WorldWideScience

Sample records for h-2 h-1-decoupled c-13

  1. The C-13/H-2-glucose test for determination of small intestinal lactase activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vonk, RJ; Stellaard, F; Priebe, MG; Koetse, HA; Hagedoorn, RE; de Bruijn, S; Elzinga, H; Lenoir-Wijnkoop, [No Value; Antoine, JM

    2001-01-01

    Background To diagnose hypolactasia, determination of lactase enzyme activity in small intestinal biopsy material is considered to be the golden standard. Because of its strongly invasive character and the sampling problems, alternative methods have been looked for. Design We analysed the C-13-gluco

  2. Non-invasive detection of low-intestinal lactase activity in children by use of a combined (CO2)-C-13/H-2 breath test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koetse, HA; Stellaard, F; Bijleveld, CMA; Elzinga, H; Boverhof, R; van der Meer, R; Vonk, RJ; Sauer, PJJ

    1999-01-01

    Background: The aim of the study was to diagnose hypolactasia with a higher accuracy than with the traditional H-2 breath test. Methods: We used a combined C-13-lactose (CO2)-C-13/H-2 breath test, which was performed in 33 patients in whom lactase activity was measured. Results: Lactase activity was

  3. Solid State C-13 and H-2 NMR Investigations of Paramagnetic Ni(II)(acac)(2)L-2 Complexes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lennartson, A.; Christensen, Lene Ulrikke; McKenzie, C. J.

    2014-01-01

    Nine structurally related paramagnetic acetylacetonato nickel(II) complexes: [Ni(acac)(2)] and trans-[Ni(acac)(2)(X)(2)]nH/D2O, X = H2O, D2O, NH3, MeOH, PMePh2, PMe2Ph, or [dppe](1/2), n = 0 or 1, dppe = 1,2-his(diphenylphosphino)ethane, as well as cis-[Ni(F-6-acac)(2)(D2O)(2)], F-6-acac = hexafl...

  4. Synthesis and Structure of a New Copper(II)Complex Cu(C13H9N3O2Br)2·H2O

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张修堂; 詹晓平; 吴鼎铭; 杨文斌; 卢灿忠

    2002-01-01

    The new copper(II) complex Cu(C13H9N3O2Br)2@H2O (N-(2-hydroxy-5-bromo- benzoyl)-N?-(picolinylidene)hydrazine is abbreviated as HL ) was obtained from the refluxing solution of Cu(CH3COO)2H2O and HL in the ethanol-N, N-dimethylformamide mix solvent. Crystal data: triclinic, space group P ī, a = 10.8620(3), b = 11.7453 (3), c = 12.4417(2) ?, α = 62.255(0), β = 79.097(2), γ = 86.764(2)°, V = 1378.52(6) ?3, Z = 2, Mr = 719.835, Dc = 1.734 g/cm3, F(000) = 714, μ(MoKα) = 3.739 mm-1, T = 293(2) K, final R = 0.0594 and wR = 0.1416 for 2943 observed reflections with I > 2.0σ(I). The structure of Cu(C13H9N3O2Br)2@H2O has been determined by X-ray analysis and revealed that two L-1 ligands coordinate to the copper(Ⅱ) ion through two oxygen and two nitrogen atoms from the hydrazine groups and two pyridine nitrogen atoms to form an elongated and distorted square-bipyramidal environment for Cu(Ⅱ). The complex is also characterized by 1H NMR spectroscopies

  5. Probing Metal Carbonation Reactions of CO2 in a Model System Containing Forsterite and H2O Using Si-29, C-13 Magic Angle Sample Spinning NMR Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, J.; Kwak, J.; Hoyt, D. W.; Sears, J. A.; Rosso, K. M.; Felmy, A. R.

    2009-12-01

    Ex situ solid state NMR have been used for the first time to study fundamental mineral carbonation processes and reaction extent relevant to geologic carbon sequestration using a model silicate mineral forsterite (Mg2SiO4)+scCO2 with and without H2O. Run conditions were 80C and 96 bar. Si-29 NMR clearly shows that in the absence of CO2, the role of H2O is to hydrolyze surface Mg-O-Si bonds to produce Mg2+, and mono- and oligomeric hydroxylated silica species. The surface hydrolysis products contain only Q0 (Si(OH)4) and Q1 (Si(OH)3OSi) species. An equilibrium between Q0, Q1 and Mg2+ with a saturated concentration equivalent to less than 3.2% of the Mg2SiO4 conversion is obtained at a reaction time of up to 7 days. Using scCO2 without H2O, no reaction is observed within 7 days. Using both scCO2 and H2O, the surface reaction products for silica are mainly Q3 (SiOH(OSi)3) species accompanied by a lesser amount of Q2 (Si(OH)2(OSi)2) and Q4 (Si(OSi)4). However, no Q0 and Q1 were detected, indicating the carbonic acid formation/deprotonation and magnesite (MgCO3) precipitation reactions are faster than the forsterite hydrolysis process. Thus it can be concluded that the Mg2SiO4 hydrolysis process is the rate limiting step of the overall mineral carbonation process. Si-29 NMR combined with XRD, TEM, SAED and EDX further reveal that the reaction is a surface reaction with the Mg2SiO4 crystallite in the core and with condensed Q2-Q4 species forming amorphous surface layers. C-13 MAS NMR identified a possible reaction intermediates as (MgCO3)4*Mg(OH)2*5H2O. However, at long reaction times only crystallite magnesite MgCO3 products are observed. This research is part of a broader effort at PNNL to develop experimental tools and fundamental insights into chemical transformations affecting subsurface CO2 reactive transport. Si-29 (left) and C-13 (right) MAS NMR spectra of Mg2SiO4 under various reaction conditions. Si-29 NMR reveals that in scCO2 without H2O, no reaction is

  6. Metal Carbonation of Forsterite in Wet Supercritical CO2: The Role of H2O Studied by Solid State C-13 and Si-29 NMR Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, J.; Kwak, J.; Turcu, R. V.; Rosso, K. M.; Ilton, E. S.; Wang, C.; Sears, J. A.; Felmy, A. R.; Hoyt, D. W.

    2010-12-01

    Selected as a model mineral carbonation system for geological carbon sequestration in mafic host rocks, chemical mechanisms of forsterite carbonation in supercritical CO2 containing water varied from dry to well above saturation, including at saturation, were investigated by a combination of solid state NMR (C-13 SP-, CP-MAS, Si-29 SP-, CP-MAS), XRD, TEM and XPS. Run conditions were 80 degrees (C) and 75 bars. Major findings are as follows. At high water contents where a bulk aqueous solution coexisted with water-saturated scCO2, forsterite was converted into magnesite and a separate Mg-free amorphous SiO2 reaction product characterized by highly polymerized oligomeric Q4, and to a lesser extent by Q3 silica species. As the amount of added water was reduced, hydrated intermediate reaction products that did not evolve to magnesite could be identified until at zero water no reaction intermediates or magnesite carbonation products were observed. The intermediate reaction products identified were a complex mixture of partially hydrated/hydroxylated magnesium carbonate species and a variety of surface silica species with low polymerization extent. The intermediates were mainly in an amorphous state, forming a thin layer on the surface. Formation of these intermediate species consumes water by hydrolysis of Mg-O-Si linkages at the forsterite surface as well as by incorporation of water in the lattice. If insufficient water is available, the reaction is found not to proceed far enough to form magnesite and amorphous SiO2. Water in excess of this limit appears necessary for the intermediates to evolve to anhydrous magnesite, a process that is expected to liberate water for continued reaction. Hence, for a given fluid/forsterite ratio there appears to be a water threshold (i.e., the formation of H2O film with sufficient thickness estimated to be between 3.2 and 18.4 nm) above which a significant portion of the water is recycled in an apparent quasi-catalytic role for the

  7. Synthesis and Crystal Structure of a Co(Ⅱ)Complex with Taurine-5-methyl-2-hydroxyisophthalaldehyde Schiff Bases[Co(C13H16N2O7S2)(H2O)3]2·H2O

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIN Xiu-Ying; JIANG Yi-Min; ZHANG Shu-Hua; MO Qian-Qun

    2008-01-01

    The title complex[CoL(H2O)3]2·H2O(C26H46N4O21S4Co2),where L=taurine-5-methyl-2-hydroxyisophthalaldehydes,has been synthesized and characterized by IR and X-ray diffraction analysis.The crystal of the complex belongs to the triclinic system,space group P(l),with a=11.197(4),b=13.309(5),c=14.486(5)(A),a=78.827(13),β=70.547(11),γ=81.058(13)°,Mr=996.77,S=1.08,V=1987.2(13)(A)3,Z=2,Dc=1.666 g/cm3,F(000)=1032,μ=1.131mam-1,R=0.0633 and wR=0.1293.According to the structural analysis,the Co(Ⅱ)ion adopts a slightly distorted six-coordinated octahedral geometry.One N atom of the Schiff base of each molecule was hydrogenated to form hydrogen bond with O atom.Two coterminous molecules packed in one crystal water molecule are linked by intermolecular hydrogen bonds,thus generating an infinite chain constructed by hydrogen bonds.

  8. The C-13/H-2-glucose test for determination of small intestinal lactase activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vonk, RJ; Stellaard, F; Priebe, MG; Koetse, HA; Hagedoorn, RE; de Bruijn, S; Elzinga, H; Lenoir-Wijnkoop, [No Value; Antoine, JM

    Background To diagnose hypolactasia, determination of lactase enzyme activity in small intestinal biopsy material is considered to be the golden standard. Because of its strongly invasive character and the sampling problems, alternative methods have been looked for. Design We analysed the

  9. Solid-state C-13 and Co-59 NMR spectroscopy of C-13-methylcobalt(III) complexes with amine ligands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ooms, K J; Bernard, G M; Kadziola, A

    2009-01-01

    that the EFG tensors are either axially symmetric or close to being so but there is a wide range of C-Q values, from -40 MHz for the complex with X = H2O to -105 MHz with X = CN-. The Co chemical shift tensors are approximately axially symmetric with the spans. delta(11) - delta(33), ranging from 3700 to 5600...... ppm for X = H2O and CN-, respectively. The latter measurements also established the relative orientations of the Co EFG and chemical shift tensors. Density functional theory calculations of the Co-59 EFG and magnetic shielding tensors as well as of (1)J(Co-59, C-13) for the NO2- and N-3(-) complexes...

  10. H-2 incompatible chimera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matzinger, P.; Mirkwood, G.

    1978-07-01

    Fully H-2 incompatible radiation chimeras were prepared using BALB congenic mice. Such chimeric mice were immunized in vivo against histocompatibility antigens of the C57BL/10Sn (B10) background in association with either the parental H-2 haplotypes, and their spleen cells subsequently boosted in vitro with the same minor antigens. Strong H-2-restricted cytotoxic activity against minor antigens was detected, and the specificity of the restriction could be to the H-2 haplotype of the donor or the host depending on the cells used for priming or boosting. Cross priming could also be demonstrated in these mice. The results show that fully allogenic radiation chimeras can produce H-2-restricted T-cell responses to minor histocompatibility (H) antigens, and are discussed in relation to contrasting results.

  11. Variations in colonic H-2 and CO2 production as a cause of inadequate diagnosis of carbohydrate maldigestion in breath tests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koetse, HA; Vonk, RJ; Pasterkamp, S; de Bruijn, S; Stellaard, F

    Background: Lactose maldigestion is usually diagnosed by means of the H-2 breath test. When C-13-lactose is used as substrate, a (CO2)-C-13 breath rest can be performed simultaneously. In an earlier publication we described the relation between both the H2 and (CO2)-C-13 exhalation in breath and the

  12. European interlaboratory comparison of breath (CO2)-C-13 analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stellaard, F; Geypens, B

    1998-01-01

    The BIOMED I programme Stable Isotopes in Gastroenterology and Nutrition (SIGN) has focused upon evaluation and standardisation of stable isotope breath tests using C-13 labelled substrates. The programme dealt with comparison of C-13 substrates, test meats, test conditions, analysis techniques, and

  13. H2@Scale Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruth, Mark

    2017-07-12

    'H2@Scale' is a concept based on the opportunity for hydrogen to act as an intermediate between energy sources and uses. Hydrogen has the potential to be used like the primary intermediate in use today, electricity, because it too is fungible. This presentation summarizes the H2@Scale analysis efforts performed during the first third of 2017. Results of technical potential uses and supply options are summarized and show that the technical potential demand for hydrogen is 60 million metric tons per year and that the U.S. has sufficient domestic resources to meet that demand. A high level infrastructure analysis is also presented that shows an 85% increase in energy on the grid if all hydrogen is produced from grid electricity. However, a preliminary spatial assessment shows that supply is sufficient in most counties across the U.S. The presentation also shows plans for analysis of the economic potential for the H2@Scale concept. Those plans involve developing supply and demand curves for potential hydrogen generation options and as compared to other options for use of that hydrogen.

  14. H2 Reconstitution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skipper, Mike

    2002-02-01

    The high power microwave program at the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) includes high power source development in narrow band and wideband technologies. The H2 source is an existing wideband source that was developed at the AFRL. A recent AFRL requirement for a wideband impulse generator to use in materials tests has provided the need to update the H2 source for the current test requirements. The H2 source is composed of a dual resonant transformer that charges a short length of coaxial transmission line. The transmission line is then discharged into an output coaxial transmission line with a self-break hydrogen switch. The dual resonant transformer is driven by a low inductance primary capacitor bank operating through a self-break gas switch. The upgrade of the coaxial hydrogen output switch is the focus of this report. The hydrogen output switch was developed through extensive electrical and mechanical simulations. The switch insulator is made of Ultem 2300 and is designed to operate with a mechanical factor of safety equal to 4.0 at 1,000 psi. The design criteria, design data and operational data will be presented.

  15. Detection of (C-13)-ethane in Jupiter's atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiedemann, Guenter; Bjoraker, Gordon L.; Jennings, Donald E.

    1991-01-01

    High-resolution (C-12)- and (C-13)-ethane spectra of Jupiter were acquired with the Kitt Peak 4 m Fourier spectrometer and the Goddard postdisperser in June 1987. A relative abundance ratio (C-12/C-13) of 94 +/- 12 was derived from the measurements. This nearly terrestrial value indicates little or no fractionation of carbon isotopes when ethane is produced in the photolysis of methane in Jupiter's atmosphere.

  16. H2@Scale Workshop Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pivovar, Bryan

    2017-03-31

    Final report from the H2@Scale Workshop held November 16-17, 2016, at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory in Golden, Colorado. The U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory hosted a technology workshop to identify the current barriers and research needs of the H2@Scale concept. H2@Scale is a concept regarding the potential for wide-scale impact of hydrogen produced from diverse domestic resources to enhance U.S. energy security and enable growth of innovative technologies and domestic industries. Feedback received from a diverse set of stakeholders at the workshop will guide the development of an H2@Scale roadmap for research, development, and early stage demonstration activities that can enable hydrogen as an energy carrier at a national scale.

  17. 40 CFR 721.6505 - Polymers of C13C15 oxoalcohol ethoxolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Polymers of C13C15 oxoalcohol... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.6505 Polymers of C13C15 oxoalcohol ethoxolates. (a) Chemical substance... polymers of C13C15 oxoalcohol ethoxolates (PMNs P-96-950/951) are subject to reporting under this...

  18. The 12C/13C Ratio in Sgr B2(N): Constraints for Galactic Chemical Evolution and Isotopic Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halfen, D. T.; Woolf, N. J.; Ziurys, L. M.

    2017-08-01

    A study has been conducted of 12C/13C ratios in five complex molecules in the Galactic center. H2CS, CH3CCH, NH2CHO, CH2CHCN, and CH3CH2CN and their 13C-substituted species have been observed in numerous transitions at 1, 2, and 3 mm, acquired in a spectral-line survey of Sgr B2(N), conducted with the telescopes of the Arizona Radio Observatory (ARO). Between 22 and 54 individual, unblended lines for the 12C species and 2-54 for 13C-substituted analogs were modeled in a global radiative transfer analysis. All five molecules were found to consistently exhibit two velocity components near V LSR ˜ 64 and 73 km s-1, with column densities ranging from N tot ˜ 3 × 1014 - 4 × 1017 cm-2 and ˜2 × 1013 - 1 × 1017 cm-2 for the 12C and 13C species, respectively. Based on 14 different isotopic combinations, ratios were obtained in the range 12C/13C = 15 ± 5 to 33 ± 13, with an average value of 24 ± 7, based on comparison of column densities. These measurements better anchor the 12C/13C ratio at the Galactic center, and suggest a slightly revised isotope gradient of 12C/13C = 5.21(0.52) D GC + 22.6(3.3). As indicated by the column densities, no preferential 13C enrichment was found on the differing carbon sites of CH3CCH, CH2CHCN, and CH3CH2CN. Because of the elevated temperatures in Sgr B2(N), 13C isotopic substitution is effectively “scrambled,” diminishing chemical fractionation effects. The resulting ratios thus reflect stellar nucleosynthesis and Galactic chemical evolution, as is likely the case for most warm clouds.

  19. On Robust H2 Estimation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lihua Xie

    2005-01-01

    The problem of state estimation for uncertain systems has attracted a recurring interest in the past decade. In this paper, we shall give an overview on some of the recent development in the area by focusing on the robust H2 (Kaiman) filtering of uncertain discrete-time systems. The robust H2 estimation is concerned with the design of a fixed estimator for a family of plants under consideration such that the estimation error covariance is of a minimal upper bound. The uncertainty under consideration includes norm-bounded uncertainty and polytopic uncertainty. In the finite horizon case, we shall discuss a parameterized difference Riccati equation approach for systems with normbounded uncertainty and pinpoint the difference of state estimation between systems without uncertainty and those with uncertainty. In the infinite horizon case, we shall deal with both the norm-bounded and polytopic uncertainties using a linear matrix inequality (LMI) approach. In particular, we shall demonstrate how the conservatism of design can be improved using a slack variable technique. We also propose an iterative algorithm to refine a designed estimator. An example will be given to compare estimators designed using various techniques.

  20. A Novel 3D Extended Network Cobalt Paradodecatungstate:Synthesis,Characterization and Crystal Structure of [Co(H2O)5]2[Co(H2O)4]3[H2W12O42]·11H2O

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jing-Ping; REN Qing; ZHAO Jun-Wei; NIU Jing-Yang

    2006-01-01

    A cobalt paradodecatungstate [Co(H2O)5]2[Co(H2O)4]3[H2W12O42]·11H2O has been successfully synthesized and structurally characterized by X-ray crystallography. Structure analysis indicates that the title compound is of monoclinic, space group P21/n, with a = 13.449(3), b =19.585(4), c = 13.990(3) (A),β = 113.79(3)°, V = 3371.8(12) (A)3, Z= 2, R= 0.0519 and wR= 0.1242.The title compound exhibits a novel 3D extended network structure constructed by interconnecting the paradodecatungstate polyanion [H2W12O42]10- clusters and cobalt11 coordination ions.

  1. Developments in bile acid kinetic measurements using C-13 and H-2 : 10(5) times improved sensitivity during the last 40 years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stellaard, Frans; Brufau, Gemma; Boverhof, Renze; Jonkers, Elles Zwanet; Boer, Theo; Kuipers, Folkert

    2009-01-01

    Bile acid kinetics involve the measurement of pool sizes and turnover rates of individual bile acids. The technique is based on isotope dilution and was first described in the 1950s using radioactive C-14-labelled cholic acid (CA). It took until the 1970s before stable isotopes were introduced for t

  2. Reciprocal C-13-labeling: A method for investigating the catabolism of cosubstrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, B.; Nielsen, Jette

    2002-01-01

    The principle of reciprocal labeling is to use a uniformly C-13-labeled substrate as the primary carbon source and a naturally labeled cosubstrate. Metabolites derived from a naturally labeled cosubstrate, in this case amino acids, can then be identified by their relatively lower content of C-13,...

  3. Sensitivity-enhanced C-13 MR spectroscopy of the human brain at 3 Tesla

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klomp, D.W.J.; Renema, W.K.J.; Graaf, M. van der; Galan, B.E. de; Kentgens, A.P.M.; Heerschap, A.

    2006-01-01

    A new coil design for sensitivity-enhanced C-13 MR spectroscopy (MRS) of the human brain is presented. The design includes a quadrature transmit/receive head coil optimized for C-13 MR sensitivity. Loss-less blocking circuits inside the coil conductors allow this coil to be used inside a homogeneous

  4. Interpolatory Weighted-H2 Model Reduction

    CERN Document Server

    Anic, Branimir; Gugercin, Serkan; Antoulas, Athanasios C

    2012-01-01

    This paper introduces an interpolation framework for the weighted-H2 model reduction problem. We obtain a new representation of the weighted-H2 norm of SISO systems that provides new interpolatory first order necessary conditions for an optimal reduced-order model. The H2 norm representation also provides an error expression that motivates a new weighted-H2 model reduction algorithm. Several numerical examples illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  5. Crystal structures of heterotypic nucleosomes containing histones H2A.Z and H2A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horikoshi, Naoki; Arimura, Yasuhiro; Taguchi, Hiroyuki; Kurumizaka, Hitoshi

    2016-06-01

    H2A.Z is incorporated into nucleosomes located around transcription start sites and functions as an epigenetic regulator for the transcription of certain genes. During transcriptional regulation, the heterotypic H2A.Z/H2A nucleosome containing one each of H2A.Z and H2A is formed. However, previous homotypic H2A.Z nucleosome structures suggested that the L1 loop region of H2A.Z would sterically clash with the corresponding region of canonical H2A in the heterotypic nucleosome. To resolve this issue, we determined the crystal structures of heterotypic H2A.Z/H2A nucleosomes. In the H2A.Z/H2A nucleosome structure, the H2A.Z L1 loop structure was drastically altered without any structural changes of the canonical H2A L1 loop, thus avoiding the steric clash. Unexpectedly, the heterotypic H2A.Z/H2A nucleosome is more stable than the homotypic H2A.Z nucleosome. These data suggested that the flexible character of the H2A.Z L1 loop plays an essential role in forming the stable heterotypic H2A.Z/H2A nucleosome.

  6. Transport of C-13-labelled linoleic and C-13-labelled caprylic acid in rat plasma after administration of specific structured triacylglycerols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vistisen, Bodil; Høy, Carl-Erik

    2004-01-01

    The lymphatic transport of structured triacylglycerol consisting of medium and long chain fatty acids in rats has been investigated in several studies, but the following metabolism of the absorbed fatty acids carried in chylomicrons is less elucidated. In the present study we determined...... the transport of dietary C-13-labelled fatty acids in rat plasma to compare the chylomicron fatty acid metabolism after administration of specific structured, long chain and medium chain triacylglycerols. Rats were fed ML*M, M*LM*, L*L*L* or M*M*M* (L=linoleic acid, 18:2n-6, M=caprylic acid, 8:0, * = C-13......-labelled fatty acid) by gavage. A maximum transport of 0.5% of the administered C-13-labelled 18:2n-6 was observed in 1mL rat plasma both after administration of L*L*L* and ML*M, while approximately 0.04% of the administered C-13-labelled 8:0 was detected in 1mL plasma following administration of M...

  7. CO2 and 12C:13C Isotopic Ratios on Phoebe and Iapetus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, R. N.; Brown, R. H.; Cruikshank, D. P.

    2016-12-01

    Cassini VIMS has obtained spatially resolved 0.35 to 5.1 micron reflectance spectra of Saturn's satellites beginning with the Phoebe fly-by in 2004 and a close fly-by of Iapetus in 2007. Both surfaces contain relatively abundant CO2. The new (2016 RC19) calibration of VIMS has provided a significant increase in the data quality, such that isotopic absorption bands in CO2 are now well defined. CO2 on Saturn's icy satellites is trapped (Cruikshank et al., 2010, Icarus v206 p561; Pinilla-Alonso et al. 2011, Icarus v211, p75i), predominantly in the dark material (Clark et al. 2012, Icarus v218 p831). Clark et al. modeled the CO2 abundance as 2.8% on Iapetus and 3.7% on Phoebe. The main 12CO2 band in VIMS spectra on Iapetus occurs at 4.253 microns and Phoebe at 4.266 microns. The 13CO2 absorption is strong on Phoebe at 4.367 microns and weak on Iapetus at 4.387 microns. Converting the Phoebe, Iapetus, and a lab reflectance spectrum (of trace H2O-CO2 mixture on a diffuse substrate), we derive preliminary values for the ratio of the equivalent widths of the 12C and 13C absorptions as 19±2 on Phoebe, 82±8 on Iapetus, and 98±10 for the laboratory spectrum. These ratios are related to the 12C/13C ratio, but there may be effects due to intra-molecular and inter-molecular coupling that will contribute to systematic errors in the isotopic abundances derived using equivalent-width measurements that we've yet to quantify. We Believe the effects are small, and will be attempting to quantify them in the future. For comparison, the terrestrial value of the 12C/13C ratio is 90.17, and vibrational coupling may explain the slightly high lab mixture result. The local interstellar medium is 69±15 (Boogert et al., 2000, A&A). Because the CO2 bands on Phoebe and Iapetus dark material have different positions, and because the observed 13C absorption strengths are so different, the surface evolutions must be different. The large enrichment in 13C on Phoebe argues for significant

  8. Histidine side-chain dynamics and protonation monitored by C-13 CPMG NMR relaxation dispersion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hass, M. A. S.; Yilmaz, A.; Christensen, Hans Erik Mølager;

    2009-01-01

    The use of C-13 NMR relaxation dispersion experiments to monitor micro-millisecond fluctuations in the protonation states of histidine residues in proteins is investigated. To illustrate the approach, measurements on three specifically C-13 labeled histidine residues in plastocyanin (PCu) from...... Anabaena variabilis (A.v.) are presented. Significant Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill (CPMG) relaxation dispersion is observed for C-13(epsilon 1) nuclei in the histidine imidazole rings of A.v. PCu. The chemical shift changes obtained from the CPMG dispersion data are in good agreement with those obtained from...... or other kinds of conformational changes of histidine side chains or their environment. Advantages and shortcomings of using the C-13(epsilon 1) dispersion experiments in combination with chemical shift titration experiments to obtain information on exchange dynamics of the histidine side chains...

  9. Lead Diversification through a Prins-Driven Macrocyclization Strategy: Application to C13-Diversified Bryostatin Analogues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wender, Paul A; Billingsley, Kelvin L

    2013-01-01

    The design, synthesis, and biological evaluation of a novel class of C13-diversified bryostatin analogues are described. An innovative and general strategy based on a Prins macrocyclization-nucleophilic trapping cascade was used to achieve late-stage diversification. In vitro analysis of selected library members revealed that modification at the C13 position of the bryostatin scaffold can be used as a diversification handle to regulate biological activity.

  10. H2− formation in electron impact ionization of H2 near threshold

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boesten, L.G.J.; Heideman, H.G.M.; Schowengerdt, F.D.; Golden, D.E.; Ormonde, S.

    1974-01-01

    New features in near threshold ionization spectra of H2 which can be correlated with two series of H2− states proceeding across the H2+ threshold, indicate a need for coincidence experiments that differentiate between one and two electron decay modes of H2−.

  11. H2− formation in electron impact ionization of H2 near threshold

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boesten, L.G.J.; Heideman, H.G.M.; Schowengerdt, F.D.; Golden, D.E.; Ormonde, S.

    1974-01-01

    New features in near threshold ionization spectra of H2 which can be correlated with two series of H2− states proceeding across the H2+ threshold, indicate a need for coincidence experiments that differentiate between one and two electron decay modes of H2−.

  12. Photolysis of H2O-H2O2 Mixtures: The Destruction of H2O2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeffler, M. J.; Fama, M.; Baragiola, R. A.; Carlson, R. W.

    2013-01-01

    We present laboratory results on the loss of H2O2 in solid H2O + H2O2 mixtures at temperatures between 21 and 145 K initiated by UV photolysis (193 nm). Using infrared spectroscopy and microbalance gravimetry, we measured the decrease of the 3.5 micrometer infrared absorption band during UV irradiation and obtained a photodestruction cross section that varies with temperature, being lowest at 70 K. We use our results, along with our previously measured H2O2 production rates via ionizing radiation and ion energy fluxes from the spacecraft to compare H2O2 creation and destruction at icy satellites by ions from their planetary magnetosphere and from solar UV photons. We conclude that, in many cases, H2O2 is not observed on icy satellite surfaces because the H2O2 photodestruction rate is much higher than the production rate via energetic particles, effectively keeping the H2O2 infrared signature at or below the noise level.

  13. NMR Evidence of Cage-to-Cage Diffusion of H2 in H2-Clathrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senadheera, Lasitha; Conradi, Mark

    2008-03-01

    H2 and heavy-ice at P>1 kbar and T ˜250 K form H2-D2O clathrate; four and one H2 may occupy each large (L) and small (S) cage, respectively. In H2-THF-H2O clathrate, H2 occupies singly and only S cages. Previous electronic-structure calculations estimate the barriers for H2 passage though hexagonal and pentagonal faces of cages as ˜6 and ˜25 kcal/mol, respectively. Our H2 NMR linewidth data reflect random crystal fields from frozen cage-wall D2O orientations. We find dramatic reductions in linewidth starting at 120 K (175 K) for H2-D2O (H2-TDF-D2O) indicating time-averaging of the crystal fields. Assuming Arrhenius behavior, our data imply energies for escape from L (S) cages of about ˜4 (˜6) kcal/mol. For L cages, the agreement with the calculated (cages were treated as rigid) barrier is reasonable. For H2 in S cages, in H2-TDF-D2O, the extreme disagreement with theory points to another mechanism of time-averaging, reorientations of the cage-wall D2O molecules, as suggested by previous work in TDH-H2O clathrate. Our limited NMR spectra at high T ˜145 K in H2-D2O show evidence of distinct resonances from diffusionally mobile and immobile H2 molecules, as expected.

  14. Robust H2 estimation and control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lihua XIE; Yeng Chai SOH; Chunling DU; Yun ZOU

    2004-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the H2 estimation and control problems for uncertain discretetime systems with norm-bounded parameter uncertainty. We first present an analysis result on H2 norm bound for a stable uncertain system in terms of linearmatrix inequalities (LMIs). A solution to the robust H2 estimation problem is then derived in terms of two LMIs. As compared tothe existing results, our result on robust H2 estimation is more general. In addition, explicit search of appropriate scaling parametersis not needed as the optimization is convex in the scaling parameters. The LMI approach is also extended to solve the robust H2control problem which has been difficult for the traditional Riccati equation approach since no separation principle has been knownfor uncertain systems. The design approach is demonstrated through a simple example.

  15. Multi-cluster dynamics in C13Λ and analogy to clustering in 12C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funaki, Y.; Isaka, M.; Hiyama, E.; Yamada, T.; Ikeda, K.

    2017-10-01

    We investigate structure of C13Λ and discuss the difference and similarity between the structures of 12C and C13Λ by answering the questions if the linear-chain and gaslike cluster states, which are proposed to appear in 12C, survives, or new structure states appear or not. We introduce a microscopic cluster model called, Hyper-Tohsaki-Horiuchi-Schuck-Röpke (H-THSR) wave function, which is an extended version of the THSR wave function so as to describe Λ hypernuclei. We obtained two bound states and two resonance (quasi-bound) states for Jπ =0+ in C13Λ, corresponding to the four 0+ states in 12C. However, the inversion of level ordering between the spectra of 12C and C13Λ, i.e. that the 03+ and 04+ states in C13Λ correspond to the 04+ and 03+ states in 12C, respectively, is shown to occur. The additional Λ particle reduces sizes of the 02+ and 03+ states in C13Λ very much, but the shrinkage of the 04+ state is only a half of the other states, in spite of the fact that attractive Λ-N interaction makes nucleus contracted so much when the Λ particle occupies an S-orbit. In conclusion, the Hoyle state becomes quite a compact object with Be9Λ + α configuration in C13Λ and is no more gaslike state composed of the 3α clusters. Instead, the 04+ state in C13Λ, coming from the 12C (03+) state, appears as a gaslike state composed of α + α +Λ5He configuration, i.e. the Hoyle analog state. A linear-chain state in a Λ hypernucleus is for the first time predicted to exist as the 03+ state in C13Λ with more shrunk arrangement of the 3α clusters along z-axis than the 3α linear-chain configuration realized in the 12C (04+) state. All the excited states are shown to appear around the corresponding cluster-decay threshold, reflecting the threshold rule.

  16. Application of C5-C13 light hydrocarbons in depositional envlrOnment diagnosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peirong Wang; Guanjun Xu; Tingrong Xiao; Dajiang Zhang; Bin Zhang

    2008-01-01

    Based on the geological background and Gammacerane/C31H(S+R)ratios,source rock depositional environments of the studied oil samples(194)from 13 oilfields were classified into three groups according to salinity:saline-lacustrine facies,fresh to brackish lacustrine facies(including linmetic facies),and semi-saline to saline facies(including marine facies of the Tarim Basin).C5-C13 compound groups in the crude oils were separated by GC,and about 286 compounds were qualitatively analyzed.The geochemical application of the C6-C13 compound groups and their ratios between each group with individual carbon number was investigated.Our studies show that(1)C6-C13 compound groups and their ratios in the crude oils could serve as new reliable parameters for oil-oil correlation because the C6-C13 light fractions are the major oil component,especially in light oil or condensate,in which they account for almost 90%of the whole oil;(2)the compound groups of C7 light hydrocarbons in oils derived from different depositional environments with different salinity have different characteristics;(3)C6-C13 compound groups and ratios may be affected by other factors such as maturity,but they are mainly controlled by salinity of depositional waters.

  17. The C-12/C-13 ratio in stellar atmospheres. VI - Five luminous cool stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinkle, K. H.; Lambert, D. L.; Snell, R. L.

    1976-01-01

    A simple curve-of-growth technique is described for extracting the C-12/C-13 ratio for M stars from high-resolution spectra of CO infrared vibration-rotation lines. The technique is applied to the CO lines at 1.6 and 2.3 microns in spectra of two M supergiants (Alpha Ori and Alpha Sco), two M giants (Alpha Her and Beta Peg), and a Mira-type variable (Chi Cyg). As a check on the CO analysis, the C-12/C-13 ratio is derived from the red CN system at 8000 A for Alpha Sco, Alpha Ori, and Beta Peg. The CO analysis is also applied to the K giant Alpha Boo as a check. The CN and CO results are found to be in general agreement, and the C-12/C-13 ratio in all the examined stars is shown to be considerably lower than the solar-system value. It is suggested that these stars were formed from clouds with a C-12/C-13 ratio of 40 to 89 and that their atmospheres now exhibit an enhancement of C-13 abundance due to internal production and mixing to the surface.

  18. Triazine-based H2S Scavenging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Henrik Tækker; Vestergaard Jensen, Carina; Søgaard, Erik Gydesen

    2014-01-01

    The authors studied the applicability of a previously suggested model to describe the reaction between 1,3,5-tri-(2-hydroxypropyl)-hexahydro-s-triazine and H2S and thereby predict formation of fouling. To investigate the reaction system, electrospray ionization mass spectrometry was employed...... to analyze the composition of the generated mixture as H2S is bubbled through the scavenger. The results of the study confirm that the suggested model is capable of explaining how the scavenger reacts with H2S, which may be used to explain from where and how the fouling originates, and how a scavenging...

  19. 40 CFR 721.4792 - 2-propenoic acid, 2-methyl-, C11-14-isoalkyl esters, C13-rich.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...-isoalkyl esters, C13-rich. 721.4792 Section 721.4792 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... esters, C13-rich. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as 2-propenoic acid, 2-methyl-, C11-14-isoalkyl esters, C13-rich (PMN P-99-1189; CAS No...

  20. C-13-carbohydrate breath tests : Impact of physical activity on the rate-limiting step in lactose utilization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stellaard, F; Koetse, HA; Elzinga, H; Boverhof, R; Tjoonk, R; Klimp, A; Vegter, D; Liesker, J; Vonk, RJ

    Background: (CO2)-C-13 breath tests can be used to monitor carbohydrate digestion in the small intestine. However, after ingestion of C-13-substrates, (CO2)-C-13 excretion in breath originates from two sources: a digestive/oxidative fraction, derived from the small intestine, and a fermentation

  1. An H2A Histone Isotype, H2ac, Associates with Telomere and Maintains Telomere Integrity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Hsin Su

    Full Text Available Telomeres are capped at the ends of eukaryotic chromosomes and are composed of TTAGGG repeats bound to the shelterin complex. Here we report that a replication-dependent histone H2A isotype, H2ac, was associated with telomeres in human cells and co-immunoprecipitates with telomere repeat factor 2 (TRF2 and protection of telomeres protein 1 (POT1, whereas other histone H2A isotypes and mutations of H2ac did not bind to telomeres or these two proteins. The amino terminal basic domain of TRF2 was necessary for the association with H2ac and for the recruitment of H2ac to telomeres. Depletion of H2ac led to loss of telomeric repeat sequences, the appearance of dysfunctional telomeres, and chromosomal instability, including chromosomal breaks and anaphase bridges, as well as accumulation of telomere-associated DNA damage factors in H2ac depleted cells. Additionally, knockdown of H2ac elicits an ATM-dependent DNA damage response at telomeres and depletion of XPF protects telomeres against H2ac-deficiency-induced G-strand overhangs loss and DNA damage response, and prevents chromosomal instability. These findings suggest that the H2A isotype, H2ac, plays an essential role in maintaining telomere functional integrity.

  2. H-1, C-13, and N-15 resonance assignment of photoactive yellow protein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pool, Trijntje J.; Oktaviani, Nur Alia; Kamikubo, Hironari; Kataoka, Mikio; Mulder, Frans A. A.

    Photoactive yellow protein (PYP) is involved in the negative phototactic response towards blue light of the bacterium Halorhodospira halophila. Here, we report nearly complete backbone and side chain H-1, C-13 and N-15 resonance assignments at pH 5.8 and 20 A degrees C of PYP in its electronic

  3. Stereoselective synthesis of the C1-C13 fragment of (+)-discodermolide using asymmetric allyltitanations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    BouzBouz, Samir; Cossy, Janine

    2003-08-21

    [reaction: see text] The synthesis of the C1-C13 fragment of (+)-discodermolide has been achieved. The configurations of the stereogenic centers have been controlled by enantioselective allyl- and crotyltitanations of aldehydes, and the Z configuration of the olefin at C8-C9 was controlled by a ring-closing metathesis.

  4. A strategy for exploiting the pseudosymmetry of the C1-C13 stretch of discodermolide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Kathlyn A; Katsoulis, Ioannis A

    2004-04-29

    [reaction: see text] The pseudo-C(2)() symmetry of the C1 to C13 stretch of the discodermolide structure offers a potential strategic advantage for synthetic design. Two approaches based on this recognition were devised, and one was shown to be effective in a model series.

  5. Modification of the Varian XL-100 NMR spectrometer for submilligram natural abundance C-13 analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, D. M.; Olsen, R. W.; Burlingame, A. L.

    1974-01-01

    Quadrature detection modifications and a microcell arrangement are described for the Varian XL-100 NMR spectrometer which routinely improve sensitivity in C-13 Fourier transform sample-limited studies by a factor of 4 to 5. The power requirement of the RF pulse amplifier is relaxed by a factor of 4. Previously attainable resolution is not affected.

  6. Adulteration of honey : relation between microscopic analysis and delta C-13 measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerkvliet, JD; Meijer, HAJ

    2000-01-01

    Upon routine microscopic analysis of some honey samples, parenchyma cells, single rings of ring vessels and epidermal cells are found. These cells originate from the sugar cane stem. We investigated whether there was a relation between these plant fragments and the delta C-13 value of honey. 17 hone

  7. 26 CFR 31.3306(c)(13)-1 - Services of student nurse or hospital intern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Services of student nurse or hospital intern...) § 31.3306(c)(13)-1 Services of student nurse or hospital intern. (a) Services performed as a student...' training school is chartered or approved pursuant to State law. (b) Services performed as an intern (as...

  8. Rovibrational states of the H2O-H2 complex: An ab initio calculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Avoird, Ad; Nesbitt, David J.

    2011-01-01

    All bound rovibrational levels of the H2O-H2 dimer are calculated for total angular momentum J = 0-5 on two recent intermolecular potential surfaces reported by Valiron et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 129, 134306 (2008)] and Hodges et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 120, 710 (2004)] obtained through ab initio calculations. The method used handles correctly the large amplitude internal motions in this complex; it involves a discrete variable representation of the intermolecular distance coordinate R and a basis of coupled free rotor wave functions for the hindered internal rotations and the overall rotation of the dimer. The basis is adapted to the permutation symmetry associated with the para/ortho (p/o) nature of both H2O and H2 as well as to inversion symmetry. Dimers containing oH2 are more strongly bound than dimers with pH2, as expected, with dissociation energies D_0 of 33.57, 36.63, 53.60, and 59.04 cm^{-1}for pH2O-pH2, oH2O-pH2, pH2O-oH2, and oH2O-oH2, respectively, on the potential of Valiron et al. that corresponds to a binding energy D_e of 235.14 cm^{-1}. Rovibrational wave functions are computed as well and the nature of the bound states in the four different dimer species is discussed. Converged rovibrational levels on both potentials agree well with the high-resolution spectrum reported by Weida and Nesbitt [J. Chem. Phys. 110, 156 (1999)]; the hindered internal rotor model that was used to interpret this spectrum is qualitatively correct.

  9. H2 Temperatures in the Crab Nebula

    CERN Document Server

    Loh, E D; Ferland, G J; Curtis, Z K; Richardson, C T; Fabian, A C; Salomé, P

    2011-01-01

    We used K-band spectra to measure the H2 excitation temperatures in six molecular knots associated with the filaments in the Crab Nebula. The temperatures are quite high - in the range T ~ 2000-3000K, just below the H2 dissociation temperature. This is the temperature range over which the H2 1-0 S(1) line at 2.121\\mum has its maximum emissivity per unit mass, so there may be many additional H2 cores with lower temperatures that are too faint to detect. We also measured the electron density in adjacent ionized gas, which on the assumption of gas pressure balance indicates densities in the molecular region n_mol ~ 20,000 H baryons cm-3, although this really is just a lower limit since the H2 gas may be confined by other means. The excited region may be just a thin skin on a much more extensive blob of molecular gas that does not have the correct temperature and density to be as easily detectable. At the opposite extreme, the observed knots could consist of a fine mist of molecular gas in which we are detecting ...

  10. Variations in H2O+/H2O ratios toward massive star-forming regions

    CERN Document Server

    Wyrowski, F; Herpin, F; Baudry, A; Bontemps, S; Chavarria, L; Frieswijk, W; Jacq, T; Marseille, M; Shipman, R; van Dishoeck, E F; Benz, A O; Caselli, P; Hogerheijde, M R; Johnstone, D; Liseau, R; Bachiller, R; Benedettini, M; Bergin, E; Bjerkeli, P; Blake, G; Braine, J; Bruderer, S; Cernicharo, J; Codella, C; Daniel, F; di Giorgio, A M; Dominik, C; Doty, S D; Encrenaz, P; Fich, M; Fuente, A; Giannini, T; Goicoechea, J R; de Graauw, Th; Helmich, F; Herczeg, G J; Jørgensen, J K; Kristensen, L E; Larsson, B; Lis, D; McCoey, C; Melnick, G; Nisini, B; Olberg, M; Parise, B; Pearson, J C; Plume, R; Risacher, C; Santiago, J; Saraceno, P; Tafalla, M; van Kempen, T A; Visser, R; Wampfler, S; Yıldız, U A; Black, J H; Falgarone, E; Gerin, M; Roelfsema, P; Dieleman, P; Beintema, D; De Jonge, A; Whyborn, N; Stutzki, J; Ossenkopf, V

    2010-01-01

    Early results from the Herschel Space Observatory revealed the water cation H2O+ to be an abundant ingredient of the interstellar medium. Here we present new observations of the H2O and H2O+ lines at 1113.3 and 1115.2 GHz using the Herschel Space Observatory toward a sample of high-mass star-forming regions to observationally study the relation between H2O and H2O+ . Nine out of ten sources show absorption from H2O+ in a range of environments: the molecular clumps surrounding the forming and newly formed massive stars, bright high-velocity outflows associated with the massive protostars, and unrelated low-density clouds along the line of sight. Column densities per velocity component of H2 O+ are found in the range of 10^12 to a few 10^13 cm-2 . The highest N(H2O+) column densities are found in the outflows of the sources. The ratios of H2O+/H2O are determined in a range from 0.01 to a few and are found to differ strongly between the observed environments with much lower ratios in the massive (proto)cluster e...

  11. H2@Scale Resource and Market Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruth, Mark

    2017-05-04

    The 'H2@Scale' concept is based on the potential for wide-scale utilization of hydrogen as an energy intermediate where the hydrogen is produced from low cost energy resources and it is used in both the transportation and industrial sectors. H2@Scale has the potential to address grid resiliency, energy security, and cross-sectoral emissions reductions. This presentation summarizes the status of an ongoing analysis effort to quantify the benefits of H2@Scale. It includes initial results regarding market potential, resource potential, and impacts of when electrolytic hydrogen is produced with renewable electricity to meet the potential market demands. It also proposes additional analysis efforts to better quantify each of the factors.

  12. Thermal modeling of NiH2 batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponthus, Agnes-Marie; Alexandre, Alain

    1994-01-01

    The following are discussed: NiH2 battery mission and environment; NiH2 cell heat dissipation; Nodal software; model development general philosophy; NiH2 battery model development; and NiH2 experimental developments.

  13. EPA H2O Software Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA H2O allows user to: Understand the significance of EGS in Tampa Bay watershed; visually analyze spatial distribution of the EGS in Tampa Bay watershed; obtain map and summary statistics of EGS values in Tampa Bay watershed; analyze and compare potential impacts of development...

  14. Planetary Nebulae with H2 Emission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita Rosado

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Hacemos una revisión de la emisión en hidrogeno molecular (H2 de las nebulosas planetarias (NPs. Vemos como esta emisión se encuentra asociada a objetos de forma bipolar. Describimos los niveles de energía de la molécula de hidrogeno, los principales mecanismos para poblarlos (choques y fluorescencia y las formas en que se puede discriminar que mecanismo opera. Proponemos que la cinemática del H2 también puede ser usada para discriminar el mecanismo de excitación de sus líneas de emisión. Presentamos resultados preliminares sobre el estudio de la cinemática del H2 que estamos realizando para una muestra de cinco NPs bipolares. Este estudio nos ha permitido determinar que los choques son el principal agente en la excitación del H2 y que las masas de los progenitores de estos objetos son mayores que las de los progenitores de NPs típicas.

  15. EPA H2O User Manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA H2O is a software tool designed to support research being conducted in the Tampa Bay watershed to provide information, data, and approaches and guidance that communities can use to examine alternatives when making strategic decisions to support a prosperous and environmentall...

  16. Triazine-based H2S Scavenging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Henrik Tækker; Vestergaard Jensen, Carina; Søgaard, Erik Gydesen

    2014-01-01

    The authors studied the applicability of a previously suggested model to describe the reaction between 1,3,5-tri-(2-hydroxypropyl)-hexahydro-s-triazine and H2S and thereby predict formation of fouling. To investigate the reaction system, electrospray ionization mass spectrometry was employed to a...

  17. Advanced Colloids Experiment (ACE-H-2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, William V.; Sicker, Ron; Chmiel, Alan J.; Eustace, John; LaBarbera, Melissa

    2015-01-01

    Increment 43 - 44 Science Symposium presentation of Advanced Colloids Experiment (ACE-H-2) to RPO. The purpose of this event is for Principal Investigators to present their science objectives, testing approach, and measurement methods to agency scientists, managers, and other investigators.

  18. When sticking influences H2 formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cazaux, S.; Morisset, S.; Spaans, M.; Allouche, A.

    2011-01-01

    Aims: Because of their catalytic properties, interstellar dust grains are crucial to the formation of H2, the most abundant molecule in the Universe. The formation of molecular hydrogen strongly depends on the ability of H atoms to stick on dust grains. In this study we determine the sticking coeffi

  19. Metabolic network analysis of Penicillium chrysogenum using C-13-labeled glucose

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Bjarke; Nielsen, Jens

    2000-01-01

    Using C-13-labeled glucose fed to a penicillin-overproducing strain of Penicillium chrysogenum, the intracellular fluxes were quantified, and the presence of two new pathways, not previously described in this organism, is suggested. Thus, glycine was synthesized not only by serine hydroxymethyltr......Using C-13-labeled glucose fed to a penicillin-overproducing strain of Penicillium chrysogenum, the intracellular fluxes were quantified, and the presence of two new pathways, not previously described in this organism, is suggested. Thus, glycine was synthesized not only by serine...... of homocitrate synthase and alpha-isopropylmalate synthase are located in the cytosol. All experimental data on the labeling patterns were obtained using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, which is faster and more sensitive than the nuclear magnetic resonance methods usually applied for analysis of labeling...

  20. Optical polarization of C13 nuclei in diamond through nitrogen vacancy centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Jonathan P.; Coles, Patrick J.; Reimer, Jeffrey A.

    2010-02-01

    We determine the polarization of the bulk C13 nuclear-spin system in diamond produced by interaction with optically oriented nitrogen vacancy (NV) defect centers. C13 nuclei are polarized into the higher-energy Zeeman state with a bulk-average polarization up to 5.2%, although local polarization may be higher. The kinetics of polarization are temperature independent and occur within 5 min. Fluctuations in the dipolar field of the NV-center spin bath are identified as the mechanism by which nuclear-spin transitions are induced near defect centers. Polarization is then transported to the bulk material via spin diffusion, which accounts for the observed kinetics of polarization. These results indicate control over the nuclear-spin bath, a methodology to study dynamics of an NV-center ensemble, and application to sensitivity-enhanced NMR.

  1. Chemical vs. biotechnological synthesis of C13-apocarotenoids: current methods, applications and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cataldo, Vicente F; López, Javiera; Cárcamo, Martín; Agosin, Eduardo

    2016-07-01

    Apocarotenoids are natural compounds derived from the oxidative cleavage of carotenoids. Particularly, C13-apocarotenoids are volatile compounds that contribute to the aromas of different flowers and fruits and are highly valued by the Flavor and Fragrance industry. So far, the chemical synthesis of these terpenoids has dominated the industry. Nonetheless, the increasing consumer demand for more natural and sustainable processes raises an interesting opportunity for bio-production alternatives. In this regard, enzymatic biocatalysis and metabolically engineered microorganisms emerge as attractive biotechnological options. The present review summarizes promising bioengineering approaches with regard to chemical production methods for the synthesis of two families of C13-apocarotenoids: ionones/dihydroionones and damascones/damascenone. We discuss each method and its applicability, with a thorough comparative analysis for ionones, focusing on the production process, regulatory aspects, and sustainability.

  2. Design, total synthesis, and evaluation of C13-C14 cyclopropane analogues of (+)-discodermolide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Amos B; Xian, Ming; Liu, Fenghua

    2005-10-13

    [structure: see text] The design, total synthesis, and biological evaluation of two C13-C14-cyclopropyl analogues [(+)-1 and (+)-2] of (+)-discodermolide have been achieved. Key features of the syntheses include highly stereoselective, hydroxyl-directed cyclopropanations of vinyl iodides and higher order cuprate-mediated cross-coupling reactions between cyclopropyl iodides and alkyl iodides. Biological evaluation revealed that neither orientation of the cyclopropyl methylene completely substitutes for the C14 methyl found in (+)-discodermolide (3).

  3. Structure elucidation and phytotoxicity of C13 nor-isoprenoids from Cestrum parqui.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Abrosca, Brigida; DellaGreca, Marina; Fiorentino, Antonio; Monaco, Pietro; Oriano, Palma; Temussi, Fabio

    2004-02-01

    Twelve C(13) nor-isoprenoids have been isolated from the leaves of Cestrum parqui (Solanaceae). The structure (2R,6R,9R)-2,9-dihydroxy-4-megastigmen-3-one has been assigned to the new compound. All the structures have been determined by spectroscopic means and chemical correlations. The compounds showed phytotoxic effect on the germination and growth of Lactuca sativa L.

  4. Ethane's 12C/13C Ratio in Titan: Implications for Methane Replenishment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Donald E.; Nixon, C. A.; Romani, P. N.; Bjoraker, G. L.; Sada, P. V.; Lunsford, A. W.; Boyle, R. J.; Hesman, B. E.; McCabe, G. H.

    2009-01-01

    As the .main destination of carbon in the destruction of methane in the atmosphere of Titan, ethane provides information about the carbon isotopic composition of the reservoir from which methane is replenished. If the amount of methane entering the atmosphere is presently equal to the amount converted to ethane, the 12C/13C ratio in ethane should be close to the ratio in the reservoir. We have measured the 12C/13C ratio in ethane both with Cassini CIRS(exp 1) and from the ground and find that it is very close to the telluric standard and outer planet values (89), consistent with a primordial origin for the methane reservoir. The lower 12C/13C ratio measured for methane by Huygens GCMS (82.3) can be explained if the conversion of CH4 to CH3 (and C2H6) favors 12C over 13C with a carbon kinetic isotope effect of 1.08. The time required for the atmospheric methane to reach equilibrium, i.e., for replenishment to equal destruction, is approximately 5 methane atmospheric lifetimes.

  5. C-12/C-13 Ratio in Ethane on Titan and Implications for Methane's Replenishment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Donald E.; Romani, Paul N.; Bjoraker, Gordon L.; Sada, Pedro V.; Nixon, Conor A.; Lunsford, Allen W.; Boyle, Robert J.; Hesman, Brigette E.; McCabe, George H.

    2009-01-01

    The C-12/C-13 abundance ratio in ethane in the atmosphere of Titan has been measured at 822 cm(sup -1) from high spectral resolution ground-based observations. The value 89(8), coincides with the telluric standard and also agrees with the ratio seen in the outer planets. It is almost identical to the result for ethane on Titan found by the composite infrared spectrometer (CIRS) on Cassini. The C-12/C-13 ratio for ethane is higher than the ratio measured in atmospheric methane by Cassini/Huygens GCMS, 82.3(l), representing an enrichment of C-12 in the ethane that might be explained by a kinetic isotope effect of approximately 1.1 in the formation of methyl radicals. If methane is being continuously resupplied to balance photochemical destruction, then we expect the isotopic composition in the ethane product to equilibrate at close to the same C-12/C-13 ratio as that in the supply. The telluric value of the ratio in ethane then implies that the methane reservoir is primordial.

  6. High purity H2/H2O/Ni/SZ electrodes at 500º C

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høgh, Jens Valdemar Thorvald; Hansen, Karin Vels; Norrman, Kion

    2013-01-01

    of stabilized zirconia (SZ) with 10, 13 and 18 mol% yttria and one with 6 mol% scandia plus 4 mol% yttria were studied at open circuit voltage at 400-500 C in mixtures of H2/H2O over 46 days. The polarization resistances (Rp) for all samples increased significantly during the first 10-20 days at 500 C...

  7. H2O Paradox and its Implications on H2O in Moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Youxue

    2017-04-01

    The concentration of H2O in the mantle of a planetary body plays a significant role in the viscosity and partial melting and hence the convection and evolution of the planetary body. Even though the composition of the primitive terrestrial mantle (PTM) is thought to be well known [1-2], the concentration of H2O in PTM remains paradoxial because different methods of estimation give different results [3]: Using H2O/Ce ratio in MORB and OIB and Ce concentration in PTM, the H2O concentration in PTM would be (300÷×1.5) ppm; using mass balance by adding surface water to the mantle [3-4], H2O concentration in PTM would be (900÷×1.3) ppm [2-3]. The inconsistency based on these two seemingly reliable methods is referred to as the H2O paradox [3]. For Moon, H2O contents in the primitive lunar mantle (PLM) estimated from H2O in plagioclase in lunar anorthosite and that from H2O/Ce ratio in melt inclusions are roughly consistent at ˜110 ppm [5-6] even though there is still debate about the volatile depletion trend [7]. One possible solution to the H2O paradox in PTM is to assume that early Earth experienced whole mantle degassing, which lowered the H2O/Ce ratio in the whole mantle but without depleting Ce in the mantle. The second possible solution is that some deep Earth reservoirs with high H2O/Ce ratios have not been sampled by MORB and OIB. Candidates include the transition zone [8] and the D" layer. The third possible solution is that ocean water only partially originated from mantle degassing, but partially from extraterrestrial sources such as comets [9-10]. At present, there is not enough information to determine which scenario is the answer to the H2O paradox. On the other hand, each scenario would have its own implications to H2O in PLM. If the first scenario applies to Moon, because degassed H2O or H2 would have escaped from the lunar surface, the very early lunar mantle could have much higher H2O [11] than that obtained using the H2O/Ce ratio method. The

  8. Synthesis and Structural Characterization of a Novel 2D Supramolecular Complex {[Dy2Zn(dinic)4(H2O)8]·H2O}n (H2dinic=2,5-Pyridinedicaboxylic Acid)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU De-Xin; XUE Lin; CHE Yun-Xia

    2006-01-01

    A new dysprosium-zinc coordination polymer {[Dy2Zn(dinic)4(H2O)8]·H2O}n 1(H2dinic = 2,5-pyridinedicaboxylic acid) has been synthesized and structurally characterized by X-ray analysis. The complex (C28H30Dy2N4O25Zn, Mr = 1212.94) crystallizes in triclinic, space group P-1 with a = 7.8911(16), b = 9.3177(19), c = 13.029(3)(A), α = 75.29(3), β = 75.04(3), γ =79.00(3)°, V = 887.1(3)(A)3, Z = 1, Dc=2.236 g/cm3,μ(MoKα) = 4.947 mm-1, F(000) = 570, the final R = 0.0345 and wR = 0.0903 for 3644 observed reflections with I> 2σ(I). A two-dimensional supramolecular structure is formed in 1, which was characterized by elemental analysis, IR, TG analysis, and single-crystal X-ray diffraction.

  9. Editing of H2BC NMR spectra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyberg, Nils T; Duus, Jens Ø; Sørensen, Ole W

    2005-12-01

    New versions of the H2BC pulse sequence (Nyberg NT, Duus JØ, Sørensen OW. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2005; 127: 6154) that edit into two subspectra according to the number of protons attached to 13C nuclei being odd or even are introduced. These sequences can be useful for resolving spectral overlap, which is demonstrated on the molecule prednisolone [(11 beta)-11,17,21-trihydroxypregna-1,4-diene-3,20-dione].

  10. Electron mass stopping power in H2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fursa, Dmitry V.; Zammit, Mark C.; Threlfall, Robert L.; Savage, Jeremy S.; Bray, Igor

    2017-08-01

    Calculations of electron mass stopping power (SP) of electrons in H2 have been performed using the convergent close-coupling method for incident electron energies up to 2000 eV. Convergence of the calculated SP has been established by increasing the size of the close-coupling expansion from 9 to 491 states. Good agreement was found with the SP measurements of Munoz et al. [Chem. Phys. Lett. 433, 253 (2007), 10.1016/j.cplett.2006.10.114].

  11. Cysteine Activated Hydrogen Sulfide (H2S) Donors

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Yu; Wang, Hua; Xian, Ming

    2010-01-01

    H2S, the newly discovered gasotransmitter, plays important roles in biological systems. However, the research on H2S has been hindered by lacking controllable H2S donors which could mimic the slow and continuous H2S generation process in vivo. Herein we report a series of cysteine-activated H2S donors. Structural modifications on these molecules can regulate the rates of H2S generation. These compounds can be useful tools in H2S research.

  12. When sticking influences H2 formation

    CERN Document Server

    Cazaux, S; Spaans, M; Allouche, A

    2011-01-01

    Aims. Interstellar dust grains, because of their catalytic properties, are crucial to the formation of H2, the most abundant molecule in the Universe. The formation of molecular hydrogen strongly depends on the ability of H atoms to stick on dust grains. In this study we determine the sticking coefficient of H atoms chemisorbed on graphitic surfaces, and estimate its impact on the forma- tion of H2. Methods. The sticking probability of H atoms chemisorbed onto graphitic surfaces is obtained using a mixed classical-quantum dynamics method. In this, the H atom is treated quantum- mechanically and the vibrational modes of the surface are treated classically. The implications of sticking for the formation of H2 are addressed by using Kinetic Monte Carlo simulations that follow how atoms stick, move and associate with each other on dust surfaces of different temper- ature. Results. In our model, molecular hydrogen forms very efficiently for dust temperatures lower than 15 K through the involvement of physisorbed H...

  13. C-13 Stable Isotope Probing of Biostimulation Experiments to Identify Acetate Utilizers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffe, P. R.; Tan, H.; Kerkhof, L.; McGuinness, L.; Peacock, A.; Long, P. E.

    2011-12-01

    In order to determine which microorganisms take up acetate during biostimulation and how the uptake of acetate by specific organisms, especially Geobacter species, changes over time, a 120-day column biostimulation experiment was performed. A total of eight columns were loaded with Rifle sediments and operated under continuous flow conditions using Rifle groundwater, amended with 3 mM C-12 acetate. At regular time intervals, C-12 acetate flow into a specific column was switched to C-13 acetate. That column was then operated under C-13 acetate amendment for 36 hours before it was sacrificed for detailed geochemical and microbiological analyses. Column operation started under iron reduction (based on the measured Fe(II) in the column effluent), while sulfate reduction (based on removal of sulfate between influent and outflow), was noted at about 25 days of operation. The microbial characterization consisted of phospholipid fatty acid analysis (PLFA) and stable isotope probing (SIP). All microbial characterization was done to differentiate between the C-12 and C-13 incorporation into the biomass. Results showed that there was a differentiation between the community that was taking up acetate actively throughout the 120 days of operation and the overall microbial community. Of interest was that the fraction of Geobacter population remained fairly constant throughout the duration of the experiment, as well as its acetate uptake. Results also showed that of the acetate incorporated into the overall biomass, about 40% was incorporated into Geobacter biomass. These results are key for the proper numerical simulations of biostimulation via acetate amendment and the biostimulation of Geobacter.

  14. EVALUATION OF CLINICAL AND HOME PERFORMANCE OF THE C-13-UREA BREATH TEST FOR THE DETECTION OF HELICOBACTER-PYLORI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    THIJS, WJ; THIJS, JC; KLEIBEUKER, JH; ELZINGA, H; STELLAARD, F

    Objective: This study analyses the C-13-urea breath test with the aim of determining the optimal time interval between dosing and breath sampling and examines the feasibility of having patients perform the test without supervision at home. Design: Prospective study comparing the C-13-urea breath

  15. Photothermal Ablation of in Situ Renal Tumor by PEG-IR780-C13 Micelles and Near-Infrared Irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Xuefeng; Xu, Linfeng; Zhang, Yanting; Yuan, Ahu; Wang, Kaikai; Zhao, Xiaozhi; Wu, Jinhui; Guo, Hongqian; Hu, Yiqiao

    2016-03-07

    PEG-IR780-C13 micelles have been demonstrated to be a novel photothermal agent with tumor-targeting property. This study was designed to explore the feasibility of applying PEG-IR780-C13 micelles and near-infrared (NIR) irradiation for thermal ablation of renal tumor by using an in situ tumor model. In addition, the potential thermal injury to normal renal tissue was evaluated. PEG-IR780-C13 micelles were intended to accumulate in renal tumor after systemic delivery. In vitro results revealed that PEG-IR780-C13 micelles were uptaken by RENCA cells mainly through caveola-mediated endocytosis and mainly distributed in late endosomes and lysosomes. Upon NIR irradiation, PEG-IR780-C13 micelles generated heat effectively both in vitro and in vivo, exhibiting a promising photothermal therapeutic property. The photothermal effect of PEG-IR780-C13 micelles could effectively destroy RENCA cells in vitro and adequately inhibit growth of in situ renal tumor in vivo. Meanwhile, PEG-IR780-C13 micelles mediated photothermal therapy (PTT) resulting in only limited injury to normal renal tissue surrounding tumor sites. Our data indicated that PEG-IR780-C13 micelles mediating PTT could generate tumor-specific heat for destruction of renal tumor in a minimally invasive way, providing a novel strategy for thermal ablation of renal tumor.

  16. Solvothermal Synthesis and Structure Characterization of a 3D Hydrogen-bonded Copper Compound [Cu(H2dhpmc)2]·2H2O

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗军华; 洪茂椿; 赵颖隽; 曹荣; 翁家宝

    2002-01-01

    The solvothermal reaction of H3dhpmc (H3dhpmc = 2, 4-dihydroxypyrimidine- 5-carboxylic acid), CuCl2·H2O and NaVO3 results in the formation of a discrete mononuclear Cu(Ⅱ) complex [Cu(H2dhpmc)2]·2H2O. It crystallizes in monoclinic system, space group P21/c with a = 5.0497(9), b = 10.0196(6), c = 13.715(2) (A。), β = 96.237(1)°, V = 689.8(2) (A。)3, Z = 2, Dc = 1.973 g/cm3, μ = 1.654 mm-1, F(000) = 414, R = 0.0736 and wR = 0.1351. Each Cu(Ⅱ) is coordinated to four oxygen atoms of two 2, 4-dihydroxypyrimidine-5-carboxylic acid ligands in the equatorial position and two oxygen atoms of two water molecules in the axial position to form an axially elongated octahedral geometry. The title complex is further linked into a three-dimensional structure through the weak interactions of hydrogen bonds between the oxygen atoms and the nitrogen atoms.

  17. Wave-function inspired density functional applied to the H$_2$/H$_2^+$ challenge

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Igor Ying; Scheffler, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    We start from the Bethe-Goldstone equation (BGE) to derive a simple orbital-dependent correlation functional -- BGE2 -- which terminates the BGE expansion at the second-order, but retains the self-consistent coupling of electron-pair orrelations. We demonstrate that BGE2 is size consistent and one-electron "self-correlation" free. The electron-pair correlation coupling ensures the correct H$_2$ dissociation limit and gives a finite correlation energy for any system even if it has a no energy gap. BGE2 provides a good description of both H$_2$ and H$_2^+$ dissociation, which is regarded as a great challenge in density functional theory (DFT). We illustrate the behavior of BGE2 analytically by considering H$_2$ in a minimal basis. Our analysis shows that BGE2 captures essential features of the adiabatic connection path that current state-of-the-art DFT approximations do not.

  18. Histone H2A and H2B Deubiquitinase in Developmental Disease and Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demeng Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Histone H2A and H2B ubiquitination represents a widely used mechanism for a variety of regulatory transcriptional programs. In this review, structural and functional studies of histone H2A and histone H2B deubiquitinase (DUB, DUB including 2A-DUB, BRCA1-associated protein-1, USP3, UBP8, and USP16, and their role in developmental disease and carcinogenesis were recapitulated. Also the progress in developing small molecular inhibitors targeting DUBs and their application in colon cancer, B-cell lymphoma, and multiple myeloma were summarized. Overall, the study seek to strengthen the understanding on how these DUBs contribute to normal and malignant tissue development thus aiding in improving the design of therapeutic strategies used for diagnosis and prognosis of the disease.

  19. Theoretical study of the rovibrational spectrum of H2O-H2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-Gang; Carrington, Tucker

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we report transition frequencies and line strengths computed for H_2O-H_2 and compare with the experimental observations of [M. J. Weida and D. J. Nesbitt, J. Chem. Phys. 110, 156 (1999)]. To compute the spectra we use a symmetry adapted Lanczos algorithm and an uncoupled product basis set. Our results corroborate the assignments of Weida and Nesbitt and there is good agreement between calculated and observed transitions. Possible candidates for lines that Weida and Nesbitt were not able to assign are presented. Several other bands that may be observable are also discovered. Although all the observed bands are associated with states localized near the global potential minimum, at which H_2O acts as proton acceptor, a state with significant amplitude near the T-shape secondary potential minimum at which H_2O acts as proton donor is identified by examining many different probability density plots.

  20. C12/C13-ratio determination in nanodiamonds by atom-probe tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Josiah B; Isheim, Dieter; Floss, Christine; Seidman, David N

    2015-12-01

    The astrophysical origins of ∼ 3 nm-diameter meteoritic nanodiamonds can be inferred from the ratio of C12/C13. It is essential to achieve high spatial and mass resolving power and minimize all sources of signal loss in order to obtain statistically significant measurements. We conducted atom-probe tomography on meteoritic nanodiamonds embedded between layers of Pt. We describe sample preparation, atom-probe tomography analysis, 3D reconstruction, and bias correction. We present new data from meteoritic nanodiamonds and terrestrial standards and discuss methods to correct isotopic measurements made with the atom-probe tomograph.

  1. H2@Scale Resource and Market Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruth, Mark

    2017-07-12

    This presentation overviews progress to date on the H2@Scale resource and market analysis work. The work finds, for example, that hydrogen demand of 60 MMT/yr is possible when transportation and industry are considered; resources are available to meet that demand; using renewable resources would reduce emissions and fossil use by over 15%; further impacts are possible when considering synergistic benefits; additional analysis is underway to improve understanding of potential markets and synergistic impacts; and further analysis will be necessary to estimate impacts due to spatial characteristics, feedback effects in the economy, and inertia characteristics.

  2. $H_{2}$ emission from CRL 618

    CERN Document Server

    Herpin, F; Heras, A

    2000-01-01

    We present a complete study of the H2 infrared emission, including the pure rotational lines, of the proto Planetary Nebulae CRL 618 with the ISO SWS. A large number of lines are detected. The analysis of our observations shows: (i) an OTP ratio very different from the classical value of 3, probably around 1.76-1.87; (ii) a stratification of the emitting region, and more precisely different regions of emission, plausibly located in the lobes, in an intermediate zone, and close to the torus; (iii) different excitation mechanisms, collisions and fluorescence.

  3. Microstructural and Kinetic Evolution of Fe Doped MgH2 during H2 Cycling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annalisa Aurora

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The effect of extended H2 sorption cycles on the structure and on the hydrogen storage performances of MgH2 powders with 5 wt% of Fe particle catalyst is reported. MgH2 powders with and without Fe have been ball milled under Argon, the doped MgH2 nanocomposite has been cycled under hydrogen pressure up to a maximum of 47 desorption and absorption cycles at 300 °C. After acceleration during the first 10 cycles, the kinetics behavior of doped MgH2 is constant after extended cycling, in terms of maximum storage capacity and rate of sorption. The major effect of cycling on particle morphology is the progressive extraction of Mg from the MgO shell surrounding the powder particles. The Mg extraction from the MgO shell leaves the catalyst particles inside the hydride particles. Many empty MgO shells are observed in the pure ball milled MgH2 upon cycling at higher temperature, suggesting that this enhancement of the extraction efficiency is related to the higher operating temperature which favors Mg diffusivity with respect to the H ion one.

  4. Raman scattering study of α-MgH2 and γ-MgH2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzovnikov, M. A.; Efimchenko, V. S.; Filatov, E. V.; Maksimov, A. A.; Tartakovskii, I. I.; Ramirez-Cuesta, A. J.

    2013-01-01

    Two modifications of MgH2 have been studied by Raman spectroscopy: α-MgH2 with the P42/mnm space group and γ-MgH2 with the Pbcn space group. The latter was prepared from α-MgH2 by exposing it to a pressure of 5.6 GPa at 470 °C for 1.5 h. A comparison of the experimental spectra with ab-initio calculations allowed identification of a few phonon modes. A broad feature in the Raman spectrum of α-MgH2 in the range 1470-1790 cm-1 was identified as the B2g phonon mode. A Raman spectrum of γ-MgH2 consists of five discernible peaks at 186 cm-1, 313 cm-1, 509 cm-1, 660 cm-1, 706 cm-1 and of three broad features in the regions 890-980 cm-1, 1010-1220 cm-1 and 1240-1430 cm-1. The peaks are identified as the 1Ag (186 cm-1), 3B3g (509 cm-1), 2Ag (660 cm-1) and 3B1g (706 cm-1) phonon modes.

  5. Refinements in an Mg/MgH2/H2O-Based Hydrogen Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kindler, Andrew; Huang, Yuhong

    2010-01-01

    Some refinements have been conceived for a proposed apparatus that would generate hydrogen (for use in a fuel cell) by means of chemical reactions among magnesium, magnesium hydride, and steam. The refinements lie in tailoring spatial and temporal distributions of steam and liquid water so as to obtain greater overall energy-storage or energy-generation efficiency than would otherwise be possible. A description of the prior art is prerequisite to a meaningful description of the present refinements. The hydrogen-generating apparatus in question is one of two versions of what was called the "advanced hydrogen generator" in "Fuel-Cell Power Systems Incorporating Mg-Based H2 Generators" (NPO-43554), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 33, No. 1 (January 2009), page 52. To recapitulate: The apparatus would include a reactor vessel that would be initially charged with magnesium hydride. The apparatus would exploit two reactions: The endothermic decomposition reaction MgH2-->Mg + H2, which occurs at a temperature greater than or equal to 300 C, and The exothermic oxidation reaction MgH2 + H2O MgO + 2H2, which occurs at a temperature greater than or equal to 330 C.

  6. Velocity Dispersion of Excited H2

    CERN Document Server

    Lacour, S; Hébrard, G; Oliveira, C; André, M K; Ferlet, R; Vidal-Madjar, A

    2005-01-01

    We present a study of the high rotational bands (J > 2) of H2 toward 4 early type galactic stars: HD 73882, HD 192639, HD 206267, and HD 207538. In each case, the velocity dispersion - characterized by the spectrum fitting parameter b - increases with the level of excitation, a phenomenon that has previously been detected by the Copernicus and IMAPS observatories. In particular, we show with 4 sigma confidence that for HD 192639 it is not possible to fit all J levels with a single b value, and that higher b values are needed for the higher levels. The amplitude of the line broadening, which can be as high as 10 km s^-1, makes explanations such as inhomogeneous spatial distribution unlikely. We investigate a mechanism in which the broadening is due to the molecules that are rotationally excited through the excess energy acquired after their formation on a grain (H2-formation pumping). We show that different dispersions would be a natural consequence of this mechanism. We note however that such process would re...

  7. Mapping methane plumes and the delta C-13 composition of anthropogenic sources in southwest Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Martina; Yeman, Christiane; Dinger, Florian; Ars, Sebastien; Yver Kwok, Camille

    2016-04-01

    A mobile analyser based on Cavity-Ring-Down Spectroscopy was installed on a vehicle, together with a GPS receiver. This allows us to measure atmospheric methane and carbon dioxide mole fractions and the C-13 isotopes of both gases while driving. Methane mole fraction measurements show a good repeatability even for high frequency measurements whereas the 13CH4 measurements need a longer averaging time of 1 minute for 1 ‰ repeatability and 15 minutes for 0.23 ‰ repeatability. Driving through an emission plume, the signal is typically only 60 seconds long. To overcome the precision problem for the isotope measurements we filled a 25 m tubing when driving through the plume, which was then flushed back through our analyser during 30 minutes. During several campaigns we visited a land fill site, a biogas plant, a dairy cow farm and a natural gas storage and measured an averaged isotopic methane signature(C-13) of -58.3 ±3 ‰, -62.5 ± 1‰, -62.2 ± 2‰, -51 ± 7‰, respectively.

  8. 12C/13C in atmospheres of red giants and peculiar stars

    CERN Document Server

    Pavlenko, Ya V

    2005-01-01

    We determine the carbon isotopic ratios in the atmospheres of some evolved stars in both globular clusters and the disk of our Galaxy. Analysis of 12CO and 13CO bands at 2.3 micron was carried out using fits to observed spectra of red giants and Sakurai's object (V4334 Sgr). The dependence of theoretical spectra on the various input parameters was studied in detail. The computation of model atmospheres and a detailed abundance analysis was performed in a self-consistent fashion. A special procedure for determining the best fits to observed spectra was used. We show, that globular cluster giants with [Fe/H] < -1.3 have a low 12C/13C = 4 +/- 1 abundance ration. In the spectra of Sakurai's object (V4334 Sgr) taken between 1997-98, the 2.3 micron spectral region is veiled by hot dust emission. By fitting UKIRT spectra we determined 12C/13C = 4 +/- 1 for the July, 1998 spectrum. CO bands in the spectra of ultracool dwarfs are modelled as well.

  9. Miles Technicon H.2 automated hematology analyzer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-11-01

    Automated hematology analyzers are used in all large hospitals and most commercial laboratories, as well as in most smaller hospitals and laboratories, to perform complete blood counts (including white blood cell, red blood cell, and platelet counts; hemoglobin concentration; and RBC indices) and white blood cell differential counts. Our objectives in this study are to provide user guidance for selecting, purchasing, and using an automated hematology analyzer, as well as to present an overview of the technology used in an automated five-part differential unit. Specifications for additional automated units are available in ECRI's Clinical Laboratory Product Comparison System. We evaluated the Miles Technicon H.2 unit and rated it Acceptable. The information in this Single Product Evaluation is also useful for purchasing other models; our criteria will guide users in assessing components, and our findings and discussions on some aspects of automated hematology testing are common to many available systems. We caution readers not to base purchasing decisions on our rating of the Miles unit alone, but on a thorough understanding of the issues surrounding automated hematology analyzers, which can be gained only by reading this report in its entirety. The willingness of manufacturers to cooperate in our studies and the knowledge they gain through participating lead to the development of better products. Readers should refer to the Guidance Section, "Selecting and Purchasing an Automated Hematology Analyzer," where we discuss factors such as standardization, training, human factors, manufacturer support, patient population, and special features that the laboratory must consider before obtaining any automated unit; we also provide an in-depth review of cost issues, including life-cycle cost analyses, acquisition methods and costs of hardware and supplies, and we describe the Hemacost and Hemexmpt cost worksheets for use with our PresValu and PSV Manager CAHDModel software

  10. Phase behavior and crystalline structures of cholesteryl ester mixtures: a C-13 MASNMR study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, W; Hamilton, J A

    1995-06-01

    Cholesteryl esters are a transport and storage form of cholesterol in normal physiology but also a significant lipid in atherosclerotic plaques. To understand better the molecular properties of cholesteryl esters in tissues and plaques, we have studied the polymorphic and mesomorphic features of pure and mixed cholesteryl esters by solid state C-13 NMR with magic angle sample spinning (MASNMR). The temperature-dependent properties of two single components (cholesteryl linoleate (CL, C18:2) and cholesteryl linolenate (CLL, C18:3)), four binary systems (cholesteryl palmitate (CP, C16:0) with CL, CLL or cholesteryl oleate (CO, C18:1), and CO/CL), one ternary system (CO/CP/CL), and one quaternary system (CO/CP/CL/CLL) were studied. The mixing ratios were based on the composition of an atherosclerosis plaque dissected from a cholesterol-fed New Zealand white rabbit. C-13 MASNMR determined the phase transition temperatures, identified the phases present in all systems, and provided novel information about molecular structures. For example, solid CL exhibited a disordered structure with multiple molecular conformations, whereas pure CLL had a crystalline structure different from the three most commonly characterized forms (MLII, MLI, BL). In binary mixtures, the crystalline structure of each cholesteryl ester species was identified by its own characteristic resonances. It was found that CP always existed in its native BL form, but CL and CO were influenced by the composition of the mixture. CL was induced to form MLII crystals by the coexisting CP (55 wt%). When CO was cooled from the isotropic phase, it existed as a mixture of MLII and an amorphous form. The presence of CP significantly accelerated the conversion of the amorphous form to the MLII form. For the ternary mixture co-dried from chloroform, CL cocrystallized with CO in the MLII form and CP existed in BL form. Addition of a small amount of CLL slightly increased the heterogeneity of the solid mixture, but had

  11. HCl-H2S-H2O体系中HCl与H2S对20碳钢腐蚀的交互作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭金彪; 李艳

    2013-01-01

    目前有关HCl-H2S-H2O体系中HCl与H2S对碳钢腐蚀的交互作用的试验数据较少.利用电化学方法测试了20碳钢在90℃,不同浓度的HCl,H2S单一腐蚀液及HCl和H2S混合腐蚀液中的腐蚀速率,分析了HCl-H2S-H2O体系中HCl与H2S对20碳钢腐蚀的交互作用.结果表明:20碳钢在单一的HCl或H2S腐蚀液中的腐蚀速率随HCl或H2S浓度的增大而增大;在HCl-H2S-H2O体系中,不论H2S浓度高低,HCl的存在均会促进H2S对20碳钢的腐蚀;只有当HCl的浓度较低(≤248.72 mg/L)时,H2S的存在才会促进HCl对20碳钢的腐蚀;而当HCl浓度较高(≥499.16 mg/L)时,H2S的存在不仅不会促进HCl对20碳钢的腐蚀,还会在一定程度上起阻碍作用.

  12. Kinetic Energy Distribution of H(2p) Atoms from Dissociative Excitation of H2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajello, Joseph M.; Ahmed, Syed M.; Kanik, Isik; Multari, Rosalie

    1995-01-01

    The kinetic energy distribution of H(2p) atoms resulting from electron impact dissociation of H2 has been measured for the first time with uv spectroscopy. A high resolution uv spectrometer was used for the measurement of the H Lyman-alpha emission line profiles at 20 and 100 eV electron impact energies. Analysis of the deconvolved 100 eV line profile reveals the existence of a narrow line peak and a broad pedestal base. Slow H(2p) atoms with peak energy near 80 meV produce the peak profile, which is nearly independent of impact energy. The wings of H Lyman-alpha arise from dissociative excitation of a series of doubly excited Q(sub 1) and Q(sub 2) states, which define the core orbitals. The fast atom energy distribution peaks at 4 eV.

  13. Lactose (mal)digestion evaluated by the C-13-lactose digestion test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vonk, RJ; Lin, Y; Koetse, HA; Huang, CY; Zeng, G; Elzinga, H; Antoine, JM; Stellaard, F

    2000-01-01

    Background The prevalence of generically determined lactase nonpersistence is based on the results of the lactose H-2 breath rest. This test, however, is an indirect test, which might lead to misinterpretation. Design We determined lactase activity in healthy Chinese and Dutch students using a novel

  14. Evaluation of (CO2)-C-13 breath tests for the detection of fructose malabsorption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, JH; VandenAker, JHL; Kneepkens, CMF; Stellaard, F; Geypens, B; Ghoos, YF

    Breath hydrogen (H-2) studies have made clear that small intestinal absorption of fructose is limited, especially in toddlers. Malabsorption of fructose may be a cause of recurrent abdominal pain and chronic nonspecific diarrhea (toddler's diarrhea). Fructose absorption is facilitated by equimolar

  15. The H2O2-H2O Hypothesis: Extremophiles Adapted to Conditions on Mars?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houtkooper, Joop M.; Schulze-Makuch, Dirk

    2007-08-01

    The discovery of extremophiles on Earth is a sequence of discoveries of life in environments where it had been deemed impossible a few decades ago. The next frontier may be the Martian surface environment: could life have adapted to this harsh environment? What we learned from terrestrial extremophiles is that life adapts to every available niche where energy, liquid water and organic materials are available so that in principle metabolism and propagation are possible. A feasible adaptation mechanism to the Martian surface environment would be the incorporation of a high concentration of hydrogen peroxide in the intracellular fluid of organisms. The H2O2-H2O hypothesis suggests the existence of Martian organisms that have a mixture of H2O2 and H2O instead of salty water as their intracellular liquid (Houtkooper and Schulze-Makuch, 2007). The advantages are that the freezing point is low (the eutectic freezes at 56.5°C) and that the mixture is hygroscopic. This would enable the organisms to scavenge water from the atmosphere or from the adsorbed layers of water molecules on mineral grains, with H2O2 being also a source of oxygen. Moreover, below its freezing point the H2O2-H2O mixture has the tendency to supercool. Hydrogen peroxide is not unknown to biochemistry on Earth. There are organisms for which H2O2 plays a significant role: the bombardier beetle, Brachinus crepitans, produces a 25% H2O2 solution and, when attacked by a predator, mixes it with a fluid containing hydroquinone and a catalyst, which produces an audible steam explosion and noxious fumes. Another example is Acetobacter peroxidans, which uses H2O2 in its metabolism. H2O2 plays various other roles, such as the mediation of physiological responses such as cell proliferation, differentiation, and migration. Moreover, most eukaryotic cells contain an organelle, the peroxisome, which mediates the reactions involving H2O2. Therefore it is feasible that in the course of evolution, water-based organisms

  16. Phenotypic characterization of glucose repression mutants of Saccharomyce cerevisiae usinge experiments with C-13-labelled glucose

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vijayendran, Raghevendran; Gombert, A.K.; Christensen, B.

    2004-01-01

    glucose. Through GC-MS analysis of the C-13 incorporated into the amino acids of cellular proteins, it was possible to obtain quantitative information on the function of the central carbon metabolism in the different mutants. Traditionally, such labelling data have been used to quantify metabolic fluxes...... through the use of a suitable mathematical model, but here we show that the raw labelling data may also be used directly for phenotypic characterization of different mutant strains. Different glucose derepressed strains investigated employed are the disruption mutants reg1, hxk2, grr1, mig1 and mig1mig2...... and the reference strain CEN.PK113-7D. Principal components analysis of the summed fractional labelling data show that deleting the genes HXK2 and GRR1 results in similar phenotype at the fluxome level, with a partial alleviation of glucose repression on the respiratory metabolism. Furthermore, deletion...

  17. C-13 Tracer experiments and metabolite balancing for metabolic flux analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Karsten; Marx, A.; de Graaf, A. A.

    1998-01-01

    Conventional metabolic flux analysis uses the information gained from determination of measurable fluxes and a steady-state assumption for intracellular metabolites to calculate the metabolic fluxes in a given metabolic network. The determination of intracellular fluxes depends heavily...... on the correctness of the assumed stoichiometry including the presence of all reactions with a noticeable impact on the model metabolite balances. Determination of fluxes in complex metabolic networks often requires the inclusion of NADH and NADPH balances, which are subject: to controversial debate...... through the pentose phosphate pathway. Hence, wrong assumptions on the presence or activity of transhydrogenation reactions will result in wrong estimations of the intracellular flux distribution. Using C-13 tracer experiments and NMR analysis, flux analysis can be performed on the basis of only well...

  18. Metabolic network analysis of Bacillus clausii on minimal and semirich medium using C-13-Labeled glucose

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Torben; Christensen, Bjarke; Nielsen, Jens

    2002-01-01

    from the medium and partly synthesized from glucose. The metabolic network analysis was extended to include analysis of growth on the semirich medium containing amino acids, and the metabolic flux distribution on this medium was estimated and compared with growth on minimal medium....... to increase with increasing specific growth rate but at a much lower level than previously reported for Bacillus subtilis. Two futile cycles in the pyruvate metabolism were included in the metabolic network. A substantial flux in the futile cycle involving malic enzyme was estimated, whereas only a very small......Using C-13-labeled glucose fed to the facultative alkalophilic Bacillus clausii producing the alkaline serine protease Savinase, the intracellular fluxes were quantified in continuous cultivation and in batch cultivation on a minimal medium. The flux through the pentose phosphate pathway was found...

  19. Chemiluminescent Detection of Enzymatically Produced H2S

    OpenAIRE

    Bailey, T. Spencer; Pluth, Michael D.

    2015-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) has emerged as an important biological signaling molecule. To better understand the multifaceted biological roles of H2S, the development of selective and sensitive biocompatible assays for H2S is becoming increasingly important. Motivated by these challenges, our laboratory is developing new methods to further detect and monitor biological H2S. Here, we describe in detail our recent advances in the development and the use of chemiluminescence-based H2S sensors to assis...

  20. 20 CFR 655.132 - H-2A labor contractor (H-2ALC) filing requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... LABOR TEMPORARY EMPLOYMENT OF FOREIGN WORKERS IN THE UNITED STATES Labor Certification Process for Temporary Agricultural Employment in the United States (H-2A Workers) Application for Temporary Employment... and activities the workers are expected to perform at such fixed site. (2) A copy of the Migrant...

  1. H2O2 space shuttle APU

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    A cryogenic H2-O2 auxiliary power unit (APU) was developed and successfully demonstrated. It has potential application as a minimum weight alternate to the space shuttle baseline APU because of its (1) low specific propellant consumption and (2) heat sink capabilities that reduce the amount of expendable evaporants. A reference system was designed with the necessary heat exchangers, combustor, turbine-gearbox, valves, and electronic controls to provide 400 shp to two aircraft hydraulic pumps. Development testing was carried out first on the combustor and control valves. This was followed by development of the control subsystem including the controller, the hydrogen and oxygen control valves, the combustor, and a turbine simulator. The complete APU system was hot tested for 10 hr with ambient and cryogenic propellants. Demonstrated at 95 percent of design power was 2.25 lb/hp-hr. At 10 percent design power, specific propellant consumption was 4 lb/hp-hr with space simulated exhaust and 5.2 lb/hp-hr with ambient exhaust. A 10 percent specific propellant consumption improvement is possible with some seal modifications. It was demonstrated that APU power levels could be changed by several hundred horsepower in less than 100 msec without exceeding allowable turbine inlet temperatures or turbine speed.

  2. Modeling Ice Giant Interiors Using Constraints on the H2-H2O Critical Curve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, E.; Stevenson, D. J.

    2015-12-01

    We present a range of models of Uranus and Neptune, taking into account recent experimental data (Bali, 2013) implying the location of the critical curve of the H2-H2O system at pressures up to 2.6 GPa. The models presented satisfy the observed total mass of each planet and the radius at the observed 1-bar pressure level. We assume the existence of three regions at different depths: an outer adiabatic envelope composed predominately of H2 and He, with a helium mass fraction 0.26, a water-rich layer including varied amounts of rock and hydrogen, and a chemically homogeneous rock core. Using measured rotation rates of Uranus and Neptune, and a density profile obtained for each model using constituent equations of state and the assumption of hydrostatic equilibrium, we calculate the gravitational harmonics J2 and J4 for comparison with observed values as an additional constraint. The H2-H2O critical curve provides information about the nature of the boundary between the outer, hydrogen-rich envelope and underlying water-rich layer. The extrapolated critical curve for hydrogen-water mixtures crosses the adiabat of the outer atmospheric shell in these models at two depths, implying a shallow outer region of limited miscibility, an intermediate region between ~90 and 98 percent of the total planet radius within which hydrogen and water can mix in all proportions, and another, deeper region of limited miscibility at less than ~90 percent of the total planet radius. The pressure and temperature of the gaseous adiabatic shell at the depth of the shallowest extent of the water-rich layer determines whether a gradual compositional transition or an ocean surface boundary may exist at depth in these planets. To satisfy the observed J2, the outer extent of the water-rich layer in these models must be located between approximately 80 and 85 percent of the total planet radius, within the deep region of limited H2-H2O miscibility, implying an ocean surface is possible within the

  3. Precise observations of the 12C/13C ratios of HC3N in the low-mass star-forming region L1527

    CERN Document Server

    Araki, Mitsunori; Sakai, Nami; Yamamoto, Satoshi; Oyama, Takahiro; Kuze, Nobuhiko; Tsukiyama, Koichi

    2016-01-01

    Using the Green Bank 100 m telescope and the Nobeyama 45 m telescope, we have observed the rotational emission lines of the three 13C isotopic species of HC3N in the 3 and 7 mm bands toward the low-mass star-forming region L1527 in order to explore their anomalous 12C/13C ratios. The column densities of the 13C isotopic species are derived from the intensities of the J = 5-4 lines observed at high signal-to-noise ratios. The abundance ratios are determined to be 1.00:1.01 +- 0.02:1.35 +- 0.03:86.4 +- 1.6 for [H13CCCN]:[HC13CCN]:[HCC13CN]:[HCCCN], where the errors represent one standard deviation. The ratios are very similar to those reported for the starless cloud, Taurus Molecular Cloud-1 Cyanopolyyne Peak (TMC-1 CP). These ratios cannot be explained by thermal equilibrium, but likely reflect the production pathways of this molecule. We have shown the equality of the abundances of H13CCCN and HC13CCN at a high-confidence level, which supports the production pathways of HC3N via C2H2 and C2H2+. The average 12...

  4. Methodological aspects of breath hydrogen (H2) analysis. Evaluation of a H2 monitor and interpretation of the breath H2 test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rumessen, J J; Kokholm, G; Gudmand-Høyer, E

    1987-01-01

    The reliability of end-expiratory hydrogen (H2) breath tests were assessed and the significance of some important pitfalls were studied, using a compact, rapid H2-monitor with electrochemical cells. The H2 response was shown to be linear and stable. The reproducibility of the breath collection...... were studied in 10 healthy adults during a 4-month period and they showed very marked inter- and intra-individual variability (16% above 40 p.p.m.). Initial peaks (early, short-lived H2 rises unrelated to carbohydrate malabsorption) were identified in 25% of the breath tests (in 4% above 20 p.......p.m). It is concluded that the technique used for interval sampling of end-expiratory breath samples for H2 concentration gives reliable results. The biological significance of H2 concentration increments can only be evaluated if the limitations of the technical procedures and the individual ability to produce H2...

  5. Phase transition and optoelectronic properties of MgH2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, Vikas; Verma, U. P.

    2016-05-01

    In this article, structural and electronic properties of MgH2 have been studied. The aim behind this study was to find out the ground state crystal structure of MgH2. For the purpose, density functional theory (DFT)-based full-potential linearized augmented plane wave (FP-LAPW) calculations have been performed in three different space groups: P42/mnm (α-MgH2), Pa3 (β-MgH2) and Pbcn (γ-MgH2). It has been found that the ground state structure of MgH2 is α-MgH2. The present study shows that α-MgH2 transforms into γ-MgH2 at a pressure of 0.41 GPa. After further increase in pressure, γ-MgH2 transforms into β-MgH2 at a pressure of 3.67 GPa. The obtained results are in good agreement with previously reported experimental data. In all the studied phases, the behavior of MgH2 is insulating and its optical conductivity is around 6.0 eV. The α-MgH2 and γ-MgH2 are anisotropic materials while β-MgH2 is isotropic in nature.

  6. Experimental evidence of twin fast metastable H(2S) atoms from dissociation of cold H_2 induced by electrons

    CERN Document Server

    Robert, J; Carvalho, C R; Jalbert, Ginette; Nascimento, R F; Trimeche, A; Dulieu, O; Medina, Aline; Carvalho, Carla; Faria, N V de Castro

    2013-01-01

    We report the direct detection of two metastable H(2S) atoms coming from the dissociation of a single cold H_2 molecule, in coincidence measurements. The molecular dissociation was induced by electron impact in order to avoid limitations by the selection rules governing radiative transitions. Two detectors, placed close from the collision center, measure the neutral metastable H(2S) through a localized quenching process, which mixes the H(2S) state with the H(2P), leading to a Lyman-\\alpha detection. Our data show the accomplishment of a coincidence measurement which proves for the first time the existence of the H(2S)-H(2S) dissociation channel.

  7. Heavy hydrides: H2Te ultraviolet photochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underwood, J.; Chastaing, D.; Lee, S.; Wittig, C.

    2005-08-01

    The room-temperature ultraviolet absorption spectrum of H2Te has been recorded. Unlike other group-6 hydrides, it displays a long-wavelength tail that extends to 400 nm. Dissociation dynamics have been examined at photolysis wavelengths of 266 nm (which lies in the main absorption feature) and 355 nm (which lies in the long-wavelength tail) by using high-n Rydberg time-of-flight spectroscopy to obtain center-of-mass translational energy distributions for the channels that yield H atoms. Photodissociation at 355 nm yields TeH(Π1/22) selectively relative to the TeH(Π3/22) ground state. This is attributed to the role of the 3A' state, which has a shallow well at large RH-TeH and correlates to H +TeH(Π1/22). Note that the Π1/22 state is analogous to the P1/22 spin-orbit excited state of atomic iodine, which is isoelectronic with TeH. The 3A' state is crossed at large R only by 2A″, with which it does not interact. The character of 3A' at large R is influenced by a strong spin-orbit interaction in the TeH product. Namely, Π1/22 has a higher degree of spherical symmetry than does Π3/22 (recall that I(P1/22) is spherically symmetric), and consequently Π1/22 is not inclined to form either strongly bonding or antibonding orbitals with the H atom. The 3A'←X transition dipole moment dominates in the long-wavelength region and increases with R. Structure observed in the absorption spectrum in the 380-400 nm region is attributed to vibrations on 3A'. The main absorption feature that is peaked at ˜240nm might arise from several excited surfaces. On the basis of the high degree of laboratory system spatial anisotropy of the fragments from 266 nm photolysis, as well as high-level theoretical studies, the main contribution is believed to be due to the 4A″ surface. The 4A″←X transition dipole moment dominates in the Franck-Condon region, and its polarization is in accord with the experimental observations. An extensive secondary photolysis (i.e., of nascent TeH) is

  8. Identification of H2S3 and H2S produced by 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase in the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Yuka; Toyofuku, Yukiko; Koike, Shin; Shibuya, Norihiro; Nagahara, Noriyuki; Lefer, David; Ogasawara, Yuki; Kimura, Hideo

    2015-10-06

    Hydrogen polysulfides (H2Sn) have a higher number of sulfane sulfur atoms than hydrogen sulfide (H2S), which has various physiological roles. We recently found H2Sn in the brain. H2Sn induced some responses previously attributed to H2S but with much greater potency than H2S. However, the number of sulfur atoms in H2Sn and its producing enzyme were unknown. Here, we detected H2S3 and H2S, which were produced from 3-mercaptopyruvate (3 MP) by 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase (3MST), in the brain. High performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection (LC-FL) and tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analyses showed that H2S3 and H2S were produced from 3 MP in the brain cells of wild-type mice but not 3MST knockout (3MST-KO) mice. Purified recombinant 3MST and lysates of COS cells expressing 3MST produced H2S3 from 3 MP, while those expressing defective 3MST mutants did not. H2S3 was localized in the cytosol of cells. H2S3 was also produced from H2S by 3MST and rhodanese. H2S2 was identified as a minor H2Sn, and 3 MP did not affect the H2S5 level. The present study provides new insights into the physiology of H2S3 and H2S, as well as novel therapeutic targets for diseases in which these molecules are involved.

  9. Ferromagnetic coupling in the three-dimensional malonato-bridged gadoliniumIII complex [Gd2(mal)3(H2O)6] (H2mal = malonic acid).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Molina, María; Ruiz-Pérez, Catalina; López, Trinidad; Lloret, Francesc; Julve, Miguel

    2003-09-08

    The novel gadolinium(III) complex of formula [Gd(2)(mal)(3)(H(2)O)(6)] (1) (H(2)mal = 1,3-propanedioic acid) has been prepared and characterized by X-ray diffraction analysis. Crystal data for 1: monoclinic, space group I2/a, a = 11.1064(10) A, b = 12.2524(10) A, c =13.6098(2) A, beta = 92.925(10) degrees, U = 1849.5(3) A(3), Z = 4. Compound 1 is a three-dimensional network made up of malonate-bridged gadolinium(III) ions where the malonate exhibits two bridging modes, eta(5)-bidentate + unidentate and eta(3):eta(3) + bis(unidentate). The gadolinium atom is nine-coordinate with three water molecules and six malonate oxygen atoms from three malonate ligands forming a distorted monocapped square antiprism. The shortest metal-metal separations are 4.2763(3) A [through the oxo-carboxylate bridge] and 6.541(3) A [through the carboxylate in the anti-syn coordination mode]. The value of the angle at the oxo-carboxylate atom is 116.8(2) degrees. Variable-temperature magnetic susceptibility measurements reveal the occurrence of a significant ferromagnetic interaction through the oxo-carboxylate pathway (J = +0.048(1) cm(-1), H = -JS(Gd(1)) x S(Gd(1a))).

  10. Pressure-induced structural transitions in MgH2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vajeeston, P; Ravindran, P; Kjekshus, A; Fjellvåg, H

    2002-10-21

    The stability of MgH2 has been studied up to 20 GPa using density-functional total-energy calculations. At ambient pressure alpha-MgH2 takes a TiO2-rutile-type structure. alpha-MgH2 is predicted to transform into gamma-MgH2 at 0.39 GPa. The calculated structural data for alpha- and gamma-MgH2 are in very good agreement with experimental values. At equilibrium the energy difference between these modifications is very small, and as a result both phases coexist in a certain volume and pressure field. Above 3.84 GPa gamma-MgH2 transforms into beta-MgH2, consistent with experimental findings. Two further transformations have been identified at still higher pressure: (i) beta- to delta-MgH2 at 6.73 GPa and (ii) delta- to epsilon-MgH2 at 10.26 GPa.

  11. Laboratory Infrared Spectra of Polycyclic Aromatic Nitrogen Heterocycles: Quinoline, and Phenanthridine in Solid Argon and H2O

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, M. P.; Mattioda, A. L.; Sandford, S. A.; Hudgins, D. M.

    2004-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are common throughout the universe. Their detection and identification are based on telescopic infrared (IR) spectra compared with laboratory data. Polycyclic Aromatic Nitrogen Heterocycles (PANHs) are heterocyclic aromatics i.e., PAHs with carbon atoms replaced by a nitrogen atom. These molecules should be present in the interstellar medium, but have received relatively little attention. We present mid-IR spectra of two PANHs, quinoline (C9H7N), and phenanthridine (C13H9N) isolated in solid argon and frozen in solid H2O at 12 K, conditions yielding data directly comparable to astronomical observations. In contrast to simple PAHs, that do not interact strongly with solid H2O, the nitrogen atoms in PANHs are potentially capable of hydrogen bonding with H2O. Whereas the IR spectrum of phenanthridine in H2O is similar to that of the same compound isolated in an argon matrix, quinoline absorptions shift up to 16 cm(sup -1) (0.072 mm) between argon and H2O. Thus, astronomers will not always be able to rely on IR band positions of matrix isolated PANHs to correctly interpret the absorptions of PANHs frozen in H2O ice grains. Furthermore, our data suggest that relative band areas also vary, so determining column densities to better than a factor of 3 will require knowledge of the matrix in which the PANH is embedded and laboratory studies of relevant samples.

  12. An accurate H2-H2 interaction potential from first principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diep, Phong; Johnson, J. Karl

    2000-03-01

    We have calculated the potential energy surface extrapolated to the complete basis set limit using coupled-cluster theory with singles, doubles, and perturbational triples excitations [CCSD(T)] for the rigid monomer model of (H2)2. There is significant anisotropy among the 37 unique angular configurations selected to represent the surface. A four term spherical harmonics expansion model was chosen to fit the surface. The calculated potential energy surface reproduces the quadrupole moment to within 0.58% and the experimental well depth to within 1%. The second virial coefficient has been computed from the fitted potential energy surface. The usual semiclassical treatment of quantum mechanical effects on the second virial coefficient was applied in the temperature range of 100-500 K. We have developed a new technique for computing the quantum second virial coefficient by combining Feynman's path integral formalism and Monte Carlo integration. The calculated virial coefficient compares very well with published experimental measurements. Integral elastic cross sections were calculated for the scattering of para-H2/para-H2 by use of the close-coupling method. The interaction potential model from this work is able to reproduce the experimental cross sections in the relative kinetic velocity range of 900-2300 m/s.

  13. Interstellar CN and CH+ in Diffuse Molecular Clouds: 12C/13C Ratios and CN Excitation

    CERN Document Server

    Ritchey, A M; Lambert, D L

    2010-01-01

    We present very high signal-to-noise ratio absorption-line observations of CN and CH+ along 13 lines of sight through diffuse molecular clouds. The data are examined to extract precise isotopologic ratios of 12CN/13CN and 12CH+/13CH+ in order to assess predictions of diffuse cloud chemistry. Our results on 12CH+/13CH+ confirm that this ratio does not deviate from the ambient 12C/13C ratio in local interstellar clouds, as expected if the formation of CH+ involves nonthermal processes. We find that 12CN/13CN, however, can be significantly fractionated away from the ambient value. The dispersion in our sample of 12CN/13CN ratios is similar to that found in recent surveys of 12CO/13CO. For sight lines where both ratios have been determined, the 12CN/13CN ratios are generally fractionated in the opposite sense compared to 12CO/13CO. Chemical fractionation in CO results from competition between selective photodissociation and isotopic charge exchange. An inverse relationship between 12CN/13CN and 12CO/13CO follows ...

  14. Submillimeter spectroscopy of H$_2$C$^{17}$O and a revisit of the rotational spectra of H$_2$C$^{18}$O and H$_2$C$^{16}$O

    CERN Document Server

    Müller, Holger S P

    2016-01-01

    The rotational spectrum of the formaldehyde isotopologue H2C(17)O was investigated between 0.56 and 1.50 THz using a sample of natural isotopic composition. In addition, transition frequencies were determined for H2C(18)O and H2C(16)O between 1.37 and 1.50 THz. The data were combined with critically evaluated literature data to derive improved sets of spectroscopic parameters which include (17)O or H nuclear hyperfine structure parameters.

  15. Near-resonance scattering of the para-H2 vibrons in (ortho-H2)x(para-H2)1-x mixed crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Kinder, J.; Bouwen, A.; Schoemaker, D.; Boukahil, A.; Huber, D. L.

    1994-05-01

    The p-H2 vibrons hae been studied by high-resolution Raman scattering in mixed crystals of (o-H2)x(p-H2)1-x, (HD)x(p-H2)1-x, and (o-D2)0.069(p-H2)0.931. For increasing o-H2 concentration, the line shape broadens and becomes asymmetric with a tail towards higher frequencies. This effect is less pronounced in the HD- and the o-D2-doped crystals, where the energy difference between the p-H2 vibron and the stretching vibration of the impurity is much larger. Isolated impurities still have a symmetrical line shape, showing that the asymmetry is not due to inhomogeneities. Calculated line shapes by the coherent-potential-approximation technique are in very good qualitative agreement with the experimental results. The theory also accounts for previously published experimental data on the variations of the relative positions and intensities of the ortho and para peaks in (o-H2)x(p-H2)1-x.

  16. Proteome analysis of protein partners to nucleosomes containing canonical H2A or the variant histones H2A.Z or H2A.X.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimoto, Satoru; Seebart, Corrine; Guastafierro, Tiziana; Prenni, Jessica; Caiafa, Paola; Zlatanova, Jordanka

    2012-01-01

    Although the existence of histone variants has been known for quite some time, only recently are we grasping the breadth and diversity of the cellular processes in which they are involved. Of particular interest are the two variants of histone H2A, H2A.Z and H2A.X because of their roles in regulation of gene expression and in DNA double-strand break repair, respectively. We hypothesize that nucleosomes containing these variants may perform their distinct functions by interacting with different sets of proteins. Here, we present our proteome analysis aimed at identifying protein partners that interact with nucleosomes containing H2A.Z, H2A.X or their canonical H2A counterpart. Our development of a nucleosome-pull down assay and analysis of the recovered nucleosome-interacting proteins by mass spectrometry allowed us to directly compare nuclear partners of these variant-containing nucleosomes to those containing canonical H2A. To our knowledge, our data represent the first systematic analysis of the H2A.Z and H2A.X interactome in the context of nucleosome structure.

  17. Fluorescent Probes for H2S Detection and Quantification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Wei; Dymock, Brian W

    2015-01-01

    Many diverse, sensitive and structurally novel fluorescent probes have recently been reported for H2S detection. Quantification of H2S requires a selective chemosensor which will react only with H2S against a background of high concentrations of other thiols or reducing agents. Most published probes are able to quantify H2S selectively in a simple in vitro system with the most sensitive probes able to detect H2S at below 100 nM concentrations. A subset of probes also have utility in sensing H2S in living cells, and there are now several with specific sub-cellular localization and a few cases of in vivo applications. Biologists studying H2S now have a wide range of tools to assist them to aid further understanding of the role of H2S in biology.

  18. Analysis list: Suv39h2 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Suv39h2 Pluripotent stem cell + mm9 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/target/Suv...39h2.1.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/target/Suv39h2.5.tsv http://dbarchive.bi...osciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/target/Suv39h2.10.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/colo/Suv39h

  19. Yield and enrichment studies of C-13 isotope by multi-photon dissociation of Freon-22 at low temperatures

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Manoj Kumar; Anant Deshpande; Chintan Gupta; A K Nath

    2003-06-01

    Multi-photon dissociation of Freon-22 (CF2HCl) at low temperatures has been carried out to separate the C-13 isotope using a TEA CO2 laser. Yield and enrichment of C-13 isotope in the product C2F4 are studied at 9(22) laser line as a function of temperature (-50°C to 30°C). It is observed that at a given fluence when the temperature is lowered the yield decreases and the enrichment factor of C-13 increases. Room temperature irradiation of CF2HCl towards the blue edge of C-13 absorption (i.e. at 9(20) laser line) gives low yield of the product (C2F4) at a fluence, which produces the desired enrichment factor of 100. An increase in fluence gives very high yield of C2F4 but the enrichment factor is very low. Irradiating CF2HCl at a temperature of -10°C enhances the enrichment factor to 100 and the yield obtained is comparable to that towards the red edge of C-13 absorption (i.e. at 9(26) laser line). At a given enrichment factor higher enrichment efficiency is achieved when CF2HCl is irradiated at lower temperature.

  20. Acetate enhances startup of a H2-producing microbial biocathode

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeremiasse, A.W.; Hamelers, H.V.M.; Croese, E.; Buisman, C.J.N.

    2012-01-01

    H2 can be produced from organic matter with a microbial electrolysis cell (MEC). To decrease MEC capital costs, a cathode is needed that is made of low-cost material and produces H2 at high rate. A microbial biocathode is a low-cost candidate, but suffers from a long startup and a low H2 production

  1. Dynamics of yeast histone H2A and H2B phosphorylation in response to a double-strand break.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Cheng-Sheng; Lee, Kihoon; Legube, Gaëlle; Haber, James E

    2014-01-01

    In budding yeast, a single double-strand break (DSB) triggers extensive Tel1 (ATM)- and Mec1 (ATR)-dependent phosphorylation of histone H2A around the DSB, to form γ-H2AX. We describe Mec1- and Tel1-dependent phosphorylation of histone H2B at T129. γ-H2B formation is impaired by γ-H2AX and its binding partner Rad9. High-density microarray analyses show similar γ-H2AX and γ-H2B distributions, but γ-H2B is absent near telomeres. Both γ-H2AX and γ-H2B are strongly diminished over highly transcribed regions. When transcription of GAL7, GAL10 and GAL1 genes is turned off, γ-H2AX is restored within 5 min, in a Mec1-dependent manner; after reinduction of these genes, γ-H2AX is rapidly lost. Moreover, when a DSB is induced near CEN2, γ-H2AX spreads to all other pericentromeric regions, again depending on Mec1. Our data provide new insights in the function and establishment of phosphorylation events occurring on chromatin after DSB induction.

  2. Toeplitz Operators on H2(T2)%H2(T2)上的Toeplitz算子

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨立敏

    2001-01-01

    给出了H2(T2)上Toeplitz算子的特征方程:T*zTTz=T,T*wTTw=T,及两个Toeplitz算子ψ,ψ∈L∞(T2),Tψ和Tφ的乘积TψTφ仍为Toeplitz算子的充要条件是:ψ对z、w中零个、一个或两个变量共轭解析,φ对余下变量解析,且乘积为Tψφ.

  3. EERE-SBIR technology transfer opportunity. H2 Safety Sensors for H2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnston, Mariann R. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-12-01

    The Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy’s Fuel Cell Technologies Office (FCTO) works in partnership with industry (including small businesses), academia, and DOE's national laboratories to establish fuel cell and hydrogen energy technologies as economically competitive contributors to U.S. transportation needs. The work that is envisioned between the SBIR/STTR grantee and Los Alamos National Laboratory would involve Technical Transfer of Los Alamos Intellectual Property (IP) on Thin-film Mixed Potential Sensor (U.S. Patent 7,264,700) and associated know-how for H2 sensor manufacturing and packaging.

  4. Methodological aspects of breath hydrogen (H2) analysis. Evaluation of a H2 monitor and interpretation of the breath H2 test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rumessen, J J; Kokholm, G; Gudmand-Høyer, E

    1987-01-01

    technique was determined in 20 patients following ingestion of lactulose. The increment between consecutive means of duplicate samples indicative of a significant rise of H2 concentration never exceeded 10 p.p.m., the mean coefficient of variation of the duplicate samples was below 5%. Fasting H2 levels...

  5. Organelle-Targeted H2S Probes Enable Visualization of the Subcellular Distribution of H2S Donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoya, Leticia A; Pluth, Michael D

    2016-06-07

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is an essential biological signaling molecule in diverse biological regulatory pathways. To provide new chemical tools for H2S imaging, we report here a fluorescent H2S detection platform (HSN2-BG) that is compatible with subcellular localization SNAP-tag fusion protein methodologies and use appropriate fusion protein constructs to demonstrate mitochondrial and lysosomal localization. We also demonstrate the efficacy of this detection platform to image endogenous H2S in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells and use the developed constructs to report on the subcellular H2S distributions provided by common H2S donor molecules AP39, ADT-OH, GYY4137, and diallyltrisulfide (DATS). The developed constructs provide a platform poised to provide new insights into the subcellular distribution of common H2S donors and a useful tool for investigating H2S biochemistry.

  6. Photochemical generation of H2NCNX, H2NNCX, H2NC(NX) (X = O, S) in low-temperature matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vörös, Tamás; Lajgút, Győző György; Magyarfalvi, Gábor; Tarczay, György

    2017-01-14

    The [NH2, C, N, O] and the [NH2, C, N, S] molecular systems were investigated by computational and matrix-isolation spectroscopic methods. The determination of the equilibrium structures and relative energies by CCSD(T) method was followed by the computation of the harmonic and anharmonic vibrational wavenumbers, infrared intensities, relative Raman activities, and UV excitation energies. These computed data were used to assist the identification of products obtained by UV laser photolysis of 3,4-diaminofurazan and 3,4-diaminothiadiazole in low-temperature Ar and Kr matrices. It is shown that two open-chain H2NNCX and H2NCNX and one cyclic H2NC(NX) (X = O, S) isomers are generated in the case of both systems. Except for H2NNCO and H2NCNS, the present study reports the first generation and spectroscopic identification of these compounds.

  7. An exact calculation of the N2+ and H2+ influx at cathode surface in N2-H2 discharges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suraj, K. S.; Alex, Prince

    An exact calculation of N2+ and H2+ influx, at cathode surface in N2-H2 discharge, has been derived using electron impact ionization cross-section at plasma sheath boundary. The analytical formula is very convenient in practical applications. Through the analysis of experimental parameters for glow discharge plasma nitriding, the formula explains, why treatment in an N2-H2 mixture with H2 percentage ∼70% gives most enhanced result.

  8. The Role of Endogenous H(2)S in Cardiovascular Physiology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovgaard, Nini; Gouliaev, Anja; Aalling, Mathilde

    2011-01-01

    Recent research has shown that the endogenous gas hydrogen sulphide (H(2)S) is a signalling molecule of considerable biological potential and has been suggested to be involved in a vast number of physiological processes. In the vascular system, H(2)S is synthesized from cysteine by cystathionine......-γ-lyase (CSE) in smooth muscle cells (SMC) and 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfuresterase (3MST) and CSE in the endothelial cells. In pulmonary and systemic arteries, H(2)S induces relaxation and/or contraction dependent on the concentration of H(2)S, type of vessel and species. H(2)S relaxes SMC through a direct...

  9. Analysis list: Cap-H2 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Cap-H2 Cell line + dm3 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/target/Cap-H2....1.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/target/Cap-H2.5.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/target/Cap...-H2.10.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/colo/Cap-H2.Cell_line.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/colo/Cell_line.gml ...

  10. Analysis list: Nr1h2 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Nr1h2 Blood + mm9 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/target/Nr1h2.1.tsv... http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/target/Nr1h2.5.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/target/Nr1h...2.10.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/colo/Nr1h2.Blood.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/colo/Blood.gml ...

  11. H2S regulation of nitric oxide metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolluru, Gopi K.; Yuan, Shuai; Shen, Xinggui; Kevil, Christopher G.

    2015-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) are two major gaseous signaling molecules that regulate diverse physiological functions. Recent publications indicate the regulatory role of H2S on NO metabolism. In this chapter, we discuss the latest findings on H2S-NO interactions through formation of novel chemical derivatives, and experimental approaches to study these adducts. This chapter also addresses potential H2S interference on various NO detection techniques, along with precautions for analyzing biological samples from various sources. This information will facilitate critical evaluation and clearer insight into H2S regulation of NO signaling and its influence on various physiological functions. PMID:25725527

  12. Observations of the H2S toward OMC-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minh, Y. C.; Irvine, W. M.; Mcgonagle, D.; Ziurys, L. M.

    1990-01-01

    Observations of the 1(10) - 1(01) transition of interstellar H2S and its isotopes toward OMC-1 are reported. The fractional abundance of H2S in the quiescent regions of OMC-1 seems difficult to explain by currently known ion-molecular reactions. The fractional abundance of H2S relative to H2 is enhanced by a factor of 1000 in the hot core and the plateau relative to the quiescent clouds. The (HDS)/(H2S) abundance ratio in the hot core is estimated at 0.02 or less.

  13. Observations of the H2S toward OMC-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minh, Y. C.; Irvine, W. M.; Mcgonagle, D.; Ziurys, L. M.

    1990-01-01

    Observations of the 1(10) - 1(01) transition of interstellar H2S and its isotopes toward OMC-1 are reported. The fractional abundance of H2S in the quiescent regions of OMC-1 seems difficult to explain by currently known ion-molecular reactions. The fractional abundance of H2S relative to H2 is enhanced by a factor of 1000 in the hot core and the plateau relative to the quiescent clouds. The (HDS)/(H2S) abundance ratio in the hot core is estimated at 0.02 or less.

  14. H2S: A Novel Gasotransmitter that Signals by Sulfhydration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Bindu D; Snyder, Solomon H

    2015-11-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a member of the growing family of gasotransmitters. Once regarded as a noxious molecule predominantly present in the atmosphere, H2S is now known to be synthesized endogenously in mammals. H2S participates in a myriad of physiological processes ranging from regulation of blood pressure to neuroprotection. Its chemical nature precludes H2S from being stored in vesicles and acting on receptor proteins in the fashion of other chemical messengers. Thus, novel cellular mechanisms have evolved to mediate its effects. This review focuses on sulfhydration (or persulfidation), which appears to be the principal post-translational modification elicited by H2S.

  15. FACT Disrupts Nucleosome Structure by Binding H2A-H2B with Conserved Peptide Motifs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemble, David J; McCullough, Laura L; Whitby, Frank G; Formosa, Tim; Hill, Christopher P

    2015-10-15

    FACT, a heterodimer of Spt16 and Pob3, is an essential histone chaperone. We show that the H2A-H2B binding activity that is central to FACT function resides in short acidic regions near the C termini of each subunit. Mutations throughout these regions affect binding and cause correlated phenotypes that range from mild to lethal, with the largest individual contributions unexpectedly coming from an aromatic residue and a nearby carboxylate residue within each domain. Spt16 and Pob3 bind overlapping sites on H2A-H2B, and Spt16-Pob3 heterodimers simultaneously bind two H2A-H2B dimers, the same stoichiometry as the components of a nucleosome. An Spt16:H2A-H2B crystal structure explains the biochemical and genetic data, provides a model for Pob3 binding, and implies a mechanism for FACT reorganization that we confirm biochemically. Moreover, unexpected similarity to binding of ANP32E and Swr1 with H2A.Z-H2B reveals that diverse H2A-H2B chaperones use common mechanisms of histone binding and regulating nucleosome functions.

  16. Hydrogen generation via hydrolysis of nanocrystalline MgH2 and MgH2-based composites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Lian-xi; WANG Er-de

    2005-01-01

    Nanocrystalline MgH2 and MgH2-based composites with 25% (mass fraction) of Al, Ca, or CaH2 as an individual additive respectively were prepared by ball milling. The crystallite size and morphology of the as-milled powders were characterized and their hydrolysis behaviours were investigated in comparison with commercial polycrystalline MgH2. The results show that the crystallite size of both MgH2 and MgH2-based composites is reduced to less than 13 nm after milling for 15 h. Due to its enhanced specific surface area and unique nanocrystalline structure, the as-milled MgH2 shows much better hydrolysis kinetics than the commercial polycrystalline MgH2, with the hydrolysed fraction upon hydrolysing for 70 min enhances from 7.5% to about 25%. As compared with the as-milled MgH2, the MgH2-based composites with either CaH2 or Ca as an additive present further greatly improved hydrolysis kinetics, with the hydrolysed fraction for 80 min achieving about 76% and 62% respectively.However, the addition of Al doesn't show any positive effect on the improvement of the hydrolysis kinetics of MgH2.

  17. H2SO4/HNO3/H2O Phase Diagram in Regions of Stratospheric Importance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, K. D.; Hansen, A. R.; Raddatz, N.

    2003-12-01

    We have investigated the region of the H2SO4/HNO3/H2O ternary liquid/solid phase diagram bounded by ice, nitric acid trihydrate (NAT), and sulfuric acid tetrahydrate (SAT) using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and infrared spectroscopy of thin films. We report measurements and analysis of the eutectic melting curves in the ternary system of the hydrates mentioned as well as the temperature of the eutectics: ice/SAT/NAT, ice/sulfuric acid hemihexahydrate (SAH)/NAT, and SAT/NAT. We report for the first time an analysis of the content of the solid phase of completely frozen samples and find that sulfuric acid octahydrate (SAO) is often present in frozen ternary samples and can be a significant portion of the solid phase. We provide a description of how the melting path of a frozen ternary sample can be predicted using the ternary phase diagram. We have parameterized our melting point data and provide equations to generate the ternary melting surface. Finally, we compare our results to the historic work of Carpenter & Lehrmann (Carpenter, C. D.; Lehrman, A. Trans. AIChE 1925, 17, 35) and to other more recent work.

  18. Chemiluminescent Detection of Enzymatically Produced H2S

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, T. Spencer; Pluth, Michael D.

    2015-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) has emerged as an important biological signaling molecule. To better understand the multifaceted biological roles of H2S, the development of selective and sensitive biocompatible assays for H2S is becoming increasingly important. Motivated by these challenges, our laboratory is developing new methods to further detect and monitor biological H2S. Here, we describe in detail our recent advances in the development and the use of chemiluminescence-based H2S sensors to assist other investigators with use of these chemical tools. We highlight the use of these tools use by displaying their selectivity and high sensitivity toward H2S and provide examples of assays we have developed to detect enzymatically produced H2S. PMID:25725517

  19. A proposal for climate stability on H2-greenhouse planets

    CERN Document Server

    Abbot, Dorian S

    2015-01-01

    A terrestrial planet in an orbit far outside of the standard habitable zone could maintain surface liquid water as a result of H2-H2 collision-induced absorption by a thick H2 atmosphere. Without a stabilizing climate feedback, however, habitability would be accidental and likely brief. In this letter I propose stabilizing climate feedbacks for such a planet that require only that biological functions have an optimal temperature and operate less efficiently at other temperatures. For example, on a planet with a net source of H2 from its interior, H2-consuming life (such as methanogens) could establish a stable climate. If a positive perturbation is added to the equilibrium temperature, H2 consumption by life will increase (cooling the planet) until the equilibrium climate is reestablished. The potential existence of such feedbacks makes H2-warmed planets more attractive astrobiological targets.

  20. The simultaneous biosynthesis and uptake of amino acids by Lactococcus lactis studied by C-13-labeling experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, N.B.S.; Christensen, B.; Nielsen, Jette

    2002-01-01

    Uniformly C-13 labeled glucose was fed to a lactic acid bacterium growing on a defined medium supplemented with all proteinogenic amino acids except glutamate. Aspartate stemming from the protein pool and from the extracellular medium was enriched with C-13 disclosing a substantial de novo...... biosynthesis of this amino acid simultaneous to its uptake from the growth medium and a rapid exchange flux of aspartate over the cellular membrane. Phenylalanine, alanine, and threonine were also synthesized de novo in spite of their presence in the growth medium....

  1. Photochemical Generation of H_{2}NCNX, H_{2}NNCX, H_{2}NC(NX) (x = O, s) in Low-Temperature Matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voros, Tamas; Lajgut, Gyozo Gyorgy; Magyarfalvi, Gabor; Tarczay, Gyorgy

    2017-06-01

    The [NH_{2}, C, N, O] and the [NH_{2}, C, N, S] systems were investigated by quantum-chemical computations and matrix-isolation spectroscopic methods. The equilibrium structures of the isomers and their relative energies were determined by CCSD(T) method. This was followed by the computation of the harmonic and anharmonic vibrational wavenumbers, infrared intensities, relative Raman activities and UV excitation energies. These computed data were used to assist the identification of products obtained by UV laser photolysis of 3,4-diaminofurazan, 3,4-diaminothiadiazole and 1,2,4-thiadiazole-3,5-diamine in low-temperature Ar and Kr matrices. Experimentally, first the precursors were studied by matrix-isolation IR and UV spectroscopic methods. Based on these UV spectra, different wavelengths were selected for photolysis. The irradiations, carried out by a tunable UV laser-light source, resulted in the decomposition of the precursors, and in the appearance of new bands in the IR spectra. Some of these bands were assigned to cyanamide (H_{2}NCN) and its isomer, the carbodiimide molecule (HNCNH), generated from H_{2}NCN. By the analysis of the relative absorbance vs. photolysis time curves, the other bands were grouped to three different species both for the O- and the S-containing systems. In the case of the O-containing isomers, these bands were assigned to the H_{2}NNCO:H_{2}NCN, and H_{2}NCNO:H_{2}NCN complexes, and to the ring-structure H_{2}NC(NO) isomer. In a similar way, the complexes of H_{2}NNCS and H_{2}NCNS with the H_{2}NCN, and H_{2}NC(NS) were also identified. 1,2,4-thiadiazole-3,5-diamine was also investigated in similar way like the above mentioned precursors. The results of this study also support the identification of the new S-containing isomers. Except for H_{2}NNCO and H_{2}NCNS, these molecules were not identified previously. It is expected that at least some of these species, like the methyl isocyanate (CH_{3}CNO) isomer, are present and could be

  2. Hydrogen polysulfide (H2S n ) signaling along with hydrogen sulfide (H2S) and nitric oxide (NO).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Hideo

    2016-11-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a physiological mediator with various roles, including neuro-modulation, vascular tone regulation, and cytoprotection against ischemia-reperfusion injury, angiogenesis, and oxygen sensing. Hydrogen polysulfide (H2S n ), which possesses a higher number of sulfur atoms than H2S, recently emerged as a potential signaling molecule that regulates the activity of ion channels, a tumor suppressor, transcription factors, and protein kinases. Some of the previously reported effects of H2S are now attributed to the more potent H2S n . H2S n is produced by 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase (3MST) from 3-mercaptopyruvate (3MP) and is generated by the chemical interaction of H2S with nitric oxide (NO). H2S n sulfhydrates (sulfurates) cysteine residues of target proteins and modifies their activity, whereas H2S sulfurates oxidized cysteine residues as well as reduces cysteine disulfide bonds. This review focuses on the recent progress made in studies concerning the production and physiological roles of H2S n and H2S.

  3. Neutron spectroscopy of gamma-MgH2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolesnikov, Alexander; Antonov, Vladimir; Efimchenko, Vadim; Granroth, Garrett; Klyamkin, S. N.; Levchenko, A. V.; Sakharov, Michael; Ren, Yang; Ramirez-Cuesta, Timmy

    2011-03-01

    Under ambient conditions, magnesium dihydride exists in two forms, alpha-MgH2 (the most stable modification) and gamma-MgH2 (a less stable modification). The alpha-phase partly transforms to gamma-MgH2 in the course of ball-milling and under high pressure and temperature. Due to the high hydrogen content of 7.6 wt.%, MgH2 has been intensively studied as a prospective material for hydrogen storage. By exposing of alpha-MgH2 to a pressure of 5 GPa and temperature 840 K, we prepared a sample, in which about 60% of the alpha-MgH2 was transformed to gamma-MgH2. We have measured inelastic neutron scattering (INS) spectra of both the high pressure treated MgH2 and starting alpha-MgH2, and extracted the spectrum for gamma-MgH2. The differences between the INS spectra and their agreement with the first-principles calculations for these compounds will be discussed.

  4. H(2)S signaling in redox regulation of cellular functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Youngjun; Zhang, Weihua; Pei, Yanxi; Yang, Guangdong

    2013-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) is traditionally recognized as a toxic gas with a rotten-egg smell. In just the last few decades, H(2)S has been found to be one of a family of gasotransmitters, together with nitric oxide and carbon monoxide, and various physiologic effects of H(2)S have been reported. Among the most acknowledged molecular mechanisms for the cellular effects of H(2)S is the regulation of intracellular redox homeostasis and post-translational modification of proteins through S-sulfhydration. On the one side, H(2)S can promote an antioxidant effect and is cytoprotective; on the other side, H(2)S stimulates oxidative stress and is cytotoxic. This review summarizes our current knowledge of the antioxidant versus pro-oxidant effects of H(2)S in mammalian cells and describes the Janus-faced properties of this novel gasotransmitter. The redox regulation for the cellular effects of H(2)S through S-sulfhydration and the role of H(2)S in glutathione generation is also recapitulated. A better understanding of H(2)S-regualted redox homeostasis will pave the way for future design of novel pharmacological and therapeutic interventions for various diseases.

  5. The role of endogenous H2S in cardiovascular physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skovgaard, Nini; Gouliaev, Anja; Aalling, Mathilde; Simonsen, Ulf

    2011-09-01

    Recent research has shown that the endogenous gas hydrogen sulphide (H2S) is a signalling molecule of considerable biological potential and has been suggested to be involved in a vast number of physiological processes. In the vascular system, H2S is synthesized from cysteine by cystathionine-γ-lyase (CSE) in smooth muscle cells (SMC) and 3- mercaptopyruvate sulfuresterase (3MST) and CSE in the endothelial cells. In pulmonary and systemic arteries, H2S induces relaxation and/or contraction dependent on the concentration of H2S, type of vessel and species. H2S relaxes SMC through a direct effect on KATP-channels or Kv-channels causing hyperpolarization and closure of voltage-dependent Ca2+-channels followed by a reduction in intracellular calcium. H2S also relaxes SMC through the release of endothelium- derived hyperpolarizing factor (EDHF) and nitric oxide (NO) from the endothelium. H2S contracts SMC through a reduction in nitric oxide (NO) availability by reacting with NO forming a nitrosothiol compound and through an inhibitory effect on endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) as well as a reduction in SMC cyclic AMP concentration. Evidence supports a role for H2S in oxygen sensing. Furthermore, reduced endogenous H2S production may also play a role in ischemic heart diseases and hypertension, and treatment with H2S donors and cysteine analogues may be beneficial in treatment of cardiovascular disease.

  6. Working with "H2S": facts and apparent artifacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wedmann, Rudolf; Bertlein, Sarah; Macinkovic, Igor; Böltz, Sebastian; Miljkovic, Jan Lj; Muñoz, Luis E; Herrmann, Martin; Filipovic, Milos R

    2014-09-15

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is an important signaling molecule with physiological endpoints similar to those of nitric oxide (NO). Growing interest in its physiological roles and pharmacological potential has led to large sets of contradictory data. The principle cause of these discrepancies can be the common neglect of some of the basic H2S chemistry. This study investigates how the experimental outcome when working with H2S depends on its source and dose and the methodology employed. We show that commercially available NaHS should be avoided and that traces of metal ions should be removed because these can reduce intramolecular disulfides and change protein structure. Furthermore, high H2S concentrations may lead to a complete inhibition of cell respiration, mitochondrial membrane potential depolarization and superoxide generation, which should be considered when discussing the biological effects observed upon treatment with high concentrations of H2S. In addition, we provide chemical evidence that H2S can directly react with superoxide. H2S is also capable of reducing cytochrome c(3+) with the concomitant formation of superoxide. H2S does not directly react with nitrite but with NO electrodes that detect H2S. In addition, H2S interferes with the Griess reaction and should therefore be removed from the solution by Cd(2+) or Zn(2+) precipitation prior to nitrite quantification. 2-Phenyl-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl 3-oxide (PTIO) is reduced by H2S, and its use should be avoided in combination with H2S. All these constraints must be taken into account when working with H2S to ensure valid data.

  7. Quantum calculations of H2-H2 collisions: from ultracold to thermal energies

    CERN Document Server

    Quéméner, Goulven

    2008-01-01

    We present quantum dynamics of collisions between two para-H2 molecules from low (1 mK) to high collision energies (1 eV). The calculations are carried out using a quantum scattering code that solves the time-independent Schrodinger equation in its full dimensionality without any decoupling approximations. The six-dimensional potential energy surface for the H4 system developed by Boothroyd et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 116, 666 (2002)] is used in the calculations. Elastic, inelastic and state-to-state cross sections as well as rate coefficients from T = 1 K to 400 K obtained from our calculations are compared with available experimental and theoretical results. Overall, good agreement is obtained with previous studies.

  8. Variation in water-use efficiency and delta-C-13 levels in eucalyptus-grandis clones

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Olbrich, BW

    1993-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine whether the delta-C-13 levels in the foliage and twigs of four Eucalyptus grandis clones were related to their water use efficiency (WUE). This relationship has previously been demonstrated in a number of herbaceous...

  9. Nafion/SiO2 Nanocomposites: High Potential Catalysts for Alkylation of Benzene with Linear C9-C13 Alkenes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    High surface area Nafion/SiO2 nanocomposites with nano-sized Nafion resin particles entrapped and dispersed within the highly porous silica matrix exhibited significantly enhanced activity, high selectivity and long-term stability for the alkylation of benzene with linear C9-C13 alkenes owing to the increased accessibility of Nafion resin-based acid sites to reactants.

  10. [Bi2Cl10(H2-Norf)4(H2O)8] where H-Norf is Norfloxacin(R)%[Bi2Cl10(H2-Norf)4(H2O)8](H-Norf是诺氟沙星)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李咏华; 熊仁根

    2005-01-01

    The crystal structure of [Bi2Cl10(H2-Norf)4(H2O)s] (1) comprises [H2-Norf]+ cations and [Bi2Cl10]4- anions,that are loosely associated via H-bonding interactions, as well as water molecules that also participate in H-bond-ing interactions. Strong blue-fluorescent emission of 1 at solid state is observed at the room temperature. CCDC:238237.

  11. Nucleosome adaptability conferred by sequence and structural variations in histone H2A-H2B dimers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaytan, Alexey K; Landsman, David; Panchenko, Anna R

    2015-06-01

    Nucleosome variability is essential for their functions in compacting the chromatin structure and regulation of transcription, replication and cell reprogramming. The DNA molecule in nucleosomes is wrapped around an octamer composed of four types of core histones (H3, H4, H2A, H2B). Nucleosomes represent dynamic entities and may change their conformation, stability and binding properties by employing different sets of histone variants or by becoming post-translationally modified. There are many variants of histones H2A and H2B. Specific H2A and H2B variants may preferentially associate with each other resulting in different combinations of variants and leading to the increased combinatorial complexity of nucleosomes. In addition, the H2A-H2B dimer can be recognized and substituted by chaperones/remodelers as a distinct unit, can assemble independently and is stable during nucleosome unwinding. In this review we discuss how sequence and structural variations in H2A-H2B dimers may provide necessary complexity and confer the nucleosome functional variability.

  12. Communication: the origin of rotational enhancement effect for the reaction of H2O(+) + H2 (D2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Anyang; Li, Yongle; Guo, Hua; Lau, Kai-Chung; Xu, Yuntao; Xiong, Bo; Chang, Yih-Chung; Ng, C Y

    2014-01-01

    We have measured the absolute integral cross sections (σ's) for H3O(+) formed by the reaction of rovibrationally selected H2O(+)(X(2)B1; v1 (+)v2 (+)v3 (+) = 000; N(+) K a (+) K c (+) = 000, 111, and 211) ion with H2 at the center-of-mass collision energy (Ecm) range of 0.03-10.00 eV. The σ(000), σ(111), and σ(211) values thus obtained reveal rotational enhancements at low Ecm Communication presents important progress concerning the high-level ab initio quantum calculation of the potential energy surface for the H2O(+)(X(2)B1) + H2 (D2) reactions, which has provided valuable insight into the origin of the rotational enhancement effect. Governed by the charge and dipole-induced-multipole interactions, the calculation shows that H2 (D2) approaches the H end of H2O(+)(X(2)B1) in the long range, whereas chemical force in the short range favors the orientation of H2 (D2) toward the O side of H2O(+). The reorientation of H2O(+) reactant ion facilitated by rotational excitation thus promotes the H2O(+) + H2 (D2) reaction along the minimum energy pathway, rendering the observed rotational enhancement effects. The occurrence of this effect at low Ecm indicates that the long range charge and dipole-induced-multipole interactions of the colliding pair play a significant role in the dynamics of the exothermic H2O(+) + H2 (D2) reactions.

  13. Influences of stathmin on C13K cell proliferation and chemosensitivity of cisplatin in ovarian cancer%Stathmin对卵巢癌C13K细胞增殖和顺铂敏感性影响研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石英; 张军港; 王常玉

    2014-01-01

    目的 探讨微管调节蛋白Stathmin对卵巢癌顺铂耐药细胞C13K增殖和化疗敏感性的影响.方法 应用蛋白质印记法检测卵巢癌顺铂敏感性OV2008细胞和耐药性C13K细胞Stathmin表达差异;选择C13K为实验细胞,应用siRNA靶向沉默Stathmin (Stathmin-siRNA组),以未转染细胞为空白对照组,以转染阴性干扰为阴性对照组,利用蛋白质印记法检测siRNA转染效果,MTT法测定转染对细胞增殖和顺铂敏感性的影响,流式细胞仪测定转染对顺铂引起的细胞周期的变化.结果 Stathmin在细胞C13K的表达较OV2008的表达明显增加.与空白对照组和阴性对照组相比,Stathmin-siRNA组中Stathmin表达明显降低,C13K细胞的增殖明显抑制,Stathmin-siRNA组顺铂半数致死量IC50[(15.41± 1.08) μg/mL]明显降低.Stathmin-siRNA组顺铂诱导的G2/M期(27.48±0.76)%明显高于顺铂处理的对照组.结论 干扰Stathmin能明显抑制C13K细胞的增殖,增强卵巢癌对顺铂的敏感性,为卵巢癌治疗提供新的前景.

  14. A shock tube study of OH + H(2)O(2) --> H(2)O + HO(2) and H(2)O(2) + M --> 2OH + M using laser absorption of H(2)O and OH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Zekai; Cook, Robert D; Davidson, David F; Hanson, Ronald K

    2010-05-13

    The rate constants of the reactions: (1) H2O2+M-->2OH+M, (2) OH+H2O2-->H2O+HO2 were measured in shock-heated H(2)O(2)/Ar mixtures using laser absorption diagnostics for H(2)O and OH. Time-histories of H(2)O were monitored using tunable diode laser absorption at 2550.96 nm, and time-histories of OH were achieved using ring dye laser absorption at 306 nm. Initial H(2)O(2) concentrations were also determined utilizing the H(2)O diagnostic. On the basis of simultaneous time-history measurements of OH and H(2)O, k(2) was found to be 4.6 x 10(13) exp(-2630 K/T) [cm(3) mol(-1) s(-1)] over the temperature range 1020-1460 K at 1.8 atm; additional measurements of k(2) near 1 atm showed no significant pressure dependence. Similarly, k(1) was found to be 9.5 x 10(15) exp(-21 250 K/T) [cm(3) mol(-1) s(-1)] over the same temperature and pressure range.

  15. The Role of Endogenous H(2)S in Cardiovascular Physiology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovgaard, Nini; Gouliaev, Anja; Aalling, Mathilde

    2011-01-01

    Recent research has shown that the endogenous gas hydrogen sulphide (H(2)S) is a signalling molecule of considerable biological potential and has been suggested to be involved in a vast number of physiological processes. In the vascular system, H(2)S is synthesized from cysteine by cystathionine...... in oxygen sensing. Furthermore, reduced endogenous H(2)S production may also play a role in ischemic heart diseases and hypertension, and treatment with H(2)S donors and cysteine analogues may be beneficial in treatment of cardiovascular disease....

  16. Development of immunoaffinity chromatographic method for Ara h 2 isolation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhihua; Zhang, Ying; Zhan, Shaode; Lian, Jun; Zhao, Ruifang; Li, Kun; Tong, Ping; Li, Xin; Yang, Anshu; Chen, Hongbing

    2017-03-01

    Ara h 2 is considered a major allergen in peanut. Due to the difficulty of separation, Ara h 2 had not been fully studied. Immunoaffinity chromatography (IAC) column can separate target protein with high selectivity, which made it possible to purify Ara h 2 from different samples. In this study, IAC method was developed to purify Ara h 2 and its effect was evaluated. By coupling polyclonal antibody (pAb) on CNBr-activated Sepharose 4B, the column for specific extraction was constructed. The coupling efficiency of the IAC column was higher than 90%, which made the capacity of column reached 0.56 mg per 0.15 g medium (dry weight). The recovery of Ara h 2 ranged from 93% to 100% for different concentrations of pure Ara h 2 solutions in 15 min. After using a column 10 times, about 88% of the column capacity remained. When applied to extract Ara h 2 from raw peanut protein extract and boiled peanut protein extract, the IAC column could recovery 94% and 88% target protein from the mixture. SDS-PAGE and Western blotting analysis confirmed the purified protein was Ara h 2, its purity reached about 90%. Significantly, the IAC column could capture dimer of Ara h 2, which made it feasible to prepared derivative of protein after processing. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Particulate filtration for sorbent-based H2 storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hassel, Bart A.; Karra, Jagadeswara R.

    2016-01-01

    A method was developed for sizing the particulate filter that can be used inside a sorption-based onboard hydrogen storage system for light-duty vehicles. The method is based on a trade-off between the pressure drop across the particulate filter (during the fill of the H2 storage tank or during its discharge while driving) and the effect of this pressure drop on the usable amount of H2 gas from the H2 storage system. The permeability and filtration efficiency of the particulate filters (in the absence and presence of MOF-5 particulates) was quantified in this study, with an emphasis on meeting DOE's H2 purity requirements.

  18. H2S and Blood Vessels: An Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Guangdong; Wang, Rui

    2015-01-01

    The physiological and biomedical importance of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) has been fully recognized in the cardiovascular system as well as in the rest of the body. In blood vessels, cystathionine γ-lyase (CSE) is a major H2S-producing enzyme expressed in both smooth muscle and endothelium as well as periadventitial adipose tissues. Regulation of H2S production from CSE is controlled by a complex integration of transcriptional, posttranscriptional, and posttranslational mechanisms in blood vessels. In smooth muscle cells, H2S regulates cell apoptosis, phenotypic switch, relaxation and contraction, and calcification. In endothelial cells, H2S controls cell proliferation, cellular senescence, oxidative stress, inflammation, etc. H2S interacts with nitric oxide and acts as an endothelium-derived relaxing factor and an endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor. H2S generated from periadventitial adipose tissues acts as an adipocyte-derived relaxing factor and modulates the vascular tone. Extensive evidence has demonstrated the beneficial roles of the CSE/H2S system in various blood vessel diseases, such as hypertension, atherosclerosis, and aortic aneurysm. The important roles signaling in the cardiovascular system merit further intensive and extensive investigation. H2S-releasing agents and CSE activators will find their great applications in the prevention and treatment of blood vessel-related disorders.

  19. Relative importance of H2 and H2S as energy sources for primary production in geothermal springs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Imperio, Seth; Lehr, Corinne R; Oduro, Harry; Druschel, Greg; Kühl, Michael; McDermott, Timothy R

    2008-09-01

    Geothermal waters contain numerous potential electron donors capable of supporting chemolithotrophy-based primary production. Thermodynamic predictions of energy yields for specific electron donor and acceptor pairs in such systems are available, although direct assessments of these predictions are rare. This study assessed the relative importance of dissolved H(2) and H(2)S as energy sources for the support of chemolithotrophic metabolism in an acidic geothermal spring in Yellowstone National Park. H(2)S and H(2) concentration gradients were observed in the outflow channel, and vertical H(2)S and O(2) gradients were evident within the microbial mat. H(2)S levels and microbial consumption rates were approximately three orders of magnitude greater than those of H(2). Hydrogenobaculum-like organisms dominated the bacterial component of the microbial community, and isolates representing three distinct 16S rRNA gene phylotypes (phylotype = 100% identity) were isolated and characterized. Within a phylotype, O(2) requirements varied, as did energy source utilization: some isolates could grow only with H(2)S, some only with H(2), while others could utilize either as an energy source. These metabolic phenotypes were consistent with in situ geochemical conditions measured using aqueous chemical analysis and in-field measurements made by using gas chromatography and microelectrodes. Pure-culture experiments with an isolate that could utilize H(2)S and H(2) and that represented the dominant phylotype (70% of the PCR clones) showed that H(2)S and H(2) were used simultaneously, without evidence of induction or catabolite repression, and at relative rate differences comparable to those measured in ex situ field assays. Under in situ-relevant concentrations, growth of this isolate with H(2)S was better than that with H(2). The major conclusions drawn from this study are that phylogeny may not necessarily be reliable for predicting physiology and that H(2)S can dominate over H(2

  20. {[Ni4(nic)8(H2O)2]·3H2O}∞(Hnic=烟酸)配位聚合物的合成、晶体结构和磁性研究%Synthesis, crystal structure and magnetic properties of { [Ni4(nic)8(H2O)2] · 3H2O } ∞ ( Hnic = nicotinic acid )

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张松; 杨仕平

    2011-01-01

    将硝酸镍与烟酰胺混合,在EDTA存在和180℃温度下,水热反应,得到配合物{[Ni4(nic)8(H2O)2]·3H20}∞(Hnic=烟酸).通过EA、IR和TG对其进行了表征,单晶X射线衍射对其结构进行了确证.晶体数据:monoclinic,space group P2(1) with a=10.7566(8),b=19.5438(15),c=13.7801(10)(A),β=104.4860(3),Mr=1301.74,V=2804.8(4)(A)3,Z=2,μ(MoKα)=1.405 mm-1,F(000)=1332,R=0.0625,wR=0.1541.结构分析表明:配合物是由四核[Ni4(nic)8(H2O)2]单元,3个结晶水分子构成的三维网状{[Ni4(nic)8(H2O)2]·3H2O}∞配位聚合物.其中4个烟酸采用μ3-nic-N,O,O的三齿桥联配位方式,另外4个烟酸采用μ2-nic-N,O的双齿桥联配位方式,所有的Ni原子都处在六配位的畸变八面体几何构型环境.TG结果表明:配合物具有很好的热稳定性.磁性研究表明:配合物中的Ni2+与Ni2+之间存在反铁磁性耦合,在2.0~300K温度范围内,磁化率很好地遵循Curie-Weiss定律,拟合得C=5.24 cm3·K·mol-1,θ=-2.30 K.%A complex, { [ Ni4 (nic)8( H2O)2 ] · 3H2O} ∞, (Hnic = nicotinic acid), has been synthesized through the Ni2+ salt reacting with nicotinamide under hydrothermal conditions and characterized by EA, IR, TG and single crystal x-ray diffraction.Crystal data: monoclinic, space group P2 (1 ) with a = 10. 7566 ( 8 ), b = 19. 5438 ( 15 ), c = 13. 7801 ( 10 ) (A),β = 104.4860 ( 3 ),Mr=1301.74,V=2804.8(4)(A)3 ,Z =2,μ(MoKα) =1.405 mm-1 ,F(O00) = 1332,R =0.0625 and wR =0. 1541. X-ray singlecrystal diffraction shows that each Ni( Ⅱ ) atom is coordinated by six oxygen or nitrogen atoms in a octahedral geometry. The nicotinic anion can function in two types (μ3-nic-N,O,O as tridentate mode andμ2-nic-N,O as bidentate mode) of coordination fashion to bridge nickel ( Ⅱ ) atoms. Spin-orbit coupling and weak antiferromagnetic interaction between the adjacent Ni atoms in the 3D solid state were observed from the magnetic experiments. The complexes obey the Curie-Weiss law with Weiss constant C =5

  1. Equations of state for H2, H2O, and H2-H2O fluid mixtures at temperatures above 0.01° C and at high pressures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimbach, Helmut; Chatterjee, Niranjan D.

    1987-11-01

    Modified Redlich-Kwong (MRK) equations of state have been derived for the pure fluid species H2 and H2O by expressing the parameter a as a function of T and P, and b as as a function of P only. These equations are valid above 0° and 0.01° C, respectively. For H2O, the prediction of volumes is successful not only in the supercritical, but also in the subcritical range. As a result of this, the saturation curve of H2O can be calculated with a maximum deviation of ±1.4 bar in the range 100 350° C. Between 350° C and the critical point (374.15° C), the uncertainty increases somewhat; this is due to a fundamental inadequacy of the Redlich-Kwong equation itself. These equations of state permit extrapolations to pressures of 100 kbar for H2 and at least 200 kbar for H2O and are, therefore, eminently suited for geochemical applications. Formulation of the MRK of the binary H2-H2O mixtures was achieved by assuming the quadratic mixing rule for the parameters a mix and b+mix. To derive the cross coefficients, aH2-H2Oand b H 2-H 2O, adjustable corrective factors ɛ and τ had to be introduced. The T- and P-dependences of ɛ and τ are based on P-V-T-X H 2 data (Seward and Franck 1981) to 440° C and 2500 bar. The resulting equation of state very satisfactorily reproduces the volumes observed experimentally at various sets of T, P, and X H 2. At a total pressure of 2 kbar, positive deviation from ideal mixing behaviour is still perceptible at as high a temperature as 1000° C. At some temperature around 380° C, phase separation sets in, an aqueous solution with dissolved H2 coexisting in equilibrium with an H2-rich fluid with dissolved H2O. The computed P-T-X H 2 surface of this two-phase region agrees well with that observed in Seward and Franck's (1981) experiments. An independent proof of the validity of this equation of state is the accuracy with which H {m/ex}can be predicted. Calorimetric measurements of H {m/ex}(Smith et al. 1983, Wormald and Colling 1985

  2. Communication: The origin of rotational enhancement effect for the reaction of H2O+ + H2 (D2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Anyang; Li, Yongle; Guo, Hua; Lau, Kai-Chung; Xu, Yuntao; Xiong, Bo; Chang, Yih-Chung; Ng, C. Y.

    2014-01-01

    We have measured the absolute integral cross sections (σ's) for H3O+ formed by the reaction of rovibrationally selected H2O+(X2B1; v1+v2+v3+ = 000; N+Ka+Kc+ = 000, 111, and 211) ion with H2 at the center-of-mass collision energy (Ecm) range of 0.03-10.00 eV. The σ(000), σ(111), and σ(211) values thus obtained reveal rotational enhancements at low Ecm reactant ion facilitated by rotational excitation thus promotes the H2O+ + H2 (D2) reaction along the minimum energy pathway, rendering the observed rotational enhancement effects. The occurrence of this effect at low Ecm indicates that the long range charge and dipole-induced-multipole interactions of the colliding pair play a significant role in the dynamics of the exothermic H2O+ + H2 (D2) reactions.

  3. CFD Recombiner Modelling and Validation on the H2-Par and Kali-H2 Experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphane Mimouni

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A large amount of Hydrogen gas is expected to be released within the dry containment of a pressurized water reactor (PWR, shortly after the hypothetical beginning of a severe accident leading to the melting of the core. According to local gas concentrations, the gaseous mixture of hydrogen, air and steam can reach the flammability limit, threatening the containment integrity. In order to prevent mechanical loads resulting from a possible conflagration of the gas mixture, French and German reactor containments are equipped with passive autocatalytic recombiners (PARs which preventively oxidize hydrogen for concentrations lower than that of the flammability limit. The objective of the paper is to present numerical assessments of the recombiner models implemented in CFD solvers NEPTUNE_CFD and Code_Saturne. Under the EDF/EPRI agreement, CEA has been committed to perform 42 tests of PARs. The experimental program named KALI-H2, consists checking the performance and behaviour of PAR. Unrealistic values for the gas temperature are calculated if the conjugate heat transfer and the wall steam condensation are not taken into account. The combined effects of these models give a good agreement between computational results and experimental data.

  4. H2O Formation in C-rich AGB Winds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Lombaert; L. Decin; P. Royer; A. de Koter; N.L.J. Cox; J. De Ridder; T. Khouri; M. Agúndez; J.A.D.L. Blommaert; J. Gernicharo; E. González-Alfonso; M.A.T. Groenewegen; F. Kerschbaum; D. Neufeld; B. Vandenbussche; C. Waelkens

    2014-01-01

    The Herschel detection of warm H2O vapor emission from C-rich winds of AGB stars challenges the current understanding of circumstellar chemistry. Two mechanisms have been invoked to explain warm H2O formation. In the first, penetration of UV interstellar radiation through a clumpy circumstellar medi

  5. Dissociation path for H2 on Al(110)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammer, Bjørk; Jacobsen, Karsten Wedel; Nørskov, Jens Kehlet

    1992-01-01

    The minimum energy path is calculated for an H2 molecule dissociating on an Al(110) surface within local density functional theory. The properties of the potential energy surface along the five H2 ionic coordinates perpendicular to the reaction path are also determined and shown to be essential...

  6. Molecular adsorption of H2 on small cationic nickel clusters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swart, I.; Gruene, P.; Fielicke, A.; Meijer, G.; Weckhuysen, B.M.; de Groot, F.M.F.

    2008-01-01

    The adsorption of H2 on metal clusters is of interest in several fields, including metallurgy, catalysis and hydrogen storage. Hydrogen interacting with small Ni clusters is of special interest, as Ni is widely used as a hydrogenation catalyst. In general, reactions of H2 with extended Ni surfaces a

  7. H2-rich interstellar grain mantles: An equilibrium description

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dissly, Richard W.; Allen, Mark; Anicich, Vincent G.

    1994-01-01

    Experiments simulating the codeposition of molecular hydrogen and water ice on interstellar grains demonstrate that amorphous water ice at 12 K can incorporate a substantial amount of H2, up to a mole ratio of H2/H2O = 0.53. We find that the physical behavior of approximately 80% of the hydrogen can be explained satisfactorily in terms of an equilibrium population, thermodynamically governed by a wide distribution of binding site energies. Such a description predicts that gas phase accretion could lead to mole fractions of H2 in interstellar grain mantles of nearly 0.3; for the probable conditions of WL5 in the rho Ophiuchi cloud, an H2 mole fraction of between 0.05 and 0.3 is predicted, in possible agreement with the observed abundance reported by Sandford, Allamandola, & Geballe. Accretion of gas phase H2 onto grain mantles, rather than photochemical production of H2 within the ice, could be a general explanation for frozen H2 in interstellar ices. We speculate on the implications of such a composition for grain mantle chemistry and physics.

  8. H2 cycling and microbial bioenergetics in anoxic sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoehler, Tori M.; DeVincenzi, Donald (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The simple biochemistry of H2 is central to a large number of microbial processes, affecting the interaction of organisms with each other and with the environment. In anoxic sediments, the great majority of microbial redox processes involve H2 as a reactant, product, or potential by-product, and the thermodynamics of these processes are thus highly sensitive to fluctuations in environmental H2 concentrations. In turn, H2 concentrations are controlled by the activity of H2-consuming microorganisms, which efficiently utilize this substrate down to levels which correspond to their bioenergetic limitations. Consequently, any environmental change which impacts the thermodynamics of H2-consuming organisms is mirrored by a corresponding change in H2 concentrations. This phenomenon is illustrated in anoxic sediments from Cape Lookout Bight, NC, USA: H2 concentrations are controlled by a suite of environmental parameters (e.g., temperature, sulfate concentrations) in a fashion which can be quantitatively described by a simple thermodynamic model. These findings allow us to calculate the apparent minimum quantity of biologically useful energy in situ. We find that sulfate reducing bacteria are not active at energy yields below -18 kJ per mole sulfate, while methanogenic archaea exhibit a minimum close to -10 kJ per mole methane.

  9. Molecular adsorption of H2 on small cationic nickel clusters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swart, I.; Gruene, P.; Fielicke, A.; Meijer, G.; Weckhuysen, B.M.; de Groot, F.M.F.

    2008-01-01

    The adsorption of H2 on metal clusters is of interest in several fields, including metallurgy, catalysis and hydrogen storage. Hydrogen interacting with small Ni clusters is of special interest, as Ni is widely used as a hydrogenation catalyst. In general, reactions of H2 with extended Ni surfaces

  10. Influence of H2S poisoned biomethane on catalyst performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruijstens, A.J.; Beuman, W.P.H.; Molen, M. van de; Bleuanus, W.A.J.

    2008-01-01

    The influence of the level of H2S in the fuel on catalyst performance was investigated. The main conclusion is that at H2S levels of 30ppm and above, it is probable that the exhaust gas emissions of NGV’s are negatively influenced. Further research is suggested to: 1) Determine the effect of differe

  11. Role of H2S Donors in Cancer Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Zheng-Wei; Deng, Lih-Wen

    2015-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) donors including organosulfur compounds (OSC), inorganic sulfide salts, and synthetic compounds are useful tools in studies to elucidate the effects of H2S in cancer biology. Studies using such donors have shown the ability of H2S to suppress tumor growth both in vitro and in vivo, with some of them suggesting the selectivity of its cytotoxic effects to cancer cells. In addition to promoting cancer cell death, H2S donors were also found to inhibit cancer angiogenesis and metastasis. The underlying mechanisms for the anticancer activities of H2S involve (1) cell signaling pathways, such as MAPK and STAT; (2) cell cycle regulation; (3) microRNAs regulation; and (4) cancer metabolism and pH regulation. Altogether, compiling evidences have demonstrated the great potential of using H2S donors as anticancer agents. Nevertheless, the application and development of H2S for therapy are still facing challenges as identification of molecular targets of H2S awaits further investigation.

  12. Endogenous mitigation of H2S inside of the landfills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Yuan; Zhong, Zhong; Shen, Dongsheng; Du, Yao; Xu, Jing; Long, Yuyang

    2016-02-01

    Vast quantities of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) emitted from landfill sites require urgent disposal. The current study focused on source control and examined the migration and conversion behavior of sulfur compounds in two lab-scale simulated landfills with different operation modes. It aimed to explore the possible strategies and mechanisms for H2S endogenous mitigation inside of landfills during decomposition. It was found that the strength of H2S emissions from the landfill sites was dependent on the municipal solid waste (MSW) degradation speed and vertical distribution of sulfide. Leachate recirculation can shorten both the H2S influence period and pollution risk to the surrounding environment. H2S endogenous mitigation may be achieved by chemical oxidation, biological oxidation, adsorption, and/or precipitation in different stages. Migration and conversion mainly affected H2S release behavior during the initial stabilization phase in the landfill. Microbial activities related to sulfur, nitrogen, and iron can further promote H2S endogenous mitigation during the high reducing phase. Thus, H2S endogenous mitigation can be effectively enhanced via control of the aforementioned processes.

  13. H2S, a novel gasotransmitter, involves in gastric accommodation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Ailin; Wang, Hongjuan; Lu, Xin; Zhu, Jianchun; Huang, Di; Xu, Tonghui; Guo, Jianqiang; Liu, Chuanyong; Li, Jingxin

    2015-11-04

    H2S is produced mainly by two enzymes:cystathionine-β-synthase (CBS) and cystathionine-γ-lyase (CSE), using L-cysteine (L-Cys) as the substrate. In this study, we investigated the role of H2S in gastric accommodation using CBS(+/-) mice, immunohistochemistry, immunoblot, methylene blue assay, intragastric pressure (IGP) recording and electrical field stimulation (EFS). Mouse gastric fundus expressed H2S-generating enzymes (CBS and CSE) and generated detectable amounts of H2S. The H2S donor, NaHS or L-Cys, caused a relaxation in either gastric fundus or body. The gastric compliance was significantly increased in the presence of L-Cys (1 mM). On the contrary, AOAA, an inhibitor for CBS, largely inhibited gastric compliance. Consistently, CBS(+/-) mice shows a lower gastric compliance. However, PAG, a CSE inhibitor, had no effect on gastric compliances. L-Cys enhances the non-adrenergic, non-cholinergic (NANC) relaxation of fundus strips, but AOAA reduces the magnitude of relaxations to EFS. Notably, the expression level of CBS but not CSE protein was elevated after feeding. Consistently, the production of H2S was also increased after feeding in mice gastric fundus. In addition, AOAA largely reduced food intake and body weight in mice. Furthermore, a metabolic aberration of H2S was found in patients with functional dyspepsia (FD). In conclusion, endogenous H2S, a novel gasotransmitter, involves in gastric accommodation.

  14. Influence of H2S poisoned biomethane on catalyst performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruijstens, A.J.; Beuman, W.P.H.; Molen, M. van de; Bleuanus, W.A.J.

    2008-01-01

    The influence of the level of H2S in the fuel on catalyst performance was investigated. The main conclusion is that at H2S levels of 30ppm and above, it is probable that the exhaust gas emissions of NGV’s are negatively influenced. Further research is suggested to: 1) Determine the effect of

  15. Scavenging of H2O2 by mouse brain mitochondria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starkov, Anatoly A; Andreyev, Alexander Yu; Zhang, Steven F; Starkova, Natalia N; Korneeva, Maria; Syromyatnikov, Mikhail; Popov, Vasily N

    2014-12-01

    Mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) metabolism is unique in that mitochondria both generate and scavenge ROS. Recent estimates of ROS scavenging capacity of brain mitochondria are surprisingly high, ca. 9-12 nmol H2O2/min/mg, which is ~100 times higher than the rate of ROS generation. This raises a question whether brain mitochondria are a source or a sink of ROS. We studied the interaction between ROS generation and scavenging in mouse brain mitochondria by measuring the rate of removal of H2O2 added at a concentration of 0.4 μM, which is close to the reported physiological H2O2 concentrations in tissues, under conditions of low and high levels of mitochondrial H2O2 generation. With NAD-linked substrates, the rate of H2O2 generation by mitochondria was ~50-70 pmol/min/mg. The H2O2 scavenging dynamics was best approximated by the first order reaction equation. H2O2 scavenging was not affected by the uncoupling of mitochondria, phosphorylation of added ADP, or the genetic ablation of glutathione peroxidase 1, but decreased in the absence of respiratory substrates, in the presence of thioredoxin reductase inhibitor auranofin, or in partially disrupted mitochondria. With succinate, the rate of H2O2 generation was ~2,200-2,900 pmol/min/mg; the scavenging of added H2O2 was masked by a significant accumulation of generated H2O2 in the assay medium. The obtained data were fitted into a simple model that reasonably well described the interaction between H2O2 scavenging and production. It showed that mitochondria are neither a sink nor a source of H2O2, but can function as both at the same time, efficiently stabilizing exogenous H2O2 concentration at a level directly proportional to the ratio of the H2O2 generation rate to the rate constant of the first order scavenging reaction.

  16. Altered Sulfide (H2S) Metabolism in Ethylmalonic Encephalopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiranti, Valeria; Zeviani, Massimo

    2013-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (sulfide, H2S) is a colorless, water-soluble gas with a typical smell of rotten eggs. In the past, it has been investigated for its role as a potent toxic gas emanating from sewers and swamps or as a by-product of industrial processes. At high concentrations, H2S is a powerful inhibitor of cytochrome c oxidase; in trace amounts, it is an important signaling molecule, like nitric oxide (NO) and carbon monoxide (CO), together termed “gasotransmitters.” This review will cover the physiological role and the pathogenic effects of H2S, focusing on ethylmalonic encephalopathy, a human mitochondrial disorder caused by genetic abnormalities of sulfide metabolism. We will also discuss the options that are now conceivable for preventing genetically driven chronic H2S toxicity, taking into account that a complete understanding of the physiopathology of H2S has still to be achieved. PMID:23284046

  17. Altered sulfide (H(2)S) metabolism in ethylmalonic encephalopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiranti, Valeria; Zeviani, Massimo

    2013-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (sulfide, H(2)S) is a colorless, water-soluble gas with a typical smell of rotten eggs. In the past, it has been investigated for its role as a potent toxic gas emanating from sewers and swamps or as a by-product of industrial processes. At high concentrations, H(2)S is a powerful inhibitor of cytochrome c oxidase; in trace amounts, it is an important signaling molecule, like nitric oxide (NO) and carbon monoxide (CO), together termed "gasotransmitters." This review will cover the physiological role and the pathogenic effects of H(2)S, focusing on ethylmalonic encephalopathy, a human mitochondrial disorder caused by genetic abnormalities of sulfide metabolism. We will also discuss the options that are now conceivable for preventing genetically driven chronic H(2)S toxicity, taking into account that a complete understanding of the physiopathology of H(2)S has still to be achieved.

  18. H2S分压对油管钢CO2/H2S腐蚀的影响%EFFECT OF H2S PARTIAL PRESSURE ON CO2/H2S CORROSION OF OIL TUBE STEELS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张清; 李全安; 文九巴; 白真权

    2004-01-01

    采用高温高压釜,辅以失重法和扫描电镜,对不同H2S分压下(1.4 kPa,20 kPa,60 kPa,120kPa)油管钢N80、P110的CO2/H2S腐蚀进行了研究.结果表明,在试验H2S分压范围内,随着H2S分压的升高,两种钢的腐蚀速率先增后降,且都在H2S分压为20 kPa时取得最大值.

  19. Surface Nb-ALLOYING on 0.4C-13Cr Stainless Steel: Microstructure and Tribological Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Shengwang; You, Kai; Liu, Xiaozhen; Zhang, Yihui; Wang, Zhenxia; Liu, Xiaoping

    2016-02-01

    0.4C-13Cr stainless steel was alloyed with niobium using double glow plasma surface alloying and tribological properties of Nb-alloyed steel such as hardness, friction and wear were measured. Effects of the alloying temperature on microstructure and the tribological behavior of the alloyed steel were investigated compared with untreated steel. Formation mechanisms of Nb-alloyed layers and increased wear resistance were also studied. The result shows that after surface Nb-alloying treatment, the 0.4C-13Cr steel exhibits a diffusion adhesion at the alloyed layer/substrate interface and improved tribological property. The friction coefficient of Nb-alloyed steel is decreased by about 0.3-0.45 and the wear rate after Nb-alloying is only 2-5% of untreated steel.

  20. A role for nucleosome assembly protein 1 in the nuclear transport of histones H2A and H2B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosammaparast, Nima; Ewart, Courtney S; Pemberton, Lucy F

    2002-12-02

    Import of core histones into the nucleus is a prerequisite for their deposition onto DNA and the assembly of chromatin. Here we demonstrate that nucleosome assembly protein 1 (Nap1p), a protein previously implicated in the deposition of histones H2A and H2B, is also involved in the transport of these two histones. We demonstrate that Nap1p can bind directly to Kap114p, the primary karyopherin/importin responsible for the nuclear import of H2A and H2B. Nap1p also serves as a bridge between Kap114p and the histone nuclear localization sequence (NLS). Nap1p acts cooperatively to increase the affinity of Kap114p for these NLSs. Nuclear accumulation of histone NLS-green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporters was decreased in deltanap1 cells. Furthermore, we demonstrate that Nap1p promotes the association of the H2A and H2B NLSs specifically with the karyopherin Kap114p. Localization studies demonstrate that Nap1p is a nucleocytoplasmic shuttling protein, and genetic experiments suggest that its shuttling is important for maintaining chromatin structure in vivo. We propose a model in which Nap1p links the nuclear transport of H2A and H2B to chromatin assembly.

  1. A novel H2S/H2O2 fuel cell operating at the room temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanli, Ayse Elif [Gazi University (Turkey)], email: aecsanli@gmail.com; Aytac, Aylin [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Gazi University, Teknikokullar (Turkey)], email: aytaca@gazi.edu.tr

    2011-07-01

    This study concerns the oxidation mechanism of hydrogen sulfide and a fuel cell; acidic peroxide is used as the oxidant and basic hydrogen sulfide is the fuel. A solid state H2S/H2O2 stable fuel cell was produced at room temperature. A cell potential of 0.85 V was reached; this is quite remarkable in comparison to the H2S/O2 fuel cell potential of 0.85 V obtained at 850-1000 degree celsius. The hydrogen sulfide goes through an oxidation reaction in the alkaline fuel cell (H2S/H2O2 fuel cell) which opens up the possibility of using the cheaper nickel as a catalyst. As a result, the fuel cell becomes a potentially low cost technology. A further benefit from using H2S as the alkaline liquid H2S/H2O2 fuel cell, is that sulfide ions are oxidized at the anode, releasing electrons. Sulfur produced reacts with the other sulfide ions and forms disulfide and polysulfide ions in basic electrolytes (such as Black Sea water).

  2. Resonant Enhancement of Ground State H2+ Formation in Low Energy Charge Transfer between Protons and H2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrianarijaona, V. M.; King, J. G.; Martin, M. F.; de Ruette, N.; Urbain, X.

    2013-05-01

    We investigated the charge transfer (CT) from an H2 or D2 target to various fast atomic/molecular ions for a wide span of collision energies in the laboratory frame (eV to keV). Vibrationally resolved cross sections have been obtained on a relative scale, by dissociative charge transfer of the product H2+ ions with potassium atoms, and 3-D imaging of the fragments. An absolute value of the total CT cross section has been inferred from the measured ratio of the CT yield for protons and H2+, combined with the recommended H2+ + H2 cross section (ORNL). Our results on the (H2, H+) system benchmark state-to-state calculations at 10eV and above (Phys. Rev. A 75 032703, 2007 and J. Phys. B 42, 105207 2009). In particular, they confirm the vibrational excitation mechanism responsible for the resonance at 50eV, characterized by a dominant population of the ground vibrational state of H2++. The spectra for the isotopic system (D2, H+) will be also presented along with the results of CT performed with H2++ and D2+ projectiles. Research supported by the Fund for Scientific Research - FNRS through IISN Grant No. 4.4504.10, and the National Science Foundation through Grant No. PHY-106887.

  3. H2S2014 in Kyoto: the 3rd International Conference on H2S in Biology and Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Hideo

    2015-04-30

    About 20 years ago, a pungent gas was found to be the physiological mediator of cognitive function and vascular tone. Since then, studies on hydrogen sulfide (H2S) have uncovered its numerous physiological roles such as protecting various tissues/organs from ischemia and regulating inflammation, cell growth, oxygen sensing, and senescence. These effects of H2S were extensively studied, and some of the corresponding mechanisms were also studied in detail. Previous studies on the synergistic interaction between H2S and nitric oxide (NO) have led to the discovery of several potential signaling molecules. Polysulfides are considerably potent and are one of the most active forms of H2S. H2S has a significant therapeutic potential, which is evident from the large number of novel H2S-donating compounds and substances developed for manipulating endogenous levels of H2S. The Third International Conference on H2S was held in Kyoto in June 2014. One hundred and sixty participants from 21 countries convened in Kyoto to report new advances, discuss conflicting findings, and make plans for future research. This article summarizes each oral presentation presented at the conference. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Methanol synthesis on potassium modified Cu(100) from CO + H2 and CO + CO2 +H2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maack, M.; Friis-Jensen, Henriette; Sckerl, Susanne Quist;

    2003-01-01

    Methanol cannot be produced from CO + H-2 on a clean copper surface, but a promotional effect of potassium on methanol synthesis from mixtures of CO + H-2 and CO = CO2 + H-2 at a total pressure of 1.5 bar on a Cu(100) surface is shown in this work. The experiments are performed in a UHV chamber...... connected with a high-pressure cell (HPC). The methanol produced is measured with a gas chromatograph and the surface is characterized with surface science techniques. The results show that potassium is a promoter for the methanol synthesis from CO + H-2, and that the influence of CO2 is negligible....... Investigation of the post-reaction surface with TPD indicates that potassium carbonate is present and plays an important role. The activation energy is determined as 42 +/- 3 kJ/mol for methanol synthesis on K/Cu(100) from CO + H-2....

  5. Adriamycin induces H2AX phosphorylation in human spermatozoa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhong-Xiang Li; Ting-Ting Wang; Yan-Ting Wu; Chen-Ming Xu; Min-Yue Dong; Jian-Zhong Sheng; He-Feng Huang

    2008-01-01

    Aim: To investigate whether adriamycin induces DNA damage and the formation of γH2AX (the phosphorylated form of histone H2AX) foci in mature spermatozoa. Methods: Human spermatozoa were treated with adriamycin at different concentrations. γH2AX was analyzed by immunofluorescent staining and flow cytometry and double- strand breaks (DSB) were detected by the comet assay. Results: The neutral comet assay revealed that the treatment with adriamycin at 2 μg/mL for different times (0.5, 2, 8 and 24 h), or for 8 h at different concentrations (0.4, 2 and 10 μg/mL), induced significant DSB in spermatozoa. Immunofluorent staining and flow cytometry showed that the expression of γH2AX was increased in a dose-dependent and time-dependant manner after the treatment of adriamycin. Adriamycin also induced the concurrent appearance of DNA maintenance/repair proteins RAD50 and 53BP1 with γH2AX in spermatozoa. Wortmannin, an inhibitor of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) family, abolished the co-appearance of these two proteins with γH2AX. Conclusion: Human mature spermatozoa have the same response to DSB-induced H2AX phosphorylation and subsequent recruitment of DNA maintenance/repair proteins as somatic cells.

  6. Herschel/HIFI discovery of interstellar chloronium (H$_2$Cl$^+$)

    CERN Document Server

    Lis, D C; Neufeld, D A; Schilke, P; Müller, H S P; Gupta, H; Bell, T A; Comito, C; Phillips, T G; Bergin, E A; Ceccarelli, C; Goldsmith, P F; Blake, G A; Bacmann, A; Baudry, A; Benedettini, M; Benz, A; Black, J; Boogert, A; Bottinelli, S; Cabrit, S; Caselli, P; Castets, A; Caux, E; Cernicharo, J; Codella, C; Coutens, A; Crimier, N; Crockett, N R; Daniel, F; Demyk, K; Dominic, C; Dubernet, M -L; Emprechtinger, M; Encrenaz, P; Falgarone, E; Fuente, A; Gerin, M; Giesen, T F; Goicoechea, J R; Helmich, F; Hennebelle, P; Henning, Th; Herbst, E; Hily-Blant, P; Hjalmarson, Å; Hollenbach, D; Jack, T; Joblin, C; Johnstone, D; Kahane, C; Kama, M; Kaufman, M; Klotz, A; Langer, W D; Larsson, B; Bourlot, J Le; Lefloch, B; Petit, F Le; Li, D; Liseau, R; Lord, S D; Lorenzani, A; Maret, S; Martin, P G; Melnick, G J; Menten, K M; Morris, P; Murphy, J A; Nagy, Z; Nisini, B; Ossenkopf, V; Pacheco, S; Pagani, L; Parise, B; Pérault, M; Plume, R; Qin, S -L; Roueff, E; Salez, M; Sandqvist, A; Saraceno, P; Schlemmer, S; Schuster, K; Snell, R; Stutzki, J; Tielens, A; Trappe, N; van der Tak, F F S; van der Wiel, M H D; van Dishoeck, E; Vastel, C; Viti, S; Wakelam, V; Walters, A; Wang, S; Wyrowski, F; Yorke, H W; Yu, S; Zmuidzinas, J; Delorme, Y; Desbat, J -P; Güsten, R; Krieg, J -M; Delforge, B

    2010-01-01

    We report the first detection of chloronium, H$_2$Cl$^+$, in the interstellar medium, using the HIFI instrument aboard the \\emph{Herschel} Space Observatory. The $2_{12}-1_{01}$ lines of ortho-H$_2^{35}$Cl$^+$ and ortho-H$_2^{37}$Cl$^+$ are detected in absorption towards NGC~6334I, and the $1_{11}-0_{00}$ transition of para-H$_2^{35}$Cl$^+$ is detected in absorption towards NGC~6334I and Sgr~B2(S). The H$_2$Cl$^+$ column densities are compared to those of the chemically-related species HCl. The derived HCl/H$_2$Cl$^+$ column density ratios, $\\sim$1--10, are within the range predicted by models of diffuse and dense Photon Dominated Regions (PDRs). However, the observed H$_2$Cl$^+$ column densities, in excess of $10^{13}$~cm$^{-2}$, are significantly higher than the model predictions. Our observations demonstrate the outstanding spectroscopic capabilities of HIFI for detecting new interstellar molecules and providing key constraints for astrochemical models.

  7. Analytic H i-to-H2 Photodissociation Transition Profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bialy, Shmuel; Sternberg, Amiel

    2016-05-01

    We present a simple analytic procedure for generating atomic (H i) to molecular ({{{H}}}2) density profiles for optically thick hydrogen gas clouds illuminated by far-ultraviolet radiation fields. Our procedure is based on the analytic theory for the structure of one-dimensional H i/{{{H}}}2 photon-dominated regions, presented by Sternberg et al. Depth-dependent atomic and molecular density fractions may be computed for arbitrary gas density, far-ultraviolet field intensity, and the metallicity-dependent H2 formation rate coefficient, and dust absorption cross section in the Lyman-Werner photodissociation band. We use our procedure to generate a set of {{H}} {{I}}{-}{to}{-}{{{H}}}2 transition profiles for a wide range of conditions, from the weak- to strong-field limits, and from super-solar down to low metallicities. We show that if presented as functions of dust optical depth, the {{H}} {{I}} and {{{H}}}2 density profiles depend primarily on the Sternberg “α G parameter” (dimensionless) that determines the dust optical depth associated with the total photodissociated {{H}} {{I}} column. We derive a universal analytic formula for the {{H}} {{I}}{-}{to}{-}{{{H}}}2 transition points as a function of just α G. Our formula will be useful for interpreting emission-line observations of H i/{{{H}}}2 interfaces, for estimating star formation thresholds, and for sub-grid components in hydrodynamics simulations.

  8. H2 formation and excitation in the diffuse interstellar medium

    CERN Document Server

    Gry, C; Nehme, C; Pineau des Forêts, G; Habart, E; Falgarone, E; Gry, Cecile; Boulanger, Francois; Nehme, Cyrine; Forets, Guillaume Pineau Des; Habart, Emilie; Falgarone, Edith

    2002-01-01

    We use far-UV absorption spectra obtained with FUSE towards three late B stars to study the formation and excitation of H2 in the diffuse ISM. The data interpretation relies on a model of the chemical and thermal balance in photon-illuminated gas. The data constrain well the nR product between gas density and H2 formation rate on dust grains: nR = 1 to 2.2 e-15 s-1. For each line of sight the mean effective H2 density n, assumed uniform, is obtained by the best fit of the model to the observed N(J=1)/N(J=0) ratio, since the radiation field is known. Combining n with the nR values, we find similar H2 formation rates for the three stars of about R = 4 e-17 cm3/s. Because the target stars do not interact with the absorbing matter we can show that the H2 excitation in the J>2 levels cannot be accounted for by the UV pumping of the cold H2 but implies collisional excitation in regions where the gas is much warmer. The existence of warm H2 is corroborated by the fact that the star with the largest column density of...

  9. Time-dependent H2 formation and protonation

    CERN Document Server

    Liszt, H S

    2009-01-01

    Methods: The microscopic equations of H2-formation and protonation are integrated numerically over time in such a manner that the overall structures evolve self-consistently under benign conditions. Results: The equilibrium H2 formation timescale in an H I cloud with N(H) ~ 4x10^{20}/cm^2 is 1-3 x 10^7 yr, nearly independent of the assumed density or H2 formation rate constant on grains, etc. Attempts to speed up the evolution of the H2-fraction would require densities well beyond the range usually considered typical of diffuse gas. The calculations suggest that, under benign, quiescent conditions, formation of H2 is favored in larger regions having moderate density, consistent with the rather high mean kinetic temperatures measured in H2, 70-80 K. Formation of H3+ is essentially complete when H2-formation equilibrates but the final abundance of H3+ appears more nearly at the very last instant. Chemistry in a weakly-molecular gas has particular properties so that the abundance patterns change appreciably as g...

  10. H2 reformation in post-shock regions

    CERN Document Server

    Cuppen, H M; Gavardi, E

    2010-01-01

    H2 formation is an important process in post-shock regions, since H2 is an active participant in the cooling and shielding of the environment. The onset of H2 formation therefore has a strong effect on the temperature and chemical evolution in the post shock regions. We recently developed a model for H2 formation on a graphite surface in warm conditions. The graphite surface acts as a model system for grains containing large areas of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon structures. Here this model is used to obtain a new description of the H2 formation rate as a function of gas temperature that can be implemented in molecular shock models. The H2 formation rate is substantially higher at high gas temperatures as compared to the original implementation of this rate in shock models, because of the introduction of H atoms which are chemically bonded to the grain (chemisorption). Since H2 plays such a key role in the cooling, the increased rate is found to have a substantial effect on the predicted line fluxes of an i...

  11. H2 in low-ionization structures of planetary nebulae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akras, Stavros; Gonçalves, Denise R.; Ramos-Larios, Gerardo

    2017-02-01

    We report the detection of near-IR H2 emission from the low-ionization structures (knots) in two planetary nebulae. The deepest ever high-angular-resolution H2 (1-0) S(1) at 2.122 μm, H2 (2-1) S(1) at 2.248 μm and Brγ images of K 4-47 and NGC 7662, obtained using the Near InfraRed Imager and Spectrometer (NIRI) at Gemini-North, are analysed here. K 4-47 reveals a remarkable highly collimated bipolar structure not only in the optical but also in the molecular hydrogen emission. The H2 emission emanates from the walls of the bipolar outflows and also from the pair of knots at the tip of the outflows. The H2 (1-0) S(1)/(2-1) S(1) line ratio ranges from ˜7 to ˜10, suggesting the presence of shock interactions. Our findings can be explained by the interaction of a jet/bullet ejected from the central star with the surrounding asymptotic giant branch material. The strongest H2 line, (1-0) S(1), is also detected in several low-ionization knots located at the periphery of the elliptical planetary nebula NGC 7662, but only four of these knots are detected in the H2 (2-1) S(1) line. These four knots exhibit an H2 line ratio between 2 and 3.5, which suggests that the emission is caused by the UV ionizing flux of the central star. Our data confirm the presence of H2 gas in both fast- and slow-moving low-ionization knots, which has only been confirmed before in the nearby Helix nebula and Hu 1-2. Overall, the low-ionization structures of planetary nebulae are found to have similar traits to photodissociation regions.

  12. H2 Fluorescence in M Dwarf Systems: A Stellar Origin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruczek, Nicholas; France, Kevin; Evonosky, William; Parke Loyd, R. O.; Youngblood, Allison; Roberge, Aki; Wittenmyer, Robert A.; Stocke, John T.; Fleming, Brian; Hoadley, Keri

    2017-08-01

    Observations of molecular hydrogen (H2) fluorescence are a potentially useful tool for measuring the H2 abundance in exoplanet atmospheres. This emission was previously observed in {{M}} dwarfs with planetary systems. However, low signal-to-noise prevented a conclusive determination of its origin. Possible sources include exoplanetary atmospheres, circumstellar gas disks, and the stellar surface. We use observations from the “Measurements of the Ultraviolet Spectral Characteristics of Low-mass Exoplanet Host Stars” Treasury Survey to study H2 fluorescence in {{M}} dwarfs. We detect fluorescence in Hubble Space Telescope spectra of 8/9 planet-hosting and 5/6 non-planet-hosting {{M}} dwarfs. The detection statistics, velocity centroids, and line widths of the emission suggest a stellar origin. We calculate H2-to-stellar-ion flux ratios to compare flux levels between stars. For stars with planets, we find an average ratio of 1.7+/- 0.9, using the fluxes of the brightest H2 feature and two stellar C iv lines. This is compared to 0.9+/- 0.4 for stars without planets, showing that the planet-hosting {{M}} dwarfs do not have significant excess H2 emission. This claim is supported by the direct FUV imaging of GJ 832, where no fluorescence is observed at the expected star-planet separation. Additionally, the 3σ upper limit of 4.9 × 10-17 erg cm-2 s-1 from these observations is two orders of magnitude below the spectroscopically observed H2 flux. We constrain the location of the fluorescing H2 using 1D radiative transfer models, and find that it could reside in starspots or a ˜2500-3000 {{K}} region in the lower chromosphere. The presence of this emission could complicate efforts to quantify the atmospheric abundance of H2 in exoplanets orbiting {{M}} dwarfs.

  13. Pyruvate protects pathogenic spirochetes from H2O2 killing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryan Troxell

    Full Text Available Pathogenic spirochetes cause clinically relevant diseases in humans and animals, such as Lyme disease and leptospirosis. The causative agent of Lyme disease, Borrelia burgdorferi, and the causative agent of leptospirosis, Leptospria interrogans, encounter reactive oxygen species (ROS during their enzootic cycles. This report demonstrated that physiologically relevant concentrations of pyruvate, a potent H2O2 scavenger, and provided passive protection to B. burgdorferi and L. interrogans against H2O2. When extracellular pyruvate was absent, both spirochetes were sensitive to a low dose of H2O2 (≈0.6 µM per h generated by glucose oxidase (GOX. Despite encoding a functional catalase, L. interrogans was more sensitive than B. burgdorferi to H2O2 generated by GOX, which may be due to the inherent resistance of B. burgdorferi because of the virtual absence of intracellular iron. In B. burgdorferi, the nucleotide excision repair (NER and the DNA mismatch repair (MMR pathways were important for survival during H2O2 challenge since deletion of the uvrB or the mutS genes enhanced its sensitivity to H2O2 killing; however, the presence of pyruvate fully protected ΔuvrB and ΔmutS from H2O2 killing further demonstrating the importance of pyruvate in protection. These findings demonstrated that pyruvate, in addition to its classical role in central carbon metabolism, serves as an important H2O2 scavenger for pathogenic spirochetes. Furthermore, pyruvate reduced ROS generated by human neutrophils in response to the Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2 agonist zymosan. In addition, pyruvate reduced neutrophil-derived ROS in response to B. burgdorferi, which also activates host expression through TLR2 signaling. Thus, pathogenic spirochetes may exploit the metabolite pyruvate, present in blood and tissues, to survive H2O2 generated by the host antibacterial response generated during infection.

  14. Structural basis of histone H2A-H2B recognition by the essential chaperone FACT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hondele, Maria; Stuwe, Tobias; Hassler, Markus; Halbach, Felix; Bowman, Andrew; Zhang, Elisa T; Nijmeijer, Bianca; Kotthoff, Christiane; Rybin, Vladimir; Amlacher, Stefan; Hurt, Ed; Ladurner, Andreas G

    2013-07-04

    Facilitates chromatin transcription (FACT) is a conserved histone chaperone that reorganizes nucleosomes and ensures chromatin integrity during DNA transcription, replication and repair. Key to the broad functions of FACT is its recognition of histones H2A-H2B (ref. 2). However, the structural basis for how histones H2A-H2B are recognized and how this integrates with the other functions of FACT, including the recognition of histones H3-H4 and other nuclear factors, is unknown. Here we reveal the crystal structure of the evolutionarily conserved FACT chaperone domain Spt16M from Chaetomium thermophilum, in complex with the H2A-H2B heterodimer. A novel 'U-turn' motif scaffolded onto a Rtt106-like module embraces the α1 helix of H2B. Biochemical and in vivo assays validate the structure and dissect the contribution of histone tails and H3-H4 towards Spt16M binding. Furthermore, we report the structure of the FACT heterodimerization domain that connects FACT to replicative polymerases. Our results show that Spt16M makes several interactions with histones, which we suggest allow the module to invade the nucleosome gradually and block the strongest interaction of H2B with DNA. FACT would thus enhance 'nucleosome breathing' by re-organizing the first 30 base pairs of nucleosomal histone-DNA contacts. Our snapshot of the engagement of the chaperone with H2A-H2B and the structures of all globular FACT domains enable the high-resolution analysis of the vital chaperoning functions of FACT, shedding light on how the complex promotes the activity of enzymes that require nucleosome reorganization.

  15. H2 metabolism in the photosynthetic bacterium Rhodopseudomonas capsulata: production and utilization of H2 by resting cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillmer, P; Gest, H

    1977-02-01

    Photoproduction of H2 and activation of H2 for CO2 reduction (photoreduction) by Rhodopseudomonas capsulata are catalyzed by different enzyme systems. Formation of H2 from organic compounds is mediated by nitrogenase and is nto inhibited by an atmosphere of 99% H2. Cells grown photoheterotrophically on C4 dicarboxylic acids (with glutamate as N source) evolve H2 from the C4 acids and also from lactate and pyruvate; cells grown on C3 carbon sources, however, are inactive with the C4 acids, presumably because they lack inducible transport systems. Ammonia is known to inhibit N2 fixation by photosynthetic bacteria, and it also effectively prevents photoproduction of H2; these effects are due to inhibition and, in part, inactivation of nitrogenase. Biosynthesis of the latter, as measured by both H2 production and acetylene reduction assays, is markedly increased when cells are grown at high light intensity; synthesis of the photoreduction system, on the other hand, is not appreciably influenced by light intensity during photoheterotrophic growth. The photoreduction activity of cells grown on lactate + glutamate (which contain active nitrogenase) is greatly activated by NH4+, but this effect is not observed in cells grown with NH4+ as N source (nitrogenase repressed) or in a Nif- mutant that is unable to produce H2. Lactate, malate, and succinate, which are readily used as growth substrates by R. capsulata and are excellent H donors for photoproduction of H2, abolish photoreduction activity. The physiological significances of this phenomenon and of the reciprocal regulatory effects of NH4+ on H2 production and photoreduction are discussed.

  16. H2S concentrations in the heart after acute H2S administration: methodological and physiological considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonobe, Takashi; Haouzi, Philippe

    2016-12-01

    In this study, we have tried to characterize the limits of the approach typically used to determine H2S concentrations in the heart based on the amount of H2S evaporating from heart homogenates-spontaneously, after reaction with a strong reducing agent, or in a very acidic solution. Heart homogenates were prepared from male rats in control conditions or after H2S infusion induced a transient cardiogenic shock (CS) or cardiac asystole (CA). Using a method of determination of gaseous H2S with a detection limit of 0.2 nmol, we found that the process of homogenization could lead to a total disappearance of free H2S unless performed in alkaline conditions. Yet, after restoration of neutral pH, free H2S concentration from samples processed in alkaline and nonalkaline milieus were similar and averaged ∼0.2-0.4 nmol/g in both control and CS homogenate hearts and up to 100 nmol/g in the CA group. No additional H2S was released from control, CS, or CA hearts by using the reducing agent tris(2-carboxyethyl)phosphine or a strong acidic solution (pH H2S from combined pools. Of note, the reducing agent DTT produced a significant sulfide artifact and was not used. These data suggest that 1) free H2S found in heart homogenates is not a reflection of H2S present in a "living" heart and 2) the pool of combined sulfides, released in a strong reducing or acidic milieu, does not increase in the heart in a measurable manner even after toxic exposure to sulfide. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  17. Histamine H2 receptor - Involvement in gastric ulceration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, P. A.; Vernikos-Danellis, J.; Brown, T. H.

    1976-01-01

    The involvement of the H1 and H2 receptors for histamine in the pathogenesis of gastric ulcers was investigated in rats. Metiamide, an H2 receptor antagonist, reliably reduced ulceration produced by stress alone or by a combination of stress and aspirin. In contrast, pyrilamine, which blocks only the H1 receptor, was without effect under these same conditions. The results support the hypothesis that histamine mediates both stress and stress plus aspirin induced ulceration by a mechanism involving the H2 receptor.

  18. Histamine H2 receptor - Involvement in gastric ulceration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, P. A.; Vernikos-Danellis, J.; Brown, T. H.

    1976-01-01

    The involvement of the H1 and H2 receptors for histamine in the pathogenesis of gastric ulcers was investigated in rats. Metiamide, an H2 receptor antagonist, reliably reduced ulceration produced by stress alone or by a combination of stress and aspirin. In contrast, pyrilamine, which blocks only the H1 receptor, was without effect under these same conditions. The results support the hypothesis that histamine mediates both stress and stress plus aspirin induced ulceration by a mechanism involving the H2 receptor.

  19. Toeplitz and composition operators on H~2 (B_n)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹广福; 孙顺华

    1997-01-01

    The composition operators with closed range on H2( Bn) are characterized, and the Frcdholmness of products of Toeplitz and composition operators discussed. Moreover, using composition operators, the spectra of Toeplitz operators are studied.

  20. The role of H2S bioavailability in endothelial dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rui; Szabo, Csaba; Ichinose, Fumito; Ahmed, Asif; Whiteman, Matthew; Papapetropoulos, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Endothelial dysfunction reflects pathophysiological changes in the phenotype and functions of endothelial cells that result from and/or contribute to a plethora of cardiovascular diseases. Here we review the role of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) in the pathogenesis of endothelial dysfunction, one of the fastest advanced and hottest research topics. Conventionally treated as an environment pollutant, H2S is also produced in endothelial cells and participates in the fine regulation of endothelial integrity and functions. Disturbed H2S bioavailability has been suggested to be a novel indicator of the progress and prognosis of endothelial dysfunction. Endothelial dysfunction appears to exhibit in different forms in different pathologies but therapeutics aimed at remedying the altered H2S bioavailability may benefit all. PMID:26071118

  1. The effect of Stathmin on invasion and migration of C13K cells in ovarian cancer%Stathmin对卵巢癌C13K细胞侵袭迁移能力的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张军港; 石英

    2016-01-01

    目的 探讨微管调节蛋白Stathmin对卵巢癌C13K细胞侵袭和迁移性的影响及机制研究.方法 选择C13K细胞为实验对象,应用siRNA靶向沉默Stathmin,利用实时定量PCR(qRT-PCR)方法检测转染48 h后转染效果,tran-swell法和细胞划痕实验测定细胞侵袭和迁移能力变化,qRT-PCR检测侵袭相关基因MMP2和MMP9的变化.结果 与空白对照组和阴性对照组相比较,Stathmin siRNA明显降低了C13K细胞中Stathmin mRNA的表达量,Stathmin-siRNA组侵袭的细胞数和细胞损伤愈合的速度明显降低,Stathmin-siRNA组MMP2和MMP9表达量明显降低.结论 沉默Stathmin表达能有效抑制卵巢癌细胞的侵袭迁移能力,其机制可能与抑制MMP2和MMP9的表达有关,为卵巢癌的治疗前景增加新的希望.

  2. Clinical Applications of CO2 and H2 Breath Test

    OpenAIRE

    ZHAO Si-qian; Chen, Bao-Jun; LUO Zhi-fu

    2016-01-01

    Breath test is non-invasive, high sensitivity and high specificity. In this article, CO2 breath test, H2 breath test and their clinical applications were elaborated. The main applications of CO2 breath test include helicobacter pylori test, liver function detection, gastric emptying test, insulin resistance test, pancreatic exocrine secretion test, etc. H2 breath test can be applied in the diagnosis of lactose malabsorption and detecting small intestinal bacterial overgrowth. With further res...

  3. Robust H2 control for uncertain sampled-data systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xie Weinan; Ma Guangcheng; Li Qinghua; Wang Changhong

    2009-01-01

    A new approach is proposed for robust H2 problem of uncertain sampled-data systems. Through introducing a free variable, a new Lyapunov asymptotical stability criterion with less conservativeness is established. Based on this criterion, some sufficient conditions on two classes of robust H2 problems for uncertain sampled-data control systems are presented through a set of coupled linear matrix inequalities, Finally, the less conservatism and potential of the developed results are illustrated via a numerical example.

  4. The interstellar chemistry of H2C3O isomers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loison, Jean-Christophe; Agúndez, Marcelino; Marcelino, Núria; Wakelam, Valentine; Hickson, Kevin M.; Cernicharo, José; Gerin, Maryvonne; Roueff, Evelyne; Guélin, Michel

    2016-01-01

    We present the detection of two H2C3O isomers, propynal and cyclopropenone, toward various starless cores and molecular clouds, together with upper limits for the third isomer propadienone. We review the processes controlling the abundances of H2C3O isomers in interstellar media showing that the reactions involved are gas-phase ones. We show that the abundances of these species are controlled by kinetic rather than thermodynamic effects. PMID:27013768

  5. Metal Oxide/Zeolite Combination Absorbs H2S

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voecks, Gerald E.; Sharma, Pramod K.

    1989-01-01

    Mixed copper and molybdenum oxides supported in pores of zeolite found to remove H2S from mixture of gases rich in hydrogen and steam, at temperatures from 256 to 538 degree C. Absorber of H2S needed to clean up gas streams from fuel processors that incorporate high-temperature steam reformers or hydrodesulfurizing units. Zeolites chosen as supporting materials because of their high porosity, rigidity, alumina content, and variety of both composition and form.

  6. PLASMA POLYMERIZATION OF ACETYLENE/CO2/H2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Ji; FANG Yuee; SHI Tianyi; SHOHEI INOUE

    1989-01-01

    A study has been made on the plasma polymerization of acetylene/CO2/H2 in a capacitively coupled RF plasma. The monomer mixture yielded a crosslinked film with light brown color. A kinetic study is reported for the plasma polymerization of acetylene/CO2/H2. The effects of discharge power level and reactor geometry on the rate of polymer formation are reported. The structure of the plasma polymer is investigated by IR study.

  7. H2S-mediated thermal and photochemical methane activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltrusaitis, Jonas; de Graaf, Coen; Broer, Ria; Patterson, Eric V

    2013-12-02

    Sustainable, low-temperature methods for natural gas activation are critical in addressing current and foreseeable energy and hydrocarbon feedstock needs. Large portions of natural gas resources are still too expensive to process due to their high content of hydrogen sulfide gas (H2S) mixed with methane, deemed altogether as sub-quality or "sour" gas. We propose a unique method of activation to form a mixture of sulfur-containing hydrocarbon intermediates, CH3SH and CH3SCH3 , and an energy carrier such as H2. For this purpose, we investigated the H2S-mediated methane activation to form a reactive CH3SH species by means of direct photolysis of sub-quality natural gas. Photoexcitation of hydrogen sulfide in the CH4 + H2S complex resulted in a barrierless relaxation by a conical intersection to form a ground-state CH3SH + H2 complex. The resulting CH3SH could further be coupled over acidic catalysts to form higher hydrocarbons, and the resulting H2 used as a fuel. This process is very different from conventional thermal or radical-based processes and can be driven photolytically at low temperatures, with enhanced control over the conditions currently used in industrial oxidative natural gas activation. Finally, the proposed process is CO2 neutral, as opposed to the current industrial steam methane reforming (SMR).

  8. H$_2$ in low-ionization structures of planetary nebulae

    CERN Document Server

    Akras, Stavros; Ramos-Larios, Gerardo

    2016-01-01

    We report the detection of near-IR H$_2$ emission from the low-ionization structures (knots) in two planetary nebulae. The deepest ever, high-angular resolution H$_2$ 1-0 S(1) at 2.122$\\mu$, H$_2$ 2-1 S(1) at 2.248$\\mu$ and Br$\\gamma$ images of K 4-47 and NGC 7662, obtained using the Near InfraRed Imager and Spectrometer (NIRI) at Gemini-North, are analyzed here. K 4-47 reveals a remarkable highly collimated bipolar structure not only in the optical but also in the molecular hydrogen emission. The H$_2$ emission emanates from the walls of the bipolar outflows and also from the pair of knots at the tip of the outflows. The H$_2$ 1-0 S(1)/2-1 S(1) line ratio ranges from ~7 to ~10 suggesting the presence of shock interactions. Our findings can be explained by the interaction of a jet/bullet ejected from the central star with the surrounding asymptotic giant branch material. The strongest H$_2$ line, v=1-0 S(1) is also detected in several low-ionization knots located at the periphery of the elliptical planetary n...

  9. Double strand break repair functions of histone H2AX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scully, Ralph, E-mail: rscully@bidmc.harvard.edu; Xie, Anyong

    2013-10-15

    Chromosomal double strand breaks provoke an extensive reaction in neighboring chromatin, characterized by phosphorylation of histone H2AX on serine 139 of its C-terminal tail (to form “γH2AX”). The γH2AX response contributes to the repair of double strand breaks encountered in a variety of different contexts, including those induced by ionizing radiation, physiologically programmed breaks that characterize normal immune cell development and the pathological exposure of DNA ends triggered by telomere dysfunction. γH2AX also participates in the evolutionarily conserved process of sister chromatid recombination, a homologous recombination pathway involved in the suppression of genomic instability during DNA replication and directly implicated in tumor suppression. At a biochemical level, the γH2AX response provides a compelling example of how the “histone code” is adapted to the regulation of double strand break repair. Here, we review progress in research aimed at understanding how γH2AX contributes to double strand break repair in mammalian cells.

  10. Hydrogen Storage Properties of New Hydrogen-Rich BH3NH3-Metal Hydride (TiH2, ZrH2, MgH2, and/or CaH2) Composite Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Young Joon; Xu, Yimin; Shaw, Wendy J.; Ronnebro, Ewa

    2012-04-19

    Ammonia borane (AB = NH3BH3) is one of the most attractive materials for chemical hydrogen storage due to its high hydrogen contents of 19.6 wt.%, however, impurity levels of borazine, ammonia and diborane in conjunction with foaming and exothermic hydrogen release calls for finding ways to mitigate the decomposition reactions. In this paper we present a solution by mixing AB with metal hydrides (TiH2, ZrH2, MgH2 and CaH2) which have endothermic hydrogen release in order to control the heat release and impurity levels from AB upon decomposition. The composite materials were prepared by mechanical ball milling, and their H2 release properties were characterized by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The formation of volatile products from decomposition side reactions, such as borazine (N3B3H6) was determined by mass spectrometry (MS). Sieverts type pressure-composition-temperature (PCT) gas-solid reaction instrument was adopted to observe the kinetics of the H2 release reactions of the combined systems and neat AB. In situ 11B MAS-NMR revealed a destabilized decomposition pathway. We found that by adding specific metal hydrides to AB we can eliminate the impurities and mitigate the heat release.

  11. How Universal is the SFR - H2 Relation?

    CERN Document Server

    Feldmann, R; Kravtsov, A V

    2010-01-01

    It is a well established empirical fact that the surface density of the star formation rate, Sigma_SFR, strongly correlates with the surface density of molecular hydrogen, Sigma_H2, at least when averaged over large (~kpc) scales. Much less is known, however, if (and how) the Sigma_SFR-Sigma_H2 relation depends on environmental parameters, such as the metallicity or the UV radiation field in the interstellar medium (ISM). Furthermore, observations indicate that the scatter in the Sigma_SFR-Sigma_H2 relation increases rapidly with decreasing averaging scale. How the scale dependent scatter is generated and how one recovers a tight ~ kpc scale Sigma_SFR-Sigma_H2 relation in the first place is still largely debated. Here, we explore these questions with hydrodynamical simulations that follow the formation and destruction of H2, include radiative transfer of UV radiation, and resolve the ISM on ~60 pc scales. We find that within the considered range of H2 surface densities (10-100 Msun/pc^2) the Sigma_SFR-Sigma_H...

  12. Spitzer Mapping of PAHs and H2 in Photodissociation Regions

    CERN Document Server

    Fleming, Brian T; Lupu, Roxana E; McCandliss, Stephan R

    2010-01-01

    The mid-infrared (MIR) spectra of dense photodissociation regions (PDRs) are typically dominated by emission from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and the lowest pure rotational states of molecular hydrogen (H2); two species which are probes of the physical properties of gas and dust in intense UV radiation fields. We utilize the high angular resolution of the Infrared Spectrograph on the Spitzer Space Telescope to construct spectral maps of the PAH and H2 features for three of the best studied PDRs in the galaxy, NGC 7023, NGC 2023 and IC 63. We present spatially resolved maps of the physical properties, including the H2 ortho-to-para ratio, temperature, and G_o/n_H. We also present evidence for PAH dehydrogenation, which may support theories of H2 formation on PAH surfaces, and a detection of preferential self-shielding of ortho-H2. All PDRs studied exhibit average temperatures of ~500 - 800K, warm H2 column densities of ~10^20 cm^-2, G_o/n_H ~ 0.1 - 0.8, and ortho-to-para ratios of ~ 1.8. We find th...

  13. Molecular hydrogen (H2) emissions from gasoline and diesel vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, S W; Alvarez, R; Vollmer, M K; Steinbacher, M; Weilenmann, M; Reimann, S

    2010-08-01

    This study assesses individual-vehicle molecular hydrogen (H2) emissions in exhaust gas from current gasoline and diesel vehicles measured on a chassis dynamometer. Absolute H2 emissions were found to be highest for motorcycles and scooters (141+/-38.6 mg km(-1)), approximately 5 times higher than for gasoline-powered automobiles (26.5+/-12.1 mg km(-1)). All diesel-powered vehicles emitted marginal amounts of H2 ( approximately 0.1 mg km(-1)). For automobiles, the highest emission factors were observed for sub-cycles subject to a cold-start (mean of 53.1+/-17.0 mg km(-1)). High speeds also caused elevated H2 emission factors for sub-cycles reaching at least 150 km h(-1) (mean of 40.4+/-7.1 mg km(-1)). We show that H2/CO ratios (mol mol(-1)) from gasoline-powered vehicles are variable (sub-cycle means of 0.44-5.69) and are typically higher (mean for automobiles 1.02, for 2-wheelers 0.59) than previous atmospheric ratios characteristic of traffic-influenced measurements. The lowest mean individual sub-cycle ratios, which correspond to high absolute emissions of both H2 and CO, were observed during cold starts (for automobiles 0.48, for 2-wheelers 0.44) and at high vehicle speeds (for automobiles 0.73, for 2-wheelers 0.45). This finding illustrates the importance of these conditions to observed H2/CO ratios in ambient air. Overall, 2-wheelers displayed lower H2/CO ratios (0.48-0.69) than those from gasoline-powered automobiles (0.75-3.18). This observation, along with the lower H2/CO ratios observed through studies without catalytic converters, suggests that less developed (e.g. 2-wheelers) and older vehicle technologies are largely responsible for the atmospheric H2/CO ratios reported in past literature. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Different reaction of the core histones H2A and H2B to red laser irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brill, G. E.; Egorova, A. V.; Bugaeva, I. O.; Postnov, D. E.; Ushakova, O. V.

    2017-03-01

    Analysis of the influence of red laser irradiation on the processes of self-assembly of the core histones H2A and H2B was performed using a wedge dehydration method. Image-analysis of facies included their qualitative characteristics and calculation of quantitative parameters with subsequent statistical processing. It was established that linearly polarized red laser light (λ - 660 nm, 1 J/cm2) significantly modified the process of self-assembly of core histone H2B, whereas the structure of the facies of H2A histone changed to a lesser extent. Histones were used in the form of aqueous salt solutions. The effect of red light seems to result from the formation of singlet oxygen by direct laser excitation of molecular oxygen.

  15. Multinuclear solid-state high-resolution and C-13 -{Al-27} double-resonance magic-angle spinning NMR studies on aluminum alkoxides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abraham, A.; Prins, R.; Bokhoven, J.A. van; Eck, E.R.H. van; Kentgens, A.P.M.

    2006-01-01

    A combination of Al-27 magic-angle spinning (MAS)/multiple quantum (MQ)-MAS, C-13-H-1 CPMAS, and C-13-{Al-27} transfer of population in double-resonance (TRAPDOR) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) were used for the structural elucidation of the aluminum alkoxides aluminum ethoxide, aluminum

  16. Destruction and Sequestration of H2O on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Benton

    2016-07-01

    The availability of water in biologically useable form on any planet is a quintessential resource, even if the planet is in a zone habitable with temperature regimes required for growth of organisms (above -18 °C). Mars and most other planetary objects in the solar system do not have sufficient liquid water at their surfaces that photosynthesis or chemolithoautotrophic metabolism could occur. Given clear evidence of hydrous mineral alteration and geomorphological constructs requiring abundant supplies of liquid water in the past, the question arises whether this H2O only became trapped physically as ice, or whether there could be other, more or less accessible reservoirs that it has evolved into. Salts containing S or Cl appear to be ubiquitous on Mars, having been measured in soils by all six Mars landed missions, and detected in additional areas by orbital investigations. Volcanoes emit gaseous H2S, S, SO2, HCl and Cl2. A variety of evidence indicates the geochemical fate of these gases is to be transformed into sulfates, chlorides, chlorates and perchlorates. Depending on the gas, the net reaction causes the destruction of between one and up to eight molecules of H2O per atom of S or Cl (although hydrogen atoms are also released, they are lost relatively rapidly to atmospheric escape). Furthermore, the salt minerals formed often incorporate H2O into their crystalline structures, and can result in the sequestration of up to yet another six (sometimes, more) molecules of H2O. In addition, if the salts are microcrystalline or amorphous, they are potent adsorbents for H2O. In certain cases, they are even deliquescent under martian conditions. Finally, the high solubility of the vast majority of these salts (with notable exception of CaSO4) can result in dense brines with low water activity, aH, as well as cations which can be inimical to microbial metabolism, effectively "poisoning the well." The original geologic materials on Mars, igneous rocks, also provide some

  17. Enhanced stability of histone octamers from plant nucleosomes: role of H2A and H2B histones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moehs, C P; Baxevanis, A D; Moudrianakis, E N; Spiker, S

    1992-11-10

    Gel filtration and sedimentation studies have previously established that the vertebrate animal core histone octamer is in equilibrium with an (H3-H4)2 tetramer and an H2A-H2B dimer [Eickbush, T. H., & Moudrianakis, E. N. (1978) Biochemistry 17, 4955-4964; Godfrey, J. E., Eickbush, T. H., & Moudrianakis, E. N. (1980) Biochemistry 19, 1339-1346]. We have investigated the core histone octamer of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and have found it to be much more stable than its vertebrate animal counterpart. When vertebrate animal histone octamers are subjected to gel filtration in 2 M NaCl, a trailing peak of H2A-H2B dimer can be clearly resolved from the main octamer peak. When the plant octamer is subjected to the identical procedure, there is no trailing peak of H2A-H2B dimer, but rather a single peak containing the octamer. A sampling across the octamer peak from leading to trailing edge shows no change in the ratio of H2A-H2B to (H3-H4)2. Surprisingly, the plant octamer shows the same stability at 0.6 M NaCl, a salt concentration in which the vertebrate animal octamer dissociates into dimers and tetramers. Equilibrium sedimentation data indicate that the assembly potential of the wheat histones in 2 M NaCl is very high at all protein concentrations above 0.1 mg mL-1. In order to disrupt the forces stabilizing the plant histone octamer at high histone concentrations, the concentration of NaCl must be lowered to approximately 0.3 M.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  18. NMR structure of chaperone Chz1 complexed with histones H2A.Z-H2B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zheng; Feng, Hanqiao; Hansen, D Flemming; Kato, Hidenori; Luk, Ed; Freedberg, Daron I; Kay, Lewis E; Wu, Carl; Bai, Yawen

    2008-08-01

    The NMR structure of budding yeast chaperone Chz1 complexed with histones H2A.Z-H2B has been determined. Chz1 forms a long irregular chain capped by two short alpha-helices, and uses both positively and negatively charged residues to stabilize the histone dimer. A molecular model that docks Chz1 onto the nucleosome has implications for its potential functions.

  19. A stereoselective synthesis of the C(3)-C(13) and C(14)-C(24) fragments of macrolactin A

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李树坤; 徐睿; 肖相树; 白东鲁

    2000-01-01

    Synthetic studies towards the C(3)-C(13) and C(14)-C(24) segments (3, 4) of the potent antiviral and antitumor compound macrolactin A (1)are presented. Compound 3 was constructed via a convergent and facile apprroach, exploiting Wittig olefination to generate the sensitive E, Z-diene moiety. Compound 4 was synthesized fr om the chiral-pool derived sulfone 39a via an α-alkylation-desulfonation reaction sequence.Cu(Ⅱ)-catalyzed coupling of a Grignard reagent with an allylic bromide and Julia olefination were also investigated for the preparation of compound 4.

  20. Metabolic network analysis on Phaffia rhodozyma yeast using C-13-labeled glucose and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cannizzaro, C.; Christensen, B.; Nielsen, Jens

    2004-01-01

    Carotenoid production by micro organisms, as opposed to chemical synthesis, could fulfill an ever-increasing demand for 'all natural' products. The yeast Phaffia rhodozyma has received considerable attention because it produces the red pigment astaxanthin, commonly used as an animal feed supplement....... In order to have a better understanding of its metabolism, labeling experiments with [1-C-13]glucose were conducted with the wildtype strain (CBS5905T) and a hyper-producing carotenoid strain (J4-3) in order to determine their metabolic network structure and estimate intracellular fluxes. Amino acid...

  1. Hyperfine excitation of linear molecules by para- and ortho-H2: application to the HCl-H2 system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanza, Mathieu; Lique, François

    2014-10-28

    The determination of hyperfine structure resolved excitation cross sections and rate coefficients due to H2 collisions is required to interpret astronomical spectra. In this paper, we present several theoretical approaches to compute these data. An almost exact recoupling approach and approximate sudden methods are presented. We apply these different approaches to the HCl-H2 collisional system in order to evaluate their respective accuracy. HCl-H2 hyperfine structure resolved cross sections and rate coefficients are then computed using recoupling and approximate sudden methods. As expected, the approximate sudden approaches are more accurate when the collision energy increases and the results suggest that these approaches work better for para-H2 than for ortho-H2 colliding partner. For the first time, we present HCl-H2 hyperfine structure resolved rate coefficients, computed here for temperatures ranging from 5 to 300 K. The usual Δj1 = ΔF1 propensity rules are observed for the hyperfine transitions. The new rate coefficients will significantly help the interpretation of interstellar HCl emission lines observed with current and future telescopes. We expect that these new data will allow a better determination of the HCl abundance in the interstellar medium, that is crucial to understand the interstellar chlorine chemistry.

  2. Quantum dynamics of rovibrational transitions in H2-H2 collisions: internal energy and rotational angular momentum conservation effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca dos Santos, S; Balakrishnan, N; Lepp, S; Quéméner, G; Forrey, R C; Hinde, R J; Stancil, P C

    2011-06-01

    We present a full dimensional quantum mechanical treatment of collisions between two H(2) molecules over a wide range of energies. Elastic and state-to-state inelastic cross sections for ortho-H(2) + para-H(2) and ortho-H(2) + ortho-H(2) collisions have been computed for different initial rovibrational levels of the molecules. For rovibrationally excited molecules, it has been found that state-to-state transitions are highly specific. Inelastic collisions that conserve the total rotational angular momentum of the diatoms and that involve small changes in the internal energy are found to be highly efficient. The effectiveness of these quasiresonant processes increases with decreasing collision energy and they become highly state-selective at ultracold temperatures. They are found to be more dominant for rotational energy exchange than for vibrational transitions. For non-reactive collisions between ortho- and para-H(2) molecules for which rotational energy exchange is forbidden, the quasiresonant mechanism involves a purely vibrational energy transfer albeit with less efficiency. When inelastic collisions are dominated by a quasiresonant transition calculations using a reduced basis set involving only the quasiresonant channels yield nearly identical results as the full basis set calculation leading to dramatic savings in computational cost.

  3. Solubility of ammonium paratungstate in the system NH3·H2O-H2O

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The equilibrium solubilities of 5(NH4)O@ 12WO3 @ 5H2O (APT@ 5H2O) were determined at the terminal ammoniaconcentration of 2 mol/L at 87-95℃. Experimental data were regressed. The linear functional relation between the solubilityof APT@ 5H2O and the temperature (t / ℃) is given as y = - 588.08 + 7.28t. The solubility of the species as a function of theterminal ammonia concentration (x / mol@ L-1) is also achieved: y = 36.76 + 18.86x. The solubility of APT@ 5H2O producedby ion-exchange method in China is much lower, which is due to much lower silica, much higher NH4C1, and a smallamount of APT@ 7H2O with low solubility in the APT crystals. APT@ 7H2O forms because of a large amount of NH4Cl andthe low activity of water in the crystallization.

  4. Transcription-coupled eviction of histones H2A/H2B governs V(D)J recombination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevington, Sarah; Boyes, Joan

    2013-05-15

    Initiation of V(D)J recombination critically relies on the formation of an accessible chromatin structure at recombination signal sequences (RSSs) but how this accessibility is generated is poorly understood. Immunoglobulin light-chain loci normally undergo recombination in pre-B cells. We show here that equipping (earlier) pro-B cells with the increased pre-B-cell levels of just one transcription factor, IRF4, triggers the entire cascade of events leading to premature light-chain recombination. We then used this finding to dissect the critical events that generate RSS accessibility and show that the chromatin modifications previously associated with recombination are insufficient. Instead, we establish that non-coding transcription triggers IgL RSS accessibility and find that the accessibility is transient. Transcription transiently evicts H2A/H2B dimers, releasing 35-40 bp of nucleosomal DNA, and we demonstrate that H2A/H2B loss can explain the RSS accessibility observed in vivo. We therefore propose that the transcription-mediated eviction of H2A/H2B dimers is an important mechanism that makes RSSs accessible for the initiation of recombination.

  5. Corrosion of 310 stainless steel in H2-H2O-H2S gas mixtures: Studies at constant temperature and fixed oxygen potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, D. B.; Jacob, K. T.; Nelson, H. G.

    1981-01-01

    Corrosion of SAE 310 stainless steel in H2-H2O-H2S gas mixtures was studied at a constant temperature of 1150 K. Reactive gas mixtures were chosen to yield a constant oxygen potential of approximately 6 x 10 to the minus 13th power/cu Nm and sulfur potentials ranging from 0.19 x 10 to the minus 2nd power/cu Nm to 33 x 10 to the minus 2nd power/cu Nm. The kinetics of corrosion were determined using a thermobalance, and the scales were analyzed using metallography, scanning electron microscopy, and energy dispersive X-ray analysis. Two corrosion regimes, which were dependent on sulfur potential, were identified. At high sulfur potentials (p sub S sub 2 less than or equal to 2.7 x 10 to the minus 2nd power/cu Nm) the corrosion rates were high, the kinetics obeyed a linear rate equation, and the scales consisted mainly of sulfide phases similar to those observed from pure sulfication. At low sulfur potentials (P sub S sub 2 less than or equal to 0.19 x 10 to the minus 2nd power/cu Nm) the corrosion rates were low, the kinetics obeyed a parabolic rate equation, and scales consisted mainly of oxide phases.

  6. Ortho-para-H$_2$ conversion processes in astrophysical media

    CERN Document Server

    Lique, François; Faure, Alexandre

    2014-01-01

    We report in this review recent fully-quantum time-independent calculations of cross sections and rate constants for the gas phase ortho-to-para conversion of H$_2$ by H and H$^+$. Such processes are of crucial interest and importance in various astrophysical environments. The investigated temperature ranges was 10$-$1500 K for H+H$_2$ and 10$-$100 K for H$^+$+H$_2$. Calculations were based on highly accurate H$_3$ and H$_3^+$ global potential energy surfaces. Comparisons with previous calculations and with available measurements are presented and discussed. It is shown that the existence of a long-lived intermediate complex H$_3^+$ in the (barrierless) H$^+$+H$_2$ reaction give rise to a pronounced resonance structure and a statistical behaviour, in contrast to H+H$_2$ which proceeds through a barrier of $\\sim 5000$ K. In the cold interstellar medium ($T\\leq 100$ K), the ortho-to-para conversion is thus driven by proton exchange while above $\\sim$300 K, the contribution of hydrogen atoms become significant o...

  7. Far-Ultraviolet H2 Emission from Circumstellar Disks

    CERN Document Server

    Ingleby, Laura; Bergin, Edwin; Yerasi, Ashwin; Espaillat, Catherine; Herczeg, Gregory; Roueff, Evelyne; Abgrall, Herve; Hernandez, Jesus; Briceno, Cesar; Pascucci, Ilaria; Miller, Jon; Fogel, Jeffrey; Hartmann, Lee; Meyer, Michael; Carpenter, John; Crockett, Nathan; McClure, Melissa

    2009-01-01

    We analyze the far-ultraviolet (FUV) spectra of 33 classical T Tauri stars (CTTS), including 20 new spectra obtained with the Advanced Camera for Surveys Solar Blind Channel (ACS/SBC) on the Hubble Space Telescope. Of the sources, 28 are in the ~1 Myr old Taurus-Auriga complex or Orion Molecular Cloud, 4 in the 8-10 Myr old Orion OB1a complex and one, TW Hya, in the 10 Myr old TW Hydrae Association. We also obtained FUV ACS/SBC spectra of 10 non-accreting sources surrounded by debris disks with ages between 10 and 125 Myr. We use a feature in the FUV spectra due mostly to electron impact excitation of \\h2 to study the evolution of the gas in the inner disk. We find that the \\h2 feature is absent in non-accreting sources, but is detected in the spectra of CTTS and correlates with accretion luminosity. Since all young stars have active chromospheres which produce strong X-ray and UV emission capable of exciting \\h2 in the disk, the fact that the non-accreting sources show no \\h2 emission implies that the \\h2 ga...

  8. CO diffusion into amorphous H2O ices

    CERN Document Server

    Lauck, Trish; Shulenberger, Katherine; Rajappan, Mahesh; Oberg, Karin I; Cuppen, Herma M

    2015-01-01

    The mobility of atoms, molecules and radicals in icy grain mantles regulate ice restructuring, desorption, and chemistry in astrophysical environments. Interstellar ices are dominated by H2O, and diffusion on external and internal (pore) surfaces of H2O-rich ices is therefore a key process to constrain. This study aims to quantify the diffusion kinetics and barrier of the abundant ice constituent CO into H2O dominated ices at low temperatures (15-23 K), by measuring the mixing rate of initially layered H2O(:CO2)/CO ices. The mixed fraction of CO as a function of time is determined by monitoring the shape of the infrared CO stretching band. Mixing is observed at all investigated temperatures on minute time scales, and can be ascribed to CO diffusion in H2O ice pores. The diffusion coefficient and final mixed fraction depend on ice temperature, porosity, thickness and composition. The experiments are analyzed by applying Fick's diffusion equation under the assumption that mixing is due to CO diffusion into an i...

  9. Odin observations of H2O in the Galactic Centre

    CERN Document Server

    Sandqvist, A; Black, J; Sandqvist, Aa.

    2003-01-01

    The Odin satellite has been used to detect emission and absorption in the 557-GHz H2O line in the Galactic Centre towards the Sgr A* Circumnuclear Disk (CND), and the Sgr A +20 km/s and +50 km/s molecular clouds. Strong broad H2O emission lines have been detected in all three objects. Narrow H2O absorption lines are present at all three positions and originate along the lines of sight in the 3-kpc Spiral Arm, the -30 km/s Spiral Arm and the Local Sgr Spiral Arm. Broad H2O absorption lines near -130 km/s are also observed, originating in the Expanding Molecular Ring. A new molecular feature (the ``High Positive Velocity Gas'' - HPVG) has been identified in the positive velocity range of ~ +120 to +220 km/s, seen definitely in absorption against the stronger dust continuum emission from the +20 km/s and +50 km/s clouds and possibly in emission towards the position of Sgr A* CND. The 548-GHz H2_18O isotope line towards the CND is not detected at the 0.02 K (rms) level.

  10. Rotational Spectroscopy of the NH3-H2 Molecular Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surin, L. A.; Tarabukin, I. V.; Schlemmer, S.; Breier, A. A.; Giesen, T. F.; McCarthy, M. C.; van der Avoird, A.

    2017-03-01

    We report the first high resolution spectroscopic study of the NH3–H2 van der Waals molecular complex. Three different experimental techniques, a molecular beam Fourier transform microwave spectrometer, a millimeter-wave intracavity jet OROTRON spectrometer, and a submillimeter-wave jet spectrometer with multipass cell, were used to detect pure rotational transitions of NH3–H2 in the wide frequency range from 39 to 230 GHz. Two nuclear spin species, (o)-NH3–(o)-H2 and (p)-NH3–(o)-H2, have been assigned as carriers of the observed lines on the basis of accompanying rovibrational calculations performed using the ab initio intermolecular potential energy surface (PES) of Maret et al. The experimental spectra were compared with the theoretical bound state results, thus providing a critical test of the quality of the NH3–H2 PES, which is a key issue for reliable computations of the collisional excitation and de-excitation of ammonia in the dense interstellar medium.

  11. Dwarf galaxy formation with H2-regulated star formation

    CERN Document Server

    Kuhlen, M; Madau, P; Smith, B; Wise, J

    2011-01-01

    We describe cosmological galaxy formation simulations with the adaptive mesh refinement code Enzo that incorporate a star formation prescription regulated by the local abundance of molecular hydrogen. We show that this H2-regulated prescription leads to a suppression of star formation in low mass halos (M_h 4, alleviating some of the dwarf galaxy problems faced by theoretical galaxy formation models. H2 regulation modifies the efficiency of star formation of cold gas directly, rather than indirectly reducing the cold gas content with "supernova feedback". We determine the local H2 abundance in our most refined grid cells (76 proper parsec in size at z=4) by applying the model of Krumholz, McKee, & Tumlinson, which is based on idealized 1D radiative transfer calculations of H2 formation-dissociation balance in ~100 pc atomic--molecular complexes. Our H2-regulated simulations are able to reproduce the empirical (albeit lower z) Kennicutt-Schmidt relation, including the low Sigma_gas cutoff due to the transi...

  12. Thermal Pressure in Diffuse H2 Gas Measured by Herschel [C II] Emission and FUSE UV H2 Absorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velusamy, T.; Langer, W. D.; Goldsmith, P. F.; Pineda, J. L.

    2017-04-01

    UV absorption studies with the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE) satellite have made important observations of H2 molecular gas in Galactic interstellar translucent and diffuse clouds. Observations of the 158 μm [C ii] fine-structure line with Herschel trace the same H2 molecular gas in emission. We present [C ii] observations along 27 lines of sight (LOSs) toward target stars of which 25 have FUSE H2 UV absorption. Two stars have only HST STIS C ii λ2325 absorption data. We detect [C ii] 158 μm emission features in all but one target LOS. For three target LOSs that are close to the Galactic plane, | {\\text{}}b| UV absorption data. We present the H2 gas densities and thermal pressures for 26 target LOSs and from the [C ii] intensities derive a mean thermal pressure in the range of ˜6100-7700 K cm-3 in diffuse H2 clouds. We discuss the thermal pressures and densities toward 14 targets, comparing them to results obtained using the UV absorption data for two other tracers C i and CO. Our results demonstrate the richness of the far-IR [C ii] spectral data which is a valuable complement to the UV H2 absorption data for studying diffuse H2 molecular clouds. While the UV absorption is restricted to the directions of the target star, far-IR [C ii] line emission offers an opportunity to employ velocity-resolved spectral-line mapping capability to study in detail the clouds’ spatial and velocity structures.

  13. Dynamics of H2 dissociation on the close-packed (111) surface of the noblest metal: H2 + Au(111)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijzenbroek, Mark; Helstone, Darcey; Meyer, Jörg; Kroes, Geert-Jan

    2016-10-01

    We have performed calculations on the dissociative chemisorption of H2 on un-reconstructed and reconstructed Au(111) with density functional theory, and dynamics calculations on this process on un-reconstructed Au(111). Due to a very late barrier for dissociation, H2 + Au(111) is a candidate H2-metal system for which the dissociative chemisorption could be considerably affected by the energy transfer to electron-hole pairs. Minimum barrier geometries and potential energy surfaces were computed for six density functionals. The functionals tested yield minimum barrier heights in the range of 1.15-1.6 eV, and barriers that are even later than found for the similar H2 + Cu(111) system. The potential energy surfaces have been used in quasi-classical trajectory calculations of the initial (v,J) state resolved reaction probability for several vibrational states v and rotational states J of H2 and D2. Our calculations may serve as predictions for state-resolved associative desorption experiments, from which initial state-resolved dissociative chemisorption probabilities can be extracted by invoking detailed balance. The vibrational efficacy ηv=0→1 reported for D2 dissociating on un-reconstructed Au(111) (about 0.9) is similar to that found in earlier quantum dynamics calculations on H2 + Ag(111), but larger than found for D2 + Cu(111). With the two functionals tested most extensively, the reactivity of H2 and D2 exhibits an almost monotonic increase with increasing rotational quantum number J. Test calculations suggest that, for chemical accuracy (1 kcal/mol), the herringbone reconstruction of Au(111) should be modeled.

  14. Oxidation of H2S in mammalian cells and mitochondria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou-Hamdan, Abbas; Guedouari-Bounihi, Hala; Lenoir, Véronique; Andriamihaja, Mireille; Blachier, François; Bouillaud, Frédéric

    2015-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is the third gasotransmitter described in mammals. These gasotransmitters (H2S, CO, and NO) are small molecules able to diffuse freely across membranes and thus susceptible to reach easily intracellular targets, one of which is the respiratory enzyme cytochrome oxidase subject to complete inhibition by low micromolar concentrations of these gases. However in contrast to NO or CO, H2S can be metabolized by a sulfide quinone reductase feeding the mitochondrial respiratory chain with the hydrogen atoms of sulfide. Sulfide is thus a two-sided molecule: substrate or poison according to the concentration. The aim of this chapter is to present a mean to monitor sulfide oxidation by isolated mitochondria or cells and to summarize how the properties of this amazing couple (mitochondria and sulfide) translate into practical and conceptual consequences.

  15. Substrate Recognition of Histone H2B by DUBm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Elizabeth; Berndsen, Christopher; Wolberger, Cynthia

    2011-03-01

    The SAGA complex is a transcriptional coactivator that regulates gene expression in eukaryotes via histone acetylation and deubiquitination, which are crucial for transcription. Our lab is investigating the SAGA-dependent deubiquitination of histone H2B. The deubiquitinating module (DUBm) of SAGA is comprised of a ubiquitin-specific protease, Ubp8, and three other proteins. It is known that Ubp8 cleaves ubiquitin from histone H2B, however, the specific way in which the enzyme binds to the substrate remains elusive. In order to unravel this mechanism, we attempted to determine the crystal structure of the substrate binding complex. We obtained this substrate by exploiting the techniques of intein chemistry to artificially ubiquitinate a histone H2B peptide, which we then co-crystallized with DUBm. Additionally, we synthesized Ub-K63R-linked chains and Ub-K48-linked chains and co-crystallized them with DUBm.

  16. Atmospheric photochemical loss of H and H2 from formaldehyde

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Jens Bæk; Rusteika, Nerijus; Johnson, Matthew Stanley;

    2008-01-01

    We have performed ab initio calculations to examine the potential energy along the normal modes of ground-state HCHO and along the reaction coordinates for loss of H2 and atomic hydrogen, respectively. This exploration showed that there are no specific features that will lead to reaction on the e......We have performed ab initio calculations to examine the potential energy along the normal modes of ground-state HCHO and along the reaction coordinates for loss of H2 and atomic hydrogen, respectively. This exploration showed that there are no specific features that will lead to reaction...... on the excited-state surfaces for excitations that are relevant to the troposphere and stratosphere. The calculations did however lead to the localization of a conical intersection point through which a specific loss of H2 could take place. However, the conical intersection lies at 5.4 eV relative to the ground...

  17. Robust generalized H2 control:time-delay case

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘飞

    2004-01-01

    Generalized H2 control problem is considered for a class of linear time-delay systems covering linear timeinvariant (LTI) case and time-varying but norm-bounded linear differential inclusion (NLDI) case. The issues focus on the synthesis of so-called generalized H2 controller, which guarantees internal/robust stability and a certain performance level of generalized H2 norm of resulting closed-loop system. By using Lyapunov functional technique, sufficient conditions for the existence of such a kind of controllers are obtained in terms of two linear matrix inequalities (LMIs).In the state space, for memoryless state feedback case, we treat the controller design in a unified framework for both LTI and NLDI. The presented results are illustrated by numerical examples.

  18. Vibrational predissociation of ArH2O

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bissonnette, C.; Clary, D. C.

    1992-12-01

    Accurate close-coupling calculations are used to investigate the vibrational predissociation of ArH2O as a function of the overall rotation J of the van der Waals complex. A full vibrational and rotational basis of H2O states is used in the calculation. The potential energy surface is of a form due to Cohen and Saykally and derived from far-infrared spectra, with an additional term to introduce the dependence on the vibrations of H2O. The linewidths calculated in this work show a maximum at J=6 and it is found that Fermi resonances affect dramatically the magnitude of the calculated linewidths. Good agreement with experimentally measured linewidths of Nesbitt and Lascola is achieved and the calculations provide a simple picture for the J dependence of the linewidths.

  19. H2-optimal approximation of MIMO linear dynamical systems

    CERN Document Server

    Van Dooren, Paul; Absil, P -A

    2008-01-01

    We consider the problem of approximating a multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) $p\\times m$ rational transfer function $H(s)$ of high degree by another $p\\times m$ rational transfer function $\\hat H(s)$ of much smaller degree, so that the ${\\cal H}_2$ norm of the approximation error is minimized. We characterize the stationary points of the ${\\cal H}_2$ norm of the approximation error by tangential interpolation conditions and also extend these results to the discrete-time case. We analyze whether it is reasonable to assume that lower-order models can always be approximated arbitrarily closely by imposing only first-order interpolation conditions. Finally, we analyze the ${\\cal H}_2$ norm of the approximation error for a simple case in order to illustrate the complexity of the minimization problem.

  20. Data-Driven Controller Design The H2 Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Sanfelice Bazanella, Alexandre; Eckhard, Diego

    2012-01-01

    Data-driven methodologies have recently emerged as an important paradigm alternative to model-based controller design and several such methodologies are formulated as an H2 performance optimization. This book presents a comprehensive theoretical treatment of the H2 approach to data-driven control design. The fundamental properties implied by the H2 problem formulation are analyzed in detail, so that common features to all solutions are identified. Direct methods (VRFT) and iterative methods (IFT, DFT, CbT) are put under a common theoretical framework. The choice of the reference model, the experimental conditions, the optimization method to be used, and several other designer’s choices are crucial to the quality of the final outcome, and firm guidelines for all these choices are derived from the theoretical analysis presented. The practical application of the concepts in the book is illustrated with a large number of practical designs performed for different classes of processes: thermal, fluid processing a...

  1. A Global PLASIMO Model for H2O Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadayon Mousavi, Samaneh; Koelman, Peter; Graef, Wouter; Mihailova, Diana; van Dijk, Jan; EPG/ Applied Physics/ Eindhoven University of Technology Team; Plasma Matters B. V. Team

    2016-09-01

    Global warming is one of the critical contemporary problems for mankind. Transformation of CO2 into fuels, like CH4, that are transportable with the current infrastructure seems a promising idea to solve this threatening issue. The final aim of this research is to produce CH4 by using microwave plasma in CO2 -H2 O mixture and follow-up catalytic processes. In this contribution we present a global model for H2 O chemistry that is based on the PLASIMO plasma modeling toolkit. The time variation of the electron energy and the species' densities are calculated based on the source and loss terms in plasma due to chemical reactions. The short simulation times of such models allow an efficient assessment and chemical reduction of the H2O chemistry, which is required for full spatially resolved simulations.

  2. Thermodynamics of the formation of sulfuric acid dimers in the binary (H2SO4-H2O and ternary (H2SO4-H2O-NH3 system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kürten

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Sulfuric acid is an important gas influencing atmospheric new particle formation (NPF. Both the binary (H2SO4-H2O system, and the ternary system involving ammonia (H2SO4-H2O-NH3 may be important in the free troposphere. An essential step in the nucleation of aerosol particles from gas-phase precursors is the formation of a dimer, so an understanding of the thermodynamics of dimer formation over a wide range of atmospheric conditions is essential to describe NPF. We have used the CLOUD chamber to conduct nucleation experiments for these systems at temperatures from 208 to 248 K. Neutral monomer and dimer concentrations of sulfuric acid were measured using a Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometer (CIMS. From these measurements dimer evaporation rates in the binary system were derived for temperatures of 208 and 223 K. We compare these results to literature data from a previous study that was conducted at higher temperatures but is in good agreement with the present study. For the ternary system the formation of H2SO4 • NH3 is very likely an essential step in the formation of sulfuric acid dimers, which were measured at 210, 223, and 248 K. We estimate the thermodynamic properties (dH and dS of the H2SO4 • NH3 cluster using a simple heuristic model and the measured data. Furthermore, we report the first measurements of large neutral sulfuric acid clusters containing as many as 10 sulfuric acid molecules for the binary system using Chemical Ionization-Atmospheric Pressure interface-Time Of Flight (CI-APi-TOF mass spectrometry.

  3. The intriguing near-ultraviolet photochemistry of H 2Te

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underwood, J.; Chastaing, D.; Lee, S.; Boothe, P.; Flood, T. C.; Wittig, C.

    2002-08-01

    The ultraviolet absorption spectrum of H 2Te has a long wavelength tail that extends to 400 nm. Photodissociation at 355 nm yields TeH( 2Π 1/2) selectively relative to the 2Π 3/2 ground state; the transition moments for these channels lie in, and perpendicular to, the molecular plane, respectively. Vibrational structure in the region 380-400 nm is consistent with a shallow well in the adiabat leading to 2Π 1/2, akin to the one in HI leading to I( 2P 1/2). These effects have no counterparts with the light Group 6A dihydrides.

  4. Altered Sulfide (H2S) Metabolism in Ethylmalonic Encephalopathy

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (sulfide, H2S) is a colorless, water-soluble gas with a typical smell of rotten eggs. In the past, it has been investigated for its role as a potent toxic gas emanating from sewers and swamps or as a by-product of industrial processes. At high concentrations, H2S is a powerful inhibitor of cytochrome c oxidase; in trace amounts, it is an important signaling molecule, like nitric oxide (NO) and carbon monoxide (CO), together termed “gasotransmitters.” This review will cover th...

  5. Assay Methods for H2S Biogenesis and Catabolism Enzymes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Ruma; Chiku, Taurai; Kabil, Omer; Libiad, Marouane; Motl, Nicole; Yadav, Pramod K.

    2015-01-01

    H2S is produced from sulfur-containing amino acids, cysteine and homocysteine, or a catabolite, 3-mercaptopyruvate, by three known enzymes: cystathionine β-synthase, γ-cystathionase, and 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase. Of these, the first two enzymes reside in the cytoplasm and comprise the transsulfuration pathway, while the third enzyme is found both in the cytoplasm and in the mitochondrion. The following mitochondrial enzymes oxidize H2S: sulfide quinone oxidoreductase, sulfur dioxygenase, rhodanese, and sulfite oxidase. The products of the sulfide oxidation pathway are thiosulfate and sulfate. Assays for enzymes involved in the production and oxidative clearance of sulfide to thiosulfate are described in this chapter. PMID:25725523

  6. Counterintuitive alignment of H2(+) in intense femtosecond laser fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frasinski, L J; Plumridge, J; Posthumus, J H; Codling, K; Taday, P F; Divall, E J; Langley, A J

    2001-03-19

    The multiphoton ionization of H2 has been studied using laser pulses of 266 nm wavelength, 250 fs duration, and 5x10(13) W/cm(2) peak intensity. Dissociation of H2(+) via one-photon absorption proceeds through two channels with markedly different proton angular distributions. The lower-energy channel (2.6 eV kinetic energy release) is produced in the bond softening mechanism, which generates parallel alignment. The higher-energy channel (3.5 eV) originates from population trapping in a light-induced bound state, where bond hardening generates orthogonal, counterintuitive alignment.

  7. Robust Schur Stability and Robust H^2 Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stoustrup, Jakob; Zhao, K.-Y.

    1996-01-01

    In this paper we address the problems of robust stability androbust QTR H^2 performance for uncertain discrete time systemswith nonlinear parametric uncertainties. We consider two families ofsystems with parametric uncertainties described by state space modelswhich offer a fairly general...... representation of most uncertain systemswith one or two parameters (the approach can be extended to more parameters).For these two families we obtain explicit expressions for the Schurstability radius and for the QTR H^2 robust performance radiusin the case of uncertainties with a single parameter. Moreover, we...

  8. H∞ /H2 model reduction through dilated linear matrix inequalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adegas, Fabiano Daher; Stoustrup, Jakob

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents sufficient dilated linear matrix inequalities (LMI) conditions to the $H_{infty}$ and $H_{2}$ model reduction problem. A special structure of the auxiliary (slack) variables allows the original model of order $n$ to be reduced to an order $r=n/s$ where $n,r,s in field...... not satisfactorily approximates the original system, an iterative algorithm based on dilated LMIs is proposed to significantly improve the approximation bound. The effectiveness of the method is accessed by numerical experiments. The method is also applied to the $H_2$ order reduction of a flexible wind turbine...

  9. Generalized H2 Control Synthesis for Periodic Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wisniewski, Rafal; Stoustrup, Jakob

    2001-01-01

    A control synthesis of periodic processes is addressed in this paper. A class of linear discrete time periodic systems with performance specified by the generalized $H_2$ operator norm, is considered. The paper proposes an LMI solution to this problem, the sufficient and necessary conditions...... for solvability of $H_2$ suboptimal control are stated. An algorithm for state feedback control synthesis is provided. The findings are applied for the attitude control of a satellite equipped with electro-magnetic coils, which comprises a very attractive means of attitude corrections for small low...

  10. $\\mathrm H_2^+$ in a weak magnetic field

    CERN Document Server

    Cobaxin, Héctor Medel; Vieyra, Juan Carlos López; Turbiner, Alexander V

    2014-01-01

    The electronic energy of $\\mathrm H_2^+$ in magnetic fields of up to $B=0.2B_0$ (or 4.7 $\\times 10^4$ Tesla) is investigated. Numerical values of the magnetic susceptibility for both the diamagnetic and paramagnetic contributions are reported for arbitrary orientations of the molecule in the magnetic field. It is shown that both diamagnetic and paramagnetic susceptibilities grow with inclination, while paramagnetic susceptibility is systematically much smaller than the diamagnetic one. Accurate two-dimensional Born-Oppenheimer surfaces are obtained with special trial functions. Using these surfaces, vibrational and rotational states are computed and analysed for the isotopologues $\\mathrm H_2^+$ and $\\mathrm D_2^+$.

  11. The H2 + CO ↔ H2CO Reaction: Rate Constants and Relevance to Hot and Dense Astrophysical Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vichietti, R. M.; Spada, R. F. K.; da Silva, A. B. F.; Machado, F. B. C.; Haiduke, R. L. A.

    2016-07-01

    A theoretical thermochemical and kinetic investigation of the thermal H2 + CO ↔ H2CO reaction was performed for a temperature range from 200 to 4000 K. Geometries and vibrational frequencies of reactants, product, and transition state (TS) were obtained at CCSD/cc-pVxZ (x = T and Q) levels and scaling factors were employed to consider anharmonicity effects on vibrational frequencies, zero-point energies, and thermal corrections provided by these methodologies. Enthalpies Gibbs energies, and rate constants for this reaction were determined by including a complete basis set extrapolation correction for the electronic properties calculated at CCSD(T)/cc-pVyZ (y = Q and 5) levels. Our study indicates that enthalpy changes for this reaction are highly dependent on temperature. Moreover, forward and reverse (high-pressure limit) rate constants were obtained from variational TS theory with quantum tunneling corrections. Thus, modified Arrhenius’ equations were fitted by means of the best forward and reverse rate constant values, which provide very reliable estimates for these quantities within the temperature range between 700 and 4000 K. To our knowledge, this is the first kinetic study done for the forward H2 + CO \\to H2CO process in a wide temperature range. Finally, these results can be used to explain the formaldehyde abundance in hot and dense interstellar media, possibly providing data about the physical conditions associated with H2CO masers close to massive star-forming regions.

  12. Physical chemistry of the H2SO4/HNO3/H2O system - Implications for polar stratospheric clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, M. J.; Zhang, R.; Wooldridge, P. J.; Mcmahon, J. R.; Kim, J. E.; Chang, H. Y.; Beyer, K. D.

    1993-01-01

    Polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) play a key role in stratospheric ozone depletion. Surface-catalyzed reactions on PSC particles generate chlorine compounds that photolyze readily to yield chlorine radicals, which in turn destroy ozone very efficiently. The most prevalent PSCs form at temperatures several degrees above the ice frost point and are believed to consist of HNO3 hydrates; however, their formation mechanism is unclear. Results of laboratory experiments are presented which indicate that the background stratospheric H2SO4/H2O aerosols provide an essential link in this mechanism: These liquid aerosols absorb significant amounts of HNO3 vapor, leading most likely to the crystallization of nitric acid trihydrate (NAT). The frozen particles then grow to form PSCs by condensation of additional amounts of HNO3 and H2O vapor. Furthermore, reaction probability measurements reveal that the chlorine radical precursors are formed readily at polar stratospheric temperatures not just on NAT and ice crystals, but also on liquid H2SO4 solutions and on solid H2SO4 hydrates. These results imply that the chlorine activation efficiency of the aerosol particles increases rapidly as the temperature approaches the ice frost point regardless of the phase or composition of the particles.

  13. Hydrogen Financial Analysis Scenario Tool (H2FAST); NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melaina, Marc

    2015-04-21

    This presentation describes the Hydrogen Financial Analysis Scenario Tool, H2FAST, and provides an overview of each of the three H2FAST formats: the H2FAST web tool, the H2FAST Excel spreadsheet, and the H2FAST Business Case Scenario (BCS) tool. Examples are presented to illustrate the types of questions that H2FAST can help answer.

  14. H2S-Mediated Thermal and Photochemical Methane Activation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baltrusaitis, Jonas; de Graaf, Coen; Broer, Ria; Patterson, Eric V.

    2013-01-01

    Sustainable, low-temperature methods for natural gas activation are critical in addressing current and foreseeable energy and hydrocarbon feedstock needs. Large portions of natural gas resources are still too expensive to process due to their high content of hydrogen sulfide gas (H2S) mixed with

  15. H2 and H∞ low-gain theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Xu; Stoorvogel, Anton A.; Saberi, Ali; Sannuti, Peddapullaiah

    2011-01-01

    For stabilization of linear systems subject to input saturation, there exist four different approaches of low-gain design all of which are independently proposed in the literature, namely direct eigenstructure assignment, H2 and H∞ algebraic Riccati equation (ARE) based methods, and parametric Lyapu

  16. Bolometric Luminosity Correction of H2O Maser AGNs

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Q. Guo; J. S. Zhang; J. Wang

    2014-09-01

    For the H2O maser host AGN sample, we derived their bolometric luminosity corrections, based on their X-ray data and [O III] emission line luminosities. Our results for maser AGNs is comparable to that of non-maser AGNs.

  17. Robust Schur Stability and Robust H^2 Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stoustrup, Jakob; Zhao, K.-Y.

    1996-01-01

    In this paper we address the problems of robust stability androbust QTR H^2 performance for uncertain discrete time systemswith nonlinear parametric uncertainties. We consider two families ofsystems with parametric uncertainties described by state space modelswhich offer a fairly general represen...

  18. $H_{2}^{+}$ ion in strong magnetic field an accurate calculation

    CERN Document Server

    López, J C; Turbiner, A V

    1997-01-01

    Using a unique trial function we perform an accurate calculation of the ground state $1\\sigma_g$ of the hydrogenic molecular ion $H^+_2$ in a constant uniform magnetic field ranging $0-10^{13}$ G. We show that this trial function also makes it possible to study the negative parity ground state $1\\sigma_u$.

  19. Solar kerosene from H2O and CO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furler, P.; Marxer, D.; Scheffe, J.; Reinalda, D.; Geerlings, H.; Falter, C.; Batteiger, V.; Sizmann, A.; Steinfeld, A.

    2017-06-01

    The entire production chain for renewable kerosene obtained directly from sunlight, H2O, and CO2 is experimentally demonstrated. The key component of the production process is a high-temperature solar reactor containing a reticulated porous ceramic (RPC) structure made of ceria, which enables the splitting of H2O and CO2 via a 2-step thermochemical redox cycle. In the 1st reduction step, ceria is endo-thermally reduced using concentrated solar radiation as the energy source of process heat. In the 2nd oxidation step, nonstoichiometric ceria reacts with H2O and CO2 to form H2 and CO - syngas - which is finally converted into kerosene by the Fischer-Tropsch process. The RPC featured dual-scale porosity for enhanced heat and mass transfer: mm-size pores for volumetric radiation absorption during the reduction step and μm-size pores within its struts for fast kinetics during the oxidation step. We report on the engineering design of the solar reactor and the experimental demonstration of over 290 consecutive redox cycles for producing high-quality syngas suitable for the processing of liquid hydrocarbon fuels.

  20. THE MIXED H2 AND H-INFINITY CONTROL PROBLEM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    STOORVOGEL, AA; TRENTELMAN, HL

    1992-01-01

    This paper is concerned with robust stability in combination with nominal performance. We pose an H(infinity) norm bound on one transfer matrix to guarantee robust stability. Under this constraint we minimize an upper bound for the H-2 norm of a second transfer matrix. This transfer matrix is chosen

  1. Robust H2 performance for sampled-data systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rank, Mike Lind

    1997-01-01

    Robust H2 performance conditions under structured uncertainty, analogous to well known methods for H∞ performance, have recently emerged in both discrete and continuous-time. This paper considers the extension into uncertain sampled-data systems, taking into account inter-sample behavior. Convex...

  2. Atmospheric photochemical loss of H and H2 from formaldehyde

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Jens Bæk; Rusteika, Nerijus; Johnson, Matthew Stanley

    2008-01-01

    We have performed ab initio calculations to examine the potential energy along the normal modes of ground-state HCHO and along the reaction coordinates for loss of H2 and atomic hydrogen, respectively. This exploration showed that there are no specific features that will lead to reaction on the e...

  3. The SWS survey for H2 in galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valentijn, E. A.; van der Werf, P. P.

    1999-01-01

    ISO SWS has made the first extragalactic direct detection of the H2 molecule in pure rotational lines in the nucleus of NGC 6946. Here we focus on the interstellar medium in the disks of spiral galaxies. Our detection (Valentijn & van der Werf 1999, hereafter VW99) of the two lowest pure rotational

  4. Intermolecular Interactions in Ternary Glycerol–Sample–H2O

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westh, Peter; Rasmussen, Erik Lumby; Koga, Yoshikata

    2011-01-01

    We studied the intermolecular interactions in ternary glycerol (Gly)–sample (S)–H2O systems at 25 °C. By measuring the excess partial molar enthalpy of Gly, HGlyEHEGly, we evaluated the Gly–Gly enthalpic interaction, HGly-GlyEHEGly--Gly, in the presence of various samples (S). For S, tert...

  5. Inelastic scattering in metal-H-2-metal junctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, I. S.; Paulsson, Magnus; Thygesen, Kristian Sommer;

    2009-01-01

    We present first-principles calculations of the dI/dV characteristics of an H-2 molecule sandwiched between Au and Pt electrodes in the presence of electron-phonon interactions. The conductance is found to decrease by a few percentages at threshold voltages corresponding to the excitation energy ...

  6. submitter Thermodynamics of the formation of sulfuric acid dimers in the binary (H2SO4–H2O) and ternary (H2SO4–H2O–NH3) system

    CERN Document Server

    Kürten, A; Rondo, L; Bianchi, F; Duplissy, J; Jokinen, T; Junninen, H; Sarnela, N; Schobesberger, S; Simon, M; Sipilä, M; Almeida, J; Amorim, A; Dommen, J; Donahue, N M; Dunne, E M; Flagan, R C; Franchin, A; Kirkby, J; Kupc, A; Makhmutov, V; Petäjä, T; Praplan, A P; Riccobono, F; Steiner, G; Tomé, A; Tsagkogeorgas, G; Wagner, P E; Wimmer, D; Baltensperger, U; Kulmala, M; Worsnop, D R; Curtius, J

    2015-01-01

    Sulfuric acid is an important gas influencing atmospheric new particle formation (NPF). Both the binary $(H_2SO_4–H_2O)$ system and the ternary system involving ammonia $(H_2SO_4–H_2O–NH_3)$ may be important in the free troposphere. An essential step in the nucleation of aerosol particles from gas-phase precursors is the formation of a dimer, so an understanding of the thermodynamics of dimer formation over a wide range of atmospheric conditions is essential to describe NPF. We have used the CLOUD chamber to conduct nucleation experiments for these systems at temperatures from 208 to 248 K. Neutral monomer and dimer concentrations of sulfuric acid were measured using a chemical ionization mass spectrometer (CIMS). From these measurements, dimer evaporation rates in the binary system were derived for temperatures of 208 and 223 K. We compare these results to literature data from a previous study that was conducted at higher temperatures but is in good agreement with the present study. For the ternary sys...

  7. The SWS survey for H2 in galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valentijn, E. A.; van der Werf, P. P.

    1999-01-01

    ISO SWS has made the first extragalactic direct detection of the H2 molecule in pure rotational lines in the nucleus of NGC 6946. Here we focus on the interstellar medium in the disks of spiral galaxies. Our detection (Valentijn & van der Werf 1999, hereafter VW99) of the two lowest pure rotational

  8. H2S-Mediated Thermal and Photochemical Methane Activation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baltrusaitis, Jonas; de Graaf, Coen; Broer, Ria; Patterson, Eric V.

    2013-01-01

    Sustainable, low-temperature methods for natural gas activation are critical in addressing current and foreseeable energy and hydrocarbon feedstock needs. Large portions of natural gas resources are still too expensive to process due to their high content of hydrogen sulfide gas (H2S) mixed with met

  9. ISO Spectroscopy of H2 in Star Forming Regions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van den Ancker, M. E.; Wesselius, P. R.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.

    2000-01-01

    Abstract: We have studied molecular hydrogen emission in a sample of 21 YSOs using spectra obtained with the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO). H2 emission was detected in 12 sources and can be explained as arising in either a shock, caused by the interaction of an outflow from an embedded YSO with

  10. Glitters of warm H2 in cold diffuse molecular gas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Falgarone, Edith; Beichman, Chaz; Boulanger, Francois; Combes, Francoise; Gry, Cecile; Helou, Georges; Laureijs, Rene; Pineau Des Forets, Guillaume; Valentijn, Edwin; Verstraete, Laurent

    2004-01-01

    Cold molecular hydrogen, a possibly dominant gas fraction in galaxies, does not radiate due to the symmetry and small moment of inertia of the molecule. The only tracers of cold H2, the rotational lines of CO and dust thermal emission operate only in metal-rich environments. By detecting the lowest

  11. Reaction of ferric leghemoglobin with H2O2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moreau, S; Davies, M J; Puppo, A

    1995-01-01

    Ferric leghemoglobin in the presence of H2O2 is known to give rise to protein radicals, at least one of which is centred on a tyrosine residue. These radicals are quenched by at least two processes. The first one involves an intramolecular heme-protein cross-link probably involving the tyrosine...

  12. H2A Production Model, Version 2 User Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steward, D.; Ramsden, T.; Zuboy, J.

    2008-09-01

    The H2A Production Model analyzes the technical and economic aspects of central and forecourt hydrogen production technologies. Using a standard discounted cash flow rate of return methodology, it determines the minimum hydrogen selling price, including a specified after-tax internal rate of return from the production technology. Users have the option of accepting default technology input values--such as capital costs, operating costs, and capacity factor--from established H2A production technology cases or entering custom values. Users can also modify the model's financial inputs. This new version of the H2A Production Model features enhanced usability and functionality. Input fields are consolidated and simplified. New capabilities include performing sensitivity analyses and scaling analyses to various plant sizes. This User Guide helps users already familiar with the basic tenets of H2A hydrogen production cost analysis get started using the new version of the model. It introduces the basic elements of the model then describes the function and use of each of its worksheets.

  13. Biosignature Gases in H2-Dominated Atmospheres on Rocky Exoplanets

    CERN Document Server

    Seager, S; Hu, R

    2013-01-01

    (Abridged) Super Earth exoplanets are being discovered with increasing frequency and some will be able to retain stable H2-dominated atmospheres. We study biosignature gases on exoplanets with thin H2 atmospheres and habitable surface temperatures, by using a model atmosphere with photochemistry, and biomass estimate framework for evaluating the plausibilty of a range of biosignature gas candidates. We find that photochemically produced H atoms are the most abundant reactive species in H2 atmospheres. In atmospheres with high CO2 levels, atomic O is the major destructive species for some molecules. In sun-Earth-like UV radiation environments, H (and in some cases O) will rapidly destroy nearly all biosignature gases of interest. The lower UV fluxes from UV quiet M stars would produce a lower concentration of H (or O) for the same scenario, enabling some biosignature gases to accumulate. The favorability of low-UV radiation environments to in an H2 atmosphere is closely analogous to the case of oxidized atmosp...

  14. Interstellar H$_2$O Masers from J Shocks

    CERN Document Server

    Hollenbach, David; McKee, Christopher F

    2013-01-01

    We present a model in which the 22 GHz H$_2$O masers observed in star-forming regions occur behind shocks propagating in dense regions (preshock density $n_0 \\sim 10^6 - 10^8$ cm$^{-3}$). We focus on high-velocity ($v_s > 30$ km s$^{-1}$) dissociative J shocks in which the heat of H$_2$ re-formation maintains a large column of $\\sim 300-400$ K gas; at these temperatures the chemistry drives a considerable fraction of the oxygen not in CO to form H$_2$O. The H$_2$O column densities, the hydrogen densities, and the warm temperatures produced by these shocks are sufficiently high to enable powerful maser action. The observed brightness temperatures (generally $\\sim 10^{11} - 10^{14}$ K) are the result of coherent velocity regions that have dimensions in the shock plane that are 10 to 100 times the shock thickness of $\\sim 10^{13}$ cm. The masers are therefore beamed towards the observer, who typically views the shock "edge-on", or perpendicular to the shock velocity; the brightest masers are then observed with t...

  15. Rotationally Excited H2 in the Magellanic Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Rui; Wong, T. H.; Welty, D. E.

    2014-01-01

    We have performed a systematic analysis of excited-state (up to J=5) H2 Lyman-Werner absorption lines using archival spectra in the FUSE Magellanic Clouds Legacy Project. The H2 column densities at different ground state J-levels and the Doppler broadening parameter b are determined for both Magellanic and Galactic components along each line of sight. Combining the results with previously measured total gas column densities of HI and H2, we derive the H2 excitation temperature, volume density, and local UV field strength for the absorbing gas. The physical and chemical properties of the absorbers are compared with Galactic samples, and also used to test predictions from multiple-phase ISM equilibrium models. Finally, we compare the absorbing gas from the Magellanic Clouds with its larger-scale ISM environment as revealed in previous surveys of gas and dust emission, extending our results from the UV data measured along moderately reddened sight lines to more dense gas detected in emission.

  16. Vibrational investigations of CO2-H2O, CO2-(H2O)2, and (CO2)2-H2O complexes isolated in solid neon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soulard, P.; Tremblay, B.

    2015-12-01

    The van der Waals complex of H2O with CO2 has attracted considerable theoretical interest as a typical example of a weak binding complex with a dissociation energy less than 3 kcal/mol. Up to now, experimental vibrational data are sparse. We have studied by FTIR the complexes involving CO2 and water molecules in solid neon. Many new absorption bands close to the well known monomers fundamentals give evidence for at least three (CO2)n-(H2O)m complexes, noted n:m. Concentration effects combined with a detailed vibrational analysis allow for the identification of sixteen, twelve, and five transitions for the 1:1, 1:2, and 2:1 complexes, respectively. Careful examination of the far infrared spectral region allows the assignment of several 1:1 and 1:2 intermolecular modes, confirmed by the observation of combinations of intra + intermolecular transitions, and anharmonic coupling constants have been derived. Our results demonstrate the high sensibility of the solid neon isolation to investigate the hydrogen-bonded complexes in contrast with the gas phase experiments for which two quanta transitions cannot be easily observed.

  17. Vibrational investigations of CO2-H2O, CO2-(H2O)2, and (CO2)2-H2O complexes isolated in solid neon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soulard, P; Tremblay, B

    2015-12-14

    The van der Waals complex of H2O with CO2 has attracted considerable theoretical interest as a typical example of a weak binding complex with a dissociation energy less than 3 kcal/mol. Up to now, experimental vibrational data are sparse. We have studied by FTIR the complexes involving CO2 and water molecules in solid neon. Many new absorption bands close to the well known monomers fundamentals give evidence for at least three (CO2)n-(H2O)m complexes, noted n:m. Concentration effects combined with a detailed vibrational analysis allow for the identification of sixteen, twelve, and five transitions for the 1:1, 1:2, and 2:1 complexes, respectively. Careful examination of the far infrared spectral region allows the assignment of several 1:1 and 1:2 intermolecular modes, confirmed by the observation of combinations of intra + intermolecular transitions, and anharmonic coupling constants have been derived. Our results demonstrate the high sensibility of the solid neon isolation to investigate the hydrogen-bonded complexes in contrast with the gas phase experiments for which two quanta transitions cannot be easily observed.

  18. Low energy spin dynamics of a quantum ferrimagnetic chain, NiCu(pba)(H 2O) 32H 2O

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, N.; Hagiwara, M.

    2000-01-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) for 1H nuclei was performed in a Heisenberg chain with alternating spins S=1 and 1/2, NiCu(pba)(H 2O) 32H 2O (pba=1,3-propylenebis (oxamato)) from 4.2 to 280 K. The relaxation rate (1/ T1) is proportional to 1/ H ( H is applied field), whereas the temperature dependence is weak and is almost constant at high temperatures. The temperature and field dependences are investigated on the basis of the spin-wave theory.

  19. 多圆柱上的H2 Corona问题%H2 Corona Problem in Polydisc

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘洋; 韩静

    2008-01-01

    考虑的是多圆柱上的H2 Corona 问题.将多圆柱上的问题转化到单位圆盘上, 利用单位圆盘上的H2 Hardy空间, 定义出一个算子. 在证明此算子有界的情况下, 利用Hahn-Banach定理及Reize表示找到了(e) -方程的解,并且给出了此解的范数估计.

  20. Relationship between C2H2 reduction, H2 evolution and 15N2 fixation in root nodules of pea (Pisum sativum)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skøt, Leif

    1983-01-01

    The quantitative relationship between C2H2 reduction, H2 evolution and 15N2 fixation was investigated in excised root nodules from pea plants (Pisum sativum L. cv. Bodil) grown under controlled conditions. The C2H2/N2 conversion factor varied from 3.31 to 5.12 between the 32nd and the 67th day...... after planting. After correction for H2 evolution in air, the factor (C2H2-H2)/N2 decreased to values near the theoretical value 3, or in one case to a value significantly (P H2 production but used...... for N2 reduction, is often stated as the relative efficiency (1-H2/C2H2). This factor varied significantly (P H2 and N2, expressed as the H2/N2 ratio, was independent of plant age, however. This discrepancy and the observation...

  1. Tricyclic sesquiterpene copaene prevents H2O2-induced neurotoxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Turkez

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Copaene (COP, a tricyclic sesquiterpene, is present in several essential oils of medicinal and aromatic plants and has antioxidant and anticarcinogenic features. But, very little information is known about the effects of COP on oxidative stress induced neurotoxicity. Method: We used hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 exposure for 6 h to model oxidative stress. Therefore, this experimental design allowed us to explore the neuroprotective potential of COP in H2O2-induced toxicity in rat cerebral cortex cell cultures for the first time. For this purpose, methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH release assays were carried out to evaluate cytotoxicity. Total antioxidant capacity (TAC and total oxidative stress (TOS parameters were used to evaluate oxidative changes. In addition to determining of 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine (8-OH-dG levels, the single cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE or comet assay was also performed for measuring the resistance of neuronal DNA to H2O2-induced challenge. Result: The results of this study showed that survival and TAC levels of the cells decreased, while TOS, 8-OH-dG levels and the mean values of the total scores of cells showing DNA damage increased in the H2O2 alone treated cultures. But pre-treatment of COP suppressed the cytotoxicity, genotoxicity and oxidative stress which were increased by H2O2. Conclusion: It is proposed that COP as a natural product with an antioxidant capacity in mitigating oxidative injuries in the field of neurodegenerative diseases. [J Intercult Ethnopharmacol 2014; 3(1.000: 21-28

  2. The barley Frost resistance-H2 locus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasquariello, Marianna; Barabaschi, Delfina; Himmelbach, Axel; Steuernagel, Burkhard; Ariyadasa, Ruvini; Stein, Nils; Gandolfi, Francesco; Tenedini, Elena; Bernardis, Isabella; Tagliafico, Enrico; Pecchioni, Nicola; Francia, Enrico

    2014-03-01

    Frost resistance-H2 (Fr-H2) is a major QTL affecting freezing tolerance in barley, yet its molecular basis is still not clearly understood. To gain a better insight into the structural characterization of the locus, a high-resolution linkage map developed from the Nure × Tremois cross was initially implemented to map 13 loci which divided the 0.602 cM total genetic distance into ten recombination segments. A PCR-based screening was then applied to identify positive bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones from two genomic libraries of the reference genotype Morex. Twenty-six overlapping BACs from the integrated physical-genetic map were 454 sequenced. Reads assembled in contigs were subsequently ordered, aligned and manually curated in 42 scaffolds. In a total of 1.47 Mbp, 58 protein-coding sequences were identified, 33 of which classified according to similarity with sequences in public databases. As three complete barley C-repeat Binding Factors (HvCBF) genes were newly identified, the locus contained13 full-length HvCBFs, four Related to AP2 Triticeae (RAPT) genes, and at least five CBF pseudogenes. The final overall assembly of Fr-H2 includes more than 90 % of target region: all genes were identified along the locus, and a general survey of Repetitive Elements obtained. We believe that this gold-standard sequence for the Morex Fr-H2 will be a useful genomic tool for structural and evolutionary comparisons with Fr-H2 in winter-hardy cultivars along with Fr-2 of other Triticeae crops.

  3. Magnetic screw rod using dual state 0.6C-13Cr-Fe bulk magnetic material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mita, Masahiro; Hirao, Noriyoshi; Kimura, Fumio

    2002-05-01

    A magnetic screw rod that can replace a mechanical ball screw has been successfully fabricated. This type of device provides linear motion from a rotating motor. The magnetic screw rod is made from dual state 0.6C-13Cr-Fe bulk magnetic rod stock. The material, originally soft magnetically, can be heat treated to obtain a nonmagnetic region which substitutes for the groove of a conventional magnetic screw rod. This method produces a magnetic screw rod with a smooth, round outer shape and a longer, cleaner operational life. This experiment successfully yielded a 300 mm long, 25 mm diameter magnetic rod with 10 mm pitch, 4 mm width, 4 mm depth spiral nonmagnetic region.

  4. Metabolic network analysis on Phaffia rhodozyma yeast using C-13-labeled glucose and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cannizzaro, C.; Christensen, B.; Nielsen, Jens

    2004-01-01

    . In order to have a better understanding of its metabolism, labeling experiments with [1-C-13]glucose were conducted with the wildtype strain (CBS5905T) and a hyper-producing carotenoid strain (J4-3) in order to determine their metabolic network structure and estimate intracellular fluxes. Amino acid...... labeling patterns, as determined by GC-MS, were in accordance with a metabolic network consisting of the Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas pathway, the pentose phosphate pathway, and the TCA cycle. Glucose was mainly consumed along the pentose phosphate pathway (similar to65% for wildtype strain), which reflected...... high NADPH requirements for lipid biosynthesis. Although common to other oleaginous yeast, there was no, or very little, malic enzyme activity for carbon-limited growth. In addition, there was no evidence of phosphoketolase activity. The central carbon metabolism of the mutant strain was similar...

  5. Hydrogen storage properties of nanosized MgH2-0.1TiH2 prepared by ultrahigh-energy-high-pressure milling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jun; Choi, Young Joon; Fang, Zhigang Zak; Sohn, Hong Yong; Rönnebro, Ewa

    2009-11-04

    Magnesium hydride (MgH(2)) is an attractive candidate for solid-state hydrogen storage applications. To improve the kinetics and thermodynamic properties of MgH(2) during dehydrogenation-rehydrogenation cycles, a nanostructured MgH(2)-0.1TiH(2) material system prepared by ultrahigh-energy-high-pressure mechanical milling was investigated. High-resolution transmission electron microscope (TEM) and scanning TEM analysis showed that the grain size of the milled MgH(2)-0.1TiH(2) powder is approximately 5-10 nm with uniform distributions of TiH(2) among MgH(2) particles. Pressure-composition-temperature (PCT) analysis demonstrated that both the nanosize and the addition of TiH(2) contributed to the significant improvement of the kinetics of dehydrogenation and hydrogenation compared to commercial MgH(2). More importantly, PCT cycle analysis demonstrated that the MgH(2)-0.1TiH(2) material system showed excellent cycle stability. The results also showed that the DeltaH value for the dehydrogenation of nanostructured MgH(2)-0.1TiH(2) is significantly lower than that of commercial MgH(2). However, the DeltaS value of the reaction was also lower, which results in minimum net effects of the nanosize and the addition of TiH(2) on the equilibrium pressure of dehydrogenation reaction of MgH(2).

  6. Photodecomposition of H2S to H2 over CdχZn1-χS composite photocatalysts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BAI Xuefeng; WU Dan; WANG Peng

    2009-01-01

    A series of CdxZn1-x (x = 0.1-0.9) photocatalysts were prepared by coprecipitation. They could form solid solution semiconductors with hexagonal phase in agreement with pure CdS by characterization of XRD. The photophysical properties of CdxZn1-xS photocatalysts were measured by UV-Vis diffuse reflectance spectrum and surface photovoltage spectroscopy (SPS). The band gap energy gradually reduced with the increasing of x value in CdxZn1-xS, and when x = 0.7, the Cd0.7Zn0.3S photocatalyst had the strongest surface photovoltage. CdxZn1-xS photocatalysts were used in the photodecomposition of H2S to H2. The evolution rate of H2 over the Cd0.7Zn0.3S photocatalyst was also the highest among CdxZn1-xS photocatalysts. And the effect of calcination temperature on the evolution rate of H2 was investigated and the optimum temperature was 650℃.

  7. Oxidative degradation of endotoxin by advanced oxidation process (O3/H2O2 & UV/H2O2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Byung-Taek; Seo, Young-Suk; Sudhakar, Dega; Choe, Ji-Hyun; Lee, Sang-Myeong; Park, Youn-Jong; Cho, Min

    2014-08-30

    The presence of endotoxin in water environments may pose a serious public health hazard. We investigated the effectiveness of advanced oxidative processes (AOP: O3/H2O2 and UV/H2O2) in the oxidative degradation of endotoxin. In addition, we measured the release of endotoxin from Escherichia coli following typical disinfection methods, such as chlorine, ozone alone and UV, and compared it with the use of AOPs. Finally, we tested the AOP-treated samples in their ability to induce tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) in mouse peritoneal macrophages. The production of hydroxyl radical in AOPs showed superior ability to degrade endotoxin in buffered solution, as well as water samples from Korean water treatment facilities, with the ozone/H2O2 being more efficient compared to UV/H2O2. In addition, the AOPs proved effective not only in eliminating E. coli in the samples, but also in endotoxin degradation, while the standard disinfection methods lead to the release of endotoxin following the bacteria destruction. Furthermore, in the experiments with macrophages, the AOPs-deactivated endotoxin lead to the smallest induction of TNF-α, which shows the loss of inflammation activity, compared to ozone treatment alone. In conclusion, these results suggest that AOPs offer an effective and mild method for endotoxin degradation in the water systems.

  8. Isotope effect in the formation of H2 from H2CO studied at the atmospheric simulation chamber SAPHIR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Röckmann, T.; Walter, S.; Bohn, B.; Wegener, R.; Spahn, H.; Brauers, T.; Tillmann, R.; Schlosser, E.; Koppmann, R.; Rohrer, F.

    2010-01-01

    Formaldehyde of known, near-natural isotopic composition was photolyzed in the SAPHIR atmosphere simulation chamber under ambient conditions. The isotopic composition of the product H2 was used to determine the isotope effects in formaldehyde photolysis. The experiments are sensitive to the molecula

  9. C13C4.5/Spinster, an evolutionarily conserved protein that regulates fertility in C. elegans through a lysosome-mediated lipid metabolism process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Mei; Chang, Hao; Zhang, Peng; Chen, Tao; Zhao, Yanhua; Zhang, Yongdeng; Liu, Pingsheng; Xu, Tao; Xu, Pingyong

    2013-05-01

    Lipid droplets, which are conserved across almost all species, are cytoplasmic organelles used to store neutral lipids. Identification of lipid droplet regulators will be conducive to resolving obesity and other fat-associated diseases. In this paper, we selected 11 candidates that might be associated with lipid metabolism in Caenorhabditis elegans. Using a BODIPY 493/503-based flow cytometry screen, 6 negative and 3 positive regulators of fat content were identified. We selected one negative regulator of lipid content, C13C4.5, for future study. C13C4.5 was mainly expressed in the worm intestine. We found that this gene was important for maintaining the metabolism of lipid droplets. Biochemical results revealed that 50% of triacylglycerol (TAG) was lost in C13C4.5 knockout worms. Stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) signals in C13C4.5 mutants showed only 49.6% of the fat content in the proximal intestinal region and 86.3% in the distal intestinal region compared with wild type animals. The mean values of lipid droplet size and intensity in C13C4.5 knockout animals were found to be significantly decreased compared with those in wild type worms. The LMP-1-labeled membrane structures in worm intestines were also enlarged in C13C4.5 mutant animals. Finally, fertility defects were found in C13C4.5(ok2087) mutants. Taken together, these results indicate that C13C4.5 may regulate the fertility of C. elegans by changing the size and fat content of lipid droplets by interfering with lysosomal morphology and function.

  10. Critical role of lysine 134 methylation on histone H2AX for γ-H2AX production and DNA repair

    OpenAIRE

    Sone, Kenbun; Piao, Lianhua; Nakakido, Makoto; Ueda, Koji; Jenuwein, Thomas; Nakamura, Yusuke; Hamamoto, Ryuji

    2014-01-01

    The presence of phosphorylated histone H2AX (γ-H2AX) is associated with the local activation of DNA-damage repair pathways. Although γ-H2AX deregulation in cancer has previously been reported, the molecular mechanism involved and its relationship with other histone modifications remain largely unknown. Here we find that the histone methyltransferase SUV39H2 methylates histone H2AX on lysine 134. When H2AX was mutated to abolish K134 methylation, the level of γ-H2AX became significantly reduce...

  11. Proton ordering dynamics of H2O ice

    CERN Document Server

    Yen, Fei

    2015-01-01

    From high precision measurements of the complex dielectric constant of H2O ice, we identify the critical temperatures of the phase transition into and out of ice XI from ice Ih to occur at T_Ih-IX=58.9 K and T_IX-Ih=73.4 K. For D2O, T_Ih-IX=63.7 K and T_IX-Ih=78.2 K. A triple point is identified to exist at 0.07 GPa and 73.4 K for H2O and 0.08 GPa and 78.2 K for D2O where ices Ih, II and XI coexist. A first order phase transition with kinetic broadening associated to proton ordering dynamics is identified at 100 K.

  12. Mixed H 2 / H ∞ control of flexible structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Farias D. P.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the design of full order linear dynamic output feedback controllers for flexible structures. Unstructured H ∞ uncertainty models are introduced for systems in modal coordinates and in reduced order form. Then a controller is designed in order to minimize a given H 2 performance function while keeping the maximum supported H ∞ perturbation below some appropriate level. To solve this problem we develop an algorithm able to provide local optimal solutions to optimization problems with convex constraints and non-convex but differentiable objective functions. A controller design procedure based on a trade-off curve is proposed and a simple example is solved, providing a comparison between the proposed method and the usual minimization of an upper bound H 2 to the norm. The method is applied to two different flexible structure theoretical models and the properties of the resulting controllers are shown in several simulations.

  13. Ultrafast Librational Relaxation of H2O in Liquid Water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Jakob; Møller, Klaus Braagaard; Rey, Rossend

    2013-01-01

    The ultrafast librational (hindered rotational) relaxation of a rotationally excited H2O molecule in pure liquid water is investigated by means of classical nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulations and a power and work analysis. This analysis allows the mechanism of the energy transfer from...... the excited H2O to its water neighbors, which occurs on a sub-100 fs time scale, to be followed in molecular detail, i.e., to determine which water molecules receive the energy and in which degrees of freedom. It is found that the dominant energy flow is to the four hydrogen-bonded water partners in the first...... hydration shell, dominated by those partners’ rotational motion, in a fairly symmetric fashion over the hydration shell. The minority component of the energy transfer, to these neighboring waters’ translational motion, exhibits an asymmetry in energy reception between hydrogen-bond-donating and -accepting...

  14. Preparation and H2O2 oxidation of extract

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tian Yujiao; Qin Zhihong; Li Baomin

    2012-01-01

    Tongting coal (TTC) was exhaustively extracted with carbon disulfide and/N/-melthy-2-pyrolidinone (CS2/NMP) mixed solvents to afford brown particles of extract,which was characterized with proximate analyzer,transmission electron microscope (TEM) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometer.The results show that the nanometer particles of extract,which were free of ash,are superfine and superclean with tract content of 0.02% Ad and particles size of about 100-150 nm.TTC and extract were then subject to oxidation with H2O2 and oxidation products were subsequently analyzed with FTIR and gas chromatography/mass spectrometer (GC/MS).The results show that extract is more reactive with H2O2 in comparison to TTC and richer in oxygen-containing species including phenols,alcohols,ethers,esters,carboxylic acids and anhydrides.

  15. Interstellar 12C/13C ratios through CH+ ll 3957,4232 absorption in local clouds: incomplete mixing in the ISM

    CERN Document Server

    Casassus, S; Wilson, T L

    2005-01-01

    The 12C/13C isotope ratio is a tracer of stellar yields and the efficiency of mixing in the ISM. 12CH+/13CH+ is not affected by interstellar chemistry, and is the most secure way of measuring 12C/13C in the diffuse ISM. R= 12C/13C is 90 in the solar system. Previous measurements of 12CH+ ll3957.7,4232.3 and 13CH+ ll3958.2,4232.0 absorption toward nearby stars indicate some variations in 12C/13C, with values ranging from 40 to 90 suggesting inefficient mixing. Except for the cloud toward zeta Oph, these R values are strongly affected by noise. With UVES on the VLT we have improved on the previous interstellar 12C/13C measurements. The weighted 12C/13C ratio in the local ISM is 78.27 +- 1.83, while the weighted dispersion of our measurements is 12.7, giving a 6.9 sigma scatter. Thus we report on a 6.9 sigma detection of 16.2% root-mean-square variations in the carbon isotopic ratio on scales of ~100 pc: R= 74.7 +- 2.3 in the zetaOph cloud, while R = 88.6 +- 3.0 toward HD152235 in the Lupus clouds, R = 62.2 +- 5...

  16. Periodic H-2 Synthesis for Spacecraft Attitude Control with Magnetometers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wisniewski, Rafal; Stoustrup, Jakob

    2004-01-01

    between the Earth´s magnetic field and an artificial magnetic field generated by the coils produces a control torque. The magnetic attitude control is intrinsically periodic due to cyclic variation of the geomagnetic field in orbit. The control performance is specified by the generalized H2 operator norm....... A linear matrix inequality-based algorithm is proposed for attitude control synthesis. Simulation results are provided, showing the prospect of the concept for onboard implementation....

  17. New cross sections for H on H2 collisional transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Qianxia

    The cross section for H on H2 collisions is important for astrophysics as well as our understanding of the simple chemical systems. This is the simplest atom-molecule cross section. With a new H3 potential surface by Mielke et al., we have modified the ABC code by Skouteris, Castillo and Manolopoulos to calculate new cross sections. These cross sections are compared to previous cross section calculations.

  18. H2O diffusion in Mount Changbai peralkaline rhyolitic melt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y.; Xu, Z.; Wang, H.; Behrens, H.

    2008-05-01

    For quantitative modeling of bubble growth and volcanic eruption dynamics, it is necessary to know H2O diffusivity in the melt. Mount Changbai Volcano at the border of China and North Korea has produced explosive peralkaline rhyolitic eruptions, including a 30-km3 eruption with an age of 1 ky (Horn and Schmincke, 2000). H2O diffusivity is expected to be greater in a peralkaline rhyolitic melt than a calc-alkaline rhyolitic melt. We have experimentally investigated H2O diffusion in Mount Changbai peralkaline rhyolite. Because phenocryst-free glass is not available from Mount Changbai eruption products, the starting materials (nominally dry and hydrous) are synthesized. The diffusion couple technique, with one half dry and the other half wet, is adopted. Three high- temperature experiments have been carried out at 500 MPa and one at 1500 MPa in a piston-cylinder apparatus. After the experiment, the sample is prepared into a doubly-polished section of about 0.2 mm thickness, which is analyzed by a Perkin-Elmer FTIR microscope. The data are fit following the procedures of Zhang and Behrens (2000) and Ni and Zhang (2008). Preliminary data show that H2O diffusivity in peralkaline rhyolitic melt is greater than that in calc-alkaline rhyolitic melt (Zhang and Behrens, 2000), as expected. The exact difference depends on temperature and pressure, and the ratio of diffusivity in the peralkaline rhyolitic melt to that in the calc-alkaline rhyolitic melt ranges from 1 to 3. More experiments will be conducted on this melt to provide the basic data for specific modeling of bubble growth and volcanic eruption dynamics in past and future Mount Changbai eruptions and other peralkaline rhyolitic eruptions. References: Horn S and Schmincke H U (2000) Bull. Volcanol., 61, 537. Ni H and Zhang Y (2008) Chem. Geol., doi: 10.1016/j.chemgeo.2008.01.011. Zhang Y and Behrens H (2000) Chem. Geol., 169, 243.

  19. H 2 guaranteed cost control of discrete linear systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colmenares W.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents necessary and sufficient conditions for the existence of a quadratically stabilizing output feedback controller which also assures H 2 guaranteed cost performance on a discrete linear uncertain system where the uncertainty is of the norm bounded type. The conditions are presented as a collection of linear matrix inequalities.The solution, however requires a search over a scalar parameter space.

  20. Cathodic H2 gas production through Pd alloy membrane electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirogami, T.; Murata, K.

    A rechargeable H2-NiOOH cell with hydrogen-permeable membrane electrode was tested, and its cathodic hydrogen gas production through the membrane electrode investigated. When a Pd-Pt, catalyzed electrolyte-facing surface was cathodically polarized in a concentrated KOH solution, it was found that hydrogen gas was evolved in the chamber through dissolved hydrogen atoms' penetrating of the membrane to exit at the other, palladized surface as free gas.

  1. H2S removal from biogas using bioreactors: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Dumont

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This review aims to provide an overview of the bioprocesses used for the removal of H2S from biogas. The ability of aerobic and anoxic bioreactors (biotrickling filters, bioscrubbers, and a combination of chemical scrubbers and bioreactors to perform the degradation of H2S is considered. For each operating mode (aerobic and anoxic, the bioprocesses are presented, the operating conditions affecting performance are summarized, the state of the art of research studies is described and commercial applications are given. At laboratory-scale, whatever their operating mode, biological processes are effective for biogas cleaning and provide the same performance. The clogging of the packed bed due to the deposit of elemental sulfur S0 and biomass accumulation clearly represents the main drawback of bioprocesses. Although elimination capacities (EC determined at laboratory-scale can be very high, EC should not be higher than 90 g m-3 h-1 at industrial-scale in order to limit clogging effects. For aerobic processes, the need to control the oxygen mass transfer accurately remains a key issue for their development at full-scale. As a result, the aerobic processes alone are probably not the most suitable bioprocesses for the treatment of biogas highly loaded with H2S. For anaerobic bioprocesses using nitrate as an electron acceptor, the scale-up of the laboratory process to a full-size plant remains a challenge. However, the use of wastewater from treatment plants, which constitutes a cheap source of nitrates, represents an interesting opportunity for the development of innovative bioprocesses enabling the simultaneous removal of H2S and nitrates.

  2. Flux-Velocity Relation for H2 Outflows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas, Luis; Cruz-González, Irene

    2002-06-01

    We present an analysis of velocity-resolved near-IR molecular hydrogen observations of a variety of protostellar outflows with very different energetics, degrees of collimation, and morphologies. Observations in the 2.12 μm line of H2 were obtained using an IR Fabry-Pérot interferometer with a spectral resolution of 23 km s-1. The integrated flux-velocity diagrams for each outflow show a flat spectrum for low velocities followed by a decreasing power law dF/dv~vγ, with γ between -1.8 and -2.6, for velocities higher than a clearly defined break velocity at 2-17 km s-1. Contrary to shock model predictions, it is shown that the H2 intensity is constant with velocity. We argue that the flux-velocity relation can then be interpreted as a mass-velocity relation, in striking similarity to the power-law mass spectra observed in CO outflows. By comparing H2 and CO mass-velocity spectra, it is shown that there is a velocity regime in which both molecules coexist and produce similar γ-values. Evolution effects in outflows appear as a correlation between outflow length and γ as outflows age, the spectra becomes steeper. Our results support a common physical origin for both CO and H2 emission and a strong association between the molecular outflows traced in each molecule. Based on observations obtained at the Observatorio Astronómico Nacional at San Pedro Mártir, Mexico.

  3. Fast metastable hydrogen atoms from H2 molecules: twin atoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trimèche A.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available It is a difficult task to obtain “twin atoms”, i.e. pairs of massive particles such that one can perform experiments in the same fashion that is routinely done with “twin photons”. One possible route to obtain such pairs is by dissociating homonuclear diatomic molecules. We address this possibility by investigating the production of metastable H(2s atoms coming from the dissociation of cold H2 molecules produced in a Campargue nozzle beam crossing an electron beam from a high intensity pulsed electron gun. Dissociation by electron impact was chosen to avoid limitations of target molecular excited states due to selection rules. Detectors placed several centimeters away from the collision center, and aligned with respect to possible common molecular dissociation channel, analyze the neutral fragments as a function of their time-of-flight (TOF through Lyman-α detection. Evidence for the first time observed coincidence of pairs of H(2s atoms obtained this way is presented.

  4. Graphene oxide and H2 production from bioelectrochemical graphite oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Lu; Zeng, Cuiping; Wang, Luda; Yin, Xiaobo; Jin, Song; Lu, Anhuai; Jason Ren, Zhiyong

    2015-11-17

    Graphene oxide (GO) is an emerging material for energy and environmental applications, but it has been primarily produced using chemical processes involving high energy consumption and hazardous chemicals. In this study, we reported a new bioelectrochemical method to produce GO from graphite under ambient conditions without chemical amendments, value-added organic compounds and high rate H2 were also produced. Compared with abiotic electrochemical electrolysis control, the microbial assisted graphite oxidation produced high rate of graphite oxide and graphene oxide (BEGO) sheets, CO2, and current at lower applied voltage. The resultant electrons are transferred to a biocathode, where H2 and organic compounds are produced by microbial reduction of protons and CO2, respectively, a process known as microbial electrosynthesis (MES). Pseudomonas is the dominant population on the anode, while abundant anaerobic solvent-producing bacteria Clostridium carboxidivorans is likely responsible for electrosynthesis on the cathode. Oxygen production through water electrolysis was not detected on the anode due to the presence of facultative and aerobic bacteria as O2 sinkers. This new method provides a sustainable route for producing graphene materials and renewable H2 at low cost, and it may stimulate a new area of research in MES.

  5. H2 sensing properties of modified silicon nanowires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Latefa Baba Ahmed

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available It has been found that the silicon nanowires modified with noble metals can be used to fabricate an effective H2 gas sensor in the present study. The preparation and surface modification of silicon nanowires (SiNWs were carried out by chemical methods. The morphology of the silicon nanowires unmodified and modified with nanoparticles of platinum, palladium, silver and gold was investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The chemical composition of the silicon nanowire layers was studied by secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS and energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX. The structures of type metal/SiNWs/p-Si/Al were fabricated. The electrical characterization (I–V was performed in primary vacuum and H2 at different concentrations. It was found that the metal type used to modify the SiNWs strongly influenced the I–V characteristics. The response of these structures toward H2 gas was studied as a function of the metal type. Finally, the sensing characteristics and performance of the sensors were investigated.

  6. H2 sensing properties of modified silicon nanowires

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Latefa Baba Ahmed; Sabrina Naama; Aissa Keffous; Abdelkader Hassein-Bey; Toufik Hadjersi

    2015-01-01

    It has been found that the silicon nanowires modified with noble metals can be used to fabricate an effective H2 gas sensor in the present study. The preparation and surface modification of silicon nanowires (SiNWs) were carried out by chemical methods. The morphology of the silicon nanowires unmodified and modified with nanoparticles of platinum, palladium, silver and gold was investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The chemical composition of the silicon nanowire layers was studied by secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) and energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX). The structures of type metal/SiNWs/p-Si/Al were fabricated. The electrical characterization (I–V) was performed in primary vacuum and H2 at different concentrations. It was found that the metal type used to modify the SiNWs strongly influenced the I–V characteristics. The response of these structures toward H2 gas was studied as a function of the metal type. Finally, the sensing characteristics and performance of the sensors were investigated.

  7. Calabi-Yau threefolds with large h^{2, 1}

    CERN Document Server

    Johnson, Samuel B

    2014-01-01

    We carry out a systematic analysis of Calabi-Yau threefolds that are elliptically fibered with section ("EFS") and have a large Hodge number h^{2, 1}. EFS Calabi-Yau threefolds live in a single connected space, with regions of moduli space associated with different topologies connected through transitions that can be understood in terms of singular Weierstrass models. We determine the complete set of such threefolds that have h^{2, 1} >= 350 by tuning coefficients in Weierstrass models over Hirzebruch surfaces. The resulting set of Hodge numbers includes those of all known Calabi-Yau threefolds with h^{2, 1} >= 350, as well as three apparently new Calabi-Yau threefolds. We speculate that there are no other Calabi-Yau threefolds (elliptically fibered or not) with Hodge numbers that exceed this bound. We summarize the theoretical and practical obst acles to a complete enumeration of all possible EFS Calabi-Yau threefolds and fourfolds, including those with small Hodge numbers, using this approach.

  8. The effect of H2O on ice photochemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Oberg, Karin I; Linnartz, Harold; Andersson, Stefan

    2010-01-01

    UV irradiation of simple ices is proposed to efficiently produce complex organic species during star- and planet-formation. Through a series of laboratory experiments, we investigate the effects of the H2O concentration, the dominant ice constituent in space, on the photochemistry of more volatile species, especially CH4, in ice mixtures. In the experiments, thin (~40 ML) ice mixtures, kept at 20-60 K, are irradiated under ultra-high vacuum conditions with a broad-band UV hydrogen discharge lamp. Photodestruction cross sections of volatile species (CH4 and NH3) and production efficiencies of new species (C2H6, C2H4, CO, H2CO, CH3OH, CH3CHO and CH3CH2OH) in water-containing ice mixtures are determined using reflection-absorption infrared spectroscopy during irradiation and during a subsequent slow warm-up. The four major effects of increasing the H2O concentration are 1) an increase of the destruction efficiency of the volatile mixture constituent by up to an order of magnitude due to a reduction of back react...

  9. Infrared absorption of H_2_O toward massive young stars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dishoeck, E. F.; Helmich, F. P.

    1996-11-01

    We present ISO-SWS observations of absorption lines of gas-phase water within its bending vibrational mode at 6μm toward four massive young stars, which cover a range in physical parameters. Hot water with an excitation temperature >200K is detected toward GL 2136 and GL 4176, in addition to GL 2591 discussed by Helmich et al. (1996A&A...315L.173H). The abundance of water with respect to H_2_ is high in these regions, ~(2-3)x10^-5^, and comparable to the solid H_2_O abundance. In contrast, no gas-phase water absorption lines are seen toward NGC 7538 IRS9. The amount of gas-phase water is correlated with the column density of warm gas along the line of sight. Infrared observations of a larger variety of sources may provide insight into the relative importance of evaporation of grain mantles vs. high temperature gas-phase chemistry in producing the observed high abundance of H_2_O.

  10. The SWS survey for H2 in galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentijn, E. A.; van der Werf, P. P.

    1999-03-01

    ISO SWS has made the first extragalactic direct detection of the H2 molecule in pure rotational lines in the nucleus of NGC 6946. Here we focus on the interstellar medium in the disks of spiral galaxies. Our detection (Valentijn & van der Werf 1999, hereafter VW99) of the two lowest pure rotational lines of molecular hydrogen at 28.2 (S(0)) and 17.0 μm (S(1)) at 8 positions throughout the stellar disk of NGC 891 provides new insight in atomic to molecular hydrogen ratios and the physical state of the interstellar medium in the disks of late-type galaxies. H2 has been detected out to 12 kpc from the center of NGC 891. The data indicate relatively warm (T = 150 - 230 K) molecular clouds scattered throughout the disk, in addition to a massive cooler (T=80-90 K) component which dominates in the outer regions. For H2 ortho-para ratios of 2-3 the cool component has typical edge-on surface densities of about 3000 Modot/pc2, in which case it outweighs the atomic hydrogen by a factor 10. This factor raises the gas masses within the optical disks sufficiently to account for the observed rotation curves in these regions.

  11. CO2-H2 gas separation by physical adsorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiga, Sidi; Mbaye, Mamadou; Gatica, Silvina

    2011-04-01

    In the advancement of Hydrogen-based economy, the efficient production of H2 represents an issue for commercial applications. Regardless of the method, H2 purification ultimately equates to a CO2 removal process. Gas separation by adsorption can be accomplished by three basic physical mechanisms: equilibrium, steric and kinetic. Equilibrium mechanisms are based on the strength of the attraction of the gases to the substrate; the kinetic mechanisms are those based on the differences in the rates of adsorption and/or transport of the gas on and through the substrate; and the steric mechanisms are based on the incompatibility between the size or shape of the pores in the substrate and those of the adsorbate gas molecules. Many materials have been used for this purpose during the past half century, including carbon nanotubes (NTs), activated carbons and zeolites. Within the arena of gas separations, ``Metal-Organic Frameworks'' (MOFs) or Carbon Nanohorns (CNHs) are promising materials. We have studied the energy space distribution of CO2and H2 in MOFs and CNHs and found that based on the energetics the materials may be used for gas separation processes. Acknowledgment is made to the Donors of the American Chemical Society Petroleum Research Fund and to the National Science Foundation under Grant No. DMR-1006010 for partial support of this research.

  12. Thermodynamics and H2 Transfer in a Methanogenic, Syntrophic Community.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua J Hamilton

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Microorganisms in nature do not exist in isolation but rather interact with other species in their environment. Some microbes interact via syntrophic associations, in which the metabolic by-products of one species serve as nutrients for another. These associations sustain a variety of natural communities, including those involved in methanogenesis. In anaerobic syntrophic communities, energy is transferred from one species to another, either through direct contact and exchange of electrons, or through small molecule diffusion. Thermodynamics plays an important role in governing these interactions, as the oxidation reactions carried out by the first community member are only possible because degradation products are consumed by the second community member. This work presents the development and analysis of genome-scale network reconstructions of the bacterium Syntrophobacter fumaroxidans and the methanogenic archaeon Methanospirillum hungatei. The models were used to verify proposed mechanisms of ATP production within each species. We then identified additional constraints and the cellular objective function required to match experimental observations. The thermodynamic S. fumaroxidans model could not explain why S. fumaroxidans does not produce H2 in monoculture, indicating that current methods might not adequately estimate the thermodynamics, or that other cellular processes (e.g., regulation play a role. We also developed a thermodynamic coculture model of the association between the organisms. The coculture model correctly predicted the exchange of both H2 and formate between the two species and suggested conditions under which H2 and formate produced by S. fumaroxidans would be fully consumed by M. hungatei.

  13. Thermodynamics and H2 Transfer in a Methanogenic, Syntrophic Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Joshua J; Calixto Contreras, Montserrat; Reed, Jennifer L

    2015-07-01

    Microorganisms in nature do not exist in isolation but rather interact with other species in their environment. Some microbes interact via syntrophic associations, in which the metabolic by-products of one species serve as nutrients for another. These associations sustain a variety of natural communities, including those involved in methanogenesis. In anaerobic syntrophic communities, energy is transferred from one species to another, either through direct contact and exchange of electrons, or through small molecule diffusion. Thermodynamics plays an important role in governing these interactions, as the oxidation reactions carried out by the first community member are only possible because degradation products are consumed by the second community member. This work presents the development and analysis of genome-scale network reconstructions of the bacterium Syntrophobacter fumaroxidans and the methanogenic archaeon Methanospirillum hungatei. The models were used to verify proposed mechanisms of ATP production within each species. We then identified additional constraints and the cellular objective function required to match experimental observations. The thermodynamic S. fumaroxidans model could not explain why S. fumaroxidans does not produce H2 in monoculture, indicating that current methods might not adequately estimate the thermodynamics, or that other cellular processes (e.g., regulation) play a role. We also developed a thermodynamic coculture model of the association between the organisms. The coculture model correctly predicted the exchange of both H2 and formate between the two species and suggested conditions under which H2 and formate produced by S. fumaroxidans would be fully consumed by M. hungatei.

  14. Knots in the Helix Nebula found in H2

    CERN Document Server

    Matsuura, M; McHunu, B M; Tanaka, I; Wright, N J; Smith, M D; Zijlstra, A A; Viti, S; Wesson, R

    2009-01-01

    We present a deep and wide field-of-view (4'x 7') image of the planetary nebula (PN) NGC 7293 (the Helix Nebula) in the 2.12 micron H2 v=1-0 S(1) line. The excellent seeing (0.4'') at the Subaru Telescope, allows the details of cometary knots to be examined. The knots are found at distances of 2.2'-6.4' from the central star (CS). At the inner edge and in the inner ring (up to 4.5' fromthe CS), the knot often show a `tadpole' shape, an elliptical head with a bright crescent inside and a long tail opposite to the CS. In detail, there are variations in the tadpole shapes, such as narrowing tails, widening tails, meandering tails, or multi-peaks within a tail. In the outer ring (4.5'-6.4' from the CS), the shapes are more fractured, and the tails do not collimate into a single direction. The transition in knot morphology from the inner edge to the outer ring is clearly seen. The number density of knots governs the H2 surface brightness in the inner ring: H2 exists only within the knots. Possible mechanisms which...

  15. Synthesis and Crystal Structure of a New Dinuclear Copper(Ⅱ) Polymer: [Cu2(bipy)2(Hbtc)2(H2O)2]·(H2O)1/2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Pang-Kuan; CHE Yun-Xia; ZHENG Ji-Min

    2006-01-01

    A new dinuclear copper(Ⅱ) polymer [Cu2(bipy)2(Hbtc)2(H2O)2]·(H2O)1/2 1 (bipy=2,2'-bipyridine, H3btc = benzene-1,3,5-tricarboxylic acid) was obtained by the hydrothermal single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis and identified using elemental analysis and IR spectrum.The title complex crystallizes in monoclinic system, space group P21/c with a = 7.2880(5), b =18.4778(13), c = 13.5465(10)(A), β = 95.9580(10)°, C19H14.50CuN2O7.25, Mr = 450.37, V= 1814.4(2)(A)3, Z=4, Dc = 1.649 g/cm3, μ = 1.253 mm-1, F(000) = 918, Rint = 0.0185, the final R = 0.0271and wR = 0.0710 for 2773 observed reflections (I>2σ(I)). The study results reveal that a pair of distorted square-pyramidal Cu2+ ions are interlinked by bis-monodentate bridging Hbtc2- ligands to constitute a 16-membered ring.

  16. The Hydrogen Futures Simulation Model (H[2]Sim) technical description.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Scott A.; Kamery, William; Baker, Arnold Barry; Drennen, Thomas E.; Lutz, Andrew E.; Rosthal, Jennifer Elizabeth

    2004-10-01

    Hydrogen has the potential to become an integral part of our energy transportation and heat and power sectors in the coming decades and offers a possible solution to many of the problems associated with a heavy reliance on oil and other fossil fuels. The Hydrogen Futures Simulation Model (H2Sim) was developed to provide a high level, internally consistent, strategic tool for evaluating the economic and environmental trade offs of alternative hydrogen production, storage, transport and end use options in the year 2020. Based on the model's default assumptions, estimated hydrogen production costs range from 0.68 $/kg for coal gasification to as high as 5.64 $/kg for centralized electrolysis using solar PV. Coal gasification remains the least cost option if carbon capture and sequestration costs ($0.16/kg) are added. This result is fairly robust; for example, assumed coal prices would have to more than triple or the assumed capital cost would have to increase by more than 2.5 times for natural gas reformation to become the cheaper option. Alternatively, assumed natural gas prices would have to fall below $2/MBtu to compete with coal gasification. The electrolysis results are highly sensitive to electricity costs, but electrolysis only becomes cost competitive with other options when electricity drops below 1 cent/kWhr. Delivered 2020 hydrogen costs are likely to be double the estimated production costs due to the inherent difficulties associated with storing, transporting, and dispensing hydrogen due to its low volumetric density. H2Sim estimates distribution costs ranging from 1.37 $/kg (low distance, low production) to 3.23 $/kg (long distance, high production volumes, carbon sequestration). Distributed hydrogen production options, such as on site natural gas, would avoid some of these costs. H2Sim compares the expected 2020 per mile driving costs (fuel, capital, maintenance, license, and registration) of current technology internal combustion engine (ICE

  17. Accurate determinations of one-bond 13C-13C couplings in 13C-labeled carbohydrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azurmendi, Hugo F.; Freedberg, Darón I.

    2013-03-01

    Carbon plays a central role in the molecular architecture of carbohydrates, yet the availability of accurate methods for 1DCC determination has not been sufficiently explored, despite the importance that such data could play in structural studies of oligo- and polysaccharides. Existing methods require fitting intensity ratios of cross- to diagonal-peaks as a function of the constant-time (CT) in CT-COSY experiments, while other methods utilize measurement of peak separation. The former strategies suffer from complications due to peak overlap, primarily in regions close to the diagonal, while the latter strategies are negatively impacted by the common occurrence of strong coupling in sugars, which requires a reliable assessment of their influence in the context of RDC determination. We detail a 13C-13C CT-COSY method that combines a variation in the CT processed with diagonal filtering to yield 1JCC and RDCs. The strategy, which relies solely on cross-peak intensity modulation, is inspired in the cross-peak nulling method used for JHH determinations, but adapted and extended to applications where, like in sugars, large one-bond 13C-13C couplings coexist with relatively small long-range couplings. Because diagonal peaks are not utilized, overlap problems are greatly alleviated. Thus, one-bond couplings can be determined from different cross-peaks as either active or passive coupling. This results in increased accuracy when more than one determination is available, and in more opportunities to measure a specific coupling in the presence of severe overlap. In addition, we evaluate the influence of strong couplings on the determination of RDCs by computer simulations. We show that individual scalar couplings are notably affected by the presence of strong couplings but, at least for the simple cases studied, the obtained RDC values for use in structural calculations were not, because the errors introduced by strong couplings for the isotropic and oriented phases are very

  18. Accurate determinations of one-bond 13C-13C couplings in 13C-labeled carbohydrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azurmendi, Hugo F; Freedberg, Darón I

    2013-03-01

    Carbon plays a central role in the molecular architecture of carbohydrates, yet the availability of accurate methods for (1)D(CC) determination has not been sufficiently explored, despite the importance that such data could play in structural studies of oligo- and polysaccharides. Existing methods require fitting intensity ratios of cross- to diagonal-peaks as a function of the constant-time (CT) in CT-COSY experiments, while other methods utilize measurement of peak separation. The former strategies suffer from complications due to peak overlap, primarily in regions close to the diagonal, while the latter strategies are negatively impacted by the common occurrence of strong coupling in sugars, which requires a reliable assessment of their influence in the context of RDC determination. We detail a (13)C-(13)C CT-COSY method that combines a variation in the CT processed with diagonal filtering to yield (1)J(CC) and RDCs. The strategy, which relies solely on cross-peak intensity modulation, is inspired in the cross-peak nulling method used for J(HH) determinations, but adapted and extended to applications where, like in sugars, large one-bond (13)C-(13)C couplings coexist with relatively small long-range couplings. Because diagonal peaks are not utilized, overlap problems are greatly alleviated. Thus, one-bond couplings can be determined from different cross-peaks as either active or passive coupling. This results in increased accuracy when more than one determination is available, and in more opportunities to measure a specific coupling in the presence of severe overlap. In addition, we evaluate the influence of strong couplings on the determination of RDCs by computer simulations. We show that individual scalar couplings are notably affected by the presence of strong couplings but, at least for the simple cases studied, the obtained RDC values for use in structural calculations were not, because the errors introduced by strong couplings for the isotropic and

  19. Synthesis and Crystal Structure of [{Cd(hmbdc)(H2O)3}·2H2O]n

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Yue-Hua; WANG Yan; WANG Zuo-Wei; LI Yi-Zhi; ZHENG He-Gen

    2007-01-01

    A novel coordination polymer [{Cd(hmbdc)(H2O)3}·2H2O]n (hmbdc=5-hydroxy- isophthalic acid) has been synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, IR spectra and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The crystal belongs to monoclinic, space group P21/c, with a=9.599(3), b=18.699(5), c=7.557(2) (A), β= 108.198(4)°, V=1288.6(6) (A)3, Z=4, Mr=382.60, Dc=1.972 g/cm3, F(000)=760, μ=1.740, the final R=0.0555 and wR=0.0995 for 1732 observed reflections with Ⅰ > 2σ(Ⅰ). The structural analysis shows that the intermolecular hydrogen bonds and π-π interactions result in a three-dimensional supramolecular framework.

  20. Isotope effect in the formation of H2 from H2CO studied at the atmospheric simulation chamber SAPHIR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Koppmann

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Formaldehyde of known, near-natural isotopic composition was photolyzed in the SAPHIR atmosphere simulation chamber under ambient conditions. The isotopic composition of the product H2 was used to determine the isotope effects in formaldehyde photolysis. The experiments are sensitive to the molecular photolysis channel, and the radical channel has only an indirect effect and cannot be effectively constrained. The molecular channel kinetic isotope effect KIEmol, the ratio of photolysis frequencies j(HCHO→CO+H2/j(HCDO→CO+HD at surface pressure, is determined to be KIEmol=1.63−0.046+0.038. This is similar to the kinetic isotope effect for the total removal of HCHO from a recent relative rate experiment (KIEtot=1.58±0.03, which indicates that the KIEs in the molecular and radical photolysis channels at surface pressure (≈100 kPa may not be as different as described previously in the literature.

  1. Synthesis and Crystal Structur of (4,4'-H2bipy)[CdBr4]·H2O

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The title compound (4,4'-H2bipy)[CdBr4]·H2O 1 has been synthesized via hydrothermal reaction and characterized by X-ray diffraction. The crystal belongs to monoelinic,space group P21/c with a=8.260(3), b=23.926(7), c=9.774(2) (A), β=106.777(9)°,C10H12Br4CdN2O, Mr=608.26, V=1849.4(9)(A)3, Z=4, Dc=2.185 g/cm3, S=1.005, μ(MoKα)=9.814 mm-1, F(000)=1128, R=0.0646 and wR=0.0989. The crystal structure analysis of 1reveals that the title compound features an isolated structure, based on discrete 4,4'-H2bipy moieties and lattice water molecules which are linked by hydrogen bonds together with tetrahedral cadmium atoms terminally coordinated by four bromine atoms.

  2. Experimental determination of the H2SO4/(NH4)2SO4/H2O phase diagram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, Keith D; Bothe, Jameson R; Burrmann, Nicola

    2007-01-25

    We have experimentally investigated the water and sulfuric acid-rich regions of the H2SO4/(NH4)2SO4/H2O ternary liquid/solid phase diagram using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and infrared spectroscopy of thin films. We present the liquid/solid ternary phase diagram for temperatures below 373 K and H2SO4 concentrations below 60 wt %. We have determined two ternary eutectics and two tributary reaction points for this system in the regions studied. It is also seen that sulfuric acid tetrahydrate (SAT) forms as a metastable solid over a large concentration range. Two true binary systems have been identified: ice/letovicite and SAT/ammonium bisulfate. Finally, we have compared our results to the predictions of the aerosol inorganics model and have found significant differences both in the final melting points and in the location of some of the phase boundaries including a significant discrepancy in the invariant points predicted versus those observed.

  3. Synthesis and Crystal Structure of a Macrocycle [Cu(dadm)(mal)(H2O)]2·2H2O

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林郑忠; 江飞龙; 陈莲; 洪茂椿

    2004-01-01

    The reaction of 4,4′-diaminodiphenylmethane (dadm), malonic acid (H2mal) and Cu(NO3)2 in aqueous solution results in a discrete binuclear Cu(II) macrocycle: [Cu(dadm)(mal)- (H2O)]2(2H2O. It crystallizes in monoclinic, space group P21/c with a = 15.231(3), b = 11.847(2), c = 9.801(2)A,Z= 106.75(3)o, V = 1693.5(6)A3, Z = 2, C32H40Cu2N4O12, Mr = 799.76, Dc = 1.568 g/cm3, λ(MoK() = 0.71073A, μ = 1.325 mm-1, F(000) = 828, the final R = 0.0531 and Wr = 0.1244 for 3421 observed reflections with I > 2σ(I). Each Cu(II) is coordinated by two oxygen atoms from a mal ligand, two nitrogen atoms from two dadm ligands and a water oxygen atom to form a triangle bipyramidal motif. The title compound possesses a distorted macrocycle enclosed by dadm with approximate dimensions of 8.3A× 5.9A.

  4. Kinetics of HO2 + HO2 -> H2O2 + O2: Implications for Stratospheric H2O2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, L. E.; Okumura, M.; Sander, S. P.; Salawitch, R. J.; Toon, G. C.; Sen, B.; Blavier, J.-F.; Jucks, K. W.

    2002-05-01

    The reaction HO2 + HO2 -> H2O2 + O2refid="df01" type="formula">(1) has been studied at 100 Torr and 222 K to 295 K. Experiments employing photolysis of Cl2/CH3OH/O2/N2 and F2/H2/O2/N2 gas mixtures to produce HO2 confirmed that methanol enhanced the observed reaction rate. At 100 Torr, zero methanol, k1 = (8.8 +/- 0.9) 10-13 × exp[(210 +/- 26)/T] cm3 molecule-1 s-1 (2σ uncertainties), which agrees with current recommendations at 295 K but is nearly 2 times slower at 231 K. The general expression for k1, which includes the dependence on bath gas density, is k1 = (1.5 +/- 0.2) × 10-12 × exp[(19 +/- 31)/T] + 1.7 × 10-33 × [M] × exp[1000/T], where the second term is taken from the JPL00-3 recommendation. The revised rate largely accounts for a discrepancy between modeled and measured [H2O2] in the lower to middle stratosphere.

  5. H 2O chemisorption and H 2 oxidation on yttria-stabilized zirconia: Density functional theory and temperature-programmed desorption studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorski, Alexandr; Yurkiv, Vitaliy; Starukhin, Dzmitry; Volpp, Hans-Robert

    The mechanism of H 2O dissociation as well as the adsorption and oxidation reaction of H 2 on yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ), commonly used as part of solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) anodes, was investigated employing temperature-programmed desorption (TPD) spectroscopy and density functional theory (DFT). In agreement with theory the experimental results show that interaction of gaseous H 2O with YSZ results in dissociative adsorption leading to strongly bound OH surface species. In the interaction of gaseous H 2 with an oxygen-enriched YSZ surface (YSZ + O) similar OH surface species are formed as reaction intermediates in the H 2 oxidation. Our experiments showed that in both the H 2O/YSZ and the H 2/YSZ + O heterogeneous reaction systems noticeable amounts of H 2O are "dissolved" in the bulk as interstitial hydrogen and hydroxyl species. The experimental H 2O desorption data is used to access the accuracy of the H 2/H 2O/YSZ adsorption/desorption and surface reaction kinetics data, employed in previous modeling studies of the electrochemical H 2 oxidation on Ni-pattern/YSZ model anodes by Vogler et al. [J. Electrochem. Soc., 156 (2009) B663] and Goodwin et al. [J. Electrochem. Soc., 156 (2009) B1004]. Finally a refined experimentally validated H 2/H 2O/YSZ adsorption/desorption and surface reaction kinetics data set is presented.

  6. Study of internal permanent magnet rotor made of 0.6C-13Cr-Fe dual state magnetic material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mita, Masahiro; Masuzawa, Masahiro; Hirao, Noriyoshi; Kimura, Fumio

    2003-05-01

    We have successfully developed an internal permanent magnet (IPM) rotor using dual state bulk magnetic material to increase usable magnetic flux dramatically. The most significant benefit of the IPM rotor is its mechanical reliability, because permanent magnets are inserted in slots of soft magnetic material. On the other hand, there is significant leakage flux between adjoining permanent magnets in the soft magnetic rotor core, reducing the usable magnetic flux flowing into the stator core. To solve this problem, we used a dual state magnetic material, 0.6C-13Cr-Fe alloy. This soft magnetic material could locally be changed into nonmagnetic material by localized heat treatment. By changing the material at leakage flux path into nonmagnetic, we can reduce the leakage flux, while keeping the rotor mechanically sound. By applying the dual state magnetic material to an experimental eight pole IPM rotor, the useful flux flowing in the stator core differs by 8% when compared to an all soft magnetic rotor core.

  7. Land Use Effects on Atmospheric C-13 Imply a Sizable Terrestrial CO2 Sink in Tropical Latitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Alan R.; Asner, Gregory P.; Tans, Pieter P.; White, James W. C.

    2000-01-01

    Records of atmospheric CO2 and 13-CO2, can be used to distinguish terrestrial vs. oceanic exchanges of CO2 with the atmosphere. However, this approach has proven difficult in the tropics, partly due to extensive land conversion from C-3 to C-4 vegetation. We estimated the effects of such conversion on biosphere-atmosphere C-13 exchange for 1991 through 1999, and then explored how this 'land-use disequilibrium' altered the partitioning of net atmospheric CO2 exchanges between ocean and land using NOAA-CMDL data and a 2D, zonally averaged atmospheric transport model. Our results show sizable CO2 uptake in C-3-dominated tropical regions in seven of the nine years; 1997 and 1998, which included a strong ENSO event, are near neutral. Since these fluxes include any deforestation source, our findings imply either that such sources are smaller than previously estimated, and/or the existence of a large terrestrial CO2 sink in equatorial latitudes.

  8. Determinations of the 12C/13C Ratio for the Secondary Stars of AE Aquarii, SS Cygni, and RU Pegasi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Thomas E.; Marra, Rachel E.

    2017-07-01

    We present new moderate-resolution near-infrared spectroscopy of three CVs obtained using GNIRS on Gemini-North. These spectra covered three 13CO bandheads found in the K-band, allowing us to derive the isotopic abundance ratios for carbon. We find small 12C/13C ratios for all three donor stars. In addition, these three objects show carbon deficits, with AE Aqr being the most extreme ([C/Fe] = -1.4). This result confirms the conjecture that the donor stars in some long-period CVs have undergone considerable nuclear evolution prior to becoming semi-contact binaries. In addition to the results for carbon, we find that the abundance of sodium is enhanced in these three objects, and the secondary stars in both RU Peg and SS Cyg suffer magnesium deficits. Explaining such anomalies appears to require higher mass progenitors than commonly assumed for the donor stars of CVs. Based on observations obtained at the Gemini Observatory, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under a cooperative agreement with the NSF on behalf of the Gemini partnership: the National Science Foundation (United States), the National Research Council (Canada), CONICYT (Chile), Ministerio de Ciencia, Tecnología e Innovación Productiva (Argentina), and Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia e Inovação (Brazil).

  9. Purification and characterization of a surfactin-like molecule produced by Bacillus sp. H2O-1 and its antagonistic effect against sulfate reducing bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korenblum Elisa

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bacillus sp. H2O-1, isolated from the connate water of a Brazilian reservoir, produces an antimicrobial substance (denoted as AMS H2O-1 that is active against sulfate reducing bacteria, which are the major bacterial group responsible for biogenic souring and biocorrosion in petroleum reservoirs. Thus, the use of AMS H2O-1 for sulfate reducing bacteria control in the petroleum industry is a promising alternative to chemical biocides. However, prior to the large-scale production of AMS H2O-1 for industrial applications, its chemical structure must be elucidated. This study also analyzed the changes in the wetting properties of different surfaces conditioned with AMS H2O-1 and demonstrated the effect of AMS H2O-1 on sulfate reducing bacteria cells. Results A lipopeptide mixture from AMS H2O-1 was partially purified on a silica gel column and identified via mass spectrometry (ESI-MS. It comprises four major components that range in size from 1007 to 1049 Da. The lipid moiety contains linear and branched β-hydroxy fatty acids that range in length from C13 to C16. The peptide moiety contains seven amino acids identified as Glu-Leu-Leu-Val-Asp-Leu-Leu. Transmission electron microscopy revealed cell membrane alteration of sulfate reducing bacteria after AMS H2O-1 treatment at the minimum inhibitory concentration (5 μg/ml. Cytoplasmic electron dense inclusions were observed in treated cells but not in untreated cells. AMS H2O-1 enhanced the osmosis of sulfate reducing bacteria cells and caused the leakage of the intracellular contents. In addition, contact angle measurements indicated that different surfaces conditioned by AMS H2O-1 were less hydrophobic and more electron-donor than untreated surfaces. Conclusion AMS H2O-1 is a mixture of four surfactin-like homologues, and its biocidal activity and surfactant properties suggest that this compound may be a good candidate for sulfate reducing bacteria control. Thus, it is a potential

  10. Hydrogen Storage Properties of Nanosized MgH2-0.1TiH2 Prepared by Ultrahigh-energy-high-pressure Milling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Jun; Choi, Young Joon; Fang, Zhigang Zak; Sohn, Hong Yong; Ronnebro, Ewa

    2010-07-29

    Magnesium hydride (MgH2) is an attractive candidate for solid state hydrogen storage applications. To improve the kinetics and thermodynamic properties of MgH2 during dehydrogenation-rehydrogenation cycles, a nano-structured MgH2-0.1TiH2 material system prepared by ultrahigh-energy-high-pressure mechanical milling was investigated. High-resolution TEM and scanning TEM analysis showed that the grain size of the milled MgH2-0.1TiH2 powder is approximately 5-10 nm with uniform distributions of TiH2 among MgH2 particles. Pressure-Composition-Temperature (PCT) analysis demonstrated that both the nanosize and the addition of TiH2 contributed to the significant improvement of the kinetics of dehydrogenation and hydrogenation compared to commercial MgH2. More importantly, PCT cycle analysis demonstrated that the MgH2-0.1TiH2 material system showed excellent cycle stability which is attributed to the inhibition of coarsening by TiH2. The results also showed that the ΔH value for the dehydrogenation of nanostructured MgH2-0.1TiH2 is significantly lower than that of commercial MgH2. However, the ΔS value of the reaction was also lower which results in minimum net effects of the nanosize and the addition of TiH2 on the equilibrium pressure of dehydrogenation reaction of MgH2.

  11. Sum of Roots Characterization for H2 Control Performance Limitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, Shinji; Kanno, Masaaki

    This paper provides new expressions of H2 control performance limits achievable by feedback for SISO continuous-time systems. The result for the regulation problem is expressed in a simple manner in terms of two sums of roots obtained from the plant and the associated polynomial spectral factorization. We show that it can connect the two existing solutions, namely the Riccati solution and the analytical expression with an integral form. The similar result for the tracking problem is also derived using the reciprocal transform. Finally parametric optimization making use of the derived expression by means of symbolic computation is demonstrated to confirm the validity of the sum of roots characterization.

  12. Toward the Rational Benchmarking of Homogeneous H2-Evolving Catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artero, Vincent; Saveant, Jean-Michel

    2015-01-01

    Molecular electrocatalysts for H2 evolution are usually studied under various conditions (solvent, proton sources) that prevent direct comparison of their performances. We provide here a rational method for such a benchmark based on (i) the recent analysis of the current-potential response for two-electron-two-step mechanisms and (ii) the derivation of catalytic Tafel plots reflecting the interdependency of turnover frequency and overpotential based on the intrinsic properties of the catalyst, independently of contingent factors such as the cell characteristics. Such a methodology is exemplified on a series of molecular catalysts among the most efficient in recent literature. PMID:26269710

  13. Multiobjective H2/H? Control Design with Regional Pole Constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junaidi Junaidi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents multiobjective H2/H? control design with regional pole constraints. The state feedback gain can be obtained by solving a linear matrix inequality (LMI feasibility problem that robustly assigns the closed-loop poles in a prescribed LMI region. The proposed technique is illustrated with applications to the design of stabilizer for a typical single-machine infinite-bus (SMIB power system. The LMI-based control ensures adequate damping for widely varying system operating conditions. The simulation results illustrate the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed stabilizer.

  14. Frank-Condon factors for H2O(+) molecular bands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shefov, N. N.

    1983-11-01

    The Frank-Condon factors q sub (v' v'') are calculated for the spectra of the H2O(+) molecule by the method of Volkenstein et al. (1972). The results are presented in a table for values of v' from 5 to 17 and of v'' from zero to 4, indicating which bands have been observed either in the laboratory or in comets. It is shown that the photon scattering coefficient of Chamberlain (1978) can be calculated using these data for the (8,0) band; values of about 0.060 for the earth and about 0.17 for Halley's comet (at its 1986 perihelion) are determined.

  15. Aromatic Character of All Possible C36H2 Isomers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ablikim Kerim

    2006-01-01

    The stability of C36H2 isomers and selection rules for choosing position in addition reactions based on symmetrical C36(D6h and D2d) fullerene have been studied by means of Aihara's topological resonance energy (TRE) and bond resonance energy (BRE) methods. The relation between the addition pattern and BREs is established, showing high antiaromatic bonds are preferred for addition. These results show that TRE and BRE methods can be used to predict and interpret addition sites for these systems.

  16. Chemiluminescent ion-molecule reactions B + +H2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottinger, Ch.; Reichmuth, J.

    1981-01-01

    Emission spectra resulting from impact of low-energy (1-10 eVc.m.) B+ ions in a beam on an H2 target were measured. Numerous new bands of the BH+(A 2Π-X 2Σ+) transition were observed besides the previously known (0,0) and (1,1) bands. Also, at higher energy a new band system was discovered which is ascribed to the BH+(B' 2Σ+-X 2Σ+) transition. It was identified by analogy with BeH and MgH. The results are discussed in terms of electronic state and molecular orbital correlation diagrams.

  17. Hydrogen Learning for Local Leaders – H2L3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serfass, Patrick

    2017-03-30

    The Hydrogen Learning for Local Leaders program, H2L3, elevates the knowledge about hydrogen by local government officials across the United States. The program reaches local leaders directly through “Hydrogen 101” workshops and webinar sessions; the creation and dissemination of a unique report on the hydrogen and fuel cell market in the US, covering 57 different sectors; and support of the Hydrogen Student Design Contest, a competition for interdisciplinary teams of university students to design hydrogen and fuel cell systems based on technology that’s currently commercially available.

  18. H2A-DUBbing the mammalian epigenome: expanding frontiers for histone H2A deubiquitinating enzymes in cell biology and physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belle, Jad I; Nijnik, Anastasia

    2014-05-01

    Posttranslational modifications of histone H2A through the attachment of ubiquitin or poly-ubiquitin conjugates are common in mammalian genomes and play an important role in the regulation of chromatin structure, gene expression, and DNA repair. Histone H2A deubiquitinases (H2A-DUBs) are a group of structurally diverse enzymes that catalyze the removal ubiquitin from histone H2A. In this review we provide a concise summary of the mechanisms that mediate histone H2A ubiquitination in mammalian cells, and review our current knowledge of mammalian H2A-DUBs, their biochemical activities, and recent developments in our understanding of their functions in mammalian physiology.

  19. Synthesis, structural and hydrogenation properties of Mg-rich MgH2-TiH2 nanocomposites prepared by reactive ball milling under hydrogen gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuevas, Fermin; Korablov, Dmytro; Latroche, Michel

    2012-01-21

    MgH(2)-TiH(2) nanocomposites have been obtained by reactive ball milling of elemental powders under 8 MPa of hydrogen pressure. The composites consist of a mixture of β-rutile MgH(2), γ-orthorhombic high pressure MgH(2) and ε-tetragonal TiH(2) phases with nanosized crystallites ranging from 4 to 12 nm. In situ hydrogen absorption curves on milling reveal that nanocomposite formation occurs in less than 50 min through the consecutive synthesis of the TiH(2) and MgH(2) phases. The abrasive and catalytic properties of TiH(2) speed up the formation of the MgH(2) phase. Thermodynamic, kinetic and cycling hydrogenation properties have been determined for the 0.7MgH(2)-0.3TiH(2) composite and compared to nanometric MgH(2). Only the MgH(2) phase desorbs hydrogen reversibly at moderate temperature (523 to 598 K) and pressure (10(-3) to 1 MPa). The presence of TiH(2) does not modify the thermodynamic properties of the Mg/MgH(2) system. However, the MgH(2)-TiH(2) nanocomposite exhibits outstanding kinetic properties and cycling stability. At 573 K, H-sorption takes place in less than 100 s. This is 20 times faster than for a pure nanometric MgH(2) powder. We demonstrate that the TiH(2) phase inhibits grain coarsening of Mg, which allows extended nucleation of the MgH(2) phase in Mg nanoparticles before a continuous and blocking MgH(2) hydride layer is formed. The low crystallinity of the TiH(2) phase and its hydrogenation properties are also compatible with a gateway mechanism for hydrogen transfer from the gas phase to Mg. Mg-rich MgH(2)-TiH(2) nanocomposites are an excellent media for hydrogen storage at moderate temperatures.

  20. Synthesis and Structure of One Novel Polyoxometalate Compound Connected via Cerium(Ⅲ) Cation with Three-dimensional Framework H2{[K(H2O)2]2[Ce(H2O)5]2(H2Mo1.16W10.84O42)}·8H2O

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    One novel polyoxometalate compound connected via trivalent cerium cation as bridge H2{[K(H2O)2]2[Ce(H2O)5]2(H2Mo1.16W10.84O42)}·8H2O 1 was designed and synthesized in aqueous solution. X-ray diffraction analysis reveals that the structure of 1 is a three-dimensional framework assembled from the arrangement of H2Mo1.16W10.84O42 (named paradodecmetalate-B) and Ce(H2O)53+ containing two planes, which are constructed through the unification of H2Mo1.16W10.84O4210- and Ce(H2O)53+ along the [100] and [001] directions. Crystal data: H96Ce4K4Mo2.32O128W21.68, Mr = 7074.89, monoclinic, P21/n, a = 12.5037(17), b = 17.002(2), c = 12.7473(17) (A), β = 105.966(2)°, V = 2605.4(6) (A)3, Z = 1, Dc = 4.509 g/cm3, F(000) = 3132, μ = 26.098 mm(1, R = 0.0377 and wR = 0.0789 (I > 2σ(I)).

  1. Optimization of H2O2 dosage in microwave-H2O2 process for sludge pretreatment with uniform design method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qingcong Xiao; Hong Yan; Yuansong Wei; Yawei Wang; Fangang Zeng; Xiang Zheng

    2012-01-01

    A microwave-H2O2 process for sludge pretreatment exhibited high efficiencies of releasing organics,nitrogen,and phosphorus,but large quantities of H2O2 residues were detected.A uniform design method was thus employed in this study to further optimize H2O2 dosage by investigating effects of pH and H2O2 dosage on the amount of H2O2 residue and releases of organics,nitrogen,and phosphorus.A regression model was established with pH and H2O2 dosage as the independent variables,and H2O2 residue and releases of organics,nitrogen,and phosphorus as the dependent variables.In the optimized microwave-H2O2 process,the pH value of the sludge was firstly adjusted to 11.0,then the sludge was heated to 80C and H2O2 was dosed at a H2O2:mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSS) ratio of 0.2,and the sludge was finally heated to 100℃ by microwave irradiation.Compared to the microwave-H2O2 process without optimization,the H2O2 dosage and the utilization rate of H2O2 in the optimized microwave-H2O2 process were reduced by 80% and greatly improved by 3.87 times,respectively,when the H2O2:MLSS dosage ratio was decreased from 1.0 to 0.2,resulting in nearly the same release rate of soluble chemical oxygen demand in the microwave-H2O2 process without optimization at H2O2:MLSS ratio of 0.5.

  2. H2-saturation of high affinity H2-oxidizing bacteria alters the ecological niche of soil microorganisms unevenly among taxonomic groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piché-Choquette, Sarah; Tremblay, Julien; Tringe, Susannah G; Constant, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Soil microbial communities are continuously exposed to H2 diffusing into the soil from the atmosphere. N2-fixing nodules represent a peculiar microniche in soil where H2 can reach concentrations up to 20,000 fold higher than in the global atmosphere (0.530 ppmv). In this study, we investigated the impact of H2 exposure on soil bacterial community structure using dynamic microcosm chambers simulating soil H2 exposure from the atmosphere and N2-fixing nodules. Biphasic kinetic parameters governing H2 oxidation activity in soil changed drastically upon elevated H2 exposure, corresponding to a slight but significant decay of high affinity H2-oxidizing bacteria population, accompanied by an enrichment or activation of microorganisms displaying low-affinity for H2. In contrast to previous studies that unveiled limited response by a few species, the relative abundance of 958 bacterial ribotypes distributed among various taxonomic groups, rather than a few distinct taxa, was influenced by H2 exposure. Furthermore, correlation networks showed important alterations of ribotype covariation in response to H2 exposure, suggesting that H2 affects microbe-microbe interactions in soil. Taken together, our results demonstrate that H2-rich environments exert a direct influence on soil H2-oxidizing bacteria in addition to indirect effects on other members of the bacterial communities.

  3. C-13 NMR spectroscopy of plasma reduces interference of hypertriglyceridemia in the H-1 NMR detection of malignancy; Application in patients with breast lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fossell, E.T.; Hall, F.M. (Beth Israel Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Charles E. Dana Research Institute, Boston (USA). Department of Radiology); McDonagh, J. (Beth Israel Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Charles E. Dana Research Institute, Boston (USA). Department of Pathology)

    1991-05-01

    The authors have previously described the application of water-suppressed proton nuclear magnetic resonance (H-1 NMR) spectroscopy of plasma for detection of malignancy. Subsequently, hypertriglyceridemia has been identified as a source of false positive results. Here is described a confirmatory, adjunctive technique -analysis of the carbon-13 (C-13) NMR spectrum of plasma- which also identifies the presence of malignancy but is not sensitive to the plasma triglyceride level. Blinded plasma samples from 480 normal donors and 208 patients scheduled for breast biopsy were analyzed by water-suppressed H-1 and C-13 NMR spectroscopy. Triglyceride levels were also measured. Among the normal donors, there were 38 individuals with hypertriglyceridemia of whom 18 had results consistent with malignancy by H-1 NMR spectroscopy. However, the C-13 technique reduced the apparent H-1 false positive rate from 7.0 to 0.6 percent. Similarly, in the breast biopsy cohort, C-13 reduced the false positive rate from 2.8 to 0.9 percent. Furthermore, the accuracy of the combined H-1/C-13 test in this blinded study was greater than 96 percent in 208 patients studied. (author). 27 refs.; 5 figs.; 4 tabs.

  4. Effects of H2S on molten carbonate fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remick, R. J.

    1985-06-01

    Phase 2 work was directed toward determination of the impact of H2S contaminants upon the ability of nickel-10% chromium anodes to catalyze the steam reforming reaction. Small amounts of three hydrocarbons representative of three homologous series were added to the fuel. These series were the paraffin series with methane as its representative, the olefin series with ethylene and the aromatics with toluene. Results indicated that the nickel-10% chromium anode had little catalytic activity toward the steam reforming of methane, but the steam reform did have 70% of the ethylene and about 30% of the toluene. The addition of 5 ppM hydrogen sulfide to the fuel totally poisoned all steam reforming activity. Phase 3 work addressed the impact on cell performance of SO2 in the oxidant gases. The cell was operated for 200 hours on clean fuel and oxidant. After baseline data had been collected, the cell was switched to an oxidant supply that contained 2 ppM of SO2. After 170 hours of operation on contaminated oxidant, no SO2 could be detected in the oxidant exhaust although 200 ppM of H2S were present in the fuel exhaust steam.

  5. Can H2 enhance the oxidative dissolution of UO2?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreiro Fidalgo, Alexandre; Jonsson, Mats

    2016-08-01

    Understanding the mechanism and kinetics of spent nuclear fuel dissolution in water is of key-importance for the safety assessment of deep geological repositories for spent nuclear fuel [1-5]. For UO2-based fuel, radiation induced oxidative dissolution of the fuel matrix is of considerable importance as this will enhance the release of fission products and actinides by several orders of magnitude [2-4]. This process has been studied extensively over several decades and can now be considered to be fairly well understood [2-6]. The aqueous radiolysis product identified as mainly being responsible for the oxidative dissolution of UO2 is H2O2[7]. In addition to oxidation of U(IV) to U(VI), H2O2 also undergoes catalytic decomposition on the UO2-surface [8,9]. In fact, it has been shown that catalytic decomposition is the major route on UO2-pellets [10,11]. In recent years it has been shown that this process involves the formation of surface bound hydroxyl radicals [12]. The mechanism of the catalytic decomposition is depicted in reaction (1-3).

  6. Condensin association with histone H2A shapes mitotic chromosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tada, Kenji; Susumu, Hiroaki; Sakuno, Takeshi; Watanabe, Yoshinori

    2011-06-01

    Chromosome structure is dynamically regulated during cell division, and this regulation is dependent, in part, on condensin. The localization of condensin at chromosome arms is crucial for chromosome partitioning during anaphase. Condensin is also enriched at kinetochores but its precise role and loading machinery remain unclear. Here we show that fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe) kinetochore proteins Pcs1 and Mde4--homologues of budding yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) monopolin subunits and known to prevent merotelic kinetochore orientation--act as a condensin 'recruiter' at kinetochores, and that condensin itself may act to clamp microtubule binding sites during metaphase. In addition to the regional recruitment factors, overall condensin association with chromatin is governed by the chromosomal passenger kinase Aurora B. Aurora-B-dependent phosphorylation of condensin promotes its association with histone H2A and H2A.Z, which we identify as conserved chromatin 'receptors' of condensin. Condensin phosphorylation and its deposition onto chromosome arms reach a peak during anaphase, when Aurora B kinase relocates from centromeres to the spindle midzone, where the separating chromosome arms are positioned. Our results elucidate the molecular basis for the spatiotemporal regulation of mitotic chromosome architecture, which is crucial for chromosome partitioning.

  7. Obesity and asthma: beyond T(H)2 inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiria, Luiz O S; Martins, Milton A; Saad, Mário J A

    2015-02-01

    Obesity is a major risk factor for asthma. Likewise, obesity is known to increase disease severity in asthmatic subjects and also to impair the efficacy of first-line treatment medications for asthma, worsening asthma control in obese patients. This concept is in agreement with the current understanding that some asthma phenotypes are not accompanied by detectable inflammation, and may not be ameliorated by classical anti-inflammatory therapy. There are growing evidences suggesting that the obesity-related asthma phenotype does not necessarily involve the classical T(H)2-dependent inflammatory process. Hormones involved in glucose homeostasis and in the pathogeneses of obesity likely directly or indirectly link obesity and asthma through inflammatory and non-inflammatory pathways. Furthermore, the endocrine regulation of the airway-related pre-ganglionic nerves likely contributes to airway hyperreactivity (AHR) in obese states. In this review, we focused our efforts on understanding the mechanism underlying obesity-related asthma by exploring the T(H)2-independent mechanisms leading to this disease.

  8. NICMOS Observations of Shocked H_2 in Orion

    CERN Document Server

    Colgan, Sean W J; Kaufman, M J; Erickson, E F; Hollenbach, D J

    2007-01-01

    HST NICMOS narrowband images of the shocked molecular hydrogen emission in OMC-1 are analyzed to reveal new information on the BN/KL outflow. The outstanding morphological feature of this region is the array of molecular hydrogen ``fingers'' emanating from the general vicinity of IRc2 and the presence of several Herbig-Haro objects. The NICMOS images appear to resolve individual shock fronts. This work is a more quantitative and detailed analysis of our data from a previous paper (Schultz etal. 1999). Line strengths for the H_2 1--0 S(4) plus 2--1 S(6) lines at 1.89 micron are estimated from measurements with the Paschen_alpha continuum filter F190N at 1.90 micron, and continuum measurements at 1.66 and 2.15 micron. We compare the observed H_2 line strengths and ratios of the 1.89 micron and 2.12 micron 1--0 S(1) lines with models for molecular cloud shock waves. Most of the data cannot be fit by J-shocks, but are well matched by C-shocks with shock velocities in the range of 20--45 km/s and preshock densitie...

  9. H2O Nucleation Around Noble Metal Cations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calaminici, Patrizia; Oropeza Alfaro, Pavel; Juarez Flores, Martin; Köster, Andreas; Beltran, Marcela; Ulises Reveles, J.; Khanna, Shiv N.

    2008-03-01

    First principle electronic structure calculations have been carried out to investigate the ground state geometry, electronic structure and binding energy of noble metal cations (H2O)n^+ clusters containing up to 10 H2O molecules. The calculations are performed with the density functional theory code deMon2k [1]. Due to the very flat potential energy surface of these systems special care to the numerical stability of energy and gradient calculation must be taken.Comparison of the results obtained with Cu^+, Ag^+ and Au^+ will be shown. This investigation provides insight into the structural arrangement of the water molecules around these metals and a microscopic understanding of the observed incremental binding energy in the case of the gold cation based on collision induced dissociation experiments. [1] A.M. Köster, P. Calaminici, M.E. Casida, R. Flores-Moreno, G. Geudtner, A. Goursot, T. Heine, A. Ipatov, F. Janetzko, J. Martin del Campo, S. Patchkovski, J.U. Reveles, A. Vela and D.R. Salahub, deMon2k, The deMon Developers, Cinvestav, 2006

  10. Proton ordering in tetragonal and monoclinic H2O ice

    CERN Document Server

    Yen, Fei; Berlie, Adam; Liu, Xiaodi; Goncharov, Alexander F

    2015-01-01

    H2O ice remains one of the most enigmatic materials as its phase diagram reveals up to sixteen solid phases. While the crystal structure of these phases has been determined, the phase boundaries and mechanisms of formation of the proton-ordered phases remain unclear. From high precision measurements of the complex dielectric constant, we probe directly the degree of ordering of the protons in H2O tetragonal ice III and monoclinic ice V down to 80 K. A broadened first-order phase transition is found to occur near 202 K we attribute to a quenched disorder of the protons which causes a continuous disordering of the protons during cooling and metastable behavior. At 126 K the protons in ice III become fully ordered, and for the case of ice V becoming fully ordered at 113 K forming ice XIII. Two triple points are proposed to exist: one at 0.35 GPa and 126 K where ices III, IX and V coexist; and another at 0.35 GPa and 113 K where ices V, IX and XIII coexist. Our findings unravel the underlying mechanism driving th...

  11. Experimental evidence of superionic conduction in H2O ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimura, Emiko; Komabayashi, Tetsuya; Ohta, Kenji; Hirose, Kei; Ohishi, Yasuo; Dubrovinsky, Leonid S.

    2012-11-01

    Ionic conductivity and molar volume measurements were performed on H2O ice at high pressure (P) and temperature (T) in a resistive-heated diamond anvil cell. The conductivity data obtained at P = 20-62 GPa, T = 304-930 K are well fitted with a single Arrhenius equation. Isothermal volume measurements at T = 873 K, P = 30-101 GPa indicate that H2O ice undergoes phase transitions at P = 50 GPa and 53 GPa due to hydrogen-bond symmetrization. Combining these results, we suggest that the conduction mechanism does not change with pressure-induced hydrogen-bond symmetrization. Along the Arrhenius behavior of conductivity data, the experimental evidence for superionic conduction (>10-1 S/cm) was found at T = 739 K, P = 56 GPa and T = 749 K, P = 62 GPa, which is significantly low temperature compared with earlier theoretical estimates resorted to the observation of a drastic rise of the melting curve. We infer that the sudden increase of the melting temperature is not related to the onset of superionic conduction, but is attributed to the phase change regarding to the symmetrization.

  12. H2CO Observations Towards CH3OH Maser Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okoh, Daniel; Esimbek, Jarken; Zhou, JianJun; Tang, Xindi; Chukwude, Augustine; Urama, Johnson; Okeke, Pius

    2013-03-01

    Formaldehyde (H2CO) is an accurate probe of physical conditions in dense and low-temperature molecular clouds towards massive star formation regions, while 6.7 GHz methanol (CH3OH) masers provide ideal sites to probe the earliest stages of massive stellar formation. We present preliminary results of our investigation into the possible relationship between formaldehyde and methanol astrophysical masers with the view to expanding knowledge on massive star formation processes. Observations are done using the Nanshan 25m radio telescope of the Xinjiang Astronomical Observatories, Urumqi, China. 127 Methanol sources (from the work of Green et al. 2010, Xu et al. 2003, Pestalozzi et al. 2005, and Xu et al. 2009) have been observed so far for 4.8 GHz formaldehyde absorption lines, and H2CO signals have been detected in 86 of them, 31 of which are newly discovered. We obtained good correlation (0.85 correlation coefficient) between the velocities of the sources, and a poor correlation (-0.03 correlation coefficient) between their intensities, an indication that signals from the two lines originate from about the same region, but that the excitation mechanisms that drive them are likely different.

  13. Laboratory studies of H2SO4/H2O binary homogeneous nucleation from the SO2+OH reaction: evaluation of the experimental setup and preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kulmala

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Binary homogeneous nucleation (BHN of sulphuric acid and water (H2SO4/H2O is one of the most important atmospheric nucleation processes, but laboratory observations of this nucleation process are very limited and there are also large discrepancies between different laboratory studies. The difficulties associated with these experiments include wall loss of H2SO4 and uncertainties in estimation of H2SO4 concentration ([H2SO4] involved in nucleation. We have developed a new laboratory nucleation setup to study H2SO4/H2O BHN kinetics and provide relatively constrained [H2SO4] needed for nucleation. H2SO4 is produced from the SO2+OH→HSO3 reaction and OH radicals are produced from water vapor UV absorption. The residual [H2SO4] were measured at the end of the nucleation reactor with a chemical ionization mass spectrometer (CIMS. Wall loss factors (WLFs of H2SO4 were estimated by assuming that wall loss is diffusion limited and these calculated WLFs were in good agreement with simultaneous measurements of the initial and residual [H2SO4] with two CIMSs. The nucleation zone was estimated from numerical simulations based on the measured aerosol sizes (particle diameter, Dp and [H2SO4]. The measured BHN rates (J ranged from 0.01–220 cm−3 s−1 at the initial and residual [H2SO4] from 108−1010 cm−3, a temperature of 288 K and relative humidity (RH from 11–23%; J increased with increasing [H2SO4] and RH. J also showed a power dependence on [H2SO4] with the exponential power of 3–8. These power dependences are consistent with other laboratory studies under similar [H2SO4] and RH, but different from atmospheric field observations which showed that particle number concentrations are often linearly dependent on [H2SO4]. These results, together with a higher [H2SO4] threshold (108–109 cm−3 needed to produce the unit J measured from the laboratory studies compared to the atmospheric conditions (106–107 cm−3, imply that H2SO4/H2O BHN alone is

  14. A Critical Review of Models of the H-2/H2O/Ni/SZ Electrode Kinetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Mogens Bjerg; Høgh, Jens Valdemar Thorvald; Hansen, Karin Vels

    2007-01-01

    sets, which do not fit the model. We have inspected some models in the literature, and problems (e.g. no quantitative model has explained the large variation in reported values of apparent activation energy of the electrode kinetics) as well as strengths of the models are discussed. We point out...... experimental findings that a useful model must be able to explain such as difference in sensitivity to poisoning by H2S due to differences in the detailed composition of the SZ and large change in apparent activation energy by change in cermet preparation. Finally, we will point out some elements, which seem...

  15. An exact calculation of the N2+ and H2+ influx at cathode surface in N2–H2 discharges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.S. Suraj

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An exact calculation of N2+ and H2+ influx, at cathode surface in N2–H2 discharge, has been derived using electron impact ionization cross-section at plasma sheath boundary. The analytical formula is very convenient in practical applications. Through the analysis of experimental parameters for glow discharge plasma nitriding, the formula explains, why treatment in an N2–H2 mixture with H2 percentage ∼70% gives most enhanced result.

  16. Vibration-vibration and vibration-translation energy transfer in H2-H2 collisions: a critical test of experiment with full-dimensional quantum dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, S Fonseca; Balakrishnan, N; Forrey, R C; Stancil, P C

    2013-03-14

    Quantum scattering calculations of vibration-vibration (VV) and vibration-translation (VT) energy transfer for non-reactive H2-H2 collisions on a full-dimensional potential energy surface are reported for energies ranging from the ultracold to the thermal regime. The efficiency of VV and VT transfer is known to strongly correlate with the energy gap between the initial and final states. In H2(v = 1, j = 0) + H2(v = 0, j = 1) collisions, the inelastic cross section at low energies is dominated by a VV process leading to H2(v = 0, j = 0) + H2(v = 1, j = 1) products. At energies above the opening of the v = 1, j = 2 rotational channel, pure rotational excitation of the para-H2 molecule leading to the formation of H2(v = 1, j = 2) + H2(v = 0, j = 1) dominates the inelastic cross section. For vibrationally excited H2 in the v = 2 vibrational level colliding with H2(v = 0), the efficiency of both VV and VT process is examined. It is found that the VV process leading to the formation of 2H2(v = 1) molecules dominates over the VT process leading to H2(v = 1) + H2(v = 0) products, consistent with available experimental data, but in contrast to earlier semiclassical results. Overall, VV processes are found to be more efficient than VT processes, for both distinguishable and indistinguishable H2-H2 collisions confirming room temperature measurements for v = 1 and v = 2.

  17. C-13H3OH in OMC-1. [and spectral line identifications combining laboratory spectroscopy with broad-band astronomical line searches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, G. A.; Sutton, E. C.; Masson, C. R.; Phillips, T. G.; Herbst, E.; Plummer, G. M.; De Lucia, F. C.

    1984-01-01

    Transition line data for C-13H3OH in OMC-1 were gathered with a superconducting tunnel junction receiver and a 512 channel spectrometer on a 10.4 m telescope at the Owens Valley Radio Observatory. The methanol was scanned at 236 GHz and an observational efficiency of 85 percent. The survey was carried out to complement the data base on the line frequencies of internal rotors such as methanol and thereby the resolution of the C-12/C-13 ratio toward the galactic center. The data indicated that previous emission lines attributed to CO(+) and CH3CHO are actually methanol emissions, and the associated C-12/C-13 ratio is about 30.

  18. C-13H3OH in OMC-1. [and spectral line identifications combining laboratory spectroscopy with broad-band astronomical line searches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, G. A.; Sutton, E. C.; Masson, C. R.; Phillips, T. G.; Herbst, E.; Plummer, G. M.; De Lucia, F. C.

    1984-01-01

    Transition line data for C-13H3OH in OMC-1 were gathered with a superconducting tunnel junction receiver and a 512 channel spectrometer on a 10.4 m telescope at the Owens Valley Radio Observatory. The methanol was scanned at 236 GHz and an observational efficiency of 85 percent. The survey was carried out to complement the data base on the line frequencies of internal rotors such as methanol and thereby the resolution of the C-12/C-13 ratio toward the galactic center. The data indicated that previous emission lines attributed to CO(+) and CH3CHO are actually methanol emissions, and the associated C-12/C-13 ratio is about 30.

  19. Effective nanoconfinement of 2LiBH4-MgH2 via simply MgH2 premilling for reversible hydrogen storages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Utke, Rapee Gosalawit; Thiangviriya, Sophida; Javadian, Payam

    2014-01-01

    MgH2. Significant confinement of both LiBH4 and MgH2 in CAS, confirmed by SEM-EDS mapping results, is achieved due to MgH2 premilling. Due to effective nanoconfinement, enhancement of CAS:hydride composite weight ratio to 1:1, resulting in increase of hydrogen storage capacity, is possible...... are accomplished after MgH2 premilling. Three hydrogen release (T = 320 degrees C, P(H-2) = 3-4 bar) and uptake (T = 320-325 degrees C, P(H-2) = 84 bar) cycles of nanoconfined 2LiBH(4)-premilled MgH2 reveal up to 4.96 wt. % H-2 (10 Wt. % H-2 with respect to hydride composite content), while the 1st desorption......To improve nanoconfinement of LiBH4 and MgH2 in carbon aerogel scaffold (CAS), particle size reduction of MgH2 by premilling technique before melt infiltration is proposed. MgH2 is premilled for 5 h prior to milling with LiBH4 and nanoconfinement in CAS to obtained nanoconfined 2LiBH(4)-premilled...

  20. Evaluation of plasma H2S levels and H2S synthesis in streptozotocin induced Type-2 diabetes-an experimental study based on Swietenia macrophylla seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moumita Dutta

    2014-05-01

    Conclusions: Although considering a small sample size, it can conclude that the fasting blood glucose levels are inversely related to plasma H2S levels as well as H2S synthesis activity in plasma and the extract of S. macrophylla is associated with increased plasma H2S levels with effective lowering of blood glucose in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats.

  1. Molecular basis and specificity of H2A.Z-H2B recognition and deposition by the histone chaperone YL1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latrick, Chrysa M; Marek, Martin; Ouararhni, Khalid; Papin, Christophe; Stoll, Isabelle; Ignatyeva, Maria; Obri, Arnaud; Ennifar, Eric; Dimitrov, Stefan; Romier, Christophe; Hamiche, Ali

    2016-04-01

    H2A.Z, a widely conserved histone variant, is evicted from chromatin by the histone chaperone ANP32E. However, to date, no deposition chaperone for H2A.Z is known in metazoans. Here, we identify YL1 as a specific H2A.Z-deposition chaperone. The 2.7-Å-resolution crystal structure of the human YL1-H2A.Z-H2B complex shows that YL1 binding, similarly to ANP32E binding, triggers an extension of the H2A.Z αC helix. The interaction with YL1 is, however, more extensive and includes both the extended acidic patch and the entire DNA-binding surface of H2A.Z-H2B. Substitution of only four amino acid residues of H2A is sufficient for the formation of an H2A.Z-like interface specifically recognized by YL1. Collectively, our data reveal the molecular basis of H2A.Z-specific recognition by YL1 and shed light on the mechanism of H2A.Z transfer to the nucleosome by the ATP-dependent chromatin-remodeling complexes SRCAP and P400-TIP60.

  2. The H2S Donor NaHS Changes the Expression Pattern of H2S-Producing Enzymes after Myocardial Infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Na; Wang, Ming-Jie; Jin, Sheng; Bai, Ya-Dan; Hou, Cui-Lan; Ma, Fen-Fen; Li, Xing-Hui; Zhu, Yi-Chun

    2016-01-01

    Aims. To examine the expression patterns of hydrogen sulphide- (H2S-) producing enzymes in ischaemic heart tissue and plasma levels of H2S after 2 weeks of NaHS treatment after myocardial infarction (MI) and to clarify the role of endogenous H2S in the MI process. Results. After MI surgery, 2 weeks of treatment with the H2S donor NaHS alleviated ischaemic injury. Meanwhile, in ischemia myocardium, three H2S-producing enzymes, cystathionine γ-lyase (CSE), cystathionine-β-synthase (CBS), and 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase (3-MST) significantly increased. Plasma H2S levels were also elevated. In vitro, NaHS treatment protected cardiomyocytes from hypoxic injury and raised CBS levels in a concentration-dependent manner. Different from in vivo results, however, CSE or 3-MST expression did not change. NaHS treatment increased the activity of CSE/CBS but not of 3-MST. When CSE was either knocked down (in vitro) or knocked out (in vivo), H2S levels significantly decreased, which subsequently exacerbated the ischaemic injury. Meanwhile, the expressions of CBS and 3-MST increased due to compensation. Conclusions. Exogenous H2S treatment changed the expressions of three H2S-producing enzymes and H2S levels after MI, suggesting a new and indirect regulatory mechanism for H2S production and its contribution to cardiac protection. Endogenous H2S plays an important role in protecting ischaemic tissue after MI.

  3. Crystal Structure and Interaction with DNA of [Ni(phen)(mal)(H2O)2]·3H2O

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO En-Jun; CHEN Mao-Sheng; YU Ying; SUN Ya-Guang

    2007-01-01

    A new complex [Ni(phen)(mal)(H2O)2]·3H2O (phen = 1,10-phenanthroline,mal2-= malonic acid) has been synthesized by the reaction of nickel nitrate,phen and malonic acid.EA,IR spectra and X-ray single-crystal diffraction were carried out to determine the composition and crystal structure of the title complex.Crystal data:monoclinic system,space group P2/c,a =8.937(3),b = 12.163(5),c = 9.725(3)(A),β = 119.36°,C15H19N2O9Ni,Mr= 430.03,Z = 2,F(000) =446,V = 921.3 (A)3,Dc = 1.550 g/cm3,μ = 1.104 mm-1,-10≤h≤ 10,-12≤k≤ 14,-11 ≤l≤7,R =0.0261 and wR = 0.0609 for 4376 (Rint = 0.0203) independent reflections and 1631 observed ones (I> 2σ(I)).Ni(Ⅱ) exhibits an octahedral coordination geometry,with hydrogen bonds and π-π interactions stabilizing the whole structure.UV spectrum of the complex interacting with protamine DNA indicates that the title compound interacts with DNA via insertion mode with bonding constant Kb of 1.11 × 104.

  4. Insecticidal Activity of [Cu(H2NTA2].2H2O in Aedes aegypti Larvae (Diptera: Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Ramos Lima

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The demand for new insecticides and alternative strategies for the population control of Aedes aegypti has stimulated research to obtain new compounds with broad biological activity. Accordingly, the dihydrogen nitrilotriacetate complex of copper (II dihydrate, [Cu(H2NTA2].2H2O, was synthesized by the stoichiometric reaction of nitrilotriacetic acid (H3NTA hydroxide with basic copper carbonate (II (Cu2(OH2CO3 and characterized by the spectroscopic techniques UV-Vis and FT-IR. The biological toxicity in A. aegypti was determined by bioassay using concentrations ranging from 90.0 mg L−1 to 897.4 mg L−1. The LC50 obtained was 146.11 mg L−1 [132.18–160.10] and the LT50 obtained at a concentration of 897.4 mg L−1 was 70.61 min [38.21–94.90]. The results showed that the complex obtained in this work is a potential metal-insecticide. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17807/orbital.v7i4.735 

  5. Global model of a radiofrequency H2 plasma in DENISE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorat, Roberto; Goss, Jonathan; Boilson, Deirdre; Vender, David

    2000-05-01

    A global model of a radiofrequency (rf) inductively coupled H2 plasma discharge in the Deuterium Negative Ion Source Experiment (DENISE) has been developed using the numerical code `Global Model Solver' (GMS). The volume-averaged energy and particle balance equations, along with the quasi-neutrality condition, are numerically solved to determine the averaged densities of all the species included in the model and the electron temperature. The effects of the multicusp magnetic field and of the asymmetry of the source chamber are considered in the model. The values of the volume-averaged electron density and the average electron temperature obtained are compared to experimental measurements in the pressure and input power ranges of interest and a reasonably good agreement is found.

  6. Luttinger parameter of quasi-one-dimensional para -H2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferré, G.; Gordillo, M. C.; Boronat, J.

    2017-02-01

    We have studied the ground-state properties of para-hydrogen in one dimension and in quasi-one-dimensional configurations using the path-integral ground-state Monte Carlo method. This method produces zero-temperature exact results for a given interaction and geometry. The quasi-one-dimensional setup has been implemented in two forms: the inner channel inside a carbon nanotube coated with H2 and a harmonic confinement of variable strength. Our main result is the dependence of the Luttinger parameter on the density within the stable regime. Going from one dimension to quasi-one dimension, keeping the linear density constant, produces a systematic increase of the Luttinger parameter. This increase is, however, not enough to reach the superfluid regime and the system always remain in the quasicrystal regime, according to Luttinger liquid theory.

  7. Confirmation of freely rotating H2 in ZnO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, S. G.; Lavrov, E. V.; Weber, J.

    2014-02-01

    A Raman scattering study of H2 in ZnO which addresses the formation process, the thermal stability, the interaction with the phonon spectrum, the position in the host lattice, as well as the ortho-para conversion rates is presented. In particular, it is shown that the molecule is practically a free rotator stable up to 700 °C. Furthermore, an ortho-para conversion rate at 79 K was found to be 7.5 h, whereas the back conversion at room temperature occurs within less than 0.5 h. The interstitial site is suggested as the most likely position for the molecule in the ZnO lattice.

  8. Dynamical Behaviour of H2O in Silica Gel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王燕; 董顺乐

    2002-01-01

    The vibrational spectra of silica gel with low concentrations of water, 3%0 and 10%, were studied by inelastic neutron scattering at 5 K. The experimental spectrum for 3% water in silica gelshows dramatic changes compared to the spectra for the other known ice phases in the energy transfer region of 2 - 140 meV. Its intermolecular librational band is shifted to lower energy by about 20meV (or by a factor of 1.43) compared to ice Ih, and shows a similar librational band with liquid at 290K. A significant excess of low-frequency vibration modes (< 7 meV)over normal ice Ih and a very wide acoustic peak (4 - 15 meV) were observed. Experimental data indicate that little H2O (3%) in silica gelexhibits a strong softening of hydrogen bonds compared to bulk normal ice and all the other known ice phases.

  9. Infrared Characters of Host Galaxies with H2O Megamaser

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    俞志尧

    2001-01-01

    Infrared characters of all the host galaxies with the H2O megamaser have been studied. The most striking featureis the anticorrelation of S(60)/S(100) versus S(12)/S(25), and S(25)/S(60) versus S(12)/S(25). The anticorrelationin the tlux density ratio can been explained by coexistence of large and very small dust particles. The latter, whichare heated by absorption of single photon, are believed to be responsible for the bulk of 12μm radiation. If thephoton energy of the host galaxy is small, this implies large S(12)/S(25) and small S(60)/S(100). However, whenphoton energy density becomes larger, the infrared spectrum will peak at wavelengths ≤ 100 μm and enhanceemission at 25 μm. As a consequence small S(12)/S(25) and large S(60)/S(100) are observed.

  10. 1H NMR Studies of MgH2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoh, Yutaka; Kado, Ryoichi

    We report on 1H NMR studies of commercially available powder MgH2 exposed to air and maybe humidity, which has been believed to be a promising material for hydrogen storage. The Fourier transform of the free-induction decay of the protons indicatesd superposition of broad and narrow components in the NMR spectrum, while the Fourier transform of the 1H nuclear spin-echo reproduced the narrow component. With cooling down below room temperature, the ratio of the narrow peak to the broad spectrum decreased. The broad spectrum is associated with direct dipolar coupled protons on an inhomogeneous rigid lattice. The narrow peak is associated with interstitial protons with more inhomogeneous surroundings.

  11. $H_{2}$ Formation on Interstellar Grains in Different Physical Regimes

    CERN Document Server

    Biham, O; Katz, N; Pirronello, V; Vidali, G

    1998-01-01

    An analysis of the kinetics of H2 formation on interstellar dust grains is presented using rate equations. It is shown that semi-empirical expressions that appeared in the literature represent two different physical regimes. In particular, it is shown that the expression given by Hollenbach, Werner and Salpeter [ApJ, 163, 165 (1971)] applies when high flux, or high mobility, of H atoms on the surface of a grain, makes it very unlikely that H atoms evaporate before they meet each other and recombine. The expression of Pirronello et al.\\ [ApJ, 483, L131 (1997)] -- deduced on the basis of accurate measurements on realistic dust analogue -- applies to the opposite regime (low coverage and low mobility). The implications of this analysis for the understanding of the processes dominating in the Interstellar Medium are discussed.

  12. Comparison of the Quantitative Values of C-14 and C-13 UBT to Reflect the Presence and Degree of Ongoing Helicobacter pylori Infection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Seok Tae; Kim, Dong Wook; Jeong, Hwan Jeong; Sohn, Myung Hee [Chonbuk National University Medical School, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-06-15

    A urea breath test (UBT) using C-14 or C-13 has been developed for identifying Helicobacter (H) pylori infection on the basis of urease production with release of labeled CO{sub 2}. We investigated if the C-14 and C-13 UBT have the difference to reflect the presence and degree of H. pylori infection detected by gastroduodenoscopic biopsies (GBx) in the same patients. Thirty eight patients (M:F=28:10, age 53.4{+-}13.0 yrs) with upper gastrointestinal symptoms such as indigestion, gastric fullness or pain consecutively underwent C-14 UBT, GBx and C-13 UBT within one week before medications. For the C-14 UBT, a single breath sample was collected at 10 minutes after ingestion of C-14 urea (37 KBq) capsule and counting was done in a liquid scintillation counter for 1 minute, and the results were classified as positive ({>=}200 dpm), intermediate (50{approx}199 dpm) or negative (<50 dpm). For the C-13 UBT, the results were classified as positive ({>=}2.5) or negative (<2.5). The results of GBx with Giemsa stain were graded 0 (normal) to 4 (diffuse) according to the distribution of H. pylori by the Wyatt method. We compared C-14 UBT and C-13 UBT results with GBx grade as a gold standard. The prevalence of H. pylori infection by GBx with Giemsa stain was 25/38 (65.8%). In the assessment of the presence of H. pylori infection, the C-14 UBT global performance yielded sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV) and accuracy of 92.0%, 92.3%, 95.8%, 91.7% and 92.1%, respectively. However, the C-13 UBT had sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV and accuracy of 96.0%, 84.6%, 92.3%, 91.7% and 92.1%, respectively. The more significant correlation in C-14 than C-13 UBT (r=0.948 vs r=0.819, p<0.001) was found between the value of UBT and the grade of distribution of H. pylori infection. We conclude that the diagnostic performance between C-14 and C-13 UBT to detect H. pylori infection is not significantly different, but the value of C-14 UBT

  13. (13C-(13c homonuclear recoupling in solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance at a moderately high magic-angle-spinning frequency.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venus Singh Mithu

    Full Text Available Two-dimensional (13C-(13C correlation experiments are widely employed in structure determination of protein assemblies using solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance. Here, we investigate the process of (13C-(13C magnetisation transfer at a moderate magic-angle-spinning frequency of 30 kHz using some of the prominent second-order dipolar recoupling schemes. The effect of isotropic chemical-shift difference and spatial distance between two carbons and amplitude of radio frequency on (1H channel on the magnetisation transfer efficiency of these schemes is discussed in detail.

  14. 13C-13C Homonuclear Recoupling in Solid-State Nuclear Magnetic Resonance at a Moderately High Magic-Angle-Spinning Frequency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mithu, Venus Singh; Bakthavatsalam, Subha; Madhu, Perunthiruthy K.

    2013-01-01

    Two-dimensional 13C-13C correlation experiments are widely employed in structure determination of protein assemblies using solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance. Here, we investigate the process of 13C-13C magnetisation transfer at a moderate magic-angle-spinning frequency of 30 kHz using some of the prominent second-order dipolar recoupling schemes. The effect of isotropic chemical-shift difference and spatial distance between two carbons and amplitude of radio frequency on 1H channel on the magnetisation transfer efficiency of these schemes is discussed in detail. PMID:23326308

  15. (13)C-(13)c homonuclear recoupling in solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance at a moderately high magic-angle-spinning frequency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mithu, Venus Singh; Bakthavatsalam, Subha; Madhu, Perunthiruthy K

    2013-01-01

    Two-dimensional (13)C-(13)C correlation experiments are widely employed in structure determination of protein assemblies using solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance. Here, we investigate the process of (13)C-(13)C magnetisation transfer at a moderate magic-angle-spinning frequency of 30 kHz using some of the prominent second-order dipolar recoupling schemes. The effect of isotropic chemical-shift difference and spatial distance between two carbons and amplitude of radio frequency on (1)H channel on the magnetisation transfer efficiency of these schemes is discussed in detail.

  16. Transport of H2S and HS− across the human red blood cell membrane: rapid H2S diffusion and AE1-mediated Cl−/HS− exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    The rates of H2S and HS− transport across the human erythrocyte membrane were estimated by measuring rates of dissipation of pH gradients in media containing 250 μM H2S/HS−. Net acid efflux is caused by H2S/HS− acting analogously to CO2/HCO3− in the Jacobs-Stewart cycle. The steps are as follows: 1) H2S efflux through the lipid bilayer and/or a gas channel, 2) extracellular H2S deprotonation, 3) HS− influx in exchange for Cl−, catalyzed by the anion exchange protein AE1, and 4) intracellular HS− protonation. Net acid transport by the Cl−/HS−/H2S cycle is more efficient than by the Cl−/HCO3−/CO2 cycle because of the rapid H2S-HS− interconversion in cells and medium. The rates of acid transport were analyzed by solving the mass flow equations for the cycle to produce estimates of the HS− and H2S transport rates. The data indicate that HS− is a very good substrate for AE1; the Cl−/HS− exchange rate is about one-third as rapid as Cl−/HCO3− exchange. The H2S permeability coefficient must also be high (>10−2 cm/s, half time H2S and HS− enter erythrocytes very rapidly in the microcirculation of H2S-producing tissues, thereby acting as a sink for H2S and lowering the local extracellular concentration, and the fact that HS− is a substrate for a Cl−/HCO3− exchanger indicates that some effects of exogenous H2S/HS− may not result from a regulatory role of H2S but, rather, from net acid flux by H2S and HS− transport in a Jacobs-Stewart cycle. PMID:23864610

  17. On the catalytic effects of UO 2(s) and Pd(s) on the reaction between H 2O 2 and H 2 in aqueous solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Sara; Jonsson, Mats

    2008-01-01

    The possible catalytic effects of UO 2 and Pd (as a model for noble metal particles) on the reaction between H 2O 2 and H 2 have been studied experimentally. The experiments were performed in aqueous solution using an autoclave. The aqueous solutions were pressurized with H 2 or N 2 and the H 2O 2 concentration was measured as a function of time. The experiments clearly showed that Pd catalyzes the reaction between H 2O 2 and H 2 while UO 2 has no catalytic effect. The rate constant of the reaction between H 2O 2 and H 2 catalyzed by Pd was found to be close to diffusion controlled and independent of the H 2 pressure in the range 1-40 bar. The impact of the catalytic effect on the reaction between H 2O 2 and H 2 on spent nuclear fuel dissolution is, however, fairly small. Other possible effects of noble metal particles are also discussed, e.g. reduction of U(VI) to U(IV) in the liquid and solid phase.

  18. Exploring the microbially-mediated soil H2 sink: A lab-based study of the physiology and related H2 consumption of isolates from the Harvard Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, D.; Meredith, L. K.; Bosak, T.; Hansel, C. M.; Ono, S.; Prinn, R. G.

    2012-12-01

    Atmospheric hydrogen (H2) is a secondary greenhouse gas because it attenuates the removal of methane (CH4) from the atmosphere. The largest and most uncertain term in the H2 biogeochemical cycle, microbe-mediated soil uptake, is responsible for about 80% of Earth's tropospheric H2 sink. Recently, the first H2-oxidizing soil microorganisms were discovered (genus Streptomyces) whose low-threshold, high-affinity NiFe-hydrogenase functions at ambient H2 levels (approx. 530 ppb). To better understand the ecological function of this hydrogenase, we conducted a controlled laboratory study of the H2 uptake behavior in accordance with the complex life cycle development of the streptomycetes. Several strains of the genus Streptomyces containing a high-affinity NiFe- hydrogenase were isolated from soil at the Harvard Forest. The presence of this hydrogenase, detected by PCR amplification of the hydrogenase large subunit, predicted H2 uptake behavior in wild-type streptomycetes and in phylogenetically different organisms containing more distantly related versions of the gene. H2 uptake depended on the streptomyces' life cycle, reaching a maximum during spore formation. These findings reveal connections between environmental conditions, organismal life cycle, and H2 uptake. With the rise of H2-based energy sources and a potential change in the tropospheric concentration of H2, understanding the sources and sinks of this trace gas is important for the future.

  19. 钻井完井液用H2S祛除剂研究%Study of H2S Scavengers Used for Drilling and Completion Fluids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶艳; 王书琪; 卢虎; 邹盛礼; 吴晓花

    2010-01-01

    分析了常用H2S祛除剂的优缺点,室内评价结果表明,无固相弱凝胶钻井液有一定的H2S吸收能力,但在H2S含量过高时效果不佳.新型液态络合物H2S祛除剂反应速度和祛除H2S效果均优于海绵铁等固体H2S祛除刺,除硫效率高,同时该剂与钻井完井液配伍性好,是国内钻完井液用H2S祛除剂的发展方向之一.

  20. Retention and variability of hydrogen (H2) samples stored in plastic syringes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rumessen, J J; Gudmand-Høyer, E

    1987-01-01

    The utility of two brands of 20 ml plastic syringes for storage of hydrogen (H2) samples as obtained in H2 breath tests were studied. Plastipak syringes were found to be significantly better with regard to the stability of the H2 concentration and the variability between the H2 samples. Storage...

  1. Retention and variability of hydrogen (H2) samples stored in plastic syringes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rumessen, J J; Gudmand-Høyer, E

    1987-01-01

    The utility of two brands of 20 ml plastic syringes for storage of hydrogen (H2) samples as obtained in H2 breath tests were studied. Plastipak syringes were found to be significantly better with regard to the stability of the H2 concentration and the variability between the H2 samples. Storage...

  2. 20 CFR 655.22 - Obligations of H-2B employers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... required by law that the employer will make from the worker's paycheck. All deductions must be reasonable... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Obligations of H-2B employers. 655.22 Section... States (H-2B Workers) § 655.22 Obligations of H-2B employers. An employer seeking H-2B labor...

  3. Photocatalytic oxidation of H2S in gaseous phase; Oxidacion fotocatalitica de H2S en fase gaseosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez, B.; Anderson, M. A.; Tejedor, M. I.; Lee, T.; Tompkins, D.; Protela, R.

    2004-07-01

    The use of the UVA range of the solar radiation on titanium dioxide -TiO2-, a semiconductor acting as catalyst, for destroying sulphydric acid -H2S-, a product of the anaerobic digestion of water and responsible for disgusting smells and severe health and materials damage, was investigated. This way of degrading sulphydric acid into sulphate was followed in time and the poisoning of the catalyst at ambient temperature and its reactivation by washing with water was determined. Good initial results have allowed us to consider the utilization of solar radiation -alone or in lamp/solar radiation hybrid systems as an environmentally correct alternative for the elimination of smells in wastewater treatment plants and pump stations. (Author)

  4. Influence of particle size on H2 and H2S sensing characteristics of nanocrystalline zinc ferrite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, P.; Das, M. R.; Mitra, P.

    2016-12-01

    Nanocrystalline zinc ferrite ZnFe2O4 was synthesized by sol-gel self-combustion technique. Ball milling at room temperature was carried out to control the particle size. Characterization of synthesized powders was made using X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy analysis. Fine powders resulted from milling were used to prepare gas sensing elements in pellet form. The gas-sensing properties were studied in presence of hydrogen and hydrogen sulphide as test gases. The gas response behavior was found to be strongly influenced by the particle size. Significantly high sensitivity of 82 % was found for 7 nm zinc ferrite in presence of 200 ppm H2S at an operating temperature of 150 °C. Sensitivity was found to increase with temperature before being maximum at a particular operating temperature.

  5. Dehydrogenation properties and mechanisms of MgH2-NiCl2 and MgH2-NiCl2-graphene hydrogen storage composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J.; Qu, H.; Yan, S.; Yin, L. R.; Zhou, D. W.

    2017-07-01

    The four hydrogen storage systems including pure MgH2, MgH2-5 wt%NiCl2, MgH2-10 wt%NiCl2 and MgH2-10 wt%NiCl2-10 wt%graphene were prepared by ball-milling in this work. Using experimental X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and differential scanning calorimetry testing methods in combination with first-principle calculations, the dehydrogenation properties and mechanisms of NiCl2 single-doped and NiCl2-graphene co-doped MgH2 composites were systematically investigated. Experimental results show that the NiCl2 single-doping is conductive to decreasing the size of MgH2 grains and particles. The co-doping of NiCl2 and graphene not only reduces the size of MgH2 grains and particles, but also contributes to the uniformity of MgH2 particles. As compared with milled pure MgH2, the dehydrogenation peak temperatures are decreased by 24 °C and 47 °C for the 10 wt%NiCl2 single-doped and 10 wt%NiCl2-10 wt%graphene co-doped MgH2 systems, respectively. It is demonstrated that the co-doping of NiCl2 and graphene exhibits the synergistic effects of confinement and catalysis on improving the dehydrogenation properties of MgH2. The first-principle calculations indicate that the co-doping of NiCl2 and graphene leads to the distortion of MgH2 atomic-configuration and results in the charge transfer between the dopants and MgH2, which induce the weakened structural stability and decreased dehydrogenation enthalpy of MgH2.

  6. He*(23S) Penning ionization of H2S. I. Theoretical Franck-Condon factors for the H2S(X̃ 1A1, v′ = 0)→H2S+ (X̃2B1, Ã2A1) ionization and H2S+(Ã-X̃) transition

    OpenAIRE

    Tokue, Ikuo; Yamasaki, Katsuyoshi; Nanbu, Shinkoh

    2003-01-01

    In order to elucidate the ionization dynamics, in particular the vibrational distribution, of H2S+(A˜ ) produced by the Penning ionization of H2S with He*(2 3S) atoms, the Franck–Condon factors (FCFs) were presented for the H2S(X˜ )!H2S+(X˜ ,A˜ ) ionization and the H2S+(A˜ –X˜ ) transition, and Einstein's A coefficients were presented for the latter transition. The FCFs were obtained by quantum vibrational calculations using the global potential energy surfaces (PESs) of H2S(X˜ 1A1) and H2S+(...

  7. Maximization of yield of C-13 isotope by multiphoton dissociation of Freon-22 using high average power TEA CO2 laser

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Manoj Kumar; Anant Deshpande; Chintan Gupta; A K Biswas; A K Nath

    2002-12-01

    Selective multi-photon dissociation (MPD) of Freon-22 (CF2HCl) molecules has been carried out using a TEA CO2 laser at various CO2 laser lines (9(20)-9(26)) in order to maximize the yield of C-13 isotope in the product (C2F4) at an enrichment factor of 100. The effects of laser pulse tail due to the presence of N2 in the laser mixture on the enrichment factor and yield of C-13 are investigated. It is found that the addition of a small amount of N2 is possible in the laser mixture without a significant drop in the yield at desired enrichment factor. Addition of a small amount of N2 improves the laser efficiency considerably. At a given pulse energy, a slight change in the near field intensity distribution of a laser severely affects the selectivity of C-13 isotope. The computed far-field intensity distributions of the measured near-field intensities show marked spatial variation in the focal spots that leads to a drop in selectivity. For macroscopic production of C-13 isotope a simple and novel multi-pass cavity has been designed and tested to focus the energy repeatedly keeping the optimum fluence constant at each focal spot.

  8. Application of backflush and micro-flow techniques to the analysis of C5-C13 hydrocarbons in crude oils and its geochemical significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    An Agilent 6890N GC equipped with both FID and Agilent 5975 MSD analyzer has been employed to analyze C5-C13 hydrocarbon fractions of crude oils. A technical combination of program temperature volatilizer injection, backflush and micro-flow controller afforded a fine separation of C5-C13 compounds on a PONA column with the heavy part of crude oils being cut off before entering the analytical column. Both GC-FID chromatogram and GC-MS mass chromatograrns (MID and full scan) could be obtained at the same time. The retension time differences of nC6-nC13 alkanes between GC and TIC were in the range of 0.02-0. 58 minutes. Totally 286 peaks have been assigned group compositions. Results on 8 typical oil samples from CNPC Key Laboratory Crude Oil Library showed that the characteristics of C6-C13 hydrocarbon group composition could be used in oil-oil correlation studies.

  9. Diode laser absorption spectrometry for (CO2)-C-13/(CO2)-C-12 isotope ratio analysis : Investigation on precision and accuracy levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castrillo, A; Casa, G; Kerstel, E; Gianfrani, L

    2005-01-01

    Near-infrared laser spectroscopy is used to measure the C-13/C-12 isotope abundance ratio in gas phase carbon dioxide. The spectrometer, developed expressly for field applications, is based on a 2 mu m distributed feedback diode laser in combination with sensitive wavelength modulation detection. It

  10. Diode laser absorption spectrometry for (CO2)-C-13/(CO2)-C-12 isotope ratio analysis : Investigation on precision and accuracy levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castrillo, A; Casa, G; Kerstel, E; Gianfrani, L

    2005-01-01

    Near-infrared laser spectroscopy is used to measure the C-13/C-12 isotope abundance ratio in gas phase carbon dioxide. The spectrometer, developed expressly for field applications, is based on a 2 mu m distributed feedback diode laser in combination with sensitive wavelength modulation detection. It

  11. Observation of immobile regions in natural rubber at ambient temperature by solid-state C-13 CP/MAS NMR spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, F.H.; Rasmussen, T.; Pedersen, Walther Batsberg

    1999-01-01

    Employing C-13 CP/MAS NMR spectroscopy, the existence of immobile regions in natural rubber (cis-1,4-polyisoprene) corresponding to a few percent of the monomer units has been detected at ambient temperature. For synthetic rubbers no immobile regions have been detected at all. Applying different...

  12. Three-phase extraction study of cyanex 923-n-heptane/H(2)SO(4) system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Wuping; Shang, Qingkun; Yu, Guihong; Li, Deqian

    2002-07-19

    Phase behavior of the extraction system, Cyanex 923-heptane/H(2)SO(4)-H(2)O has been studied. The third phase appeared at different aqueous H(2)SO(4) concentration with varying initial Cyanex 923 concentration and temperature affects its appearance. Almost all of H(2)SO(4) and H(2)O are extracted into the middle phase. The H(2)SO(4) concentration in the third phase increases with the increasing aqueous acid concentration (C(H(2)SO(4),b)) while the water content first increases and then reaches a constant value at C(H(2)SO(4),b)=11.3 mol l(-1). In the region of C(H(2)SO(4),b) higher than 5.2 mol l(-1), the composition of the middle phase is only related to the equilibrium concentration of H(2)SO(4) in the bottom phase. H(2)SO(4) and H(2)O are transferred into the middle phase mainly by their coordination with Cyanex 923 when C(H(2)SO(4),b) is less than 11.3 mol l(-1). When C(H(2)SO(4),b) is higher than 11.3 mol l(-1), excess H(2)SO(4) is solubilized into the polar layer of the aggregates. In the region considered, the extracted complex changes from C923 . H(2)SO(4) to C923 . H(2)SO(4) . H(2)O and then to C923 . (H(2)SO(4))(2) . H(2)O.

  13. The impact of atmospheric H2S on growth and sulfur metabolism of Allium cepa L.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Durenkamp, M; De Kok, LJ

    2002-01-01

    The impact of atmospheric H2S deposition on growth and sulfur metabolism has been studied in onion (Allium cepa L.). The H2S Uptake followed saturation kinetics with respect to the H2S concentration. The maximum H2S uptake rate (JH(2)S(max)) was approx. 1 mumol g(-1) FW h(-1) and the KH2S (H2S conce

  14. H2S Analysis in Biological Samples Using Gas Chromatography with Sulfur Chemiluminescence Detection

    OpenAIRE

    Vitvitsky, Victor; Banerjee, Ruma

    2015-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a metabolite and signaling molecule in biological tissues that regulates many physiological processes. Reliable and sensitive methods for H2S analysis are necessary for a better understanding of H2S biology and for the pharmacological modulation of H2S levels in vivo. In this chapter, we describe the use of gas chromatography coupled to sulfur chemiluminescence detection to measure the rates of H2S production and degradation by tissue homogenates at physiologically r...

  15. The impact of atmospheric H2S on growth and sulfur metabolism of Allium cepa L.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Durenkamp, M; De Kok, LJ

    2002-01-01

    The impact of atmospheric H2S deposition on growth and sulfur metabolism has been studied in onion (Allium cepa L.). The H2S Uptake followed saturation kinetics with respect to the H2S concentration. The maximum H2S uptake rate (JH(2)S(max)) was approx. 1 mumol g(-1) FW h(-1) and the KH2S (H2S

  16. Model dependence of the H2 electric dipole moment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afnan, I. R.; Gibson, B. F.

    2010-12-01

    Background: Direct measurement of the electric dipole moment (EDM) of the neutron is in the future; measurement of a nuclear EDM may well come first. The deuteron is one nucleus for which exact model calculations are feasible. Purpose: We explore the model dependence of deuteron EDM calculations. Methods: Using a separable potential formulation of the Hamiltonian, we examine the sensitivity of the deuteron EDM to variation in the nucleon-nucleon interaction. We write the EDM as the sum of two terms, the first depending on the target wave function with plane-wave intermediate states, and the second depending on intermediate multiple scattering in the 3P1 channel, the latter being sensitive to the off-shell behavior of the 3P1 amplitude. Results: We compare the full calculation with the plane-wave approximation result, examine the tensor force contribution to the model results, and explore the effect of short-range repulsion found in realistic, contemporary potential models of the deuteron. Conclusions: Because one-pion exchange dominates the EDM calculation, separable potential model calculations will provide an adequate description of the H2 EDM until such time as a measurement better than 10% is obtained.

  17. Ni-H2 cell separator matrix engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, W. E.

    1992-01-01

    This project was initiated to develop alternative separator materials to the previously used asbestos matrices which were removed from the market for health and environmental reasons. The objective of the research was to find a material or combination of materials that had the following characteristics: (1) resistant to the severe conditions encountered in Ni-H2 cells; (2) satisfactory electrical, electrolyte management, and thermal management properties to function properly; (3) environmentally benign; and (4) capable of being manufactured into a separator matrix. During the course of the research it was discovered that separators prepared from wettable polyethylene fibers along and in combination with potassium titanate pigment performed satisfactory in preliminary characterization tests. Further studies lead to the optimization of the separator composition and manufacturing process. Single ply separator sheets were manufactured with 100 percent polyethylene fibers and also with a combination of polyethylene fibers and potassium titanate pigment (PKT) in the ratio of 60 percent PKT and 40 percent fibers. A pilot paper machine was used to produce the experimental separator material by a continuous, wet laid process. Both types of matrices were produced at several different area densities (grams/sq m).

  18. H2+ and HD+: candidates for a molecular clock

    CERN Document Server

    Karr, Jean-Philippe

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the leading systematic effects in ro-vibrational spectroscopy of the molecular hydrogen ions H2+ and HD+, in order to assess their potential for the realization of optical clocks that would be sensitive to possible variations of the proton-to-electron mass ratio. Both two-photon (2E1) and quadrupole (E2) transitions are considered. In view of the weakness of these transitions, most attention is devoted to the light shift induced by the probe laser, which we express as a function of the transition amplitude, differential dynamic polarizability and clock interrogation times. Transition amplitudes and dynamic polarizabilites including the effect of hyperfine structure are then calculated in a full three-body approach to get a precise evaluation of the light shift. Together with the quadrupole and Zeeman shifts that are obtained from previous works, these results provide a realistic estimate of the achievable accuracy. We show that the lightshift is the main limiting factor in the case of two-photo...

  19. UWISH2 -- The UKIRT Widefield Infrared Survey for H2

    CERN Document Server

    D.,; J., C; Davis,; G.,; Ioannidis,; M., T; Gledhill,; M.,; Takami,; A.,; Chrysostomou,; J.,; Drew,; J.,; Eislöffel,; A.,; Gosling,; R.,; Gredel,; J.,; Hatchell,; W., K; Hodapp,; N., M S; Kumar,; W., P; Lucas,; H.,; Matthews,; G., M; Rawlings,; D., M; Smith,; B.,; Stecklum,; P., W; Varricatt,; T., H; Lee,; S., P; Teixeira,; A., C; Aspin,; T.,; Khanzadyan,; J.,; Karr,; -J., H; Kim,; -C., B; Koo,; J., J; Lee,; -H., Y; Lee,; Y., T; Magakian,; A., T; Movsessian,; H., E; Nikogossian,; S., T; Pyo,; T.,; Stanke,

    2010-01-01

    We present the goals and preliminary results of an unbiased, near-infrared, narrow-band imaging survey of the First Galactic Quadrant (10degH2, a proven tracer of hot, dense molecular gas in star-forming regions, around evolved stars, and in supernova remnants. The observations complement existing and upcoming photometric surveys (Spitzer-GLIMPSE, UKIDSS-GPS, JCMT-JPS, AKARI, Herschel Hi-GAL, etc.), though we probe a dynamically active component of star formation not covered by these broad-band surveys. Our narrow-band survey is currently more than 60% complete. The median seeing in our images is 0.73arcsec. The images have a 5sigma detection limit of point sources of K=18mag and the surface brightness limit is 10^-19Wm^-2arcsec^-2 when averaged over our typical seeing. Jets and outflows from bo...

  20. Observations of the 41 Σ u + state of H2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chartrand, Alexander; Ekey, Robert; McCormack, Elizabeth

    2016-05-01

    Resonantly-enhanced multiphoton ionization via the EF1Σg+ , v' = 6 double-well state has been used to probe the energy region of the high vibrational levels of the 41Σu+ state of H2 . Theoretical ab initio potential energy curves for this state predict a deep inner-well and shallow outer well due to an avoided crossing with the B'' B 1Σu+ curve. Transitions to the 41Σu+ state have not been assigned previously because absorption from the (1 sσ) 2 ground state is forbidden due to the f character of the inner well. However, transitions from the EF1Σg+ state with inner well s character and combined doubly-excited and d character outer well are allowed. The high vibrational levels converging on the third dissociation limit should exhibit rotational constant values dependent on the varying amounts of inner and outer-well character for a given v. We report experimental energies for the v = 8 - 12 levels and compare favorably to the predicted adiabatic rovibrational energies1. The v = 9 level is the exception since it lies just above the avoided crossing, which makes predicting its energy difficult.

  1. Inhomogeneous speed effects on H2 vibrational line profiles in ternary mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joubert, P.; Bruet, X.; Bonamy, J.; Robert, D.; Chaussard, F.; Saint-Loup, R.; Berger, H.

    2000-12-01

    A study of speed inhomogeneous broadening of the hydrogen vibrational line profiles in the collisional regime for ternary mixtures is reported. The Q(1) line of H2 in H2-Ar-N2, H2-He-Ar, and H2-He-N2 mixtures is investigated by high resolution stimulated Raman spectroscopy for various concentrations and temperatures. A model, successfully used for binary mixtures, is extended to ternary mixtures. An excellent agreement is obtained between theory and experiment for H2-Ar-N2, by using the collisional parameters previously obtained from binary mixtures study. For H2-He-Ar and H2-He-N2, H2-He collisions play a "hardening" effect in the H2 soft speed memory mechanism for H2-Ar or H2-N2. The present experimental results allow us, via the frame of our model, to determine the "hardness" parameter values for H2-He (inaccessible from binary mixtures data) and to get an accurate description of the spectral line shape. This study should be useful for hydrogen coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy thermometry in H2/air flames at high pressure through its possible extension to the H2-N2-H2O system.

  2. Synthesis and Crystal Structure of [Cu(phen)2(SO4)(H2O)]·0.5C4H4O4·7H2O

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xiao-Qin; WEN Yi-Hang; KANG Yao; ZHANG Jian; CHENG Jian-Kai; LI Zhao-Ji; YAO Yuan-Gen

    2006-01-01

    The title compound, [Cu(phen)2(SO4)(H2O)]·0.5C4H4O4·7H2O (phen = 1,10-phe-nanthroline and C4H4O4 = fumaric acid), has been synthesized and characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The crystal is of triclinic, space group P with a = 11.4827(2), b = 11.9086(2), c = 13.77350(10)(A), α = 80.6830(10), β = 66.6480(10), γ = 64.0480(10)o, V = 1554.63(4) (A)3, Mr = 722.17, Z = 2, Dc = 1.543 g/cm3, μ = 0.845 mm-1, F(000) = 750, R = 0.0349 and wR = 0.0837 for 4754 observed reflections (I > 2σ(I)). The compound contains a six-coordinated copper(II) center, which is surround by four N atoms of two phen ligands (Cu-N distances in the range of 1.997(2)~2.225(2)(A)), one sulfate O atom (Cu-O = 2.0037(17) (A)) and one water O atom (Cu-O(5w) = 2.719(2) (A)) in a distorted octahedral geometry. Extensive hydrogen-bonding interactions are involved in water molecules, ligated sulfate anions and fumaric acid molecules. In addition, π-π interactions via aromatic nitrogen-containing ligands are also discussed. The combination of non-covalent interactions leads to the formation of a 3-D network structure.

  3. Synthesis, Characterization and Crystal Structure of a Three-dimensional Coordination Polymer {[Cd(1,5-nds)(Him)2(H2O)]·2H2O}n

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    A novel cadmium(Ⅱ) coordination polymer {[Cd(1,5-nds)(Him)2(H2O)]·2H2O}n (1,5-nds = naphthalene-1,5-disulfonate and Him = imidazole) was synthesized based on the reaction of cadmium oxide and 1,5-naphthalenedisulfonic acid firstly, and then mixed with imidazole in methanol medium. Its structure was characterized by elemental analysis, IR and TGA, respectively. The crystal structure was determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The crystal belongs to the triclinic system, space group P, with a = 8.5420(10), b = 10.2570(10), c = 13.361(2)(A), α = 100.704 (2), β = 100.195(2), γ = 108.873(3)°, C16H20Cd N4O9S2, Mr = 588.91, V = 1.0524(2) nm3, Dc = 1.858 g/cm3, Z = 2, F(000) = 592, μ= 1.294 mm-1, R = 0.0397 and wR = 0.1007 for 3180 observed reflections (I > 2σ(I)). Structural analysis shows that the cadmiun atom is coordinated with four oxygen atoms from three 1,5-nds and one water molecule together with two nitrogen atoms from two imidazoles, giving a distorted octahedral coordination geometry. The molecules are linked to form a two-dimensional coordination polymer based on bridging ligands of naphthalene-1,5-disulfonate anions, the sheets of which are then interacted via hydrogen bonds, leading to a three-dimensional network structure.

  4. 利用H2SO4溶液代替H2S对水泥石腐蚀试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈道元

    2015-01-01

    H2S对水泥石的腐蚀一直是固井界十分关注的重要问题,近年来人们纷纷开展了H2S对水泥石的腐蚀研究,这些研究都是基于水泥石直接与H2S接触,然后分析H2S对水泥石的腐蚀,这种方法能够直接分析腐蚀情况,但是,试验风险大,一旦试验装置发生密封问题,导致H2S泄露就会危及实验人员的生命安全,污染环境,而且还需要专门的抗H2S试验设备,试验程序复杂,研究成本高.分别采用H2SO4溶液和H2S对水泥石块进行腐蚀对比试验,寻找二者之间的可比性,从而探索出了一套不用H2S就能判断水泥石是否能抵御H2S腐蚀的检测方法.

  5. Sulfur depletion in dense clouds and circumstellar regions I. H2S ice abundance and UV-photochemical reactions in the H2O-matrix

    CERN Document Server

    Jiménez-Escobar, A

    2011-01-01

    This work aims to study the unexplained sulfur depletion observed toward dense clouds and protostars. We made simulation experiments of the UV-photoprocessing and sublimation of H2S and H2S:H2O ice in dense clouds and circumstellar regions, using the Interstellar Astrochemistry Chamber (ISAC), a state-of-the-art ultra-high-vacuum setup. The ice was monitored in situ by mid-infrared spectroscopy in transmittance. Temperature-programmed desorption (TPD) of the ice was performed using a quadrupole mass spectrometer (QMS) to detect the volatiles desorbing from the ice. Comparing our laboratory data to infrared observations of protostars we obtained a more accurate upper limit of the abundance of H2S ice toward these objects. We determined the desorption temperature of H2S ice, which depends on the initial H2S:H2O ratio. UV-photoprocessing of H2S:H2O ice led to the formation of several species. Among them, H2S2 was found to photodissociate forming S2 and, by elongation, other species up to S8, which are refractory...

  6. Effect of H2S Flow Rate and Concentration on Performance of H2S/Air Solid Oxide Fuel Cell

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟理; 张腾云; 陈建军; WEIGuolin; LUOJingli; K.Chung

    2004-01-01

    A solid state H2S/air electrochemical cell having the configuration of H2S, (MoS2+NiS+Ag)/YSZ/Pt,air has been examined with different H2S flow rates and concentrations at atmospheric pressure and 750-850℃.Performance of the fuel cell was dependent on anode compartment H2S flow rate and concentration. The cell open-circuit voltage increased with increasing H2S flow rate. It was found that increasing both H2S flow rate and H2S concentration improved current-voltage and power density performance. This is resulted from improved gas diffusion in anode and increased concentration of anodic electroactive species. Operation at elevated H2S concentration improved the cell performance at a given gas flow rate. However, as low as 5% H2S in gas mixture can also be utilized as fuel feed to cells. Highest current and power densities, 1750mA·cm-2 and 200mW·cm-2,are obtained with pure H2S flow rate of 50 ml·min-1 and air flow rate of 100ml·min-1 at 850℃.

  7. H2S Donor NaHS Changes the Production of Endogenous H2S and NO in D-Galactose-Induced Accelerated Ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wei; Hou, Cui-Lan; Mu, Xue-Pan; Sun, Chen; Zhu, Yi-Chun; Wang, Ming-Jie; Lv, Qian-Zhou

    2017-01-01

    Aims. The study was designed to explore whether hydrogen sulphide (H2S) and nitric oxide (NO) generation changed in D-galactose- (D-gal-) induced ageing, the possible effects of exogenous H2S supplementation, and related mechanisms. Results. In D-gal-induced senescent mice, both H2S and NO levels in the heart, liver, and kidney tissues were decreased significantly. A similar trend was observed in D-gal-challenged human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Sustained H2S donor (NaHS) treatment for 2 months elevated H2S and NO levels in these mice, and during this period, the D-gal-induced senescent phenotype was reversed. The protective effect of NaHS is associated with a decrease in reactive oxygen species levels and an increase in antioxidants, such as glutathione, and superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activities. Increased expression of the H2S-producing enzymes cystathionine γ-lyase (CSE) and cystathionine-β-synthase (CBS) in the heart, liver, and kidney tissues was observed in the NaHS-treated groups. NaHS supplementation also significantly postponed D-gal-induced HUVEC senescence. Conclusions. Endogenous hydrogen sulphide production in both ageing mice and endothelial cells is insufficient. Exogenous H2S can partially rescue ageing-related dysfunction by inducing endogenous H2S and NO production and reducing oxidative stress. Restoring endogenous H2S production may contribute to healthy ageing, and H2S may have antiageing effects.

  8. Effect of H2O2 dosing strategy on sludge pretreatment by microwave-H2O2 advanced oxidation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yawei; Wei, Yuansong; Liu, Junxin

    2009-09-30

    Considering characteristics of breaking down H(2)O(2) into water and molecular oxygen by catalase in waste activated sludge (WAS), the effect of H(2)O(2) dosing strategy on sludge pretreatment by the advanced oxidation process (AOP) of microwave-H(2)O(2) was investigated by batch experiments for optimizing H(2)O(2) dosage. Results showed that the catalase in sludge was active at the low temperature range between 15 degrees C and 45 degrees C, and gradually lost activity from 60 degrees C to 80 degrees C. Therefore, the H(2)O(2) was dosed at 80 degrees C, to which the waste activated sludge was first heated by the microwave (MW), and then the sludge dosed with H(2)O(2) was continuously heated till 100 degrees C by the microwave. Results at different H(2)O(2) dosages showed that the higher the H(2)O(2) dosing ratio was, the more the SCOD and total organic carbon (TOC) were released into the supernatant, and the optimum range of H(2)O(2)/TCOD ratio should be between 0.1 and 1.0. The percentages of consumed H(2)O(2) in the AOP of microwave and H(2)O(2) treating the WAS were 25.38%, 22.53%, 14.82%, 13.61% and 19.63% at different H(2)O(2)/TCOD dosing ratios of 0.1, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, respectively. Along with the increasing H(2)O(2)/TCOD ratio, the contents of TCOD on particles, soluble substances and mineralization increased and the TCOD distribution on solids decreased.

  9. Catalase activity is stimulated by H(2)O(2) in rich culture medium and is required for H(2)O(2) resistance and adaptation in yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Dorival; English, Ann M

    2014-01-01

    Catalases are efficient scavengers of H2O2 and protect cells against H2O2 stress. Examination of the H2O2 stimulon in Saccharomyces cerevisiae revealed that the cytosolic catalase T (Ctt1) protein level increases 15-fold on H2O2 challenge in synthetic complete media although previous work revealed that deletion of the CCT1 or CTA1 genes (encoding peroxisomal/mitochondrial catalase A) does not increase the H2O2 sensitivity of yeast challenged in phosphate buffer (pH 7.4). This we attributed to our observation that catalase activity is depressed when yeast are challenged with H2O2 in nutrient-poor media. Hence, we performed a systematic comparison of catalase activity and cell viability of wild-type yeast and of the single catalase knockouts, ctt1∆ and cta1∆, following H2O2 challenge in nutrient-rich medium (YPD) and in phosphate buffer (pH 7.4). Ctt1 but not Cta1 activity is strongly induced by H2O2 when cells are challenged in YPD but suppressed when cells are challenged in buffer. Consistent with the activity results, exponentially growing ctt1∆ cells in YPD are more sensitive to H2O2 than wild-type or cta1∆ cells, whereas in buffer all three strains exhibit comparable H2O2 hypersensitivity. Furthermore, catalase activity is increased during adaptation to sublethal H2O2 concentrations in YPD but not in buffer. We conclude that induction of cytosolic Ctt1 activity is vital in protecting yeast against exogenous H2O2 but this activity is inhibited by H2O2 when cells are challenged in nutrient-free media.

  10. Catalase activity is stimulated by H2O2 in rich culture medium and is required for H2O2 resistance and adaptation in yeast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorival Martins

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Catalases are efficient scavengers of H2O2 and protect cells against H2O2 stress. Examination of the H2O2 stimulon in Saccharomyces cerevisiae revealed that the cytosolic catalase T (Ctt1 protein level increases 15-fold on H2O2 challenge in synthetic complete media although previous work revealed that deletion of the CCT1 or CTA1 genes (encoding peroxisomal/mitochondrial catalase A does not increase the H2O2 sensitivity of yeast challenged in phosphate buffer (pH 7.4. This we attributed to our observation that catalase activity is depressed when yeast are challenged with H2O2 in nutrient-poor media. Hence, we performed a systematic comparison of catalase activity and cell viability of wild-type yeast and of the single catalase knockouts, ctt1∆ and cta1∆, following H2O2 challenge in nutrient-rich medium (YPD and in phosphate buffer (pH 7.4. Ctt1 but not Cta1 activity is strongly induced by H2O2 when cells are challenged in YPD but suppressed when cells are challenged in buffer. Consistent with the activity results, exponentially growing ctt1∆ cells in YPD are more sensitive to H2O2 than wild-type or cta1∆ cells, whereas in buffer all three strains exhibit comparable H2O2 hypersensitivity. Furthermore, catalase activity is increased during adaptation to sublethal H2O2 concentrations in YPD but not in buffer. We conclude that induction of cytosolic Ctt1 activity is vital in protecting yeast against exogenous H2O2 but this activity is inhibited by H2O2 when cells are challenged in nutrient-free media.

  11. Laboratory studies of H2SO4/H2O binary homogeneous nucleation from the SO2+OH reaction: evaluation of the experimental setup and preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. R. Kameel

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available We have developed a new laboratory nucleation setup to study binary homogeneous nucleation (BHN of sulphuric acid and water (H2SO4/H2O. Here we provide a detailed evaluation of this new experimental setup and also discuss our preliminary results by comparing with other laboratory studies. H2SO4 is produced from the SO2+OH →HSO3 reaction and OH radicals are produced from water vapor UV absorption. The residual H2SO4 concentrations ([H2SO4] are measured at the end of the fast flow nucleation reactor with a chemical ionization mass spectrometer. The measured BHN rates (J ranged from 0.02 and 550 cm−3 s−1 at the residual [H2SO4] from 108 to 1010 cm−3, a temperature of 288 K and relative humidity (RH from 6 to 23%; J increased with increasing [H2SO4] and RH. J also showed a power dependence on [H2SO4] with the exponential power of 3 to 8. These results are consistent with other laboratory studies under similar [H2SO4] and RH, but different from atmospheric field observations which showed that particle number concentrations are often linearly dependent on [H2SO4]. Both particle sizes and number concentrations increased with increasing [H2SO4], RH, and nucleation time, consistent with the predictions from nucleation theories. Particle growth rates were estimated between 28 to 127 nm h−1, much higher than those seen from atmospheric field observations, because of the higher [H2SO4] used in our study. While these experimental results demonstrate a validation of our laboratory setup, there are also technical difficulties associated with nucleation studies, including wall loss and H2SO4 measurements.

  12. Hydrogen and carbon isotope systematics in hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis under H2-limited and H2-enriched conditions: implications for the origin of methane and its isotopic diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okumura, Tomoyo; Kawagucci, Shinsuke; Saito, Yayoi; Matsui, Yohei; Takai, Ken; Imachi, Hiroyuki

    2016-12-01

    Hydrogen and carbon isotope systematics of H2O-H2-CO2-CH4 in hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis and their relation to H2 availability were investigated. Two H2-syntrophic cocultures of fermentatively hydrogenogenic bacteria and hydrogenotrophic methanogens under conditions of pure cultures of hydrogenotrophic methanogens under conditions of 105 Pa-H2 were tested. Carbon isotope fractionation between CH4 and CO2 during hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis was correlated with pH2, as indicated in previous studies. The hydrogen isotope ratio of CH4 produced during rapid growth of the thermophilic methanogen Methanothermococcus okinawensis under high pH2 conditions ( 105 Pa) was affected by the isotopic composition of H2, as concluded in a previous study of Methanothermobacter thermautotrophicus. This " {δ D}_{{H}_2} effect" is a possible cause of the diversity of previously reported values for hydrogen isotope fractionation between CH4 and H2O examined in H2-enriched culture experiments. Hydrogen isotope fractionation between CH4 and H2O, defined by (1000 + {δ D}_{{CH}_4} )/(1000 + {δ D}_{{H}_2O} ), during hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis of the H2-syntrophic cocultures was in the range 0.67-0.69. The hydrogen isotope fractionation of our H2-syntrophic dataset overlaps with those obtained not only from low- pH2 experiments reported so far but also from natural samples of "young" methane reservoirs (0.66-0.74). Conversely, such hydrogen isotope fractionation is not consistent with that of "aged" methane in geological samples (≥0.79), which has been regarded as methane produced via hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis from the carbon isotope fractionation. As a possible process inducing the inconsistency in hydrogen isotope signatures between experiments and geological samples, we hypothesize that the hydrogen isotope signature of CH4 imprinted at the time of methanogenesis, as in the experiments and natural young methane, may be altered by diagenetic hydrogen isotope exchange

  13. Synthesis, Crystal Structure and Magnetic Property of Sanwich-Type Heteropolyoxometalate Na9[{Na(H2O)2}3{Cu(H2O)}3(BiW9O33)2]·42H2O

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XUE, Gang-Lin(薛岗林); WANG, Hu-Lin(王虎林); XIE, Zhi-Hai(谢志海); SHI, Qi-Zhen(史启祯); WANG, Ji-Wu(王继武); WANG, Da-Qi(王大奇)

    2004-01-01

    The heteropolytungstate Na9[{Na(H2O)2}3{Cu(H2O)}3(BiW9O33)2]·42H2O is obtained by the reaction of Na2WO4·2H2O, Bi(NO3)3·5H2O with CuCl2·2H2O at pH≈6. The structure and chemical composition are determined by X-ray diffraction analysis and elemental analysis. The crystal data and main structure refinement are: a=1.410(3) nm, b=2.338(5) nm, c=3.173(6) nm, β=98.06(4)°, V=10.354(35) nm3, monoclinic crystal system, space group: C2/c, Z=4, R1=0.0471, wR2=0.0642 [I>2σ(I)], R1=0.1371, wR2=0.0868 (all data). [{Na(H2O)2}3{Cu(H2O)}3W9O33)2]9- has D3h symmetry. IR, UV-vis spectra, TG curve and magnetic property of the complex were also discussed. The compound exhibits an antiferromagnetic coupling with J=-8.08 cm-1 and g=2.21.

  14. Responsive mechanism of a newly synthesized fluorescent probe for sensing H2O2, NO and H2O2/NO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu-Jin; Wang, Xin; Zhou, Yong; Zhao, Ke; Wang, Chuan-Kui

    2016-10-01

    Optical properties of a newly synthesized fluorescent probe for H2O2, NO and H2O2/NO are investigated by employing time-dependent density functional theory. Three different sets of fluorescence signals are obtained when the probe reacts with H2O2, NO and H2O2/NO. Analysis of molecular orbitals is presented to explore responsive mechanism of the probe for the detected objects, where the fluorescent resonance energy transfer process is for H2O2 (H2O2/NO) and the intramolecular charge transfer process is for NO. Our results provide theoretical explanation of the experimental results, and importantly, suggest possibility of the probe as a two-photon fluorescent sensor.

  15. Surface reactions of AsH 3, H 2Se, and H 2S on the Zn 2TiO 4(010) surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Shiqiang; Rankin, Rees B.; Johnson, J. Karl; Sholl, David S.

    2011-04-01

    Removal of toxic species such as As, Se, and S is critical to the successful implementation of high efficiency Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) processes for coal utilization. In this work we study the initial low-coverage surface reactions of AsH 3, H 2Se and H 2S with a regenerable sorbent, zinc orthotitanate (Zn 2TiO 4), using first principles density functional theory. AsH 3 adsorbs more preferentially on oxygen-rich (010) surfaces, while H 2Se and H 2S are more favorably bound to metal-rich (010) surfaces. We calculated the dissociation pathways and rates for each adsorbed species, finding that dehydrogenation of AsH 3, H 2Se, and H 2S should be facile on these surfaces at the high temperatures relevant for IGCC processes.

  16. H2S在LPG与MDEA水溶液中的溶解度测定%Determination of solubility of H2S between aqueous MDEA solution and LPG

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李红; 高建保

    2004-01-01

    介绍了一种H2S在醇胺水溶液与LPG中分布的测定方法,此方法可分析H2S摩尔分数低至0.0002%的含量 (H2S摩尔分数范围0.0002%~5%,MDEA的摩尔浓度为3.0 mol/L和4.2 mol/L).实验数据表明在LPG中H2S的摩尔分数低于1%时,其摩尔分数的对数与胺相中H2S负荷的对数近似呈线性关系.因此,可将H2S摩尔分数适当外推到0.0001%,来满足生产和设计的需要.

  17. The insertion and H2 elimination reactions of H2GeFMgF germylenoid with RH (R = Cl, SH, PH2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ming-Xia; Yan, Bing-Fei; Li, Wen-Zuo; Li, Qing-Zhong; Cheng, Jian-Bo

    2017-09-01

    In present paper, the insertion and H2 elimination reactions of H2GeFMgF germylenoid with RH (R = Cl, SH, PH2) were investigated by means of B3LYP and QCISD calculation methods. One transition state and one intermediate were found along the potential energy surface in each insertion reaction, while for the H2 elimination reactions, only one transition state was found between the reactants and products in each reaction process. Both for the insertion and H2 elimination reactions, RH reactivity increases in the following order: H-Cl > H-SH > H-PH2. The insertion and H2 elimination reactions were compared, and the results demonstrated that the H2 elimination should be more favorable than the corresponding insertion. The solvent effects on these two types of reactions were considered. The calculated results indicated that the solvents could accelerate the reactions by reducing their barrier heights.

  18. High/variable mixture ratio O2/H2 engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, A.; Parsley, R. C.

    1988-01-01

    Vehicle/engine analysis studies have identified the High/Dual Mixture Ratio O2/H2 Engine cycle as a leading candidate for an advanced Single Stage to Orbit (SSTO) propulsion system. This cycle is designed to allow operation at a higher than normal O/F ratio of 12 during liftoff and then transition to a more optimum O/F ratio of 6 at altitude. While operation at high mixture ratios lowers specific impulse, the resultant high propellant bulk density and high power density combine to minimize the influence of atmospheric drag and low altitude gravitational forces. Transition to a lower mixture ratio at altitude then provides improved specific impulse relative to a single mixture ratio engine that must select a mixture ratio that is balanced for both low and high altitude operation. This combination of increased altitude specific impulse and high propellant bulk density more than offsets the compromised low altitude performance and results in an overall mission benefit. Two areas of technical concern relative to the execution of this dual mixture ratio cycle concept are addressed. First, actions required to transition from high to low mixture ratio are examined, including an assessment of the main chamber environment as the main chamber mixture ratio passes through stoichiometric. Secondly, two approaches to meet a requirement for high turbine power at high mixture ratio condition are examined. One approach uses high turbine temperature to produce the power and requires cooled turbines. The other approach incorporates an oxidizer-rich preburner to increase turbine work capability via increased turbine mass flow.

  19. H2O SOS: It Begins With You

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingalls, G.; Weiss, I.

    2016-12-01

    ExplorOcean H2O SOS: Help Heal the Ocean—Student Operated Solutions: Operation Climate Change teaches middle and high school students about ocean threats related to climate change through hands-on activities and learning experiences in the field. In this research we study five areas of focus. Marine Debris: The Ocean is one large system with a general circulation pattern and debris will be transported around the globe. Ocean Acidification: CO2 is the shortened term for Carbon Dioxide and it is a colorless and odorless gas vital to life on earth. This naturally occurring chemical compound is composed of a carbon atom covalently double bonded to two oxygen atoms. To much CO2 in the atmosphere can become an issue for our plants due to the chemicals strong greenhouse gas effects. Sustainable Fishing: Investigate and understand the impact fishing has on the habitats and the disruption of our ecosystem. Invasive Species: Species have been moved, intentionally or unintentionally as a result of human activity, into areas where they do not occur naturally are called "introduced" or "alien species". Watersheds and storm water: Water quality is not just a coastal issue. It starts in all regions and affects water quality from the mountains to the ocean. We get much of our water here in Southern California from the Colorado River. Imagine if the citizens of Colorado polluted all their water resources. We would not be able to continue using the Colorado River for fresh water. This issue affects everyone, and all people must help try to keep our fresh water resources clean.

  20. The role of variant histone H2AV in Drosophila melanogaster larval hematopoiesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigorian, Melina; DeBruhl, Heather; Lipsick, Joseph S

    2017-04-15

    Replication-independent histone variants can replace the canonical replication-dependent histones. Vertebrates have multiple H2A variant histones, including H2AZ and H2AX that are present in most eukaryotes. H2AZ regulates transcriptional activation as well as the maintenance of gene silencing, while H2AX is important in DNA damage repair. The fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster has only one histone H2A variant (H2AV), which is a chimera of H2AZ and H2AX. In this study we found that lack of H2AV led to the formation of black melanotic masses in Drosophila third instar larvae. The formation of these masses was found in conjunction with a loss of the majority of the primary lymph gland lobes. Interestingly, the cells of the posterior signaling center were preserved in these mutants. Reduction of H2AV levels by RNAi knockdown caused a milder phenotype that preserved the lymph gland structure but that included precocious differentiation of the prohemocytes located within the medullary zone and the secondary lobes of the lymph gland. Mutant rescue experiments suggest that the H2AZ-like rather than the H2AX-like function of H2AV is primarily required for normal hematopoiesis. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  1. A New Overpotential — Capacitance Mechanism for H2 Electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glenn Wei

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available The H2 electrode is commonly assumed to be a half-cell, 2 H+ 2e == H2, andexplained by the Nernst equation. We cannot assume that the H+ is easily reduced to H2 inan H2 saturated solution, and H2 becoming oxidized to H+ in a strongly acid solution againstthe equilibrium principle. How can the H2 gas is involved from a basic solution where thereis practically no H+ ions? Another equilibrium has been postulated, H2 (soln = 2H(adsorbed on metal = 2 H 2e. This paper reports the results of studying the H2 electrodeusing various techniques, such as adsorption, bubbling with H2, and N2, charging,discharging, and recharging, replacing the salt bridge with a conducting wire, etc. Aninteresting overpotential was observed that bubbling H2 into the solution caused a suddenchange of potential to more negative without changing the solution pH. The H2 may bereplaced by N2 to give a similar calibration curve without the overpotential. The resultscontradict the redox mechanism. When the Pt is separated by H2 coating, it cannot act as acatalyst in the solution. Our results seem to explain the H2 electrode mechanism as thecombination of its overpotential and capacitance potential. Bubbling of H2 or N2 onlyremoves interfering gases such as O2 and CO2. Since neither H2 nor N2 is involved in thepotential development, it is improper to call the H2 or N2 electrode. A term of pH / OH Ptelectrode, like the pH / OH glass electrode, is suggested.

  2. Analysis of cell cycle's correlation of γ-H2AX%γ-H2AX细胞周期相关性的分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yangping Yue; Jianping Gong; Zhenchuang Zhu; Dongdong Yu; Yu Deng; Dan Huang; Xiaolan Li; Wei Xiao; Deding Tao; Junbo Hu

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To analyze and discuss cell cycle's correlation of γ-H2AX, so as to accumulate the data for the further studies of γ-H2AX. Methods: MOLT-4 cells, and peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs), with or without 48 h stimulation of phytohemagglutinin (PHA), were irradiated by ultraviolet rays (UV rays). Fluorescence-labeled γ-H2AX antibody was used to detect γ-H2AX foci at the DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) in chromatin, DNA damage was analyzed by flow cytometry, cell cycle and cell apoptosis were detected by sub-G1 peak method, the expression of y-H2AX was detected by Western blot. Results: With the progression of time, sub-G1 peak emerged apparently in the DNA histograms, and the cells of apoptosis increased gradually; with the progression of time, the increase of γ-H2AX emerged and firstly raised, then decreased; PBLs with 48 h stimulation of PHA entered apparently cell cycle, cells of S and G2/M phase emerged, and PBLs without stimulation of PHA did not enter cell cycle; Western blot showed the increase of the expression of γ-H2AX, and the increase also firstly raised, then decreased. Conclusion: γ-H2AX expressed in the cells of stationary phase and proliferative phase, and with the progression of time, the increase of γ-H2AX firstly raised, and then decreased.

  3. Stable solid and aqueous H2CO3 from CO2 and H2O at high pressure and high temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongbo; Zeuschner, Janek; Eremets, Mikhail; Troyan, Ivan; Willams, Jonathan

    2016-01-27

    Carbonic acid (H2CO3) forms in small amounts when CO2 dissolves in H2O, yet decomposes rapidly under ambient conditions of temperature and pressure. Despite its fleeting existence, H2CO3 plays an important role in the global carbon cycle and in biological carbonate-containing systems. The short lifetime in water and presumed low concentration under all terrestrial conditions has stifled study of this fundamental species. Here, we have examined CO2/H2O mixtures under conditions of high pressure and high temperature to explore the potential for reaction to H2CO3 inside celestial bodies. We present a novel method to prepare solid H2CO3 by heating CO2/H2O mixtures at high pressure with a CO2 laser. Furthermore, we found that, contrary to present understanding, neutral H2CO3 is a significant component in aqueous CO2 solutions above 2.4 GPa and 110 °C as identified by IR-absorption and Raman spectroscopy. This is highly significant for speciation of deep C-O-H fluids with potential consequences for fluid-carbonate-bearing rock interactions. As conditions inside subduction zones on Earth appear to be most favorable for production of aqueous H2CO3, a role in subduction related phenomena is inferred.

  4. Distinct distribution of ectopically expressed histone variants H2A.Bbd and MacroH2A in open and closed chromatin domains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena S Ioudinkova

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: It becomes increasingly evident that nuclesomes are far from being identical to each other. This nucleosome diversity is due partially to the existence of histone variants encoded by separate genes. Among the known histone variants the less characterized are H2A.Bbd and different forms of macroH2A. This is especially true in the case of H2A.Bbd as there are still no commercially available antibodies specific to H2A.Bbd that can be used for chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP. METHODS: We have generated HeLa S3 cell lines stably expressing epitope-tagged versions of macroH2A1.1, H2A.Bbd or canonical H2A and analyzed genomic distribution of the tagged histones using ChIP-on-chip technique. RESULTS: The presence of histone H2A variants macroH2A1.1 and H2A.Bbd has been analyzed in the chromatin of several segments of human chromosomes 11, 16 and X that have been chosen for their different gene densities and chromatin status. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP followed by hybridization with custom NimbleGene genomic microarrays demonstrated that in open chromatin domains containing tissue-specific along with housekeeping genes, the H2A.Bbd variant was preferentially associated with the body of a subset of transcribed genes. The macroH2A1.1 variant was virtually absent from some genes and underrepresented in others. In contrast, in closed chromatin domains which contain only tissue-specific genes inactive in HeLa S3 cells, both macroH2A1.1 and H2A.Bbd histone variants were present and often colocalized. CONCLUSIONS: Genomic distribution of macro H2A and H2A.Bbd does not follow any simple rule and is drastically different in open and closed genomic domains.

  5. Nucleosome acidic patch promotes RNF168- and RING1B/BMI1-dependent H2AX and H2A ubiquitination and DNA damage signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin W Leung

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Histone ubiquitinations are critical for the activation of the DNA damage response (DDR. In particular, RNF168 and RING1B/BMI1 function in the DDR by ubiquitinating H2A/H2AX on Lys-13/15 and Lys-118/119, respectively. However, it remains to be defined how the ubiquitin pathway engages chromatin to provide regulation of ubiquitin targeting of specific histone residues. Here we identify the nucleosome acid patch as a critical chromatin mediator of H2A/H2AX ubiquitination (ub. The acidic patch is required for RNF168- and RING1B/BMI1-dependent H2A/H2AXub in vivo. The acidic patch functions within the nucleosome as nucleosomes containing a mutated acidic patch exhibit defective H2A/H2AXub by RNF168 and RING1B/BMI1 in vitro. Furthermore, direct perturbation of the nucleosome acidic patch in vivo by the expression of an engineered acidic patch interacting viral peptide, LANA, results in defective H2AXub and RNF168-dependent DNA damage responses including 53BP1 and BRCA1 recruitment to DNA damage. The acidic patch therefore is a critical nucleosome feature that may serve as a scaffold to integrate multiple ubiquitin signals on chromatin to compose selective ubiquitinations on histones for DNA damage signaling.

  6. Study of the transient "free" OH radical generated in H2O-H2O2 mixtures by stimulated Raman scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fangfang; Ma, Zhiwei; Wang, Shenghan; Li, Tianyu; Sun, Chenglin; Li, Zhanlong; Men, Zhiwei

    2017-03-01

    Forward and backward stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) were studied in the H2O2-H2O mixtures by a strong excitation laser with 532 nm. Only the backward SRS (BSRS) of the H2O2-H2O system shows an unexpected SRS shoulder peak at around 3600 cm- 1, which is similar to the characteristic peak of "free" OH radical. The generation of the "free" OH radical is mainly attributed to the dissociation of hydrogen peroxide (HP) molecules. Simultaneously, the ionization of HP-water clusters generates a part of "free" OH radical under the Laser-induced breakdown (LIB). The interaction of water and HP is also discussed.

  7. Impact of fluctuations in gaseous H2S concentrations on sulfide uptake by sewer concrete: The effect of high H2S loads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiaoyan; Jiang, Guangming; Bond, Philip L; Keller, Jurg

    2015-09-15

    The acid production from the oxidation of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) in sewer air results in serious corrosion of exposed concrete surfaces in sewers. Large fluctuations of gaseous H2S concentrations occur in sewers due to the diurnal profiles of sewage flow and retention times and the necessity of intermittent pumping of sewage from pressure pipes into gravity pipes. How the high concentrations of H2S due to these events may affect H2S uptake and subsequent corrosion by concrete sewers is largely unknown. This study determined the effect of short- and long-term increases in H2S levels on the sulfide uptake rate (SUR) of concrete surfaces with an active corrosion layer. The results showed that during the high load situation the SUR increased significantly but then decreased (compared to the baseline SUR) by about 7-14% and 41-50% immediately after short- and long-term H2S high-load periods, respectively. For both exposure conditions, the SUR gradually (over several hours) recovered to approximately 90% of the baseline SUR. Further tests suggest multiple factors may contribute to the observed decrease of SUR directly after the high H2S load. This includes the temporary storage of elemental sulfur in the corrosion layer and inhibition of sulfide oxidizing bacteria (SOB) due to high H2S level and temporary acid surge. Additionally, the delay of the corrosion layer to fully recover the SUR after the high H2S load suggests that there is a longer-term inhibitive effect of the high H2S levels on the activity of the SOB in the corrosion layer. Due to the observed activity reductions, concrete exposed to occasional short-term high H2S load periods had an overall lower H2S uptake compared to concrete exposed to constant H2S levels at the same average concentration. To accurately predict H2S uptake by sewer concrete and hence the likely maximum corrosion rates, a correction factor should be adopted for the H2S fluctuations when average H2S levels are used in the prediction

  8. Submillimeter H$_2$O and H$_2$O$^+$ emission in lensed ultra- and hyper-luminous infrared galaxies at z ~ 2-4

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, C; Beelen, A; González-Alfonso, E; Neri, R; Gao, Y; van der Werf, P; Weiß, A; Gavazzi, R; Falstad, N; Baker, A J; Bussmann, R S; Cooray, A; Cox, P; Dannerbauer, H; Dye, S; Guélin, M; Ivison, R; Krips, M; Lehnert, M; Michałowski, M J; Riechers, D A; Spaans, M; Valiante, E

    2016-01-01

    (abridged) We report rest-frame submillimeter H2O emission line observations of 11 HyLIRGs/ULIRGs at z~2-4 selected among the brightest lensed galaxies discovered in the Herschel-ATLAS. Using the IRAM NOEMA, we have detected 14 new H2O emission lines. The apparent luminosities of the H2O emission lines are $\\mu L_{\\rm{H_2O}} \\sim 6-21 \\times 10^8 L_\\odot$, with velocity-integrated line fluxes ranging from 4-15 Jy km s$^{-1}$. We have also observed CO emission lines using EMIR on the IRAM 30m telescope in seven sources. The velocity widths for CO and H2O lines are found to be similar. With almost comparable integrated flux densities to those of the high-J CO line, H2O is found to be among the strongest molecular emitters in high-z Hy/ULIRGs. We also confirm our previously found correlation between luminosity of H2O ($L_{\\rm{H_2O}}$) and infrared ($L_{\\rm{IR}}$) that $L_{\\rm{H_2O}} \\sim L_{\\rm{IR}}^{1.1-1.2}$, with our new detections. This correlation could be explained by a dominant role of far-infrared (FIR) ...

  9. Structural, Electronic and Elastic Properties of MgH2, CaH2 and Ca4Mg3H14 for Hydrogen Storage Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djellab, Sihem; Bouhadda, Youcef; Bououdina, Mohamed; Fenineche, Noureddine; Boudouma, Youcef

    2016-08-01

    The structural, electronic and elastic properties of MgH2, CaH2 and Ca4Mg3H14 have been determined using first principles calculation based on density functional theory. The calculated lattice constants were in good agreement with the experimental values. The electronic density of states revealed that these hydrides are insulators. The calculated elastic constants of MgH2, CaH2 and Ca4Mg3H14 indicated that these hydrides are mechanically stable at zero pressure. The bulk modulus B, shear modulus G, Young's modulus E, and Poisson's ratio ν were derived, and the ductility was discussed.

  10. Preparation of an additive-free sample with a MgH2 phase by planetary ball milling of Mg with10 wt% MgH2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Seong-Hyeon; Song, Myoung Youp

    2016-11-01

    In order to prepare an additive-free sample with a MgH2 phase, 90 wt% Mg+10 wt% MgH2 (named Mg-10MgH2) was milled under hydrogen atmosphere in a planetary ball mill for different durations (2 h, 5 h, and 10 h). The hydrogen absorption and release properties of the prepared samples were investigated and compared with those of purchased pure MgH2 samples. Mg-10MgH2 milled for 5 h had the largest quantity of hydrogen released at 648 K for 100 min of 5.96 wt%. Mg-10MgH2 milled for 5 h released 0.11 wt% H for 10 min, 4.85 wt% H for 30 min, and 5.83 wt% H for 60 min at 648 K at the first cycle. Mg-10MgH2 milled for 5 h absorbed 5.39 wt% H for 5 min and 5.92 wt% H for 60 min at 648 K at the second cycle. Dehydriding curves were also obtained at the first cycle of Mg-10MgH2 samples milled for 5 h using Mg powder with or without sieving (200 mesh). The dehydriding curve at 648 K of a Mg-10MgH2 sample milled for 5 h in the planetary ball mill was compared with that of the sample milled for 24 h in a horizontal ball mill.

  11. Stable solid and aqueous H2CO3 from CO2 and H2O at high pressure and high temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongbo; Zeuschner, Janek; Eremets, Mikhail; Troyan, Ivan; Willams, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    Carbonic acid (H2CO3) forms in small amounts when CO2 dissolves in H2O, yet decomposes rapidly under ambient conditions of temperature and pressure. Despite its fleeting existence, H2CO3 plays an important role in the global carbon cycle and in biological carbonate-containing systems. The short lifetime in water and presumed low concentration under all terrestrial conditions has stifled study of this fundamental species. Here, we have examined CO2/H2O mixtures under conditions of high pressure and high temperature to explore the potential for reaction to H2CO3 inside celestial bodies. We present a novel method to prepare solid H2CO3 by heating CO2/H2O mixtures at high pressure with a CO2 laser. Furthermore, we found that, contrary to present understanding, neutral H2CO3 is a significant component in aqueous CO2 solutions above 2.4 GPa and 110 °C as identified by IR-absorption and Raman spectroscopy. This is highly significant for speciation of deep C-O-H fluids with potential consequences for fluid-carbonate-bearing rock interactions. As conditions inside subduction zones on Earth appear to be most favorable for production of aqueous H2CO3, a role in subduction related phenomena is inferred.

  12. Association between genetic variants in NOD2, C13orf31, and CCDC122 genes and leprosy among the Chinese Yi population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Jun-Hao; Mao, Chong; Sha, Xiao-Wei; Jin, Zheng; Wang, Hao; Liu, Yang-Ying; Ning, Yong

    2016-01-01

    A significant association between single nucleotide polymorphisms in NOD2, C13orf31, and CCDC122 genes and leprosy has been reported in a previous genome-wide association study of leprosy in the Chinese Han population. However, it remains unknown whether this association exists among the Chinese Yi population. The aim of this study was to investigate whether single nucleotide polymorphisms in NOD2, C13orf31, and CCDC122 genes are associated with leprosy among the Chinese Yi population in China. We genotyped rs9302752, rs7194886, rs8057341, and rs3135499 in the NOD2 gene; rs3764147 and rs10507522 in the C13orf31 gene; and rs3088362 and rs9533634 in the CCDC122 gene in a Chinese Yi cohort comprised of 319 patients with leprosy and 355 ethnic-matched controls. The differences between the patients and healthy controls were analyzed using chi-squared analysis. Significant differences of rs3135499 in NOD2, rs3764147 and rs10507522 in C13orf31, and rs3088362 and rs9533634 in CCDC122 were observed between the patients and the healthy control groups in the cohort. The allelic P values and odd ratios were as follows: rs3135499, 1.0 × 10(-8) and 2.55; rs3764147, 1.7 × 10(-7) and 1.88; rs10507522, 1.16 × 10(-5) and 1.95; rs3088362, 8.2 × 10(-4) and 1.51; rs9533634, 5.34 × 10(-5) and 1.73. No significant differences were found in the distributions of rs9302752, rs7194886, and rs8057341 between the patients and healthy controls. We demonstrated that genetic variants in the NOD2, C13orf31, and CCDC122 genes are closely associated with leprosy among the Chinese Yi population, which implicates the pathogenic role of NOD2, C13orf31, and CCDC122 genes in a different ethnicity. © 2015 The International Society of Dermatology.

  13. Synthesis and Crystal Structure of 3-(Pyrrole-2'-carboxamido)propanoic Acid·(1/2)H2O

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZENG Xiang-Chao; XU Shi-Hai; GU Jian; LIU Po-Run

    2005-01-01

    3-(Pyrrole-2'-carboxamido)propanoic acid I has been synthesized from the reaction of β-alanine methyl ester with 2-trichloroacetylpyrrole followed by saponifying and acidating in 85.4% yield, and the crystal structure of 3-(pyrrole-2'-carboxamido)propanoic acid· (1/2)H2O (C8H11N2O3.5, Mr = 191.19) was obtained and determined by X-ray diffraction method. The crystal is of monoclinic, space group C2/c with a = 19.010(4), b = 8.3515(17), c = 13.788(3) (A), β = 125.88(3)°, V = 1773.6(6) (A)3, Z = 8, Dc = 1.432 g/cm3, λ = 0.71073 (A), μ-MoKα) = 0.114 mm-1 and F(000) = 768. The structure was refined to R = 0.0354 and wR = 0.0942 for 1642 observed reflections with I > 2σ(I). It is revealed that the title compound has one pyrrole ring and one propionic acid subchain linked by an amido bond at C(4), and there are 8 molecules of com- pound I and 4 crystal water molecules in each unit cell. The supramolecular layers are stabilized by the hydrogen bonds of N(2) H…O(2), N(1) H…O(4), O(4) H(1W)…O(2) and O(3) H…O(1).

  14. Rotational spectroscopy of isotopic vinyl cyanide, H$_2$C=CH$-$C$\\equiv$N, in the laboratory and in space

    CERN Document Server

    Müller, Holger S P; Menten, Karl M; Comito, Claudia; Schilke, Peter

    2008-01-01

    The rotational spectra of singly substituted $^{13}$C and $^{15}$N isotopic species of vinyl cyanide have been studied in natural abundances between 64 and 351 GHz. In combination with previous results, greatly improved spectroscopic parameters have been obtained which in turn helped to identify transitions of the $^{13}$C species for the first time in space through a molecular line survey of the extremely line-rich interstellar source Sagittarius B2(N) in the 3 mm region with some additional observations at 2 mm. The $^{13}$C species are detected in two compact ($\\sim 2.3''$), hot (170 K) cores with a column density of $\\sim 3.8 \\times 10^{16}$ and $1.1 \\times 10^{16}$ cm$^{-2}$, respectively. In the main source, the so-called ``Large Molecule Heimat'', we derive an abundance of $2.9 \\times 10^{-9}$ for each $^{13}$C species relative to H$_2$. An isotopic ratio $^{12}$C/$^{13}$C of 21 has been measured. Based on a comparison to the column densities measured for the $^{13}$C species of ethyl cyanide also dete...

  15. H2AX post-translational modifications in the ionizing radiation response and homologous recombination

    OpenAIRE

    Xie,anyong; Odate, Shobu; Chandramouly, Gurushankar; Scully, Ralph

    2010-01-01

    Histone H2AX phosphorylation on a C-terminal serine residue to form “γ-H2AX” is a critical early event in the chromatin response to chromosomal DNA double strand breaks in eukaryotes. In mammalian cells, γ-H2AX is formed when H2AX is phosphorylated on serine 139 by ATM or by other DNA damage response kinases. H2AX prevents genomic instability and tumorigenesis, and supports class-switch recombination at immunoglobulin heavy chain loci in mammals. We showed previously that H2AX controls double...

  16. Theoretical Modeling of Water Exchange on [Pd(H(2)O)(4)](2+), [Pt(H(2)O)(4)](2+), and trans-[PtCl(2)(H(2)O)(2)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deeth, Robert J.; Elding, Lars I.

    1996-08-14

    Density functional theory is applied to modeling the exchange in aqueous solution of H(2)O on [Pd(H(2)O)(4)](2+), [Pt(H(2)O)(4)](2+), and trans-[PtCl(2)(H(2)O)(2)]. Optimized structures for the starting molecules are reported together with trigonal bipyramidal (tbp) systems relevant to an associative mechanism. While a rigorous tbp geometry cannot by symmetry be the actual transition state, it appears that the energy differences between model tbp structures and the actual transition states are small. Ground state geometries calculated via the local density approximation (LDA) for [Pd(H(2)O)(4)](2+) and relativistically corrected LDA for the Pt complexes are in good agreement with available experimental data. Nonlocal gradient corrections to the LDA lead to relatively inferior structures. The computed structures for analogous Pd and Pt species are very similar. The equatorial M-OH(2) bonds of all the LDA-optimized tbp structures are predicted to expand by 0.25-0.30 Å, while the axial bonds change little relative to the planar precursors. This bond stretching in the transition state counteracts the decrease in partial molar volume caused by coordination of the entering water molecule and can explain qualitatively the small and closely similar volumes of activation observed. The relatively higher activation enthalpies of the Pt species can be traced to the relativistic correction of the total energies while the absolute DeltaH() values for exchange on [Pd(H(2)O)(4)](2+) and [Pt(H(2)O)(4)](2+) are reproduced using relativistically corrected LDA energies and a simple Born model for hydration. The validity of the latter is confirmed via some simple atomistic molecular mechanics estimates of the relative hydration enthalpies of [Pd(H(2)O)(4)](2+) and [Pd(H(2)O)(5)](2+). The computed DeltaH() values are 57, 92, and 103 kJ/mol compared to experimental values of 50(2), 90(2), and 100(2) kJ/mol for [Pd(H(2)O)(4)](2+), [Pt(H(2)O)(4)](2+), and trans-[PtCl(2)(H(2)O)(2

  17. The H2+ molecular ion: Low-lying states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivares-Pilón, Horacio; Turbiner, Alexander V.

    2016-10-01

    Matching for a wavefunction the WKB expansion at large distances and Taylor expansion at small distances leads to a compact, few-parametric uniform approximation found in Turbiner and Olivares-Pilon (2011). The ten low-lying eigenstates of H2+ of the quantum numbers (n , m , Λ , ±) with n = m = 0 at Λ = 0 , 1 , 2, with n = 1, m = 0 and n = 0, m = 1 at Λ = 0 of both parities are explored for all interproton distances R. For all these states this approximation provides the relative accuracy ≲ 10-5 (not less than 5 s.d.) locally, for any real coordinate x in eigenfunctions, when for total energy E(R) it gives 10-11 s.d. for R ∈ [ 0 , 50 ] a.u. Corrections to the approximation are evaluated in the specially-designed, convergent perturbation theory. Separation constants are found with not less than 8 s.d. The oscillator strength for the electric dipole transitions E 1 is calculated with not less than 6 s.d. A dramatic dip in the E 1 oscillator strength f 1 sσg - 3 pσu at R ∼Req is observed. The magnetic dipole and electric quadrupole transitions are calculated for the first time with not less than 6 s.d. in oscillator strength. For two lowest states (0 , 0 , 0 , ±) (or, equivalently, 1 sσg and 2 pσu states) the potential curves are checked and confirmed in the Lagrange mesh method within 12 s.d. Based on them the Energy Gap between 1 sσg and 2 pσu potential curves is approximated with modified Pade Re-R [ Pade(8 / 7) ] (R) with not less than 4-5 figures at R ∈ [ 0 , 40 ] a.u. Sum of potential curves E1sσg +E2pσu is approximated by Pade 1 / R [ Pade(5 / 8) ] (R) in R ∈ [ 0 , 40 ] a.u. with not less than 3-4 figures.

  18. Phylogenomics of unusual histone H2A Variants in Bdelloid rotifers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karine Van Doninck

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Rotifers of Class Bdelloidea are remarkable in having evolved for millions of years, apparently without males and meiosis. In addition, they are unusually resistant to desiccation and ionizing radiation and are able to repair hundreds of radiation-induced DNA double-strand breaks per genome with little effect on viability or reproduction. Because specific histone H2A variants are involved in DSB repair and certain meiotic processes in other eukaryotes, we investigated the histone H2A genes and proteins of two bdelloid species. Genomic libraries were built and probed to identify histone H2A genes in Adineta vaga and Philodina roseola, species representing two different bdelloid families. The expressed H2A proteins were visualized on SDS-PAGE gels and identified by tandem mass spectrometry. We find that neither the core histone H2A, present in nearly all other eukaryotes, nor the H2AX variant, a ubiquitous component of the eukaryotic DSB repair machinery, are present in bdelloid rotifers. Instead, they are replaced by unusual histone H2A variants of higher mass. In contrast, a species of rotifer belonging to the facultatively sexual, desiccation- and radiation-intolerant sister class of bdelloid rotifers, the monogononts, contains a canonical core histone H2A and appears to lack the bdelloid H2A variant genes. Applying phylogenetic tools, we demonstrate that the bdelloid-specific H2A variants arose as distinct lineages from canonical H2A separate from those leading to the H2AX and H2AZ variants. The replacement of core H2A and H2AX in bdelloid rotifers by previously uncharacterized H2A variants with extended carboxy-terminal tails is further evidence for evolutionary diversity within this class of histone H2A genes and may represent adaptation to unusual features specific to bdelloid rotifers.

  19. H2S cytotoxicity mechanism involves reactive oxygen species formation and mitochondrial depolarisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eghbal, Mohammad A; Pennefather, Peter S; O'Brien, Peter J

    2004-10-15

    A number of scavengers of reactive oxygen species (ROS) were found to be protective against cell death induced by hydrogen sulfide (H2S) in isolated hepatocytes. The H2O2 scavengers alpha-ketoglutarate and pyruvate, which also act as energy substrate metabolites, were more protective against H2S toxicity than lactate which is only an energy substrate metabolite. All of these results suggest that H2S toxicity is dependent on ROS production. We measured ROS formation directly in hepatocytes using the fluorogenic dichlorofluorescin method. H2S-induced ROS formation was dose dependent and pyruvate inhibited this ROS production. Non-toxic concentrations of H2S enhanced the cytotoxicity of H2O2 generated by glucose/glucose oxidase, which was inhibited by CYP450 inibitors. Furthermore, hepatocyte ROS formation induced by H2S was decreased by CYP450 inhibitors cimetidine and benzylimidazole. These results suggest that CYP450-dependant metabolism of H2S is responsible for inducing ROS production. H2S-induced cytotoxicity was preceded by mitochondrial depolarization as measured by rhodamine 123 fluorescence. Mitochondrial depolarization induced by H2S was prevented by zinc, methionine and pyruvate all of which decreased H2S-induced cell death. Treatment of H2S poisoning may benefit from interventions aimed at minimizing ROS-induced damage and reducing mitochondrial damage.

  20. Synthesis of high-surface-area spinel-type MgAl$_2$O$_4$ nanoparticles by [Al(sal)$_2$(H$_2$O)$_2$]$_2$[Mg(dipic)$_2$] and [Mg(H$_2$O)$_6$][Al(ox)$_2$(H$_2$O)$_2$]$_2$·5H$_2$O: influence of inorganic precursor type

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2017-02-01

    Spinel-type MgAl$_2$O$_4$ nanoparticles with high surface area were synthesized by thermal decomposition of three different ion-pair complexes precursors, including [Mg(H$_2$O)$_6$][Al(dipic)$_2$]$_2$·6H$_2$O, [Al(sal)$_2$(H$_2$O)$_2$]$_2$[Mg(dipic)$_2$] and [Mg(H$_2$O)$_6$][Al(ox)$_2$(H$_2$O)$_2$]$_2$·5H$_2$O. Influence of the inorganic precursor was investigated on synthesis and textural properties of magnesium aluminate nanopowders. The precursors [Mg(H$_2$O)$_6$][Al(dipic)$_2$]$_2$·6H$_2$O and [Al(sal)$_2$(H$_2$O)$_2$]$_2$[Mg(dipic)$_2$] displayed pure spinel-type MgAl$_2$O$_4$, while the sample synthesized by [Mg(H$_2$O)$_6$][Al(ox)$_2$(H$_2$O)$_2$]$_2$·5H$_2$O precursor consisted of MgAl$_2$O$_4$ and MgO. The MgAl$_2$O$_4$ synthesizedvia [Al(sal)$_2$(H$_2$O)$_2$]$_2$[Mg(dipic)$_2$] precursor exhibited higher BET specific surface area (226.7 m$^2$ g$^{−1}$) and smaller particle size than those of the samples obtained from the two other precursors.

  1. Inhibition of Mitochondrial Bioenergetics by Esterase-Triggered COS/H2S Donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiger, Andrea K; Marcatti, Michela; Szabo, Csaba; Szczesny, Bartosz; Pluth, Michael D

    2017-08-18

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is an important biological mediator, and synthetic H2S donating molecules provide an important class of investigative tools for H2S research. Here, we report esterase-activated H2S donors that function by first releasing carbonyl sulfide (COS), which is rapidly converted to H2S by the ubiquitous enzyme carbonic anhydrase (CA). We report the synthesis, self-immolative decomposition, and H2S release profiles of the developed scaffolds. In addition, the developed esterase-triggered COS/H2S donors exhibit higher levels of cytotoxicity than equivalent levels of Na2S or the common H2S donors GYY4137 and AP39. Using cellular bioenergetics measurements, we establish that the developed donors reduce cellular respiration and ATP synthesis in BEAS 2B human lung epithelial cells, which is consistent with COS/H2S inhibition of cytochrome c oxidase in the mitochondrial respiratory chain although not observed with common H2S donors at the same concentrations. Taken together, these results may suggest that COS functions differently than H2S in certain biological contexts or that the developed donors are more efficient at delivering H2S than other common H2S-releasing motifs.

  2. Decapado del acero inoxidable AISI 316L utilizando una mezcla ecológica de H2O2-H2SO4-HF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gómez, P. P.

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available This study reports the pickling of austenitic AISI 316L stainless steel (SS using a mixture of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2, sulphuric acid (H2SO4 and hydrofluoric acid (HF at pH 2.0. The stability of H2O2 was also studied using different concentrations of ferric ion from 0 to 40 g/l and temperature from 25 to 60 °C. The pickling rate at 50 °C in the presence and absence of 40 g/l ferric ion was 2.6 and 0.2 mg/dm2 day (mdd, respectively. p-Toluene sulphonic acid was used as stabilizer of H2O2.En la presente investigación se estudia el decapado del acero inoxidable AISI 316L utilizando una mezcla de agua oxigenada (H2O2 y los ácidos sulfúrico (H2SO4 y fluorhídrico (HF a pH 2,0. La estabilidad de la mezcla H2O2-H2SO4-HF se ha ensayado variando el contenido de iones férrico de O a 40 g/l y la temperatura de 25 a 60 °C. La velocidad de decapado a 50 °C ha sido de 2,6 y 0,2 mg/dm2 día (mdd, en ausencia y presencia de 40 g/l de iones férrico, respectivamente. Se ha utilizado el ácido p-toluen sulfónico como estabilizante del H2O2.

  3. A role for H2S in the microcirculation of newborns: the major metabolite of H2S (thiosulphate is increased in preterm infants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca M Dyson

    Full Text Available Excessive vasodilatation during the perinatal period is associated with cardiorespiratory instability in preterm neonates. Little evidence of the mechanisms controlling microvascular tone during circulatory transition exists. We hypothesised that hydrogen sulphide (H2S, an important regulator of microvascular reactivity and central cardiac function in adults and animal models, may contribute to the vasodilatation observed in preterm newborns. Term and preterm neonates (24-43 weeks gestational age were studied. Peripheral microvascular blood flow was assessed by laser Doppler. Thiosulphate, a urinary metabolite of H2S, was determined by high performance liquid chromatography as a measure of 24 hr total body H2S turnover for the first 3 days of postnatal life. H2S turnover was greatest in very preterm infants and decreased with increasing gestational age (p = 0.0001. H2S turnover was stable across the first 72 hrs of life in older neonates. In very preterm neonates, H2S turnover increased significantly from day 1 to 3 (p =0.0001; and males had higher H2S turnover than females (p = 0.04. A significant relationship between microvascular blood flow and H2S turnover was observed on day 2 of postnatal life (p = 0.0004. H2S may play a role in maintaining microvascular tone in the perinatal period. Neonates at the greatest risk of microvascular dysfunction characterised by inappropriate peripheral vasodilatation--very preterm male neonates--are also the neonates with highest levels of total body H2S turnover suggesting that overproduction of this gasotransmitter may contribute to microvascular dysfunction in preterms. Potentially, H2S is a target to selectively control microvascular tone in the circulation of newborns.

  4. I + (H2O)2 → HI + (H2O)OH Forward and Reverse Reactions. CCSD(T) Studies Including Spin-Orbit Coupling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui; Li, Guoliang; Li, Qian-Shu; Xie, Yaoming; Schaefer, Henry F

    2016-03-03

    The potential energy profile for the atomic iodine plus water dimer reaction I + (H2O)2 → HI + (H2O)OH has been explored using the "Gold Standard" CCSD(T) method with quadruple-ζ correlation-consistent basis sets. The corresponding information for the reverse reaction HI + (H2O)OH → I + (H2O)2 is also derived. Both zero-point vibrational energies (ZPVEs) and spin-orbit (SO) coupling are considered, and these notably alter the classical energetics. On the basis of the CCSD(T)/cc-pVQZ-PP results, including ZPVE and SO coupling, the forward reaction is found to be endothermic by 47.4 kcal/mol, implying a significant exothermicity for the reverse reaction. The entrance complex I···(H2O)2 is bound by 1.8 kcal/mol, and this dissociation energy is significantly affected by SO coupling. The reaction barrier lies 45.1 kcal/mol higher than the reactants. The exit complex HI···(H2O)OH is bound by 3.0 kcal/mol relative to the asymptotic limit. At every level of theory, the reverse reaction HI + (H2O)OH → I + (H2O)2 proceeds without a barrier. Compared with the analogous water monomer reaction I + H2O → HI + OH, the additional water molecule reduces the relative energies of the entrance stationary point, transition state, and exit complex by 3-5 kcal/mol. The I + (H2O)2 reaction is related to the valence isoelectronic bromine and chlorine reactions but is distinctly different from the F + (H2O)2 system.

  5. Genome-wide profiles of H2AX and γ-H2AX differentiate endogenous and exogenous DNA damage hotspots in human cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Jungmin; Kim, Sang Cheol; Lee, Heun-Sik; Kim, Jung Kyu; Shon, Hye Jin; Salleh, Nur Lina Mohd; Desai, Kartiki Vasant; Lee, Jae Ho; Kang, Eun-Suk; Kim, Jin Sung; Choi, Jung Kyoon

    2012-07-01

    Phosphorylation of the histone variant H2AX forms γ-H2AX that marks DNA double-strand break (DSB). Here, we generated the sequencing-based maps of H2AX and γ-H2AX positioning in resting and proliferating cells before and after ionizing irradiation. Genome-wide locations of possible endogenous and exogenous DSBs were identified based on γ-H2AX distribution in dividing cancer cells without irradiation and that in resting cells upon irradiation, respectively. γ-H2AX-enriched regions of endogenous origin in replicating cells included sub-telomeres and active transcription start sites, apparently reflecting replication- and transcription-mediated stress during rapid cell division. Surprisingly, H2AX itself, prior to phosphorylation, was specifically located at these endogenous hotspots. This phenomenon was only observed in dividing cancer cells but not in resting cells. Endogenous H2AX was concentrated on the transcription start site of actively transcribed genes but was irrelevant to pausing of RNA polymerase II (pol II), which precisely coincided with γ-H2AX of endogenous origin. γ-H2AX enrichment upon irradiation also coincided with actively transcribed regions, but unlike endogenous γ-H2AX, it extended into the gene body and was not specifically concentrated on the pausing site of pol II. Sub-telomeres were less responsive to external DNA damage than to endogenous stress. Our findings provide insight into DNA repair programs of cancer and may have implications for cancer therapy.

  6. A role for H2S in the microcirculation of newborns: the major metabolite of H2S (thiosulphate) is increased in preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyson, Rebecca M; Palliser, Hannah K; Latter, Joanna L; Chwatko, Grazyna; Glowacki, Rafal; Wright, Ian M R

    2014-01-01

    Excessive vasodilatation during the perinatal period is associated with cardiorespiratory instability in preterm neonates. Little evidence of the mechanisms controlling microvascular tone during circulatory transition exists. We hypothesised that hydrogen sulphide (H2S), an important regulator of microvascular reactivity and central cardiac function in adults and animal models, may contribute to the vasodilatation observed in preterm newborns. Term and preterm neonates (24-43 weeks gestational age) were studied. Peripheral microvascular blood flow was assessed by laser Doppler. Thiosulphate, a urinary metabolite of H2S, was determined by high performance liquid chromatography as a measure of 24 hr total body H2S turnover for the first 3 days of postnatal life. H2S turnover was greatest in very preterm infants and decreased with increasing gestational age (p = 0.0001). H2S turnover was stable across the first 72 hrs of life in older neonates. In very preterm neonates, H2S turnover increased significantly from day 1 to 3 (p =0.0001); and males had higher H2S turnover than females (p = 0.04). A significant relationship between microvascular blood flow and H2S turnover was observed on day 2 of postnatal life (p = 0.0004). H2S may play a role in maintaining microvascular tone in the perinatal period. Neonates at the greatest risk of microvascular dysfunction characterised by inappropriate peripheral vasodilatation--very preterm male neonates--are also the neonates with highest levels of total body H2S turnover suggesting that overproduction of this gasotransmitter may contribute to microvascular dysfunction in preterms. Potentially, H2S is a target to selectively control microvascular tone in the circulation of newborns.

  7. Competition between weak OH···π and CH··O hydrogen bonds: THz spectroscopy of the C2H2H2O and C2H4—H2O complexes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jonas; Heimdal, Jimmy; Nelander, B.

    2017-01-01

    THz absorption spectra have been recorded for the weakly bound molecular complexes of H2O with C2H4 and C2H2 embedded in cryogenic neon matrices at 2.8 K. The observation and assignment of a large-amplitude acceptor OH librational mode of the C2H2H2O complex at 145.5 cm−1 confirms...... an intermolecular CH⋯O hydrogen-bonded configuration of C2v symmetry with the H2O subunit acting as the hydrogen bond acceptor. The observation and assignment of two large-amplitude donor OH librational modes of the C2H4—H2O complex at 255.0 and 187.5 cm−1, respectively, confirms an intermolecular OH⋯π hydrogen......-bonded configuration with the H2O subunit acting as the hydrogen bond donor to the π-cloud of C2H4. A (semi)-empirical value for the change of vibrational zero-point energy of 4.0–4.1 kJ mol−1 is proposed and the combination with quantum chemical calculations at the CCSD(T)-F12b/aug-cc-pVQZ level provides a reliable...

  8. H2S in Black Sea: Turning an environmental threat to an opportunity for clean H2 production via an Electrochemical Membrane Reactor. Research progress in H2S-PROTON Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kraia Tzouliana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to examine and evaluate the concept of H2S decomposition to H2 production in (H2-conducting electrochemical reactors. In such a complex process, one of the major issues raised is the optimal selection of materials for the electrochemical cell. Specifically, the anode electrode should exhibit high catalytic activity and electronic conductivity, in order to make the process efficient. In this context, and before the electrochemical tests, a number of transition metal catalysts supported on CeO2 were prepared using the wet impregnation method and tested for their performance regarding the activity/stability of the H2S decomposition reaction, in the absence and presence of H2O. The experimental results are accompanied by the corresponding thermodynamic calculations, at various reaction conditions. The physico-chemical characteristics of the employed catalysts were determined using the BET, XRD, SEM and elemental analysis methods. The experimental results showed that the catalysts 20% wt. Co/CeO2 and 30% wt. Co/CeO2 exhibit high H2S conversions, in the absence and presence of H2O respectively, comparable to conversions indicated by thermodynamics and with remarkable stability, which is attributed to the in-situ sulfation of catalysts’ active components during their exposure at the feedstock mixture.

  9. Production of recombinant peanut allergen Ara h 2 using Lactococcus lactis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glenting, J.; Poulsen, Lars K.; Kato, K.;

    2007-01-01

    of the major allergens in peanut have been described. However, for therapeutic usage more information about the individual allergenic components is needed. In this paper we report recombinant production of the Ara h 2 peanut allergen using L. lactis. Results: A synthetic ara h 2 gene was cloned into an L....... lactis expression plasmid containing the P170 promoter and the SP310mut2 signal sequence. Flask cultures grown overnight showed secretion of the 17 kDa Ara h 2 protein. A batch fermentation resulted in 40 mg/ L recombinant Ara h 2. Purification of Ara h 2 from the culture supernatant was done...... by hydrophobic exclusion and size separation. Mass spectrometry and N- terminal analysis showed a recombinant Ara h 2 of full length and correctly processed by the signal peptidase. The immunological activity of recombinant Ara h 2 was analysed by ELISA using antibodies specific for native Ara h 2...

  10. Effects of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) on respiration control of state 3/4 in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hope&shola

    2012-03-13

    Mar 13, 2012 ... Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) could availably regulate electron transport in the inner membrane of mitochondria from ..... electrons and two protons) would produce polysulfide or elemental sulfur. ... The relationship between H2S ...

  11. A practical guide to working with H2S at the interface of chemistry and biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartle, Matthew D; Pluth, Michael D

    2016-11-07

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is the most recently accepted endogenously produced gasotransmitter and is now implicated in a variety of physiological functions. In this tutorial review, our goal is to provide researchers new to the field of H2S chemical biology with practical considerations, pitfalls, and best practices to enable smooth entry into investigations focused on biological H2S. We present practical handling and safety considerations for working with this reactive biomolecule, and cover basic roles of H2S biogenesis and action. Experimental methods for modulating H2S levels, including enzymatic knockout, RNA silencing, enzymatic inhibition, and use of small molecule H2S donors are highlighted. Complementing H2S modulation techniques, we also highlight current strategies for H2S detection and quantification.

  12. Expression and radiation-induced phosphorylation of histone H2AX in mammalian cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, Kayo; Morita, Takashi [Osaka City Univ. (Japan). Graduate School of Medicine; Yoshida, Shu-hei; Shimoda, Chikashi [Osaka City Univ. (Japan). Graduate School of Science

    2003-03-01

    The mouse histone H2AX (H2AX) has unique C-terminal Ser residues, which are phosphorylated in response to DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) by ionizing radiation, suggesting that it plays a role in the maintenance of genomic stability. Here, we show that the H2AX protein was detected in most cells in various tissues, and was abundant in the S phase of the cell cycle. Following X-ray irradiation, H2AX was phosphorylated ({gamma}-H2AX) in the thymus, small intestine and testis. However, H2AX in epithelial cells in the villi of the small intestine were not strongly phosphorylated, even after X-irradiation. Thus, H2AX was expressed in almost all cells. However, the cells that expressed H2AX were not always phosphorylated by X-irradiation, suggesting a different mechanism of kination in those cells. (author)

  13. Effects of MacroH2A and H2A.Z on Nucleosome Dynamics as Elucidated by Molecular Dynamics Simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowerman, Samuel; Wereszczynski, Jeff

    2016-01-19

    Eukaryotes tune the transcriptional activity of their genome by altering the nucleosome core particle through multiple chemical processes. In particular, replacement of the canonical H2A histone with the variants macroH2A and H2A.Z has been shown to affect DNA accessibility and nucleosome stability; however, the processes by which this occurs remain poorly understood. In this study, we elucidate the molecular mechanisms of these variants with an extensive molecular dynamics study of the canonical nucleosome along with three variant-containing structures: H2A.Z, macroH2A, and an H2A mutant with macroH2A-like L1 loops. Simulation results show that variant L1 loops play a pivotal role in stabilizing DNA binding to the octamer through direct interactions, core structural rearrangements, and altered allosteric networks in the nucleosome. All variants influence dynamics; however, macroH2A-like systems have the largest effect on energetics. In addition, we provide a comprehensive analysis of allosteric networks in the nucleosome and demonstrate that variants take advantage of stronger interactions between L1 loops to propagate dynamics throughout the complex. Furthermore, we show that posttranslational modifications are enriched at key locations in these networks. Taken together, these results provide, to our knowledge, new insights into the relationship between the structure, dynamics, and function of the nucleosome core particle and chromatin fibers, and how they are influenced by chromatin remodeling factors.

  14. Effects of macroH2A and H2A.Z on nucleosome structure and dynamics as elucidated by molecular dynamics simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Bowerman, Samuel

    2015-01-01

    Eukaryotes tune the transcriptional activity of their genome by altering the nucleosome core particle through multiple chemical processes. In particular, replacement of the canonical H2A histone with the variants macroH2A and H2A.Z has been shown to affect DNA accessibility and nucleosome stability; however, the processes by which this occurs remain poorly understood. Here, we elucidate the molecular mechanisms of these variants with an extensive molecular dynamics study of the canonical nucleosome along with three variant-containing structures: H2A.Z, macroH2A, and an H2A mutant with macroH2A-like L1 loops. Simulation results show that variant L1 loops play a pivotal role in stabilizing DNA binding to the octamer through direct interactions, core structural rearrangements, and altered allosteric networks in the nucleosome. All variants influence dynamics; however, macroH2A-like systems have the largest effect on energetics. In addition, we provide a comprehensive analysis of allosteric networks in the nucleo...

  15. The new triazine-based porous copper phosphonate [Cu3(PPT)(H2O)3]·10H2O.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermer, N; Stock, N

    2015-02-28

    High throughput methods were employed in the discovery of [Cu3(PPT)(H2O)3]·10H2O (denoted CAU-14). The structure contains one-dimensional channels with a diameter of 9.4 Å. Thermal activation leads to the formation of uncoordinated metal sites and a high water uptake of 39.1 wt% was found.

  16. Soil carbon content and relative abundance of high affinity H2-oxidizing bacteria predict atmospheric H2 soil uptake activity better than soil microbial community composition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khdhiri, Mondher; Hesse, Laura; Popa, Maria Elena; Quiza, Liliana; Lalonde, Isabelle; Meredith, Laura K.; Röckmann, Thomas; Constant, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Soil-atmosphere exchange of H2 is controlled by gas diffusion and the microbial production and oxidation activities in soil. Among these parameters, the H2 oxidation activity catalyzed by soil microorganisms harboring high affinity hydrogenase is the most difficult variable to parameterize because i

  17. The Cl + H2 --> HCl + H reaction induced by IR + UV irradiation of Cl2 in solid para-H2: experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kettwich, Sharon C; Raston, Paul L; Anderson, David T

    2009-07-02

    We report IR + UV coirradiation photolysis experiments conducted on Cl(2)-doped para-hydrogen (p-H(2)) crystals at 1.8 K, using pulsed 355 nm UV radiation and cw broad-band near-IR light from a FTIR tungsten source. The amount of HCl photoproduct is monitored using FTIR spectroscopy as a function of the IR + UV exposure time. Detailed analysis of the HCl growth kinetics reveals that the reaction Cl + H(2)(v=1,J=0) --> HCl + H is playing a significant (15%) role in the in situ photochemistry. In contrast, UV-only photolysis experiments conducted under similar conditions produce almost exclusively (99%) isolated Cl atom photofragments, indicating the reaction Cl + H(2)(v=0,J=0) --> HCl + H is not readily occurring. This combination of photolysis experiments confirms that under these conditions, the Cl + H(2) reaction probability increases by a factor greater than 25 for Cl atom reactions with H(2)(v=1) versus H(2)(v=0). These results are therefore consistent with the expectation that vibrational excitation of the H(2) reagent lowers the reaction threshold and increases the reaction cross section for the Cl + H(2) reaction. These experimental studies were motivated by and are compared to the quantum model simulations reported by Korolkov, Manz, and Schild in the accompanying paper.

  18. Effect of H2S concentration on the corrosion behavior of pipeline steel under the coexistence of H2S and CO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Da-peng; Zhang, Lei; Yang, Jian-wei; Lu, Min-xu; Ding, Jin-hui; Liu, Ming-liang

    2014-04-01

    The effect of H2S concentration on H2S/CO2 corrosion of API-X60 steel was studied by scanning electron microscopy, a weight-loss method, potentiodynamic polarization tests, and the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy technique. It is found that the corrosion process of the steel in an environment where H2S and CO2 coexist at different H2S concentrations is related to the morphological structure and stability of the corrosion product film. With the addition of a small amount of H2S, the size of the anode reaction region is decreased due to constant adsorption and separation of more FeS sediment or more FeHS+ ions on the surface of the steel. Meanwhile, the double-layer capacitance is diminished with increasing anion adsorption capacity. Therefore, the corrosion process is inhibited. The general corrosion rate of the steel rapidly decreases after the addition of a small amount of H2S under the coexistence of H2S and CO2. With a further increase in H2S concentration, certain parts of the corrosion product film become loose and even fall off. Thus, the protection provided by the corrosion product film worsens, and the corrosion rate tends to increase.

  19. Structural Insights into the Association of Hif1 with Histones H2A-H2B Dimer and H3-H4 Tetramer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Mengying; Liu, Hejun; Gao, Yongxiang; Zhu, Zhongliang; Chen, Zijun; Zheng, Peiyi; Xue, Lu; Li, Jixi; Teng, Maikun; Niu, Liwen

    2016-10-04

    Histone chaperones are critical for guiding specific post-transcriptional modifications of histones, safeguarding the histone deposition (or disassociation) of nucleosome (dis)assembly, and regulating chromatin structures to change gene activities. HAT1-interacting factor 1 (Hif1) has been reported to be an H3-H4 chaperone and to be involved in telomeric silencing and nucleosome (dis)assembly. However, the structural basis for the interaction of Hif1 with histones remains unknown. Here, we report the complex structure of Hif1 binding to H2A-H2B for uncovering the chaperone specificities of Hif1 on binding to both the H2A-H2B dimer and the H3-H4 tetramer. Our findings reveal that Hif1 interacts with the H2A-H2B dimer and the H3-H4 tetramer via distinct mechanisms, suggesting that Hif1 is a pivotal scaffold on alternate binding of H2A-H2B and H3-H4. These specificities are conserved features of the Sim3-Hif1-NASP interrupted tetratricopeptide repeat proteins, which provide clues for investigating their potential roles in nucleosome (dis)assembly. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Effect of H2S concentration on the corrosion behavior of pipeline steel under the coexistence of H2S and CO2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Da-peng Li; Lei Zhang; Jian-wei Yang; Min-xu Lu; Jin-hui Ding; Ming-liang Liu

    2014-01-01

    The effect of H2S concentration on H2S/CO2 corrosion of API-X60 steel was studied by scanning electron microscopy, a weight-loss method, potentiodynamic polarization tests, and the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy technique. It is found that the cor-rosion process of the steel in an environment where H2S and CO2 coexist at different H2S concentrations is related to the morphological structure and stability of the corrosion product film. With the addition of a small amount of H2S, the size of the anode reaction region is de-creased due to constant adsorption and separation of more FeS sediment or more FeHS+ions on the surface of the steel. Meanwhile, the dou-ble-layer capacitance is diminished with increasing anion adsorption capacity. Therefore, the corrosion process is inhibited. The general cor-rosion rate of the steel rapidly decreases after the addition of a small amount of H2S under the coexistence of H2S and CO2. With a further in-crease in H2S concentration, certain parts of the corrosion product film become loose and even fall off. Thus, the protection provided by the corrosion product film worsens, and the corrosion rate tends to increase.

  1. Molecular hydrogen (H2) emissions and their isotopic signatures (H/D) from a motor vehicle : implications on atmospheric H2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vollmer, M.K.; Walter, S.; Bond, S.W.; Soltic, P.; Röckmann, T.

    2010-01-01

    Molecular hydrogen (H2), its isotopic signature (deuterium/hydrogen, δD), carbon monoxide (CO) and other compounds were studied in the exhaust of a passenger car engine fuelled with gasoline or methane and run under variable air-fuel ratios and operating modes. H2 and CO concentrations were largely

  2. Molecular hydrogen (H2) emissions and their isotopic signatures (H/D) from a motor vehicle : implications on atmospheric H2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vollmer, M.K.; Walter, S.; Bond, S.W.; Soltic, P.; Röckmann, T.

    2010-01-01

    Molecular hydrogen (H2), its isotopic signature (deuterium/hydrogen, δD), carbon monoxide (CO) and other compounds were studied in the exhaust of a passenger car engine fuelled with gasoline or methane and run under variable air-fuel ratios and operating modes. H2 and CO concentrations were largely

  3. H2S燃料电池的研究进展%Research Advances in Treatment of Gas Containing H2S with Fuel Cell Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭文轶; 钟秦

    2006-01-01

    H2S燃料电池是一种环境友好、发电效率较高并且同时共生其他化学产品的装置,为含H2S气体的处理提供了新的思路.按照采用的固体电解质的导电粒子的不同阐释了H2S的电化学氧化基本原理,指出对H2S燃料电池的电化学氧化机理的研究将进一步扩大H2S资源化利用的范围,以实现H2S燃料电池电能与化学产品的同步生产.目前H2S燃料电池固体电解质薄膜和阳极电催化剂的研制及其一体化技术是H2S燃料电池的关键.

  4. A new H2S-specific near-infrared fluorescence-enhanced probe that can visualize the H2S level in colorectal cancer cells in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kun; Zhang, Jie; Xi, Zhen; Li, Lu-Yuan; Gu, Xiangxiang; Zhang, Qiang-Zhe; Yi, Long

    2017-04-01

    Near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence-based sensors capable of selective detection of H2S in vivo would be useful tools to understand the mechanisms of diseases. A new NIR fluorescence probe 1 was developed for the detection of endogenous H2S in colorectal cancer cells in mice. 1 displayed an 87-fold fluorescence enhancement at 796 nm (with excitation at 730 nm) when reacted with H2S in a buffer (pH 7.4). 1 was water-soluble, cell-membrane-permeable, had low cytotoxicity and high selectivity and sensitivity for H2S. The properties of 1 enable its use in monitoring endogenous H2S in living cells, tissues, and mice. The bioimaging results indicated that (1) d-Cys could induce endogenous H2S production in living cells and stimulate angiogenesis; (2) tail intravenous injection of 1 into mice generated strong fluorescence in the liver while intraperitoneal injection of d-Cys could further enhance fluorescence in the liver in vivo; (3) importantly, endogenous H2S in colorectal cancer cells (HCT116, HT29) in vitro and in murine tumor models could be quickly and selectively detected by intratumoral injection of 1. These results indicated that our new probe could serve as an efficient tool for the detection of cellular H2S in living animals and even for cancer diagnosis.

  5. Full-dimensional quantum dynamics study of the H2 + C2H → H + C2H2 reaction on an ab initio potential energy surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Liuyang; Shao, Kejie; Chen, Jun; Yang, Minghui; Zhang, Dong H.

    2016-05-01

    This work performs a time-dependent wavepacket study of the H2 + C2H → H + C2H2 reaction on a new ab initio potential energy surface (PES). The PES is constructed using neural network method based on 68 478 geometries with energies calculated at UCCSD(T)-F12a/aug-cc-pVTZ level and covers H2 + C2H↔H + C2H2, H + C2H2 → HCCH2, and HCCH2 radial isomerization reaction regions. The reaction dynamics of H2 + C2H → H + C2H2 are investigated using full-dimensional quantum dynamics method. The initial-state selected reaction probabilities are calculated for reactants in eight vibrational states. The calculated results showed that the H2 vibrational excitation predominantly enhances the reactivity while the excitation of bending mode of C2H slightly inhibits the reaction. The excitations of two stretching modes of C2H molecule have negligible effect on the reactivity. The integral cross section is calculated with J-shift approximation and the mode selectivity in this reaction is discussed. The rate constants over 200-2000 K are calculated and agree well with the experimental measured values.

  6. Vertical profiles of H2O, H2SO4, and sulfuric acid concentration at 45-75 km on Venus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasnopolsky, Vladimir A.

    2015-05-01

    A method developed by Krasnopolsky and Pollack (Krasnopolsky, V.A., Pollack, J.B. [1994]. Icarus 109, 58-78) to model vertical profiles of H2O and H2SO4 vapors and sulfuric acid concentration in the Venus cloud layer has been updated with improved thermodynamic parameters for H2O and H2SO4 and reduced photochemical production of sulfuric acid. The model is applied to the global-mean conditions and those at the low latitudes and at 60°. Variations in eddy diffusion near the lower cloud boundary are used to simulate variability in the cloud properties and abundances of H2O and H2SO4. The best version of the model for the global-mean condition results in a lower cloud boundary (LCB) at 47.5 km, H2SO4 peak abundance of 7.5 ppm at the LCB, and H2O mixing ratios of 7 ppm at 62 km and 3.5 ppm above 67 km. The model for low latitudes gives LCB at 48.5 km, the H2SO4 peak of 5 ppm, H2O of 8.5 ppm at 62 km and 3 ppm above 67 km. The model for 60° shows LCB at 46 km, the H2SO4 peak of 8.5 ppm, H2O of 9 ppm at 62 km and 4.5 ppm above 67 km. The calculated variability is induced by the proper changes in the production of sulfuric acid (by factors of 1.2 and 0.7 for the low latitudes and 60°, respectively) and reduction of eddy diffusion near 45 km relative to the value at 54 km by factors of 1.1, 3, and 4.5 for the low and middle (global-mean) latitudes and 60°, respectively. Concentration of sulfuric acid at the low and middle latitudes varies from ∼98% near 50 km to ∼80% at 60 km and then is almost constant at 79% at 70 km. Concentration at 60° is 98% at 50 km, 73% at 63 km, and 81% at 70 km. There is a reasonable agreement between the model results and observations except for the sulfuric acid concentration in the lower clouds. Variations of eddy diffusion in the lower cloud layer simulate variations in atmospheric dynamics and may induce strong variations in water vapor near the cloud tops. Variations in temperature may affect abundances of the H2O and H2SO4 vapors

  7. Evaluation of Three Live Attenuated H2 Pandemic Influenza Vaccine Candidates in Mice and Ferrets

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    H2 influenza viruses have not circulated in humans since 1968, and therefore a significant portion of the population would be susceptible to infection should H2 influenza viruses reemerge. H2 influenza viruses continue to circulate in avian reservoirs worldwide, and these reservoirs are a potential source from which these viruses could emerge. Three reassortant cold-adapted (ca) H2 pandemic influenza vaccine candidates with hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) genes derived from the wild...

  8. Solution chemistry of a water-soluble eta2-H2 ruthenium complex: evidence for coordinated H2 acting as a hydrogen bond donor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szymczak, Nathaniel K; Zakharov, Lev N; Tyler, David R

    2006-12-13

    The ability of an eta2-H2 ligand to participate in intermolecular hydrogen bonding in solution has long been an unresolved issue. Such species are proposed to be key intermediates in numerous important reactions such as the proton-transfer pathway of H2 production by hydrogenase enzymes. We present the synthesis of several new water-soluble ruthenium coordination complexes including an eta2-H2 complex that is surprisingly inert to substitution by water. The existence of dihydrogen hydrogen bonding (DHHB) was experimentally probed by monitoring the chemical shift of H-bonded Ru-(H2) complexes using NMR spectroscopy, by UV-visible spectroscopy, and by monitoring the rotational dynamics of a hydrogen-bonding probe molecule. The results provide strong evidence that coordinated H2 can indeed participate in intermolecular hydrogen bonding to bulk solvent and other H-bond acceptors.

  9. Synthesis, crystal structure and EPR studies of vanadyl doped [Co(2-nbH)2(ina)2(H2O)] complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozkurt, Esat; Çelik, Yunus; Çöpür, Fatma; Dege, Necmi; Topcu, Yıldıray; Karabulut, Bünyamin

    2016-08-01

    A novel aquabis(isonicotinamide-κN1)bis(2-nitrobenzoato-κ2O,O‧;κO)cobalt(II), (hereafter [Co(2-nbH)2(ina)2(H2O)]; 2-nbH: 2-nitrobenzoic acid; ina: isonicotinamide), complex was synthesized and characterized by using various techniques. The crystal structure was determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD) method. The magnetic properties of VO2+ doped [Co(2-nbH)2(ina)2(H2O)] complex were obtained by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) technique. The angular variation of EPR spectra shows that two different VO2+ complexes are present in the lattice. The FT-IR spectra of this compound were discussed in relation to other compounds containing 2-nitrobenzoato or isonicotinamide ligands. Thermal stability and reactivity of this complex were also studied by thermal analysis methods (TG/DTG/DTA).

  10. The 2.5-5.0 micron spectra of Io - Evidence for H2S and H2O frozen in SO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salama, F.; Allamandola, L. J.; Witteborn, F. C.; Cruikshank, D. P.; Sandford, S. A.

    1990-01-01

    The present analysis of IR spectra of Io in the 2.5-5.0 micron region with laboratory data on plausible surface ices gives attention to four unidentified features exhibiting spatial and temporal band strength variations; these fall close to the fundamental stretching modes in H2S and H2O, respectively. It is suggested that the 3.85- and 3.91-micron bands in the Io spectra can be accounted for by the absorption of the S-H stretching vibration in H2S clusters and isolated molecules in an SO2-dominated ice. The observations resemble the transmission spectra of SO2 ices that contain about 3 percent H2S and 0.1 percent H2O.

  11. Preparation, Characterization and Properties of Ag(Ⅰ) Coordination Polymer [Ag2(bpp) 2(H2O)]·pydc·7H2O

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO, Chunyan; WEN, Guilin; WANG, Yaoyu; FU, Aiyun; LERMONTOVA, ElmiraKh; SHI, Qizhen

    2009-01-01

    A new coordination polymer, [Ag2(bpp)2(H2O)]·pydc·7H2O (1), derived from the ligand pyridine-3,5- dicarboxylic acid (H2pydc), has been obtained through a hydrothermal technique [bpp=1,3-bis(4-pyridyl)propane]. Its single crystal structure has been determined by X-ray crystallography. A 2D sheet containing (H2O)12 water units was formed. Interestingly, each pydc dianion bridged two (H2O)12 units and two free water molecules in the con- struction of 2D hydrogen-bonding sheets. Additionally, fluorescent properties, TG analysis, and PXRD for complex 1 were also measured and discussed.

  12. 1H- and 2H-T1 relaxation behavior of the rhodium dihydrogen complex [(triphos)Rh(eta 2-H2)H2]+.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhmutov, V I; Bianchini, C; Peruzzini, M; Vizza, F; Vorontsov, E V

    2000-04-17

    Protonation of the classical trihydride [(triphos)RhH3] (2) at 210 K in either THF or CH2Cl2 by either HBF4.OMe2 or CF3SO2OH gives the nonclassical eta 2-H2 complex [(triphos)Rh(eta 2-H2)H2]+ (1) [triphos = MeC(CH2PPh2)3]. Complex 1 is thermally unstable and highly fluxional in solution. In THF above 230 K, 1 transforms into the solvento dihydride complex [(triphos)Rh(eta 1-THF-d8)H2]+ (5) that, at room temperature, quickly converts to the stable dimer trans-[[(triphos)RhH]2(mu-H)2]2+ (trans-6). In CH2Cl2, 1 is stable up to 240 K. Above this temperature, the eta 2-H2 complex begins to convert into a mixture of trans- and cis-6, which, in turn, transform into the bridging-chloride dimers trans- and cis-[[(triphos)RhH]2(mu-Cl)2]2+ at room temperature. Complex 1 contains a fast-spinning H2 ligand with a T1min of 38.9 ms in CD2Cl2 (220 K, 400 MHz). An NMR analysis of the bis-deuterated isotopomer [(triphos)RhH2D2]+ (1-d2) did not provide a J(HD) value. At 190 K, the perdeuterated isotopomers [(triphos)RhD3] (2-d3) and 1-d4 show T1min values of 16.5 and 32.6 ms (76.753 MHz), respectively, for the rapidly exchanging deuterides. An analogous 2-fold elongation of T1min is also observed on going from [(triphos)IrD3] to [(triphos)Ir(eta 2-D2)D2]+. A rationale for the elongation of T1min in nonclassical polyhydrides is proposed on the basis of both the results obtained and recent literature reports.

  13. Functions of MgH2 in hydrogen storage reactions of the 6LiBH4-CaH2 reactive hydride composite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yifan; Liu, Yongfeng; Zhang, Yu; Gao, Mingxia; Pan, Hongge

    2012-08-28

    A significant improvement of hydrogen storage properties was achieved by introducing MgH(2) into the 6LiBH(4)-CaH(2) system. It was found that ~8.0 wt% of hydrogen could be reversibly stored in a 6LiBH(4)-CaH(2)-3MgH(2) composite below 400 °C and 100 bar of hydrogen pressure with a stepwise reaction, which is superior to the pristine 6LiBH(4)-CaH(2) and LiBH(4) samples. Upon dehydriding, MgH(2) first decomposed to convert to Mg and liberate hydrogen with an on-set temperature of ~290 °C. Subsequently, LiBH(4) reacted with CaH(2) to form CaB(6) and LiH in addition to further hydrogen release. Hydrogen desorption from the 6LiBH(4)-CaH(2)-3MgH(2) composite finished at ~430 °C in non-isothermal model, a 160 °C reduction relative to the 6LiBH(4)-CaH(2) sample. JMA analyses revealed that hydrogen desorption was a diffusion-controlled reaction rather than an interface reaction-controlled process. The newly produced Mg of the first-step dehydrogenation possibly acts as the heterogeneous nucleation center of the resultant products of the second-step dehydrogenation, which diminishes the energy barrier and facilitates nucleation and growth, consequently reducing the operating temperature and improving the kinetics of hydrogen storage.

  14. File list: His.Bld.10.H2APERIODZ.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Bld.10.H2APERIODZ.AllCell mm9 Histone H2A.Z Blood SRX317636,SRX317641,SRX317621...,SRX317628 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/His.Bld.10.H2APERIODZ.AllCell.bed ...

  15. File list: His.Liv.05.H2APERIODZ.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Liv.05.H2APERIODZ.AllCell mm9 Histone H2A.Z Liver SRX317002,SRX317011,SRX317003...113,SRX317019,SRX285111,SRX285114 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/His.Liv.05.H2APERIODZ.AllCell.bed ...

  16. File list: His.Bon.05.H2APERIODZ.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Bon.05.H2APERIODZ.AllCell hg19 Histone H2A.Z Bone SRX1304826,SRX1304825,SRX0675...17 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/His.Bon.05.H2APERIODZ.AllCell.bed ...

  17. File list: His.Brs.05.H2APERIODZ.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Brs.05.H2APERIODZ.AllCell hg19 Histone H2A.Z Breast SRX186696,SRX283651,SRX2836...50,SRX535414,SRX535423,SRX535424,SRX535413 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/His.Brs.05.H2APERIODZ.AllCell.bed ...

  18. File list: His.Bld.20.H2APERIODZ.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Bld.20.H2APERIODZ.AllCell mm9 Histone H2A.Z Blood SRX317636,SRX317621,SRX317641...,SRX317628 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/His.Bld.20.H2APERIODZ.AllCell.bed ...

  19. File list: His.PSC.10.H2APERIODZac.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.PSC.10.H2APERIODZac.AllCell mm9 Histone H2A.Zac Pluripotent stem cell SRX111870... http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/His.PSC.10.H2APERIODZac.AllCell.bed ...

  20. File list: His.PSC.05.H2APERIODZac.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.PSC.05.H2APERIODZac.AllCell mm9 Histone H2A.Zac Pluripotent stem cell SRX111870... http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/His.PSC.05.H2APERIODZac.AllCell.bed ...

  1. File list: His.PSC.20.H2Bub.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.PSC.20.H2Bub.AllCell hg19 Histone H2Bub Pluripotent stem cell SRX037080,SRX1158...73,SRX115871,SRX115872,SRX501949 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/His.PSC.20.H2Bub.AllCell.bed ...

  2. File list: His.ALL.05.H2Aub.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.ALL.05.H2Aub.AllCell hg19 Histone H2Aub All cell types SRX206841,SRX206840,SRX2...06842,SRX206843 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/His.ALL.05.H2Aub.AllCell.bed ...

  3. File list: His.Prs.20.H2Aub.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Prs.20.H2Aub.AllCell hg19 Histone H2Aub Prostate SRX206840,SRX206841,SRX206842,...SRX206843 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/His.Prs.20.H2Aub.AllCell.bed ...

  4. File list: His.ALL.50.H2Bub.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  5. File list: His.ALL.05.H2APERIODZac.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.ALL.05.H2APERIODZac.AllCell hg19 Histone H2A.Zac All cell types SRX080046,SRX47...1216 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/His.ALL.05.H2APERIODZac.AllCell.bed ...

  6. File list: His.ALL.10.H2APERIODX.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.ALL.10.H2APERIODX.AllCell mm9 Histone H2A.X All cell types SRX1072158,SRX648115...SRX648116,SRX1072154 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/His.ALL.10.H2APERIODX.AllCell.bed ...

  7. File list: His.ALL.10.H2APERIODZac.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.ALL.10.H2APERIODZac.AllCell hg19 Histone H2A.Zac All cell types SRX471216,SRX08...0046 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/His.ALL.10.H2APERIODZac.AllCell.bed ...

  8. File list: His.ALL.50.H2APERIODZ.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.ALL.50.H2APERIODZ.AllCell mm9 Histone H2A.Z All cell types SRX366998,SRX317636,...RX076064,SRX208064,SRX208066 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/His.ALL.50.H2APERIODZ.AllCell.bed ...

  9. File list: His.ALL.50.H2APERIODZac.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.ALL.50.H2APERIODZac.AllCell hg19 Histone H2A.Zac All cell types SRX471216,SRX08...0046 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/His.ALL.50.H2APERIODZac.AllCell.bed ...

  10. File list: His.ALL.10.H2APERIODZ.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.ALL.10.H2APERIODZ.AllCell mm9 Histone H2A.Z All cell types SRX115001,SRX122627,...RX208064,SRX192093,SRX285114 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/His.ALL.10.H2APERIODZ.AllCell.bed ...

  11. File list: His.ALL.20.H2APERIODZac.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.ALL.20.H2APERIODZac.AllCell hg19 Histone H2A.Zac All cell types SRX471216,SRX08...0046 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/His.ALL.20.H2APERIODZac.AllCell.bed ...

  12. File list: His.ALL.05.H2APERIODX.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.ALL.05.H2APERIODX.AllCell mm9 Histone H2A.X All cell types SRX204641,SRX1072158...RX1072154,SRX1072157 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/His.ALL.05.H2APERIODX.AllCell.bed ...

  13. File list: His.ALL.20.H2APERIODZ.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.ALL.20.H2APERIODZ.AllCell mm9 Histone H2A.Z All cell types SRX366998,SRX317636,...RX076064,SRX192092,SRX208066 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/His.ALL.20.H2APERIODZ.AllCell.bed ...

  14. Constraints on the delta H-2 diffusion rate in firn from field measurements at Summit, Greenland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Wel, L. G.; Been, H. A.; van de Wal, R.S.W.; Smeets, C. J. P. P.; Meijer, H. A. J.

    2015-01-01

    We performed detailed H-2 isotope diffusion measurements in the upper 3m of firn at Summit, Greenland. Using a small snow gun, a thin snow layer was formed from H-2-enriched water over a 6 x 6 m(2) area. We followed the diffusion process, quantified as the increase of the delta H-2 diffusion length,

  15. File list: His.PSC.50.H2B.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.PSC.50.H2B.AllCell mm9 Histone H2B Pluripotent stem cell SRX1034714,SRX1034721,...SRX1034715,SRX1034720 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/His.PSC.50.H2B.AllCell.bed ...

  16. Reassessing the variability in atmospheric H2 using the two-way nested TM5 model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pieterse, G.; Batenburg, A.M; Roeckmann, T. [Institute for Marine and Atmospheric Research Utrecht (IMAU), Utrecht (Netherlands); Krol, M.C. [Department of Meteorology and Air Quality at Wageningen University, Wageningen (Netherlands); Brenninkmeijer, C.A.M. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Chemie, Air Chemistry Division, Mainz (Germany); Popa, M.E.; Vermeulen, A.T. [Department of Air Quality and Climate Research at the Energy Research Centre of the Netherlands ECN, Petten (Netherlands); O' Doherty, S.; Grant, A. [School of Chemistry, University of Bristol, Bristol (United Kingdom); Steele, L.P.; Krummel, P.B.; Langenfelds, R.L. [Centre for Australian Weather and Climate Research, CSIRO Marine and Atmospheric Research, Aspendale, Victoria (Austria); Wang, H.J. [School of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Schmidt, M.; Yver, C. [Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l' Environnement (LSCE), Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Jordan, A. [Max-Planck Institut fuer Biogeochemie, Jena (Germany); Engel, A. [Institut fuer Meteorologie und Geophysik, Goethe-Universitaet Frankfurt, Frankfurt (Germany); Fisher, R.E.; Lowry, D.; Nisbet, E.G. [Department of Earth Sciences, Royal Holloway, University of London, Egham (United Kingdom); Reimann, S.; Vollmer, M.K.; Steinbacher, M. [Empa, Swiss Federal Institute for Materials Science and Technology, Laboratory for Air Pollution/Environmental Technology, Duebendorf (Switzerland); Hammer, S. [Institut fuer Umweltphysik, Heidelberg Universitaet, Heidelberg (Germany); Forster, G.; Sturges, W.T. [School of Environmental Sciences, University of East Anglia, Norwich (United Kingdom)

    2013-05-16

    This work reassesses the global atmospheric budget of H2 with the TM5 model. The recent adjustment of the calibration scale for H2 translates into a change in the tropospheric burden. Furthermore, the ECMWF Reanalysis-Interim (ERA-Interim) data from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) used in this study show slower vertical transport than the operational data used before. Consequently, more H2 is removed by deposition. The deposition parametrization is updated because significant deposition fluxes for snow, water, and vegetation surfaces were calculated in our previous study. Timescales of 1-2h are asserted for the transport of H2 through the canopies of densely vegetated regions. The global scale variability of H2 and {rho}({Delta}H2) is well represented by the updated model. H2 is slightly overestimated in the Southern Hemisphere because too little H2 is removed by dry deposition to rainforests and savannahs. The variability in H2 over Europe is further investigated using a high-resolution model subdomain. It is shown that discrepancies between the model and the observations are mainly caused by the finite model resolution. The tropospheric burden is estimated at 165{+-}8 Tg H2. The removal rates of H2 by deposition and photochemical oxidation are estimated at 53{+-}4 and 23{+-}2 Tg H2/yr, resulting in a tropospheric lifetime of 2.2{+-}0.2 year.

  17. H2O-Rich Interstellar Grain Mantles: An Equilibrium Picture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dissly, R. W.; Allen, M.; Anicich, V. G.

    1994-01-01

    Experiments simulating the codeposition of molecular hydrogen and water ice on interstellar grains demonstrate that amorphous water ice at 12 K can incorporate a substantial amount of H2, up to a molar ratio of H2/H2O=0.53.

  18. Sampled-data and discrete-time H2 optimal control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trentelman, Harry L.; Stoorvogel, Anton A.

    1993-01-01

    This paper deals with the sampled-data H2 optimal control problem. Given a linear time-invariant continuous-time system, the problem of minimizing the H2 performance over all sampled-data controllers with a fixed sampling period can be reduced to a pure discrete-time H2 optimal control problem. This

  19. Sampled-Data and Discrete-Time H2 Optimal Control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trentelman, H.L.; Stoorvogel, A.A.

    1995-01-01

    This paper deals with the sampled-data H2 optimal control problem. Given a linear time-invariant continuous-time system, the problem of minimizing the H2 performance over all sampled-data controllers with a fixed sampling period can be reduced to a pure discrete-time H2 optimal control problem. This

  20. Overview of the Hydrogen Financial Analysis Scenario Tool (H2FAST); NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melaina, Marc; Bush, Brian; Penev, Michael

    2015-05-12

    This presentation provides an introduction to the Hydrogen Financial Analysis Scenario Tool (H2FAST) and includes an overview of each of the three versions of H2FAST: the Web tool, the Excel spreadsheet version, and the beta version of the H2FAST Business Case Scenario tool.