Sample records for h multi-turn injection

  1. Optimization of the multi-turn injection efficiency for a medical synchrotron (United States)

    Kim, J.; Yoon, M.; Yim, H.


    We present a method for optimizing the multi-turn injection efficiency for a medical synchrotron. We show that for a given injection energy, the injection efficiency can be greatly enhanced by choosing transverse tunes appropriately and by optimizing the injection bump and the number of turns required for beam injection. We verify our study by applying the method to the Korea Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator (KHIMA) synchrotron which is currently being built at the campus of Dongnam Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences (DIRAMS) in Busan, Korea. First the frequency map analysis was performed with the help of the ELEGANT and the ACCSIM codes. The tunes that yielded good injection efficiency were then selected. With these tunes, the injection bump and the number of turns required for injection were then optimized by tracking a number of particles for up to one thousand turns after injection, beyond which no further beam loss occurred. Results for the optimization of the injection efficiency for proton ions are presented.

  2. Multi-turn extraction and injection by means of adiabatic capture in stable islands of phase space

    CERN Document Server

    Cappi, R


    Recently a novel approach has been proposed aimed at performing multi-turn extraction from a circular machine. Such a technique consists of splitting the beam by means of stable islands created in transverse phase space by magnetic elements creating nonlinear fields, such as sextupoles and octupoles. Provided a slow time-variation of the linear tune is applied, adiabatic with respect to the betatron motion, the islands can be moved in phase space and eventually charged particles may be trapped inside the stable structures. This generates a certain number of well-separated beamlets. Originally, this principle was successfully tested using a fourth-order resonance. In this paper the approach is generalised by considering other type of resonances as well as the possibility of performing multiple multi-turn extractions. The results of numerical simulations are presented and described in detail. Of course, by time-reversal, the proposed approach could be used also for multi-turn injection.

  3. Optics measurements and transfer line matching for the SPS injection of the CERN Multi-Turn Extraction beam

    CERN Document Server

    Benedetto, E; Cettour Cave, S; Follin, F; Gilardoni, S; Giovannozzi, M; Roncarolo, F


    Dispersion and beam optics measurements were carried out in the transfer line between the CERN PS and SPS for the new Multi-Turn Extraction beam. Since the extraction conditions of the four islands and the core are different and strongly dependent on the non-linear effects used to split the beam in the transverse plane, a special care was taken during the measurement campaigns. Furthermore, an appropriate strategy was devised to minimize the overall optical mismatch at SPS injection. All this led to a new optical configuration that will be presented in the paper.

  4. Online Measurement of the Energy Spread of Multi-Turn Beam in the Fermilab Booster at Injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, J. [Brown U.; Bhat, C. M. [Fermilab; Hendricks, B. S. [Fermilab


    We have developed a computer program interfaced with the ACNET environment of Fermilab accelerators to measure energy spread of the proton beam from the LINAC at an injection into the Booster. It uses a digitizing oscilloscope and provides users an ability to configure the scope settings for optimal data acquisition from a resistive wall current monitor. When the program is launched, a) a one shot timeline is generated to initiate beam injection into the Booster, b) a gap of about 40 ns is produced in the injected beam using a set of fast kickers, c) collects line charge distribution data from the wall current monitor for the first 200 μs from the injection and d) performs complete data analysis to extract full beam energy spread of the beam. The program also gives the option to store the data for offline analyses. We illustrate a case with an example. We also present results on beam energy spread as a function of beam intensity from recent measurements.

  5. A Conceptual Design of an Internal Injection Absorber of 8 GeV H-Injection into the Fermilab Main Injector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, D.E.; Chen, A.; Rakhno, I.; /Fermilab


    An 8 GeV superconducting linear accelerator (SCL) has been proposed as a single stage H{sup -} injector into the Main Injector (MI) synchrotron[1]. This would be the highest energy H{sup -} multi-turn injection system in the world. An injection absorber is required to absorb a few percent o the incoming beam on a regular pulse by pulse basis. The requirements and conceptual design of an internal absorber, capable of steady state 6.5 kW is discussed.

  6. A Multi-Turn Measurement System for the CERN PS

    CERN Document Server

    Angoletta, Maria Elena


    Multi-turn beam position measurements on one or more pickups provide very important information needed to derive machine optics parameters. A variety of analyses is possible, such as determination of phase advance, detuning with amplitude, and most important, the exploration of phase space. In this paper we present a new multi-turn acquisition system for the CERN Proton Synchrotron based on a CompactPCI fast digitiser and a new general object-oriented visualisation and analysis tool for the acquired multi-turn data.

  7. Diamond crystals for H^{-} injection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. I. Uggerhøj


    Full Text Available There are several advantages in using a crystal for stripping of the H^{-} ion to obtain efficient injection of protons into a circular accelerator. First, the stripping efficiency of a crystal is at least as large as for an amorphous foil of the same substance and thickness. Second, the emittance increase imposed by the multiple Coulomb scattering of the protons on subsequent turns is drastically lower by a factor of up to ≃7. Third, the restricted energy loss of the protons is lower by a factor of up to ≃1.5—this, combined with the fact that the thermal conductivity of a single crystal of diamond is much higher than that of the amorphous material, will reduce the effect of heating of the stripping material. In high-power schemes based on amorphous foils heating of the electron stripping material is a limiting factor. Fourth, the reduced total energy loss is accompanied by a smaller energy loss straggling implying a smaller longitudinal emittance. Last, the so-called random orientation of the crystal can provide the option of stripping the H^{-} ions as in an amorphous foil while preserving the advantage of a high thermal conductivity, simply by changing the orientation of the crystal. A simulation using realistic parameters is presented, which reflects the efficient conservation of emittance using a diamond crystal. The phenomenon should in fact be applicable in general for the stripping of H^{-}, although the advantages depend on parameters such as the energy. A reasonable figure of merit is the ratio of the total transverse emittance increase of crystalline and amorphous foils in one turn and in the presented case this is as high as a factor 3.9.

  8. First Results for the Beam Commissioning of the CERN Multi-Turn Extraction

    CERN Document Server

    Gilardoni, S; Benedetto, E; Bohl, T; Cettour Cave, S; Cornelis, K; Damerau, H; Follin, F; Fowler, T; Franchi, A; Freyermuth, P; Genoud, H; Giachino, R; Giovannozzi, M; hancock, S; Le Borgne, Y; Manglunki, D; Métral, G; Pereira, L; Ridewood, J; Riva, Y; Schokker, M; Sermeus, L; Steerenberg, R; Vandorpe, B; Wenninger, J


    The Multi-Turn Extraction (MTE), a new type of extraction based on beam trapping inside stable islands in horizontal phase space, has been commissioned during the 2008 run of the CERN Proton Synchrotron. Both singleand multi-bunch beams with a total intensity up to 1.4 1013 protons have been extracted with efficiencies up to 98%. Furthermore, injection tests in the CERN Super Proton Synchrotron were performed, with the beam then accelerated and extracted to produce neutrinos for the CERN Neutrino-to-Gran Sasso experiments. The results of the extensive measurement campaign are presented and discussed in detail.

  9. Resonant Multi-Turn Extraction Principle and Experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Gilardoni, S S; Martini, M; Métral, E; Scaramuzzi, P; Steerenberg, R; Muller, AS


    Recently a novel approach to perform multi-turn extraction was proposed based on beam splitting in the transverse phase space by means of trapping inside stable islands. In addition to numerical simulations, aimed at assessing the feasibility of the proposed technique, an experimental campaign was launched since the year 2002 at the CERN Proton Synchrotron. During the year 2004 run, a high-intensity single-bunch beam was successfully split and the generated beamlets separated without any measurable losses. The underlying principle will be presented and discussed in details in this paper, as well as the latest experimental results and future applications.

  10. Resonant multi-turn extraction: Principle and experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Gilardoni, S S; Martini, M; Métral, E; Scaramuzzi, P; Steerenberg, R; Müller, A S


    Recently, a novel approach to perform multi-turn extraction was proposed based on beam splitting in the transverse phase space by means of trapping inside stable islands. In addition to numerical simulations, aimed at assessing the feasibility of the proposed technique, an experimental campaign was launched since the year 2002 at the CERN Proton Synchrotron. During the year 2004 run, a high-intensity single-bunch beam was successfully split and the generated beamlets separated without any measurable losses. The underlying principle will be presented and discussed in details in this paper, as well as the latest experimental results and future applications.

  11. 160 MeV $H^-$ Injection into the CERN PSB

    CERN Document Server

    Weterings, W; Borburgh, J; Fowler, T; Gerigk, F; Goddard, B; Hanke, K; Martini, M; Sermeus, L


    The H- beam from the proposed LINAC4 will be injected into the four existing rings of the PS Booster at 160 MeV. A substantial upgrade of the injection region is required, including the modification of the beam distribution system and the construction of a new H- injection system. This paper discusses beam dynamics and hardware requirements and presents the results of optimisation studies of the injection process for different beam characteristics and scenarios. The resulting conceptual design of the injection region is presented, together with the main hardware modifications and performance specifications.

  12. Printed Multi-Turn Loop Antenna for RF Bio-Telemetry (United States)

    Simons, Rainee N.; Hall, David G.; Miranda, Felix A.


    In this paper, a novel printed multi-turn loop antenna for contact-less powering and RF telemetry from implantable bio- MEMS sensors at a design frequency of 300 MHz is demonstrated. In addition, computed values of input reactance, radiation resistance, skin effect resistance, and radiation efficiency for the printed multi-turn loop antenna are presented. The computed input reactance is compared with the measured values and shown to be in fair agreement. The computed radiation efficiency at the design frequency is about 24 percent.

  13. Study of transverse beam splitting for multi-turn extraction for the CERN PS2 ring

    CERN Document Server

    Giovannozzi, Massimo; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department


    In this paper a layout for the elements needed to split transversely the beam for a multi-turn extraction system in the PS2 ring is proposed and discussed. Additional sextupoles and octupoles are installed in one of the straight sections to generate the stable islands in the horizontal phase space. Scans over various beam dynamics quantities were performed to provide hints for an optimisation of the scheme. The results are presented and discussed in details.

  14. Laser-assisted H^{-} charge exchange injection in magnetic fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Gorlov


    Full Text Available The use of stripping foils for charge exchange injection can cause a number of operational problems in high intensity hadron accelerators. A recently proposed three-step method of laser-assisted injection is capable of overcoming these problems. This paper presents advances in the physical model of laser-assisted charge exchange injection of H^{-} beams and covers a wide field of atomic physics. The model allows the calculation of the evolution of an H^{0} beam taking into account spontaneous emission, field ionization, and external electromagnetic fields. Some new data on the hydrogen atom related to the problem are calculated. The numerical calculations in the model use realistic descriptions of laser field and injection beam. Generally, the model can be used for design and optimization of a laser-assisted injection cell within an accelerator lattice. Example calculations of laser-assisted injection for an intermediate experiment at SNS in Oak Ridge and for the PS2 accelerator at CERN are presented. Two different schemes, distinctively characterized by various magnetic fields at the excitation point, are discussed. It was shown that the emittance growth of an injected beam can be drastically decreased by moving the excitation point into a strong magnetic field.

  15. H^{-} charge-exchange injection without hazardous stripping foils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isao Yamane


    Full Text Available A new scheme of H^{-} charge-exchange injection without stripping foils is proposed. It is composed of a neutralizer of the H^{-} beam using Lorentz stripping, the colliding system of a high power laser and the H^{0} beam to excite H^{0} atoms to the 3P state using the Rabi oscillation, and a magnet to strip the H^{0}(3P to a proton beam by Lorentz stripping. The necessary laser wavelength, laser power, magnetic-field gradient, and maximum magnetic field are estimated for a beam energy from 1.0 to 3.0 GeV. The result shows that such a scheme is sufficiently feasible for H^{-} beams with an energy discussed here.

  16. Final Results from the Novel Multi-turn Extraction Studies at CERN Proton Synchrotron

    CERN Document Server

    Cappi, R; Giovannozzi, Massimo; Martini, M; Métral, E; Müller, A S; Steerenberg, R


    Recently a novel approach to perform multi-turn extraction was proposed based on beam splitting in the transverse phase space by means of trapping inside stable islands. An experimental campaign was launched since the year 2002 to assess the feasibility of such an extraction scheme at the CERN Proton Synchrotron. During the year 2004 run, a high-intensity single-bunch beam was successfully split and the generated beamlets separated without any measurable losses. The latest experimental results are presented and discussed in details in this paper. These achievements represent a substantial step forward with respect to what achieved in previous years, as only a low-intensity bunch could be split without losses. Furthermore, this opens the possibility of using such a technique for routine operation with the high-intensity proton beams required for the planned CERN Neutrino to Gran Sasso Project.

  17. Implementation of the proposed multi-turn extraction at the CERN Proton Synchrotron

    CERN Document Server

    Giovannozzi, Massimo


    Following the positive results of the three-year measurement campaign at the CERN Proton Synchrotron, concerning beam splitting with stable islands in the transverse phase space, a study of a possible implementation of the proposed Multi-Turn Extraction (MTE) was undertaken. The novel approach would allow a substantial reduction of beam losses, with respect to the present scheme, when delivering the high-intensity proton beams required for the planned CERN Neutrino to Gran Sasso Project (CNGS). Major modifications to the ring layout are foreseen, such as a new design of the extraction bumps including also the installation of three additional kickers to create a closed-bump over the five turns used to extract the split beam. The ring aperture was reviewed and improvements proposed to reduce possible beam losses during beam splitting and extraction. The goal consists of implementing the proposed changes by the end of the 2007/2008 PS shutdown and to commission the novel extraction during the 2008 physics run.

  18. Design and Tests of a Low-Loss Multi-Turn Ejector for the CERN PS

    CERN Document Server

    Giovannozzi, Massimo


    Following the positive results of a three-year measurement campaign at the CERN Proton Synchrotron, a study of a possible implementation of the proposed Multi-Turn Extraction (MTE) based on beam splitting with stable islands in the transverse phase space was undertaken. A substantial reduction of beam losses, with respect to the present extraction scheme, could be achieved with the proposed technique when delivering the high-intensity proton beams required for the planned CERN Neutrino to Gran Sasso Project. Major modifications to the ring layout are needed, such as a new design of the extraction bumps including also the installation of three additional kickers to create a closed-bump over the five turns used to extract the split beam. The ring aperture was reviewed and improvements are proposed to reduce possible beam losses between beam splitting and extraction. The goal is to implement the proposed changes by beginning of 2008 and to commission the novel extraction during the 2008 PS physics run.

  19. Application of Gaseous Sphere Injection Method for Modeling Under-expanded H2 Injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitesides, R; Hessel, R P; Flowers, D L; Aceves, S M


    A methodology for modeling gaseous injection has been refined and applied to recent experimental data from the literature. This approach uses a discrete phase analogy to handle gaseous injection, allowing for addition of gaseous injection to a CFD grid without needing to resolve the injector nozzle. This paper focuses on model testing to provide the basis for simulation of hydrogen direct injected internal combustion engines. The model has been updated to be more applicable to full engine simulations, and shows good agreement with experiments for jet penetration and time-dependent axial mass fraction, while available radial mass fraction data is less well predicted.

  20. Geometrically enhanced closed-loop multi-turn sensor devices that enable reliable magnetic domain wall motion (United States)

    Borie, B.; Wahrhusen, J.; Grimm, H.; Kläui, M.


    We experimentally realize a sophisticated structure geometry for reliable magnetic domain wall-based multi-turn-counting sensor devices, which we term closed-loop devices that can sense millions of turns. The concept relies on the reliable propagation of domain walls through a cross-shaped intersection of magnetic conduits, allowing for the intertwining of loops of the sensor device. As a key step to reach the necessary reliability of the operation, we develop a combination of tilted wires called the syphon structure at the entrances of the cross. We measure the control and reliability of the domain wall propagation individually for cross-shaped intersections, the syphon geometries, and finally combinations of the two for various field configurations (strengths and angles). The various measured syphon geometries yield a dependence of the domain wall propagation on the shape that we explain by the effectively acting transverse and longitudinal external applied magnetic fields. The combination of both elements yields a behaviour that cannot be explained by a simple superposition of the individual different maximum field operation values. We identify as an additional process the nucleation of domain walls in the cross, which then allows us to fully gauge the operational parameters. Finally, we demonstrate that by tuning the central dimensions of the cross and choosing the optimum angle for the syphon structure, reliable sensor operation is achieved, which paves the way for disruptive multi-turn sensor devices.

  1. Screening of allergic components mediated by H(1)R in homoharringtonine injection through H(1)R/CMC-HPLC/MS. (United States)

    Guo, Ying; Han, Shengli; Cao, Jingjing; Liu, Qi; Zhang, Tao


    It has been reported that the histamine H1 receptor (H(1)R) gene is up-regulated in patients with allergic rhinitis and H(1)R expression level strongly correlates with the severity of allergy symptoms. Drugs for therapy should avoid allergy symptoms, especially for patients with over-expressed H(1)R. Therefore, screening of the components which could induce H(1)R activation is urgently needed for drug safety evaluation. Homoharringtonine injection is a preparation for acute nonlymphocytic leukemia, which is approved by China Food and Drug Administration (CFDA) and US Food and Drug Administration. However, severely adverse reactions often occur with intravenous injection of the preparation. In present study, an H(1)R/CMC model was applied for capturing membrane retained components which could induce H(1)R activation. Retention components were enriched and analyzed by H(1)R/CMC-HPLC/MS. Homoharringtonine was recognized, separated and identified in homoharringtonine injection. Ca(2+) flux assay and p-IP3R expression founded that homoharringtonine retained by the H1 R/CMC model increased phosphorylation of IP3R and promoted cytosolic free Ca(2+) elevation in a dose-dependent manner which further verified the activity of homoharringtonine in activating the H1 R. In conclusion, homoharringtonine was screened and identified as a potential allergic factor. This provides an indication that a patient with over-expressed H1 R should be aware of possible allergic reaction when applying homoharringtonine injection. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Serum hCG Levels following the Ovulatory Injection: Associations with Patient Weight and Implantation Time (United States)

    Noorhasan, Dorette J.; McGovern, Peter G.; Cho, Michael; Seungdamrong, Aimee; Ahmad, Khaliq; McCulloh, David H.


    Objective. To test if serum hCG levels the morning after the ovulatory hCG injection correlate with (1) retrieval efficiency, (2) oocyte maturity, (3) embryo quality, (4) pregnancy, and/or (5) time to implantation in patients undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF) with intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). Design. Retrospective cohort analysis. Setting. University-based IVF clinic. Patient(s). All IVF/ICSI cycles from April 2005 to February 2008 whose hCG administration was confirmed (n = 472 patients). Intervention(s). Serum hCG was measured the morning following the ovulatory injection, on the 16th day following retrieval, and repeated on day 18 for those with positive results. Main Outcome Measure(s). Number of follicles on the day of hCG injection, number of oocytes retrieved, maturity of oocytes, embryo quality, pregnancy outcome, and time to implantation. Result(s). hCG levels did not correlate with retrieval efficiency, oocyte maturity, embryo quality, or pregnancy. Postinjection hCG levels were inversely associated with patient weight and time to implantation. Conclusion(s). No correlation was found between hCG level and any parameter of embryo quality. Patient weight affected hCG levels following hCG injection and during the early period of pregnancy following implantation. No association between postinjection hCG level and time of implantation (adjusted for patient weight) was apparent. PMID:26587025

  3. Septa and Distributor Developments for H- Injection into the Booster from LINAC4

    CERN Document Server

    Borburgh, J; Fowler, T; Hourican, M; Weterings, W


    The construction of Linac4 requires the modification of the existing injection system of the CERN PS Booster. A new transfer line will transport 160 MeV H- ions to this machine. A system of 5 pulsed magnets (BIDIS) and 3 vertical septa (BISMV) will distribute and inject the Linac pulses into the four-vertically separated Booster rings. Subsequently the beam will be injected horizontally, using a local bump created with bumpers (BS magnets) to bring the injected H- beam together with the orbiting proton beam onto the stripper foil. To accommodate the injected H- beam, the first of the BS magnets will have to be a septum-like device, deflecting only the orbiting beam. This paper highlights the requirements and technical issues and describes the solutions to be adopted for both the BIDIS and BISMV. The results of initial prototype testing of the BIDIS magnet will also be presented.

  4. Transverse beam splitting made operational: Recent progress of the multi-turn extraction at the CERN proton synchrotron

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2082016; Borburgh, Jan; Damjanovic, Sanja; Gilardoni, Simone; Giovannozzi, Massimo; Hourican, Michael; Kahle, Karsten; Michels, Olivier; Sterbini, Guido; Hernalsteens, Cedric; Le Godec, Gilles


    Following a successful commissioning period, the Multi-Turn Extraction (MTE) at the CERN Proton Synchrotron (PS) has been applied for the fixed-target physics programme at the Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) since September 2015. This exceptional extraction technique was proposed to replace the long-serving Continuous Transfer (CT) extraction, which has the drawback of inducing high activation in the ring. MTE exploits the principles of non-linear beam dynamics to perform loss-free beam splitting in the horizontal phase space. Over multiple turns, the resulting beamlets are then transferred to the downstream accelerator. The operational deployment of MTE was rendered possible by the full understanding and mitigation of different hardware limitations and by redesigning the extraction trajectories and non-linear optics, which was required due to the installation of a dummy septum to reduce the activation of the magnetic extraction septum. The results of the related experimental and simulation studies, a summary ...

  5. Optimizing GC Injections when Analyzing δ2H of Vanillin for Traceability Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anne-Mette Sølvbjerg; Fromberg, Arvid; Frandsen, Henrik Lauritz

    Column overloading is a problem when analyzing δ2H, due to the low natural abundance of deuterium and poor ionization efficiency of H2. This problem can be overcome by using split injections instead of splitless. In this study we have compared the influence upon the measured isotopic ratios when ...

  6. Analysis of chaotic flow in a 2D multi-turn closed-loop pulsating heat pipe

    CERN Document Server

    Pouryoussefi, S M


    Numerical study has been conducted for the chaotic flow in a multi-turn closed-loop pulsating heat pipe (PHP). Heat flux and constant temperature boundary conditions have been applied for heating and cooling sections respectively. Water was used as working fluid. Volume of Fluid (VOF) method has been employed for two-phase flow simulation. Volume fraction results showed formation of perfect vapor and liquid plugs in the fluid flow of PHP. Non-linear time series analysis, power spectrum density, correlation dimension and autocorrelation function were used to investigate the chaos. Absence of dominating peaks in the power spectrum density was a signature of chaos in the pulsating heat pipe. It was found that by increasing the filling ratio and evaporator heating power the correlation dimension increases. Decreasing of the autocorrelation function with respect to time showed the prediction ability is finite as a result of chaotic state. An optimal filling ratio of 60% and minimum thermal resistance of 1.62 K/W w...

  7. Study of H2S increasing in gas production of vapor continuous injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Centeno, J. [PDVSA INTEVEP (Venezuela)


    In the heavy oil industry, thermal recovery methods are often used to enhance oil recovery, continuous vapor injection is one of them. In this method, water vapor is injected into the reservoir at high temperatures, affecting the geochemical system of the fluid reservoir. It has been noticed that the use of the continuous vapor injection method results in increased concentrations of H2S in gas production. Previous studies proved that H2S diffusion is affected by the H2S/CO2 ratio and this paper aimed at determining the influence of such ratios on the diffusion properties of acid gases. Experiments were conducted with three different H2S/CO2 ratios and heavy oil samples from Orinoco oil elt. Results showed that acid gas diffusion decreases when the H2S/CO2 ratio increases and that the diffusion of H2S is better with a high percentage of water. This study successfully assessed the variation of acid gas diffusion with different values of H2S/CO2 ratios and water percentages.

  8. Effect of an intraperitoneal injection with activated Hymenolepis nana and H. diminuta cysticercoids on homologous challenge. (United States)

    Gabriele, F; Bortoletti, G; Conchedda, M; Palmas, C


    The intraperitoneal injection of excysted-activated cysticercoids of Hymenolepis nana and H. diminuta stimulates a protective immunity in mice and rats against an oral homologous challenge with different levels of effectiveness. The immunizing dose reduced only worm growth in the natural host (i.e. H. nana/mouse and H. diminuta/rat models), while in the unnatural host (i.e. H. diminuta/mouse model) expulsion of the worms from the intestine was accelerated. In mice infected with H. nana the effect appeared about 20 days after injection, but a greater effect was found in both models 40 days later even at low dose (1 cysticercoid). In rats the effect appeared 40 days after injection when a large inoculum (50 or 100 cysticercoids) was used. The induced immunity was slow in developing and only partially effective: this was probably related to host difficulties in processing somatic worm antigens, or to the slow production of metabolites by the worms in the peritoneal cavity.

  9. Injection moulded microneedle sensor for real-time wireless pH monitoring. (United States)

    Mirza, Khalid B; Zuliani, Claudio; Hou, Benjamin; Fu Siong Ng; Peters, Nicholas S; Toumazou, Christofer


    This paper describes the development of an array of individually addressable pH sensitive microneedles using injection moulding and their integration within a portable device for real-time wireless recording of pH distributions in biological samples. The fabricated microneedles are subjected to gold patterning followed by electrodeposition of iridium oxide to sensitize them to 0.07 units of pH change. Miniaturised electronics suitable for the sensors readout, analog-to-digital conversion and wireless transmission of the potentiometric data are embodied within the device, enabling it to measure real-time pH of soft biological samples such as muscles. In this paper, real-time recording of the cardiac pH distribution, during ischemia followed by reperfusion cycles in cardiac muscles of male Wistar rats has been demonstrated by using the microneedle array.

  10. H2S Injection and Sequestration into Basalt - The SulFix Project (United States)

    Gudbrandsson, S.; Moola, P.; Stefansson, A.


    Atmospheric H2S emissions are among major environmental concern associated with geothermal energy utilization. It is therefore of great importance for the geothermal power sector to reduce H2S emissions. Known solutions for H2S neutralization are both expensive and include production of elemental sulfur and sulfuric acid that needs to be disposed of. Icelandic energy companies that utilize geothermal power for electricity production have decided to try to find an environmentally friendly and economically feasible solution to reduce the H2S emission, in a joint venture called SulFix. The aim of SulFix project is to explore the possibilities of injecting H2S dissolved in water into basaltic formations in close proximity to the power plants for permanent fixation as sulfides. The formation of sulfides is a natural process in geothermal systems. Due to basalt being rich in iron and dissolving readily at acidic conditions, it is feasible to re-inject the H2S dissolved in water, into basaltic formations to form pyrite. To estimate the mineralization rates of H2S, in the basaltic formation, flow through experiments in columns were conducted at various H2S concentrations, temperatures (100 - 240°C) and both fresh and altered basaltic glass. The results indicate that pyrite rapidly forms during injection into fresh basalt but the precipiation in altered basalt is slower. Three different alteration stages, as a function of distance from inlet, can be observed in the column with fresh basaltic glass; (1) dissolution features along with precipitation, (2) precipitation increases, both sulfides and other secondary minerals and (3) the basalt looks to be unaltered and little if any precipitation is observed. The sulfur has precipitated in the first half of the column and thereafter the solution is possibly close to be supersaturated with respect to the rock. These results indicate that the H2S sequestration into basalt is possible under geothermal conditions. The rate limiting

  11. Novel Feature of H-Mode Induced by CT Injection on STOR-M Tokamak (United States)

    Sen, S.; Xiao, C.; Hirose, A.


    A novel feature of the H-mode induced by compact torus injection on STOR-M tokamak is observed. There is almost no change in the radial electric-field profiles during and after the L-H transition. The usual hypothesis of the E X B shear stabilization mechanism is therefore unlikely to play a role in this transition. A new mechanism of the stabilization of microinstabilities by parallel flow is suggested as the plausible cause for the transition to this improved regime.

  12. Injectable and Biodegradable pH-Responsive Hydrogels for Localized and Sustained Treatment of Human Fibrosarcoma. (United States)

    Li, Liubing; Gu, Jun; Zhang, Jie; Xie, Zonggang; Lu, Yufeng; Shen, Liqin; Dong, Qirong; Wang, Yangyun


    Injectable hydrogels are an important class of biomaterials, and they have been widely used for controlled drug release. This study evaluated an injectable hydrogel formed in situ system by the reaction of a polyethylene glycol derivative with α,β-polyaspartylhydrazide for local cancer chemotherapy. This pH-responsive hydrogel was used to realize a sol-gel phase transition, where the gel remained a free-flowing fluid before injection but spontaneously changed into a semisolid hydrogel just after administration. As indicated by scanning electron microscopy images, the hydrogel exhibited a porous three-dimensional microstructure. The prepared hydrogel was biocompatible and biodegradable and could be utilized as a pH-responsive vector for drug delivery. The therapeutic effect of the hydrogel loaded with doxorubicin (DOX) after intratumoral administration in mice with human fibrosarcoma was evaluated. The inhibition of tumor growth was more obvious in the group treated by the DOX-loaded hydrogel, compared to that treated with the free DOX solution. Hence, this hydrogel with good syringeability and high biodegradability, which focuses on local chemotherapy, may enhance the therapeutic effect on human fibrosarcoma.

  13. A pH-Sensitive Injectable Nanoparticle Composite Hydrogel for Anticancer Drug Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanfeng Ye


    Full Text Available According to previous reports, low pH-triggered nanoparticles were considered to be excellent carriers for anticancer drug delivery, for the reason that they could trigger encapsulated drug release at mild acid environment of tumor. Herein, an acid-sensitive β-cyclodextrin derivative, namely, acetalated-β-cyclodextrin (Ac-β-CD, was synthesized by acetonation and fabricated to nanoparticles through single oil-in-water (o/w emulsion technique. At the same time, camptothecin (CPT, a hydrophobic anticancer drug, was encapsulated into Ac-β-CD nanoparticles in the process of nanoparticle fabrication. Formed nanoparticles exhibited nearly spherical structure with diameter of 209±40 nm. The drug release behavior of nanoparticles displayed pH dependent changes due to hydrolysis of Ac-β-CD. In order to overcome the disadvantages of nanoparticle and broaden its application, injectable hydrogels with Ac-β-CD nanoparticles were designed and prepared by simple mixture of nanoparticles solution and graphene oxide (GO solution in this work. The injectable property was confirmed by short gelation time and good mobility of two precursors. Hydrogels were characterized by dynamic mechanical test and SEM, which also reflected some structural features. Moreover, all hydrogels underwent a reversible sol-gel transition in alkaline environment. Finally, the results of in vitro drug release profile indicated that hydrogel could control drug release or bind drug inside depending on the pH value of released medium.

  14. In Situ Redox Manipulation Field Injection Test Report - Hanford 100-H Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fruchter, J.S.; Amonette, J.E.; Cole, C.R. [and others


    This report presents results of an In Situ Redox Manipulation (ISRM) Field Injection Withdrawal Test performed at the 100-H Area of the US. Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Hanford Site in Washington State in Fiscal Year 1996 by researchers at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). The test is part of the overall ISRM project, the purpose of which is to determine the potential for remediating contaminated groundwater with a technology based on in situ manipulation of subsurface reduction-oxidation (redox) conditions. The ISRM technology would be used to treat subsurface contaminants in groundwater zones at DOE sites.

  15. Performance of the CERN PSB at 160 MeV with $H^{-}$ charge exchange injection

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2084247; Santoni, Claudio

    As part of the LHC Injectors Upgrade Project, the CERN PS Booster (PSB) will be upgraded with a H- charge exchange injection system and its injection energy will be raised from 50 MeV to 160 MeV to obtain the beam brightness required for the LHC High-Luminosity Upgrade. Space charge effects like beam losses and transverse emittance blow-up at injection are expected to be the main limitations towards the achievement of the required high brightness. Studies of beam dynamics in presence of space charge in order to evaluate the performances of the PSB after the Upgrade have been performed. The first part of the work consists of measurements in the present machine, to study the effects of space charge and its interplay with resonances and to have a good set of data for code benchmarking. The code chosen for the beam tracking in presence of space charge is PTC-Orbit (and PyOrbit). Necessary numerical convergence studies are presented together with a benchmark with the PSB measurements. Once assessed the code and it...

  16. Numerical simulations of single and multi-staged injection of H2 in a supersonic scramjet combustor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Abu-Farah


    Full Text Available Computational fluid dynamics (CFD simulations of a single staged injection of H2 through a central wedge shaped strut and a multi-staged injection through wall injectors are carried out by using Ansys CFX-12 code. Unstructured tetrahedral grids for narrow channel and quarter geometries of the combustor are generated by using ICEM CFD. Steady three-dimensional (3D Reynolds-averaged Navier-stokes (RANS simulations are carried out in the case of no H2 injection and compared with the simulations of single staged pilot and/or main H2 injections and multistage injection. Shear stress transport (SST based on k-ω turbulent model is adopted. Flow field visualization (complex shock waves interactions and static pressure distribution along the wall of the combustor are predicted and compared with the experimental schlieren images and measured wall static pressures for validation. A good agreement is found between the CFD predicted results and the measured data. The narrow and quarter geometries of the combustor give similar results with very small differences. Multi-staged injections of H2 enhance the turbulent H2/air mixing by forming vortices and additional shock waves (bow shocks.

  17. Injection and acceleration of H+ and He2+ at Earth's bow shock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Scholer


    Full Text Available We have performed a number of one-dimensional hybrid simulations (particle ions, massless electron fluid of quasi-parallel collisionless shocks in order to investigate the injection and subsequent acceleration of part of the solar wind ions at the Earth's bow shock. The shocks propagate into a medium containing magnetic fluctuations, which are initially superimposed on the background field, as well as generated or enhanced by the electromagnetic ion/ion beam instability between the solar wind and backstreaming ions. In order to study the mass (M and charge (Q dependence of the acceleration process He2+ is included self-consistently. The upstream differential intensity spectra of H+ and He2+ can be well represented by exponentials in energy. The e-folding energy Ec is a function of time: Ec increases with time. Furthermore the e-folding energy (normalized to the shock ramming energy Ep increases with increasing Alfvén Mach number of the shock and with increasing fluctuation level of the initially superimposed turbulence. When backstreaming ions leave the shock after their first encounter they exhibit already a spectrum which extends to more than ten times the shock ramming energy and which is ordered in energy per charge. From the injection spectrum it is concluded that leakage of heated downstream particles does not contribute to ion injection. Acceleration models that permit thermal particles to scatter like the non-thermal population do not describe the correct physics.Key words. Interplanetary physics (planetary bow shocks · Space plasma physics (charged particle motion and acceleration; numerical simulation studies

  18. Injectable MMP-sensitive alginate hydrogels as hMSC delivery systems (United States)

    Fonseca, Keila B.; Gomes, David B.; Lee, Kangwon; Santos, Susana G.; Sousa, Aureliana; Silva, Eduardo A.; Mooney, David J.; Granja, Pedro L.; Barrias, Cristina C.


    Hydrogels with the potential to provide minimally invasive cell delivery represent a powerful tool for tissue-regeneration therapies. In this context, entrapped cells should be able to escape the matrix becoming more available to actively participate in the healing process. Here, we analyzed the performance of proteolytically-degradable alginate hydrogels as vehicles for human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC) transplantation. Alginate was modified with the matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-sensitive peptide Pro-Val-Gly-Leu-Iso-Gly (PVGLIG), which did not promote dendritic cell maturation in vitro, neither free nor conjugated to alginate chains, indicating low immunogenicity. hMSC were entrapped within MMP-sensitive and MMP-insensitive alginate hydrogels, both containing cell-adhesion RGD peptides. Softer (2 wt% alginate) and stiffer (4 wt% alginate) matrices were tested. When embedded in a Matrigel™ layer, hMSC-laden MMP-sensitive alginate hydrogels promoted more extensive outward cell migration and invasion into the tissue mimic. In vivo, after 4 weeks of subcutaneous implantation in a xenograft mouse model, hMSC-laden MMP-sensitive alginate hydrogels showed higher degradation and host tissue invasion than their MMP-insensitive equivalents. In both cases, softer matrices degraded faster than stiffer ones. The transplanted hMSC were able to produce their own collagenous extracellular matrix, and were located not only inside the hydrogels, but also outside, integrated in the host tissue. In summary, injectable MMP-sensitive alginate hydrogels can act as localized depots of cells, and confer protection to transplanted cells while facilitating tissue regeneration. PMID:24345197

  19. Effect of temperature of CO2 injection on the pH and freezing point of milks and creams. (United States)

    Ma, Y; Barbano, D M


    The objectives of this study were to measure the impact of CO2 injection temperature (0 degree C and 40 degrees C) on the pH and freezing point (FP) of (a) milks with different fat contents (i.e., 0, 15, 30%) and (b) creams with 15% fat but different fat characteristics. Skim milk and unhomogenized creams containing 15 and 30% fat were prepared from the same batch of whole milk and were carbonated at 0 and 40 degrees C in a continuous flow CO2 injection unit (230 ml/min). At 0 degree C, milk fat was mostly solid; at 40 degrees C, milk fat was liquid. At the same total CO2 concentration with CO2 injection at 0 degree C, milk with a higher fat content had a lower pH and FP, while with CO2 injection at 40 degrees C, milks with 0%, 15%, and 30% fat had the same pH. This indicated that less CO2 was dissolved in the fat portion of the milk when the CO2 was injected at 0 degree C than when it was injected at 40 degrees C. Three creams, 15% unhomogenized cream, 15% butter oil emulsion in skim milk, and 15% vegetable oil emulsion in skim milk were also carbonated and analyzed as described above. Vegetable oil was liquid at both 0 and 40 degrees C. At a CO2 injection temperature of 0 degree C, the 15% vegetable oil emulsion had a slightly higher pH than the 15% butter oil emulsion and the 15% unhomogenized cream, indicating that the liquid vegetable oil dissolved more CO2 than the mostly solid milk fat and butter oil. No difference in the pH or FP of the 15% unhomogenized cream and 15% butter oil emulsion was observed when CO2 was injected at 0 degree C, suggesting that homogenization or physical dispersion of milk fat globules did not influence the amount of CO2 dissolved in milk fat at a CO2 injection temperature of 0 degree C. At a CO2 injection temperature of 40 degrees C and at the same total CO2 concentration, the 15% unhomogenized cream, 15% vegetable oil emulsion, and 15% butter oil emulsion had similar pH. At the same total concentration of CO2 in cream, injection

  20. Improvement of injection efficiency of carbon ions for medical synchrotron (United States)

    Kim, J.; Yoon, M.


    This paper describes a systematic study for optimization of the multi-turn injection effciency of carbon-ions for medical synchrotron. This is accomplished by optimizing tunes, bump-magnet parameters, and the number of turns required for injection. For selecting optimal tunes, a frequency map is investigated which reveals various resonances limiting the injection efficiency. The injection bump and the number of turns are optimized by tracking numerous particles up to a few thousand turns after injection. Space-charge effects are considered and found to be non-negligible at the chosen injection energy, 7 MeV/u.

  1. Modeling of fate and transport of co-injection of H2S with CO2 in deep saline formations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, W.; Xu, T.; Li, Y.


    The geological storage of CO{sub 2} in deep saline formations is increasing seen as a viable strategy to reduce the release of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere. However, costs of capture and compression of CO{sub 2} from industrial waste streams containing small quantities of sulfur and nitrogen compounds such as SO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}S and N{sub 2} are very expensive. Therefore, studies on the co-injection of CO{sub 2} containing other acid gases from industrial emissions are very important. In this paper, numerical simulations were performed to study the co-injection of H{sub 2}S with CO{sub 2} in sandstone and carbonate formations. Results indicate that the preferential dissolution of H{sub 2}S gas (compared with CO{sub 2} gas) into formation water results in the delayed breakthrough of H{sub 2}S gas. Co-injection of H{sub 2}S results in the precipitation of pyrite through interactions between the dissolved H{sub 2}S and Fe{sup 2+} from the dissolution of Fe-bearing minerals. Additional injection of H{sub 2}S reduces the capabilities for solubility and mineral trappings of CO{sub 2} compared to the CO{sub 2} only case. In comparison to the sandstone (siliciclastic) formation, the carbonate formation is less favorable to the mineral sequestration of CO{sub 2}. Different from CO{sub 2} mineral trapping, the presence of Fe-bearing siliciclastic and/or carbonate is more favorable to the H{sub 2}S mineral trapping.

  2. An Injectable Composite Gelatin Hydrogel with pH Response Properties


    Baoguo Chen; Xiaohong Hu


    On account of minimally invasive procedure and of filling irregular defects of tissues, injectable hydrogels are increasingly attractive in biomedical fields. However, traditional hydrogel formed by simple physical interaction or in situ crosslinking had inevitably some drawbacks such as low mechanical strength and lack of multifunctional properties. Though many investigations had successfully modified traditional injectable hydrogel to obtain both mechanical and functional properties, an ace...

  3. Multi-turn multi-gap transmission line resonators - Concept, design and first implementation at 4.7 T and 7 T (United States)

    Frass-Kriegl, Roberta; Laistler, Elmar; Hosseinnezhadian, Sajad; Schmid, Albrecht Ingo; Moser, Ewald; Poirier-Quinot, Marie; Darrasse, Luc; Ginefri, Jean-Christophe


    A novel design scheme for monolithic transmission line resonators (TLRs) is presented - the multi-turn multi-gap TLR (MTMG-TLR) design. The MTMG-TLR design enables the construction of TLRs with multiple turns and multiple gaps. This presents an additional degree of freedom in tuning self-resonant TLRs, as their resonance frequency is fully determined by the coil geometry (e.g. diameter, number of turns, conductor width, etc.). The novel design is evaluated at 4.7 T and 7 T by simulations and experiments, where it is demonstrated that MTMG-TLRs can be used for MRI, and that the B1 distribution of MTMG-TLRs strongly depends on the number and distribution of turns. A comparison to conventional loop coils revealed that the B1 performance of MTMG-TLRs is comparable to a loop coil with the same mean diameter; however, lower 10g SAR values were found for MTMG-TLRs. The MTMG-TLR design is expected to bring most benefits at high static field, where it allows for independent size and frequency selection, which cannot be achieved with standard TLR design. However, it also enables more accurate geometric optimization at low static field. Thereby, the MTMG-TLR design preserves the intrinsic advantages of TLRs, i.e. mechanical flexibility, high SAR efficiency, mass production, and coil miniaturization.

  4. Multi-turn multi-gap transmission line resonators - Concept, design and first implementation at 4.7T and 7T. (United States)

    Frass-Kriegl, Roberta; Laistler, Elmar; Hosseinnezhadian, Sajad; Schmid, Albrecht Ingo; Moser, Ewald; Poirier-Quinot, Marie; Darrasse, Luc; Ginefri, Jean-Christophe


    A novel design scheme for monolithic transmission line resonators (TLRs) is presented - the multi-turn multi-gap TLR (MTMG-TLR) design. The MTMG-TLR design enables the construction of TLRs with multiple turns and multiple gaps. This presents an additional degree of freedom in tuning self-resonant TLRs, as their resonance frequency is fully determined by the coil geometry (e.g. diameter, number of turns, conductor width, etc.). The novel design is evaluated at 4.7T and 7T by simulations and experiments, where it is demonstrated that MTMG-TLRs can be used for MRI, and that the B1 distribution of MTMG-TLRs strongly depends on the number and distribution of turns. A comparison to conventional loop coils revealed that the B1 performance of MTMG-TLRs is comparable to a loop coil with the same mean diameter; however, lower 10g SAR values were found for MTMG-TLRs. The MTMG-TLR design is expected to bring most benefits at high static field, where it allows for independent size and frequency selection, which cannot be achieved with standard TLR design. However, it also enables more accurate geometric optimization at low static field. Thereby, the MTMG-TLR design preserves the intrinsic advantages of TLRs, i.e. mechanical flexibility, high SAR efficiency, mass production, and coil miniaturization. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Induction of ovulation in Xenopus without hCG injection: the effect of adding steroids into the aquatic environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iwashina Yu-ki


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The African clawed frog, Xenopus laevis, is widely used in studies of oogenesis, meiotic cell cycle and early embryonic development. However, in order to perform such studies, eggs are normally collected after the injection of hCG into the dorsal lymph sac of fully-grown female frogs following pre-injection of PMSF. Although this protocol is established and used as standard laboratory approach, there are some concerns over whether the injections could cause the transmission of deleterious microorganisms. Moreover, these injection protocols require a competent skilled worker to carry out the procedure efficiently. Methods Recently, we established a novel method to induce fish ovulation by simply adding the natural maturation-inducing hormone of teleosts, 17 alpha, 20 beta-dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one (17,20 beta-DHP, into the surrounding water. In the present study, we demonstrate how we can induce ovulation in frogs using the same methodology. Results In frogs, progesterone was effective in the induction of oocyte maturation in vitro. We then examined the ability of progesterone to induce ovulation in frogs. However treatment of frogs with progesterone alone only occasionally induced ovulation in vivo. The number of oocytes and the frequency of ovulation were significantly lower than that induced by hCG-injection. Thus, conditions were improved by using a combination of progesterone with estradiol and by pre-treating frogs with low concentrations of progesterone or estradiol. Finally, we established an efficient means of inducing ovulation in frogs which involved pre-treatment of frogs with salt solution followed by a mixture of estradiol and progesterone at high concentration. The frequency and numbers of oocytes obtained were identical to those resulting from PMSG-hCG induction. Fertilization rate of eggs ovulated by the new treatment method was comparable to eggs obtained by hCG-injection and juveniles developed normally

  6. Inflammatory skin responses induced by icatibant injection are mast cell mediated and attenuated by H(1)-antihistamines. (United States)

    Maurer, Marcus; Church, Martin K


    Icatibant, a bradykinin-2 receptor antagonist, is administered by subcutaneous injection for the treatment of attacks of type I and type II hereditary angioedema. Following injection, patients feel transient pain followed by a short-lived wheal and flare response at the injection site. We hypothesized that the icatibant-induced wheal and flare response follows histamine release from activated skin mast cells and would therefore be reduced by an H(1)-antihistamine. Intradermal injection of 100 μl of 100 μg/ml histamine and 10 mg/ml icatibant into the forearms of health volunteers caused wheal and flare responses of a similar magnitude which were reduced by cetirizine pretreatment by 49% and 41% (histamine) and 35% and 41% (icatibant). Studies in vitro showed that icatibant at 1 × 10(-4) and 1 × 10(-5) M caused significant (P wheal and flare responses that may be reduced in severity by prophylactic administration of an H(1)-antihistamine. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  7. CO2 and H2S gas injection heavy oil field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Padua, K.G.O. [Petrobras (Canada)


    Heavy oils constitute one of the largest fossil fuel reserves on earth; among them there are naturally fractured carbonate reservoirs under bottomwater. Those reservoirs are composed of sour heavy oil and its recovery is difficult, miscible processes are expensive and thermal methods are inefficient due to the harsh conditions. The aim of this paper is to investigate the use of injection of carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulfide mixtures. Fluid and reservoir characterizations were conducted using published observations, dynamic modeling and a comparative study. Reservoir performance under natural depletion and immiscible gas injection with effluent gas were then analyzed and compared. Expected breakthrough and composition of the produced fluid were presented in this study to provide the input necessary for operational planning. This paper presented a comparison between reservoir performance under natural depletion and immiscible gas injection, providing qualitative information to evaluate an effluent gas project.

  8. An Injectable Composite Gelatin Hydrogel with pH Response Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baoguo Chen


    Full Text Available On account of minimally invasive procedure and of filling irregular defects of tissues, injectable hydrogels are increasingly attractive in biomedical fields. However, traditional hydrogel formed by simple physical interaction or in situ crosslinking had inevitably some drawbacks such as low mechanical strength and lack of multifunctional properties. Though many investigations had successfully modified traditional injectable hydrogel to obtain both mechanical and functional properties, an acetalated β-cyclodextrin (Ac-β-CD nanoparticle composite injectable hydrogel designed in the research was another effective and efficient choice to solve the drawbacks. First of all, gelatin derivative (G-AA and Ac-β-CD were synthesized to prepare hydrogel and nanoparticle, respectively. In order to ensure good compatibility between nanoparticle and macromonomer and provide crosslink points between nanoparticle and macromonomer, G-AA was simultaneously functionalized onto the surface of Ac-β-CD nanoparticle during the fabrication of Ac-β-CD nanoparticle using one-step method. Finally, injectable composite hydrogel was obtained by photoinitiated polymerization in situ. Hydrogel properties like gelation time and swelling ratio were investigated. The viscoelastic behavior of hydrogels confirmed that typical characteristics of crosslinked elastomer for all hydrogel and nanoparticle in hydrogel could improve the mechanical property of hydrogel. Moreover, the transparency with time had verified obvious acid-response properties of hydrogels.

  9. Modulation by extracellular pH of GABAA receptors expressed in Xenopus oocytes injected with rat brain mRNA. (United States)

    Robello, M; Balduzzi, R; Cupello, A


    Rat brain poly(A)(+) mRNA was injected into Xenopus oocytes. After 72-96 hr, GABA(A) receptors expressed in this heterologous system were studied by perfusion of GABA and recording of GABA evoked chloride current under voltage-clamp conditions. The GABA activated currents were blocked by bicuculline and enhanced by flunitrazepam. Acidic (6.4) extracellular pH (pH(e) ) augmented, whereas basic pH (8.4) decreased the current evoked by 100 microM GABA in the respect of the current evoked at pH 7.4. Concentration-response curves for GABA evoked chloride currents were built at the three pHs. These data showed that acidic pH does not change the EC50 for GABA but it increases significantly I(max) in comparison to pH 7.4. At pH 8.4 there was a significant decrease of EC50 for GABA. However, there was also a very strong decrease of I(max), so that the overall effect at 100 microM GABA was a decrease of GABA activated chloride current in the respect of the one activated at neutral pH. These data may indicate that on average brain GABA(A) receptors are positively modulated by extracellular acidosis. The opposite may occur in extracellular alcalosis.

  10. Intravitreal injection (United States)

    Antibiotic - intravitreal injection; Triamcinolone - intravitreal injection; Dexamethasone - intravitreal injection; Lucentis - intravitreal injection; Avastin - intravitreal injection; Bevacizumab - intravitreal injection; Ranibizumab - intravitreal injection; ...

  11. Tranport of p-aminohippuric acid (/sup 3/H-PAH), inulin and dextran out of the cranial cavity: A methodological study using intraventricular injection and sample combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jakobson, Aa. M.


    Material injected into the cerebral ventricles can leave the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) but remain in the cranial cavity. To analyze the disappearance of /sup 3/H- and of /sup 14/C-labelled material from the cranial cavity, such material was injected into the lateral ventricles together with a bulk flow marker, labelled with the other radionuclide. In the present pilot study /sup 3/H-PAH and /sup 14/C-inulin were used. Five of a mixture was injected into each lateral cerebral ventricles in rats, which were killed at various intervals. The whole skull was analyzed without opening the CSF space after homogenization in the deep-frozen state. The samples were combusted and analyzed by liquid scintillation counting. Probenecid, injected intraperitoneally, inhibited the removal of /sup 3/H-PAH from the skull cavity, as anticipated. Immediately after the intraventricular injection, however, /sup 3/H-PAH was transiently retained, probably by uptake into actively transporting tissue. After injection of probenecid, this delay in removal was reduced. The difference in disappearance rate between /sup 3/H-PAH and /sup 14/C-inulin was estimated by comparing the /sup 3/H//sup 14/C ratio in the skulls with that in the injected solution, which appeared to be a better method than comparing the recovery of each compound.

  12. Experiments of synchrotron injection using the direct fast chopped H{sup -} beam extracted from surface-plasma-type negative hydrogen ion source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shinto, Katsuhiro; Takagi, Akira; Machida, Shinji; Mori, Yoshiharu; Yoshii, Masahito; Shirakata, Masashi; Koba, Kiyomi [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)


    An experiment of synchrotron injection using the direct fast chopped H{sup -} beam extracted from a surface-plasma-type H{sup -} ion source has been successfully achieved. The injection phase of the fast chopped beam from linac into the booster synchrotron is adjustable against the center of rf bucket by using this beam. It was obtained that the longitudinal emittance was controlled at the extraction of the booster synchrotron, and that the beam loss during the injection into main ring of the KEK-PS was reduced by this fast chopped beam. (author)

  13. The Association Between LH Serum Levels at the time of hCG Injection and Clinical Pregnancy during IVF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budi Wiweko


    Full Text Available Some studies showed that recombinant follicle stimulating hormone (r-FSH administration without LH supplementation has a good success rate on in vitro fertilization (IVF. However, LH role in IVF has been controversial. This study was conducted to evaluate the association between serum LH levels at the time of hCG injection and clinical pregnancy during IVF. This retrospective study included 136 patients underwent long protocol IVF from January 2005 to December 2009 in Yasmin Clinic, Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital, Jakarta. The controlled ovarian hyper-stimulation protocol used in this study was gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH agonist and r-FSH.  Serum LH level was measured on the day of hCG administration and the outcome evaluated was the clinical pregnancy following IVF cycles. There were 32 IVF cycles resulted in pregnancy out of 136 cycles (23.5%. There was significant difference between serum LH levels on the day of hCG administration and clinical pregnancy outcome (p=0.036. LH serum level cut-off value of ≥1.050 IU/l was the best value to predict pregnancy outcome with 62.5% sensitivity, 59.4% specificity, 83.3% positive predictive value, and 32.76% negative predictive value. It was concluded that there was an association between serum LH levels at the time of hCG injection and clinical pregnancy during IVF. Keywords: IVF cycles, LH levels serum, hCG administration   Hubungan Kadar LH saat Penyuntikan hCG dengan Kejadian Kehamilan pada Fertilisasi In vitro Abstrak Pemberian follicles stimulating hormone rekombinan (r-FSH tanpa suplementasi LH memiliki tingkat keberhasilan fertilisasi in vitro (FIV yang baik namun, peran LH pada FIV masih kontroversial. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengevaluasi hubungan antara kadar serum LH pada hari penyuntikan hCG dengan kehamilan klinis selama FIV. Penelitian retrospektif ini melibatkan 136 perempuan yang menjalani FIV siklus pertama dengan protokol panjang mulai bulan Januari 2005 sampai

  14. Alpha-h-ANP injection in normals, low renin hypertension and primary aldosteronism. (United States)

    Mantero, F; Rocco, S; Pertile, F; Carpené, G; Fallo, F; Menegus, A


    Atrial natriuretic peptide, a hormone secreted by the heart, is involved in salt and fluid homeostasis and also exerts an inhibitory effect on aldosterone production in vitro. In order to elucidate if this effect is also present in man, 6 normal volunteers, 5 low renin hypertensive patients (LRH) and 7 patients with primary aldosteronism (PA) have received 100 micrograms of alpha-h-Anp as bolus i.v. (The decrease in blood pressure was mild and transient in all groups, whereas a marked diuretic effect was observed in all hypertensives even in PA where high levels of endogenous ANP have been found. In normals we observed a significant decrease of plasma aldosterone values while in PA and LRH this effect was not evident. This phenomenon associated with a greater natriuretic effect in LRH and PA, as compared with normals, demonstrates the lack of the correlation between ANP-induced diuresis and aldosterone inhibiting properties.

  15. Russell-Silver syndrome due to paternal H19/IGF2 hypomethylation in a patient conceived using intracytoplasmic sperm injection. (United States)

    Chopra, M; Amor, D J; Sutton, L; Algar, E; Mowat, D


    Epigenetic alterations at several maternal loci have been associated with imprinting disorders in children conceived using assisted reproductive technologies. To date, epimutations at paternal loci have been observed in the spermatozoa of infertile men, but there is little evidence of paternal epimutations in babies conceived using assisted reproductive treatment. This is a report of a female infant with classic Russell-Silver Syndrome (RSS) who was conceived using intracytoplasmic injection of spermatozoa obtained from testicular aspiration. Methylation studies revealed hypomethylation of the paternally derived H19/IGF2 locus. As far as is known, this is the second assisted reproduction treatment-conceived patient with classic RSS and this epigenotype. This case provides further evidence that epimutations affecting paternal alleles might be associated with assisted reproductive treatment. 2010 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. New method of screening allergenic components from Shuanghuanglian injection: with RBL-2H3/CMC model online HPLC/MS system. (United States)

    Han, Shengli; Zhang, Tao; Huang, Jing; Cui, Ronghua; He, Langchong


    Shuanghuanglian (SHL) injection is a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) injection widely used in China to treat influenza, tonsillitis, bronchitis, and faucitis. Adverse drug reactions (ADR) of SHL injection, majorly manifested as allergic reactions, were among the leading causes of death from TCM injection. In this study, an RBL-2H3/CMC online LC/MS system was established to screen and identify allergenic components in SHL injection, by which Baicalin was identified as a potential allergenic component. Allergenic activities of baicalin were investigated in RBL-2H3 cell degranulation and β-hexosaminidase release tests in vitro. Our results showed that baicalin dose-dependently induced RBL-2H3 cell degranulation and β-hexosaminidase release in the range of 0-50μg/ml. The RBL-2H3/CMC online LC/MS system developed in this study may potentially be used to screen allergenic components in other TCM injections. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Numerical modeling of injection and mineral trapping of CO2 withH2S and SO2 in a Sandstone Formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Tianfu; Apps, John A.; Pruess, Karsten; Yamamoto, Hajime


    Carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) injection into deep geologic formations could decrease the atmospheric accumulation of this gas from anthropogenic sources. Furthermore, by co-injecting H{sub 2}S or SO{sub 2}, the products respectively of coal gasification or combustion, with captured CO{sub 2}, problems associated with surface disposal would be mitigated. We developed models that simulate the co-injection of H{sub 2}S or SO{sub 2} with CO{sub 2} into an arkose formation at a depth of about 2 km and 75 C. The hydrogeology and mineralogy of the injected formation are typical of those encountered in Gulf Coast aquifers of the United States. Six numerical simulations of a simplified 1-D radial region surrounding the injection well were performed. The injection of CO{sub 2} alone or co-injection with SO{sub 2} or H{sub 2}S results in a concentrically zoned distribution of secondary minerals surrounding a leached and acidified region adjacent to the injection well. Co-injection of SO{sub 2} with CO{sub 2} results in a larger and more strongly acidified zone, and alteration differs substantially from that caused by the co-injection of H{sub 2}S or injection of CO{sub 2} alone. Precipitation of carbonates occurs within a higher pH (pH > 5) peripheral zone. Significant quantities of CO{sub 2} are sequestered by ankerite, dawsonite, and lesser siderite. The CO{sub 2} mineral-trapping capacity of the formation can attain 40-50 kg/m{sup 3} medium for the selected arkose. In contrast, secondary sulfates precipitate at lower pH (pH < 5) within the acidified zone. Most of the injected SO{sub 2} is transformed and immobilized through alunite precipitation with lesser amounts of anhydrite and minor quantities of pyrite. The dissolved CO{sub 2} increases with time (enhanced solubility trapping). The mineral alteration induced by injection of CO{sub 2} with either SO{sub 2} or H{sub 2}S leads to corresponding changes in porosity. Significant increases in porosity occur in the acidified

  18. CO2 and H2O Leakage Rates From the Injection Zone to Overlying Units as a result of Geologic Sequestration (United States)

    Menke, H. P.; Sitchler, A.; McCray, J. E.; Maxwell, R. M.


    Carbon sequestration in deep geologic formations is one method of mitigating anthropogenic CO2 emissions. Minimizing CO2 leakage rates is requisite for successful sequestration in order to curtail possible negative impacts to overlying aquifers and human populations. Much work has been done on CO2 movement within the injection zone. However, leakage rates through the caprock and subsequent movement through the overlying formations are still unconstrained. The ability to predict how CO2 will move in the subsurface and the potential leakage of CO2 and H2O from storage formations is integral to the development of quantitative risk assessment models for CO2 storage projects. The multiphase, multi-component flow and transport model PFLOTRAN was used to simulate leakage from a deep storage formation through a fault zone to gain insight into factors that control leakage rates and investigate their significance. In these simulations most of the free-phase CO2 plume dissolves or spreads horizontally at the interface of the caprock and injection formation. However, a small portion of the CO2 flows through the fault zone. Breakthrough of the CO2 and H2O into the overlying aquifer happens almost immediately after CO2 injection begins. Leakage rates through the fault were relatively constant during the 3-year injection period and terminated quickly after injection ceased. As expected, rates of CO2 leakage decrease with CO2 injection rate. In contrast, rates of water leakage through the fault increase with decreased CO2 injection rates. Total CO2 leakage over the 3-year injection period decreases in scenarios where the distance between the injection point and fault zone are greater. However, the same inverse relationship between CO2 and water leakage observed for varying injection rates was also observed for variable injection point - fault distance. This inverse relationship is attributed to the complex relationships between relative permeability, saturation, pressure, and

  19. Detailed magnetic model simulations of the H- injection chicane magnets for the CERN PS Booster Upgrade, including eddy currents and influence on beam dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Benedetto, E; Borburgh, J; Carli, C; Martini, M; Forte, V


    The CERN PS Booster will be upgraded with an H- injection system. The chicanemagnets for the injection bump ramp-down in 5 ms and generate eddy currents in the inconel vacuum chamber which perturb the homogeneity of the magnetic field. The multipolar field components are extracted from 3D OPERA simulations and are included in the lattice model. The -beating correction is computed all along the ramp and complete tracking simulations including space-charge are performed to evaluate the impact of these perturbations and correction on beam dynamics.

  20. A fast pH-switchable and self-healing supramolecular hydrogel carrier for guided, local catheter injection in the infarcted myocardium. (United States)

    Bastings, Maartje M C; Koudstaal, Stefan; Kieltyka, Roxanne E; Nakano, Yoko; Pape, A C H; Feyen, Dries A M; van Slochteren, Frebus J; Doevendans, Pieter A; Sluijter, Joost P G; Meijer, E W; Chamuleau, Steven A J; Dankers, Patricia Y W


    Minimally invasive intervention strategies after myocardial infarction use state-of-the-art catheter systems that are able to combine mapping of the infarcted area with precise, local injection of drugs. To this end, catheter delivery of drugs that are not immediately pumped out of the heart is still challenging, and requires a carrier matrix that in the solution state can be injected through a long catheter, and instantaneously gelates at the site of injection. To address this unmet need, a pH-switchable supramolecular hydrogel is developed. The supramolecular hydrogel is switched into a liquid at pH > 8.5, with a viscosity low enough to enable passage through a 1-m long catheter while rapidly forming a hydrogel in contact with tissue. The hydrogel has self-healing properties taking care of adjustment to the injection site. Growth factors are delivered from the hydrogel thereby clearly showing a reduction of infarct scar in a pig myocardial infarction model. Copyright © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Effects of H2S injection on the CO2-brine-sandstone interaction under 21MPa and 70°C. (United States)

    Li, Chenyang; Zhang, Fengjun; Lyu, Cong; Hao, Jie; Song, Jianbin; Zhang, Shengyu


    In this study, laboratory experiments were conducted to investigate the influences of H2S injection on the capacity of CO2's solubility trapping and mineral trapping. Results demonstrated that the preferential dissolution of H2S gas into brine (compared with pure CO2) resulted in the decrease of pH, consequently inhibiting the CO2's solubility trappings to some extent. Then, the lower pH droved more severe corrosion of primary minerals, favored more secondary mineral to be formed. In addition, the discovery of pyrite demonstrated that H2S could precipitate by the formation of sulfide mineral trapping. As the secondary carbon sink minerals, ankerite and dawsonite were observed in the pure CO2-brine-sandstone interaction. However, there were no secondary carbonates found through the SEM images and EDS analyses, implied that the injection of H2S probably may partially inhibit the precipitation of Fe-bearing carbonate minerals such as ankerite in the CO2-H2S-brine-sandstone interaction in this short term experiments. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Assessment of Serum Progesterone Level on the Day of hCG Injection in Infertile Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome Patients Referred to Women’s Hospital, Tehran, 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Forough Forghani


    Full Text Available Background: Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS is one of the most common causes of endocrine disorders and main reasons for infertility due to unovulation and recurrent abortions. There is no consensus on effect of serum progesterone level on the day of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG injection. This study aims to evaluate the effect of plasma levels of progesterone on the day of hCG injection on the rate of pregnancy in in vitro fertilization (IVF cycles of PCOS cases.Materials and Methods: A stratified cohort study was conducted over a period of one year (2009 on 38 infertile women with PCOS who were suitable candidates for the IVF program. Patients were evaluated for other causes of infertility with hysterosalpingography (HSG, laparoscopy and normal sperm analysis. Patients were placed on the long protocol, followed by oocyte pick up, and finally IVF-embryo transfer (ET. Study patients were grouped according to progesterone levels of greater or less than 1.2 ng/ml on the day of hCG injection. Pregnancy rates were defined in each group. Levels on day of hCG day clinical pregnancy outcome were assessed. Experimental data were then compared against Fisher’s exact test in SPSS version 18.Results: The overall pregnancy rate in this study was 26.3%. In the group with progesterone levels more than 1.2 ng/ml on the day of hCG injection, the clinical pregnancy rate was 4 (21.1% and chemical pregnancy rate was 3(15.8%. In the group with progesterone levels less than 1.2 ng/ml, the clinical pregnancy rate was 1(5.3% and chemical pregnancy rate was 2(10. 5%.Conclusion: This study showed that PCOS patients with progesterone levels more than 1.2 ng/ml on the day of hCG injection resulted in higher chemical and clinical pregnancy rates. However, no significant statistical differences were found between the two groups. For further verification, we recommend additional studies with larger numbers of subjects.

  3. Medroxyprogesterone Injection (United States)

    Medroxyprogesterone intramuscular (into a muscle) injection and medroxyprogesterone subcutaneous (under the skin) injection are used to prevent pregnancy. Medroxyprogesterone subcutaneous injection is also used to treat endometriosis ( ...

  4. Changes in pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDHc) activity and [3H]QNB-receptor binding in rat brain subsequent to intracerebroventricular injection of bromopyruvate. (United States)

    Frölich, L; Strauss, M; Kornhuber, J; Hoyer, S; Sorbi, S; Riederer, P; Amaducci, L


    Pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDHc), a link between carbohydrate and acetylcholine metabolism, is a regulatory enzyme for glucose and neurotransmitter metabolism in the brain and is reduced in Alzheimer-diseased brain. To study functional consequences of an inhibition of PDHc on muscarinic receptor binding, bromopyruvate, a suicide inhibitor od PDHc, was injected intracerebroventricularly (icv) in rats. Bromopyruvate caused a reduction of PDHc activity in the 3 brain regions examined, however, reaching significance only in the cerebral cortex and the hippocampus and not in the striatum, 24 h after injection. 3, 6, and 12 weeks later, there was a normalization or transiently increased activity, respectively, of PDHc in these brain regions. No changes in concentrations of energy-rich phosphates could be demonstrated in the cerebral cortex 12 weeks after brompyruvate injection. The number of muscarinic receptors was significantly reduced in the cerebral cortex 12 weeks after injection. The data indicate that a transient reduction of brain PDHc activity in vivo is associated with a long-lasting reduction in muscarinic cholinergic receptors. Because comparable changes of PDHc and muscarinic receptors are found in dementia of Alzhemier type, the model of bromopyruvate inhibition of PDHc in rats is suggested to be useful for experimental dementia research.

  5. Sumatriptan Injection (United States)

    Alsuma® Injection ... Imitrex® Injection ... Sumavel® Injection ... Sumatriptan injection is used to treat the symptoms of migraine headaches (severe, throbbing headaches that sometimes are accompanied by ...

  6. Flow injection small-volume fiber-optic pH sensor based on evanescent wave excitation and fluorescence determination. (United States)

    Xiong, Yan; Huang, Ying; Ye, Zhongbin; Guan, Yafeng


    A small-volume fiber-optic pH sensor (FOEWS) based on evanescent wave excitation is developed and evaluated. The sensor is simply fabricated by inserting a decladded optical fiber into a transparent capillary tube. A microchannel between the optical fiber and the capillary inner wall was formed and acted as flow cell for solution flowing through. The pH-sensitive fluorophore of fluorescein can be excited by the evanescent wave field produced on the fiber core surface to produce emission fluorescence. pH value was then sensed by its enhancing effect on the emission fluorescence intensity. The response range of the sensor is from pH 2.09 to pH 8.85 and the linear range is from pH 3.25 to 8.85. The proposed sensor has a small detection volume of 2.5 μL and a short response time of 8 s. It has been applied to measure pH values of real water samples and was in good agreement with the results obtained by commercial pH meter. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010

  7. In vivo absolute quantification for mouse muscle metabolites using an inductively coupled synthetic signal injection method and newly developed (1) H/(31) P dual tuned probe. (United States)

    Lee, Donghoon; Marro, Kenneth; Mathis, Mark; Shankland, Eric; Hayes, Cecil


    To obtain robust estimates of (31) P metabolite content in mouse skeletal muscles using our recently developed MR absolute quantification method and a custom-built (1) H/(31) P dual tuned radiofrequency (RF) coil optimized for mouse leg. We designed and fabricated a probe consisting of two dual tuned (1) H/(31) P solenoid coils: one leg was inserted to each solenoid. The mouse leg volume coil was incorporated with injector coils for MR absolute quantification. The absolute quantification method uses a synthetic reference signal injection approach and solves several challenges in MR absolute quantification including changes of coil loading and receiver gains. The (1) H/(31) P dual tuned probe was composed of two separate solenoid coils, one for each leg, to increase coil filling factors and signal-to-noise ratio. Each solenoid was equipped with a second coil to allow injection of reference signals. (31) P metabolite concentrations determined for normal mice were well within the expected range reported in the literature. We developed an RF probe and an absolute quantification approach adapted for mouse skeletal muscle. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. In vivo absolute quantification for mouse muscle metabolites using an inductively coupled synthetic signal injection method and newly developed 1H/31P dual tuned probe (United States)

    Lee, Donghoon; Marro, Kenneth; Mathis, Mark; Shankland, Eric; Hayes, Cecil


    Purpose To obtain robust estimates of 31P metabolite content in mouse skeletal muscles using our recently developed MR absolute quantification method and a custom-built 1H/31P dual tuned radiofrequency (RF) coil optimized for mouse leg. Materials and Methods We designed and fabricated a probe consisting of two dual tuned 1H/31P solenoid coils: one leg was inserted to each solenoid. The mouse leg volume coil was incorporated with injector coils for MR absolute quantification. The absolute quantification method uses a synthetic reference signal injection approach and solves several challenges in MR absolute quantification including changes of coil loading and receiver gains. Results The 1H/31P dual tuned probe was composed of two separate solenoid coils, one for each leg, to increase coil filling factors and signal-to-noise ratio. Each solenoid was equipped with a second coil to allow injection of reference signals. 31P metabolite concentrations determined for normal mice were well within the expected range reported in the literature. Conclusion We developed an RF probe and an absolute quantification approach adapted for mouse skeletal muscle. PMID:24464912

  9. Effect of Lenient Steam Injection (LSI) heat treatment of bovine milk on the activities of some enzymes, the milk fat globule and pH

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dickow, Jonatan A.; Nielsen, Martin Thorup; Hammershøj, Marianne


    reference heat treatments of 63 C for 30 s and of 72 C for 15 s by indirect heating. Milk fat globule (MFG) size distributions and pH were also monitored. Alkaline phosphatase, LPO, XO and LPL activities decreased with increasing LSI temperature. Plasmin activity was increased at temperatures ...This study investigated the effects of Lenient Steam Injection (LSI) treatment at temperatures 70–150 C on the enzymatic activities of the indigenous milk enzymes alkaline phosphatase, lactoperoxidase (LPO), xanthine oxidase (XO), lipoprotein lipase (LPL) and plasmin in comparison with two...... and decreased at temperatures above 90 C. Milk fat globule homogenisation was observed at temperatures above 110–130 C....

  10. Use of a charge-injection technique to improve performance of the Soft X-ray Imager aboard ASTRO-H

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nobukawa, Kumiko Kawabata, E-mail: [Department of Physics, Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University, Kitashirakawa Oiwake-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Tsuru, Takeshi Go [Department of Physics, Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University, Kitashirakawa Oiwake-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Nobukawa, Masayoshi [The Hakubi Center for Advanced Research, Kyoto University, Yoshida-Ushinomiya-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8302 (Japan); Department of Physics, Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University, Kitashirakawa Oiwake-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Tanaka, Takaaki; Uchida, Hiroyuki [Department of Physics, Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University, Kitashirakawa Oiwake-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Tsunemi, Hiroshi; Hayashida, Kiyoshi; Anabuki, Naohisa; Nakajima, Hiroshi; Nagino, Ryo [Department of Earth and Space Science, Graduate School of Science, Osaka University, 1-1 Machikaneyama-cho, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-0043 (Japan); Dotani, Tadayasu; Ozaki, Masanobu; Natsukari, Chikara [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, 3-1-1 Yoshinodai, Chuo-ku, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5210 (Japan); Tomida, Hiroshi; Kimura, Masashi [ISS Project Science Office, Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, 2-1 Sengen, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8505 (Japan); Yamauchi, Makoto; Mori, Koji; Hatsukade, Isamu; Nishioka, Yusuke [Department of Applied Physics, University of Miyazaki, 1-1 Gakuen Kibana-dai Nishi, Miyazaki 889-2192 (Japan); Kohmura, Takayoshi [Physics Department, Kogakuin University, 2665-1, Nakano-cho, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-0015 (Japan); and others


    We are developing the Soft X-ray Imager (SXI), a charge-coupled device (CCD) camera system to be deployed onboard the ASTRO-H satellite. Using an engineering model system in which design specifications were the same as those of the flight model, we measured charge transfer inefficiency (CTI) and the effects of charge trailing. The CCD was irradiated with monochromatic X-rays produced by a radio isotope ({sup 55}Fe) and X-ray generator using alpha particles from {sup 241}Am. We used four targets for the X-ray generator: (C{sub 2}F{sub 4}){sub n}, SiO{sub 2}, Ti, and Ge. Since CTI degrades energy resolution, we adopted the charge-injection technique to the SXI. With this technique, injected charges fill traps, and subsequent signal charges are transferred with less loss of charge. However, the charge-injection technique can cause positional variations in gain on the CCD chip. Thus, we constructed a method for correcting CTI. We also evaluated the charge trailing effect and tested a method for correcting its effects. After applying these corrections to charge injection, variations in gain improved from 0.5% to 0.1% over the CCD chip, and the energy resolution (FWHM) improved from ∼220eV to ∼180eV at 5.9 keV. - Highlights: • We measured CTI and charge trailing in the energy band from <1keV to ∼10keV. • We developed a method for correcting CTI and charge trailing effects. • Our data with high statistics required exponential functions as CTI model. • After applying the corrections, the remaining positional variations over the CCD satisfy requirements for flight operations.

  11. Blocking histamine H(1) improves learning and mnemonic dysfunction in mice with social isolation plus repeated methamphetamine injection. (United States)

    Jia, Feiyong; Mobarakeh, Jalal Izadi; Dai, Hongmei; Kato, Motohisa; Xu, Ajing; Okuda, Tomohiro; Sakurai, Eiko; Okamura, Nobuyuki; Takahashi, Kazuhiro; Yanai, Kazuhiko


    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of histamine H(1) and H(3) antagonists on learning and mnemonic dysfunction in mice. Two H(1) antagonists, pyrilamine and clozapine, and the prototypic H(3) antagonist thioperamide were used to study the role of histamine in mice with social isolation and repeated methamphetamine administration. Mice with social isolation and repeated methamphetamine administration showed significant disruption of prepulse inhibition as compared to both the socially-housed mice and isolation-housing mice. Furthermore, social isolation and repeated methamphetamine administration caused significant learning and mnemonic dysfunctions. Treatment with clozapine improved learning and mnemonic ability in all of the tasks. Pyrilamine treatment ameliorated performance in all the tests examined except for the passive avoidance test. Thioperamide, however, did not change the learning and mnemonic ability. Donepezil, an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, reversed the learning and mnemonic dysfunction in all four tasks. The present study has shown that blockade of histamine H(1) receptor improved the learning and mnemonic ability in mice, raising the possibility that treatment with clozapine or pyrilamine may improve learning and mnemonic performance in certain patients with psychiatric diseases such as schizophrenic patients with cognitive dysfunction.

  12. Adalimumab Injection (United States)

    Humira® Injection ... Adalimumab injection is used alone or with other medications to relieve the symptoms of certain autoimmune disorders (conditions in ... some areas of the body) in adults. Adalimumab injection is in a class of medications called tumor ...

  13. Oxacillin Injection (United States)

    Oxacillin injection is used to treat infections caused by certain bacteria. Oxacillin injection is in a class of medications called penicillins. ... works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as oxacillin injection will not work for colds, flu, or other ...

  14. Rituximab Injection (United States)

    Rituximab injection (Rituxan) and rituximab and hyaluronidase human injection (Rituxin Hycela) are used alone or with other medications to ... that begins in the white blood cells). Rituximab injection is also used with another medication to treat ...

  15. Fluorouracil Injection (United States)

    Adrucil® Injection ... Fluorouracil injection comes as a solution (liquid) to be given intravenously (into a vein) by a doctor or nurse ... you are feeling during your treatment with fluorouracil injection.

  16. Ondansetron Injection (United States)

    Zofran® Injection ... Ondansetron injection is used to prevent nausea and vomiting caused by cancer chemotherapy and surgery. Ondansetron is in a ... medications: or any of the ingredients in ondansetron injection. Ask your pharmacist for a list of the ...

  17. Romiplostim Injection (United States)

    ... or may tell you to stop taking these medications if romiplostim injection works well for you.Romiplostim injection does not ... will give you the manufacturer's patient information sheet (Medication ... romiplostim injection. Read the information carefully and ask your doctor ...

  18. Effect of proton pomp inhibitor (PPI : Rabeprazole) on reflux esophagitis after endoscopic injection sclerotherapy (EIS), a randomized control study (24 hour-pH monitoring). (United States)

    Akahoshi, Tomohiko; Kawanaka, Hirofumi; Tomikawa, Morimasa; Saeki, Hiroshi; Uchiyama, Hideaki; Ikeda, Tetsuo; Shirabe, Ken; Hashizume, Makoto; Maehara, Yoshihiko


    Transient esophageal ulceration is a common finding after sclerotherapy of varices. These ulcers sometimes cause pain, ulcer bleeding, and stricture formation. Gastroesophageal reflux (GER) after Endoscopic injection sclerotherapy (EIS) is a known cause of worsening ulcer formation. Therefore, an efficient drug for GER is desirable to improve the quality of life of patients with esophageal varices. We randomized 18 Japanese cirrhotic patients who had risky esophageal varices. The patients were randomly allocated into two groups, and during EIS sessions, one group was administered proton pump inhibitor(PPI) (Rabeprazole 20 mg a person once a day), while the other received histamine H2 receptor antagonist (H2-blocker) (famotidine 20 mg a person, twice a day). Gastroesophageal reflux was monitored by a 24-h pH-monitoring catheter introduced into the distal esophagus. Ulcer formation was evaluated using an endoscopic examination. The subjective and objective symptoms were also compared between the two groups. All patients in the H2-blocker group showed an increased percentage of time with pH < 4.0 after EIS sessions, but no patients in the PPI group showed an increased such symptoms. The H2-blocker group also experienced a significantly higher number of days of heartburn and dysphasia than did the PPI group (p = 0.017, p = 0.042). The rate of ulcer improvement was found to be faster in Rabeprazole group than in H2 blocker group (p = 0.008). These results suggest that Rabeprazole treatment prevents EIS-associated gastroesophageal reflux and promotes ulcer healing. Rabeprazole also improve the subjective symptoms following EIS.

  19. Metal impurity transport control in JET H-mode plasmas with central ion cyclotron radiofrequency power injection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valisa, M.; Carraro, L.; Predebon, I.


    The scan of ion cyclotron resonant heating (ICRH) power has been used to systematically study the pump out effect of central electron heating on impurities such as Ni and Mo in H-mode low collisionality discharges in JET. The transport parameters of Ni and Mo have been measured by introducing a t...

  20. Development of phytoplankton communities: Implications of nutrient injections on phytoplankton composition, pH and ecosystem production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Hans; Blanda, Elisa; Stæhr, Peter Anton


    The development of a marine phytoplankton community was studied in a series of mesocosm tanks exposed to different levels of nutrient inputs. Key ecosystem variables such as phytoplankton species development, ecosystem net production (NEP), pH and bacteria production were measured. The overall aim...

  1. Ibandronate Injection (United States)

    Boniva® Injection ... Ibandronate injection is used to treat osteoporosis (a condition in which the bones become thin and weak and break ... Ibandronate injection comes as a solution (liquid) to be injected into a vein by a doctor or nurse in ...

  2. Tocilizumab Injection (United States)

    ... or the syringe and do not inject the medication.You may inject tocilizumab injection on the front of the thighs or anywhere ... your doctor about the risks of receiving this medication.Tocilizumab injection may cause other side effects. Call your doctor ...

  3. Certolizumab Injection (United States)

    ... package or the syringe. Do not inject the medication.You may inject certolizumab injection anywhere on your stomach or thighs except your ... your doctor about the risks of receiving this medication.Certolizumab injection may cause other side effects. Call your doctor ...

  4. Sarilumab Injection (United States)

    ... for RA or who could not take these medications. Sarilumab injection is in a class of medications called interleukin- ... are any problems and do not inject the medication.You may inject sarilumab injection on the front of the thighs or anywhere ...

  5. Two-beam interdigital-H-type radio frequency quadrupole linac with direct plasma injection for high intensity heavy ion acceleration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Ishibashi


    Full Text Available We developed a two-beam interdigital-H-type radio frequency quadrupole (IH-RFQ linac as a prototype of a multibeam IH-RFQ for high intensity heavy ion acceleration in the low energy region. This linac has two sets of RFQ electrodes within an IH-type resonant frequency cavity that is a power-efficient structure for low energy beam acceleration. The linac can accelerate two beams in parallel in one cavity with a reduction in the coulomb repulsive force (the space charge effect between the accelerated heavy ion particles. The resonance frequency and the Q factor of the linac were found to be 47 MHz and 5900, respectively. We also developed a two-beam laser ion source with a direct plasma injection scheme as an injection system for the two-beam IH-RFQ linac and built a system to demonstrate the use of the two-beam IH-RFQ linac. Using this linac system, we were able to accelerate carbon ions from 5 to 60  keV/u and generate an output beam current of about 108 mA (2×54  mA/channel. A coherency between the two beams, derived from the imbalance of the beam loading, was observed in the acceleration test with carbon ions.

  6. Design and Construction of the LEIR Injection Septa

    CERN Document Server

    Borburgh, J; Bobbio, P; Carlier, E; Crescenti, M; Hourican, M; Masson, T; Müller, T; Prost, A


    The Low Energy Ion Ring (LEIR) transforms long pulses from Linac 3 into high brilliance ion bunches for LHC by means of multi-turn injection, electron cooling and accumulation. The LEIR injection comprises a magnetic DC septum followed by an inclined electrostatic septum. The electrostatic septum has been newly designed and built. The magnetic septum is mainly recovered from the former LEAR machine, but required a new vacuum chamber. Dynamic vacua in the 10-12 mbar range are required, which are hard to achieve due to the high desorption rate of ions lost on the surface. A new interlock and displacement control system has also been developed. The major technical challenges to meet the magnetic, electrical and vacuum requirements will be discussed.

  7. Tacrolimus Injection (United States)

    Tacrolimus injection is used along with other medications to prevent rejection (attack of the transplanted organ by ... who have received kidney, liver, or heart transplants. Tacrolimus injection should only be used by people who ...

  8. Naltrexone Injection (United States)

    Vivitrol® ... Naltrexone injection is used along with counseling and social support to help people who have stopped drinking large amounts of alcohol to avoid drinking again. Naltrexone injection is also used along with counseling and social ...

  9. Cefazolin Injection (United States)

    Cefazolin injection is used to treat certain infections caused by bacteria including skin, bone, joint, genital, blood, heart valve, ... pneumonia), biliary tract, and urinary tract infections. Cefazolin injection also may be used before, during, and sometimes ...

  10. Mipomersen Injection (United States)

    Mipomersen injection is used to decrease levels of cholesterol and other fatty substances in the blood in people who ... that removes LDL from the blood), but mipomersen injection should not be used along with this treatment. ...

  11. Denosumab Injection (United States)

    Denosumab injection (Prolia) is used to treat osteoporosis (a condition in which the bones become thin and weak and ... not respond to other medications for osteoporosis. Denosumab injection (Prolia) is also used to treat bone loss ...

  12. Ampicillin Injection (United States)

    Ampicillin injection is used to treat certain infections that are caused by bacteria such as meningitis (infection of the ... heart, urinary tract, and gastrointestinal tract infections. Ampicillin injection is in a class of medications called penicillins. ...

  13. Cefotetan Injection (United States)

    Cefotetan injection is used to treat infections of the lungs, skin, bones, joints, stomach area, blood, female reproductive organs, and urinary tract. Cefotetan injection is also used before surgery to prevent infections. ...

  14. Eculizumab Injection (United States)

    Eculizumab injection is used to treat paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH: a type of anemia in which too many red ... oxygen to all parts of the body). Eculizumab injection is also used to treat atypical hemolytic uremic ...

  15. Tigecycline Injection (United States)

    Tigecycline injection used to treat certain serious infections including community acquired pneumonia (a lung infection that developed in a ... area between the chest and the waist). Tigecycline injection should not be used to treat pneumonia that ...

  16. Estrogen Injection (United States)

    ... estradiol cypionate and estradiol valerate forms of estrogen injection are used to treat hot flushes (hot flashes; ... consider a different treatment. These forms of estrogen injection are also sometimes used to treat the symptoms ...

  17. Ceftazidime Injection (United States)

    Ceftazidime injection is used to treat certain infections caused by bacteria including pneumonia and other lower respiratory tract (lung) ... female genital tract, and urinary tract infections. Ceftazidime injection is in a class of medications called cephalosporin ...

  18. Tobramycin Injection (United States)

    Tobramycin injection is used to treat certain serious infections that are caused by bacteria such as meningitis (infection of ... lungs, skin, bones, joints, and urinary tract. Tobramycin injection is in a class of medications called aminoglycoside ...

  19. Cefoxitin Injection (United States)

    Cefoxitin injection is used to treat infections caused by bacteria including pneumonia and other lower respiratory tract (lung) infections; ... organs, blood, bone, joint, and skin infections. Cefoxitin injection may also be used before and during surgery, ...

  20. Naloxone Injection (United States)

    Naloxone injection and naloxone prefilled auto-injection device (Evzio) are used along with emergency medical treatment to reverse the life-threatening effects of a known or suspected opiate (narcotic) ...

  1. Cyanocobalamin Injection (United States)

    Cyanocobalamin injection is used to treat and prevent a lack of vitamin B12 that may be caused by any ... organs) and permanent damage to the nerves. Cyanocobalamin injection also may be given as a test to ...

  2. Dulaglutide Injection (United States)

    Dulaglutide injection is used with a diet and exercise program to control blood sugar levels in adults with type ... medications did not control levels well enough. Dulaglutide injection is not used to treat type 1 diabetes ( ...

  3. Mitoxantrone Injection (United States)

    Mitoxantrone injection is used to decrease the number of symptom episodes and slow the development of disability in patients with certain forms of multiple sclerosis (MS). Mitoxantrone injection is also used together with steroid medications to ...

  4. Testosterone Injection (United States)

    ... and testosterone pellet (Testopel) are forms of testosterone injection used to treat symptoms of low testosterone in ... are low before you begin to use testosterone injection. Testosterone enanthate (Delatestryl) and testosterone pellet (Testopel) are ...

  5. Cefepime Injection (United States)

    Cefepime injection is used to treat certain infections caused by bacteria including pneumonia, and skin, urinary tract, and kidney infections. Cefepime injection is used in combination with metronidazole (Flagyl) to ...

  6. Ranitidine Injection (United States)

    Ranitidine injection is used in people who are hospitalized to treat certain conditions in which the stomach produces too ... were not successfully treated with other medications. Ranitidine injection is also used on a short-term basis ...

  7. Gentamicin Injection (United States)

    Gentamicin injection is used to treat certain serious infections that are caused by bacteria such as meningitis (infection of ... lungs, skin, bones, joints, and urinary tract. Gentamicin injection is in a class of medications called aminoglycoside ...

  8. Meropenem Injection (United States)

    Meropenem injection is used to treat skin and abdominal (stomach area) infections caused by bacteria and meningitis (infection of ... children 3 months of age and older. Meropenem injection is in a class of medications called antibiotics. ...

  9. Pralatrexate Injection (United States)

    Pralatrexate injection is used to treat peripheral T-cell lymphoma (PTCL; a form of cancer that begins in a ... come back after treatment with other medications. Pralatrexate injection has not been shown to help people who ...

  10. Tesamorelin Injection (United States)

    Tesamorelin injection is used to decrease the amount of extra fat in the stomach area in adults with human ... fat in certain areas of the body). Tesamorelin injection is not used to help with weight loss. ...

  11. Daptomycin Injection (United States)

    Daptomycin injection is used alone or in combination with other medications to treat certain blood infections in adults or ... children 1 year of age and older . Daptomycin injection is in a class of medications called cyclic ...

  12. Albiglutide Injection (United States)

    Albiglutide injection is used with a diet and exercise program to control blood sugar levels in adults with type ... medications did not control levels well enough. Albiglutide injection is not used to treat type 1 diabetes ( ...

  13. Cefuroxime Injection (United States)

    Cefuroxime injection is used to treat certain infections caused by bacteria including pneumonia and other lower respiratory tract (lung) ... blood, bone, joint, and urinary tract infections. Cefuroxime injection may also be used before, during, and sometimes ...

  14. Hydrocortisone Injection (United States)

    Hydrocortisone injection is used to treat symptoms of low corticosteroid levels (lack of certain substances that are usually produced ... also used to treat severe allergic reactions. Hydrocortisone injection is used in the management of multiple sclerosis ( ...

  15. Aztreonam Injection (United States)

    Aztreonam injection is used to treat certain infections that are caused by bacteria, including respiratory tract (including pneumonia and ... area) infections, that are caused by bacteria. Aztreonam injection also may be used before, during, and sometimes ...

  16. Peramivir Injection (United States)

    Peramivir injection is used to treat some types of influenza infection ('flu') in people who have had symptoms of ... flu for no longer than 2 days. Peramivir injection is in a class of medications called neuraminidase ...

  17. Vancomycin Injection (United States)

    Vancomycin injection is used alone or in combination with other medications to treat certain serious infections such as endocarditis ( ... of the lungs, skin, blood, and bones. Vancomycin injection is in a class of medications called glycopeptide ...

  18. Amikacin Injection (United States)

    Amikacin injection is used to treat certain serious infections that are caused by bacteria such as meningitis (infection of ... lungs, skin, bones, joints, and urinary tract. Amikacin injection is in a class of medications called aminoglycoside ...

  19. Diphenhydramine Injection (United States)

    Diphenhydramine injection is used to treat allergic reactions, especially for people who are unable to take diphenhydramine by mouth. ... is used also to treat motion sickness. Diphenhydramine injection is also used alone or along with other ...

  20. Abaloparatide Injection (United States)

    ... injection may cause osteosarcoma (bone cancer) in laboratory rats. It is not known whether abaloparatide injection increases ... too have too much calcium in the blood, hyperparathyroidism (condition in which the body produces too much ...

  1. Doxycycline Injection (United States)

    ... may have been exposed to anthrax in the air. Doxycycline injection is in a class of medications ... decrease the effectiveness of hormonal contraceptives (birth control pills, patches, rings, or injections). Talk to your doctor ...

  2. Trastuzumab Injection (United States)

    Trastuzumab injection is used along with other medications or after other medications have been used to treat ... has spread to other parts of the body. Trastuzumab injection is also used during and after treatment ...

  3. Ganciclovir Injection (United States)

    Ganciclovir injection is used to treat cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis (eye infection that can cause blindness) in people ... in transplant recipients at risk for CMV infection. Ganciclovir injection is in a class of medications called ...

  4. Metronidazole Injection (United States)

    Metronidazole injection is used to treat certain skin, blood, bone, joint, gynecologic, and abdominal (stomach area) infections ... spinal cord), and certain respiratory infections, including pneumonia. Metronidazole injection is also to prevent infection when used ...

  5. Dexrazoxane Injection (United States)

    ... side effects that may be caused by chemotherapy medications. Dexrazoxane injection (Zinecard) is used to prevent or decrease heart ... your doctor about the risks of receiving this medication.Dexrazoxane injection may cause other side effects. Call your doctor ...

  6. Methylnaltrexone Injection (United States)

    ... the bowel from the effects of opioid (narcotic) medications. ... questions about how to prepare or inject this medication.Methylnaltrexone injection comes in prefilled syringes and in vials to ...

  7. Lacosamide Injection (United States)

    ... of seizures in people who cannot take oral medications. Lacosamide injection is in a class of medications called anticonvulsants. ... doctor.Do not let anyone else use your medication. Lacosamide injection is a controlled substance. Prescriptions may be refilled ...

  8. Alirocumab Injection (United States)

    ... your dose depending on your response to this medication.Alirocumab injection helps to control cholesterol levels, but does not ... prefilled syringe or prefilled dosing pen containing alirocumab injection.

  9. Mepolizumab Injection (United States)

    ... asthma is not controlled with their current asthma medication. Mepolizumab injection is in a class of medications called monoclonal ... want to decrease the doses of your other medications gradually.Mepolizumab injection is not used to treat a sudden attack ...

  10. Romidepsin Injection (United States)

    ... already been treated with at least one other medication given by mouth or by injection. Romidepsin injection is in a class of medications called histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors. It works by ...

  11. Avelumab Injection (United States)

    ... or after it was treated with other chemotherapy medications. Avelumab injection is in a class of medications called monoclonal ... avelumab based on your body's response to this medication.Avelumab injection may cause serious reactions during the infusion of ...

  12. Etanercept Injection (United States)

    ... dose. You also should not mix any other medications with etanercept injection.If your medication comes in a prefilled syringe or automatic injection device, use each syringe or device only once ...

  13. Busulfan Injection (United States)

    Busulfex® Injection ... Busulfan injection is used to treat a certain type of chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML; a type of cancer of ... of 16 doses) before bone marrow transplant.Busulfan injection may cause seizures during therapy with the medication. ...

  14. Granisetron Injection (United States)

    ... antagonists. It works by blocking serotonin, a natural substance in the body that causes nausea and vomiting. ... throat chest pain injection site redness, swelling, or warmth with or without fever (for the extended-release injection) injection site bleeding, bruising, or pain (for ...

  15. Leakage current conduction, hole injection, and time-dependent dielectric breakdown of n-4H-SiC MOS capacitors during positive bias temperature stress (United States)

    Samanta, Piyas; Mandal, Krishna C.


    The conduction mechanism(s) of gate leakage current JG through thermally grown silicon dioxide (SiO2) films on the silicon (Si) face of n-type 4H-silicon carbide (4H-SiC) has been studied in detail under positive gate bias. It was observed that at an oxide field above 5 MV/cm, the leakage current measured up to 303 °C can be explained by Fowler-Nordheim (FN) tunneling of electrons from the accumulated n-4H-SiC and Poole-Frenkel (PF) emission of trapped electrons from the localized neutral traps located at ≈2.5 eV below the SiO2 conduction band. However, the PF emission current IPF dominates the FN electron tunneling current IFN at oxide electric fields Eox between 5 and 10 MV/cm and in the temperature ranging from 31 to 303 °C. In addition, we have presented a comprehensive analysis of injection of holes and their subsequent trapping into as-grown oxide traps eventually leading to time-dependent dielectric breakdown during electron injection under positive bias temperature stress (PBTS) in n-4H-SiC metal-oxide-silicon carbide structures. Holes were generated in the heavily doped n-type polycrystalline silicon (n+-polySi) gate (anode) as well as in the oxide bulk via band-to-band ionization by the hot-electrons depending on their energy and SiO2 film thickness at Eox between 6 and 10 MV/cm (prior to the intrinsic oxide breakdown field). Transport of hot electrons emitted via both FN and PF mechanisms was taken into account. On the premise of the hole-induced oxide breakdown model, the time- and charge-to-breakdown ( tBD and QBD ) of 8.5 to 47 nm-thick SiO2 films on n-4H-SiC were estimated at a wide range of temperatures. tBD follows the Arrhenius law with activation energies varying inversely with initial applied constant field Eox supporting the reciprocal field ( 1 /E ) model of breakdown irrespective of SiO2 film thicknesses. We obtained an excellent margin (6.66 to 6.33 MV/cm at 31 °C and 5.11 to 4.55 MV/cm at 303 °C) of normal operating field for a 10

  16. Radioautographic characterization of successive compartments along the rough endoplasmic reticulum-Golgi pathway of collagen precursors in foot pad fibroblasts of (/sup 3/H)proline-injected rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchi, F.; Leblond, C.P.


    Young rats given an intravenous injection of (/sup 3/H)proline were killed at successive times from 4 to 80 min later. Fibroblasts from the front foot pad were radioautographed; silver grains were counted over several of the organelles and the results were expressed as percent radiolabel per unit volume. These percentages reached a peak over rough endoplasmic reticulum cisternae at 4 min, intermediate vesicles and tubules at 10 min, spherical distensions of cis-side Golgi saccules at 20 min, cylindrical distensions of trans-side saccules between 40 and 60 min, and secretory granules at 60 min. It is proposed that the succession of peaks corresponds to the migration pathway of collagen precursor proteins within fibroblasts; that is, the proteins synthesized in rough endoplasmic reticulum are delivered by intermediate vesicles and/or tubules to the spherical distensions of cis-side saccules, somehow pass from there to the cylindrical distensions of trans-side saccules and, finally, are carried by secretory granules to the extracellular space. 37 references, 3 figures, 2 tables.

  17. Quantitative analysis of highly similar salvianolic acids with 1H qNMR for quality control of traditional Chinese medicinal preparation Salvianolate Lyophilized Injection. (United States)

    Chen, Xialin; Guo, Yujie; Hu, Yuanjia; Yu, Boyang; Qi, Jin


    Salvianolate Lyophilized Injection (SLI), a traditional Chinese medicinal (TCM) preparation which is used to treat stroke, is composed of multiple salvianolic acids from the aqueous extracts of Salvia miltiorrhiza, and includes mainly protocatechualdehyde, rosmarinic acid, salvianolic acid B, salvianolic acid D, salvianolic acid E, diastereomer of salvianolic acid E, salvianolic acid Y, lithospermic acid and diastereomer of lithospermic acid. It is difficult to quantitatively control the quality of SLI using traditional high performance liquid chromatography due to the highly similar structure of these constituents including three pairs of diastereomers and the lack of commercial resources for most of these constituents as standards. Thus, a highly reproducible, fast, accurate and simple (1)H quantitative nuclear magnetic resonance (qNMR) method without the need for calibration curves and complex computation was established by optimizing the solvent system and acquisition parameters to simultaneously determine the nine salvianolic acids and mannitol in SLI. This method was validated and successfully used to determine 10 batches of SLI and the qNMR data were further analyzed with a vector including angle cosine and the partial least squares method for the quality control of SLI. The results indicated that qNMR can be used as a routine method for the quality control of SLI and may have potential in the quantification of diastereomers in other TCM preparations. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Injection optimization in a heavy-ion synchrotron using genetic algorithms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Appel, S., E-mail: [GSI, Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Planckstraße 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Boine-Frankenheim, O. [GSI, Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Planckstraße 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Technische Universität Darmstadt, Schlossgartenstraße 8, 64289 Darmstadt (Germany); Petrov, F. [Technische Universität Darmstadt, Schlossgartenstraße 8, 64289 Darmstadt (Germany)


    The control of the beam loss induced dynamic pressure is one of the most challenging problems for synchrotrons operated with high intensity beams of intermediate charge state ions. This loss-induced vacuum degradation and associated life-time reduction is one of the key intensity limiting factors. Beam loss during Multi-Turn Injection (MTI) can trigger the pressure bump instability. An optimized injection can relax the dynamic vacuum problem, but is also crucial to fill the available machine acceptance. A numerical model has been developed to describe the intensity limitation due to loss-induced vacuum degradation. In order to optimize the multi-turn injection for given initial losses, a genetic algorithm based optimization has been performed. For the SIS18 synchrotron at GSI the optimization resulted in a significant improvement of MTI performance and subsequent transmission for intense beams. A range of suitable injector brilliances for given initial loss could be defined. This information is crucial for the layout of the injector upgrade for FAIR. The effect of transverse space charge force on MTI has been included in the optimization studies.

  19. Injection optimization in a heavy-ion synchrotron using genetic algorithms (United States)

    Appel, S.; Boine-Frankenheim, O.; Petrov, F.


    The control of the beam loss induced dynamic pressure is one of the most challenging problems for synchrotrons operated with high intensity beams of intermediate charge state ions. This loss-induced vacuum degradation and associated life-time reduction is one of the key intensity limiting factors. Beam loss during Multi-Turn Injection (MTI) can trigger the pressure bump instability. An optimized injection can relax the dynamic vacuum problem, but is also crucial to fill the available machine acceptance. A numerical model has been developed to describe the intensity limitation due to loss-induced vacuum degradation. In order to optimize the multi-turn injection for given initial losses, a genetic algorithm based optimization has been performed. For the SIS18 synchrotron at GSI the optimization resulted in a significant improvement of MTI performance and subsequent transmission for intense beams. A range of suitable injector brilliances for given initial loss could be defined. This information is crucial for the layout of the injector upgrade for FAIR. The effect of transverse space charge force on MTI has been included in the optimization studies.

  20. Injection compositions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crnogorac Luka


    Full Text Available This paper provides a brief overview of the methods and materials for injection in underground construction, with a focus on the use of new injection compounds for this purpose. The aim is to draw attention to the possibility of applying new materials for injection that are present in the world, which would facilitate the work, significantly shorten time of work and downtime.

  1. Discrimination of Aurantii Fructus Immaturus and Fructus Poniciri Trifoliatae Immaturus by Flow Injection UV Spectroscopy (FIUV) and 1H NMR using Partial Least-squares Discriminant Analysis (PLS-DA) (United States)

    Two simple fingerprinting methods, flow-injection UV spectroscopy (FIUV) and 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), for discrimination of Aurantii FructusImmaturus and Fructus Poniciri TrifoliataeImmaturususing were described. Both methods were combined with partial least-squares discriminant analysis...

  2. Omalizumab Injection (United States)

    ... want to decrease the doses of your other medications gradually.Omalizumab injection is not used to treat a sudden attack ... your doctor about the risks of using this medication.Omalizumab injection may cause other side effects. Call your doctor ...

  3. Elotuzumab Injection (United States)

    ... or that had improved after treatment with other medications but later returned. Elotuzumab injection is in a class of medications called monoclonal ... your doctor about the risks of receiving this medication.Elotuzumab injection may cause other side effects. Call your doctor ...

  4. Colistimethate Injection (United States)

    ... have, and how well you respond to the medication.You may receive colistimethate injection in a hospital or you may administer the medication at home. If you will be receiving colistimethate injection at home, your healthcare provider will show you ...

  5. Carfilzomib Injection (United States)

    ... on how well your body responds to the medication.Carfilzomib injection may cause a severe or life-threatening reactions ... if you are allergic to carfilzomib, any other medications, or any of the ingredients in carfilzomib injection. Ask your pharmacist for a list of the ...

  6. Vedolizumab Injection (United States)

    ... that has not improved when treated with other medications. Vedolizumab injection is in a class of medications called integrin ... to the medication. You may be given other medications to treat reactions to vedolizumab injection. Tell your doctor or nurse immediately if you ...

  7. Leucovorin Injection (United States)

    ... accidentally received an overdose of methotrexate or similar medications. Leucovorin injection is also used to treat anemia (low level ... is also used with 5-fluorouracil (a chemotherapy medication) to treat ... intestine). Leucovorin injection is in a class of medications called folic ...

  8. Subcutaneous Injections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Maria

    This thesis is about visualization and characterization of the tissue-device interaction during subcutaneous injection. The tissue pressure build-up during subcutaneous injections was measured in humans. The insulin pen FlexTouchr (Novo Nordisk A/S) was used for the measurements and the pressure...... build-up was evaluated indirectly from the changes in the flow rate between subcutaneous injections and air injections. This method enabled the tissue counter pressure to be evaluated without a formal clinical study approval. The measurements were coupled to a model for the pressure evolution...... in subcutaneous tissue, based on mass conservation and flow in a porous medium. From the measurements the flow permeability and bulk modulus of the tissue were determined. In the adipose tissue the drug forms a bolus from where it is absorbed by the blood capillaries. The spatial distribution of the injected...

  9. Low-pH injection grout for deep repositories. Summary report from a co-operation project between NUMO (Japan), Posiva (Finland) and SKB (Sweden)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boden, Anders [SwedPower AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Sievaenen, Ursula [JP-Suoraplan Oy, Vantaa (Finland)


    fineness, were modified in the present experiments. 5. Fly ash system was ruled out at an early stage due to expected problems concerning the availability and stability of the raw material properties as well as expected difficulties with the setting time of the mixes. The grouting related properties tested in laboratory were penetrability, bleeding, early age shear strength viscosity and yield value. For some selected mixes fluidity was also measured. The key uncertainties identified with respect to the use of cement in a repository are related to the uncertainties in the estimation of the range and effect of the pH-plume on the rock, as well as the possible detrimental effects on bentonite due to cement/bentonite interaction. In the present study the potential effects on the repository performance and the rock have been evaluated based on the composition of the materials and leaching tests, expert judgement and some simple mass balance and diffusion calculations. A first review of the potential effects of organic cement additives on the radionuclide mobility has also been done, although the preference at the outset of the project was to develop an injection grout without organic additives. Also the long-term durability of the low-pH cementitious material and the long-term phase changes/degradation and leaching of the grout is not yet known and need to be evaluated. The non-cementitious candidate materials were investigated regarding basic properties and long-term safety aspects in order to form the basis for the decision whether silica sol can be used in the deep repository and whether periclase (MgO) should be further investigated. In a small field-test it was also investigated if the penetration of silica sol can be predicted based on hydraulic tests, transmissivity and hydraulic aperture. Silica sol, colloidal silica, is a stable dispersion of discrete non porous particles of amorphous silicon dioxide. Rock grouting with silica sol is a relatively new application

  10. Three-dimensional numerical modeling of an induction heated injection molding tool with flow visualization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guerrier, Patrick; Tosello, Guido; Nielsen, Kaspar Kirstein


    Using elevated mold temperature is known to have a positive influence of final injection molded parts. Induction heating is a method that allow obtaining a rapid thermal cycle, so the overall molding cycle time is not increased. In the present research work, an integrated multi-turn induction...... heating coil has been developed and assembled into an injection molding tool provided with a glass window, so the effect of induction heating can directly be captured by a high speed camera. In addition, thermocouples and pressure sensors are also installed, and together with the high speed videos...... magnetic permeability. The three-dimensional transient thermal field of the mold cavity was then calculated and compared with the experiments. This thermal field was transferred to an injection molding flow solver to compare simulations and experimental results from the high speed video, both...

  11. Midazolam Injection (United States)

    ... injection is in a class of medications called benzodiazepines. It works by slowing activity in the brain ... you have recently stopped drinking large amounts of alcohol or if you have or have ever had ...

  12. Oxytocin Injection (United States)

    Oxytocin injection is used to begin or improve contractions during labor. Oxytocin also is used to reduce bleeding after childbirth. ... other medications or procedures to end a pregnancy. Oxytocin is in a class of medications called oxytocic ...

  13. Fluconazole Injection (United States)

    ... and fungal infections of the eye, prostate (a male reproductive organ), skin and nails. Fluconazole injection is ... Motrin, others) and naproxen (Aleve, Anaprox, Naprelan); oral contraceptives (birth control pills); oral medication for diabetes such ...

  14. Ifosfamide Injection (United States)

    ... intravenously (into a vein) by a doctor or nurse in a medical facility. It may be injected ... for allergies or hay fever; medications for nausea; opioid (narcotic) medications for pain; rifampin (Rifadin, Rimactane); sedatives; ...

  15. Furosemide Injection (United States)

    Furosemide injection is used to treat edema (fluid retention; excess fluid held in body tissues) caused by ... fluid in the lungs), kidney, and liver disease. Furosemide is in a class of medications called diuretics (' ...

  16. Pembrolizumab Injection (United States)

    ... or lightheadedness fainting change in the amount or color of urine changes in vision feeling confused Pembrolizumab injection may cause other side effects. Call your doctor if you have any unusual ...

  17. Botox Injections (United States)

    ... LEARN logo to transfer to the LEARN Portal Botox Injections The American Academy of Facial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery recommends persons considering Botox® treatment to: Check the physician’s credentials: The physician ...

  18. Epinephrine Injection (United States)

    ... refrigerate epinephrine injection or leave it in your car, especially in hot or cold weather. If the ... to your pharmacist or contact your local garbage/recycling department to learn about take-back programs in ...

  19. Nivolumab Injection (United States)

    Nivolumab injection is used alone or in combination with ipilimumab (Yervoy) to treat certain types of melanoma ( ... has worsened after treatment with other chemotherapy medications. Nivolumab is in a class of medications called monoclonal ...

  20. Cidofovir Injection (United States)

    Cidofovir injection is used along with another medication (probenecid) to treat cytomegaloviral retinitis (CMV retinitis) in people ... body's response to the medication.You must take probenecid tablets by mouth with each dose of cidofovir. ...

  1. Palivizumab Injection (United States)

    ... the skin swelling of the lips, tongue, or face difficulty swallowing difficult, rapid, or irregular breathing bluish-tinged skin, lips, or fingernails muscle weakness or floppiness loss of consciousness Palivizumab injection may cause other side effects. Call ...

  2. Acyclovir Injection (United States)

    ... It is also used to treat first-time genital herpes outbreaks (a herpes virus infection that causes sores ... in the body. Acyclovir injection will not cure genital herpes and may not stop the spread of genital ...

  3. Haloperidol Injection (United States)

    ... of interest in life, and strong or inappropriate emotions). Haloperidol injection is also used to control motor ... and the laboratory. Your doctor may order certain lab tests to check your body's response to haloperidol ...

  4. Risperidone Injection (United States)

    ... of interest in life, and strong or inappropriate emotions). Risperidone extended-release injection is used alone or ... and the laboratory. Your doctor may order certain lab tests to check your body's response to risperidone ...

  5. Aripiprazole Injection (United States)

    ... of interest in life, and strong or inappropriate emotions). Aripiprazole extended-release injection (Abilify Maintena) is also ... and the laboratory. Your doctor may order certain lab tests to check your body's response to aripiprazole ...

  6. Olanzapine Injection (United States)

    ... of interest in life, and strong or inappropriate emotions). Olanzapine injection is used to treat episodes of ... and the laboratory. Your doctor may order certain lab tests to check your body's response to olanzapine ...

  7. Bendamustine Injection (United States)

    ... Avelox), norfloxacin (Noroxin), and ofloxacin (Floxin); fluvoxamine (Luvox); omeprazole (Prilosec); and ticlopidine (Ticlid). Your doctor may need ... injection. You should use birth control to prevent pregnancy in yourself or your partner during your treatment ...

  8. Pegloticase Injection (United States)

    ... doctor if you have glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency (an inherited blood disease). Your doctor may test you for G6PD deficiency before you start to receive pegloticase injection. If ...

  9. Leuprolide Injection (United States)

    ... the body and causes pain, heavy or irregular menstruation [periods], and other symptoms). Leuprolide injection (Lupron Depot) ... itching in women spotting (light vaginal bleeding) or menstruation (periods) decrease in size of testicles decrease in ...

  10. Lixisenatide Injection (United States)

    ... gov/Drugs/DrugSafety/ucm085729.htm) to obtain the Medication Guide. ... exenatide (Bydureon, Byetta), liraglutide (Saxenda, Victoza), any other medications, or any of the ingredients in lixisenatide injection. Ask your pharmacist or check the Medication Guide ...

  11. Tisagenlecleucel Injection (United States)

    ... htm) or the manufacturer's website to obtain the Medication Guide. ... your doctor about the risks of receiving this medication.Tisagenlecleucel injection may cause other side effects. Call your doctor ...

  12. Meperidine Injection (United States)

    ... htm) or the manufacturer's website to obtain the Medication Guide. ... and during surgery or other medical procedures. Meperidine injection is in a class of medications called opiate (narcotic) analgesics. It works by changing ...

  13. The Injection Bumper System for LEIR

    CERN Document Server

    Fowler, A


    To satisfy the ion beam luminosity requirements for CERN's future Large Hadron Collider (LHC), a small accumulator, the Low Energy Ion Ring (LEIR), is being built in the injector chain of accelerators. LEIR will use a combined longitudinal and transverse multi-turn injection scheme which requires a bumper system comprising four individually pulsed dipole magnets. The paper discusses the bumper system, in particular the power supplies which will produce a pulsed current linearly decreasing from 1.2kA to zero in a time variable between 120µs and 300µs. Each power supply employs a primary discharge circuit, comprising a storage capacitor, an IGBT switch and the magnet load inductance, to establish the peak current, and a free-wheel circuit in parallel with the magnet, comprising a diode and capacitor, to produce the linear current slope. A novel feature of the circuit is the use of a variable bias voltage on the free-wheel capacitor, allowing continuous variation of the slope duration.

  14. Effect of injection timing and injection pressure on the performance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR OKE

    Pan J, Yang W, Chou S, Li D, Xue H, Zhao J. Spray and combustion visualization ofbio-diesel in a direct injection diesel engine. Thermal Science 2012. 107-11. Lešnik L, Vajda B, Žunic Z, Škerget L, Kegl B. The influence of biodiesel fuel on injection characteristics, diesel engine performance, and emission formation.

  15. Liraglutide Injection (United States)

    ... stroke, or death in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus and heart and blood vessel disease. Liraglutide injection ( ... helps move sugar from the blood into other body tissues where it is used for ... appetite and cause weight loss.Over time, people who have diabetes and ...

  16. Obinutuzumab Injection (United States)

    ... other chemotherapy medication(s). Obinutuzumab injection is in a class of medications called monoclonal antibodies. It works by killing cancer cells. ... office or hospital. Your doctor will select a schedule to give you obinutuzumab ... certain side effects. Your doctor will give you other medications to ...

  17. Ipilimumab Injection (United States)

    (ip'' i lim' ue mab)Ipilimumab injection may cause severe or life-threatening side effects. This includes ... In case of overdose, call your local poison control center at 1-800-222-1222. If the victim has collapsed or is not breathing, call local emergency services at ...

  18. Isavuconazonium Injection (United States)

    ... fungal infections such as invasive aspergillosis (a fungal infection that begins in the lungs and spreads through the bloodstream to other organs) and invasive mucormycosis (a fungal infection that usually begins in the sinuses, brain, or lungs). Isavuconazonium injection is in a class of medications ...

  19. Concomitant use of FSH and low-dose recombinant hCG during the late follicular phase versus conventional controlled ovarian stimulation for intracytoplasmic sperm injection cycles. (United States)

    Iaconelli, Carla Andrade Rebello; Setti, Amanda Souza; Braga, Daniela Paes Almeida Ferreira; Maldonado, Luiz Guilherme Louzada; Iaconelli, Assumpto; Borges, Edson; Aoki, Tsutomu


    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of low-dose hCG supplementation on ICSI outcomes and controlled ovarian stimulation (COS) cost. Three hundred and thirty patients undergoing ICSI were split into groups according to the COS protocol: (i) control group (n = 178), including patients undergoing conventional COS treatment; and (ii) low-dose hCG group (n = 152), including patients undergoing COS with low-dose hCG supplementation. Lower mean total doses of FSH administered and higher mean oestradiol level and mature oocyte rates were observed in the low-dose hCG group. A significantly higher fertilization rate, high-quality embryo rate and blastocyst formation rate were observed in the low-dose hCG group as compared to the control group. The miscarriage rate was significantly higher in the control group compared to the low-dose hCG group. A significantly lower incidence of OHSS was observed in the low-dose hCG group. There was also a significantly lower gonadotropin cost in the low-dose hCG group as compared to the control group ($1235.0 ± 239.0×$1763.0 ± 405.3, p hCG and FSH results in a lower abortion rate and increased number of mature oocytes retrieved, as well as improved oocyte quality, embryo quality and blastocyst formation and reduced FSH requirements.

  20. Chemiluminescent determination of vanadium(IV) using a cinchomeronic hydrazide-H{sub 2}O{sub 2} system and flow injection analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pradana Perez, J.A. [Departamento de Ciencias Analiticas, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional de Educacion a Distancia, c/Senda del Rey 9, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Alegria, J.S. Durand [Departamento de Ciencias Analiticas, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional de Educacion a Distancia, c/Senda del Rey 9, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Hernando, P. Fernandez [Departamento de Ciencias Analiticas, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional de Educacion a Distancia, c/Senda del Rey 9, 28040 Madrid (Spain)]. E-mail:; Sierra, A. Narros [Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica y del Medio Ambiente, Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieros Industriales, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Madrid (Spain)


    This paper proposes a new chemiluminescent flow injection analysis (FIA) method for the determination of vanadium(IV) ions in aqueous media. The method is based on the chemiluminescent reaction that occurs between cinchomeronic hydrazide (CH) and hydrogen peroxide in a strongly alkaline medium, in which vanadium(IV) acts as a catalyst. The chemical and physical variables involved in the flow injection system are optimised using a modified simplex method. Vanadium ions can be detected in the 0.08 and 1.00 {mu}g mL{sup -1} range; the detection limit for a signal-to-noise ratio of 3 is 0.08 {mu}g mL{sup -1}. Great variations in the quantum yield were observed when cobalt(II), chromium(III), copper(II) and/or nickel(II) were present in the reaction medium. The proposed method is selective and simple, and can be successfully used to analyse water samples without the need for separation or preconcentration processes.

  1. Synthesis, Characteristics and Potential Application of Poly(β-Amino Ester Urethane)-Based Multiblock Co-Polymers as an Injectable, Biodegradable and pH/Temperature-Sensitive Hydrogel System. (United States)

    Huynh, Cong Truc; Nguyen, Minh Khanh; Jeong, In Ki; Kim, Sung Wan; Lee, Doo Sung


    Physical polymeric hydrogels have significant potential for use as injectable depot drug/protein-delivery systems. In this study, a series of novel injectable, biodegradable and pH/temperature-sensitive multiblock co-polymer physical hydrogels composed of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) and poly(β-amino ester urethane) (PEU) was synthesized by the polyaddition between the isocyanate groups of 1,6-diisocyanato hexamethylene and the hydroxyl groups of PEG and a synthesized monomer BTB (or ETE) in chloroform in the presence of dibutyltin dilaurate as a catalyst. The synthesized co-polymers were characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and gel-permeation chromatography. Aqueous solutions of the co-polymers showed a sol-to-gel phase transition with increasing pH and a gel-to-sol phase transition with increasing temperature. The gel regions covered the physiological conditions (37°C, pH 7.4) and could be controlled by changing the molecular weight of PEG, PEG/PEU ratio and co-polymer solution concentration. A gel formed rapidly in situ after injecting the co-polymer solution subcutaneously into SD rats and remained for more than 2 weeks in the body. The cytotoxicity tests confirmed the non-cytotoxicity of this co-polymer hydrogel. The controlled in vitro release of the model anticancer drug, doxorubicin, from this hydrogel occurred over a 7-day period. This hydrogel is a potential candidate for biomedical applications and drug/protein-delivery systems.

  2. Effect of a single injection of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) on testicular blood flow measured by color doppler ultrasonography in male Shiba goats. (United States)

    Samir, Haney; Sasaki, Kazuaki; Ahmed, Eman; Karen, Aly; Nagaoka, Kentaro; El Sayed, Mohamed; Taya, Kazuyoshi; Watanabe, Gen


    Although color Doppler ultrasonography has been used to evaluate testicular blood flow in many species, very little has been done in goat. Eight male Shiba goats were exposed to a single intramuscular injection of either gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH group; 1 µg/kg BW) or human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG group; 25 IU/kg BW). Plasma testosterone (T), estradiol (E2) and inhibin (INH) were measured just before (0 hr) and at different intervals post injection by radioimmunoassay. Testis volume (TV) and Doppler indices, such as resistive index (RI) and pulsatility index (PI) of the supratesticular artery, were measured by B-mode and color Doppler ultrasonography, respectively. The results indicated an increase in testicular blood flow in both groups, as RI and PI decreased significantly (P<0.05), but this increase was significant higher and earlier in hCG group (1 hr) than in the GnRH group (2 hr). A high correlation was found for RI and PI with both T (RI, r= -0.862; PI, r= -0.707) and INH in the GnRH group (RI, r=0.661; PI, r=0.701). However, a significant (P<0.05) correlation was found between E2 and both RI (r= -0.610) and PI (r= -0.763) in hCG group. In addition, TV significantly increased and was highly correlated with RI in both groups (GnRH, r= -0.718; hCG, r= -0.779). In conclusion, hCG and GnRH may improve testicular blood flow and TV in Shiba goats.

  3. Integrating candidate metabolites and biochemical factors to elucidate the action mechanism of Xue-sai-tong injection based on (1)H NMR metabolomics. (United States)

    Jiang, Miaomiao; Zhao, Xiaoping; Wang, Linli; Xu, Lei; Zhang, Yan; Li, Zheng


    A strategy of integrating candidate metabolites with crucial biochemical factors was proposed in this study to discover relevant biological functions for interpreting the action mechanism of Traditional Chinese Medicines (TCM). This approach was applied to Xue-Sai-Tong injection (XST) to reveal the action mechanism based on the metabolic response in an ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) rat model by analyzing NMR profile. Partial least squares discriminate analysis (PLS-DA) was used to compare metabolic profiles of serum samples and revealed nine metabolites altered by I/R injury could be restored to normal status (sham-operated group) under the therapy of XST. The pathway enrichment analysis suggested the metabolic changes were mainly involved in pyruvate metabolism, glycolysis, and citrate cycle. The functional roles of the candidate metabolites were further identified by Pearson correlation analysis with the key biochemical factors in serum. The results indicated pyruvate, succinate, acetate and lysine showed significant associations with the oxidative stress factors. Elevated level of pyruvate was found as an essential metabolic response for the major effect of XST against I/R injury by enhancing glycolysis and overcoming the induced reactive oxygen species (ROS). This metabolomics approach provides a better understanding of the mechanisms of TCM and helps to develop a holistic view of TCM efficacy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Injectable biocompatible and biodegradable pH-responsive hollow particle gels containing poly(acrylic acid): the effect of copolymer composition on gel properties. (United States)

    Halacheva, Silvia S; Adlam, Daman J; Hendow, Eseelle K; Freemont, Tony J; Hoyland, Judith; Saunders, Brian R


    The potential of various pH-responsive alkyl (meth)acrylate ester- and (meth)acrylic acid-based copolymers, including poly(methyl methacrylate-co-acrylic acid) (PMMA-AA) and poly(n-butyl acrylate-co-methacrylic acid) (PBA-MAA), to form pH-sensitive biocompatible and biodegradable hollow particle gel scaffolds for use in non-load-bearing soft tissue regeneration have been explored. The optimal copolymer design criteria for preparation of these materials have been established. Physical gels which are both pH- and redox-sensitive were formed only from PMMA-AA copolymers. MMA is the optimal hydrophobic monomer, whereas the use of various COOH-containing monomers, e.g., MAA and AA, will always induce a pH-triggered physical gelation. The PMMA-AA gels were prepared at physiological pH range from concentrated dispersions of swollen, hollow, polymer-based particles cross-linked with either cystamine (CYS) or 3,3'-dithiodipropionic acid dihydrazide (DTP). A linear relationship between particle swelling ratios, gel elasticity, and ductility was observed. The PMMA-AA gels with lower AA contents feature lower swelling ratios, mechanical strengths, and ductilities. Increasing the swelling ratio (e.g., through increasing AA content) decreased the intraparticle elasticity; however, intershell contact and gel elasticity were found to increase. The mechanical properties and performance of the gels were tuneable upon varying the copolymers' compositions and the structure of the cross-linker. Compared to PMMA-AA/CYS, the PMMA-AA/DTP gels were more elastic and ductile. The biodegradability and cytotoxicity of the new hollow particle gels were tested for the first time and related to their composition, mechanical properties, and morphology. The new PMMA-AA/CYS and PMMA-AA/DTP gels have shown good biocompatibility, biodegradability, strength, and interconnected porosity and therefore have good potential as a tissue repair agent.

  5. Multi-turn tracking of collision products at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Marsili, Aurelien; Cerutti, Francesco; Esposito, Luigi Salvatore; Redaelli, Stefano


    The luminosity expected at the interaction points in LHC at 7 TeV will be unprecedented, up to 1034 cm-2 s-1. Part of the debris produced by the collisions is lost locally immediately downstream the Interaction Point (IP), in the matching section and dispersion suppressor. In this paper, the dynamics of collision debris protons is discussed. First, the loss distributions close to the collision points, simulated with two codes—SixTrack and FLUKA — are compared for different layout configurations. Then, SixTrack is used to simulate the fraction of protons that have undergone inelastic interactions with smaller energy and and betatron offsets, which could travel for several turns around the ring and might be lost in other collimation insertions. A preliminary comparison is made between theresulting loss distribution and measurements.

  6. Distribution of 3H within purine nucleotides of Ehrlich mouse ascites tumour cells after intraabdominal injection of myo-[2-3H]inositol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Søren; Klenow, H.; Overgaard-Hansen, Kay


    In Ehrlich mouse ascites tumour cells, exposed intra-abdominally to [2-3H]inositol, ATP and GTP presented enough aberrant 3H-label to cause potential interference in the chromatographic analysis of inositol phosphates involved in signal transduction. After acid extraction and charcoal adsorption...

  7. Injection Matching Studies using Turn by Turn Beam Profile Measurements in the CERN PS

    CERN Document Server

    Benedikt, Michael; Dutriat, C; Jansson, A; Giovannozzi, Massimo; Martini, M; Raich, U


    The very small emittance beam needed for the LHC requires that the emittance blow-up in its injector machines must be kept to a minimum. Mismatch upon the beam transfer from one machine to the next is a potential source of such blow-up. The CERN PS ring is equipped with 3 Secondary Emission Grids (SEM-Grids) which are used for emittance measurement at injection. One of these has been converted to a multi-turn mode, in which several tens of consecutive beam passages can be observed. This allows the study of mismatch between the PS-Booster and the PS. This paper describes the instrument and experimental results obtained during the last year.

  8. Repeated forced swim stress prior to complete Freund's adjuvant injection enhances mechanical hyperalgesia and attenuates the expression of pCREB and ΔFosB and the acetylation of histone H3 in the insular cortex of rat. (United States)

    Imbe, H; Kimura, A


    Exposure to stressors causes substantial effects on the perception and response to pain. In several animal models, chronic stress produces hyperalgesia. The insular (IC) and anterior cingulate cortices (ACC) are the regions exhibiting most reliable pain-related activity. And the IC and ACC play an important role in pain modulation via descending pain modulatory system. In the present study we examined the expression of phospho-cAMP response element-binding protein (pCREB) and ΔFosB and the acetylation of histone H3 in the IC and ACC after forced swim stress (FS) and complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) injection to clarify changes in the cerebral cortices that affect the activity of the descending pain modulatory system in rats with stress-induced hyperalgesia. CFA injection into the hindpaw or FS (day 1, 10min; days 2-3, 20min) induced a significant increase in the expression of pCREB and ΔFosB and the acetylation of histone H3 in the IC. Quantitative image analysis showed that the numbers of ΔFosB-immunoreactivity (IR) cells in the bilateral anterior and posterior IC (AIC and PIC) were significantly higher in the CFA group (AIC R, 548.0±98.6; AIC L, 433.5±89.4; PIC R, 546.1±72.8; PIC L, 415.5±53.5) than those in the naive group (AIC R, 86.6±14.8; AIC L, 85.5±24.7; PIC R, 124.5±29.9; PIC L, 107.0±19.8, p<0.01). However the FS prior to the CFA injection enhanced the mechanical hyperalgesia and attenuated the expression of pCREB and ΔFosB and the acetylation of histone H3 in the IC. There was no significant difference in the numbers of ΔFosB-IR cells in the bilateral PIC between the FS+CFA and naive groups. These findings suggest neuroplasticity in the IC after the FS, which may be involved in the enhancement of CFA-induced mechanical hyperalgesia through dysfunction of the descending pain modulatory system. Copyright © 2015 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Agglomeration processes sustained by dust density waves in Ar/C{sub 2}H{sub 2} plasma: From C{sub 2}H{sub 2} injection to the formation of an organized structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dap, Simon; Hugon, Robert; Poucques, Ludovic de; Briancon, Jean-Luc; Bougdira, Jamal [Universite de Lorraine-Institut Jean Lamour, Dpt CP2S UMR 7198 CNRS, Faculte des Sciences et Technologies, BP 70239, 54506 Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy Cedex (France); Lacroix, David [Universite de Lorraine-LEMTA, UMR 7563 CNRS, Faculte des Sciences et Technologies, BP 70239, 54506 Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy Cedex (France)


    In this paper, an experimental investigation of dust particle agglomeration in a capacitively coupled RF discharge is reported. Carbonaceous particles are produced in an argon plasma using acetylene. As soon as the particle density becomes sufficient, dust density waves (DDWs) are spontaneously excited within the cathode sheath. Recently, it was proven that DDWs can significantly enhance the agglomeration rate between particles by transferring them a significant kinetic energy. Thus, it helps them to overcome Coulomb repulsion. The influence of this mechanism is studied from acetylene injection to the formation of very large agglomerates forming an organized structure after a few dozens of seconds. For this purpose, three diagnostic tools are used: extinction measurements to probe nanometer-sized particles, fast imaging for large agglomerates and a dust extraction technique developed for ex-situ analysis.

  10. Treatment of ovarian cancer ascites by intra-peritoneal injection of diphtheria toxin A chain-H19 vector: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abu-lail Rasha


    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Ovarian cancer ascitic fluid, which contains malignant cells, is usually present in women with an advanced stage disease. There are currently no effective therapies for the treatment of ovarian cancer ascitic fluid. We developed a new therapeutic strategy to target expression of the diphtheria toxin fragment A gene in ovarian tumor cells under the control of H19 regulatory sequences. Case presentation A 64-year-old Caucasian woman was diagnosed with a stage IIIc epithelial ovarian cancer. She suffered from progressive disease, accumulation of malignant ascites that needed to be drained weekly, abdominal pain, vomiting, anorexia and severe weakness. Infusion of the diphtheria toxin A chain-H19 plasmid into the peritoneum of our patient resulted in complete resolution of the ascites with minimum adverse events. Conclusion On the basis of this preliminary experience, we are currently conducting an extensive Phase I study on a larger number of patients in order to assess the safety and preliminary efficacy of this novel patient-oriented treatment approach.

  11. Safety and Efficacy Evaluation of rAAV2tYF-PR1.7-hCNGA3 Vector Delivered by Subretinal Injection in CNGA3 Mutant Achromatopsia Sheep. (United States)

    Gootwine, Elisha; Ofri, Ron; Banin, Eyal; Obolensky, Alexey; Averbukh, Edward; Ezra-Elia, Raaya; Ross, Maya; Honig, Hen; Rosov, Alexander; Yamin, Esther; Ye, Guo-Jie; Knop, David R; Robinson, Paulette M; Chulay, Jeffrey D; Shearman, Mark S


    Applied Genetic Technologies Corporation (AGTC) is developing a recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) vector expressing the human CNGA3 gene designated AGTC-402 (rAAV2tYF-PR1.7-hCNGA3) for the treatment of achromatopsia, an inherited retinal disorder characterized by markedly reduced visual acuity, extreme light sensitivity, and absence of color discrimination. The results are herein reported of a study evaluating safety and efficacy of AGTC-402 in CNGA3-deficient sheep. Thirteen day-blind sheep divided into three groups of four or five animals each received a subretinal injection of an AAV vector expressing a CNGA3 gene in a volume of 500 μL in the right eye. Two groups (n = 9) received either a lower or higher dose of the AGTC-402 vector, and one efficacy control group (n = 4) received a vector similar in design to one previously shown to rescue cone photoreceptor responses in the day-blind sheep model (rAAV5-PR2.1-hCNGA3). The left eye of each animal received a subretinal injection of 500 μL of vehicle (n = 4) or was untreated (n = 9). Subretinal injections were generally well tolerated and not associated with systemic toxicity. Most animals had mild to moderate conjunctival hyperemia, chemosis, and subconjunctival hemorrhage immediately after surgery that generally resolved by postoperative day 7. Two animals treated with the higher dose of AGTC-402 and three of the efficacy control group animals had microscopic findings of outer retinal atrophy with or without inflammatory cells in the retina and choroid that were procedural and/or test-article related. All vector-treated eyes showed improved cone-mediated electroretinography responses with no change in rod-mediated electroretinography responses. Behavioral maze testing under photopic conditions showed significantly improved navigation times and reduced numbers of obstacle collisions in all vector-treated eyes compared to their contralateral control eyes or pre-dose results in the

  12. Joint Injection/Aspiration (United States)

    ... A Patient / Caregiver Treatments Joint Injection / Aspiration Joint Injections (Joint Aspirations) Fast Facts Joint aspiration is used ... is derived from a joint aspiration or joint injection? Joint aspiration usually is done for help with ...

  13. Penicillin G Procaine Injection (United States)

    Penicillin G procaine injection is used to treat certain infections caused by bacteria. Penicillin G procaine injection should not be used to ... early in the treatment of certain serious infections. Penicillin G procaine injection is in a class of ...

  14. New method for the determination of benzoic and sorbic acids in commercial orange juices based on second-order spectrophotometric data generated by a pH gradient flow injection technique. (United States)

    Marsili, Nilda R; Lista, Adriana; Fernandez Band, Beatriz S; Goicoechea, Héctor C; Olivieri, Alejandro C


    Two widely employed antimicrobials, benzoic and sorbic acids, were simultaneously determined in commercial orange juices employing a combination of a flow injection system with pH gradient generation, diode array spectrophotometric detection, and chemometric processing of the recorded second-order data. Parallel factor analysis and multivariate curve resolution-alternating least-squares were used for obtaining the spectral profiles of sample components and concentration profiles as a function of pH, including provisions for managing rank-deficient data sets. An appropriately designed calibration with a nine-sample set of binary mixtures of standards, coupled to the use of the second-order advantage offered by the applied chemometric techniques, allowed quantitation of the analytes in synthetic test samples and also in commercial orange juices, even in the presence of unmodeled interferents (with relative prediction errors of 8.7% for benzoic acid and 2.5% for sorbic acid). No prior separation or sample pretreatment steps were required. The comparison of results concerning commercial samples with a laborious reference technique yielded satisfactory statistical indicators (recoveries were 99.0% for benzoic acid and 101.4% for sorbic acid).

  15. Beam Injection into RHIC (United States)

    Fischer, W.; Hahn, H.; Mackay, W. W.; Tsoupas, N.


    During the RHIC sextant test in January 1997 beam was injected into a sixth of one of the rings for the first time. We describe the injection zone and its bottlenecks, the application program to steer the beam and the injection kickers. We report on the commissioning of the injection systems and on measurements of the kickers.

  16. Sipuleucel-T Injection (United States)

    Sipuleucel-T injection is used to treat certain types of advanced prostate cancer. Sipuleucel-T injection is in a class of medications called ... Sipuleucel-T injection comes as a suspension (liquid) to be injected over about 60 minutes into a vein by ...

  17. An Innovative Needle-free Injection System: Comparison to 1 ml Standard Subcutaneous Injection. (United States)

    Kojic, Nikola; Goyal, Pragun; Lou, Cheryl Hamer; Corwin, Michael J


    A needle-free delivery system may lead to improved satisfaction and compliance, as well as reduced anxiety among patients requiring frequent or ongoing injections. This report describes a first-in-man assessment comparing Portal Instruments' innovative needle-free injection system with subcutaneous injections using a 27G needle. Forty healthy volunteer participants each received a total of four injections of 1.0 mL sterile saline solution, two with a standard subcutaneous injection using a 27G needle, and two using the Portal injection system. Perception of pain was measured using a 100-mm visual analog scale (VAS). Injection site reactions were assessed at 2 min and at 20-30 min after each injection. Follow-up contact was made 24-48 h after the injections. Subject preference regarding injection type was also assessed. VAS pain scores at Portal injection sites met the criteria to be considered non-inferior to the pain reported at 27G needle injection sites (i.e., upper 95% confidence bound less than +5 mm). Based on a mixed effects model, at time 0, accounting for potential confounding variables, the adjusted difference in VAS scores indicated that Portal injections were 6.5 mm lower than the 27G needle injections (95% CI -10.5, -2.5). No clinically important adverse events were noted. Portal injections were preferred by 24 (60%) of the subjects (P = 0.0015). As an early step in the development of this new needle-free delivery system, the current study has shown that a 1.0-mL saline injection can be given with less pain reported than a standard subcutaneous injection using a 27G needle.

  18. Iron Dextran Injection (United States)

    Iron dextran injection is used to treat iron-deficiency anemia (a lower than normal number of red blood ... be treated with iron supplements taken by mouth. Iron dextran injection is in a class of medications called ...

  19. Sodium Ferric Gluconate Injection (United States)

    Sodium ferric gluconate injection is used to treat iron-deficiency anemia (a lower than normal number of ... are also receiving the medication epoetin (Epogen, Procrit). Sodium ferric gluconate injection is in a class of ...

  20. Co-trimoxazole Injection (United States)

    Co-trimoxazole injection is used to treat certain infections that are caused by bacteria such as infection of the intestine, lungs ( ... younger than 2 months of age. Co-trimoxazole injection is in a class of medications called sulfonamides. ...

  1. Epoetin Alfa Injection (United States)

    Epoetin alfa injection is used to treat anemia (a lower than normal number of red blood cells) in people with chronic ... working over a period of time). Epoetin alfa injection is also used to treat anemia caused by ...

  2. Injection losses and protection

    CERN Document Server

    Bartmann, W; Baudrenghien, P; Bracco, C; Dehning, B; Di Mauro, A; Drosdal, L; Emery, J; Goddard, B; Holzer, E B; Höfle, W; Kain, V; Meddahi, M; Radaelli, S; Shaposhnilova, E; Uythoven, J; Valuch, D; Wenninger, J; Zamantzas, C; Gianfelice-Wendt, E


    Injection losses are compared for 2010 and 2011 operation. Mitigation techniques which were put in place in 2010 to reduce losses at injection are described. Issues in 2011 operation, their potential improvements and the performance reach for 2012 are shown.

  3. Deoxycholic Acid Injection (United States)

    Deoxycholic acid injection is used to improve the appearance and profile of moderate to severe submental fat ('double chin'; fatty tissue located under the chin). Deoxycholic acid injection is in a class of medications called ...

  4. Epidural Steroid Injections (United States)

    ... Treatment Spondylolisthesis BLOG FIND A SPECIALIST Treatments Epidural Steroid Injections Ray Baker MD Ray Baker MD Updated ... out of the spine. Why Get an Epidural Steroid Injection? Narrowing of the spinal passages can occur ...

  5. Amphotericin B Liposomal Injection (United States)

    Amphotericin B liposomal injection is used to treat fungal infections such as cryptococcal meningitis (a fungal infection of the ... infections in people who cannot receive conventional amphotericin B therapy. Amphotericin B liposomal injection is in a ...

  6. Aminocaproic Acid Injection (United States)

    Aminocaproic acid injection is used to control bleeding that occurs when blood clots are broken down too quickly. ... before the baby is ready to be born). Aminocaproic acid injection is also used to control bleeding in ...

  7. OnabotulinumtoxinA Injection (United States)

    ... htm) or the manufacturer's website to obtain the Medication Guide. ... adults 18 years of age and older. OnabotulinumtoxinA injection is in a class of medications called neurotoxins. When onabotulinumtoxinA is injected into a ...

  8. Rich catalytic injection (United States)

    Veninger, Albert [Coventry, CT


    A gas turbine engine includes a compressor, a rich catalytic injector, a combustor, and a turbine. The rich catalytic injector includes a rich catalytic device, a mixing zone, and an injection assembly. The injection assembly provides an interface between the mixing zone and the combustor. The injection assembly can inject diffusion fuel into the combustor, provides flame aerodynamic stabilization in the combustor, and may include an ignition device.

  9. Parathyroid Hormone Injection (United States)

    ... have any questions about how to inject this medication.Parathyroid hormone injection comes in a cartridge to be mixed in ... and vitamin D while you are taking this medication.Parathyroid hormone injection controls hypoparathyroidism but does not cure it. Continue ...

  10. LHC Injection Scenarios

    CERN Document Server

    Schmidt, R


    Injection of nominal beam intensities from the SPS into the LHC must be done under well-controlled conditions since an abnormal state of one or more elements in the LHC could lead to severe damage of LHC machine components. This note proposes some general principles to be applied for injection into the LHC. Firstly, only low intensity beams below damage threshold can be injected into an empty machine. Secondly, high intensity beams can only be injected when some beam is already present in the machine. Procedures for injection and failure scenarios are discussed.

  11. Injection safety practices among nursing staff of mission hospitals in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mots clés: Sécurité des injections, les hôpitaux de la mission, les infirmières et infirmiers. Introduction. Injection safety which is an integral component of infection prevention and control has over the years become important in view of the many diseases that are transmitted through unsafe injection practice. The WHO defined ...

  12. Dihydroergotamine Injection and Nasal Spray (United States)

    DHE-45® Injection ... to use the nasal spray or administer the injection correctly. After that, you may spray or inject ... home.If you are using the solution for injection, you should never reuse syringes. Dispose of syringes ...

  13. Injection moulding antireflective nanostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Alexander Bruun; Clausen, Jeppe Sandvik; Mortensen, N. Asger

    We present a method for injection moulding antireflective nanostructures on large areas, for high volume production. Nanostructured black silicon masters were fabricated by mask-less reactive ion etching, and electroplated with nickel. The nickel shim was antistiction coated and used in an inject......We present a method for injection moulding antireflective nanostructures on large areas, for high volume production. Nanostructured black silicon masters were fabricated by mask-less reactive ion etching, and electroplated with nickel. The nickel shim was antistiction coated and used...... in an injection moulding process, to fabricate the antireflective surfaces. The cycle-time was 35 s. The injection moulded structures had a height of 125 nm, and the visible spectrum reflectance of injection moulded black polypropylene surfaces was reduced from 4.5±0.5% to 2.5±0.5%. The gradient of the refractive...

  14. Multipoint Fuel Injection Arrangements (United States)

    Prociw, Lev Alexander (Inventor)


    A multipoint fuel injection system includes a plurality of fuel manifolds. Each manifold is in fluid communication with a plurality of injectors arranged circumferentially about a longitudinal axis for multipoint fuel injection. The injectors of separate respective manifolds are spaced radially apart from one another for separate radial staging of fuel flow to each respective manifold.

  15. Epidural Steroid Injections (United States)

    ... of Spine Treatment Spondylolisthesis BLOG FIND A SPECIALIST Treatments Epidural Steroid Injections Ray Baker MD Ray Baker MD Updated 7/2009 Epidural Steroid Injections (ESIs) are a common method of treating inflammation associated with low back related leg pain, or neck related arm pain. In both of ...

  16. Iron Sucrose Injection (United States)

    ... finish your treatment, your doctor may prescribe this medication again.Iron sucrose injection may cause severe or life-threatening reactions while you receive the medication. Your doctor will watch you carefully while you ... of iron sucrose injection and for at least 30 minutes afterwards. Tell ...

  17. Injectables in the prostate. (United States)

    Saemi, Arash M; Plante, Mark K


    Benign prostatic hyperplasia with associated symptoms and morbidity is increasingly common among aging men. Medical treatment of lower urinary tract symptoms is the mainstay of therapy with progressive disease requiring more invasive intervention. Transurethral resection of the prostate remains a widely applied gold standard therapy. Numerous minimally invasive surgical therapy options have arisen and subsequently faded over recent years. Those remaining in use are largely positioned between pharmacological treatment and transurethral resection of the prostate. Intraprostatic injection therapy, the oldest minimally invasive surgical therapy, has been investigated for over 100 years with renewed interest recently. This review will provide some history of intraprostatic injection for benign prostatic hyperplasia including the most recent reports using transperineal, transrectal and transurethral routes with different injectables. For benign prostatic hyperplasia, transperineal and transurethral injection routes have received the most systematic evaluation. Intraprostatic injection of botulinum toxin type A has received much recent attention with regards to mechanism of action and efficacy. Anhydrous ethanol remains the most extensively studied injectable to date. Injection therapy remains a very promising minimally invasive surgical therapy for benign prostatic hyperplasia with increased attention from the urologic community in recent years. Further experience both with systematic laboratory and clinical trials investigation will be necessary before widespread clinical adoption.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The RHIC injection system has to transport beam from the AGS-to-RHIC transfer line onto the closed orbits of the RHIC Blue and Yellow rings. This task can be divided into three problems. First, the beam has to be injected into either ring. Second, once injected the beam needs to be transported around the ring for one turn. Third, the orbit must be closed and coherent beam oscillations around the closed orbit should be minimized. We describe our solutions for these problems and report on system tests conducted during the RHIC Sextant test performed in 1997. The system will be fully commissioned in 1999.

  19. Injection moulding antireflective nanostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Alexander Bruun; Clausen, Jeppe Sandvik; Mortensen, N. Asger

    We present a method for injection moulding antireflective nanostructures on large areas, for high volume production. Nanostructured black silicon masters were fabricated by mask-less reactive ion etching, and electroplated with nickel. The nickel shim was antistiction coated and used in an inject......We present a method for injection moulding antireflective nanostructures on large areas, for high volume production. Nanostructured black silicon masters were fabricated by mask-less reactive ion etching, and electroplated with nickel. The nickel shim was antistiction coated and used...

  20. Injection moulding antireflective nanostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Alexander Bruun; Clausen, Jeppe Sandvik; Mortensen, N. Asger


    We present a method for injection moulding antireflective nanostructures on large areas, for high volume production. Nanostructured black silicon masters were fabricated by mask-less reactive ion etching, and electroplated with nickel. The nickel shim was antistiction coated and used in an inject......We present a method for injection moulding antireflective nanostructures on large areas, for high volume production. Nanostructured black silicon masters were fabricated by mask-less reactive ion etching, and electroplated with nickel. The nickel shim was antistiction coated and used...

  1. Collagenase Clostridium Histolyticum Injection (United States)

    ... disease (a thickening of tissue [plaque] inside the penis that causes the penis to curve). Collagenase Clostridium histolyticum injection is in ... the plaque of thickened tissue and allows the penis to be straightened.

  2. Injection-induced earthquakes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ellsworth, William L


    ...s. It has long been understood that earthquakes can be induced by impoundment of reservoirs, surface and underground mining, withdrawal of fluids and gas from the subsurface, and injection of fluids...

  3. Premixed direct injection disk (United States)

    York, William David; Ziminsky, Willy Steve; Johnson, Thomas Edward; Lacy, Benjamin; Zuo, Baifang; Uhm, Jong Ho


    A fuel/air mixing disk for use in a fuel/air mixing combustor assembly is provided. The disk includes a first face, a second face, and at least one fuel plenum disposed therebetween. A plurality of fuel/air mixing tubes extend through the pre-mixing disk, each mixing tube including an outer tube wall extending axially along a tube axis and in fluid communication with the at least one fuel plenum. At least a portion of the plurality of fuel/air mixing tubes further includes at least one fuel injection hole have a fuel injection hole diameter extending through said outer tube wall, the fuel injection hole having an injection angle relative to the tube axis. The invention provides good fuel air mixing with low combustion generated NOx and low flow pressure loss translating to a high gas turbine efficiency, that is durable, and resistant to flame holding and flash back.

  4. Corticotropin, Repository Injection (United States)

    ... organs such as the lungs, eyes, skin, and heart and interfere with the function of these organs); ... of the ingredients in corticotropin repository injection, or porcine (pig) proteins. Ask your pharmacist or check the ...

  5. Talimogene Laherparepvec Injection (United States)

    Talimogene laherparepvec injection is used to treat certain melanoma (a type of skin cancer) tumors that cannot ... that came back after being treated with surgery. Talimogene laherparepvec is in a class of medications called ...

  6. Urinary incontinence - injectable implant (United States)

    ... repair; ISD repair; Injectable bulking agents for stress urinary incontinence ... Guideline on the surgical management of female stress urinary incontinence. J Urol . 2010;183(5):1906-1914. PMID: ...

  7. RimabotulinumtoxinB Injection (United States)

    ... htm) or the manufacturer's website to obtain the Medication Guide. ... cause neck pain and abnormal head positions). RimabotulinumtoxinB injection is in a class of medications called neurotoxins. It works by blocking the nerve ...

  8. Mesotherapy and injection lipolysis. (United States)

    Matarasso, Alan; Pfeifer, Tracy M


    The first part of this article familiarizes the reader with the evolution of mesotherapy, injection lipolysis, and the use of phosphatidylcholine and deoxycholate for subcutaneous fat reduction. There is an emphasis on the underlying basic science of fat metabolism and the biochemistry of phosphatidylcholine, so that practitioners will be able to understand future published research on these topics. The second half details some personal experience with injection lipolysis.

  9. Injection and Dump Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Bracco, C; Barnes, M J; Carlier, E; Drosdal, L N; Goddard, B; Kain, V; Meddahi, M; Mertens, V; Uythoven, J


    Performance and failures of the LHC injection and ex- traction systems are presented. In particular, a comparison with the 2010 run, lessons learnt during operation with high intensity beams and foreseen upgrades are described. UFOs, vacuum and impedance problems related to the injection and extraction equipment are analysed together with possible improvements and solutions. New implemented features, diagnostics, critical issues of XPOC and IQC applications are addressed.

  10. PS injection area

    CERN Multimedia


    To the right is the PS ring viewed along the direction of the protons. At the left the injection line coming from the 50 MeV Linac 1 (bottom) and going towards the 800 MeV booster, or deflected to the right to be injected directly into straight section 16. The drumlike element behind the (blue) dipole magnet is a 'debuncher' (a 200 MHz cavity). See photos 7409014X and 7409009.

  11. Syringe-injectable electronics. (United States)

    Liu, Jia; Fu, Tian-Ming; Cheng, Zengguang; Hong, Guosong; Zhou, Tao; Jin, Lihua; Duvvuri, Madhavi; Jiang, Zhe; Kruskal, Peter; Xie, Chong; Suo, Zhigang; Fang, Ying; Lieber, Charles M


    Seamless and minimally invasive three-dimensional interpenetration of electronics within artificial or natural structures could allow for continuous monitoring and manipulation of their properties. Flexible electronics provide a means for conforming electronics to non-planar surfaces, yet targeted delivery of flexible electronics to internal regions remains difficult. Here, we overcome this challenge by demonstrating the syringe injection (and subsequent unfolding) of sub-micrometre-thick, centimetre-scale macroporous mesh electronics through needles with a diameter as small as 100 μm. Our results show that electronic components can be injected into man-made and biological cavities, as well as dense gels and tissue, with >90% device yield. We demonstrate several applications of syringe-injectable electronics as a general approach for interpenetrating flexible electronics with three-dimensional structures, including (1) monitoring internal mechanical strains in polymer cavities, (2) tight integration and low chronic immunoreactivity with several distinct regions of the brain, and (3) in vivo multiplexed neural recording. Moreover, syringe injection enables the delivery of flexible electronics through a rigid shell, the delivery of large-volume flexible electronics that can fill internal cavities, and co-injection of electronics with other materials into host structures, opening up unique applications for flexible electronics.

  12. Syringe injectable electronics (United States)

    Hong, Guosong; Zhou, Tao; Jin, Lihua; Duvvuri, Madhavi; Jiang, Zhe; Kruskal, Peter; Xie, Chong; Suo, Zhigang; Fang, Ying; Lieber, Charles M.


    Seamless and minimally-invasive three-dimensional (3D) interpenetration of electronics within artificial or natural structures could allow for continuous monitoring and manipulation of their properties. Flexible electronics provide a means for conforming electronics to non-planar surfaces, yet targeted delivery of flexible electronics to internal regions remains difficult. Here, we overcome this challenge by demonstrating syringe injection and subsequent unfolding of submicrometer-thick, centimeter-scale macroporous mesh electronics through needles with a diameter as small as 100 micrometers. Our results show that electronic components can be injected into man-made and biological cavities, as well as dense gels and tissue, with > 90% device yield. We demonstrate several applications of syringe injectable electronics as a general approach for interpenetrating flexible electronics with 3D structures, including (i) monitoring of internal mechanical strains in polymer cavities, (ii) tight integration and low chronic immunoreactivity with several distinct regions of the brain, and (iii) in vivo multiplexed neural recording. Moreover, syringe injection enables delivery of flexible electronics through a rigid shell, delivery of large volume flexible electronics that can fill internal cavities and co-injection of electronics with other materials into host structures, opening up unique applications for flexible electronics. PMID:26053995

  13. Botulinum toxin injection: a review of injection principles and protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David E. Rapp


    Full Text Available Despite the favorable outcomes seen using botulinum toxin (BTX for voiding dysfunction using BTX, a standardized technique and protocol for toxin injection is not defined. We reviewed the current literature on intravesical BTX injection for DO (detrusor overactivity. Specific attention was placed on defining optimal injection protocol, including dose, volume, and injection sites. In addition, we sought to describe a standard technique to BTX injection.

  14. Flow Injection Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Elo Harald


    This chapter provides an introduction to automated chemical analysis, which essentially can be divided into two groups: batch assays, where the solution is stationary while the container is moved through a number of stations where various unit operations performed; and continuous-flow procedures......, where the system is stationary while the solution moves through a set of conduits in which all required manipulations are performed. Emphasis is placed on flow injection analysis (FIA) and its further developments, that is, sequential injection analysis (SIA) and the Lab-on-Valve (LOV) approach. Since...... FIA is based on the creation of a concentration gradient of the injected sample solution and on reproducible and precise timing of all events, it allows exploitation of a transient read-out. This in turn implies that not only does FIA allow the augmentation of existing analytical techniques...

  15. Dimethyl Ether Injection Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorenson, Spencer C.; Glensvig, Michael; Abata, Duane L.


    A series of preliminary investigations has been performed in order to investigate the behavior of DME in a diesel injection environment. These studies have in-cluded visual observations of the spray penetration and angles for high pressure injection into Nitrogen using conventional jerk pump...... in the same system. As a first attempt to simulate combustion of DME in Diesel engines, the results of the spray studies have been incorporated into a simplified spray combustion model. A turbulent jet structure was adjusted to fit the penetration rates of the observed sprays. The observed spray widths agreed...... well with the experimentally observed combustion rates during the mixing controlled portions of the combustion in a naturally aspirated direct injection diesel engine....

  16. Chaotic behavior in a system simulating the pressure balanced injection system. Analysis of passive safety reactor behavior. JAERI's nuclear research promotion program, H12-012 (Contract research)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madarame, Haruki; Okamoto, Koji; Tanaka, Gentaro; Morimoto, Yuichiro [Tokyo Univ., School of Engineering, Tokyo (Japan); Sato, Akira [Yamagata Univ., Faculty of Engineering, Yonezawa, Yamagata (Japan); Kondou, Masaya [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment


    The pressure Balanced Injection System (PBIS) was proposed in a passive safety reactor. Pressurizing Line (PL) connects the Reactor Vessel (RV) and the gas area in the Contain Vessel (CV), and Injected Line (IL) connects two vessels at relatively lower position. In an accident, the two lines are passively opened. The vapor generated by the residual heat pressed downward the water level in the RV. When the level is lower than the inlet of the PL, vapor is ejected into the CV through the PL attaining the pressure balance between the vessels. Then boron water in the CV is injected into the RV through the IL by the static head. This process is repeated by the succeeding vapor generation. In an experiment, the oscillating system was replaced by water column in a U-shaped duct. The vapor generation was simulated by cover gas supply to one end of the duct, while the other end was open to the atmosphere. When the water level reached a certain level, electromagnetic valves opened and the cover gas was ejected. The gas pressure decreased rapidly, resulting in a surface rise. When the water level reached another level, the valves closed. The cover gas pressure increased again, thus, gas ejection occurred intermittently. The interval of the gas ejection was not constant but fluctuated widely. Mere stochastic noise could hardly explain the large amplitude. Then was expressed the system using a set of linear equations. Various types of piecewise linear model were developed to examine the cause of the fluctuation. There appeared tangential bifurcation, period-doubling bifurcation, period-adding bifurcation and so on. The calculated interval exhibited chaotic features. Thus the cause of the fluctuation can be attributed to chaotic features of the system having switching. Since the piecewise linear model was highly simplified the behavior, a quantitative comparison between the calculation and the experiment was difficult. Therefore, numerical simulation code considering nonlinear

  17. Gaseous fuel injection system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lynch, W.M.


    A fuel injection method and apparatus, suitable for use with an internal combustion engine operated on LPG, has a reservoir for LPG with an outlet connected via a pump and a non-return valve to a heating chamber which is preferably heated by hot air or hot water, and then via a gas pressure regulator to an injector. The apparatus operates such that LPG is pumped by the pump through the non-return valve to the heating chamber where the LPG is heated to allow gaseous LPG to be transmitted to the injector once a predetermined pressure set on the regulator has been reached, whereupon the injector injects the LPG into the crankcase, transfer ports, carburettor or cylinders of the internal combustion engine. The internal combustion engine may be a two-stroke engine, and lubricant may be injected into the engine along with the gaseous LPG using lubricant injection means that are arranged to adjust the amount of lubricant in accordance with engine speed, preferably by drawing the lubricant into the fuel flow by use of the venturi effect.(author) figs.

  18. IncobotulinumtoxinA Injection (United States)

    ... abnormal eyelid movements) in adults who have used onabotulinumtoxinA (Botox). IncobotulinumtoxinA injection is in a class of medications ... if you are allergic to incobotulinumtoxinA, abobotulinumtoxinA (Dysport), onabotulinumtoxinA (Botox), rimabotulinumtoxinB (Myobloc), any other medications, or any ...

  19. Retro-review of flow injection analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruzicka, Jaromir; Hansen, Elo Harald


    It is indeed unusual for authors to review their own monograph – J. Ruzicka, E.H. Hansen, Flow Injection Analysis, 2nd Edition, Wiley, Chichester, West Sussex, UK, 1988. – and even more so if the book was published 20 years ago. Yet such an exercise might yield a perspective on the progress...... of analytical instrumentation in general and on the development of flow-injection analysis (FIA) techniques in particular. By reviewing what was written and proposed 20 years ago, it is interesting to observe what proved to be of lasting value, what became accepted, and, above all, what we missed and failed...

  20. MR imaging after therapeutic injection of the subacromial bursa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Major, N.M. [Duke University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Division Musculoskeletal, Durham, NC (United States)


    Objective. As a therapeutic injection into the subacromial bursa (SAB) is commonly performed for impingement syndrome, it is important to know whether this fluid can be retained for a period of time and cause confusion with a pathologic collection of fluid. This study identifies and describes the appearance of recent subacromial injection using MR imaging, and the appearance of a potential complication.Design and patients. Fourteen asymptomatic shoulders were studied with MR imaging using fast spin echo T2-weighted imaging (1.5 T) prior to injection with 7 cm{sup 3} of xylocaine. Four shoulders had subacromial fluid and were eliminated from the study. The remaining 10 (9 men, 1 woman; age range 27-36 years, average age 33 years) were then re-imaged immediately, and at 6, 12 and 24 h after the injection or until fluid resolved. Each set of images was reviewed for the presence of fluid in the SAB and for additional abnormalities.Results. Fluid was identified in all subjects in the SAB in the immediate, 6 and 12 h post-injection images. At 24 h, fluid was not identified within the SAB in eight of 10 patients. In one patient fluid resolved in 48 h. The other continued to demonstrate fluid in the SAB and in the joint as well as abnormal signal in the infraspinatus muscle from a presumed myositis. Imaging was performed up to 10 days after the injection in this patient.Conclusions. It is known that fluid identified in the SAB without evidence of a cuff tear may be due to bursitis. However, if MR imaging is performed within 24 h of injection, the presence of the fluid may be iatrogenic. In addition, the history of recent therapeutic injection is very important as complications such as myositis can occur as a result of the injection. Knowledge of injection prior to imaging is vital for accurate interpretation of MR shoulder examinations. (orig.)

  1. Long-Acting Diclofenac Ester Prodrugs for Joint Injection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mertz, Nina; Larsen, Susan Weng; Kristensen, Jesper


    A prodrug approach for local and sustained diclofenac action after injection into joints based on ester prodrugs having a pH-dependent solubility is presented. Inherent ester prodrug properties influencing the duration of action include their pH-dependent solubility and charge state, as well...... suggest that it is possible to alter and control dissolution and reconversion behavior of the diclofenac prodrugs, thus making the prodrug approach feasible for local and sustained diclofenac action after joint injection....


    Lobell, G.M.


    This patent is drawn to an injection molding apparatus for producing a tube closed at one end wherein the normally unsupported end of the core located in the cavity during the injection of the molten material to fill the space between the core and cavity wall, which supporting means is automatically removed from operation during the forming of the closed end of the tube. This support means is a plug extending through the end of the core into a recess in the bottom of the cavity where the closed end of the tube is to be formed. The plug is spring pressed into said recess and is forced out of the recess by a slidable bushing at the top of the cavity which is moved against the force of the spring by the molten material when it fills the uppormost open end portion of the cavity, thereby permitting the closed end of the tube to be formed.

  3. PS injection area

    CERN Multimedia


    Looking against the direction of protons in the main ring (left): the beam coming from the linac 1 either goes to the booster (on the right) or is deflected towards the PS to be directly injected into section 26 (facing the camera). Also shown the start of the TT2 line, ejected from straight section 16 to go towards the ISR passing over the beam line from the linac. (see Photo Archive 7409009)

  4. Snowplow Injection Front Effects (United States)

    Moore, T. E.; Chandler, M. O.; Buzulukova, N.; Collinson, G. A.; Kepko, E. L.; Garcia-Sage, K. S.; Henderson, M. G.; Sitnov, M. I.


    As the Polar spacecraft apogee precessed through the magnetic equator in 2001, Polar encountered numerous substorm events in the region between geosynchronous orbit and 10 RE geocentric distance; most of them in the plasma sheet boundary layers. Of these, a small number was recorded near the neutral sheet in the evening sector. Polar/Thermal Ion Dynamics Experiment provides a unique perspective on the lowest-energy ion plasma, showing that these events exhibited a damped wavelike character, initiated by a burst of radially outward flow transverse to the local magnetic field at approximately 80 km/s. They then exhibit strongly damped cycles of inward/outward flow with a period of several minutes. After one or two cycles, they culminated in a hot plasma electron and ion injection, quite similar to those observed at geosynchronous orbit. Cold plasmaspheric plasmas comprise the outward flow cycles, while the inward flow cycles contain counterstreaming field-parallel polar wind-like flows. The observed wavelike structure, preceding the arrival of an earthward moving substorm injection front, suggests an outward displacement driven by the inward motion at local times closer to midnight, that is, a "snowplow" effect. The damped in/out flows are consistent with interchange oscillations driven by the arrival at the observed local time by an injection originating at greater radius and local time.

  5. Steroid injections - tendon, bursa, joint (United States)

    ... gov/ency/article/007678.htm Steroid injections - tendon, bursa, joint To use the sharing features on this ... can be injected into a joint, tendon, or bursa. Description Your health care provider inserts a small ...

  6. Penicillin G (Potassium, Sodium) Injection (United States)

    Penicillin G injection is used to treat and prevent certain infections caused by bacteria. Penicillin G injection is in a class of medications called penicillins. It works by killing bacteria that cause infections. ...

  7. Intramuscular injection-site complications. (United States)

    Greenblatt, D J; Allen, M D


    Among 26,294 hospitalized medical patients monitored by the Boston Collaborative Drug Surveillance Program, 46% received at least one intramuscular (IM) injection. Drugs for which IM injection was the route of administration in more than 80% of all exposures included penicillin G procaine, mercurial diuretics, cyanocobalamin, streptomycin sulfate, colistimethate sodium, meperidine hydrochloride, cephaloridine, scopolamine hydrobromide, kanamycin sulfate, and iron dextran injection. Local complications of IM injection were reported in a total of only 48 patients (0.4% of all IM recipients). Local complications were most commonly associated with IM injection of cephalothin sodium. Clinically important local complications are uncommonly associated with IM injections in general. However, certain drugs, eg, cephalothin, produce injection-site complications with relatively high frequency; the clinical role of IM injection of such drugs should be reevaluated.

  8. Injection treatments for patellar tendinopathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ark, Mathijs; Zwerver, Johannes; van den Akker-Scheek, Inge


    Objective Injection treatments are increasingly used as treatment for patellar tendinopathy. The aim of this systematic review is to describe the different injection treatments, their rationales and the effectiveness of treating patellar tendinopathy. Methods A computerised search of the Medline,

  9. Characterization of Injection Molded Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Ling; Søgaard, Emil; Andersen, Nis Korsgaard

    and limitations. Therefore, it would be difficult to characterize complex, especially hierarchical structures by using only one method. Here we present a combined optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and scanning probe microscopy study on injection molded structures. These structures are used......-properties relationship of the injection molded polymer samples. These results are very important in optimizing injection molding parameters....

  10. Acupuncture Injection Combined with Electrokinetic Injection for Polydimethylsiloxane Microfluidic Devices (United States)


    We recently reported acupuncture sample injection that leads to reproducible injection of nL-scale sample segments into a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microchannel for microchip capillary electrophoresis. The advantages of the acupuncture injection in microchip capillary electrophoresis include capability of minimizing sample loss and voltage control hardware and capability of introducing sample plugs into any desired position of a microchannel. However, the challenge in the previous study was to achieve reproducible, pL-scale sample injections into PDMS microchannels. In the present study, we introduce an acupuncture injection technique combined with electrokinetic injection (AICEI) technique to inject pL-scale sample segments for microchip capillary electrophoresis. We carried out the capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) separation of FITC and fluorescein, and the mixture of 10 μM FITC and 10 μM fluorescein was separated completely by using the AICEI method. PMID:28326222

  11. Acupuncture Injection Combined with Electrokinetic Injection for Polydimethylsiloxane Microfluidic Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Won Ha


    Full Text Available We recently reported acupuncture sample injection that leads to reproducible injection of nL-scale sample segments into a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS microchannel for microchip capillary electrophoresis. The advantages of the acupuncture injection in microchip capillary electrophoresis include capability of minimizing sample loss and voltage control hardware and capability of introducing sample plugs into any desired position of a microchannel. However, the challenge in the previous study was to achieve reproducible, pL-scale sample injections into PDMS microchannels. In the present study, we introduce an acupuncture injection technique combined with electrokinetic injection (AICEI technique to inject pL-scale sample segments for microchip capillary electrophoresis. We carried out the capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE separation of FITC and fluorescein, and the mixture of 10 μM FITC and 10 μM fluorescein was separated completely by using the AICEI method.

  12. Evaluation of the impact of viscosity, injection volume, and injection flow rate on subcutaneous injection tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berteau C


    Full Text Available Cecile Berteau,1 Orchidée Filipe-Santos,1 Tao Wang,2 Humberto E Rojas,2 Corinne Granger,1 Florence Schwarzenbach1 1Becton-Dickinson Medical Pharmaceutical Systems, Le Pont de Claix, France; 2Eli Lilly and Company, Indianapolis, IN, USA Aim: The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of fluid injection viscosity in combination with different injection volumes and flow rates on subcutaneous (SC injection pain tolerance. Methods: The study was a single-center, comparative, randomized, crossover, Phase I study in 24 healthy adults. Each participant received six injections in the abdomen area of either a 2 or 3 mL placebo solution, with three different fluid viscosities (1, 8–10, and 15–20 cP combined with two different injection flow rates (0.02 and 0.3 mL/s. All injections were performed with 50 mL syringes and 27G, 6 mm needles. Perceived injection pain was assessed using a 100 mm visual analog scale (VAS (0 mm/no pain, 100 mm/extreme pain. The location and depth of the injected fluid was assessed through 2D ultrasound echography images. Results: Viscosity levels had significant impact on perceived injection pain (P=0.0003. Specifically, less pain was associated with high viscosity (VAS =12.6 mm than medium (VAS =16.6 mm or low (VAS =22.1 mm viscosities, with a significant difference between high and low viscosities (P=0.0002. Target injection volume of 2 or 3 mL was demonstrated to have no significant impact on perceived injection pain (P=0.89. Slow (0.02 mL/s or fast (0.30 mL/s injection rates also showed no significant impact on perceived pain during SC injection (P=0.79. In 92% of injections, the injected fluid was located exclusively in SC tissue whereas the remaining injected fluids were found located in SC and/or intradermal layers. Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that solutions of up to 3 mL and up to 15–20 cP injected into the abdomen within 10 seconds are well tolerated without pain. High

  13. MKI UFOs at Injection

    CERN Document Server

    Baer, T; Bartmann, W; Bracco, C; Carlier, E; Chanavat, C; Drosdal, L; Garrel, N; Goddard, B; Kain, V; Mertens, V; Uythoven, J; Wenninger, J; Zerlauth, M


    During the MD, the production mechanism of UFOs at the injection kicker magnets (MKIs) was studied. This was done by pulsing the MKIs on a gap in the circulating beam, which led to an increased number of UFOs. In total 43 UFO type beam loss patterns at the MKIs were observed during the MD. The MD showed that pulsing the MKIs directly induces UFO type beam loss patterns. From the temporal characteristics of the loss profile, estimations about the dynamics of the UFOs are made.

  14. SQL Injection Defenses

    CERN Document Server

    Nystrom, Martin


    This Short Cut introduces you to how SQL injection vulnerabilities work, what makes applications vulnerable, and how to protect them. It helps you find your vulnerabilities with analysis and testing tools and describes simple approaches for fixing them in the most popular web-programming languages. This Short Cut also helps you protect your live applications by describing how to monitor for and block attacks before your data is stolen. Hacking is an increasingly criminal enterprise, and web applications are an attractive path to identity theft. If the applications you build, manage, or guar

  15. Flow injection potentiometric determination of pipazethate hydrochloride. (United States)

    Abdel-Ghani, N T; Shoukry, A F; el Nashar, R M


    New plastic membrane electrodes for pipazethate hydrochloride based on pipazethatium phosphotungstate, pipazethatium phosphomolybdate and a mixture of the two were prepared. The electrodes were fully characterized in terms of composition, life span, pH and temperature and were then applied to the potentiometric determination of the pipazethate ion in its pure state and pharmaceutical preparations under batch and flow injection conditions. The selectivity of the electrodes towards many inorganic cations, sugars and amino acids was also tested.

  16. Evaluation of the impact of viscosity, injection volume, and injection flow rate on subcutaneous injection tolerance (United States)

    Berteau, Cecile; Filipe-Santos, Orchidée; Wang, Tao; Rojas, Humberto E; Granger, Corinne; Schwarzenbach, Florence


    Aim The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of fluid injection viscosity in combination with different injection volumes and flow rates on subcutaneous (SC) injection pain tolerance. Methods The study was a single-center, comparative, randomized, crossover, Phase I study in 24 healthy adults. Each participant received six injections in the abdomen area of either a 2 or 3 mL placebo solution, with three different fluid viscosities (1, 8–10, and 15–20 cP) combined with two different injection flow rates (0.02 and 0.3 mL/s). All injections were performed with 50 mL syringes and 27G, 6 mm needles. Perceived injection pain was assessed using a 100 mm visual analog scale (VAS) (0 mm/no pain, 100 mm/extreme pain). The location and depth of the injected fluid was assessed through 2D ultrasound echography images. Results Viscosity levels had significant impact on perceived injection pain (P=0.0003). Specifically, less pain was associated with high viscosity (VAS =12.6 mm) than medium (VAS =16.6 mm) or low (VAS =22.1 mm) viscosities, with a significant difference between high and low viscosities (P=0.0002). Target injection volume of 2 or 3 mL was demonstrated to have no significant impact on perceived injection pain (P=0.89). Slow (0.02 mL/s) or fast (0.30 mL/s) injection rates also showed no significant impact on perceived pain during SC injection (P=0.79). In 92% of injections, the injected fluid was located exclusively in SC tissue whereas the remaining injected fluids were found located in SC and/or intradermal layers. Conclusion The results of this study suggest that solutions of up to 3 mL and up to 15–20 cP injected into the abdomen within 10 seconds are well tolerated without pain. High viscosity injections were shown to be the most tolerated, whereas injection volume and flow rates did not impact perceived pain. PMID:26635489

  17. Thermorespiratory Response of West African Dwarf Does to Progestagen Injection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ogundana, FA.


    Full Text Available The physiological responses in terms of respiration rate (RR and rectal temperature (RT of 30 West African Dwarf (WAD does were monitored after a single im injection of different doses of progestagens meant for synchronising oestrus. The treatments involved im injection of 1 2 ml of sterile water (Control; 2 25 mg Medroxy Progesterone Acetate, MPA; 3 50 mg MPA; 4 50 mg Progesterone and 5 100 mg progesterone. The RR and RT of each animal were measured at 9:00, 13:00 and 17:00 h for 21 days after each injection. In all the treatment groups the RT did not change significantly (P> 0.05 during the weeks following treatment. On the contrary the RR was significantly higher (P< 0.05 in the week after injection than in the pre-injection period. Both the RR and the RT were higher at 13:00 h and 17:00 h than at 9:00 h. The RR was more influenced by the animal body size than the RT, while the ambient temperature and humidity affected both the animal's RT and RR. These results indicate that the thermorespiratory function of WAD does under their native humid environment is not negatively affected by injecting ≤ 100 mg progesterone or ≤ 50 mg MPA to synchronize oestrus.

  18. Injectors for Multipoint Injection (United States)

    Prociw, Lev Alexander (Inventor); Ryon, Jason (Inventor)


    An injector for a multipoint combustor system includes an inner air swirler which defines an interior flow passage and a plurality of swirler inlet ports in an upstream portion thereof. The inlet ports are configured and adapted to impart swirl on flow in the interior flow passage. An outer air cap is mounted outboard of the inner swirler. A fuel passage is defined between the inner air swirler and the outer air cap, and includes a discharge outlet between downstream portions of the inner air swirler and the outer air cap for issuing fuel for combustion. The outer air cap defines an outer air circuit configured for substantially unswirled injection of compressor discharge air outboard of the interior flow passage.

  19. Immobilization of alliinase and its application: Flow injection ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    For the immobilized alliinase, the highest activity was allowed at pH of 7.0 and temperature at 35°C. Besides, the immobilized enzyme showed good thermal and pH stabilities. The flow-injection enzymatic analytical system based on the immobilized alliinase and an ammonia gas electrode provided linearity in the 1 × 10-5 ...

  20. Injection treatments for patellar tendinopathy. (United States)

    van Ark, Mathijs; Zwerver, Johannes; van den Akker-Scheek, Inge


    Injection treatments are increasingly used as treatment for patellar tendinopathy. The aim of this systematic review is to describe the different injection treatments, their rationales and the effectiveness of treating patellar tendinopathy. A computerised search of the Medline, Embase, CINAHL and Web of Knowledge databases was conducted on 1 May 2010 to identify studies on injection treatments for patellar tendinopathy. 11 articles on seven different injection treatments (dry needling, autologous blood, high-volume, platelet-rich plasma, sclerosis, steroids and aprotinin injections) were found: 4 randomised controlled trials (RCTs), 1 non-RCT, 4 prospective cohort studies and 2 retrospective cohort studies. All studies reported positive results. The Delphi scores of the four RCTs ranged from 5 to 8 out of 9. Different and sometimes contradictory rationales were used for the injection treatments. All seven different injection treatments seem promising for treating patellar tendinopathy. Unlike the other injection treatments, steroid treatment often shows a relapse of symptoms in the long term. Results should be interpreted with caution as the number of studies is low, few high-quality studies have been conducted and the studies are hard to compare due to different methodology. More high-quality studies using the same cross-cultural reliable and valid outcome measure are needed, as well as further research into the pathophysiology. Finally, some implications are provided for clinicians who want to use injection treatments as a part of their treatment for patellar tendinopathy, distinguishing between reactive and degenerative phase of patellar tendinopathy.

  1. SQL Injection Attacks and Defense

    CERN Document Server

    Clarke, Justin


    SQL Injection Attacks and Defense, First Edition: Winner of the Best Book Bejtlich Read Award "SQL injection is probably the number one problem for any server-side application, and this book unequaled in its coverage." -Richard Bejtlich, Tao Security blog SQL injection represents one of the most dangerous and well-known, yet misunderstood, security vulnerabilities on the Internet, largely because there is no central repository of information available for penetration testers, IT security consultants and practitioners, and web/software developers to turn to for help. SQL Injection Att

  2. Flow injection microbial trichloroethylene sensor. (United States)

    Han, Tae-Sung; Sasaki, Satoshi; Yano, Kazuyoshi; Ikebukuro, Kazunori; Kitayama, Atsushi; Nagamune, Teruyuki; Karube, Isao


    A flow type microbial biosensor for direct measurement of trichloroethylene (TCE) was developed. The unique features of this novel microbial sensor were the use of the TCE degrading bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa JI104, the electrical detection of the chloride ion released by microbial degradation, and flow cell made of glass. Glass cell was used in order to suppress adsorption of TCE and made a closed reaction cell. Vaporization of TCE during the measurement was prevented using closed flow cell. The performance of the sensor was evaluated from following aspects; such as pH of the carrier solution, amount of the immobilized microbe, flow rate and injection volume. The sensor signals were linearly proportional to the concentration of TCE in the range from 0.03 to 2 mgl(-1), which is suitable for the determination of suspected samples to be drinkable water or not. The sensor performance was checked on the real sample, and this system showed good response in ground water, indicating its applicability for the on line monitoring at TCE contaminated areas or hazardous sites.

  3. MR epidurography: distribution of injectate at caudal epidural injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, Darra T. [Cappagh National Orthopedic Hospital, Dublin 11 (Ireland); St Paul' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Kavanagh, Eoin C.; Moynagh, Michael R.; Eustace, Stephen [Cappagh National Orthopedic Hospital, Dublin 11 (Ireland); Mater Misericordiae University Hospital, Dublin 7 (Ireland); Poynton, Ashley; Chan, Vikki O. [Cappagh National Orthopedic Hospital, Dublin 11 (Ireland)


    To (a) evaluate the feasibility of MR epidurography (MRE) and (b) assess the distribution of injectate using two different volumes at caudal epidural steroid injection. Twenty patients who were referred with symptomatic low back pain for caudal epidural steroid injection were assigned to have either 10 ml (9/20) or 20 ml (11/20) of injectate administered. Gadolinium was included in the injection. The patients proceeded to MRI where sagittal and coronal T1-weighted fat-saturated sequences were acquired and reviewed in the mid-sagittal and right and left parasagittal views at the level of the exit foramina. Gadolinium was observed at or above the L3/4 disc level in all 11 patients who received 20 ml (100 %), compared with only five of nine patients who received 10 ml (56 %). Injectate was seen to the L4 nerve root level in all 11 patients who received 20 ml (100 %) but only four out of nine patients who received 10 ml (44 %), not even reaching the L5 nerve root level in four further of these nine patients (44 %). Overall, there was a trend to visualize gadolinium at higher levels of the epidural space with higher volumes injected. Firstly, MR epidurography is a safe technique that allows excellent visualization of the distribution of gadolinium in the epidural space following injection via the caudal hiatus. Secondly, a volume of 10 ml is unlikely to treat L5/S1 disease in almost half of patients at caudal epidural steroid injection and at least 20 ml of injectate is likely required for any medication to reach the desired level. (orig.)

  4. Thermal analysis of injection beam dump of high-intensity rapid-cycling synchrotron in J-PARC (United States)

    Kamiya, J.; Saha, P. K.; Yamamoto, K.; Kinsho, M.; Nihei, T.


    The beam dump at the beam injection area in the J-PARC 3-GeV rapid cycling synchrotron (RCS) accepts beams that pass through the charge exchange foil without ideal electron stripping during the multi-turn beam injection. The injection beam dump consists of the beam pipe, beam stopper, radiation shield, and cooling mechanism. The ideal beam power into the injection beam dump is 400 W in the case of design RCS extraction beam power of 1 MW with a healthy foil, which has 99.7 % charge stripping efficiency. On the other hand, as a radiation generator, the RCS is permitted to be operated with maximum average beam power of 4 kW into the injection beam dump based on the radiation shielding calculation, in consideration of lower charge stripping efficiency due to the foil deterioration. In this research, to evaluate the health of the RCS injection beam dump system from the perspective of the heat generation, a thermal analysis was performed based on the actual configuration with sufficiently large region, including the surrounding concrete and soil. The calculated temperature and heat flux density distribution showed the validity of the mesh spacing and model range. The calculation result showed that the dumped 4 kW beam causes the temperature to increase up to 330, 400, and 140 °C at the beam pipe, beam stopper, and radiation shield, respectively. Although these high temperatures induce stress in the constituent materials, the calculated stress values were lower than the ultimate tensile strength of each material. Transient temperature analysis of the beam stopper, which simulated the sudden break of the charge stripper foil, demonstrated that one bunched beam pulse with the maximum beam power does not lead to a serious rise in the temperature of the beam stopper. Furthermore, from the measured outgassing rate of stainless steel at high temperature, the rise in beam line pressure due to additive outgassing from the heated beam pipe was estimated to have a negligible

  5. An Injectable and Drug-loaded Supramolecular Hydrogel for Local Catheter Injection into the Pig Heart. (United States)

    Pape, A C H; Bakker, Maarten H; Tseng, Cheyenne C S; Bastings, Maartje M C; Koudstaal, Stefan; Agostoni, Pierfrancesco; Chamuleau, Steven A J; Dankers, Patricia Y W


    Regeneration of lost myocardium is an important goal for future therapies because of the increasing occurrence of chronic ischemic heart failure and the limited access to donor hearts. An example of a treatment to recover the function of the heart consists of the local delivery of drugs and bioactives from a hydrogel. In this paper a method is introduced to formulate and inject a drug-loaded hydrogel non-invasively and side-specific into the pig heart using a long, flexible catheter. The use of 3-D electromechanical mapping and injection via a catheter allows side-specific treatment of the myocardium. To provide a hydrogel compatible with this catheter, a supramolecular hydrogel is used because of the convenient switching from a gel to a solution state using environmental triggers. At basic pH this ureido-pyrimidinone modified poly(ethylene glycol) acts as a Newtonian fluid which can be easily injected, but at physiological pH the solution rapidly switches into a gel. These mild switching conditions allow for the incorporation of bioactive drugs and bioactive species, such as growth factors and exosomes as we present here in both in vitro and in vivo experiments. The in vitro experiments give an on forehand indication of the gel stability and drug release, which allows for tuning of the gel and release properties before the subsequent application in vivo. This combination allows for the optimal tuning of the gel to the used bioactive compounds and species, and the injection system.

  6. Injectable foams for regenerative medicine. (United States)

    Prieto, Edna M; Page, Jonathan M; Harmata, Andrew J; Guelcher, Scott A


    The design of injectable biomaterials has attracted considerable attention in recent years. Many injectable biomaterials, such as hydrogels and calcium phosphate cements (CPCs), have nanoscale pores that limit the rate of cellular migration and proliferation. While introduction of macroporosity has been suggested to increase cellular infiltration and tissue healing, many conventional methods for generating macropores often require harsh processing conditions that preclude their use in injectable foams. In recent years, processes such as porogen leaching, gas foaming, and emulsion-templating have been adapted to generate macroporosity in injectable CPCs, hydrogels, and hydrophobic polymers. While some of the more mature injectable foam technologies have been evaluated in clinical trials, there are challenges remaining to be addressed, such as the biocompatibility and ultimate fate of the sacrificial phase used to generate pores within the foam after it sets in situ. Furthermore, while implantable scaffolds can be washed extensively to remove undesirable impurities, all of the components required to synthesize injectable foams must be injected into the defect. Thus, every compound in the foam must be biocompatible and noncytotoxic at the concentrations utilized. As future research addresses these critical challenges, injectable macroporous foams are anticipated to have an increasingly significant impact on improving patient outcomes for a number of clinical procedures. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Towards spin injection into silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dash, S.P.


    Si has been studied for the purpose of spin injection extensively in this thesis. Three different concepts for spin injection into Si have been addressed: (1) spin injection through a ferromagnet-Si Schottky contact, (2) spin injection using MgO tunnel barriers in between the ferromagnet and Si, and (3) spin injection from Mn-doped Si (DMS) as spin aligner. (1) FM-Si Schottky contact for spin injection: To be able to improve the interface qualities one needs to understand the atomic processes involved in the formation of silicide phases. In order to obtain more detailed insight into the formation of such phases the initial stages of growth of Co and Fe were studied in situ by HRBS with monolayer depth resolution.(2) MgO tunnel barrier for spin injection into Si: The fabrication and characterization of ultra-thin crystalline MgO tunnel barriers on Si (100) was presented. (3) Mn doped Si for spin injection: Si-based diluted magnetic semiconductor samples were prepared by doping Si with Mn by two different methods i) by Mn ion implantation and ii) by in-diffusion of Mn atoms (solid state growth). (orig.)

  8. Interferon Alfa-2b Injection (United States)

    Interferon alfa-2b injection is used to treat a number of conditions.Interferon alfa-2b injection is used alone or in combination ... Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL; a slow-growing blood cancer). Interferon alfa-2b is in a class of medications called ...

  9. [Influence of solvent and drug preparation time on Shuanghuanglian injections induce pseudo-allergic reaction]. (United States)

    Yi, Yan; Liang, Ai-hua; Li, Chun-ying; Zhang, Yu-shi; Zhao, Yong; Han, Jia-yin; Lu, Yu-ting


    Choosing the right solvent and timely use is the basis of rational drug use and the most direct and efficient way to improve the safety of traditional Chinese medicine injections. This study aimed to evaluate the influence of solvent and drug preparation time on Shuanghuanglian injection inducing pseudo-allergic reactions with mouse mode. The two tests were carried out: (1) Comparative experiment between different solvent: Shuanghuanglian injection preparation to the appropriate concentration with 0.9% sodium chloride injection and 5% dextrose injection, mixed with Evans blue, at one time intravenous injected into mice, 30 minutes later, the mouse ears vascular permeability were observed and compared. (2) Comparative experiment among different preparation time: placed 10 min, 2.5 h, 6 h and 24 h after Shuanghuanglian injection were prepared and then to detect the pseudo-allergic reactions in mice using the same methods as in (1). The results showed that there was no significant difference in the pseudo-allergic reactions in mice which induced by the same dose of Shuanghuanglian injection, respectively with 0.9% sodium chloride injection and 5% dextrose injection preparation, and with the extension of preparation time, the degree of pseudo-allergic reactions of Shuanghuanglian injection was gradually severe.

  10. [Expression of Hydrodynamic Injection-mediated PD-L1 in Myeloablative Conditioning Mouse Model]. (United States)

    Li, Xiao-Fan; Li, Nai-Nong; Yang, Feng-E; Chen, Yuan-Zhong


    To establish the mouse model for the expression of PD-L1 by hydrodynamic injection and to study the effects of myeloablative conditioning on hydrodynamic injection-mediated PD-L1 expression. Plasmid amplification, hydrodynamic injection, collagenase perfusion, real time PCR, ELISA and flow cytometry were applied to test the expression and function of PD-L1. Also, animal models were set up to test the effects of chemical or radiactive myeloablative conditioning on hydrodynamic injection-mediated PD-L1 expression. The expression of PD-L1 mRNA and protein could be detected as early as 8 h after hyrodynamic injection and reached peak expression by 24 h, and returned to baseline level by 7 d after injection. Serum PD-L1 level reached to 100 µg/ml as early as 24 h after injection and plateaued at 7 d after injection. Serum PD-L1 persisted for 3 weeks and declined to baseline after 1 month of hydrodynamic injection. The PD-L1 function induced by hydrodynamic injection was consistent with literature reports. At each time point, the PD-L1 expression was not different significantly between the myeloablative conditioning group and control group; the mice transfected with PD-L1 showed a higher survival rate than that in control group. Myeloablative conditioning does not affect hydrodynamic injection-mediated PD-L1 expression, indicating that the PD-L1 can be used in HSCT mouse model.

  11. Injection, injectivity and injectability in geothermal operations: problems and possible solutions. Phase I. Definition of the problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vetter, O.J.; Crichlow, H.B.


    The following topics are covered: thermodynamic instability of brine, injectivity loss during regular production and injection operations, injectivity loss caused by measures other than regular operations, heat mining and associated reservoir problems in reinjection, pressure maintenance through imported make-up water, suggested solutions to injection problems, and suggested solutions to injection problems: remedial and stimulation measures. (MHR)

  12. Results from the 2009 beam commissioning of the CERN multi-turn extraction

    CERN Document Server

    Benedetto, E; Bohl, T; Cettour Cave, S; Cornelis, K; Cotte, D; Damerau, H; Delrieux, M; Fleuret, J; Fowler, T; Follin, F; Franchi, A; Freyermuth, P; Genoud, H; Gilardoni, S; Giovannozzi, M; Hancock, S; Hans, O; Le Borgne, Y; Manglunki, D; Matli, E; Métral, E; Métral, G; Newman, M; Pereira, L; Peters, F; Riva, Y; Roncarolo, F; Sermeus, L; Steerenberg, R; Vandorpe, B; Wenninger, J


    Following the analysis of the results obtained during the first year of beam commissioning of the CERN multiturn extraction, a number of changes have been introduced in the beam manipulations performed in the CERN Proton Synchrotron. This includes a different control of the linear chromaticity, the setting of the nonlinear magnets used to split the beam, and the longitudinal structure in the PS. The results obtained during the 2009 run are presented and discussed in detail, including the beam performance in both the PS and the SPS.

  13. Enhanced Injection Molding Simulation of Advanced Injection Molds

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bela Zink; Ferenc Szabó; Istvan Hatos; Andras Suplicz; Norbert Krisztian Kovacs; Hajnalka Hargitai; Tamas Tabi; József Gabor Kovacs


      The most time-consuming phase of the injection molding cycle is cooling. Cooling efficiency can be enhanced with the application of conformal cooling systems or high thermal conductivity copper molds...

  14. High pressure direct injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, J. [Cummins Westport Inc., Vancouver, BC (Canada)


    A brief overview of Cummins Westport was provided, indicating that Westport originated in the 1980s through a research team at the University of British Columbia, and the hiring of the first employees began in 1996. The joint venture between Cummins and Westport was formed in March 2001. Cummins is the largest builder of commercial diesels in the world, and Westport is a small incubation technology company with emphasis on natural gas. The contribution of each company benefits the joint venture. Cummins brings traditional expertise in product and process development and distribution system, while Westport contributes new high pressure direct injection (HPDI) technology, funding and enthusiasm. The same base engine is kept and only the fuel system is changed. HPDI uses diesel cycle combustion and diesel pilot ignites natural gas. It allows for low emissions, high performance, high efficiency and economic payback. The pilot-ignited HPDI technology was explained, and its application to large class-8 trucks was discussed. The efficiency and performance of diesel engines is maintained by HPDI technology, there are 40 per cent reductions in nitrous oxide emissions, particulate matter emissions are reduced by 60 per cent, and carbon dioxide emissions are reduced by 20 per cent. A field demonstration was reviewed, and the major test at Norcal in San Francisco was discussed. The key success factors were found to be: formalized customer support plan, on-site technical support, parts availability, driver support and interaction, and training. Liquid natural gas fuel contamination was found to cause component wear. The emphasis has now been placed on three issues: injector life improvements, fuel debris and liquid natural gas pump/dome regulator life, and fuel economy improvements. The accomplishments for 2001 were identified, such as rapidly improving reliability, 17 HPDI trucks are upfit and in-service to name a few. The goals for 2002 include the placement of permanent fuel

  15. Sensor for Injection Rate Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Marcic


    Full Text Available A vast majority of the medium and high speed Diesel engines are equipped withmulti-hole injection nozzles nowadays. Inaccuracies in workmanship and changinghydraulic conditions in the nozzles result in differences in injection rates between individualinjection nozzle holes. The new deformational measuring method described in the paperallows injection rate measurement in each injection nozzle hole. The differences in injectionrates lead to uneven thermal loads of Diesel engine combustion chambers. All today knownmeasuring method, such as Bosch and Zeuch give accurate results of the injection rate indiesel single-hole nozzles. With multihole nozzles they tell us nothing about possibledifferences in injection rates between individual holes of the nozzle. At deformationalmeasuring method, the criterion of the injected fuel is expressed by the deformation ofmembrane occurring due to the collision of the pressure wave against the membrane. Thepressure wave is generated by the injection of the fuel into the measuring space. For eachhole of the nozzle the measuring device must have a measuring space of its own into whichfuel is injected as well as its measuring membrane and its own fuel outlet. Duringmeasurements procedure the measuring space must be filled with fuel to maintain anoverpressure of 5 kPa. Fuel escaping from the measuring device is conducted into thegraduated cylinders for measuring the volumetric flow through each hole of the nozzle.Themembrane deformation is assessed by strain gauges. They are glued to the membrane andforming the full Wheatstone’s bridge. We devoted special attention to the membrane shapeand temperature compensation of the strain gauges.

  16. Enhanced Injection Molding Simulation of Advanced Injection Molds


    Béla Zink; Ferenc Szabó; István Hatos; András Suplicz; Norbert Krisztián Kovács; Hajnalka Hargitai; Tamás Tábi; József Gábor Kovács


    The most time-consuming phase of the injection molding cycle is cooling. Cooling efficiency can be enhanced with the application of conformal cooling systems or high thermal conductivity copper molds. The conformal cooling channels are placed along the geometry of the injection-molded product, and thus they can extract more heat and heat removal is more uniform than in the case of conventional cooling systems. In the case of copper mold inserts, cooling channels are made by drilling and heat ...

  17. Injection nozzle for a turbomachine (United States)

    Uhm, Jong Ho; Johnson, Thomas Edward; Kim, Kwanwoo


    A turbomachine includes a compressor, a combustor operatively connected to the compressor, an end cover mounted to the combustor, and an injection nozzle assembly operatively connected to the combustor. The injection nozzle assembly includes a first end portion that extends to a second end portion, and a plurality of tube elements provided at the second end portion. Each of the plurality of tube elements defining a fluid passage includes a body having a first end section that extends to a second end section. The second end section projects beyond the second end portion of the injection nozzle assembly.

  18. Financial methods for waterflooding injectate design (United States)

    Heneman, Helmuth J.; Brady, Patrick V.


    A method of selecting an injectate for recovering liquid hydrocarbons from a reservoir includes designing a plurality of injectates, calculating a net present value of each injectate, and selecting a candidate injectate based on the net present value. For example, the candidate injectate may be selected to maximize the net present value of a waterflooding operation.

  19. Injectable silk foams for soft tissue regeneration. (United States)

    Bellas, Evangelia; Lo, Tim J; Fournier, Eric P; Brown, Joseph E; Abbott, Rosalyn D; Gil, Eun S; Marra, Kacey G; Rubin, J Peter; Leisk, Gary G; Kaplan, David L


    Soft tissue fillers are needed for restoration of a defect or augmentation of existing tissues. Autografts and lipotransfer have been under study for soft tissue reconstruction but yield inconsistent results, often with considerable resorption of the grafted tissue. A minimally invasive procedure would reduce scarring and recovery time as well as allow the implant and/or grafted tissue to be placed closer to existing vasculature. Here, the feasibility of an injectable silk foam for soft tissue regeneration is demonstrated. Adipose-derived stem cells survive and migrate through the foam over a 10-d period in vitro. The silk foams are also successfully injected into the subcutaneous space in a rat and over a 3-month period integrating with the surrounding native tissue. The injected foams are palpable and soft to the touch through the skin and returning to their original dimensions after pressure is applied and then released. The foams readily absorb lipoaspirate making the foams useful as a scaffold or template for existing soft tissue filler technologies, useful either as a biomaterial alone or in combination with the lipoaspirate. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Tangential and Vertical Compact Torus Injection Experiments on the STOR-M Tokamak (United States)

    Xiao, Chijin; D, Liu; S, Livingstone; A, K. Singh; E, Zhang; A, Hirose


    This paper describes the setup and results of compact torus (CT) injection experiments on the STOR-M tokamak. Tangential CT injection into STOR-M induced H-mode-like phenomena including doubling the electron density, reduction in the Hα radiation level, suppression of the floating potential fluctuations, suppression of the m = 2 Mirnov oscillations, and increase in the global energy confinement time. Experimental setup, bench-test results, and some preliminary injection data for vertical CT injection experiments on STOR-M will be shown. In addition, numerical simulations of the CT trajectories in tokamak discharges for both tangential and vertical injection geometries will be discussed.

  1. Geothermal injection treatment: process chemistry, field experiences, and design options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kindle, C.H.; Mercer, B.W.; Elmore, R.P.; Blair, S.C.; Myers, D.A.


    The successful development of geothermal reservoirs to generate electric power will require the injection disposal of approximately 700,000 gal/h (2.6 x 10/sup 6/ 1/h) of heat-depleted brine for every 50,000 kW of generating capacity. To maintain injectability, the spent brine must be compatible with the receiving formation. The factors that influence this brine/formation compatibility and tests to quantify them are discussed in this report. Some form of treatment will be necessary prior to injection for most situations; the process chemistry involved to avoid and/or accelerate the formation of precipitate particles is also discussed. The treatment processes, either avoidance or controlled precipitation approaches, are described in terms of their principles and demonstrated applications in the geothermal field and, when such experience is limited, in other industrial use. Monitoring techniques for tracking particulate growth, the effect of process parameters on corrosion and well injectability are presented. Examples of brine injection, preinjection treatment, and recovery from injectivity loss are examined and related to the aspects listed above.

  2. Beam Injection in Recirculator SALO

    CERN Document Server

    Guk, Ivan S; Dovbnya, Anatoly N; Kononenko, Stanislav; Peev, Fedor; Tarasenko, Alexander; Van der Wiel, Marnix


    Possible antetypes of injectors for electron recirculator SALO,* intended for nuclear-physical research, are analyzed. The plan injection of beams in recirculator is offered. Expected parameters of beams are designed.

  3. Interferon Gamma-1b Injection (United States)

    Interferon gamma-1b injection is used to reduce the frequency and severity of serious infections in people with chronic ... severe, malignant osteopetrosis (an inherited bone disease). Interferon gamma-1b is in a class of medications called ...

  4. Crystallization after intravitreal ganciclovir injection


    Choopong, Pitipol; Rodanant,


    Pitipol Choopong, Nattaporn Tesavibul, Nattawut RodanantDepartment of Ophthalmology, Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, ThailandPurpose: To report crystal formation as a complication of intravitreal ganciclovir injection.Patients and methods: A 73-year-old female patient with unilateral cytomegalovirus retinitis was treated with intravitreous ganciclovir (4 mg/0.04 mL).Results: After the intravitreal injection, sudden crystallization was observed in the vitreous. The patient exper...

  5. Dual Stage SQL Injection Attacks


    Eve, Martin Paul


    I came across quite an interesting SQL Injection scenario today. The software in which the vulnerability resides will remain anonymous until fixed, but an abstracted version of the scenario can safely be outlined below.\\ud \\ud The objective of the software is to restrict user accounts to certain IP addresses when accessing a bulletin board. This shows how this can be bypassed using a dual-stage SQL injection attack.

  6. New injection recommendations for patients with diabetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frid, A.; Hirsch, L.; Gaspar, R.; Hicks, D.; Kreugel, G.; Liersch, J.; Letondeur, C.; Sauvanet, J. P.; Tubiana-Rufi, N.; Strauss, K.

    Aim: Injections administered by patients are one of the mainstays of diabetes management. Proper injection technique is vital to avoiding intramuscular injections, ensuring appropriate delivery to the subcutaneous tissues and avoiding common complications such as lipohypertrophy. Yet few formal

  7. Injection Molding Of Optical Components (United States)

    Matiacio, T. A.


    Injection molding of optical components on a production basis began in 1980. Development took place from the mid to late seventies with the potentially high volume defense contracts candidates for injection molding. Plastic optics are lower cost and lighter weight than optical glass. Also, injection molding offers the capability to produce complex shapes which are functionally integrated with other metal and/or plastic components. Lenses and domes with aspheric or spheric surfaces and internal or external threads have been successfully injection molded. These parts would have required costly manufacturing methods or even been impossible to produce. Although initial tooling cost and process development may be high, parts can be consistently produced in large quantities economically. Consistency from run to run is maintained by rigorous process control to ensure the high standards required in optical parts. Polycarbonate is the plastic material used most often to injection mold optical hardware. It is a thermopolastic consisting of linear polymer chains like an acrylic or a styrene but has higher lipact strength and temperature resistance. Polysulfone is also used and has even higher temperature resistance and strength although impact strength is lower. Mold design, process parameters, and part inspection (dimensional, visual, optical) as they relate to the plastic optical components injection molded at Martin Marietta are discussed. Also presented are problems encountered during pre-production and production and the corrective measures, e.g., cosmetic appearance, dimensional control, molded part handling, and enhancement of optical characteristics.

  8. Hemodynamics of a hydrodynamic injection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsutomu Kanefuji


    Full Text Available The hemodynamics during a hydrodynamic injection were evaluated using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT and fluoroscopic imaging. The impacts of hydrodynamic (5 seconds and slow (60 seconds injections into the tail veins of mice were compared using 9% body weight of a phase-contrast medium. Hydrodynamically injected solution traveled to the heart and drew back to the hepatic veins (HV, which led to liver expansion and a trace amount of spillover into the portal vein (PV. The liver volumes peaked at 165.6 ± 13.3% and 165.5 ± 11.9% of the original liver volumes in the hydrodynamic and slow injections, respectively. Judging by the intensity of the CBCT images at the PV, HV, right atrium, liver parenchyma (LP, and the inferior vena cava (IVC distal to the HV conjunction, the slow injection resulted in the higher intensity at PV than at LP. In contrast, a significantly higher intensity was observed in LP after hydrodynamic injection in comparison with that of PV, suggesting that the liver took up the iodine from the blood flow. These results suggest that the enlargement speed of the liver, rather than the expanded volume, primarily determines the efficiency of hydrodynamic delivery to the liver.

  9. Toroidal flow measurement in CT injected STOR-M tokamak (United States)

    Asai, Tomohiko; Morelli, Jordan; Singh, Ajay; Xiao, Chijin; Hirose, Akira; Nagata, Masayoshi; Uyama, Tadao


    Compact Torus (CT) injection is a technology being developed for fueling of large tokamak reactors. It has been demonstrated in the STOR-M tokamak that tangential CT injection is capable of inducing an improved confinement mode (H-mode). It has been conjectured that tangential CT injection may enhance the toroidal rotation of the bulk tokamak plasma which is responsible for the H-mode by preventing or reducing microinstabilities[1]. In order to investigate the mechanisms of the L-H transition induced by enhanced toroidal flow (particularly that caused by CT injection), an Ion Doppler Spectroscope (IDS) has been developed. The IDS employs a 0.75 m focal length Czerny-Turner spectrometer with a resolution of 0.1 Åand a 16-channel PMT array. Data of plasma flow measurements will be presented with and without CT injection. Also, the results will be compared with toroidal flow measurement obtained using a 4-sided Mach probe in the plasma edge region. [1] S. Sen et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 185001 (2002).

  10. Gastroresistant capsular device prepared by injection molding. (United States)

    Zema, Lucia; Loreti, Giulia; Melocchi, Alice; Maroni, Alessandra; Palugan, Luca; Gazzaniga, Andrea


    In the present work, the possibility of manufacturing by injection molding (IM) a gastro-resistant capsular device based on hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose acetate succinate (HPMCAS) was investigated. By performing as an enteric soluble container, such a device may provide a basis for the development of advantageous alternatives to coated dosage forms. Preliminarily, the processability of the selected thermoplastic polymer was evaluated, and the need for a plasticizer (polyethylene glycol 1500) in order to counterbalance the glassy nature of the molded items was assessed. However, some critical issues related to the physical/mechanical stability (shrinkage and warpage) and opening time of the device after the pH change were highlighted. Accordingly, an in-depth formulation study was carried out taking into account differing release modifiers potentially useful for enhancing the dissolution/disintegration rate of the capsular device at intestinal pH values. Capsule prototypes with thickness of 600 and 900 μm containing Kollicoat(®) IR and/or Explotab(®) CLV could be manufactured, and a promising performance was achieved with appropriate gastric resistance in pH 1.2 medium and break-up in pH 6.8 within 1h. These results would support the design of a dedicated mold for the development of a scalable manufacturing process. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Stagnation Point Heat Transfer with Gas Injection Cooling (United States)

    Vancrayenest, B.; Tran, M. D.; Fletcher, D. G.


    The present paper deals with an experimental study of the stagnation-point heat transfer to a cooled copper surface with gas injection under subsonic conditions. Test were made with a probe that combined a steady-state water-cooled calorimeter that allows the capability to study convective blockage and to perform heat transfer measurements in presence of gas injection in the stagnation region. The copper probe was pierced by 52 holes, representing 2.4% of the total probe surface. The 1.2 MW high enthalpy plasma wind tunnel was operated at anode powers between 130 and 230 kW and a static pressures from 35 hPa up to 200 hPa. Air, carbon dioxide and argon were injected in the mass flow range 0-0.4 g/s in the boundary layer developed around the 50 mm diameter probe. The measured stagnation-point heat transfer rates are reported and discussed.

  12. Injectable shear-thinning nanoengineered hydrogels for stem cell delivery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thakur, Ashish; Jaiswal, Manish K.; Peak, Charles W.


    -thinning characteristics, and enhanced mechanical stiffness, elastomeric properties, and physiological stability. The shear-thinning characteristics of nanocomposite hydrogels are investigated for human mesenchymal stem cell (hMSC) delivery. The hMSCs showed high cell viability after injection and encapsulated cells......Injectable hydrogels are investigated for cell encapsulation and delivery as they can shield cells from high shear forces. One of the approaches to obtain injectable hydrogels is to reinforce polymeric networks with high aspect ratio nanoparticles such as two-dimensional (2D) nanomaterials. 2D...... showed a circular morphology. The proposed shear-thinning nanoengineered hydrogels can be used for cell delivery for cartilage tissue regeneration and 3D bioprinting....

  13. Efeito da aplicação de hCG ou GnRH sobre a concentração sérica de progesterona e eficiência reprodutiva em porcas Effect of injection of hCG or GnRH on progesterone serum concentration and reproductive efficiency of sows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.F.R. Carvalho


    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o efeito da aplicação de diferentes hormônios no quinto dia após a primeira inseminação sobre a concentração sérica de progesterona e sobre as características reprodutivas, em 103 porcas entre o terceirro e sexto parto. As matrizes foram divididas em: grupo-controle (n=35, não tratado, grupo GnRH (n=34, animais submetidos à aplicação intramuscular (IM de 50mcg de um análogo-GnRH no quinto dia após a primeira inseminação, e grupo hCG (n=34, animais submetidos à aplicação IM de 500UI de hCG no quinto dia após a primeira inseminação. A aplicação dos hormônios não influenciou as características reprodutivas taxa de parto, número total de nascidos, número de nascidos vivos e peso da leitegada (P>0,05. Cinco animais de cada grupo foram submetidos a coletas de sangue da veia cava nos dias 3, 5, 8, 12, 21 e 28 após a primeira inseminação para avaliação da concentração sérica de progesterona (ng/ml, utilizando a técnica de radioimunoensaio. Não houve diferença significativa quanto à concentração sérica de progesterona entre os grupos.Two different hormones were administered on the fifth day after the first insemination to evaluate their influence on serum progesterone concentrations and on reproductive efficiency, in multiparous sows between the third and the sixth parturition. The reproductive performance was evaluated in 103 sows distributed into three groups: 1-Control (n=35; 2-GnRH, 50m g of GnRH-analogue, administered IM on the fifth day after the first insemination (n=34; and 3-hCG, 500 IU of hCG administered IM in the fifth day after the first insemination (n=34. No effect (P>0.05 of hormone treatments on farrowing rate, litter size, live born and litter weight was observed. Five sows of each group were blood sampled on days 3, 5, 8, 12, 21, 28, after the first insemination, to evaluate serum progesterone concentrations (ng/ml. Serum progesterone concentrations were not affected (P>0.05 by

  14. Human amniotic fluid stem cell injection therapy for urethral sphincter regeneration in an animal model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Bum


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Stem cell injection therapies have been proposed to overcome the limited efficacy and adverse reactions of bulking agents. However, most have significant limitations, including painful procurement, requirement for anesthesia, donor site infection and a frequently low cell yield. Recently, human amniotic fluid stem cells (hAFSCs have been proposed as an ideal cell therapy source. In this study, we investigated whether periurethral injection of hAFSCs can restore urethral sphincter competency in a mouse model. Methods Amniotic fluids were collected and harvested cells were analyzed for stem cell characteristics and in vitro myogenic differentiation potency. Mice underwent bilateral pudendal nerve transection to generate a stress urinary incontinence (SUI model and received either periurethral injection of hAFSCs, periurethral injection of Plasma-Lyte (control group, or underwent a sham (normal control group. For in vivo cell tracking, cells were labeled with silica-coated magnetic nanoparticles containing rhodamine B isothiocyanate (MNPs@SiO2 (RITC and were injected into the urethral sphincter region (n = 9. Signals were detected by optical imaging. Leak point pressure and closing pressure were recorded serially after injection. Tumorigenicity of hAFSCs was evaluated by implanting hAFSCs into the subcapsular space of the kidney, followed two weeks later by retrieval and histologic analysis. Results Flow activated cell sorting showed that hAFSCs expressed mesenchymal stem cell (MSC markers, but no hematopoietic stem cell markers. Induction of myogenic differentiation in the hAFSCs resulted in expression of PAX7 and MYOD at Day 3, and DYSTROPHIN at Day 7. The nanoparticle-labeled hAFSCs could be tracked in vivo with optical imaging for up to 10 days after injection. Four weeks after injection, the mean LPP and CP were significantly increased in the hAFSC-injected group compared with the control group. Nerve regeneration and

  15. Improved Fueling and Transport Barrier Formation with Pellet Injection from Different Locations on DIII-D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baylor, Larry R [ORNL; Jernigan, Thomas C [ORNL; Gohil, P. [General Atomics; Schmidt, G. L. Schmidt [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Burrell, K. H. [General Atomics; Combs, Stephen Kirk [ORNL; Ernst, D. R. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Greenfield, C. M. [General Atomics; Groebner, R. J. [General Atomics; Houlberg, Wayne A [ORNL; Hsieh, C. [General Atomics; Murakami, Masanori [ORNL; Parks, P. B. [General Atomics; Porkolab, M. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT); Sessions, W. D. [Tennessee Technological University; Staebler, G. M. [General Atomics; Synakowski, E. J. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL)


    Pellet injection has been employed on DIII-D from different injection locations to optimize the mass deposition for density profile control and internal transport barrier formation. Transport barriers have been formed deep in the plasma core with central mass deposition from high field side (HFS) injected pellets and in the edge with pellets that trigger L-mode to H-mode transitions. Pellets injected from all locations can trigger the H-mode transition, which depends on the edge density gradient created and not on the radial extent of the pellet deposition. Pellets injected from inside the magnetic axis from the inner wall or vertical port lead to stronger central mass deposition than pellets injected from the low field side (LFS) and thus yield deeper more efficient fueling.

  16. Ion source and injection line for high intensity medical cyclotron. (United States)

    Jia, XianLu; Guan, Fengping; Yao, Hongjuan; Zhang, TianJue; Yang, Jianjun; Song, Guofang; Ge, Tao; Qin, Jiuchang


    A 14 MeV high intensity compact cyclotron, CYCIAE-14, was built at China Institute of Atomic Energy (CIAE). An injection system based on the external H- ion source was used on CYCIAE-14 so as to provide high intensity beam, while most positron emission tomography cyclotrons adopt internal ion source. A beam intensity of 100 μA/14 MeV was extracted from the cyclotron with a small multi-cusp H- ion source (CIAE-CH-I type) and a short injection line, which the H- ion source of 3 mA/25 keV H- beam with emittance of 0.3π mm mrad and the injection line of with only 1.2 m from the extraction of ion source to the medial plane of the cyclotron. To increase the extracted beam intensity of the cyclotron, a new ion source (CIAE-CH-II type) of 9.1 mA was used, with maximum of 500 μA was achieved from the cyclotron. The design and test results of the ion source and injection line optimized for high intensity acceleration will be given in this paper.

  17. Injectable hyaluronic acid hydrogel for 19F magnetic resonance imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, X.; Sun, Y.; Kootala, S.; Hilborn, J.; Heerschap, A.; Ossipov, D.


    We report on a 19F labeled injectable hyaluronic acid (HA) hydrogel that can be monitored by both 1H and 19F MR imaging. The HA based hydrogel formed via carbazone reaction can be obtained within a minute by simple mixing of HA-carbazate and HA-aldehyde derivatized polymers. 19F contrast agent was

  18. Effect of testosterone and growth hormone injection before puberty ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Egg shell quality and egg internal quality are of major importance to the egg industry worldwide. This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of testosterone and growth hormone (hGH) on egg production and characteristics. The aim of this trial is to test this hypothesis that one injection of these two hormones ...

  19. Comparison between one and two injections of pentamidine isethionate, at 7 mg/kg in each injection, in the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis in French Guiana. (United States)

    Roussel, M; Nacher, M; Frémont, G; Rotureau, B; Clyti, E; Sainte-Marie, D; Carme, B; Pradinaud, R; Couppié, P


    In a retrospective study set in French Guiana, the efficacy and tolerance of the intramuscular treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) with a single injection of pentamidine isethionate, at 7 mg/kg, were compared with those observed, earlier, using two such injections (given 48 h apart). Although 83.6% of the 281 patients given two injections each were cured, the single-injection protocol was generally as effective, curing 78.8% of 137 patients. The single-injection protocol was also associated with fewer adverse effects than the two-injection. In the treatment of "difficult" cases (those with satellite papules or relatively high numbers of amastigotes in their lesions), however, the two-injection protocol appeared significantly more effective than the single-injection. In French Guiana, therefore, patients with CL should be given one injection with pentamidine isethionate and only be given a second, 48 h later, if they have satellite papules and/or relatively high numbers of amastigotes in their lesions.

  20. Flue gas injection control of silica in cooling towers.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brady, Patrick Vane; Anderson, Howard L., Jr.; Altman, Susan Jeanne


    Injection of CO{sub 2}-laden flue gas can decrease the potential for silica and calcite scale formation in cooling tower blowdown by lowering solution pH to decrease equilibrium calcite solubility and kinetic rates of silica polymerization. Flue gas injection might best inhibit scale formation in power plant cooling towers that use impaired makeup waters - for example, groundwaters that contain relatively high levels of calcium, alkalinity, and silica. Groundwaters brought to the surface for cooling will degas CO{sub 2} and increase their pH by 1-2 units, possibly precipitating calcite in the process. Recarbonation with flue gas can lower the pHs of these fluids back to roughly their initial pH. Flue gas carbonation probably cannot lower pHs to much below pH 6 because the pHs of impaired waters, once outgassed at the surface, are likely to be relatively alkaline. Silica polymerization to form scale occurs most rapidly at pH {approx} 8.3 at 25 C; polymerization is slower at higher and lower pH. pH 7 fluids containing {approx}220 ppm SiO{sub 2} require > 180 hours equilibration to begin forming scale whereas at pH 8.3 scale formation is complete within 36 hours. Flue gas injection that lowers pHs to {approx} 7 should allow substantially higher concentration factors. Periodic cycling to lower recoveries - hence lower silica concentrations - might be required though. Higher concentration factors enabled by flue gas injection should decrease concentrate volumes and disposal costs by roughly half.

  1. Dispersive Raman spectroscopy for the in vitro identification and quantification of injected vancomycin intra-vitreous


    Lora, Roney Carlos; Silveira, LandulfoJr.; Zamuner, Stella Regina; Pacheco, Marcos Tadeu Tavares


    This work presents a study which aimed to quantify the intravitreally-injected vancomycin antibiotic using dispersive Raman spectroscopy and Partial Least Squares multivariate calibration. Eyes of New Zealand rabbits were injected with 5.0 mg vancomycin at different time intervals (8, 24 and 48 h groups). Distilled water was injected into the eyes of rabbits in the control group. The vitreous was then removed from each eyeball, placed into a quartz cuvette and submitted for dispersive Raman s...

  2. Injection system for small betatron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zuorygin, V.P.; Chakhlov, V.L.; Pushin, U.S.


    In order to reduce the head loads on the injector electrodes and to raise the efficiency of electron capture during acceleration, small betatrons are provided with an injection system with a controlled three-electrode injector in which injection current pulse with steep leading and trailing edges is formed by the application of a voltage pulse to the control electrode from a separate circuit through a pulse transformer. In a betatron injection system described, elements of the controlled injector of the accelerating chamber are used to correct the shape of the current pulse. The circuit for correcting the current-pulse shape can increase the accelerated charge by the average of 75% per betatron cycle and decrease the heat loads on the electrodes of the injector without the use of a generator of controlling voltage pulses.

  3. Effect of injection timing and injection pressure on the performance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper discusses the feasibility study on the utilization of biodiesel ester of Honge oil (EHO) in common rail direct injection (CRDI) engine. Biodiesel of EHO has been obtained by transesterification process and characterization has been done. Existing single cylinder diesel engine fitted with conventional mechanical ...

  4. Teriparatide (rDNA origin) Injection (United States)

    ... have any questions about how to inject this medication.Teriparatide injection comes in a pen that contains enough medication ... injection.Do not let anyone else use your medication. Never share a teriparatide injection pen. Ask your pharmacist any questions you have ...

  5. Mastering Ninject for dependency injection

    CERN Document Server

    Baharestani, Daniel


    Mastering Ninject for Dependency Injection teaches you the most powerful concepts of Ninject in a simple and easy-to-understand format using lots of practical examples, diagrams, and illustrations.Mastering Ninject for Dependency Injection is aimed at software developers and architects who wish to create maintainable, extensible, testable, and loosely coupled applications. Since Ninject targets the .NET platform, this book is not suitable for software developers of other platforms. Being familiar with design patterns such as singleton or factory would be beneficial, but no knowledge of depende

  6. Injection and extraction magnets: septa

    CERN Document Server

    Barnes, M J; Goddard, B; Hourican, M


    An accelerator has limited dynamic range: a chain of accelerators is required to reach high energy. A combination of septa and kicker magnets is frequently used to inject and extract beam from each stage. The kicker magnets typically produce rectangular field pulses with fast rise- and/or fall-times, however the field strength is relatively low. To compensate for their relatively low field strength, the kicker magnets are generally combined with electromagnetic septa. The septa provide relatively strong field strength but are either DC or slow pulsed. This paper discusses injection and extraction systems with particular emphasis on the hardware required for the septa.

  7. Beam Scraping for LHC Injection

    CERN Document Server

    Burkhardt, H; Fischer, C; Gras, J-J; Koschik, A; Kramer, Daniel; Pedersen, S; Redaelli, S


    Operation of the LHC will require injection of very high intensity beams from the SPS to the LHC. Fast scrapers have been installed and will be used in the SPS to detect and remove any existing halo before beams are extracted, to minimize the probability for quenching of superconducting magnets at injection in the LHC. We briefly review the functionality of the scraper system and report about measurements that have recently been performed in the SPS on halo scraping and re-population of tails.

  8. Cryopreserved human amniotic membrane injection for plantar fasciitis: a randomized, controlled, double-blind pilot study. (United States)

    Hanselman, Andrew E; Tidwell, John E; Santrock, Robert D


    Treatment options for plantar fasciitis have resulted in varied patient outcomes. The aim of this study was to compare a novel treatment, cryopreserved human amniotic membrane (c-hAM), to a traditional treatment, corticosteroid. Our hypothesis was that c-hAM would be safe and comparable to corticosteroids for plantar fasciitis in regard to patient outcomes. A randomized, controlled, double-blind, single-center pilot study was completed. Patients were randomized into one of 2 treatment groups: c-hAM or corticosteroid. Patients received an injection at their initial baseline visit with an option for a second injection at their first 6-week follow-up. Total follow-up was obtained for 12 weeks after the most recent injection. The primary outcome measurement was the Foot Health Status Questionnaire (FHSQ). The secondary outcome measurements were the Visual Analog Scale (VAS) and verbally reported percentage improvement. Data were analyzed between groups for the 2 different cohorts (1 injection versus 2 injections). Twenty-three patients had complete follow-up. Fourteen were randomized to receive corticosteroid and 9 were randomized to receive c-hAM. Three patients in each group received second injections. With the numbers available, the majority of outcome measurements showed no statistical difference between groups. The corticosteroid did, however, have greater FHSQ shoe fit improvement (P = .0244) at 6 weeks, FHSQ general health improvement (P = .0132) at 6 weeks, and verbally reported improvement (P = .041) at 12 weeks in the one-injection cohort. Cryopreserved hAM had greater FHSQ foot pain improvement (P = .0113) at 18 weeks in the 2-injection cohort. Cryopreserved hAM injection may be safe and comparable to corticosteroid injection for treatment of plantar fasciitis. This is a pilot study and requires further investigation. Level I, prospective randomized trial. © The Author(s) 2014.

  9. Temperature Dependence and Magnetic Properties of Injection Molding Tool Materials Used in Induction Heating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guerrier, Patrick; Nielsen, Kaspar Kirstein; Hattel, Jesper Henri


    To analyze the heating phase of an induction heated injection molding tool precisely, the temperature-dependent magnetic properties, B–H curves, and the hysteresis loss are necessary for the molding tool materials. Hence, injection molding tool steels, core materials among other materials have...

  10. Microcellular nanocomposite injection molding process (United States)

    Mingjun Yuan; Lih-Sheng Turng; Rick Spindler; Daniel Caulfield; Chris Hunt


    This study aims to explore the processing benefits and property improvements of combining nanocomposites with microcellular injection molding. The molded parts produced based on the Design of Experiments (DOE) matrices were subjected to tensile testing, impact testing, and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM), Dynamic Mechanical...

  11. Amphotericin B Lipid Complex Injection (United States)

    ... medications, or any of the ingredients in amphotericin B lipid complex injection. Ask your pharmacist for a list of the ingredients.tell your doctor and pharmacist what other prescription and nonprescription medications, vitamins, nutritional supplements, and herbal products you are taking ...

  12. Epidural Injections for Spinal Pain (United States)

    ... one of many methods doctors use to relieve pain, along with physical therapy, oral medications and surgery if a patient is not responding to conservative treatments. An epidural injection may be performed to alleviate pain caused by: A herniated or bulging disk that ...


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives To evaluate the role, safety and efficacy of endoscopic MacroplastiqueTM implants in the management of female stress incontinence. Material and Methods Between 1995 and 1999, transurethral submucosal injection of MacroplastiqueTM was performed in 68 women (mean age 58 years, range 32 — 85 years) ...

  14. Dual-opposite injection capillary electrophoresis: Principles and misconceptions. (United States)

    Blackney, Donna M; Foley, Joe P


    Dual-opposite injection capillary electrophoresis (DOI-CE) is a separation technique that utilizes both ends of the capillary for sample introduction. The electroosmotic flow (EOF) is suppressed to allow all ions to reach the detector quickly. Depending on the individual electrophoretic mobilities of the analytes of interest and the effective length that each analyte travels to the detection window, the elution order of analytes in a DOI-CE separation can vary widely. This review discusses the principles, applications, and limitations of dual-opposite injection capillary electrophoresis. Common misconceptions regarding DOI-CE are clarified. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Dynamics of APC recruitment at the site of injection following injection of vaccine adjuvants. (United States)

    van Aalst, Susan; Ludwig, Irene Stephanie; van Kooten, Peter Johannes Sylvester; van der Zee, Ruurd; van Eden, Willem; Broere, Femke


    Vaccines often contain adjuvants to strengthen the response to the vaccine antigen. However, their modes of action at the site of injection (SOI) are poorly understood. Therefore, we assessed the local effects of adjuvant on the innate immune system in mice. We investigated the safe, widely used adjuvants MF59 and aluminum hydroxide (alum), as well as trehalose-6,6'-dibehenate (TDB), Complete Freund's Adjuvant (CFA) and the Toll-Like-Receptor-ligands lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and Pam3CysSerLys4 (Pam3CSK4). We assessed muscle immune cell infiltration after adjuvant injection and observed 16h post immunization (hpi) an increased influx with CFA, MF59 and TDB, but not with alum, LPS or Pam3CSK4. An elevated influx with the latter three became visible only 72hpi. Contribution of granulocytes, macrophages and dendritic cells to the influx differed per adjuvant and in time. Adjuvants generally induced a local pro-inflammatory micro-milieu that was transient except for CFA and TDB. The gene expression of CXCL-1, CCL-2 and CCL-5, involved in recruitment of immune cells, varied per adjuvant and corresponded grossly with the observed influx of granulocytes and monocytes/macrophages. Muscles injected with CFA or MF59 (when co-injected with peptide) resulted in APC ex vivo capable to induce proliferation of peptide-specific T-cells. By adding in vitro an excess of peptide to the APC/T cell co-cultures, we observed an adjuvant-enhanced co-stimulation or antigen presentation by APC after CFA- but not MF59-injection. After TDB-injection this effect was observed only at 72hpi, but not 24hpi. Thus the cellular influx profile and the local cytokine and chemokine micro-milieu in the muscle were strongly influenced by the type of adjuvant. Additionally, the capacity of muscle APC to load and present antigen was affected by the adjuvant. These findings may assist the development of novel adjuvanted vaccines in a more rational manner. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Sequential injection gas guns for accelerating projectiles (United States)

    Lacy, Jeffrey M [Idaho Falls, ID; Chu, Henry S [Idaho Falls, ID; Novascone, Stephen R [Idaho Falls, ID


    Gas guns and methods for accelerating projectiles through such gas guns are described. More particularly, gas guns having a first injection port located proximate a breech end of a barrel and a second injection port located longitudinally between the first injection port and a muzzle end of the barrel are described. Additionally, modular gas guns that include a plurality of modules are described, wherein each module may include a barrel segment having one or more longitudinally spaced injection ports. Also, methods of accelerating a projectile through a gas gun, such as injecting a first pressurized gas into a barrel through a first injection port to accelerate the projectile and propel the projectile down the barrel past a second injection port and injecting a second pressurized gas into the barrel through the second injection port after passage of the projectile and to further accelerate the projectile are described.

  17. Enhanced Injection Molding Simulation of Advanced Injection Molds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Béla Zink


    Full Text Available The most time-consuming phase of the injection molding cycle is cooling. Cooling efficiency can be enhanced with the application of conformal cooling systems or high thermal conductivity copper molds. The conformal cooling channels are placed along the geometry of the injection-molded product, and thus they can extract more heat and heat removal is more uniform than in the case of conventional cooling systems. In the case of copper mold inserts, cooling channels are made by drilling and heat removal is facilitated by the high thermal conductivity coefficient of copper, which is several times that of steel. Designing optimal cooling systems is a complex process; a proper design requires injection molding simulations, but the accuracy of calculations depends on how precise the input parameters and boundary conditions are. In this study, three cooling circuit designs and three mold materials (Ampcoloy 940, 1.2311 (P20 steel, and MS1 steel were used and compared using numerical methods. The effect of different mold designs and materials on cooling efficiency were examined using calculated and measured results. The simulation model was adjusted to the measurement results by considering the joint gap between the mold inserts.

  18. Flow injection potentiometric determination of amantadine HCl. (United States)

    Abdel-Ghani, Nour T; Shoukry, Adel F; Hussein, Salwa H


    New amantadine (Am) ion selective plastic membrane electrodes of both conventional and coated graphite types based on the ion-pair of amantadinium tetraphenylborate (Am-TPB) ion-pair are prepared. The conventional type electrode was fully characterized in terms of membrane composition, life span, pH, ionic strength and temperature. It was applied to potentiometric determination of amantadine in pure state and pharmaceutical preparation under batch and flow injection conditions. The selectivity of the electrode toward a large number of inorganic cations, sugars and amino acids was tested. The solubility product of the ion-pair and the formation constant of the precipitation reaction leading to the ion-pair formation were determined conductimetrically. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science B.V.

  19. EDITORIAL: Negative ion based neutral beam injection (United States)

    Hemsworth, R. S.


    It is widely recognized that neutral beam injection (NBI), i.e. the injection of high energy, high power, beams of H or D atoms, is a flexible and reliable system that has been the main heating system on a large variety of fusion devices, and NBI has been chosen as one of the three heating schemes of the International Tokomak Reactor (ITER). To date, all the NBI systems but two have been based on the neutralization (in a simple gas target) of positive hydrogen or deuterium ions accelerated to 1 MeV/nucleon. Unfortunately H- and D- are difficult to create, and the very characteristic that makes them attractive, the ease with which the electron is detached from the ion, means that it is difficult to create high concentrations or fluxes of them, and it is difficult to avoid substantial, collisional, losses in the extraction and acceleration processes. However, there has been impressive progress in negative ion sources and accelerators over the past decade, as demonstrated by the two pioneering, operational, multi-megawatt, negative ion based, NBI systems at LHD (180 keV, H0) and JT-60U (500 keV, D0), both in Japan. Nevertheless, the system proposed for ITER represents a substantial technological challenge as an increase is required in beam energy, to 1 MeV, D0, accelerated ion (D-) current, to 40 A, accelerated current density, 200 A m-2 of D-, and pulse length, to 1 h. At the Fourth IAEA Technical Meeting on Negative Ion Based Neutral Beam Injectors, hosted by the Consorzio RFX, Padova, Italy, 9-11 May 2005, the status of the R&D aimed at the realization of the injectors for ITER was presented. Because of the importance of this development to the success of the ITER project, participants at that meeting were asked if they were interested in rewriting and extending their contributions as a submission to Nuclear Fusion. Technology papers were accepted because of the very nature of the subject. The submissions underwent the regular double-referee peer-review process

  20. High-throughput ballistic injection nanorheology to measure cell mechanics (United States)

    Wu, Pei-Hsun; Hale, Christopher M; Chen, Wei-Chiang; Lee, Jerry S H; Tseng, Yiider; Wirtz, Denis


    High-throughput ballistic injection nanorheology is a method for the quantitative study of cell mechanics. Cell mechanics are measured by ballistic injection of submicron particles into the cytoplasm of living cells and tracking the spontaneous displacement of the particles at high spatial resolution. The trajectories of the cytoplasm-embedded particles are transformed into mean-squared displacements, which are subsequently transformed into frequency-dependent viscoelastic moduli and time-dependent creep compliance of the cytoplasm. This method allows for the study of a wide range of cellular conditions, including cells inside a 3D matrix, cell subjected to shear flows and biochemical stimuli, and cells in a live animal. Ballistic injection lasts < 1 min and is followed by overnight incubation. Multiple particle tracking for one cell lasts < 1 min. Forty cells can be examined in < 1 h. PMID:22222790

  1. Field injection of microscale zerovalent iron for groundwater remediation (United States)

    Sethi, Rajandrea; Tosco, Tiziana; Luna, Michela; Gastone, Francesca; Velimirovic, Milica; Gemoets, Johan; Muyshond, Rob; Sapion, Hans; Klaas, Norbert; Bastiaens, Leen


    discharge rate of 1.5 m3/h. The monitoring of the process has been conducted measuring injection rate and pressure as well as iron concentration by means of a magnetic susceptometer. After the injection, the iron distribution in the subsurface was determined through liners extraction and the iron concentration measured both via non-invasive magnetic susceptibility measurements and chemical analysis. Even if the field test was specifically designed to inject in a permeation regime, or on the threshold between permeation and fracturing, the results of monitoring injection pressure and iron distribution proved that particles migration in the porous medium occurred via preferential flow. Results will be presented as well as considerations about critical aspects related to injection via permeation. References 1. Luna, M.; Gastone, F.; Tosco, T.; Sethi, R.; Velimirovic, M.; Bastiaens, L.; Gemoets, J.; Muyshond, R.; Sapion, H.; Klaas, N. Pilot injection of guar gum stabilized microscale zerovalent iron in a shallow aquifer via pressurized well. (in preparation).

  2. From serpentinization to carbonation: New insights from a CO2 injection experiment (United States)

    Klein, Frieder; McCollom, Thomas M.


    We injected a CO2-rich hydrous fluid of seawater chlorinity into an ongoing, mildly reducing (H2(aq)≈3 mmol/kg) serpentinization experiment at 230 °C and 35 MPa to examine the changes in fluid chemistry and mineralogy during mineral carbonation. The chemistry of 11 fluid samples was measured, speciated, and compared with MgO-SiO2-H2O-CO2 (MSHC) phase equilibria to approximate the reaction pathway from serpentinization to carbonation. Although the overall system was in apparent disequilibrium, the speciated activities of dissolved silica (aSiO2(aq)) and carbon dioxide (aCO2(aq)) evolved roughly along MSHC equilibrium phase boundaries, indicative of 4 distinct mineral assemblages over time: (1) serpentine-brucite (± magnesite) before the injection, to (2) serpentine-talc-magnesite 2 h after the injection, to (3) quartz-magnesite (48 h after injection), and (4) metastable olivine-magnesite (623 h after injection) until the experiment was terminated. Inspection of the solid reaction products revealed the presence of serpentine, magnesite, minor talc, and magnetite, in addition to relict olivine. Although quartz was saturated over a short segment of the experiment, it was not found in the solid reaction products. A marked and rapid change in fluid chemistry suggests that serpentinization ceased and precipitation of magnesite initiated immediately after the injection. A sharp decrease in pH after the injection promoted the dissolution of brucite and olivine, which liberated SiO2(aq) and dissolved Mg. Dissolved Mg was efficiently removed from the solution via magnesite precipitation, whereas the formation of talc was relatively sluggish. This process accounts for an increase in aSiO2(aq) to quartz saturation shortly after the injection of the CO2-rich fluid. Molecular dihydrogen (H2(aq)) was generated during serpentinization of olivine by oxidation of ferrous iron before the injection; however, no additional H2(aq) was generated after the injection. Speciation

  3. Injectable agents affecting subcutaneous fats. (United States)

    Chen, David Lk; Cohen, Joel L; Green, Jeremy B


    Mesotherapy is an intradermal or subcutaneous injection of therapeutic agents to induce local effects, and was pioneered in Europe during the 1950s. For the past 2 decades, there has been significant interest in the use of mesotherapy for minimally invasive local fat contouring. Based on the theorized lipolytic effects of the agent phosphatidylcholine, initial attempts involved its injection into subcutaneous tissue. With further studies, however, it became apparent that the activity attributed to phosphatidylcholine mesotherapy was due to the adipolytic effects of deoxycholate, a detergent used to solubilize phosphatidylcholine. Since then, clinical trials have surfaced that demonstrate the efficacy of a proprietary formulation of deoxycholate for local fat contouring. Current trials on mesotherapy with salmeterol, a b-adrenergic agonist and lipolysis stimulator, are underway-with promising preliminary results as well. ©2015 Frontline Medical Communications.

  4. Electrical injection schemes for nanolasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lupi, Alexandra; Chung, Il-Sug; Yvind, Kresten


    threshold current has been achieved with the lateral electrical injection through the BH; while the lowest resistance has been obtained from the current post structure even though this model shows a higher current threshold because of the lack of carrier confinement. Final scope of the simulations......The performance of injection schemes among recently demonstrated electrically pumped photonic crystal nanolasers has been investigated numerically. The computation has been carried out at room temperature using a commercial semiconductor simulation software. For the simulations two electrical...... of 3 InGaAsP QWs on an InP substrate has been chosen for the modeling. In the simulations the main focus is on the electrical and optical properties of the nanolasers i.e. electrical resistance, threshold voltage, threshold current and wallplug efficiency. In the current flow evaluation the lowest...

  5. Reseach on the reduction of rocket motor jet noise by water injection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zou Hao


    Full Text Available Injecting water in the mixing layer of rocket motor jets is a means to reduce jet noise. The calculation of the sound pressure signals at the prescribed receivers was performed by FW-H acoustics model under the condition of water injection and without water injection. The calculation results show that the jet noise is with obvious directivity. The total sound pressure levels are obviously much higher in 10° to 30° direction than that in other direction. The sound pressure levels at the condition of water injected are lower than that of without water injection at the all receiver points, which indicates that water injection can reduce jet noise effectively.

  6. Energetic ion injection and formation of the storm-time symmetric ring current

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Xie


    Full Text Available An extensive study of ring current injection and intensification of the storm-time ring current is conducted with three-dimensional (3-D test particle trajectory calculations (TPTCs. The TPTCs reveal more accurately the process of ring current injection, with the main results being the following: (1 an intense convection electric field can effectively energize and inject plasma sheet particles into the ring current region within 1–3 h. (2 Injected ions often follow chaotic trajectories in non-adiabatic regions, which may have implications in storm and ring current physics. (3 The shielding electric field, which arises as a consequence of enhanced convection and co-exists with the injection and convection electric field, may cause the original open trajectories of injected ions with higher energy to change into closed ones, thus playing a role in the formation of the symmetric ring current.

  7. Spin Injection in Indium Arsenide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark eJohnson


    Full Text Available In a two dimensional electron system (2DES, coherent spin precession of a ballistic spin polarized current, controlled by the Rashba spin orbit interaction, is a remarkable phenomenon that’s been observed only recently. Datta and Das predicted this precession would manifest as an oscillation in the source-drain conductance of the channel in a spin-injected field effect transistor (Spin FET. The indium arsenide single quantum well materials system has proven to be ideal for experimental confirmation. The 2DES carriers have high mobility, low sheet resistance, and high spin orbit interaction. Techniques for electrical injection and detection of spin polarized carriers were developed over the last two decades. Adapting the proposed Spin FET to the Johnson-Silsbee nonlocal geometry was a key to the first experimental demonstration of gate voltage controlled coherent spin precession. More recently, a new technique measured the oscillation as a function of channel length. This article gives an overview of the experimental phenomenology of the spin injection technique. We then review details of the application of the technique to InAs single quantum well (SQW devices. The effective magnetic field associated with Rashba spin-orbit coupling is described, and a heuristic model of coherent spin precession is presented. The two successful empirical demonstrations of the Datta Das conductance oscillation are then described and discussed.

  8. Injectable biopolymer based hydrogels for drug delivery applications. (United States)

    Atta, Sadia; Khaliq, Shaista; Islam, Atif; Javeria, Irtaza; Jamil, Tahir; Athar, Muhammad Makshoof; Shafiq, Muhammad Imtiaz; Ghaffar, Abdul


    Biopolymer based pH-sensitive hydrogels were prepared using chitosan (CS) with polyethylene glycol (PEG) of different molecular weights in the presence of silane crosslinker. The incorporated components remain undissolved in different swelling media as they are connected by siloxane linkage which was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The swelling in water was enhanced by the addition of higher molecular weight PEG. The swelling behaviour of the hydrogels against pH showed high swelling in acidic and basic pH, whereas, low swelling was examined at pH 6 and 7. This characteristic pH responsive behaviour at neutral pH made them suitable for injectable controlled drug delivery. The controlled release analysis of Cefixime (CFX) (model drug) loaded CS/PEG hydrogel exhibited that the entire drug was released in 30 min in simulated gastric fluid (SGF) while in simulated intestinal fluid (SIF), 85% of drug was released in controlled manner within 80 min. This inferred that the developed hydrogels can be an attractive biomaterial for injectable drug delivery with physiological pH and other biomedical applications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Shoulder MRI after impingement test injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergman, A.G. [Department of Radiology, Stanford University Medical Center, CA (United States); Fredericson, M. [Department of Functional Restoration, Division of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Stanford University Medical Center, CA (United States)


    Objective. To determine how long injected fluid from an impingement test remains in the bursa or adjacent soft tissues after an injection. Design and patients. Six patients prospectively underwent MRI of the shoulder immediately before and after an impingement test injection, and at 3 days, 2 weeks and 4 weeks later. MR images were evaluated and graded for fluid distribution within the bursa and adjacent soft tissues. The rotator cuff was evaluated for signal abnormalities related to the injection. Results and conclusion. Three days after the injection, the soft tissue fluid had returned to pre-injection levels or less in five of the six patients. No patients showed rotator cuff signal abnormalities related to the impingement test injection. We recommend a delay of 3 days before a shoulder MR examination after an injection has been performed, to avoid misinterpretations. (orig.) With 3 figs., 1 tab., 7 refs.

  10. Charge Injection and Transport in Organic Nanofibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjelstrup-Hansen, Jakob; Bøggild, Peter; Rubahn, H. G.


    We investigate the carrier injection and transport in individual para-hexaphenylene nanofibers by electrical transport measurements at different temperatures. The injected current shows much weaker temperature dependence than what would be anticipated from a simplistic model that considers...

  11. Automatic Injection Quality Checks for the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Drosdal, L N; Jacquet, D; Gorbonosov, R; Jackson, S; Kain, V; Khasbulatov, D; Misiowiec, M; Wenninger, J; Zamantzas, C


    Twelve injections per beam are required to fill the LHC with the nominal filling scheme. The injected beam needs to fulfill a number of requirements to provide useful physics for the experiments when they take data at collisions later on in the LHC cycle. These requirements are checked by a dedicated software system, called the LHC injection quality check. At each injection, this system receives data about beam characteristics from key equipment in the LHC and analyzes it online to determine the quality of the injected beam after each injection. If the quality is insufficient, the automatic injection process is stopped, and the operator has to take corrective measures. This paper will describe the software architecture of the LHC injection quality check and the interplay with other systems. Results obtained during the LHC run 2011 will finally be presented.

  12. Challenges of titanium metal injection moulding

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Benson, JM


    Full Text Available . With the increased availability of higher quality titanium powder, metal injection moulding offers an attractive method for producing small, intricate components at a reasonable cost. This paper will present an overview of the metal injection moulding process...

  13. Surface micro topography replication in injection moulding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arlø, Uffe Rolf

    Thermoplastic injection moulding is a widely used industrial process that involves surface generation by replication. The surface topography of injection moulded plastic parts can be important for aesthetical or technical reasons. With the emergence of microengineering and nanotechnology additional...

  14. Corticosteroid injections reduce size of rheumatoid nodules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baan, H.; Baan, H.; Haagsma, C.J.; van de Laar, Mart A F J


    Background: Symptomatic rheumatoid nodules are frequently surgically treated. Injection with steroids might be an alternative treatment. Patients and methods: To determine whether injection with triamcinolon acetonide reduces the size of rheumatoid nodules, we randomized twenty patients with

  15. The potential role of Neutral Beam Injection in EU DEMO (United States)

    Vincenzi, Pietro; Artaud, Jean-Francois; Bolzonella, Tommaso; Giruzzi, Gerardo


    EU DEMO studies for pulsed (DEMO1) and steady-state (DEMO2) concepts are currently in the pre-conceptual phase. Present DEMO1 design is based on ITER baseline H-mode scenario, while DEMO2 is based on advanced scenarios with moderate reversed q profile sustained by non-inductive currents. One of the possible flattop heating power systems currently considered is Neutral Beam Injection (NBI). In this work the role of NBI in DEMO1 and DEMO2 is investigated by means of integrated simulations of DEMO scenarios using METIS fast tokamak modelling tool. Limitations, requirements and benefits of the use of a NBI system are discussed. For DEMO1 pulsed concept, the role of NBI is mainly central plasma heating for scenario stability (high fusion power H-mode). As a by-product of the tangential injection, NBI is capable of current drive, which is favorable in order to extend the discharge duration. Regarding a steady-state DEMO2 concept, in addition to plasma heating, NBI becomes a direct actuator for the advanced scenario by driving a considerable part of the plasma current. This requires more than 100MW with off-axis injection. The effect of an increase of the injection energy on the driven current density profile is also presented for DEMO2.

  16. ultrasound-guided shoulder arthrogram injection

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Oct 15, 2008 ... Anterior approach ultrasound-guided arthrogram injections are a quick and reliable way of injecting contrast medium prior to a shoulder. MRI scan. A retrospective study on patients who we had previously injected and scanned at our clinic was undertaken, to compare the more documented posterior ...

  17. The Three Generations of Flow Injection Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Elo Harald; Wang, Jianhua


    The characteristics of the three generations of flow injection analysis, that is, FIA, sequential injection analysis (SIA), and bead injection-lab-on-valve (BI-LOV), are briefly outlined, their individual advantages and shortcomings are discussed, and selected practical applications are presented....


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    conducted to assess the knowledge and practice of injection safety among nurses in UCTH, Calabar using a descriptive research ... revealed that 59.7% of the respondents had good knowledge of injection safety and 66.0% had good practice of injection safety .... and laboratory scientists always used gloves as compared to ...

  19. Injectivity errors in simulation of foam EOR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeftink, T.N.; Latooij, C.A.; Rossen, W.R.


    Injectivity is a key factor in the economics of foam enhanced oil recovery (EOR) processes. Poor injectivity of low-mobility foam slows the production of oil and allows more time for gravity segregation of injected gas. The conventional Peaceman equation (1978), when applied in a large grid block,

  20. 21 CFR 522.1182 - Iron injection. (United States)


    ... follows: (i) For prevention of iron deficiency anemia, inject 100 mg (1 mL) by intramuscular injection at 2 to 4 days of age. (ii) For treatment of iron deficiency anemia, inject 100 mg (1 mL) by... repeated in 14 to 21 days. (ii) For the treatment of anemia due to iron deficiency, administer an...

  1. Abdominal mesotherapy injection extended the absorption of follicle-stimulating hormone. (United States)

    Hsu, Chao-Chin; Kuo, Hsin-Chih; Hsu, Chao-Tien; Gu, Qing


    Abdominal mesotherapy injection of recombinant human FSH (rhFSH) was well tolerated with increased net absorption (AUC0-∞ 4,655.3 IU·h/L and t1/2 247.6 h) up to 360 hours compared with those of 120 hours (AUC0-∞ 1,915.7 IU·h/L and t1/2 101.8 h). The extended absorption of rhFSH suggests that abdominal mesotherapy injection mode be considered for future administration of rhFSH in controlled ovarian hyperstimulation. Copyright © 2011 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Comparison between subcutaneous injection of basic fibroblast growth factor-hydrogel and intracavernous injection of adipose-derived stem cells in a rat model of cavernous nerve injury. (United States)

    Bae, Jang Ho; Shrestha, Kshitiz Raj; Park, Yong Hyun; Kim, In Gul; Piao, Shuyu; Jung, Ae Ryang; Jeon, Seung Hwan; Park, Ki Dong; Lee, Ji Youl


    To compare the effects of subcutaneous penile injection of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF)-hydrogel and intracavernous injection of human adipose-derived stem cells (h-ADSCs) on improving erectile function in a rat model of cavernous nerve injury. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 5 groups (n = 10 per group): age-matched control (normal group), bilateral cavernous nerve injury (BCNI group), penile subcutaneous injection of hydrogel after BCNI (hydrogel group), penile subcutaneous injection of bFGF-hydrogel after BCNI (bFGF-hydrogel group) and intracavernous injection of h-ADSCs after BCNI (ADSC group). Four weeks after the treatment, all rats underwent an erectile function test. Then, penile tissue was harvested for immunohistological analysis of bFGF, phalloidin, and cluster of differentiation (CD) 31. The cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) level of the corpus cavernosum was quantified by cGMP assay. From the functional test and immunohistological result, we observed that bFGF-hydrogel and h-ADSCs injection significantly elevated intracavernous pressure. The evaluation of filamentous actin content, CD31 expression, and cGMP concentration in the corpus cavernosum were meaningfully increased in the bFGF-hydrogel and ADSC groups compared with BCNI group. The bFGF released from bFGF-hydrogel prevented smooth muscle atrophy. Moreover, bFGF expression was significantly increased in bFGF-hydrogel group. The subcutaneous injection of bFGF-hydrogel prevented smooth muscle atrophy, increased the intracavernous pressure, and improved erectile function like an intracavernous injection of h-ADSCs. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Electrical Injection Schemes for Nanolasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lupi, Alexandra; Chung, Il-Sug; Yvind, Kresten


    Three electrical injection schemes based on recently demonstrated electrically pumped photonic crystal nanolasers have been numerically investigated: 1) a vertical p-i-n junction through a post structure; 2) a lateral p-i-n junction with a homostructure; and 3) a lateral p-i-n junction....... For this analysis, the properties of different schemes, i.e., electrical resistance, threshold voltage, threshold current, and internal efficiency as energy requirements for optical interconnects are compared and the physics behind the differences is discussed....

  4. Prediction of the stability of meclofenoxate injection in parenteral admixtures. (United States)

    Koshiro, A; Fujita, T


    A new method for predicting pharmaceutical stability in parenteral admixtures was studied using meclofenoxate hydrochloride injection as a model preparation. The pH and temperature of clinical parenteral admixtures are not constant, unlike experimental buffer solutions, and it is impossible to predict the accurate degradation ratio by the preceding method described by many authors. This study provides a solution to this problem making possible the accurate prediction of degradation ratios of pharmaceuticals even in such complicated systems.

  5. Porous media heat transfer for injection molding (United States)

    Beer, Neil Reginald


    The cooling of injection molded plastic is targeted. Coolant flows into a porous medium disposed within an injection molding component via a porous medium inlet. The porous medium is thermally coupled to a mold cavity configured to receive injected liquid plastic. The porous medium beneficially allows for an increased rate of heat transfer from the injected liquid plastic to the coolant and provides additional structural support over a hollow cooling well. When the temperature of the injected liquid plastic falls below a solidifying temperature threshold, the molded component is ejected and collected.

  6. Compressor Stability Enhancement Using Discrete Tip Injection (United States)

    Suder, Kenneth L.; Hathaway, Michael D.; Thorp, Scott A.; Strazisar, Anthony J.; Bright, Michelle B.


    Mass injection upstream of the tip of a high-speed axial compressor rotor is a stability enhancement approach known to be effective in suppressing small in tip-critical rotors. This process is examined in a transonic axial compressor rotor through experiments and time-averaged Navier-Stokes CFD simulations. Measurements and simulations for discrete injection are presented for a range of injection rates and distributions of injectors around the annulus. The simulations indicate that tip injection increases stability by unloading the rotor tip and that increasing injection velocity improves the effectiveness of tip injection. For the tested rotor, experimental results demonstrate that at 70 percent speed the stalling flow coefficient can be reduced by 30 percent using an injected mass- flow equivalent to 1 percent of the annulus flow. At design speed, the stalling flow coefficient was reduced by 6 percent using an injected mass-fiow equivalent to 2 percent of the annulus flow. The experiments show that stability enhancement is related to the mass-averaged axial velocity at the tip. For a given injected mass-flow, the mass-averaged axial velocity at the tip is increased by injecting flow over discrete portions of the circumference as opposed to full-annular injection. The implications of these results on the design of recirculating casing treatments and other methods to enhance stability will be discussed.

  7. ASICs Do Not Play a Role in Maintaining Hyperalgesia Induced by Repeated Intramuscular Acid Injections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamta Gautam


    Full Text Available Repeated intramuscular acid injections produce long-lasting mechanical hyperalgesia that depends on activation of ASICs. The present study investigated if pH-activated currents in sensory neurons innervating muscle were altered in response to repeated acid injections, and if blockade of ASICs reverses existing hyperalgesia. In muscle sensory neurons, the mean acid-evoked current amplitudes and the biophysical properties of the ASIC-like currents were unchanged following acidic saline injections when compared to neutral pH saline injections or uninjected controls. Moreover, increased mechanical sensitivity of the muscle and paw after the second acid injection was unaffected by local blockade of ASICs (A-317567 in the muscle. As a control, electron microscopic analysis showed that the tibial nerve was undamaged after acid injections. Our previous studies demonstrated that ASICs are important in the development of hyperalgesia to repeated acid injections. However, the current data suggest that ASICs are not involved in maintaining hyperalgesia to repeated intramuscular acid injections.

  8. Thermal degradation of injectable epinephrine. (United States)

    Church, W H; Hu, S S; Henry, A J


    The degradation of epinephrine in USP injectable cartridges was investigated under different heating conditions. Epinephrine (EPI) and EPI sulfonic acid (EPI-SA) levels in 1:10,000 (0.1 mg/mL) EPI injectable solutions subjected to either cyclical (65 degrees C for 8 hr/d for 4 to 12 weeks) or constant (65 degrees C for 7 days) heating were determined using high-pressure liquid chromatography with diode array and electrochemical detection. Constant (169 total hours of heat exposure) heating resulted in complete degradation of both compounds and dark brown discoloration of the solution. Cyclical heating (672 total hours of heat exposure) resulted in a 31% reduction in EPI concentration and a 225% increase in EPI-SA concentration with no discoloration of the solution. In laboratory-prepared solutions, the degradation of EPI and the formation of EPI-SA was found to be dependent on sodium metabisulfite concentration and the duration of cyclical heating. These results indicate that the thermal stability of EPI and the formation of EPI-SA depends on the method of heat exposure and the amount of bisulfite present in the solution.

  9. The LHC injection kicker magnet

    CERN Document Server

    Ducimetière, Laurent; Barnes, M J; Wait, G D


    Proton beams will be injected into LHC at 450 GeV by two kicker magnet systems, producing magnetic field pulses of approximately 900 ns rise time and up to 7.86 s flat top duration. One of the stringent design requirements of these systems is a flat top ripple of less than ± 0.5%. Both injection systems are composed of 4 travelling wave kicker magnets of 2.7 m length each, powered by pulse forming networks (PFN's). To achieve the required kick strength of 1.2 Tm, a low characteristic impedance has been chosen and ceramic plate capacitors are used to obtain 5 Omega. Conductive stripes in the aperture of the magnets limit the beam impedance and screen the ferrite. The electrical circuit has been designed with the help of PSpice computer modelling. A full size magnet prototype has been built and tested up to 60 kV with the magnet under ultra high vacuum (UHV). The pulse shape has been precision measured at a voltage of 15 kV. After reviewing the performance requirements the paper presents the magnet...

  10. Duct injection technology prototype development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harper, S.L. (Babcock and Wilcox Co., Alliance, OH (United States). Research and Development Div.)


    This report describes a test program conducted to determine the corrosion rate of materials in the dry scrubber or duct injection systems. Four materials were evaluated: 1010 carbon steel, Corten, 317SS and Hastelloy C-276. The results show that acidic conditions result in higher corrosion rates than alkaline conditions for all the materials. The carbon steel, Corten and stainless steel show moderate to heavy pitting attack in the acidic environment. For the alkaline conditions, the corrosion rates of carbon steel and Corten were higher than the stainless steel or Hastelloy C-276. Also, the corrosion rate of abraded specimens were four time those of unabraded specimens in the flue gas. It is probable that areas of wall-wetting and plugging in the duct injection process will exhibit high rates of corrosion for the carbon steel, Corten, and stainless steel materials. General corrosion and pitting corrosion will predominate. Additionally, abraded duct areas will corrode at a significantly higher rate than unabraded duct materials. 6 refs., 11 figs., 7 tabs.

  11. Evaluation of stem injection for managing giant reed (Arundo donax). (United States)

    Spencer, David F


    Giant reed is an emergent aquatic plant that may be weedy in riparian habitats. Two herbicides approved for controlling giant reed in the US are glyphosate (N-(phosphonomethyl) glycine) and imazapyr (2-[4,5-dihydro-4-methyl-4-(1-methylethyl)-5-oxo-1H-imidazol-2-yl]-3-pyridinecarboxylic acid). Foliar applications of these herbicides may be restricted in some areas, such as those, which are within the range of threatened or endangered species. We conducted two field experiments at sites in northern and central California. The first experiment evaluated the effects of three aquatic herbicides (glyphosate, imazapyr, and triclopyr [(3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinyl)oxy]acetic acid) injected into all of the stems within a giant reed (5 mL stem(-1)). In this experiment, leaf chlorophyll content, the proportion of living stems, and the number of new stems produced during the year after treatment declined (>80%) following injection of either full strength glyphosate or imazapyr. The effects of injecting full strength triclopyr were considerably less. In a second experiment, different proportions (0, 10%, 25%, or 100%) of the stems within a plant were injected with full strength glyphosate. Results indicated that it was necessary to inject all of the stems within a clump to achieve the greatest reduction in the plant growth characteristics measured. These results imply that giant reed may be successfully controlled by injecting full strength glyphosate (5 mL stem(-1)) into all of the stems within a clump. While labor intensive and thus potentially more costly this method, offers a new method for managing giant reed in sensitive sites where foliar spray applications may be restricted.

  12. Predictors of Injection Cessation and Relapse among Female Sex Workers who Inject Drugs in Two Mexican-US Border Cities. (United States)

    West, Brooke S; Abramovitz, Daniela; Staines, Hugo; Vera, Alicia; Patterson, Thomas L; Strathdee, Steffanie A


    We know little about predictors of injection drug cessation and relapse among female sex workers who inject drugs (FSW-PWID) at the US-Mexico border. Among HIV-negative FSW-PWID taking part in a behavioral intervention study in Tijuana and Ciudad Juárez, Cox regression was used to identify predictors of time to first cessation of injection, which was defined as reporting not having injected drugs for a period of 4 months or longer, and among that subset, we examined predictors of time to injection relapse. Among 440 women, 84 (19%) reported ceasing injection during follow-up (median time to cessation = 9.3 months); of these, 30 (35%) reported relapse to injection (median time to relapse = 3.5 months). The rate of injection cessation was lower for women reporting trading sex prior to age 18 (adj. hazard ratio (HR) = 0.64, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.41-1.01), ever being sexually abused (adj. HR = 0.44, 95% CI = 0.27-0.71), and a higher number of vaginal sex acts with casual clients (adj. HR = 0.99 per transaction, 95% CI = 0.98-1.00). The rate of cessation was higher for women who spent more hours on the streets on a typical day (adj. HR = 1.04/h, 95% CI = 1.01-1.08) and who lived in Tijuana vs. Ciudad Juárez (adj. HR = 2.15, 95% CI = 1.14-4.07). The rate of relapse was higher among women reporting regular drug use with clients (adj. HR = 2.17, 95% CI = 0.96-4.89) and those scoring higher on a risk injection index (adj. HR = 2.04, 95% CI = 1.15-3.61). The rate of relapse was lower for FSW-PWID with higher than average incomes (adj. HR = 0.40, 95% CI = 0.18-0.89). These findings have important implications for the scale-up of methadone maintenance treatment programs (MMTPs) in Mexico and indicate a need for gender-specific programs that address sexual abuse experiences and economic vulnerabilities faced by FSW-PWID.

  13. Prevalence and correlates of neck injection among people who inject drugs in Tijuana, Mexico. (United States)

    Rafful, Claudia; Wagner, Karla D; Werb, Dan; González-Zúñiga, Patricia E; Verdugo, Silvia; Rangel, Gudelia; Strathdee, Steffanie A


    Injecting drugs in the neck has been related to adverse health conditions such as jugular vein thrombosis, deep neck infections, aneurysm, haematomas, airway obstruction, vocal cord paralysis and wound botulism, among others. We identified prevalence and correlates of neck injection among people who inject drugs (PWID) in Tijuana, Mexico. Beginning in 2011, PWID aged ≥18 years who injected drugs within the last month were recruited into a prospective cohort. At baseline and semi-annually, PWID completed interviewer-administered surveys soliciting data on drug-injecting practices. Logistic regression was used to identify predictors of injecting in the neck as the most frequent injection site at a single visit. Of 380 PWID, 35.3% injected in the neck at least once in the past 6 months, among whom 71.6% reported it as their most common injection site, the most common injecting site after the arms (47%). Controlling for age, years injecting and injecting frequency, injecting heroin and methamphetamine two or more times per day and having sought injection assistance were associated with injecting in the neck [adjusted odds ratios (AOR): 2.12; 95% confidence intervals (CI): 1.27-3.53 and AOR: 2.65; 95% CI: 1.52-4.53 respectively]. Injecting in the neck was very common among PWID in Tijuana and was associated with polydrug use and seeking injection assistance. Tailoring harm reduction education interventions for individuals who provide injection assistance ('hit doctors') may allow for the dissemination of safe injecting knowledge to reduce injection-related morbidity and mortality. © 2015 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  14. Vertical Injection of Compact Torus into the STOR-M Tokamak (United States)

    Liu, Dazhi; Livingstone, Stephen; Singh, Ajay K.; Xiao, Chijjin; Hirose, Akira


    The present central fuelling schemes e.g. pellet injection are considered to be insufficient for fuelling the next step fusion device. Among other schemes injection of compact torus (CT) in the plasma is considered to be one of the promising schemes. Nondisruptive tangential CT injection has been demonstrated in the STOR-M tokamak. H-mode triggered by CT injection has been observed. Numerical simulations have shown that vertical CT injection has some advantages over horizontal injection because in the case of vertical injection, CT does not experience drag caused by the gradient in the toroidal magnetic field. In order to investigate the feasibility of vertical CT injection into the tokamak, the USCTI injector has been modified to allow vertical injection. The modification consists of introduction of a right angle bend drift tube after the acceleration region of the CT injector. Preliminary investigations showed that CT follows the bend with some attenuation. We report the results of experiments conducted to study the CT penetration in the STOR-M tokamak and its effect on the tokamak plasma.

  15. Distribution and dynamic pathway of selenium species in selenium-deficient mice injected with (82)Se-enriched selenite. (United States)

    Shigeta, Kaori; Matsumura, Kentaro; Suzuki, Yoshinari; Shinohara, Atsuko; Furuta, Naoki


    In order to elucidate Se metabolism in a living body, (82)Se-enriched selenite was injected intravenously into mice fed Se-adequate and -deficient diets. We studied the time-dependent changes in the distribution of the labeled Se in organs, red blood cells, and plasma. The total Se was determined by flow-injection ICPMS, and Se speciation analysis was conducted by micro-affinity chromatography coupled with low-flow ICPMS. Total Se in almost all organs, including liver, showed the maximum at 1 h after injection. From speciation analysis, exogenous (82)Se as Se-containing proteins other than selenoprotein P (Sel-P) (selenium containing albumin (SeAlb) and extra cellular glutathione peroxidase (eGPx)), peaked at 1 h and quickly decreased from 1 to 6 h after injection, whereas that as Sel-P, peaked at 6 h, and gradually decreased from 6 to 72 h after injection. We found that there were two pathways for the transfer of Se in mice; one was as SeAlb until 1 h after injection, and the other was as Sel-P from 6 to 72 h after injection.

  16. Distinguishing among electron injection types (United States)

    Feynman, J.


    Three types of electron injections taking place in the near-earth region of the magnetotail have been distinguished previously using SCATHA particle and field data. Defining characteristics are given here for each type of event, and the positions of the magnetosphere where they are expected to occur are discussed. These three event types can be difficult to distinguish in data sets that are more limited than the SCATHA set that carried instruments detecting magnetic fields and charged particles over an energy range from eVs to MeVs. It is suggested that determining the magnetospheric regions at which each of these event types occurs will considerably clarify the phenomenological description of substorms available for theoretical analysis.

  17. Manufacturing plastic injection optical molds (United States)

    Bourque, David


    ABCO Tool & Die, Inc. is a mold manufacturer specializing in the manufacturing of plastic injection molds for molded optical parts. The purpose of this presentation is to explain the concepts and procedures required to build a mold that produces precision optical parts. Optical molds can produce a variety of molded parts ranging from safety eyewear to sophisticated military lens parts, which must meet precise optical specifications. The manufacturing of these molds begins with the design engineering of precision optical components. The mold design and the related optical inserts are determined based upon the specific optical criteria and optical surface geometry. The mold manufacturing techniques will be based upon the optical surface geometry requirements and specific details. Manufacturing processes used will be specific to prescribed geometrical surface requirements of the molded part. The combined efforts result in a robust optical mold which can produce molded parts that meet the most precise optical specifications.

  18. Sterile Endophthalmitis after Intravitreal Injections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquín Marticorena


    Full Text Available Sterile endophthalmitis appears as an infrequent complication of intravitreal injections and seems to develop mainly in the context of the off-label use of drugs that have not been conceived for intravitreous administration. The aetiology of sterile endophthalmitis, independently of the administered drug, remains uncertain and a multifactorial origin cannot be discarded. Sterile inflammation secondary both to intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide and to intravitreal bevacizumab share many characteristics such as the acute and painless vision loss present in the big majority of the cases. Dense vitreous opacity is a common factor, while anterior segment inflammation appears to be mild to moderate. In eyes with sterile endophthalmitis, visual acuity improves progressively as the intraocular inflammation reduces without any specific treatment. If by any chance the ophthalmologist is not convinced by the sterile origin of the inflammation, this complication must be treated as an acute endophthalmitis because of the devastating visual prognosis of this intraocular infection in the absence of therapy.

  19. Ataxia and cranial neuropathies from subcutaneously injected elemental mercury. (United States)

    Malkani, Roneil; Weinstein, Jill M; Kumar, Neeraj; Victor, Thomas A; Bernstein, Lawrence


    CONTEXT. Although neurological toxicity from elemental mercury vapor and organic mercury exposure has been commonly reported in the literature, it is rarely reported from soft tissue injection of elemental mercury. We present a case of neurological dysfunction from subcutaneous injection of elemental mercury. CASE DETAILS. A 35-year-old Latin American man subacutely developed gait ataxia, diplopia, and vomiting 1 year after subcutaneous injection of elemental mercury, a practice common in Afro-Caribbean and Latin-American cultures. Physical examination showed an indurated plaque on his right shoulder at the injection site, left third nerve and bilateral sixth nerve palsies, nystagmus, dysarthria, and gait and limb ataxia. The patient's serum and 24-h urine mercury levels were significantly elevated; he underwent excision of the mercury reservoir and chelation with dimercaptosuccinic acid but experienced only mild improvement after 1 year. DISCUSSION. Neurological sequelae from elemental mercury, specifically cognitive dysfunction, tremor, cortical myoclonus, and peripheral neuropathy, have been reported but cranial neuropathies, ataxia, cerebrospinal fluid pleocytosis, and the presence of anti-Purkinje cell type-Tr antibody have not. Treatment involves removal of any existing mercury reservoir and chelation; however, improvement in neurological dysfunction after treatment has rarely been reported in the literature.

  20. Cerro Prieto cold water injection: effects on nearby production wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Truesdell, A.H.; Lippmann, M.J.; De Leon, J.; Rodriguez, M.H.


    The liquid-dominated Cerro Prieto geothermal field of northern Baja California, Mexico has been under commercial exploitation since 1973. During the early years of operation, all waste brines were sent to an evaporation pond built west of the production area. In 1989, cooled pond brines began to be successfully injected into the reservoir along the western boundary of the geothermal system. The injection rate varied over the years, and is at present about 20% of the total fluid extracted. As expected under the continental desert conditions prevailing in the area, the temperature and salinity of the pond brines change with the seasons, being higher during the summer and lower during the winter. The chemistry of pond brines is also affected by precipitation of silica, oxidation of H{sub 2}S and reaction with airborne clays. Several production wells in the western part of the field (CP-I area) showed beneficial effects from injection. The chemical (chloride, isotopic) and physical (enthalpy, flow rate) changes observed in producers close to the injectors are reviewed. Some wells showed steam flow increases, in others steam flow decline rates flattened. Because of their higher density, injected brines migrated downward in the reservoir and showed up in deep wells.

  1. Injection Technique and Pen Needle Design Affect Leakage From Skin After Subcutaneous Injections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Præstmark, Kezia Ann; Stallknecht, Bente; Jensen, Morten Lind


    BACKGROUND: After a subcutaneous injection fluid might leak out of the skin, commonly referred to as leakage or backflow. The objective was to examine the influence of needle design and injection technique on leakage after injections in the subcutaneous tissue of humans and pigs. METHOD: Leakage...... data were obtained from a post hoc analysis of clinical trial data and from a pig study. Data from the clinical study were used to determine leakage as a function of injection volume, speed and region. Data from the pig study were used to determine leakage as a function of needle wall thickness, needle...... taper, injection angle, and wait time from end of injection to withdrawal of needle from skin. RESULTS: Leakage volume was positively related to injection volume. Injections in the abdomen caused less leakage than thigh injections. A 32G needle caused less leakage than a 31G and a 32G tip (tapered...

  2. Faster onset and more comfortable injection with alkalinized 2% lidocaine with epinephrine 1:100,000. (United States)

    Malamed, Stanley F; Tavana, Susan; Falkel, Mic


    The pH of lidocaine with epinephrine in dental cartridges ranges between 2.9 and 4.4. In this pH range, less than 0.1% of the anesthetic is in the de-ionized or "active" form. The acidity of the anesthetic may delay onset and contribute to injection pain. The study compared anesthetic latency and injection pain for alkalinized versus non-alkalinized anesthetic in inferior alveolar nerve blocks (IANBs). The study buffered the anesthetic directly in the cartridges using a mixing pen device. The study included 20 participants, each receiving one control and one test IANB injection. The control solution was non-alkalinized 2% lidocaine/epinephrine 1:100,000 at pH 3.85. The test solution was 2% lidocaine/ epinephrine 1:100,000 alkalinized to pH 7.31. Latency was measured using endodontic ice confirmed with an electric pulp tester (EPT), and injection pain was measured using a visual analog scale (VAS). ONSET TIME: With the alkalinized anesthetic, 71% of participants achieved pulpal analgesia in 2 minutes or less. With non-alkalinized anesthetic, 12% achieved pulpal analgesia in 2 minutes or less (P = 0.001). The average time to pulpal analgesia for the non-alkalinized anesthetic was 6:37 (range 0:55 to 13:25). Average time to pulpal analgesia for alkalinized anesthetic was 1:51 (range 0:11 to 6:10) (P = 0.001). INJECTION PAIN RESULTS: 72% of the participants rated the alkalinized injection as more comfortable, 11% rated the non-alkalinized injection as more comfortable, and 17% reported no preference (P = 0.013). Forty-four percent of the patients receiving alkalinized anesthetic rated the injection pain as zero ("no pain") on a 100-mm VAS, compared to 6% of the patients who received non-alkalinized anesthetic (P = 0.056). Alkalinizing lidocaine with epinephrine toward physiologic pH immediately before injection significantly reduces anesthetic onset time and increases the comfort of the injection. Clinicians can begin procedures more quickly and give a more comfortable

  3. Injectable Corticosteroids: Take Precautions and Use Caution. (United States)

    Freire, Véronique; Bureau, Nathalie J


    Corticosteroids are routinely injected into soft tissues, tendon sheaths, bursae, and joints. These anti-inflammatory agents have different potency and solubility, and solubility is inversely correlated with the duration of action. Corticosteroids carry a low risk of complications but commonly cause systemic and local adverse effects. The use of intra-articular corticosteroid injections in the treatment of inflammatory arthritis and osteoarthritis is well established. Evidence also supports the use of injectable corticosteroids in the treatment of inflammatory tenosynovitis and bursitis associated with rheumatic diseases, trigger finger and de Quervain disease, and carpal tunnel syndrome. The role of corticosteroid injections in the management of rotator cuff disease remains unclear. Strong scientific evidence indicates that corticosteroid injections for lateral epicondylosis worsen the long-term outcomes of patients. This review article discusses the considerations related to the use of corticosteroid injections in the management of nonspinal musculoskeletal conditions. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  4. Controlling Beamloss at Injection into the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Goddard, B; Appleby, R B; Bartmann, W; Baudrenghien, P; Boccone, V; Bracco, C; Brugger, M; Cornelis, K; Dehning, B; del Busto, E; Di Mauro, A; Drosdal, L; Höfle, W; Holzer, E B; Jacobsson, R; Kain, V; Meddahi, M; Mertens, V; Nordt, A; Uythoven, J; Valuch, D; Weisz, S


    Losses at injection into the superconducting LHC can adversely affect the machine performance in several important ways. The high injected beam intensity and energy mean that precautions must be taken against damage and quenches, including collimators placed close to the beam in the injection regions. Clean injection is essential, to avoid spurious signals on the sensitive beam loss monitoring system which will trigger beam dumps. In addition, the use of the two injection insertions to house downstream high energy physics experiments brings constraints on permitted beam loss levels. In this paper the sources of injection beam loss are discussed together with the contributing factors and various issues experienced in the first full year of LHC operation. Simulations are compared with measurement, and the implemented and planned mitigation measures and diagnostic improvements are described. An outlook for future LHC operation is given.

  5. Examination of injection moulded thermoplastic maize starch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)


    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the effect of the different injection moulding parameters and storing methods on injection moulded thermoplastic maize starch (TPS. The glycerol and water plasticized starch was processed in a twin screw extruder and then with an injection moulding machine to produce TPS dumbbell specimens. Different injection moulding set-ups and storing conditions were used to analyse the effects on the properties of thermoplastic starch. Investigated parameters were injection moulding pressure, holding pressure, and for the storage: storage at 50% relative humidity, and under ambient conditions. After processing the mechanical and shrinkage properties of the manufactured TPS were determined as a function of the ageing time. While conditioning, the characteristics of the TPS changed from a soft material to a rigid material. Although this main behaviour remained, the different injection moulding parameters changed the characteristics of TPS. Scanning electron microscope observations revealed the changes in the material on ageing.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Injection is key in the low-loss design of high-intensity proton facilities like the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS). During the design of both the accumulator and the rapid-cycling-synchrotron version of the SNS, extensive comparison has been made to select injection scenarios that satisfy SNS's low-loss design criteria. This paper presents issues and considerations pertaining to the final choice of the SNS injection systems.

  7. Waterflooding injectate design systems and methods (United States)

    Brady, Patrick V.; Krumhansl, James L.


    A method of recovering a liquid hydrocarbon using an injectate includes recovering the liquid hydrocarbon through primary extraction. Physico-chemical data representative of electrostatic interactions between the liquid hydrocarbon and the reservoir rock are measured. At least one additive of the injectate is selected based on the physico-chemical data. The method includes recovering the liquid hydrocarbon from the reservoir rock through secondary extraction using the injectate.

  8. Side effects of corticosteroid injections: what's new? (United States)

    Berthelot, Jean-Marie; Le Goff, Benoît; Maugars, Yves


    The risk of sepsis with a hip or knee implant does not seem to be increased by prior joint injections, as long as the injection and surgery are separated by at least two months. Calcifications have been reported after intradiscal injection in the coccygeal region for coccydynia. Complete rest for 24 hours after injection of triamcinolone hexacetonide into the knee had no effect on systemic diffusion of the product. Patients infected by HIV who are treated with ritonavir are at much greater risk for Cushing syndrome after epidural injection. Problems with menstruation after corticosteroid injection seem to be related to a transient decrease in estradiol levels, without alterations in FSH and LH levels. The risk of central serous chorioretinopathy and acute necrosis of the retina after injection is not known, even by ophthalmologists. Transient dysphonia occurs in 12% of patients receiving corticosteroid injections. The impressive Tachon's syndrome seems to be the venous counterpart to Nicolau's syndrome for arteries. Injections into C1-C2 should be abandoned because of the neurological risks. Since serious neurological events after foraminal injections could be the result of an overly fast injection into the arterialized radicular veins rather than in the arteries, only slow injections with products having a low risk of embolism or vascular complications should be allowed. Dexamethasone-based preparations seem to contain no particles or crystals, and have not induced any neurological accidents in various animal models, even after direct administration into vertebral or carotid arteries. Copyright © 2012 Société française de rhumatologie. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Non-injection Drug Use and Injection Initiation Assistance among People Who Inject Drugs in Tijuana, Mexico. (United States)

    Ben Hamida, Amen; Rafful, Claudia; Jain, Sonia; Sun, Shelly; Gonzalez-Zuniga, Patricia; Rangel, Gudelia; Strathdee, Steffanie A; Werb, Dan


    Although most people who inject drugs (PWID) report receiving assistance during injection initiation events, little research has focused on risk factors among PWID for providing injection initiation assistance. We therefore sought to determine the influence of non-injection drug use among PWID on their risk to initiate others. We used generalized estimating equation (GEE) models on longitudinal data among a prospective cohort of PWID in Tijuana, Mexico (Proyecto El Cuete IV), while controlling for potential confounders. At baseline, 534 participants provided data on injection initiation assistance. Overall, 14% reported ever initiating others, with 4% reporting this behavior recently (i.e., in the past 6 months). In a multivariable GEE model, recent non-injection drug use was independently associated with providing injection initiation assistance (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 2.42, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.39-4.20). Further, in subanalyses examining specific drug types, recent non-injection use of cocaine (AOR = 9.31, 95% CI = 3.98-21.78), heroin (AOR = 4.00, 95% CI = 1.88-8.54), and methamphetamine (AOR = 2.03, 95% CI = 1.16-3.55) were all significantly associated with reporting providing injection initiation assistance. Our findings may have important implications for the development of interventional approaches to reduce injection initiation and related harms. Further research is needed to validate findings and inform future approaches to preventing entry into drug injecting.

  10. Injection molding ceramics to high green densities (United States)

    Mangels, J. A.; Williams, R. M.


    The injection molding behavior of a concentrated suspension of Si powder in wax was studied. It was found that the injection molding behavior was a function of the processing techniques used to generate the powder. Dry ball-milled powders had the best molding behavior, while air classified and impact-milled powders demonstrated poorer injection moldability. The relative viscosity of these molding batches was studied as a function of powder properties: distribution shape, surface area, packing density, and particle morphology. The experimental behavior, in all cases, followed existing theories. The relative viscosity of an injection molding composition composed of dry ball-milled powders could be expressed using Farris' relation.

  11. Injection of Fluids into Supercritical Environments

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Oschwald, M


    This paper summarizes and compares the results of systematic research programs at two independent laboratories regarding the injection of cryogenic liquids at subcritical and supercritical pressures...

  12. DC injection into low voltage AC networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This report summarises the results of a study investigating the impact of levels of injected DC current injections on a low voltage AC distribution network systems in order to recommend acceptable limits of DC from microgeneration. Relevant literature is reviewed, and the impact of DC levels in distribution transformers, transformer modelling, and instrumental transformers are discussed. The impact of DC in residual current devices (RCD) and in domestic electricity watt hour meters is examined along with DC enhanced corrosion, corrosion failure, and the measurement of DC current injection. Sources of DC injection outlined include DC from computer power supplies, network faults, geomagnetic phenomena, lighting circuits/dimmers, and embedded generators.

  13. Subdural injection: report of two cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cadavid-Puentes, Adriana


    Full Text Available Two cases are reported of accidental subdural injection during epidural procedures for pain control. The first one was a man with chronic lumbar pain who suffered such complication during an epidural injection of steroids using the interlaminar approach. The second one was a woman with intracranial hypotension syndrome who required the application of an epidural blood patch in order to control multiple CSF fistulae. The procedure had to be aborted twice due to the subdural pattern observed after injection of the contrast medium. Accidental subdural block is a rare complication of epidural injection for analgesic or anesthetic procedures.

  14. Nicolau Syndrome after Intramuscular Injection: 3 Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seok-Kwun Kim


    Full Text Available Nicolau syndrome is a rare complication of intramuscular injection consisting of ischemic necrosis of skin, soft tissue, and muscular tissue that arises locoregionally. The characteristic pattern is pain around the injection site, developing into erythema, a livedoid dermatitis patch, and necrosis of the skin, subcutaneous fat, and muscle tissue. Three patients were injected with drugs (diclofenac sodium, ketoprofen, meperidine for pain relief. Three patients complained of pain, and a skin lesion was observed, after which necrosis developed on their buttocks. Each patient underwent debridement and coverage. The wound healed uneventfully. We report three cases of Nicolau syndrome in the buttocks following diclofenac intramuscular injection.

  15. Administration of Injectable Vitamin K Orally. (United States)

    Afanasjeva, Janna


    Background: Vitamin K, or phytonadione, is available in both injectable and oral formulations. Oral vitamin K is available as 5-mg tablets, but the key drawbacks for using vitamin K tablets consist of availability of only 1 dose strength and recent tripling of the product's cost over a 2-year period. An interest exists for utilization of injectable vitamin K via oral route. Method: A literature search was performed on April 26, 2017, to identify any studies describing the use of injectable vitamin K for oral administration. The search involved PubMed and Embase and utilized various combinations of keywords vitamin K, phytonadione, IV, intravenous, injectable, and oral. The results were limited to studies that discussed oral administration of injectable vitamin K. The efficacy of the injectable preparation of vitamin K administered orally was explored in 6 studies and one cost-savings project. Results: Based on the available literature, the administration of injectable vitamin K via oral route is effective and safe. Injectable vitamin K for oral administration can be prepared as an undiluted solution or as a compounded solution. These 2 formulations have different beyond-use dates depending on ingredients used. Conclusion: Information on efficacy and stability of injectable vitamin K formulations prepared for oral administration provides an additional option for health care systems when vitamin K tablets are unavailable or cost-prohibitive to use.

  16. Characterization of a polyvinyl alcohol-hydrogel artificial articular cartilage prepared by injection molding. (United States)

    Kobayashi, Masanori; Oka, Masanori


    We have developed a hip hemi-arthroplasty using polyvinyl alcohol-hydrogel (PVA-H) as the treatment for hip joint disorders in which the lesion is limited to the joint surface. In previous studies, we characterized the biocompatibility and the mechanical properties of PVA-H as an arthroplasty material. To fix PVA-H firmly to the bone, we have devised an implant composed of PVA-H and porous titanium fiber mesh (TFM). However, because of poor infiltration of the PVA solution into the pores of the TFM when using the low temperature crystallization method, the strength of the PVA-H-TFM interface was insufficient. Consequently, the infiltration method was improved by adopting high-pressure injection molding. With this improved method, the bonding strength of the interface increased remarkably. However, as this injection molding requires high temperature, various mechanical properties of the PVA-H might change with this treatment in comparison with the previous method. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of high temperature treatment on the mechanical properties of PVA-H as artificial articular cartilage, the tensile test and friction test were performed about new PVA-H. The results showed no significant mechanical deterioration of the PVA-H. This certified that the injection-molding method did not induce the change of the mechanical properties of PVA-H and indicated the potential of hemi-arthroplasty using PVA-H by this method in the future.

  17. [Flow injection biamperometric analysis of isoniazid]. (United States)

    Zhang, J C; Zhao, C; Song, J F


    To establish a simple, rapid, and accurate electrochemical method for on-line determination of isoniazid. Based on the flow injection biamperometry for irreversible couple system, and using two preanodized platinum electrodes with the applied potential difference of 0 V, the biamperometric method for the determination of isoniazid has been proposed by coupling the catalytic oxidation of isoniazid and the reduction of platinum oxide. Common excipients, inorganic ions, amino acids, vitamins and proteins do not interfere with the determination. Linear relationship between current and the concentration of isoniazid is obtained in the range of 1.0 x 10(-6)-1.0 x 10(-4) mol.L-1 (gamma = 0.998, n = 11). The RSD of 1.8% was obtained for 8 successive determinations of 1.0 x 10(-5) mol.L-1 isoniazid. The proposed method has been shown to be sensitive, selective, rapid (120 samples.h-1), and suitable for the on-line direct determination of isoniazid.

  18. Injectable shear-thinning nanoengineered hydrogels for stem cell delivery (United States)

    Thakur, Ashish; Jaiswal, Manish K.; Peak, Charles W.; Carrow, James K.; Gentry, James; Dolatshahi-Pirouz, Alireza; Gaharwar, Akhilesh K.


    Injectable hydrogels are investigated for cell encapsulation and delivery as they can shield cells from high shear forces. One of the approaches to obtain injectable hydrogels is to reinforce polymeric networks with high aspect ratio nanoparticles such as two-dimensional (2D) nanomaterials. 2D nanomaterials are an emerging class of ultrathin materials with a high degree of anisotropy and they strongly interact with polymers resulting in the formation of shear-thinning hydrogels. Here, we present 2D nanosilicate reinforced kappa-carrageenan (κCA) hydrogels for cellular delivery. κCA is a natural polysaccharide that resembles native glycosaminoglycans and can form brittle hydrogels via ionic crosslinking. The chemical modification of κCA with photocrosslinkable methacrylate groups renders the formation of a covalently crosslinked network (MκCA). Reinforcing the MκCA with 2D nanosilicates results in shear-thinning characteristics, and enhanced mechanical stiffness, elastomeric properties, and physiological stability. The shear-thinning characteristics of nanocomposite hydrogels are investigated for human mesenchymal stem cell (hMSC) delivery. The hMSCs showed high cell viability after injection and encapsulated cells showed a circular morphology. The proposed shear-thinning nanoengineered hydrogels can be used for cell delivery for cartilage tissue regeneration and 3D bioprinting.

  19. "Injection first": a unique group of injection drug users in Tijuana, Mexico. (United States)

    Morris, Meghan D; Brouwer, Kimberly C; Lozada, Remedios M; Gallardo, Manuel; Vera, Alicia; Strathdee, Steffanie A


    Using baseline data from a study of injection drug users (IDUs) in Tijuana, Mexico (N = 1,052), we identified social and behavioral factors associated with injecting at the same age or earlier than other administration routes of illicit drug use (eg, "injection first") and examined whether this IDU subgroup had riskier drug using and sexual behaviors than other IDUs. Twelve-percent "injected first." Characteristics independently associated with a higher odds of "injection first" included being younger at first injection, injecting heroin as their first drug, being alone at the first injection episode, and having a sexual debut at the same age or earlier as when they initiated drug use; family members' illicit drug use was associated with lower odds of injecting first. When adjusting for age at first injection and number of years injecting, "injection first" IDUs had lower odds of ever overdosing, and ever trading sex. On the other hand, they were less likely to have ever been enrolled in drug treatment, and more commonly obtained their syringes from potentially unsafe sources. In conclusion, a sizable proportion of IDUs in Tijuana injected as their first drug using experience, although evidence that this was a riskier subgroup of IDUs was inconclusive.  Copyright © American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry.

  20. Comparison of Intramuscular or Subcutaneous Injections vs. Castration in Pigs—Impacts on Behavior and Welfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John McGlone


    Full Text Available Physical castration (PC is painful and stressful for nursing piglets. One alternative to PC is immunological castration (IC, but the pain and stress of handling associated with injections have not been assessed. The objectives of this study were to measure the pain and distress of subcutaneous (SQ and intramuscular (IM injections compared to PC in piglets, and to compare SQ or IM injections in finishing pigs. After farrowing, 3 to 5 d old male piglets were randomly assigned to (control no handling treatment (NO, sham-handling (SHAM, IM, SQ, or PC. Finishing pigs were assigned to NO, SHAM, IM, or SQ. Behavior was monitored for 1 h prior and 1 h post treatment in each age group. Social, feeding behaviors, and signs of pain were recorded. Finishing pigs treated with SQ injections had higher feeding behaviors pre-treatment than they did post-treatment. Overall, physical castrations caused measurable pain-like behaviors and general behavioral dysregulation at a much higher level than the other treatment groups. SQ and IM injections did not cause either significant behavioral or physiological alterations in piglets. SQ injections caused a decrease in finishing pig feed behaviors post treatment ( p = 0.02 and SHAM treated finishing pigs spent significantly more time lying than the other treatment groups. In general IM and SQ injections did not cause any other significant changes in behavior or physiology.

  1. Electroacupuncture Reduces Hyperalgesia after Injections of Acidic Saline in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Yung dos Santos Maciel


    Full Text Available Background. Injections of acidic saline into the gastrocnemius muscle in rats produce a bilateral long-lasting hyperalgesia similar to fibromyalgia in humans. No previous study investigated the effect of electroacupuncture (EA on this acidic saline model. This study aimed to identify the effects of EA in the hyperalgesia produced by repeated intramuscular injections of acidic saline. Methods. Rats were divided into four groups (n=6, each group: control, acupuncture, EA 15 Hz, and 100 Hz. Left gastrocnemius muscle was injected with 100 μL of pH 4.0 sterile saline twice five days apart. EA, acupuncture, or control therapy was daily administered (20 min for 5 consecutive days under anesthesia. Needles were placed in the St36 and Sp6 acupoints. The assessment of secondary mechanical hyperalgesia, thermal hyperalgesia, and motor performance was performed before injections and before and after the treatment performed on each day. The paw withdrawal threshold was tested using the nonparametric Kruskal-Wallis test and differences within the group Wilcoxon Matched Pairs. The latency and motor performance were tested for ANOVA parametric test for independent measures, and for differences in the group, we used t-test for paired samples. Post hoc Tukey test was used for multiple corrections. P values ​​less than 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results. Indicate that there was a significant reduction of mechanical withdrawal threshold and paw withdrawal latency 24 hours following the second injection. Moreover, mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia were significantly reversed by EA 15, 100 Hz, and acupuncture. Conclusions. The results suggest that EA high and low frequency as well as acupuncture are effective in reducing hyperalgesia in chronic muscle pain model.

  2. Xanthelasma-Like Reaction to Filler Injection. (United States)

    Or, Lior; Eviatar, Joseph A; Massry, Guy G; Bernardini, Francesco P; Hartstein, Morris E

    The purpose of this study is to describe a new complication of a xanthelasma-like reaction which appeared after dermal filler injection in the lower eyelid region. A retrospective case analysis was performed on 7 patients presenting with xanthelasma-like reaction after filler injection to the lower eyelids. Seven female subjects with no history of xanthelasma presented with xanthelasma-like reaction in the lower eyelids post filler injection. Fillers included hyaluronic acid (2 patients), synthetic calcium hydroxyapatite (4 patients), and polycaprolactone microspheres (one patient). Average time interval between filler injection and development of xanthelasma-like reaction was 12 months (range: 6-18 months). Treatment included steroid injections, 5FU injections, ablative or fractionated CO2 laser, and direct excision. Pathology confirmed the lesion was a true xanthelasma in one patient. In treated patients, there was subtotal resolution after laser. Xanthelasma-like reaction resolved completely after direct excision. Three patients elected to have no treatment. Previously there has been one reported case of xanthelasma after filler injection. This case series is the largest to date. Furthermore, this series is notable because xanthelasma-like reactions appeared after injection with 3 different types of fillers. None of the patients had evidence of xanthelasma prefiller injection. The precise mechanism by which filler injection can lead to the formation of xanthelasma-like reaction is unclear. A possible mechanism may be related to binding of low-density lipoprotein and internalization by macrophages. Further investigation is required. Nevertheless, physicians performing filler injections should be aware of this new complication and treatment options.

  3. Spectrophotometric flow injection monitoring of sulfide during sugar fermentation. (United States)

    Silva, Claudineia R; Barros, Valdemir A F; Basso, Luiz C; Zagatto, Elias A G


    A spectrophotometric flow injection procedure involving N,N-dimethyl-p-phenylenediamine (DMPD) is applied to the sulfide monitoring of a sugar fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae under laboratory conditions. The gaseous chemical species evolving from the fermentative process, mainly CO(2), are trapped allowing a cleaned sample aliquot to be collected and introduced into the flow injection analyzer. Measurement rate, signal repeatability, detection limit and reagent consumption per measurement were estimated as 150 h(-1), 0.36% (n=20), 0.014 mg L(-1) S and 120 μg DMPD, respectively. The main characteristics of the monitoring record are discussed. The strategy is worthwhile for selecting yeast strain, increasing the industrial ethanol production and improving the quality of wines. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Development of Lingzhi or Reishi medicinal mushroom, Ganoderma lucidum (Higher Basidiomycetes) polysaccharides injection formulation. (United States)

    Jiang, Yuji; He, Anle; Liu, Yanhong; Xie, Baogui; Li, Ye; Deng, Youjin; Liu, Xinrui; Liu, Qichao


    Biochemical and pharmacological research has demonstrated that Lingzhi or Reishi medicinal mushroom Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides (GLPS) have significant anticancer, antitumor, and antioxidant activities. To investigate the effect of injecting GLPS into hosts for clinical studies, aqueous polysaccharide extracts from G. lucidum fruit bodies were purified by deproteinization using the Sevage method, anion-exchange chromatography elution (cellulose DEAE-52 chromatography), dialysis, ethanol precipitation, and active carbon and millipore membrane filtration techniques. The purified GLPS were used for injection in mice. Polysaccharide indexes, protein, tannin, heavy metal, arsenic salt, oxalate, potassium ion, resin, pH, ignition residue measurements, evaluation criterion for allergic reactions, and total solids content of the GLPS injection were all performed using the reference methods in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia. Our results showed that polysaccharide was the key component of injection mixtures. The ignition residue and total solids content in the injection mixture were 1.4% and 2.4%, respectively. The other indices were all within the expected safety ranges. Furthermore, studies from mice functional assays showed that the injection mixture improved the antifatigue capacity of mice without any effect on weight loss/gain. In addition, the injection mixture was safe, which was confirmed by allergy testing in guinea pigs. The development of a GLPS injection offers a novel approach for future medicinal mushroom utilization and holds great commercial promise.

  5. The inhibitory effect of locally injected dexmedetomidine on carrageenan-induced nociception in rats. (United States)

    Honda, Yuka; Higuchi, Hitoshi; Matsuoka, Yoshikazu; Yabuki-Kawase, Akiko; Ishii-Maruhama, Minako; Tomoyasu, Yumiko; Maeda, Shigeru; Morimatsu, Hiroshi; Miyawaki, Takuya


    Recent studies showed that the administration of dexmedetomidine relieved hyperalgesia in the presence of neuropathic pain. These findings have led to the hypothesis that the local administration of dexmedetomidine is useful for relieving acute inflammatory nociception, such as postoperative pain. Thus, we evaluated the inhibitory effect of locally injected dexmedetomidine on acute inflammatory nociception. Acute inflammatory nociception was induced by an intraplantar injection of 1% carrageenan into the hindpaws of rats, and dexmedetomidine was also injected combined with carrageenan. The paw withdrawal threshold based on von Frey filament stimulation was measured until 12 h after injection. We compared the area under the time-curve (AUC) between carrageenan and carrageenan with dexmedetomidine. To clarify that the action of dexmedetomidine was via α2-adrenoceptors, we evaluated the effect of yohimbine, a selective antagonist of α2-adrenoceptors, on the anti-nociception of dexmedetomidine. As the results, the intraplantar injection of carrageenan with over 10 μM dexmedetomidine significantly increased AUC, compared to that with only carrageenan injection. This effect of dexmedetomidine was reversed by the addition of yohimbine to carrageenan and dexmedetomidine. These results demonstrated that the locally injected dexmedetomidine was effective against carrageenan-induced inflammatory nociception via α2-adrenoceptors. The findings suggest that the local injection of dexmedetomidine is useful for relieving local acute inflammatory nociception. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Effects of cold water injection on injectivity impairment due to suspended particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bedrikovetsky, Pavel; Fonseca, Diogo R. [Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense (UENF), Campos dos Goytacases, RJ (Brazil); Paiva, Ronaldo O. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)


    This paper presents an analytical model to interpret pressure injection data following cold-water injection into a hot-oil reservoir. The injected water contains solid and liquid particles causing permeability decline. The relative permeability characteristics of the porous medium are accounted for, as is the temperature dependence of the fluid mobilities. It is shown that the temperature difference between injected and formation waters and the water-oil mobility variation have significant effects on the pressure data during the impairment of rock by particles from the injected suspension. The matching of field data to type curves generated from analytical solutions provides estimates of the formation damage parameters - filtration and formation damage coefficients, critical porosity ratio and cake permeability. The effect of injected water temperature on well injectivity decline is particularly sounded for cold water injection into heavy oil reservoirs. (author)

  7. Injecting Risk Behavior among Traveling Young Injection Drug Users: Travel Partner and City Characteristics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Montgomery, Martha E; Fatch, Robin S; Evans, Jennifer L; Yu, Michelle; Davidson, Peter J; Page, Kimberly; Hahn, Judith A


    Young injection drug users (IDUs), a highly mobile population, engage in high levels of injecting risk behavior, yet little is understood about how such risk behavior may vary by the characteristics of the cities to which they travel...

  8. Injectable hydrogels derived from phosphorylated alginic acid calcium complexes. (United States)

    Kim, Han-Sem; Song, Minsoo; Lee, Eun-Jung; Shin, Ueon Sang


    Phosphorylation of sodium alginate salt (NaAlg) was carried out using H3PO4/P2O5/Et3PO4 followed by acid-base reaction with Ca(OAc)2 to give phosphorylated alginic acid calcium complexes (CaPAlg), as a water dispersible alginic acid derivative. The modified alginate derivatives including phosphorylated alginic acid (PAlg) and CaPAlg were characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy for (1)H, and (31)P nuclei, high resolution inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and thermogravimetric analysis. CaPAlg hydrogels were prepared simply by mixing CaPAlg solution (2w/v%) with NaAlg solution (2w/v%) in various ratios (2:8, 4:6, 6:4, 8:2) of volume. No additional calcium salts such as CaSO4 or CaCl2 were added externally. The gelation was completed within about 3-40min indicating a high potential of hydrogel delivery by injection in vivo. Their mechanical properties were tested to be ≤6.7kPa for compressive strength at break and about 8.4kPa/mm for elastic modulus. SEM analysis of the CaPAlg hydrogels showed highly porous morphology with interconnected pores of width in the range of 100-800μm. Cell culture results showed that the injectable hydrogels exhibited comparable properties to the pure alginate hydrogel in terms of cytotoxicity and 3D encapsulation of cells for a short time period. The developed injectable hydrogels showed suitable physicochemical and mechanical properties for injection in vivo, and could therefore be beneficial for the field of soft tissue engineering. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Effects of oocyte collection time and injection position on pronucleus formation and blastocyst development in round spermatid injection in mouse. (United States)

    Jiang, Man-Xi; Zheng, Yue-Liang; Liu, Shu-Zhen; Yang, Cai-Xia; Zhang, Li-Sheng; Ouyang, Ying-Chun; Sun, Qing-Yuan; Chen, Da-Yuan


    The injection of spermatozoa into mouse, human and rabbit oocytes at specific times and positions can result in different rates of viable embryo development. However, it is not clear how the timing and position of round spermatid injection (ROSI) affect pronucleus (PN) formation and blastocyst development of mice. First, we determined the changes in relative position of the first polar body and the spindle, carried out ROSI from 11.5 to 13 h post-hCG administration, then activated by Sr2+, and finally compared the development of ROSI zygotes, including the formation of pronuclei and development of blastocyst. Between 11.5 and 13 h post-hCG administration, the rate of 2PN formation by ROSI at 3 o'clock was the highest among all treated oocytes. Moreover, the blastocyst rate of zygotes with two pronuclei (2PN) was up to 27.41%. These results suggest that the time and position of ROSI can significantly influence the formation of 2PN, that the rates of 2PN formation are closely correlated with blastocyst formation and that the formation of 2PN is necessary for later embryo development.

  10. Nursing Students and Gluteal Intramuscular Injection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornwall J


    Full Text Available BackgroundNurses are required to perform gluteal intramuscular (IM injections in practice. There are dangers associated with erroneous performance of this task, particularly with dorsogluteal injections. Knowledge regarding safe injection practice is therefore vital for nursing students.Method Fifty-eight second year students at a New Zealand Nursing School were given schematic drawings of the posterior and lateral aspects of the gluteal region. They were asked to mark and justify the safest location for gluteal IM injections.ResultsFifty-seven students marked the dorsal schematic and one the lateral, with 38 (66.7% marking in the upper outer quadrant (UOQ. Twenty indicating the UOQ (52.6% wrote ‘sciatic’ or ‘nerve’ in justifying their location.Nineteen (33.3% marked a location outside the UOQ; nine (47.4% of these mentioned ‘sciatic’ or ‘nerve’ as reasons for injection safety. Overall, 50% of students mentioned ‘sciatic’ or ‘nerve’ in justifying the safety of their chosen injection location.ConclusionResults suggest some second year nursing students do not understand safe gluteal IM injection locations and rationale. Current teaching practices and IM injection techniques could be revisited to prepare students more effectively; this may help prevent pathologies arising from this procedure.

  11. Efficient thermal spin injection in metallic nanostructures (United States)

    Nomura, Tatsuya; Ariki, Taisei; Hu, Shaojie; Kimura, Takashi


    Thermal spin injection is a unique and fascinating method for generating spin current. If magnetization can be controlled by thermal spin injection, various advantages will be provided in spintronic devices, through its wireless controllability. However, the generation efficiency of thermal spin injection is believed to be lower than that of electrical spin injection. Here, we explore a suitable ferromagnetic metal for an efficient thermal spin injection, via systematic experiments based on diffusive spin transport under temperature gradients. Since a ferromagnetic metal with strong spin splitting is expected to have a large spin-dependent Seebeck coefficient, a lateral spin valve based on CoFe electrodes has been fabricated. However, the superior thermal spin injection property has not been observed, because the CoFe electrode retained its crystalline signature—where s-like electrons dominate the transport property in the ferromagnet. To suppress the crystalline signature, we adopt a CoFeAl electrode, in which the Al impurity significantly reduces the contribution from s-like electrons. Highly efficient thermal spin injection has been demonstrated using this CoFeAl electrode. Further optimization for thermal spin injection has been demonstrated by adjusting the Co and Fe composition.

  12. 21 CFR 522.390 - Chloramphenicol injection. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Chloramphenicol injection. 522.390 Section 522.390 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Chloramphenicol injection. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter contains 100 milligrams of chloramphenicol. (b...

  13. 21 CFR 522.1086 - Guaifenesin injection. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Guaifenesin injection. 522.1086 Section 522.1086 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Guaifenesin injection. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of sterile aqueous solution contains 50 milligrams...

  14. 21 CFR 522.1150 - Hydrochlorothiazide injection. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Hydrochlorothiazide injection. 522.1150 Section 522.1150 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... § 522.1150 Hydrochlorothiazide injection. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter contains 25 milligrams of...

  15. Rings with finite Gorenstein injective dimension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Henrik Granau


    In this paper we prove that for any associative ring R, and for any left R-module M with nite projective dimension, the Gorenstein injective dimension GidRM equals the usual injective dimension idRM. In particular, if GidRR is nite, then also idRR is nite, and thus R is Gorenstein (provided that ...

  16. Anxiety and pain during dental injections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wijk, A.J.; Hoogstraten, J.


    Objectives: The aim of this study was to study the relationship between anxiety and pain felt during a dental injection in a sample of ‘normal’ patients about to undergo ‘invasive’ dental treatment. Methods: Duration and intensity of pain during a dental injection were measured within a sample of


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Korneev


    Full Text Available Analysis of injection technologies shows that the largest prevalence they got d at application on powerful electric arc furnaces and at out-of-furnace processing of big volumes of metal. at the same time theoretical and experimental basis of using of injection technologies is constantly being replenished with new investigations.

  18. Variceal recurrence, rebleeding and survival after injection ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Variceal recurrence, rebleeding and survival after injection sclerotherapy in 306 alcoholic cirrhotic patients with bleeding oesophageal varices: original. ... The 306 patients (239 men, 67 women; mean age 51.6, range 24-87 years) underwent 387 emergency and 1067 elective injection treatments with 5% ethanolamine ...

  19. Homicide by intravenous injection of naphtha. (United States)

    Case, M E; Poklis, A; Mackell, M A


    A case of homicide by the intravenous injection of Energine, a petroleum distillate spot remover, is presented. This case is the only known homicide committed with naphtha. This elderly man had severe natural disease in addition to chest trauma sustained in the assault leading to death; however, the rapid injection of approximately 25 mL of Energine was the overwhelming cause of death.

  20. Injection Molding of Plastics from Agricultural Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharya, M.; Ruan, R.


    The objective of this research was to conduct a systematic study to relate injection molding parameters to properties of blends of starch and synthetic polymer. From this study, we wished to develop a thorough understanding of the injection molding process and gain significant insight into designing molds and aiding in developing products cheaply and efficiently.

  1. Polyamide 6-long glass fiber injection mouldings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijsterbosch, H.; Gaymans, R.J.; Bijsterbosch, H.


    The injection molding ability of long glass fiber reinforced polyamide pellets was studied. The injection moldable materials were produced by a melt impregnation process of continuous fiber rovings. The rovings were chopped to pellets of 9 mm length. Chopped pellets with a variation in the degree of

  2. 21 CFR 522.1720 - Phenylbutazone injection. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Phenylbutazone injection. 522.1720 Section 522....1720 Phenylbutazone injection. (a) Specifications. The drug contains 100 or 200 milligrams of phenylbutazone in each milliliter of sterile aqueous solution. (b) Sponsors. (1) Approval for use of the 200...

  3. The risk of intraarticular injections are overestimated

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asmussen, Rikke; Just, Søren Andreas; Jensen Hansen, Inger Marie

    The risk of intraarticular injections are overestimated. Volume 73, Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases, the EULAR Journal,, June 2014 volume 73, supplement 2, p. 286-87......The risk of intraarticular injections are overestimated. Volume 73, Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases, the EULAR Journal,, June 2014 volume 73, supplement 2, p. 286-87...

  4. Children conceived after intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mau, C; Juul, A; Main, K M


    The aim of the study was to evaluate current medical knowledge about children born after intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) with respect to congenital malformations, chromosome abnormalities and postnatal growth.......The aim of the study was to evaluate current medical knowledge about children born after intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) with respect to congenital malformations, chromosome abnormalities and postnatal growth....

  5. 21 CFR 522.2005 - Propofol injection. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Propofol injection. 522.2005 Section 522.2005 Food... Propofol injection. (a) Specifications. The drug is a sterile, nonpyrogenic, oil-in-water emulsion containing 10 milligrams of propofol per milliliter. (b) Sponsor. See No. 000061 in § 510.600(c) of this...

  6. 77 FR 71006 - Sodium Nitrite Injection and Sodium Thiosulfate Injection Drug Products Labeled for the Treatment... (United States)


    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2012-N-1134 Sodium Nitrite Injection and Sodium Thiosulfate Injection Drug Products Labeled for the Treatment of Cyanide Poisoning; Enforcement... products containing sodium nitrite labeled for the treatment of cyanide poisoning and unapproved injectable...

  7. Fluidic Injection for Jet Noise Reduction (United States)

    Henderson, Brenda


    Investigations into fluidic injection for jet noise reduction began over 50 years ago. Studies have included water and air injection for the reduction of noise in scale model jets and jet engines and water injection for the reduction of excess overpressures on the Space Shuttle at lift-off. Injection systems have included high pressure microjets as well as larger scale injectors operating at pressures that can be achieved in real jet engines. An historical perspective highlighting noise reduction potential is presented for injection concepts investigated over the last 50 years. Results from recent investigations conducted at NASA are presented for supersonic and subsonic dual-stream jets. The noise reduction benefits achieved through fluidic contouring using an azimuthally controlled nozzle will be discussed.

  8. Injection of micron size droplets into vacuum (United States)

    Liu, Caroline; Poulose, John; Ogawa, Daisuke; Goeckner, Matthew; Overzet, Lawrence


    Previous experiments using direct liquid injection into plasma for film deposition produced films that had unwanted voids. We believe that the uneven deposition of polymer film is due to injected liquids not completely evaporating into the plasma and landing on the surface of the substrate instead. To address this issue, we chose to improve upon the previous film deposition chamber setup by modifying the injector to decrease the injected liquid droplet sizes. The literature presents multiple theories on liquid breakup into air and resultant droplet sizes but to the best of our knowledge, there is not much research on droplet breakup dynamics or resultant droplet sizes when liquid is injected into low pressure (poster, we will describe previous work done, experimental setup along with experimental data on droplet sizes produced by orifices of various sizes when liquid is injected into low pressure. This work was supported in part by the Department of Energy under grant No. DE-SC0001355.

  9. Injection molded self-cleaning surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, Emil

    This PhD thesis concerns the development of superhydrophobic surfaces fabricated by injection molding. Today, injection molding is the prevalent production method for consumer plastic products. However, concerns regarding the environmental impact of a plastic production are increasing, especially...... because the use of potentially toxic self-cleaning coatings is used worldwide in a larger and larger scale. In this context, the work in this PhD project could be seen as a scientific effort towards reducing toxic compounds in manufactured plastic parts by developing injecting molded surfaces......- and microstructured silicon is electroplated with nickel and the resulting nickel shim with inverse polarity is used in an injection molding process. A versatile injection molding process capable of producing different nano- and microstructures on areas larger than 10 cm2 is developed. Variotherm mold heating is used...

  10. Optical Injection into Laser Wake Field Accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Cary, John R; Esarey, Eric; Geddes, Cameron G R; Giacone, Rodolfo; Leemans, Wim; Nieter, Chet


    The accelerating gradient of laser-generated wake fields in plasmas can be orders of magnitude greater than the gradients obtainable in traditional, rf structures. One of the hurdles to overcome on the road to practical utilization of said plasma wake fields for production of high energy particles is the creation of quality beams having significant charge, low emittance, and narrow energy spread. To generate appropriate beams, various injection methods have been proposed. Injection by conventional means of beam prepartion using conventional technology is very difficult, as the accelerating buckets are only tens of microns long. Therefore, the field has turned to all-optical injection schemes, which include injection by colliding pulses, plasma ramps, wave breaking, and self-trapping through pulse evolution. This talk will review the various concepts proposed for injection, including plasma ramps, colliding pulses, and self trapping. The results of simulations and experiments will be discussed along with propo...

  11. Injection moulding for macro and micro products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Islam, Mohammad Aminul

    The purpose of the literature survey is to investigate the injection moulding technology in the macro and micro areas from the basic to the state-of-the-art recent technology. Injection moulding is a versatile production process for the manufacturing of plastic parts and the process is extensively...... used for macro products but with the ages it is going deep into the micro areas having machine and process improvements. Extensive research work on injection moulding is going on all over the world. New ideas are flowing into the machines, materials and processes. The technology has made significant...... advancement in the area of micro injection moulding, multi-component and two component injection mounding. In near future it is likely to be the way of manufacturing moulded interconnects devices (MID) for a low cost integration of electrical and mechanical functionalities on a single device. This paper...

  12. Percutaneous spine injection: considerations for improving treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Joon Woo; Kim, Sung Hyun; Lee, In Sook; Choi, Jung Ah; Yoon, Chang Jin; Hwang, Sung Il; Kang, Heung Sik [Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Bundang (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Ja Young; Koh, Young Hwan; Hong, Sung Hwan [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    To discuss the causes of treatment failure in percutaneous spine injections for low back pain or radiculopathy by analyzing patients who have experienced negative treatment effect on their first visit and a positive treatment effect on their second visit. The authors reviewed the cases of 24 patients who visited the pain intervention outpatient department in our hospital due to back pain or radiculopathy. All patients reviewed experienced a negative treatment effect following their first spine injection, but a positive treatment effect following the second injection. The dates of the cases range from June 2003 to May 2004. Two radiologists analyzed the possible causes of the negative treatment effect following the first injection therapies by considering clinical aspects as well as reviewing radiological images. The most common condition was the presence of the change in the level of the second selective nerve root block (n=13). In seven cases, the methods for administering the injections were changed to facet block (n=2), midline epidural block (n=1), selective nerve root block (n=3) and caudal epidural block (n=1). In four cases, there were no changes in the methods for administering the injections nor were there any changes in the level of the selective nerve root block between first and second visit. In those cases, after reviewing spot radiographs performed during injection, we attributed the causes of failure of injection therapy to an inappropriate distribution of drugs. We can improve the effect of percutaneous spine injections for low back pain or radioculopathy by determining the exact level of perineural root block, trying alternative methods, and insuring a good distribution of the injected drugs.

  13. Assessment of complications due to intratympanic injections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Chuan Liu


    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of the study is to report and to analyze the complications following intratympanic injections (ITI of steroids. The occurrence rate of complications at different ITI sites, four quadrants of eardrum, was also compared. Methods: A retrospective clinical review in a medical center. Each patient received ITI twice in a week for 2–3 consecutive weeks as a salvage therapy for sudden sensorineural hearing loss. Post-injection complications, especially transient dizziness and vertigo, were recorded. Patients with acute or chronic vertigo episodes in 1 month were excluded. Results: A total of 59 patients with sudden sensorineural hearing loss and a total of 278 times of ITI were performed in 1 year. The post-injection complications included pain, tongue numbness, transient dizziness, vertigo, tinnitus, and a small persistent perforation. There was no significant difference in the occurrence of these complications between the injections sites on the 4 quadrants of the tympanic membrane. However, there was statistical significance in the post-injection vertiginous episode after IT injections to posterior-inferior quadrant (Q3 and posterior-superior quadrant (Q4 compared to anterior-superior quadrant (Q1 and anterior-inferior quadrant (Q2 (P = 0.0113. Conclusion: IT injection is recommended to be applied to the Q2 since the Q1 and Q4 injections are more likely to induce the adverse effect of tongue numbness, while the Q3 and Q4 areas are more likely to induce post-injection vertigo. Keywords: Intratympanic injection, Sudden deafness, Complications, Vertigo

  14. Short and long term bystander effect induction by fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas, Rafinesque, 1820) injected with environmentally relevant whole body doses of 226Ra. (United States)

    Smith, Richard W; Seymour, Colin B; Mothersill, Carmel E


    Bystander effect induction by fathead minnows injected with environmentally relevant doses of (226)Ra was investigated. Twenty four h and 6 months after injection with a single dose of 21, 210 or 2100 μBq, fin tissue samples emitted a pro-apoptotic signal, which reduced the clonogenic survival of an apoptosis sensitive reporter cell line. Twenty four h and 10 weeks after injection explants from non-injected bystander fish, swum with the injected fish, also emitted a pro-apoptotic signal. However 6 months after injection the bystander fish to 21 and 210 μBq injected fish emitted an anti-apoptotic signal. This demonstrates that extremely low dose irradiation can have effects outside of the irradiated fish. This has implications for population and ecosystem responses to contamination. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Hepcidin is elevated in mice injected with Mycoplasma arthritidis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaplan Jerry


    Full Text Available Abstract Mycoplasma arthritidis causes arthritis in specific mouse strains. M. arthritidis mitogen (MAM, a superantigen produced by M. arthritidis, activates T cells by forming a complex between the major histocompatability complex II on antigen presenting cells and the T cell receptor on CD4+ T lymphocytes. The MAM superantigen is also known to interact with Toll-like receptors (TLR 2 and 4. Hepcidin, an iron regulator protein, is upregulated by TLR4, IL-6, and IL-1. In this study, we evaluated serum hepcidin, transferrin saturation, ferritin, IL-6, IL-1, and hemoglobin levels in M. arthritidis injected C3H/HeJ (TLR2+/+, TLR4-/- mice and C3H/HeSnJ (TLR2+/+, TLR4+/+ mice over a 21 day period. C3H/HeJ mice have a defective TLR4 and an inability to produce IL-6. We also measured arthritis severity in these mice and the amount of hepcidin transcripts produced by the liver and spleen. C3H/HeJ mice developed a more severe arthritis than that of C3H/HeSnJ mice. Both mice had an increase in serum hepcidin within three days after infection. Hepcidin levels were greater in C3H/HeJ mice despite a nonfunctioning TLR4 and low serum levels of IL-6. Splenic hepcidin production in C3H/HeJ mice was delayed compared to C3H/HeSnJ mice. Unlike C3H/HeSnJ mice, C3H/HeJ mice did not develop a significant rise in serum IL-6 levels but did develop a significant increase in IL-1β during the first ten days after injection. Both mice had an increase in serum ferritin but a decrease in serum transferrin saturation. In conclusion, serum hepcidin regulation in C3H/HeJ mice does not appear to be solely dependent upon TLR4 or IL-6.

  16. Injection practices in Nepal: health policymakers’ perceptions (United States)


    Background The unnecessary and unsafe use of injections is common in developing countries like Nepal. Policymakers have an important role in promoting rational and safe injection use. Hence, the present study was carried out to explore the perception of health policymakers regarding safe injection practice in Nepal. Methods An exploratory qualitative study design was used in this study. Key policymakers from both the central and regional level were selected using purposive sampling. A semi-structured questionnaire advocated by the World Health Organization (WHO) was used after modifying the context. Interviews were conducted to clarify doubts and obtain additional information. The data was analyzed manually using deductive content analysis technique. Results In total, eleven policymakers participated. All unanimously agreed that injection safety is a problem and seven participants reported that injections are overused. They shared the opinion that injections are administered by various providers, including formal and informal health providers, and also quacks. Almost half the respondents reported that the National Drug Policy discourages injection overuse, while others reported that the policy contains no provisions regarding injection overuse. Most policymakers stated that only single-use disposable injection equipment is used to provide injection, while others thought that sterilizable glass syringe is also used. More than half of the participants believed that the quality of injection equipment available in the Nepalese market is not regulated by any government institution. Almost two-third of the policymakers stated that syringes and needles are not reused, while the rest thought syringes might be reused without sterilization in some parts of the country. Almost half of the respondents stated that illegal commercialization of used syringes exists in Nepal. Almost all respondents thought that health care institutions have a waste management plan, while more than

  17. H Reactor (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The H Reactor was the first reactor to be built at Hanford after World War II.It became operational in October of 1949, and represented the fourth nuclear reactor on...

  18. Substorm-injected protons and electrons and the injection boundary model (United States)

    Konradi, A.; Semar, C. L.; Fritz, T. A.


    Analysis of observations of substorm-associated enhancements of proton and electron fluxes: (1) makes a strong case for the existence of a boundary limiting the regional particle injection associated with substorms, (2) supports the hypothesis that the injection process is almost instantaneous (less than approximately 5 min), and (3) indicates that the injection takes place within a large region extending at least several earth radii tailward of the injection boundary. The injection boundary model is superior to others in that it simultaneously explains: (1) the drift and energy dispersion of substorm-injected protons between 1 and 30 keV, (2) the relative behavior of protons with 81 deg and 27 deg pitch angles, (3) the absence of observed electrons below 30 keV, and (4) the time dispersion of impulsively injected electrons seen outside the plasmapause.

  19. Ultrasound-guided transversus abdominis plane injection with computed tomography correlation: a cadaveric study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moeschler SM


    Full Text Available Susan M Moeschler,1 Naveen S Murthy,2 Bryan C Hoelzer,1 Halena M Gazelka,1 Richard H Rho,1 Matthew J Pingree1,31Department of Anesthesiology, 2Department of Radiology, 3Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, USABackground: Ultrasound-guided transversus abdominis plane (TAP injections are increasingly being used as an alternative to traditional perioperative analgesia in the abdominal region. With the use of a "blind" TAP block technique, these procedures have had variable success in cadaver and in vivo studies. For more accurate injection with the intended medication, ultrasound guidance allows visualization of the correct layer of the abdominal wall planes in which the thoracolumbar nerves reside.Objective: To assess the spread of various volumes of contrast placed under live ultrasound guidance into the TAP using computed tomography (CT.Methods: Four TAP blocks were performed on 2 fresh frozen cadaver torsos with predetermined contrast volumes of 5, 10, 15, or 20 mL. A CT scan of the cadaver was then performed and interpreted by a musculoskeletal radiologist. This cadaver study was carried out at a tertiary care academic medical center.Results: Cranial–caudal spread of injected contrast correlated with increasing injectate volume and was roughly 1 vertebral level (end plate to end plate for the 5 mL injection and 2 vertebral levels for the 10, 15, and 20 mL injections. However, the degree of injectate spread may be different for live patients than for cadavers.Conclusion: This study helps further the understanding of injectate spread following ultrasound-guided TAP injections. Specifically, it suggests that 15 mL provides additional cranial–caudal spread and may be an optimal volume of anesthesia.Keywords: abdominal cadaver study, abdominal computed tomography scan, abdominal wall pain, TAP block, ultrasound-guided injection

  20. Injectable collagenase clostridium histolyticum for Dupuytren's contracture. (United States)

    Hurst, Lawrence C; Badalamente, Marie A; Hentz, Vincent R; Hotchkiss, Robert N; Kaplan, F Thomas D; Meals, Roy A; Smith, Theodore M; Rodzvilla, John


    Dupuytren's disease limits hand function, diminishes the quality of life, and may ultimately disable the hand. Surgery followed by hand therapy is standard treatment, but it is associated with serious potential complications. Injection of collagenase clostridium histolyticum, an office-based, nonsurgical option, may reduce joint contractures caused by Dupuytren's disease. We enrolled 308 patients with joint contractures of 20 degrees or more in this prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter trial. The primary metacarpophalangeal or proximal interphalangeal joints of these patients were randomly assigned to receive up to three injections of collagenase clostridium histolyticum (at a dose of 0.58 mg per injection) or placebo in the contracted collagen cord at 30-day intervals. One day after injection, the joints were manipulated. The primary end point was a reduction in contracture to 0 to 5 degrees of full extension 30 days after the last injection. Twenty-six secondary end points were evaluated, and data on adverse events were collected. Collagenase treatment significantly improved outcomes. More cords that were injected with collagenase than cords injected with placebo met the primary end point (64.0% vs. 6.8%, P Dupuytren's disease. ( number, NCT00528606.) 2009 Massachusetts Medical Society

  1. Influence of pre-injection control parameters on main-injection fuel quantity for an electronically controlled double-valve fuel injection system of diesel engine (United States)

    Song, Enzhe; Fan, Liyun; Chen, Chao; Dong, Quan; Ma, Xiuzhen; Bai, Yun


    A simulation model of an electronically controlled two solenoid valve fuel injection system for a diesel engine is established in the AMESim environment. The accuracy of the model is validated through comparison with experimental data. The influence of pre-injection control parameters on main-injection quantity under different control modes is analyzed. In the spill control valve mode, main-injection fuel quantity decreases gradually and then reaches a stable level because of the increase in multi-injection dwell time. In the needle control valve mode, main-injection fuel quantity increases with rising multi-injection dwell time; this effect becomes more obvious at high-speed revolutions and large main-injection pulse widths. Pre-injection pulse width has no obvious influence on main-injection quantity under the two control modes; the variation in main-injection quantity is in the range of 1 mm3.

  2. Relationship Between the Provision of Injection Services in Ambulatory Physician Offices and Prescribing Injectable Medicines (United States)

    Yousefi, Naeimeh; Rashidian, Arash; Soleymani, Fatemeh; Kebriaeezade, Abbas


    Overuse of injections is a common problem in many low-income and middle income countries. While cultural factors and attitudes of both physicians and patients are important factors, physicians› financial intensives may play an important role in overprescribing of injections. This study was designed to assess the effects of providing injection­ services in physicians› ambulatory offices on prescribing injectable medicines. This cross-sectional study was conducted in Tehran in 2012 -2013and included a random sample of general physicians, pediatricians and infectious disease specialists. We collected data on the provision of injection services in or in proximity of physician offices, and obtained data from physicians› prescriptions in the previous three-month period. We analyzed the data using ANOVA, Student›s t-test and linear regression methods. We obtained complete data from 465 of 600 sampled physicians. Overall 41.9% of prescriptions contained injectable medicines. 75% of physicians offered injection services in their offices. Male physicians and general physicians were more likely to offer the services, and more likely to prescribe injectables. We observed a clear linear relationship between the injection service working hours and the proportion of prescriptions containing injectables (p-value<0.001). Providing injection service in the office was directly linked with the proportion of prescriptions containing injectables. While provision of injection services may provide a direct financial benefit to physicians, it is unlikely to be able to substantially reduce injectable medicines› prescription without addressing the issue. PMID:28496493

  3. Small-Volume Injections: Evaluation of Volume Administration Deviation From Intended Injection Volumes. (United States)

    Muffly, Matthew K; Chen, Michael I; Claure, Rebecca E; Drover, David R; Efron, Bradley; Fitch, William L; Hammer, Gregory B


    In the perioperative period, anesthesiologists and postanesthesia care unit (PACU) nurses routinely prepare and administer small-volume IV injections, yet the accuracy of delivered medication volumes in this setting has not been described. In this ex vivo study, we sought to characterize the degree to which small-volume injections (≤0.5 mL) deviated from the intended injection volumes among a group of pediatric anesthesiologists and pediatric postanesthesia care unit (PACU) nurses. We hypothesized that as the intended injection volumes decreased, the deviation from those intended injection volumes would increase. Ten attending pediatric anesthesiologists and 10 pediatric PACU nurses each performed a series of 10 injections into a simulated patient IV setup. Practitioners used separate 1-mL tuberculin syringes with removable 18-gauge needles (Becton-Dickinson & Company, Franklin Lakes, NJ) to aspirate 5 different volumes (0.025, 0.05, 0.1, 0.25, and 0.5 mL) of 0.25 mM Lucifer Yellow (LY) fluorescent dye constituted in saline (Sigma Aldrich, St. Louis, MO) from a rubber-stoppered vial. Each participant then injected the specified volume of LY fluorescent dye via a 3-way stopcock into IV tubing with free-flowing 0.9% sodium chloride (10 mL/min). The injected volume of LY fluorescent dye and 0.9% sodium chloride then drained into a collection vial for laboratory analysis. Microplate fluorescence wavelength detection (Infinite M1000; Tecan, Mannedorf, Switzerland) was used to measure the fluorescence of the collected fluid. Administered injection volumes were calculated based on the fluorescence of the collected fluid using a calibration curve of known LY volumes and associated fluorescence.To determine whether deviation of the administered volumes from the intended injection volumes increased at lower injection volumes, we compared the proportional injection volume error (loge [administered volume/intended volume]) for each of the 5 injection volumes using a linear

  4. Flow-injection biamperometry of pyrogallol compounds. (United States)

    Zhao, Chuan; Song, Junfeng; Zhang, Juncai


    A biamperometric method for the direct determination of pyrogallol compounds has been designed for flow-injection analysis. The method is based on the electrocatalytic oxidation of pyrogallol compounds at one pretreated platinum electrode and the reduction of platinum oxide at the other pretreated platinum electrode to form a biamperometric detection system with the applied potential difference of 10 mV. Three important compounds, pyrogallol, gallic acid and tannic acid, have been detected by the method. The linear relationships between currents and the concentrations of pyrogallol, gallic acid and tannic acid are obtained over the range 1.0x10(-6)-1.0x10(-4), 1.0x10(-6)-1.0x10(-4) and 1.0x10(-6)-2.0x10(-4) mol l(-1) with the detection limit of 6.0x10(-7), 6.0x10(-7) and 8.0x10(-7) mol l(-1) (S/N=2), respectively. The R.S.D. observed for 30 successive determinations of 5.0x10(-5) mol l(-1) pyrogallol, gallic acid and tannic acid are 1.9, 2.5 and 2.0%, respectively. Most ions and organic compounds tested are found not to cause significant interference in the determinations. The method is simple, selective and efficient (180 h(-1)), performing well as a routine assay, and has been validated by the determination of pyrogallol compounds in tea and Chinese gall.

  5. Performance of Oil-Injected Scroll Compressors for Helium Refrigerators (United States)

    Shiibayashi, Masao; Izunaga, Yasushi; Sado, Shintaro

    In recent years there arises growing demand of helium liquefaction refrigerators for the magnetic resonance imaging systems, magnetically levitated vehicles and other systems using superconducting magnet. From this background, a small size, scroll type of hermetic helium compressor capable of compressing helium gas to the pressure ratio of 20 in a single stage is developed. Main features of this compressor are as follows. 1) Discharge capacity can be varied from 7 to 20 Nm3/h by changing driving motor frequency from 30 to 80 Hz. 2) The overall adiabatic efficiency showed 72%∼79% under the pressure ratio range of 11∼20 at 60 Hz using oil injection cooling device.

  6. Flow injection analysis of some oxidants using spectrophotometric detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Z. AL-Zamil


    Full Text Available A spectrophotometric flow-injection method has been devised for the determination of nanomole quantities of some oxidants i.e. iodate, periodate, permanganate and hydrogen peroxide. The method is based on the oxidation of iron(II to iron(III and the measurement of the absorbance of the red iron(III–thiocyanate complex at 485 nm. The optimal oxidation pH and the linearity ranges of the calibration curves have been investigated. The analytical aspects of the method including the statistical evaluation of the results are discussed. The analysis of some authentic samples showed an average percentage recovery of 99%.

  7. Female urinary stress incontinence treated with Teflon injections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osther, P J; Røhl, H


    Twenty-six women with urinary stress incontinence underwent transperineal or transurethral Teflon injections. The results were classified into three grades (good, moderate, and poor). Good or moderate results were obtained in 50%. No major immediate complications or long-term side-effects were...... observed. This intervention is associated with a minimum of discomfort for the patient and hospitalization can be limited to 48-72 h. The procedure can be carried out with good effect on women previously classically operated on without success and it does not prevent subsequent surgical intervention...

  8. Dependency injection with AngularJS

    CERN Document Server

    Knol, Alex


    This book is a practical, hands-on approach to using dependency injection and implementing test-driven development using AngularJS. Dependency Injection with AngularJS is aimed at developers who are aware of AngularJS but need to get started with using it in real life applications. Also, developers who want to get into test-driven development with AngularJS can use this book as practical guide. Even if you know about dependency injection, it can serve as a good reference on how it is used within AngularJS. Readers are expected to have some experience with JavaScript.

  9. Botulinum toxin injection in laryngeal dyspnea. (United States)

    Woisard, Virginie; Liu, Xuelai; Bes, Marie Christine Arné; Simonetta-Moreau, Marion


    Data, regarding the use of botulinum toxin (BT-A) in laryngeal dyspnea, are scarce, coming from some cases reports in the literature, including Vocal fold paralysis, laryngeal dystonia, vocal cord dysfunction also called paradoxical motion of the vocal fold (PMVF), and post-neuroleptic laryngeal dyskinesia. There is no consensus regarding the muscles and the doses to inject. The aim of this study is to present a retrospective review of patients treated in our ENT Department by BT-A injection in this indication. This study is a retrospective study describing patients who underwent an injection of botulinum toxin for laryngeal dyspnea in the ENT Department from 2005 to 2015 years. The inclusion criteria were a dyspnea associated with a laryngeal dysfunction, confirmed by flexible fiberoptic nasopharyngolaryngoscopy. Information concerning the causes of the dyspnea, the botulinum toxin BT-A injections procedure, post-injection follow-up, and respiratory outcome were collected for all patients included. In the group of 13 patients included, the main cause identified as principal factor linked with the short breath was: a bilateral VF paralysis (Patel et al., Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 130:686-689, 7), laryngeal dystonia (Balkissoon and Kenn, Semin Respir Crit Care Med 33:595-605, 2), Anxiety syndrome associated with unilateral vocal fold paralysis or asthma (Marcinow et al., Laryngoscope 124:1425-1430, 3), and an isolated asthma (Zwirner et al., Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol 254:242-245, 1). Nine out of the thirteen patients were improved by the injections. A BT-A-induced stable benefit for four patients led them to stop the injections in the follow-up. Good outcome was observed in five other patients (main cause: bilateral VP paralysis), allowing a progressive lengthening of the delay between BT-A injections. Four patients did not report a positive risk/benefit ratio after BT-A injections; two of them (with bilateral VF paralysis), because of respiratory side effects and

  10. Vibration of safety injection pump motors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wattrelos, D.


    This paper covers a fault encountered in the safety injection pump motors of the French 900 MWe unit nuclear power stations. This fault was not revealed either during the low pressure safety injection and containment spray system pump qualification tests under accident conditions or during the special tests on a test bench carried out to attempt to replicate the fault and to identify ways of remedying it. This constitutes a potential common mode of failure of the safety injection system and the containment spray system pumps. The vibration phenomena illustrate the importance of carrying out tests in the plants under conditions as close as possible to those of actual accident situations.

  11. J-regular rings with injectivities


    Shen, Liang


    A ring $R$ is called a J-regular ring if R/J(R) is von Neumann regular, where J(R) is the Jacobson radical of R. It is proved that if R is J-regular, then (i) R is right n-injective if and only if every homomorphism from an $n$-generated small right ideal of $R$ to $R_{R}$ can be extended to one from $R_{R}$ to $R_{R}$; (ii) R is right FP-injective if and only if R is right (J, R)-FP-injective. Some known results are improved.

  12. Accidental Intrathecal Injection of Tranexamic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaled Mahmoud


    Full Text Available Tranexamic acid (TXA is a popular antifibrinolytic drug that is commonly used in patients with bleeding disorder. Major morbidities and mortalities have been reported following inadvertent intrathecal injection of TXA. In this paper, inadvertent intrathecal injection of TXA has resulted from similarities in appearance between TXA and heavy bupivacaine 0.5% ampoules. The patient experienced severe pain in the back and gluteal region upon injection in association with systemic hypertension and tachycardia followed by generalized myoclonic seizures and ventricular fibrillation.

  13. Sciatic nerve palsy associated with intramuscular quinine injections ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this paper is to show that, in children, gluteal injection of quinine dihydrochloride (QDH) may result in damage to the sciatic nerve. Forty-six children were seen with foot drop following intramuscular injections in the same limb. They were analyzed for the type of injection, injection site, route of injection, the ...

  14. Injection moulded low cost bipolar plates for PEM fuel cells (United States)

    Heinzel, A.; Mahlendorf, F.; Niemzig, O.; Kreuz, C.

    The development of bipolar plates that can be produced by standard mass production techniques is a main issue for the commercialization of PEM fuel cells, as bipolar plates contribute significantly to the cost structure of PEM stacks. In recent years, the University of Duisburg-Essen together with the Zentrum für BrennstoffzellenTechnik GmbH (ZBT) has identified a number of carbon-polymer composites with densities of 1.6 g/cm 3, specific bulk conductivities between 5 and 150 S/cm and material prices between 2 and 10 €/kg. Standard composite mixtures consist of a thermoplast and a carbon compound mixture with additional additives to increase the conductivity of the compound material. The composites generally show high corrosion resistance in the PEM fuel cell environment. Composite material samples proved to be absolutely stable in immersion tests in sulphuric acid and deionized water under pure oxygen atmosphere for several thousand hours. ZBT has successfully demonstrated the production of bipolar plates by injection moulding with cycle times of 30-60 s. With the help of tailored moulds injection moulding of bipolar plates becomes price competitive even for comparatively small series in the range of several thousand plates. PEM stacks with injection moulded bipolar plates of 2.5-4 mm thickness and an electrical power of up to 200 W have been constructed and successfully operated.

  15. Enhanced Control for Local Helicity Injection on the Pegasus ST (United States)

    Pierren, C.; Bongard, M. W.; Fonck, R. J.; Lewicki, B. T.; Perry, J. M.


    Local helicity injection (LHI) experiments on Pegasus rely upon programmable control of a 250 MVA modular power supply system that drives the electromagnets and helicity injection systems. Precise control of the central solenoid is critical to experimental campaigns that test the LHI Taylor relaxation limit and the coupling efficiency of LHI-produced plasmas to Ohmic current drive. Enhancement and expansion of the present control system is underway using field programmable gate array (FPGA) technology for digital logic and control, coupled to new 10 MHz optical-to-digital transceivers for semiconductor level device communication. The system accepts optical command signals from existing analog feedback controllers, transmits them to multiple devices in parallel H-bridges, and aggregates their status signals for fault detection. Present device-level multiplexing/de-multiplexing and protection logic is extended to include bridge-level protections with the FPGA. An input command filter protects against erroneous and/or spurious noise generated commands that could otherwise cause device failures. Fault registration and response times with the FPGA system are 25 ns. Initial system testing indicates an increased immunity to power supply induced noise, enabling plasma operations at higher working capacitor bank voltage. This can increase the applied helicity injection drive voltage, enable longer pulse lengths and improve Ohmic loop voltage control. Work supported by US DOE Grant DE-FG02-96ER54375.

  16. Kinetics of the inflammatory response following intramuscular injection of aluminum adjuvant. (United States)

    Lu, Fangjia; Hogenesch, Harm


    Aluminum-containing adjuvants are widely used in human and veterinary vaccines, but their mechanism of action is not well understood. Recent evidence suggests an important role for inflammation in the immune response to aluminum-adjuvanted vaccines. To better understand this process, vaccines with aluminum adjuvant were injected into naïve or previously immunized mice and the injection sites were characterized for the corresponding primary and secondary inflammatory response at different time points after immunization. Inflammatory cells appeared at the injection site between 2h and 6h after vaccination, dominated by neutrophils at first, followed by macrophages, and later eosinophils and MHCII(+) cells. The number of cells at the injection site increased over time, except neutrophils, which decreased in number after day 2. There was extensive phagocytosis of aluminum adjuvant particles by macrophages. In secondary immunized mice, a faster and more robust recruitment of eosinophils, macrophages, and antigen presenting cells was observed at the injection site. The enhanced recruitment of inflammatory cells in previously immunized mice coincided with increased expression of relevant chemokines at the injection site. Since neutrophils accumulated first in response to aluminum-adjuvanted vaccines, their role was evaluated by depleting them prior to vaccination. Neutrophil depletion transiently reduced the recruitment of macrophages but it did not change the recruitment of eosinophils and MHCII(+) cells or the quality and magnitude of the antibody response. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Gender differences in injection risk behaviors at the first injection episode. (United States)

    Frajzyngier, Vera; Neaigus, Alan; Gyarmathy, V Anna; Miller, Maureen; Friedman, Samuel R


    To examine gender differences in drug injection equipment sharing at injecting initiation. Young injecting drug users (IDUs) in New York City February 1999-2003 were surveyed about injection risk behaviors and circumstances at initiation. Analyses were gender-stratified and excluded participants who initiated alone. Multiple logistic regression estimated adjusted odds ratios. Participants (n=249) were 66% male and 82% White. Mean initiation age was 19.2; mean years since initiating was 3.0. Women were significantly more likely to cite social network influence as a reason for initiating, to have male and sex partner initiators, and to share injecting equipment than men. Among women, sharing any injection equipment was associated with initiation by a sex partner and having > or =2 people present. Among men, being injected by someone else predicted sharing any injection equipment, while using a legally obtained syringe was protective. Social persuasion stemming from sexual and/or social relationships with IDUs may increase women's risk of sharing injection equipment at initiation, and consequently, their early parenteral risk of acquiring blood-borne infections. Interventions should focus on likely initiates, especially women in injecting-discordant sex partnerships, and IDUs (potential initiators).

  18. Epidural steroid injections: update on efficacy, safety, and newer medications for injection. (United States)

    Kozlov, N; Benzon, H T; Malik, K


    The best evidence for epidural injection appears to be in the setting of radicular pain with epidural steroid and non-steroid injections more efficacious than non-epidural injections. Studies showed the efficacy of non-particulate steroid to approach the efficacy of particulate steroid and very limited comparisons demonstrated no significant difference between epidural steroid and epidural non-steroid (local anesthetic) injection. Preliminary studies evaluating epidural injection of disease modifying anti-rheumatic drugs such etanercept and tocilizumab showed conflicting results and had significant limitations. Randomized studies support better efficacy of transforaminal injection due to greater incidence of ventral epidural spread of injectate when compared to interlaminar injection. Thus, the transforaminal approach is recommended when unilateral radicular pain is limited to one nerve root. However, the transforaminal approach is associated with greater incidence of central nervous system injury, including paraplegia, attributed to embolization of the particulate steroid. Recent studies showed that non-particulate steroids potentially last as long as particulate steroids. Therefore non-particulate steroid should be used in initial transforaminal epidural injection. Future studies should look into the role of adjunct diagnostic aids, including digital subtraction angiography, in detecting intravascular injection and the ideal site of needle placement, whether it is the safe triangle or the triangle of Kambin. Finally, the role of epidural disease -modifying antirheumatic drugs in the management of back pain needs to be better elucidated.

  19. AA injection kicker in its tank

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab


    For single-turn injection of the antiprotons, a septum at the end of the injection line made the beam parallel to the injection orbit, and a quarter of a betatron-wavelength downstream a fast kicker corrected the angle. Kicker type: lumped delay line. PFN voltage 56 kV. Bending angle 7.5 mrad; kick-strength 0.9 Tm; fall-time 95%-5% in 150 ns. The injection orbit is to the left, the stack orbit to the far right. A fast shutter near the central orbit had to be closed before the kicker fired, so as to protect the stack core from being shaken by the kicker's fringe field. The shutter is shown in closed position.

  20. Steam Injection For Soil And Aquifer Remediation (United States)

    The purpose of this Issue Paper is to provide to those involved in assessing remediation technologies for specific sites basic technical information on the use of steam injection for the remediation of soils and aquifers that are contaminated by...

  1. Nanostructuring steel for injection molding tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al-Azawi, A.; Smistrup, Kristian; Kristensen, Anders


    The production of nanostructured plastic items by injection molding with ridges down to 400 nm in width, which is the smallest line width replicated from nanostructured steel shims, is presented. Here we detail a micro-fabrication method where electron beam lithography, nano-imprint lithography...... and ion beam etching are combined to nanostructure the planar surface of a steel wafer. Injection molded plastic parts with enhanced surface properties, like anti-reflective, superhydrophobic and structural colors can be achieved by micro-and nanostructuring the surface of the steel molds. We investigate...... has been produced by injection molding with good structure transfer fidelity. Thus we have demonstrated that by utilizing well-established fabrication techniques, nanostructured steel shims that are used in injection molding, a technique that allows low cost mass fabrication of plastic items...

  2. Management acute pulpitis using methylprednisolon intraosseous injection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eriana Sutono


    Full Text Available Pain is one of the most common reasons patients seek dental treatment. Dentists must be able to diagnose the source of pain and have strategies for its management. Currently endodontic treatment is the most predictable method to relieve the pain of acute pulpitis. When endodontics treatment impossible, there is no other method for temporarily relieving pain other than prescribing strong analgesics, intraosseous injection methylprednisolon can be choosen as another alternative to manage a patient with acute pain. The principle of the intraosseous injection relief on the idea of perforating the cortical plate of the bone to apply the drug solution directly into the underlying cancellous substance. Intraosseous injection technique have a good absorption. Intraosseous injection methylprednisolon can be use as an alternative to manage acute pulpitis.

  3. LHC injection optics measurements at commissioning (2015)

    CERN Document Server

    Garcia-Tabares Valdivieso, Ana; Coello De Portugal - Martinez Vazquez, Jaime Maria; Garcia-Bonilla, Alba-Carolina; Langner, Andy Sven; Maclean, Ewen Hamish; Malina, Lukas; Mcateer, Meghan Jill; Persson, Tobias Hakan Bjorn; Skowronski, Piotr Krzysztof; Tomas Garcia, Rogelio; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department


    This report describes the measurement and correction process followed during the 2015 LHC injection optics commissioning which extended into Machine Developments (MDs). Results have been analyzed and compared to the 2012 measurements.

  4. Current-limited electron beam injection (United States)

    Stenzel, R. L.


    The injection of an electron beam into a weakly collisional, magnetized background plasma was investigated experimentally. The injected beam was energetic and cold, the background plasma was initially isothermal. Beam and plasma dimensions were so large that the system was considered unbounded. The temporal and spatial evolution of the beam-plasma system was dominated by collective effects. High-frequency electrostatic instabilities rapidly thermalized the beam and heated the background electrons. The injected beam current was balanced by a return current consisting of background electrons drifting toward the beam source. The drift between electrons and ions gave rise to an ion acoustic instability which developed into strong three-dimensional turbulence. It was shown that the injected beam current was limited by the return current which is approximately given by the electron saturation current. Non-Maxwellian electron distribution functions were observed.

  5. Injection molded optical backplane for broadcast architecture (United States)

    Rosenberg, Paul; Mathai, Sagi; Sorin, Wayne V.; McLaren, Moray; Straznicky, Joseph; Panotopoulos, Georgios; Warren, David; Morris, Terry; Tan, Michael R. T.


    A low cost, blind mate, injection molded optical backplane is presented. The optical backplane is comprised of 12 channel optical broadcast buses, operating at 10Gbps/channel with six blindmate optical output ports spaced 1U apart.

  6. Surface Microstructure Replication in Injection Moulding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Arlø, Uffe Rolf


    In recent years polymer components with surface microstructures have been in rising demand for applications such as lab-on-a-chip and optical components. Injection moulding has proven to be a feasible and efficient way to manufacture such components. In injection moulding the mould surface...... moulding of surface microstructures. Emphasis is put on the ability to replicate surface microstructures under normal injection moulding conditions, notably with low cost materials at low mould temperatures. The replication of surface microstructures in injection moulding has been explored...... for Polypropylene at low mould temperatures. The process conditions were varied over the recommended process window for the material. The geometry of the obtained structures was analyzed. Evidence suggests that step height replication quality depends linearly on structure width in a certain range. Further...

  7. Factors affecting the toxicity of methylmercury injected into eggs (United States)

    Heinz, G.H.; Hoffman, D.J.; Kondrad, S.L.; Erwin, C.A.


    . In addition, some species of bird eggs require incubation on their sides with the eggs being rolled 180? for them to develop normally. Therefore, we adopted a procedure of incubating the eggs of all species on their sides and rolling them 180? every hour. Little has been published about the conditions of temperature, humidity, and the movements to which eggs of wild birds need to be subjected for them to hatch optimally under artificial incubation. Not unexpectedly, hatching success in an artificial incubator is generally less than what natural incubation by the parents can achieve. However, the survival of control embryos of most wild bird species was good (generally > 80%) up to within 1 or 2 days of hatching when we incubated the eggs at 37.5?C (or 37.6?C for gallinaceous species) at a relative humidity that resulted in an approximate 15% to 16% loss in egg weight by the end of incubation and by incubating the eggs on their sides and rolling them 180?/h. To improve statistical comparisons, we used survival through 90% of incubation as our measurement to compare survival of controls with survival of eggs injected with graded concentrations of mercury.

  8. Stability of phenylephrine hydrochloride injection in polypropylene syringes. (United States)

    Kiser, Tyree H; Oldland, Alan R; Fish, Douglas N


    The stability of extemporaneously prepared phenylephrine hydrochloride injection stored in polypropylene syringes was studied. Dilution of phenylephrine hydrochloride to a nominal concentration of 100 mug/mL was performed under aseptic conditions by adding 100 mg of phenylephrine hydrochloride (total of 10 mL from two 5-mL 10-mg/mL vials) to 1000 mL of 0.9% sodium chloride injection. The resulting solution was drawn into 10-mL polypropylene syringes and sealed with syringe caps. The syringes were then frozen (-20 degrees C), refrigerated (3-5 degrees C), or kept at room temperature (23-25 degrees C). Four samples of each preparation were analyzed on days 0, 7, 15, 21, and 30. Physical stability was assessed by visual examination. The pH of each syringe was also measured at each time point. Sterility of the samples was not assessed. Chemical stability of phenylephrine hydrochloride was evaluated using high-performance liquid chromatography. To demonstrate the stability-indicating nature of the assay, forced degradation of phenylephrine was conducted. Samples were considered stable if there was less than 10% degradation of the initial concentration. Phenylephrine hydrochloride diluted to 100 microg/mL with 0.9% sodium chloride injection was physically stable throughout the study. No precipitation was observed. Minimal to no degradation was observed over the 30-day study period. Phenylephrine hydrochloride diluted to a concentration of 100 mug/mL in 0.9% sodium chloride injection was stable for at least 30 days when stored in polypropylene syringes at -20 degrees C, 3-5 degrees C, and 23-25 degrees C.

  9. Riboflavin concentration in corneal stroma after intracameral injection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Na Li


    Full Text Available AIM:To evaluate the enrichment of riboflavin in the corneal stroma after intracameral injection to research the barrier ability of the corneal endothelium to riboflavin in vivo.METHODS:The right eyes of 30 New Zealand white rabbits were divided into three groups. Different concentrations riboflavin-balanced salt solutions (BSS were injected into the anterior chamber (10 with 0.5%, 10 with 1%, and 10 with 2%. Eight corneal buttons of 8.5 mm in diameter from each group were dissected at 30min after injection and the riboflavin concentrations in the corneal stroma were determined using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC after removing the epithelium and endothelium. The other two rabbits in every group were observed for 24h and sacrificed. As a comparison, the riboflavin concentrations from 16 corneal stromal samples were determined using HPLC after instillation of 0.1% riboflavin-BSS solution for 30min on the corneal surface (8 without epithelium and 8 with intact epithelium.RESULTS: The mean riboflavin concentrations were 11.19, 18.97, 25.08, 20.18, and 1.13 µg/g for 0.5%, 1%, 2%, de-epithelialzed samples, and the transepithelial groups, respectively. The color change of the corneal stroma and the HPLC results showed that enrichment with riboflavin similar to classical de-epithelialized corneal collagen crosslinking (CXL could be achieved by intracameral1% riboflavin-BSS solution after 30min; the effect appeared to be continuous for at least 30min.CONCLUSION:Riboflavin can effectively penetrate the corneal stroma through the endothelium after an intracameral injection in vivo, so it could be an enhancing method that could improve the corneal riboflavin concentration in transepithelial CXL.

  10. Role of β1 integrins and bacterial adhesins for Yop injection into leukocytes in Yersinia enterocolitica systemic mouse infection. (United States)

    Deuschle, Eva; Keller, Birgit; Siegfried, Alexandra; Manncke, Birgit; Spaeth, Tanja; Köberle, Martin; Drechsler-Hake, Doreen; Reber, Julia; Böttcher, Ralph T; Autenrieth, Stella E; Autenrieth, Ingo B; Bohn, Erwin; Schütz, Monika


    Injection of Yersinia outer proteins (Yops) into host cells by a type III secretion system is an important immune evasion mechanism of Yersinia enterocolitica (Ye). In this process Ye invasin (Inv) binds directly while Yersinia adhesin A (YadA) binds indirectly via extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins to β1 integrins on host cells. Although leukocytes turned out to be an important target of Yop injection by Ye, it was unclear which Ye adhesins and which leukocyte receptors are required for Yop injection. To explain this, we investigated the role of YadA, Inv and β1 integrins for Yop injection into leukocytes and their impact on the course of systemic Ye infection in mice. Ex vivo infection experiments revealed that adhesion of Ye via Inv or YadA is sufficient to promote Yop injection into leukocytes as revealed by a β-lactamase reporter assay. Serum factors inhibit YadA- but not Inv-mediated Yop injection into B and T cells, shifting YadA-mediated Yop injection in the direction of neutrophils and other myeloid cells. Systemic Ye mouse infection experiments demonstrated that YadA is essential for Ye virulence and Yop injection into leukocytes, while Inv is dispensable for virulence and plays only a transient and minor role for Yop injection in the early phase of infection. Ye infection of mice with β1 integrin-depleted leukocytes demonstrated that β1 integrins are dispensable for YadA-mediated Yop injection into leukocytes, but contribute to Inv-mediated Yop injection. Despite reduced Yop injection into leukocytes, β1 integrin-deficient mice exhibited an increased susceptibility for Ye infection, suggesting an important role of β1 integrins in immune defense against Ye. This study demonstrates that Yop injection into leukocytes by Ye is largely mediated by YadA exploiting, as yet unknown, leukocyte receptors. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  11. 21 CFR 522.1680 - Oxytocin injection. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Oxytocin injection. 522.1680 Section 522.1680 Food... Oxytocin injection. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter (mL) of solution contains 20 USP units oxytocin. (b... Cows 0.5 to 1.0 10 to 20. Sows 0.25 to 1.0 5 to 20. (2) Indications for use. Oxytocin may be used as a...

  12. Injection Molding of High Aspect Ratio Nanostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matschuk, Maria; Larsen, Niels Bent

    We present a process for injection molding of 40 nm wide and >100 nm high pillars (pitch: 200 nm). We explored the effects of mold coatings and injection molding conditions on the replication quality of nanostructures in cyclic olefin copolymer. We found that optimization of molding parameters...... using native nickel molds only lead to slight improvements in replication quality. In contrast, a fluorocarbon based antistiction coating (FDTS) was found to improve the replication quality significantly....

  13. Transient High-Pressure Fuel Injection Processes (United States)


    injection and shortly before the end of injection is very challenging. From the experimental scope the dense cloud of droplets and vapor surrounding... Schlieren imaging and laser-based techniques, e.g., Mie scattering imaging and laser-induced fluorescence produce obscure images from the regions of...diameter liquid jet by a high-speed gas stream,” J. Fluid Mech., vol. 497, pp. 405–434, 2003. [19] D. D. Joseph, A. Huang, and G. V. Candler, “ Vaporization

  14. Dimethyl Ether in Diesel Fuel Injection Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorenson, Spencer C.; Glensvig, M.; Abata, D. L.


    A study of the behaviour of DME in diesel injection systems. A discussion of the effects of compressibility of DME on compression work and wave propagation.DME spray shapes and penetration rates......A study of the behaviour of DME in diesel injection systems. A discussion of the effects of compressibility of DME on compression work and wave propagation.DME spray shapes and penetration rates...

  15. SQL Injection Test System for Students


    Zlatkovski, Dragi; Suteva, Natasa; Mileva, Aleksandra


    We present a new web application as a vulnerable testing system for SQL injection attacks. Its purpose is to give opportunity to students of Computer security courses, to explore the nature of these modern attacks, to see how hackers exploit them and to learn how to protect their databases from them. Deployment of SQL injection attack on real web applications is illegal and it is subject to prosecution by law. With this software, we protect our students, and in the same time...

  16. Diesel Effect Problem Solving During Injection Moulding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Košík Miroslav


    Full Text Available Study describes principles of diesel effect creation during thermoplastic injection moulding as a consequence of wrong injection conditions and poor venting system design. On real example, study shows sequence of all steps to eliminate this sort of material degradation with minimal costs in phase when mould is already made. As a first, process parameters were optimized by CAE simulation to minimize cavity internal gasses creation. Finally the specific mould modifications were suggested to improve the effectiveness of venting system.

  17. Paraplegia After Thoracic Epidural Steroid Injection. (United States)

    Loomba, Vivek; Kaveeshvar, Hirsh; Dwivedi, Samvid


    Epidural steroid injections are a common procedure performed by pain physicians. The American Society of Regional Anesthesia along with several other groups recently provided guidelines for performing epidural injections in the setting of anticoagulants. We present a case of a patient who developed an epidural hematoma and subsequent paraplegia despite strict adherence to these guidelines. Although new guidelines serve to direct practice, risks of devastating neurologic complications remain as evidenced by our case.

  18. SQL Injection - Database Attack Revolution and Prevention


    Dorai, Ramakanth; Kannan, Vinod


    SQL injection came with a bang and caused revolution in database attacking. In recent years, with the explosion in web-based commerce and information systems, databases have been drawing ever closer to the network and it is critical part of network security. This paper is incorporated with our research and firsthand experience in hacking the database by SQL injection. Database is the Storage Brain of a website. A hacked database is the source for Passwords and juicy information like credit ca...

  19. Coupled Reactive Transport Modeling of CO2 Injection in Mt. Simon Sandstone Formation, Midwest USA (United States)

    Liu, F.; Lu, P.; Zhu, C.; Xiao, Y.


    CO2 sequestration in deep geological formations is one of the promising options for CO2 emission reduction. While several large scale CO2 injections in saline aquifers have shown to be successful for the short-term, there is still a lack of fundamental understanding on key issues such as CO2 storage capacity, injectivity, and security over multiple spatial and temporal scales that need to be addressed. To advance these understandings, we applied multi-phase coupled reactive mass transport modeling to investigate the fate of injected CO2 and reservoir responses to the injection into Mt. Simon Formation. We developed both 1-D and 2-D reactive transport models in a radial region of 10,000 m surrounding a CO2 injection well to represent the Mt. Simon sandstone formation, which is a major regional deep saline reservoir in the Midwest, USA. Supercritical CO2 is injected into the formation for 100 years, and the modeling continues till 10,000 years to monitor both short-term and long-term behavior of injected CO2 and the associated rock-fluid interactions. CO2 co-injection with H2S and SO2 is also simulated to represent the flue gases from coal gasification and combustion in the Illinois Basin. The injection of CO2 results in acidified zones (pH ~3 and 5) adjacent to the wellbore, causing progressive water-rock interactions in the surrounding region. In accordance with the extensive dissolution of authigenic K-feldspar, sequential precipitations of secondary carbonates and clay minerals are predicted in this zone. The vertical profiles of CO2 show fingering pattern from the top of the reservoir to the bottom due to the density variation of CO2-impregnated brine, which facilitate convection induced mixing and solubility trapping. Most of the injected CO2 remains within a radial distance of 2500 m at the end of 10,000 years and is sequestered and immobilized by solubility and residual trapping. Mineral trapping via secondary carbonates, including calcite, magnesite

  20. Pleurodesis induced by intrapleural injection of silver nitrate or talc in rabbits: can it be used in humans? Pleurodese induzida pela injeção intrapleural de nitrato de prata ou talco em coelhos: há perspectivas para o uso em humanos?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco S. Vargas


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the pleuropulmonary alterations caused by intrapleural injection of silver nitrate or talc in an experimental model, in order to consider its use in human beings. METHOD: 112 rabbits were randomly selected to receive intrapleural 0.5% silver nitrate or 400 mg/kg talc slurry in 2 ml saline. Eight rabbits of each group were sacrificed after 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, or 12 months. Regarding the pleural cavity, the degree of macroscopic pleurodesis (adherences and microscopic alterations, represented by inflammation and pleural fibrosis, were analyzed. The parenchyma was evaluated regarding the degree of alveolar collapse, intra-alveolar septum edema, and cellularity, on a 0 to 4 scale. RESULTS: Intrapleural injection of silver nitrate produced earlier and more intense pleurodesis than talc slurry injection. The parenchymal damage was more evident with silver nitrate, considered as moderate, and limited to the first evaluation (after one month. From the second month on and throughout the entire one-year follow-up, the parenchymal damage was similar with both substances, only the pleural adherences were more intense with silver nitrate. CONCLUSIONS: Intrapleural silver nitrate produces better and longer-lasting than intrapleural talc injection. The parenchymal alterations, although discreet, are more pronounced when silver nitrate is used, but minimal after two months, and similar to those produced by talc injection during the entire one-year observation period. These effects on the pulmonary parenchyma do not contraindicate the use in humans. Thus, the use of intrapleural silver nitrate to produce fast and effective pleurodesis can be considered in patients in which pleural cavity symphysis is desired.OBJETIVO DE ESTUDO: Avaliar as alterações pleuropulmonares causadas pela injeção intrapleural de talco ou nitrato de prata em modelo experimental, com o intuito de considerar sua utilização em humanos. MÉTODO: 112 coelhos foram

  1. Epidural steroid injection for lumbosacral radiculopathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sung, Mi Sook [The Catholic University of Korea, Pucheon (Korea, Republic of)


    Low back pain combined with radicular pain remains as one of the most challenging musculoskeletal problems for its therapeutic management. This malady results from nerve root impingement and/or inflammation that causes neurologic symptoms in the distribution of the affected nerve root(s) Conservative treatment, percutaneous spine interventions and surgery have all been used as treatment; and the particular treatment that's chosen depends on the severity of the clinical and neurologic presentation. In 1930, Evans reported that sciatica could treated by epidural injection. The use of epidural corticosteroid injections for the treatment of axial and radicular back pain was first reported in 1953. Epidural steroid injections are currently used by many medical professionals for the treatment of lumbosacral radiculopathy. Performing 'blind' epidural steroid injection lacks target specificity that often results in incorrect delivery of medication to the lesion. Imaging-guided steroid injections are now becoming more popular despite the controversy regarding their efficacy. Many reports, including a few randomized controlled trials, have documented the clinical utility of epidural steroid injections.

  2. Intralesional triamcinolone acetonide injection for chalazion. (United States)

    Pavicić-Astalos, Jasna; Iveković, Renata; Knezević, Tamara; Krolo, Iva; Novak-Laus, Katia; Tedeschi-Reiner, Eugenia; Rotim, Kresimir; Mandić, Kresimir; Susić, Nikola


    The aim of the study was to evaluate the efficacy of intralesional triamcinolone acetonide injection in primary and recurrent chalazion. The study included 30 patients with primary and recurrent chalazion (37 cases) and 24 patients as a control group. Patients with primary and recurrent chalazion received intralesional injection of 0.1 to 0.2 mL triamcinolone acetonide (40 mg/mL). Control group received intralesional injection of 0.1 to 0.2 mL 0.9% NaCl. Data on the lesion size, including digital color photography, lesion regression or recurrence, and complete ophthalmic examination were recorded at the time of injection and after a week or two until resolution or surgical excision. Success was defined as at least 80% decrease in size with no recurrence. Resolution of the lesion was found in 35 cases after one or two injections, with a mean time to resolution of 15.27 +/- 6.12 days. Subcutaneous injection of the steroid triamcinolone acetonide in primary and recurrent chalazion appears to be a simple and efficacious therapeutic option for chalazion.

  3. Dual fuel injection piggyback controller system (United States)

    Muji, Siti Zarina Mohd.; Hassanal, Muhammad Amirul Hafeez; Lee, Chua King; Fawzi, Mas; Zulkifli, Fathul Hakim


    Dual-fuel injection is an effort to reduce the dependency on diesel and gasoline fuel. Generally, there are two approaches to implement the dual-fuel injection in car system. The first approach is changing the whole injector of the car engine, the consequence is excessive high cost. Alternatively, it also can be achieved by manipulating the system's control signal especially the Electronic Control Unit (ECU) signal. Hence, the study focuses to develop a dual injection timing controller system that likely adopted to control injection time and quantity of compressed natural gas (CNG) and diesel fuel. In this system, Raspberry Pi 3 reacts as main controller unit to receive ECU signal, analyze it and then manipulate its duty cycle to be fed into the Electronic Driver Unit (EDU). The manipulation has changed the duty cycle to two pulses instead of single pulse. A particular pulse mainly used to control injection of diesel fuel and another pulse controls injection of Compressed Natural Gas (CNG). The test indicated promising results that the system can be implemented in the car as piggyback system.

  4. Ultrasound guided injection of recalcitrant plantar fasciitis (United States)

    Kane, D.; Greaney, T.; Bresnihan, B.; Gibney, R.; FitzGerald, O.


    OBJECTIVE—To determine the effect of ultrasound guided injection in recalcitrant idiopathic plantar fasciitis.
METHODS—Four patients with a clinical diagnosis of idiopathic plantar fasciitis, who were unresponsive to palpation guided injection with triamcinolone acetonide and local anaesthetic, underwent ultrasonographic examination of the heel.
RESULTS—The following ultrasonographic features were noted:- (a) increased thickness of plantar fascia in symptomatic heels compared with asymptomatic heels, (b) loss of distinction of the distal plantar fascia borders, (c) reduced echogenicity of the plantar fascia. Ultrasound guided injection of the enlarged, hypoechoic plantar fascia resulted in complete relief in four of five heels(mean duration of follow up=24 months) in three cases. One patient developed a recurrence of symptoms after six months.
CONCLUSION—Ultrasound allows for confirmation of the clinical diagnosis and ultrasound guided injection produces a good clinical response when unguided injection is unsuccessful. The technique is quick, inexpensive, and entails no radiation exposure.

 Keywords: ultrasound guided; corticosteroid injection; plantar fasciitis PMID:9771217

  5. Interventions with Injection Drug Users in Ukraine (United States)

    Booth, Robert E.; Lehman, Wayne E.K.; Dvoryak, Sergey; Brewster, John T.; Sinitsyna, Larisa


    Aims To assess the effectiveness of a brief HIV testing and counseling intervention compared to a more time-consuming and expensive street-based intervention with injection drug users (IDUs). Design Crossover experimental design in which 600 IDUs were recruited, followed by a “wash out” period with no recruitment, a reversal of intervention assignment areas and an additional recruitment of 600 IDUs with baseline and six-month follow-up assessments. Setting Kiev, Odessa and Makeevka/Donesk Ukraine. Participants 1,798 IDUs. Measurements HIV testing and audio-computer assisted self-interview (ACASI) data on socio-demographics, drug use and injection and sex-related risk behaviors. Findings Participants in both conditions significantly reduced their injection and sex risks, however, there was little difference in outcomes between conditions. IDUs who knew they were HIV infected at baseline were significantly more likely to practice safe sex than those unaware or HIV negative; those who first learned they were infected at baseline changed their safe sex practices significantly more than those who already knew they were infected at baseline and those who were HIV negative. Younger IDUs and those injecting for a shorter period of time reported higher injection and sex risk behaviors following interventions. Conclusions Awareness of HIV infection by street-recruited drug injectors is associated with reduced sex risks. Additional interventions are required for younger IDUs and those injecting for shorter periods of time. PMID:19681800

  6. Improved Confinement Induced by CT Injection in the STOR-M Tokamak (United States)

    Xiao, C.; Hirose, A.; Zawalski, W.; Jin, T.; Ding, W.; White, D.; Raman, R.; Decoste, R.; Gregory, B. C.; Martin, F.


    Compact torus (CT) injection as a means to centrally fuel a large tokamak is an attractive alternative. The University of Saskatchewan Compact Torus Injector (USCTI) is designed to study the interaction between the compact torus and tokamak plasmas. USCTI has been modified to include chromium coated copper outer electrodes and to allow baking at higher temperatures up to 100 ^circC. As a result of the modification and parameter optimization, CTs can be formed at a lower gas injection throughput (80% lower than before). The CT velocity has also been increased from 120 km/sec to 180 km/sec. Disruption-free tangential CT injection has been achieved. CT injection triggers Ohmic H-mode which lasts for 4 msec. The H-mode triggered by CT injection is characterized by an increase in the line averaged density, sudden drop in H_α emission, sudden increase in floating potential at the edge and SOL, decrease in floating potential and m=2 MHD fluctuations, and steepening of edge density profile. In the next experimental campaign, possibility of momentum transfer from energetic CT to tokamak discharge will be investigated.

  7. Periarticular multimodal drug injection is better than single anesthetic drug in controlling pain after total knee arthroplasty. (United States)

    Tammachote, Nattapol; Kanitnate, Supakit; Manuwong, Sudsayam; Panichkul, Phonthakorn


    Postoperative pain is one of the issues that concern most patients after total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Periarticular multimodal drug injection and single anesthetic agent injection have been shown to effectively reduce postoperative pain. The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy between multimodal drug injection and single anesthetic drug injection in controlling pain after TKA using a double-blinded randomized controlled trial. Sixty-four osteoarthritic patients who underwent primary TKA were randomized into two groups. The multimodal drug injection group (group M) received levobupivacaine 150 mg, ketorolac 30 mg and morphine 5 mg, while the single anesthetic drug injection group (group S) received only levobupivacaine 150 mg. The primary outcomes were pain level (VAS), quantity of opioid consumption (mg) and time to request the first dose of analgesic drug (min). Multimodal drug injection provided lower pain level in the first 4 h after surgery (VAS rest: 30 vs 46, p = 0.02; VAS motion: 45 vs 66, p = 0.03). They consumed less morphine mostly in the first 8 h after surgery (5 vs 12 mg, p Multimodal drug injection decreases pain level, reduces morphine consumption in the early postoperative period and prolongs the analgesic effect compared to single anesthetic drug. One may consider using single anesthetic agent only in patients who have high risk of opioid or NSAIDs side effect.

  8. Comparative effectiveness of injection therapies in lateral epicondylitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, Thøger Persson; Bartels, Else Marie; Ellingsen, Torkell Juulsgaad


    Injection therapy with glucocorticoids has been used since the 1950s as a treatment strategy for lateral epicondylitis (tennis elbow). Lately, several novel injection therapies have become available....

  9. Aboriginal children and penicillin injections for rheumatic fever: how much of a problem is injection pain? (United States)

    Mitchell, Alice G; Belton, Suzanne; Johnston, Vanessa; Read, Clancy; Scrine, Clair; Ralph, Anna P


    To explore young Aboriginal people's and clinicians' experiences of injection pain for the 10 years of penicillin injections children are prescribed to prevent rheumatic fever recurrences. Aboriginal children on the penicillin regimen and clinicians were purposively recruited from four remote sites in Australia. Semi-structured interviews and participant observations were conducted. Views were synthesised and thematically analysed. A total of 29 Aboriginal children and 59 clinicians were interviewed. Sixteen participants appeared to become accustomed to the injection pain, eight did not find pain an issue, and five found injection pain difficult. A further five believed the injections made them unwell. Patients expressed varying abilities to negotiate with clinicians about the use of pain reduction measures. Clinicians revealed good knowledge of pain reduction measures, but offered them inconsistently. All clinicians found administering the injections distressing. Repeated painful procedures in children necessitate well-planned and child-focused care. Current practices are not in line with guidance from the Royal Australasian College of Physicians about effects of repeated painful procedures on children. Initiating the long-term injection regimen for rheumatic fever is a special event requiring expert input. A newly reported finding of a subset of young people feeling unwell after receiving the injection requires further investigation. Implications for public health: Improvement of local and jurisdictional guidelines on use of pain reduction measures for children who have been prescribed repeated painful injections for rheumatic fever is needed. © 2017 The Authors.

  10. Ultrasound-guided botulinum toxin injections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. E. Khatkova


    Full Text Available One of the key conditions for achieving the desirable result during botulinum toxin therapy for muscular dystonia, spasticity, and other diseases accompanied by spasm, pain, and autonomic dysfunction (dystonias, spasticity, etc. is the proper administration of the agent into the muscles directly involved in the pathological process. The exact entry of botulinum toxin into the target muscles is essential for successful and safe treatment because its injection into a normal muscle may cause side effects. The most common errors are the incorrect depth and incorrect direction of a needle on insertion. Therefore, the exact injection of the agent particularly into the shallow and deep muscles is a difficult task even for an experienced specialist and requires the use of controlling methods.The European Consensus on Botulinum Toxin Therapy points out that various injection techniques are needed for the better identification of necessary muscles. However, there are currently no reports on the clear advantage of any technique. In our country, injections using palpation and anatomical landmarks have been widely used in routine practice so far; electromyographic monitoring and electrostimulation have been less frequently applied. In recent years, the new method ultrasound-guided injection has continued to grow more popular. This effective, accessible, and easy-to-use method makes it possible to manage a real-time injection process and to ensure the exact entry of the agent into the muscle. This paper is dedicated to a comparative analysis of different injection methods and to a description of the ultrasound-guided technique and its advantages over others. 

  11. Stratospheric Aerosol Injection for Geoengineering Purposes (United States)

    Turco, R. P.; Yu, F.


    A number of studies have focused on the large-scale aspects of massive stratospheric aerosol injections for the purpose of modifying global climate to counterbalance current and future greenhouse warming effects. However, no descriptions of actual injection schemes have been presented at any level of detail; it is generally assumed that the procedure would be straightforward. Approaches mentioned include direct injection of dispersed microparticles of sulfates or other mineral particles, or the emission of precursor vapors, such as sulfur dioxide or hydrogen sulfide, that lead to particle formation. Using earlier aircraft plume research as a guide, we investigate the fate of injected aerosols/precursors from a stratospheric platform in terms of the chemical and microphysical evolution occurring in a mixing plume. We utilize an advanced microphysics model that treats nucleation, coagulation, condensation and other processes relevant to the injection of particulates at high altitudes, as well as the influence of plume dilution. The requirements of particle size and concentration for producing the desired engineered radiative forcing place significant constraints on the injection system. Here, we focus on the effects of early microphysical processing on the formation of a suitable aerosol layer, and consider strategies to overcome potential hurdles. Among the problems explicitly addressed are: the propensity for emitted particles to coagulate to sizes that are optically inefficient at solar wavelengths, accelerated scavenging by an enhanced background aerosol layer, the evolution of size dispersion leading to significant infrared effects, and total mass injection rates implied by stratospheric residence times. We also investigate variability in aerosol properties owing to uncertain nucleation rates in evolving plumes. In the context of the microphysical simulations, we discuss infrastructure requirements in terms of the scale of the intervention and, hence, the

  12. Von Neumann algebras as complemented subspaces of B(H)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Erik; Wang, Liguang


    Let M be a von Neumann algebra of type II1 which is also a complemented subspace of B( H). We establish an algebraic criterion, which ensures that M is an injective von Neumann algebra. As a corollary we show that if M is a complemented factor of type II1 on a Hilbert space H, then M is injective...

  13. Inadvertent injection of potassium chloride instead of sodium chloride during treatment of chronic low back ache with epidural injection leading to paraplegia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul Ranjan


    Full Text Available Epidural injection of steroid is given for back pain resistant to other conservative management. Normal saline (NS is used as diluent in 80 mg methylprednisolone and a local anesthetic. Due to a similar looking ampoule of NS and potassium chloride (KCl, there is a probability of accidental use of KCl instead of NS. We present a case of a 50 year old male patient having low back ache refractory to other conservative treatments. Epidural injection of steroid was given, but accidently KCl was mixed with methylprednisolone instead of NS. He developed severe cramps in the lower limbs, pruritus, and sweating, and finally paraplegia. Electrocardiography and blood showed features suggestive of hyperkalemia. He was given calcium gluconate and potassium chelating agent along with supportive measures. The patient recovered within 8 h. It is concluded that calcium gluconate and potassium chelating agent can be used if accidentally KCl is injected in epidural space.

  14. Ultra-long-duration local anesthesia produced by injection of lecithin-coated methoxyflurane microdroplets. (United States)

    Haynes, D H; Kirkpatrick, A F


    This study was designed to evaluate a new drug delivery system. The authors undertook to determine if microdroplets prepared by encapsulating volatile anesthetics with a membrane of lecithin could be used for local anesthesia. Local anesthesia was determined by monitoring the response of the rat to tail clamping and electrical stimulation of the skin following the intradermal injection of the microdroplets. Microdroplets were prepared from isoflurane, enflurane, halothane, methoxyflurane, diethyl ether, chloroform, and heptane. Although all microdroplet preparations produced local anesthesia, only methoxyflurane microdroplets produced an ultra-long duration of local anesthesia (approximately 24 h). Further characterization of the methoxyflurane microdroplets revealed two important differences from conventional local anesthetics. First, the local anesthetic effect of methoxyflurane reached a plateau that did not change significantly for 20 h while the injection of lidocaine and bupivacaine resulted in a peak effect that returned to baseline within 1 and 3 h, respectively. Second, the anesthetic effect of methoxyflurane remained essentially localized to the site of injection, while the anesthetic effect of lidocaine and bupivacaine migrated 15 cm in less than 1 h. The toxicity and safety of methoxyflurane were evaluated. When administered over the dosage range 1-16% (v/v) intradermally, or by injections into muscle, or by repeat injections every 4 days for 16 days, all animals regained their pretreatment response to painful stimulations, and there was no evidence of gross injury to tissue. Deliberate intravenous injection of 0.8 ml of 6.7% (v/v) methoxyflurane microdroplets had no apparent anesthetic or toxic effect. The present study demonstrates that methoxyflurane microdroplets produce an anesthetic effect that is highly localized, stable in intensity, ultra-long in duration, and reversible.

  15. Rat brain and serum lithium concentrations after acute injections of lithium carbonate and orotate. (United States)

    Kling, M A; Manowitz, P; Pollack, I W


    Eight hours after intraperitoneal injections of 1.0, 2.0, and 4.0m equiv Li kg-1, the serum and brain lithium concentrations of rats were significantly greater after lithium orotate than after lithium carbonate. While little serum lithium remained at 24 h after injection of 2.0 m equiv kg-1 lithium carbonate, two-thirds of the 2 h serum lithium concentration was present 24h after lithium orotate. Furthermore, the 24 h brain concentration of lithium after lithium orotate was approximately three times greater than that after lithium carbonate. These data suggest the possibility that lower doses of lithium orotate than lithium carbonate may achieve therapeutic brain lithium concentrations and relatively stable serum concentrations.

  16. Corticosteroid injection for de Quervain's tenosynovitis. (United States)

    Peters-Veluthamaningal, Cyriac; van der Windt, Daniëlle A W M; Winters, Jan C; Meyboom-de Jong, Betty


    De Quervain's tenosynovitis is a disorder characterised by pain on the radial (thumb) side of the wrist and functional disability of the hand. It can be treated by corticosteroid injection, splinting and surgery. To summarise evidence on the efficacy and safety of corticosteroid injections for de Quervain's tenosynovitis. We searched the following databases: the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library 2009, Issue 2), MEDLINE (1966 to April 2009), EMBASE (1956 to April 2009), CINAHL (1982 to April 2009), AMED (1985 to April 2009), DARE, Dissertation Abstracts and PEDro (physiotherapy evidence database). Randomised and controlled clinical trials evaluating the efficacy and safety of corticosteroid injections for de Quervain's tenosynovitis. After screening abstracts of studies identified by the search we obtained full text articles of studies which fulfilled the selection criteria. We extracted data using a predefined electronic form. We assessed the methodological quality of included trials by using the checklist developed by Jadad and the Delphi list. We extracted data on the primary outcome measures: treatment success; severity of pain or tenderness at the radial styloid; functional impairment of the wrist or hand; and outcome of Finkelstein's test, and the secondary outcome measures: proportion of patients with side effects; type of side effects and patient satisfaction with injection treatment. We found one controlled clinical trial of 18 participants (all pregnant or lactating women) that compared one steroid injection with methylprednisolone and bupivacaine to splinting with a thumb spica. All patients in the steroid injection group (9/9) achieved complete relief of pain whereas none of the patients in the thumb spica group (0/9) had complete relief of pain, one to six days after intervention (number needed to treat to benefit (NNTB) = 1, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.8 to 1.2). No side effects or local complications of


    Auer, J; Gates, F L


    In the preceding pages we have submitted evidence which shows that a simple intratracheal injection of a solution in a normally breathing rabbit penetrates within a few seconds to the alveoli, chiefly those of the left lower lobe; that absorption is rapid and well maintained; and that the procedure may be repeated effectively a number of times even with a substance like adrenalin which decreases absorption. It was also shown that absorption of adrenalin from the lung could be obtained at a time when double the dose given intramuscularly exerted no blood pressure effect whatever, and that absorption could still take place after the development of pulmonary edema, when there was an undoubted dilution of the injected solution with a serum-containing liquid and when a diminution of the absorptive field had occurred. The solution injected, after reaching the alveoli, is probably largely taken up by the capillaries of the pulmonary veins. This is indicated by the great rapidity with which an intratracheal injection of adrenalin may cause a rise of blood pressure. In numerous instances, for example, the pressure began to rise less than 5 seconds after the completion of an injection, equaling and even surpassing in rapidity of effect an intramuscular injection. Absorption by the lymphatics probably plays a secondary part, an assumption rendered all themore likely if we consider that lymph nodes are interpolated in the lymphatic pulmonary path, where the bed of the lymph stream becomes greatly widened and the current slowed. Injection into the lungs, however, offers another advantage due to the vascular arrangement of the absorbing field which could be of value therapeutically. Absorption of liquids injected into the lung probably takes place largely through the capillaries of the pulmonary veins; to a slight extent possibly through the capillaries of the bronchial veins which empty partly into the pulmonary veins, partly into the azygos veins; and probably some absorption

  18. Paediatric Blood-Injection-Injury Phobia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beena Johnson


    Full Text Available Blood-Injection-Injury phobia is a major health issue throughout the life span. It usually starts in early childhood. Avoidance of health care is seen in such individuals. Children with blood injection injury phobia have uncontrollable fear of blood, injury, injections and needles. Because of the intense fear, these children will do everything possible to avoid it. Various physical symptoms including increased heart rate, chest discomfort, trembling movements, feeling of choking and syncope may occur in these children on mentioning about blood, needles or any injury. Vasovagal fainting with diphasic response pattern occurs in about twenty percent of children on exposure to the phobic stimulus. Other anxiety disorders, depressive disorders and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder also occur co-morbidly in children with blood-injection-injury phobia which makes the prognosis poor. Avoidance of health care due to phobia causes significant negative impact on health outcomes. Hence early diagnosis and urgent management of blood-injection-injury phobia in children is essential.

  19. Percutaneous Ethibloc injection in aneurysmal bone cysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garg, N.K.; Walsh, H.P.J.; Dorgan, J.C.; Bruce, C.E. [Dept. of Orthopaedics, Royal Liverpool Children' s Hospital (United Kingdom); Carty, H. [Dept. of Radiodiagnosis, Royal Liverpool Children' s Hospital (United Kingdom)


    Objective. To investigate whether the injection of Ethibloc into aneurysmal bone cysts can be an effective treatment modality.Design and patients. Ethibloc is an alcoholic solution of zein (corn protein) which has thrombogenic and fibrogenic properties. Ten patients with aneurysmal bone cysts were treated with CT-guided percutaneous injection of Ethibloc into the cyst cavity. Ethibloc injection was the primary treatment in five patients. Four patients had recurrence following previous curettage and bone grafting and one patient had not responded to injection into the lesion of autologous iliac crest bone marrow aspirate. Three patients needed a second injection. The median follow-up was 27 (6-60) months.Results and conclusion. Symptoms were relieved in all patients. At imaging, seven patients had resolution of the lesion and three had partial response at the most recent follow-up. Complications consisted of a local transitory inflammatory reaction in two patients and an aseptic abscess in one patient. This relatively simple, minimally invasive procedure makes an operation unnecessary by stopping the expansion of the cyst and inducing endosteal new bone formation. This technique may be used as the primary management of aneurysmal bone cysts excluding spinal lesions. (orig.)

  20. Supported-sorbent injection. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, S. Jr.


    A new retrofitable, wastefree acid-rain control concept was pilot-tested at Ohio Edison`s high-sulfur coal-fired R.E. Burger generating station at the 2-MWe level. During the project, moistened {open_quotes}supported{close_quotes} sorbents, made from a combination of lime and vermiculite or perlite, were injected into a humidified 6,500-acfm flue-gas slipstream. After the sorbents reacted with the sulfur dioxide in the flue gas, they were removed from ductwork with a cyclone and baghouse. The $1.0 million project was co-funded by Sorbent Technologies Corporation, the Ohio Edison Company, and the Ohio Coal Development Office. The project included a preliminary bench-scale testing phase, construction of the pilot plant, parametric studies, numerous series of recycle tests, and a long-term run. The project proceeded as anticipated and achieved its expected results. This duct injection technology successfully demonstrated SO{sub 2}-removal rates of 80 to 90% using reasonable stoichiometric injection ratios (2:1 Ca:S) and approach temperatures (20-25F). Under similar conditions, dry injection of hydrated lime alone typically only achieves 40 to 50% SO{sub 2} removal. During the testing, no difficulties were encountered with deposits in the ductwork or with particulate control, which have been problems in tests of other duct-injection schemes.

  1. Permanent Magnet Flux Online Estimation Based on Zero-Voltage Vector Injection Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xie, Ge; Lu, Kaiyuan; Kumar, Dwivedi Sanjeet


    In this paper, a simple signal injection method is proposed for sensorless control of PMSM at low speed, which ideally requires one voltage vector only for position estimation. The proposed method is easy to implement resulting in low computation burden. No filters are needed for extracting the h...

  2. Some characteristics of early-onset injection drug users prior to and at the time of their first injection. (United States)

    Abelson, Jeanne; Treloar, Carla; Crawford, June; Kippax, Susan; van Beek, Ingrid; Howard, John


    This paper examines differences between early- and late-onset injection drug users (12-16 years versus 17-24 years) in terms of the antecedents and circumstances of first injection. Cross-sectional retrospective design, using logistic regression. Setting Australia: Sydney, Brisbane, rural New South Wales. A total of 336 injection drug users aged 16-25 years at the time of interview. Independent variables included family injection drug use, homelessness and other demographic variables, drugs used prior to the first injection, length of pre-injection drug career, behaviours at time of first injection (e.g. drug injected, reasons/motives for the first injection, risk behaviours). Early-onset injection was associated independently with: having a family who injected drugs, having left school early, an unreliable source of income, a short pre-injection drug career, planning of the first injection, reliance on others for administration of the first injection and denial that experimentation was the motive for the first injection. In bivariate analysis, early-onset injection was associated further with: homelessness, being an Indigenous Australian, omission of use of certain pre-injection drugs, group presence at first injection, reliance on others for acquisition of the first needle and syringe and having injected the first time because an injection was offered. The research shows that early-onset, compared with late-onset injectors, are more likely to have an immediate family who inject drugs and other problematic beginnings in early life. They have an accelerated transition to injection, and differences in autonomy and motivation at first injection. These characteristics may make them more vulnerable to risk taking.

  3. Injectable calcium phosphate with hydrogel fibers encapsulating induced pluripotent, dental pulp and bone marrow stem cells for bone repair. (United States)

    Wang, Lin; Zhang, Chi; Li, Chunyan; Weir, Michael D; Wang, Ping; Reynolds, Mark A; Zhao, Liang; Xu, Hockin H K


    Human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hiPSC-MSCs), dental pulp stem cells (hDPSCs) and bone marrow MSCs (hBMSCs) are exciting cell sources in regenerative medicine. However, there has been no report comparing hDPSCs, hBMSCs and hiPSC-MSCs for bone engineering in an injectable calcium phosphate cement (CPC) scaffold. The objectives of this study were to: (1) develop a novel injectable CPC containing hydrogel fibers encapsulating stem cells for bone engineering, and (2) compare cell viability, proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of hDPSCs, hiPSC-MSCs from bone marrow (BM-hiPSC-MSCs) and from foreskin (FS-hiPSC-MSCs), and hBMSCs in CPC for the first time. The results showed that the injection did not harm cell viability. The porosity of injectable CPC was 62%. All four types of cells proliferated and differentiated down the osteogenic lineage inside hydrogel fibers in CPC. hDPSCs, BM-hiPSC-MSCs, and hBMSCs exhibited high alkaline phosphatase, runt-related transcription factor, collagen I, and osteocalcin gene expressions. Cell-synthesized minerals increased with time (p0.1). Mineralization by hDPSCs, BM-hiPSC-MSCs, and hBMSCs inside CPC at 14d was 14-fold that at 1d. FS-hiPSC-MSCs were inferior in osteogenic differentiation compared to the other cells. In conclusion, hDPSCs, BM-hiPSC-MSCs and hBMSCs are similarly and highly promising for bone tissue engineering; however, FS-hiPSC-MSCs were relatively inferior in osteogenesis. The novel injectable CPC with cell-encapsulating hydrogel fibers may enhance bone regeneration in dental, craniofacial and orthopedic applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Stability of penicillin G sodium diluted with 0.9% sodium chloride injection or 5% dextrose injection and stored in polyvinyl chloride bag containers and elastomeric pump containers. (United States)

    Hossain, Mirza Akram; Friciu, Mihaela; Aubin, Sebastien; Leclair, Grégoire


    The stability of penicillin G sodium solutions stored in polyvinyl chloride (PVC) bags or elastomeric pump containers was studied. Test samples were prepared by diluting powdered penicillin G sodium (10 million units/10-mL vial) to solutions of 2,500 or 50,000 units/mL with 0.9% sodium chloride injection or 5% dextrose injection. The preparations were transferred to 250-mL PVC bags and elastomeric pump containers. All samples were prepared in triplicate and stored at 5°C. Chemical stability was measured by a stability-indicating high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) assay and by pH evaluation. Particulate matter was evaluated according to compendial standards using a light-obscuration particle count test. Preparations were visually examined throughout the study. After 21 days of storage, all test samples remained chemically stable, with an HPLC assay recovery value of more than 90% of the initial value. After 28 days, all samples prepared with either diluent and stored in PVC bags, as well as the samples diluted to 2,500 units/mL with sodium chloride injection and stored in elastomeric pump containers, did not meet the recovery acceptance limit. For all test samples, the mean pH consistently decreased during storage, from about 6.4 to about 5.5. Particle counts remained acceptable throughout the study, and no change in appearance was observed. Penicillin G for injection (2,500 and 50,000 units/mL) diluted in 0.9% sodium chloride injection or 5% dextrose injection and stored at 5°C in PVC containers or elastomeric pump containers was physically and chemically stable for a period of at least 21 days.

  5. Radial oil injection applied to main engine bearings: evaluation of injection control rules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Estupiñan, EA; Santos, Ilmar


    , the dynamic behaviour of the main bearing of a medium-size engine is theoretically analysed when the engine operates with controllable radial oil injection and four different injection control rules. The theoretical investigation is based on a single-cylinder combustion engine model. The performance...

  6. Influence of soil structure on contaminant leaching from injected slurry. (United States)

    Amin, M G Mostofa; Pedersen, Christina Østerballe; Forslund, Anita; Veith, Tamie L; Laegdsmand, Mette


    Animal manure application to agricultural land provides beneficial organic matter and nutrients but can spread harmful contaminants to the environment. Contamination of fresh produce, surface water and shallow groundwater with the manure-borne pollutants can be a critical concern. Leaching and persistence of nitrogen, microorganisms (bacteriophage, E. coli, and Enterococcus) and a group of steroid hormone (estrogens) were investigated after injection of swine slurry into either intact (structured) or disturbed (homogeneous repacked) soil. The slurry was injected into hexaplicate soil columns at a rate of 50 t ha-1 and followed with four irrigation events: 3.5-h period at 10 mm h-1 after 1, 2, 3, and 4 weeks. The disturbed columns delayed the leaching of a conservative tracer and microorganisms in the first irrigation event compared to the intact columns due to the effect of disturbed macropore flow paths. The slurry constituents that ended up in or near the macropore flow paths of the intact soil were presumably washed out relatively quickly in the first event. For the last three events the intact soil leached fewer microorganisms than the disturbed soil due to the bypassing effect of water through the macropore flow path in the intact soil. Estrogen leached from the intact soil in the first event only, but for the disturbed soil it was detected in the leachates of last two events also. Leaching from the later events was attributed to higher colloid transport from the disturbed soils. In contrast, NO3-N leaching from the intact soil was higher for all events except the first event, probably due to a lower nitrification rate in the disturbed soil. A week after the last irrigation event, the redistribution of all slurry constituents except NO3-N in most of the sections of the soil column was higher for the disturbed soil. Total recovery of E. coli was significantly higher from the disturbed soil and total leaching of mineral nitrogen was significantly lower

  7. Pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and safety of esomeprazole injection/infusion in healthy Chinese volunteers: a five-way crossover study. (United States)

    Yang, Hong; Li, Jingnan; Zhao, Qian; Li, Ji; Shen, Kai; Yang, Xiaoou; Jiang, Ji; Hu, Pei; Qian, Jiaming


    Esomeprazole provides effective and long lasting inhibition of gastric acid secretion. However, the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of intravenous esomeprazole in the Chinese population remain unclear. To compare the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of intravenous esomeprazole (injection and infusion) and their clinical safety and tolerability in healthy Chinese subjects. A randomized, single-center, open-label, five-way crossover study was conducted in 20 healthy volunteers. CYP2C19 metabolizer genotype and Helicobacter pylori status were examined. Five dosing regimens were used: single 40 mg injection, 40 mg infusion every 12 h, 40 mg infusion followed by continuous infusion at 8 mg/h, 80 mg infusion followed by continuous infusion at 4 or 8 mg/h. Intragastric pH was recorded within 24 h. Plasma concentration-time curve, maximum plasma concentration (Cmax ), steady state concentration, and total plasma clearance were determined. Adverse events were also recorded. Continuous infusion resulted in a higher mean area under the curve and Cmax than injection. There were no significant differences among the four infusion groups in terms of percentages of time at pH > 4, > 5, > 6, > 7 within 24 h and pH > 6 within the first 3 h. There were no significant differences in pharmacokinetic or pH values among variants of CYP2C19 genotype. The pH value within 24 h was unaffected by H. pylori infection in subjects with continuous infusion. Esomeprazole administrated by infusion produces better pharmacokinetic and intragastric pH profiles compared with those by injection. The optimal administration schedule for esomeprazole in Chinese subjects is infusion with 40 mg/12 h. © 2013 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  8. Treatment of lipoma by injection lipolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soni Nanda


    Full Text Available Injection lipolysis or lipodissolve is the practice of injecting phosphatidyl choline/ sodium deoxycholate (PDC/DC compounds in the subcutaneous fat. Though this practice is being used extensively for nonsurgical contouring of body and dissolving localized collections of excess fat, it′s use as a treatment modality for lipomas needs further evaluation. We present a case where this technique was used for treating a lipoma, with no recurrence after 9 months of follow up. Injection lipolysis as a treatment modality for lipomas needs to be evaluated for safety and efficacy in trials on larger population. This could prove to be a very valuable adjunct to the current practice of excision, if done by a trained person in a properly selected patient. Also the side effects and the controversies regarding this procedure have been discussed in detail in the present paper.

  9. Surface microstructure replication in injection molding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Theilade, Uffe Arlø; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard


    In recent years, polymer components with surface microstructures have been in rising demand for applications such as lab-on-a-chip and optical components. Injection molding has proven to be a feasible and efficient way to manufacture such components. In injection molding, the mold surface...... molding of surface microstructures. The fundamental problem of surface microstructure replication has been studied. The research is based on specific microstructures as found in lab-on-a-chip products and on rough surfaces generated from EDM (electro discharge machining) mold cavities. Emphasis is put...... on the ability to replicate surface microstructures under normal injection-molding conditions, i.e., with commodity materials within typical process windows. It was found that within typical process windows the replication quality depends significantly on several process parameters, and especially the mold...

  10. The resonant multi-pulse ionization injection (United States)

    Tomassini, Paolo; De Nicola, Sergio; Labate, Luca; Londrillo, Pasquale; Fedele, Renato; Terzani, Davide; Gizzi, Leonida A.


    The production of high-quality electron bunches in Laser Wake Field Acceleration relies on the possibility to inject ultra-low emittance bunches in the plasma wave. In this paper, we present a new bunch injection scheme in which electrons extracted by ionization are trapped by a large-amplitude plasma wave driven by a train of resonant ultrashort pulses. In the Resonant Multi-Pulse Ionization injection scheme, the main portion of a single ultrashort (e.g., Ti:Sa) laser system pulse is temporally shaped as a sequence of resonant sub-pulses, while a minor portion acts as an ionizing pulse. Simulations show that high-quality electron bunches with normalized emittance as low as 0.08 mm × mrad and 0.65% energy spread can be obtained with a single present-day 100TW-class Ti:Sa laser system.

  11. Electrically Injected UV-Visible Nanowire Lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, George T.; Li, Changyi; Li, Qiming; Liu, Sheng; Wright, Jeremy Benjamin; Brener, Igal; Luk, Ting -Shan; Chow, Weng W.; Leung, Benjamin; Figiel, Jeffrey J.; Koleske, Daniel D.; Lu, Tzu-Ming


    There is strong interest in minimizing the volume of lasers to enable ultracompact, low-power, coherent light sources. Nanowires represent an ideal candidate for such nanolasers as stand-alone optical cavities and gain media, and optically pumped nanowire lasing has been demonstrated in several semiconductor systems. Electrically injected nanowire lasers are needed to realize actual working devices but have been elusive due to limitations of current methods to address the requirement for nanowire device heterostructures with high material quality, controlled doping and geometry, low optical loss, and efficient carrier injection. In this project we proposed to demonstrate electrically injected single nanowire lasers emitting in the important UV to visible wavelengths. Our approach to simultaneously address these challenges is based on high quality III-nitride nanowire device heterostructures with precisely controlled geometries and strong gain and mode confinement to minimize lasing thresholds, enabled by a unique top-down nanowire fabrication technique.

  12. Medication error: Subarachnoid injection of tranexamic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bina P Butala


    Full Text Available Some factors have been identified as contributing to medical errors, such as labels, appearance and location of ampoules. We present a case of accidental injection of tranexamic acid instead of Bupivacaine during spinal anaesthesia. One minute after the injection of 3 mL of the solution, the patient developed myoclonus of her lower extremities. Accidental intrathecal injection of the wrong drug was suspected and a used ampoule of tranexamic acid was discovered in the trash can. The ampoules of Bupivacaine (5 mg/mL, trade name "Sensovac Heavy" and tranexamic acid (500 mg/mL, Trade name "Nexamin" were similar in appearance. Her myoclonus was successfully treated with phenytoin, sodium valproate, thiopental sodium infusion, midazolam infusion and supportive care of haemodynamic and respiratory systems. The surgery was temporarily deferred. The patient′s condition progressively improved to full recovery.

  13. Sensorless Control of IPMSM by Voltage Injection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matzen, Torben N.; Bech, Michael Møller


    In this paper a sensorless discrete current control of an Interior Permanent Magnet Synchrouns Motor (IPMSM) by voltage injection is designed and tested. The whole controller is operating in the dq-frame and for this reason the rotor position is essential to know, to transform between the station......In this paper a sensorless discrete current control of an Interior Permanent Magnet Synchrouns Motor (IPMSM) by voltage injection is designed and tested. The whole controller is operating in the dq-frame and for this reason the rotor position is essential to know, to transform between...... the stationary frame and the rotor xed dq-frame. To obtain the position even at standstill a sensorless scheme using voltage injection is added to the current controller....

  14. Intraurethral Injection of Autologous Minced Skeletal Muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gräs, Søren; Klarskov, Niels; Lose, Gunnar


    PURPOSE: Intraurethral injection of in vitro expanded autologous skeletal muscle derived cells is a new regenerative therapy for stress urinary incontinence. We examined the efficacy and safety of a simpler alternative strategy using freshly harvested, minced autologous skeletal muscle tissue...... with its inherent content of regenerative cells. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 20 and 15 women with uncomplicated and complicated stress urinary incontinence, respectively, received intraurethral injections of minced autologous skeletal muscle tissue and were followed for 1 year. Efficacy was assessed...... noted. CONCLUSIONS: Intraurethral injection of minced autologous muscle tissue is a simple surgical procedure that appears safe and moderately effective in women with uncomplicated stress urinary incontinence. It compares well to a more complicated regenerative strategy using in vitro expanded muscle...

  15. High risk injecting behaviour among people who inject pharmaceutical opioids in Australia. (United States)

    Iversen, Jenny; Dertadian, George; Geddes, Louise; Maher, Lisa


    Use of opioid analgesic medicines has doubled globally over the past decade, with a concomitant increase in prevalence of injection of pharmaceutical opioids (PO), including in Australia. This study investigates types of PO injected, methods used to prepare PO for injection and correlates of recent (last 6 months) PO injection among a large national sample of people who inject drugs (PWID). The Australian NSP Survey (ANSPS), conducted annually at ∼50 NSP services across Australia, consists of a brief self-administered questionnaire and provision of a capillary dried blood spot for HIV and hepatitis C antibody testing. Data from 2014 were used to conduct univariable and multivariable logistic regression analysis to determine factors independently associated with recent injection of PO. Among 1488 ANSPS respondents who were identified as opioid injectors, 57% (n=848) reported injection of PO in the previous six months. The majority of PO injectors (85%) reported filtering PO prior to injection, although use of efficacious wheel filters was relatively rare (11%). Correlates of POs injection included daily injection (AOR=1.65, 95% CI 1.31-2.08), receptive sharing of syringes (AOR=2.00, 95% CI 1.43-2.78), receptive sharing of drug preparation equipment (AOR=1.55, 95% CI 1.19-2.01), drug overdose in the previous year (AOR=1.81, 95% CI 1.36-2.42) and residence in inner regional (AOR=3.27, 95% CI 2.21-5.23) or outer regional/remote (AOR=5.50, 95% CI 3.42-8.84) areas of Australia. PO injection is geographically widespread among Australian PWID and takes place in the context of poly-drug use. People who inject POs are at high risk of overdose, injection related injury and disease and blood borne viral infections. Harm reduction services that target this group, including in non-urban areas, should deliver health education regarding PO-specific overdose risks, the requirement to adequately filter PO before injection and to ensure that both naloxone and specialist pill

  16. Echocardiographic Findings Suggestive of Infective Endocarditis in Asymptomatic Danish Injection Drug Users Attending Urban Injection Facilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Axelsson, Anna; Søholm, Helle; Dalsgaard, Morten


    of 206, 7%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 4% to 11%) had a previous history of IE. IDUs with a history of IE were significantly older than IDUs without a history of IE (48 ± 8 vs 42 ± 9 years, respectively, p = 0.03) and had a longer duration of injection drug use (27 [18 to 36] vs 17 years [10 to 25], p......Injection drug users (IDUs) account for a considerable number of the hospitalizations for infective endocarditis (IE), but the prevalence of diagnosed and unrecognized IE in IDUs is unknown. The aim of the present study was to assess the prevalence of valvular abnormalities suggestive of IE in IDUs...... attending a supervised injection facility. We performed transthoracic echocardiographic examinations on-site in the injection facilities. A total of 206 IDUs (mean age 43 ± 9 years, 23% women) with a median injection drug abuse of 18 years (interquartile range 10 to 26) were included. Fourteen IDUs (14...

  17. Stability of fault during fluid injection (United States)

    Passelegue, Francois; Brantut, Nicolas; Mitchell, Tom


    Elevated pore pressure can lead to slip reactivation on pre-existing fractures and faults when the coulomb failure point is reached. From a static point of view, the reactivation of fault submitted to a background stress (τ0) is a function of the peak strength of the fault, i.e. the quasi-static effective friction coefficient (µeff). In this study, we present new results about the influence of the injection rate on the stability of faults. Experiments were conducted on a saw-cut sample of westerly granite. The experimental fault was 8 cm length. Injections were conducted through a 2 mm diameter hole reaching the fault surface. Experiments were conducted at four different order magnitudes fluid pressure injection rates (from 1 MPa/minute to 1 GPa/minute), in a fault system submitted to 50 and 100 MPa confining pressure. Our results show that the peak fluid pressure leading to slip depends on injection rate. The faster the injection rate, the larger the peak fluid pressure leading to instability. Our result suggest that the stability of the fault is not only a function of the fluid pressure required to reach the failure criterion, but is mainly a function of the ratio between the length of the fault affected by fluid pressure and the total fault length. In addition, we show that the slip rate increases with the background effective stress and with the intensity of the fluid pressure pertubation, i.e. with the excess shear stress acting on the part of the fault pertubated by fluid injection. Our results suggest that crustal fault can be reactivated by fluid pressures that are locally much higher than expected from a static Coulomb stress analysis. These results could explain the "large" magnitude human-induced earthquakes recently observed in Basel (Mw 3.6, 2006) and in Oklahoma (Mw 5.6, 2016).

  18. Viscous hydrophilic injection matrices for serial crystallography. (United States)

    Kovácsová, Gabriela; Grünbein, Marie Luise; Kloos, Marco; Barends, Thomas R M; Schlesinger, Ramona; Heberle, Joachim; Kabsch, Wolfgang; Shoeman, Robert L; Doak, R Bruce; Schlichting, Ilme


    Serial (femtosecond) crystallography at synchrotron and X-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) sources distributes the absorbed radiation dose over all crystals used for data collection and therefore allows measurement of radiation damage prone systems, including the use of microcrystals for room-temperature measurements. Serial crystallography relies on fast and efficient exchange of crystals upon X-ray exposure, which can be achieved using a variety of methods, including various injection techniques. The latter vary significantly in their flow rates - gas dynamic virtual nozzle based injectors provide very thin fast-flowing jets, whereas high-viscosity extrusion injectors produce much thicker streams with flow rates two to three orders of magnitude lower. High-viscosity extrusion results in much lower sample consumption, as its sample delivery speed is commensurate both with typical XFEL repetition rates and with data acquisition rates at synchrotron sources. An obvious viscous injection medium is lipidic cubic phase (LCP) as it is used for in meso membrane protein crystallization. However, LCP has limited compatibility with many crystallization conditions. While a few other viscous media have been described in the literature, there is an ongoing need to identify additional injection media for crystal embedding. Critical attributes are reliable injection properties and a broad chemical compatibility to accommodate samples as heterogeneous and sensitive as protein crystals. Here, the use of two novel hydro-gels as viscous injection matrices is described, namely sodium carb-oxy-methyl cellulose and the thermo-reversible block polymer Pluronic F-127. Both are compatible with various crystallization conditions and yield acceptable X-ray background. The stability and velocity of the extruded stream were also analysed and the dependence of the stream velocity on the flow rate was measured. In contrast with previously characterized injection media, both new matrices afford

  19. Viscous hydrophilic injection matrices for serial crystallography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Kovácsová


    Full Text Available Serial (femtosecond crystallography at synchrotron and X-ray free-electron laser (XFEL sources distributes the absorbed radiation dose over all crystals used for data collection and therefore allows measurement of radiation damage prone systems, including the use of microcrystals for room-temperature measurements. Serial crystallography relies on fast and efficient exchange of crystals upon X-ray exposure, which can be achieved using a variety of methods, including various injection techniques. The latter vary significantly in their flow rates – gas dynamic virtual nozzle based injectors provide very thin fast-flowing jets, whereas high-viscosity extrusion injectors produce much thicker streams with flow rates two to three orders of magnitude lower. High-viscosity extrusion results in much lower sample consumption, as its sample delivery speed is commensurate both with typical XFEL repetition rates and with data acquisition rates at synchrotron sources. An obvious viscous injection medium is lipidic cubic phase (LCP as it is used for in meso membrane protein crystallization. However, LCP has limited compatibility with many crystallization conditions. While a few other viscous media have been described in the literature, there is an ongoing need to identify additional injection media for crystal embedding. Critical attributes are reliable injection properties and a broad chemical compatibility to accommodate samples as heterogeneous and sensitive as protein crystals. Here, the use of two novel hydrogels as viscous injection matrices is described, namely sodium carboxymethyl cellulose and the thermo-reversible block polymer Pluronic F-127. Both are compatible with various crystallization conditions and yield acceptable X-ray background. The stability and velocity of the extruded stream were also analysed and the dependence of the stream velocity on the flow rate was measured. In contrast with previously characterized injection media, both new

  20. Optimum injection dose rate of hydrogen sulfide scavenger for treatment of petroleum crude oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.M. Elshiekh


    Full Text Available Hydrogen sulfide H2S scavengers are chemicals that favorably react with hydrogen sulfide gas to eliminate it and produce environmental friendly products. These products depend on the type and composition of the scavenger and the conditions at which the reaction takes place. The scavenger should be widely available and economical for industry acceptance by having a low unit cost. The optimum values of H2S scavenger injection dose rate of scavenging hydrogen sulfide from the multiphase fluid produced at different wells conditions in one of the Petroleum Companies in Egypt were studied. The optimum values of H2S scavenger injection dose rate depend on pipe diameter, pipe length, gas molar mass velocity, inlet H2S concentration and pressure. The optimization results are obtained for different values of these parameters using the software program Lingo. In general, the optimum values of H2S scavenger injection dose rate of the scavenging of hydrogen sulfide are increased by increasing of the pipe diameter and increasing the inlet H2S concentration, and decreased by increasing the pipe length, gas molar mass velocity and pressure.