Pakker, H; Klerk, H; vanCampen, JH; Olsen, JL; Breeman, AM
Genetic differentiation among geographic isolates of the pantropical to warm-temperate red alga Digenea simplex (Wulfen) C. Agardh was investigated using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers, crossing studies, and temperature tolerances experiments. Eleven isolates representing
Georgieva, Simona; Soldánová, Miroslava; Pérez-Del-Olmo, A.; Dangel, D.R.; Sitko, J.; Sures, B.; Kostadinova, Aneta
Roč. 43, č. 1 (2013), s. 57-72 ISSN 0020-7519 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP505/10/1562; GA ČR GBP505/12/G112; GA ČR GD206/09/H026 Grant - others:GAJU(CZ) 04-135/2010/P Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Cryptic species * Digenea * Diplostomum * Barcoding * cox1 * ITS * Europe Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.404, year: 2013
M. M. Ribeiro
Full Text Available Abstract Lucina pectinata is an important economic resource in the Brazilian coast. This study reports parasitism caused by a Digenea in this species. The specimens (n = 470 were collected in December 2012 in a mangrove swamp of the Cachoeira River estuary, Bahia, Brazil. They were measured along the anterior-posterior axis (length, and after macroscopic analysis for parasites and diseases cuts of 5 mm were fixated in Carnoy’s solution and processed by routine histology technique wherein sessions of 7 μm were stained with Harris hematoxylin and eosin (H&E. The tissues were examined using an optical microscope. The mean length of L. pectinata was 4.0 ± 0.53 cm. Microscopic analysis showed sporocysts containing both germ balls as cercariae of an unidentified Digenea (Platyhelminthes, these in various stages of development. The prevalence was 1.48% (7/470. In a parasitized specimen was macroscopic evidence of tissue densification of gills. The sporocysts were observed in mantle, gills, digestive gland and gonads, with evident alteration/destruction of tissues, including parasitic castration. There were no other parasites found, which is probably related to inaccessibility and chemical conditions in which lives L. pectinata, i.e., between 10 and 20 cm in mangrove sediment.
Ribeiro, M M; Oliveira, J B; Boehs, G
Lucina pectinata is an important economic resource in the Brazilian coast. This study reports parasitism caused by a Digenea in this species. The specimens (n = 470) were collected in December 2012 in a mangrove swamp of the Cachoeira River estuary, Bahia, Brazil. They were measured along the anterior-posterior axis (length), and after macroscopic analysis for parasites and diseases cuts of 5 mm were fixated in Carnoy's solution and processed by routine histology technique wherein sessions of 7 μm were stained with Harris hematoxylin and eosin (H&E). The tissues were examined using an optical microscope. The mean length of L. pectinata was 4.0 ± 0.53 cm. Microscopic analysis showed sporocysts containing both germ balls as cercariae of an unidentified Digenea (Platyhelminthes), these in various stages of development. The prevalence was 1.48% (7/470). In a parasitized specimen was macroscopic evidence of tissue densification of gills. The sporocysts were observed in mantle, gills, digestive gland and gonads, with evident alteration/destruction of tissues, including parasitic castration. There were no other parasites found, which is probably related to inaccessibility and chemical conditions in which lives L. pectinata, i.e., between 10 and 20 cm in mangrove sediment.
Full Text Available Ochetosoma heterocoelium Travassos, 1921 is a parasite that has been identified in snakes from different locations in Colombia and is considered of veterinary importance. Here, we present a redescription based on morphological traits of juveniles and adults. Parasite burden of O. heterocoelium in the host varied between 3-207 individuals which were localized in the oral cavity of snakes, causing damage that range from small infections to mechanical obstruction of the esophagus and Jacobson's organ. The low levels of abundance and prevalence in the snakes Leptodeira septentrionalis, Bothriechis schlegelli, Bothrops asper and Porthidium nasutum coming from the localities of Maceo, Vegachí and Acandí regions, suggest that the parasite is not a threat to the snakes of Colombia. We propose a treatment program that consists of manual removal of Digenea as well as treating snakes with antihelminthics, the applaying of soft antiseptics and monitoring recovery. The prevalence of O. heterocoelium was established in new regions, namely Middle Magdalena, Valle de Aburrá, Urabá Chocoano and northern Colombia. This extends the known geographical distribution from Brazil and Venezuela. New hosts were also identified: Atractus lasallei, Bothriechis schlegelli, Bothrops asper, Chironius carinatus, Leptodeira septentrionalis, Leptophis ahaetulla and Porthidium nasutum.Se identifica Ochetosoma heterocoelium Travassos, 1921 como un parásito de importancia veterinaria en ofidios de diferentes localidades de Colombia y se redescribe con base en las características morfológicas de individuos juveniles y adultos. La carga parasitaria de O. heterocoelium varió de 3-207 individuos alojados en la cavidad bucal de los ofidios, causando desde infecciones leves hasta obstrucción mecánica en el esófago y órgano de Jacobson. Los bajos valores de abundancia y prevalencia en las localidades de Maceo, Vegachí y Acandí y en los ofidios Leptodeira septentrionalis
Briscoe, A.G.; Bray, R. A.; Brabec, Jan; Littlewood, D. T. J.
Roč. 65, č. 3 (2016), s. 271-275 ISSN 1383-5769 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Digenea * Balaenoptera acutorostrata * Cetacea * Hologenophore * NGS Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.744, year: 2016
Simoes, S. B. E.; Scholz, Tomáš; Barbosa, H. S.; Santos, C. P.
Roč. 92, č. 3 (2006), s. 501-508 ISSN 0022-3395 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA6022404; GA MŠk LC522 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Digenea * Heterophyidae * taxonomy Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 1.300, year: 2006
Marzoug, D.; Rima, M.; Boutiba, Z.; Georgieva, Simona; Kostadinova, Aneta; Pérez-del-Olmo, A.
Roč. 87, č. 2 (2014), s. 127-134 ISSN 0165-5752 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP505/12/G112 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Digenea * phylogeny * Platyhelminthes * Trematoda * inference * evolution Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 1.336, year: 2014
Shinad, K; Prasadan, P K
Pleurogenoides cyanophlycti n. sp. (Digenea, Pleurogenidae ) from the intestine of the water skipper, Euphlyctis cyanophlyctis (Anura, Dicroglossidae), inhabiting the Western Ghats, India is described and illustrated. Pleurogenoides cyanophlycti n. sp. is new to the genus and is separated from its congeners on the basis of differences in morphology and morphometry. It is named after the host, E. cyanophlyctis .
Scholz, Tomáš; Muniz-Pereira, L. C.; Santos, C. P.
Roč. 53, č. 4 (2006), s. 297-301 ISSN 0015-5683 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA6022404; GA MŠk LC522 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Digenea * morphology * systematics Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.511, year: 2006
Bakhoum, Abdoulaye Jacque; Quilichini, Yann; Miquel, Jordi; Feliu, Carlos; Bâ, Cheikh Tidiane; Marchand, Bernard
The spermatological characteristics of Collyricloides massanae (Digenea: Collyriclidae), a parasite of Apodemus sylvaticus caught in France, were studied by means of transmission electron microscopy. The mature sperm of C. massanae presents two axonemes of different lengths with the 9 + "1" pattern of the Trepaxonemata, two bundles of parallel cortical microtubules, external ornamentation of the plasma membrane, spine-like bodies, one mitochondrion, a nucleus and granules of glycogen. An analysis of spermatological organisation emphasised some differences between the mature spermatozoon of C. massanae and those reported in the Gorgoderoidea species studied to date, specially belonging to the families Dicrocoeliidae, Paragonimidae and Troglotrematidae. The ultrastructural criteria described in C. massanae such as the morphology of both anterior and posterior spermatozoon extremities, the association "external ornamentation+cortical microtubules", the type 2 of external ornamentation and the spine-like bodies would allow us to bring closer the Collyriclidae to Microphalloidea. However, further ultrastructural and molecular studies are needed particularly in the unexplored taxa in order to fully resolve the phylogenetic position of the Collyriclidae. © A.J. Bakhoum et al., published by EDP Sciences, 2014.
Bakhoum Abdoulaye Jacque
Full Text Available The spermatological characteristics of Collyricloides massanae (Digenea: Collyriclidae, a parasite of Apodemus sylvaticus caught in France, were studied by means of transmission electron microscopy. The mature sperm of C. massanae presents two axonemes of different lengths with the 9 + “1” pattern of the Trepaxonemata, two bundles of parallel cortical microtubules, external ornamentation of the plasma membrane, spine-like bodies, one mitochondrion, a nucleus and granules of glycogen. An analysis of spermatological organisation emphasised some differences between the mature spermatozoon of C. massanae and those reported in the Gorgoderoidea species studied to date, specially belonging to the families Dicrocoeliidae, Paragonimidae and Troglotrematidae. The ultrastructural criteria described in C. massanae such as the morphology of both anterior and posterior spermatozoon extremities, the association “external ornamentation + cortical microtubules”, the type 2 of external ornamentation and the spine-like bodies would allow us to bring closer the Collyriclidae to Microphalloidea. However, further ultrastructural and molecular studies are needed particularly in the unexplored taxa in order to fully resolve the phylogenetic position of the Collyriclidae.
Carreras-Aubets, M.; Repulles-Albelda, A.; Kostadinova, Aneta; Carrasson, M.
Roč. 79, č. 2 (2011), 145-159 ISSN 0165-5752 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC522; GA ČR GAP505/10/1562 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : N. SP DIGENEA * ALLOMETRIC GROWTH * MARINE FISHES * MULLUS-SURMULETUS * TREMATODES * MONORCHIIDAE * HEMIUROIDEA * BELIZE * ISRAEL Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 1.250, year: 2011
B. M. M. FERNANDES
Full Text Available Two species of Digenea were recorded for the first time in South America and in new hosts: Acanthostomum spiniceps (Looss, 1896 (Cryptogonimidae was reported from Astroscopus sexspinosus (Steindachner, 1877 (Uranoscopidae and Diplomonorchis sphaerovarium Nahhas & Cable, 1964 (Monorchiidae from Ophichthus gomesi (Castelnau, 1855 (Ophichthidae. From the latter, Heliconema heliconema Travassos, 1919 (Nematoda, Physalopteridae, was also recovered representing also a new host for this nematode species.
Koubková, B.; Baruš, Vlastimil; Koubek, Petr
Roč. 39, č. 3 (2002), s. 155-158 ISSN 0440-6605 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA6093104; GA AV ČR KSK6005114; GA AV ČR IBS6093003 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6093917 Keywords : Stichorchis subtriquetrus * Digenea * European beaver Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.646, year: 2002
The spermiogenesis process and spermatozoon organization of A. (A. aswaninesis match the general pattern found in the digenea, but certain peculiarities are characteristic and differentiate the sperm of this fluke from that of other digenetic trematodes.
Orfanidis, S; Breeman, AM
Geographic variation in temperature responses (survival and growth) was investigated in two red algae: Digenea simplex (Wulfen) C. Agardh and Champia parvula (C. Agardh) Harvey. D. simplex has a tropical to warm temperate distribution; C. parvula extends from the tropics into the cold temperate
André Carrara Morandini
Full Text Available Metacercaria specimens of the genus Opechona (Trematoda: Digenea: Lepocreadiidae are described parasitizing "coelenterates" (scyphomedusae and ctenophores from Southeastern Brazil (São Paulo state. The worms are compared to other Opechona species occurring on the Brazilian coast, but no association has been made because only adult forms of these species have been described. Suppositions as to the possible transference of the parasites are made.Exemplares de metacercárias do gênero Opechona (Trematoda: Digenea: Lepocreadiidae são descritos parasitando "celenterados" (cifomedusas e ctenóforos no sudeste do Brasil (estado de São Paulo. Os vermes foram comparados a outras espécies de Opechona ocorrentes no litoral brasileiro, porém nenhuma associação foi realizada devido às demais espécies terem sido descritas a partir de exemplares adultos. São apresentadas suposições sobre as possíveis formas de transferência dos parasitas.
Austrodiplostomum compactum (Lutz, 1928) (Digenea, Diplostomidae) in the eyes of fishes from Paraná river, Brazil=Austrodiplostomum compactum (Lutz, 1928) (Digenea, Diplostomidae) em olhos de peixes do rio Paraná, Brasil
Maurício Laterça Martins; José Luis Pedreira Mourino; Haroldo Kazuyuki Takahashi; Vamilton Alvares Santarem; Natalia Marchiori; Rosemeire de Souza Santos
Parasitological indexes of Austrodiplostomum compactum (Digenea, Diplostomidae) in fishes from the Paraná River, Presidente Epitácio region, state of São Paulo, Brazil, and their relationship with climate and water quality are evaluated. Fifty-one specimens of Plagioscion squamosissimus, 39 Geophagus surinamensis, 27 Hoplias malabaricus and 23 Cichla sp. were collected between June 2007 and June 2008. Water quality and rainfall indexes were measured monthly. P. squamosissimus had the highest ...
Bursey, Charles R; Rizvi, Anjum N; Maity, Pallab
Prosotocus punjabensis sp. nov. (Digenea, Pleurogenidae) from the intestine of the water skipper, Euphlyctis cyanophlyctis (Anura, Dicroglossidae), from Punjab, India is described and illustrated. Prosotocus punjabensis sp. nov. is the 13th Oriental species assigned to the genus and is separated from its congeners based upon the morphology of the vitellaria and cecal terminations. In addition, E. cyanophlyctis was found to harbour three species of Nematoda, Aplectana macintoshii, Cosmocerca kalesari and an unidentified species assigned to Cosmocerca.
Pankov, P.; Gibson, D. I.; Kostadinova, Aneta
Roč. 74, č. 1 (2009), s. 29-39 ISSN 0165-5752 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC522 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Liza haematocheila * Saturnius * Digenea * Hemiuridae * invasive species Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 0.911, year: 2009
Auriculostoma astyanace n. gen., n. sp. (Digenea: Allocreadiidae), from the banded astyanax, Astyanax fasciatus (Characiformes: Characidae), from Nicaragua, with a reevaluation of neotropical Crepidostomum spp
Scholz, Tomáš; Aguirre-Macedo, M. L.; Choudhury, A.
Roč. 90, č. 5 (2004), s. 1128-1132 ISSN 0022-3395 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA6022404 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6022909 Keywords : Digenea * Allocraediidae * Auriculostoma Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.439, year: 2004
Hulak, B.; Kvach, Yuriy
Roč. 52, č. 1 (2018), s. 47-52 ISSN 0084-5604 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP505/12/G112 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Black Sea * Digenea * Pseudobacciger * Trachurus * new records * new host Subject RIV: EG - Zoology OBOR OECD: Zoology
An annotated list of parasites (Isopoda, Copepoda, Monogenea, Digenea, Cestoda and Nematoda) collected in groupers (Serranidae, Epinephelinae) in New Caledonia emphasizes parasite biodiversity in coral reef fish
Justine, J.-L.; Beveridge, I.; Boxshall, G.A.; Bray, R. A.; Moravec, František; Trilles, J.-P.; Whittington, I.D.
Roč. 57, č. 4 (2010), s. 237-262 ISSN 0015-5683 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC522 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Isopoda * Copepoda * Monogenea * Digenea * Cestoda * Nematoda * Serranidae * Epinephelinae * parasite biodiversity * coral reef * New Caledonia Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 1.533, year: 2010
Bursey, Charles R; Goldberg, Stephen R; Vitt, Laurie J
Allopharynx daileyi n. sp. (Digenea: Plagiorchiidae) from the small intestine of the tropidurid lizard Uranoscodon superciliosus from Amazonian Brazil is described and illustrated. Of the 11 currently recognized species of Allopharynx, we consider Allopharynx megorchis Simha, 1961 a synonym of Allopharynx mehrai (Gogate, 1935) Price 1938 and Allopharynx puertoricensis Acholonu, 1976 a synonym of Allopharynx riopedrensis Garcia-Diaz; thus, A. daileyi becomes the 10th species assigned to the genus. The trematode species Mesocoelium monas and 2 species of Nematoda, Africana chabaudi and Cosmocerca vrcibradici, were also present.
Veron E. Thatcher
Full Text Available Two new genera and species of Paramphistomidae (Trematoda, Digenea are described from freshwater fish of Rondônia State, Brazil. Pronamphistoma cichlasomae gen. et sp. nov. from Cichlasoma severum (Heckel is characterized as having a small, robust body with an anterior collar-like expansion, diverticula within the wall of the oral sucker and vitellaria in lateral fanshaped configurations. Micramphistoma ministoma gen. et sp. nov. from Hypopomus sp lacks oral diverticula, has anteriorly situated parallel tests and a very small postero-ventral acebtabulum. Neither of the new forms closely resembles any known genus.
Bursey, Charles R; Rizvi, Anjum N; Maity, Pallab
Gorgoderina spinosa sp. nov. (Digenea, Gorgoderidae) from the bladder of the water skipper, Euphlyctis cyanophlyctis (Anura, Dicroglossidae), from Dehradun, India is described and illustrated. Gorgoderina spinosa is the 6th Indian species assigned to the genus and is separated from its congeners based upon the morphology of vitelline glands and the presence of a spinose integument. Two additional digenean species, Diplodiscus amphichrus and Ganeo tigrinus, and 3 nematode species, Cosmocerca kalesari, Gendria chauhani, and unidentified larvae were found. Diplodiscus amphichrus, Ganeo tigrinus, Cosmocerca kalesari, and Gendria chauhani have previously been reported to infect Indian individuals of Euphlyctis cyanophlyctis.
Uruburu, Mónica; Granada, Mabel; Velásquez, Luz Elena
Paragonimosis or lung fluke disease courses with signs similar to those seen in tuberculosis. The causative agent is a parasite of the genus Paragonimus (Digenea: Troglotrematidae). People become infected by ingesting raw or partially cooked crabs containing metacercariae. The first focus of human paragonimosis in Colombia was recorded in the county of Urrao, where two species of crabs infected with Paragonimus were found. In 2005, crabs with Paragonimus' metacercariae were captured near Medellín, western Colombia. This prompted a search for the parasite in other locations through its presence in the crabs. To establish the distribution of Paragonimus in Antioquia, we evaluated the presence of metacercaria in freshwater brachyuran crabs. From 2005 to 2007, crabs were captured in 13 counties of Antioquia. The crabs were relaxed and dissected to determine presence of trematodes and then to make the taxonomic identifications. From 52 crabs captured in 9 counties, 42 (80.8%) were found with Paragonimus metacercariae. The crabs were identified as Pseudothelphusidae in 2 genera--Hypolobocera and Strengeriana--and were assigned to four species. Three of the species were recorded for the first time as hosts of Paragonimus. A Paragonimus' distribution map was constructed for Antioquia; for the first time urban zones were included. Because of the high rate of infection, the handling and consumption of raw and poorly cooked crabs pose risk factors for human infection. Because crabs are affordable and provide means of easy diagnosis, crabs are targeted as primary agents of and diagnostic tools for paragonmosis.
Pankrác, Jan; Novobilský, Adam; Rondelaud, Daniel; Leontovyč, Roman; Syrovátka, Vít; Rajský, Dušan; Horák, Petr; Kašný, Martin
Infection with Fascioloides magna (Digenea) causes serious damage to liver tissue in definitive hosts represented by ruminants, especially cervids. The distribution of F. magna includes the indigenous areas in North America, and the areas to which F. magna was introduced-Central Europe, Southeast Europe, and Italy. The North American intermediate host of F. magna, the freshwater snail Pseudosuccinea columella (Lymnaeidae), is an invasive species recorded in South America, the Caribbean, Africa, Australia, and west and Southeast Europe. In Europe, Galba truncatula is the snail serving for transmission, but P. columella has potential to become here a new intermediate host of F. magna. Little is known about interactions between F. magna and P. columella. In this study, the susceptibility of P. columella (Oregon, USA) to the infection by a single miracidium of the Czech strain of F. magna and the influence of F. magna on snail fecundity, shell height, and survival were evaluated. The data show that the Oregon strain of P. columella is a highly suitable host for the Czech strain of F. magna, with the infection rate of 74 %. In addition, a negative effect on survival rate of infected snails was recorded only in the late phase of infection. The infection was accompanied by a major reduction in egg mass production and by a decrease in the number of eggs per egg mass. The shell height of infected snails did not significantly differ from that in unexposed controls.
Full Text Available We determined the complete mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA sequence of a fluke, Paramphistomum cervi (Digenea: Paramphistomidae. This genome (14,014 bp is slightly larger than that of Clonorchis sinensis (13,875 bp, but smaller than those of other digenean species. The mt genome of P. cervi contains 12 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes and 2 non-coding regions (NCRs, a complement consistent with those of other digeneans. The arrangement of protein-coding and ribosomal RNA genes in the P. cervi mitochondrial genome is identical to that of other digeneans except for a group of Schistosoma species that exhibit a derived arrangement. The positions of some transfer RNA genes differ. Bayesian phylogenetic analyses, based on concatenated nucleotide sequences and amino-acid sequences of the 12 protein-coding genes, placed P. cervi within the Order Plagiorchiida, but relationships depicted within that order were not quite as expected from previous studies. The complete mtDNA sequence of P. cervi provides important genetic markers for diagnostics, ecological and evolutionary studies of digeneans.
Gomes, Tássia FF; Melo, Francisco TV; Giese, Elane G; Furtado, Adriano P; Gonçalves, Evonnildo C; Santos, Jeannie N
Mesocoelium lanfrediaesp. nov. (Digenea: Mesocoeliidae) inhabits the small intestine of Rhinella marina (Amphibia: Bufonidae) and is described here, with illustrations provided by light, scanning electron microscopy and molecular approachs. M. lanfrediae sp. nov. presents the typical characteristics of the genus, but is morphometrically and morphologically different from the species described previously. The main diagnostic characteristics of M. lanfrediae sp. nov. are (i) seven pairs of regularly-distributed spherical papillae on the oral sucker, (ii) ventral sucker outlined by four pairs of papillae distributed in a uniform pattern and interspersed with numerous spines, which are larger at the posterior margin and (iii) small, rounded tegumentary papillae around the opening of the oral sucker, which are morphologically different from those of the oral sucker itself, some of which are randomly disposed in the ventrolateral tegumentary region of the anterior third of the body. Addionally, based on SSU rDNA, a phylogenetic analysis including Brachycoeliidae and Mesocoeliidae taxa available on GenBank established the close relationship between M. lanfrediae sp. nov. and Mesocoelium sp. PMID:23579798
Bruňanská, Magdaléna; Brázová, Timea; Zhokhov, Alexander E; Poddubnaya, Larisa G
Spermatological characters of the digenean Brandesia turgida (Brandes, 1888), an intestinal parasite of the frog Pelophylax ridibundus (Pallas, 1771), have been investigated by means of transmission electron microscopy for the first time. The process of the spermatozoon formation begins with the appearance of the differentiation zone bordered by cortical microtubules and containing two centrioles associated with striated rootlets and with an intercentriolar body. The intercentriolar body is made up of seven distinct electron-dense plates, two less electron-dense, and four electron-lucent zones. The orthogonal development of the two flagella is followed by a flagellar rotation and their proximodistal fusion with the median cytoplasmic process. This process is accompanied by an extension of both the mitochondrion and nucleus into the median cytoplasmic process. The mature spermatozoon of B. turgida contains two parallel axonemes of unequal lengths with the 9 + "1" trepaxonematan pattern, mitochondrion, nucleus, parallel cortical microtubules, four electron-dense attachment zones, an external ornamentation of the plasma membrane, and electron-dense glycogen granules. The anterior extremity of the male gamete contains one complete centriole, a small component of the central element of the second centriole, and peripheral cortical microtubules (up to 45). The posterior extremity of the mature spematozoon exhibits tubular elements of the disorganized axoneme. The present study provides the first data on spermiogenesis within the family Pleurogenidae. Variations of the spermatozoa ultrastructural characters within Digenea, in particular, between different families of the superfamily Microphalloidea, are discussed.
Bakhoum, Abdoulaye J.S.; Justine, Jean-Lou; Bray, Rodney A.; Bâ, Cheikh T.; Marchand, Bernard
The mature spermatozoa of Stephanostomum murielae and Stephanostomoides tenuis are described by transmission electron microscopy. They present several ultrastructural features previously reported in other digeneans. Their spermatozoa possess two axonemes of different length showing the 9 + ‘1’ trepaxonematan pattern, four attachment zones, two mitochondria (with an anterior moniliform one in S. murielae), a nucleus, two bundles of parallel cortical microtubules, external ornamentation of the plasma membrane, spine-like bodies and granules of glycogen. The main differences between the mature spermatozoon of S. murielae and S. tenuis are the maximum number of cortical microtubules, the morphology of the anterior spermatozoon extremity and the anterior mitochondrion. This study is the first concerning members of the family Acanthocolpidae. The main ultrastructural characteristics discussed are the morphology of the anterior and posterior spermatozoon extremities, antero-lateral electron dense material, external ornamentations, spine-like bodies and number and morphology of mitochondria. In addition, the phylogenetic significance of all these ultrastructural features is discussed and compared to molecular results in order to highlight the complex relationships in the Digenea. PMID:25699200
Abdoulaye J.S. Bakhoum
Full Text Available The mature spermatozoa of Stephanostomum murielae and Stephanostomoides tenuis are described by transmission electron microscopy. They present several ultrastructural features previously reported in other digeneans. Their spermatozoa possess two axonemes of different length showing the 9 + ‘1’ trepaxonematan pattern, four attachment zones, two mitochondria (with an anterior moniliform one in S. murielae, a nucleus, two bundles of parallel cortical microtubules, external ornamentation of the plasma membrane, spine-like bodies and granules of glycogen. The main differences between the mature spermatozoon of S. murielae and S. tenuis are the maximum number of cortical microtubules, the morphology of the anterior spermatozoon extremity and the anterior mitochondrion. This study is the first concerning members of the family Acanthocolpidae. The main ultrastructural characteristics discussed are the morphology of the anterior and posterior spermatozoon extremities, antero-lateral electron dense material, external ornamentations, spine-like bodies and number and morphology of mitochondria. In addition, the phylogenetic significance of all these ultrastructural features is discussed and compared to molecular results in order to highlight the complex relationships in the Digenea.
Balan Doralice de Souza Luro
Full Text Available Estudou-se o comportamento de amebócitos de Biomphalaria tenagophila infectadas por Schistosoma mansoni, por outros Digenea e a resistência à superinfecção, presente em infecções mistas. Foi verificada a atividade fagocitária dos amebócitos, o número destas células circulantes, a reação amebocitária nos tecidos, o perfil eletroforético da hemolinfa, além da reação de imunodifusão. Concluiu-se que moluscos infectados por outros Digenea apresentam resistência à superinfecção por S. mansoni, sendo que os amebócitos parecem não ter participação direta na destruição dos esporocistos de S. mansoni nesta eventualidade. Nos moluscos infectados observou-se maior número de amebócitos circulantes e aumento de capacidade fagocitária destas células.
Palacios-Abella, J. F.; Georgieva, Simona; Mele, S.; Raga, J. A.; Isbert, W.; Kostadinova, Aneta; Montero, F. E.
Roč. 94, č. 6 (2017), s. 669-688 ISSN 0165-5752 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP505/12/G112 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : southern bluefin tuna * blood flukes digenea * trematoda aporocotylidae * life-cycle * maximum-likelihood * sequence alignment * seriola-dumerili * cardicola * paradeontacylix Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine OBOR OECD: Veterinary science Impact factor: 1.181, year: 2016
Morphometric and molecular characterisation of specimens of Lepidapedon Stafford, 1904 (Digenea: Lepidapedidae) from the deep-sea fish Mora moro (Risso) (Teleostei: Moridae) in the western Mediterranean
Dallarés, S.; Georgieva, Simona; Kostadinova, Aneta; Carrasson, M.; Gibson, D. I.; Pérez-del-Olmo, A.
Roč. 85, č. 3 (2013), s. 243-253 ISSN 0165-5752 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP505/10/1562; GA ČR GBP505/12/G112 Grant - others:GAJU(CZ) 04-135/2010/P Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Northern Atlantic * Lepocrediidae Digenea * genus Subject RIV: EA - Cell Biology Impact factor: 1.035, year: 2013
Zikmundová, Jana; Georgieva, Simona; Faltýnková, Anna; Soldánová, Miroslava; Kostadinova, Aneta
Roč. 88, č. 1 (2014), s. 37-54 ISSN 0165-5752 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP505/10/1562; GA ČR GBP505/12/G112 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : larval trematodes digenea * partial lsrDNA sequences * great pond snail * maximum-likelihood * Lymnea stagnalis * life -cycle * platyhelminthes * differentiation * omphalometridae * phylogenies Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.336, year: 2014
Quilichini, Y; Foata, J; Justine, J L; Bray, R A; Marchand, B
This paper describes the ultrastructure of the mature spermatozoon of Heterolebes maculosus. It is the first study of this kind concerning the Opistholebetidae (Platyhelminthes, Digenea). The ultrastructural elements observed in the spermatozoon are: two axonemes with 9+"1" pattern of Trepaxonemata and their attachment zones, two mitochondria, a nucleus, cortical microtubules, external ornamentation of the plasma membrane and spine-like bodies. The number and the disposition of cortical microtubules, the organisation of 11 cortical microtubules disposed in semi-circle around the first mitochondrion in the external ornamentation region and the organisation of the posterior part of the spermatozoon are discussed. Three principal types of posterior part of digenean spermatozoa are proposed. The similarity between the spermatozoon of the Opistholebetidae H. maculosus and Opecoelidae enables us to confirm that these two families are closely related.
Mansour, Mohamed Fathy A
The present study describes, for the first time, the sperm ultrastructure of the parasite Acanthostomum spiniceps (Digenea: Acanthostomidae). The adult worms of this species were collected from the freshwater fishes, Bagrus bayad and Bagrus docmac, caught from the Damietta branch of the River Nile in Dakahlia Governorate, Egypt. Ultrastructure of the sperm of this species revealed that it can be differentiated into seven regions. It is characterized by its filiform shape, tapers anterior, and posterior ends; the two axonemes are in close contact with the plasma membrane and the presence of two mitochondria as one anterior and the other is posterior. The two mitochondria are parallel at a short distance enclosing the first part of nucleus in between. The nucleus is characteristically formed of unusual network of chromatin which is vacuolated. The spermatozoon of A. spiniceps is similar to that of most parasitic Platyhelminthes.
Platt, Thomas R
We know little about the founders of our discipline apart from their scientific contributions and brief biographical sketches, most frequently in published obituaries. A number of years ago, Ralph Lichtenfels, then Director of the National Parasite Collection, sent me photocopies of letters between Henry Baldwin Ward, Horace W. Stunkard, George A. MacCallum, and William G. MacCallum dating from the early years of the 20th century that hinted at a series of conflicts centered on the proposal of Spirorchis MacCallum, 1918 (Digenea: Schistosomatoidea). The description of a fluke that matured in the blood of a tetrapod and that was morphologically similar to the schistosomes of humans was in its time a transformative discovery; and the scientist who published it would have garnered some scholarly recognition. Herein, I provide an historical account of the issues and the motives of each individual and the eventual resolution of these matters.
Full Text Available Limnoderetrema tolosai sp. n. (Trematoda, Digenea within an autochthonous freshwater fish, the silverside Basilichthys autralis Eigenmann, 1927, from Lakes Riñihue and Ranco in Southern Chile is described. The species is distinguished from Limnoderetrema minutum (Manter, 1954 by the presence of one spine in the cirrus and cecal bifurcation nearer to ventral sucker than to pharinx. It is proposed Limnoderetrema macrophallus (Szidat & Nani, 1951 n. comb. (originally Steganoderma. Limnoderetrema tolosai differs from L. macrophallus since it cirrus has a distal spine and by its vitelline follicles distribution. It seems that Limnoderetrema spp. of South America are highly specific unlike L. minutum of New Zealand.
Bakhoum, Abdoulaye J. S.; Quilichini, Yann; Justine, Jean-Lou; Bray, Rodney A.; Miquel, Jordi; Feliu, Carlos; Bâ, Cheikh T.; Marchand, Bernard
The ultrastructural organization of the mature spermatozoon of the digenean Atractotrema sigani (from Siganus lineatus off New Caledonia) was investigated by transmission electron microscopy. The male gamete of A. sigani exhibits the general morphology described in digeneans with the presence of two axonemes of different lengths showing the 9 + “1” pattern of the Trepaxonemata, a nucleus, two mitochondria, two bundles of parallel cortical microtubules, external ornamentation, spine-like bodies and granules of glycogen. However, the mature spermatozoon of A. sigani has some specific characters such as the morphology of its anterior region and the submembranous electron-dense material. Although similar structures have been reported in some digenean species, the presence of a submembranous electron-dense material describing a complete ring is reported here for the first time in the mature spermatozoon of A. sigani. In addition, sperm characteristics are compared between the Haploporoidea and their supposed close superfamilies, and possible phylogenetic implications of these findings for the Digenea are discussed. PMID:26475645
Bakhoum Abdoulaye J. S.
Full Text Available The ultrastructural organization of the mature spermatozoon of the digenean Atractotrema sigani (from Siganus lineatus off New Caledonia was investigated by transmission electron microscopy. The male gamete of A. sigani exhibits the general morphology described in digeneans with the presence of two axonemes of different lengths showing the 9 + “1” pattern of the Trepaxonemata, a nucleus, two mitochondria, two bundles of parallel cortical microtubules, external ornamentation, spine-like bodies and granules of glycogen. However, the mature spermatozoon of A. sigani has some specific characters such as the morphology of its anterior region and the submembranous electron-dense material. Although similar structures have been reported in some digenean species, the presence of a submembranous electron-dense material describing a complete ring is reported here for the first time in the mature spermatozoon of A. sigani. In addition, sperm characteristics are compared between the Haploporoidea and their supposed close superfamilies, and possible phylogenetic implications of these findings for the Digenea are discussed.
Diaz, Pablo E; Cutmore, Scott C; Cribb, Thomas H
Examination of three species of batfishes (Teleostei: Epphippidae) from off Lizard and Heron Islands on the Great Barrier Reef led to the discovery of specimens of the trematode genus Paradiscogaster Yamaguti, 1934 (Digenea: Faustulidae). Morphological analysis demonstrated that the new specimens represented four morphotypes which we interpret to be new species: Paradiscogaster martini n. sp., P. vichovae n. sp. and P. brayi n. sp. from Platax orbicularis (Forsskål) and P. pinnatus (Linnaeus) off Lizard Island, and P. nitschkei n. sp. from P. teira (Forsskål) off Heron Island. Published material was re-examined and the specimens identified as P. chaetodontis okinawensis Yamaguti, 1971 from P. pinnatus from Okinawa, Japan, actually represent the new species P. brayi n. sp., demonstrating that some species of Paradiscogaster have wide geographical distributions. ITS2 rDNA data for the four morphotypes differ by 4-39 base pairs confirming the delineation of the four species proposed. A feature of this study is the recognition of Platax spp. as an important host group for Paradiscogaster, with the new species placing them as the second richest host group for these parasites after the Chaetodontidae.
León-Règagnon, Virginia; Romero-Mayén, Ángeles R
During an inventory of the helminths of amphibians in Mexico, specimens of an undescribed species of Haematoloechus Looss, 1899 (Digenea: Haematoloechidae) were collected from the lungs of frogs of the "tarahumarae" group in western México. Haematoloechus longicollum n. sp. differs from other known species of Haematoloechus by the combination of the following characters: body elongate and slender in the preovarian region and broad and blunt in the postovarian region, ovary separated from the ventral sucker more than twice the ovary length, oral sucker to pharynx length ratio 1:0.56, oral sucker to ventral sucker length ratio 1:0.80, presence of extracaecal uterine loops, absence of longitudinal extracaecal uterine loops, ovary and testes oval.
Souza, Joyce G R; Garcia, Juberlan S; Gomes, Ana Paula N; Machado-Silva, José Roberto; Maldonado, Arnaldo
Echinostoma paraensei (Digenea: Echinostomatidae) lives in the duodenum and bile duct of rodents and is reported as a useful model for studies on the biology of flatworms. Here, we compared the growth and development of pre and post ovigerous worms collected 3, 7, 14 and 21 days post infection from experimentally infected hamster (permissive host) and Wistar rat (less permissive hosts). Linear measurements and ratios were examined by light (morphology and morphometry) and confocal laser scanning microscopy. At day 3, either worm from hamsters or rats were small with poorly developed gonads. At seven day, worms increased in size and morphometric differences between hosts are statistically significant after this time. In addition, adult worms (14 and 21 days of age) harvested from hamster showed developed gonads and vitelline glands laterally distributed on the body, whereas worms from rat showed atrophied reproductive system characterized by underdeveloped vitelline glands and stunted ovary. The worm rate recovery in rat decreased from 29.3% (day 7) to 20.6% (day 14) and 8% (day 21), whilst it remained around 37% in hamster. In conclusion, this is the first appointment demonstrating that low permissiveness influences the reproductive system of echinostome since the immature stages of development. The phenotypic analysis evidenced that hamster provides a more favorable microenvironment for gonads development than rat, confirming golden hamster as a permissive host, whereas Wistar rat is less permissive host. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Aksenova, Olga V; Bespalaya, Yulia V; Bolotov, Ivan N; Kondakov, Alexander V; Sokolova, Svetlana E
The strigeid digenean species Australapatemon burti (Miller, 1923) (Trematoda: Digenea: Strigeidae) was originally described from North America, but recorded in the Neotropical region (Drago et al. 2007; Hernández-Mena et al. 2014; Blasco-Costa et al. 2016) and in Central Europe (Faltýnková et al. 2007). In Europe, this species is rare, and there is not much information about its range (Faltýnková et al. 2007; Soldánová et al. 2012). Australapatemon burti has a complex life cycle with three larval stages, two of which (sporocyst and cercaria) use several species of freshwater snails, and the third stage (metacercaria) use non-specific host hirudineans (Dubois 1968; Davies & Ostrowski de Núñez 2012; Blasco-Costa et al. 2016). Adult flukes are parasitic in the intenstines of various waterfowl species, such as ducks and swans (Drago et al. 2007; Hernández-Mena et al. 2014). Currently, the molecular data on this parasite species includes only nucleotide sequences of four adult specimens from Mexico (Hernández-Mena et al. 2014). Their hosts were Mexican duck, Anas diazi Ridgway, American Wigeon, Anas americana Gmelin, Cinnamon Teal, Anas cyanoptera Vieillot, and Ruddy Duck, Oxyura jamaicensis (Gmelin) (Anserformes: Anatidae).
Liolope copulans (Trematoda: Digenea: Liolopidae) parasitic in Andrias japonicus (Amphibia: Caudata: Cryptobranchidae) in Japan: Life cycle and systematic position inferred from morphological and molecular evidence.
Baba, Takashi; Hosoi, Masatomi; Urabe, Misako; Shimazu, Takeshi; Tochimoto, Takeyoshi; Hasegawa, Hideo
The life cycle of Liolope copulans Cohn, 1902 (Trematoda: Digenea: Liolopidae), an intestinal parasite of the Japanese giant salamander Andrias japonicus (Temminck) (Amphibia: Caudata: Cryptobranchidae), was studied in the field and laboratory in Japan. This is the first description of mother sporocyst, daughter sporocyst and cercariae of a liolopid species. Non-oculate longifurcate pharyngeate cercariae were formed in lanceolate-cylindrical daughter sporocysts in Semisulcospira libertina (Gould) (Gastropoda: Sorbeoconcha: Pleuroceridae). They successfully developed to encapsulated metacercariae in cyprinid fishes, Nipponocypris sieboldii (Temminck and Schlegel) and Rhynchocypris lagowskii (Dybowski), by experimental infection. Cercariae had a V-shaped excretory vesicle with two looped arms, as in metacercariae and adults. Developmental stages from mother sporocyst to adult are described and illustrated. DNA sequencing was conducted for 28S and 18S rDNA of mother and daughter sporocysts, cercariae, and an adult. The result of molecular phylogenetic analysis suggests that L. copulans may be one of the basal taxa of the order Diplostomida Olson, Cribb, Tkach, Bray, and Littlewood, 2003, but its systematic position is still unclear because of the topological inconsistence between the 28S and 18S trees. Therefore, we tentatively place the family Liolopidae in the superfamily Diplostomoidea, mainly based on the morphology of sporocysts and cercariae. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ndiaye Papa Ibnou
Full Text Available This study provides the first ultrastructural data of spermatozoa in the genus Lecithochirium. The spermatozoa of L. microstomum (from Trichiurus lepturus in Senegal and L. musculus (from Anguilla anguilla in Corsica exhibit the general pattern described in the great majority of the Digenea, namely two axonemes with the 9 + “1” pattern typical of the Trepaxonemata, one mitochondrion, a nucleus, parallel cortical microtubules and external ornamentation of the plasma membrane. Spermatozoa of L. microstomum and L. musculus have some specific features such as the presence of a reduced number of cortical microtubules arranged on only one side of the spermatozoon, the lack of spine-like bodies and expansion of the plasma membrane. The external ornamentation of the plasma membrane entirely covers the anterior extremity of the spermatozoa. The ultrastructure of the posterior extremity of the spermatozoa corresponds to the pattern previously described in the Hemiuridae, characterized by only singlets of the second axoneme. A particularity of these spermatozoa is the organization of the microtubule doublets of the second axoneme around the nucleus in the posterior part of the spermatozoon.
Ndiaye, Papa Ibnou; Quilichini, Yann; Sène, Aminata; Tkach, Vasyl V; Bâ, Cheikh Tidiane; Marchand, Bernard
This study provides the first ultrastructural data of spermatozoa in the genus Lecithochirium. The spermatozoa of L. microstomum (from Trichiurus lepturus in Senegal) and L. musculus (from Anguilla anguilla in Corsica) exhibit the general pattern described in the great majority of the Digenea, namely two axonemes with the 9 + "1" pattern typical of the Trepaxonemata, one mitochondrion, a nucleus, parallel cortical microtubules and external ornamentation of the plasma membrane. Spermatozoa of L. microstomum and L. musculus have some specific features such as the presence of a reduced number of cortical microtubules arranged on only one side of the spermatozoon, the lack of spine-like bodies and expansion of the plasma membrane. The external ornamentation of the plasma membrane entirely covers the anterior extremity of the spermatozoa. The ultrastructure of the posterior extremity of the spermatozoa corresponds to the pattern previously described in the Hemiuridae, characterized by only singlets of the second axoneme. A particularity of these spermatozoa is the organization of the microtubule doublets of the second axoneme around the nucleus in the posterior part of the spermatozoon. P.I. Ndiaye et al., published by EDP Sciences, 2014
Full Text Available A survey of cercariae and metacercariae (Trematoda, Digenea from the great pond snail (Lymnaea stagnalis in Central Europe (Austria, Czech Republic, South-East Germany, Poland and Slovak Republic is presented, based on a study of 3,628 snails examined from 1998 to 2005. A total of 953 (26.3% L. stagnalis were infected with 24 trematode species comprising 19 species of cercariae and 11 species of metacercariae (six species occurred both as cercarie and metacercarie of eight families. The dominant cercariae were those of Opisthioglyphe ranae (159 hosts infected, Plagiorchis elegans (141 (both family Plagiorchiidae and Echinoparyphium aconiatum (153 (Echinostomatidae; 14 double infections were found. The most frequent metacercariae were those of Neoglyphe locellus (71 (Omphalometridae, E. aconiatum (66, Echinostoma sp. (59 and Moliniella anceps (48 (Echinostomatidae. In the previous studies carried out in Central Europe, a very similar spectrum of nine trematode families of 22 cercariae determined to species level and 43 types of cercariae reported under generic or provisional names, which can be in many cases conspecific with the previous taxa, were found. A simple key to identification of cercariae and metacercariae, together with their illustrations, is provided.
Luz Elena Velásquez
Full Text Available Introducción. La paragonimosis, o distomatosis pulmonar, es una enfermedad con sintomatología similar a la observada en la tuberculosis. Es causada por parásitos del género Paragonimus (Digenea: Troglotrematidae. Las personas se infectan al consumir cangrejos crudos o mal cocidos, con metacercarias del parásito. El primer foco de paragonimosis humana en Colombia se registró durante 1995 en Urrao, Antioquia, donde se hallaron dos especies de cangrejos que hospedaban el parásito. En el 2005 se capturaron cangrejos con metacercarias de Paragonimus en Medellín, lo que motivó la búsqueda del parásito en otras localidades, mediante su presencia en estos crustáceos. Objetivo. Establecer la distribución de Paragonimus en Antioquia, evaluando la presencia de metacercarias en macrocrustáceos braquiuros, dulciacuícolas. Materiales y métodos. Desde 2005 hasta 2007 se capturaron cangrejos en 13 municipios antioqueños. Se relajaron y sacrificaron para la búsqueda del digeneo y la identificación taxonómica. Resultados. En nueve municipios se capturaron 52 cangrejos, 42 (80,76% con metacercarias de Paragonimus. Todos los crustáceos se determinaron como Pseudothelphusidae, de los géneros Hypolobocera y Strengeriana, y se asignaron a cuatro especies. Tres se registran por primera vez como huéspedes del parásito. Conclusión. Se inicia la construcción de un mapa con la distribución de Paragonimus en Antioquia que incluye por primera vez zonas urbanizadas. Se ratifican el consumo y la manipulación de los cangrejos crudos y mal cocidos como factores de riesgo para la infección humana. Se propone a los cangrejos como agentes focalizadores de paragonimosis por ser asequibles y de fácil diagnóstico.
Metacercarias del tipo Paramonilicaecum (Digenea: Didymozoidae, parásitos accidentales de elasmobranquios (Elasmobranchii del golfo de México e identificación de metacercarias (Didymozoidae de la Colección Nacional de Helmintos Metacercariae of the type Paramonilicaecum (Digenea: Didymozoidae, accidental parasites in elasmobranchs (Elasmobranchii from the Mexican Gulf of Mexico and identification of metacercarias (Didymozoidae of the Colección Nacional de Helmintos
Full Text Available Como parte de un estudio sobre los helmintos parásitos de rayas (Elasmobranchii, se colectaron 12 ejemplares en 3 localidades del estado de Veracruz, México: Laguna de Tamiahua, Laguna de Tampamachoco y un arrecife de la costa del golfo de México. Se encontraron metacercarias identificadas como parásitos accidentales del tipo Paramonilicaecum (Digenea: Didymozoidae en la válvula espiral de Dasyatis say (raya látigo chata, Gymnura micrura (raya cola de rata y Rhinobatus lentiginosus (guitarra diablito. De manera complementaria, se actualizó la identificación de material perteneciente a Didymozoidae depositado en la Colección Nacional de Helmintos en el Instituto de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México. Éste es el primer registro para México de metacercarias del tipo Paramonilicaecum en rayas.During an ongoing study of the helminths of stingrays (Elasmobranchii, 12 stingrays were collected from 3 localities in the state of Veracruz, Mexico: Laguna de Tamiahua, Laguna de Tampamachoco, and a costal reef in the Gulf of Mexico. Metacercarias were collected from the spiral valves of Dasyatis say (bluntnose stingray, Gymnura micrura (lesser butterfly ray, and Rhinobatus lentiginosus (Atlantic guitarfish. The metacercarias, accidental parasites, were assigned to type Paramonilicaecum (Digenea: Didymozoidae. Material (Didymozoidae previously deposited in the Colección Nacional de Helmintos, Instituto de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, was re-identified. This is the first report of a species in larval phase of the "Type" Paramonilicaecum from the Gulf of Mexico, Veracruz, and the first report from a Mexican stingray.
Metacercárias de Diplostomum (Austrodiplostomum compactum Lutz, 1928 (Digenea, Diplostomidae em peixes do rio Paraná, Brasil. Prevalência, sazonalidade e intensidade de infecção Metacercariae of Diplostomum (Austrodiplostomum compactum Lutz, 1928 (Digenea, Diplostomatidae in fishes of Paraná River, Brazil. Prevalence, seasoning and intensity of infection
Haroldo Kazuyuki Takahashi
Full Text Available Avaliou-se a ocorrência de Diplostomum (Austrodiplostomum compactum (Digenea: Diplostomidae no globo ocular de Plagioscion squamosissimus (corvina e Cichla ocellaris (tucunaré, capturados mensalmente, no rio Paraná, Presidente Epitácio, Estado de São Paulo, Brasil. De 61 corvinas analisadas, 56 estavam parasitadas (92% com intensidade média de 42,0 parasitos por hospedeiro. De 81 tucunarés, 45 estavam parasitados (55% com intensidade média de 9,3 parasitos. A corvina apresentou prevalências de 71 a 100% e as maiores intensidades médias (103,3 e 106,9 nos meses de fevereiro e março/2001. Comparativamente, o tucunaré apresentou as mais altas prevalências nos meses de novembro/2000 (90% e fevereiro/2001 (80%. As mais altas intensidades médias no tucunaré ocorreram em setembro/2000 (12,7, dezembro/2000 (12,2 e fevereiro/2001 (16,1. As metacercárias apresentam o corpo côncavo ventralmente e na região posterior existe uma sinuosa protuberância cônica. A ventosa oral menor do que o acetábulo. Acetábulo simples situado na região pré-equatorial do helminto. Pré-faringe curta seguida de faringe musculosa. Poro genital situado próximo da altura do acetábulo. As metacercárias da corvina apresentam 1.434,0 µm (880 a 1.840 de comprimento por 611,2±93,4 µm (400 a 792 de largura e as do tucunaré 1.462,4 µm (960 a 2.480 por 710,8 µm (560 a 960. Os autores confirmaram a maior susceptibilidade da corvina ao Diplostomum e a relação do parasitismo com os parâmetros aquáticos e climáticos.This paper aims at evaluating the occurrence of Diplostomum (Austrodiplostomum compactum (Digenea: Diplostomatidae in the eyeball of Plagioscion squamosissimus (corvina and Cichla ocellaris (tucunaré, monthly captured in Paraná river, Presidente Epitácio, state of São Paulo, Brazil. From 61 corvinas under analysis, 56 of them contained parasites (92 % with intensity rate of 42.0 host parasites. From an amount of 81 tucunarés, 45 contained
El rol de Cyrtograpsus angulatus (Crustacea; Brachyura en los ciclos de vida de Microphallus szidati (Digenea; Microphallidae y Falsifilicollis chasmagnathi (Acanthocephala; Filicollidae: algunos aspectos de su ecologia parasitaria The role of Cytograpsus angulatus (Crustacea; Brachyura in the life cycles of Microphallus szidati (Digenea; Microphallidae and Falsifilicollis chasmagnathi (Acanthocephala; Filicollidae: some aspects of their ecological parasitology
Sergio R. Martorelli
Full Text Available Basándose en el estudio de los helmintos larvales parásitos del cangrejo Cyrtograpsus angulatus Dana, 1851 (Microphallus szidati Martorelli, 1986 (Digenea; Microphallidae y Falsifilicollis chasmagnathi Holcman-Spector et al., 1977 (Acathocephala; Fillicollidae conjuntamente con el análisis de sus ciclos biológicos y el estudio de la prevalencia, intensidad y de los índices de asociación (comparados entre los hospedadores intermediarios y definitivos se pudo concluir que: a C. angulatus parece ser un excelente hospedador intermediario en los ciclos de vida de los helmintos estudiados; b el tamaño de los cangrejos y la ocurrencia de amputaciones naturales en las hembras de mayor tamaño Spivak & Politis (en prensa aparecen correlacionadas con la prevalencia; c en los cangrejos estudiados la prevalencia para F. chasmagnathi fue mayor en los machos que en las hembras; d la intensidad no apareció correlacionada con el tamño y el sexo de los hospedadores intermediarios; e M. szidati y F. chasmagnathi estan fuertemente asociados en el hospedador intermediario; f C. angulatus e Himantopus melanurus Vieilot, 1817 (Aves; Recurvirostridae son citados como nuevos hospedadores, intermediario y denitivo respectivamente, para F. chasmagnathi; g Chasmagnathus granulata Dana, 1851 es citado como un nuevo hospedador intermediario para M. szidati.Based on a study of the larvae from two helminth species parasitizing the crab Cyrtograpsus angulatus Dana, 1851 (Microphallus szidati Martorelli, 1986 and Falsifilicollis chasmagnathi Holcman-Spector et al., 1977, from Mar chiquita lagoom (Argentina together with the analyses of their life cycles and rates of prevalence, intensity and association coefficient (compared in definitive and intermediate host the following conclusions have been reached: a C. angulatus suns to be an excelent intermediate host in the life-cycles of the studied helminths; b the size of the crabs and the occurence of natural amputations
Pseudopecoelus mccauleyi n. sp. and Podocotyle sp. (Digenea: Opecoelidae) from the deep waters off Oregon and British Columbia with an updated key to the species of Pseudopecoelus von Wicklen, 1946 and checklist of parasites from Lycodes cortezianus (Perciformes: Zoarcidae).
Blend, Charles K; Dronen, Norman O; Racz, Gabor R; Gardner, Scott L
Pseudopecoelus mccauleyi n. sp. (Opecoelidae: Opecoelinae) is described from the intestine of the bigfin eelpout, Lycodes cortezianus (Gilbert, 1890) (Perciformes: Zoarcidae), collected at 200-800 m depths in the Northeastern Pacific Ocean off Oregon and Vancouver Island, British Columbia. The new species is distinguished by possessing a unique combination of the following diagnostic characters: vitelline fields that extend to the posterior margin of the ventral sucker; a slender, tubular and sinuous seminal vesicle that extends some distance into the hindbody; an unspecialized, protuberant ventral sucker; a genital pore at pharynx level; lobed to deeply multilobed testes; a lobed ovary; and an egg size of 68-80 μm × 30-46 μm. A single specimen of Podocotyle Dujardin, 1845 (Digenea: Plagioporinae) is also described from the intestine of an individual Coryphaenoides sp. (Gadiformes: Macrouridae) collected at 2,800 m depth off Oregon. A listing of parasites from the bigfin eelpout as well as observations of parasite diversity within relevant hosts are offered, new host and locality records are noted, and a brief discussion of Pseudopecoelus von Wicklen, 1946 in the deep sea is presented taking note of the low level of host specificity recorded (i.e. spp. of Pseudopecoelus are now known to parasitize deep-water fish from at least 20 piscine families). A new dichotomous key to the 39 recognized species of Pseudopecoelus is introduced.
Renato Ribeiro Nogueira Ferraz
Full Text Available The demand and consumption of fish and their derivatives has increased considerably in recent years. However, fish are ideal hosts of numerous parasites, highlighting the need to develop new research methodologies for its detection. The aim of present study was to compare the efficacy of Ascocotyle metacercariae (Trematoda: Digenea extraction from visceral tissues of Mugil liza Valenciennes, 1836 (Teleostei: Mugilidae by two methods: homogenization by blender or mixer. Twentysix samples of M. liza were collected, being 16 liver samples and 10 samples of muscle tissue. Approximately 5g of each sample were processed by blender and mixer techniques homogenization for metacercariae extraction. In liver samples, up to 46 metacercariae were found in samples homogenized in blender. The lowest amount found was 2 metacercariae for blender and mixer techniques. In samples of muscle tissue, 4 metacercariae were observed in the mixer extraction. The lowest amount was found to be 2 parasites to blender and mixer. The mean metacercariae found and extracted from muscle tissue were 0.2 (+0.357 and 1.2 (+0.963 for blender and mixer, respectively. The averages of metacercariae found and extracted from fish liver, in blender and mixer, were 24 (+15.145 and 18 (+8.246, respectively. The homogenization techniques for blender and mixer were effective for the extraction of metacercariae of mullet fish tissues, suggesting that they may be directly applicable in the field of study, especially due to the ease of testing.
Expression analysis of the Atlantic bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus) pro-inflammatory cytokines, IL-1β, TNFα1 and TNFα2 in response to parasites Pseudocycnus appendiculatus (Copepoda) and Didymosulcus katsuwonicola (Digenea).
Pleić, Ivana Lepen; Bušelić, Ivana; Trumbić, Željka; Bočina, Ivana; Šprung, Matilda; Mladineo, Ivona
Pro-inflammatory cytokines play an important role in teleost defence against numerous types of pathogens, therefore are often used as biomarkers during various infections. In order to evaluate Atlantic bluefin tuna IL-1β, TNFα1 and TNFα2 induction by PAMPs, we quantified their expression during in vitro stimulation of peripheral blood leukocytes by LPS and Poly I:C. Furthermore, their role in acute and chronic parasitic infection was examined during natural infection of Pseudocycnus appendiculatus (Copepoda) and Didymosulcus katsuwonicola (Digenea), as well as during leukocyte exposure to total protein extracts isolated from two parasite species. Induction of ABT IL-1β and TNFα2 by PAMPs and protein extracts from D. katsuwonicola and P. appendiculatus, as well as during natural infection with two parasites, suggests these cytokines play an important role in inflammation, being engaged in controlling parasite infections, in contrast to ABT TNFα1. Cellular innate response to the digenean D. katsuwonicola showed rather chronic character, resulting with parasite encapsulation in connective tissue. Mast cells, eosinophils, goblet cells, and occasional rodlet cells found at the site of infection, along with the induction of TNFα2, suggest the presence of a moderate inflammatory reaction that fails to seriously endanger digenean existence. In contrast, copepod P. appendiculatus, attached to the gill epithelium by clamping, caused direct tissue disruption with undergoing necrotic or apoptotic processes, and extensive proliferation of rodlet and goblet cells. Differential expression patterns of target cytokines in tissue surrounding two parasites and in vitro PBL model suggest that quality and quantity of tuna immune response is conditioned by parasite adaptive mechanisms and pathogenicity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Cardicola beveridgei n. sp. (Digenea: Aporocotylidae) from the mangrove jack, Lutjanus argentimaculatus (Perciformes: Lutjanidae), and C. bullardi n. sp. from the Australian spotted mackerel, Scomberomorus munroi (Perciformes: Scombridae), from the northern Great Barrier Reef.
Nolan, Matthew J; Miller, Terrence L; Cutmore, Scott C; Cantacessi, Cinzia; Cribb, Thomas H
Cardicola Short, 1953 is a genus of the Aporocotylidae Odhner, 1912 (Digenea), with 25 currently recognised species described from 32 species of Perciformes and Mugiliformes fishes around the world, including eight species from the Great Barrier Reef. Here, we describe two new species from this region, namely Cardicola beveridgei n. sp. from the ventricle and atrium of the mangrove jack, Lutjanus argentimaculatus (Forsskål) (Perciformes: Lutjanidae), and Cardicola bullardi n. sp. from the ventricle of the Australian spotted mackerel, Scomberomorus munroi Collette & Russo (Perciformes: Scombridae), from off Lizard Island, Queensland, Australia. These two new species are most easily distinguished from the 25 current members of Cardicola in having the combination of i) a spinous oral sucker, ii) an anteriorly intercaecal ovary, iii) a uterus that extends anteriorly from the oötype, iv) the number of spines per ventrolateral transverse row, and in v) body size and the length/width ratio, vi) the oesophagus and caecal length(s) relative to body total length, vii) the length of the posterior caeca relative to the anterior pair, viii) the testis length/width ratio and its total size relative to that of the body, ix) the postovarian field as a percentage of body length, and x) egg size. In addition, C. beveridgei n. sp. is further differentiated by possessing a female genital pore that opens anterodextral to the male pore while C. bullardi n. sp. differs further in possessing a testis that is almost entirely intercaecal and does not extend anteriorly to the level of the intestinal bifurcation. Employing genetic analysis of ITS2 rDNA sequence data, representing these species and a further 13 recognised and three putative species of Cardicola, we were able to unequivocally confirm these specimens as distinct (9-22% different over 420 nucleotide positions). Distance analysis of ITS2 showed that i) species of Cardicola from the Siganidae formed a monophyletic clade, to the
But high mean intensity was suggestive of heavy parasite burden; C. complanatum (4.8), C. tilapiae (2.8), and E. heterostomum (5.1). Morphometrics of the parasites ... host location, and larger body size. Consequently, this resulted in a trade-off between larger morphometric parts and population size among the parasites ...
Koubek, Petr; Baruš, Vlastimil; Koubková, B.
Roč. 41, č. 1 (2004), s. 25-31 ISSN 0440-6605 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IBS6093003; GA AV ČR KSK6005114 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6093917 Keywords : Troglotrema acutum * polecat * distribution Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.365, year: 2004 http://www.saske.sk/pau/helminthologia/2004_1/Koubek25.pdf
The complex life cycles of most trematode parasites include three hosts. The first intermediate host is a snail, the second is normally a teleost fish and a piscivorous bird serves as the definitive host. Lymnaeid snails are most likely to be responsible for cercarial shedding, which infect exposed fish and in turn are eaten by ...
Pinto, Hudson Alves; De Melo, Alan Lane
A checklist of digenetic trematodes found in molluscs from Brazil is presented based on 127 scientific articles published after a century of studies. To date 23 families, 35 genera and 46 species of trematodes were identified infecting 25 species of molluscs in the country. Another 36 species described in the collective-group Cercaria were found in 15 species of molluscs and have not yet been associated with the respective adult parasites. Larvae found in 20 species of molluscs and grouped into 10 cercarian types are also listed.
Susana Balmant Emerique Simões
Full Text Available The life history of the trematode Pygidiopsis macrostomum Travassos, 1928 is described for the first time. Rediae and cercariae were obtained from naturally infected snails Heleobia australis (d´Orbigny, a new first intermediate host. Metacercariae were found encysted in the mesenteries of three naturally infected guppies, Phalloptychus januarius (Hensel, Jenynsia multidentata (Jenyns (new host records and Poecilia vivipara Bloch and Schneider. Experimental infections were successfully completed in the intermediate hosts H. australis and Poe. vivipara reared in the laboratory and hamsters Mesocricetus auratus Waterhouse were utilised as a definitive host.
Stephen S. Curran
Full Text Available Two new digenean species belonging in Creptotrema Travassos, Artigas and Pereira, 1928 are described from specimens stored in the invertebrate collection at the Museum of Natural History, Geneva, Switzerland. Creptotrema lamothei n. sp. is described from Ageneiosus brevifilis Valenciennes in Cuvier and Valenciennes, 1840 (Siluriformes: Ageneiosidae, Auchenipterus nuchalis (Spix and Agassiz, 1829 (Siluriformes: Auchenipteridae, and Bryconops melanurus (Bloch, 1794 (Characiformes: Characidae in the Paraguay River, Paraguay. Creptotrema sucumbiosa n. sp. is described from Tetragonopterus argenteus Cuvier, 1816 (Characiformes: Characidae in Río Aquarico, Ecuador. Creptotrema lamothei differs from its congeners by having testes with irregular rather than entire outlines. Creptotrema sucumbiosa differs from its congeners by having a bilobed rather than entire ovary. Both C. lamothei and C. sucumbiosa differ from their other congeners by having relatively longer posttesticular spaces in their bodies, representing 25-30% and 24-28% of body length respectively, compared with approximately 6-19% in other species.Dos especies nuevas de digéneos pertenecientes a Creptotrema Travassos, Artigas y Pereira, 1928 fueron descritas de ejemplares depositados en la colección de invertebrados del Museo de Historia Natural de Ginebra, Suiza. Creptotrema lamothei n. sp. fue descrita en Ageneiosus brevifilis Valenciennes in Cuvier y Valenciennes, 1840 (Siluriformes: Ageneiosidae, Auchenipterus nuchalis (Spix y Agassiz, 1829 (Siluriformes: Auchenipteridae, y Bryconops melanurus (Bloch, 1794 (Characiformes: Characidae en el río Paraguay, Paraguay. Creptotrema sucumbiosa n. sp. fue descrita de Tetragonopterus argenteus, Cuvier 1816 (Characiformes: Characidae en el río Aquarico, Ecuador. Creptotrema lamothei difiere de sus congéneres por tener testículos con contornos irregulares en contraste con los que presentan contornos enteros. Creptotrema sucumbiosa difiere de sus congéneres por tener un ovario bilobulado en contraste con los que presentan ovarios enteros. Ambas especies difieren de sus congéneres por tener espacios post-testiculares relativamente más largos, representando 25-30% y 24-28% del largo del cuerpo, respectivamente, comparado con aproximadamente 6-19% en otras especies.
Brandolini,Solange V.P.B.; Amato,Suzana B.
Espécimes adultos de Paratanaisia bragai foram coletados de ductos renais de Columba livia infectados naturalmente, fixados em glutaraldeído 2,5% e processados para microscopia eletrônica de varredura. Foram identificados dois tipos distintos de escamas, escamas bífidas e simples, dispostas em fileiras transversais no tegumento das faces dorsal e ventral do corpo. Também mostrando em detalhes a ventosa oral subterminal, bem desenvolvida e acetábulo de tamanho reduzido, localizado no terço méd...
Juan Carlos Casanova
Full Text Available Prospections on helminth fauna of rodents were carried out in the Cedrino river (Eastern of Sardinia island. Twelve Rattus rattus (L., 1758 and eight Mus domesticus (Schwarz & Schwarz, 1943 were captured by Sherman traps. Parasitological study revealed in R. rattus the presence of an intestinal helminth belonging to the genus Maritrema (family Microphallidae. The transmission of this Digenetic Trematode among vertebrates involves the participation of aquatic invertebrate organisms, molluscs and crustacea, acting as intermediate hosts. Dissection of 117 individuals of the Amphipod Crustacea Gammarus italicus, collected in the same biotope, allowed the detection of encysted metacercariae. These larvae constitute the infesting stage of the parasite for vertebrates, acting these as definitive hosts ingesting parasitized crustacea as preys. Adults of Maritrema sp. were also obtained experimentally in the laboratory mice (Mus domesticus CD1 strain. These were infested by inoculating them, using gastric probe, metacercarial cysts isolated from G. italicus. Post-infection mice dissection was performed at different intervals of time getting adults in various maturity stages. Experimental facts confirm that Maritrema sp., as it occurs in other trematodes, do not present strict specificity to the definitive host, being able to develop as well in Mus. In nature, the presence or absence of this digenean in mammals species will be dependent of host ethological factors, mainly related to feeding habitats. This study was partially supported by the ?Comissionat per Recerca i Universitats de la Generalitat de Catalunya? 2001SGR00088.
Werneck, M.R.; Gallo, B.M.G.; Silva, R.J.
The occurrence of Amphiorchis caborojoensis Fischthal & Acholonu 1976 and Carettacola stunkardi Martin & Bamberger 1952 in a young specimen of Hawksbill sea turtle Eretmochelys imbricata Linnaeus 1758 in Brazil was reported. Five A. caborojoensis trematodes were found in the small intestine (n=2) and liver (n=3), and two adult C. stunkardi specimens were collected from body wash. This is the first report of parasites of E. imbricata in Brazilian waters and Southwestern Atlantic Ocean and the ...
Werneck,M.R.; Gallo,B.M.G.; Silva,R.J.
The occurrence of Amphiorchis caborojoensis Fischthal & Acholonu 1976 and Carettacola stunkardi Martin & Bamberger 1952 in a young specimen of Hawksbill sea turtle Eretmochelys imbricata Linnaeus 1758 in Brazil was reported. Five A. caborojoensis trematodes were found in the small intestine (n=2) and liver (n=3), and two adult C. stunkardi specimens were collected from body wash. This is the first report of parasites of E. imbricata in Brazilian waters and Southwestern Atlantic Ocean ...
Didyk, A S; Burt, M D
Himasthla limnodromi n. sp. is described from short-billed dowitchers, Limnodromus griseus, from the Araya Peninsula, Venezuela, and Delaware Bay, U.S.A. Himasthla limnodromi was not found in dowitchers on the breeding grounds or on the fall staging grounds in the Bay of Fundy but reappeared in dowitchers on the wintering grounds in the fall. This suggests that H. limnodromi is acquired by the birds on arrival on the wintering grounds and then gradually disappears during the birds' northward migration in the spring. The new species has a reniform collar armed with 31 spines, with 23 in a single uninterrupted row, and 4 corner spines in overlapping pairs at each end. The cirrus sac is up to 10 times longer than the length of the acetabulum and contains a long, smooth cirrus. The vitellaria always commence posterior to the posterior end of the cirrus sac in mature specimens. The testes are found in the posterior eighth of the long, filamentous body. Himasthla limnodromi n. sp. most closely resembles Himasthla alincia, but H. limnodromi is larger in size and has an unspined cirrus and smaller eggs.
Caron, Yannick; Celi-Erazo, Maritza; Hurtrez-Boussès, Sylvie; Lounnas, Mannon; Pointier, Jean-Pierre; Saegerman, Claude; Losson, Bertrand; Benítez-Ortíz, Washington
Fasciolosis is a widely distributed disease in livestock in South America but knowledge about the epidemiology and the intermediate hosts is relatively scarce in Ecuador. For three months, lymnaeid snails were sampled (n = 1482) in Pichincha Province at two sites located in a highly endemic area. Snails were identified (based on morphology and ITS-2 sequences) and the infection status was established through microscopic dissection and a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based technique. Techniques based on morphology were not useful to accurately name the collected snail species. Comparison with available DNA sequences showed that a single snail species was collected, Galba schirazensis. Live rediae were observed in 1.75% (26/1482) and Fasciola sp. DNA was detected in 6% (89/1482) of collected snails. The COX-1 region permitted identification of the parasite as Fasciola hepatica. The relative sensitivity and specificity of the microscope study, compared to PCR results, were 25.84% and 99.78%, respectively. The mean size of the snails recorded positive for F. hepatica through crushing and microscopy was significantly higher than the mean size of negative snails, but there was no such difference in PCR-positive snails. The role of G. schirazensis as an intermediate host of F. hepatica in Ecuador is discussed and the hypothesis of an adaptation of the parasite to this invasive snail is proposed. For the first time, an epidemiological survey based on molecular biology-based techniques assessed the possible role of lymnaeid snails in the epidemiology of fasciolosis in Ecuador. © Y. Caron et al., published by EDP Sciences, 2017.
Full Text Available Fasciolosis is a widely distributed disease in livestock in South America but knowledge about the epidemiology and the intermediate hosts is relatively scarce in Ecuador. For three months, lymnaeid snails were sampled (n = 1482 in Pichincha Province at two sites located in a highly endemic area. Snails were identified (based on morphology and ITS-2 sequences and the infection status was established through microscopic dissection and a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR-based technique. Techniques based on morphology were not useful to accurately name the collected snail species. Comparison with available DNA sequences showed that a single snail species was collected, Galba schirazensis. Live rediae were observed in 1.75% (26/1482 and Fasciola sp. DNA was detected in 6% (89/1482 of collected snails. The COX-1 region permitted identification of the parasite as Fasciola hepatica. The relative sensitivity and specificity of the microscope study, compared to PCR results, were 25.84% and 99.78%, respectively. The mean size of the snails recorded positive for F. hepatica through crushing and microscopy was significantly higher than the mean size of negative snails, but there was no such difference in PCR-positive snails. The role of G. schirazensis as an intermediate host of F. hepatica in Ecuador is discussed and the hypothesis of an adaptation of the parasite to this invasive snail is proposed. For the first time, an epidemiological survey based on molecular biology-based techniques assessed the possible role of lymnaeid snails in the epidemiology of fasciolosis in Ecuador.
Lunaschi, L. I.
Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to increase the knowledge on the diversity of digenean parasites in ophidians andanurans from northeastern Argentina. Specimens of the snakes Eunectes notaeus, Hydrodynastes gigas, Micrurus corallinus,Philodryas sp. and Sibynomorphus sp., and the anurans Rhinella schneideri, Phyllomedusa azurea and Leptodactylus latranswere examined. Twelve digenean species were identified: Catadiscus corderoi Mañé-Garzón, 1958, Catadiscus dolichocotyle(Cohn, 1903, Catadiscus uruguayensis Freitas & Lent, 1939, Choledocystus elegans (Travassos, 1926, Gorgoderina parvicavaTravassos, 1922, Haplometroides buccicola Odhner, 1911, Heterodiplostomum lanceolatum Dubois, 1936, Infidum similisTravassos, 1916, Mesocoelium monas (Rudolphi, 1819, Plagiorchis luehei (Travassos, 1927, Telorchis clava (Diesing, 1850and Travtrema stenocotyle (Cohn, 1902. New host species and/or new locality records from Argentina are presented.
Faltýnková, Anna; Gibson, D. I.; Kostadinova, A.
Roč. 70, č. 3 (2008), s. 159-183 ISSN 0165-5752 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA6022404; GA ČR GP524/07/P086; GA MŠk LC522 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Patagifer * Echinostomatidae * Threskiornithidae Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 0.927, year: 2008
Kvach, Yuriy; Bryjová, Anna; Sasal, P.; Winkler, H. M.
Roč. 116, č. 7 (2017), s. 1973-1980 ISSN 0932-0113 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP505/12/G112 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Aphalloides * Taxonomic revision * Zoogeography * Molecular study Subject RIV: EG - Zoology OBOR OECD: Parasitology Impact factor: 2.329, year: 2016
Kvach, Yuriy; Bryjová, A.; Sasal, P.; Winkler, H. M.
Roč. 116, č. 7 (2017), s. 1973-1980 ISSN 0932-0113 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP505/12/G112 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Aphalloides * Taxonomic revision * Zoogeography * Molecular study Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine OBOR OECD: Veterinary science Impact factor: 2.329, year: 2016
Gomes, Tássia Fernanda Furo; Melo, Francisco Tiago de Vasconcelos; Giese, Elane Guerreiro; Furtado, Adriano Penha; Santos, Jeannie Nascimento dos
Abstract The trematodes are parasites of the several vertebrates including amphibians, however the knowledge about of the taxonomy these parasites is still confuse. The trematode Choledocystus elegans was found in the small intestine of the Leptodactylus paraensis in eastern Amazon and presents the following characteristics: several pointed tegumentary spines, papillae on the outer and inner edges of the oral and ventral suckers, a round, well-developed cirrus sac, a well-developed cirrus, ob...
Fernádez, María Virginia; Hamann, Monika Inés; Kehr, Arturo Ignacio
In Argentina, no ecological studies have been reported on the infection parameters of Kalipharynx sp. metacercariae in planorbid snails. To this end, the aims of this study were: (i) to provide information on the population biology of Kalipharynx sp. metacercariae in the planorbid snails Biomphalaria tenagophila and B. occidentalis through the study of prevalence and intensity of larval infection during a seasonal cycle; (ii) to evaluate the effects of host shell size on prevalence and infection intensity, (iii) to evaluate the effect of infection intensity on cyst size. Samples were taken between June 2010 and April 2011 (encompassing all seasons) from a subtropical permanent pond in Corrientes City, Corrientes, Argentina. A total of 362 metacercariae (n=262 and n=100; from B. tenagophila and B. occidentalis respectively) were collected from 616 snails (n=466 and n=150 from B. tenagophila and B. occidentalis respectively). The metacercarial cysts were found in the digestive gland, mantle cavity, intestine and ovotestis. B. tenagophila showed a range of infection from 1 to 60 cysts per snail (mean = 4.5 +/- SD=9.9), and cyst diameter ranging between 255 and 705 microm (466.4 +/- 119); while, B. occidentalis showed a range of infection from 1 to 23 (5.5 +/- 5.6), and cyst diameter ranging between 310 to 900 microm (554.5 +/- 150). Results obtained indicated that, although absent in autumn, metacercariae of Kalipharynx sp. were present most of the year in both species of Biomphalaria, showing high values in both warm-season. Furthermore, both the infection intensity and host shell size varied significantly between seasons, although no seasonal variation was observed with respect to metacercarial cyst size, suggesting the possibility of more than one peak of cercariae emergence during the year. The prevalence of infection was significantly and positively correlated with snail size in both host species (p 0.05). The results of this study show a significant influence of host size on prevalence and infection intensity, and a tendency towards density-dependent reductions in the growth of cysts. This is the first study in Argentina analyzing the population biology of Kalipharynx sp. metacercariae.
Caffara, M; Bruni, G; Paoletti, C; Gustinelli, A; Fioravanti, M L
Adults of Clinostomum spp. are digenetic trematodes found in fish-eating birds, reptiles and occasionally mammals, including humans. Freshwater snails serve as first intermediate hosts and many fish species and amphibians as second intermediate hosts. To date, amphibian hosts of Clinostomum metacercariae include members of urodele and anuran families in North America, but no data are available on infections of European amphibians, including newts. In this study, we characterize infections of Clinostomum complanatum metacercariae in four smooth (Lissotriton vulgaris) and 18 Italian crested newts (Triturus carnifex) from an artificial pond located in a protected area in Tuscany, Italy. Parasites were surgically removed from the infected newts and identified both morphologically and using sequences of a mitochondrial gene, cytochrome c oxidase I, and the ribosomal markers, internal transcribed spacers. This is the first record of C. complanatum in European newts and, more generally, in amphibians in Europe.
Bakhoum, A J S; Kacem, H; Neifar, L; Miquel, J
The Mesometridae includes only five genera and eight species. The available data on the ultrastructure of sperm cells of mesometrid species referred to two species only, Elstia stossichianum and Wardula capitellata. The present study revealed the ultrastructure of the spermatozoon of a third genus and third species of Mesometridae, Centroderma spinosissima. The mature spermatozoon of C. spinosissima presents two axonemes with different lengths of the Ehlers' 9 + '1' trepaxonematan pattern, a nucleus, two mitochondria, two bundles of parallel cortical microtubules, external ornamentation of the plasma membrane, a lateral expansion, spine-like bodies, cytoplasmic ornamented buttons and granules of glycogen. The spermatozoon of C. spinosissima is similar to those of the previously studied mesometrids. However, some peculiarities such as the presence of two mitochondria, the disposition of the external ornamentation of the plasma membrane and the morphology of the posterior spermatozoon extremity, characterize the male gamete of C. spinosissima. Moreover, the presence of cytoplasmic ornamented buttons is a characteristic found only in the mature spermatozoon of mesometrids and it probably represents an autapomorphy for this family. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Quilichini, Y; Foata, J; Justine, J-L; Bray, R A; Marchand, B
The ultrastructure of the mature spermatozoon of Gyliauchen sp., a parasite of the dusky rabbitfish Siganus fuscescens, was studied by transmission electron microscopy. The spermatozoon possesses two axonemes of the 9+"1" pattern of Trepaxonemata, four attachment zones, one mitochondrion, a nucleus, cortical microtubules, external ornamentation of the plasma membrane, and spine-like bodies. The main characteristics of this spermatozoon are the presence of one mitochondrion, spine-like bodies not associated with the external ornamentation, and a posterior extremity of type 3 that is characterized by the following sequence: posterior extremity of the nucleus then posterior extremity of the second axoneme. Numerous other ultrastructural features are also discussed and compared to the digenean spermatology literature. This is the first study of a member of the Gyliauchenidae and the fourth within the Lepocreadioidea. The results show that many ultrastructural characters are variable within this superfamily and could be useful for phylogeny.
Bakhoum, Abdoulaye J S; Quilichini, Yann; Justine, Jean-Lou; Bray, Rodney A; Bâ, Cheikh T; Marchand, Bernard
Spermatological characteristics are described for the first time in the genus Neomultitestis Machida, 1982, belonging to the family Lepocreadiidae Odhner, 1905. Adult Neomultitestis aspidogastriformis were collected from the digestive tract of Platax teira, caught off New Caledonia. The mature spermatozoon of N. aspidogastriformis is described by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). It includes two axonemes with 9 + "1" pattern of Trepaxonemata, an antero-lateral electron-dense material, attachment zones, two mitochondria, a nucleus, two bundles of parallel cortical microtubules, external ornamentation of the plasma membrane, spine-like bodies, and granules of glycogen. Certain ultrastructural characteristics of the spermatozoon, especially the antero-lateral electron-dense material, are shared by N. aspidogastriformis and all species of the superfamily Lepocreadioidea studied so far. The antero-lateral electron-dense material, present in different families of lepocreadioids, supports the monophyletic status of the superfamily. We also list several ultrastructural characteristics which characterize the mature spermatozoon of the Lepocreadioidea. © 2015 International Federation for Cell Biology.
Sohn, Woon-Mok; Kim, Deok-Gyu; Jung, Bong-Kwang; Cho, Jaeeun; Chai, Jong-Yil
Pygidiopsis cambodiensis n. sp. is described based on adult flukes recovered from Syrian golden hamsters experimentally infected with metacercariae from mullets (Liza macrolepis) purchased at a local fish market in Phnom Penh, Cambodia. The specimens were examined by light and scanning electron microscopy. Among the 13 species so far assigned to Pygidiopsis, the new species belongs to the summa-type (including Pygidiopsis pelecani, Pygidiopsis phalacrocoracis, Pygidiopsis piclaumoreli, Pygidiopsis plana, and Pygidiopsis summa) which lack circumoral spines and have vitelline follicles extending posteriorly from the level of the ovary some distance into the post-testicular space and the uterus not exceeding the acetabulum anteriorly. The new species differs from the other five species of the summa-type particularly in the morphology of the ventrogenital complex, including the genital sac, gonotyl, and gonotyl spines (= rodlets). The genital sac is well developed, sucker-like, slightly larger than the ventral sucker, muscular, and equipped with two gonotyls on the ventral side of the sac. Gonotyls are protruding pad-like, and the number of rodlets on the left gonotyl is four to five and that on the right gonotyl is 10-11 in two rows. This is the fifth Pygidiopsis species reported in Asia, following P. summa (Japan, Korea, and Vietnam), P. phalacrocorasis (Japan), P. pelecani (China), and Pygidiopsis marivillai (Philippines).
Lamothe-Argumedo, Rafael; Falcón-Ordaz, Jorge; García-Prieto, Luis; Fernández-Fernández, Jesús
Caballerolecythus ibunami n. gen., n. sp. is described from the intestine of 2 species of rodents (Liomys irroratus [Gray, 1868] and Peromyscus difficilis [Allen, 1891]) from Piñonal, El Carmen Tequexquitla, Tlaxcala state, Mexico. These specimens represent a new genus and a new species of Dicrocoeliinae by possession of an extremely short ceca (ending at equatorial level of ovary); vitelline follicles that begin posterior to these structures, without overlapping; and a body that is long and slender (length/width ratio 1:17-21). To the best of our knowledge, this combination of characters has not been reported in other genera of this subfamily (Athesmia Looss, 1899; Unilaterilecithum Oshmarin in Skrjabin and Evranova, 1952; and Pseudathesmia Travassos, 1942).
Full Text Available Didymocystis wedli a parasite from the gills of Thunnus albacares from the coast of the State of Rio de Janeiro, is described by use of light and scanning electron microscopy. This is the first report of this species in Brazil and South America. New data are presented on the surface topography as demonstrated by scanning electron microscopy.
Pérez Ponce de León, G; Brooks, D R
Quantitative phylogenetic analysis of 20 nominal genera of the Pronocephalidae based on 47 morphological transformation series produced 6 equally parsimonious trees, each with a consistency index of 77.8%. All trees agree that Adenogaster is the sister group to the rest of the pronocephalids, and a new subfamily is proposed for it. The Pronocephalinae comprises Pronocephalus, Ruicephalus, Neopronocephalus, Macravestibulum, Choanophorus, Cetiosaccus, and Metacetabulum. The Charaxicephalinae comprises Charaxicephalus, Desmogonius, Diaschistorchis, Pleurogonius, Iguanacola, Renigonius, Parapleurogonius, Himasomum, Pyelosomum, Cricocephalus, Barisomum, and Pseudobarisomum. An amended diagnosis for Himasomum is presented. The trees differ only in the placements of Pleurogonius, Renigonius + Parapleurogonius, Iguanacola, and Himasomum relative to each other. Parapronocephalum and Notocotyloides are members of the clade containing the Notocotylidae. The phylogenetic tree supports interpretations of 3-4 transitions from marine to freshwater turtles, 3 host switches from marine turtles to the Galapagos marine iguana and 3 from marine turtles to the French angelfish, and widespread host switching among marine chelonians. No switches to non-chelonian hosts coincide with transitions from marine to freshwater.
Full Text Available Fasciola spp. were collected from naturally infected cattle at a local abattoir of Khanh Hoa province, Vietnam, for morphological and genetic investigations. Microscopic examination detected no sperm cells in the seminal vesicles, suggesting a parthenogenetic reproduction of the flukes. Analyses of sequences from the first and second internal transcribed spacers (ITS1 and ITS2 of the ribosomal RNA revealed that 13 out of 16 isolates were of Fasciola gigantica type, whereas three isolates presented a hybrid sequence from F. gigantica and Fasciola hepatica. Interestingly, all the mitochondrial sequences (partial COI and NDI were of F. gigantica type, suggesting that the maternal lineage of the hybrid form is from F. gigantica. No intra-sequence variation was detected.
Full Text Available Clinostomidae are digeneans characterized by a complex taxonomic history, continuously under revision based on both morphological and molecular analysis. Among the 14 species considered valid so far Clinostomum phalacrocoracis has been well described only at the adult stage, whereas the morphology of the metacercarial stage has been reported only once. During a parasitological survey carried out on 262 wild cichlids sampled from Lake Kinneret (Israel metacercariae referable to C. phalacrocoracis were found in 18 fingerlings. In this study, we report this clinostomid species for the first time in wild fish from Israel describing the metacercarial stage of Clinostomum phalacrocoracis, coupling its morphological description with molecular analysis carried out on ITS rDNA and COI mtDNA sequences.
Ma, Jin-You; Yu, Yan; Peng, Wen-Feng
A new species of Mesotretes (Trematoda: Mesotretidae) parasitizing the small intestine of Rhinolophus ferrumequinum was obtained by the examination of 48 bats collected from 4 localities in Henan Province, China, from August 2003 to January 2005. This species, Mesotretes jiyuanensis n. sp., is similar to Mesotretes orientalis and Mesotretes hangzhouensis, but mainly differs from them in the ratio of the oral sucker and the ventral sucker, and the distance of the intestinal bifurcation from anterior edge of acetabulum, as well as from the former in the extension of the vitellarium. Mesotretes jiyuanensis n. sp. differs from Mesotretes peregrinus chiefly in the shape of the testes and the distribution of cuticular spines. The ratio of the oral sucker and the ventral sucker in this species also differs from that of M. peregrinus.
Esmey B.E. Moema
Full Text Available The metacercarial (larval stages of diplostomid digeneans are known to inhabit freshwater fish, causing tissue damage in the process. Due to their widespread diversity, little is known about their life cycle. The classification of these parasitic stages to the species level using only the morphology is very challenging due to the lack of genitalia; they are regarded to be the most important structures in the identification of these organisms. In this study, additional morphological information through light and scanning electron microscopy is given for two different diplostomids found in the cranial cavity of Clarias gariepinus and the vitreous chambers of Tilapia sparrmanii and Pseudocrenilabrus philander. The diplostomid metacercaria inhabiting the cranial cavity of Clarias gariepinus was morphologically identified as Diplostomulum (Tylodelphys mashonenseand an unknown metacercaria of the genus Diplostomumwas found in the vitreous chambers of Pseudocrenilabrus philander and Tilapia sparrmanii. Both parasitic species’ 28S recombinant deoxyribonucleic acid genomic regions were successfully amplified using Dig 125/1500R primer pairs. The assay yielded a product of approximately 1300 base pairs as seen on the gel images. There were 14 nucleotide differences over the entire analysed sequences resulting in a 1.1% (14/1273 nucleotide difference. In line with the morphological characteristics of these parasites, there seemed to be a slight difference in their genetic makeup. The application of molecular techniques on digenetic trematodes seems very promising and may yield great potential in future descriptions of morphologically similar parasitic species.
Orélis-Ribeiro, Raphael; Bullard, Stephen A
Cladocaecum tomasscholzi n. gen., n. sp. infects the heart (lumen of ventricle) of driftwood catfish, Ageneiosus inermis Linnaeus, 1766 (Siluriformes: Auchenipteridae) from the Nanay River (Amazon River Basin, near Iquitos, Peru). It differs from all other aporocotylid genera by having a highly branched intestine comprising a central cecum that terminates immediately anterior to the ovary and that has numerous laterally directed diverticula. Kritsky platyrhynchi ( Guidelli, Isaac, and Pavanelli, 2002 ) n. gen., n. comb. (= Plehniella p.) is redescribed based on paratypes plus new specimens collected from the body cavity of the type host (porthole shovelnose catfish, Hemisorubim platyrhynchos Valenciennes, 1840) (Pimelodidae) from the nearby Itaya River. Kritsky differs from Sanguinicola Plehn, 1905 , Plehniella Szidat, 1951 , Nomasanguinicola Truong and Bullard, 2013 , and Cladocaecum by the combination of having a spinous anterior sucker, an intestine comprising 6 asymmetrical ceca, a lanceolate body, a straight vas deferens, an ovary with finger-like lateral projections, a small and spheroid oötype, numerous, minute, spheroid uterine eggs, and separate genital pores. An updated list of hosts, tissues infected, and geographic localities for the catfish blood flukes (9 spp.; 5 genera) is provided. This is the first report of a fish blood fluke infecting a member of Auchenipteridae and first proposal of a new genus of blood fluke (Schistosomatoidea) from South America in 64 yr. It brings the total number of Amazonian fish blood flukes to a mere 4 species.
Butcher, A R; Brealey, J K; Grove, D I; Dymock, R B
Brachylaima cribbi is a recently described species of terrestrial trematode that infects mammals and birds with helicid land snails as its first and second intermediate hosts. The adult worm is 2.5-6.0 mm long by 0.5-0.8 mm wide being a long slender cylindrical worm with oral and ventral suckers in the anterior quarter and genital pore in the posterior quarter. Scanning electron microscopy shows that there is a dense covering of tegumental spines at the anterior end which diminishes towards the posterior extremities of the worm. Development of spines was observed in juvenile and mature adult worms. In young worms 1-3 weeks post infection (wpi) spines appear as buds with a serrated edge each having 1-4 spikes per spine. As the worm ages the spines broaden and by 5 wpi the number of spikes per spine increases to an average of 8.1. The serial development of oral sucker papillae in the cercaria, metacercaria and adult worm was observed with the finding of an elongated papilla with a bifurcated tip on the cercaria becoming a shorter and thicker elongated papilla with a large central stoma on the metacercaria. In the adult worm, this papilla becomes dome-shaped with a small central stoma. For some of these papillae a cilium could be seen extended from the central stoma. Other life-cycle stages illustrated were the hatched egg with an extruded egg membrane minus an operculum and a portion of the branched sporocyst dissected from the digestive gland of the land snail Theba pisana showing a terminal birth pore. Scanning electron microscopy morphological features of the adult worm observed for the first time in a Brachylaima were the unarmed cirrus extended from the genital pore with released sperm present and the Laurer's canal opening visible in tegumental folds on the dorsal surface approximately 300 microm posterior to the genital pore.
Tkach, V.V.; Kudlai, Olena; Kostadinova, Aneta
Roč. 46, č. 3 (2016), s. 171-185 ISSN 0020-7519 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP505/12/G112 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Echinostomatoidea * Molecular phylogeny * Systematics * Echinostomatidae (sensu stricto) * Caballerotrematidae n. fam. * Himasthlidae * Echinochasmidae * Host associations Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 3.730, year: 2016
Rizvi, Anjum N; Bursey, Charles R; Bhutia, Pasang T
Three new species of batrachotrematid trematodes from the small paa frog, Nanorana minica, collected in Uttarakhand, India are described and illustrated: Batrachotrema korbaensis sp. nov., Opisthioparorchis dehradunensis sp. nov. and Opisthioparorchis nanoranae sp. nov. The new species are assigned to genera based on presence or absence of cuticular spines; absent in Batrachotrema, present in Opisthioparorchis. Five species are assigned to Batrachotrema, which are separated by position of genital pore, location of testes and host; B. korbaensis differs from previously described species in that it is the only species from an anuran host with testes in the 4th quarter of the body. Ten species are assigned to Opisthioparorchis, which are separated by testes position, extent of vitellaria, and oral sucker-acetabulum ratio. O. nanoranae sp. nov. is the only species possessing tandem testes. Two species, O. dehradunensis sp. nov. and O. yaanensis, possess oblique testes, the remaining 7 species have symmetrical testes. Opisthioparorchis dehradunensis sp. nov. is distinguished from O. nanoranae sp. nov. by testes orientation; oblique in O. dehradunensis sp. nov., tandem in O. nanoranae sp. nov.
Volonterio, Odile; Baletta, Silvana; Meneghel, Melitta
During a study on the helminth fauna of Liophis anomalus specimens deposited in the Reptile Collection of the Secci6n Zoología Vertebrados, Facultad de Ciencias, Uruguay, a new genus of Opisthogoniminae was found. Paracotyletrema n. gen. is described from the buccal cavity and esophagus of specimens from Departamento de Flores, Uruguay. This new genus differs from the other 2 Opisthogoniminae, Opisthogonimus and Westella, by having much smaller body size; maximum width at level of posterior end of oral sucker; oral sucker length more than one-fourth of body length; oral sucker and acetabulum separated by a distance of about the diameter of pharynx; cirrus pouch length more than half of body length; and testes in completely coincident zones. The type and only species, Paracotyletrema poncedeleoni n. gen., n. sp., is defined by the following diagnostic characters: mean oral sucker length one-third to one-half of body length; cirrus pouch of about body length, contorted, mainly acetabular; large, round testes in nearly adjacent fields, and an ovary nearly adjacent to right testis. Besides the type locality, Paracotyletrema poncedeleoni has been found in L. anomalus specimens from the Departamentos of Artigas and Treinta y Tres; therefore, it has a widespread distribution in Uruguay.
Fernandes, Berenice Maria Musco; Justo, Marcia Cristina Nascimento; Anjos, Camila Saraiva Dos; Malta, José Celso de Oliveira; Dumbo, José Chissiua
This study presents the helminthofauna of digenean parasites of Acestrorhynchus falcirostris in the state of Amazonas (Brazil). Eight species belonging to four families were recovered: Metacercariae of Austrodiplostomum compactum (Diplostomidae) and Clinostomum marginatum (Clinostomidae) and mature specimens of Bellumcorpus majus, Prosorhynchoides carvajali, Rhipidocotyle santanaensis (Bucephalidae); Prosthenhystera obesa (Callodistomidae); Genarchella genarchella (Derogenidae) and Phyllodistomum spatula (Gorgoderidae). Examining specimens belonging to the genus Bellumcorpus collected from A. falcirostris, were observed a great variation in the size and shape of testes, which also could be observed in the type specimens of Bellumcorpus majus and B. schubarti. Considering the similar morphology and morphometric characteristics of both species, in this paper B. schubarti is considered synonym of B. majus. Acestrorhynchus falcirostris is a new host records for all these species of digenean, except to A. compactum and C. marginatum. Prosorhynchoides carvajali is referred for the first time in Brazil.
Berenice Maria Musco Fernandes
Full Text Available Abstract This study presents the helminthofauna of digenean parasites of Acestrorhynchus falcirostris in the state of Amazonas (Brazil. Eight species belonging to four families were recovered: Metacercariae of Austrodiplostomum compactum (Diplostomidae and Clinostomum marginatum (Clinostomidae and mature specimens of Bellumcorpus majus, Prosorhynchoides carvajali, Rhipidocotyle santanaensis (Bucephalidae; Prosthenhystera obesa (Callodistomidae; Genarchella genarchella (Derogenidae and Phyllodistomum spatula (Gorgoderidae. Examining specimens belonging to the genus Bellumcorpus collected from A. falcirostris, were observed a great variation in the size and shape of testes, which also could be observed in the type specimens of Bellumcorpus majus and B. schubarti. Considering the similar morphology and morphometric characteristics of both species, in this paper B. schubarti is considered synonym of B. majus. Acestrorhynchus falcirostris is a new host records for all these species of digenean, except to A. compactum and C. marginatum. Prosorhynchoides carvajali is referred for the first time in Brazil.
Máca, Ondřej; Pavlásek, Ivan; Vorel, Aleš
Between March 2012 and April 2014, we performed post-mortem parasitological examinations of 11 Eurasian beavers (Castor fiber Linnaeus, 1758) from the basins of four main rivers (Dyje, Labe, Morava, Vltava) in the Czech Republic. The cause of death of five adult animals was unknown, three adult animals died after being hit by cars, while one young and one adult as a result of serious injuries and one juvenile male drowned. The trematode Stichorchis subtriquetrus (Rudolphi, 1814) Lühe, 1909 was only found in the caecum body and caecum apex of nine beavers (82%), with no significant differences in parasite intensity among beavers. The highest number of trematodes (271) occurred in an adult female in July 2013; while a range of 1-57 individuals were found in other positive beavers. S. subtriquetrus size in both parts of the caecum was 11.0-17.0 × 5.5-8.0 mm (mean 14.3 × 6.9 mm). Results demonstrated that for the optimal detection of eggs, it was necessary to examine at least 10 g of faeces with a new modified method of sedimentation. The size range of 30 eggs was 157.1-182.5 × 99.3-109.8 μm (mean 168.0 × 104.4 μm). There were no differences in prevalence and seasonal occurrence of S. subtriquetrus between male and female beavers. We did not find any other intestinal endoparasites or tissue parasites (Sarcocystis spp., Trichinella spp.).
Moravec, František; Justine, J.-L.
Roč. 100, č. 5 (2007), s. 1047-1051 ISSN 0932-0113 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA524/06/0170; GA MŠk LC522 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Stegodexamene * Anguilla * New Caledonia Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 1.512, year: 2007
Presswell, B.; Blasco-Costa, I.; Kostadinova, Aneta
Roč. 133, č. 5 (2014), s. 1641-1656 ISSN 0932-0113 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Maritrema * Microphallidae * taxonomy * phylogeny * New Zealand Subject RIV: EA - Cell Biology Impact factor: 2.098, year: 2014
Vázquez, A A; Lounnas, M; Sánchez, J; Alba, A; Milesi, A; Hurtrez-Boussès, S
In this study we present the first approach to exploration of the genetic diversity of Cuban Fasciola hepatica populations using microsatellite markers, coupled with observed prevalence in slaughterhouses. Nine populations of flukes recovered from cows and buffalos were studied in the central-western region of Cuba. The observed infection rates of definitive hosts (bovines) were 70-100% in most cases. An important amount of polymorphism was found in the four loci explored. However, no apparent genetic differences were found between populations from different provinces or bovine species. The absence of deviations from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium suggests a high rate of cross-fertilization between F. hepatica individuals. This result was confirmed when all multilocus genotypes were tested for clonal reproduction and only four individuals differed statistically (P sexCuba. Our findings should be taken into consideration by veterinary authorities to help mitigate fasciolosis transmission.
Full Text Available oline-lysine ... Digenea simplex ... Same as: E00161 Therapeutic category: 5100 ... Rhodomelaceae Digenea simplex algae Major component: Kainic acid [CPD:C12819] ... PubChem: 47208443 ...
Desenvolvimento de Eurytrema coelomaticum (Giard & Billet (Digenea, Dicrocoeliidae em Bradybaena similaris (Férussac (Gastropoda, Xanthonychidae Development of Eurytrema coelomaticum (Giard & Billet (Digenea, Dicrocoeliidae in Bradybaena similaris (Férussac (Gastropoda, Xanthonychidae
Solange Viana Paschoal Blanco Brandolini
Full Text Available To follow the larval developmenl of Eurytrema coelomaticum (Giard & Billet, 1892 in Bradybaena similaris (Férussac, 1821 snails were separated in three classes using the shell diameter: Class A (14.5-10.2 mm, Class B (10.1-6.9 mm and Class C (6.8-2.6 mm. Only snails belonging to classes A and B acquired the infection. Specimens of E. coelomaticum removed from the pancreatic ducts were exposed to three physiological solutions: Earle, Locke and saline 0.85%, to obtain eggs for the experimental infections, The Locke solution induced the best egg release. The route of migration the intramolluscan development of E. coelomaticum was studied with the aid of histology. The minimal period of intramolluscan developmenl, ending at the expelling of daughter sporocysts, was 107 days for the snails infected in March, and 79 days for the snails infected in November. The Student "t" test and the Chi-square test showed a significant difference (α = 5% between the two periods, although the mean temperature registered during the experiments did not significantly differed (α = 5%. The elimination of daughter sporocysts occurred through the snail's pneumostome, and always at night. Most sporocysts were eliminated at intervals that varied between one to three days, without regularity. The time of elimination of the daughter sporocysts was different for the two infection period studied: 12 weeks for the snails infected in March, and three weeks for those infected in November. Positive correlation between the number of sporocysts expelled by the snail host and higher temperatures registered in the laboratory was observed. This correlation was more evident in November infection.
Spirorchiids (Digenea: Spirorchiidae infecting a Hawksbill sea turtle Eretmochelys imbricata (Linnaeus 1758 from Brazil Spirorchiids (Digenea: Spirorchiidae infectando uma tartaruga marinha de pente Eretmochelys imbricata (Linnaeus 1758 no Brasil
Full Text Available The occurrence of Amphiorchis caborojoensis Fischthal & Acholonu 1976 and Carettacola stunkardi Martin & Bamberger 1952 in a young specimen of Hawksbill sea turtle Eretmochelys imbricata Linnaeus 1758 in Brazil was reported. Five A. caborojoensis trematodes were found in the small intestine (n=2 and liver (n=3, and two adult C. stunkardi specimens were collected from body wash. This is the first report of parasites of E. imbricata in Brazilian waters and Southwestern Atlantic Ocean and the second report of members of the Spirorchiidae family in that region. In addition, E. imbricata is a new host recorded for C. stunkardi.Relata-se a ocorrência de Amphiorchis caborojoensis Fischthal & Acholonu 1976 e Carettacola stunkardi Martin e Bamberger 1952, em um exemplar juvenil de tartaruga marinha de pente Eretmochelys imbricata Linnaeus 1758 no Brasil. Foram coletados cinco trematódeos da espécie A. caborojoensis, dois no intestino delgado e três no fígado e dois exemplares adultos de C. stunkardi no lavado corporal. Destes apenas a espécie A. caborojoensis já tinha sido relatada como parasita dessa espécie de quelônio marinho. Esta é a primeira descrição de parasitas em E. imbricata em águas brasileiras e na área do Atlântico Sul Ocidental, e o segundo relato de membros da família Spirorchiidae na mesma região.
The life cycle of Bucephalus margaritae Ozaki & Ishibashi, 1934 (Digenea, Bucephalidae from the coast of Santa Catarina State, Brazil = O ciclo de vida de Bucephalus margaritae Ozaki e Ishibashi, 1934 (Digenea, Bucephalidae da costa do Estado de Santa Catarina, Brasil
Natalia da Costa Marchiori
Full Text Available The orange disease is considered the main parasitosis in Perna perna mussel. It is caused by a complex life cycle bucephalid, involving three hosts, among them mollusks and fishes. With the aim of contributing to the knowledge of orange disease in mussel culture, the parasite life cycle was investigated. Experimental studies and monthly samples in the study area allowed the identification and characterization of the Bucephalus margaritae life cycle. Larvae and adults of B. margaritae were fixed in 5% formaldehyde, stained with Gomori’s trichrome, clarified in creosote and mounted in Canada balsam. The cercariae are found in the first intermediate host P. perna inside the sporocysts, which have the form of orange and ramified filaments. The metacercariae encysts in the gills and gill cavity of the second intermediate host, the blenniid Hypleurochilus fissicornis. The definitive host Menticirrhus americanus is infected ingesting blenniids parasitized with metacercariae. The high parasitological indexes of B. margaritae suggests that M. americanus and H. fissicornis act as the main definitive and intermediate hosts, respectively, in the trematode life cycle. The blenniid H. fissicornis is a new intermediate host to the species.A bucefalose é considerada a principal parasitose do mexilhão Perna perna. É causada por um Bucephalidae, de ciclo de vida complexo, envolvendo três hospedeiros, entre eles, moluscos e peixes. Com o objetivo de se contribuir para o conhecimento da bucefalose em mexilhões de cultivo, foi investigado o ciclo de vida deste parasito. Estudos experimentais e coletas mensais na área de estudo permitiram caracterizar o ciclo de vida de Bucephalus margaritae. Larvas e adultos do parasito foram fixados em formol 5%, corados com tricrômico de Gômori, clarificados em creosoto e montados em lâminas permanentes com bálsamo do Canadá. As cercárias ocorrem no primeiro hospedeiro intermediário P. perna, no interior dos esporocistos que têm a forma de filamentos ramificados e alaranjados. As metacercárias encistam nas brânquias e cavidade branquial do segundo hospedeiro intermediário, o blenídeo Hypleurochilus fissicornis. O hospedeiro definitivo, Menticirrhus americanus, é infectado quando ingere blenídeos com metacercárias. Os elevados índices parasitológicos de B. margaritae sugerem que M. americanus e H. fissicornis sejam os principais hospedeiros definitivo e intermediário, respectivamente, deste trematódeo. O blenídeo H. fissicornis é um novo hospedeiro intermediário para a espécie.
Aguirre-Macedo, M. L.; Scholz, Tomáš
Roč. 91, č. 6 (2005), s. 1379-1384 ISSN 0022-3395 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA6022404 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Trematoda * Haploporidae * taxonomy Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.524, year: 2005
Xavier,Vanessa Barreto; Oliveira-Menezes,Aleksandra; Santos,Marcos Antônio José dos; Amato,Suzana Bencke; Torres,Eduardo José Lopes; Pinheiro,Jairo; Brandolini,Solange Viana Paschoal Blanco
Paratanaisia bragai is a trematode parasite that reaches sexual maturity in the kidney collecting ducts of domesticated and wild fowl and whose intermediate hosts are the snails Subulina octona and Leptinaria unilamellata. There are some discrepancies in descriptions of the pathology of this parasite in bird kidneys. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to analyze the kidneys of rock pigeons (Columba livia) naturally infected and of chickens (Gallus gallus) experimentally infected with Pa...
Full Text Available Aim: Aim of the present study was to carry out the partial purification and biochemical characterization of glutathione S-transferase (GST from the somatic tissue of ruminal amphistome parasite, Gastrothylax crumenifer (Gc infecting Indian water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis. Materials and Methods: The crude somatic homogenate of Gc was subjected to progressive ammonium sulfate precipitation followed by size exclusion chromatography in a Sephacryl S 100-HR column. The partially purified GST was assayed spectrophotometrically, and the corresponding enzyme activity was also recorded in polyacrylamide gel. GST isolated from the amphistome parasite was also exposed to variable changes in temperature and the pH gradient of the assay mixture. Results: The precipitated amphistome GST molecules showed maximum activity in the sixth elution fraction. The GST subunit appeared as a single band in the reducing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis with an apparent molecular weight of 26 kDa. The GST proteins were found to be fairly stable up to 37°C, beyond this the activity got heavily impaired. Further, the GST obtained showed a pH optima of 7.5. Conclusion: Present findings showed that GST from Gc could be conveniently purified using gel filtration chromatography. The purified enzyme showed maximum stability and activity at 4°C.
Full Text Available Pleurogenoides medians, a digenean lecithodendriid trematode, parasitize numerous aquatic vertebrate species including frogs, freshwater fish, urodeles and anurans. In the present study, a total of 190 out of 300 (63.33% marsh frogs Rana Ridibunda were found to be infected with this digenean parasite. The highest percentage of infection was recorded in winter reaching 93.33%, and the lowest value was recorded to be 6.66% during summer. Prevalence and intensity of infection were positively correlated with the host size. Host sex showed no effect in this respect. Morphological studies based on light and scanning electron microscopy revealed that the adult worms characterized by small body size measured 1.980–2.430 (2.205 ± 0.1 mm long and 0.870–1.20 (9.87 ± 0.01 mm wide with spines of similar size distributed all over the body surface; oral sucker is sub-terminal and measured 0.180–0.230 (0.203 ± 0.01 mm long and 0.120–0.180 (0.150 ± 0.01 mm wide; ventral sucker is smaller than the oral sucker, post-ovarian located at 1/3 level from the anterior end and measured 0.080–0.102 (0.090 ± 0.001 mm long and 0.100–0140 (0.120 ± 0.001 mm wide; two symmetrical testes were located near the cecal termination on both sides of the ventral sucker, measured 0.153–0.193 (0.176 ± 0.01 mm long and 0.160–0.192 (0.175 ± 0.01 mm wide; pre-acetabular ovary was present and measured 0.130–0.150 (0.140 ± 0.01 mm long and 0.100–0.130 (0.120 ± 0.01 mm wide; vitellaria are extra-caecal and extended from the level of the pharynx to a level slightly beyond the ovary. By comparing the recovered parasite with different species of the same genus from different hosts having different localities, it was found that the present species morphometrically more or less different from the comparable species and the only similar species was P. medians described previously from the common toad Bufo bufo by having all similar characteristic features. In addition, the present study was considered as the first report for the occurrence of this lecithodendriid species infecting the marsh frog in Egypt.
Full Text Available We report the first evidence of natural infection of Lymnaea columella with Fasciola hepatica in Argentina. A sample of 601 snails was collected in May 2003 in northeastern Corrientes, a province bounded on the north by Paraguay, on the east by Brazil and on the southeast by Uruguay. Among 500 examined snails, 44 (8.8% were exclusively infected with F. hepatica. Parasite identification was based on morphological features of cercariae from snails, and of eggs and adult flukes from Wistar rats. We discuss the events suggesting that an enzootic transmission cycle of F. hepatica has been recently established in northeastern Corrientes.
Santoro, Mario; Tkach, Vasyl V; Mattiucci, Simonetta; Kinsella, John M; Nascetti, Giuseppe
Over the past decades, as a result of various human activities involving intentional or unintentional movement of animals, many helminth species have been introduced to new regions with several ecological and epidemiological implications for the native species. A high prevalence of infection with an introduced digenean Renifer aniarum, previously known only from North America, was found in the grass snake Natrix natrix in the Calabria region, southern Italy. Morphological and molecular comparison with North American R. aniarum has confirmed the identity of the Italian specimens. A total of 41 grass snakes were studied for R. aniarum infection. Of 24 snakes sampled between 2009 and 2010, 22 were positive for this parasite. In contrast, all 17 snakes sampled from museum collections between 1983 and 1994 were negative. Our results support the hypothesis that R. aniarum was perhaps introduced into this area during the 1990s by the translocation of the American bullfrog Lithobates (Rana) catesbeianus, a normal second intermediate host of the digenean in its native range in North America. Although the life cycle of R. aniarum is complex and includes 3 host stages, this parasite has found suitable first and second intermediate hosts as well as definitive hosts in Italy. Renifer aniarum was second only to the very common grass snake tapeworm Ophiotaenia europaea in both prevalence and abundance among 9 species of helminths recovered in our study.
Full Text Available The interface Eurytrema coelomaticum/Bradybaena similaris was studied by quantifying the amount of glucose on the hemolymph and the content of glycogen in the cells of the digestive gland and the cephalopedal mass of infected and uninfected snails. Samples were analyzed on days 0, 30, 90 and 150 post-infection. The infected snails had less glucose in the hemolymph, with a reduction of 67.05 por cento at 30 days, and 62.09 por cento at 90 days post-infection. The reduction in glycogen content was 86.41 por cento in the digestive gland and 79.1 por cento in the cephalopedal mass at 30 days, and 92.71 por cento and 90.89 por cento in these organs respectively at 90 days post-infection. It is proposed that the sporocysts absorb glucose directly from the hemolymph.
Vanessa Barreto Xavier
Full Text Available Paratanaisia bragai is a trematode parasite that reaches sexual maturity in the kidney collecting ducts of domesticated and wild fowl and whose intermediate hosts are the snails Subulina octona and Leptinaria unilamellata. There are some discrepancies in descriptions of the pathology of this parasite in bird kidneys. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to analyze the kidneys of rock pigeons (Columba livia naturally infected and of chickens (Gallus gallus experimentally infected with Paratanaisia bragai, by means of macroscopic observation and by light and scanning electron microscopy. Both bird species showed significantly dilated collecting ducts. In addition, lymphocyte infiltration was observed in the kidneys of C. livia and metaplasia in the epithelial lining of the kidney collecting ducts of G. gallus.
Medeiros, Camilla; Scholte, Ronaldo Guilherme Carvalho; D'ávila, Sthefane; Caldeira, Roberta Lima; Carvalho, Omar dos Santos
Snails of the family Lymnaeidae act as intermediate hosts in the biological cycle of Fasciola hepatica, which is a biological agent of fasciolosis, a parasitic disease of medical importance for humans and animals. The present work aimed to update and map the spatial distribution of the intermediate host snails of F. hepatica in Brazil. Data on the distribution of lymnaeids species were compiled from the Collection of Medical Malacology (Fiocruz-CMM, CPqRR), Collection of Malacology (MZUSP), “SpeciesLink” (CRIA) network and through systematic surveys in the literature. Our maps of the distribution of lymnaeids show that Pseudosuccinea columella is the most common species and it is widespread in the South and Southeast with few records in the Midwest, North and Northeast regions. The distribution of the Galba viatrix, G. cubensis and G. truncatula showed a few records in the South and Southeast regions, they were not reported for the Midwest, North and Northeast. In addition, in the South region there are a few records for G. viatrix and one occurrence of Lymnaea rupestris. Our findings resulted in the first map of the spatial distribution of Lymnaeidae species in Brazil which might be useful to better understand the fasciolosis distribution and delineate priority areas for control interventions. PMID:24879003
Background The present study aims to assess the epidemiological role of different lymnaeid snails as intermediate hosts of the liver fluke Fasciola hepatica in Belgium and Luxembourg. Methods During summer 2008, 7103 lymnaeid snails were collected from 125 ponds distributed in 5 clusters each including 25 ponds. Each cluster was located in a different biogeographic area of Belgium and Luxembourg. In addition, snails were also collected in sixteen other biotopes considered as temporary wet areas. These snails were identified as Galba truncatula (n = 2474) (the main intermediate host of F. hepatica in Europe) and Radix sp. (n = 4629). Moreover, several biological and non-biological variables were also recorded from the different biotopes. DNA was extracted from each snail collected using Chelex® technique. DNA samples were screened through a multiplex PCR that amplifies lymnaeid internal transcribed spacer 2 gene sequences (500–600 bp) (acting as an internal control) and a 124 bp fragment of repetitive DNA from Fasciola sp. Results Lymnaeid snails were found in 75 biotopes (53.2%). Thirty individuals of G. truncatula (1.31%) and 7 of Radix sp. (0.16%) were found to be positive for Fasciola sp. The seven positive Radix sp. snails all belonged to the species R. balthica (Linnaeus, 1758). Classification and regression tree analysis were performed in order to better understand links and relative importance of the different recorded factors. One of the best explanatory variables for the presence/absence of the different snail species seems to be the geographic location, whereas for the infection status of the snails no obvious relationship was linked to the presence of cattle. Conclusions Epidemiological implications of these findings and particularly the role of R. balthica as an alternative intermediate host in Belgium and Luxembourg were discussed. PMID:24524623
Hechinger, Ryan F; Miura, Osamu
This manuscript describes the daughter parthenitae (sporocysts) and cercariae of two species of renicolid xiphidiocercaria that infect the California horn snail, Cerithidea californica, which serves as first intermediate host for a diverse and ecologically important guild of digenean trematode parasitic castrators. The two species described here have previously been considered to be a single morphospecies in ecological and evolutionary research. We provide provisional species names to respect that digenean alpha taxonomy is currently focused on sexual (adult) stages, while simultaneously respecting the spirit and utility of formal nomenclature in providing unambiguously unique, species-level names that also clarify to the extent possible species' taxonomic affiliations. The first species, Renicola sp. "polychaetophila" is most readily distinguishable from previously described renicolid xiphidiocercariae by a combination of (1) having a penetration gland duct arrangement of 2[(1+3+1)+1], (2) having one pair of penetration glands positioned anteriorly to the main gland cluster, (3) lacking tegmental spines, and (4) infecting Cerithidea californica. The second species, Renicola sp. "martini", is most readily distinguishable from other renicolid xiphidiocercariae that also have tegmental spines by a combination of (1) having a simple, bullet-shaped oral stylet sclerotized for 50-80% of its length, (2) having a cystogenous-gland field with an anterior-most extent about half way between the oral and ventral suckers, and (3) in infecting Cerithidea californica. Phylogenetic analyses using DNA (COI and ITS1) sequence data support that these two trematodes represent distinct species of Renicola. We also (1) provide an emended diagnosis for renicolid cercariae, (2) highlight a few morphological characters that may be useful for future taxonomic work involving renicolid xiphidiocercariae, and (3) suggest that future descriptive work involving trematode parthenitae include more information pertaining to the group of parthenitae as a whole.
Xavier, Vanessa Barreto; Oliveira-Menezes, Aleksandra; dos Santos, Marcos Antônio José; Amato, Suzana Bencke; Torres, Eduardo José Lopes; Pinheiro, Jairo; Brandolini, Solange Viana Paschoal Blanco
Paratanaisia bragai is a trematode parasite that reaches sexual maturity in the kidney collecting ducts of domesticated and wild fowl and whose intermediate hosts are the snails Subulina octona and Leptinaria unilamellata. There are some discrepancies in descriptions of the pathology of this parasite in bird kidneys. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to analyze the kidneys of rock pigeons (Columba livia) naturally infected and of chickens (Gallus gallus) experimentally infected with Paratanaisia bragai, by means of macroscopic observation and by light and scanning electron microscopy. Both bird species showed significantly dilated collecting ducts. In addition, lymphocyte infiltration was observed in the kidneys of C. livia and metaplasia in the epithelial lining of the kidney collecting ducts of G. gallus.
Bonett, Ronald M; Steffen, Michael A; Trujano-Alvarez, Ana L; Martin, Samuel D; Bursey, Charles R; McAllister, Chris T
Land-use alterations can have profound influences on faunal distributions, including host-parasite relationships. Yellow grub trematodes ( Clinostomum spp.) have complex life cycles involving 3 hosts: a snail, a fish or amphibian, and a bird. Here, we analyze the distribution, prevalence, intensity, abundance, and genetic diversity of encysting metacercariae of Clinostomum spp. in salamanders and fishes throughout an aquatic system that includes a natural Ozark stream and man-made ponds. We found Clinostomum sp. infecting permanently aquatic Oklahoma salamanders ( Eurycea tynerensis ; 56% prevalence) and larval grotto salamanders ( Eurycea spelaea ) immediately downstream from a man-made pond. However, Clinostomum sp. did not infect any salamanders in the spring that supplies this pond, or in sections farther downstream (~0.5 and 2 km). Metacercariae of Clinostomum sp. were present in ~90% of introduced largemouth bass ( Micropterus salmoides ) in the man-made pond adjunct to the stream. Morphological examination and phylogenetic analyses based on the mitochondrial gene cytochrome oxidase 1 ( Co1 ) and the nuclear ribosomal gene 18S show that fishes and salamanders at this site are primarily infected with Clinostomum marginatum . There is a relatively high degree of mitochondrial haplotype diversity in C. marginatum at this site but no consistent genetic difference between parasites in largemouth bass from the man-made pond and those in salamanders from the stream. Based on the microgeographic distribution and relationships of metacercariae of C. marginatum at this site, we hypothesize that the adjunct man-made pond has created an ecological situation that brings the cercariae of this parasite into contact with novel stream salamander hosts.
Shylla, Jollin A; Ghatani, Sudeep; Tandon, Veena
Among the digenetic trematodes, paramphistomes are known to be the causative agent of "amphistomiasis" or the stomach fluke disease of domestic and wild animals, mainly ruminants. The use of 28S (divergent domains) and 18S rRNA for phylogenetic inference is significantly warranted for these flukes since it is as yet limited to merely the exploration of the second internal transcribed spacer (ITS2) region. The present study intended to explore the divergent domains (D1-D3) of 28S rRNA and simultaneously equate the phylogenetic information with 18S rRNA in paramphistomes. Divergence of the 28S rRNA domains was evident amongst the divergent (D) domains, where D1 domain emerged as the most variable and D2, the most robust domain, since the latter could provide a higher resolution of the species. D2 was the only domain that comprised compensatory mutations in the helices of its structural constraints; this domain is thus well suited for species distinction and may be considered a potential DNA barcode complementary to mitochondrial DNA. 28S (D1 + D2 + D3) rRNA provided a significant resolution of the taxa corroborating with the taxonomy of these flukes and thus proved to be more robust as a phylogenetic marker for lower levels than 18S rRNA. Phylogenetic inferences of paramphitomes are still scarcely explored; additional data from other taxa belonging to this family may estimate better the biodiversity of these flukes.
Blasco-Costa, Maria Isabel; Faltýnková, Anna; Georgieva, Simona; Skirnisson, K.; Scholz, Tomáš; Kostadinova, Aneta
Roč. 44, č. 10 (2014), s. 703-715 ISSN 0020-7519 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP505/10/1562; GA ČR GBP505/12/G112 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Integrative taxonomy * Fish pathogens * Diplostomum * coxl * ITS * Sub-Arctic Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 3.872, year: 2014
Full Text Available A new echinostome cercaria, Cercaria kuwaitae XI sp.n., from the prosobranch gastropod Cerithidea cingulata (Gmelin from Kuwait Bay is described. The new cercaria is characterized by 23 collar spines and primary excretory tubules with distinct diverticula. The cercaria encysts in the snail host and is similar to those of Acanthoparyphium sp. The surface topography of the redia, cercaria and metacercarial cyst wall is studied by scanning electron microscopy. This is the first echinostome cercaria to be recorded in a gastropod from the Arabian Gulf region.
Miquel, Jordi; Vilavella, Daniel; Świderski, Zdzisław; Shimalov, Vladimir V.; Torres, Jordi
The present work constitutes the first ultrastructural analysis of the spermatozoon in the Pleurogenidae, with the study of three species belonging to three of the 16 genera included in this family, namely Pleurogenes claviger, Pleurogenoides medians and Prosotocus confusus. The mature spermatozoa of these pleurogenids present two axonemes of the 9+“1” trepaxonematan pattern, a nucleus, two mitochondria, two bundles of parallel cortical microtubules, external ornamentation, spine-like bodies and granules of glycogen. The organization of these characters in the sperm cell is similar in the three species. Thus, the anterior spermatozoon extremity is filiform and a continuous and submembranous layer of parallel cortical microtubules surrounds the axonemes at their anterior end. The posterior spermatozoon extremity exhibits the second axoneme and corresponds to the Cryptogonimidean type of Quilichini et al. (2010). Slight differences were noted between the spermatozoon of P. confusus and those of the two remaining species in the location of mitochondria. PMID:23985167
Bakhoum, Abdoulaye J S; Sène, Aminata; Ndiaye, Papa Ibnou; Bâ, Cheikh Tidiane; Miquel, Jordi
Spermiogenesis in Robphildollfusium fractum begins with the formation of a differentiation zone containing: two centrioles, each bearing striated rootlets, nucleus, several mitochondria and an intercentriolar body constituted by seven electron-dense layers. The two centrioles originate two free flagella growing orthogonally to the median cytoplasmic process. Later, the free flagella rotate and undergo proximodistal fusion with the median cytoplasmic process. Nuclear and mitochondrial migrations occur before this proximodistal fusion. Finally, the young spermatozoon detaches from the residual cytoplasm after the constriction of the ring of arched membranes. The spermatozoon of R. fractum exhibits two axonemes of different length of the 9+'1' trepaxonematan pattern, nucleus, two mitochondria, two bundles of parallel cortical microtubules, external ornamentation of the plasma membrane, spine-like bodies and granules of glycogen. Additionally, a shorter axoneme, which does not reach the nuclear region, the presence of an electron-dense material in the anterior spermatozoon extremity and the morphologies of both spermatozoon extremities characterize the mature sperm of R. fractum. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier SAS.
Ibnou Ndiaye, Papa; Torres, Jordi; Eira, Catarina; Shimalov, Vladimir V; Miquel, Jordi
In the present paper, we describe the ultrastructure of the spermatozoon of the notocotylid Notocotylus noyeri (Joyeux, 1922) by means of transmission electron microscopy. The mature spermatozoon of N. noyeri exhibits the general pattern described in the majority of digeneans: two axonemes of the 9 + "1" pattern of the Trepaxonemata, nucleus, mitochondria, parallel cortical microtubules, spine-like bodies and ornamentation of the plasma membrane. The glycogenic nature of the electron-dense granules was evidenced applying the test of Thiéry. The ultrastructural features of the spermatozoon of N. noyeri present some differences in relation to those of the Pronocephalidea described until now, but confirm a general pattern for the Notocotylidae, namely a spermatozoon with two mitochondria and an anterior region with ornamentation of the plasma membrane associated with spine-like bodies. The posterior extremity of the spermatozoon exhibits only some microtubules after the disorganisation of the second axoneme. The present study confirms that some ultrastructural characters of the sperm cell such as the presence or absence of lateral expansions, the number of mitochondria and the morphology of both anterior and posterior spermatozoon extremities are useful for phylogenetic purposes within the Pronocephaloidea. Thus, unlike notocotylids, pronocephalids exhibit external ornamentation and a lateral expansion in the anterior spermatozoon region. Moreover, notocotylid spermatozoa present two mitochondria, whereas pronocephalid spermatozoa exhibit a single mitochondrion. Finally, pronocephalids are characterised by a type 2 posterior spermatozoon extremity, whereas notocotylids exhibit a type 3 posterior spermatozoon extremity.
Diagne, P M; Quilichini, Y; Bâ, C T; Ndiaye, P I; Dione, A; Marchand, B
The mature Helicometroides atlanticus spermatozoon exhibits an anterior electron-dense material, two axonemes of the 9+"1" pattern, a nucleus, two mitochondria, extramembranous ornamentations located at the level of the first mitochondrion and cortical microtubules arranged into two fields: a ventral field corresponding to the mitochondrial side and a dorsal field corresponding to the nuclear side. It lacks of spine-like body and a cytoplasmic expansion as in Monorchis parvus the only species of Monorchioidea which spermatozoon has been described until now. Nevertheless, it is distinguished from M. parvus by the presence of an anterior electron-dense material and two axonemes which appear one after the other. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Georgieva, Simona; Faltýnková, Anna; Brown, Rebecca; Blasco-Costa, Isabel; Soldánová, Miroslava; Sitko, Jiljí; Scholz, Tomáš; Kostadinova, Aneta
The systematics of echinostomes within the so-called 'revolutum' group of the genus Echinostoma, which encompasses the type-species E. revolutum and a number of morphologically similar species, has long been controversial. Recent molecular studies indicate the existence of more species than previously considered valid, thus stressing the need for wider taxon sampling from natural host populations. This is especially true for Europe where morphological evidence indicates higher species diversity than previously thought, but where molecular data are virtually lacking. This gap in our knowledge was addressed in the present study through an integration of morphological and molecular approaches in the investigation of a dataset with larger taxonomic and geographical coverage. More than 20,000 freshwater snails belonging to 16 species were collected during 1998-2012 from various localities in eight countries in Europe. Snail screening provided representative larval isolates for five species of the 'revolutum' group, identified by their morphology. Adult isolates for four species recovered from natural and experimental infections were also identified. Partial fragments of the mitochondrial nad1 and 28S rRNA genes were amplified for 74 and 16 isolates, respectively; these were analysed together with the sequences of Echinostoma spp. available on GenBank. Delineation of the European Echinostoma spp. was carried out based on molecular, morphological and ecological data. The large-scale screening revealed infections with five Echinostoma spp., including one new species: E. revolutum (sensu stricto), E. miyagawai, E. paraulum, E. bolschewense and Echinostoma n. sp. The newly-generated nad1 sequences from Europe fall into six distinct, well-supported, reciprocally monophyletic lineages corresponding to the species identifications based on morphology; this was corroborated by the 28S rDNA sequences. The analyses of the total nad1 dataset provided evidence for 12 monophyletic groups and five singletons, which represent seven described/named species and ten cryptic species-level lineages of Echinostoma. We conclude that nad1 should be the first choice for large-scale barcode-based identification of the species of the 'revolutum' group. Our study provides a comprehensive reference library for precisely identified isolates of the European species and highlights the importance of an integrative approach for species identification linking molecular, morphological and biological data.
Born-Torrijos, A.; Kostadinova, Aneta; Raga, J. A.; Holzer, Astrid S.
Roč. 61, č. 3 (2012), s. 450-460 ISSN 1383-5769 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP505/10/1562; GA ČR GBP505/12/G112 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : ITS rDNA * 28S rDNA * morphology * Life-cycle * Opecoelidae * Cainocreadium labracis * Macvicaria obovata * Gibbula adansonii * Western Mediterranean Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 2.302, year: 2012
Bray, Rodney A; Palm, Harry W; Cutmore, Scott C; Cribb, Thomas H
Three species of Opisthomonorcheides Parukhin, 1966 are reported for the first time from Indonesian waters: O. pampi (Wang, 1982) Liu, Peng, Gao, Fu, Wu, Lu, Gao & Xiao, 2010 and O. ovacutus (Mamaev, 1970) Machida, 2011 from Parastromateus niger (Bloch), and O. decapteri Parukhin, 1966 from Atule mate (Cuvier). Both O. pampi and O. ovacutus can now be considered widespread in the Indo-Pacific region, with earlier records of these species being from Fujian Province, China and Penang, Malaysia, respectively. We redescribe O. decapteri from one of its original hosts, Atule mate, off New Caledonia, and report this species from Jakarta Bay, Indonesia, extending its range throughout the Indian Ocean into the south-western Pacific. All three species possess a genital atrium that is long, sometimes very long, and a genital pore that is located in the forebody. This validates the interpretation that the original description was erroneous in reporting the genital pore in the hindbody, well posterior to the ventral sucker. These observations verify the synonymy of Retractomonorchis Madhavi, 1977 with Opisthomonorcheides. A major discrepancy between the species of Opisthomonorcheides is that some are described with the uterus entering the terminal organ laterally and some with it entering terminally; this feature needs further analysis. Based on the length of the genital atrium and the posterior extent of the vitellarium, the 27 species of Opisthomonorcheides considered valid can be divided into four groups. Among the 53 host records analysed, the families Carangidae (53% of records), Stromateidae (17%) and Serranidae (5.7%) are the most common; the reports are overwhelmingly from members of the Perciformes (91%), with further records in the Clupeiformes (5.7%), Gadiformes (1.9%) and Pleuronectiformes (1.9%). Two fish genera (Parastromateus Bleeker and Pampus Bonaparte) dominate the recorded hosts, with the black pomfret Parastromateus niger harbouring six species, the silver pomfret Pampus argenteus (Euphrasen) harbouring six, and the Chinese silver pomfret P. chinensis (Euphrasen) two. A host-parasite checklist is presented. We discuss the host-specificity of members of the genus, questioning some records such as that of O. decapteri in a deep-sea macrourid. We also comment on the morphological similarity, but phylogenetic distance, between the various Pomfret species, advancing the possibility that a series of host misidentifications has occurred. Sequences of the ITS2 rDNA gene generated for O. pampi and O. ovacutus are briefly discussed and molecular data are lodged in the GenBank database.
The first parasitological examinations of Atlantic bluefin tuna Thunnus thynnus thynnus reared in the Adriatic Sea revealed high numbers of different digenean trematodes, belonging to family Didymozoidae. Five species were the most frequently isolated: Coeliodidymocystis, abdominalis, Didymocystis wedli, Koellikerioides internogastricus, K. intestinalis and K. apicalis. Parasites were isolated from gills, gill rakers, intestine, serosa of pyloric caeca, and inner layers of the fundic region of stomach, encysted in pairs in connective tissue capsules originating from host tissue. Gross pathology revealed no pathological changes. Histological alterations comprised tissue reaction resulting in lymphocyte infiltration and formation of a collagenous envelope around the parasite cysts; the intensity of observed reaction depended on the size of the cyst and on the tissue infected. The most notable changes were observed in the intestine under provocation by K. intestinalis, while the most potentially pathogenic didymozoid under fish rearing conditions is D. wedli, which if present in high abundance can induce secondary bacterial infections.
Georgieva, Simona; Faltýnková, Anna; Brown, Rebecca; Blasco-Costa, Maria Isabel; Soldánová, Miroslava; Sitko, J.; Scholz, Tomáš; Kostadinova, Aneta
Roč. 7, NOV 27 2014 (2014), s. 520 ISSN 1756-3305 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP505/10/1562; GA ČR GBP505/12/G112 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Echinostoma 'revolutum' species complex * Molecular and morphological data * nad1 * 28S rDNA * Europe Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 3.430, year: 2014
Santoro, Mario; Cipriani, Paolo; Pankov, Plamen; Lawton, Scott P
Aporocotyle michaudi n. sp. is described from the gill blood vessels of the emerald rock cod Trematomus bernacchii in the Ross Sea, Antarctica. It is distinguished from all other species of Aporocotyle by its body tegument showing single conical spines, spinous buccal capsule, and genital atrium positioned medially; all congeners described to date are characterized by clusters of tegumental spines, unspined buccal capsule and genital atrium located in the lateral part of the body. Aporocotyle michaudi n. sp. clearly differs from A. notothenia (the only other species of Aporocotyle found in a perciform fish) in its shape and arrangement of tegumental spines, buccal capsule features, location of genital atrium, body size, ratio of esophagus/body length, anterior caeca/posterior caeca ratio, number of testes, cirrus sac and ovary size and shape, and host. The new species is easily distinguished from A. argentinensis (the species that most closely resembles A. michaudi) by the shape and arrangement of tegumental spines, buccal capsule features, genital atrium location, left anterior caecum longer than right, esophagus/body length ratio, number of testes, cirrus sac size and shape, host and molecular analyses. Phylogenetic analyses of partial 28S rDNA genetic data showed that sequences representing the new species form a distinct clade with all other sequences for species of Aporocotyle and appear basal within the genus. Aporocotyle michaudi n. sp. represents the only species of genus described in Antarctica. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Hernández-Orts, J.S.; Pinacho-Pinacho, C.D.; García-Varela, M.; Kostadinova, Aneta
Roč. 115, č. 2 (2016), s. 547-559 ISSN 0932-0113 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP506/12/1632 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Maritrema * Eudocimus albus * Microphallidae * 28S rDNA * phylogeny * North America Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 2.329, year: 2016
Kudlai, Olena; Pulis, E.E.; Kostadinova, Aneta; Tkach, V.V.
Roč. 93, č. 4 (2016), s. 307-319 ISSN 0165-5752 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP505/12/G112 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : sequences * Platyhelminthes * morphology Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 1.181, year: 2016
Full Text Available Snails of the family Lymnaeidae act as intermediate hosts in the biological cycle of Fasciola hepatica, which is a biological agent of fasciolosis, a parasitic disease of medical importance for humans and animals. The present work aimed to update and map the spatial distribution of the intermediate host snails of F. hepatica in Brazil. Data on the distribution of lymnaeids species were compiled from the Collection of Medical Malacology (Fiocruz-CMM, CPqRR, Collection of Malacology (MZUSP, “SpeciesLink” (CRIA network and through systematic surveys in the literature. Our maps of the distribution of lymnaeids show that Pseudosuccinea columella is the most common species and it is widespread in the South and Southeast with few records in the Midwest, North and Northeast regions. The distribution of the Galba viatrix, G. cubensis and G. truncatula showed a few records in the South and Southeast regions, they were not reported for the Midwest, North and Northeast. In addition, in the South region there are a few records for G. viatrix and one occurrence of Lymnaea rupestris. Our findings resulted in the first map of the spatial distribution of Lymnaeidae species in Brazil which might be useful to better understand the fasciolosis distribution and delineate priority areas for control interventions.
Full Text Available The effect of exposing the lymnaeid snail Fossaria cubensis to the trematode Fasciola hepatica on the snail population's life-history traits was studied under laboratory conditions. Exposed individuals showed a lower survival rate than control snails, although from week 7 onward a slower decrease of this parameter in relation to the control group was observed. There were higher values of fecundity rate for the controls compared to the exposed group except during weeks 9, 10, 11 and 12, which was the time that followed the period when almost all of the infected snails died. Both the intrinsic and finite rates of natural increase were significantly higher for the control group, but exposed snails still attained a lower mean generation time. Age-specific trade-offs were found, mainly for the weekly increase in size versus the number of eggs per mass, the weekly increase in size versus the number of viable eggs per mass, the number of masses versus the hatching probability and the number of eggs versus the hatching probability. All these negative associations were significant for juveniles of both control and exposed snails and not for adults; however, exposed young individuals exhibited much higher values of the correlation coefficient than control animals.
Chibwana, F.D.; Blasco-Costa, Maria Isabel; Georgieva, Simona; Hosea, K.M.; Nkwengulila, G.; Scholz, Tomáš; Kostadinova, Aneta
Roč. 17, JUL 2013 (2013), s. 62-70 ISSN 1567-1348 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP505/12/G112 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 252124 - PARAPOPGENE Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Tylodelphys spp. * Diplostomum spp. * Clarias gariepinus * Synodontis nigrita * Tanzania * Africa Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.264, year: 2013
Georgieva, Simona; Selbach, C.; Faltýnková, Anna; Soldánová, Miroslava; Sures, B.; Skirnisson, K.; Kostadinova, Aneta
Roč. 6, č. 64 (2013) ISSN 1756-3305 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP505/10/1562 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Radix auricularia * Radix peregra * Stagnicola palustris * Echinostoma * Cryptic species * Europe Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.251, year: 2013
Blasco-Costa, I.; Gibson, D. I.; Balbuena, J. A.; Raga, J. A.; Kostadinova, Aneta
Roč. 73, č. 2 (2009), s. 107-133 ISSN 0165-5752 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC522 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : taxonomic revision * Haploporidae * Haploporus * Lecithobothrys * Mugilidae Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 0.911, year: 2009
Sohn, Woon-Mok; Na, Byoung-Kuk; Cho, Shin-Hyeong; Lee, Won-Ja; Park, Mi-Yeoun; Lee, Soon-Won; Choi, Seung-Bong; Huh, Beom-Nyung; Seok, Won-Seok
To know the infection status of zoonotic trematode metacercariae in brackish water fish, we surveyed mullets collected from 18 coastal areas in the Republic of Korea. The metacercariae of Pygidiopsis summa were detected in 236 (68.2%) out of 346 mullets examined. They were found in mullets from 15 areas except for those from Boseong-gun (Jeollanam-do), Pohang-si, and Uljin-gun (Gyeongsangbuk-do). Especially in mullets from Taean-gun (Chungcheongnam-do) and Geoje-si (Gyeongsangnam-do), their prevalences were 100% and 95.5%, and the average metacercarial density was more than 1,000 per fish. They were also detected in mullets from 3 coastal lakes, Gyeongpoho, Songjiho, and Hwajinpoho, in Gangwon-do, and their average densities were 419, 147, and 672 per infected fish, respectively. The metacercariae of 5 other heterophyid species, including Heterophyes nocens, Heterophyopsis continua, Metagonimus sp., Stictodora fuscata, and Stictodora lari, were found in the mullets examined. The metacercariae of H. nocens were detected in 66.7, 100, 28.6, 81.6, 3.9, 61.5, and 27.3% of mullets from Muan-gun, Shinan-gun, Haenam-gun, Gangjin-gun, and Boseong-gun (Jeollanam-do), Hadong-gun, and Geoje-si (Gyeongsangnam-do), and their metacercarial intensities were 64, 84, 119, 99, 1, 24, and 24 per fish infected, respectively. From the above results, it has been confirmed that P. summa metacercariae are heavily infected in mullets from coastal areas of Korea. It is suggested that residents who frequently consume raw mullet dish can be easily infected with heterophyid flukes.
Greben О. B.
Full Text Available Morphological and molecular data on the type-species of Chaunocephalus Dietz, 1910, Chaunocephalus ferox (Rudolphi, 1795 is provided based on material collected from the type-host, Ciconia nigra (Linnaeus, from Kiev Zoo, Ukraine.
Roč. 50, č. 1 (2005), s. 49-55 ISSN 1230-2821 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA6022404; GA ČR GD524/03/H133 Grant - others:FRVŠ FRVŠ 1054/2004 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Trematoda * cercariae * Mollusca Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.617, year: 2005
Ondračková, Markéta; Reichard, Martin; Jurajda, Pavel; Gelnar, M.
Roč. 93, č. 2 (2004), s. 131-136 ISSN 0932-0113 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA524/02/0924 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6093917 Keywords : black-spot disease * juvenile fish Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.060, year: 2004
Georgieva, Simona; Kostadinova, Aneta; Skirnisson, K.
Roč. 82, č. 3 (2012), s. 177-183 ISSN 0165-5752 R&D Project s: GA ČR GAP505/10/1562; GA ČR GD206/09/H026 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : TREMATODA * GENES * DNA Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 1.260, year: 2012 http://link.springer.com/content/pdf/10.1007%2Fs11230-012-9354-y
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the morphology of the species Sticholecitha serpentis Prudhoe, 1949 by means of histological procedures. Helminths were previously fixed in Railliet & Henry solution, uncompressed and were included in 2-hydroxyethyl-methacrylate. Longitudinal and transverse serial sections with a 4-mum thickness were performed in a microtome (Leica RM 2165, stained with haematoxylin-eosin and then analyzed in a computerized image analysis system (Qwin Lite 2.5, Leica. Structures of systematic value, such as oral sucker, acetabulum, prepharynx, pharynx, esophagus, intestinal caeca, vitelline glands, ovary, uterus, cirrus pouch and testicles were described. Structures that were poorly visible in total preparations were also observed and described, such as efferent ducts, ejaculatory duct, prostate, seminal vesicle, seminal receptacle, Laurer’s channel, Mehlis’ gland, vitelline ducts, metraterm, genital atrium, digestive glands and excretory vesicle. We demonstrated that histological analysis can supply important data regarding the morphological characterization of S. serpentis and will be able to contribute to systematic studies of trematodes.
Kudlai, Olena; Oros, M.; Kostadinova, Aneta; Georgieva, Simona
Roč. 10, 2 December (2017), č. článku 592. ISSN 1756-3305 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-14198S; GA ČR(CZ) GBP505/12/G112 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Diplostomum * Diplostomidae * Metacercariae * Freshwater fish es * Barcodes * cox1 * nad3 * River Danube * Europe Subject RIV: EG - Zoology OBOR OECD: Zoology Impact factor: 3.080, year: 2016
Angelika Anna Linowska
Full Text Available Paracoenogonimus ovatus is the parasite that infest wide definitive host range (predator birds and at least two intermediate hosts: molluscs (Viviparus viviparus, V. fasciatus and freshwater fish from eastern and central Europe. The larvae of the parasite (metacercariae go to the muscle and connective tissue, and at high intensity of infection to the internal organs and brain of fish. A total of 128 fishes were caught in autumn 2009 and 2014, by fishing boats operating in Lake Dąbie, which is one of the largest lakes in Poland. The species selected reflect the species structure of commercial and recreational catches. They were roach, bream, silver bream, crucian carp (Cyprinidae, ruffe, perch, zander (Percidae and pike (Esocidae. The fish were filleted, and the skinned muscle was compressed under a trichinoscope, what allowed to see and count metacercariae in the tissues. To facilitate parasite isolation from the cysts, the muscle tissues were subjected to a 0.1 % solution of activated pepsin and 5 % citric acid at a temperature of 20ºC. The free larvae were measured and identified under an Olympus BX 50 microscope coupled with a camera running AxioVs40 V 188.8.131.52 software. Metacercariae are grouped primarily at depths ranging from just beneath the skin to about 50% of fillet thickness. The infection prevalence of P. ovatus metacercariae in the fish analyzed was 78,5%. The density of infection per gram of muscle tissue mass in the fish infected was 8.85 (from 1 to 84 metacercariae. The highest density was noted in roach, bream and white bream (17.09, 11.14 and 9.58, respectively. Metacercariae occurred singly in pike, parasites were not found in the muscles of crucian carp, ruffe, and perch examined. The reason for such differences in infection is the availability and composition of food, as well as the behavior of the fish examined.
Blasco-Costa, Isabel; Faltýnková, Anna; Georgieva, Simona; Skírnisson, Karl; Scholz, Tomáš; Kostadinova, Aneta
Host-parasite systems at high latitudes are promising model systems for detecting and predicting the impact of accelerated environmental change. A major challenge is the lack of baselines for the diversity and distribution of parasites in Arctic wildlife, especially in the freshwater environment. Here we present the first known estimates of the species diversity and host associations of Diplostomum spp. in sub-Arctic freshwater ecosystems of the Palaearctic. Our analyses integrating different analytical approaches, phylogenies based on mitochondrial and nuclear DNA, estimates of genetic divergence, character-based barcoding, morphological examination, precise detection of microhabitat specialisation and host use, led to the discovery of one described and five putative new species that complete their life-cycles within a fairly narrow geographic area in Iceland. This increases the species richness of Diplostomum in Iceland by 200% and raises the number of molecularly characterised species from the Palaearctic to 17 species. Our results suggest that the diversity of Diplostomum spp. is underestimated globally in the high latitude ecosystems and call for a cautionary approach to pathogen identification in developing the much needed baselines of pathogen diversity that may help detect effects of climate change in the freshwater environment of the sub-Arctic. Copyright © 2014 Australian Society for Parasitology Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Seck, Momar Talla; Marchand, Bernard; Bâ, Cheikh Tidiane
The ultrastructural study of spermiogenesis and the spermatozoon of Paramphistomum microbothrium gave evidence of some characteristics of this digenean. The intercentriolar body located between two striated roots and two centrioles exhibits a symmetric plane. The two external bands of this intercentriolar body are made up of a line of granules. The striated roots are about 3.7 microm long. During spermiogenesis, a flagellar rotation of 90 degrees is described. The spermatozoon is characterized in its anterior part by the existence of external ornamentations and a lateral expansion exhibiting a "spine-like body". Such a spine-like body has never been described before in a digenean. The region II of the spermatozoon is asymmetrical and also characterized by the absence of mitochondrion. The posterior end of this spermatozoon exhibits a nucleus and a few microtubules.
Seck, Momar Talla; Marchand, Bernard; Bâ, Cheikh Tidiane
The ultrastructural study of spermiogenesis and the spermatozoon of Paramphistomum microbothrium gave evidence of some characteristics of this digenean. The intercentriolar body located between two striated roots and two centrioles exhibits a symmetric plane. The two external bands of this intercentriolar body are made up of a line of granules. The striated roots are about 3.7-microm long. During spermiogenesis, a flagellar rotation of 90 degrees is described. The spermatozoon is characterized in its anterior part by the existence of external ornamentations and a lateral expansion exhibiting a "spine-like body." Such a spine-like body has never been described before in a digenean. The region II of the spermatozoon is asymmetrical and also characterized by the absence of mitochondrion. The posterior end of this spermatozoon exhibits a nucleus and a few microtubules.
Diaz, Pablo E; Bray, Rodney A; Cutmore, Scott C; Ward, Selina; Cribb, Thomas H
A total of 1523 individuals of 34 species of chaetodontids from the Great Barrier Reef were examined for faustulid trematodes. Specimens resembling Paradiscogaster glebulae Bray, Cribb & Barker, 1994 were found in nine chaetodontid species at three localities. These specimens are shown, on the basis of combined morphological and molecular analyses, to comprise a complex of morphologically similar and partly cryptic species. The complex may comprise as many as six distinct species of which three are resolved here. The true P. glebulae is identified in Chaetodon ornatissimus Cuvier, 1831, Chaetodon aureofasciatus Macleay, 1878, Chaetodon plebeius Cuvier, 1831, Chaetodon rainfordi McCulloch, 1923 and Chaetodon speculum Cuvier, 1831. Two new species are described, Paradiscogaster munozae n. sp. from Heniochus varius (Cuvier, 1829), Heniochus chrysostomus Cuvier, 1831 and Chaetodon citrinellus Cuvier, 1831 and Paradiscogaster melendezi n. sp. from Chaetodon kleinii Bloch, 1790. In terms of morphology the three species differ most clearly in the development of the appendages on the ventral sucker. The three species differ at 3-6consistent bp of ITS2 rDNA. The host-specificity of the three species differs strikingly. P. melendezi n. sp. infects just one fish species, P. glebulae infects species of only one clade of Chaetodon, and P. munozae n. sp. infects quite unrelated species. The basis of this unusual pattern of host-specificity requires further exploration. Two of the species recognised here, P. glebulae and P. munozae n. sp., showed apparent intra-individual variation in the ITS2 rDNA sequences as demonstrated by clear, replicated double peaks in the electropherograms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Huston, D C; Cutmore, S C; Cribb, T H
We describe Isorchis cannoni n. sp. from the rabbitfishes Siganus fuscescens (Houttuyn) and Siganus lineatus (Valenciennes) (Siganidae) collected off Heron Island, southern Great Barrier Reef, Australia and, using molecular data, demonstrate that 'Cercariae queenslandae II' of Cannon (1978) from the gastropod Clypeomorus batillariaeformis Habe & Kosuge (Cerithiidae) is the larval form of this new species. The cercariae of I. cannoni n. sp. develop in rediae, encyst in the environment after emergence, and are inferred to then be consumed by grazing rabbitfish. Additionally, we provide a new report of Isorchis currani Andres, Pulis & Overstreet, 2016 from the type host, Selenotoca multifasciata (Richardson) (Scatophagidae) collected in Moreton Bay, south-east Queensland, Australia, greatly expanding the known geographical range of this species. Molecular sequence data (ITS1, ITS2 and 28S rDNA) generated for I. cannoni n. sp. and the new specimens of I. currani, confirm the identification of I. currani and demonstrate a distinct genotype for I. cannoni n. sp. relative to other species of Isorchis Durio & Manter, 1969, for which molecular data are available. Isorchis cannoni n. sp. is morphologically distinct from all other species in the genus, and is further distinguished by utilizing species of Siganidae as definitive hosts, rather than species of Chanidae or Scatophagidae. Because haploporid and atractotrematid cercariae have well-developed reproductive organs, we find cercariae of these closely related families morphologically distinguishable in the same way as adult trematodes: atractotrematids have two symmetrical testes and haploporids have a single testis or, rarely, two tandem or oblique testes.
McNamara, M K A; Cribb, T H
Five new and five previously described species of Hurleytrematoides are reported from 19 of 34 chaetodontid species examined from the Great Barrier Reef; new species are H. faliexae n. sp., H. galzini n. sp., H. loi n. sp., H. morandi n. sp., and H. sasali n. sp. Previously described species are H. coronatum, H. fijiensis, H. prevoti, H. bartolii, and H. zebrasomae. The genus is rediagnosed in the light of morphological variation of the new species; the degree of spination and shape of the terminal genitalia distinguish individual species. Species of Hurleytrematoides infect almost every clade of the family Chaetodontidae found on the Great Barrier Reef, but obligate corallivores are not infected. All ten species were found at Heron Island on the southern Great Barrier Reef, but only six at Lizard Island on the northern Great Barrier Reef. For three of the four species not present at Lizard Island, the absence appears to be statistically significant. Although all species are apparently restricted to chaetodontids on the GBR, specificity within the family varies from oioxenous to euryxenous; a core/satellite host paradigm explains the distribution of several species. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Tulp, Ingrid; MCCHESNEY, S; DEGOEIJ, P
Migratory activity of waders departing from north-western Australia in March-April 1991 was recorded by field observations and radar tracking. Field observations showed that the species concerned were mainly Bar-tailed Godwit Limosa lapponica, Grey Plover Pluvialis squatarola and Great Knot Calidris
Sanguinicola platyrhynchi n. sp. (Digenea: Sanguinicolidae parasite of visceral cavity of Hemisorubim platyrhynchos (Valenciennes, 1840 (Pisces: Pimelodidae from the floodplain of the upper Paraná River, Brazil
GUIDELLI G. M.
Full Text Available A new species is of the genus Sanguinicola Plehn, 1905 described, Sanguinicola platyrhynchi n. sp., digenetic parasite of visceral cavity of Hemisorubim platyrhynchos (Valenciennes, 1840 from the floodplain of the upper Paraná River, Brazil. The species has been thus included because of the presence of separate dorsal genital pores, while differing from other species of the same genus mainly in digestive apparatus features, genital pore position, and infection site. Emendation of generic diagnosis is included.
Full Text Available Rhipidocotyle gibsoni n.sp. is described from Acestrorhynchus lacustris from Paraná River, brazil. It is most closely related to r. froesi n. sp. and to R. eckmanni in the shape of the cephalic hood, differing in the extent of the uterus, in the position of the vitelline follicles and in that the host is a freshwater fish. Rhipidocotyle froesi n. sp. is proposed for the marine specimens described by Eckmann (1932 as R. baculum (Linton, 1905.
Southernmost finding of Lymnaea viatrix orbigny, 1835 (Pulmonata: Lymnaeidae, intermediate host of Fasciola hepatica (Linnaeus, 1758 (Trematoda: Digenea, in urban and rural areas of Patagonia, Argentina
Full Text Available We report the first finding of Lymnaea viatrix south of parallel 41ºS, in rural and urban areas from Argentina. Ninety snails were collected during year 2000, from a concrete pond at a Public Square in El Bolsón Village, Río Negro province, and 811 snails in November 1999, and during 2000 from waterbodies within a farm at Cholila locality, Chubut province. Fasciola hepatica infection was detected in 0.9% snails from the rural area. We discuss the potential risk of L. viatrix to public health in urban areas and its epidemiological importance in rural areas of the Andean Patagonian region.
Pornruseetairatn, S.; Kino, H.; Shimazu, T.; Nawa, Y.; Scholz, Tomáš; Ruangsittichai, J.; Saralamba, N.T.; Thaenkham, U.
Roč. 115, č. 3 (2016), s. 1123-1130 ISSN 0932-0113 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Metagonimus * 28S rDNA * cox1 * ITS2 * interrelations * morphology * incongruence Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.329, year: 2016
Morfologia externa de espécimes adultos de Paratanaisia bragai (Santos, 1934) (Digenea: Eucotylidae) External morphology of the adults specimens of Paratanaisia bragai (Santos, 1934)(Diginea; Eucotylidae)
Solange V.P.B. Brandolini; Suzana B. Amato
Espécimes adultos de Paratanaisia bragai foram coletados de ductos renais de Columba livia infectados naturalmente, fixados em glutaraldeído 2,5% e processados para microscopia eletrônica de varredura. Foram identificados dois tipos distintos de escamas, escamas bífidas e simples, dispostas em fileiras transversais no tegumento das faces dorsal e ventral do corpo. Também mostrando em detalhes a ventosa oral subterminal, bem desenvolvida e acetábulo de tamanho reduzido, localizado no terço méd...
Doanh, P N; Thaenkham, U; An, P T; Hien, H V; Horii, Y; Nawa, Y
Paragonimus heterotremus, which is an important pathogen for human paragonimiasis in Asia, is recognized as having the smallest metacercariae (maximum diameter Paragonimus species. Recently, P. pseudoheterotremus has been described from Thailand as a new species having metacercariae (about 200 μm) slightly smaller than those of Thai P. heterotremus. In fact, the small size of P. pseudoheterotremus metacercariae is compatible with those of P. heterotremus from India and China. In this study in Vietnam, we found variably sized small metacercariae which are expected to consist of both P. heterotremus and P. pseudoheterotremus. Contrary to expectation, the adult flukes obtained by separate infection of experimental cats with different sized metacercariae were all identified as P. heterotremus, using both morphological and molecular characteristics. The molecular analyses of an extensive collection of P. heterotremus/P. pseudoheterotremus isolates from Asian countries also indicated that genetic distances between different populations of P. heterotremus are even larger than that between P. pseudoheterotremus and P. heterotremus. The haplotype network showed that all P. heterotremus and P. pseudoheterotremus isolates formed a P. heterotremus complex consisting of three groups with strong geographical origins. In addition, the Indian P. heterotremus group is the root of the other P. heterotremus and P. pseudoheterotremus populations. Based on the observed metacercarial polymorphisms and genetic variation in P. heterotremus, P. pseudoheterotremus should be considered a geographically isolated population of the P. heterotremus complex.
Prasad, Pramod Kumar; Tandon, Veena; Biswal, Devendra Kumar; Goswami, Lalit Mohan; Chatterjee, Anupam
Most phylogenetic studies using current methods have focused on primary DNA sequence information. However, RNA secondary structures are particularly useful in systematics because they include characteristics that give "morphological" information, not found in the primary sequence. In several mountainous regions of Northeastern India, foci of Paragonimus (lung fluke) infection reportedly involve species that are known to prevail in neighbouring countries. The present study was undertaken to demonstrate the sequence analysis of the ribosomal DNA (ITS2) of the infective (metacercarial) stage of the lung fluke collected from the edible crab hosts that are abundant in a mountain stream of the area (Miao, Changlang District in Arunachal Pradesh) and to construct its phylogeny. Using the approach of molecular morphometrics that is based on ITS2 secondary structure homologies, phylogenetic relationships of the various isolates of Paragonimus species that are prevalent in the neighbouring Near-eastern countries have been discussed. Initially, ten predicted RNA secondary structures were reconstructed and the topology based only on the predicted RNA secondary structure of the ITS2 region resolved most relationships among the species studied. We obtained three similar topologies for seven species of the genus Paragonimus on the basis of traditional primary sequence analysis using MEGA and a Bayesian analysis of the combined data. The latter approach allowed us to include both primary sequence and RNA molecular morphometrics; each data partition was allowed to have a different evolution rate. Paragonimus westermani was found to group with P. siamensis of Thailand; this was best supported by both the molecular morphometrics and combined analyses. P. heterotremus, P. proliferus, P. skrjabini, P. bangkokensis and P. harinasutai formed a separate clade in the molecular phylogenies, and were reciprocally monophyletic with respect to other species. ITS2 sequence motifs allowed an accurate in-silico distinction of lung flukes. Data indicate that ITS2 motifs (Paragonimus systematics, more so because ITS2 secondary structure contains more information than the usual primary sequence alignment.
Delir Corrêa Gomes
Full Text Available The kidney trematode Paratanaisia bragai is reported for the first time parasitizing the ring-necked pheasant (Phasianus colchicus L., 1758 and the pathological alterations associated to the parasitism are referred on the basis of 50 specimens of this bird from backyard flocks in 11 counties of the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil after clinical examination, necropsies, and histopathological analysis. The counting of the kidney flukes was based on worms recovered from one of the kidneys, since the other was fixed in 10% formalin and then routinely processed for histopathological procedures. The prevalence of P. bragai was of 22%, with a mean intensity of 44.3, mean abundance of 9.7, and range of infection of 3-153. Parasitized birds did not present with clinical signs and kidney gross lesions. Microscopic lesions were mild and characterized by dilatation of the renal medullary collecting ducts, occasional flattening of the lining epithelium of the ducts and inflammatory reaction of variable intensity with granulocytes around the ureter branches and medullary collecting ducts. The severity and pattern of the microscopic lesions seem not to be associated to the size of the worm burden and could be related to the mechanic action of the parasites, without traumatism, in despite of the presence of the tegumentar spines in specimens of P. bragai.
Antar, R.; Georgieva, Simona; Gargouri, L.; Kostadinova, Aneta
Roč. 91, č. 3 (2015), s. 211-229 ISSN 0165-5752 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP505/12/G112 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : marine fishes * phylogeny * trematodes Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 1.316, year: 2015
Nikolaev, Kirill E.; Prokofiev, Vladimir V.; Levakin, Ivan A.; Galaktionov, Kirill V.
In the complex trematode life cycle, cercariae transmit infection from the first to the second intermediate host. These short-lived lecithotrophic larvae possess a complex of behavioural responses for finding and infecting the host. We studied strategies used by cercariae of Himasthla elongata and Cercaria parvicaudata (Renicola sp.) infecting mussels Mytilus edulis at the White Sea intertidal. Laboratory and field experiments were conducted in parallel. Geotactic response of cercariae was tested in an experimental chamber. Their distribution in nature was studied by counting larvae infecting mussels in cages installed in pairs (a ground and a suspended cage) in an intertidal lagoon. In the chamber H. elongata cercariae concentrated at the bottom, C. parvicaudata cercariae aged 1 h mostly concentrated near the surface and those aged 6 h sank to the bottom. A few larvae of both species ("evaders") showed behavioural patterns antithetic to the prevalent ones. Infection was the highest in mussels in ground cages. In suspended cages mussel infection with H. elongata cercariae was much lower than with C. parvicaudata cercariae. Our study confirmed that results of experiments on cercarial behaviour could be extrapolated to natural conditions. Cercariae of two species using the same intermediate hosts and co-occurring in a biotope implemented dramatically different strategies. This might be associated with differences in cercarial output by parthenitae groups. The presence of "evaders" might be useful for successful transmission. Our results indicate that mussels cultivated in suspended cultures are at the least risk of infection with trematode larvae.
Alves, Hélio; Tunholi-Alves, Vinícius Menezes; Tunholi, Victor Menezes; Gôlo, Patrícia; Bittencourt, Vânia Rita Elias Pinheiro; Pinheiro, Jairo
The effect of experimental exposure of Bradybaena similaris by Eurytrema coelomaticum on the cholesterol and triglycerides total levels circulating in the hemolymph and the neutral lipids in the digestive gland-gonad (DGG) complex of the host snail were studied. In this study, snails were dissected after one, two, and three months of infection to collect the hemolymph and DGG to measure the cholesterol and triacylglycerol levels in the hemolymph and neutral lipid fractions in the tissues. The results for the hemolymph showed that the infection by this trematode resulted in a significant decrease in the concentrations of triacylglycerol during all periods analyzed, as well as, increase in the levels of cholesterol observed after the second and third months of study. This decrease suggests the possible use of triacylglycerol by both parasite and host as alternative substrate in maintaining their energy metabolisms. In parallel, the increase in the contents of cholesterol results from a severe cellular disorganization in snail, especially DGG, as a consequence of the intense plastic processes showed by parasite. Additionally, changes in the neutral lipid profile in the DGG of the infected snails were observed, indicating the importance of these molecules for successful infection. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Morfologia externa de espécimes adultos de Paratanaisia bragai (Santos, 1934 (Digenea: Eucotylidae External morphology of the adults specimens of Paratanaisia bragai (Santos, 1934(Diginea; Eucotylidae
Solange V.P.B. Brandolini
Full Text Available Espécimes adultos de Paratanaisia bragai foram coletados de ductos renais de Columba livia infectados naturalmente, fixados em glutaraldeído 2,5% e processados para microscopia eletrônica de varredura. Foram identificados dois tipos distintos de escamas, escamas bífidas e simples, dispostas em fileiras transversais no tegumento das faces dorsal e ventral do corpo. Também mostrando em detalhes a ventosa oral subterminal, bem desenvolvida e acetábulo de tamanho reduzido, localizado no terço médio do corpo, circundado por pequenas protuberâncias e quatro papilas dispostas regularmente na sua margem.Adult specimens of Paratanaisia bragai collected from renal ducts of Columba livia naturally infected, were fixed in glutaraldehyde 2.5% and processed for scanning electron microscopy. Two distinct types of scales had been identified, bifid and simple scales, disposed in transversal rows, on the tegument of dorsal and ventral face of the body. Also show in details the oral sucker subterminal, well developed and acetabulum of size reduced, located in third medium of the body, surrounded for small protuberance and four papillae on its edge.
RZAD, IZABELLA; RZAD, Izabella; BUSSE, PRZEMYSLAW; BUSSE, Przemysław
The aim of this paper is to document the presence of the avian trematode Collyriclum faba in Egypt. During bird migration, parasitological research was carried out along the East European bird migration flyway (Jordan, Palestine, Egypt) in 2012-2014. A total of 1783 birds belonging to 87 species, mainly passerines, were macroscopically examined for the presence of parasites. An adult male individual of the willow warbler, Phylloscopus trochilus, examined in Aswan, southern Egypt, presented 5 ...
Faltýnková, Anna; Našincová, Vanda; Kablásková, Lenka
Roč. 14, č. 1 (2007), s. 39-51 ISSN 1252-607X R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA6022404; GA ČR GP524/07/P086; GA ČR GD524/03/H133; GA MŠk LC522 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Trematoda * Mollusca * cercaria * metacercaria * Lymnaea stagnalis Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.713, year: 2007
Hernandez-Orts, J.S.; Alama-Bermejo, Gema; Carillo, J.M.; García, N.A.; Crespo, E.A.; Raga, J. A.; Montero, E. E.
Roč. 19, č. 4 (2012), s. 319-330 ISSN 1252-607X R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP505/12/G112 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Aporocotylidae * Aporocotyle * A. mariachristinae n. sp. * A. ymakara * Genypterus blacodes * Ophidiidae * Patagonia * Argentina * rDNA sequences Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.116, year: 2012
Stoyanov, B.; Georgieva, Simona; Pankov, P.; Kudlai, Olena; Kostadinova, Aneta; Georgiev, B. B.
Roč. 94, č. 1 (2017), s. 1-20 ISSN 0165-5752 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP505/12/G112 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : maximum likelihood * host specificity * platyhelminthes * phylogenies * systematics * trematoda Subject RIV: EG - Zoology OBOR OECD: Zoology Impact factor: 1.181, year: 2016
Kudlai, Olena; Cribb, Thomas H; Cutmore, Scott C
A new species of microphallid, Longiductotrema tethepae n. sp., is reported from a muraenid eel Gymnothorax pseudothyrsoideus (Bleeker) on the northern Great Barrier Reef. The new species is described based on adults from Gy. pseudothyrsoideus and metacercariae from a grapsid crab, Grapsus albolineatus Latreille in Milbert, collected from off Lizard Island, Queensland, Australia. The new species is assigned to Longiductotrema Deblock & Heard, 1969 based on morphological characters (presence of a cirrus-sac; a long metraterm, intensively ensheathed by gland-cells; an entirely postcaecal uterus; vitellarium composed of two lateral clusters each of about ten follicles, situated in the testicular and post-testicular areas). Longiductotrema tethepae n. sp. is the third species assigned to the genus, differing from its congeners in having a distinctly larger body dimensions, a smaller pharynx in relation to oral sucker, the anterior limits of the vitelline fields at the level of the testes (vs at the level of the ovary) and in its parasitism of a muraenid fish (vs birds). Additionally, the new species differs from L. floridense Deblock & Heard, 1969 in having a shorter metraterm and from L. scandolensis Deblock & Bartoli, 1988 in having a less elongate forebody in relation to body length, shorter caeca and prepharynx, and slightly larger eggs. Phylogenetic analyses, based on partial 28S rRNA gene sequences, showed that the present species is sister to all other microphallids for which sequence data are available. This is the fourth report of a microphallid from a marine eel, the first from the Muraenidae Rafinesque and the first from a marine fish in the Indo-west Pacific. A summary of all species of the Microphallidae parasitising fish is provided.
Jerdy, H; Baldassin, P; Werneck, M R; Bianchi, M; Ribeiro, R B; Carvalho, E C Q
This paper presents the first report of parasites from the genus Renicola sp. in the kidneys of Magellanic penguins. The histological analysis revealed inflammatory infiltrate (eonsinophils, lymphocytes, and plasmocytes), together with fibroplasia and compression of the adjacent ducts.
Kacem, Hichem; Quilichini, Yann; Neifar, Lassad; Torres, Jordi; Miquel, Jordi
The ultrastructural organization of the spermatozoon of the digenean Macvicaria obovata (Opecoelidae) is described by transmission electron microscopy. Alive digeneans were collected from the digestive tract of Sparus aurata (Teleostei, Sparidae), caught from the Gulf of Gabès in Chebba, Tunisia (Eastern Mediterranean Sea). The male gamete of M. obovata is a filiform cell, tapered at both extremities and exhibits typical characters such as two axonemes of different lengths showing the 9+'1' trepaxonematan pattern, a nucleus, mitochondria, two bundles of parallel cortical microtubules, external ornamentation of the plasma membrane, spine-like bodies and granules of glycogen. Cortical microtubules are absent in the anterior spermatozoon extremity and appear after the disappearance of the electron-dense material. The first mitochondrion is of moniliform type and it is associated with the external ornamentation of the plasma membrane and spine-like bodies. The second mitochondrion is more posteriorly located, reaching the nuclear region. The present study provides new data on the mature male gamete of M. obovata that may be useful for the understanding of digenean relationships and phylogenetic studies.
Ultrastructural characters of the spermatozoa in Digeneans of the genus Bianium Stunkard, 1930 (Digenea, Lepocreadiidae) parasites of fishes: a comparative study of Bianium plicitum and Bianium arabicum.
Quilichini, Yann; Ndiaye, Papa Ibnou; Sène, Aminata; Justine, Jean-Lou; Bray, Rodney A; Tkach, Vasyl V; Bâ, Cheikh Tidiane; Marchand, Bernard
We present in this paper the first ultrastructural study of the spermatozoon of species of the genus Bianium Stunkard, 1930, namely Bianium plicitum and Bianium arabicum belonging to the family Lepocreadiidae. Specimens are parasites of the tetraodontid teleosts Lagocephalus laevigatus caught in the Atlantic Ocean and Lagocephalus sceleratus caught in Pacific Ocean, respectively. Live worms were fixed and processed for transmission electron microscopy. Observations of numerous cross and longitudinal sections of the spermatozoa of B. plicitum and B. arabicum demonstrated the general pattern described in all previously studied Lepocreadioidea, namely two axonemes with 9+ "1" pattern of Trepaxonemata, two mitochondria, a nucleus, parallel cortical microtubules, and an external ornamentation of the plasma membrane associated with spine-like bodies. The maximum number of cortical microtubules and the external ornamentation were not located at the anterior extremity of the spermatozoon but at a more posterior level, as in all the species of Lepocreadioidea studied to date. Differences observed between spermatozoa of B. plicitum and B. arabicum were observed in: (1) the location of the first mitochondrion, (2) size of cortical microtubules which were longer in B. arabicum than in B. plicitum, and (3) the order of the disappearance of the axonemes, mitochondrion, and cortical microtubules toward the posterior region of the spermatozoon. Only the nucleus reaches into the posterior extremity of the spermatozoon in these two species. The general pattern of the spermatozoon described in these two species exhibit the general model in the genus Bianium.
Bakhoum, Abdoulaye J S; Ndiaye, Papa Ibnou; Sène, Aminata; Bâ, Cheikh Tidiane; Miquel, Jordi
The spermiogenesis process in Wardula capitellata begins with the formation of a differentiation zone containing two centrioles associated with striated rootlets and an intercentriolar body. Each centriole develops into a free flagellum orthogonal to a median cytoplasmic process. Later these flagella rotate and become parallel to the median cytoplasmic process, which already exhibits two electron-dense areas and spinelike bodies before its proximodistal fusion with the flagella. The final stage of the spermiogenesis is characterized by the constriction of the ring of arched membranes, giving rise to the young spermatozoon, which detaches from the residual cytoplasm. The mature spermatozoon of W. capitellata presents most of the classical characters reported in digenean spermatozoa such as two axonemes of different lengths of the 9 + "1" trepaxonematan pattern, nucleus, mitochondrion, two bundles of parallel cortical microtubules and granules of glycogen. However, some peculiarities such as two lateral expansions accompanied by external ornamentation of the plasma membrane and spinelike bodies characterize the mature sperm. Moreover, a new spermatological character is described for the first time, the so-called cytoplasmic ornamented buttons.
Dione, Ayatoulaye; Quilichini, Yann; Bâ, Cheikh Tidiane; Diagne, Papa Mbagnick; Ndiaye, Papa Ibnou; Marchand, Bernard
The mature spermatozoon of Hemiurus appendiculatus exhibits the general pattern described in most of the digenean namely, two axonemes of the 9 + "1" pattern of the Trepaxonemata, a nucleus, a filiform mitochondrion, external ornamentations of the plasma membrane and parallel cortical microtubules located on one side of the spermatozoon. In this study, we show for the second time in a digenean spermatozoon the presence of microtubules of the second axoneme associated each in a short length with an external ornamentation, seven cortical microtubules, a terminal bulge in the anterior spermatozoon extremity separate from the remainder of the spermatozoon by a transverse constriction and the simultaneous presence of the external ornamentation of the plasma membrane with a filamentous ornamentation. The external ornamentations have a differentiated distribution, cover almost the anterior region of the spermatozoon, are more abundant around the first axoneme and extend backwards over a short distance around the second axoneme. This study also allowed us to reveal for the first time the existence in the Hemiuroidea of an axoneme that begins to disrupt before reaching the front end of the mitochondrion. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Two species of Didymozoidae originally described from Pacific Ocean, Wedlia retrorbitalis and Wedliasubmaxillaris are reported for the first time in South America, Atlantic Ocean. W. retrorbitalis was found encysted inretrorbital adipose tissue and W. submaxillaris in the maxillary region of Thunnus obesus caught along the Rio de Janeirocoastline, extending their current geographical distribution. Original measurements and figures are presented.
Palacios-Abella, José F; Georgieva, Simona; Mele, Salvatore; Raga, Juan Antonio; Isbert, Wolf; Kostadinova, Aneta; Montero, Francisco E
A new aporocotylid, Skoulekia erythrini n. sp., is described from the heart, cephalic kidney and gill blood vessels of the common pandora Pagellus erythrinus (L.) collected from several localities of the western Mediterranean off Spain. The new species differs from the type- and only species of the genus, S. meningialis Alama-Bermejo, Montero, Raga & Holzer, 2011 in possessing a symmetrical body (vs laterally curved), short tegumental spines (3-4 vs 7-10 µm) without hooked ends, diffuse (vs conspicuous) oesophageal gland-cells, a relatively longer oesophagus, a testis that is shorter in relation to body length and a much smaller seminal vesicle (17-34 × 10-26 vs 33-101 × 27-97 μm). Elongated ellipsoidal eggs of S. erythrini n. sp. were found trapped in gill vessels in histological sections. Phylogenetic analyses based on partial 28S rDNA and ITS2 sequences supported the placement of the new species within Skoulekia and the close relationships of this genus with Psettarium Goto & Ozaki, 1929 and Pearsonellum Overstreet & Køie, 1986. Skoulekia meningialis is described from a new sparid host, Diplodus puntazzo (Walbaum), collected off Santa Pola, Spain. The new morphological data for the two Skoulekia spp. and a re-examination of three paratypes of S. meningialis pinpointed features amending both the description of S. meningialis and the generic diagnosis of Skoulekia.
Werneck M. R.
Full Text Available This paper describes the occurrence of Enodiotrema megachondrus (Looss, 1899 Looss, 1901 in a juvenile green sea turtle (Chelonia mydas Linnaeus, 1758 found on the coast of Brazil. This parasite has been described in Caretta caretta from Egypt, France, the Mediterranean Sea, the Madeira Archipelago, the Adriatic Sea and the USA, in C. mydas from Egypt and the USA, in Eretmochelys imbricata from Cuba, in Lepidochelys olivacea from Mexico and Costa Rica and in Lepidochelys kempii from USA. This note represents the first report of E. megachondus in a green sea turtle in the South-West Atlantic Ocean.
Multilocus phylogenetic analysis and morphological data reveal a new species composition of the genus Drepanocephalus Dietz, 1909 (Digenea: Echinostomatidae), parasites of fish-eating birds in the Americas.
Hernández-Cruz, E; Hernández-Orts, J S; Sereno-Uribe, A L; Pérez-Ponce de León, G; García-Varela, M
Members of the genus Drepanocephalus are endoparasites of fish-eating birds of the families Phalacrocoracidae and Sulidae distributed across the Americas. Currently, Drepanocephalus contains three species, i.e. D. spathans (type species), D. olivaceus and D. auritus. Two additional species, D. parvicephalus and D. mexicanus were transferred to the genus Petasiger. In the current study, available DNA sequences of D. spathans, D. auritus and Drepanocephalus sp., were aligned with newly generated sequences of D. spathans and Petasiger mexicanus. Phylogenetic analyses inferred with three nuclear (LSU, SSU and ITS1, 5.8S, ITS2) and two mitochondrial (cox1, nad1) molecular markers showed that the sequences of D. spathans and D. auritus are nested together in a single clade with very low genetic divergence, with Petasiger mexicanus as its sister species. Additionally, P. mexicanus was not a close relative of other members of the genus Petasiger, showing that P. mexicanus actually belongs to the genus Drepanocephalus, suggesting the need to re-allocate Petasiger mexicanus back into the genus Drepanocephalus, as D. mexicanus. Morphological observations of the newly sampled individuals of D. spathans showed that the position of the testes is variable and testes might be contiguous or widely separated, which is one of the main diagnostic traits for D. auritus. Our results suggest that D. auritus might be considered a synonym of D. spathans and, as a result, the latter represents a species with a wide geographic range across the Americas, parasitizing both the Neotropical and the double-crested cormorant in Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay, Venezuela, Colombia, Mexico, USA and Canada.
Razo-Mendivil, Ulises; Rosas-Valdez, Rogelio; Pérez-Ponce de León, Gerardo
Oligogonotylus mayae n.sp. is described from the intestine of the Mayan cichlid Cichlasoma urophthalmus (Günther) in Ría Lagartos, Ría Celestún, and Estero Progreso, Yucatán State. This is the second species described for Oligogonotylus Watson, 1976, the other being O.manteri Watson, 1976. The new species is readily distinguished from O. manteri by the anterior extension of the vitelline follicles. In O. Manteri, Vitelline follicles are found entirely in the hindbody, extending posteriorly to mid-testicular level. Vitelline follicles in the new species extend from teh anterior margin of posterior testis to the region between the bentral sucker and the pharynx. comparison of approximately 1,850 bases of ribosomal DNA (ITS1, ITS2, 5.8S, and 28S), and 400 bases of cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (cox1) strongly supports the status of O. mayae as a new species, as compared to O. manteri collected from cichlids in other localities of Mexico, Belize, and Guatemala.
Jouet, D; Kolářová, L; Patrelle, C; Ferté, H; Skírnisson, K
Parasitological investigations carried out on birds in Iceland and France highlight the presence of four species of avian schistosomes from greylag geese (Anser anser L.): the european nasal species Trichobilharzia regenti and three visceral species, among which an unknown species isolated from blood vessels of the large intestine and liver. Morphological and molecular analyzes of different parasite stages (eggs, adults) revealed new species of Trichobilharzia genus – Trichobilharzia anseri sp. nov. Studies on host-parasite relationship under natural conditions, showed that the life-cycle includes the snail Radix balthica (syn. R. peregra) as intermediate host. The cercariae, already isolated in Iceland from two ponds of the Reykjavik capital area – the Family park and Tjörnin Lake – are the same as those isolated in 1999 by Kolářová et al. during the first study on Icelandic parasitic agents of cercarial dermatitis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Ondračková, Markéta; Šimková, A.; Gelnar, M.; Jurajda, Pavel
Roč. 129, č. 6 (2004), s. 761-770 ISSN 0031-1820 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA524/02/0924; GA ČR GP524/03/P108 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6093917 Keywords : fish assemblages * intermediate host * complex life-cycle Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.685, year: 2004
Tkach, Vasyl V; Curran, Stephen S
Prosthenhystera oonastica n. sp. is described as a cryptic species from the gall bladder of three ictalurid catfishes, Ictalurus punctatus (Rafinesque), Ictalurus furcatus (Valenciennes), and Pylodictis olivaris (Rafinesque), in rivers in the southeastern United States. The species was originally named by Wilmer A. Rogers in 1979 but never formally described. Material used for the description consists of two specimens of Roger's original material and ten new specimens. We found no significant morphological features that are useful for discriminating between the new species and its closest relative Prosthenhystera obesa (Diesing, 1850) Travassos, 1922 that occurs in the gall bladders of freshwater characiform, perciform and siluriform fishes, ranging from South America to southern Mexico. However, we found substantial differences in the large subunit ribosomal DNA (partial 28S rRNA gene) between the two species justifying the naming of the new species. Prosthenhystera oonastica n. sp. is readily differentiated from Prosthenhystera caballeroi Jiménez-Guzmán, 1973 that occurs in the gall bladders of characid fishes in Central America and Mexico, by having a relatively straight or bent rather than highly convoluted oesophagus, a relatively smaller ovary, smaller and less coalesced vitelline follicles, narrower caeca and smaller eggs. Comparison of ribosomal DNA (partial ITS1, 5.8S, ITS2, and partial 28S gene) between P. oonastica n. sp. and P. caballeroi revealed large differences between the two species. Phylogenetic analysis based on partial 28S rRNA gene sequences from the three studied species of Prosthenhystera Travassos, 1922 and related digenean taxa revealed a closer relationship between P. oonastica n. sp. and P. obesa than either has had with P. caballeroi.
Morphological and molecular characterisation of Aporocotyle margolisi Smith, 1967 (Digenea: Aporocotylidae) from the North Pacific hake Merluccius productus (Ayres) (Gadiformes: Merlucciidae) off Oregon, USA
Hernandez-Orts, J. S.; Hernández-Mena, D. I.; Alama-Bermejo, Gema; Kuchta, Roman; Jacobson, K. C.
Roč. 94, č. 7 (2017), s. 819-829 ISSN 0165-5752 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP505/12/G112; GA ČR(CZ) GP14-28784P Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : blood flukes * phylogeny * platyhelminthes * sequences * sanguinicolidae * perciformes * models * gene Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine OBOR OECD: Veterinary science Impact factor: 1.181, year: 2016
Georgieva, Simona; Blasco-Costa, Maria Isabel; Kostadinova, Aneta
Roč. 94, č. 4 (2017), s. 477-497 ISSN 0165-5752 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP505/12/G112 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : phylogenetic-relationships * maximum-likelihood * morphological data * miyagawai ishii * nuclear rdna * trematoda * platyhelminthes * systematics * genes * diversity Subject RIV: EG - Zoology OBOR OECD: Zoology Impact factor: 1.181, year: 2016
Kudlai, Olena; Kostadinova, Aneta; Pulis, E.E.; Tkach, V.V.
Roč. 94, č. 1 (2017), s. 21-33 ISSN 0165-5752 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP505/12/G112 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : platyhelminthes * sequences Subject RIV: EG - Zoology OBOR OECD: Zoology Impact factor: 1.181, year: 2016
Kudlai, O.; Kostadinova, Aneta; Pulis, E.E.; Tkach, V.V.
Roč. 90, č. 3 (2015), s. 221-230 ISSN 0165-5752 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP505/12/G112 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : neotropical cormorant * birds * trematodes Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.316, year: 2015
Gerardo Pérez-Ponce de León
Full Text Available A new species of Theletrum is described from the intestine of two palenose morays, Echidna nocturna, collected in Cuajiniquil, Guanacaste Province, Costa Rica. The new species differs from the type species, T. fustiforme Linton, 1910 by having a subspherical pars prostatica, a subspherical seminal vesicle extending anteriorly to the anterior border of the acetabulum, by the presence of a poorly developed hermaphroditic sac, and by having a larger body size. We also report eight additional species of digeneans parasitizing marine fishes in several localities along the Atlantic and Pacific coast of Costa Rica: Bianium simonei, Didymozoinae (metacercariae, Ectenurus virgulus, Hypocreadium myohelicatum, Lecithochirium microstomum, Pseudolecithaster sp., Stephanostomum casum, and Tergestia laticollis. In addition, we present an updated list of helminth parasites of marine fish from Costa Rica and discuss the importance of including parasites as an integral part of biodiversity inventories.Se describe una especie nueva de digéneo del género Theletrum, parásito del intestino de una "morena pecosa", Echidna nocturna, recolectada en Playa Cuajiniquil, Provincia de Guanacaste, Costa Rica. La nueva especie es diferente de T. fustiforme Linton, 1910, la especie tipo, por presentar una pars prostatica subesférica, una vesícula seminal subesférica que se extiende hasta el borde anterior del acetábulo, por la presencia de un saco hermafrodita y por una mayor longitud del cuerpo. También se registran ocho especies adicionales de digéneos parásitos de peces marinos en varias localidades de las costas del Atlántico y del Pacífico de Costa Rica. Por último, presentamos una lista actualizada de los helmintos parásitos de peces marinos y dulceacuícolas de Costa Rica y discutimos la importancia de incluir a los parásitos como una parte integral de las investigaciones sobre biodiversidad.
Molecular and morphological characterization of Isthmiophora melis (Schrank, 1788 Luhe, 1909 (Digenea: Echinostomatidae from American mink (Neovison vison and European polecat (Mustela putorius in Lithuania
Full Text Available The specimens collected from American mink (Neovison vison and European polecat (Mustela putorius in Lithuania were morphologically identified as Isthmiophora melis (Schrank, 1788 Lühe, 1909 and were molecularly characterized through sequencing of partial 18S rDNA, 28S rDNA, ITS1- 5.8S-ITS2 region, and ND1. Relations of I. melis to other species of the genus Isthmiophora Lühe 1909 were discussed. According to ITS1 and ND1 sequences the closest species to I. melis is Isthmiophora hortensis (Asada, 1926.
Podvyaznaya, I M; Galaktionov, K V; Irwin, S W B
The ultrastructure of the developing excretory system of Prosorhynchoides gracilescens and Prosorhynchus squamatus cercariae is described. The development pattern was similar in both species. In early embryos the two main collecting tubes were composed of a layer of cells which were wrapped around the lumen. Later, the tubes fused and the excretory epithelium of the fusion zone and that of the lateral caudal ducts became a syncytium. The collecting tubes in the cercarial body retained their cellular organization. As the tails grew, additional excretory pores were formed in the tail stem where thickened portions of the caudal duct epithelium contacted the surface tegument. Following this, the distal portions of the lateral caudal ducts lost contact with the primary excretory pores and progressively degenerated. Excretory atrium development started with differentiation of secretory active cytons peripheral to the fusion zone. These cells gave rise to cytoplasmic extensions that penetrated the fusion zone wall to eventually form a continuous cytoplasmic layer. This layer eventually replaced some of the fusion zone excretory epithelium and became the lining of the excretory atrium. The anterior end of the fusion zone differentiated into an excretory bladder and a short posterior portion gave rise to the caudal vesicle.
Galaktionov, K.V.; Blasco-Costa, Maria Isabel; Olson, P. D.
Roč. 139, č. 10 (2012), s. 1346-1360 ISSN 0031-1820 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : marine parasites * trematode * Microphallus * parasite speciation * parasite transmission * host-parasite co-evolution * host switching * host-parasite assemblages Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour; EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology (BC-A) Impact factor: 2.355, year: 2012
Kudlai, Olena; Cribb, T.H.; Cutmore, S.C.
Roč. 93, č. 9 (2016), s. 863-876 ISSN 0165-5752 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP505/12/G112 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : phylogenetic analysis * molecular phylogeny * life cycle * platyhelminthes * parasites * gastropoda * helminths * marine * fishes * Canada Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.181, year: 2016
J. E. Revenga
Full Text Available Este estudo foi conduzido para analisar ao nível histopatológico, lesões produzidas por Acanthostomoides apophalliformis no peixe nativo Galaxias maculatus, e relacioná-las com os resultados do mortalidade induzida por parasitas na população dessa espécie, no lago Moreno, Parque Nacional Nahuel Huapi, Argentina. A ausência de inflamação na maioria das lesões, o fígado sem alterações em uma distância curta do foco das lesões e a aparência viável dos parasitas, sugerem uma boa relação parasita-hospedeiro. Esta hipótese é reforçada pelos dados que mostram a ausência de mortalidade induzida por A. apophalliformis na população dos peixes.
Born-Torrijos, Ana; Holzer, Astrid S.; Raga, J. A.; van Beest, G. S.; Yoneva, Aneta
Roč. 278, č. 8 (2017), s. 1137-1148 ISSN 0362-2525 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP505/12/G112; GA MŠk(CZ) LM2015062 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : developmental stages * embryogenesis * functional * parasite strategies * tem * trematode egg Subject RIV: EG - Zoology OBOR OECD: Zoology Impact factor: 1.655, year: 2016
Faltýnková, Anna; Georgieva, Simona; Kostadinova, Aneta; Blasco-Costa, Maria Isabel; Scholz, Tomáš; Skirnisson, K.
Roč. 89, č. 3 (2014), s. 195-213 ISSN 0165-5752 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP505/12/G112 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : life cycle * cryptic diversity * molecular data * fish * DNA * Trematoda * Strigeida * snails Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.336, year: 2014
Faltýnková, Anna; Georgieva, Simona; Soldánová, Miroslava; Kostadinova, Aneta
Roč. 90, č. 1 (2015), s. 1-25 ISSN 0165-5752 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP505/10/1562; GA ČR GBP505/12/G112 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : larval trematodes * life cycle * phylogenetic relationship Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.316, year: 2015
Selbach, C.; Soldánová, Miroslava; Georgieva, Simona; Kostadinova, Aneta; Kalbe, M.; Sures, B.
Roč. 89, č. 2 (2014), s. 153-166 ISSN 0165-5752 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP505/12/G112 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Grandivesicularis ishii * life cycle * Trematoda * Platyhelminthes * phylogeny Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.336, year: 2014
Razo-Mendivil, Ulises J; León-Règagnon, Virginia; Pérez-Ponce de León, Gerardo
Glypthelmins Stafford, 1905 includes 29 putative species commonly found in the intestine and liver of anurans from all over the world but mainly in the Americas. Partial sequences of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 ( cox 1), ribosomal internal transcribed spacer region 2 (ITS2) and the large subunit 28S rDNA gene were obtained and analysed using pairwise distance matrices and parsimony methods in order to characterise the interrelationships between 14 isolates of four nominal species of Glypthelmins recognised on morphological grounds. The highest intra-specific sequence divergence occurred in the cox 1 (18.53%) sequence, followed by that of the ITS2 (5.44%) and 28S (4.63%). Genetic variability was detected between the three isolates originally identified as G. facioi Brenes et al., 1959 from two localities in Mexico and one locality in Costa Rica. Sequence divergence exhibited among these isolates ranged from 10.70 to 11.22%, from 0.48 to 0.97% and from 1.33 to 1.88% for cox 1, ITS2 and 28S, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis combining all three data-sets generated a single most parsimonious tree. The three isolates of G. facioi form a clade, with an isolate collected from frogs in Veracruz State as the sister group to an isolate from Tabasco State + G. facioi from Costa Rica. The information derived from pairwise distance of independent data-sets plus the phylogenetic information indicate that each of the two isolates from Mexico, identified a priori as G. facioi, represent separate species. A re-examination of specimens was carried out and a re-evaluation made of the morphological characters to find reliable differences that had been overlooked. As a consequence, G. brownorumae n. sp. from Tabasco and G. tuxtlasensis n. sp. from Veracruz are described based on molecular and morphological differences.
Razo-Mendivil, Ulises; de León, Gerardo Pérez-Ponce
The genus Glypthelmins includes some of the most common digeneans inhabiting the intestine of anurans in the Americas. Phylogenetic analyses of eight species of Glypthelmins and five outgroups, using 26 morphological characters and sequences of cox1, 18S, 5.8S, 28S genes and ITS2 were performed. Additionally, 2 species for which no molecular data have been obtained were included in the analyses. Following a simultaneous analysis approach and using different methods of phylogenetic inference we obtained a phylogenetic tree where the eight studied species conform a monophyletic clade which is well supported by Bremer support, bootstrap, and posterior probabilities. The mapping of morphological characters showed that traits such as serrate scale-like spines, bipartite seminal vesicle, metraterm running dorsal to the cirrus pouch, and ovary sinistral are unequivocal synapomorphies that support the monophyly of Glypthelmins. Phylogenetic hypothesis based on combined data sets was used to re-evaluate the evolutionary and biogeographical history of this group of digeneans. New information provided in this study, in the context of a more robust analytical method allowed us to corroborate that members of the "Rana pipiens" group were the plesiomorphic group of hosts for Glypthelmins, with two host switching events occurring from the "Rana pipiens" group to the "Rana palmipes" group and to Hylidae during the evolutionary history of this group of parasites, and the origin of the group is proposed in Nearctic frogs, with a colonization of Neotropical hosts represented by a monophyletic clade constituted by G. brownorumae, G. facioi, and G. tuxtlasensis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Taeleb, A.A.; Mohammadein, A.M.
Spermatogenesis and the spermatozoon of Acanthostomum (Atrophocaecum) aswaninesis, were studied by transmission electron microscopy. Spermatogonia characterized by a large nucleo-cytoplasmic ratio, give rise to two generations of spermatocytes. The secondary spermatocytes divide forming early spermatids that fuse together into a common cytoplasmic mass. Spermiogenesis begins with the formation of the zone of differentiation in front of 2 centrioles associated by an inter-centriolar body. E...
Pérez-del-Olmo, A.; Georgieva, Simona; Pula, H.J.; Kostadinova, Aneta
Roč. 7, NOV 12 2014 (2014), s. 502 ISSN 1756-3305 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP505/12/G112 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Diplostomum spathaceum * Diplostomum pseudospathaceum * Lens metacercariae * Freshwater fish * Gulls * Spain * Cox1 * TS1-5.8S-ITS2 Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 3.430, year: 2014
Proterodiplostome Parasites (Digenea, Proterodiplostomidae of the Caiman, Caiman crocodilus yacare (Reptilia, Crocodylia in the Pantanal mato-Grossense, Brazil, with the description of two new species
João B. Catto
Full Text Available Two new species are described from the caiman. Caiman crocodilus yacare. Proterodiplostomum breve n. sp. differs from all other species in the genus by the following chacacteristics: (1 the paraprostate gland is shorter and club-shaped; (2 the genital cone is, in average, eight times longer than that of P. medusae; (3 the genital atrium is larger and without pseudosuckers; (4 the oral sucker and pharynx are longer; and (5 there are larger numbers of papillae surrounding the tribocytic organ (40 against 20 in P. longum, 16 in p. tumidilum, 8 in P. ophidum, and 16-18 in P. medusae. Proterodiplostomum globulare n. sp. differs from all the other species in the fenus by the following characteristics: (1 from P. tumidilum, P. lomgum, P. medusae, and P. breve n. sp. for the absense of pseudosuckers or muscular bunches in the inferior wall of the genital atrium; (2 the shape of the paraprostate gland, which is globular and not cylindrical as in P. longum, P. tumidilum, P. medusae, and P. ophidum; (3 the size of the tribocytic organ 201-407 long, 183-495 wide, while is 138-270 long, 102-292 wide in P. medusae, and 138-270 long, 255 wide in P. ophidum; (4 the number of papillae in the tribocytic organ (18-20 in P. globulare and 16-18 in P. medusae, and 8 in P. ophidum. Specimens belonging to six other species of proterodiplostomes are recorded for the first time infecting the caiman, C. c. yacare in the Pantanal Mato-grossense, Brazil, namely: Proterodiplostomum medusae, P. tumidilum, Cystodiplostomum hollyi, Prolecithodiplostomum constrictum, Paradiplostomum abbreviatum, and Herpetodiplostomum caimancola.
Seasonal maturation of Glypthelmins vitellinophilum (Trematoda: Digenea in Lysapsus limellus (Anura: Pseudidae from an Argentinian subtropical permanent pond Maturação sazonal de Glypthelmins vitellinophilum (Trematoda: Digenea em Lysapsus limellus (Anura: Pseudidae em uma lagoa permanente subtropical da Argentina
M. I. Hamann
Full Text Available From December 1995 to November 2000, the seasonal maturation of Glypthelmins vitellinophilum Dobbin, 1958, in its definitive host, the frog Lysapsus limellus Cope, 1862, was studied in a subtropical permanent pond in northeastern Argentina. The objectives of this study were: 1 to determine the infrapopulation dynamics of the parasite, analyzing the seasonal maturation cycle throughout the years; and 2 to examine the relationship between the intensity of trematode infection in different developmental stages (recruitment, growth and maturation and the host's body length. Of a total of 1,400 frogs examined over 60 months (5 years, 38% were found to be infected with G. vitellinophilum, and the intensity of infection was 1-15 trematodes per frog. Specimens of G. vitellinophilum were present in L. limellus throughout the years, but did not show a pronounced seasonal maturation cycle. Possible reasons for these findings are discussed with reference to climatic fluctuations and biotic factors. The infective period of the parasite (stage I occurred in summer, autumn and spring, coinciding with the time each frog cohort appeared. These infections were found principally in small body sizes (classes 1 and 2 of L. limellus. Juvenile and nongravid specimens of worms (stage II and III were found in frogs of different body sizes throughout the period of investigation. Gravid specimens of the parasite (stage IV were generally recorded in autumn, winter and spring, mainly in the bodies of larger frogs. The body length of Trematodes in stages I and IV was significantly and positively correlated with that of the frogs.De dezembro de 1995 a novembro de 2000, a maturação sazonal de Glypthelmins vitellinophilum Dobbin, 1958, em seu hospedeiro definitivo, a rã Lysapsus limellus Cope, 1862, foi estudada em uma lagoa permanente subtropical no nordeste da Argentina. Os objetivos deste estudo foram: 1 determinar a dinâmica de infrapopulação do parasita, analisando o ciclo de maturação sazonal ao longo dos anos; e 2 examinar a relação entre intensidade de infecção do trematódeo em diferentes estádios do desenvolvimento (recrutamento, crescimento e maturação e o comprimento de corpo da rã. De 1.400 espécimens de rãs em 60 meses (5 anos, foram achados 38% infetados com G. vitellinophilum, e a intensidade de infecção era 1-15 trematódeos por rã. Espécimes de G. vitellinophilum estavam presentes em L. limellus ao longo dos anos, mas não mostraram um ciclo sazonal pronunciado de maturação. São discutidas possíveis razões para estes resultados com referência a flutuações climáticas e fatores bióticos. O período infectante do parasita (estádio I aconteceu no verão, outono e primavera, coincidentemente com o tempo de aparecimento de cada corte das rãs. Estas infecções eram principalmente registradas em tamanhos de corpo pequenos (classes 1 e 2 de L. limellus. Espécimes de parasitas juvenis e não grávidas (estádios II e III eram encontradas em diferentes tamanhos de rãs ao longo do período de investigação. Espécimes de parasitas grávidas (estádio IV eram geralmente registradas no outono, inverno e primavera, principalmente nos tamanhos de corpo maiores de rãs. O comprimento de corpo do trematódeo dos estádios I e IV eram significativa e positivamente correlatos com o comprimento de corpo da rã.
Metacercárias de Diplostomidae (Digenea: Diplostomoidea em Geophagus brasiliensis (Perciformes: Cichlidae do rio Guandu, Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v34i2.5957 Diplostomidae metacercariae (Digenea: Diplostomoidea in Geophagus brasiliensis (Perciformes: Cichlidae from Guandu river, State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v34i2.5957
José Luis Fernando Luque
Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve como objetivo o estudo qualitativo e quantitativo das metacercárias de diplostomídeos em Geophagus brasiliensis (Quoy & Gaimard, 1824 do rio Guandu, Seropédica, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. Entre abril de 2006 e março de 2007, foram coletados e necropsiados 200 espécimes de G. brasiliensis, sendo obtidos cinco morfotipos de metacercárias de diplostomídeos: Austrodiplostomum compactum, Diplostomum sp., Posthodiplostomum sp. 1, Posthodiplostomum sp. 2 e Neascus tipo 1. No presente trabalho, foram descritas as metacercárias de Diplostomum sp., Posthodiplostomum sp. 1 e Posthodiplostomum sp. 2, além de registrar novo sítio de infecção de A. compactum e aumentar o conhecimento da distribuição geográfica de Neascus tipo 1, causadora da doença dos pontos pretos. O presente trabalho aponta para a importância de G. brasiliensis como hospedeiro intermediário de trematódeos diplostomídeos e sobre a diversidade dessas larvas no rio Guandu.The qualitative and quantitative analyses of diplostomid metacercariae in Geophagus brasiliensis (Quoy & Gaimard, 1824 of the Guandu river, Seropédica, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, are provided. Between April 2006 and March 2007, 200 specimens of G. brasiliensis were collected and necropsied. Further, five morphotypes of diplostomid metacercariae were obtained, namely, Austrodiplostomum compactum, Diplostomum sp., Posthodiplostomum sp. 1, Posthodiplostomum sp. 2 and Neascus type 1. Whereas the metacercariae of Diplostomum sp., Posthodiplostomum sp. 1 and Posthodiplostomum sp. 2 were described, a new site of infection of A. compactum was registered and a new geographical report for Neascus type 1, responsible for the black-spot disease, has been added. Current investigation enhances the importance of G. brasiliensis as an intermediate host of diplostomid trematodes and the diversity of these larvae in the Guandu river.
Stephanostomum spp. (Digenea: Acanthocolpidae from scombrids and carangids (Perciformes from the Great Barrier Reef, with the description of two new species Stephanostomum spp. (Digenea: Acanthocolpidae de escómbridos y carángidos (Perciformes del arrecife de la Gran Barrera, con descripción de dos especies nuevas
Rodney A. Bray
Full Text Available Two new species and 4 Stephanostomum spp. as new host and/or locality records from Percifomes from the Great Barrier Reef are described: Stephanostomum lamothei n. sp. from Grammatorcynus bilineatus (type-host and G. bicarinatus, Lizard Island and Swain Reefs, is characterised by its 50-55 circum-oral spines and >than 20% of the hindbody length lacking vitelline follicles; Stephanostomum Tupatupa n. sp. from Caranx papuensis, Lizard Island, is characterised by its 34-36 circum-oral spines and Se describen 2 especies nuevas del género Stephanostomum y se redescriben 4 más parásitas de perciformes del arrecife de la Gran Barrera australiana. Stephanostomum lamothei n. sp., parásito de Grammatorcynus bilineatus (hospedero-tipo y de G. bicarinatus, de la isla Lizard y de los arrecifes Swain, se caracteriza por sus 50-55 espinas circumorales y por carecer de folículos vitelinos en más del 20% de la longitud del cuerpo; Stephanostomum Tupatupa n. sp. de Caranx papuensis de la isla Lizard, exhibe como rasgos diagnósticos 34-36 espinas circumorales y folículos vitelinos en menos del 8% de la longitud del cuerpo; Stephanostomum ditrematis (Yamaguti, 1939 se registra en Gnathanodon speciosus de las islas Heron y Lizard; Stephanostomum hawaiiense Yamaguti, 1970 y Stephanostomum carangi Liu, 1998 se recolectaron en Carangoides fulvoguttatus y finalmente, Stephanostomum nyoomwa Bray and Cribb, 2003 se encontró parasitando a Caranx sexfasciatus, ambos peces de la isla Lizard.
Systematic and pathologic study of Paratanaisia bragai (Santos, 1934 Freitas, 1959 (Digenea, Eucotylidae infestation in ruddy ground dove Columbina talpacoti (Temminck, 1811 Estudo da sistemática e da patologia de Paratanaisia bragai (Santos, 1934 Freitas, 1959 (Digenea, Eucotylidae em rolinha-caldo-de-feijão, Columbina talpacoti (Temminck, 1811
Full Text Available This is the first report of the digenetic trematode Paratanaisia bragai infestation in a ruddy ground dove Columbina talpacoti, captured in a suburban area of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Although with a low prevalence (10%, the intensity of infection was high, considering that 116 worms were recovered from one of the kidneys. Gross lesions were not observed and histopathological analysis showed very dilated renal collecting ducts with destruction and flattening of the lining epithelial cells, without inflammatory reaction. The pathological findings were compared to those previously reported for P. bragai in other hosts, since the proposal of the species in 1934.O trematódeo digenético Paratanaisia bragai é referido pela primeira vez parasitando a rolinha-caldo-de-feijão, Columbina talpacoti, proveniente de área suburbana do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. Embora com baixa prevalência (10%, a intensidade de infecção foi alta, considerando que 116 exemplares do parasito foram obtidos de um dos rins. Não foram observadas lesões macroscópicas. A análise histopatológica demonstrou grande dilatação dos dutos coletores renais, com destruição e achatamento das células epiteliais de revestimento, sem reação inflamatória. Os achados patológicos foram comparados aos anteriormente relatados para P. bragai em outros hospedeiros, desde a proposição da espécie em 1934.
TAJBAKHSH, Fatemeh; GOLZARIANPOUR, Kiavash; ABDOLI, Asghar
The present study was conducted to identify the parasitic infection of the nemacheilid loach, Turcinoemacheilus kosswigi, in 5 rivers of the Tigris basin in Iran, from July 2007 to August 2008. Extracted from 43 fish specimens were 3 parasitic species: metacercaria of Posthodiplostomum cuticola (Digenea: Diplostomatidae) in the skin, fins, gills, and muscles; Allocreadium sp. (Digenea: Allocreadidae) and Procamallanus sp. (Nematoda: Camallanidae) in the intestine. Prevalence and mean intensit...
Andersen-Ranberg, Emilie Ulrikka; Lehnert, Kristina; Leifsson, Páll S.
, possibly related to climate change and bioaccumulation of immunomodulating anthropogenic pollutants, spurred further investigations into parasite characterization, and implications for wildlife health and seal hunters. Microscopic, molecular, and morphometric analyses are presented herein. Of 40 seals, 6...
A new genus and species of turtle blood fluke (Digenea: Schistosomatoidea) from the Mekong snail-eating turtle, Malayemys subtrijuga (Schlegel & Müller) (Testudines: Geoemydidae) in Vietnam, with a reassessment of related Asiatic turtle blood flukes and molecular phylogeny.
Roberts, Jackson R; Arias, Cova R; Halanych, Kenneth M; Dang, Binh T; Bullard, Stephen A
Platt sinuosus Roberts & Bullard n. g., n. sp. (type-species) infects the kidney and mesenteric blood vessels of Mekong snail-eating turtles, Malayemys subtrijuga (Schlegel & Müller), in the Mekong River Basin. Species of Platt Roberts & Bullard n. g. are unique by the combination of having a papillate ventral sucker, vasa efferentia that are dorsal to the gonads, a massive cirrus-sac that is directed anteriad or laterad, and a vitellarium that surrounds the intestinal caeca. The new species resembles Platt ocadiae (Takeuti, 1942) Roberts & Bullard n. comb. but differs from it by having an external seminal vesicle that overlaps with or is immediately posterior to the level of the ventral sucker. Seven species previously of Hapalorhynchus Stunkard, 1922 are reassigned herein to Platt: P. odhnerensis (Mehra, 1933) Roberts & Bullard n. comb.; P. yoshidai (Ozaki, 1939) Roberts & Bullard n. comb.; P. ocadiae; P. oschmarini (Belous, 1963) Roberts & Bullard n. comb.; P. sutlejensis (Mehrotra, 1973) Roberts & Bullard n. comb.; P. synderi (Platt & Sharma, 2012) Roberts & Bullard n. comb.; and P. tkachi (Platt & Sharma, 2012) Roberts & Bullard n. comb. A dichotomous key to Platt spp. is provided. Hapalorhynchus sheilae (Mehrotra, 1973) Bourgat, 1990 and Hapalorhynchus mica (Oshmarin, 1971) Bourgat, 1990 are considered as species inquirendae, and Hapalorhynchus indicus (Thapar, 1933) Price, 1934 and Hapalorhynchus macrotesticularis (Rohde, Lee, & Lim, 1968) Brooks & Sullivan, 1981 are considered as species incertae sedis. Phylogenetic analysis of the large subunit rDNA (28S) showed P. sinuosus and P. snyderi to be sister taxa distinct from a monophyletic Hapalorhynchus and Coeuritrema platti Roberts & Bullard, 2016.
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Redescription of Parspina argentinensis (Szidat, 1954) (Digenea: Cryptogonimidae) from freshwater fishes (Pimelodidae) in the basins of the Paraná and La Plata Rivers, Argentina, with comments on P. bagre Pearse, 1920.
Ostrowski de Núñez, Margarita C; Arredondo, Nathalia J; Doma, Irene L; Gil de Pertierra, Alicia A
The type-specimens of Parspina argentinensis (Szidat, 1954) from Pimelodus maculatus Lacépède, and new material from Iheringichthys labrosus (Lütken), Parapimelodus valenciennis (Lütken), Pimelodella gracilis (Valenciennes), Pimelodus albicans (Valenciennes), P. argenteus Perugia and P. maculatus caught in the basins of the La Plata and Paraná Rivers, Argentina, were studied to elucidate its taxonomic status. The type-specimens of Parspina bagre Pearse, 1920 from Pimelodella metae Eigenmann in Lake Valencia, Venezuela, were also studied and new observations on its morphology recorded. The amendation of the generic diagnosis of Parspina Pearse, 1920 is proposed based on the study of both species, which revealed, among other features, the absence of a thin walled-membrane enclosing the male terminal genitalia. Parspina argentinensis is characterised by the following features: absence of a gonotyl; presence of a bipartite seminal vesicle, pars prostatica and ejaculatory duct; caeca of nearly equal length; uterus extending from the level of the ventral sucker to end of body; testes symmetrical to slightly oblique; ovary transversely elongate, compact and variable in shape; and the utilisation of a wide range of freshwater fishes as hosts. The tegumental surface of this species is covered with pectinate spines arranged quincuncially. Spines decrease in size and density from forebody to hindbody. There are two types of sensory papillae, ciliated and dome-shaped. Ciliated papillae are distributed on the surface of the oral region and on the dorsal and ventral surfaces of the body, whereas dome-shaped papillae are found on the surface of the ventral rim of the oral sucker associated with a ciliated papilla. Gland-duct openings are interspersed with the spines of the oral crown. In addition, the infection indices of P. argentinensis vary widely, not only among different hosts but also between the Paraná and La Plata River basins. Higher prevalences of P. argentinensis are recorded in the La Plata River, and Pimelodus albicans, P. maculatus and Iheringichthys labrosus are the principal final hosts in this area.
Experimental evidence and ecological perspectives for the adaptation of Schistosoma mansoni Sambon, 1907 (Digenea: Schistosomatidae to a wild host, the water-rat, Nectomys squamipes Brants, 1827 (Rodentia: Sigmodontinae
Paulo Sérgio D'Andrea
Full Text Available Due to the semi aquatic habits and the overlap of the geographical distribution of the water-rat, Nectomys spp., with schistosomiasis endemic areas, these wild rodents are very likely to acquire Schistosoma mansoni infection in their daily activities. The role of the water-rat in the S. mansoni cycle would be substantiated if one could prove that these rodents acquire the parasite during their own activity time, a completely independent time schedule of human activities. To pursue this goal, we performed two field experiments in the municipality of Sumidouro, State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, a schistosomiasis endemic area where N. squamipes is found naturally infected. One experiment was devised as a series of observations of activity time of the water-rat. The other experiment was a test of the occurrence of late transmission of S. mansoni to the water-rat. The daily activity pattern showed that the water-rat is active chiefly just after sunset. At both diurnal and late exposition essays the water-rat sentinels got infected by S. mansoni. These findings clarify ecological and behavioral components necessary to the adaptation of S. mansoni to the water-rat as a non human definitive host and the existence of a transmission cycle involving this animals as a reservoir.
Bolbophorus damnificus n. sp. (Digenea: Bolbophoridae) from the channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus and American white pelican Pelecanus erythrorhynchos in the USA based on life-cycle and molecular data.
Overstreet, Robin M; Curran, Stephen S; Pote, Linda M; King, D Tommy; Blend, Charles K; Grater, Walter D
The common pathogenic prodiplostomulum metacercaria in the flesh, mostly near the skin, of pond-produced channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus has been demonstrated to be Bolbophorus damnificus Overstreet & Curran n. sp. The catfish acquires the infection from the snail Planorbella trivolvis, the only known first intermediate host, and the species is perpetuated through the American white pelican Pelecanus erythrorhynchos, as confirmed by experimental infections with nestling and dewormed adult pelican specimens in conjunction with molecular data. It differs from the cryptic species Bolbophorus sp., also found concurrently in the American white pelican, by having eggs 123-129 microm rather than 100-112 microm long and consistent low values for nucleotide percentage sequence similarity comparing COI, ITS 1/2, 18S rRNA and 28S rRNA fragments. Bolbophorus sp. is comparable but most likely distinct from B. confusus (Kraus, 1914), which occurs in Europe and has eggs 90-102 microm long. Its intermediate hosts were not demonstrated. The adults of neither of the confirmed North American species of Bolbophorus were encountered in any bird other than a pelican, although several shore birds feed on infected catfish, and B. damnificus can survive but not mature when protected in the mouse abdominal cavity. B. ictaluri (Haderlie, 1953) Overstreet & Curran n. comb., a species different from B. damnificus, is considered a species inquirenda.
Morphological and molecular data for three species of the Microphallidae (Trematoda: Digenea) in Australia, including the first descriptions of the cercariae of Maritrema brevisacciferum Shimazu et Pearson, 1991 and Microphallus minutus Johnston, 1948
Kudlai, Olena; Cutmore, S.C.; Cribb, T.H.
Roč. 62, 16 September (2015), č. článku 053. ISSN 1803-6465 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP505/12/G112 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : larval stages * life cycle * morphology * rDNA sequences * freshwaters * Brisbane River Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 1.271, year: 2015
Phyllodistomum spinopapillatum sp. nov. (Digenea: Gorgoderidae), from the Oaxaca killifish Profundulus balsanus (Osteichthyes: Profundulidae) in Mexico, with new host and locality records of P. inecoli: Morphology, ultrastructure and molecular evidence.
Pérez-Ponce de León, Gerardo; Pinacho-Pinacho, Carlos D; Mendoza-Garfias, Berenit; García-Varela, Martin
Phyllodistomum spinopapillatum sp. nov. is described from the urinary bladder of the Oaxaca killifish, Profundulus balsanus Ahl (Profundulidae) in Rio Pueblo Viejo and Rio Santa Cruz, Oaxaca, southwestern Mexico. The new species is described based on evidence gathered from morphology, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and partial sequences of the 28S rRNA gene. Diagnostic characters of the new species of Phyllodistomum Braun 1899 are the presence of spines on the entire body surface and having a ventral sucker almost half the size of oral sucker. The new species possess a large number of dome-like papillae on the body surface with scattered distribution along the hindbody, and these papillae are characteristically spinulated. Phyllodistomum spinopapillatum sp. nov. most closely resembles P. inecoli Razo-Mendivil, Perez-Ponce de Leon and Rubio- Godoy, 2013, a parasite of the twospot livebearer Pseudoxiphophorus bimaculatus (Heckel) from Veracruz, in the Atlantic slope of Mexico. In addition to the new species, specimens of P. inecoli were also found parasitising the urinary bladder of cyprinodontiforms such as the Mexican molly Poecilia sphenops Valencienes in a pond at Santa Maria Coyotepec, and in Profundulus sp. in Rio Templo, both in Oaxaca, and in the Porthole livebearer Poeciliopsis gracilis (Heckel) in Rio San Juan, as well as in Profundulus punctatus (Gunter) from Rio Nueva Francia, both in Chiapas. The distribution and host range of P. inecoli is extended to freshwaters of the Pacific slope of Mexico, and to other cyprynodontiforms.
An annotated list of fish parasites (Copepoda, Monogenea, Digenea, Cestoda and Nematoda) collected from Emperors and Emperor Bream (Lethrinidae) in New Caledonia further highlights parasite biodiversity estimates on coral reef fish
Justine, J.-L.; Beveridge, I.; Boxshall, G.A.; Bray, R. A.; Moravec, František; Whittington, I.D.
Roč. 2691, - (2010), s. 1-40 ISSN 1175-5326 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC522 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : fish * new host records * new geographical records * inventory * biogeography * South Pacific Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 0.853, year: 2010
An annotated list of fish parasites (Isopoda, Copepoda, Monogenea, Digenea, Cestoda, Nematoda) collected from Snappers and Bream (Lutjanidae, Nemipteridae, Caesionidae) in New Caledonia confirms high parasite biodiversity on coral reef fish
Justine, J.-L.; Beveridge, I.; Boxshall, G.A.; Bray, R. A.; Miller, T.L.; Moravec, František; Trilles, J.-P.; Whittington, I.D.
Roč. 8, č. 1 (2012), s. 22 ISSN 2046-9063 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP505/12/G112 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : biodiversity * coral reef s * parasites * coextinction * New Caledonia * South Pacific Subject RIV: EG - Zoology
Joaber Pereira Junior
Full Text Available The orange disease is considered the main parasitosis in Perna perna mussel. It is caused by a complex life cycle bucephalid, involving three hosts, among them mollusks and fishes. With the aim of contributing to the knowledge of orange disease in mussel culture, the parasite life cycle was investigated. Experimental studies and monthly samples in the study area allowed the identification and characterization of the Bucephalus margaritae life cycle. Larvae and adults of B. margaritae were fixed in 5% formaldehyde, stained with Gomori’s trichrome, clarified in creosote and mounted in Canada balsam. The cercariae are found in the first intermediate host P. perna inside the sporocysts, which have the form of orange and ramified filaments. The metacercariae encysts in the gills and gill cavity of the second intermediate host, the blenniid Hypleurochilus fissicornis. The definitive host Menticirrhus americanus is infected ingesting blenniids parasitized with metacercariae. The high parasitological indexes of B. margaritae suggests that M. americanus and H. fissicornis act as the main definitive and intermediate hosts, respectively, in the trematode life cycle. The blenniid H. fissicornis is a new intermediate host to the species.
Two new species of Elopicola (Digenea: Aporocotylidae) from Hawaiian ladyfish, Elops hawaiensis (Eastern Sea) and Atlantic tarpon, Megalops atlanticus (Gulf of Mexico) with a comment on monophyly of elopomorph blood flukes.
Orélis-Ribeiro, Raphael; Halanych, Kenneth M; Dang, Binh T; Bakenhaster, Micah D; Arias, Cova R; Bullard, Stephen A
Elopicola bristowi sp. n. infects the blood vascular system of Hawaiian ladyfish, Elops hawaiensis, in the Eastern Sea. It differs from the only nominal congener Elopicola nolancribbi by the combination of having rows of ventrolateral tegumental spines, a proportionally long oesophagus, anterior caeca, vasa efferentia coalescing ventral to the posterodextral margin of the testis, a post-testicular metraterm, a dextral common genital pore lateral to the oötype, and genitalia that are enantiomorphic relative to those of E. nolancribbi. Elopicola franksi sp. n. infects the heart and blood vascular system of Atlantic tarpon, Megalops atlanticus, in the Gulf of Mexico. It differs from its congeners by the combination of lacking ventrolateral tegumental spines and having an elongate body (6× longer than wide), a proportionally long oesophagus, a compact testis at level of the distal ends of the posterior caeca, and a post-testicular common genital pore at level of the oötype. Phylogenetic analyses based on the small subunit ribosomal DNA (18S), large subunit ribosomal DNA (28S), and internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) genes revealed considerable genetic differences between these taxa. The 18S+28S tree showed a monophyletic Elopicola sister to all aporocotylids infecting fishes of Euteleosteomorpha. The ITS2 tree showed Paracardicoloides yamagutii as the sister taxon to Elopicola spp. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Eurytrema coelomaticum (Giard & Billet (Digenea, Dicrocoeliidae em Bradybaena similaris (Férussac (Gastropoda, Xanthonychidae: alterações nos depósitos de cálcio e na função reprodutiva do primeiro hospedeiro intermediário Eurytrema coelomaticum (Giard & Billet (Digenea, Dicrocoeliidae em Bradybaena similaris (Férussac (Gastropoda, Xanthonychidae: alterations in calcium deposits and in the reproductive function of its first intermediate host
Solange V. Paschoal
Full Text Available The influence of the parasitism by the digenetic trematode Eurytrema coelomaticum (Giard & Billet, 1892 over the calcium mobilization and the reproductive function of its first intermediate host, the snail Bradybaena similaris (Férussac, 1821 was experimentally studied in infected and uninfected snails maintained in laboratory under controlled conditions of nutrition, humidity and temperature. The calcium of the shells of infected and uninfected snails was quantified by using a technique of volumetric complexation. The amount of calcium present in the tissue was evaluated by using the histochemistry techniques of Dahl and von Kossa. The alteration in the reproductive function was evaluated through the egg production, and by histological follow up of the snails gametogenesis, in the infected and uninfected snails. The Student's test "t" showed that there was no significant difference in relation to size, weight and calcium concentration in the shells of infected and uninfected snails. The analysis of nonlinear regression, polynomial of 4th order, showed an highly positive relation to weight and size of shell to infected and uninfected snails, and an weakly significant relation to calcium concentration in the shells and shells size of infected snails. The histochemistry techniques demonstrated a large calcium deposition in the cells of the digestive glands of the infected snails when compared to the uninfected ones. The histological study of the ovotestis of the infected snails demonstrated that the gametogenesis of these snails was abnormal. The ovulogenesis was the most alterated and at 45 days post-infection the histological sections showed no ovocytes present in the ovotestis.
Prosthenhystera obesa (Digenea, parasita de Salminus maxillosus (Characidae da planície de inundação alto rio Paraná, Brasil: influência do tamanho e do sexo do hospedeiro Prosthenhystera obesa (Digenea, parasite of Salminus maxillosus (Characidae of the floodplain of the upper Paraná River, Paraná Brazil: influence of the size and sex of host
Ricardo Massato Takemoto
Full Text Available Foram analisados 126 espécimes de Salminus maxillosus Valenciennes, 1849, coletados na planície de inundação do alto rio Paraná em ambiente lótico, representado pelos rios Paraná, Ivinheima e canal Cortado e semi-lótico, representado pelo rio Baía. Para a captura dos hospedeiros utilizaram-se redes de espera de malhagens variadas. Os parasitas foram comprimidos e fixados em AFA (álcool, formalina, ácido acético, corados em carmalúmen de Mayer, desidratados em sequência alcoólica, clarificados em creosoto e montados em bálsamo do Canadá. Prosthenhystera obesa Diesing, 1850 apresentou prevalência de 14,3% e intensidade média de infecção de 1,75 (amplitude: 1-3. A prevalência de P. obesa não apresentou correlação com o comprimento-padrão do hospedeiro, o que poderia indicar homogeneidade no comportamento de S. maxillosus durante parte de seu desenvolvimento. A intensidade de infecção está diretamente relacionada com o aumento no tamanho do hospedeiro. O sexo dos hospedeiros não influenciou o prevalência e a intensidade de infecção de P. obesa, sugerindo uma semelhança no comportamento em relação ao hábito alimentar e habitat de machos e fêmeas. Todos os hospedeiros parasitados foram capturados em ambiente lóticoA hundred and twenty-six specimens of Salminus maxillosus Valenciennes, 1849, were analyzed. Fishes were collected in the floodplain of the upper Paraná river in lotic environments, represented by the Paraná and the Ivinheima rivers and by the Cortado channel, and a semi-lotic one represented by the Baía river. Capture of hosts was undertaken by gill nets of various mesh sizes. Prior to light microscopy, the specimens were fixed in AFA (alcohol, formalin, acetic acid under slight coverslip pressure, stained in Mayer’s acid carmalum, dehydrated in an alcohol series, cleared in creosote and mounted in Canada balsam. Prevalence of Prosthenhystera obesa Diesing, 1850 was 14.3% and mean intensity of infection 1.75 (range: 1-3. Prevalence of P. obesa is not correlated with standard length of host, a fact that may indicate homogeneity in behavior of S. maxillosus during part of its development. Infection intensity is directly related with increase in size of host. There was no influence of sex of host on prevalence and infection intensity of P. obesa. This fact may suggest similarity in behavior with regard to feeding habit and habitat of males and females. All parasitized hosts were captured in lotic environments
Derbel, H.; Châari, M.; Neifar, L.
This study is the first attempt to survey the diversity of fish digeneans in the Gulf of Gabes (southern coast of Tunisia). A total of 779 fishes belonging to 32 species were sampled. 53 species of Digenea belonging to 15 families were recorded. Among these species, 24 are reported for the first time from the coast of Tunisia. We report one new host record, Lecithochirium sp. from Sardinella aurita. The Hemiuridae is the dominant family. A host-parasite list is presented with the information on the prevalence, abundance and mean intensity of each species collected. The diversity of Digenea is compared with other localities in the Mediterranean Sea and the northern east of Tunisia. The Gulf of Gabes shows the lowest diversity linked to the anthropogenic activities and impact of exotic species. The use of Digenea as indicators of the state of the ecosystem is discussed. PMID:22550623
Scholz, Tomáš; Choudhury, A.
Roč. 100, č. 1 (2014), s. 26-45 ISSN 0022-3395 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP505/12/G112 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Trematode * North America * Cestoda * Acanthocephala * Digenea Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.227, year: 2014
Seventeen species of parasites were recovered from 1071 Clarias gariepinus examined from the Mwanza Gulf of Lake Victoria. The parasite fauna comprised of four ectoparasites, a Monogenea, Hirudinea, crustacean and a Digenea; and fourteen endoparasites, five nematodes, five trematodes and three cestodes. Twelve ...
Hernández-Orts, Jesús S.; Alama-Bermejo, Gema; Crespo, E.A.; Raga, J. A.; Montero, F. E.
Roč. 89, č. 1 (2014), s. 59-72 ISSN 0165-5752 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : kuhnia-scombri monogenea * 28s rdna sequences * host size * platyhelminthes * polyopisthocotylea * phylogeny * digenea * hamuli Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology OBOR OECD: Biochemistry and molecular biology Impact factor: 1.336, year: 2014
worldwide (1). Schistosomes belong to the kingdom Animalia,. Phylum Platyhelminthes, Class Trematoda, Subclass. Digenea, Order Strigeata, Family Schistosomatidae and Genus Schistosoma (2) .Members of this family are dioecious and parasitic in the blood vascular system of vertebrates. A general feature for the family.
Martinez-Aquino, A.; Mendoza-Palmero, Carlos Alonso; Aguilar-Aguilar, R.; Pérez-Ponce de León, G.
Roč. 3856, č. 2 (2014), s. 151-191 ISSN 1175-5326 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : taxonomy * Digenea * Monogenea * Cestoda * Nematoda * Acanthocephala * Mexico Subject RIV: EG - Zoology OBOR OECD: Zoology Impact factor: 0.906, year: 2014
Karvonen, A.; Faltýnková, Anna; Choo, J. M.; Valtonen, E. T.
Roč. 144, č. 10 (2017), s. 1346-1355 ISSN 0031-1820 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : complex life cycle * Digenea * host manipulation * host-parasite relationship * spatiotemporal variation * specificity * Trematoda Subject RIV: EG - Zoology OBOR OECD: Zoology Impact factor: 2.713, year: 2016
Keywords: Prevalence, Bovine, Fasciolosis, Abattoirs, Adamawa state. INTRODUCTION. Fasciolosis a parasitic disease of cattle, buffaloes, sheep, goats horses and human of all ages caused by liver flukes (Armour, 1975; Ramajo et al., 2001). Fasciola a trematode belonging to the sub- class. Digenea, which is commonly ...
Literák, I.; Heneberg, P.; Sitko, J.; Wetzel, E. J.; Callirgos, J. M. C.; Čapek, Miroslav; Basto, D. V.; Papoušek, I.
Roč. 62, č. 4 (2013), s. 390-396 ISSN 1383-5769 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA601690901; GA MŠk LC06073 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Birds * Caenogastropoda * Digenea * DNA analysis * Echinostomida * Eye trematode * Fluke Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 2.111, year: 2013
O’Dwyer, K.; Faltýnková, Anna; Georgieva, Simona; Kostadinova, Aneta
Roč. 114, č. 6 (2015), s. 2381-2397 ISSN 0932-0113 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP505/12/G112 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Parorchis * Gorgocephalus * Renicola * Notocotylus * Cercariae * 28S rDNA * cox1 * Digenea * Austrolittorina unifasciata * Australia Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 2.027, year: 2015
Scholz, Tomáš; Besprozvannykh, V. V.; Boutorina, T.E.; Choudhury, A.; Cribb, T.H.; Ermolenko, A. V.; Faltýnková, Anna; Shedko, M.B.; Shimazu, T.; Smit, N.J.
Roč. 93, č. 3 (2016), s. 257-269 ISSN 0165-5752 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP505/12/G112; GA ČR GA15-14198S Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : life cycle * Digenea * parasite communite Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.181, year: 2016
MULLER Johanna Walle
Full Text Available The IBA “Jijia and Miletin ponds” (code 014 is situated at 40 km north-west from Iaşi city, around the confluence point of Miletin and Jijia Rivers, forming Vlădeni wetland. During the migration periods – in spring and autumn – we can count in Vlădeni wetland territory large flocks of limicoline birds (thousands exemplars, being represented 28 species; some of them are very rare in this part of Romania: Pluvialis apricaria, Pluvialis squatarola, Gallinago media, Lymnocryptes minimus, Arenaria interpres or Limosa lapponica. During the spring migration, but also during the autumn migration, we recorded 25 species, three species being different from a season of migration to other. During whole migration period, there are two super-dominant species Vanellus vanellus and Limosa limosa. We notice the irregular presence autumn migration of Gallinago media. In December are still present 5 species of limicoline birds.
Eybert, Marie-Christine; Geslin, Thomas; Questiau, Sophie; Feunteun, Eric
The Mont-Saint-Michel bay located on the East Atlantic Flyway is the first site in France for wintering shorebirds, with, on average, 53,000 individuals in January. Seven species represent 96% of that community: dunlin (Calidris alpina), knot (Calidris canutus), oystercatcher (Haematopus ostralegus), curlew (Numenius arquata), grey plover (Pluvialis squatarola), bar-tailed godwit (Limosa lapponica) and black-tailed godwit (Limosa limosa). The international bird census organised by Wetlands International in mid-January gave us the opportunity to study, for a 23 years period, population variations in the bay. Despite a quite good carrying capacity, we showed that the decreasing proportion of 4 species in the bay relative to the other French populations may indicate a general perturbation of the bay. We discuss the different hypotheses to explain that observation.
Susanna A. S. Cabral
Full Text Available Todos os anos milhares de aves limícolas e migratórias invernam ao longo da costa da América do Sul, entre setembro e abril, onde adquirem massa corpórea e realizam mudas para retornar aos sítios de reprodução. Estudos quali-quantitativos foram realizados na Área de Proteção Ambiental de Piaçabuçu, Alagoas, Brasil, através da contagem direta, objetivando o acompanhamento das flutuações sazonais da avifauna migrante. Foram registradas cinco espécies da família Charadriidae: Vanellus chilensis (Wagler, 1827; Pluvialis squatarola (Linnaeus, 1758; Charadrius semipalmatus Bonaparte, 1825; Charadrius collaris Vieillot, 1818 e Charadrius wilsonia (Ord, 1814 e cinco espécies da família Scolopacidae: Arenaria interpres (Linnaeus, 1758; Actitis macularius (Linnaeus, 1766; Catoptrophorus semipalmatus (Gmelin, 1789; Calidris pusilla (Linnaeus, 1766 e Calidris alba (Pallas, 1764. Pluvialis squatarola, Charadrius semipalmatus, Charadrius collaris, Arenaria interpres, Calidris pusilla e Calidris alba foram consideradas constantes (presentes em mais de 50% das observações. Charadrius semipalmatus e Calidris alba apresentaram os maiores índices de freqüência de ocorrência nos meses de novembro e dezembro e, março e setembro, respectivamente. A correlação de Spearman demonstra uma forte dependência na migração destas espécies. A fidelidade dessas aves a APA de Piaçabuçu observada nessa pesquisa indica ser a área um sítio de invernada, reforçando sua importância para a conservação das espécies migratórias que utilizam o local.Every year, thousands of limicola and migratory birds winter on the South American coast, between September and April, where they acquire body mass and undergo moulting before returning to their reproduction sites. Qualitative and quantitative studies were performed in the Piaçabuçu Protection Area located in the state of Alagoas, Brazil, by direct counting, aiming to follow upon the birds' seasonal
Simbiontes associados com Anomalocardia brasiliana (Gmelin (Mollusca, Bivalvia, Veneridae na Ilha de Santa Catarina e região continental adjacente, Santa Catarina, Brasil Symbionts associated with Anomalocardia brasiliana (Gmelin (Mollusca, Bivalvia, Veneridae on Santa Catarina Island and adjacent continental region, Santa Catarina, Brazil
Full Text Available Berbigões, Anomalocardia brasiliana (Gmelin, 1791, de bancos naturais da Ilha de Santa Catarina e região continental adjacente (SC, Brasil, foram examinados quanto a presença de simbiontes. Holothuriophilus tomentosus (Ortmann, 1894 (Brachyura, Sphenia antillensis Dall & Simpson, 1901 (Bivalvia e poliquetos espionídeos (Polychaeta foram observados macroscopicamente. A análise das secções histológicas evidenciou esporocistos de trematódeos (Digenea, um metacestóide (Cestoda e dois ciliados (Ciliophora.Pointed venus, Anomalocardia brasiliana (Gmelin, 1791, from natural beds of Santa Catarina Island and adjacent continental region (SE Brazil were examined in respect of symbiotic associations. Holothuriophilus tomentosus (Ortmann, 1894 (Brachyura, Sphenia antillensis Dall & Simpson, 1901 (Bivalvia, and polychaete worms (Polychaeta were found by macroscopic diagnosis. By analysis of histological sections, it was noted trematode sporocysts (Digenea, a metacestode (Cestoda and two ciliates (Ciliophora.
Marcelo E Oliva
Full Text Available Three species of protistan and 22 species of metazoan parasites were obtained from a sample of 179 flatfish, (Paralichthys adspersus taken-off Antofagasta, northern Chile. Prevalence of infection of seven parasites (Protista: 1, Copepoda: 2, Digenea: 1, Acantocephala: 1, Nematoda: 2 was significantly and positively correlated with host size. Host's sex do not seem to affect prevalence of infection, except for Nybelinia surmenicola, Capillaria sp. and Anisakis sp. (prevalence of infection significantly greater in males than females and Philometra sp. (prevalence higher in females. Mean abundance is correlated with size in nine species (Protista: 1, Copepoda: 2, Digenea: 3, Acantocephala: 1, Nematoda: 2. Host's sex do not affect mean abundance, except for Cainocreadium sp. and Philometra sp.(mean abundance higher in females and Nybelinia surmenicola, Capillaria sp. and Anisakis sp. (mean abundance higher in males.
Azevedo, R. K.
Full Text Available Using information from all published reports and data collected during several parasitological surveys betweenApril 2003 and September 2009, a checklist of the parasites of fishes from Guandu River, southeastern of Brazil wasgenerated. A total of 85 parasite species, 54 named species (1 Acanthocephala, 1 Cestoda, 2 Crustacea, 13 Digenea, 11Nematoda, 23 Monogenea and 3 Myxozoa and 31 undetermined species (3 Acanthocephala, 2 Cestoda, 1 Crustacea, 8Digenea, 8 Nematoda, 4 Hirudinea, 3 Monogenea and 2 Myxozoa in 21 fish host species from Guandu River, were listed inthe current study, including 36 new locality records and 36 new host records. Also, a host-parasite list is included herein.
Míguez-Lozano, R.; Pardo-Carranza, T.V.; Blasco-Costa, Maria Isabel; Balbuena, J. A.
Roč. 98, č. 5 (2012), s. 904-912 ISSN 0022-3395 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : 1914 DIGENEA HAPLOPORIDAE * PARASITE SPECIES RICHNESS * N. SP MONOGENEA * MARINE FISHES * ENVIRONMENTAL COMPONENTS * LIGOPHORUS MONOGENEA * SATURNIUS MANTER * BETA DIVERSITY * DISTANCE DECAY * BLACK-SEA Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.321, year: 2012 http://www.bioone.org/doi/abs/10.1645/GE-2897.1#fn2
Soldánová, Miroslava; Selbach, C.; Sures, B.; Kostadinova, Aneta; Pérez-del-Olm, A.
Roč. 3, č. 56 (2010), s. 1-13 ISSN 1756-3305 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC522; GA ČR GAP505/10/1562 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : SNAIL INTERMEDIATE HOSTS * SPATIAL HETEROGENEITY * CENTRAL-EUROPE * parasite * GASTROPODA * PULMONATA * DIGENEA * DIVERSITY * MOLLUSKS Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 2.130, year: 2010
Brown, Rebecca; Soldánová, Miroslava; Barrett, J.; Kostadinova, Aneta
Roč. 108, č. 1 (2011), s. 137-150 ISSN 0932-0113 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP505/10/1562; GA ČR GD206/09/H026; GA MŠk LC522 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : CENTRAL FINLAND * PARASITES * SNAILS * DIVERSITY * GASTROPODA * COMMUNITY * PATTERNS * DIGENEA * HOSTS Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 2.149, year: 2011
Faltýnková, Anna; Karvonen, A.; Jyrkka, M.; Valtonen, E. T.
Roč. 136, č. 11 (2009), s. 1375-1382 ISSN 0031-1820 R&D Projects: GA ČR GP524/07/P086 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : host-parasite relationships * complex life cycles * community ecology * transmission window * circadian pattern * host exploitation * Digenea * cercarial emergence Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 1.607, year: 2009
Ondračková, Markéta; Bartošová, Šárka; Valová, Zdenka; Jurajda, Pavel; Gelnar, M.
Roč. 49, č. 3 (2004), s. 222-227 ISSN 1230-2821 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA524/02/0924 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6093917 Keywords : Digenea * juvenile fish * host susceptibility Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.560, year: 2004 http://www.actaparasitologica.pan.pl/archive/49/toc49130.html
Vicentin, Wagner; Vieira, Kelly Regina Ibarrola; Costa, Fábio Edir Dos Santos; Takemoto, Ricardo Massato; Tavares, Luiz Eduardo Roland; Paiva, Fernando
In order to inventory the metazoan endoparasites of Serrasalmus marginatus, 91 specimens were examined. They were captured in the Negro River in Pantanal wetland, State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Central-Western Brazil, from October 2007 to August 2008. Parasites of six taxa were recovered: Procamallanus (Spirocamallanus) inopinatus, Contracaecum sp. (Nematoda), metacercarial type Diplostomulum (Digenea), Brevimulticaecum sp. (Nematoda) and Sebekia oxycephala, Subtriquetra sp. 1 and Subtriquetra sp. 2 (Pentastomida). The latter five species are reported for the first time in S. marginatus.
YILDIRIMHAN, Hikmet Sami; SÜMER, Nurhan; İNCEDOĞAN, Sezen; BURSEY, Charles Robert
Forty lemon-yellow tree frogs, Hyla savignyi, collected from Kırıkhan, Turkey (25 in April 2009, 15 in April 2010), were examined for helminths, and 21 frogs were found to be infected. One species of Monogenea (Polystoma integerrimum), 3 species of Digenea (Diplodiscus subclavatus, Halipegus kessleri, and Pleurogenoides medians), 1 species of Cestoda (Nematotaenia dispar), and 2 species of Nematoda (Aplectana brumpti and Cosmocerca commutata) were found. Hyla savignyi represents a new host ...
Poddubnaya, L. G.; Levron, Céline; Gibson, D. I.
Roč. 56, č. 2 (2011), 131-139 ISSN 1230-2821 R&D Projects: GA ČR GP524/07/P039; GA MŠk LC522 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Aspidogastrea * Digenea * Aspidogaster limacoides * Phyllodistomum angulatum * Azygia lucii * ultrastructure * uterus * septate junctions Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 0.789, year: 2011
Forcep Rio Indaryanto
Full Text Available The short mackerel is the most commercially important small pelagic fish in Indonesia. Parasitism plays a central role in fish biology. Parasitism is a ubiquitous phenomenon in the marine environment and it is probable that all marine fishes are infected with parasites. Helminth parasitic of Rastrelliger spp. are Lechitocladium angustonum (Digenea: Hemiuridae, Lecitochirium sp. (Digenea: Hemiuridae, Prodistomum orientalis (Digenea: Lepocreadiidae and Anisakis typica (Nematodes: Anisakidae, with 90.12% of prevalence. They are not significant different of helminth parasitic abundance from R. kanagurta and R. brachysoma, but significant in helminth species richness. This different of helminth species richness was because of L. angustonum dominances. The different location wasn’t have significant different of helminth parasitic abundance because Indonesian in the tropical zone. Anisakis species in Java sea have a same genetic with Anisakis typical and not zoonotic parasite kategories. The fish digestion was a microhabitat for helminth parasitik because they have much food stuff. The fish growth have significant different in helminth parasitic abundance and intencity. This situation was because the fish immunity development and the food habit of fish.
Forcep Rio Indaryanto
Full Text Available The monitoring of health and disease in a fish is important as parasitism plays a central role in fishbiology. Parasitism is a ubiquitous phenomenon in the marine environment and it is probable that allmarine fishes are infected with parasites. The aims of the research were to inventory the helminth parasitesof Rastrelliger sp. from Banten Bay and Pelabuhan Ratu Bay. As many as 25–30 of fish samples werecollected using gill net and examined for helminth parasites. The helminth parasitic calculated intensityand prevalence. The helminth parasites of Rastrelliger sp. were found Lechitocladium angustiovum (digenea:Hemiuridae, Lecitochirium sp. (digenea: Hemiuridae, Prodistomum orientalis (digenea: Lepocreadiidaeand Anisakis typica (nematodes: Anisakidae, with 90.12% of prevalence. L. angustonum was dominancehelminth parasites found in fish. There was no difference on parasites found in R. kanagurta and R.brachysoma wich were of Restrellinger genus. The location not appear have no significant after on helminthparasitic infection as they have a same genetic stock. Anisakis species in Java sea have a same genetipewith Anisakis typical and was not zoonotic parasite categories.
Campos, A; Cummings, M P; Reyes, J L; Laclette, J P
Nucleotide sequences of 18S ribosomal RNA from 71 species of Platyhelminthes, the flatworms, were analyzed using maximum likelihood, and the resulting phylogenetic trees were compared with previous phylogenetic hypotheses. Analyses including 15 outgroup species belonging to eight other phyla show that Platyhelminthes are monophyletic with the exception of a sequence putatively from Acoela sp., Lecithoepitheliata, Polycladida, Tricladida, Trematoda (Aspidobothrii + Digenea), Monogenea, and Cestoda (Gyrocotylidea + Amphilinidea + Eucestoda) are monophyletic groups. Catenulids form the sister group to the rest of platyhelminths, whereas a complex clade formed by Acoela, Tricladida, "Dalyellioida", and perhaps "Typhloplanoida" is sister to Neodermata. "Typhloplanoida" does not appear to be monophyletic; Fecampiida does not appear to belong within "Dalyellioida," nor Kalyptorhynchia within "Typhloplanoida." Trematoda is the sister group to the rest of Neodermata, and Monogenea is sister group to Cestoda. Within Trematoda, Aspidobothrii is the sister group of Digenea and Heronimidae is the most basal family in Digenea. Our trees support the hypothesis that parasitism evolved at least twice in Platyhelminthes, once in the ancestor to Neodermata and again in the ancestor of Fecampiida, independently to the ancestor of putatively parasitic "Dalyellioida."
A. Arandas Rêgo
Full Text Available Os autores identificaram as seguintes espécies de helmintos, coletados de 50 cavalas, Scomber japonicus, no Rio de Janeiro: Kuhnia scombri (Kuhn, 1829 e Grubea cochlear (Diesing, 1858 (Monogenea; Opechona orientalis (Layman, 1930, Lecithocladium harpodontis Srivastava, 1942 e Nematobothrium scombri (Taschenberg, 1879 (Digenea; plerocercos de Trypanorhyncha Scolex pleuronectis Müller, 1788 e Rhinebothrium sp. (Cestoda; Bolbosoma sp. (Acanghocephala e Anisakidae larvares (Nematoda, identificados aos tipos larvares Raphidascaris, Phocanema, Contracaecum e Anisakis tipo 1. Os digenéticos foram os de maior incidência, 84% dos peixes mostraram-se parasitados por uma ou mais espécies. Quanto às espécies, a de maior incidência foi Nematobothrium scombri (Digenea, Didymozoidae, em 46% dos peixes. São pela primeria vez assinalados Scomber japonicus larvas de Phillobothiidae, possivelmente Rhinebothrium, além de larvas de Anisakis do tipo 1. São pela primeira vez assinaladas no Brasil as espécies, Grubea cochlear, Kuhnia scombri, Nematobothrium scombri e Opechona orientalis.There were identified twelve species of helminths from fifty "Spanish Mackerel", Scomber japonicus Houtt, in Rio de Janeiro; Kuhnia scombri (Kuhn, 1829, and Grubea cochlear (Diesing, 1859 (Monogenea; Opechona orientalis (Layman, 1930, Lecithocladium harpodontis Srivastava, 1942 e Nematobothrium scombri (Taschengerg, 1879 (Digenea; plerocercus of Trypanorhyncha, Scolex pleuronectis Müller, 1788 and Rhinebothrium sp. (Cestoda; Bolbosoma sp. (Acanthocephala and larval Anisakidae (Nematoda, types Raphidascaris, Phocanema, Contracaecum and Anisakis I. Larval Phillobothriid, following species are referred in Brazil for the first time: Grubea cochlear, Kuhnia scombri, Nematobothrium scombri and Opechona orientalis.
Full Text Available Fifty-four Pelophylax bedriagae (Levantine Frog from Turkey (İzmir and Manisa Provinces were examined for helminth parasites. The frogs were collected between 2012 and 2014 years. Eight species of helminth parasites were recorded: 3 species of Nematoda (Rhabdias bufonis, Cosmocerca ornata, Oswaldocruzia filiformis, 3 species of Digenea (Diplodiscus subclavatus, Haematoloechus bre-viansa, Gorgoderina vitelliloba, 1 species of Acanthocephala (Acanthocephalus ranae and 1 species of Hirudinea (Hirudo medicinalis. Pelophylax bedriagae is a new host record for these parasite species.
Full Text Available Examination of western tubenose goby (Proterorhinus semilunaris from the River Dyje (Czech Republic, Danube basin for metazoan parasites revealed the presence of metacercariae of Cyathocotyle prussica Mühling, 1896 (Digenea: Cyathocotylidae in both muscle tissue and the peritoneal cavity. This is the first time that tubenose gobies have been reported as an intermediate host for C. prussica, and the first time that C. prussica metacercariae have been registered parasitising fish hosts in the Czech Republic. Here, we describe the morphology of metacercariae and five-day preadults, cultivated in vitro, and discuss the importance of recently established, non-native species as suitable hosts for this parasite.
Helminth parasites of Ctenosciaena gracilicirrhus (Perciformes: Sciaenidae from the coast of Angra dos Reis, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil Helmintos parásitos de Ctenosciaena gracilicirrhus (Perciformes: Sciaenidae de la costa de Angra dos Reis, del estado de Rio de Janeiro, Brasil
Melissa Q. Cárdenas
Full Text Available During a survey of the helminth parasites of Ctenosciaena gracilicirrhus from the Atlantic Ocean, off Angra dos Reis, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil, 10 species of metazoan parasites were collected: 1 species of Monogenea (Choricotyle rohdei; 3 species of Nematoda (Hysterothylacium sp. third stage larvae, Raphidascaris sp. third stage larvae, and Procamallanus (Spirocamallanus pereirai third and fourth stages larvae and adults; 6 species of Digenea (Opecoeloides pedicathedrae, Opecoeloides melanopteri, Diplomonorchis leiostomi, Aponurus laguncula, Parahemiurus merus and Manteriella sp.. Choricotyle rohdei and Hysterothylacium sp. had the highest prevalence, mean intensity and abundance and an aggregated pattern of distribution was observed in both species. A positive correlation between the standard length of hosts and the parasitic abundance of Hysterothylacium sp. and C. rohdei was observed. The prevalence of C. rohdei was positively correlated with standard length of the host, while in Hysterothylacium sp. there was no correlation. Ctenosciaena gracilicirrhus represents a new host record to all species of Nematoda and Digenea presented herein. The genus Manteriella is reported for the first time in South America.Durante un estudio de los helmintos de Ctenosciaena gracilicirrhus de la zona costera de Angra dos Reis, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil, 10 especies de parásitos metazoos fueron recolectados: 1 especie de Monogenea (Choricotyle rohdei; 6 de Digenea (Opecoeloides pedicathedrae, Opecoeloides melanopteri, Diplomonorchis leiostomi, Aponurus laguncula, Parahemiurus merus y Manteriella sp.; 3 nemátodos (Hysterothylacium sp. y Raphidascaris sp., ambas larvas de tercer estadio y Procamallanus (Spirocamallanus pereira, larvas de tercer y cuarto estadios y adultos. Choricotyle rohdei y Hysterothylacium sp. presentaron la mayor prevalencia, intensidad media y abundancia, así como un patrón agregado de distribución. Se observó una correlaci
Full Text Available Parasitic infections are widespread among exotic lizards and cause serious problems in both private captive breeding and trade networks. Among 168 lizards obtained from captive breeding (Zoological Garden in Wrocław and private owners and trade (pet shops and wholesale the total prevalence of endoparasites was 42.35 %. We detected species of Protozoa, Cestoda, Trematoda - Digenea and Nematoda as well as pseudoparasites. The prevalence of endoparasites was higher in the reptiles obtained from captive breeding (59.5 % than in those from trade network, however the parasite species spectrum was wider in the animals form pet shops and wholesales.
Santoro, Mario; Kinsella, John M; Galiero, Giorgio; degli Uberti, Barbara; Aznar, Francisco Javier
We compared helminth communities in 6 species of birds of prey from the Calabria region of southern Italy. In total, 31 helminth taxa, including 17 nematodes, 9 digeneans, 3 acanthocephalans, and 2 cestodes, were found. All helminth species were observed in the gastrointestinal tract, except for 3 spirurid nematodes. Most of the parasite species were detected in at least 2 hosts, but 13 helminth species were found in only 1 host. At the infracommunity level, the overall species richness and Brillouin's index of diversity varied by host, with the highest values in a generalist feeder, the Eurasian buzzard (Buteo buteo), and the lowest in a specialist, the western honey buzzard (Pernis apivorus). Species richness was gender dependent only in the sparrow hawk (Accipiter nisus). The helminth communities were characterized by different dominant species, namely, Centrorhynchus spp. (Acanthocephala) in the Eurasian buzzard and common kestrel (Falco tinnunculus), Parastrigea intermedia (Digenea) in the marsh harrier (Circus aeruginosus), Physaloptera alata (Nematoda) in the sparrow hawk, Serratospiculum tendo (Nematoda) in the peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus), and Strigea falconis (Digenea) in the western honey buzzard. Statistical analyses confirmed a highly significant difference of helminth infracommunity structure among host species. We conclude that in the Calabria region of southern Italy, each of the raptor species studied is distinct in terms of its helminth communities, and more diverse feeding habits of the host correspond with richer helminth communities.
Márcia Cristina Nascimento-Justo
Full Text Available Four species of Scombridae from the coast of Rio de Janeiro, southwest Atlantic Ocean were found to be parasitized with species of Didymozoidae (Digenea: Thunnus atlanticus (Lesson a new host record for Nephrodidymotrema ahi Yamaguti, 1970, Didymocystis neothunni (Yamaguti, 1970, and Didymozoon longicolle (Yamaguti, 1970; Thunnus obesus (Lowe parasitized by Didymozoon longicolle and reported as a new host for Nephrodidymotrema ahi; Thunnus albacares (Bonaterre parasitized by Nephrodidymotrema ahi, and Katsuwonus pelamis (Linnaeus by Didymozoon longicolle. Measurements, figures, and parameters of infection are presented.Cuatro especies de Scombridae de la costa de Río de Janeiro, suroeste del océano Atlántico, se reportan parasitados con diferentes especies de Didymozoidae (Digenea: Thunnus atlanticus (Lesson un registro de nuevo huésped para Nephrodidymotrema ahi Yamaguti, 1970, Didymocystis neothunni (Yamaguti, 1970 y para Didymozoon longicolle (Yamaguti, 1970; Thunnus obesus (Lowe parasitado por Didymozoon longicolle, se indica como nuevo huésped para Nephrodidymotrema ahi; Thunnus albacares (Bonaterre parasitados por Nephrodidymotrema ahi y Katsuwonus pelamis (Linnaeus por Didymozoon longicolle. Se presentan las mediciones, las figuras y los parámetros de la infección.
Metazoan endoparasites of Serrasalmus marginatus (Characiformes: Serrasalminae in the Negro River, Pantanal, Brazil Metazoários endoparasitos de Serrasalmus marginatus (Characiformes: Serrasalminae no Rio Negro, Pantanal, Brasil
Full Text Available In order to inventory the metazoan endoparasites of Serrasalmus marginatus, 91 specimens were examined. They were captured in the Negro River in Pantanal wetland, State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Central-Western Brazil, from October 2007 to August 2008. Parasites of six taxa were recovered: Procamallanus (Spirocamallanus inopinatus, Contracaecum sp. (Nematoda, metacercarial type Diplostomulum (Digenea, Brevimulticaecum sp. (Nematoda and Sebekia oxycephala, Subtriquetra sp. 1 and Subtriquetra sp. 2 (Pentastomida. The latter five species are reported for the first time in S. marginatus.Com o objetivo de inventariar os metazoários endoparasitos em Serrasalmus marginatus, no Rio Negro, Pantanal, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brasil, foram examinados 91 espécimes capturados no período de outubro de 2007 a agosto de 2008. Foram registrados seis táxons parasitos: Procamallanus (Spirocamallanus inopinatus, Contracaecum sp. (Nematoda, metacercária do tipo Diplostomulum (Digenea; Brevimulticaecum sp. (Nematoda; e Sebekia oxycephala, Subtriquetra sp. 1 e Subtriquetra sp. 2 (Pentastomida. As últimas cinco espécies citadas são registradas pela primeira vez em S. marginatus.
Verkuil, Yvonne; Koolhaas, Anita; Van Der Winden, Jan
Large numbers of waders migrating northward in spring use the Sivash, a large system of shallow, brackish and hypersaline lagoons in the Black Sea and Azov Sea region (Ukraine). The bottoms of these lagoons are often uncovered by the wind. Hence, for waders the time and space available for feeding depend on wind conditions. In hypersaline lagoons the benthic and pelagic fauna was very poor, consisting mainly of chironomid larvae (0.19 g AFDM·m -2) and brine shrimps Artemia salina, respectively. Brine shrimp abundance was correlated with salinity, wind force, wind direction and water depth. Dunlin Calidris alpina and curlew sandpiper Calidris ferruginea were the only species feeding on brine shrimp. As brine shrimp densities are higher in deeper water, smaller waders such as broad-billed sandpipers Limicola falcinellus are too short-legged to reach exploitable densities of brine shrimp. In brackish lagoons the benthic and pelagic fauna was rich, consisting of polychaetes, bivalves, gastropods, chironomid larvae, isopods and amphipods (8.9 to 30.5 g AFDM·m -2), but there were no brine shrimps. Prey biomass increased with the distance from the coast, being highest on the site that was most frequently inundated. Dunlin, broad-billed sandpiper and grey plover Pluvialis squatarola were the most abundant birds in the brackish lagoon. Due to the effects of wind-tides only a small area was usually available as a feeding site. Gammarus insensibilis was the alternative prey resource in the water layer, and their density varied with wind direction in the same way as brine shrimp. Curlew sandpipers and dunlins in the hypersaline lagoons and broad-billed sandpipers in the brackish lagoons often changed feeding sites, probably following the variation in prey availability. Only because of the large size and variety of lagoons are waders in the Sivash always able to find good feeding sites.
Saalfeld, Sarah T.; Lanctot, Richard B.; Brown, Stephen C.; Saalfeld, David T.; Johnson, James A.; Andres, Brad A.; Bart, Jonathan R.
The Arctic Coastal Plain (ACP) of Alaska is an important region for millions of migrating and nesting shorebirds. However, this region is threatened by climate change and increased human development (e.g., oil and gas production) that have the potential to greatly impact shorebird populations and breeding habitat in the near future. Because historic data on shorebird distributions in the ACP are very coarse and incomplete, we sought to develop detailed, contemporary distribution maps so that the potential impacts of climate-mediated changes and development could be ascertained. To do this, we developed and mapped habitat suitability indices for eight species of shorebirds (Black-bellied Plover [Pluvialis squatarola], American Golden-Plover [Pluvialis dominica], Semipalmated Sandpiper [Calidris pusilla], Pectoral Sandpiper [Calidris melanotos], Dunlin [Calidris alpina], Long-billed Dowitcher [Limnodromus scolopaceus], Red-necked Phalarope [Phalaropus lobatus], and Red Phalarope [Phalaropus fulicarius]) that commonly breed within the ACP of Alaska. These habitat suitability models were based on 767 plots surveyed during nine years between 1998 and 2008 (surveys were not conducted in 2003 and 2005), using single-visit rapid area searches during territory establishment and incubation (8 June, 1 July). Species specific habitat suitability indices were developed and mapped using presence-only modeling techniques (partitioned Mahalanobis distance) and landscape environmental variables. For most species, habitat suitability was greater at lower elevations (i.e., near the coast and river deltas) and lower within upland habitats. Accuracy of models was high for all species, ranging from 65 -98%. Our models predicted that the largest fraction of suitable habitat for the majority of species occurred within the National Petroleum Reserve-Alaska, with highly suitable habitat also occurring within coastal areas of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge west to Prudhoe Bay.
Curran, John M; Ellis, Trevor M; Robertson, Ian D
The virologic surveillance of 4248 Charadriiformes since 1992 primarily from coastal northwest Australia did not detect any evidence of avian influenza virus (AIV) excretion (test prevalence = 0%; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0%-0.09%). Past exposure to AIV was evident from serologic testing using nucleoprotein (NP) competitive-ELISA (c-ELISA) with an overall seroprevalence of 8.8% (95% CI: 8%-9.7%). The c-ELISA seroprevalence of family Scolopacidae and genus Numenius was significantly higher when compared with other families and genera, respectively. Exposure risk profiles, based on c-ELISA seroprevalence, were compiled for 40 species with the following species having significantly higher values when compared with the combined value of all other species: eastern curlew (Numenius madagascariensis), whimbrel (Numenius phaeopus), ruddy turnstone (Arenaria interpres), grey plover (Pluvialis squatarola), little curlew (Numenius minutus), red knot (Calidris canutus), sharp-tailed sandpiper (Calidris acuminata), and red-necked stint (Calidris ruficollis). From hemagglutination inhibition (HI) testing, the more prevalent HI reactions were against H2, H5, H6, and H9 subtypes, with no reactions against subtypes H11, H14, H15, and H16. Serologic testing using c-ELISA provided species risk profiles for optimizing a surveillance strategy for AIV in diverse populations of wild birds. The paucity of knowledge about the role of waders in the ecology of AIV and the overall very low to negligible virus prevalence reported globally, and in this study, suggests that waders are spillover hosts in shared ecosystems with a lesser role than previously considered.
Burton, Niall H K; Armitage, Michael J S; Musgrove, Andrew J; Rehfisch, Mark M
The potential impact of human disturbance on wintering waterbirds using intertidal mudflats was considered by relating their numbers to the presence of nearby footpaths, roads, railroads, and towns. Data were obtained for six English estuaries from the Wetland Bird Survey Low Tide Count scheme. Counts were undertaken monthly from November to February, and data were available for an average of 2.8 years per estuary for the period 1992-1993 to 1999-2000. Count sections and the positions of man-made landscape features were mapped using a GIS. Generalized linear models tested whether bird numbers varied according to the estuary, month, area, whether or not the section bordered water, and the proportion of each section within a specified distance of each landscape feature. In addition, the proximity of sections to the nearest footpath access point was considered. Numbers of six of nine species, northern shelduck (Tadorna tadorna), red knot (Calidris canutus), dunlin (Calidris alpina), black-tailed godwit (Limosa limosa), Eurasian curlew (Numenius arquata) and common redshank (Tringa totanus), were significantly lower where a footpath was close to a count section, while those of brant (Branta bernicla) were greater. Northern shelduck, black-bellied plover (Pluvialis squatarola), dunlin, and black-tailed godwit numbers were reduced close to railroads and those of common ringed plover (Charadrius hiaticula), black-bellied plover, and Eurasian curlew close to roads. Common ringed plover numbers were greater close to towns. The relative distances to which species were affected by footpaths corresponded to published information concerning their flight distances in response to human disturbance. The study provided evidence that sustained disturbance associated with footpaths, roads, and railroads reduced local habitat quality for waterbirds and the carrying capacity of estuaries.
Rajabpour, M; Malek, M; MacKenzie, K; Aghlmandi, F
A total of 182 specimens of two sturgeon species, stellate sturgeon Acipenser stellatus (N=112) and Persian sturgeon Acipenser persicus (N=70), from three coastal stations in the South-East Caspian Sea were examined for endohelminth parasites. Four helminth species were recorded: Cucullanus sphaerocephala (Nematoda: Cucullanidae) and Skrjabinopsolus semiarmatus (Digenea: Acanthocolpidae), found in both host species, and Leptorhynchoides plagicephalus (Acanthocephala: Rhadinorhynchidae) and Amphilina foliacea (Cestodaria: Amphilinidae), found only in A. stellatus. The most abundant parasites were C. sphaerocephala and S. semiarmatus in A. persicus and A. stellatus, respectively. Canonical discriminant analysis was applied for separating host species using parasite numbers data, Brillouin index of diversity, and species richness. By this means, 83% of the hosts were assigned to their correct a priori groups. The different feeding habits and habitat preferences of the two hosts are probably the major factors accounting for the difference in their parasite burdens.
Silva, A M O; Tavares-Dias, M; Jerônimo, G T; Martins, M L
This study describes the parasitic fauna of Oxydoras niger from the Coari Lake, tributary of the medium Solimões River, State of Amazonas, Brazil, and the relationship between the number of Monogenoidea and the condition factor. From a total of 27 examined fish, 70.3% were parasitised by at least one parasite species as follows: Ichthyophthirius multifiliis (Protozoa), Chilodonella sp. (Protozoa), Cosmetocleithrum gussevi, C. confusus, C. parvum and Cosmetocleithrum sp. (Monogenoidea), Paracavisona impudica (Acanthocephala), Cucullanus grandistomis (Nematoda), Proteocephalus kuyukuyu (Cestoda) and Dadaytrema sp. (Digenea). Monogenoidea helminthes were the most prevalent parasite when compared to protozoan and intestinal helminthes. This study showed that O. niger has a great parasite diversity composed mainly of monogenoideans followed by acanthocephalan and digenean. This is the first record of Dadaytrema in O. niger from the Brazilian Amazon. There was a positive correlation between the number of monogenoideans and the condition factor (Kn) of fish, and with this mean intensity of infection, fish welfare was not affected.
Gabriela Tomas Jeronimo
Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi descrever a fauna parasitária de cachara (Pseudoplatystoma reticulatum cultivado em tanque-rede, no rio Paraguai. Dez peixes com peso médio de 598,0±81,3 g e comprimento total médio de 38,6±1,6 cm foram examinados. Todos os peixes necropsiados apresentaram infestação por pelo menos duas espécies de parasitos. Entre os parasitos, foram encontrados Ichthyophthirius multifiliis (Ciliophora, Myxobolus sp. e Henneguya sp. (Myxozoa, Monogenoidea, Choanoscolex abscissus e Nominoscolex sudobim (Cestoda, Dolops carvalhoi (Crustacea e Digenea. O protozoário Ichthyophthirius multifiliis foi o parasito com maior prevalência.
Full Text Available Bu çalışmada Elazığ, Keban yöresinden toplanan 20 adet salyangoz (Helix lucorum endohelmint yönünden incelendi. Yapılan parazitolojik muayene sonucunda salyangozların bağırsağında Paragonimus sp. (Trematoda; Digenea ve Protostrogylus sp. (Nematoda; Metastrongyloidea belirlendi. Paragonimus sp.’nin bolluğu (abundance % 20, yaygınlığı (prevalance % 5 ve ortalama yoğunluk (mean intensity 4 parazit/ salyangoz olarak, Protostrogylus sp.’nin bolluğu % 30, yaygınlığı % 5 ve ortalama yoğunluk ise 6 parazit/ salyangoz olarak tespit edildi. Her iki parazitin de ergin olmayıp salyangozu arakonakçı olarak kullandığı belirlendi
Ndiaye, Papa Ibnou; Diagne, Papa Mbagnick; Sène, Aminata; Bakhoum, Abdoulaye J S; Miquel, Jordi
The present study describes the ultrastructure of the mature spermatozoon of Lecithocladium excisum (Rudolphi, 1819) (Digenea: Hemiuroidea: Hemiuridae) from the stomach of the marine teleost Scomber japonicus Houttuyn (Scombridae) captured in the Atlantic Ocean, off Dakar (Senegal). The ultrastructural organization of the spermatozoon of L. excisum follows the general model described in most digeneans. It presents two axonemes of the 9+'1' pattern of the Trepaxonemata, nucleus, mitochondrion and parallel cortical microtubules, among other characters. However, some particularities of the spermatozoon of L. excisum are (i) the presence of a membranous ornamentation not associated with cortical microtubules in its anterior extremity, (ii) the presence of a very reduced number of cortical microtubules located only in the ventral side of the spermatozoon and (iii) the absence of several structures described in most digeneans such as spine-like bodies and cytoplasmic expansions.
Cohen, S C; Kohn, A; de Fatima Diniz Baptista-Farias, M
The tegument of adult Saccocoelioides godoyi Kohn & Froes, 1986 (Digenea: Haploporidae), specimens of which were collected from the intestine of the freshwater fish, Leporinus friderici (Bloch, 1794) (Anostomidae) from the reservoir of Itaipu Hydroelectric Power Station, Parana State, Brazil, was studied by transmission electron microscopy. The tegument comprises an external anucleate layer, covered by a surface plasma membrane and associated glycocalyx. The surface layer is bound by the basal plasma membrane and contains spines, two types of inclusion bodies and mitochondria. Tegumental cell bodies are located beneath the surface musculature and contain a single nucleus, cytoplasm with rough endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondria, ribosomes, and inclusion bodies similar to those found in the external layer. Cytoplasmic strands connect the cell bodies to the external surface layer, suggesting that the inclusion bodies are produced in these cells and pass up into the syncytium, as is known for other digeneans from experimental evidence.
Full Text Available This study investigated the parasitic fauna of Cichlasoma bimaculatum of a tributary from the Amazon River system, northern Brazil. The prevalence of infection was 94.6 % and, in total, 428,267 parasites, such as Ichthyophthirius multifiliis, Piscinoodinium pillulare (Protozoa, Gussevia arilla (Monogenoidea, Posthodiplostomum sp. (Digenea and Procamallanus (Spirocamallanus inopinatus (Nematoda were collected. However, the dominance was mainly of I. multifiliis, while P. (S. inopinatus was the parasite species with the lower levels of prevalence and abundance of infection. These parasite species showed an aggregated dispersion pattern. The parasitic fauna was characterized by the presence of few species of parasites with high prevalence and abundance, specifically ectoparasites, and a low number of endoparasites. The observed pattern is explained by the mode of life of the host and it is suggested that C. bimaculatum occupies a low trophic level at the food web.
Full Text Available A total of 55 domestic cats (Felis calus f. domestico and one wild (Bengal cat (Prionailurus bengalensis from the Vientiane Province, central Laos, were examined for helminth parasites with emphasis given to potential human parasites. The following species were found (parasites infective to man marked with an asterisk: Opisthorchis viverrini*, Haplorchis pumilio*,H. laichui*,H. yokogawai*, Stellantchasmus falcatus* (Digenea; Spirometra sp.*, Dipylidium caninum*, Taenia taeniaeformis (Cestoda; Capillariidae gen. sp., Toxocara canis*, T. cati*, Ancylostoma ceylanicum*, A. tubaeforme, Gnathostoma spinigerum*, Physaloptera preputials (Nematoda; and Oncicola sp. (Acanthocephala. This study demonstrated that examination of cats may provide useful data on the occurrence of helminths which are potential causative agents of human diseases.
Bursey, C R; Goldberg, S R
Seventy-four specimens of Falcaustra lowei n. sp. were recovered from the intestines of 9 of 42 (21%) Tarahumara frogs. Rana tarahumarae, from Sonora, Mexico. F. lowei is the 14th Nearctic species to be described and belongs to that group of species possessing a pseudosucker, namely F. catesbeianae, F. chabaudi, F. chelydrae, F. mexicana, and F. wardi. The new species can be readily differentiated from these by the arrangement of caudal papillae and length of spicules. Priority description of F. affinis is established and F. concinnae is removed from synonymy with F. affinis. In addition to F. lowei, 3 species of Digenea, Glypthelmins quieta, Haematoloechus breviplexus, Langeronia macrocirra; 1 species of Eucestoda, Ophiotaenia magna; 7 species of Nematoda, F. inglisi, Foleyellides striatus, Oswaldocruzia pipiens, Rhabdias ranae, Subulascaris falcaustriformis, Physaloptera sp. (larvae): and 1 species of Acanthocephala, an unidentified oligacanthorhynchid cystacanth, were found.
Full Text Available This study was aimed to identify fauna parasite of juvenile tiger grouper (Epinephelus fuscoguttatus on the two locations of floating net at Floating Net Sea Farming Center, Pulau Seribu Jakarta. A total of five tiger grouper fry from each location, checked every two weeks during the nursery period in August-September 2008 and June-August 2009. Parasites of young tiger grouper found were protozoa (Trichodina and myxosporea, monogenea Diplectanum, metaserkaria digenea, and isopods Alitropus. Diplectanum infestation was dominant with prevalence reached 100% and the average intensity of 2,87-72,8. Fish nursed in the Perairan Pulau Semak Daun was more susceptible compared to the fish nursed in Pulau Karang Congkak. Keywords: tiger grouper, parasite, infestation, Seribu Island. ABSTRAKPenelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengidentifikasi penyakit yang menyerang benih kerapu macan pada masa pendederan dalam karamba jaring apung di dua lokasi Karamba Jaring Apung Balai Sea Farming, Kepulauan Seribu, yaitu di Perairan Pulau Semak Daun dan Perairan Pulau Karang Congkak. Sebanyak 5 ekor benih kerapu macan dari masing-masing lokasi, diperiksa setiap minggu selama dua periode pendederan pada bulan Agustus-September 2008 dan bulan Juni-Agustus 2009. Fauna parasit benih kerapu macan pada masa pendederan dalam jaring apung tersebut meliputi protozoa (Trichodina dan myxosporea, monogenea Diplectanum, metaserkaria digenea, dan isopoda Alitropus. Diplectanum merupakan parasit yang mendominasi dengan prevalensi mencapai 100% dan intensitas rerata 2.87–72,8. Pada Perairan Pulau Semak Daun lebih banyak ditemukan jenis parasit dengan prevalensi dan intensitas yang cukup tinggi dibandingkan dengan Perairan Pulau Karang Congkak.Kata kunci: ikan kerapu macan, parasit, infestasi, Pulau Seribu.
Folmer, Eelke O; Olff, Han; Piersma, Theunis
1. Habitat selection models usually assume that the spatial distributions of animals depend positively on the distributions of resources and negatively on interference. However, the presence of conspecifics at a given location also signals safety and the availability of resources. This may induce followers to select contiguous patches and causes animals to cluster. Resource availability, interference and attraction therefore jointly lead to self-organized patterns in foraging animals. 2. We analyse the distribution of foraging shorebirds at landscape level on the basis of a resource-based model to establish, albeit indirectly, the importance of conspecific attraction and interference. 3. At 23 intertidal sites with a mean area of 170 ha spread out over the Dutch Wadden Sea, the spatial distribution of six abundant shorebird species was determined. The location of individuals and groups was mapped using a simple method based on projective geometry, enabling fast mapping of low-tide foraging shorebird distributions. We analysed the suitability of these 23 sites in terms of food availability and travel distances to high tide roosts. 4. We introduce an interference sensitivity scale which maps interference as a function of inter-individual distance. We thus obtain interference-insensitive species, which are only sensitive to interference at short inter-individual distances (and may thus pack densely) and interference-sensitive species which interfere over greater inter-individual distances (and thus form sparse flocks). 5. We found that interference-insensitive species like red knot (Calidris canutus) and dunlins (Calidris alpina) are more clustered than predicted by the spatial distribution of their food resources. This suggests that these species follow each other when selecting foraging patches. In contrast, curlew (Numenius arquata) and grey plover (Pluvialis squatarola), known to be sensitive to interference, form sparse flocks. Hence, resource-based models have
Blanar, Christopher A; Munkittrick, Kelly R; Houlahan, Jeff; Maclatchy, Deborah L; Marcogliese, David J
Numerous studies have indicated that aquatic pollution affects parasite populations and communities. However, the responses of individual taxa and functional groups to specific contaminants, and their effect sizes, have yet to be assessed quantitatively. We began by summarizing general trends in the literature, and found that reports of significant changes in parasitism were most commonly observed in response to eutrophication and metal contamination. Among parasite taxa, significant changes were most commonly reported for acanthocephalans, digeneans and microparasites. We then conducted a quantitative meta-analysis of the effects of pollution on parasitism in aquatic animals. We calculated signed standardized effect sizes (as Cohen's d) for all published studies that provided the necessary descriptive statistics, and compared them among major contaminant types (pesticides, hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, pulp mill effluent, metals, sewage, eutrophication, and acidification) and parasite taxa (Acanthocephala, Cestoda, Digenea, Monogenea, Nematoda and microparasites). Effect sizes were not significantly different from zero for many parasite/contaminant interactions, and tended to be highly variable within individual taxa. However, consistently strong, significant negative effects were noted in Digenea and Monogenea, especially in response to metal pollution. Significant effect sizes were typically negative, indicating that pollutants have negative effects on parasite populations. Contaminants also had a slightly negative effect on community richness. When parasites were grouped into heteroxenous (with >1 obligatory host in life cycle) vs. monoxenous (1 obligatory host in life cycle) taxa, the latter were more susceptible to a wide range of pollutants. Similarly, directly exposed (external parasites and the free-living transmission stages of internal parasites) and freshwater taxa were more susceptible to a wider range of pollutants than indirectly exposed
Metazoan parasite fauna of Pimelodus maculatus La Cépède, 1803 (Siluriformes, Pimelodidae from the Guandu river, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil = Fauna de parasitos metazoários de Pimelodus maculatus La Cépède, 1803 (Siluriformes, Pimelodidae do rio Guandu, Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil
Michelle Daniele dos Santos
Full Text Available Sixty specimens of Pimelodus maculatus from the Guandu River in Rio de Janeiro State were examined to describe their parasitofauna, in the period from August 1999 to February 2001. Specimens of twelve metazoan parasite species were collected, allocated into seventaxonomic groups - Monogenoidea: Demidospermus uncusvalidus Gutiérrez and Suriano, 1992, D. paravalenciennesi Gutiérrez and Suriano, 1992, D. majusculus Kritsky and Gutiérrez, 1998 and Scleroductus sp.; Digenea: Austrodiplostomum compactum (Lutz, 1928; Eucestoda: Nomimoscolex sp.; Nematoda: Cucullanus pinnai Travassos, Artigas and Pereira, 1928 and Procamallanus sp. (young specimen; Hirudinea: Helobdella sp.; Myxozoa: Henneguya sp. and Myxobolus absonus Cellere,Cordeiro and Adriano, 2002, along with one unidentified species of Acanthocephala (cystacanth. There was a correlation between the host sex and the prevalence and abundance of D. paravalenciennesi. The most dominant species in the parasite community of P. maculatus from the Guandu River was D. uncusvalidus (50%, followed by C. pinnai (18,3%. This study is the first report of D. majusculus and Henneguya sp. in P. maculatus, while it expands the known geographicdistribution of D. uncusvalidus, D. paravalenciennesi, D. majusculus, Scleroductus sp., Nomimoscolex sp., C. pinnai, Procamallanus sp., Helobdella sp., Henneguya sp. and M. absonus.Sessenta espécimes de Pimelodus maculatus provenientes do rio Guandu, Estado do Rio de janeiro, foram examinados para estudo de sua parasitofauna, no período de agosto de 1999 a fevereiro de 2001. Foram coletados espécimes de doze espécies de parasitos metazoáriosalocados em sete grupos taxonômicos - Monogenoidea: Demidospermus uncusvalidus Gutiérrez and Suriano, 1992, D. paravalenciennesi Gutiérrez and Suriano, 1992, D. majusculus Kritsky and Gutiérrez, 1998 e Scleroductus sp.; Digenea: Austrodiplostomum compactum (Lutz,1928; Eucestoda: Nomimoscolex sp.; Nematoda: Cucullanus pinnai
Fauna de parasitos metazoários de Pimelodus maculatus La Cépède, 1803 (Siluriformes, Pimelodidae do rio Guandu, Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v29i1.130 Metazoan parasite fauna of Pimelodus maculatus La Cépède, 1803 (Siluriformes, Pimelodidae from the Guandu river, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil
Sandra Regina Lima de Castro Lemos Pita
Full Text Available Sessenta espéimes de Pimelodus maculatus provenientes do rio Guandu, Estado do Rio de janeiro, foram examinados para estudo de sua parasitofauna, no perído de agosto de 1999 a fevereiro de 2001. Foram coletados espéimes de doze espécies de parasitos metazoários alocados em sete grupos taxonômicos - Monogenoidea: Demidospermus uncusvalidus Gutiérez and Suriano, 1992, D. paravalenciennesi Gutiérez and Suriano, 1992, D. majusculus Kritsky and Gutiérez, 1998 e Scleroductus sp.; Digenea: Austrodiplostomum compactum (Lutz, 1928; Eucestoda: Nomimoscolex sp.; Nematoda: Cucullanus pinnai Travassos, Artigas and Pereira, 1928 e Procamallanus sp. (jovem; Hirudinea: Helobdella sp.; Myxozoa: Henneguya sp. e Myxobolus absonus Cellere, Cordeiro e Adriano, 2002, al駑 de uma esp馗ie de Acanthocephala (cistacanto não identificada. Houve correlação entre o sexo do hospedeiro com a preval麩cia e com a abundâcia de D. paravalenciennesi. A espéie mais dominante na comunidade parasitáia de P. maculatus do rio Guandu foi D. uncusvalidus (50%, seguida de C. pinnai (18,3%. Demidospermus majusculus e Henneguya sp. constituem primeiro registro em P. maculatus. Demidospermus uncusvalidus, D. paravalenciennesi, D. majusculus, Scleroductus sp., Nomimoscolex sp., C. pinnai, Procamallanus sp., Helobdella sp., Henneguya sp. e M. absonus apresentam ampliada sua distribui鈬o geogr畴ica conhecida.Sixty specimens of Pimelodus maculatus from the Guandu River in Rio de Janeiro State were examined to describe their parasitofauna, in the period from August 1999 to February 2001. Specimens of twelve metazoan parasite species were collected, allocated into seven taxonomic groups - Monogenoidea: Demidospermus uncusvalidus Gutiérez and Suriano, 1992, D. paravalenciennesi Gutiérez and Suriano, 1992, D. majusculus Kritsky and Gutiérez, 1998 and Scleroductus sp.; Digenea: Austrodiplostomum compactum (Lutz, 1928; Eucestoda: Nomimoscolex sp.; Nematoda: Cucullanus pinnai
Gabriela Calvi Zeidan
Full Text Available This study investigated the parasites of three commercially important bivalve species (Crassostrea rhizophorae, Mytella guyanensis and Lucina pectinata from the southern coast of Bahia, Brazil. A total of 540 specimens were collected in August 2009 and February 2010, at three localities. The bivalve specimens were measured on their longest axis, opened, and macroscopically examined for the presence of parasites or signs of disease. They were then fixed in Davidson' solution and subjected to routine histological processing, with paraffin embedding and H&E staining; next, the specimens were examined under a light microscope. No parasites were observed associated with L. pectinata. Rickettsia-like organisms (RLOs, Sphenophrya sp. (Ciliophora, Nematopsis sp. (Apicomplexa, Urastoma sp. (Turbellaria and Bucephalus sp. (Digenea were observed in both C. rhizophorae and M. guyanensis, as well as Ancistrocoma sp. (Ciliophora and Tylocephalum sp. (Cestoda in the former. A high prevalence of Nematopsis sp. was seen, but caused no apparent damage to the host. Bucephalus sp. caused the destruction of tissues, with castration, but showed low prevalence. The other parasites occurred in low prevalence and intensity, without causing significant damage.Neste estudo foram investigados os parasitos de três espécies de bivalves de interesse econômico (Crassostrea rhizophorae, Mytella guyanensis e Lucina pectinata da Bahia. Foram analisados 540 exemplares, obtidos em duas coletas (agosto-2009 e fevereiro-2010, em três localidades. Os bivalves foram medidos quanto ao seu maior eixo, abertos e examinados macroscopicamente quanto à presença de parasitos ou sinais de enfermidades. Depois disso, foram fixados em solução de Davidson e processados por rotina de histologia, com inclusão em parafina e coloração com H&E. O material foi examinado ao microscópio de luz. Nenhum parasito esteve associado a L. pectinata. Bactérias do tipo RLOs (organismos assemelhados a
Hoberg, Eric P.; Henny, Charles J.; Hedstrom, O.R.; Grove, Robert A.
The intestinal helminth fauna of river otters, Lutra canadensis, from the Pacific Northwest was characterized by low species richness and intensity of infection. River otters from the lower Columbia River (n = 23) were infected with 9 species of helminths (83% prevalence); those from a relatively undisturbed reference area near the headwaters of the Trask and Wilson rivers on the Oregon coast (n = 6) were infected by 5 species of helminths (100% prevalence). Single species of Eucestoda (Schistocephalus solidus), Digenea (Euparyphium inerme), Acanthocephala (Corynosoma strumosum), and 8 species of Nematoda (Strongyloides lutrae; larvae of Eustrongylides sp., Anisakis sp., and Contracaecum sp.; 3 of Cystidicolidae, and Hedruris sp.) were collected. Most species are typical of piscine definitive hosts and were present as incidental parasites of river otters. Notably, specimens of Euparyphium inerme are reported for the first time in river otters from North America; occurrence of other helminths constitutes new host or geographic records for parasites in river otters in Oregon and Washington. Parasites with marine life cycles were acquired by river otters in freshwater habitats at a great distance from the ocean. The helminth fauna of river otters in the Pacific Northwest was influenced primarily by ecological factors and was indicative of eclectic food habits and the relatively extensive home ranges occupied by these mustelids.
Oliva, Marcelo E; González, Maria Teresa; Acuña, Enzo
Quantitative changes in the parasite communities of the flounder Hippoglossina macrops (Steindachner) were studied along a depth gradient. Samples were obtained from the waters off Coquimbo, Chile (29 degrees 18'S to 30 degrees 50'S), at depths ranging from 160 to 342 m. Samples were assigned to 3 depths, i.e., shallow water (less than 200 m), midwater (from 200 to 300 m), and deep water (more than 300 m). Twelve parasite species were recorded: Neoheterobothrium chilensis and Entobdella hippoglossi (Monogenea); Holobomolochus chilensis and Protochondria longicauda (Copepoda); Gliptonobdella sp. (Hirudinea); Nybelinia surmenicola, Scolex pleuronectis, and Neobothriocephalus adspinosus (Cestoda); Floridosentis sp. and Corynosoma australe (Acanthocephala); Anisakidae (Nematoda); and an unidentified hemiurid (Digenea). Univariate analyses showed that C. australe has its highest prevalence and mean intensity of infection in hosts from shallow waters. Floridosentis sp. showed significant differences along the depth gradient, with higher mean intensity and prevalence of infection in fish from midwater. Among the ectoparasites, only N. chilensis exhibited differences in mean intensity with depth, where intensity of infection increased with depth of host habitat. A canonical multivariate analysis demonstrated that parasite burdens can be a good predictor of the environment (shallow, mid-, or deep water) occupied by the flounders.
Sitko, J; Zaleśny, G
In the present study we investigated two ecologically distinct populations of T. merula for the presence of helminths. We wished to determine whether urban populations of blackbirds had reduced helminth fauna compared to birds from forest habitats. Birds were caught in two ecologically distinct sites located in the eastern part of the Czech Republic. A total of 320 birds were examined. The first site was located in Prerov where the birds were obtained from a typical urban population, and the second site was Zahlinice, which constitutes a typical forest area. As a result of parasitological examination, 30 helminth species belonging to Digenea, Cestoda, Nematoda and Acanthocephala were recorded from both sites: 29 species were found in the forested site and 15 in the urban site. The overall prevalence of infection was 93.1% and differed significantly between the sites (Zahlinice 97.2%, Prerov 85.1%). The mean species richness was almost three times higher in the forest population (3.37 ± 0.10) than in the urban one (1.78 ± 0.11). The clear qualitative and quantitative differences in the helminth community of T. merula obtained from two ecologically disparate localities show that urbanization leads to a significant reduction in the helminth fauna of a bird which is highly adapted to synanthropic habitats, while still remaining common in its original forest habitat.
Bittencourt, Luana Silva; Pinheiro, Douglas Anadias; Cárdenas, Melissa Querido; Fernandes, Berenice Maria; Tavares-Dias, Marcos
This study provides the first investigation on acquisition of parasites in invasive O. niloticus by parasite species of native Cichlidae from the Igarapé Fortaleza basin, Northern Brazil. There were examined 576 specimens of 16 species of native cichlids and invasive O. niloticus collected in the main channel and the floodplain area of this tributary of Amazon River. The invasive O. niloticus was poorly parasitized having only Ichthyophthirius multifiliis, Trichodina centrostrigeata, Paratrichodina africana, Trichodina nobilis (Protozoa) and Cichlidogyrus tilapiae (Monogenoidea), and this host has not acquired any parasite species common to the native ichthyofauna region. In contrast, species of native cichlids showed rich fauna of parasites with predominance of Monogenoidea species, larvae and adults of Nematoda, Digenea, Cestoidea and Acanthocephala, besides four species of Protozoa and four Crustacea. However, only T. nobilis was acquired by native fish, the Aequidens tetramerus, which is a new host for this exotic Trichodinidae. In O. niloticus, well established in the region, the small number of helminth species may be associated with its rusticity, good adaptation in the new environment and also the presence of native parasites with relative specificity, but without ability to complete its life cycle in this invasive host of this ecosystem.
Xavier, Raquel; Santos, Joana L; Veríssimo, Ana
Cartilaginous fishes are the oldest jawed vertebrates and are also reported to be the hosts of some of the most basal lineages of Cestoda and Aporocotylidae (Digenea) parasites. Recently a phylogenetic analysis of the coccidia (Apicomplexa) infecting marine vertebrates revealed that the lesser spotted dogfish harbours parasite lineages basal to Eimeria Schneider, 1875 and the group formed by Schellackia Reichenow, 1919, Lankesterella Ames, 1923, Caryospora Leger, 1904 and Isospora Schneider, 1881. In the present study we have found additional lineages of coccidian parasites infecting the cownose ray Rhinoptera bonasus Mitchill and the blue shark Prionace glauca Linnaeus. These lineages were also found as basal to species from the genera Lankesterella, Schellackia, Caryospora and Isospora infecting higher vertebrates. These results confirm previous phylogenetic assessments and suggest that these parasitic lineages first evolved in basal vertebrate hosts (i.e. Chondrichthyes), and that the more derived lineages infect higher vertebrates (e.g. birds and mammals) conforming to the evolution of their hosts. We hypothesise that elasmobranchs might host further ancestral parasite lineages harbouring unknown links of parasite evolution.
Ivan Moura Lapera
Full Text Available Abstract This study focused on the characterization and analysis of communities and infra-communities of metazoan parasites of Plagioscion squamosissimus caught in Promissão Reservoir in the Tietê River in Borborema (21°39′58”S, 49°8′49”W, state of São Paulo, Brazil. Fifty adult specimens caught by professional fishermen in March 2015 were necropsied. The fish presented an average standard length of 25.2 ± 2.2 cm and average weight of 328.82 ± 89.03 g. A total of 5,227 specimens of metazoan parasites were collected: 2,880 (55.1% adult Diplectanum piscinarius (Monogenoidea: Diplectanidae and 2,347 (44.9% Austrodiplostomum compactum metacercariae (Digenea, Diplostomidae, both with 100% prevalence and mean abundance of 57.6 and 46.9, respectively. Parasite diversity was low (species richness = 2, with a Simpson index (D equal to 0.505, and low values of Brillouin (HB = 0.687 and Margalef diversity (I = 0.117 indices. Berger-Parker’s index of dominance (p = 0.551 indicated a slight dominance of the monogenean parasite D. piscinarius. There was a positive correlation, assessed by Pearson coefficient between parasite abundance of D. piscinarius and standard length (r = 0.43 and weight (r = 0.51 of hosts.
Le, Thanh H; Van De, Nguyen; Blair, David; McManus, Donald P; Kino, Hideto; Agatsuma, Takeshi
Paragonimus heterotremus Chen and Hsia (1964), and paragonimiasis caused by this species is a newly detected disease in Vietnam. Twelve samples of Paragonimus (Platyhelminthes: Trematoda: Digenea: Paragonimidae) from different life-stages (eggs, miracidia, metacercariae, adults from natural and experimental hosts) and host species (crab, dog, cat and human) were collected in different geographical locations in Vietnam. DNA sequences were obtained from each for partial mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) (387 bp) and the entire second ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS-2) (361 bp). The ITS-2 sequences were identical among all specimens, including those previously reported in GenBank. For cox1, there were sequence differences between specimens from Vietnam (four provinces, different locations) and those from Guangxi (China) and Saraburi (Thailand). Phylogenetic trees inferred from cox1 and ITS-2 sequences using sequence data for 15 P. heterotremus and for other Paragonimus spp. revealed that all P. heterotremus originating from Vietnam, Thailand and China form a distinct group. This information also confirms the identity of the Vietnamese specimens as P. heterotremus.
Neil D Young
Full Text Available Fasciola gigantica (Digenea is an important foodborne trematode that causes liver fluke disease (fascioliasis in mammals, including ungulates and humans, mainly in tropical climatic zones of the world. Despite its socioeconomic impact, almost nothing is known about the molecular biology of this parasite, its interplay with its hosts, and the pathogenesis of fascioliasis. Modern genomic technologies now provide unique opportunities to rapidly tackle these exciting areas. The present study reports the first transcriptome representing the adult stage of F. gigantica (of bovid origin, defined using a massively parallel sequencing-coupled bioinformatic approach. From >20 million raw sequence reads, >30,000 contiguous sequences were assembled, of which most were novel. Relative levels of transcription were determined for individual molecules, which were also characterized (at the inferred amino acid level based on homology, gene ontology, and/or pathway mapping. Comparisons of the transcriptome of F. gigantica with those of other trematodes, including F. hepatica, revealed similarities in transcription for molecules inferred to have key roles in parasite-host interactions. Overall, the present dataset should provide a solid foundation for future fundamental genomic, proteomic, and metabolomic explorations of F. gigantica, as well as a basis for applied outcomes such as the development of novel methods of intervention against this neglected parasite.
Mohammad Reza Yossefi
Full Text Available Objective: To determine the helminth parasites of Natrix natrix Linnaeus, 1758 (N. natrix and Natrix tessellata Laurenti, 1768 (N. tessellate in north of Iran. Methods: Eighteen snakes including nine N. natrix and nine N. tessellata from Mazandaran Province, north of Iran were collected and examined during March 2011 to October 2011 for helminth parasites. The collected specimens were fixed and preserved in 70% ethanol. Results: All of the examined snakes (100% were infected with parasitic helminth. The list of extracted helminths both in N. natrix and N. tessellata includes one Nematode: Rhabdias fuscovenosa (larva, one Digenea: Telorchis assula and one Cestoda: Ophiotaenia europaea. The infection rate of Ophiotaenia europaea, Telorchis assula and Rhabdias fuscovenosa (larva from collected snakes were 100%, 83.3% and 61.1%, respectively. Moreover, in the current investigation the morphological characteristics of the collected helminths were described elaborately. Conclusions: This is the first survey on helminth parasites from N. tessellata in Iran and the helminthes are reported for the first time from this host in Iran.
Khalil, Mokhtar Ibrahim; El-Shahawy, Ismail Saad; Abdelkader, Hussein Saad
The present study was the first attempt to survey the diversity of fish zoonotic parasites in the southern region of Saudi Arabia, particularly the Najran area, from October 2012 to October 2013. Approximately 163 fish representing seven species (two of freshwater fish and five of marine fish) were examined for fish-borne trematode metacercariae using the compression technique, and for zoonotic nematode larvae. Adult flukes were obtained from cats experimentally infected with the metacercariae on day 25 post-infection The prevalence of each parasite species was recorded. The parasites found belonged to two taxa: Digenea (Heterophyes heterophyes and Haplorchis pumilio) in muscle tissue; and nematodes (larvae of Capillaria sp.) in the digestive tract. The morphological characteristics of the fish-borne trematode metacercariae and their experimentally obtained adults were described. This is the first report of these parasites in fish in Saudi Arabia. Moreover, Myripristis murdjan presented higher prevalence of Capillaria sp. infection (22.7%), while Haplorchis pumilio was the dominant metacercarial species (7.9%). Although the number of documented cases continues to increase, the overall risk of human infection is slight. The increasing exploitation of the marine environment by humans and the tendency to reduce cooking times when preparing seafood products both increase the chances of becoming infected with these parasites. Furthermore, our results indicate that certain fish production systems are at risk of presenting fish zoonotic parasites, and that control approaches will benefit from understanding these risk factors.
Advanced stages of embryonic development and cotylocidial morphogenesis in the intrauterine eggs of Aspidogaster limacoides Diesing, 1835 (Aspidogastrea), with comments on their phylogenetic implications.
Świderski, Zdzisław; Poddubnaya, Larisa G; Gibson, David I; Młocicki, Daniel
Ultrastructural aspects of the advanced embryonic development and cotylocidial morphogenesis of the aspidogastrean Aspidogaster limacoides are described. The posterior or distal regions of the uterus are filled with eggs containing larvae at advanced stages of morphogenesis and fully-formed cotylocidia. Various stages and organs of this larva are described in detail, including the aspects of the developing and fully-differentiated cotylocidium, the body wall (tegument and musculature), glandular regions and the protonephridial excretory system. Blastomere multiplication by means of mitotic divisions takes place simultaneously with the degeneration or apoptosis of some micromeres; this frequently observed characteristic is compared and discussed in relation to corresponding reports for other neodermatans. During the advanced stages of the embryonic development of A. limacoides, the vitelline syncytium disappears and the size of the embryo increases rapidly. Evident polarization of the differentiating larva was observed; towards one pole of the egg, cytodifferentiation of the mouth, surrounded by the oral sucker and cephalic glands, takes place, whereas, towards the opposite pole, differentiation of the posterior sucker (incipient ventral disc) occurs. The oral and posterior suckers are formed from numerous embryonic cells which have differentiated into myocytes. The central part of the oral sucker undergoes invagination and forms the future pharynx and intestine. Fully-developed cotylocidia of A. limacoides have a neodermatan type of tegument, flame cells and two types of glandular structures. These results suggest a sister relationship between the Aspidogastrea and the Digenea, although the systematic position of aspidogastreans in relation to other platyhelminth taxa remains somewhat equivocal.
Greiman, Stephen E.; Tkach, Maksym; Vaughan, Jefferson A.; Tkach, Vasyl V.
The Digenea (Platyhelminthes: Trematoda) are a diverse and complex group of internal metazoan parasites. These parasites can serve as hosts to obligate intracellular bacteria belonging to the genus Neorickettsia (Family: Anaplasmataceae). Neorickettsiae persist within all stages of the fluke life cycle and thus are maintained through vertical transmission. However, the low prevalence of Neorickettsia in nature limits study of their transmission biology at different steps of digenean life cycles. To resolve this dilemma, we have developed for the first time a laboratory model allowing to maintain Neorickettsia sp. through the whole life cycle of a digenean, Plagiorchis elegans. The laboratory life cycle of P. elegans consists of a snail first intermediate host, Lymnaea stagnalis, an aquatic arthropod second intermediate host, Culex pipiens (mosquito larva), and a vertebrate definitive host, Mesocricetus auratus (Syrian hamster). This paper focuses on the development of the laboratory life cycle, as well as outlines its potential uses in studying the transmission biology of Neorickettsia and its evolutionary relationship within its digenean host. PMID:26160679
Hernández-Mena, David Iván; García-Prieto, Luís; García-Varela, Martín
Parastrigea plataleae n. sp. (Digenea: Strigeidae) is described from the intestine of the roseate spoonbill Platalea ajaja (Threskiornithidae) from four localities on the Pacific coast of Mexico. The new species is mainly distinguished from the other 18 described species of Parastrigea based on the ratio of its hindbody length to forebody length. A principal component analysis (PCA) of 16 morphometric traits for 15 specimens of P. plataleae n. sp., five of Parastrigea cincta and 11 of Parastrigea diovadena previously recorded in Mexico, clearly shows three clusters, which correspond to the three species. DNA sequences of the internal transcribed spacers (ITSs) of ribosomal DNA and the mitochondrial gene cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (cox 1) were used to corroborate this morphological distinction. The genetic divergence estimated among P. plataleae n. sp., P. cincta and P. diovadena ranged from 0.5 to 1.48% for ITSs and from 9.31 to 11.47% for cox 1. Maximum parsimony (MP) and maximum likelihood (ML) analyses were performed on the combined datasets (ITSs+cox 1) and on each dataset alone. All of the phylogenetic analyses indicated that the specimens from the roseate spoonbill represent a clade with strong bootstrap support. The morphological evidence and the genetic divergence in combination with the reciprocal monophyly in all of the phylogenetic trees support the hypothesis that the digeneans found in the intestines of roseate spoonbills represent a new species. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Bombarová, Marta; Špakulová, Marta; Kello, Martin; Nguyen, Petr; Bazsalovicsová, Eva; Králová-Hromadová, Ivica
A detailed cytogenetic analysis of the aspidogastrean fluke Aspidogaster limacoides revealed a karyotype consisting of six medium-sized chromosome pairs. The first and the last pairs were two-armed while four remaining were one-armed; 2n = 12, n = 1 m + 1 m - sm + 4a. Fluorescence in situ hybridization with 18S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) probe detected a single cluster of ribosomal genes (NOR) located in pericentromeric regions of the long arms of the third chromosome pair in a site of secondary constriction apparent in meiotic prophase, especially in diplotene. The silver nitrate staining showed only a single active NOR site on one of homologous chromosomes in the majority of spermatogonia and spermatocyte divisions. A course of meiosis corresponded to standard schemes. The nucleolus was apparent in early meiotic spermatocytes and disintegrated by the end of pachytene. For the first time in Aspidogastrea, the genome size was determined. The flow cytometry showed 1.21 pg DNA per haploid nucleus in A. limacoides which is in accordance with relatively low genome sizes of other flukes and tapeworms (Neodermata). A comparison of cytogenetic data available to date in the fluke sister groups Aspidogastrea and Digenea suggests that the lower chromosome number of Aspidogastrea might represent an ancestral condition and their split might have been accompanied by an increase in chromosome number via either chromosome fissions or paleopolyploidy.
Wee, Nicholas Q-X; Cutmore, Scott C; Yong, Russell Q-Y; Cribb, Thomas H
Combined morphological and molecular analyses are employed to characterise three species of Tergestia Stossich, 1899 (Digenea: Fellodistomidae) from fishes of Moreton Bay, Queensland, Australia. Tergestia clonacantha Manter, 1963 is reported here for the first time from the halfbeak (Beloniformes: Hemiramphidae) species Arrhamphus sclerolepis krefftii (Steindachner), Hyporhamphus australis (Steindachner), H. quoyi (Valenciennes) and H. regularis ardelio (Whitley). Two new species, both infecting trevally (Perciformes: Carangidae) species, are described: T. maryae n. sp. from Alepes apercna Grant and T. henryi n. sp. from Pantolabus radiatus (MacLeay). Complete ITS2 and partial 28S ribosomal DNA data were generated for each of the new taxa. The three species differ from each other by 47-58 base pairs (bp) in the ITS2 rDNA region. Phylogenetic analysis of 28S rDNA supports Tergestia as a reliable generic concept, with our analyses showing that some species of the genus form a well-supported clade to the exclusion of all other fellodistomids for which sequence data are available.
Zhukova, Mariya V; Mordvinov, Viatcheslav A; Kiseleva, Elena
The spermatozoon ultrastructure in the seminal receptacle of the liver fluke Opisthorchis felineus (Digenea, Opisthorchiidae), the agent of human opisthorchiasis endemic to Russia and Eastern Europe, was examined. The bean-shaped seminal receptacle of O. felineus has a wall consisting of epithelial and muscle layers. Mature spermatozoa are located in the interior of the seminal receptacle, whereas vacuoles containing degenerating spermatozoa are detectable at the periphery. The mature spermatozoon of O. felineus has two axonemes of a 9 + "1" pattern, a nucleus, two mitochondria, a lamellar body, two bundles of parallel cortical microtubules and an external ornamentation of the plasma membrane in the anterior area of the sperm. The lamellar body is likely to be the third mitochondrion of a small size. The cytoplasm of the spermatozoon is filled with numerous electron-dense granules of storage polysaccharides. Additionally, the ultrastructural characteristics of the seminal receptacle and spermatozoa of O. felineus were compared to available published data on other trematode species. The functional roles of the observed structures of this spermatozoon are discussed.
Kacem, Hichem; Bakhoum, Abdoulaye J S; Eira, Catarina; Neifar, Lassad; Miquel, Jordi
The ultrastructural organization of the spermatozoon of the digenean Hypocreadium caputvadum (Lepocreadioidea: Lepocreadiidae) is described. Live digeneans were collected from Balistes capriscus (Teleostei: Balistidae) from the Gulf of Gabès, Tunisia (Eastern Mediterranean Sea). The mature spermatozoon of H. caputvadum shows several ultrastructural characters such as two axonemes of different lengths exhibiting the classical 9+"1" trepaxonematan pattern, a nucleus, two mitochondria, granules of glycogen, external ornamentation of the plasma membrane and two bundles of parallel cortical microtubules. Moreover, in the anterior extremity, the second axoneme is partly surrounded by a discontinuous and submembranous layer of electron-dense material. Our study provides new data on the spermatozoon of H. caputvadum in order to improve the understanding of phylogenetic relationships in the Digenea, particularly in the superfamily Lepocreadioidea. In this context, the electron-dense material surrounding one of the axonemes in the anterior spermatozoon extremity constitutes the unique distinguishing ultrastructural character of lepocreadioideans, and it is present in spermatozoa of lepocreadiids, aephnidiogenids and gyliauchenids. Copyright © 2012 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.
Ndiaye, Papa Ibnou; Quilichini, Yann; Tkach, Vasyl V; Greiman, Stephen E; Bâ, Cheikh Tidiane; Marchand, Bernard
The ultrastructure of the mature spermatozoon of the type genus of the Plagiorchiidae Plagiorchis elegans (Rudolphi, 1802), a parasite of the Golden hamster, Mesocricetus auratus is described. This study is the first ultrastructural study of the spermatozoon of a Plagiorchis, the second of a plagiorchiid species and only the third in the Plagiorchioidea. Previously data on spermatozoon ultrastructure existed only for the plagiorchiid Enodiotrema reductum and the omphalometrid Rubenstrema exasperatum. The mature spermatozoon of P. elegans exhibited the general pattern described in most digenean species, namely two axonemes of the 9 + "1" Trepaxonemata pattern, nucleus, mitochondria, external ornamentation of the plasma membrane, spine-like bodies, and glycogen granules. However, the rather typical expansion of the plasma membrane is not found in P. elegans. Another peculiarity of the spermatozoon of P. elegans is the presence of a structure called thin cytoplasm termination. Spermatozoon ultrastructure of P. elegans is compared with that of E. reductum and R. exasperatum. Spermatozoon of P. elegans conforms to the general pattern described in E. reductum. Thus, this study further expands our knowledge on the spermatozoon ultrastructure among the members of the Plagiorchioidea, one of the most phylogenetically derived groups of the digenea. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
González M Teresa
Full Text Available The metazoan parasite fauna of Hippoglossina macrops (n = 123 from northern Chile (30°S is quantitatively described for the first time, and the role of host age and sex was evaluated. Twelve parasite species were recovered, including 5 ectoparasites (2 Monogenea, 2 Copepoda and 1 Piscicolidae and 7 endoparasites (1 Digenea, 3 Cestoda, 2 Acanthocephala, and 1 Nematoda. The copepod Holobomolochus chilensis, the monogenean Neoheterobothrium sp., the adult acanthocephalan Floridosentis sp. and the hirudinean, Gliptonobdella sp. are new geographical and host records. The most prevalent ectoparasitic species were the monogenean, Neoheterobothrium sp. and the copepod, H. chilensis. Among endoparasites, the acanthocephalans Floridosentis sp. and Corynosoma australe were most prevalent and abundant. Prevalence and mean intensity of infection for most parasitic species were not affected by host sex, however the prevalence of Floridosentis sp. was significantly greater in males. Intensity of infection was positively correlated with host age for Neoheterobothrium sp., and negatively correlated for Floridosentis sp. and H. chilensis. The helminth species richness of the host H. macrops was lower compared to related flatfishes from the Northern Hemisphere. The relationship of the helminth fauna of H. macrops, its feeding habits and ecological habitats are discussed.
Parásitos metazoos de Anas georgica Gmelin, 1789 (Aves: Anseriformes en Chile central: especificidad, prevalencia y variaciones entre localidades Host specificity, prevalence and between-sites variation in metazoan parasites of Anas georgica Gmelin, 1789 (Aves: Anseriformes in Chile
Full Text Available Se estudiaron los parásitos metazoos en 65 ejemplares del pato jergón grande Anas geórgica Gmelin, 1789 (Aves: Anseriformes, capturados entre los meses de mayo y julio de 2004, en seis localidades de la zona centro-sur de Chile. Se evaluó si existía correlación entre el valor del índice de especificidad STD (Statistical Taxonomic Distinctiveness, para cada taxón determinado a nivel de especie, con sus respectivas prevalencias e intensidades. Además, se evaluó la significancia estadística de las variaciones entre localidades en la prevalencia e intensidad de ectoparásitos y endoparásitos, en la abundancia total de parásitos y en la riqueza de las infracomunidades. Finalmente, se evaluó si el peso corporal y el sexo de los hospedadores eran relevantes para entender las variaciones de la abundancia de cada taxon, la abundancia total y la riqueza en las infracomunidades. En el 81.5 % de los ejemplares examinados se encontraron 1,653 parásitos, pertenecientes a un total de 11 taxa, a saber, los ectoparásitos del orden Phthiraptera Anaticola crassicornis (Scopoli, 1763, Anatoecus icterodes (Nitzsch, 1818 y Trinoton querquedulae (Linneus, 1758, y los endoparásitos Digenea Australapatemon burti (Miller, 1923 Dubois, 1968, Notocotylus imbricatus (Loss, 1893, Paramonostomum pseudoalveatum Price, 1931, Echinostoma sp. Rudolphi, 1809, Echinoparyphium sp. Dietz, 1909, el Nematoda Porrocaecum sp. Railliet & Henry, 1912 y los Cestoda Cloacotaenia megalops (Nitzsch in Creplin, 1829 Wolfhuegel, 1938 y Fuhrmanacanthus propeteres (Fuhrmann, 1907 Spasskii, 1966. La correlación entre el índice de especificidad STD y la prevalencia de los taxa parasitarios resultó ser negativa y significativa, no así la correlación con la intensidad. No se encontraron diferencias significativas en la abundancia o riqueza de los parásitos entre sexos de las aves, pero sí en la riqueza de especies y en la abundancia total entre sitios. Con excepción de los
Luana Silva Bittencourt
Full Text Available This study provides the first investigation on acquisition of parasites in invasive O. niloticus by parasite species of native Cichlidae from the Igarapé Fortaleza basin, Northern Brazil. There were examined 576 specimens of 16 species of native cichlids and invasive O. niloticus collected in the main channel and the floodplain area of this tributary of Amazon River. The invasive O. niloticus was poorly parasitized having only Ichthyophthirius multifiliis, Trichodina centrostrigeata, Paratrichodina africana, Trichodina nobilis (Protozoa and Cichlidogyrus tilapiae (Monogenoidea, and this host has not acquired any parasite species common to the native ichthyofauna region. In contrast, species of native cichlids showed rich fauna of parasites with predominance of Monogenoidea species, larvae and adults of Nematoda, Digenea, Cestoidea and Acanthocephala, besides four species of Protozoa and four Crustacea. However, only T. nobilis was acquired by native fish, the Aequidens tetramerus, which is a new host for this exotic Trichodinidae. In O. niloticus, well established in the region, the small number of helminth species may be associated with its rusticity, good adaptation in the new environment and also the presence of native parasites with relative specificity, but without ability to complete its life cycle in this invasive host of this ecosystem.
López-García, Ashley Samara; García-Prieto, Luis
Species of Mesocoelium Odhner, 1901 (Digenea) are generally similar and are often difficult to distinguish. Currently there are 42 specimens of this genus held in the Colección Nacional de Helmintos (CNHE) of the Instituto de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Mexico, which previously have been assigned to three species: M. monas Rudolphi, 1819, M. travassosi Pereira & Cuocolo, 1940 and M. leiperi Bhalerao, 1936. Upon reevaluation of these specimens it was determined that 27, could not be assigned to species level and 15 could only be assigned to body type (carli and leiperi) because of the poor conditions of preservation of the material. The remaining 15 specimens were of sufficient quality to be identified to species and were found to represent M. americanum Harwood, 1932, M. danforthi Hoffman, 1935, M. meggitti Bhalerao, 1927, M. cf. americanum Harwood, 1932, and M. cf. danforthi Hoffman, 1935. Neither M. monas nor M. travassosi could be confirmed among these specimens; however, Mesocoelium meggitti (syn. M. travassosi) was confirmed. Mesocoelium danforthi is recorded for the first time in the Mexican collection. The presence of M. cf. gonocephali Singh, 1967 and M. cf. microon Nicoll, 1914 also among the 15 specimens of sufficient quality to be identified to species, needs to be confirmed through collects of new material. Finally, in future studies, we propose to improve the quality of specimens by fixing them considering the modifications to this process proposed herein, and compliment these morphological studies with molecular studies.
Addino, Mariana; Lomovasky, Betina J.; Cremonte, Florencia; Iribarne, Oscar
Parasite life cycles are frequently completed in different hosts, thus the parasites have its life cycle overlapped to natural trophic webs. The family Gymnophallidae (Class: Trematoda; Subclass: Digenea) includes digenetic parasites whose larval stages occur on bivalves and may affect bivalve predation by the final host of these parasites. In this work we evaluated: (a) if individuals of the razor clam Tagelus plebeius with higher parasite intensity suffer higher predation by the oystercatcher Haematopus palliatus and, (b) if there is any effect of parasite intensity on burrowing and escape behaviours of these razor clams which may enhance exposure to predators. Field experiments (oystercatcher exclusion vs. open access) showed that clams with higher parasite intensity support higher predation by oystercatchers, which suggests a higher consumption of more parasitized clams and thus, a more successful reproduction of parasites linked to the intensity of infection. However, clam burrowing and escape behaviours did not show differences related to different parasite intensity, suggesting that the commonly believed mechanisms are not responsible in this case.
Greiman, Stephen E; Tkach, Vasyl V
Bacteria of the genus Neorickettsia are obligate intracellular endosymbionts of parasitic flukes (Digenea) and are passed through the entire complex life cycle of the parasite by vertical transmission. Several species of Neorickettsia are known to cause diseases in domestic animals, wildlife, and humans. Quantitative data on the transmission of the bacteria through the digenean life cycle is almost completely lacking. This study quantified for the first time the abundance of Neorickettsia within multiple stages of the life cycle of the digenean Plagiorchis elegans. Snails Lymnaea stagnalis collected from a pond in North Dakota were screened for the presence of digenean cercariae, which were subsequently tested for the presence of Neorickettsia. Three L. stagnalis were found shedding P. elegans cercariae infected with Neorickettsia. These snails were used to initiate three separate laboratory life cycles and obtain all life cycle stages for bacterial quantification. A quantitative real-time PCR assay targeting the GroEL gene was developed to enumerate Neorickettsia sp. within different stages of the digenean life cycle. The number of bacteria significantly increased throughout all stages, from eggs to adults. The two largest increases in number of bacteria occurred during the period from eggs to cercariae and from 6-day metacercariae to 48-h juvenile worms. These two periods seem to be the most important for Neorickettsia propagation through the complex digenean life cycle and maturation in the definitive host.
Pojmańska, Teresa; Niewiadomska, Katarzyna
The studies of parasite fauna have in Poland a long tradition. Generally the helmint fauna of all groups of vertebrates was more or less examined and as much as over 100 species of Monogenea, almost 400 Digenea, over 250 Cestoda, about 500 Nematoda and 32 Acanthocephala have been recorded. The best recognized are the helminths of fish (especially those of Cyprinidae, Esocidae, Percidae and Salmonidae), frogs examined in various regions of Poland, some birds (especially connected with water environment: Anseriformes, Ciconiformes, Podicipediformes), most of insectivores (although examined only in few localities), European bisons, deers, foxes and wild boars (all under permanent monitoring), as well as domestic animals (cattle, horses, sheeps) and pets. Such groups like some amphibians, reptiles, bats, carniwores, some birds (especially Passeriformes, Charadriiformes, falcons and eagles) need further exploration, as some host species were not the subject of parasitological investigation. In some cases it will be rather difficult goal, as most of these animals are under strict preservation, and only dead (naturally or accidentally) specimens can be autopsied.
Full Text Available This study aimed at identifying and quantifying the parasites of wild and cultured dusky grouper Epinephelus marginatus. During a year and thereby all four seasons, 20 wild and 20 cultured groupers were examined for the presence of parasites, except in the last season, in which 19 wild and 20 cultured fish were examined, totalling 159 groupers analysed from Ubatuba, southeastern Brazil. Prevalence, mean intensity of infection, mean abundance and mean relative dominance were calculated. Five species of parasites were identified in fish from both origins: Pseudorhabdosynochus beverleyburtonae (Monogenea, Neobenedenia melleni (Monogenea, Pseudempleurosoma sp. (Monogenea, Helicometrina nimia (Digenea and larvae of Contracaecum sp. (Nematoda. The prevalence of ectoparasites, in most cases, was higher than endoparasites. The most abundant parasite was the monogenea Pseudorhabdosynochus beverleyburtonae in both wild and cultured fish, along all seasons. Neobenedenia melleni was observed in wild and cultured fish in all seasons, with a gradual increase in the number of parasites from the coldest to the hottest seasons, with the highest prevalence and mean intensity in the summer. Helicometrina nimia was found in all seasons in both wild and cultured fish, except for summer, where its presence was detected only in wild fish. Pseudempleurosoma sp. and larvae of Contracaecum sp. showed low prevalence occurring in wild and cultured fish in the autumn and spring, respectively. This study revealed high intensities of potentially pathogenic parasites that could favour disease outbreaks in culture conditions.
Maria Danielle Figueiredo Guimarães Hoshino
Full Text Available The present study provides the first investigation on the ecological aspects of the parasites M. lippincottianusfrom the Amazonian basin, as well as the parasite-host relationship. 76 out of the examined fish (98.7% were parasitized by at least one species of parasites. A total of 8,774 parasites were collected, being Ichthyophthirius multifiliis, Anacanthorus jegui, Dadayius pacupeva, Digenea gen. sp. (metacercariae, Procamallanus (Spirocamallanus inopinatus, Procamallanus (Spirocamallanus sp., Spinoxyuris oxydoras, Contracaecum sp. larvae, Dolops longicauda and Hirudinea gen. sp. Ichthyophthirius multifiliis was the dominant species, followed by A. jegui. Among the endoparasites, S. oxydoras and D. pacupeva were predominant. The mean diversity of parasites was HB = 0.96 ± 0.32 and there was aggregate distribution pattern. A positive correlation of body weight with the abundance of I. multifiliis and S. Oxydoras was observed, whereas a negative correlation of body weight with abundance of the Contracaecum sp. larvae was found. The relative condition factor (Kn was not negatively affected by parasites, and a positive correlation between Kn and abundance of I. multifiliis, S. oxydoras and D. pacupeva was found. This study is the first one to record I. multifiliis, D. longicauda and A. jegui parasitizing M. lippincottianus, as well as the first record of D. pacupeva and S. oxydoras in the Amazonas river system.
Wanderson Pantoja MF
Full Text Available Objective. This study describes the parasitic fauna and relative condition factor (Kn in Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus L. (Cichlidae from fish farms in the State of Amapá. Material and methods. 123 fish from four fish farms in the state of Amapá, Brazil were necropsied for parasitological and Kn analysis. Results. 64.2% of the examined fish, had the gills infected with Cichlidogyrus tilapiae Paperna, 1960 (Monogenoidea: Dactylogyridae; Ichthyophthirius multifiliis Fouquet, 1876 (Protozoa: Ciliophora, Trichodina Ehrenberg, 1830 and Paratrichodina africana Kazubski & El-Tantawy, 1986 (Protozoa: Trichodinidae. The highest prevalence found corresponded to Monogenoidea C. tilapiae while the lowest corresponded to Trichodinidae. However, I. multifiliis was the parasite that presented the greatest intensity and abundance. The differences found in the infection rates of the different fish farms due to causes further discussed. The parasitism did not influence the relative condition factor (Kn of fish. This was the first record of P. africana in Brazil and occurred in the Eastern Amazon. Conclusions. In Brazil, Lamproglena sp. is an emerging parasite in the Southern and Southeastern regions, but this crustacean was not found in the Nile tilapia in the State of Amapá. The parasitic infections in Nile tilapia farmed in Brazil are caused by protozoan, monogenoidea, crustacea and digenea species, and the regional differences on their prevalence and intensity rates are discussed in this study.
Shu, Fan-Fan; Lv, Rui-Qing; Zhang, Yi-Fang; Duan, Gang; Wu, Ding-Yu; Li, Bi-Feng; Yang, Jian-Fa; Zou, Feng-Cai
On mainland China, liver flukes of Fasciola spp. (Digenea: Fasciolidae) can cause serious acute and chronic morbidity in numerous species of mammals such as sheep, goats, cattle, and humans. The objective of the present study was to examine the taxonomic identity of Fasciola species in Yunnan province by sequences of the first and second internal transcribed spacers (ITS-1 and ITS-2) of nuclear ribosomal DNA (rDNA). The ITS rDNA was amplified from 10 samples representing Fasciola species in cattle from 2 geographical locations in Yunnan Province, by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and the products were sequenced directly. The lengths of the ITS-1 and ITS-2 sequences were 422 and 361-362 base pairs, respectively, for all samples sequenced. Using ITS sequences, 2 Fasciola species were revealed, namely Fasciola hepatica and Fasciola gigantica. This is the first demonstration of F. gigantica in cattle in Yunnan Province, China using a molecular approach; our findings have implications for studying the population genetic characterization of the Chinese Fasciola species and for the prevention and control of Fasciola spp. in this province.
Claudia Silveira São Sabas
Full Text Available The parasite fauna of catfish, Pimelodus pohli, from the São Francisco River Basin is presented. A total of 45 catfish from the upper São Francisco River (45°15′44″W 18°13′25″S, were examined from July 2009 to September 2011. Forty-three catfish (95.5% were infected by at least one parasite species, with 885 parasite specimens being found, distributed across 17 species: Monogenea (Demidospermus uncusvalidus, Pavanelliella pavanellii, and Scleroductus sp.; Eucestoda (plerocercoids of Proteocephalidea; Digenea (metacercariae of Austrodiplostomum compactum, adults of Auriculostoma platense and Kalipharynx sp., and juvenile of Prosthenhystera obesa; Nematoda (larvae of Contracaecum sp., Hysterothylacium sp., Procamallanus pimelodus, Procamallanus sp., and unidentified of Cucullanidae, and adults of Cucullanus caballeroi, Philometra sp., and Procamallanus freitasi; and Acanthocephala (adults of Neoechinorhynchus pimelodi. Procamallanus freitasi and Scleroductus sp. were the taxa with the highest prevalence. Demidospermus uncusvalidus, P. freitasi, and Scleroductus sp. were the dominant species. The host's sex did not influence parasitic indexes; however, the total length of the catfish did appear to have some influence. The parasites, with except for P. obesa, were registered for the first time in P. pohli, as well as the occurrence of Kalipharynx sp. and C. caballeroi among pimelodid hosts from São Francisco River and South America.
Sabas, Claudia Silveira São; Brasil-Sato, Marilia Carvalho
The parasite fauna of catfish, Pimelodus pohli, from the São Francisco River Basin is presented. A total of 45 catfish from the upper São Francisco River (45°15'44″W 18°13'25″S), were examined from July 2009 to September 2011. Forty-three catfish (95.5%) were infected by at least one parasite species, with 885 parasite specimens being found, distributed across 17 species: Monogenea (Demidospermus uncusvalidus, Pavanelliella pavanellii, and Scleroductus sp.); Eucestoda (plerocercoids of Proteocephalidea); Digenea (metacercariae of Austrodiplostomum compactum, adults of Auriculostoma platense and Kalipharynx sp., and juvenile of Prosthenhystera obesa); Nematoda (larvae of Contracaecum sp., Hysterothylacium sp., Procamallanus pimelodus, Procamallanus sp., and unidentified of Cucullanidae, and adults of Cucullanus caballeroi, Philometra sp., and Procamallanus freitasi); and Acanthocephala (adults of Neoechinorhynchus pimelodi). Procamallanus freitasi and Scleroductus sp. were the taxa with the highest prevalence. Demidospermus uncusvalidus, P. freitasi, and Scleroductus sp. were the dominant species. The host's sex did not influence parasitic indexes; however, the total length of the catfish did appear to have some influence. The parasites, with except for P. obesa, were registered for the first time in P. pohli, as well as the occurrence of Kalipharynx sp. and C. caballeroi among pimelodid hosts from São Francisco River and South America.
Aline de Almeida Camargo
Full Text Available From March to April 2010, specimens of Acestrorhynchus lacustris were collected in the Peixe River, Anhembi, São Paulo State, Brazil. This characid, commonly known as peixe-cachorro, has a preference for lentic habitats and it features carnivorous habits, with an important role in the food chain. This study aimed to carry out a parasitological analysis of 34 specimens of A. lacustris, and 33 of these were infected by at least one species of metazoan parasite. Nine species were identified: Ameloblastella sp. and Diaphorocleidus sp. (Monogenea; Ascocotyle sp., Diplostomidae gen. sp. and Sphincterodiplostomum musculosum (Digenea; Contracaecum sp., Philometroides caudata, Procamallanus (Spirocamallanus inopinatus and P. (S. saofranciscensis (Nematoda. Except P. caudata and P. (S. saofranciscensis, all parasites showed prevalence higher than 10%. There was a positive correlation between host weight and length and the Ameloblastella sp. Diaphorocleidus sp. was the dominant species. No species was considered central. All parasites showed an aggregated distribution. The parasite community of A. lacustris was characterized by high richness (d = 0.85 and uniformity (J’ = 0.85 and low diversity (HB = 0.56. Except Nematoda, all other parasites were recorded for the first time in this host. Ameloblastella sp., Diaphorocleidus sp. and Ascocotyle sp. are recorded for the first time in the Peixe River.
Elíca Amara Cecília Guedes
Full Text Available This study investigated the biological activities of five benthic marine algae collected from Northeastern Region of Brazil. The tested activities included larvicidal activity against Aedes aegypti, molluscicidal activity against Biomphalaria glabrata, and toxicity against Artemia salina. Extracts of Ulva lactuca (Chlorophyta, Padina gymnospora, Sargassum vulgare (Phaeophyta, Hypnea musciformis, and Digenea simplex (Rhodophyta were prepared using different solvents of increasing polarity, including dichloromethane, methanol, ethanol, and water. Of the extracts screened, the dichloromethane extracts of H. musciformis and P. gymnospora exhibited the highest activities and were subjected to bioassay-guided fractionation in hexane and chloroform. The chloroform fractions of the P. gymnospora and H. musciformis extracts showed molluscicidal activity at values below 40 μg·mL−1 (11.1460 μg·mL−1 and 25.8689 μg·mL−1, resp., and the chloroform and hexane fractions of P. gymnospora showed larvicidal activity at values below 40 μg·mL−1 (29.018 μg·mL−1 and 17.230 μg·mL−1, resp.. The crude extracts were not toxic to A. salina, whereas the chloroform and hexane fractions of P. gymnospora (788.277 μg·mL−1 and 706.990 μg·mL−1 showed moderate toxicity, indicating that the toxic compounds present in these algae are nonpolar.
Guedes, Elíca Amara Cecília; de Carvalho, Cenira M; Ribeiro Junior, Karlos Antonio Lisboa; Lisboa Ribeiro, Thyago Fernando; de Barros, Lurdiana Dayse; de Lima, Maria Raquel Ferreira; Prado Moura, Flávia de Barros; Goulart Sant'ana, Antônio Euzebio
This study investigated the biological activities of five benthic marine algae collected from Northeastern Region of Brazil. The tested activities included larvicidal activity against Aedes aegypti, molluscicidal activity against Biomphalaria glabrata, and toxicity against Artemia salina. Extracts of Ulva lactuca (Chlorophyta), Padina gymnospora, Sargassum vulgare (Phaeophyta), Hypnea musciformis, and Digenea simplex (Rhodophyta) were prepared using different solvents of increasing polarity, including dichloromethane, methanol, ethanol, and water. Of the extracts screened, the dichloromethane extracts of H. musciformis and P. gymnospora exhibited the highest activities and were subjected to bioassay-guided fractionation in hexane and chloroform. The chloroform fractions of the P. gymnospora and H. musciformis extracts showed molluscicidal activity at values below 40 μ g·mL(-1) (11.1460 μ g·mL(-1) and 25.8689 μ g·mL(-1), resp.), and the chloroform and hexane fractions of P. gymnospora showed larvicidal activity at values below 40 μ g·mL(-1) (29.018 μ g·mL(-1) and 17.230 μ g·mL(-1), resp.). The crude extracts were not toxic to A. salina, whereas the chloroform and hexane fractions of P. gymnospora (788.277 μ g·mL(-1) and 706.990 μ g·mL(-1)) showed moderate toxicity, indicating that the toxic compounds present in these algae are nonpolar.
Podvyaznaya, I M; Galaktionov, K V
The ultrastructure of the flame cells, capillaries, collecting tubes, excretory bladder, excretory atrium, caudal vesicle, lateral caudal ducts and excretory pores of cercariae of Bucephaloides gracilescens (Rudolphi, 1819) Hopkins, 1954 and Prosorhynchus squamatus Odhner, 1905 (Digenea: Bucephalidae) is described. Both species are essentially similar except for some details. The terminal parts of the protonephridia have all the structural features that are typical of trematodes. The collecting tubes in the cercarial body are composed of cells that are wrapped around the lumen. The main collecting tubes are joined to the excretory bladder syncytium by septate junctions. Features of P. squamatus excretory bladder epithelium indicate that it is involved in secretory activity, but this is not the case in B. gracilescens. In both species the luminal surface of the excretory bladder epithelium is increased by lamellae, and the basal plasma membrane forms invaginations. In the bladder syncytium of P. squamatus both apical lamellae and basal invaginations are more developed and mitochondria are also more numerous. The excretory atrium is lined by a syncytium with nucleated cytons located in the surrounding parenchyma. The atrium lining is not continuous with the body tegument and possesses specific secretory inclusions and a thick glycocalyx. Septate junctions connect the atrium syncytium to the excretory bladder epithelium at its anterior end and to the syncytial excretory epithelium lining the caudal vesicle and the lateral caudal ducts at its posterior. In the excretory pores the caudal duct syncytium is joined to the tegument by septate desmosomes.
Staphylorchis cymatodes (Gorgoderidae: Anaporrhutinae) from carcharhiniform, orectolobiform and myliobatiform elasmobranchs of Australasia: low host specificity, wide distribution and morphological plasticity.
Cutmore, Scott C; Bennett, Michael B; Cribb, Thomas H
Anaporrhutine gorgoderids (Digenea: Gorgoderidae: Anaporrhutinae) found in the body cavity of six species of elasmobranchs from the orders Carcharhiniformes, Myliobatiformes and Orectolobiformes from Australian waters were found to belong to the genus Staphylorchis. Although these specimens were morphologically variable, sequences of ITS2 and 28S ribosomal DNA from specimens from three host families and two host orders were identical. Based on morphological and molecular data these specimens were identified as the type-species of the genus, Staphylorchis cymatodes. New measurements are provided for S. cymatodes, and for the first time genetic data are presented for this species. In addition to providing new morphological and molecular data for S. cymatodes, the previously described species S. gigas, S. parisi and S. scoliodonii, are here synonymised with S. cymatodes. This implies that S. cymatodes, as conceived here, has remarkably low host-specificity, being recorded from eight elasmobranch species from four families and three orders, has a wide geographical distribution in the Indo-west Pacific from off India, in the Bay of Bengal, to Moreton Bay in the Coral Sea, and is morphologically plastic, with body size, size of specific organs and body shape differing dramatically between specimens from different host species. The genus Staphylorchis now contains only two valid species, S. cymatodes and S. pacifica. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Fauna Europaea provides a public web-service with an index of scientific names (including important synonyms of all living European land and freshwater animals, their geographical distribution at country level (up to the Urals, excluding the Caucasus region, and some additional information. The Fauna Europaea project covers about 230,000 taxonomic names, including 130,000 accepted species and 14,000 accepted subspecies, which is much more than the originally projected number of 100,000 species. This represents a huge effort by more than 400 contributing specialists throughout Europe and is a unique (standard reference suitable for many users in science, government, industry, nature conservation and education. Helminths parasitic in animals represent a large assemblage of worms, representing three phyla, with more than 200 families and almost 4,000 species of parasites from all major vertebrate and many invertebrate groups. A general introduction is given for each of the major groups of parasitic worms, i.e. the Acanthocephala, Monogenea, Trematoda (Aspidogastrea and Digenea, Cestoda and Nematoda. Basic information for each group includes its size, host-range, distribution, morphological features, life-cycle, classification, identification and recent key-works. Tabulations include a complete list of families dealt with, the number of species in each and the name of the specialist responsible for data acquisition, a list of additional specialists who helped with particular groups, and a list of higher taxa dealt with down to the family level. A compilation of useful references is appended.
JÉSSICA E.S.A. GOLZIO
Full Text Available ABSTRACT Parasites are important components of communities and constitute great part of the biological diversity found in ecosystems, providing valuable information about their hosts and the environment in which they live. However, despite its importance, parasitic diversity is still not well known in some regions of Brazil, especially with respect to fish parasites in the Northeast Region. The present study aims to perform the survey of gill parasites of fish from two tropical estuaries located in northeastern Brazil: Paraíba and Mamanguape rivers. Two collections were made in each estuary, one during the dry period (November / 2013 and the other during the rainy season (July / 2014. The fish were caught using a beach seine net, dragged along the main channel margin. After the identification, biometry and necropsy of the fish, their parasites were collected, stored and identified. For each species of parasite, the values of prevalence, mean intensity and mean abundance were calculated. Of the 882 examined fish, belonging to four species, 145 were parasitized by at least one species of parasite. In total, 18 taxa of parasites of the groups Monogenea, Digenea, Nematoda, Copepoda and Isopoda were recorded, being the copepod Acusicola brasiliensis the most abundant species of parasite.
Borges, J N; Costa, V S; Mantovani, C; Barros, E; Santos, E G N; Mafra, C L; Santos, C P
Pygidiopsis macrostomum and Ascocotyle (Phagicola) pindoramensis (Digenea: Heterophyidae) parasitize guppies as intermediate hosts and, respectively, fish-eating mammals or birds as definitive hosts. Heterophyids have zoonotic potential, and molecular studies associated with morphological and ecological aspects have helped to clarify their taxonomy and phylogeny. Poecilia vivipara naturally parasitized by metacercariae of both species (100% prevalence) exhibit no external signs of parasitism. In this work, four new sequences of P. macrostomum (18S rDNA, 28S rDNA and ITS2 rDNA) and one new sequence of A. (P.) pindoramensis (mtDNA cox-1) are presented. Phylogeny reconstructions linked P. macrostomum to other heterophyids, but the separation of the Heterophyidae and Opisthorchiidae remains unclear. Additionally, we used indirect immunocytochemistry and the phalloidin-fluorescence techniques allied with confocal laser scanning microscopy to describe muscular and neuronal structures of P. macrostomum. A complex arrangement of muscular fibres is associated with the tegument, suckers, gut and reproductive system. Radial fibres around the ventral sucker are thick, branched and extend to the body wall. High-resolution confocal imaging revealed a typical digenean muscular arrangement and important heterophyid morphological traits. These data will support future control measures to reduce the parasitism in guppies reared in fish farming systems, especially for aquarium and experimental purposes. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
L. P. Kharchenko
Full Text Available Histological structure of digestive tracts of 12 species of waders (Aves, Сharadrii has been studied: Pluvialis squatarola (Linnaeus, 1758, Charadrius hiaticula (Linnaeus, 1758, Recurvirostra avosetta (Linnaeus, 1758, Tringa ochropus (Linnaeus, 1758, T. glareola (Linnaeus, 1758, T. nebularia (Gunnerus, 1767, T. erythropus (Pallas, 1764, Philomachus pugnax (Linnaeus, 1758, Calidris minuta (Leisler, 1812, C. ferruginea (Pontoppidan, 1763, C. alpina (Linnaeus, 1758 and Gallinago gallinago (Linnaeus, 1758. The features of histological structure of all parts of the digestive tract of the waders species under analysis were defined and adaptations in the structure of the digestive system to distant migrations were detected. It is determined that the histological structure of the wall of the esophagus of the studied species of waders is universal, and the relief of mucosa is folded; stratified squamous epithelium of the mucous membrane has an insignificant degree of hornification. A large number of esophagus glands is observed in the lamina propria of the mucosa; these glands secrete mucus which facilitates the movement of food along the esophagus. The muscular coat is well-developed and formed by longitudinal and circular layers of smooth muscle tissue. It is found that characteristics of histological structure of the stomach wall of the waders species under analysis are presupposed by the following functions: 1 glandular stomach wall provides secretion of digestive enzymes through active secretory activity of glands of deep complex; 2 secretion (mucus of simple tubular glands is excreted to the surface of glandular stomach performing the protective function; 3 the wall of the muscular stomach provides mechanical treatment of food through well-developed muscle layer and solid layer of the cuticle. It is established that the waders’ intestine is shortened, that is compensated by the complication of the relief of intestinal mucosa by plates that form
Kleinertz, S; Palm, H W
A total of 195 Epinephelus coioides (Hamilton, 1822) were studied for fish parasites from Javanese (Segara Anakan lagoon) and Balinese waters. Up to 25 different parasite species belonging to the following taxa: one Ciliata, one Microsporea, five Digenea, one Monogenea, four Cestoda, four Nematoda, one Acanthocephala, one Hirudinea and seven Crustacea were identified with four new host and locality records. The dominant parasites included the monogenean Pseudorhabdosynochus lantauensis (53.3-97.1%), the nematode Spirophilometra endangae (23.3-42.9%), the digenean Didymodiclinus sp. (2.9-40.0%), the nematodes Philometra sp. (22.6-34.3%) and Raphidascaris sp. (2.9-28.6%), and the isopod Alcirona sp. (6.7-31.4%). Regional differences for E. coioides were found in terms of endoparasite diversity, total diversity according to Shannon-Wiener, Simpson index and Evenness. A comparison with published data from Sumatera revealed highest endoparasite diversity (Shannon-Wiener: 1.86/1.67-2.04) and lowest ectoparasite/endoparasite ratio (0.73/0.57-0.88) off the Balinese coast, followed by Lampung Bay, Sumatera (1.84; 0.67), off the coast of Segara Anakan lagoon (1.71; 0.71), and in the lagoon (0.30/0.19-0.66; 0.85/0.67-1.00). The presented data demonstrate the natural range of these parameters and parasite prevalences according to habitat and region, allowing adjustment of the scale that has been used in the visual integration of the parasite parameters into a star graph. The parasite fauna of E. coioides in Segara Anakan lagoon 'improved' from 2004 until 2008/09, possibly related to earlier oil spill events in 2002 and 2004. The use of grouper fish parasites as an early warning system for environmental change in Indonesian coastal ecosystems is discussed.
Full Text Available A quantitative research of parasites of 67 endemic frog Telmatobius jelskii (Peters, 1863 collected from Laguna Tucto (76°46'11"W, 10°39'11"S where Pativilca River is originated was conducted, and was located in the Province of Oyon, high Andean area from the Department of Lima, Peru during September-October 2000. Of the frogs collected, 23 were females and 44 males. Male showed a length between 5.2 ± 0.5 cm (range = 4.0-6.4 cm and female between 5.5 ± 1 cm (range = 3.9-7.6 cm and were not found differences between both sexes. 86 specimens of parasite and three species in total during all the survey were collected. 28 hosts were infected (41.8%. twenty-five hosts (37.3% showed infection with one parasite species, and three (4.5% had two parasite species. Three parasite species were found: Gorgoderina parvicava Travassos, 1922 (Digenea: Gorgoderidae (Prevalence = 40.3%; mean Intensity = 3.1; mean abundance = 1.2, Cylindrotaenia americana Jewell, 1916 (Cestoda: Proteocephalidae (Prevalence = 3%; mean Intensity = 1; mean abundance = 0.02 and Aplectana hylambatis (Baylis, 1927 (Nematoda: Cosmocercidae (Prevalence = 3%; mean Intensity = 1; mean abundance = 0.02. G. parvicava had an overdispersed distribution and was the dominant species. An effect of sex and length with prevalence and mean abundance of infection of G. parvicava was not found. The relationship of helminthes parasites with T. jelskii is discussed. G. parvicava and C. americana are new records for T. jelskii.
Élica A. C. Guedes
Full Text Available This paper presents an investigation on the cytotoxic activity in human tumor cell from dichloromethane, chloroform, methanol, ethanol, water extracts, and hexane and chloroform fractions from green, brown and red algae collected at Riacho Doce Beach, north coast of Alagoas, Brazil, against the cancer cells K562 (chronic myelocytic leukemia, HEp-2 (laryngeal epidermoid carcinoma and NCI-H292 (human lung mucoepidermoid carcinoma through the MTT colorimetric method. The dichloromethane extract and chloroform fraction of Hypnea musciformis showed the best cytotoxic activity against K562 (3.8±0.2 µg.mL-1 and 6.4±0.4 µg.mL-1, respectively. Dichloromethane extracts of Dictyota dichotoma (16.3±0.3 µg.mL-1 and the chloroform fraction of H. musciformis (6.0±0.03 µg.mL-1 and chloroform fraction of P. gymnospora (8.2±0.4 were more active against HEp-2 as well as ethanol extracts of P. gymnospora (15.9±2.8 µg.mL-1 and chloroform fraction of H. musciformis (15.0±1.3 µg.mL-1 against the cell NCI-H292. The constituents with higher anticancer action are present in the extracts of dichloromethane and chloroform and in the chloroform fraction of H. musciformis, Digenea simplex, P. gymnospora, and D.dichotoma. In the case of the seaweed S. vulgare, the anticancer constituents are present in the aqueous extract.
Arnott, Stephen A; Dyková, Iva; Roumillat, William A; de Buron, Isaure
Six types of pathogenic endoparasites in an economically important fish, spotted seatrout Cynoscion nebulosus, were studied in order to test whether prevalence of infection and assemblage richness varied with season, host sex, host size, or host age. Fish were collected from South Carolina estuaries, USA, over 12 months (n = 216; total lengths 15-663 mm). They were screened histologically for presence of Henneguya cynoscioni (Myxozoa) and Cardicola spp. (Digenea) in the heart, Kudoa inornata (Myxozoa) in the skeletal muscle, Sinuolinea dimorpha (Myxozoa) in the urinary system, Ichthyophonus sp. (Mesomycetozoea) in the kidney, and an unidentified microsporidian in the liver. Prevalence of infection was 29.8, 38.6, 47.2, 41.2, 13.6, and 2.8%, respectively. All factors had significant, but varying effects on the parasites. Parasite infections were more prevalent in winter than other seasons for Cardicola spp. and H. cynoscioni, more prevalent in winter and spring for Ichthyophonus sp., and more prevalent in male fish than female fish for K. inornata, S. dimorpha, and Ichthyophonus. Prevalence of infection by the three myxosporeans and Cardicola spp. increased with fish length, whereas prevalence of Ichthyophonus increased with length among young fish, but decreased with length among older fish. None of the factors affected the liver microsporidian, although statistical power was low due to its rareness. Assemblage richness varied between 0 and 5, was greater during winter and in male fish, and increased with fish length and fish age. Our results demonstrate that spotted seatrout are commonly co-infected by multiple pathogenic endoparasites, suggesting these parasites likely play an import role in controlling fish population numbers.
Kavetska, Katarzyna M; Królaczyk, Katarzyna; Kalisińska, Elzbieta; Kornyushin, Vadim V; Korol, Eleonora N
The goosander, Mergus merganser, is a rare in Poland water bird (Anseriformes: Mergini). It eats fish and small invertebrates. The purpose of this study was a preliminary parasitological examination of the digestive tract of the goosander wintering on the Szczecin Lagoon. The research material were the parasites recovered from digestive tracts of 6 birds (two males and four females), which died during feeding in fishing nets in winter 2001. The birds were subject to standard parasitological examinations using commonly adopted methods. The trematodes and the cestodes found were preserved in 70% ethyl alcohol and subsequently stained using iron carmine (Cestoda) and borax alcohol carmine (Digenea) and then they were closed in Canada balsam. Nematodes were kept in 70% alcohol and cleared with 80% lactic acid or lactophenol. The parasite assemblages were analysed through calculating prevalence, intensity of infection, relative density and domination index. Also, the topic structure of the parasite assemblages or their habitat preferences in a host animal digestive tract were determined. The presently reported study detected a total of 1596 parasitic worms: digeneans (1086), tapeworms (410) and nematodes (100). Acanthocephalans were not found. Even though only a few goosanders were examined, the results show a high species richness of parasite assemblages consisting of 22 species, representing 21 genera. The following were deemed as definite dominants (superdominants): Diplostomum mergi Dubois, 1932; D. pusillum (Dubois, 1928); Microsomacanthus abortiva (von Linstow, 1904) and Schistocephalus solidus (Müller, 1776). Helminths were found in all birds with their great relative density and intensity of occurrence (266 parasites on average). As expected, the parasite assemblages were characterized by considerable topical specificity, probably resulting from the feeding preferences of the worms. The majority of helminths, including predominant part of flatworms, were found
Ghatani, S; Shylla, J A; Tandon, V; Chatterjee, A; Roy, B
Members of the family Gastrothylacidae (Trematoda: Digenea: Paramphistomata) are parasitic in ruminants throughout Africa and Asia. In north-east India, five species of pouched amphistomes, namely Fischoederius cobboldi, F. elongatus, Gastrothylax crumenifer, Carmyerius spatiosus and Velasquezotrema tripurensis, belonging to this family have been reported so far. In the present study, the molecular phylogeny of these five gastrothylacid species is derived using the second internal transcribed spacer (ITS2) sequence and secondary structure analyses. ITS2 sequence analysis was carried out to see the occurrence of interspecific variations among the species. Phylogenetic analyses were performed for primary sequence data alone as well as the combined sequence-structure information using neighbour-joining and Bayesian approaches. The sequence analysis revealed that there exist considerable interspecific variations among the various gastrothylacid fluke species. In contrast, the inferred secondary structures for the five species using minimum free energy modelling showed structural identities, in conformity with the core four-helix domain structure that has been recently identified as common to almost all eukaryotic taxa. The phylogenetic tree reconstructed using combined sequence-structure data showed a better resolution, as compared to the one using sequence data alone, with the gastrothylacid species forming a monophyletic group that is well separated from members of the other family, Paramphistomidae, of the amphistomid flukes group. The study provides the molecular characterization based on primary sequence data of the rDNA ITS2 region of the gastrothylacid amphistome flukes. Results also demonstrate the phylogenetic utility of the ITS2 sequence-secondary structure data for inferences at higher taxonomic levels.
Amor, Nabil; Farjallah, Sarra; Salem, Mohamed; Lamine, Dia Mamadou; Merella, Paolo; Said, Khaled; Ben Slimane, Badreddine
Fasciolosis caused by Fasciola hepatica and Fasciola gigantica (Platyhelminthes: Trematoda: Digenea) is considered the most important helminth infection of ruminants in tropical countries, causing considerable socioeconomic problems. From Africa, F. gigantica has been previously characterized from Burkina Faso, Senegal, Kenya, Zambia and Mali, while F. hepatica has been reported from Morocco and Tunisia, and both species have been observed from Ethiopia and Egypt on the basis of morphometric differences, while the use of molecular markers is necessary to distinguish exactly between species. Samples identified morphologically as F. gigantica (n=60) from sheep and cattle from different geographical localities of Mauritania were genetically characterized by sequences of the first (ITS-1), the 5.8S, and second (ITS-2) Internal Transcribed Spacers (ITS) of nuclear ribosomal DNA (rDNA) genes and the mitochondrial Cytochrome c Oxidase I (COI) gene. Comparison of the sequences of the Mauritanian samples with sequences of Fasciola spp. from GenBank confirmed that all samples belong to the species F. gigantica. The nucleotide sequencing of ITS rDNA of F. gigantica showed no nucleotide variation in the ITS-1, 5.8S, and ITS-2 rDNA sequences among all samples examined and those from Burkina Faso, Kenya, Egypt and Iran. The phylogenetic trees based on the ITS-1 and ITS-2 sequences showed a close relationship of the Mauritanian samples with isolates of F. gigantica from different localities of Africa and Asia. The COI genotypes of the Mauritanian specimens of F. gigantica had a high level of diversity, and they belonged to the F. gigantica phylogenically distinguishable clade. The present study is the first molecular characterization of F. gigantica in sheep and cattle from Mauritania, allowing a reliable approach for the genetic differentiation of Fasciola spp. and providing basis for further studies on liver flukes in the African countries. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All
Huyse, Tine; Webster, Bonnie L; Geldof, Sarah; Stothard, J Russell; Diaw, Oumar T; Polman, Katja; Rollinson, David
Schistosomiasis is a disease of great medical and veterinary importance in tropical and subtropical regions, caused by parasitic flatworms of the genus Schistosoma (subclass Digenea). Following major water development schemes in the 1980s, schistosomiasis has become an important parasitic disease of children living in the Senegal River Basin (SRB). During molecular parasitological surveys, nuclear and mitochondrial markers revealed unexpected natural interactions between a bovine and human Schistosoma species: S. bovis and S. haematobium, respectively. Hybrid schistosomes recovered from the urine and faeces of children and the intermediate snail hosts of both parental species, Bulinus truncatus and B. globosus, presented a nuclear ITS rRNA sequence identical to S. haematobium, while the partial mitochondrial cox1 sequence was identified as S. bovis. Molecular data suggest that the hybrids are not 1st generation and are a result of parental and/or hybrid backcrosses, indicating a stable hybrid zone. Larval stages with the reverse genetic profile were also found and are suggested to be F1 progeny. The data provide indisputable evidence for the occurrence of bidirectional introgressive hybridization between a bovine and a human Schistosoma species. Hybrid species have been found infecting B. truncatus, a snail species that is now very abundant throughout the SRB. The recent increase in urinary schistosomiasis in the villages along the SRB could therefore be a direct effect of the increased transmission through B. truncatus. Hybridization between schistosomes under laboratory conditions has been shown to result in heterosis (higher fecundity, faster maturation time, wider intermediate host spectrum), having important implications on disease prevalence, pathology and treatment. If this new hybrid exhibits the same hybrid vigour, it could develop into an emerging pathogen, necessitating further control strategies in zones where both parental species overlap.
Münster, Julian; Kochmann, Judith; Klimpel, Sven; Klapper, Regina; Kuhn, Thomas
The extreme, isolated environment within the Antarctic Convergence has fuelled the evolution of a highly endemic fauna with unique adaptations. One species known from this area is the Whitson's grenadier Macrourus whitsoni (Regan, 1913). While closely related species occurring in the Northern Hemisphere were targets of a variety of studies, knowledge on M. whitsoni is scarce, including not only its ecology but also its parasite fauna. Parasites, an often overlooked but important component of every ecosystem, can provide important insights into host ecology, including feeding habits, food web interactions and distribution patterns. The aim of our study was to increase the currently limited knowledge on the ecology of M. whitsoni and its parasite life-cycles. In this study, parasite fauna and stomach content of 50 specimens of M. whitsoni were sampled off Elephant and King George Islands. Fish samples were morphological, food ecological and parasitological examined and parasites morphological and partly molecular identified. To evaluate the findings, results were compared with other macrourid species. The parasite fauna of M. whitsoni revealed 9 genera and 17 species. Stomach content analysis indicated Amphipoda and Mysida as the primary food source. Considering the parasites of M. whitsoni, the highest diversity was found within the Digenea, while prevalence was highest for the Acanthocephala and Nematoda. The diverse parasite fauna of M. whitsoni together with the stomach content analysis, suggests a benthopelagic mode of life. Furthermore, an extensive evaluation of the parasite fauna of species of the Macrourinae was conducted, which is probably the most thorough one yet, to compare the findings with closely related host fish species. A similarity analysis revealed a strong connection between the parasite fauna composition and geographical distribution, with a clear separation between the parasite faunas in fishes sampled in the Pacific and the Atlantic Oceans
Al-Amoudi, Omar A; Mutawie, Hawazin H; Patel, Asmita V; Blunden, Gerald
The increased use of natural product in the pharmaceutical industry has led to an increase in demand for screening for bioactive compounds in marine algae. An important economic algae, through chemical composition analysis and their antioxidant activities were investigated in this study. Chemical composition analysis of three algal samples from the Chlorophyta Ulva lactuca (U), Phaeophyta Sargassum crassifolia (S) and Rhodophyta Digenea simplex (D) was tested. Main components were sugars (57.40-185.13 mg/g dry weight), uronic acids (29.3-45.26 mg/g dry weight), sulfate (94.7-181.2 mg/g dry weight), amino acids (7.6-16.7 mg/g dry weight) and small amounts of betaines (2.38-8.47 mg/g dry weight). Hydrolyzed chemical composition analysis fractions of algal extract was shown a great proportion of sugars plus sulfate (as polysaccharide composed) ranges between 332 and 538.2 mg/g dry weight with trace amounts of uronic acids (⩽9%). All three algal extract showed antioxidant activities on lipoxygenase, DPPH and on Ames test. Two of aqueous extracts (U and D) inhibited lipoxygenase activity by less than 50%, where as the methanolic extract (S) caused 76% inhibition of the control. In all cases, the methanolic extract were more inhibitory than the aqueous extract. The (S) showed the highest antioxidant activity with DPPH (69%) in aqueous extract and in methanol extract with Ames test (85%). Both U and D showed antioxidant activity with DPPH in hexane by less of 25% where as in both aqueous and methanolic extracts by less than 50% of the control. Aqueous and methanolic extracts of U and D showed high inhibition by Ames test which caused 70% and 75% respectively. IR spectra of algal extracts (U; D and S) range from 1450 to 750 cm(-1) were very similar absorption band at 1430, 1370, 1250, 1130, 1110, 1050 and 1020 cm(-1). Absorption bands were due to uronic acids, glucosides and sulfate. The presence of sulfated polysaccharide material in the fractions UF2, DF2 and
Longo, G. O.; Morais, R. A.; Martins, C. D. L.; Mendes, T. C.; Aued, A. W.; Cândido, D. V.; de Oliveira, J. C.; Nunes, L. T.; Fontoura, L.; Sissini, M. N.; Teschima, M. M.; Silva, M. B.; Ramlov, F.; Gouvea, L. P.; Ferreira, C. E. L.; Segal, B.; Horta, P. A.; Floeter, S. R.
The Southwestern Atlantic harbors unique and relatively understudied reef systems, including the only atoll in South Atlantic: Rocas atoll. Located 230 km off the NE Brazilian coast, Rocas is formed by coralline red algae and vermetid mollusks, and is potentially one of the most “pristine” areas in Southwestern Atlantic. We provide the first comprehensive and integrative description of the fish and benthic communities inhabiting different shallow reef habitats of Rocas. We studied two contrasting tide pool habitats: open pools, which communicate with the open ocean even during low tides, thus more exposed to wave action; and closed pools, which remain isolated during low tide and are comparatively less exposed. Reef fish assemblages, benthic cover, algal turfs and fish feeding pressure on the benthos remarkably varied between open and closed pools. The planktivore Thalassoma noronhanum was the most abundant fish species in both habitats. In terms of biomass, the lemon shark Negaprion brevirostris and the omnivore Melichtys niger were dominant in open pools, while herbivorous fishes (mainly Acanthurus spp.) prevailed in closed pools. Overall benthic cover was dominated by algal turfs, composed of articulated calcareous algae in open pools and non-calcified algae in closed pools. Feeding pressure was dominated by acanthurids and was 10-fold lower in open pools than in closed pools. Besides different wave exposure conditions, such pattern could also be related to the presence of sharks in open pools, prompting herbivorous fish to feed more in closed pools. This might indirectly affect the structure of reef fish assemblages and benthic communities. The macroalgae Digenea simplex, which is uncommon in closed pools and abundant in the reef flat, was highly preferred in herbivory assays, indicating that herbivory by fishes might be shaping this distribution pattern. The variations in benthic and reef fish communities, and feeding pressure on the benthos between open
Carvallho, R P S; Takemoto, R M; Melo, C M; Jeraldo, V L S; Madi, R R
The catfish species Sciades proops inhabits muddy estuaries and shallow brackish lagoons, as well as freshwater. For these reasons, it is believed that this species may act as an intermediate, definitive and paratenic host in the life cycle of many parasites. From November 2010 to November 2011 and from August 2012 to July 2013, a total of 126 specimens of Sciades proops from the estuarine region of the Japaratuba River in the state of Sergipe, Brazil, were examined for parasites, of which 84.13% were infected by at least one species: Ergasilus sp. (Copepoda) (Prevalence P = 77.78%, Mean of Intensity MI = 10.08 ± 15.48, Mean Abundance MA = 14.27 ± 7.48) in the gills, Contracaecum sp. (P = 23.02%, MI = 20.59 ± 80.58, MA =39.12 ± 4.47) in the general cavity, Procamallanus sp. (P = 0.79%, MI = 1, MA = 0.01 ± 0.09), Raphidascaroides sp. (P = 2.31%, MI = 1.33 ± 0.58, MA = 0.33 ± 0.22) and Cuccullanus sp. (Nematoda) (P = 0.79%, MI = 1, MA = 0.01 ± 0.09) in the intestine, Ancyrocephalinae (Monogenea) (P = 0.79%, MI = 1, MA = 0.01 ± 0.09) in the gills, Pseudoacanthostomumpanamense (P = 1.59%, MI = 9.00 ± 8.49, MA = 0.14 ± 1.36) in the intestine, Clinostomum sp. (P = 1.59%, MI = 17.50 ± 23.33, MA = 0.29 ± 3.03) on the body surface and two unidentified metacercariae, referred to as Metacercaria 1 (P = 0.79%; IM = 1, MA = 0.01 ± 0.09) and Metacercaria 2 (Digenea) (P = 0.79%, MI = 7, MA = 0.06 ± 0.62) in the swim bladder. Ergasilus sp. was the dominant species and thus classified as core, with Contracaecum sp. as the satellite and other species as secondary species. The spatial distribution of infection with Ergasilus sp. and Contracaecum sp. showed a typical pattern of aggregate distribution. The sex of the host did not influence parasitic infections, but infection with Ergasilus sp. showed a positive and significant correlation with biometric and epidemiologic parameters, whereas infection with Contracaecum sp. was correlated only with prevalence and abundance.
Farjallah, Sarra; Ben Slimane, Badreddine; Piras, Cristina Maria; Amor, Nabil; Garippa, Giovanni; Merella, Paolo
The aim of the present study is to investigate for the first time the genetic diversity of samples identified morphologically as Fasciola hepatica (Platyhelminthes: Trematoda: Digenea) (n=66) from sheep and cattle from two localities of Sardinia and to compare them with available data from other localities by partial sequences of the first (ITS-1), the 5.8S, and second (ITS-2) Internal Transcribed Spacers (ITS) of nuclear ribosomal DNA (rDNA) genes, the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI), and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide dehydrogenase subunit I (ND1) genes. Comparison of the sequences from Sardinia with sequences of Fasciola spp. from GenBank confirmed that all samples belong to the species F. hepatica. The nucleotide sequencing of ITS rDNA showed no nucleotide variation in the ITS-1, 5.8S and ITS-2 rDNA sequences among all Sardinian samples, comparing with two ITS-2 haplotypes in standard F. hepatica, showing a substitution C/T in 20 position 859, reported previously from Tunisia, Algeria, Australia, Uruguay and Spain. The present study shows that in Sardinian sheep and cattle there is the most frequent haplotype (FhITS-H1) of F. hepatica species from South Europe. Considering NDI sequences, the phylogenetic trees showed reliable grouping among the haplotypes of F. hepatica from Sardinia and the mitochondrial lineage I, including the main N1 haplotype, observed previously from Europe (Russia, Belarus, Ukraine and Bulgaria), Armenia, West Africa (Nigeria), America (Uruguay and USA), Asia (Turkey, Japan, and China), Georgia, Turkmenistan, Azerbaijan and Australia. Furthermore, common haplotypes FhCOI-H1 and FhCOI-H2 of F. hepatica from Sardinia also corresponded mostly to the first lineage including the main C1 haplotype reported previously from Eastern European and Western Asian populations, they belonged just to a phylogenically distinguishable clade, as F. hepatica from Australia, France, Turkey, Uruguay, Russia, Armenia, Ukraine, Belarus
R. P. S. Carvallho
Full Text Available Abstract The catfish species Sciades proops inhabits muddy estuaries and shallow brackish lagoons, as well as freshwater. For these reasons, it is believed that this species may act as an intermediate, definitive and paratenic host in the life cycle of many parasites. From November 2010 to November 2011 and from August 2012 to July 2013, a total of 126 specimens of Sciades proops from the estuarine region of the Japaratuba River in the state of Sergipe, Brazil, were examined for parasites, of which 84.13% were infected by at least one species: Ergasilus sp. (Copepoda (Prevalence P = 77.78%, Mean of Intensity MI = 10.08 ± 15.48, Mean Abundance MA = 14.27 ± 7.48 in the gills, Contracaecum sp. (P = 23.02%, MI = 20.59 ± 80.58, MA =39.12 ± 4.47 in the general cavity, Procamallanus sp. (P = 0.79%, MI = 1, MA = 0.01 ± 0.09, Raphidascaroides sp. (P = 2.31%, MI = 1.33 ± 0.58, MA = 0.33 ± 0.22 and Cuccullanus sp. (Nematoda (P = 0.79%, MI = 1, MA = 0.01 ± 0.09 in the intestine, Ancyrocephalinae (Monogenea (P = 0.79%, MI = 1, MA = 0.01 ± 0.09 in the gills, Pseudoacanthostomumpanamense (P = 1.59%, MI = 9.00 ± 8.49, MA = 0.14 ± 1.36 in the intestine, Clinostomum sp. (P = 1.59%, MI = 17.50 ± 23.33, MA = 0.29 ± 3.03 on the body surface and two unidentified metacercariae, referred to as Metacercaria 1 (P = 0.79%; IM = 1, MA = 0.01 ± 0.09 and Metacercaria 2 (Digenea (P = 0.79%, MI = 7, MA = 0.06 ± 0.62 in the swim bladder. Ergasilus sp. was the dominant species and thus classified as core, with Contracaecum sp. as the satellite and other species as secondary species. The spatial distribution of infection with Ergasilus sp. and Contracaecum sp. showed a typical pattern of aggregate distribution. The sex of the host did not influence parasitic infections, but infection with Ergasilus sp. showed a positive and significant correlation with biometric and epidemiologic parameters, whereas infection with Contracaecum sp. was correlated only with
G O Longo
Full Text Available The Southwestern Atlantic harbors unique and relatively understudied reef systems, including the only atoll in South Atlantic: Rocas atoll. Located 230 km off the NE Brazilian coast, Rocas is formed by coralline red algae and vermetid mollusks, and is potentially one of the most "pristine" areas in Southwestern Atlantic. We provide the first comprehensive and integrative description of the fish and benthic communities inhabiting different shallow reef habitats of Rocas. We studied two contrasting tide pool habitats: open pools, which communicate with the open ocean even during low tides, thus more exposed to wave action; and closed pools, which remain isolated during low tide and are comparatively less exposed. Reef fish assemblages, benthic cover, algal turfs and fish feeding pressure on the benthos remarkably varied between open and closed pools. The planktivore Thalassoma noronhanum was the most abundant fish species in both habitats. In terms of biomass, the lemon shark Negaprion brevirostris and the omnivore Melichtys niger were dominant in open pools, while herbivorous fishes (mainly Acanthurus spp. prevailed in closed pools. Overall benthic cover was dominated by algal turfs, composed of articulated calcareous algae in open pools and non-calcified algae in closed pools. Feeding pressure was dominated by acanthurids and was 10-fold lower in open pools than in closed pools. Besides different wave exposure conditions, such pattern could also be related to the presence of sharks in open pools, prompting herbivorous fish to feed more in closed pools. This might indirectly affect the structure of reef fish assemblages and benthic communities. The macroalgae Digenea simplex, which is uncommon in closed pools and abundant in the reef flat, was highly preferred in herbivory assays, indicating that herbivory by fishes might be shaping this distribution pattern. The variations in benthic and reef fish communities, and feeding pressure on the benthos
Metazoos parásitos de la mojarrilla Stellifer minor (Tschudi (Osteichthyes, Sciaenidae capturados por pesquería artesanal en Chorrillos, Lima, Perú Metazoan parasites of the minor stardrum, Stellifer minor (Tschudi (Osteichthyes, Sciaenidae, caught by artisanal fishery on Chorrillos, Lima, Peru
Full Text Available Se investigaron algunos componentes comunitarios de la parasitofauna de 105 ejemplares de Stellifer minor (Tschudi, 1844 colectados del Terminal Pesquero de Chorrillos, Lima, Perú, entre el mayo y octubre de 1998 y necropsiados para estudiar sus comunidades parasitarias. De los peces colectados, 71 fueron machos y 34 hembras. Los peces mostraron una longitud estándar entre 10,20-20,50 cm (promedio = 15,50 ± 1,65. Los parásitos metazoos fueron colectados y censados empleando las técnicas convencionales. Se colectaron un total de 3483 especimenes durante todo el muestreo, con una abundancia media total de 33,17 (3-122. El promedio de la riqueza de especies de parásitos fue 1,9 (1-4. Un hospedero no presentó ningún parásito. 20 hospederos (19,04% mostraron infección con un solo parásito, 77 (73,33% y 7 (6,66% tuvieron una infección múltiple, con 2 y 3 especies de parásitos, respectivamente. Se encontraron cinco parásitos: Rhamnocercus oliveri Luque & Iannacone, 1991 y R. stelliferi Luque & Iannacone, 1991 (Monogenea (prevalencia = 98,09%; intensidad media = 28,85; abundancia media = 28,58, Clavellotis dilatata (Kroyer, 1863 (Copepoda (prevalencia = 2,85%; intensidad media = 1; abundancia media = 0,02, Helicometra fasciata (Rudolphi, 1819 (Digenea (prevalencia = 79,04%; intensidad media = 5,77; abundancia media = 4,56 y Procamallanus (Spirocamallanus pereirai Annereaux, 1946 (Nematoda (prevalencia = 4,76%; intensidad media = 1,6; abundancia media = 0,07. Se encontró efecto del sexo en la intensidad y abundancia media de Infección de Rhamnocercus Monaco, Wood & Mizelle, 1954 y también efecto del sexo con la abundancia media de infección con H. fasciata. La diversidad media de las infracomunidades según el índice de Shannon-Weaver de S. minor fue (H' = 0,11 y el índice de Simpson (C = 0,98. Se compararon los resultados obtenidos con la estructura comunitaria parasitaria registrada en la década anterior en S. minor en la misma
Kamaraj, Chinnaperumal; Rahuman, Abdul Abdul; Bagavan, Asokan; Elango, Gandhi; Rajakumar, Govindasamy; Zahir, Abdul Abduz; Marimuthu, Sampath; Santhoshkumar, Thirunavukkarasu; Jayaseelan, Chidambaram
The present study was based on assessments of the antiparasitic activities to determine the efficacies of acetone, chloroform, ethyl acetate, hexane, and methanol dried leaf, flower, and seed extracts of Cassia auriculata L., Rhinacanthus nasutus KURZ., Solanum torvum Swartz, Terminalia chebula Retz., and Vitex negundo Linn. were tested against larvae of cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus Canestrini, 1887 (Acari: Ixodidae), adult of Haemaphysalis bispinosa Neumann, 1897 (Acarina: Ixodidae), hematophagous fly Hippobosca maculata Leach (Diptera: Hippoboscidae), nymph of goat-lice Damalinia caprae Gurlt (Trichodectidae), and adult sheep parasite Paramphistomum cervi Zeder, 1790 (Digenea: Paramphistomatidae). All plant extracts showed moderate parasitic effects after 24 h of exposure at 3,000 ppm; however, the highest parasite mortality was found in leaf ethyl acetate, flower methanol of C. auriculata, leaf and seed methanol of S. torvum, seed acetone of T. chebula, and leaf hexane extracts of V. negundo against the larvae of R. microplus (LC(50) = 335.48, 309.21, 297.43, 414.99, 167.20, and 611.67 ppm; LC(90) = 1571.58, 1111.82, 950.98, 1243.64, 595.31, and 1875.50 ppm), the leaf and flower methanol of R. nasutus, leaf and seed methanol of S. torvum, and seed methanol extracts of T. chebula against the nymph of D. caprae (LC(50) = 119.26,143.10,164.93,140.47, and 155.98 ppm; LC(90) = 356.77, 224.08, 546.20, 479.72, and 496.06 ppm), the leaf methanol of R. nasutus, leaf and seed methanol of S.torvum, and seed acetone of T. chebula against the adult of H. bispinosa (LC(50) = 333.15, 328.98, 312.28, and 186.46 ppm; LC(90) = 1056.07, 955.39, 946.63, and 590.76 ppm), the leaf methanol of C. auriculata, the leaf and flower methanol of R. nasutus, the leaf ethyl acetate of S. torvum against the H. maculata (LC(50) = 303.36, 177.21, 204.58, and 211.41 ppm; LC(90) = 939.90, 539.39, 599.43, and 651.90 ppm), and the leaf acetone of C. auriculata, the flower methanol
Ostrovsky, Andrew N; Lidgard, Scott; Gordon, Dennis P; Schwaha, Thomas; Genikhovich, Grigory; Ereskovsky, Alexander V
Matrotrophy, the continuous extra-vitelline supply of nutrients from the parent to the progeny during gestation, is one of the masterpieces of nature, contributing to offspring fitness and often correlated with evolutionary diversification. The most elaborate form of matrotrophy-placentotrophy-is well known for its broad occurrence among vertebrates, but the comparative distribution and structural diversity of matrotrophic expression among invertebrates is wanting. In the first comprehensive analysis of matrotrophy across the animal kingdom, we report that regardless of the degree of expression, it is established or inferred in at least 21 of 34 animal phyla, significantly exceeding previous accounts and changing the old paradigm that these phenomena are infrequent among invertebrates. In 10 phyla, matrotrophy is represented by only one or a few species, whereas in 11 it is either not uncommon or widespread and even pervasive. Among invertebrate phyla, Platyhelminthes, Arthropoda and Bryozoa dominate, with 162, 83 and 53 partly or wholly matrotrophic families, respectively. In comparison, Chordata has more than 220 families that include or consist entirely of matrotrophic species. We analysed the distribution of reproductive patterns among and within invertebrate phyla using recently published molecular phylogenies: matrotrophy has seemingly evolved at least 140 times in all major superclades: Parazoa and Eumetazoa, Radiata and Bilateria, Protostomia and Deuterostomia, Lophotrochozoa and Ecdysozoa. In Cycliophora and some Digenea, it may have evolved twice in the same life cycle. The provisioning of developing young is associated with almost all known types of incubation chambers, with matrotrophic viviparity more widespread (20 phyla) than brooding (10 phyla). In nine phyla, both matrotrophic incubation types are present. Matrotrophy is expressed in five nutritive modes, of which histotrophy and placentotrophy are most prevalent. Oophagy, embryophagy and
Jennings, J B
Symbiosis is a dominant trait in the Platyhelminthes. The Neodermata (Aspidogastrea, Monogenea, Digenea, Udonellidea, Cestoda) are wholly parasitic and even the predominantly free-living Turbellaria have almost 200 species from 35 families living in permanent associations with other animals. In the simplest turbellarian symbioses, ectosymbiotes such as the Temnocephalida, some other Rhabdocoela and a few Tricladida live on the body surfaces or in the branchial chambers of their mainly arthropodan or chelonian hosts. They feed on the same types of prey as their free-living relatives but supplement their diet by opportunistic commensalism. Their digestive physiology and food reserves are the same as in free-living species. The entosymbiotic Umagillidae, Graffillidae, Pterastericolidae, Fecamplidae and Acholadidae live in internal body cavities or body wall derivatives of echinoderms, molluscs or arthropods and show increasing metabolic dependence on their hosts. Patterns of digestive physiology and food storage generally differ markedly from those of ectosymbiotic and free-living species. Some umagillids, in echinoids, feed as entozoic predators on co-symbiotic protozoa, supplemented by opportunistic ingestion of the hosts' ingesta, gut cells or coelomocytes. Others, in holothurians, feed mainly on gut cells, which also provide some digestive enzymes, and to a lesser extent on host ingesta and co-symbiotes. Graffillids, in molluscs, lack endogenous digestive enzymes and rely entirely on those taken in with host ingesta and gut tissues. Pterastericolids, in asteroids, similarly utilise gut tissues both as food and enzyme sources. The climax to metabolic dependence occurs in the Fecamplidae and Acholadidae. The former, in crustacean haemocoels and myzostomid tissues, lack conventional alimentary systems and absorb soluble nutrients through the epidermis. In the latter the only known species lives in the tube feet of its asteroid host, lacks a normal endodermal gut, but
Full Text Available Bu araştırmada, karagöz istavrit balığının, Trachurus trachurus (L., 1758 digenea parazitleri Türkiye’nin Karadeniz kıyısıında ilk kez araştırıldı. Balıklar 1 yıl boyunca Sinop’taki yerel balıkçılardan temin edildi. Toplam 256 adet istavrit balığının boyları ve ağırlıkları ölçüldü, ardından dijital kamera (DP50 ile donatılmış Olympus (BX53 marka bir mikroskop altında rutin parazitolojik metotlar kullanılarak parazitleri tanımlandı. Solungaç, yutak, vücut boşluğu ve iç organlar (mide, bağırsak, karaciğer, yüzme kesesi ve gonadlar incelendi. Bulunan parazitler yaygın olarak uygulanan yöntemler kullanılarak fikse edildi ve saklandı. Ergin Prodistomum polonii (Molin 1879 Bray ve Gibson 1990, Ectenurus lepidus Looss, 1907, Monascus filiformis (Rudolphi, 1819 Looss, 1907, Lasiotocus typicus (Nicoll, 1912 ve metaserker Stephanostomum cesticillum (Molin, 1858 Looss, 1899 olmak üzere toplam beş tür tespit edildi. Her bir parazit türü sayıldı ve onların enfeksiyon oranı (% ile enfekte balık başına ortalama parazit sayısı Bush ve ark. (1997 göre belirlendi. İki boy sınıfındaki parazit yükü arasındaki fark MannWhitney U testi ile test edildi. Tüm istatistiksel testler %5 önem seviyesine göre değerlendirildi. İncelenen balıkların tamamındaki enfeksiyon oranı %48.8 ve enfekte balık başına ortalama parazit sayısı ise 3.78±0.34 olarak hesaplandı. Bu veriler Türkiye’nin Karadeniz kıyısından yakalanan karagöz istavrit balığı için bir ilktir. Lasiotocus typicus ve Stephanostomum cesticillum türleri Türkiye parazit faunası için yeni kayıttırlar