cases reported as endocervical and endometrial adenocarcinoma in the study period were identified and the available corresponding Pap smears (in preceding 1 year were retrieved. In addition, the Pap smears reported as glandular cell abnormalities (GCA during the same study period were retrieved. The overall prevalence of GCA, sensitivity, and specificity of Pap smears for the detection of GCA was calculated. The diagnostic accuracy of conventional and LBC smears for the diagnosis of GCA was also compared. Results: The prevalence of GCA in our study was 0.32%. The overall specificity of Pap smears for the diagnosis of GCA was 60.8%, this was not significantly different between conventional and LBC smears (P = 0.4. The overall sensitivity of Pap smears for the detection of GCA was 41.8%; LBC smears had significantly better sensitivity as compared to conventional smears for the detection of endometrial as compared to endocervical adenocarcinoma (P < 0.05. Conclusions: The prevalence of GCA in Pap smears is low. The specificity of Pap smears, for diagnosis of GCA, was found to be moderate. However, the overall sensitivity of Pap smears for the detection of GCA was low, though better for LBC as compared to conventional smears.

  6. Detecting uterine glandular lesions: Role of cervical cytology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Baneet; Gupta, Parikshaa; Gupta, Nalini; Rajwanshi, Arvind; Suri, Vanita

    2016-01-01

    Background: The sensitivity of cervical cytology for detection of glandular lesions is reported to be low. We conducted this study to assess the diagnostic accuracy of cervical Papanicolaou (Pap) smears for uterine glandular lesions and to compare the diagnostic utility of conventional and liquid-based cytology (LBC) smears for glandular lesions. Materials and Methods: Archived histopathology records of all cases reported as endocervical and endometrial adenocarcinoma in the study period were identified and the available corresponding Pap smears (in preceding 1 year) were retrieved. In addition, the Pap smears reported as glandular cell abnormalities (GCA) during the same study period were retrieved. The overall prevalence of GCA, sensitivity, and specificity of Pap smears for the detection of GCA was calculated. The diagnostic accuracy of conventional and LBC smears for the diagnosis of GCA was also compared. Results: The prevalence of GCA in our study was 0.32%. The overall specificity of Pap smears for the diagnosis of GCA was 60.8%, this was not significantly different between conventional and LBC smears (P = 0.4). The overall sensitivity of Pap smears for the detection of GCA was 41.8%; LBC smears had significantly better sensitivity as compared to conventional smears for the detection of endometrial as compared to endocervical adenocarcinoma (P < 0.05). Conclusions: The prevalence of GCA in Pap smears is low. The specificity of Pap smears, for diagnosis of GCA, was found to be moderate. However, the overall sensitivity of Pap smears for the detection of GCA was low, though better for LBC as compared to conventional smears. PMID:27014363

  7. Functional cervical myelography with iohexol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakstad, P.; Aaserud, O.; Nyberg-Hansen, R.; Ganes, T.

    1985-05-01

    Thirty patients underwent functional cervical myelography, i.e. radiographs in the lateral view were obtained in extension as well as in flexion of the neck. Sagittal tomography was performed in both positions. Narrowing of the subarachnoid space and increased sagittal diameter of the spinal cord due to shortening were demonstrated in the lateral view in extension. In flexion a widening of the subarachnoid space was seen in almost all. In some cases with advanced narrowing or spinal block in extension, such widening in flexion resulted in better diagnostic images by providing passage of the contrast medium caudally. Although iohexol (Omnipaque, Nyegaard and Co., Oslo) was regularly forced into the posterior cranial fossa by the movements, the frequency of side effects was approximately the same as in our former trials with iohexol in conventional cervical myelography. EEG changes occurred in two patients (7%). A sitting position for 3-4 min after the examination followed by an elevated head end of the bed was probably important for preventing side effects from the contrast medium. Specific questioning revealed twice as many subjective side effects as reported after general questions alone.

  8. Network Topologies Decoding Cervical Cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarika Jalan

    Full Text Available According to the GLOBOCAN statistics, cervical cancer is one of the leading causes of death among women worldwide. It is found to be gradually increasing in the younger population, specifically in the developing countries. We analyzed the protein-protein interaction networks of the uterine cervix cells for the normal and disease states. It was found that the disease network was less random than the normal one, providing an insight into the change in complexity of the underlying network in disease state. The study also portrayed that, the disease state has faster signal processing as the diameter of the underlying network was very close to its corresponding random control. This may be a reason for the normal cells to change into malignant state. Further, the analysis revealed VEGFA and IL-6 proteins as the distinctly high degree nodes in the disease network, which are known to manifest a major contribution in promoting cervical cancer. Our analysis, being time proficient and cost effective, provides a direction for developing novel drugs, therapeutic targets and biomarkers by identifying specific interaction patterns, that have structural importance.

  9. Photodynamic therapy for cervical lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Grebenkina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The experience of treatment for precancer and early cervical cancer by photodynamic therapy in 12 patients with primary diagnosis H-SIL (CIN II–III and cancer in situ is described. Chlo-rine photosensitizer Photolon was given intravenously at a dose of 0.75–1.15 mg/kg body weight. 2.5 h later the treatment with polyposition laser exposure (light dose – 150 J/cm2, light power density – 400–500 mW/cm2 was made. Thirty days later conization of the cervix with endocervical curettage assessing therapeutic response of cervical tumor tissue was per-formed. According to histological data complete response was in 4 patients, minute foci of CIN I were determined in 7 patients, 1 patient had foci of CIN II. 8 of 10 HPV-positive patients had complete eradication of HPV after treatment. There were no serious adverse events after light exposure. Marked therapeutic response, high anti-viral activity and good feasibility allow to consider photodynamic therapy as alternative organ-sparing treatment of early cancer and pre-cancer of cervix. 

  10. Study of surface functionalization on IDE by using 3-aminopropyl triethoxysilane (APTES) for cervical cancer detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raqeema, S.; Hashim, U.; Azizah, N.

    2016-07-01

    This paper presented the study of surface functionalization on IDE by using 3-Aminopropyl triethoxysilane (APTES). The DNA nanochip based interdigitated (IDE) has been proposed to optimized the sensitivity of the device due to the cervical cancer detection. The DNA nanochip will be more efficient using surface modification of TiO2 nanoparticles with 3-Aminopropyl triethoxysilane (APTES). Furthermore, APTES gain the better functionalization of the adsorption mechanism on IDE. The combination of the DNA probe and the HPV target will produce more sensitivity and speed of the DNA nanochip due to their properties. The IDE has been characterized using current-voltage (IV) measurement. This functionalization of the surface would be applicable, sensitive, selective and low cost for cervical cancer detection.

  11. Diagnostic performance of HPV E6/E7, hTERT, and Ki67 mRNA RT-qPCR assays on formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded cervical tissue specimens from women with cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hye-Young; Kim, Geehyuk; Cho, Hyemi; Kim, Sunghyun; Lee, Dongsup; Park, Sunyoung; Park, Kwang Hwa; Lee, Hyeyoung

    2015-06-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a major cause of cervical cancer, which is the third most common cancer in women. Human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) and Ki67 are tumor cell markers indicating cancer cell proliferation in cancer patients, and activation of hTERT and Ki67 leads to progressive cervical carcinogenesis. In the present study, we evaluated the CervicGen HPVE6/E7 mRNA RT-qDx assay, which detects 16 HPV high-risk (HR) genotypes (HPV 16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 39, 45, 51, 52, 53, 56, 58, 59, 66, 68 and 69), and the CervicGen hTERT and Ki67 mRNA RT-qDx assay using 117 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) cervical cancer tissue samples. The diagnostic validity of the CervicGen HPV RT-qDx assay for detecting histologically proven prevalent squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) was 94% sensitivity, 100% specificity, 77.8% positive predictive value (PPV), and 78.9% negative predictive value (NPV). The most common HPV genotypes detected in FFPE cervical cancer tissue samples were HPV 16 (56%) and HPV 18 (10%). The positivity rate of hTERT and Ki67 mRNA expressions in FFPE cervical cancer tissue samples on RT-qPCR was 65% and 93% respectively. Moreover, the positivity rates were 92% for a combination of HPV E6/E7 and hTERT mRNA expressions, 97% for HPV E6/E7 and Ki67 mRNA expressions, and 99% (99/100) for the combination of HPV E6/E7, hTERT, and Ki67 mRNA expressions. These data showed that SSC FFPE cervical cancer tissue samples correlated more strongly with high Ki67 mRNA expressions than with hTERT mRNA expressions. Notably, hTERT and Ki67 mRNA expression level was increased in high-grade cervical lesions, but was very low in normal samples. Our findings suggest that the combination of HPV E6/E7, hTERT, and Ki67 mRNA expression levels could be used in a complementary manner in diagnosing high-grade cervical lesions. Further studies are required to evaluate these assays as a useful predictive tool for screening low-grade cervical lesions.

  12. HEALTH TECHNOLOGY ASSESSMENT ON CERVICAL CANCER SCREENING, 2000–2014

    OpenAIRE

    Lahue, Betsy J.; Baginska, Eva; Li, Sophia S.; Parisi, Monika

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to conduct a review of health technology assessments (HTAs) in cervical cancer screening to highlight the most common metrics HTA agencies use to evaluate and recommend cervical cancer screening technologies. Methods: The Center for Reviews and Dissemination (CRD), MedLine, and national HTA agency databases were searched using keywords (“cervical cancer screening” OR “cervical cancer” OR “cervical screening”) and “HTA” from January 2000 to October 2014. N...

  13. Slight head extension: does it change the sagittal cervical curve?

    OpenAIRE

    Harrison, Deed E.; Harrison, Donald D.; Janik, Tadeusz J.; Holland, Burt; Siskin, Leonard A.

    2001-01-01

    It is commonly believed that slight flexion/extension of the head will reverse the cervical lordosis. The goal of the present study was to determine whether slight head extension could result in a cervical kyphosis changing into a lordosis. Forty consecutive volunteer subjects with a cervical kyphosis and with flexion in their resting head position had a neutral lateral cervical radiograph followed immediately by a lateral cervical view taken in an extended head position to level the bite lin...

  14. The effects of cervical joint manipulation, based on passive motion analysis, on cervical lordosis, forward head posture, and cervical ROM in university students with abnormal posture of the cervical spine

    OpenAIRE

    Gong, Wontae

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to determine the effect of cervical posture manipulation, based on passive motion analysis (MBPMA) and general mobilization, on cervical lordosis, forward head posture (FHP), and cervical ROM in university students with problems in cervical posture and range of motion (ROM). [Subjects] The Subjects were 40 university students in their 20s who displayed problems in cervical posture and ROM; they were divided into an MBPMA group (n=20) and a mobilization grou...

  15. [Early detection of cervical cancer in Chile: time for change].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Léniz Martelli, Javiera; Van De Wyngard, Vanessa; Lagos, Marcela; Barriga, María Isabel; Puschel Illanes, Klaus; Ferreccio Readi, Catterina

    2014-08-01

    Mortality rates for cervical cancer (CC) in Chile are higher than those of developed countries and it has an unequal socioeconomic distribution. The recognition of human papilloma virus (HPV) as the causal agent of cervical cancer in the early 80's changed the prevention paradigms. Current goals are to prevent HPV infection by vaccination before the onset of sexual activity and to detect HPV infection in women older than 30 years. This article reviews CC prevention and early detection methods, discusses relevant evidence to support a change in Chile and presents an innovation proposal. A strategy of primary screening based on HPV detection followed by triage of HPV-positive women by colposcopy in primary care or by cytological or molecular reflex testing is proposed. Due to the existence in Chile of a well-organized nationwide CC prevention program, the replacement of a low-sensitivity screening test such as the Papanicolau test with a highly sensitive one such as HPV detection, could quickly improve the effectiveness of the program. The program also has a network of personnel qualified to conduct naked-eye inspections of the cervix, who could easily be trained to perform triage colposcopy. The incorporation of new prevention strategies could reduce the deaths of Chilean women and correct inequities.

  16. Aberrant DNA methylation in cervical carcinogenesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui-Juan Yang

    2013-01-01

    Persistent infection with high-risk types of human papillomavirus(HPV) is known to cause cervical cancer; however,additional genetic and epigenetic alterations are required for progression from precancerous disease to invasive cancer.DNA methylation is an early and frequent molecular alteration in cervical carcinogenesis.In this review,we summarize DNA methylation within the HPV genome and human genome and identify its clinical implications.Methylation of the HPV long control region (LCR) and L1 gene is common during cervical carcinogenesis and increases with the severity of the cervical neoplasm.The L1 gene of HPV16 and HPV18 is consistently hypermethylated in invasive cervical cancers and can potentially be used as a clinical marker of cancer progression.Moreover,promoters of tumor suppressor genes (TSGs) involved in many cellular pathways are methylated in cervical precursors and invasive cancers.Some are associated with squamous cell carcinomas,and others are associated with adenocarcinomas.Identification of methylated TSGs in Pap smear could be an adjuvant test in cervical cancer screening for triage of women with high-risk HPV,atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance,or low grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL).However,consistent panels must be validated for this approach to be translated to the clinic.Furthermore,reversion of methylated TSGs using demethylating drugs may be an alternative anticancer treatment,but demethylating drugs without toxic carcinogenic and mutagenic properties must be identified and validated.

  17. Cervical vertigo%颈性眩晕

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何及; 樊东升; 孙宇

    2011-01-01

    Cervical vertigo refers to a syndrome with a chief complaint of vertigo arising from cervical verteprae discomfort. In general, cervical vertigo is correlated with but not always caused by cervical spondylopathy,which mainly includes vertebral arterial and sympathetic cervical spondylosis. The vertebral artery insufficiency caused by compression from lateral displacement of the intervertebral dise is very rare, while the sympathetic cervical spondylosis caused by the vertebral instability is much more common. Rigorous criteria have been developed for diagnosis of the latter. Conservative therapy is mainly recommended for treatment of cervical vertigo.%颈性眩晕通常与颈椎病有关,但不一定完全由颈椎病所致.与颈性眩晕有关的主要是椎动脉型和交感型颈椎病.由椎间盘侧突压迫导致的椎动脉供血不足非常罕见,由椎体不稳引起的交感型颈椎病较多,但后者也有其严格的诊断标准.治疗以保守治疗为主.

  18. Impact of intravenous acetaminophen therapy on the necessity of cervical spine imaging in patients with cervical spine trauma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Koorosh Ahmadi; Amir Masoud Hashemian; Elham Pishbin; Mahdi Sharif-Alhoseini; Vafa Rahimi-Movaghar

    2014-01-01

    Objective:We evaluated a new hypothesis of acetaminophen therapy to reduce the necessity of imaging in patients with probable traumatic cervical spine injury.Methods:Patients with acute blunt trauma to the neck and just posterior midline cervical tenderness received acetaminophen (15 mg/kg) intravenously after cervical spine immobilization.Then,all the patients underwent plain radiography and computerized tomography of the cervical spine.The outcome measure was the presence of traumatic cervical spine injury.Sixty minutes after acetaminophen infusion,posterior midline cervical tendemess was reassessed.Results:Of 1 309 patients,41 had traumatic cervical spine injuries based on imaging.Sixty minutes after infusion,posterior midline cervical tenderness was eliminated in 1 041 patients,none of whom had abnormal imaging.Conclusion:Patients with cervical spine trauma do not need imaging if posterior midline cervical tendemess is eliminated after acetaminophen infusion.This analgesia could be considered as a diagnostic and therapeutic intervention.

  19. Economic burden of cervical cancer in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharifa E.W. Puteh

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Cervical cancers form the second highest number of female cancers in Malaysia, imposing a substantial amount of cost burden on its management. However, an estimation of cost burden of abnormal smears, cervical pre-invasive and invasive diseases needs to be done to show how much spending has been allocated to the problem. An expert panel committee came up with the clinical pathway and management algorithm of  cervical pre invasive and invasive diseases from July-December 2006 Malaysia. An activity based costing for each clinical pathway was done. Results were converted to USD. The cost of managing pre-invasive cervical cancers stage is USD 420,150 (Range: USD 197,158-879,679. Management of invasive cancer (new cases costs USD 51,533,233.44 (Range: USD 32,405,399.69 - USD 129,014,768.40. The cost of managing existing cases is USD 17,005,966.87 (Range: USD 10,693,781.90 - USD  28,901,587.12. The total cost of managing cervical cancers by health care providers in a public setting is around USD 75,888,329.45 (Range: USD 48,083,804.60 - USD 48,083,804.60. The outcome of this study has shown that preventive modalities such as screening have only contributed to 10.3 % of the total management cost of cervical cancer. The major cost contribution (67% came from treatment of invasive cancer especially at more advanced stages of cancer, followed by treatment of existing cases (22% and lastly on pre-invasive disease (0.6%. This study revealed that proportion of preventive modality in this country was still low, and the major cost came from actual treatment cost of cervical cancer. Therefore, heightened public cervical cancer screening in the country is needed. (Med J Indones 2008; 17: 272-80Keywords: cervical cancers, pre invasive disease, HPV vaccination

  20. Cervical Musculoskeletal Impairments and Temporomandibular Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Armijo-Olivo

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The study of cervical muscles and their significance in the development and perpetuation of Temporomandibular Disorders has not been elucidated. Thus this project was designed to investigate the association between cervical musculoskeletal impairments and Temporomandibular Disorders. Material and Methods: A sample of 154 subjects participated in this study. All subjects underwent a series of physical tests and electromyographic assessment (i.e. head and neck posture, maximal cervical muscle strength, cervical flexor and extensor muscles endurance, and cervical flexor muscle performance to determine cervical musculoskeletal impairments. Results: A strong relationship between neck disability and jaw disability was found (r = 0.82. Craniocervical posture was statistically different between patients with myogenous Temporomandibular Disorders (TMD and healthy subjects. However, the difference was too small (3.3º to be considered clinically relevant. Maximal cervical flexor muscle strength was not statistically or clinically different between patients with TMD and healthy subjects. No statistically significant differences were found in electromyographic activity of the sternocleidomastoid or the anterior scalene muscles in patients with TMD when compared to healthy subjects while executing the craniocervical flexion test (P = 0.07. However, clinically important effect sizes (0.42 - 0.82 were found. Subjects with TMD presented with reduced cervical flexor as well as extensor muscle endurance while performing the flexor and extensor muscle endurance tests when compared to healthy individuals. Conclusions: Subjects with Temporomandibular Disorders presented with impairments of the cervical flexors and extensors muscles. These results could help guide clinicians in the assessment and prescription of more effective interventions for individuals with Temporomandibular Disorders.

  1. Decreased cervical cancer cell adhesion on nanotubular titanium for the treatment of cervical cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Crear J; Kummer KM; Webster TJ

    2013-01-01

    Jara Crear, Kim M Kummer, Thomas J Webster School of Engineering, Brown University, Providence, RI, USA Abstract: Cervical cancer can be treated by surgical resection, chemotherapy, and/or radiation. Titanium biomaterials have been suggested as a tool to help in the local delivery of chemotherapeutic agents and/or radiation to cervical cancer sites. However, current titanium medical devices used for treating cervical cancer do not by themselves possess any anticancer properties; such devices...

  2. The Effect of the PEEK Cage on the Cervical Lordosis in Patients Undergoing Anterior Cervical Discectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salih Gulsen

    2015-03-01

    CONCLUSION: We achieved better cervical lordotic angles at the postoperative period by implanting one-level, two-level, three-level or four-level PEEK cage filled with demineralized bone matrix. Also, the causes of cervical root and or medulla spinalis impingement were different in group1 and 2. While extruded cervical disc impingement was the first pathology in group 1, osteophyte formation was the first pathology in group 2.

  3. EFFECTIVENESS OF TENS VERSUS INTERMITTENT CERVICAL TRACTION IN PATIENTS WITH CERVICAL RADICULOPATHY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Himanshi Sharma

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cervical radiculopathy is a dysfunction of nerve root of the cervical spine where C6& C7 nerve roots are the most commonly affected. It encompasses important symptoms other than pain, such as paresthesia, numbness and muscle weakness in dermatomal or myotomal distribution of an affected nerve root. A multitude of physical therapy interventions have been proposed to be effective in the management of cervical radiculopathy, including mechanical cervical traction, manipulation, therapeutic exercises and TENS. Studies to find out the effectiveness of TENS versus Intermittent Cervical Traction among patients with Cervical Radiculopathy are sparse. Hence the present study was undertaken to find out and compare effectiveness of TENS versus Intermittent Cervical Traction a newer technique towards betterment in treatment of cervical radiculopathy patients. Methodology: 30 patients from Baroda association for the blind (Lions club of Baroda, Subhanpura & Sushrut Physiotherapy Clinic, Akota were chosen based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Group A comprised of 15 people with cervical radiculopathy were given TENS with Isometric neck exercises and active neck movements. Group B comprised of 15 people with cervical radiculopathy were given Intermittent Cervical Traction with Isometric neck exercise and active neck movements. VAS Scale & Neck Disability Index (NDI were used as outcome measures pre & post treatment. Results: The pre test evaluation showed that, there is no significant difference (P> 0.05 between the two groups for all the variables measured. The post-test evaluation of both groups showed a very high significance (P< 0.05 within the group for all the outcome measurements. A post-test comparison of measured variables, between the groups showed that the Group A demonstrated a statistically significant (P< 0.05 reduction in pain and Neck Disability Index. Conclusion: From the above study concluded that TENS was more effective

  4. Vital Signs-Cervical Cancer is Preventable!

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-11-05

    This podcast is based on the November 2014 CDC Vital Signs report. Every visit to a doctor or nurse is an opportunity to prevent cervical cancer. Women can get a Pap test and HPV test to help prevent cervical cancer and adolescent boys and girls can get the HPV vaccination series to help prevent cervical and other cancers.  Created: 11/5/2014 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 11/5/2014.

  5. Cervical Cancer is Preventable! PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-11-05

    This 60 second Public Service Announcement is based on the November 2014 CDC Vital Signs report. Every visit to a doctor or nurse is an opportunity to prevent cervical cancer. Women can get a Pap test and HPV test to help prevent cervical cancer and adolescent boys and girls can get the HPV vaccination series to help prevent cervical and other cancers.  Created: 11/5/2014 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (NCIPC).   Date Released: 11/5/2014.

  6. Cervical Spine Axial Rotation Goniometer Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emin Ulaş Erdem

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the cervical spine rotation movement is quiet harder than other joints. Configuration and arrangement of current goniometers and devices is not always practic in clinics and some methods are quiet expensive. The cervical axial rotation goniometer designed by the authors is consists of five pieces (head apparatus, chair, goniometric platform, eye pads and camera. With this goniometer design a detailed evaluation of cervical spine range of motion can be obtained. Besides, measurement of "joint position sense" which is recently has rising interest in researches can be made practically with this goniometer.

  7. Magnetic resonance imaging of the cervical region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tjoerstad, K.; Kaass, B.; Svihus, R.

    1987-11-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the cervical region was carried out on 139 patients in a ten-month period. 64 patients came from Rogaland Central Hospital and 75 from the rest of Norway. A retrospective questionnaire was filled in by the referring physicians. MRI seems to be of great value in the diagnosis of cervical vertebrogenic myelopathy, multiple sclerosis, syringomyelia, and intraspinal tumors. Besides its diagnostic superiority, at least in patients with cervical myelopathy, MRI has definite economic advantages compared to CT and myelography.

  8. Evaluation of p16, human papillomavirus capsid protein L1 and Ki-67 in cervical intraepithelial lesions: potential utility in diagnosis and prognosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alshenawy, Hanan AlSaeid

    2014-12-01

    Cervical dysplasia, a potentially precancerous lesion, has increased in young women. Detection of cervical dysplasia is important for reducing morbidity and mortality in cervical cancer. This study analyzes the immunohistochemical expression of p16, HPV L1 capsid protein and Ki-67 in cervical intraepithelial lesions, and correlates them with lesion grade to develop a set of markers for diagnosis and detect the prognosis of cervical cancer precursors. Seventy-five specimens were analyzed, including 15 cases of CIN 1, 28 cases of CIN 2, 20 cases of CIN 3, and 12 cervical squamous carcinomas, besides 10 normal cervical tissues. They were stained for p16, HPV L1 and Ki-67. Sensitivity, specificity, predictive values and accuracy were evaluated for each marker. p16 expression increased during progression from CIN 1 to carcinoma. HPV L1 positivity was detected in CIN 2 and decreased gradually as the CIN grade increased but disappeared in carcinoma. Strong Ki-67 expression was observed in high grades CIN and carcinoma. p16, HPV L1 and Ki-67 were sensitive but with variable specificity in detecting CIN lesions. p16, HPV L1 and Ki-67 are useful markers in establishing the risk of high-grade CIN. They complete each other to reach an accurate diagnosis and to detect the prognosis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  9. Comparison of Upper Cervical Flexion and Cervical Flexion Angle of Computer Workers with Upper Trapezius and Levator Scapular Pain

    OpenAIRE

    Yoo, Won-gyu

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] In this study, we compared upper cervical flexion and cervical flexion angle of computer workers with upper trapezius and levator scapular pain. [Subject] Eight male computer workers with upper trapezius muscle pain and eight others with levator scapular muscle pain participated. [Methods] Each subject was assessed in terms of upper cervical flexion angle and total cervical flexion angles using a cervical range of motion instrument after one hour of computer work. [Results] The uppe...

  10. Collateral sensitivity to cisplatin in KB-8-5-11 drug-resistant cancer cells.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Doherty, Ben

    2014-01-01

    KB-8-5-11 cells are a drug-resistant cervical cell model that overexpresses ABCB1 (P-glycoprotein). KB-8-5-11 has become sensitive to non-ABCB1 substrate cisplatin. Understanding the mechanism of collateral sensitivity to cisplatin may lead to biomarker discovery for platinum sensitivity in patients with cancer.

  11. Intraoperative radiological visualization of the occipito-cervical transition and upper cervical spine: technical note

    OpenAIRE

    Marcelo Luis Mudo; Andrea Vieira Amantéa; Sérgio Cavalheiro; Andrei Fernandes Joaquim

    2009-01-01

    Relatamos nota técnica para melhor visualização radiológica intraoperatória em cirurgias da região occipitocervical e coluna cervical superior.Relatamos nota técnica para mejor visualización radiológica intraoperatória en las cirugías de la región occipito-cervical y de la columna cervical alta.We report a technical note to obtain a better intraoperative radiological view in surgeries of the craniocervical junction and upper cervical spine.

  12. Intraoperative radiological visualization of the occipito-cervical transition and upper cervical spine: technical note

    OpenAIRE

    Marcelo Luis Mudo; Andrea Vieira Amantéa; Sérgio Cavalheiro; Andrei Fernandes Joaquim

    2009-01-01

    Relatamos nota técnica para melhor visualização radiológica intraoperatória em cirurgias da região occipitocervical e coluna cervical superior.Relatamos nota técnica para mejor visualización radiológica intraoperatória en las cirugías de la región occipito-cervical y de la columna cervical alta.We report a technical note to obtain a better intraoperative radiological view in surgeries of the craniocervical junction and upper cervical spine.

  13. Transverse cervical skin incision and vertical platysma splitting approach for anterior cervical vertebral column exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agrawal Amit

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Anterior surgical approaches provide direct access to symptomatic areas of the cervical spine, allow management of the vast spectrum of cervical spine pathologies and there are many articles in the literature that discussed these techniques in detail. Cosmesis is an important issue for patients who undergone surgeryon neck structures as an improperly placed incision attracting significant morbidity and few publications discuss this issue in details. The purpose of the present article is to describe our experience with transverse cervical skin incision and vertical platysma splitting approach for anterior cervical vertebral column exposure.

  14. From Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Detection to Cervical Cancer Prevention in Clinical Practice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sin Hang, E-mail: shlee01@snet.net; Vigliotti, Jessica S.; Vigliotti, Veronica S.; Jones, William [Department of Pathology, Milford Hospital, 300 Seaside Ave., Milford, CT 06460 (United States)

    2014-10-02

    The newly gained knowledge of the viral etiology in cervical carcinogenesis has prompted industrial interests in developing virology-based tools for cervical cancer prevention. Due to the long incubation period from viral infection to developing an invasive cancer, a process whose outcome is influenced by numerous life-style and genetic factors, the true efficacy of the genotype-specific human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines in cervical cancer prevention cannot be determined for another 30 years. Most HPV DNA test kits designed to replace the traditional Papanicolaou (Pap) smears for precancer detection lack the analytical sensitivity and specificity to comprehensively detect all potentially carcinogenic HPVs and to perform reliable genotyping. The authors implemented the classic nested PCR and Sanger DNA-sequencing technology for routine HPV testing. The results showed a true negative HPV PCR invariably indicates the absence of precancerous cells in the cytology samples. However, 80.5% of single positive HPV-16 tests and 97.3% of single positive HPV-18 tests were associated with a negative or a largely self-reversible Pap cytology. Routine sensitive and reliable HPV type-specific or perhaps even variant-specific methods are needed to address the issues of persistence of HPV infection if a virology-based primary cervical screen is used to replace the Pap cytology screening paradigm.

  15. A computer-assisted systematic quality monitoring method for cervical hip fracture radiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mats Geijer

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background A thorough quality analysis of radiologic performance is cumbersome. Instead, the prevalence of missed cervical hip fractures might be used as a quality indicator. Purpose To validate a computer-based quality study of cervical hip fracture radiography. Material and Methods True and false negative and positive hip trauma radiography during 6 years was assessed manually. Patients with two or more radiologic hip examinations before surgery were selected by computer analysis of the databases. The first of two preoperative examinations might constitute a missed fracture. These cases were reviewed. Results Out of 1621 cervical hip fractures, manual perusal found 51 (3.1% false negative radiographic diagnoses. Among approximately 14,000 radiographic hip examinations, there were 27 (0.2% false positive diagnoses. Fifty-seven percent of false negative reports were occult fractures, the other diagnostic mistakes. There were no significant differences over the years. Diagnostic sensitivity was 96.9% and specificity 99.8%. Computer-assisted analysis with a time interval of at least 120 days between the first and the second radiographic examination discovered 39 of the 51 false negative reports. Conclusion Cervical hip trauma radiography has high sensitivity and specificity. With computer-assisted analysis, 76% of false negative reports were found.

  16. From Human Papillomavirus (HPV Detection to Cervical Cancer Prevention in Clinical Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sin Hang Lee

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The newly gained knowledge of the viral etiology in cervical carcinogenesis has prompted industrial interests in developing virology-based tools for cervical cancer prevention. Due to the long incubation period from viral infection to developing an invasive cancer, a process whose outcome is influenced by numerous life-style and genetic factors, the true efficacy of the genotype-specific human papillomavirus (HPV vaccines in cervical cancer prevention cannot be determined for another 30 years. Most HPV DNA test kits designed to replace the traditional Papanicolaou (Pap smears for precancer detection lack the analytical sensitivity and specificity to comprehensively detect all potentially carcinogenic HPVs and to perform reliable genotyping. The authors implemented the classic nested PCR and Sanger DNA-sequencing technology for routine HPV testing. The results showed a true negative HPV PCR invariably indicates the absence of precancerous cells in the cytology samples. However, 80.5% of single positive HPV-16 tests and 97.3% of single positive HPV-18 tests were associated with a negative or a largely self-reversible Pap cytology. Routine sensitive and reliable HPV type-specific or perhaps even variant-specific methods are needed to address the issues of persistence of HPV infection if a virology-based primary cervical screen is used to replace the Pap cytology screening paradigm.

  17. Cervical varicosities may predict placenta accreta in posterior placenta previa: a magnetic resonance imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishibashi, Hiroki; Miyamoto, Morikazu; Shinnmoto, Hiroshi; Murakami, Wakana; Soyama, Hiroaki; Nakatsuka, Masaya; Natsuyama, Takahiro; Yoshida, Masashi; Takano, Masashi; Furuya, Kenichi

    2017-07-14

    The aim of this study was to prenatally predict placenta accreta in posterior placenta previa using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). This retrospective study was approved by the Institutional Review Board of our hospital. We identified 81 patients with singleton pregnancy who had undergone cesarean section due to posterior placenta previa at our hospital between January 2012 and December 2016. We calculated the sensitivity and specificity of several well-known findings, and of cervical varicosities quantified using magnetic resonance imaging, in predicting placenta accreta in posterior placenta previa. To quantify cervical varicosities, we calculated the A/B ratio, where "A" was the minimum distance from the most dorsal cervical varicosity to the deciduous placenta, and "B" was the minimum distance from the most dorsal cervical varicosity to the amniotic placenta. The appropriate cut-off value of the A/B ratio was determined using a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. Three patients (3.7%) were diagnosed as having placenta accreta. The sensitivity and specificity of the well-known findings were 0 and 97.4%, respectively. Furthermore, the A/B ratio ranged from 0.02 to 0.79. ROC curve analysis revealed that the area under the combined placenta accreta and A/B ratio curve was 0.96. When the cutoff value of the A/B ratio was set 0.18, the sensitivity and specificity were 100 and 91%, respectively. It was difficult to diagnose placenta accreta in the posterior placenta previa using the well-known findings. The quantification of cervical varicosities could effectively predict placenta accreta.

  18. Value of physical tests in diagnosing cervical radiculopathy: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoomes, Erik J; van Geest, Sarita; van der Windt, Danielle A; Falla, Deborah; Verhagen, Arianne P; Koes, Bart W; Thoomes-de Graaf, Marloes; Kuijper, Barbara; Scholten-Peeters, Wendy Gm; Vleggeert-Lankamp, Carmen L

    2017-08-21

    Background context In clinical practice, the diagnosis of cervical radiculopathy is based on information from the patient history, physical examination and diagnostic imaging. Various physical tests may be performed, but their diagnostic accuracy is unknown. Purpose To summarize and update the evidence on diagnostic performance of tests carried out during a physical examination for the diagnosis of cervical radiculopathy. Study design Review of the accuracy of diagnostic tests. Study Sample Diagnostic studies comparing results of tests performed during a physical examination in diagnosing cervical radiculopathy with a reference standard of imaging or surgical findings. Outcome measures Sensitivity, specificity, likelihood ratios are presented, together with pooled results for sensitivity and specificity. Methods A literature search up to March 2016 was performed in CENTRAL, PubMed (MEDLINE), EMBASE, CINAHL, Web of Science and Google Scholar. Methodological quality of studies was assessed using the QUADAS-2. Results Five diagnostic accuracy studies were identified. Only Spurling's test was evaluated in more than one study, showing high specificity ranging from 0.89-1.00 (95%CI: 0.59-1.00); sensitivity varied from 0.38-0.97 (95%CI: 0.21-0.99). No studies were found that assessed the diagnostic accuracy of widely used neurological tests such as key muscle strength, tendon reflexes and sensory impairments. Conclusions There is limited evidence for accuracy of physical examination tests for the diagnosis of cervical radiculopathy. When consistent with the patient history, clinicians may use a combination of Spurling's, axial traction and an Arm Squeeze test to increase the likelihood of a cervical radiculopathy; whereas a negative combined neurodynamic testing and an Arm Squeeze test could be used to rule out the disorder. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Cisplatin and Radiation Therapy With or Without Triapine in Treating Patients With Previously Untreated Stage IB-IVA Cervical Cancer or Stage II-IVA Vaginal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-25

    Cervical Adenocarcinoma; Cervical Adenosquamous Carcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IB2 Cervical Cancer; Stage II Vaginal Cancer; Stage IIA1 Cervical Cancer; Stage IIA2 Cervical Cancer; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage III Vaginal Cancer; Stage IIIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIIB Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Vaginal Cancer; Vaginal Adenocarcinoma; Vaginal Adenosquamous Carcinoma; Vaginal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

  20. Sensitivity analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003741.htm Sensitivity analysis To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Sensitivity analysis determines the effectiveness of antibiotics against microorganisms (germs) ...

  1. Cervicitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... under a microscope (may show candidiasis , trichomoniasis , or bacterial vaginosis) Pap test Tests for gonorrhea or chlamydia Rarely, colposcopy and biopsy of the cervix is necessary. Treatment Antibiotics are used to treat chlamydia or gonorrhea. ...

  2. Innovative approaches to promoting cervical health and raising cervical cancer awareness by use of existing cultural structures in resource-limited countries: experiences with traditional marriage counseling in Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapambwe, Sharon; Parham, Groesbeck; Mwanahamuntu, Mulindi; Chirwa, Susan; Mwanza, Jacob; Amuyunzu-Nyamongo, Mary

    2013-12-01

    The Cervical Cancer Prevention Program in Zambia (CCPPZ) has increasingly used community-level structures to increase the uptake and ensure the sustainability of the program. Traditional marriage counselors, the alangizi, who have existed in the Zambian society for many years, are one of the structures used by the program to impart cervical cancer knowledge and increase access to screening and care using an existing community structure. Several steps were followed in developing this intervention: (a) ensuring the alangizi understood the process of screening by encouraging them to go through the screening process; (b) workshops were arranged for the alangizi to meet and share experiences during which lessons were given on cervical cancer by health workers as well; and (c) eight alangizi were chosen to help document the lessons as part of ensuring that cervical cancer information is accurate and passed in a consistent manner. Over 70 alangizi, who had undergone cervical cancer screening, were trained by CCPPZ. A 'Cervical Cancer Training Manual for Marriage Counsellors' was developed to help the alangizi integrate cervical cancer lessons in their routine teachings. An evaluation was conducted during the training of the alangizi that forms the basis for this paper. The results show that although the alangizi face key challenges in their work (e.g. changing social contexts), they are still considered relevant by most communities in Zambia and are potentially an important avenue for cervical cancer and other health information. This paper shows that it is possible to integrate sexual and reproductive health messages into existing structures in the community. However, it is important to design culturally specific and sensitive healthcare strategies that embrace locally accepted good practices.

  3. Cisplatin and Radiation Therapy With or Without Carboplatin and Paclitaxel in Patients With Locally Advanced Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-17

    Cervical Adenocarcinoma; Cervical Adenosquamous Carcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Chemotherapeutic Agent Toxicity; Cognitive Side Effects of Cancer Therapy; Psychological Impact of Cancer; Radiation Toxicity; Sexual Dysfunction and Infertility; Stage IB Cervical Cancer; Stage IIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage III Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer

  4. Cervical spondylosis: recognition, differential diagnosis, and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voorhies, R M

    2001-04-01

    In contemporary clinical practice, the prevalence of neck pain in the general population is approximately 15%. The challenge for the primary care specialist is to be able to recognize the more serious disorders that require early referral. Additionally, it is important to have the confidence to institute specific treatment for nonurgent conditions in order to avoid unnecessary referral of patients with generally self-limiting conditions.CERVICAL SPONDYLOSIS IS A GENERAL AND NONSPECIFIC TERM THAT ENCOMPASSES A BROAD SPECTRUM OF AFFLICTIONS BUT, FOR PURPOSES OF CLARITY, CAN BE ORGANIZED INTO THREE CLINICAL SYNDROMES: Type I Syndrome (Cervical Radiculopathy); Type II Syndrome (Cervical Myelopathy); and Type III Syndrome (Axial Joint Pain). It is important to remember that shoulder problems can masquerade as cervical problems, and vice versa (e.g. adhesive capsulitis, recurrent anterior subluxation, impingement syndrome, rotator cuff tear, etc.). A number of management options, including pharmaceutical, physical therapy, and psychological therapies, are available once a diagnosis has been made.

  5. Management of cervical polyradiculopathy through multisegmental ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hosam Eldin Abdel Azim Mostafa Habib

    2014-01-06

    Jan 6, 2014 ... ades for the treatment of degenerative cervical disc disease, although it has been widely .... failed to respond to conservative medical and physical therapy. ..... function is essential for bone fracture healing. J Bone Miner Res.

  6. Traumatic cervical epidural hematoma in an infant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vithal Rangarajan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An 8-month-old male infant had presented with a history of a fall from the crib a fortnight ago. He had developed progressive weakness of both lower limbs. On examination, the infant had spastic paraplegia. Magnetic resonance (MR imaging of the cervical spine showed an epidural hematoma extending from the fourth cervical (C4 to the first dorsal (D1 vertebral level with cord compression. The patient had no bleeding disorder on investigation. He underwent cervical laminoplasty at C6 and C7 levels. The epidural hematoma was evacuated. The cervical cord started pulsating immediately. Postoperatively, the patient′s paraplegia improved dramatically in 48 hours. According to the author′s literature search, only seven cases of post-traumatic epidural hematoma have been reported in pediatric patients, and our patient is the youngest. The present case report discusses the etiopathology, presentation, and management of this rare case.

  7. Trends of cervical cancer in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sander, Bente B; Rebolj, Matejka; Lynge, Elsebeth

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Due to its extraordinarily fast economic and social transition, virtually closed borders before 1940 and, moreover, that 85% of the population has the distinctive genetics of the Inuit, Greenland is a very interesting country to study cervical cancer from a historical perspective....... Nevertheless, little has been reported about long-term cancer trends in Greenland. Our aim was to describe and interpret the incidence of cervical cancer from 1950 to 2009. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We systematically searched PubMed for articles reporting the incidence of cervical cancer in Greenland. We...... supplemented this with data for 1980-2009 obtained from the Chief Medical Officer of Greenland. RESULTS: Incidence of cervical cancer was around 10 per 100 000 women (age-standardised, world population, ASW) in the 1950s, 30 per 100 000 in the 1960s, and in the 1980s around 60 per 100 000. From 1985 onwards...

  8. Worldwide burden of cervical cancer in 2008

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Arbyn, M; Castellsagué, X; de Sanjosé, S; Bruni, L; Saraiya, M; Bray, F; Ferlay, J

    2011-01-01

    Background: The knowledge that persistent human papillomavirus infection is the main cause of cervical cancer has resulted in the development of assays that detect nucleic acids of the virus and prophylactic vaccines...

  9. Etiology of Cervicitis and Treatment with Minocycline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William R Bowie

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the etiology of cervicitis using the recommended Canadian definition, and to evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of seven days of minocycline treatment, 100 versus 200 mg at bedtime.

  10. Serial transvaginal sonographic measurement of cervical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It comprises 50 healthy pregnant women who underwent serial transvaginal ... Cervical changes were analysed using student – t test with three classifying factors; ... /37 weeks), parity (nulliparous & parous) and body mass index (223 & >23).

  11. Antibacterial activity of human cervical mucus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuckerman, H; Kahana, A; Carmel, S

    1975-01-01

    The antimicrobial property of human uterine cervical mucus was tested in three groups of women. Healthy women, using no contraception, women using an intrauterine device and women receiving hormonal treatment for contraception. Cervical mucus was taken on the 10th, 14th, 18th and 22nd day of the menstrual cycle. Cervical mucus had a strong inhibitory effect on the growth of Micrococcus lysodeicticus in all three groups. The strength of the inhibitory effect on the other microorganisms were in the following order: Staphylococcus albus, Staphylococcus aureus, Proteus mirabilis, Escherichia coli, Candida albicans, Streptococcus haemolyticus, Streptococcus faecalis. Use of an intrauterine device did not affect the antimicrobial effect of cervical mucus. The use of hormonal contraceptive canceled the antimicrobial effect on the series of microorganisms, with the exception of M. lysodeicticus. The maximum inhibitory effect occurred on the 14th day and declined toward the end of the menstrual cycle.

  12. Cervical cancer management in Zaria, Nigeria SUMMARY ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    kemrilib

    about cervical cancer is needed to minimise risk factors and encourage early presentation. Governments ... (Standard deviation). Range. Age at presentation. 47.61 years (11.55). 28 to 72 .... return to the hospital for continued care although.

  13. Cystic cervical intramedullary schwannoma with syringomyelia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shenoy S

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of cervical intramedullary cystic schwannoma associated with segmental syrinx in a young adult without evidence of neurofibromatosis. The relevant literature is reviewed.

  14. Imaging Classification of Cervical Lymph Nodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gh. Bakhshandepour

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Nearly four decades, Rouviere classification, which is a clinically based system, was the only system for cervical adenopathy classification. The best possible classification of cervical nodal disease may be accomplished by using both clinical palpation and also informations provided by imaging, because imaging can reveal clinically silent lymph nodes. most head and neck tumors spread to the neck nodes as a part of their natural history ,depending on the primary site. Up to 80% of patients with upper aerodigestive mucosal malignancies will have cervical nodal metastasis"nat presentation.The occurrence of nodal metastasis has a profound effect on the management and prognosis of the patients .nodal metastasis is the most important prognostic factor in squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck. In general it decreases the overall survival by half, and extracapsular spread worsens the prognosis by another half. Our purpose in this presentation is to review imaging classification of cervical lymph nodes.

  15. The vertical stability of the cervical spine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, G P; Sherk, H H

    1988-05-01

    The concept of the three-column cervical spine and load transmission through each column was experimentally tested. Material consisted of five cervical columns removed from cadavers. The experiment was conducted on an Instron load testing machine. Load was applied on superior articular surfaces of the axis vertebra and was recorded below from each column separately at the level of the sixth cervical vertebra. It was found that 36% of the total load applied on the top of the specimen is transmitted through the anterior column formed by bodies and intervertebral discs and 32% each through the two posterior cervical columns formed by the articular processes. The experiment very strongly supported the role of neural arch in transmission of vertebral compressive forces.

  16. Nuclear magnetic resonance tomography of the cervical canal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terwey, B.; Koschorek, F.; Jensen, H.P.

    1985-12-01

    170 patients with suspected lesions of the cervical part of the medulla were examined using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) tomography. 27 cases revealed no pathological changes in the regions of the cervical medulla, the cervical canal and of the cervical spine. 143 cases produced pathological findings whose diagnoses determined therapeutical approach. Verified pathological changes comprised anomalies of the cranio-cervical junction like basilar impression and Arnold-Chiari malformation, various types of cavity formation in the cervical medulla (syringomyelia, hydromyelia), demyelinization processes, intramedullary and extramedullary tumours, intervertebral disk degeneration processes, dislocation of intervertebral disks and spondylophytes with spinal stenoses. Sagittal sections in different functional positions allowed to demonstrate the biomechanical effects of extramedullary masses on the cervical medulla. However, proven tumours could not be differentiated successfully using histological methods. Nevertheless, NMR tomography will replace invasive methods like conventional cervical myelography and CT myelography in diagnostic clarification of diseases of the cervical medulla.

  17. Is Two-Level Cervical Disc Replacement More Cost-Effective than Anterior Cervical Discectomy and Fusion at 7 Years?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, Robert K; McAnany, Steven J; Albert, Todd J; Qureshi, Sheeraz A

    2017-08-14

    Cost-effectiveness analysis. Investigate the 7-year cost-effectiveness of two-level cervical disc replacement (CDR) and anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF). CDR and ACDF are both effective treatment strategies for managing degenerative conditions of the cervical spine. CDR has been shown to be a more-cost effective intervention in the short term, but the long-term cost-effectiveness has not been established. We analyzed 7-year follow-up data from the two-level Medtronic Prestige LP investigational device exemption study. Short-form 36 (SF-36) data were converted into health utility scores using the SF-6D algorithm. Costs were based on direct costs from the payer perspective, and effectiveness was measured as quality adjusted life years (QALYs). The willingness to pay (WTP) threshold was set to $50,000/QALY. A probabilistic sensitivity analysis was conducted via Monte Carlo simulation. Two-level CDR had a 7-year cost of $176,654.19, generated 4.65 QALYs, and had a cost-effectiveness ratio of $37,993.53/QALY. Two-level ACDF had a 7-year cost of $158,373.48, generated 4.44 QALYs, and had a cost-effectiveness ratio of $35,635.72. CDR was associated with an incremental cost of $18,280.71 and an incremental effectiveness of 0.21 QALYs, resulting in an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of $89,021.04, above the WTP threshold. Our Monte Carlo simulation demonstrated CDR would be chosen 46% of the time based on 10,000 simulations. Two-level CDR and ACDF are both cost-effective procedures at 7-year follow-up for treating degenerative conditions of the cervical spine. Based on an ICER of $89,021.04/QALY, we cannot conclude which treatment is the more cost-effective option at 7-years. CDR would be chosen 46% of the time based on 10,000 iterations of our Monte Carlo probabilistic sensitivity analysis. 3.

  18. Cervical spine injuries in American football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rihn, Jeffrey A; Anderson, David T; Lamb, Kathleen; Deluca, Peter F; Bata, Ahmed; Marchetto, Paul A; Neves, Nuno; Vaccaro, Alexander R

    2009-01-01

    American football is a high-energy contact sport that places players at risk for cervical spine injuries with potential neurological deficits. Advances in tackling and blocking techniques, rules of the game and medical care of the athlete have been made throughout the past few decades to minimize the risk of cervical injury and improve the management of injuries that do occur. Nonetheless, cervical spine injuries remain a serious concern in the game of American football. Injuries have a wide spectrum of severity. The relatively common 'stinger' is a neuropraxia of a cervical nerve root(s) or brachial plexus and represents a reversible peripheral nerve injury. Less common and more serious an injury, cervical cord neuropraxia is the clinical manifestation of neuropraxia of the cervical spinal cord due to hyperextension, hyperflexion or axial loading. Recent data on American football suggest that approximately 0.2 per 100,000 participants at the high school level and 2 per 100,000 participants at the collegiate level are diagnosed with cervical cord neuropraxia. Characterized by temporary pain, paraesthesias and/or motor weakness in more than one extremity, there is a rapid and complete resolution of symptoms and a normal physical examination within 10 minutes to 48 hours after the initial injury. Stenosis of the spinal canal, whether congenital or acquired, is thought to predispose the athlete to cervical cord neuropraxia. Although quite rare, catastrophic neurological injury is a devastating entity referring to permanent neurological injury or death. The mechanism is most often a forced hyperflexion injury, as occurs when 'spear tackling'. The mean incidence of catastrophic neurological injury over the past 30 years has been approximately 0.5 per 100,000 participants at high school level and 1.5 per 100,000 at the collegiate level. This incidence has decreased significantly when compared with the incidence in the early 1970s. This decrease in the incidence of

  19. Cervical and Ocular VEMP Testing in Diagnosing Superior Semicircular Canal Dehiscence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Jacob B; Patel, Neil S; O'Connell, Brendan P; Carlson, Matthew L; Shepard, Neil T; McCaslin, Devin L; Wanna, George B

    2017-05-01

    Objective To determine the sensitivity and specificity of ocular and cervical vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (VEMPs) in the diagnosis of superior semicircular canal dehiscence (SCD) and to describe the VEMP response characteristics that are most sensitive to SCD and compare the findings to previous reports. Study Design Case series with chart review. Setting Two tertiary neurotologic referral centers. Subjects and Methods Cervical and ocular VEMP peak-to-peak amplitudes and thresholds from 39 adult patients older than 18 years with surgically confirmed SCD were compared with 84 age-matched controls. Results Using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves, cervical VEMP (cVEMP) amplitudes, cVEMP thresholds, and ocular VEMP (oVEMP) amplitudes had areas under the curve of 0.731, 0.912, and 0.856, respectively, all of which were statistically significant ( P 12.0 µV, the sensitivity and specificity were 78.6% and 81.7%, respectively. Conclusion Data from this multicenter study suggest that both cVEMP thresholds and oVEMP amplitudes remain good diagnostic tests for identifying SCD, with each test dependent on a number of factors. The sensitivity and specificity of these individual tests may vary slightly between centers depending on testing parameters used.

  20. Cervical myositis ossificans traumatica: a rare location

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baysal, T.; Sarac, K.; Kutlu, R. [Dept. of Radiology, Inonu University, Malatya (Turkey); Baysal, O.; Ersoy, Y. [Dept. of Physical Therapy and Rehabilitation, Inonu Univ., Malatya (Turkey); Elmali, N. [Dept. of Orthopedics and Traumatology, Inonu Univ., Malatya (Turkey)

    1999-05-01

    An unusual case of myositis ossificans traumatica lesion located in the paraspinal region is reported. Despite the contiguity of the lesion with the cervical vertebrae and ominous appearance of the biopsy material, the history of antecedent trauma and computed tomography findings allowed preoperative accurate diagnosis. To our knowledge, myositis ossificans traumatica located in the cervical paraspinal region is very rare. (orig.) With 4 figs., 16 refs.

  1. Management of Cervical Cytology with HPV Test

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-10-15

    Dr. Stewart Massad, a professor in the Division of Gynecologic Oncology at Washington University in Saint Louis and a board member of the American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Cancer Prevention (ASCCP), talks about ASCCP's 2006 Consensus Guidelines on the management of abnormal cervical cytology and histology.  Created: 10/15/2009 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP), Division of Cancer Prevention and Control (DCPC).   Date Released: 6/9/2010.

  2. Operating protocols of external root cervical resorption

    OpenAIRE

    Luca Venuti

    2015-01-01

    Aim: Theme of this report is the external cervical root resorption and the sequence of clinical procedures to be implemented during the phases of treatment. The external cervical root resorption (ICR) presents particular pathological conditions such as to classify between resorption of inflammatory origin.1–3 It is generally presented as a complex clinical situation both in the diagnosis in a predictable prognosis.3–6 It's often associated with loss of calcified tissue: dentin, cementum, a...

  3. Cervical myelopathy due to degenerative spondylolisthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Koakutsu, Tomoaki; Nakajo, Junko; Morozumi, Naoki; Hoshikawa, Takeshi; Ogawa, Shinji; Ishii, Yushin

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate clinical-radiological features of cervical myelopathy due to degenerative spondylolisthesis (DSL). Methods A total of 448 patients were operated for cervical myelopathy at Nishitaga National Hospital between 2000 and 2003. Of these patients, DSL at the symptomatic disc level was observed in 22 (4.9%) patients. Clinical features were investigated by medical records, and radiological features were investigated by radiographs. Results Disc levels of DSL were C3/4 in 6 ca...

  4. [Cervical vertebral column--anatomy, fractures, treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kłosiński, Michał; Sienkiewicz-Zawilińska, Justyna; Lipski, Marcin; Zawiliński, Jarosław; Matyja, Andrzej; Walocha, Jerzy

    2009-01-01

    The paper deals with anatomy of human cervical spine. It shows close relation between knowledge on the normal structure and methods of treatment of different kinds of spine injuries. It describes detailed anatomy and mechanical features of cervical vertebral column, including the structure of distinct vertebrae, their joints and arrangement of muscles. It reviews also historical methods of treatment of fractures in this region considering current methods.

  5. Vertigo in patients with cervical spine dysfunction

    OpenAIRE

    Galm, R.; Rittmeister, M.; Schmitt, E.

    1998-01-01

    To our knowledge, quantitative studies on the significance of disorders of the upper cervical spine as a cause of vertigo or impaired hearing do not exist. We examined the cervical spines of 67 patients who presented with symptoms of dizziness. Prior to the orthopaedic examination, causes of vertigo relating to the field of ENT and neurology had been ruled out. Fifty patients of the above-mentioned group were studied. They followed the outlined treatment protocol with physical therapy and wer...

  6. Cervical cancer screening and treatment in Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolyn Nakisige

    2017-05-01

    Training of health professionals, ongoing construction of new radiotherapy bunkers, and opening of regional centers are all geared towards improving cervical cancer care in Uganda. The Uganda Cancer Institute Bill establishes the Institute as a semi-autonomous agency mandated to undertake and coordinate the prevention and treatment of cancer. Its implementation will be a milestone in cervical cancer prevention and control. However, execution will require political will and an increase in domestic and international investment.

  7. Operating protocols of external root cervical resorption

    OpenAIRE

    Venuti, Luca

    2015-01-01

    Aim: Theme of this report is the external cervical root resorption and the sequence of clinical procedures to be implemented during the phases of treatment. The external cervical root resorption (ICR) presents particular pathological conditions such as to classify between resorption of inflammatory origin.1–3 It is generally presented as a complex clinical situation both in the diagnosis in a predictable prognosis.3–6 It's often associated with loss of calcified tissue: dentin, cementum, a...

  8. HPV immunohistochemical testing and cervical dysplasia

    OpenAIRE

    MUREŞAN, DANIEL; Rotar, Ioana Cristina; APOSTOL, SILVANA; COROIU, GEORGIANA; Florin STAMATIAN

    2016-01-01

    Background and aim HPV (Human Papilloma Virus) infection represents a necessary condition for cervical carcinogenesis. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of HPV testing using an immunohistochemical staining kit with implications upon both diagnosis and treatment of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN). Methods Seventy-nine patients and eighty-six controls were enrolled in the study. Each patient had completed a physical examination, gynecological examination with cer...

  9. Tophaceous gout in the cervical spine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabot, Jonathan [Royal Adelaide Hospital, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Adelaide, South Australia (Australia); Mosel, Leigh; Kong, Andrew; Hayward, Mike [Flinders Medical Centre, Department of Medical Imaging, Bedford Park, South Australia (Australia)

    2005-12-01

    Gout is a common metabolic disorder typically affecting the distal joints of the appendicular skeleton. Involvement of the axial skeleton, particularly the facet joints and posterior column of the cervical spine, is rare. This case report highlights such a presentation in a 76-year old female who presented with cervical spine pain following a fall. Her radiological findings were suggestive of a destructive metastatic process. Histological diagnosis confirmed tophaceous gout. (orig.)

  10. Costs Associated with Cervical Cancer Screening

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-10-15

    Dr. Tom Cox, a practicing gynecologist and president of the American Society of Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology, provides a brief introduction to cervical cancer screening guidelines and human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA testing.  Created: 10/15/2009 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP), Division of Cancer Prevention and Control (DCPC).   Date Released: 6/9/2010.

  11. Tuberculous retropharyngeal abscess without cervical spine TB

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ChandrakantPatil; RashmiKharatPatil; PrasadDeshmukh; SameerSinghal; BlendaDSouza

    2011-01-01

    Tuberculous retropharyngeal abscess is a rare presentation. It is present in adults usually due to involvement of cervical spine by tuberculosis. Retropharyngeal space usually gets involved in children due to pyogenic organisms or secondary to trauma. Here is a case of tuberculous retropharyngeal abscess in an adult female, with pulmonary tuberculosis. The patient was not having tuberculous involvement of cervical spine and was managed surgically by aspirating the retropharyngeal abscess transorally and AKT Category I.

  12. Cervical Cancer Screening with HPV Test

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-10-15

    Dr. Stewart Massad, a professor in the Division of Gynecologic Oncology at Washington University in Saint Louis and a board member of the American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Cancer Prevention (ASCCP), talks about cotesting with human papillomavirus (HPV) as part of a cervical cancer screening program.  Created: 10/15/2009 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP), Division of Cancer Prevention and Control (DCPC).   Date Released: 6/9/2010.

  13. Kinematics of fast cervical rotations in persons with chronic neck pain: a cross-sectional and reliability study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Häger-Ross Charlotte

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Assessment of sensorimotor function is useful for classification and treatment evaluation of neck pain disorders. Several studies have investigated various aspects of cervical motor functions. Most of these have involved slow or self-paced movements, while few have investigated fast cervical movements. Moreover, the reliability of assessment of fast cervical axial rotation has, to our knowledge, not been evaluated before. Methods Cervical kinematics was assessed during fast axial head rotations in 118 women with chronic nonspecific neck pain (NS and compared to 49 healthy controls (CON. The relationship between cervical kinematics and symptoms, self-rated functioning and fear of movement was evaluated in the NS group. A sub-sample of 16 NS and 16 CON was re-tested after one week to assess the reliability of kinematic variables. Six cervical kinematic variables were calculated: peak speed, range of movement, conjunct movements and three variables related to the shape of the speed profile. Results Together, peak speed and conjunct movements had a sensitivity of 76% and a specificity of 78% in discriminating between NS and CON, of which the major part could be attributed to peak speed (NS: 226 ± 88 °/s and CON: 348 ± 92 °/s, p Conclusions Peak speed of fast cervical axial rotations is reduced in people with chronic neck pain, and even further reduced in subjects with concomitant low back pain. Fast cervical rotation test seems to be a reliable and valid tool for assessment of neck pain disorders on group level, while a rather large between subject variation and overlap between groups calls for caution in the interpretation of individual assessments.

  14. Comparative assessment of diagnostic value of electrodiagnostic methods and radiologic evaluations in patients with clinical signs of cervical radiculopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.A. Moosavi

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and purpose: Cervical radiculopathy is one of the most common diseases that must be diagnosed early and properly to prevent its serious side effects. For this purpose different paraclinical methods such as MRI, X-ray, EMG, NCV and SSEP are used. Each of these methods has its limitations and some of them are expensive or invassive. The aim of this study was to compare the electrodiagnostic and radiologic methods in diagnosis of cervical radiculopathy.Materials and Methods: In this study 36 patients (22 Female, l4 Male with complaint of cervical pain radiated to upper limbs were evaluated. The evaluation included EMG, NCV, MRI, X-ray and SSEP. Exclusion criteria were fracture dislocation and infection of bone joints or soft tissues .MRI and X-ray were performed in MRI centers of Isfahan, Sepahan and Alzahra hospital in Isfahan city. MRI was graded on severity of 1 to 3. EMG, NCV and SSEP were performed in electrodiagnostic center of Alzahra hospital by one professional technician. Results were compared with text books and analyzed by SPSS software.Results: Sensitivity of SSEP was 28.6% and specifity was 100%. Partial agreement between SSEP and MRI existed in moderate and severe cervical involvements (P = 0.005. Frequencies of abnormalities were: EMG 50%, NCV 5.6%, X-ray 33.3% and MRI 77.8%.Conclusion: This study shows that SSEP has lower value than EMG in diagnosis of cervical radiculopathy. Also in a patient with cervical radiculopathy, cervical MRI and EMG of upper limbs are necessary. SSEP abnormalities in the presence of moderate and severe MRI changes such as myelopathy, are more valuable. Therefore, SSEP in cervical radiculopathy is recommended before surgery.

  15. Imaging of the cervical articular pillar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeomans, E. [Orange Base Hospital, Orange, NSW (Australia)

    1998-12-01

    The cervical articular pillar, due to the complex anatomical structure of the cervical spine, is not well demonstrated in routine plain radiographic views. Dedicated views have been devised to demonstrate the pillar, yet their performance has abated considerably since the inception of Computed Tomography (CT) in the 1970`s. It is the consideration that CT does not image the articular pillar with a 10 per cent accuracy that poses the question: Is there still a need for plain radiography of the cervical articular pillar? This paper studies the anatomy, plain radiography, and incidence of injury to the cervical articular pillar. It discusses (with reference to current and historic literature) the efficacy of current imaging protocols in depicting this injury. It deals with plain radiography, CT, complex tomography, and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) of the cervical spine to conclude there may still be a position in current imaging protocols for plain radiography of the cervical articular pillar. Copyright (1998) Australian Institute of Radiography 43 refs., 5 figs.

  16. Anterior cervical hypertrichosis: a sporadic case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostan, Sezen; Yaşar, Şirin; Serdar, Zehra Aşiran; Gizlenti, Sevda

    2016-03-01

    Anterior cervical hypertrichosis is a very rare form of primary localized hypertrichosis. It consists of a tuft of terminal hair on the anterior neck just above the laryngeal prominence. The etiology is still unknown. In this article, we reported a 15-year-old female patient who presented to our clinic with a complaint of hypertrichosis on the anterior aspect of the neck for the last five years. Her past medical history revealed no pathology except for vesicoureteral reflux. On the basis of clinical presentation, our patient was diagnosed with anterior cervical hypertrichosis and she was considered to be a sporadic case due to lack of other similar cases in familial history. To date, 33 patients with anterior cervical hypertrichosis have been reported. Anterior cervical hypertrichosis can be associated with other abnormalities, but it frequently presents as an isolated defect (70%). The association of vesicoureteral reflux and anterior cervical hypertrichosis which was observed in our patient might be coincidental. So far, no case of anterior cervical hypertrichosis associated with vesicoureteral reflux has been reported in the literature.

  17. Cervical cancer: A comprehensive approach towards extermination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bava, Smitha V; Thulasidasan, Arun Kumar T; Sreekanth, Chanickal N; Anto, Ruby John

    2016-01-01

    Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) is one of the most common sexually transmitted pathogen, globally. Oncogenic types of HPV are the causative agents of many neoplastic diseases, including cervical cancer, which ranks as the most common cancer affecting females in developing countries. HPV infection of the cervical epithelium and the subsequent integration of viral DNA into the host genome are the major risk factors for cervical cancer. The scientific discovery of HPV as the causal agent of cervical cancer has led to the development of HPV-based diagnostic tools. Prophylactic vaccines, based on the oncogenic HPV type virus-like particles have been introduced in several developed countries as a preliminary preventive approach. Nevertheless, it remains a continuous threat to women in developing countries, where the prophylactic vaccines are unaffordable and organized screening programmes are lacking. This warrants implementation of prevention strategies that will reduce cervical cancer-related mortality. In this review, we have discussed molecular pathogenesis of HPV infection and the risk factors associated with it. The diagnosis, treatment and prevention strategies of HPV-related cervical cancer have also been discussed.

  18. Epidemiology of cervical cancer in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nubia Muñoz

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To describe the incidence, mortality, time trends and prognostic factors for cervical cancer in Cali, Colombia, and to review the molecular epidemiological evidence showing that HPV is the major and necessary cause of cervical cancer and the implications of this discovery for primary and secondary prevention. Materials and methods. Incidence rates of cervical cancer during a 45-year period (1962-2007 were estimated based on the population-based cancer registry of Cali and the mortality statistics from the Municipal Health Secretariat of Cali. Prognostic factors were estimated based on relative survival. Review of the molecular epidemiological evidence linking HPV to cervical cancer was focused on the studies carried out in Cali and in other countries. Results. Incidence rates of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC declined from 120.4 per 100 000 in 1962-1966 to 25.7 in 2003-2007 while those of adenocarcinoma increased from 4.2 to 5.8. Mortality rates for cervical cancer declined from 18.5 in 1984-1988 to 7.0 per 100 000 in 2009-2011. Survival was lower in women over 65 years of age and in clinical stages 3-4. Review of the molecular epidemiological evidence showed that certain types of HPV are the central and necessary cause of cervical cancer. Conclusions. A decline in the incidence and mortality of SCC and an increase in the incidence of adenocarcinoma during a 45-year period was documented in Cali, Colombia

  19. MicroRNA-497 regulates cisplatin chemosensitivity of cervical cancer by targeting transketolase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hui; Wu, Xiao-Li; Wu, Kai-Hua; Zhang, Rong; Ju, Li-Li; Ji, Ying; Zhang, Yan-Wei; Xue, Song-Lin; Zhang, Ye-Xin; Yang, Yong-Feng; Yu, Min-Min

    2016-01-01

    Cervical cancer is one of the most lethal malignancies amongst women, partially because it is unresponsive to many chemotherapeutic drugs. The mechanism underlying cisplatin (DDP) resistance in cervical cancer remains largely elusive. In this study, by detecting the 12 most reported down-regulated miRNAs in chemotherapy-sensitive and -resistant cervical cancer cells, we found that miR-497 was significantly reduced in chemotherapy-resistant HeLa/DDP cells and contributed to DDP chemosensitivity. Transketolase (TKT), a thiamine-dependent enzyme that plays a role in the channeling of excess glucose phosphates to glycolysis in the pentose phosphate pathway, was identified as a direct target of miR-497. TKT expression in clinical specimens was characterized by immunohistochemistry and the result showed that TKT was highly expressed in 81.1% (60/74) of samples examined. Data from Oncomine databases revealed that TKT was significantly up-regulated in cervical cancer tissues compared to normal controls. Gain-of-function and loss-of-function studies showed that the miR-497/TKT axis was a critical modulator in DDP chemosensitivity as demonstrated by cell viability and apoptosis assays. Mechanistically, DDP chemosensitivity induced by the miR-497/TKT axis was associated with glutathione (GSH) depletion and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, and GSH treatment effectively abrogated miR-497/TKT-mediated chemosensitivity. In conclusion, these findings suggest that a deregulated miR-497/TKT axis has important implications in the cervical cancer cellular response to DDP, and thus targeting this axis may be a promising way to improve chemosensitivity in cervical cancer. PMID:27904781

  20. Comparison Between Pap Smear and Via As Screening For Cervical Lesions

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    Harshini V 1, Amritha Bhandary 2, Suchithra Thunga 3

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: An important reason for higher cervical cancer incidence in developing countries is lack of effectivescreening programs like pap smear, aimed at detecting precancerous conditions before they progress to invasivecancer. The potential difficulties in implementing cervical cytology based screening in low-resource settings haveprompted the investigation of accuracy of alternative low technology tests such as Visual inspection with acetic acidapplication [VIA], Visual inspection with acetic acid application with magnification [VIAM], visual inspection onLugol’s Iodine application [VILI] in early detection of cervical neoplasia .In our study we compared pap smear withVIA to study the accurarcy of VIA as it is simpler and easier technique to be used as screening in low resourcesettings. Aim: This is a hospital based descriptive, prospective study to evaluate validity of pap smear and VIAtechniques as screening tests in identifying cervical lesions. Materials And Methods: After general and systemicexamination as a routine,visual local pelvic examination including visualisation of cervix and vagina per speculumand the findings are documented in the proforma .Then VIA and pap smear are done in that order, if any of thesetests are positive then cervical biopsy will be taken and further advise to the subject is given. Results: A total of 313women were involved in the study. The sensitivity of pap smear is 54.5% specificity is 98.9% while that of VIA95.4% and 97.9%respectively. We found that VIA accuracy was comparatively more than that of pap smear.Conclusion: In low resource settings, usefulness of VIA is more than that of pap smear. We suggest to perform VIAin all the women inspite of having pap smear facility to improve detection rate of cervical lesions and provide betterpatient councelling and treatment.

  1. Prospects for controlling cervical cancer at the turn of the century

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    Franco Eduardo L

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Cervical cancer morbidity and mortality have decreased substantially during the last 50 years mostly due to success-ful organized or opportunistic screening with Pap cytology in high and middle income countries. In many low income countries Pap cytology screening is yet to be effectively implemented or has failed to reduce cervical cancer rates to an appreciable extent. The fact that infection with certain human papillomavirus (HPV types is now recognized as a necessary cause of this disease has led to new research fronts on prevention of cervical cancer. Testing for HPV DNA has shown great promise as a screening tool with better sensitivity but somewhat lower specificity than Pap cytology. In combination with the latter, HPV testing has the potential to improve the negative predictive value of cytology, thus allowing for increased testing intervals, which would lower program costs with acceptable safety. Advances in cytology processing and automation have also led to new screening approaches that are increasingly gaining acceptance in high and middle income countries. For low income countries, visual inspection with acetic acid has proven to be an effective alternative to conventional Pap cytology, especially in settings where no screening programs have been implemented. Concerning primary prevention of cervical cancer, recent research on the safety and efficacy of candidate prophylactic vaccines against HPV have shown very promising results with nearly 100% efficacy in preventing persistent infections and development of cervical cancer precursors. However, policy makers are strongly cautioned to avoid deferring decisions concerning the implementation of cervical cancer screening under the expectation that a successful vaccine could obviate the need for secondary prevention strategies.

  2. SH3BP1-induced Rac-Wave2 pathway activation regulates cervical cancer cell migration, invasion and chemoresistance to cisplatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jingjing; Feng, Yeqian; Chen, Xishan; Du, Zheng; Jiang, Shaijun; Ma, Shuyun; Zou, Wen

    2017-08-08

    Cervical cancer still remains the fourth most common cancer, affecting women worldwide with large geographic variations in cervical cancer incidence and mortality rates. SH3-domain binding protein-1 (SH3BP1) specifically inactivating Rac1 and its target Wave2 is required for cell motility, thus regarded as an essential regulator of cancer cell metastasis. However, the exact effects and molecular mechanisms of SH3BP1 in cervical cancer progression are still unknown. The present study is aimed to investigate the mechanism of SH3BP1 in regulation of cervical cancer cell metastasis and chemoresistance. In the present study, we demonstrated a high SH3BP1 expression in cervical cancer tissues; a higher SH3BP1 expression is also correlated with a shorter overall survival of patients with cervical cancer. Further, we revealed that SH3BP1 overexpression promoted the invasion, migration and chemoresistance of cervical cancer cell through increasing Rac1 activity and Wave2 protein level. The promotive effect of SH3BP1 could be partially reversed by a Rac1 inhibitor, NSC 23766. In cisplatin-resistant cervical cancer tissues, SH3BP1, Rac1 and Wave2 mRNA expression was significantly up-regulated compared to that of the cisplatin-sensitive cervical cancer tissues. Taken together, SH3BP1/Rac1/Wave2 pathway may potentially act as an effective therapeutic target combined with traditional cisplatin-based chemotherapy for cervical cancer. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  3. The natural history and clinical syndromes of degenerative cervical spondylosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kelly, John C

    2012-01-01

    Cervical spondylosis is a broad term which describes the age related chronic disc degeneration, which can also affect the cervical vertebrae, the facet and other joints and their associated soft tissue supports. Evidence of spondylitic change is frequently found in many asymptomatic adults. Radiculopathy is a result of intervertebral foramina narrowing. Narrowing of the spinal canal can result in spinal cord compression, ultimately resulting in cervical spondylosis myelopathy. This review article examines the current literature in relation to the cervical spondylosis and describes the three clinical syndromes of axial neck pain, cervical radiculopathy and cervical myelopathy.

  4. Cervical spondylolisis. Two case reports; Espondilolisis cervical. Presentacion de dos casos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borja, E.; Ruiz, F.; Garcia, E.; Canadillas, L. [Hospital Virgen de las Nieves. Granada (Spain)

    2002-07-01

    Cervical spondylolisis is a rare anomaly of unknown etiology. We present two cases studied with different imaging techniques, review both the radiological findings which permit a correct diagnosis and its differential diagnosis in regard to other cervical column anomalies. (Author) 11 refs.

  5. Risk of cervical cancer after completed post-treatment follow-up of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rebolj, Matejka; Helmerhorst, Theo; Habbema, Dik;

    2012-01-01

    To compare the risk of cervical cancer in women with histologically confirmed cervical intraepithelial neoplasia who returned to routine screening after having completed post-treatment follow-up with consecutive normal smear test results with women with a normal primary smear test result....

  6. Severe cervical glandular cell lesions and severe cervical combined lesions - Predictive value of the Papanicolaou smear

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erp, AJMV; Smedts, FMM; Vooijs, GP

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND. The purpose of the current study was to determine the accuracy of routinely screened cervical smears to predict a glandular cell lesion in histologically confirmed cases of cervical adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS), invasive adenocarcinoma (ADCA), adenosquamous carcinoma (ADSQCA), and severe

  7. Assessment of cervical range of motion, cervical core strength and scapular dyskinesia in violin players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tawde, Pooja; Dabadghav, Rachana; Bedekar, Nilima; Shyam, Ashok; Sancheti, Parag

    2016-12-01

    Playing the violin can lead to asymmetric postures which can affect the cervical range of motion, cervical core strength and scapular stability. The objective of the study was to assess the cervical range of motion, cervical core strength and scapular dyskinesia in violin players and non-players of the same age group. An inclinometer was used to assess the cervical range of motion, pressure biofeedback was used to assess cervical core strength and scapular dyskinesia was also assessed in 30 professional violin players (18-40 years) compared with 30 age-matched non-players. Analysis was done using an unpaired t test. Significant change was seen with respect to extension (p = 0.051), cervical core strength (p = 0.005), right (Rt) superior angle 0° (p = 0.004), Rt superior angle 45° (p = 0.015) and Rt inferior angle 90° (p = 0.013). This study shows a significant difference in extension range of motion and cervical core strength of violin players. Also, there was scapular dyskinesia seen at 0° and 45° right-side superior angle of the scapula and 90° right-side inferior angle of the scapula.

  8. Persisting upper cervical pain as sole symptom by unstable fractures in the cervical spine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saksø, Henrik; Foldager, Casper Bindzus; Bünger, Cody

    2015-01-01

    Upper cervical spine fractures can be caused by very low-energy traumas, and the clinical presentation can vary from mild neck pain to paraplegia and ultimately to death. The most common cause of these fractures is trauma but degenerative and pathologic aetiology is also seen. Upper cervical spine...

  9. Triapine With Chemotherapy and Radiation Therapy in Treating Patients With IB2-IVA Cervical or Vulvar Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-12

    Cervical Adenocarcinoma; Cervical Adenosquamous Carcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma, Not Otherwise Specified; Stage IB Vulvar Cancer; Stage IB2 Cervical Cancer; Stage II Vulvar Cancer; Stage IIA1 Cervical Cancer; Stage IIA2 Cervical Cancer; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage IIIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIIA Vulvar Cancer; Stage IIIB Cervical Cancer; Stage IIIB Vulvar Cancer; Stage IIIC Vulvar Cancer; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Vulvar Cancer; Vulvar Adenocarcinoma; Vulvar Squamous Cell Carcinoma

  10. METHANOL EXPOSURE DURING GASTRULATION CAUSES HOLOPROSENCEPHALY, FACIAL DYSGENESIS AND CERVICAL VERTEBRAL MALFORMATIONS IN C57BL/6J MICE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exposure of pregnant CD-1 mice to methanol during the period of gastrulation results in exencephaly, cleft palate, and cervical vertebra malformations (Rogers and Mole, 1997, Teratology 55, 364). C57BL/6J mice are sensitive to the teratogenicity of ethanol; fetuses of this strai...

  11. Epidemiology of cervical cancer in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muñoz, Nubia

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Worldwide, cervical cancer is the third most common cancer in women, and the first or second most common in developing countries. Cervical cancer remains in Colombia the first cause of cancer mortality and the second cause of cancer incidence among women, despite the existence of screening programs during the last 3 decades. Bucaramanga, Manizales and Cali reported rates around 20 per 100,000 and Pasto 27 per 100,000. The Cali cancer registry has reported a progressive decrease in the age standardized incidence and mortality rates of cervical cancer over the past 40 years. Reasons for the decline in incidence and mortality of cervical cancer are multiple and probably include: improvement in socio-economic conditions, decrease in parity rates and some effect of screening programs.Human papilloma Virus is the main cause of cervical cancer, HPV natural history studies have now revealed that HPVs are the commonest of the sexually transmitted infec¬tions in most populations. Most HPV exposures result in sponta¬neous clearance without clinical manifestations and only a small fraction of the infected persons, known as chronic or persistent carriers, will retain the virus and progress to precancerous and cancer. HPV 16 and 18 account for 70% of cervical cancer and the 8 most common types. (HPV 16, 18, 45, 33, 31, 52, 58 and 35 account for about 90% of cervical cancer. Case-control studies also allowed the identification of the following cofactors that acting together with HPV increase the risk of progression from HPV persistent infection to cervical cancer: tobacco, high parity, long term use of oral contraceptives and past infections with herpes simplex type 2 and Chlamydia trachomatis. The demonstration that infection with certain types of human papillomavirus (HPV is not only the main cause but also a necessary cause of cervical cancer has led to great advances in the prevention of this disease on two fronts: (i Primary prevention by the use of

  12. Epidemiology of cervical cancer in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Nubia; Bravo, Luis Eduardo

    2012-10-01

    Worldwide, cervical cancer is the third most common cancer in women, and the first or second most common in developing countries. Cervical cancer remains in Colombia the first cause of cancer mortality and the second cause of cancer incidence among women, despite the existence of screening programs during the last 3 decades. Bucaramanga, Manizales and Cali reported rates around 20 per 100,000and Pasto 27 per 100,000. The Cali cancer registry has reported a progressive decrease in the age standardized incidence and mortality rates of cervical cancer over the past 40 years. Reasons for the decline in incidence and mortality of cervical cancer are multiple and probably include: improvement in socio-economic conditions, decrease in parity rates and some effect of screening programs. Human papilloma Virus is the main cause of cervical cancer, HPV natural history studies have now revealed that HPVs are the commonest of the sexually transmitted infections in most populations. Most HPV exposures result in spontaneous clearance without clinical manifestations and only a small fraction of the infected persons, known as chronic or persistent carriers, will retain the virus and progress to precancerous and cancer. HPV 16 and 18 account for 70% of cervical cancer and the 8 most common types. (HPV 16, 18, 45, 33, 31, 52, 58 and 35) account for about 90% of cervical cancer. Case-control studies also allowed the identification of the following cofactors that acting together with HPV increase the risk of progression from HPV persistent infection to cervical cancer: tobacco, high parity, long term use of oral contraceptives and past infections with herpes simplex type 2 and Chlamydia trachomatis. The demonstration that infection with certain types of human papillomavirus (HPV) is not only the main cause but also a necessary cause of cervical cancer has led to great advances in the prevention of this disease on two fronts: (i) Primary prevention by the use of prophylactic HPV

  13. Epidemiology of cervical cancer in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nubia Muñoz

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Worldwide, cervical cancer is the third most common cancer in women, and the first or second most common in developing countries. Cervical cancer remains in Colombia the first cause of cancer mortality and the se­cond cause of cancer incidence among women, despite the existence of screening programs during the last 3 decades. Bucaramanga, Manizales and Cali reported rates around 20 per 100,000 and Pasto 27 per 100,000. The Cali cancer registry has reported a progressive decrease in the age standardized incidence and mortality rates of cervical cancer over the past 40 years. Reasons for the decline in incidence and mortality of cervical cancer are multiple and probably include: improvement in socio-economic conditions, decrease in parity rates and some effect of screening programs. Human papilloma Virus is the main cause of cervical cancer, HPV natural history studies have now revealed that HPVs are the commonest of the sexually transmitted infections in most populations. Most HPV expo­sures result in spontaneous clearance without clinical manifestations and only a small fraction of the infected persons, known as chronic or persistent carriers, will retain the virus and progress to precancerous and cancer. HPV 16 and 18 account for 70% of cervical cancer and the 8 most common types. (HPV 16, 18, 45, 33, 31, 52, 58 and 35 account for about 90% of cervical cancer. Case-control studies also allowed the identification of the following cofactors that acting together with HPV increase the risk of progression from HPV persistent infection to cervical cancer: tobacco, high parity, long term use of oral contraceptives and past infections with herpes simplex type 2 and Chlamydia trachomatis. The demonstration that infection with certain types of human papillomavirus (HPV is not only the main cause but also a necessary cause of cervical cancer has led to great advances in the prevention of this disease on two fronts: (i Primary prevention by the use of

  14. Epidemiology of human papillomavirus infections: new options for cervical cancer prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bosch F. Xavier

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last two decades, the cervical cancer puzzle has become a coherent description that includes the identification of human papillomavirus (HPV as the sexually transmitted etiologic agent and the characterization of the major determinants of HPV acquisition. Triage studies have consistently shown that HPV testing is more sensitive that repeated cytology in identifying underlying high-grade lesions in women with atypical scamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS. Studies that reflect primary screening conditions have shown that the sensitivity of HPV tests is higher than standard cytology in detecting high-grade lesions whereas the specificity is similar only in women aged 30-35 and above. HPV vaccines have an intrinsic attraction as a preventive strategy in populations with limited resources. However, vaccines designed to widespread use are still in development and testing phases. Time is ripe for exploring in depth the clinical implications of current achievements and to devise novel strategies for the prevention of cervical cancer.

  15. Use of polymerase chain reaction (PCR for detection of Chlamydia trachomatis infection in cervical swab samples

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    Mania-Pramanik Jayanti

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available A polymerase chain reaction (PCR based method has been set up for detection of Chlamydia trachomatis (C. trachomatis infection in single cervical swab samples. A primer pair specific to the major outer membrane protein (MOMP gene common to all serotypes of C. trachomatis was used. This method was validated for its sensitivity as well as specificity. A minimum Ing of DNA could be used for detection of the infection. Specificity of the method was confirmed by carrying out a sample dilution curve. The cervical swab samples analysed in the present study were in coded form for validation of the PCR with an established commercial ELISA (Chlamydiazyme. Both the sensitivity and specificity of PCR was 100% when the ELISA results of these samples were decoded. Thus, this PCR technique could be used for better diagnosis of C. trachomatis infection in comparison to the commercially available ELISA technique.

  16. Cost-Effectiveness of Different Cervical Screening Strategies in Islamic Republic of Iran: A Middle-Income Country with a Low Incidence Rate of Cervical Cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azin Nahvijou

    Full Text Available Invasive cervical cancer (ICC is the fourth most common cancer among women worldwide. Cervical screening programs have reduced the incidence and mortality rates of ICC. We studied the cost-effectiveness of different cervical screening strategies in the Islamic Republic of Iran, a Muslim country with a low incidence rate of ICC.We constructed an 11-state Markov model, in which the parameters included regression and progression probabilities, test characteristics, costs, and utilities; these were extracted from primary data and the literature. Our strategies included Pap smear screening and human papillomavirus (HPV DNA testing plus Pap smear triaging with different starting ages and screening intervals. Model outcomes included lifetime costs, life years gained, quality-adjusted life years (QALY, and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs. One-way sensitivity analysis was performed to examine the stability of the results.We found that the prevented mortalities for the 11 strategies compared with no screening varied from 26% to 64%. The most cost-effective strategy was HPV screening, starting at age 35 years and repeated every 10 years. The ICER of this strategy was $8,875 per QALY compared with no screening. We found that screening at 5-year intervals was also cost-effective based on GDP per capita in Iran.We recommend organized cervical screening with HPV DNA testing for women in Iran, beginning at age 35 and repeated every 10 or 5 years. The results of this study could be generalized to other countries with low incidence rates of cervical cancer.

  17. [Clinical value of p16/Ki-67 immunocytochemical dual staining in cervical cancer screening].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H R; Liao, G D; Chen, W; Qiao, Y L; Jiang, Y

    2017-08-23

    Objective: to investigate the clinical value of p16/Ki-67 immunocytochemical dual staining (abbreviated as p16/Ki-67 dual staining) in cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and cervical cancer screening. Methods: From July to November 2015, a total of 980 women attending cervical cancer screening and receiving high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) test and thinprep cytologic test (TCT) were included in the study. p16/Ki-67 immunocytochemical dual staining was performed on residual cytologic specimens and compared with histopathology results. Results: The expression risks of p16/Ki-67 in HPV16/18 group and another HR-HPV group were higher than HPV negative group, with an odds ratio of 10.64 (95%CI: 5.66~20.02) and 5.40 (95%CI: 3.62~8.04), respectively. The positive rate of p16/Ki-67 increased with the grade of TCT and histologic diagnosis, and was higher in both CIN2 and CIN3 groups than normal group (Pp16/Ki-67 to detect CIN2+ and CIN3+ lesions was 89.3% and 94.1%, respectively, and the specificity was 69.3% and 66.8%, respectively. The sensitivity of TCT to detect CIN2+ and CIN3+ lesions was 60.7% and 64.7%, respectively, and the specificity was 49.3% and 49.1%, respectively. Conclusions: Compared with TCT, p16/Ki-67 dual staining has higher sensitivity and specificity. It can identify high-grade cervical lesions and guide the classification of CIN. p16/Ki-67 dual staining in conjunction with HPV test may be considered as an efficient method for cervical cancer screening.

  18. Timing of Incident Stroke Risk After Cervical Artery Dissection Presenting Without Ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Nicholas A; Merkler, Alexander E; Gialdini, Gino; Kamel, Hooman

    2017-03-01

    Cervical artery dissection is a common cause of stroke in young people. The temporal profile of stroke risk after cervical artery dissection presenting without ischemia remains uncertain. We performed a crossover cohort study using administrative claims data on all emergency department visits and acute care hospitalizations from 2005 to 2011 in CA, 2006 to 2013 in NY, and 2005 to 2013 in FL. Using previously validated International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification codes, we identified patients with a cervical artery dissection and no previous or concurrent stroke or transient ischemic attack diagnosis. We compared the risk of stroke in successive 2-week periods during the 12 weeks after dissection versus the corresponding 2-week period 1 year later. Absolute risk increases were calculated using McNemar test for matched data. In a sensitivity analysis, we limited our population to patients presenting with typical symptoms of cervical artery dissection. We identified 2791 patients with dissection without ischemia. The absolute increase in stroke risk was 1.25% (95% confidence interval, 0.84-1.67%) in the first 2 weeks after dissection compared with the same time period 1 year later. The absolute risk increase was 0.18% (95% confidence interval, 0.02-0.34%) during weeks 3 to 4 and was no longer significant during the remainder of the 12-week postdissection period. Our findings were similar in a sensitivity analysis identifying patients who presented with typical symptoms of acute dissection. The risk of stroke after cervical artery dissection unaccompanied by ischemia at time of diagnosis seems to be limited to the first 2 weeks. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  19. Non-contiguous spinal injury in cervical spinal trauma: evaluation with cervical spine MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Soo Jung; Shin, Myung Jin; Kim, Sung Moon [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Bae, Sang Jin [Sanggyepaik Hospital, Inje University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-12-15

    We wished to evaluate the incidence of non-contiguous spinal injury in the cervicothoracic junction (CTJ) or the upper thoracic spines on cervical spinal MR images in the patients with cervical spinal injuries. Seventy-five cervical spine MR imagings for acute cervical spinal injury were retrospectively reviewed (58 men and 17 women, mean age: 35.3, range: 18-81 years). They were divided into three groups based on the mechanism of injury; axial compression, hyperflexion or hyperextension injury, according to the findings on the MR and CT images. On cervical spine MR images, we evaluated the presence of non-contiguous spinal injury in the CTJ or upper thoracic spine with regard to the presence of marrow contusion or fracture, ligament injury, traumatic disc herniation and spinal cord injury. Twenty-one cases (28%) showed CTJ or upper thoracic spinal injuries (C7-T5) on cervical spinal MR images that were separated from the cervical spinal injuries. Seven of 21 cases revealed overt fractures in the CTJs or upper thoracic spines. Ligament injury in these regions was found in three cases. Traumatic disc herniation and spinal cord injury in these regions were shown in one and two cases, respectively. The incidence of the non-contiguous spinal injuries in CTJ or upper thoracic spines was higher in the axial compression injury group (35.5%) than in the hyperflexion injury group (26.9%) or the hyperextension (25%) injury group. However, there was no statistical significance ({rho} > 0.05). Cervical spinal MR revealed non-contiguous CTJ or upper thoracic spinal injuries in 28% of the patients with cervical spinal injury. The mechanism of cervical spinal injury did not significantly affect the incidence of the non-contiguous CTJ or upper thoracic spinal injury.

  20. Cervical cancer awareness and cervical screening uptake at the Mater Misericordiae Hospital, Afikpo, Southeast Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eze, Justus N; Umeora, Odidika U; Obuna, Johnson A; Egwuatu, Vincent E; Ejikeme, Brown N

    2012-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the most common genital tract malignancy among women in developing countries. To assess the awareness of cervical cancer among Igbo women in a rural population of Southeastern Nigerian and determine their uptake of cervical screening services. A questionnaire-based descriptive cross-sectional study. Structured questionnaires were administered to female attendees to the antenatal and gynecological clinics of a secondary hospital in the outskirts of Afikpo, Southeast Nigeria over a six-month period (1 st July to 31 st December 2007). Data analysis was by SPSS. Five hundred questionnaires were given out. Three hundred and sixty were correctly filled (72%) and analyzed. The mean age of respondents was 36.2 years, 25.0% had tertiary education and 40.3% were self employed. All the respondents were sexually active. There were high incidences of premarital sex, multiple sexual partners and abnormal vaginal discharge and low condom use. Awareness of cervical cancer (37.5%), its preventable nature (31.9%), cervical screening (25%) and screening centers (20.8%) were generally low and screening uptake (0.6%) was abysmally low. Lack of awareness, non-availability of screening centers locally, cost and time were the main reasons adduced by respondents for not being screened. Overall, 62.5% of all the respondents indicated willingness to be screened. The exposure to conditions that predispose women to cervical cancer was high, and the levels of awareness of cervical cancer and cervical screening uptake were low. Continued awareness creation, local provision of cheap and affordable services and poverty alleviation are needed to improve cervical screening uptake with the hope of reducing the incidence of cervical cancer in the long term.

  1. The Effect of the Cervical Orthosis on Swallowing Physiology and Cervical Spine Motion During Swallowing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekata, Kojiro; Takigawa, Tomoyuki; Matsubayashi, Jun; Toda, Kazukiyo; Hasegawa, Yasuhiro; Ito, Yasuo

    2016-02-01

    Cervical orthosis is used to immobilize the neck in various disorders such as trauma and post-operation. However, it is still uncertain how cervical orthosis restricts the degree of movement of the cervical spine during swallowing and how they affect swallowing physiology. The purpose of this study was to evaluate these issues using the Philadelphia(®) Collar. We conducted videofluorography of swallowing in 39 healthy subjects (23 men, 16 women; mean age of 34.3 years) with and without cervical orthosis. To compare the two conditions regarding the cervical spine motion, we determined the angular and positional changes of the occipital bone (C0) and each cervical vertebra (C1-C7) from the oral phase to the pharyngeal phase. Similarly, to compare swallowing physiology, we assessed the start and end times and the durations of soft palate elevation, rapid hyoid anterosuperior movement, epiglottis inversion, closure of the laryngeal vestibule, and pharyngoesophageal segment (PES) opening. Finally, we compared the transit times of contrast agent in the two conditions. The respective extensions of C1, C2, and C3 were 0.31°, 0.07°, and 0.05° (mean) with cervical orthosis, and the respective flexions of C1, C2, and C3 were 0.98°, 1.42°, and 0.85° (mean) without. These results suggested that cervical orthosis restricted the flexion of C1-C3. Analysis of swallowing physiology revealed that the average durations of hyoid anterosuperior elevation, epiglottic inversion, and PES opening were prolonged by 0.09, 0.19, and 0.05 s, respectively. In conclusion, the cervical orthosis restricted the movement of the cervical spine during swallowing and changed swallowing physiology.

  2. The Knowledge of South African Men Relating to Cervical Cancer and Cervical Cancer Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rwamugira, Jeniffer; Maree, Johanna E; Mafutha, Nokuthula

    2017-09-06

    Cervical cancer is the second most common cancer in South African women, but the most common cancer in Black women. Despite having a national cervical cancer screening programme, most women present with advanced disease. Men play a role in cervical cancer as the HPV, the major cause of cervical cancer, is sexually transmitted. The purpose of our study was to describe the knowledge men, living in Muldersdrift, had about cervical cancer, cervical cancer screening and the cervical cancer screening programme and how they preferred to be taught about these health issues. We used a survey design and convenience sampling to select 101 men older than 18 years (n = 101). A pretested self-developed questionnaire was used as the data collection instrument, and the data were analyzed using the SPSS version 22-computer program and quantitative content analyses. The Fischer's exact test measured associations between variables (p = 0.05). The ages of the sample (n = 101) ranged from 18 to 92 years; most were from the Zulu cultural group, unemployed and unmarried. The majority (66.3%, n = 67) had not heard of cervical cancer, the cervical cancer screening programme (60.4%, n = 61) or the Pap smear (67.3%, n = 68). Age and educational level did not influence having ever heard of these health issues. HPV infection was the most well-known risk factor, and the very late symptoms of cervical cancer were the least known. Most men preferred to be educated in a group, which provided a practical, feasible and cost effective way of educating men living in this community about these health issues.

  3. A decision rule to identify adolescent females with cervical infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Jennifer L; Mahabee-Gittens, E Melinda; Huppert, Jill S

    2007-03-01

    To develop a clinical decision rule to direct empiric treatment of adolescent females with Neisseria gonorrhoeae (GC) or Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) (or both) cervical infections in a pediatric emergency department. This was a cross-sectional study of adolescent females with symptoms necessitating sexually transmitted infection (STI) testing. The outcome was defined as cervical specimens positive for either GC on culture or CT on nucleic amplification assay test. Clinical variables included demographic, historical, physical, and laboratory findings. Bivariate associations were assessed using chi-square for categorical data and Student's t test for continuous variables. Variables significant at p 10 white blood cells (WBCs) (aOR = 2.5, CI 1.3-4.6) on vaginal gram stain. Variables comprising the RP analysis included partner penile discharge, >10 WBCs on vaginal gram stain, African American race, absence of yeast forms on vaginal gram stain, and no hormonal birth control use. This algorithm was 75% sensitive and 71% specific, with a negative predictive value of 85%. The LR model confirmed associations seen in other populations. Although STI testing is imperative, the RP model can be used to direct empiric treatment among high-risk adolescent females.

  4. Adjacent level spondylodiscitis after anterior cervical decompression and fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saumyajit Basu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Postoperative spondylodiscitis after anterior cervical decompression and fusion (ACDF is rare, but the same occurring at adjacent levels without disturbing the operated level is very rare. We report a case, with 5 year followup, who underwent ACDF from C5 to C7 for cervical spondylotic myelopathy. He showed neurological improvement after surgery but developed discharging sinus after 2 weeks, which healed with antibiotics. He improved on his preoperative symptoms well for the first 2 months. He started developing progressive neck pain and myelopathy after 3 months and investigations revealed spondylodiscitis at C3 and C4 with erosion, collapse, and kyphosis, without any evidence of implant failure or graft rejection at the operated level. He underwent reexploration and implant removal at the operated level (there was good fusion from C5 to C7 followed by debridement/decompression at C3, C4 along with iliac crest bone grafting and stabilization with plate and screws after maximum correction of kyphosis. The biopsy specimen grew Pseudomonas aeruginosa and appropriate sensitive antibiotics (gentamycin and ciprofloxacin were given for 6 weeks. He was under regular followup for 5 years his myelopathy resolved completely and he is back to work. Complete decompression of the cord and fusion from C2 to C7 was demonstrable on postoperative imaging studies without any evidence of implant loosening or C1/C2 instability at the last followup.

  5. Targeted treatments for cervical cancer: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peralta-Zaragoza O

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Oscar Peralta-Zaragoza,1 Víctor Hugo Bermúdez-Morales,1 Carlos Pérez-Plasencia,2,3 Jonathan Salazar-León,1 Claudia Gómez-Cerón,1 Vicente Madrid-Marina11Direction of Chronic Infections and Cancer, Research Center in Infection Diseases, National Institute of Public Health, Cuernavaca, Morelos, México; 2Oncogenomics Laboratory, National Cancer Institute of Mexico, Tlalpan, México; 3Biomedicine Unit, FES-Iztacala UNAM, México City, MéxicoAbstract: Cervical cancer is the second most common cause of cancer death in women worldwide and the development of new diagnosis, prognostic, and treatment strategies merits special attention. Although surgery and chemoradiotherapy can cure 80%–95% of women with early stage cancer, the recurrent and metastatic disease remains a major cause of cancer death. Many efforts have been made to design new drugs and develop gene therapies to treat cervical cancer. In recent decades, research on treatment strategies has proposed several options, including the role of HPV E6 and E7 oncogenes, which are retained and expressed in most cervical cancers and whose respective oncoproteins are critical to the induction and maintenance of the malignant phenotype. Other efforts have been focused on antitumor immunotherapy strategies. It is known that during the development of cervical cancer, a cascade of abnormal events is induced, including disruption of cellular cycle control, perturbation of antitumor immune response, alteration of gene expression, and deregulation of microRNA expression. Thus, in this review article we discuss potential targets for the treatment of cervical cancer associated with HPV infection, with special attention to immunotherapy approaches, clinical trials, siRNA molecules, and their implications as gene therapy strategies against cervical cancer development.Keywords: Cervical cancer, clinical trials, gene therapy, HPV E6 and E7 oncogenes, siRNAs

  6. COMPARISON OF OUTCOME OF DIFFERENT DIAGNOSTIC MODALITIES IN TUBERCULAR CERVICAL LYMPHADENITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Baburao Jadhav

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND There are nearly 9 million new cases and 2 million deaths from tuberculosis worldwide every year. 1 The incidence of mycobacterial lymphadenitis has increased in parallel with the increase in the incidence of mycobacterial infection worldwide. Tubercular lymphadenitis is seen in nearly 35 percent of extrapulmonary tuberculosis. Cervical lymph nodes is the most common site of involvement. MATERIALS AND METHODS Every patient out of 116 patients with TB cervical lymphadenitis was investigated with chest x-ray, sputum for AFB, Mantoux test, USG neck, FNAC, FNAC culture on LJ media and excision biopsy. RESULTS Biopsy of cervical lymph node is the best investigation for diagnosis of tubercular lymphadenitis and hence considered as a gold standard. The sensitivity of Mantoux test was 82.4% and specificity was 68.6%. Sensitivity of FNA culture on LJ media was 84.6% and specificity was 72.3%. Sensitivity of FNAC was 84.1% and specificity was 65.5%. Sensitivity of ultrasonography was 92.4%, whereas specificity was 64.2% and sensitivity of excision biopsy was 96.4% and specificity was 88.4%. CONCLUSION On comparison with lymph node biopsy, ultrasonography of neck showed high sensitivity followed by FNA culture on LJ medium, FNAC and Mantoux test, whereas on comparing specificity, FNA culture on LJ medium had a high specificity followed Mantoux test, FNAC and ultrasonography. To achieve a high specificity and sensitivity for diagnosis of tubercular lymphadenitis, a combination of two or more investigations can be used, but more studies are required to evaluate the optimal combination of these investigations for accurate and cost-effective analysis.

  7. HPV genotypes in invasive cervical cancer in Danish women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirschner, Benny; Junge, Jette; Holl, Katsiaryna

    2013-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) genotype distribution in invasive cervical cancers may differ by geographic region. The primary objective of this study was to estimate HPV-genotype distribution in Danish women with a diagnosis of invasive cervical cancer....

  8. A Study on Knowledge and Screening for Cervical Cancer among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    More than three-fourth of these patients are diagnosed in advanced ... Knowledge about cervical cancer, its screening among women. • Role of ... doctors earlier, they were neither educated about cervical cancer nor were they told about.

  9. Factors associated with management of cervical cancer patients at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors associated with management of cervical cancer patients at KCMC Hospital, Tanzania: a retrospective cross-sectional ... Abstract: Cervical cancer is an important public health problem among adult women worldwide. ... Article Metrics.

  10. Factors Contributing to Low Uptake of Cervical Screening in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: About 212 (78.2%) of the respondents have heard about cancer ... Discussion: The respondents in this study have demonstrated a high level of awareness of cervical cancer but low uptake of cervical cancer screening ... Article Metrics.

  11. Study to Understand Cervical Cancer Early Endpoints and Determinants (SUCCEED)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A study to comprehensively assess biomarkers of risk for progressive cervical neoplasia, and thus develop a new set of biomarkers that can distinguish those at highest risk of cervical cancer from those with benign infection

  12. U.S. Deaths from Cervical Cancer May Be Underestimated

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_163192.html U.S. Deaths From Cervical Cancer May Be Underestimated Rates ... women were factored out, Rositch's team found that U.S. cervical cancer deaths are 77 percent higher among ...

  13. situational analysis for diagnosis and treatment of cervical cancer in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2001-02-02

    Feb 2, 2001 ... Results: The most basic equipment for cytology-based cervical cancer ... medical personnel including nurses were poorly or hardly utilised for cervical cancer ..... required to take an adequate smear, process, analyses the.

  14. Knowledge and attitude towards cervical cancer screening among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    McRoy

    age at first sexual intercourse, multiple male sexual ... Background: Cervical cancer is a largely preventable disease. In western countries, the incidence of and mortality associated with cervical cancer ... and a key aspect of its prevention is the.

  15. Cervical spinal monostotic fibrous dysplasia: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ok Hwa [Dept. of Radiology, Haeundae Paik Hospital, Inje University College of Medicine, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-09-15

    Monostotic fibrous dysplasia of the cervical vertebra is quite unusual. The author reports a case of monostotic fibrous dysplasia affecting the second cervical vertebra with descriptions from the CT, MR and bone scanning findings.

  16. Cervical Length: Why Does It Matter during Pregnancy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy Lifestyle Pregnancy week by week During pregnancy, what's the significance of cervical length? Answers from Shannon K. Laughlin-Tommaso, ... 2015 Original article: http://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/pregnancy-week-by-week/expert-answers/cervical-length/faq- ...

  17. TTV and HPV co-infection in cervical smears of patients with cervical lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tachezy Ruth

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The female lower genital tract is a gateway for pathogens entering the host through the mucous membrane. One of the prevalent human viruses is Torque teno virus (TTV. The major reported routes of TTV transmission are fecal-oral and parenteral. Furthermore, other modes of transmission, e.g. sexual contact, are suggested. To investigate the sexual route of TTV transmission, cervical smears of healthy women and those with cervical lesions were screened for the presence of TTV DNA. Methods TTV DNA was studied in cervical smears of 95 patients with cervical lesions and 55 healthy women. Paired serum samples were available from 55 and 42 women, respectively. All healthy women had normal cytology while 44 patients had histologically confirmed low-grade lesion (LGL and 51 high-grade lesion (HGL. TTV DNA was detected with primers specific for the non-coding region. In 40 paired cervical smears and serum samples, the phylogenetic group of TTV isolates was determined. The presence of HPV DNA in cervical smears was detected by means of PCR with MY09/11 primers. Results The prevalence of TTV DNA in cervical smears of healthy women was 52.7% and was comparable with that in paired serum samples (50%. Symptomatic women had significantly higher prevalence of TTV DNA in cervical smears (74.7% than healthy controls. The TTV DNA prevalence in patient serum samples was 51%. The phylogenetic groups of TTV serum isolates were concordant with those of TTV from cervical smears of the same subjects. In cervical smears, a wider variety of TTV isolates was found. The viral loads in cervical smears were 10 to 1000 times as high as in sera. The HPV-positive study subjects had significantly higher TTV DNA prevalence than HPV negatives. The prevalence of TTV was not associated with disease severity. Conclusion High prevalence of TTV in cervical smears suggests that sexual transmission is another mode of expansion of TTV infection among the population. The

  18. Switch from cytology-based to human papillomavirus test-based cervical screening: implications for colposcopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porras, Carolina; Wentzensen, Nicolas; Rodríguez, Ana C; Morales, Jorge; Burk, Robert D; Alfaro, Mario; Hutchinson, Martha; Herrero, Rolando; Hildesheim, Allan; Sherman, Mark E; Wacholder, Sholom; Solomon, Diane; Schiffman, Mark

    2012-04-15

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) testing is more sensitive than cytology; some cervical cancer prevention programs will switch from cytology to carcinogenic HPV test-based screening. The objective of our study is to evaluate the clinical implications of a switch to HPV test-based screening on performance and workload of colposcopy. Women in the population-based, 7-year Guanacaste cohort study were screened at enrollment using cytology. We also took another specimen for HPV DNA testing and collected magnified cervical photographic images (cervigrams). A final case diagnosis (≥cervical intraepithelial neoplasia [CIN] grade 3, CIN2, lesions at referral to colposcopy and the sensitivity versus specificity trade-off of the colposcopic impressions would be similar to programs using cytology (≥ atypical squamous cells of unknown significance [ASCUS]) for referral. The major concern with switching from cytology to more sensitive HPV screening is management of the many HPV-positive women, including those with still nonvisible ≥CIN2 lesions. Our data support the need for a nonvisual diagnostic method to guide management and treatment of HPV-positive women. Copyright © 2011 UICC.

  19. PREDICTION OF PRETERM DELIVERY BY ASSESSMENT OF CERVICAL LENGTH USING TRANSVAGINAL ULTRASOUND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gauri Raghunath

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To identify patients at risk of preterm deliveries before the onset of symptoms. Purpose of this study is to assess the diagnostic performance of transvaginal ultrasonographic evaluation of cervix in the prediction of preterm delivery. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Sonographic cervical length assessment in 200 antenatal women between 20 – 28 weeks gestation attending OPD was done. Study group was divided in group A ( T hose with cervical length more than 25mm and group B (those with cervical length ≤25mm, again these women with short cervix divided in Group B1 - Women with cervical length 21 – 25mm, Group B2 - Women with cervical length ≤20mm . Cervical length was measured for all enrolled women using 6.5 MHz transvaginal probe. Cervical length on transvaginal sonography ≤25mm were considered as short cervix and remaining (>25 mm were considered as normal cervical lengths. In present study, women with short cervix ≤25 mm and history of previous preterm delivery or second trimester abortions and evidence of cervical defect were treated with elective cervical cerclage by McDonald method. Women in group A and remaining women in group B (who had short cervix but os was closed and women without history of previous preterm delivery or second trimester abortions were conservatively followed up. RESULTS: Out of 200 women 5(2.5% women had cervical lengths ≤20 mm measured with TVS (Group B2; 11(5.5% had cervical lengths ra nging from 21 - 25mm (group B1. Out of 16 women (group B; 9(4.6% women underwent elective cerclage and remaining 7(3.6% women were managed conservatively. Incidence of preterm delivery in group A was 5.6% while in group B it was 75%. Relative risk of preterm delivery in group B was 13.35 (P=0.0000000 ←. Odds Ratio =50.4. Sensitivity of TVS 54.5%, Specificity of TVS 97.6% Positive predictive value 75%, Negative predictive value 94.3%. Incidence of preterm delivery was more in women with visible membranes at

  20. Cost-effectiveness of human papillomavirus vaccination for prevention of cervical cancer in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chow Song-Nan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human papillomavirus (HPV infection has been shown to be a major risk factor for cervical cancer. Vaccines against HPV-16 and HPV-18 are highly effective in preventing type-specific HPV infections and related cervical lesions. There is, however, limited data available describing the health and economic impacts of HPV vaccination in Taiwan. The objective of this study was to assess the cost-effectiveness of prophylactic HPV vaccination for the prevention of cervical cancer in Taiwan. Methods We developed a Markov model to compare the health and economic outcomes of vaccinating preadolescent girls (at the age of 12 years for the prevention of cervical cancer with current practice, including cervical cytological screening. Data were synthesized from published papers or reports, and whenever possible, those specific to Taiwan were used. Sensitivity analyses were performed to account for important uncertainties and different vaccination scenarios. Results Under the assumption that the HPV vaccine could provide lifelong protection, the massive vaccination among preadolescent girls in Taiwan would lead to reduction in 73.3% of the total incident cervical cancer cases and would result in a life expectancy gain of 4.9 days or 8.7 quality-adjusted life days at a cost of US$324 as compared to the current practice. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER was US$23,939 per life year gained or US$13,674 per quality-adjusted life year (QALY gained given the discount rate of 3%. Sensitivity analyses showed that this ICER would remain below US$30,000 per QALY under most conditions, even when vaccine efficacy was suboptimal or when vaccine-induced immunity required booster shots every 13 years. Conclusions Although gains in life expectancy may be modest at the individual level, the results indicate that prophylactic HPV vaccination of preadolescent girls in Taiwan would result in substantial population benefits with a favorable cost

  1. Associations between Methylation of Paternally Expressed Gene 3 (PEG3), Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia and Invasive Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nye, Monica D.; Hoyo, Cathrine; Huang, Zhiqing; Vidal, Adriana C.; Wang, Frances; Overcash, Francine; Smith, Jennifer S.; Vasquez, Brandi; Hernandez, Brenda; Swai, Britta; Oneko, Olola; Mlay, Pendo; Obure, Joseph; Gammon, Marilie D.; Bartlett, John A.; Murphy, Susan K.

    2013-01-01

    Cytology-based screening for invasive cervical cancer (ICC) lacks sensitivity and specificity to discriminate between cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) likely to persist or progress from cases likely to resolve. Genome-wide approaches have been used to identify DNA methylation marks associated with CIN persistence or progression. However, associations between DNA methylation marks and CIN or ICC remain weak and inconsistent. Between 2008–2009, we conducted a hospital-based, case-control study among 213 Tanzania women with CIN 1/2/3 or ICC. We collected questionnaire data, biopsies, peripheral blood, cervical scrapes, Human papillomavirus (HPV) and HIV-1 infection status. We assessed PEG3 methylation status by bisulfite pyrosequencing. Multinomial logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and confidence intervals (CI 95%) for associations between PEG3 methylation status and CIN or ICC. After adjusting for age, gravidity, hormonal contraceptive use and HPV infection, a 5% increase in PEG3 DNA methylation was associated with increased risk for ICC (OR = 1.6; 95% CI 1.2–2.1). HPV infection was associated with a higher risk of CIN1-3 (OR = 15.7; 95% CI 5.7–48.6) and ICC (OR = 29.5, 95% CI 6.3–38.4). Infection with high risk HPV was correlated with mean PEG3 differentially methylated regions (DMRs) methylation (r = 0.34 p<0.0001), while the correlation with low risk HPV infection was weaker (r = 0.16 p = 0.047). Although small sample size limits inference, these data support that PEG3 methylation status has potential as a molecular target for inclusion in CIN screening to improve prediction of progression. Impact statement We present the first evidence that aberrant methylation of the PEG3 DMR is an important co-factor in the development of Invasive cervical carcinoma (ICC), especially among women infected with high risk HPV. Our results show that a five percent increase in DNA methylation of PEG3 is associated with

  2. Associations between methylation of paternally expressed gene 3 (PEG3, cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and invasive cervical cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica D Nye

    Full Text Available Cytology-based screening for invasive cervical cancer (ICC lacks sensitivity and specificity to discriminate between cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN likely to persist or progress from cases likely to resolve. Genome-wide approaches have been used to identify DNA methylation marks associated with CIN persistence or progression. However, associations between DNA methylation marks and CIN or ICC remain weak and inconsistent. Between 2008-2009, we conducted a hospital-based, case-control study among 213 Tanzania women with CIN 1/2/3 or ICC. We collected questionnaire data, biopsies, peripheral blood, cervical scrapes, Human papillomavirus (HPV and HIV-1 infection status. We assessed PEG3 methylation status by bisulfite pyrosequencing. Multinomial logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (OR and confidence intervals (CI 95% for associations between PEG3 methylation status and CIN or ICC. After adjusting for age, gravidity, hormonal contraceptive use and HPV infection, a 5% increase in PEG3 DNA methylation was associated with increased risk for ICC (OR = 1.6; 95% CI 1.2-2.1. HPV infection was associated with a higher risk of CIN1-3 (OR = 15.7; 95% CI 5.7-48.6 and ICC (OR = 29.5, 95% CI 6.3-38.4. Infection with high risk HPV was correlated with mean PEG3 differentially methylated regions (DMRs methylation (r = 0.34 p<0.0001, while the correlation with low risk HPV infection was weaker (r = 0.16 p = 0.047. Although small sample size limits inference, these data support that PEG3 methylation status has potential as a molecular target for inclusion in CIN screening to improve prediction of progression. Impact statement: We present the first evidence that aberrant methylation of the PEG3 DMR is an important co-factor in the development of Invasive cervical carcinoma (ICC, especially among women infected with high risk HPV. Our results show that a five percent increase in DNA methylation of PEG3 is associated with

  3. Adjacent-level arthroplasty following cervical fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajakumar, Deshpande V; Hari, Akshay; Krishna, Murali; Konar, Subhas; Sharma, Ankit

    2017-02-01

    OBJECTIVE Adjacent-level disc degeneration following cervical fusion has been well reported. This condition poses a major treatment dilemma when it becomes symptomatic. The potential application of cervical arthroplasty to preserve motion in the affected segment is not well documented, with few studies in the literature. The authors present their initial experience of analyzing clinical and radiological results in such patients who were treated with arthroplasty for new or persistent arm and/or neck symptoms related to neural compression due to adjacent-segment disease after anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF). METHODS During a 5-year period, 11 patients who had undergone ACDF anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) and subsequently developed recurrent neck or arm pain related to adjacent-level cervical disc disease were treated with cervical arthroplasty at the authors' institution. A total of 15 devices were implanted (range of treated levels per patient: 1-3). Clinical evaluation was performed both before and after surgery, using a visual analog scale (VAS) for pain and the Neck Disability Index (NDI). Radiological outcomes were analyzed using pre- and postoperative flexion/extension lateral radiographs measuring Cobb angle (overall C2-7 sagittal alignment), functional spinal unit (FSU) angle, and range of motion (ROM). RESULTS There were no major perioperative complications or device-related failures. Statistically significant results, obtained in all cases, were reflected by an improvement in VAS scores for neck/arm pain and NDI scores for neck pain. Radiologically, statistically significant increases in the overall lordosis (as measured by Cobb angle) and ROM at the treated disc level were observed. Three patients were lost to follow-up within the first year after arthroplasty. In the remaining 8 cases, the duration of follow-up ranged from 1 to 3 years. None of these 8 patients required surgery for the same vertebral level during the follow

  4. Clinical study of quantitative diagnosis of early cervical cancer based on the classification of acetowhitening kinetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tao; Cheung, Tak-Hong; Yim, So-Fan; Qu, Jianan Y.

    2010-03-01

    A quantitative colposcopic imaging system for the diagnosis of early cervical cancer is evaluated in a clinical study. This imaging technology based on 3-D active stereo vision and motion tracking extracts diagnostic information from the kinetics of acetowhitening process measured from the cervix of human subjects in vivo. Acetowhitening kinetics measured from 137 cervical sites of 57 subjects are analyzed and classified using multivariate statistical algorithms. Cross-validation methods are used to evaluate the performance of the diagnostic algorithms. The results show that an algorithm for screening precancer produced 95% sensitivity (SE) and 96% specificity (SP) for discriminating normal and human papillomavirus (HPV)-infected tissues from cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) lesions. For a diagnostic algorithm, 91% SE and 90% SP are achieved for discriminating normal tissue, HPV infected tissue, and low-grade CIN lesions from high-grade CIN lesions. The results demonstrate that the quantitative colposcopic imaging system could provide objective screening and diagnostic information for early detection of cervical cancer.

  5. Demethylation of FANCF gene may be a potential treatment through inhibiting the proliferation of cervical cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Min Li; Chanyu Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the study was to explore the effect of demethylating agent 5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-ADC) on expression of Fanconi anemia complementation group F (FANCF) gene and the proliferation of cervical cancer cells, to observe cell's sensitivity to chemotherapeutic drug taxol, and to explore the antitumor effect of 5-ADC as well as the new treatment of cervical cancer. Methods: Cervical cancer cell lines SiHa (FANCF gene full-methylated) and Hela (unmethylated) were treated with 5-ADC. We used the methylation-specific PCR (MSP), reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blot to detect the FANCF methylation, mRNA and protein respectively. The 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2- yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay was used to detect the proliferation of cells. The cytotoxicity of taxol was measured by flow cytometer. The nude mice bearing SiHa was used to observe the effect of 5-ADC in vivo. Results: Inhibition of DNA promoter methylation by 5-ADC reactivated the expression of FANCF mRNA and protein in SiHa cells, consistent with decreased growth speed and increased taxol resistance. These results were proven in experiments in vivo. Conclusion: The 5-ADC probably become a potential treatment drug through inhibiting the proliferation of cervical cancer cells in taxol-resistant patients.

  6. A Suggested Approach to Simplify and Improve Cervical Screening in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiffman, Mark; Wentzensen, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    Cervical cancer prevention strategies in the United States have become complicated and even controversial, despite advanced understanding of carcinogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) infection as the necessary causal agent. Twenty years ago, etiologic and methodologic studies had already yielded 2 powerful preventive approaches. There are excellent vaccines to prevent the most carcinogenic types of HPV infection; reduced HPV endemicity will ultimately prevent a large fraction of cervical precancer and cancers. For prevention of cervical cancer in the interim, sensitive HPV tests that target women at risk of cancer, by detection of the DNA/RNA of approximately a dozen carcinogenic HPV types, permit early diagnosis and treatment of precancers.Although HPV vaccines and tests have continued to improve, implementation of these new HPV-based prevention methods has been relatively slow in the United States and in most places worldwide. Increasing vaccination rates is the clearest and most vital long-term priority. But, for decades to come, screening will also be important. To promote useful discussion, this commentary will raise some current critical issues in simplifying and speeding the rational introduction of HPV molecular methods into US cervical screening.

  7. The value of advanced MRI techniques in the assessment of cervical cancer: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dappa, Evelyn; Elger, Tania; Hasenburg, Annette; Düber, Christoph; Battista, Marco J; Hötker, Andreas M

    2017-08-21

    To assess the value of new magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques in cervical cancer. We searched PubMed and MEDLINE and reviewed articles published from 1990 to 2016 to identify studies that used MRI techniques, such as diffusion weighted imaging (DWI), intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) and dynamic contrast enhancement (DCE) MRI, to assess parametric invasion, to detect lymph node metastases, tumour subtype and grading, and to detect and predict tumour recurrence. Seventy-nine studies were included. The additional use of DWI improved the accuracy and sensitivity of the evaluation of parametrial extension. Most studies reported improved detection of nodal metastases. Functional MRI techniques have the potential to assess tumour subtypes and tumour grade differentiation, and they showed additional value in detecting and predicting treatment response. Limitations included a lack of technical standardisation, which limits reproducibility. New advanced MRI techniques allow improved analysis of tumour biology and the tumour microenvironment. They can improve TNM staging and show promise for tumour classification and for assessing the risk of tumour recurrence. They may be helpful for developing optimised and personalised therapy for patients with cervical cancer. • Conventional MRI plays a key role in the evaluation of cervical cancer. • DWI improves tumour delineation and detection of nodal metastases in cervical cancer. • Advanced MRI techniques show promise regarding histological grading and subtype differentiation. • Tumour ADC is a potential biomarker for response to treatment.

  8. Diagnostic efficacy of color Doppler ultrasound in evaluation of cervical lymphadenopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Deepankar; Panjwani, Sapna; Rai, Shalu; Misra, Akansha; Prabhat, Mukul; Gupta, Prashant; Talukder, Subrata K

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of color Doppler ultrasound (CDUS) in differentiating benign and malignant cervical lymph nodes by detecting differences in blood flow patterns. In this cross-sectional prospective study, 25 untreated patients with clinical evidence of cervical lymphadenopathy were evaluated. CDUS was performed for 80 cervical lymph nodes. The gray scale parameters of the lymph node and intranodal perfusion sites were the key CDUS features used to differentiate between reactive and metastatic lymph nodes. Histopathological confirmations were obtained and compared with the results of CDUS. Initially, 53 cervical lymph nodes were evaluated by clinical examination. Twenty-seven additional lymph nodes (53 + 27 = 80) were discovered by CDUS evaluation. Gray scale parameters for lymph nodes such as size of lymph node, shape of lymph node, and presence or absence of hilum revealed highly significant results (P < 0.0001). Color Doppler flow signals revealed that central/hilar flow was characteristic for benign nodes whereas peripheral/mixed flow was characteristic for malignant nodes, the findings were highly significant (P < 0.0001). Gray scale and color Doppler features are used to differentiate benign and malignant nodes. Within the limitations of this study, CDUS evaluation was found to be highly significant with a high sensitivity and specificity over clinical evaluation CDUS examination provides a prospect to reduce the need for biopsy/fine needle aspiration cytology in reactive nodes.

  9. Automation-assisted versus manual reading of cervical cytology (MAVARIC): a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitchener, Henry C; Blanks, Roger; Dunn, Graham; Gunn, Lionel; Desai, Mina; Albrow, Rebecca; Mather, Jean; Rana, Durgesh N; Cubie, Heather; Moore, Catherine; Legood, Rosa; Gray, Alastair; Moss, Sue

    2011-01-01

    The standard for reading cervical cytology is for a cytoscreener to manually search across an entire slide for abnormal cells using a conventional microscope. Automated technology can select fields of view to assess abnormal cells, which allows targeted reading by cytoscreeners. In the Manual Assessment Versus Automated Reading In Cytology (MAVARIC) trial, we compared the accuracy of these techniques for the detection of underlying disease. For this randomised controlled trial, women aged 25-64 years undergoing primary cervical screening in Manchester, UK, were randomly assigned (1:2) to receive either manual reading only or paired reading (automation-assisted reading and manual reading), between March 1, 2006, and Feb 28, 2009. In the paired arm, two automated systems were used-the ThinPrep Imaging System and the FocalPoint GS Imaging System. General practices and community clinics were randomised to either ThinPrep or to SurePath (for the FocalPoint system) liquid-based cytology with block randomisation stratified by deprivation index. Samples were then individually randomised to manual reading only or paired reading only. Laboratory staff were unaware of the allocation of each slide and concealment was maintained until the end of the reporting process. The primary outcome was sensitivity of automation-assisted reading relative to manual reading for the detection of underlying cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 or worse (CIN2+) in the paired arm. This trial is registered, number ISRCTN66377374. 73,266 liquid-based cytology samples were obtained from women undergoing primary cervical screening; 24,688 allocated to the manual-only arm and 48,578 to the paired-reading arm. Automation-assisted reading was 8% less sensitive than manual reading (relative sensitivity 0·92, 95% CI 0·89-0·95), which was equivalent to an absolute reduction in sensitivity of 6·3%, assuming the sensitivity of manual reading to be 79%. Specificity of automation-assisted reading

  10. Tuberculous cervical lymphadenitis in a patient with suspected neck recurrence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Doh-jeing Yong; Hailani Iskandar; Mohd-Yunus Mohd Razif

    2012-01-01

    The significance of metastastic disease in the cervical lymph nodes has long been appreciated.The rich lymphatics of the upper aerodigestive tract explained the high incidence of cervical metastasis,occasional bilaterally spread.Even with appropriate treatment,cervical recurrences do occur.Nonetheless,with the resurgence of tuberculosis,the differential of tuberculous cervical lymphadenitis should be excluded.Appropriate modalities should be employed in making the appropriate diagnosis possible.

  11. Clinical implications of alignment of upper and lower cervical spine

    OpenAIRE

    Sherekar S; Yadav Y; Basoor A; Baghel Arvind; Adam Nelson

    2006-01-01

    Aims and Objectives: The alignment of upper and lower cervical spine is presumed to be closely interrelated and the knowledge of this is mandatory when performing occipito-cervical and upper cervical fusions. The aim of this study was to establish standard values for upper and lower cervical spine alignment in the Indian population. Materials and Methods: Five hundred eighteen asymptomatic volunteers (261 males and 257 females) between 12 and 80 years of age underwent lateral radiography w...

  12. Cyclooxygenase-2 expression in cervical cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandić Aljoša

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Cyclooxygenase (COX or prostaglandin H2 synthase is the first enzyme that catalyzes the first two steps in the biosynthesis of prostaglandins from arachidonic acid. The aim of the study was to determine the expression level of COX-2 in patients with cervical cancer and compare it with that in the control group with no cervical pathology. Methods. The study included 76 patients divided into two groups: the control group - 30 patients without histopathological changes and the group A - 46 patients with cervical cancer, FIGO stage IB-IIA. Histopathological and immunohistochemical analyses were performed in these two groups of patients. Results. In the control group, the expression of COX-2 was not confirmed compared to the group A of 26 (56.52% patients. The expression of COX-2 showed a statistically significant difference in the presence of lymphocytic stromal infiltration (p = 0.0053. The expression of COX-2 was more pronounced in the stromal tissue without lymphocytic infiltration (80% vs 20%. Conclusion. A higher expression of COX-2 in cervical carcinoma without stromal lymphocytic infiltration suggests a possible paradoxical effect of COX-2 in immunosuppression. Frequent COX- 2 expression in the subgroup with poor prognostic histological parameters in the group A indicates the importance of COX-2 expression in the carcinogenesis of cervical cancer.

  13. Landscape of Genomic Alterations in Cervical Carcinomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojesina, Akinyemi I.; Lichtenstein, Lee; Freeman, Samuel S.; Pedamallu, Chandra Sekhar; Imaz-Rosshandler, Ivan; Pugh, Trevor J.; Cherniack, Andrew D.; Ambrogio, Lauren; Cibulskis, Kristian; Bertelsen, Bjørn; Romero-Cordoba, Sandra; Treviño, Victor; Vazquez-Santillan, Karla; Guadarrama, Alberto Salido; Wright, Alexi A.; Rosenberg, Mara W.; Duke, Fujiko; Kaplan, Bethany; Wang, Rui; Nickerson, Elizabeth; Walline, Heather M.; Lawrence, Michael S.; Stewart, Chip; Carter, Scott L.; McKenna, Aaron; Rodriguez-Sanchez, Iram P.; Espinosa-Castilla, Magali; Woie, Kathrine; Bjorge, Line; Wik, Elisabeth; Halle, Mari K.; Hoivik, Erling A.; Krakstad, Camilla; Gabiño, Nayeli Belem; Gómez-Macías, Gabriela Sofia; Valdez-Chapa, Lezmes D.; Garza-Rodríguez, María Lourdes; Maytorena, German; Vazquez, Jorge; Rodea, Carlos; Cravioto, Adrian; Cortes, Maria L.; Greulich, Heidi; Crum, Christopher P.; Neuberg, Donna S.; Hidalgo-Miranda, Alfredo; Escareno, Claudia Rangel; Akslen, Lars A.; Carey, Thomas E.; Vintermyr, Olav K.; Gabriel, Stacey B.; Barrera-Saldaña, Hugo A.; Melendez-Zajgla, Jorge; Getz, Gad; Salvesen, Helga B.; Meyerson, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    Cervical cancer is responsible for 10–15% of cancer-related deaths in women worldwide1,2. The etiological role of infection with high-risk human papilloma viruses (HPV) in cervical carcinomas is well established3. Previous studies have implicated somatic mutations in PIK3CA, PTEN, TP53, STK11 and KRAS4–7 as well as several copy number alterations in the pathogenesis of cervical carcinomas8,9. Here, we report whole exome sequencing analysis of 115 cervical carcinoma-normal paired samples, transcriptome sequencing of 79 cases and whole genome sequencing of 14 tumor-normal pairs. Novel somatic mutations in 79 primary squamous cell carcinomas include recurrent E322K substitutions in the MAPK1 gene (8%), inactivating mutations in the HLA-B gene (9%), and mutations in EP300 (16%), FBXW7 (15%), NFE2L2 (4%) TP53 (5%) and ERBB2 (6%). We also observed somatic ELF3 (13%) and CBFB (8%) mutations in 24 adenocarcinomas. Squamous cell carcinomas had higher frequencies of somatic mutations in the Tp*C dinucleotide context than adenocarcinomas. Gene expression levels at HPV integration sites were significantly higher in tumors with HPV integration compared with expression of the same genes in tumors without viral integration at the same site. These data demonstrate several recurrent genomic alterations in cervical carcinomas that suggest novel strategies to combat this disease. PMID:24390348

  14. Cervical Ripening in The Netherlands: A Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claartje M. A. Huisman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. We aim to investigate methods and use of cervical ripening in women without and with a prior cesarean delivery in The Netherlands. Methods. In 2010, we conducted a postal survey in all Dutch hospitals with a labor ward. One gynecologist per hospital was addressed and was asked to respond on behalf of the staff. The questionnaire contained 31 questions concerning cervical ripening and induction of labor. We compared this survey to a similar Dutch survey conducted in 2006. Results. Response rate was 78% (70/92 hospitals. In women without a prior cesarean and in need of cervical ripening, all hospitals (100% applied prostaglandins (either E1 or E2. In women with a prior cesarean, 21.4% of the hospitals performed an elective cesarean section if delivery was indicated (26.0% in 2006. In case of cervical ripening, 72.7% used mechanical methods (49.1% in 2006, 20.0% used prostaglandins (40.4% in 2006, 3.6% used a combination of prostaglandins and mechanical methods, and 3.6% used membrane-sweeping or oxytocin. Conclusions. In 2010, in The Netherlands, prostaglandins and Foley catheters were the preferred methods for cervical ripening in women without and with a prior cesarean, respectively. Use of mechanical methods in women with a prior cesarean has increased rapidly between 2006 and 2010, corresponding with decreasing use of prostaglandins and elective repeat cesarean sections.

  15. Simulated Pain and Cervical Motion in Patients with Chronic Disorders of the Cervical Spine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeevi Dvir

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The primary objective of the present study was to determine how simulated severe cervical pain affects cervical motion in patients suffering from two distinct chronic cervical disorders: whiplash (n=25 and degenerative changes (n=25. The second objective was to derive an index that would allow the differentiation of maximal from submaximal performances of cervical range of motion. Patients first performed maximal movement of the head (maximal effort in each of the six primary directions and then repeated the test as if they were suffering from a much more intense level of pain (submaximal effort. All measurements were repeated within four to seven days. In both groups, there was significant compression of cervical motion during the submaximal effort. This compression was also highly stable on a test-retest basis. In both groups, a significantly higher average coefficient of variation was associated with the imagined pain and it was significantly different between the two clinical groups. In the whiplash group, a logistic regression model allowed the derivation of coefficient of variation-based cutoff scores that might, at selected levels of probability and an individual level, identify chronic whiplash patients who intentionally magnify their motion restriction using pain as a cue. However, the relatively small and very stable compression of cervical motion under pain simulation supports the view that the likelihood that chronic whiplash patients are magnifying their restriction of cervical range of motion using pain as a cue is very low.

  16. Comparison of upper cervical flexion and cervical flexion angle of computer workers with upper trapezius and levator scapular pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Won-Gyu

    2014-02-01

    [Purpose] In this study, we compared upper cervical flexion and cervical flexion angle of computer workers with upper trapezius and levator scapular pain. [Subject] Eight male computer workers with upper trapezius muscle pain and eight others with levator scapular muscle pain participated. [Methods] Each subject was assessed in terms of upper cervical flexion angle and total cervical flexion angles using a cervical range of motion instrument after one hour of computer work. [Results] The upper cervical flexion angle of the group with levator scapular pain was significantly lower than that of the group with upper trapezius pain after computer work. The total cervical flexion angle of the group with upper trapezius pain was significantly lower than that of the group with levator scapular pain after computer work. [Conclusion] For selective and effective intervention for neck pain, therapists should evaluate upper and lower cervical motion individually.

  17. Mapping HPV Vaccination and Cervical Cancer Screening Practice in the Pacific Region-Strengthening National and Regional Cervical Cancer Prevention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Obel, J; McKenzie, J; Buenconsejo-Lum, L E

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To provide background information for strengthening cervical cancer prevention in the Pacific by mapping current human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination and cervical cancer screening practices, as well as intent and barriers to the introduction and maintenance of national HPV vaccinatio...

  18. Human Papillomavirus Cervical Infection and Associated Risk Factors in a Region of Argentina With a High Incidence of Cervical Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Tonon

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the prevalence and potential risk factors associated with human papillomavirus (HPV cervical infection among women residing in a region of northeastern Argentina with a high incidence of cervical cancer.

  19. Management and outcome of cervical versus intrathoracic manifestation of cervical anastomotic leakage after transthoracic esophagectomy for cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rossum, Peter S. N.; Haverkamp, Leonie; Carvello, Michele; Ruurda, Jelle P.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/257561021; van Hillegersberg, Richard|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/110706242

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate management strategies and related outcomes for cervical versus intrathoracic manifestation of cervical anastomotic leakage after transthoracic esophagectomy for cancer with gastric conduit reconstruction. Patients with esophageal cancer undergoing transthoracic

  20. Unintentional cervical dural tap treated with lumbar blood patch

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lebrun, C.; Peek, D.; Vanelderen, P.J.L.; Zundert, J. van

    2014-01-01

    Cervical radicular pain presents itself as pain radiating from the neck to the arm. If conservative treatment fails, a cervical epidural steroid injection can be considered. A rare but possible complication resulting from the interlaminar approach is unintentional cervical dural puncture that may re

  1. Biomolecular and epidemiological aspects of human papillomavirus induced cervical carcinogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, Christine Frederike Wilhelmine

    2007-01-01

    Cervical cancer remains one of the leading causes of death from cancer among women worldwide. Organised screening programmes aim to trace precursor lesions in order to reduce cervical cancer incidence. Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a necessary cause for cervical carcinogenesis. Most HPV infections a

  2. Development of a therapeutic vaccination strategy against cervical neoplasia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riezebos-Brilman, Annelies

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the studies described in this thesis was to investigate the effi cacy of a therapeutic immunization strategy against cervical cancer and premalignant cervical disease. Cervical cancer is caused by persistent infection with high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV). Two of the early proteins of

  3. Chlamydia trachomatis infection and risk of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehtinen, Matti; Ault, Kevin A; Lyytikainen, Erika

    2011-01-01

    High-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV) is the primary cause of cervical cancer. As Chlamydia trachomatis is also linked to cervical cancer, its role as a potential co-factor in the development of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) grade 2 or higher was examined....

  4. 6 Common Cancers - Gynecologic Cancers Cervical, Endometrial, and Ovarian

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Therapy: There was a major advance in the treatment of cervical cancer when five NCI-sponsored clinical trials showed that ... to adding chemotherapy to radiation therapy in the treatment of invasive cervical cancer. (Cervical) HPV vaccine: Another major advance in the ...

  5. New paradigms in cervical cancer prevention: opportunities and risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgi Rossi Paolo

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Testing for the DNA of high-risk types of papilloma virus (HPV is more sensitive than cytology in detecting pre-cancerous lesions. One of the main advantages will be the possibility of applying prolonged screening intervals. However adequate screening protocols (age of start and stop, screening intervals, management of HPV positive women need to be applied in order to avoid over-referral to colposcopy and over-treatment and to maintain sustainable costs. Further follow-up of running trials and research on molecular markers will better define these parameters. The new situation will require organised screening programmes with rigorous protocols and monitoring. This will be even more needed when women vaccinated for HPV 16 and 18 will be screened. Research on how to best screen vaccinated women is a priority. This paper proposes an overview of the plausible impact of new technologies in cervical cancer screening in the near future and in the vaccinated cohorts.

  6. Treatment of cervical radiculopathy by anterior cervical discectomy and cage fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osman A Mohamed

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Since the pioneering days of the anterior cervical approach introduced by Cloward et al. in the early 1950s, anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF has been the standard procedure for most discogenic and degenerative cervical spinal lesions. Although traditional interbody fusion using iliac bone can maintain the patency of the neuroforamen and ensure solid fusion, selection of patients, and of surgical procedure for ACDF is a continuous challenge. Aim: The aim of this study was to assess the results of cervical discectomy and fusion with cervical cages in treatment of cervical radiculopathy clinically and radiologically. Materials and Methods: Eighteen patients suffering from cervical radiculopathy were operated upon using this technique. They were 15 males and 3 females. Clinical and radiological assessment, visual analog scale (VAS for neck and arm and modified Oswestery neck disability index (NDI were done preoperatively and at 4 weeks, 3, 6, and 12 months postoperatively. Polyetheretherketone (Peek cages filled with iliac bone graft were used after cervical discectomy. The levels operated upon were C 5-6 in 16 patients and C4-5 in 2 patients. Results: Marked clinical improvement as regard arm and neck pain, and NDI was observed. The pre and post operative mean and standard deviations (SD of the various scores were as follows. VAS for pain in arm reduced from mean of 8 (SD 1.76 to mean 0.4 (SD 0.4, VAS for neck pain reduced from mean of 3.5 (SD 1.58 to mean of 0.8 (SD 0.47, and NDI from mean of 20.2 (SD 0.89 to 2.1(SD 1.05. Fusion occurred in all patients. Subjectively 79% of the patients reported marked improvement in neck pain, and 95% reported marked reduction in arm pain. Conclusion: Anterior cervical discectomy and cage fusion resulted in high fusion rate with minimal preservation of lordosis.

  7. Papilomavírus humano e neoplasia cervical Human papillomavirus and cervical neoplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Inês da Rosa

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available O papilomavírus humano (HPV é um fator etiológico bem estabelecido para o câncer cervical. Esse vírus de DNA infecta primariamente o epitélio e pode induzir lesões benignas ou malignas na pele e na mucosa. Alguns HPVs são considerados de alto risco, responsáveis pela progressão das lesões precursoras até câncer cervical. A infecção genital pelo HPV é comum em mulheres jovens e geralmente é transitória. Uma pequena proporção de mulheres infectadas desenvolve câncer cervical, implicando o envolvimento de fatores ambientais e fatores genéticos na carcinogênese. Essa revisão aborda a estrutura viral, classificação e patologia do HPV, história natural e fatores de risco para neoplasia cervical e perspectivas futuras com a vacina anti-HPV.Human papillomavirus (HPV has been established as an important etiological factor for the development of cervical cancer. This DNA virus primarily infects the epithelium and can induce benign and malignant lesions of the mucous membranes and skin. Some HPVs are considered high risk due to their role in malignant progression of cervical tumors. Genital HPV infections are common and usually transient among young sexually active women. Only a small fraction of infected women develop cervical cancer, implying the involvement of environmental and genetic cofactors in cervical carcinogenesis. Classification, virology, pathology, natural history, epidemiological features of genital HPV infection, and future prospects for cervical cancer prevention with HPV vaccines will be reviewed here.

  8. Climate Sensitivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindzen, Richard [M.I.T.

    2011-11-09

    Warming observed thus far is entirely consistent with low climate sensitivity. However, the result is ambiguous because the sources of climate change are numerous and poorly specified. Model predictions of substantial warming aredependent on positive feedbacks associated with upper level water vapor and clouds, but models are notably inadequate in dealing with clouds and the impacts of clouds and water vapor are intimately intertwined. Various approaches to measuring sensitivity based on the physics of the feedbacks will be described. The results thus far point to negative feedbacks. Problems with these approaches as well as problems with the concept of climate sensitivity will be described.

  9. Persisting upper cervical pain as sole symptom by unstable fractures in the cervical spine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saksø, Henrik; Foldager, Casper Bindzus; Bünger, Cody

    2015-01-01

    Upper cervical spine fractures can be caused by very low-energy traumas, and the clinical presentation can vary from mild neck pain to paraplegia and ultimately to death. The most common cause of these fractures is trauma but degenerative and pathologic aetiology is also seen. Upper cervical spine...... fractures can be difficult to diagnose because of lack of symptoms. Two case stories describe neck pain as the only symptom to severe and unstable cervical fracture and highlight the importance of an accurate history, thorough physical examination and relevant radiological investigation....

  10. Operative Outcomes for Cervical Myelopathy and Radiculopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. G. Galbraith

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cervical spondylotic myelopathy and radiculopathy are common disorders which can lead to significant clinical morbidity. Conservative management, such as physical therapy, cervical immobilisation, or anti-inflammatory medications, is the preferred and often only required intervention. Surgical intervention is reserved for those patients who have intractable pain or progressive neurological symptoms. The goals of surgical treatment are decompression of the spinal cord and nerve roots and deformity prevention by maintaining or supplementing spinal stability and alleviating pain. Numerous surgical techniques exist to alleviate symptoms, which are achieved through anterior, posterior, or circumferential approaches. Under most circumstances, one approach will produce optimal results. It is important that the surgical plan is tailored to address each individual's unique clinical circumstance. The objective of this paper is to analyse the major surgical treatment options for cervical myelopathy and radiculopathy focusing on outcomes and complications.

  11. Surgical Strategies for Cervical Spinal Neurinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Kiyoshi; Aoyama, Tatsuro; Miyaoka, Yoshinari; Horiuchi, Tetsuyoshi; Hongo, Kazuhiro

    2015-01-01

    Cervical spinal neurinomas are benign tumors that arise from nerve roots. Based on their location, these tumors can also take the form of a dumbbell-shaped mass. Treatment strategies for these tumors have raised several controversial issues such as appropriate surgical indications and selection of surgical approaches for cervical dumbbell-shaped spinal neurinomas. In this report, we review previous literature and retrospectively analyze cervical spinal neurinoma cases that have been treated at our hospital. Surgical indications and approaches based on tumor location and severity are discussed in detail. Thus, with advances in neuroimaging and neurophysiological monitoring, we conclude that appropriate surgical approaches and intraoperative surgical manipulations should be chosen on a case-by-case basis.

  12. Diaphragm paralysis from cervical disc lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloward, R B

    1988-01-01

    An opera singer, who "made her living with her diaphragm", developed a post-traumatic unilateral radiculopathy due to cervical disc lesions, C3 to C6. During one year of severe neck and left arm pain she gradually lost the ability to sing difficult operatic passages which brought an end to her music career. Following a three level anterior cervical decompression and fusion, the neck and arm pain was immediately relieved. One week later her voice and singing ability returned to its full strength and power permitting her to resume her activities as a vocalist. The diagnosis of paresis of the left hemi-diaphragm as part of the cervical disc syndrome was implied by postoperative retrospective inference.

  13. Effects of cervical traction on muscle activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, M J

    1991-01-01

    The effect of cervical traction on the musculature of patients with complaints of neck pain has not been thoroughly researched. Lateral neck muscles were selected for study because they receive their innervation from the lower cervical region, where traction has been documented by radiography to have its greatest mechanical effects. Six subjects with complaints of neck pain, limited range of motion, and a positive quadrant test were compared to six normal subjects. Surface electromyography (EMG) of the lateral neck musculature was recorded before, during, and after supine intermittent mechanical traction. No significant difference between groups (p > .05) was noted in EMG recordings at rest and within 10 minutes of traction. Subjective relief was noted up to 12 hours after traction in pain subjects. Cervical traction does not appear to produce immediate muscular relaxation as measured with EMG equipment. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 1991;13(5):220-225.

  14. Role of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in early cervical cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujiwara, Keiichi; Yoden, Eisaku; Shimizu, Michio; Hirokawa, Mitsuyoshi; Oda, Takashi; Imajo, Yoshinari; Kohno, Ichiro [Kawasaki Medical School, Kurashiki, Okayama (Japan); Asakawa, Toru; Joja, Ikuo

    2000-05-01

    The aim of this study was to prospectively determine if invasive carcinoma of the cervix can be ruled out by negative magnetic resonance image (MRI) findings. Eligible patients were those who were scheduled to undergo either hysterectomy or conization because of invasive or non-invasive lesions of the cervix. T2-weighted and T1-dynamic enhancement images were reviewed by two radiologists who had no information on these patients except for the preoperative diagnosis. Clinical information regarding location of the disease was not given. At least 12 longitudinal sections prepared from the surgically removed cervix were reviewed by a pathologist who was not provided with MRI information. The correlation between MRI and histological findings was analyzed in terms of depth of invasion. Seventy cases were entered and 66 were evaluable. Sensitivities of T2 and dynamic MRI for invasive and non-invasive disease by radiologist 1 were 0.8824 and 0.8235, respectively, and those by radiologist 2 were 0.6296 and 0.7647, respectively. Specificities were 0.8776 and 0.8571, respectively, for radiologist 1 and 0.8974 and 0.8367, respectively, for radiologist 2. When sensitivities and specificities were calculated for prediction of non-invasive plus microinvasive lesions {<=}5 mm vs. invasive lesions >5 mm, specificities of T2 and dynamic MRI became 1.0000 for both radiologists. Negative findings on T2 and/or dynamic MRI indicated non-invasive or early invasive cervical diseases a {<=}5 mm. The dynamic technique provided only limited additional value in the detection of early invasive cervical carcinoma. (author)

  15. Early detection of cervical cancer with visual inspection methods: a summary of completed and on-going studies in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sankaranarayanan R

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available India is a high-risk country for cervical cancer which accounts a quarter (126 000 new cases, 71 000 deaths around 2 000 of the world burden. The age-standardized incidence rates range from 16-55 per 100 000 women in different regions with particularly high rates in rural areas. Control of cervical cancer by early detection and treatment is a priority of the National Cancer Control Programme of India. There are no organized cytology screening programmes in the country. The technical and financial constraints to organize cytology screening have encouraged the evaluation of visual inspection approaches as potential alternatives to cervical cytology in India. Four types of visual detection approaches for cervical neoplasia are investigated in India: a naked eye inspection without acetic acid application, widely known as 'downstaging'; b naked eye inspection after application of 3-5% acetic acid (VIA; c VIA using magnification devices (VIAM; d visual inspection after the application of Lugol's iodine (VILI. Downstaging has been shown to be poorly sensitive and specific to detect cervical neoplasia and is no longer considered as a suitable screening test for cervical cancer. VIA, VIAM and VILI are currently being investigated in multicentre cross-sectional studies (without verification bias, in which cytology and HPV testing are also simultaneously evaluated, and the results of these investigations will be available in 2003. These studies will provide valuable information on the average, comparative test performances in detecting high-grade cervical cancer precursors and cancer. Results from pooled analysis of data from two completed studies indicated an approximate sensitivity of 93.4% and specificity of 85.1% for VIA to detect CIN 2 or worse lesions; the corresponding figures for cytology were 72.1% and 91.6%. The efficacy of VIA in reducing incidence of and mortality from cervical cancer and its cost-effectiveness is currently being investigated

  16. High-grade cervical lesions among women attending a reference clinic in Brazil: associated factors and comparison among screening methods.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neide T Boldrini

    Full Text Available Although screening for cervical cancer is recommended for women in most countries, the incidence of cervical cancer is greater in developing countries. Our goal was to determine the prevalence and factors associated with high-grade lesions/cervical cancer among women attending a reference clinic in Brazil and evaluate the correlation of histology with cytology, colposcopy and the high-risk HPV (HR-HPV tests.A cross-sectional study of women attending a colposcopy clinic was carried out. The patients were interviewed to collect demographic, epidemiological and clinical data. Specimens were collected for cervical cytology, Chlamydia trachomatis and HPV testing using the Hybrid Capture (HC and PCR tests. Colposcopy was performed for all patients and biopsy for histology when cell abnormalities or cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN were present.A total of 291 women participated in the study. The median age was 38 years (DIQ: 30-48 years. The prevalence of histologically confirmed high-grade lesions/cervical cancer was 18.2% (95%, CI: 13.8%-22.6%, with 48 (16.5% cases of CIN-2/CIN-3 and 5 (1.7% cases of invasive carcinoma. In the final logistic regression model, for ages between 30 and 49 years old [OR = 4.4 (95%: 1.01-19.04, history of smoking [OR = 2.4 (95%, CI: 1.14-5.18], practice of anal intercourse [OR = 2.4 (95%, CI: 1.10-5.03] and having positive HC test for HR-HPV [OR = 11.23 (95%, CI: 4 0.79-26, 36] remained independently associated with high-grade lesions/cervical cancer. A total of 64.7% of the cases CIN-3\\Ca in situ were related to HPV-16. Non-oncogenic HPV were only found in CIN-1 biopsy results. Compared to histology, the sensitivity of cytology was 31.8%, the specificity 95.5%; the sensitivity of colposcopy for high-grade lesions/cervical cancer was 51.0%, specificity was 91.4% and the concordance with HPV testing was high.The results confirm an association of HR-HPV with precursor lesions for cervical cancer

  17. TCT联合HPV检测在宫颈病变筛查中的意义%Cervical Liquid-Based Cytology Combined Human Papillomavirus Testing in Cervical Lesion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴一菲; 田荣华

    2012-01-01

    Objective To study the significance of combination of cervical liquid-based cytology and human papillomavirus detection in cervical lesion screening. Methods From March 2010 to December 2011,3,028 patients were detected with nipple shaped tumor virus ( HPV) and cervical liquid base cytology (TCT) ,TCT was used by 2001 International Cancer Association TBS diagnosis system report way,to the patients with positive results of TCT check for ASCIIS and the above lesions and (or) HPV detection, cervical organization biopsy under electronic vaginal mirror were performed. Results The sensitivity of TCT check was 56.72% ,with the specificity of 28. 19% ;the sensitivity of HPV check was 86.03% ,with specific for 46.38% ;among 408 cases of CIN and cervical cancer pathology ,28 cases were single TCT positive (6. 86% ) ;with TCT and HPV positive 203 ca-ses(49. 75% ) ,there was significant difference in diagnosis of cervical squamous intraepithelial neoplasm ( CIN) and cervical cancer(x2 = 184.926,P=0.000) between single TCT check and combination of TCT and HPV examination. Conclusion TCT combined with HPV check can improve the detection rate of cervical cancer and precancerous lesions, improve the sensitivity and specificity of screening,effectively reduce the TCT in detection of false-negative rates,and avoid excessive colposcopy and biopsy in low-risk populations and over-treatment.%目的 探讨宫颈液基细胞学检查与人乳头状瘤病毒检测联合应用在宫颈病变筛查中的意义.方法 选取2010年3月-2011年12月孝感市中心医院病理科同时进行了宫颈液基细胞学(TCT)检查及人乳头状瘤病毒(HPV)检测的患者3028人,TCT采用2001年国际癌症协会TBS诊断系统报告方式,对TCT检查结果为ASCUS及以上病变和(或)HPV检测结果为阳性的患者在电子阴道镜下取宫颈组织活检.结果 TCT检查敏感度为56.72%,特异度为28.19%;HPV检查敏感度为86.03%,特异度为46.38%;病

  18. Integrated PET/MRI for whole-body staging of patients with primary cervical cancer: preliminary results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grueneisen, Johannes; Kinner, Sonja; Forsting, Michael; Lauenstein, Thomas; Umutlu, Lale [University Hospital Essen, University of Duisburg-Essen, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology and Neuroradiology, Essen (Germany); Schaarschmidt, Benedikt Michael [University Hospital Dusseldorf, University of Dusseldorf, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Dusseldorf (Germany); Heubner, Martin; Aktas, Bahriye [University Hospital Essen, University of Duisburg-Essen, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Essen (Germany); Ruhlmann, Verena [University Hospital Essen, University of Duisburg-Essen, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Essen (Germany)

    2015-11-15

    To assess the diagnostic value of integrated PET/MRI for whole-body staging of cervical cancer patients, as well as to investigate a potential association between PET/MRI derived functional parameters and prognostic factors of cervical cancer. The present study was approved by the local institutional review board. Twenty-seven patients with histopathologically confirmed cervical cancer were prospectively enrolled in our study. All patients underwent a whole-body PET/MRI examination after written informed consent was obtained. Two radiologists separately evaluated the PET/MRI data sets regarding the determination of local tumor extent of primary cervical cancer lesions, as well as detection of nodal and distant metastases. Furthermore, SUV and ADC values of primary tumor lesions were analyzed and correlated with dedicated prognostic factors of cervical cancer. Results based on histopathology and cross-sectional imaging follow-up served as the reference standard. PET/MRI enabled the detection of all 27 primary tumor lesions of the uterine cervix and allowed for the correct determination of the T-stage in 23 (85 %) out of the 27 patients. Furthermore, the calculated sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic accuracy for the detection of nodal positive patients (n = 11) were 91 %, 94 % and 93 %, respectively. PET/MRI correctly identified regional metastatic disease (N1-stage) in 8/10 (80 %) patients and non-regional lymph node metastases in 5/5 (100 %) patients. In addition, quantitative analysis of PET and MRI derived functional parameters (SUV; ADC values) revealed a significant correlation with pathological grade and tumor size (p < 0.05). The present study demonstrates the high potential of integrated PET/MRI for the assessment of primary tumor and the detection of lymph node metastases in patients with cervical cancer. Providing additional prognostic information, PET/MRI may serve as a valuable diagnostic tool for cervical cancer patients in a pretreatment setting

  19. Using biomarkers as objective standards in the diagnosis of cervical biopsies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galgano, Mary T; Castle, Philip E; Atkins, Kristen A; Brix, William K; Nassau, Sarah R; Stoler, Mark H

    2010-08-01

    Histopathologic diagnosis of cervical biopsies determines clinical management of patients with an abnormal cervical cancer-screening test yet is prone to poor interobserver reproducibility. Immunohistochemical staining for biomarkers related to the different stages of cervical carcinogenesis may provide objective standards to reduce diagnostic variability of cervical biopsy evaluations but systematic, rigorous evaluations of their potential clinical utility are lacking. To address diagnostic utility of human papillomavirus (HPV) L1, p16(INK4a), and Ki-67 immunohistochemical staining for improving diagnostic accuracy, we conducted a community-based and population-based evaluation using 1455 consecutive cervical biopsies submitted to the Department of Pathology at the University of Virginia during a period of 14 months. Thin-sections of each biopsy from 1451 of 1455 (99.7%) biopsies underwent evaluation of immunohistochemical stains for the 3 biomarkers, masked to the original diagnosis, and the results were compared with an adjudicated, consensus diagnosis by 3 pathologists. p16 immunostaining, using the strongest staining as the cutpoint, was 86.7% sensitive and 82.8% specific for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) grade 2 or more severe (CIN2(+)) diagnoses. The performance of p16(INK4a) was more sensitive (P<0.001), less specific (P<0.001), and of similar overall accuracy for CIN2(+) compared with the combined performance of all pathologist reviews in routine clinical diagnostic service (sensitivity=68.9%, specificity=97.2%). Ki-67 immunostaining was also strongly associated with a CIN2(+) diagnosis but its performance at all staining intensities was inferior to p16 immunostaining, and did not increase the accuracy of CIN2(+) diagnosis when combined with p16(INK4a) immunostaining compared with p16(INK4a) immunostaining alone. We found no utility for L1 immunostaining in distinguishing between CIN and non-CIN. In conclusion, with a rigorous evaluation, we

  20. CERVICAL ACID PHOSPHATASE: EVALUATION AS AN ADJUVANT TO PAPANICOLAOU SMEAR SCREENING IN CERVICAL CANCER DETECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niranjan

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Carcinoma of cervix accounts for 15% of all cancers diagnosed worldwide and is the second most common cancer in women. In the year 2000 there were over 4,71,000 new cases diagnosed and 2,88,000 deaths from cervical cancer. (1 Approximately 79% of these deaths occurred in developing countries. (2 Cervical cancer is preventable, but most women in poorer countries do not have access to effective screening programs. In India it is estimated that approximately 100,000 women develop cervical cancer each year. (3 Cancer cervix occupies either the top r ank or second among cancers in women in developing countries, whereas, in the developed countries cancer cervix does not find a place even in top five leading cancers in women. This is due to routine screening by cervical smear. Cervical smear cytology scr eening by Papanicolaou (Pap stained smears is the most efficacious and cost - effective method of cancer screening, decreasing the incidence and mortality from cervical cancer. (4 However, cervical smear screening has significant rates of false - positive and false - negative results, ranging from 10.3% for false positive cases to 5.6% for false negative cases. (5,6 To improve the detection and screening of cancerous and precancerous lesions of the cervix a number of sophisticated tests are available which are e xpensive and can be done only in a tertiary laboratory. To over - come this problems a cost effective cytochemical stain was introduced to measure the acid phosphatase activity in the cervical epithelium. (7 Since the description of the new Cervical Acid Phosphatase Test (CAP Test for visualization of cervical acid phosphatase activity (CAP inside abnormal cervical cells on smears, it has become possible to explore this enzyme as a biomarker for cervical dys plasia, and as a possible surrogate for PAP smear in detection of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To assess the utility of Cervical Acid