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Sample records for gx 5-1 discovery

  1. Resolving the hard X-ray emission of GX 5-1 with INTEGRAL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paizis, A.; Ebisawa, K.; Tikkanen, T.

    2005-01-01

    We present the study of one year of INTEGRAL data on the neutron star low mass X-ray binary GX 5-1. Thanks to the excellent angular resolution and sensitivity of INTEGRAL, we are able to obtain a high quality spectrum of GX 5-1 from similar to 5keV to similar to 100 keV, for the first time without...... contamination from the nearby black hole candidate GRS 1758-258 above 20 keV. During our observations, GX 5-1 was mostly found in the horizontal and normal branch of its hardness intensity diagram. A clear hard X-ray emission is observed above similar to 30 keV which exceeds the exponential cut-off spectrum...... expected from lower energies. This spectral flattening may have the same origin of the hard components observed in other Z sources as it shares the property of being characteristic to the horizontal branch. The hard excess is explained by introducing Compton up-scattering of soft photons from the neutron...

  2. ANTI-CORRELATED TIME LAGS IN THE Z SOURCE GX 5-1: POSSIBLE EVIDENCE FOR A TRUNCATED ACCRETION DISK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sriram, K.; Choi, C. S. [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute, Daejeon 305-348 (Korea, Republic of); Rao, A. R., E-mail: astrosriram@yahoo.co.in [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Mumbai 400005 (India)

    2012-06-01

    We investigate the nature of the inner accretion disk in the neutron star source GX 5-1 by making a detailed study of time lags between X-rays of different energies. Using the cross-correlation analysis, we found anti-correlated hard and soft time lags of the order of a few tens to a few hundred seconds and the corresponding intensity states were mostly the horizontal branch (HB) and upper normal branch. The model independent and dependent spectral analysis showed that during these time lags the structure of the accretion disk significantly varied. Both eastern and western approaches were used to unfold the X-ray continuum and systematic changes were observed in soft and hard spectral components. These changes along with a systematic shift in the frequency of quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs) made it substantially evident that the geometry of the accretion disk is truncated. Simultaneous energy spectral and power density spectral study shows that the production of the horizontal branch oscillations (HBOs) is closely related to the Comptonizing region rather than the disk component in the accretion disk. We found that as the HBO frequency decreases from the hard apex to upper HB, the disk temperature increases along with an increase in the coronal temperature, which is in sharp contrast with the changes found in black hole binaries where the decrease in the QPO frequency is accompanied by a decrease in the disk temperature and a simultaneous increase in the coronal temperature. We discuss the results in the context of re-condensation of coronal material in the inner region of the disk.

  3. Discovery of radio emission from the symbiotic X-ray binary system GX 1+4

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Eijnden, J.; Degenaar, N.; Russell, T. D.; Miller-Jones, J. C. A.; Wijnands, R.; Miller, J. M.; King, A. L.; Rupen, M. P.

    2018-02-01

    We report the discovery of radio emission from the accreting X-ray pulsar and symbiotic X-ray binary GX 1+4 with the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array. This is the first radio detection of such a system, wherein a strongly magnetized neutron star accretes from the stellar wind of an M-type giant companion. We measure a 9 GHz radio flux density of 105.3 ± 7.3 μJy, but cannot place meaningful constraints on the spectral index due to a limited frequency range. We consider several emission mechanisms that could be responsible for the observed radio source. We conclude that the observed properties are consistent with shocks in the interaction of the accretion flow with the magnetosphere, a synchrotron-emitting jet, or a propeller-driven outflow. The stellar wind from the companion is unlikely to be the origin of the radio emission. If the detected radio emission originates from a jet, it would show that strong magnetic fields (≥1012 G) do not necessarily suppress jet formation.

  4. Discovery of the near-infrared counterpart to the luminous neutron-star low-mass X-ray binary GX 3+1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van den Berg, Maureen; Fridriksson, Joel K. [Anton Pannekoek Institute for Astronomy, University of Amsterdam, Science Park 904, 1098 XH Amsterdam (Netherlands); Homan, Jeroen [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, 70 Vassar Street, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Linares, Manuel, E-mail: M.C.vandenBerg@uva.nl [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias (IAC), Vía Láctea s/n, La Laguna, E-38205, S/C de Tenerife (Spain)

    2014-10-01

    Using the High Resolution Camera on board the Chandra X-ray Observatory, we have measured an accurate position for the bright persistent neutron star X-ray binary and atoll source GX 3+1. At a location that is consistent with this new position, we have discovered the near-infrared (NIR) counterpart to GX 3+1 in images taken with the PANIC and FourStar cameras on the Magellan Baade Telescope. The identification of this K{sub s} = 15.8 ± 0.1 mag star as the counterpart is based on the presence of a Br γ emission line in an NIR spectrum taken with the Folded-port InfraRed Echelette spectrograph on the Baade Telescope. The absolute magnitude derived from the best available distance estimate to GX 3+1 indicates that the mass donor in the system is not a late-type giant. We find that the NIR light in GX 3+1 is likely dominated by the contribution from a heated outer accretion disk. This is similar to what has been found for the NIR flux from the brighter class of Z sources, but unlike the behavior of atolls fainter (L{sub X} ≈ 10{sup 36}-10{sup 37} erg s{sup –1}) than GX 3+1, where optically thin synchrotron emission from a jet probably dominates the NIR flux.

  5. Overview of GX launch services by GALEX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Koji; Kondou, Yoshirou

    2006-07-01

    Galaxy Express Corporation (GALEX) is a launch service company in Japan to develop a medium size rocket, GX rocket and to provide commercial launch services for medium/small low Earth orbit (LEO) and Sun synchronous orbit (SSO) payloads with a future potential for small geo-stationary transfer orbit (GTO). It is GALEX's view that small/medium LEO/SSO payloads compose of medium scaled but stable launch market due to the nature of the missions. GX rocket is a two-stage rocket of well flight proven liquid oxygen (LOX)/kerosene booster and LOX/liquid natural gas (LNG) upper stage. This LOX/LNG propulsion under development by Japan's Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA), is robust with comparable performance as other propulsions and have future potential for wider application such as exploration programs. GX rocket is being developed through a joint work between the industries and GX rocket is applying a business oriented approach in order to realize competitive launch services for which well flight proven hardware and necessary new technology are to be introduced as much as possible. It is GALEX's goal to offer “Easy Access to Space”, a highly reliable and user-friendly launch services with a competitive price. GX commercial launch will start in Japanese fiscal year (JFY) 2007 2008.

  6. A method to associate all possible combinations of genetic and environmental factors using GxE landscape plot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagaie, Satoshi; Ogishima, Soichi; Nakaya, Jun; Tanaka, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and linkage analysis has identified many single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) related to disease. There are many unknown SNPs whose minor allele frequencies (MAFs) as low as 0.005 having intermediate effects with odds ratio between 1.5~3.0. Low frequency variants having intermediate effects on disease pathogenesis are believed to have complex interactions with environmental factors called gene-environment interactions (GxE). Hence, we describe a model using 3D Manhattan plot called GxE landscape plot to visualize the association of p-values for gene-environment interactions (GxE). We used the Gene-Environment iNteraction Simulator 2 (GENS2) program to simulate interactions between two genetic loci and one environmental factor in this exercise. The dataset used for training contains disease status, gender, 20 environmental exposures and 100 genotypes for 170 subjects, and p-values were calculated by Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel chi-squared test on known data. Subsequently, we created a 3D GxE landscape plot of negative logarithm of the association of p-values for all the possible combinations of genetic and environmental factors with their hierarchical clustering. Thus, the GxE landscape plot is a valuable model to predict association of p-values for GxE and similarity among genotypes and environments in the context of disease pathogenesis. GxE - Gene-environment interactions, GWAS - Genome-wide association study, MAFs - Minor allele frequencies, SNPs - Single nucleotide polymorphisms, EWAS - Environment-wide association study, FDR - False discovery rate, JPT+CHB - HapMap population of Japanese in Tokyo, Japan - Han Chinese in Beijing.

  7. Validation of the 172 group ENDFB7GX library

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, Suhail Ahmad; Raj, Devesh; Karthikeyan, R.; Jagannathan, V.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: Five 172 group libraries, viz., IAEAGX, ENDFB6GX, JENDL3GX, JEFF31GX, and LWRPSGX were obtained as a part of the IAEA WIMS Library Update Project (WLUP). The first four libraries have data available for 173 nuclides up to 244 Cm. The LWRPSGX library based on JEFF3.1 point dataset is an extended library up to 252 Cf. Data for 12 more actinides and the related burnup chain were added. The five libraries were validated against known experiments in an earlier work. In general the LWRPSGX was found to be giving better results. Recently another version of 172 group library 'ENDFB7GX' has been released. In the present work we provide the results of validation of the ENDFB7GX library against the same set of experimental data and a comparison with results of other libraries. The experimental configuration data include a variety of uniform lattices with enriched UO 2 , U- metal, mixed oxide (UO 2 -PuO 2 ) fuels with H 2 O and D 2 O moderators for a wide range of enrichment, fuel diameter and ratio of moderator to fuel volume (V m /V f ). The calculations have been done using the code LATTEST which solves the single pin lattice cell problem by 1-D multi-group transport theory after cylindricalising the square or hexagonal cell boundary. The LATTEST code is an improved version of the MURLI code and is capable of providing a ready testing of any new cross section library against a set of experimental benchmark lattices collected from various sources. The calculated k eff values and certain spectral indices, where available, have been compared for all the libraries for more than hundred critical lattices. There is a general under prediction of k eff values by all libraries. The maximum under prediction is for ENDFB6GX library and the least is for JENDL3GX library. The ENDFB7GX library, in general, is found to over predict in comparison to the k eff values obtained using LWRPSGX library. While scrutinizing the basic nuclear data it was noted that the slowing down cross

  8. STECH VOL5 (1) FEBRUARY, 2016

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Copyright 1AARR 2012-2016: www.afrrevjo.net

    STECH VOL 5 (1) FEBRUARY, 2016. Vol. 5 (1), S/No11, February, 2016: 1-13 ..... Knowledge produce is an act of discovery which involves exploring, analyzing .... Architectural Research, Elsevier: Higher Education Press Limited Company.

  9. A curious case of the accretion-powered X-ray pulsar GX 1+4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaisawal, Gaurava K.; Naik, Sachindra; Gupta, Shivangi; Chenevez, Jérôme; Epili, Prahlad

    2018-04-01

    We present detailed spectral and timing studies using a NuSTAR observation of GX 1+4 in October 2015 during an intermediate intensity state. The measured spin period of 176.778 s is found to be one of the highest values since its discovery. In contrast to a broad sinusoidal-like pulse profile, a peculiar sharp peak is observed in profiles below ˜25 keV. The profiles at higher energies are found to be significantly phase-shifted compared to the soft X-ray profiles. Broadband energy spectra of GX 1+4, obtained from NuSTAR and Swift observations, are described with various continuum models. Among these, a two component model consisting of a bremsstrahlung and a blackbody component is found to best-fit the phase-averaged and phase-resolved spectra. Physical models are also used to investigate the emission mechanism in the pulsar, which allows us to estimate the magnetic field strength to be in ˜(5-10)× 1012 G range. Phase-resolved spectroscopy of NuSTAR observation shows a strong blackbody emission component in a narrow pulse phase range. This component is interpreted as the origin of the peculiar peak in the pulse profiles below ≤25 keV. The size of emitting region is calculated to be ˜400 m. The bremsstrahlung component is found to dominate in hard X-rays and explains the nature of simple profiles at high energies.

  10. Physiological responses of astronaut candidates to simulated +Gx orbital emergency re-entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Bin; Xue, Yueying; Wu, Ping; Gu, Zhiming; Wang, Yue; Jing, Xiaolu

    2012-08-01

    We investigated astronaut candidates' physiological and pathological responses to +Gx exposure during simulated emergency return from a running orbit to advance astronaut +Gx tolerance training and medical support in manned spaceflight. There were 13 male astronaut candidates who were exposed to a simulated high +Gx acceleration profile in a spacecraft during an emergency return lasting for 230 s. The peak value was 8.5 G. Subjective feelings and symptoms, cardiovascular and respiratory responses, and changes in urine component before, during, and after +Gx exposure were investigated. Under high +Gx exposure, 15.4% of subjects exhibited arrhythmia. Heart rate (HR) increased significantly and four different types of HR response curves were distinguished. The ratio of QT to RR interval on the electrocardiograms was significantly increased. Arterial oxygen saturation (SaO2) declined with increasing G value and then returned gradually. SaO2 reached a minimum (87.7%) at 3 G during the decline phase of the +Gx curve. Respiratory rate increased significantly with increasing G value, while the amplitude and area of the respiratory waves were significantly reduced. The overshoot appeared immediately after +Gx exposure. A few subjects suffered from slight injuries, including positive urine protein (1/13), positive urinary occult blood (1/13), and a large area of petechiae on the back (1/13). Astronaut candidates have relatively good tolerance to the +Gx profile during a simulation of spacecraft emergent ballistic re-entry. However, a few subjects exhibited adverse physiological responses and slight reversible pathological injuries.

  11. Spectrophotometry of the unusual optical candidate for 3U 1728-24 (=GX 2 + 5 = GX 1 + 4)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davidsen, A.; Malina, R.; Bowyer, S.

    1976-01-01

    The spectrum of the object suggested as a possible optical counterpart of GX 2 + 5 (Glass and Feast 1973) was investigated, using the image tube scanner attached to the 3-m telescope of Lick Observatory. An improved x-ray error box obtained with Copernicus (Mason 1974) strongly supports this proposed identification. It is found that the candidate displays all the characteristics of the symbiotic stars and the related recurrent novae. The spectrum reveals the presence of an M star together with a blue component and a large number of emission lines displaying a wide range of ionization. Among the emission lines identified or suspected are: H I, He I, O I, [O I], [O II], [O III], Na I, Fe II, [Fe VII], [Fe X], [A X], and [A XI]. There is evidence of variability of both the continuum and the line intensities. This object provides strong support for the often proposed association of some x-ray sources with nova-like systems. It is suggested that in GX 2 + 5 accretion on a compact companion of an M giant produces x-rays and ultraviolet radiation which ionizes a circumstellar nebula, perhaps ejected in a previous nova-like outburst

  12. Click Chemistry-based Discovery of [3-Hydroxy-5-(1H-1,2,3-triazol-4-yl)picolinoyl]glycines as Orally Active Hypoxia Inducing Factor Prolyl Hydroxylase Inhibitors with Favorable Safety Profiles for the Treatment of Anemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yue; Jiang, Zhensheng; Li, Zhihong; Gu, Jing; You, Qi-Dong; Zhang, Xiaojin

    2018-06-01

    As a gene associated with anemia, the erythropoiesis gene is physiologically expressed under hypoxia regulated by hypoxia-inducing factor-α (HIF-α). Thus, stabilizing HIF-α is a potent strategy to stimulate the expression and secretion of erythropoiesis. In this study we applied click chemistry to the discovery of HIF prolyl hydroxylase 2 (HIF-PHD2) inhibitors for the first time and a series of triazole compounds showed preferable inhibitory activity in fluorescence polarization assay. Of particular note was the orally active HIF-PHD inhibitor 15i (IC50 = 62.23 nM), which was almost ten times more active than the phase III drug FG-4592 (IC50 = 591.4 nM). Furthermore, it can upregulate the hemoglobin of cisplatin induced anemia mice (120 g/L) to normal levels (160 g/L) with no apparent toxicity observed in vivo. These results confirm that triazole compound 15i is a promising candidate for the treatment of renal anemia.

  13. The variable cyclotron line of GX 301-2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kreykenbohm, I.; Wilms, J.; Coburn, W.; Kuster, M.; Rothschild, R.E.; Heindl, W.A.; Kretschmar, P.; Staubert, R

    2004-06-01

    We present a 200 ksec observation of the High Mass X-ray Binary GX 301-2 taken in 2000 November with the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer during the pre-periastron flare and the actual periastron passage of the neutron star. To model the spectrum we use a power law with the Fermi Dirac cutoff and a cyclotron line at higher energies plus either a reflection component or a heavily absorbed partial covering component. Although completely different, both models describe the data equally well. Phase resolved spectra show that the energy and the depth of the cyclotron resonant scattering feature vary strongly with pulse phase: It is deepest in the fall of the main pulse, the rise of the secondary pulse, and the pulse minimum in-between with {tau}{sub C}{approx}0.3. In the other phase bins the line is much less deep with {tau}{sub C}{approx}0.1. The energy of the line correlates strongly with its depth and varies by 25 % from 30.1 keV in the fall of the secondary pulse to 37.9 keV in the fall of the main pulse.

  14. SPITZER OBSERVATIONS OF GX17+2: CONFIRMATION OF A PERIODIC SYNCHROTRON SOURCE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrison, Thomas E.; McNamara, Bernard J.; Bornak, Jillian; Gelino, Dawn M.; Wachter, Stefanie; Rupen, Michael P.; Gelino, Christopher R.

    2011-01-01

    GX17+2 is a low-mass X-ray binary (LMXB) that is also a member of a small family of LMXBs known as 'Z-sources' that are believed to have persistent X-ray luminosities that are very close to the Eddington limit. GX17+2 is highly variable at both radio and X-ray frequencies, a feature common to Z-sources. What sets GX17+2 apart is its dramatic variability in the near-infrared, where it changes by ΔK ∼ 3 mag. Previous investigations have shown that these brightenings are periodic, recurring every 3.01 days. Given its high extinction (A V ≥ 9 mag), it has not been possible to ascertain the nature of these events with ground-based observations. We report mid-infrared Spitzer observations of GX17+2 which indicate a synchrotron spectrum for the infrared brightenings. In addition, GX17+2 is highly variable in the mid-infrared during these events. The combination of the large-scale outbursts, the presence of a synchrotron spectrum, and the dramatic variability in the mid-infrared suggest that the infrared brightening events are due to the periodic transit of a synchrotron jet across our line of sight. An analysis of both new, and archival, infrared observations has led us to revise the period for these events to 3.0367 days. We also present new Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) data for GX17+2 obtained during two predicted infrared brightening events. Analysis of these new data, and data from the RXTE archive, indicates that there is no correlation between the X-ray behavior of this source and the observed infrared brightenings. We examine various scenarios that might produce periodic jet emission.

  15. X-ray bursts from GX 17+2: a new approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sztajno, M.; Langmeier, A.; Truemper, J.; Pietsch, W.; Paradijs, J. van; Lewin, W.H.G.; Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge

    1986-01-01

    The detection of two X-ray bursts from GX 17+2 is reported; a short one (lasting about 10s), and a long one (which lasted about 5 min). These bursts reached a maximum intensity of only about 40 per cent above the persistent flux level. Like previous long bursts observed from GX 17+2 the long burst showed little softening during its decay, and it is difficult at first glance to classify it as either a type 1 or a type 2 burst. Following the recent results of two of the authors a time-dependent spectral analysis of these bursts has been made. (author)

  16. Optical photometry and polarimetry of GX 339-4 during its outburst rise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Russell, D.M.; Lewis, F.; Casella, P.; Pretorius, M.L.; Fender, R.P.; Roche, P.; Clark, S.

    2009-01-01

    GX 339-4 is currently brightening at X-ray, UV, optical and radio frequencies (ATel #1945, #1954, #1960). Our monitoring campaign with the Faulkes Telescope South (ATel #1586) gives the following recent magnitudes (light curves are below; errors are ~ 0.02 mag): 2009-02-20 (MJD 54882.65): i' ~ 16.66

  17. Effect of acute exposure to hypergravity (GX vs. GZ) on dynamic cerebral autoregulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrador, J. M.; Wood, S. J.; Picot, P. A.; Stein, F.; Kassam, M. S.; Bondar, R. L.; Rupert, A. H.; Schlegel, T. T.

    2001-01-01

    We examined the effects of 30 min of exposure to either +3GX (front-to-back) or +GZ (head-to-foot) centrifugation on cerebrovascular responses to 80 degrees head-up tilt (HUT) in 14 healthy individuals. Both before and after +3 GX or +3 GZ centrifugation, eye-level blood pressure (BP(eye)), end tidal PCO2 (PET(CO2)), mean cerebral flow velocity (CFV) in the middle cerebral artery (transcranial Doppler ultrasound), cerebral vascular resistance (CVR), and dynamic cerebral autoregulatory gain (GAIN) were measured with subjects in the supine position and during subsequent 80 degrees HUT for 30 min. Mean BP(eye) decreased with HUT in both the GX (n = 7) and GZ (n = 7) groups (P centrifugation only in the GZ group (P centrifugation. CFV decreased during HUT more significantly after centrifugation than before centrifugation in both groups (P centrifugation compared with before centrifugation, GAIN increased in both groups (P centrifugation resulted in a leftward shift of the cerebral autoregulation curve. We speculate that this leftward shift may have been due to vestibular activation (especially during +GX) or potentially to an adaptation to reduced cerebral perfusion pressure during +GZ.

  18. Testing GxG interactions between coinfecting microbial parasite genotypes within hosts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca D Schulte

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Host-parasite interactions represent one of the strongest selection pressures in nature. They are often governed by genotype-specific (GxG interactions resulting in host genotypes that differ in resistance and parasite genotypes that differ in virulence depending on the antagonist’s genotype. Another type of GxG interactions, which is often neglected but which certainly influences host-parasite interactions, are those between coinfecting parasite genotypes. Mechanistically, within-host parasite interactions may range from competition for limited host resources to cooperation for more efficient host exploitation. The exact type of interaction, i.e. whether competitive or cooperative, is known to affect life-history traits such as virulence. However, the latter has been shown for chosen genotype combinations only, not considering whether the specific genotype combination per se may influence the interaction (i.e. GxG interactions. Here, we want to test for the presence of GxG interactions between coinfections of the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis infecting the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans by combining two non-pathogenic and five pathogenic strains in all possible ways. Furthermore, we evaluate whether the type of interaction, reflected by the direction of virulence change of multiple compared to single infections, is genotype-specific. Generally, we found no indication for GxG interactions between non-pathogenic and pathogenic bacterial strains, indicating that virulence of pathogenic strains is equally affected by both non-pathogenic strains. Specific genotype combinations, however, differ in the strength of virulence change, indicating that the interaction type between coinfecting parasite strains and thus the virulence mechanism is specific for different genotype combinations. Such interactions are expected to influence host-parasite interactions and to have strong implications for coevolution.

  19. Bounds on the degree of APN polynomials: the case of x −1 + g(x)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leander, Gregor; Rodier, François

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we consider APN functions $${f:\\mathcal{F}_{2^m}\\to \\mathcal{F}_{2^m}}$$ of the form f(x) = x −1 + g(x) where g is any non $${\\mathcal{F}_{2}}$$-affine polynomial. We prove a lower bound on the degree of the polynomial g. This bound in particular implies that such a function f is AP...

  20. NuSTAR Observation of the Symbiotic System GX 1+4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Michael Thomas; Becker, Peter A.; Enoto, Teruaki; Pottschmidt, Katja; Wood, Kent

    2017-08-01

    We report on a NuSTAR observation of the symbiotic binary system GX 1+4. GX 1+4 is one of a small number of systems with a red giant mass donor and a magnetic neutron star in orbit around each other. The accreting pulsar in GX 1+4 has a spin period of ~150 seconds with epochs of both spin-up and spin-down. The orbital period that has not been determined. Magnetic accretion theory in such systems suggests that the neutron star has a magnetic field in the range 1013-1014 Gauss although this is not settled because no cyclotron absorption feature has been observed in the X-ray spectrum. The NuSTAR spectrum shows broad Fe-line emission near ~6.5 keV and also shows a broad power law shape detected up to ~60 keV. We analyze and discuss the NuSTAR X-ray data with particular attention to the question of what can the spectrum tell us about the structure of the accretion flow onto the neutron star and the magnetic field strength.

  1. A NICER View of the Accretion Disk in GX 339-4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, James Francis; Bulbul, Esra; Cackett, Ed; Fabian, Andy; Gendreau, Keith C.; Neilsen, Joseph; Ranga Reddy Pasham, Dheeraj; Remillard, Ron; Uttley, Phil; Wood, Kent S.

    2018-01-01

    The poster-child black hole transient GX 339-4 has gone into outburst once again. With no pileup, low-background, and high fidelity in the soft X-ray bandpass, NICER is uniquely positioned to detect emergent thermal disk emission from an optically thick accretion flow approaching the innermost-stable circular orbit. We present NICER's results on the 2017 outburst, and detail its implications for the disk-truncation controversy. We also investigate the X-ray state evolution, as seen in NICER's spectral range of 0.2 to 12 keV.

  2. Spectro-Timing Study of GX 339-4 in a Hard Intermediate State

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fürst, F.; Grinberg, V.; Tomsick, J. A.

    2016-01-01

    We present an analysis of Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array observations of a hard intermediate state of the transient black hole GX 339-4 taken in 2015 January. With the source softening significantly over the course of the 1.3 day long observation we split the data into 21 sub-sets and find...... that the spectrum of all of them can be well described by a power-law continuum with an additional relativistically blurred reflection component. The photon index increases from ∼1.69 to ∼1.77 over the course of the observation. The accretion disk is truncated at around nine gravitational radii in all spectra. We...

  3. Analytical verification and quality assessment of the Tosoh HLC-723GX HbA1c analyzer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko Ris

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Ion-exchange high-performance liquid chromatography (IE-HPLC has long been used as a reproducible and versatile analytical tool for HbA1c measurement.In this study, we performed analytical verification and quality assessment of the recently introduced small IE-HPLC Tosoh HLC-723GX HbA1c analyzer, and a comparison of results to immunoassay (IA and capillary electrophoresis (CE. Design and methods: The total imprecision of Tosoh HLC-723GX was verified according to CLSI EP15-A2 protocol using commercial control materials (C-QC and pooled human whole blood samples (HWB. The Sigma metric was used for the evaluation of quality targets. HbA1c results were compared to automated CE (MiniCap Flex Piercing, Sebia, France and IA (Tina-quant HbA1c Gen 2, Cobas Integra 400+, Roche Diagnostics, USA procedures. Results: The total imprecision of Tosoh HLC-723GX-HbA1c for IFCC(mmol/mol and NGSP(% units was: 1.91/1.25% (HbA1c=31 mmol/mol/5.0% and 0.51/0.63% (HbA1c=84 mmol/mol/9.8% for C-QC, and 0.39/0.2% (HbA1c=47 mmol/mol/6.5% and 0.77/0.46% (HbA1c=94 mmol/mol/10.8% in HWB samples, respectively. Bland-Altman analysis did not reveal any deviation of the results between Tosoh HLC-723GX and CE: mean difference 0.0% (95%CI: −0.02927 to 0.02653%, while the mean HbA1c difference against IA was −0.07% (95%CI: −0.1039 to −0.02765. At the selected HbA1c clinical decision level (48 mmol/mol/6,5%, six sigma analysis gave σ value of 3.91, within a desirable classification of performance. Conclusion: The analytical performance of the Tosoh HLC-723GX complies with the rigorous quality criteria for clinical use of HbA1c, with the results comparable to the CE procedure. Tosoh HLC-723GX provides a plausible analytical choice for reliable HbA1c measurement in low-volume laboratories. Keywords: HbA1c, Quality targets, Six sigma, Tosoh HLC-723GX analyzer

  4. Two-phase X-ray burst from GX 3+1 observed by INTEGRAL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chenevez, Jérôme; Falanga, M.F.; Brandt, Søren

    2006-01-01

    INTEGRAL detected on August 31, 2004, an unusual thermonuclear X-ray burst from the low-mass X-ray binary GX 3 3+1. Its duration was 30 min, which is between the normal burst durations for this source (less than or similar to 10 s) and the superburst observed in 1998 ( several hours). We see...... emission up to 30 keV energy during the first few seconds of the burst where the bolometric peak luminosity approaches the Eddington limit. This peculiar burst is characterized by two distinct phases: an initial short spike of similar to 6 s consistent with being similar to a normal type I X-ray burst...... in the present case); and 3) limited carbon burning at an unusually shallow depth triggered by unstable helium ignition. Though none of these provide a satisfactory description of this uncommon event, the former one seems the most probable....

  5. BROADBAND SPECTROSCOPY USING TWO SUZAKU OBSERVATIONS OF THE HMXB GX 301-2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suchy, Slawomir; Markowitz, Alex; Rothschild, Richard E. [Center for Astrophysics and Space Sciences, University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Dr., La Jolla, CA 92093-0424 (United States); Fuerst, Felix; Kreykenbohm, Ingo; Wilms, Joern [Dr. Karl Remeis Sternwarte and Erlangen Center for Astroparticle Physics, Sternwartstr. 7, 96049 Bamberg (Germany); Pottschmidt, Katja [Center for Space Science and Technology, University of Maryland Baltimore County, 1000 Hilltop Circle, Baltimore, MD 21250 (United States); Caballero, Isabel, E-mail: ssuchy@ucsd.edu [CEA Saclay, DSM/IRFU/SAp-UMR AIM (7158), CNRS/CEA, University Paris 7, Diderot, Gif sur Yvette (France)

    2012-02-01

    We present the analysis of two Suzaku observations of GX 301-2 at two orbital phases after the periastron passage. Variations in the column density of the line-of-sight absorber are observed, consistent with accretion from a clumpy wind. In addition to a cyclotron resonance scattering feature (CRSF), multiple fluorescence emission lines were detected in both observations. The variations in the pulse profiles and the CRSF throughout the pulse phase have a signature of a magnetic dipole field. Using a simple dipole model we calculated the expected magnetic field values for different pulse phases and were able to extract a set of geometrical angles, loosely constraining the dipole geometry in the neutron star. From the variation of the CRSF width and energy, we found a geometrical solution for the dipole, making the inclination consistent with previously published values.

  6. BROADBAND SPECTROSCOPY USING TWO SUZAKU OBSERVATIONS OF THE HMXB GX 301–2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suchy, Slawomir; Markowitz, Alex; Rothschild, Richard E.; Fürst, Felix; Kreykenbohm, Ingo; Wilms, Jörn; Pottschmidt, Katja; Caballero, Isabel

    2012-01-01

    We present the analysis of two Suzaku observations of GX 301–2 at two orbital phases after the periastron passage. Variations in the column density of the line-of-sight absorber are observed, consistent with accretion from a clumpy wind. In addition to a cyclotron resonance scattering feature (CRSF), multiple fluorescence emission lines were detected in both observations. The variations in the pulse profiles and the CRSF throughout the pulse phase have a signature of a magnetic dipole field. Using a simple dipole model we calculated the expected magnetic field values for different pulse phases and were able to extract a set of geometrical angles, loosely constraining the dipole geometry in the neutron star. From the variation of the CRSF width and energy, we found a geometrical solution for the dipole, making the inclination consistent with previously published values.

  7. Characteristics of centrifugally cast GX25CrNiSi18-9 steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Zapała

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of microstructural examinations of the industrial heat-resistant centrifugally cast GX25CrNiSi18-9 steel characterised by increased content of Cu. The study included changes in the microstructure of base cast steel respective of the steel held at a temperature of 900 and 950°C for 48 hours. Based on the results obtained, an increase in microhardness of the examined cast steel matrix with increasing temperature was stated, which was probably caused by fine precipitates enriched in Cr, Mo, and C forming inside the matrix grains.The layer of scale formed on the tested cast steel oxidised in the atmosphere of air at 900 and 950°C was characterised by an increased tendency to degradation with increasing temperature of the conducted tests.

  8. 36 CFR 5.1 - Advertisements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Advertisements. 5.1 Section 5.1 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR COMMERCIAL AND PRIVATE OPERATIONS § 5.1 Advertisements. Commercial notices or advertisements shall not be displayed, posted, or distributed on federally owned o...

  9. 22 CFR 5.1 - Introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Introduction. 5.1 Section 5.1 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE GENERAL ORGANIZATION § 5.1 Introduction. The sections in this part 5 are issued pursuant to section 3 of the Administrative Procedure Act, 5 U.S.C. 552, effective July 4, 1967. ...

  10. 1 CFR 5.1 - Publication policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Publication policy. 5.1 Section 5.1 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER THE FEDERAL REGISTER GENERAL § 5.1 Publication... Federal Register shall publish a serial publication called the Federal Register to contain the following...

  11. 4 CFR 5.1 - Pay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pay. 5.1 Section 5.1 Accounts GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE PERSONNEL SYSTEM COMPENSATION § 5.1 Pay. (a) Pay principles. Pay of the employees of GAO shall be fixed by the Comptroller General consistent with the principles that— (1) There be equal pay for work of...

  12. 27 CFR 5.1 - General.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false General. 5.1 Section 5.1 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF DISTILLED SPIRITS Scope § 5.1 General. The regulations in this...

  13. 34 CFR 5.1 - Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Act. 5.1 Section 5.1 Education Office of the Secretary...-10) Definitions § 5.1 Act. As used in this part, Act means section 552 of title 5, United States Code, as amended by Pub. L. 90-23, codifying the Act of July 4, 1966, sometimes referred to as the “Freedom...

  14. 41 CFR 51-5.1 - General.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true General. 51-5.1 Section 51-5.1 Public Contracts and Property Management Other Provisions Relating to Public Contracts... commodities, information such as the latest solicitation and amendments, bid abstracts, procurement history...

  15. Changes of structure and properties of cast steels GX10NiCrNb32-20 and GX10NiCrNb3-25 after long-term tempering at 600-1000 C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gommans, R.; Schrijen, H.; Sundermann, J.; Steinkusch, W.; Hering, W.

    2001-01-01

    Low-alloy cast steels of type GX 10NiCrNb 32.20 are commonly used for the outlet section of reformer and cracker tubes for the temperature range of 600-1000 C. There was a lack of data on the ductility of the 25%Cr alloyed cast steel GX10NiCrNb 35.25 at room temperature after tempering, which was investigated in a joint project of Pose-Marre and DSM. Mechanical tests were carried out at room temperature and at elevated temperatures. Apart from light microscopy, also SEM/EDX, SAM and TEM analyses were carried out. The 25% alloy has lower ductility than the 20% alloy, owing primarily to the more pronounced development of M 6 C carbide from primary NbC carbide, which takes up Ni and Si during tempering. The microstructure and composition of the M 6 C carbide wre not fully clarified. Information is presented on the potential application of low-carbon materials of the type GX10NiCrNb35.25 [de

  16. A connection between the X-ray spectral branches and the radio brightness in GX17+2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penninx, Wim; Lewin, W.H.G.; Paradijs, J. van; Klis, M. van der

    1988-01-01

    GX17 + 2(4U 1813 - 14) is a bright X-ray binary in which matter is accreting on to a neutron star from a nearby companion. X-ray bursts are sometimes observed, as well as quasiperiodic oscillations in the X-ray flux. The frequencies of the quasiperiodic oscillations depend on the spectral state of the source, which manifests itself as three distinct spectral 'branches' in an X-ray colour-colour diagram. GX17 + 2 is also a variable radio source; there is no believable optical counterpart. We report here on simultaneous X-ray and radio observations which showed a connection between the spectral branches and the radio brightness. The 6-cm and 20-cm flux density increased by factors of 30±5 and 40± 10, respectively, as the X-ray state changed from the so-called 'flaring branch' to the 'horizontal branch'. (author)

  17. GxGrare: gene-gene interaction analysis method for rare variants from high-throughput sequencing data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Minseok; Leem, Sangseob; Yoon, Joon; Park, Taesung

    2018-03-19

    With the rapid advancement of array-based genotyping techniques, genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have successfully identified common genetic variants associated with common complex diseases. However, it has been shown that only a small proportion of the genetic etiology of complex diseases could be explained by the genetic factors identified from GWAS. This missing heritability could possibly be explained by gene-gene interaction (epistasis) and rare variants. There has been an exponential growth of gene-gene interaction analysis for common variants in terms of methodological developments and practical applications. Also, the recent advancement of high-throughput sequencing technologies makes it possible to conduct rare variant analysis. However, little progress has been made in gene-gene interaction analysis for rare variants. Here, we propose GxGrare which is a new gene-gene interaction method for the rare variants in the framework of the multifactor dimensionality reduction (MDR) analysis. The proposed method consists of three steps; 1) collapsing the rare variants, 2) MDR analysis for the collapsed rare variants, and 3) detect top candidate interaction pairs. GxGrare can be used for the detection of not only gene-gene interactions, but also interactions within a single gene. The proposed method is illustrated with 1080 whole exome sequencing data of the Korean population in order to identify causal gene-gene interaction for rare variants for type 2 diabetes. The proposed GxGrare performs well for gene-gene interaction detection with collapsing of rare variants. GxGrare is available at http://bibs.snu.ac.kr/software/gxgrare which contains simulation data and documentation. Supported operating systems include Linux and OS X.

  18. GX1-conjugated poly(lactic acid nanoparticles encapsulating Endostar for improved in vivo anticolorectal cancer treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Du Y

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Yang Du,1,* Qian Zhang,1,* Lijia Jing,2 Xiaolong Liang,2 Chongwei Chi,1 Yaqian Li,1 Xin Yang,1 Zhifei Dai,2 Jie Tian1 1Key Laboratory of Molecular Imaging, The State Key Laboratory of Management and Control for Complex Systems, Institute of Automation, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Biomedical Engineering, College of Engineering, Peking University, Beijing People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Tumor angiogenesis plays a key role in tumor growth and metastasis; thus, targeting tumor-associated angiogenesis is an important goal in cancer therapy. However, the efficient delivery of drugs to tumors remains a key issue in antiangiogenesis therapy. GX1, a peptide identified by phage-display technology, is a novel tumor vasculature endothelium-specific ligand and possesses great potential as a targeted vector and antiangiogenic agent in the diagnosis and treatment of human cancers. Endostar, a novel recombinant human endostatin, has been shown to inhibit tumor angiogenesis. In this study, we developed a theranostic agent composed of GX1-conjugated poly(lactic acid nanoparticles encapsulating Endostar (GPENs and labeled with the near-infrared dye IRDye 800CW to improve colorectal tumor targeting and treatment efficacy in vivo. The in vivo fluorescence molecular imaging data showed that GPENs (IRDye 800CW more specifically targeted tumors than free IRDye 800CW in colorectal tumor-bearing mice. Moreover, the antitumor efficacy was evaluated by bioluminescence imaging and immunohistology, revealing that GPENs possessed improved antitumor efficacy on subcutaneous colorectal xenografts compared to other treatment groups. Thus, our study showed that GPENs, a novel GX1 peptide guided form of nanoscale Endostar, can be used as a theranostic agent to facilitate more efficient targeted therapy and enable real-time monitoring of therapeutic efficacy in vivo

  19. INTEGRAL hard X-ray detection of HMXB GX 304-1 and H1417-624

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manousakis, A.; Beckmann, V.; Bianchin, V.

    2008-01-01

    We report on the first detection of the Be star HMXBs GX 304-1 and H1417-624 above 20 keV with the IBIS/ISGRI X-ray imager on board INTEGRAL. From 2008-06-24 to 2008-07-09, INTEGRAL performed monitoring observations of the Galactic plane around l=305 degrees for a total exposure time of 352 ksec....

  20. Is there a highly magnetized neutron star in GX 301-2?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doroshenko, V.; Santangelo, A.; Suleimanov, V.; Kreykenbohm, I.; Staubert, R.; Ferrigno, C.; Klochkov, D.

    2010-06-01

    We present the results of an in-depth study of the long-period X-ray pulsar GX 301-2. Using archival data of INTEGRAL, RXTE ASM, and CGRO BATSE, we study the spectral and timing properties of the source. Comparison of our timing results with previously published work reveals a secular decay of the orbital period at a rate of ≃ - 3.25 × 10-5 d yr-1, which is an order of magnitude faster than for other known systems. We argue that this is probably result either of the apsidal motion or of gravitational coupling of the matter lost by the optical companion with the neutron star, although current observations do not allow us to distinguish between those possibilities. We also propose a model to explain the observed long pulse period. We find that a very strong magnetic field B ~ 1014 G can explain the observed pulse period in the framework of existing models for torques affecting the neutron star. We show that the apparent contradiction with the magnetic field strength BCRSF ~ 4 × 1012 G derived from the observed cyclotron line position may be resolved if the line formation region resides in a tall accretion column of height ~2.5-3 RNS. The color temperature measured from the spectrum suggests that such a column may indeed be present, and our estimates show that its height is sufficient to explain the observed cyclotron line position.

  1. STECH VOL5 (1) FEBRUARY, 2016

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Copyright 1AARR 2012-2016: www.afrrevjo.net

    2016-02-11

    Feb 11, 2016 ... This study investigated impact of prior knowledge of behavioural objectives on ... These discoveries and the level of technological advancement had led to the ... has a great deal to do with students' motivation and learning. ..... objectives on students' achievement and retention in social studies in Akwa.

  2. Volatility Discovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dias, Gustavo Fruet; Scherrer, Cristina; Papailias, Fotis

    The price discovery literature investigates how homogenous securities traded on different markets incorporate information into prices. We take this literature one step further and investigate how these markets contribute to stochastic volatility (volatility discovery). We formally show...... that the realized measures from homogenous securities share a fractional stochastic trend, which is a combination of the price and volatility discovery measures. Furthermore, we show that volatility discovery is associated with the way that market participants process information arrival (market sensitivity......). Finally, we compute volatility discovery for 30 actively traded stocks in the U.S. and report that Nyse and Arca dominate Nasdaq....

  3. PEGASUS User's Guide. 5.1c

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suhs, Norman E.; Dietz, William E.; Rogers, Stuart E.; Nash, Steven M.; Onufer, Jeffrey T.

    2000-01-01

    PEGASUS 5.1 is the latest version of the PEGASUS series of mesh interpolation codes. It is a fully three-dimensional code. The main purpose for the development of this latest version was to significantly decrease the number of user inputs required and to allow for easier operation of the code. This guide is to be used with the user's manual for version 4 of PEGASUS. A basic description of methods used in both versions is described in the Version 4 manual. A complete list of all user inputs used in version 5.1 is given in this guide.

  4. Spectro-Timing Study of GX 339-4 in a Hard Intermediate State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furst, F.; Grinberg, V.; Tomsick, J. A.; Bachetti, M.; Boggs, S. E.; Brightman, M.; Christensen, F. E.; Craig, W. W.; Ghandi, P.; Zhang, William W.

    2016-01-01

    We present an analysis of Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array observations of a hard intermediate state of the transient black hole GX 339-4 taken in 2015 January. With the source softening significantly over the course of the 1.3 day long observation we split the data into 21 sub-sets and find that the spectrum of all of them can be well described by a power-law continuum with an additional relativistically blurred reflection component. The photon index increases from approx. 1.69 to approx. 1.77 over the course of the observation. The accretion disk is truncated at around nine gravitational radii in all spectra. We also perform timing analysis on the same 21 individual data sets, and find a strong type-C quasi-periodic oscillation (QPO), which increases in frequency from approx. 0.68 to approx. 1.05 Hz with time. The frequency change is well correlated with the softening of the spectrum. We discuss possible scenarios for the production of the QPO and calculate predicted inner radii in the relativistic precession model as well as the global disk mode oscillations model. We find discrepancies with respect to the observed values in both models unless we allow for a black hole mass of approx. 100 Mass compared to the Sun, which is highly unlikely. We discuss possible systematic uncertainties, in particular with the measurement of the inner accretion disk radius in the relativistic reflection model. We conclude that the combination of observed QPO frequencies and inner accretion disk radii, as obtained from spectral fitting, is difficult to reconcile with current models.

  5. 12 CFR 5.1 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY RULES, POLICIES, AND PROCEDURES FOR CORPORATE ACTIVITIES § 5.1 Scope. This part establishes rules, policies and procedures of the Office of the Comptroller of the Currency (OCC) for corporate activities and transactions involving national banks. It contains...

  6. 15 CFR 5.1 - Purpose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... includes vending machines). ... Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce OPERATION OF VENDING STANDS § 5.1 Purpose. This part... the Randolph-Sheppard Vending Stand Act (49 Stat. 1559, as amended by the act of August 3, 1954, 68...

  7. Beyond Discovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsgaard, Steffen; Sassmannshausen, Sean Patrick

    2017-01-01

    In this chapter we explore four alternatives to the dominant discovery view of entrepreneurship; the development view, the construction view, the evolutionary view, and the Neo-Austrian view. We outline the main critique points of the discovery presented in these four alternatives, as well...

  8. Chemical Discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Herbert C.

    1974-01-01

    The role of discovery in the advance of the science of chemistry and the factors that are currently operating to handicap that function are considered. Examples are drawn from the author's work with boranes. The thesis that exploratory research and discovery should be encouraged is stressed. (DT)

  9. Anti-correlated Soft Lags in the Intermediate State of Black Hole Source GX 339-4

    OpenAIRE

    Sriram, K.; Rao, A. R.; Choi, C. S.

    2010-01-01

    We report the few hundred second anti-correlated soft lags between soft and hard energy bands in the source GX 339-4 using RXTE observations. In one observation, anti-correlated soft lags were observed using the ISGRI/INTEGRAL hard energy band and the PCA/RXTE soft energy band light curves. The lags were observed when the source was in hard and soft intermediate states, i.e., in a steep power-law state.We found that the temporal and spectral properties were changed during the lag timescale. T...

  10. Broadband Correlations Provide Evidence for Synchrotron Self-Compton X-rays from the Black Hole Binary GX 339-4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coriat, M.; Corbel, S.; Buxton, M. M.; Baylin, C. D.

    2009-01-01

    GX 339-4 has been one of the key sources for unravelling the accretion ejection coupling in accreting stellar mass black holes. After a long period of quiescence between 1999 and 2002, GX 339-4 underwent a series of 4 outbursts that have been intensively observed by many ground based observatories (radio/infrared/optical) and satellites (X-rays). Here, we present some specific results of these broad band observational campaigns, focusing on the optical-infrared/X-ray flux correlations over the four outbursts. Thanks to our extensive data-set, we found a strong OIR/X-ray correlation over four decades with the presence of a break in the correlation index. These results seem to favour a synchrotron self-Compton origin for the X-ray emission in GX 339-4 during the hard state and could also provide an indirect detection of the break frequency in the synchrotron spectrum of the compact jets.

  11. NuSTARand Swift observations of the very high state in GX 339-4: Weighing the black hole with X-rays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parker, M. L.; Tomsick, J. A.; Kennea, J. A.

    2016-01-01

    We present results from spectral fitting of the very high state of GX 339-4 with Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) and Swift. We use relativistic reflection modeling to measure the spin of the black hole and inclination of the inner disk and find a spin of a = 0.95(-0.08)(+0.02) and ......We present results from spectral fitting of the very high state of GX 339-4 with Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) and Swift. We use relativistic reflection modeling to measure the spin of the black hole and inclination of the inner disk and find a spin of a = 0...

  12. The Complex Accretion Geometry of Gx 339–4 as Seen by Nustar and Swift

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuerst, F.; Nowak, M. A.; Tomsick, J. A.

    2015-01-01

    We present spectral analyses of five Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array and Swift observations of GX 339-4 taken during a failed outburst during the summer of 2013. These observations cover Eddington luminosity fractions in the range approximate to 0.9%-6%. Throughout this outburst GX 339-4 st....... The iron line around 6.4 keV is clearly broadened, and we detect a superimposed narrow core as well. This core originates from a fluorescent region outside the influence of the strong gravity of the black hole. Additionally, we discuss possible geometries....

  13. Revisiting galactic black hole binary GX 339-4 by using 2007 – 2014 Swift XRT observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azizi, Febrie Ahmad; Vierdayanti, Kiki; Putra, Mahasena

    2015-01-01

    This work aims to study the X-ray properties of the galactic black hole binary GX 339-4. Focus of the study is on exploration of data from Swift-XRT in exclusively photon-counting mode. We use data from 2007 up to August 2014, which contain about 40 pointing observations with level 1 data. The flux of GX 339-4 varies in a factor of 100 during this period of observations. For the purpose of this work, we also try to develop a system to conduct standard SWIFT XRT data reduction automatically, in order to greatly reduce time when working with data bulk, which produces images, lightcurves as well as spectra. We also develop another system to conduct fitting of bulk spectral data with a two-component model, disk blackbody and power-law. The fitting results show that no data have a reduced chi-squared > 2. The fraction of the disk to total flux and the power-law to total flux range from 0.00389 – 0.994 and 0.00605 – 0.996, respectively. From the analysis of the disk component, we obtain the value of the innermost disk radius that does not show any large scale truncation which is in a good agreement with a previous study that used 2007 – 2011 Swift-XRT data, indicating that the systems we developed work properly

  14. Higgs Discovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sannino, Francesco

    2013-01-01

    has been challenged by the discovery of a not-so-heavy Higgs-like state. I will therefore review the recent discovery \\cite{Foadi:2012bb} that the standard model top-induced radiative corrections naturally reduce the intrinsic non-perturbative mass of the composite Higgs state towards the desired...... via first principle lattice simulations with encouraging results. The new findings show that the recent naive claims made about new strong dynamics at the electroweak scale being disfavoured by the discovery of a not-so-heavy composite Higgs are unwarranted. I will then introduce the more speculative......I discuss the impact of the discovery of a Higgs-like state on composite dynamics starting by critically examining the reasons in favour of either an elementary or composite nature of this state. Accepting the standard model interpretation I re-address the standard model vacuum stability within...

  15. The Evolution of the Phase Lags Associated with the Type-C Quasi-periodic Oscillation in GX 339-4 during the 2006/2007 Outburst

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Liang; Wang, Yanan; Méndez, Mariano; Chen, Li; Qu, Jinlu; Altamirano, Diego; Belloni, Tomaso

    2017-01-01

    We present the evolution of the phase lags associated with the type-C QPO in GX 339-4 during the rising phase of the 2006/2007 outburst. We find that the phase lags at the QPO frequency are always positive (hard) and show very different behavior between QPOs with frequencies below and above ˜1.7 Hz:

  16. Gene-by-social-environment interaction (GxSE) between ADCYAP1R1 genotype and neighborhood crime predicts major depression symptoms in trauma-exposed women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Sarah R; Pothen, John; Quinn, James W; Rundle, Andrew; Bradley, Bekh; Galea, Sandro; Ressler, Kerry J; Koenen, Karestan C

    2015-11-15

    Few studies have explored interactions between genes and social environmental exposures (GxSEs) for trauma-related psychopathology, including symptoms of posttraumatic stress (PTS) and major depression (MD). The extant literature suggests the possibility of a GxSE between the rs2267735 variant of the ADCYAP1R1 gene and neighborhood crime. The current study aimed to explore this possibility among a predominantly African American sample of trauma-exposed women. Female participants (N=1361) were recruited from a public hospital, and completed measures of PTS and MD symptoms and provided DNA samples. Participants' home addresses were mapped onto 300 neighborhoods (2010 census tracts), and data on crime within neighborhoods was collected. Multilevel models detected a significant GxSE between rs2267735 and neighborhood crime for MD symptoms (p=.01). Having two copies of the risk (C) allele was associated with higher MD symptoms for participants living in high-crime neighborhoods. At least six limitations are noteworthy: (1) low statistical power; (2) use of self-report symptom inventories; (3) lack of information on symptom onset; (4) homogeneous sample from a single metropolitan area; (5) non-specific index of crime; and (6) use of census tracts to define neighborhoods. The results provide further evidence of GxSEs for psychiatric outcomes among trauma-exposed populations. Further investigations of genetic factors for trauma-related psychopathology should include careful assessments of the social environment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Temperature-dependent thermal and thermoelectric properties of n -type and p -type S c1 -xM gxN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Bivas; Perez-Taborda, Jaime Andres; Bahk, Je-Hyeong; Koh, Yee Rui; Shakouri, Ali; Martin-Gonzalez, Marisol; Sands, Timothy D.

    2018-02-01

    Scandium Nitride (ScN) is an emerging rocksalt semiconductor with octahedral coordination and an indirect bandgap. ScN has attracted significant attention in recent years for its potential thermoelectric applications, as a component material in epitaxial metal/semiconductor superlattices, and as a substrate for defect-free GaN growth. Sputter-deposited ScN thin films are highly degenerate n -type semiconductors and exhibit a large thermoelectric power factor of ˜3.5 ×10-3W /m -K2 at 600-800 K. Since practical thermoelectric devices require both n- and p-type materials with high thermoelectric figures-of-merit, development and demonstration of highly efficient p-type ScN is extremely important. Recently, the authors have demonstrated p-type S c1 -xM gxN thin film alloys with low M gxNy mole-fractions within the ScN matrix. In this article, we demonstrate temperature dependent thermal and thermoelectric transport properties, including large thermoelectric power factors in both n- and p-type S c1 -xM gxN thin film alloys at high temperatures (up to 850 K). Employing a combination of temperature-dependent Seebeck coefficient, electrical conductivity, and thermal conductivity measurements, as well as detailed Boltzmann transport-based modeling analyses of the transport properties, we demonstrate that p-type S c1 -xM gxN thin film alloys exhibit a maximum thermoelectric power factor of ˜0.8 ×10-3W /m -K2 at 850 K. The thermoelectric properties are tunable by adjusting the M gxNy mole-fraction inside the ScN matrix, thereby shifting the Fermi energy in the alloy films from inside the conduction band in case of undoped n -type ScN to inside the valence band in highly hole-doped p -type S c1 -xM gxN thin film alloys. The thermal conductivities of both the n- and p-type films were found to be undesirably large for thermoelectric applications. Thus, future work should address strategies to reduce the thermal conductivity of S c1 -xM gxN thin-film alloys, without affecting

  18. THE HOST GALAXY OF THE SUPER-LUMINOUS SN 2010gx AND LIMITS ON EXPLOSIVE 56Ni PRODUCTION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Ting-Wan; Smartt, Stephen J.; Kotak, Rubina; McCrum, Matt; Fraser, Morgan; Bresolin, Fabio; Kudritzki, Rolf-Peter; Pastorello, Andrea; Valenti, Stefano

    2013-01-01

    Super-luminous supernovae have a tendency to occur in faint host galaxies which are likely to have low mass and low metallicity. While these extremely luminous explosions have been observed from z = 0.1 to 1.55, the closest explosions allow more detailed investigations of their host galaxies. We present a detailed analysis of the host galaxy of SN 2010gx (z = 0.23), one of the best studied super-luminous type Ic supernovae. The host is a dwarf galaxy (M g = –17.42 ± 0.17) with a high specific star formation rate. It has a remarkably low metallicity of 12 + log (O/H) = 7.5 ± 0.1 dex as determined from the detection of the [O III] λ4363 line. This is the first reliable metallicity determination of a super-luminous stripped-envelope supernova host. We collected deep multi-epoch imaging with Gemini + GMOS between 240 and 560 days after explosion to search for any sign of radioactive 56 Ni, which might provide further insights on the explosion mechanism and the progenitor's nature. We reach griz magnitudes of m AB ∼ 26, but do not detect SN 2010gx at these epochs. The limit implies that any 56 Ni production was similar to or below that of SN 1998bw (a luminous type Ic SN that produced around 0.4 M ☉ of 56 Ni). The low volumetric rates of these supernovae (∼10 –4 of the core-collapse population) could be qualitatively matched if the explosion mechanism requires a combination of low-metallicity (below 0.2 Z ☉ ), high progenitor mass (>60 M ☉ ) and high rotation rate (fastest 10% of rotators).

  19. Discovery Mondays

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Many people don't realise quite how much is going on at CERN. Would you like to gain first-hand knowledge of CERN's scientific and technological activities and their many applications? Try out some experiments for yourself, or pick the brains of the people in charge? If so, then the «Lundis Découverte» or Discovery Mondays, will be right up your street. Starting on May 5th, on every first Monday of the month you will be introduced to a different facet of the Laboratory. CERN staff, non-scientists, and members of the general public, everyone is welcome. So tell your friends and neighbours and make sure you don't miss this opportunity to satisfy your curiosity and enjoy yourself at the same time. You won't have to listen to a lecture, as the idea is to have open exchange with the expert in question and for each subject to be illustrated with experiments and demonstrations. There's no need to book, as Microcosm, CERN's interactive museum, will be open non-stop from 7.30 p.m. to 9 p.m. On the first Discovery M...

  20. PROPERTIES OF THE 24 DAY MODULATION IN GX 13+1 FROM NEAR-INFRARED AND X-RAY OBSERVATIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corbet, Robin H. D.; Pearlman, Aaron B.; Buxton, Michelle; Levine, Alan M.

    2010-01-01

    A 24 day period for the low-mass X-ray binary (LMXB) GX 13+1 was previously proposed on the basis of seven years of RXTE All-Sky Monitor (ASM) observations and it was suggested that this was the orbital period of the system. This would make it one of the longest known orbital periods for a Galactic LMXB powered by Roche lobe overflow. We present here the results of (1) K-band photometry obtained with the SMARTS Consortium CTIO 1.3 m telescope on 68 nights over a 10 month interval; (2) continued monitoring with the RXTE ASM, analyzed using a semi-weighted power spectrum instead of the data filtering technique previously used; and (3) Swift Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) hard X-ray observations. Modulation near 24 days is seen in both the K band and additional statistically independent ASM X-ray observations. However, the modulation in the ASM is not strictly periodic. The periodicity is also not detected in the Swift BAT observations, but modulation at the same relative level as seen with the ASM cannot be ruled out. If the 24 day period is the orbital period of system, this implies that the X-ray modulation is caused by structure that is not fixed in location. A possible mechanism for the X-ray modulation is the dipping behavior recently reported from XMM-Newton observations.

  1. NuSTAR and XMM-Newton Observations of the 2015 Outburst Decay of GX 339-4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stiele, H.; Kong, A. K. H., E-mail: hstiele@mx.nthu.edu.tw [National Tsing Hua University, Department of Physics and Institute of Astronomy, No. 101 Sect. 2 Kuang-Fu Road, 30013, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China)

    2017-07-20

    The extent of the accretion disk in the low/hard state of stellar mass black hole X-ray binaries remains an open question. There is some evidence suggesting that the inner accretion disk is truncated and replaced by a hot flow, while the detection of relativistic broadened iron emission lines seems to require an accretion disk extending fully to the innermost stable circular orbit. We present comprehensive spectral and timing analyses of six Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array and XMM-Newton observations of GX 339–4 taken during outburst decay in the autumn of 2015. Using a spectral model consisting of a thermal accretion disk, Comptonized emission, and a relativistic reflection component, we obtain a decreasing photon index, consistent with an X-ray binary during outburst decay. Although we observe a discrepancy in the inner radius of the accretion disk and that of the reflector, which can be attributed to the different underlying assumptions in each model, both model components indicate a truncated accretion disk that resiles with decreasing luminosity. The evolution of the characteristic frequency in Fourier power spectra and their missing energy dependence support the interpretation of a truncated and evolving disk in the hard state. The XMM-Newton data set allowed us to study, for the first time, the evolution of the covariance spectra and ratio during outburst decay. The covariance ratio increases and steeps during outburst decay, consistent with increased disk instabilities.

  2. ANTI-CORRELATED SOFT LAGS IN THE INTERMEDIATE STATE OF BLACK HOLE SOURCE GX 339-4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sriram, K.; Choi, C. S.; Rao, A. R.

    2010-01-01

    We report the few hundred second anti-correlated soft lags between soft and hard energy bands in the source GX 339-4 using RXTE observations. In one observation, anti-correlated soft lags were observed using the ISGRI/INTEGRAL hard energy band and the PCA/RXTE soft energy band light curves. The lags were observed when the source was in hard and soft intermediate states, i.e., in a steep power-law state. We found that the temporal and spectral properties were changed during the lag timescale. The anti-correlated soft lags are associated with spectral variability during which the geometry of the accretion disk is changed. The observed temporal and spectral variations are explained using the framework of truncated disk geometry. We found that during the lag timescale, the centroid frequency of quasi-periodic oscillation is decreased, the soft flux is decreased along with an increase in the hard flux, and the power-law index steepens together with a decrease in the disk normalization parameter. We argue that these changes could be explained if we assume that the hot corona condenses and forms a disk in the inner region of the accretion disk. The overall spectral and temporal changes support the truncated geometry of the accretion disk in the steep power-law state or in the intermediate state.

  3. 39 CFR 5.1 - Establishment and appointment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Establishment and appointment. 5.1 Section 5.1 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE THE BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE U.S. POSTAL SERVICE COMMITTEES (ARTICLE V) § 5.1 Establishment and appointment. From time to time the Board may establish by resolution...

  4. 10 CFR 960.5-1 - System guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false System guidelines. 960.5-1 Section 960.5-1 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Preclosure Guidelines § 960.5-1 System guidelines. (a) Qualifying conditions—(1) Preclosure...

  5. 26 CFR 1.381(c)(5)-1 - Inventories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Inventories. 1.381(c)(5)-1 Section 1.381(c)(5)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Insolvency Reorganizations § 1.381(c)(5)-1 Inventories. (a) Carryover requirement—(1...

  6. Fatigue Resistance of GX12CrMoVNbN9-1 Cast Steel after Ageing Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanisław MROZIŃSKI

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper, low cycle fatigue behaviour of GX12CrMoVNbN9-1 (GP91 cast steel is presented. Fatigue tests were performed under isothermal conditions at room temperature and at 550 and 600oC, on five levels of total strain amplitude value ɛac = 0.25÷0.60%. The cast steel subject to investigation was in the as-received condition (after heat treatment and after 8000 hours of ageing at the temperature of 600oC. Performed research has shown an insignificant influence of the ageing process on mechanical properties of GP91 cast steel, determined with the static test of tension. Analysis of the performed tests has proved that GP91 cast steel in the as-received condition and after ageing process was characterized by strong cyclic softening without a clear period of stabilization of the hysteresis loop parameters. The fatigue lifetime curves at each temperature were obtained based on Basquin and Coffin – Manson equations. The process of ageing of GP91 cast steel contributed to a decrease in its fatigue life Nf from a few to a few dozen percent, and the level of fatigue life was dependent on the value of strain amplitude ɛac. It has also been stated that the fatigue life Nf of GP91 cast steel is determined by its plastic properties, and the degree of changes in fatigue life Nf was dependent not only on the temperature of testing, but also on the value of strain amplitude ɛac. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.20.4.6077

  7. The evolution of the disc variability along the hard state of the black hole transient GX 339-4

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Marco, B.; Ponti, G.; Muñoz-Darias, T.; Nandra, K.

    2015-12-01

    We report on the analysis of hard-state power spectral density function (PSD) of GX 339-4 down to the soft X-ray band, where the disc significantly contributes to the total emission. At any luminosity probed, the disc in the hard state is intrinsically more variable than in the soft state. However, the fast decrease of disc variability as a function of luminosity, combined with the increase of disc intensity, causes a net drop of fractional variability at high luminosities and low energies, which reminds the well-known behaviour of disc-dominated energy bands in the soft state. The peak frequency of the high-frequency Lorentzian (likely corresponding to the high-frequency break seen in active galactic nuclei, AGN) scales with luminosity, but we do not find evidence for a linear scaling. In addition, we observe that this characteristic frequency is energy dependent. We find that the normalization of the PSD at the peak of the high-frequency Lorentzian decreases with luminosity at all energies, though in the soft band this trend is steeper. Together with the frequency shift, this yields quasi-constant high-frequency (5-20 Hz) fractional rms at high energies, with less than 10 per cent scatter. This reinforces previous claims suggesting that the high-frequency PSD solely scales with black hole mass. On the other hand, this constancy breaks down in the soft band (where the scatter increases to ˜30 per cent). This is a consequence of the additional contribution from the disc component, and resembles the behaviour of optical variability in AGN.

  8. Mechanics and composition of middle cerebral arteries from simulated microgravity rats with and without 1-h/d -Gx gravitation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiu-Hua Cheng

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To elucidate further from the biomechanical aspect whether microgravity-induced cerebral vascular mal-adaptation might be a contributing factor to postflight orthostatic intolerance and the underlying mechanism accounting for the potential effectiveness of intermittent artificial gravity (IAG in preventing this adverse effect. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Middle cerebral arteries (MCAs were isolated from 28-day SUS (tail-suspended, head-down tilt rats to simulate microgravity effect, S+D (SUS plus 1-h/d -Gx gravitation by normal standing to simulate IAG, and CON (control rats. Vascular myogenic reactivity and circumferential stress-strain and axial force-pressure relationships and overall stiffness were examined using pressure arteriography and calculated. Acellular matrix components were quantified by electron microscopy. The results demonstrate that myogenic reactivity is susceptible to previous pressure-induced, serial constrictions. During the first-run of pressure increments, active MCAs from SUS rats can strongly stiffen their wall and maintain the vessels at very low strains, which can be prevented by the simulated IAG countermeasure. The strains are 0.03 and 0.14 respectively for SUS and S+D, while circumferential stress being kept at 0.5 (106 dyn/cm2. During the second-run pressure steps, both the myogenic reactivity and active stiffness of the three groups declined. The distensibility of passive MCAs from S+D is significantly higher than CON and SUS, which may help to attenuate the vasodilatation impairment at low levels of pressure. Collagen and elastin percentages were increased and decreased, respectively, in MCAs from SUS and S+D as compared with CON; however, elastin was higher in S+D than SUS rats. CONCLUSIONS: Susceptibility to previous myogenic constrictions seems to be a self-limiting protective mechanism in cerebral small resistance arteries to prevent undue cerebral vasoconstriction during orthostasis at 1-G

  9. Thermodynamic properties of 5-(1-adamantyl)tetrazole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stepurko, Elena N.; Paulechka, Yauheni U.; Blokhin, Andrey V., E-mail: blokhin@bsu.by; Kabo, Gennady J.; Voitekhovich, Sergei V.; Lyakhov, Alexander S.; Kohut, Sviataslau V.; Kazarovets, Tatiana E.

    2014-09-20

    Highlights: • Heat capacity, enthalpy of formation, vapor pressure, and enthalpy of sublimation were measured for 5-(1-adamantyl)tetrazole. • Crystal structure of the compound was determined from the X-ray diffraction analysis. • Ideal-gas thermodynamic properties of 5-(1-adamantyl)tetrazole were calculated. - Abstract: Temperature dependence of the heat capacity of 5-(1-adamantyl)tetrazole was studied between (5 and 370) K in a vacuum adiabatic calorimeter. From obtained data the thermodynamic properties of the compound in the condensed state were evaluated over the range of (0–370) K. The crystal structure of 5-(1-adamantyl)tetrazole was determined from the X-ray diffraction analysis. The saturated vapor pressure for crystalline 5-(1-adamantyl)tetrazole in the temperature ranges from (394 to 419) K was measured by the Knudsen effusion method, and its enthalpy of sublimation was obtained using these results. The standard enthalpy of formation for crystalline 5-(1-adamantyl)tetrazole at 298.15 K was determined in a static bomb combustion calorimeter. From these data, the standard enthalpy of formation for gaseous 5-(1-adamantyl)tetrazole was evaluated. The enthalpy of formation calculated using quantum chemical methods is in an excellent agreement with the experimental value. The thermodynamic properties of 5-(1-adamantyl)tetrazole in the ideal-gas state were calculated in the temperature range from (0 to 1000) K. The calculated entropy of gaseous 5-(1-adamantyl)tetrazole is in a good agreement with the one obtained from the experimental data.

  10. Thermodynamic properties of 5-(1-adamantyl)tetrazole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stepurko, Elena N.; Paulechka, Yauheni U.; Blokhin, Andrey V.; Kabo, Gennady J.; Voitekhovich, Sergei V.; Lyakhov, Alexander S.; Kohut, Sviataslau V.; Kazarovets, Tatiana E.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Heat capacity, enthalpy of formation, vapor pressure, and enthalpy of sublimation were measured for 5-(1-adamantyl)tetrazole. • Crystal structure of the compound was determined from the X-ray diffraction analysis. • Ideal-gas thermodynamic properties of 5-(1-adamantyl)tetrazole were calculated. - Abstract: Temperature dependence of the heat capacity of 5-(1-adamantyl)tetrazole was studied between (5 and 370) K in a vacuum adiabatic calorimeter. From obtained data the thermodynamic properties of the compound in the condensed state were evaluated over the range of (0–370) K. The crystal structure of 5-(1-adamantyl)tetrazole was determined from the X-ray diffraction analysis. The saturated vapor pressure for crystalline 5-(1-adamantyl)tetrazole in the temperature ranges from (394 to 419) K was measured by the Knudsen effusion method, and its enthalpy of sublimation was obtained using these results. The standard enthalpy of formation for crystalline 5-(1-adamantyl)tetrazole at 298.15 K was determined in a static bomb combustion calorimeter. From these data, the standard enthalpy of formation for gaseous 5-(1-adamantyl)tetrazole was evaluated. The enthalpy of formation calculated using quantum chemical methods is in an excellent agreement with the experimental value. The thermodynamic properties of 5-(1-adamantyl)tetrazole in the ideal-gas state were calculated in the temperature range from (0 to 1000) K. The calculated entropy of gaseous 5-(1-adamantyl)tetrazole is in a good agreement with the one obtained from the experimental data

  11. NuSTAR AND Swift Observations of the Very High State in GX 339-4: Weighing the Black Hole With X-Rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, M. L.; Tomsick, J. A.; Kennea, J. A.; Miller, J. M.; Harrison, F. A.; Barret, D.; Boggs, S. E.; Christensen, F. E.; Craig, W. W.; Fabian, A. C.; hide

    2016-01-01

    We present results from spectral fitting of the very high state of GX339-4 with Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) and Swift. We use relativistic reflection modeling to measure the spin of the black hole and inclination of the inner disk and find a spin of a = 0.95+0.08/-0.02 and inclination of 30deg +/- 1deg (statistical errors). These values agree well with previous results from reflection modeling. With the exceptional sensitivity of NuSTAR at the high-energy side of the disk spectrum, we are able to constrain multiple physical parameters simultaneously using continuum fitting. By using the constraints from reflection as input for the continuum fitting method, we invert the conventional fitting procedure to estimate the mass and distance of GX 339-4 using just the X-ray spectrum, finding a mass of 9.0+1.6/-1.2 Stellar Mass and distance of 8.4 +/- 0.9 kpc (statistical errors).

  12. Plantics-GX: a biodegradable and cost-effective thermoset plastic that is 100% plant-based

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alberts, A.H.; Rothenberg, G.

    2017-01-01

    We recount here the story of the discovery and invention of a family of thermoset resins that are fully biodegradable and plant-based. The resin is prepared by polymerising glycerol, the simplest trialcohol, with citric acid, the simplest abundantly available triacid. Mixing these two chemicals at

  13. Usability of Discovery Portals

    OpenAIRE

    Bulens, J.D.; Vullings, L.A.E.; Houtkamp, J.M.; Vanmeulebrouk, B.

    2013-01-01

    As INSPIRE progresses to be implemented in the EU, many new discovery portals are built to facilitate finding spatial data. Currently the structure of the discovery portals is determined by the way spatial data experts like to work. However, we argue that the main target group for discovery portals are not spatial data experts but professionals with limited spatial knowledge, and a focus outside the spatial domain. An exploratory usability experiment was carried out in which three discovery p...

  14. Usability of Discovery Portals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bulens, J.D.; Vullings, L.A.E.; Houtkamp, J.M.; Vanmeulebrouk, B.

    2013-01-01

    As INSPIRE progresses to be implemented in the EU, many new discovery portals are built to facilitate finding spatial data. Currently the structure of the discovery portals is determined by the way spatial data experts like to work. However, we argue that the main target group for discovery portals

  15. Discovery and the atom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    ''Discovery and the Atom'' tells the story of the founding of nuclear physics. This programme looks at nuclear physics up to the discovery of the neutron in 1932. Animation explains the science of the classic experiments, such as the scattering of alpha particles by Rutherford and the discovery of the nucleus. Archive film shows the people: Lord Rutherford, James Chadwick, Marie Curie. (author)

  16. Multiwavelength Observations of the 2002 Outburst of GX 339-4: Two Patterns of X-Ray-Optical/Near-Infrared Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homan, Jeroen; Buxton, Michelle; Markoff, Sera; Bailyn, Charles D.; Nespoli, Elisa; Belloni, Tomaso

    2005-05-01

    We report on quasi-simultaneous Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer and optical/near-infrared (NIR) observations of the black hole candidate X-ray transient GX 339-4. Our observations were made over a time span of more than 8 months in 2002 and cover the initial rise and transition from a hard to a soft spectral state in X-rays. Two distinct patterns of correlated X-ray-optical/NIR behavior were found. During the hard state, the optical/NIR and X-ray fluxes correlated well, with a NIR versus X-ray flux power-law slope similar to that of the correlation found between X-ray and radio fluxes in previous studies of GX 339-4 and other black hole binaries. As the source went through an intermediate state, the optical/NIR fluxes decreased rapidly, and once it had entered the spectrally soft state, the optical/NIR spectrum of GX 339-4 was much bluer, and the ratio of X-ray to NIR flux was higher by a factor of more than 10 compared to the hard state. In the spectrally soft state, changes in the NIR preceded those in the soft X-rays by more than 2 weeks, indicating a disk origin of the NIR emission and providing a measure of the viscous timescale. A sudden onset of NIR flaring of ~0.5 mag on a timescale of 1 day was also observed during this period. We present spectral energy distributions, including radio data, and discuss possible sources for the optical/NIR emission. We conclude that, in the hard state, this emission probably originates in the optically thin part of a jet and that in none of the X-ray states is X-ray reprocessing the dominant source of optical/NIR emission. Finally, comparing the light curves from the all-sky monitor (ASM) and Proportional Counter Array (PCA) instruments, we find that the X-ray/NIR delay depends critically on the sensitivity of the X-ray detector, with the delay inferred from the PCA (if present at all) being a factor of 3-6 times shorter than the delay inferred from the ASM; this may be important in interpreting previously reported X

  17. A Comparison of the Variability of the Symbiotic X-ray Binaries GX 1+4, 4U 1954+31, and 4U 1700+24 from Swift/BAT and RXTE/ASM Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbet, R. H. D.; Sokoloski, J. L.; Mukai, K.; Markwardt, C. B.; Tueller, J.

    2007-01-01

    We present an analysis of the X-ray variability of three symbiotic X-ray binaries, GX 1+4, 4U 1700+24, and 4U 1954+31, using observations made with the Swift Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) and the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) All-Sky Monitor (ASM). Observations of 4U 1954+31 with the Swift BAT show modulation at a period near 5 hours. Models to explain this modulation are discussed including the presence of an exceptionally slow X-ray pulsar in the system and accretion instabilities. We conclude that the most likely interpretation is that 4U 1954+31 contains one of the slowest known X-ray pulsars. Unlike 4U 1954+31, neither GX 1+4 nor 4U 1700+24 show any evidence for modulation on a timescale of hours. An analysis of the RXTE ASM light curves of GX l+4, 4U 1700+24, and 4U 1954+31 does not show the presence of periodic modulation in any source, although there is considerable variability on long timescales for all three sources. There is no modulation in GX 1+4 on either the optical 1161 day orbital period or a previously reported 304 day X-ray period. For 4U 1700+24 we do not confirm the 404 day period previously proposed for this source from a shorter duration ASM light curve.

  18. Metsameede toetab 5,1 miljoniga / Helve Hunt

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hunt, Helve

    2011-01-01

    Toetuste taotlemisest Eesti maaelu arengukava 2007-2013 metsameetmetele 1.5.1 (metsa majandusliku väärtuse parandamine), 1.5.3 (kahjustatud metsa taastamine, metsatulekahjude ennetamine) ja 1.5.2 (metsasaadustele lisandväärtuse andmine)

  19. Topology Discovery Using Cisco Discovery Protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Rodriguez, Sergio R.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we address the problem of discovering network topology in proprietary networks. Namely, we investigate topology discovery in Cisco-based networks. Cisco devices run Cisco Discovery Protocol (CDP) which holds information about these devices. We first compare properties of topologies that can be obtained from networks deploying CDP versus Spanning Tree Protocol (STP) and Management Information Base (MIB) Forwarding Database (FDB). Then we describe a method of discovering topology ...

  20. Building Identification Wizard: Version 1.5.1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-04-01

    develops innovative solutions in civil and military engineering , geospatial sciences, water resources, and environmental sciences for the Army, the...unlimited. The U.S. Army Engineer Research and Development Center (ERDC) solves the nation’s toughest engineering and environmental challenges. ERDC...April 2018 Building Identification Wizard Version 1.5.1 M. Jason Roth U.S. Army Engineer Research and Development Center (ERDC) Geotechnical and

  1. GEMPAK 5.1 - A GENERAL METEOROLOGICAL PACKAGE (UNIX VERSION)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desjardins, M. L.

    1994-01-01

    GEMPAK is a general meteorological software package developed at NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center. It includes programs to analyze and display surface, upper-air, and gridded data, including model output. There are very general programs to list, edit, and plot data on maps, to display profiles and time series, to draw and fill contours, to draw streamlines, to plot symbols for clouds, sky cover, and pressure tendency, and draw cross sections in the case of gridded data and sounding data. In addition, there are Barnes objective analysis programs to grid surface and upper-air data. The programs include the capabilities to derive meteorological parameters from those found in the dataset, to perform vertical interpolations of sounding data to different coordinate systems, and to compute an extensive set of gridded diagnostic quantities by specifying various nested combinations of scalars and vector arithmetic, algebraic, and differential operators. The GEMPAK 5.1 graphics/transformation subsystem, GEMPLT, provides device-independent graphics. GEMPLT also has the capability to display output in a variety of map projections or overlaid on satellite imagery. GEMPAK 5.1 is written in FORTRAN 77 and C-language and has been implemented on VAX computers under VMS and on computers running the UNIX operating system. During installation and normal use, this package occupies approximately 100Mb of hard disk space. The UNIX version of GEMPAK includes drivers for several graphic output systems including MIT's X Window System (X11,R4), Sun GKS, PostScript (color and monochrome), Silicon Graphics, and others. The VMS version of GEMPAK also includes drivers for several graphic output systems including PostScript (color and monochrome). The VMS version is delivered with the object code for the Transportable Applications Environment (TAE) program, version 4.1 which serves as a user interface. A color monitor is recommended for displaying maps on video display devices. Data for rendering

  2. Nuclear libraries for SCALE5.1 system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vertes, P.

    2009-01-01

    Codes for preparing master and working AMPX libraries and point-wise nuclear libraries for SCALE5.1 system have been created. Master and working libraries are constructed from multigroup library in matxs form which are produced by means of the NJOY code. The point-wise cross-section library is derived from pend files obtained also by NJOY. The AMPX libraries may contain neutron, gamma production and gamma transport data, as well. The produced master libraries can be used either with stand-alone functional modules or with control modules. An assistant package of programs also has been developed in order to facilitate the usage of NJOY. (Authors)

  3. VMware vSphere 5.1 cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    GB, Abhilash

    2013-01-01

    A fast-paced, task-oriented Cookbook covering recipes on the installation and configuration of vSphere 5.1 components. The recipes are accompanied with relevant screenshots with an intention to provide a visual guidance as well. The book concentrates more on the actual task rather than the theory around it, making it easier to understand what is really needed to achieve the task.This book is a guide for anyone who wants to learn how to install and configure VMware vSphere components. This is an excellent handbook for support professionals or for anyone intending to give themselves a head start

  4. Nuclear libraries for SCALE5.1 system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vertes, P.

    2009-01-01

    Codes for preparing master and working AMPX libraries and point-wise (PW) nuclear libraries for SCALE5.1 system have been created. Master and working libraries are constructed from multigroup library in matxs form which are produced by means of the NJOY code. The PW cross-section library is derived from pend files obtained also by NJOY. The AMPX libraries may contain neutron, gamma production and gamma transport data, as well. The produced master libraries can be used either with stand-alone functional modules or with control modules. An assistant package of programs also has been developed in order to facilitate the usage of NJOY. (author)

  5. Service Discovery At Home

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sundramoorthy, V.; Scholten, Johan; Jansen, P.G.; Hartel, Pieter H.

    Service discovery is a fady new field that kicked off since the advent of ubiquitous computing and has been found essential in the making of intelligent networks by implementing automated discovery and remote control between deviies. This paper provides an ovewiew and comparison of several prominent

  6. Academic Drug Discovery Centres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Henriette Schultz; Valentin, Finn

    2014-01-01

    Academic drug discovery centres (ADDCs) are seen as one of the solutions to fill the innovation gap in early drug discovery, which has proven challenging for previous organisational models. Prior studies of ADDCs have identified the need to analyse them from the angle of their economic...

  7. Decades of Discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    For the past two-and-a-half decades, the Office of Science at the U.S. Department of Energy has been at the forefront of scientific discovery. Over 100 important discoveries supported by the Office of Science are represented in this document.

  8. Service discovery at home

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sundramoorthy, V.; Scholten, Johan; Jansen, P.G.; Hartel, Pieter H.

    2003-01-01

    Service discovery is a fairly new field that kicked off since the advent of ubiquitous computing and has been found essential in the making of intelligent networks by implementing automated discovery and remote control between devices. This paper provides an overview and comparison of several

  9. "Eureka, Eureka!" Discoveries in Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Pankaj

    2011-01-01

    Accidental discoveries have been of significant value in the progress of science. Although accidental discoveries are more common in pharmacology and chemistry, other branches of science have also benefited from such discoveries. While most discoveries are the result of persistent research, famous accidental discoveries provide a fascinating…

  10. The Greatest Mathematical Discovery?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, David H.; Borwein, Jonathan M.

    2010-05-12

    What mathematical discovery more than 1500 years ago: (1) Is one of the greatest, if not the greatest, single discovery in the field of mathematics? (2) Involved three subtle ideas that eluded the greatest minds of antiquity, even geniuses such as Archimedes? (3) Was fiercely resisted in Europe for hundreds of years after its discovery? (4) Even today, in historical treatments of mathematics, is often dismissed with scant mention, or else is ascribed to the wrong source? Answer: Our modern system of positional decimal notation with zero, together with the basic arithmetic computational schemes, which were discovered in India about 500 CE.

  11. TWOS - TIME WARP OPERATING SYSTEM, VERSION 2.5.1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellenot, S. F.

    1994-01-01

    The Time Warp Operating System (TWOS) is a special-purpose operating system designed to support parallel discrete-event simulation. TWOS is a complete implementation of the Time Warp mechanism, a distributed protocol for virtual time synchronization based on process rollback and message annihilation. Version 2.5.1 supports simulations and other computations using both virtual time and dynamic load balancing; it does not support general time-sharing or multi-process jobs using conventional message synchronization and communication. The program utilizes the underlying operating system's resources. TWOS runs a single simulation at a time, executing it concurrently on as many processors of a distributed system as are allocated. The simulation needs only to be decomposed into objects (logical processes) that interact through time-stamped messages. TWOS provides transparent synchronization. The user does not have to add any more special logic to aid in synchronization, nor give any synchronization advice, nor even understand much about how the Time Warp mechanism works. The Time Warp Simulator (TWSIM) subdirectory contains a sequential simulation engine that is interface compatible with TWOS. This means that an application designer and programmer who wish to use TWOS can prototype code on TWSIM on a single processor and/or workstation before having to deal with the complexity of working on a distributed system. TWSIM also provides statistics about the application which may be helpful for determining the correctness of an application and for achieving good performance on TWOS. Version 2.5.1 has an updated interface that is not compatible with 2.0. The program's user manual assists the simulation programmer in the design, coding, and implementation of discrete-event simulations running on TWOS. The manual also includes a practical user's guide to the TWOS application benchmark, Colliding Pucks. TWOS supports simulations written in the C programming language. It is designed

  12. Multidimensional process discovery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ribeiro, J.T.S.

    2013-01-01

    Typically represented in event logs, business process data describe the execution of process events over time. Business process intelligence (BPI) techniques such as process mining can be applied to get strategic insight into business processes. Process discovery, conformance checking and

  13. Fateful discovery almost forgotten

    CERN Multimedia

    1989-01-01

    "The discovery of the fission of uranium exactly half a century ago is at risk of passing unremarked because of the general ambivalence towards the consequences of this development. Can that be wise?" (4 pages)

  14. Toxins and drug discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Alan L

    2014-12-15

    Components from venoms have stimulated many drug discovery projects, with some notable successes. These are briefly reviewed, from captopril to ziconotide. However, there have been many more disappointments on the road from toxin discovery to approval of a new medicine. Drug discovery and development is an inherently risky business, and the main causes of failure during development programmes are outlined in order to highlight steps that might be taken to increase the chances of success with toxin-based drug discovery. These include having a clear focus on unmet therapeutic needs, concentrating on targets that are well-validated in terms of their relevance to the disease in question, making use of phenotypic screening rather than molecular-based assays, and working with development partners with the resources required for the long and expensive development process. Copyright © 2014 The Author. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  15. Systematic analysis of low/hard state RXTE spectra of GX 339–4 to constrain the geometry of the system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagri, Kalyani; Misra, Ranjeev; Rao, Anjali; Singh Yadav, Jagdish; Pandey, Shiv Kumar

    2018-05-01

    One of the popular models for the low/hard state of black hole binaries is that the standard accretion disk is truncated and the hot inner region produces, via Comptonization, hard X-ray flux. This is supported by the value of the high energy photon index, which is often found to be small, ∼ 1.7(2. This would mean that the medium is not photon deficient, reconciling the presence of a broad Fe line in the observed hard state. To test this hypothesis, we have analyzed the RXTE observations of GX 339–4 from the four outbursts during 2002–2011 and identify observations when the system was in the hard state and showed a broad Fe line. We have then attempted to fit these observationswith models,which include smeared reflection, to understandwhether the intrinsic photon index can indeed be large. We find that, while for some observations the inclusion of reflection does increase the photon index, there are hard state observations with a broad Fe line that have photon indices less than 2.

  16. Influence of heat treatment on microstructure and properties of GX12CrMoVNbN9-1 cast steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Golański

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents results of research on the influence of multistage heat treatment on microstructure and properties of high-chromiummartensitic GX12CrMoVNbN9 – 1 (GP91 steel. The material under investigation were samples taken out from a test coupon. Heattreatment of GP91 cast steel was performed at the parameters of temperature and time typical of treatment for multi-ton steel casts. The research has proved that in the as-received condition (as-cast state GP91 cast steel was characterized by a coarse grain, martensitic microstructure which provided the required standard mechanical properties. The heat treatment of GP91 cast steel contributed to obtainment of a fine grain microstructure of high tempered martensite with numerous precipitations of carbides of diverse size. The GP91 cast steel structure received through heat treatment made it possible to obtain high plastic properties, particularly impact strength, maintaining strength properties on the level of the required minimum.

  17. Defining Creativity with Discovery

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, Nicholas Charles; Martin, Lee

    2017-01-01

    The standard definition of creativity has enabled significant empirical and theoretical advances, yet contains philosophical conundrums concerning the nature of novelty and the role of recognition and values. In this work we offer an act of conceptual valeting that addresses these issues and in doing so, argue that creativity definitions can be extended through the use of discovery. Drawing on dispositional realist philosophy we outline why adding the discovery and bringing into being of new ...

  18. On the antiproton discovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piccioni, O.

    1989-01-01

    The author of this article describes his own role in the discovery of the antiproton. Although Segre and Chamberlain received the Nobel Prize in 1959 for its discovery, the author claims that their experimental method was his idea which he communicated to them informally in December 1954. He describes how his application for citizenship (he was Italian), and other scientists' manipulation, prevented him from being at Berkeley to work on the experiment himself. (UK)

  19. Discovery Driven Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bukh, Per Nikolaj

    2009-01-01

    Anmeldelse af Discovery Driven Growh : A breakthrough process to reduce risk and seize opportunity, af Rita G. McGrath & Ian C. MacMillan, Boston: Harvard Business Press. Udgivelsesdato: 14 august......Anmeldelse af Discovery Driven Growh : A breakthrough process to reduce risk and seize opportunity, af Rita G. McGrath & Ian C. MacMillan, Boston: Harvard Business Press. Udgivelsesdato: 14 august...

  20. The π discovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, P.H.

    1988-01-01

    The paper traces the discovery of the Π meson. The discovery was made by exposure of nuclear emulsions to cosmic radiation at high altitudes, with subsequent scanning of the emulsions for meson tracks. Disintegration of nuclei by a negative meson, and the decay of a Π meson were both observed. Further measurements revealed the mass of the meson. The studies carried out on the origin of the Π-mesons, and their mode of decay, are both described. (U.K.)

  1. Several tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) motifs of FANCG are required for assembly of the BRCA2/D1-D2-G-X3 complex, FANCD2 monoubiquitylation and phleomycin resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, James B.; Blom, Eric; Cunningham, Ryan; Xiao, Yuxuan; Kupfer, Gary M.; Jones, Nigel J.

    2010-01-01

    The Fanconi anaemia (FA) FANCG protein is an integral component of the FA nuclear core complex that is required for monoubiquitylation of FANCD2. FANCG is also part of another protein complex termed D1-D2-G-X3 that contains FANCD2 and the homologous recombination repair proteins BRCA2 (FANCD1) and XRCC3. Formation of the D1-D2-G-X3 complex is mediated by serine-7 phosphorylation of FANCG and occurs independently of the FA core complex and FANCD2 monoubiquitylation. FANCG contains seven tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) motifs that mediate protein-protein interactions and here we show that mutation of several of the TPR motifs at a conserved consensus residue ablates the in vivo binding activity of FANCG. Expression of mutated TPR1, TPR2, TPR5 and TPR6 in Chinese hamster fancg mutant NM3 fails to functionally complement its hypersensitivities to mitomycin C (MMC) and phleomycin and fails to restore FANCD2 monoubiquitylation. Using co-immunoprecipitation analysis, we demonstrate that these TPR-mutated FANCG proteins fail to interact with BRCA2, XRCC3, FANCA or FANCF. The interactions of other proteins in the D1-D2-G-X3 complex are also absent, including the interaction of BRCA2 with both the monoubiquitylated (FANCD2-L) and non-ubiquitylated (FANCD2-S) isoforms of FANCD2. Interestingly, a mutation of TPR7 (R563E), that complements the MMC and phleomycin hypersensitivity of human FA-G EUFA316 cells, fails to complement NM3, despite the mutated FANCG protein co-precipitating with FANCA, BRCA2 and XRCC3. Whilst interaction of TPR7-mutated FANCG with FANCF does appear to be reduced in NM3, FANCD2 is monoubiquitylated suggesting that sub-optimal interactions of FANCG in the core complex and the D1-D2-G-X3 complex are responsible for the observed MMC- and phleomycin-hypersensitivity, rather than a defect in FANCD2 monoubiquitylation. Our data demonstrate that FANCG functions as a mediator of protein-protein interactions and is vital for the assembly of multi-protein complexes

  2. Several tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) motifs of FANCG are required for assembly of the BRCA2/D1-D2-G-X3 complex, FANCD2 monoubiquitylation and phleomycin resistance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, James B. [Molecular Oncology and Stem Cell Research Group, School of Biological Sciences, University of Liverpool, Biosciences Building, Crown Street, Liverpool L69 7ZB (United Kingdom); Blom, Eric [Department of Clinical Genetics and Human Genetics, VU University Medical Center, Van der Boechorststraat 7, NL-1081 BT Amsterdam (Netherlands); Cunningham, Ryan; Xiao, Yuxuan [Molecular Oncology and Stem Cell Research Group, School of Biological Sciences, University of Liverpool, Biosciences Building, Crown Street, Liverpool L69 7ZB (United Kingdom); Kupfer, Gary M. [Departments of Pediatrics and Pathology, Yale University School of Medicine, Section of Hematology/Oncology, 333 Cedar Street, New Haven, CT 0652 (United States); Jones, Nigel J., E-mail: njjones@liv.ac.uk [Molecular Oncology and Stem Cell Research Group, School of Biological Sciences, University of Liverpool, Biosciences Building, Crown Street, Liverpool L69 7ZB (United Kingdom)

    2010-07-07

    The Fanconi anaemia (FA) FANCG protein is an integral component of the FA nuclear core complex that is required for monoubiquitylation of FANCD2. FANCG is also part of another protein complex termed D1-D2-G-X3 that contains FANCD2 and the homologous recombination repair proteins BRCA2 (FANCD1) and XRCC3. Formation of the D1-D2-G-X3 complex is mediated by serine-7 phosphorylation of FANCG and occurs independently of the FA core complex and FANCD2 monoubiquitylation. FANCG contains seven tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) motifs that mediate protein-protein interactions and here we show that mutation of several of the TPR motifs at a conserved consensus residue ablates the in vivo binding activity of FANCG. Expression of mutated TPR1, TPR2, TPR5 and TPR6 in Chinese hamster fancg mutant NM3 fails to functionally complement its hypersensitivities to mitomycin C (MMC) and phleomycin and fails to restore FANCD2 monoubiquitylation. Using co-immunoprecipitation analysis, we demonstrate that these TPR-mutated FANCG proteins fail to interact with BRCA2, XRCC3, FANCA or FANCF. The interactions of other proteins in the D1-D2-G-X3 complex are also absent, including the interaction of BRCA2 with both the monoubiquitylated (FANCD2-L) and non-ubiquitylated (FANCD2-S) isoforms of FANCD2. Interestingly, a mutation of TPR7 (R563E), that complements the MMC and phleomycin hypersensitivity of human FA-G EUFA316 cells, fails to complement NM3, despite the mutated FANCG protein co-precipitating with FANCA, BRCA2 and XRCC3. Whilst interaction of TPR7-mutated FANCG with FANCF does appear to be reduced in NM3, FANCD2 is monoubiquitylated suggesting that sub-optimal interactions of FANCG in the core complex and the D1-D2-G-X3 complex are responsible for the observed MMC- and phleomycin-hypersensitivity, rather than a defect in FANCD2 monoubiquitylation. Our data demonstrate that FANCG functions as a mediator of protein-protein interactions and is vital for the assembly of multi-protein complexes

  3. Discovery of charm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldhaber, G.

    1984-11-01

    In my talk I will cover the period 1973 to 1976 which saw the discoveries of the J/psi and psi' resonances and most of the Psion spectroscopy, the tau lepton and the D 0 ,D + charmed meson doublet. Occasionally I will refer briefly to more recent results. Since this conference is on the history of the weak-interactions I will deal primarily with the properties of naked charm and in particular the weakly decaying doublet of charmed mesons. Most of the discoveries I will mention were made with the SLAC-LBL Magnetic Detector or MARK I which we operated at SPEAR from 1973 to 1976. 27 references

  4. Characterization of the Infrared/X-ray sub-second variability for the black-hole transient GX 339-4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincentelli, F. M.; Casella, P.; Maccarone, T. J.; Uttley, P.; Gandhi, P.; Belloni, T.; De Marco, B.; Russell, D. M.; Stella, L.; O'Brien, K.

    2018-03-01

    We present a detailed analysis of the X-ray/IR fast variability of the Black-Hole Transient GX 339-4 during its low/hard state in August 2008. Thanks to simultaneous high time-resolution observations made with the VLT and RXTE, we performed the first characterisation of the sub-second variability in the near-infrared band - and of its correlation with the X-rays - for a low-mass X-ray binary, using both time- and frequency-domain techniques. We found a power-law correlation between the X-ray and infrared fluxes when measured on timescales of 16 seconds, with a marginally variable slope, steeper than the one found on timescales of days at similar flux levels. We suggest the variable slope - if confirmed - could be due to the infrared flux being a non-constant combination of both optically thin and optically thick synchrotron emission from the jet, as a result of a variable self-absorption break. From cross spectral analysis we found an approximately constant infrared time lag of ≈0.1s, and a very high coherence of ˜90 per cent on timescales of tens of seconds, slowly decreasing toward higher frequencies. Finally, we report on the first detection of a linear rms-flux relation in the emission from a low-mass X-ray binary jet, on timescales where little correlation is found between the X-rays and the jet emission itself. This suggests that either the inflow variations and jet IR emission are coupled by a non-linear or time-variable transform, or that the IR rms-flux relation is not transferred from the inflow to the jet, but is an intrinsic property of emission processes in the jet.

  5. The Evolution of the Phase Lags Associated with the Type-C Quasi-periodic Oscillation in GX 339–4 during the 2006/2007 Outburst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Liang; Chen, Li [Department of Astronomy, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Wang, Yanan; Méndez, Mariano [Kapteyn Astronomical Institute, University of Groningen, P.O. Box 800, NL-9700 AV Groningen (Netherlands); Qu, Jinlu [Key Laboratory for Particle Astrophysics, Institute of High Energy Physics, CAS, Beijing 100049 (China); Altamirano, Diego [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southampton, Southampton, Hampshire SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Belloni, Tomaso, E-mail: 201431160006@mail.bnu.edu.cn [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera, via E. Bianchi 46, I-23807 Merate (Italy)

    2017-08-20

    We present the evolution of the phase lags associated with the type-C QPO in GX 339–4 during the rising phase of the 2006/2007 outburst. We find that the phase lags at the QPO frequency are always positive (hard) and show very different behavior between QPOs with frequencies below and above ∼1.7 Hz: when the QPO frequency is below ∼1.7 Hz, the phase lags increase both with QPO frequency and energy, while when the QPO frequency is above ∼1.7 Hz, the phase lags remain more or less constant. When the QPO frequency is higher than ∼1.7 Hz, a broad feature is always present in the lag–energy spectra at around 6.5 keV, suggesting that the reflection component may have a significant contribution to the phase lags. Below ∼1.7 Hz, the QPO rms first decreases with energy and then turns to almost flat, while above ∼1.7 Hz, the QPO rms increases with energy. During the transition from the low-hard state to the hard-intermediate state, the second harmonic and subharmonic of this QPO appear in the power density spectra. The second-harmonic and subharmonic phase lags show very similar evolutions for their centroid frequencies. However, the energy dependence of the second-harmonic and subharmonic phase lags are quite different. Our results suggest that, at different phases of the outburst, different mechanisms may be responsible for the phase lags of the QPO. We briefly discuss the possible scenarios for producing the lags.

  6. Discovery: Pile Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Mestre, Neville

    2017-01-01

    Earlier "Discovery" articles (de Mestre, 1999, 2003, 2006, 2010, 2011) considered patterns from many mathematical situations. This article presents a group of patterns used in 19th century mathematical textbooks. In the days of earlier warfare, cannon balls were stacked in various arrangements depending on the shape of the pile base…

  7. Discovery and Innovation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Discovery and Innovation is a journal of the African Academy of Sciences (AAS) ... World (TWAS) meant to focus attention on science and technology in Africa and the ... of Non-wood Forest Products: Potential Impacts and Challenges in Africa ...

  8. Discovery of TUG-770

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Elisabeth; Hansen, Steffen V F; Urban, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Free fatty acid receptor 1 (FFA1 or GPR40) enhances glucose-stimulated insulin secretion from pancreatic β-cells and currently attracts high interest as a new target for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. We here report the discovery of a highly potent FFA1 agonist with favorable physicochemical...

  9. The discovery of fission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKay, H.A.C.

    1978-01-01

    In this article by the retired head of the Separation Processes Group of the Chemistry Division, Atomic Energy Research Establishment, Harwell, U.K., the author recalls what he terms 'an exciting drama, the unravelling of the nature of the atomic nucleus' in the years before the Second World War, including the discovery of fission. 12 references. (author)

  10. The Discovery of America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Paul S.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses a model for explaining the spread of human population explosion on North American continent since its discovery 12,000 years ago. The model may help to map the spread of Homo sapiens throughout the New World by using the extinction chronology of the Pleistocene megafauna. (Author/PS)

  11. Physical, biochemical and genetic characterization of enterocin CE5-1 produced by Enterococcus faecium CE5-1 isolated from Thai indigenous chicken intestinal tract

    OpenAIRE

    Kraiyot Saelim; Sireewan Kaewsuwan; Akio Tani; Suppasil Maneerat

    2015-01-01

    Enterocin CE5-1 produced by Enterococcus faecium CE5-1 isolated from the chicken gastrointestinal tract was active in the wide range of pH 2-10 and temperature 30-100°C and sensitive to proteolytic enzymes and -amylase. It remained active after storage at -20°C for 2 months. Moreover, enterocin CE5-1 showed antibacterial activity against lactobacilli, bacilli, listeria, staphylococci and enterococci, especially antibiotic-resistant enterococci. In vitro study of enterocin CE5-1 decr...

  12. Physical, biochemical and genetic characterization of enterocin CE5-1 produced by Enterococcus faecium CE5-1 isolated from Thai indigenous chicken intestinal tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kraiyot Saelim

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Enterocin CE5-1 produced by Enterococcus faecium CE5-1 isolated from the chicken gastrointestinal tract was active in the wide range of pH 2-10 and temperature 30-100°C and sensitive to proteolytic enzymes and -amylase. It remained active after storage at -20°C for 2 months. Moreover, enterocin CE5-1 showed antibacterial activity against lactobacilli, bacilli, listeria, staphylococci and enterococci, especially antibiotic-resistant enterococci. In vitro study of enterocin CE5-1 decreased the population of Ent. faecalis VanB from 6.03 to 4.03 log CFU/ml. The lethal mode of action of enterocin CE5-1 appeared to be pore and filament formation in the cell wall. PCR sequencing analysis revealed the presence of two open reading frames (ORFs, containing enterocin CE5-1 (entCE5-1 and enterocin immunity (entI gene. Therefore, enterocin CE5-1 from Ent. faecium CE5-1 could possibly be used as an antimicrobial agent to control foodborne pathogen, spoilage bacteria and antibiotic-resistant enterococci in foods, feeds and the environments.

  13. The neutron discovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Six, J.

    1987-01-01

    The neutron: who had first the idea, who discovered it, who established its main properties. To these apparently simple questions, multiple answers exist. The progressive discovery of the neutron is a marvellous illustration of some characteristics of the scientific research, where the unforeseen may be combined with the expected. This discovery is replaced in the context of the 1930's scientific effervescence that succeeded the revolutionary introduction of quantum mechanics. This book describes the works of Bothe, the Joliot-Curie and Chadwick which led to the neutron in an unexpected way. A historical analysis allows to give a new interpretation on the hypothesis suggested by the Joliot-Curie. Some texts of these days will help the reader to revive this fascinating story [fr

  14. Atlas of Astronomical Discoveries

    CERN Document Server

    Schilling, Govert

    2011-01-01

    Four hundred years ago in Middelburg, in the Netherlands, the telescope was invented. The invention unleashed a revolution in the exploration of the universe. Galileo Galilei discovered mountains on the Moon, spots on the Sun, and moons around Jupiter. Christiaan Huygens saw details on Mars and rings around Saturn. William Herschel discovered a new planet and mapped binary stars and nebulae. Other astronomers determined the distances to stars, unraveled the structure of the Milky Way, and discovered the expansion of the universe. And, as telescopes became bigger and more powerful, astronomers delved deeper into the mysteries of the cosmos. In his Atlas of Astronomical Discoveries, astronomy journalist Govert Schilling tells the story of 400 years of telescopic astronomy. He looks at the 100 most important discoveries since the invention of the telescope. In his direct and accessible style, the author takes his readers on an exciting journey encompassing the highlights of four centuries of astronomy. Spectacul...

  15. Viral pathogen discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Charles Y

    2015-01-01

    Viral pathogen discovery is of critical importance to clinical microbiology, infectious diseases, and public health. Genomic approaches for pathogen discovery, including consensus polymerase chain reaction (PCR), microarrays, and unbiased next-generation sequencing (NGS), have the capacity to comprehensively identify novel microbes present in clinical samples. Although numerous challenges remain to be addressed, including the bioinformatics analysis and interpretation of large datasets, these technologies have been successful in rapidly identifying emerging outbreak threats, screening vaccines and other biological products for microbial contamination, and discovering novel viruses associated with both acute and chronic illnesses. Downstream studies such as genome assembly, epidemiologic screening, and a culture system or animal model of infection are necessary to establish an association of a candidate pathogen with disease. PMID:23725672

  16. Fateful discovery almost forgotten

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1989-01-01

    The paper reviews the discovery of the fission of uranium, which took place fifty years ago. A description is given of the work of Meitner and Frisch in interpreting the Fermi data on the bombardment of uranium nuclei with neutrons, i.e. proposing fission. The historical events associated with the development and exploitation of uranium fission are described, including the Manhattan Project, Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Shippingport, and Chernobyl. (U.K.)

  17. Discovery as a process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loehle, C.

    1994-05-01

    The three great myths, which form a sort of triumvirate of misunderstanding, are the Eureka! myth, the hypothesis myth, and the measurement myth. These myths are prevalent among scientists as well as among observers of science. The Eureka! myth asserts that discovery occurs as a flash of insight, and as such is not subject to investigation. This leads to the perception that discovery or deriving a hypothesis is a moment or event rather than a process. Events are singular and not subject to description. The hypothesis myth asserts that proper science is motivated by testing hypotheses, and that if something is not experimentally testable then it is not scientific. This myth leads to absurd posturing by some workers conducting empirical descriptive studies, who dress up their study with a ``hypothesis`` to obtain funding or get it published. Methods papers are often rejected because they do not address a specific scientific problem. The fact is that many of the great breakthroughs in silence involve methods and not hypotheses or arise from largely descriptive studies. Those captured by this myth also try to block funding for those developing methods. The third myth is the measurement myth, which holds that determining what to measure is straightforward, so one doesn`t need a lot of introspection to do science. As one ecologist put it to me ``Don`t give me any of that philosophy junk, just let me out in the field. I know what to measure.`` These myths lead to difficulties for scientists who must face peer review to obtain funding and to get published. These myths also inhibit the study of science as a process. Finally, these myths inhibit creativity and suppress innovation. In this paper I first explore these myths in more detail and then propose a new model of discovery that opens the supposedly miraculous process of discovery to doser scrutiny.

  18. Qualitative and quantitative radiation protection analysis of mucosa of ICR strained mice using selected herbal extracts such as GC-2112 from garlic (Allium sativum) and GX-2137 from ginseng (Panax sp.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bunagan, J.B.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Earlier reports showed that ginseng has significant radioprotective and stimulatory effect on the recovery of the lymphocytes and leukocytes. Using graded absorbed doses of radiation (1.5, 5, 20, 50 Gy) applied in ICR strain male white mice which was injected with GX-2137 from ginseng (Panax sp.) and GC-2112 from garlic (Allium sativum) was tested to prove some radioprotective efficiency. The herbal extracts were injected intraperitoneally and the experimental mice were sacrificed 2 and 48 hrs post-irradiation. Factors such as analyzing kinetics of critical tissue parameters (length of villi, the number of crypt and villi cells and cell density) and determining the Relative Protection Efficiencies (RPE) using quantitative histopathological techniques were used to quantify the radiation protection assay in the duodenum of ICR strain mice. Results showed that GC-2112 and GX-2137 protected the villi structures. After 2 hrs. post irradiation, tissue degeneration was evident. RPE values of significant radioprotection of the crypts is demonstrated at absorbed dose. It was found that some villi cells are even viable at non-physiologic dose of 50 Gy. (author)

  19. 14 CFR 406.143 - Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Discovery. 406.143 Section 406.143... Transportation Adjudications § 406.143 Discovery. (a) Initiation of discovery. Any party may initiate discovery... after a complaint has been filed. (b) Methods of discovery. The following methods of discovery are...

  20. Causality discovery technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, M.; Ertl, T.; Jirotka, M.; Trefethen, A.; Schmidt, A.; Coecke, B.; Bañares-Alcántara, R.

    2012-11-01

    Causality is the fabric of our dynamic world. We all make frequent attempts to reason causation relationships of everyday events (e.g., what was the cause of my headache, or what has upset Alice?). We attempt to manage causality all the time through planning and scheduling. The greatest scientific discoveries are usually about causality (e.g., Newton found the cause for an apple to fall, and Darwin discovered natural selection). Meanwhile, we continue to seek a comprehensive understanding about the causes of numerous complex phenomena, such as social divisions, economic crisis, global warming, home-grown terrorism, etc. Humans analyse and reason causality based on observation, experimentation and acquired a priori knowledge. Today's technologies enable us to make observations and carry out experiments in an unprecedented scale that has created data mountains everywhere. Whereas there are exciting opportunities to discover new causation relationships, there are also unparalleled challenges to benefit from such data mountains. In this article, we present a case for developing a new piece of ICT, called Causality Discovery Technology. We reason about the necessity, feasibility and potential impact of such a technology.

  1. Automated Supernova Discovery (Abstract)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, R. S.

    2015-12-01

    (Abstract only) We are developing a system of robotic telescopes for automatic recognition of Supernovas as well as other transient events in collaboration with the Puckett Supernova Search Team. At the SAS2014 meeting, the discovery program, SNARE, was first described. Since then, it has been continuously improved to handle searches under a wide variety of atmospheric conditions. Currently, two telescopes are used to build a reference library while searching for PSN with a partial library. Since data is taken every night without clouds, we must deal with varying atmospheric and high background illumination from the moon. Software is configured to identify a PSN, reshoot for verification with options to change the run plan to acquire photometric or spectrographic data. The telescopes are 24-inch CDK24, with Alta U230 cameras, one in CA and one in NM. Images and run plans are sent between sites so the CA telescope can search while photometry is done in NM. Our goal is to find bright PSNs with magnitude 17.5 or less which is the limit of our planned spectroscopy. We present results from our first automated PSN discoveries and plans for PSN data acquisition.

  2. Computational methods in drug discovery

    OpenAIRE

    Sumudu P. Leelananda; Steffen Lindert

    2016-01-01

    The process for drug discovery and development is challenging, time consuming and expensive. Computer-aided drug discovery (CADD) tools can act as a virtual shortcut, assisting in the expedition of this long process and potentially reducing the cost of research and development. Today CADD has become an effective and indispensable tool in therapeutic development. The human genome project has made available a substantial amount of sequence data that can be used in various drug discovery project...

  3. Representation Discovery using Harmonic Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Mahadevan, Sridhar

    2008-01-01

    Representations are at the heart of artificial intelligence (AI). This book is devoted to the problem of representation discovery: how can an intelligent system construct representations from its experience? Representation discovery re-parameterizes the state space - prior to the application of information retrieval, machine learning, or optimization techniques - facilitating later inference processes by constructing new task-specific bases adapted to the state space geometry. This book presents a general approach to representation discovery using the framework of harmonic analysis, in particu

  4. Hippocampus discovery First steps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliasz Engelhardt

    Full Text Available The first steps of the discovery, and the main discoverers, of the hippocampus are outlined. Arantius was the first to describe a structure he named "hippocampus" or "white silkworm". Despite numerous controversies and alternate designations, the term hippocampus has prevailed until this day as the most widely used term. Duvernoy provided an illustration of the hippocampus and surrounding structures, considered the first by most authors, which appeared more than one and a half century after Arantius' description. Some authors have identified other drawings and texts which they claim predate Duvernoy's depiction, in studies by Vesalius, Varolio, Willis, and Eustachio, albeit unconvincingly. Considering the definition of the hippocampal formation as comprising the hippocampus proper, dentate gyrus and subiculum, Arantius and Duvernoy apparently described the gross anatomy of this complex. The pioneering studies of Arantius and Duvernoy revealed a relatively small hidden formation that would become one of the most valued brain structures.

  5. Materials Discovery | Materials Science | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Discovery Materials Discovery Images of red and yellow particles NREL's research in materials characterization of sample by incoming beam and measuring outgoing particles, with data being stored and analyzed Staff Scientist Dr. Zakutayev specializes in design of novel semiconductor materials for energy

  6. Service discovery using Bloom filters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goering, P.T.H.; Heijenk, Geert; Lelieveldt, B.P.F.; Haverkort, Boudewijn R.H.M.; de Laat, C.T.A.M.; Heijnsdijk, J.W.J.

    A protocol to perform service discovery in adhoc networks is introduced in this paper. Attenuated Bloom filters are used to distribute services to nodes in the neighborhood and thus enable local service discovery. The protocol has been implemented in a discrete event simulator to investigate the

  7. On the pulse of discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    What started 50 years ago as a `smudge' on paper has flourished into a fundamental field of astrophysics replete with unexpected applications and exciting discoveries. To celebrate the discovery of pulsars, we look at the past, present and future of pulsar astrophysics.

  8. 29 CFR 2700.56 - Discovery; general.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...(c) or 111 of the Act has been filed. 30 U.S.C. 815(c) and 821. (e) Completion of discovery... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Discovery; general. 2700.56 Section 2700.56 Labor... Hearings § 2700.56 Discovery; general. (a) Discovery methods. Parties may obtain discovery by one or more...

  9. 19 CFR 207.109 - Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Discovery. 207.109 Section 207.109 Customs Duties... and Committee Proceedings § 207.109 Discovery. (a) Discovery methods. All parties may obtain discovery under such terms and limitations as the administrative law judge may order. Discovery may be by one or...

  10. 30 CFR 44.24 - Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Discovery. 44.24 Section 44.24 Mineral... Discovery. Parties shall be governed in their conduct of discovery by appropriate provisions of the Federal... discovery. Alternative periods of time for discovery may be prescribed by the presiding administrative law...

  11. 19 CFR 356.20 - Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Discovery. 356.20 Section 356.20 Customs Duties... § 356.20 Discovery. (a) Voluntary discovery. All parties are encouraged to engage in voluntary discovery... sanctions proceeding. (b) Limitations on discovery. The administrative law judge shall place such limits...

  12. 24 CFR 180.500 - Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Discovery. 180.500 Section 180.500... OPPORTUNITY CONSOLIDATED HUD HEARING PROCEDURES FOR CIVIL RIGHTS MATTERS Discovery § 180.500 Discovery. (a) In general. This subpart governs discovery in aid of administrative proceedings under this part. Discovery in...

  13. 15 CFR 25.21 - Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Discovery. 25.21 Section 25.21... Discovery. (a) The following types of discovery are authorized: (1) Requests for production of documents for..., discovery is available only as ordered by the ALJ. The ALJ shall regulate the timing of discovery. (d...

  14. 39 CFR 963.14 - Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Discovery. 963.14 Section 963.14 Postal Service... PANDERING ADVERTISEMENTS STATUTE, 39 U.S.C. 3008 § 963.14 Discovery. Discovery is to be conducted on a... such discovery as he or she deems reasonable and necessary. Discovery may include one or more of the...

  15. 22 CFR 224.21 - Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Discovery. 224.21 Section 224.21 Foreign....21 Discovery. (a) The following types of discovery are authorized: (1) Requests for production of... parties, discovery is available only as ordered by the ALJ. The ALJ shall regulate the timing of discovery...

  16. Analiza igre branilcev v conski obrambi 5:1 pri rokometu

    OpenAIRE

    Kozole, Rok

    2017-01-01

    V diplomski nalogi je predstavljena analiza igre branilcev v conski obrambi 5:1 pri rokometu. Obrambna formacija 5:1 je po obrambi 6:0 druga najpogosteje uporabljena obrambna formacija, katere se poslužujejo tako ekipe iz vrhunskega rokometa kot tudi ekipe, ki tekmujejo v ligah nižje kakovosti. V skladu s hitrim razvojem rokometne igre se je razvijala tudi obramba 5:1. Obrambna formacija 5:1 se pri mlajših rokometaših uporablja tudi kot prehodna obramba oz. temelj za prehod iz bolj globokih (...

  17. Twiny pro: 5.1 kg of propane dressed in apple green; Twiny pro: 5.1 kg de propane en habillage vert pomme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1998-05-01

    Designed for professional and outdoors uses, Twini Pro - the new Primagaz 5.1 kg propane cylinder - is a complement to the Twiny butane 6 kg cylinder was launched during the first week of March in some 2,500 outlets, before 5,000 and 7,000 points later

  18. Discovery Mondays: Surveyors' Tools

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Surveyors of all ages, have your rulers and compasses at the ready! This sixth edition of Discovery Monday is your chance to learn about the surveyor's tools - the state of the art in measuring instruments - and see for yourself how they work. With their usual daunting precision, the members of CERN's Surveying Group have prepared some demonstrations and exercises for you to try. Find out the techniques for ensuring accelerator alignment and learn about high-tech metrology systems such as deviation indicators, tracking lasers and total stations. The surveyors will show you how they precisely measure magnet positioning, with accuracy of a few thousandths of a millimetre. You can try your hand at precision measurement using different types of sensor and a modern-day version of the Romans' bubble level, accurate to within a thousandth of a millimetre. You will learn that photogrammetry techniques can transform even a simple digital camera into a remarkable measuring instrument. Finally, you will have a chance t...

  19. 37 CFR 5.1 - Applications and correspondence involving national security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... correspondence involving national security. 5.1 Section 5.1 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES... involving national security. (a) All correspondence in connection with this part, including petitions... national security classified (see § 1.9(i) of this chapter) and contain authorized national security...

  20. 'The Lusiads', poem of discovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natasha Furlan Felizi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The article proposes reading Os Lusíadas as a discovery journey. Discovery here read as aletheia or “revelation”, as proposed by Sophia de Mello Brey­ner Andresen in 1980. Using Martin Heidegger’s notion of aletheia in the book Parmenides along with Jorge de Sena and Sophia de Mello Breyner Andresen reflections on Camões, I’ll seek to point out alternative readings for Os Lusíadas as a “discovery journey”.

  1. Discovery of natural resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guild, P.W.

    1976-01-01

    Mankind will continue to need ores of more or less the types and grades used today to supply its needs for new mineral raw materials, at least until fusion or some other relatively cheap, inexhaustible energy source is developed. Most deposits being mined today were exposed at the surface or found by relatively simple geophysical or other prospecting techniques, but many of these will be depleted in the foreseeable future. The discovery of deeper or less obvious deposits to replace them will require the conjunction of science and technology to deduce the laws that governed the concentration of elements into ores and to detect and evaluate the evidence of their whereabouts. Great theoretical advances are being made to explain the origins of ore deposits and understand the general reasons for their localization. These advances have unquestionable value for exploration. Even a large deposit is, however, very small, and, with few exceptions, it was formed under conditions that have long since ceased to exist. The explorationist must suppress a great deal of "noise" to read and interpret correctly the "signals" that can define targets and guide the drilling required to find it. Is enough being done to ensure the long-term availability of mineral raw materials? The answer is probably no, in view of the expanding consumption and the difficulty of finding new deposits, but ingenuity, persistence, and continued development of new methods and tools to add to those already at hand should put off the day of "doing without" for many years. The possibility of resource exhaustion, especially in view of the long and increasing lead time needed to carry out basic field and laboratory studies in geology, geophysics, and geochemistry and to synthesize and analyze the information gained from them counsels against any letting down of our guard, however (17). Research and exploration by government, academia, and industry must be supported and encouraged; we cannot wait until an eleventh

  2. Supernovae Discovery Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Colin

    2018-01-01

    Abstract:We present supernovae (SN) search efficiency measurements for recent Hubble Space Telescope (HST) surveys. Efficiency is a key component to any search, and is important parameter as a correction factor for SN rates. To achieve an accurate value for efficiency, many supernovae need to be discoverable in surveys. This cannot be achieved from real SN only, due to their scarcity, so fake SN are planted. These fake supernovae—with a goal of realism in mind—yield an understanding of efficiency based on position related to other celestial objects, and brightness. To improve realism, we built a more accurate model of supernovae using a point-spread function. The next improvement to realism is planting these objects close to galaxies and of various parameters of brightness, magnitude, local galactic brightness and redshift. Once these are planted, a very accurate SN is visible and discoverable by the searcher. It is very important to find factors that affect this discovery efficiency. Exploring the factors that effect detection yields a more accurate correction factor. Further inquires into efficiency give us a better understanding of image processing, searching techniques and survey strategies, and result in an overall higher likelihood to find these events in future surveys with Hubble, James Webb, and WFIRST telescopes. After efficiency is discovered and refined with many unique surveys, it factors into measurements of SN rates versus redshift. By comparing SN rates vs redshift against the star formation rate we can test models to determine how long star systems take from the point of inception to explosion (delay time distribution). This delay time distribution is compared to SN progenitors models to get an accurate idea of what these stars were like before their deaths.

  3. RAS - Screens & Assays - Drug Discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    The RAS Drug Discovery group aims to develop assays that will reveal aspects of RAS biology upon which cancer cells depend. Successful assay formats are made available for high-throughput screening programs to yield potentially effective drug compounds.

  4. Antibody informatics for drug discovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shirai, Hiroki; Prades, Catherine; Vita, Randi

    2014-01-01

    to the antibody science in every project in antibody drug discovery. Recent experimental technologies allow for the rapid generation of large-scale data on antibody sequences, affinity, potency, structures, and biological functions; this should accelerate drug discovery research. Therefore, a robust bioinformatic...... infrastructure for these large data sets has become necessary. In this article, we first identify and discuss the typical obstacles faced during the antibody drug discovery process. We then summarize the current status of three sub-fields of antibody informatics as follows: (i) recent progress in technologies...... for antibody rational design using computational approaches to affinity and stability improvement, as well as ab-initio and homology-based antibody modeling; (ii) resources for antibody sequences, structures, and immune epitopes and open drug discovery resources for development of antibody drugs; and (iii...

  5. Discovery of the iron isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuh, A.; Fritsch, A.; Heim, M.; Shore, A.; Thoennessen, M.

    2010-01-01

    Twenty-eight iron isotopes have been observed so far and the discovery of these isotopes is discussed here. For each isotope a brief summary of the first refereed publication, including the production and identification method, is presented.

  6. Discovery of the silver isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuh, A.; Fritsch, A.; Ginepro, J.Q.; Heim, M.; Shore, A.; Thoennessen, M.

    2010-01-01

    Thirty-eight silver isotopes have been observed so far and the discovery of these isotopes is discussed here. For each isotope a brief summary of the first refereed publication, including the production and identification method, is presented.

  7. Synthetic biology of antimicrobial discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakeri, Bijan; Lu, Timothy K.

    2012-01-01

    Antibiotic discovery has a storied history. From the discovery of penicillin by Sir Alexander Fleming to the relentless quest for antibiotics by Selman Waksman, the stories have become like folklore, used to inspire future generations of scientists. However, recent discovery pipelines have run dry at a time when multidrug resistant pathogens are on the rise. Nature has proven to be a valuable reservoir of antimicrobial agents, which are primarily produced by modularized biochemical pathways. Such modularization is well suited to remodeling by an interdisciplinary approach that spans science and engineering. Herein, we discuss the biological engineering of small molecules, peptides, and non-traditional antimicrobials and provide an overview of the growing applicability of synthetic biology to antimicrobials discovery. PMID:23654251

  8. Discovery of the cadmium isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amos, S.; Thoennessen, M.

    2010-01-01

    Thirty-seven cadmium isotopes have been observed so far and the discovery of these isotopes is discussed here. For each isotope a brief summary of the first refereed publication, including the production and identification method, is presented.

  9. Discoveries of isotopes by fission

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    country of discovery as well as the production mechanism used to produce the isotopes. ... the disintegration products of bombarded uranium, as a consequence of a ..... advanced accelerator and newly developed separation and detection ...

  10. Synthetic biology of antimicrobial discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakeri, Bijan; Lu, Timothy K

    2013-07-19

    Antibiotic discovery has a storied history. From the discovery of penicillin by Sir Alexander Fleming to the relentless quest for antibiotics by Selman Waksman, the stories have become like folklore used to inspire future generations of scientists. However, recent discovery pipelines have run dry at a time when multidrug-resistant pathogens are on the rise. Nature has proven to be a valuable reservoir of antimicrobial agents, which are primarily produced by modularized biochemical pathways. Such modularization is well suited to remodeling by an interdisciplinary approach that spans science and engineering. Herein, we discuss the biological engineering of small molecules, peptides, and non-traditional antimicrobials and provide an overview of the growing applicability of synthetic biology to antimicrobials discovery.

  11. The discovery of 'heavy light'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1983-01-01

    The history of the discoveries of fundamental quanta is described starting from Maxwell's theory of electromagnetism up to the development of a theory of weak interaction and the detection of the W and Z bosons. (HSI).

  12. Discovery – Development of Rituximab

    Science.gov (United States)

    NCI funded the development of rituximab, one of the first monoclonal antibody cancer treatments. With the discovery of rituximab, more than 70 percent of patients diagnosed with non-hodgkin lymphoma now live five years past their initial diagnosis.

  13. Radioactivity. Centenary of radioactivity discovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charpak, G.; Tubiana, M.; Bimbot, R.

    1997-01-01

    This small booklet was edited for the occasion of the exhibitions of the celebration of the centenary of radioactivity discovery which took place in various locations in France from 1996 to 1998. It recalls some basic knowledge concerning radioactivity and its applications: history of discovery, atoms and isotopes, radiations, measurement of ionizing radiations, natural and artificial radioactivity, isotope dating and labelling, radiotherapy, nuclear power and reactors, fission and fusion, nuclear wastes, dosimetry, effects and radioprotection. (J.S.)

  14. Computational methods in drug discovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumudu P. Leelananda

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The process for drug discovery and development is challenging, time consuming and expensive. Computer-aided drug discovery (CADD tools can act as a virtual shortcut, assisting in the expedition of this long process and potentially reducing the cost of research and development. Today CADD has become an effective and indispensable tool in therapeutic development. The human genome project has made available a substantial amount of sequence data that can be used in various drug discovery projects. Additionally, increasing knowledge of biological structures, as well as increasing computer power have made it possible to use computational methods effectively in various phases of the drug discovery and development pipeline. The importance of in silico tools is greater than ever before and has advanced pharmaceutical research. Here we present an overview of computational methods used in different facets of drug discovery and highlight some of the recent successes. In this review, both structure-based and ligand-based drug discovery methods are discussed. Advances in virtual high-throughput screening, protein structure prediction methods, protein–ligand docking, pharmacophore modeling and QSAR techniques are reviewed.

  15. Get Involved in Planetary Discoveries through New Worlds, New Discoveries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shupla, Christine; Shipp, S. S.; Halligan, E.; Dalton, H.; Boonstra, D.; Buxner, S.; SMD Planetary Forum, NASA

    2013-01-01

    "New Worlds, New Discoveries" is a synthesis of NASA’s 50-year exploration history which provides an integrated picture of our new understanding of our solar system. As NASA spacecraft head to and arrive at key locations in our solar system, "New Worlds, New Discoveries" provides an integrated picture of our new understanding of the solar system to educators and the general public! The site combines the amazing discoveries of past NASA planetary missions with the most recent findings of ongoing missions, and connects them to the related planetary science topics. "New Worlds, New Discoveries," which includes the "Year of the Solar System" and the ongoing celebration of the "50 Years of Exploration," includes 20 topics that share thematic solar system educational resources and activities, tied to the national science standards. This online site and ongoing event offers numerous opportunities for the science community - including researchers and education and public outreach professionals - to raise awareness, build excitement, and make connections with educators, students, and the public about planetary science. Visitors to the site will find valuable hands-on science activities, resources and educational materials, as well as the latest news, to engage audiences in planetary science topics and their related mission discoveries. The topics are tied to the big questions of planetary science: how did the Sun’s family of planets and bodies originate and how have they evolved? How did life begin and evolve on Earth, and has it evolved elsewhere in our solar system? Scientists and educators are encouraged to get involved either directly or by sharing "New Worlds, New Discoveries" and its resources with educators, by conducting presentations and events, sharing their resources and events to add to the site, and adding their own public events to the site’s event calendar! Visit to find quality resources and ideas. Connect with educators, students and the public to

  16. CMAQv5.1 with new dust AQS Hourly site compare files

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — CMAQv5.1 with a new dust module AQS Hourly sitex files containing hourly paired model/ob data for the AQS network. This dataset is associated with the following...

  17. CMAQv5.1 with new dust IMPROVE site compare files

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — CMAQv5.1 with a new dust module IMPROVE sitex files containing 24-hr (every 3rd day) paired model/ob data for the IMPROVE network. This dataset is associated with...

  18. 42 CFR 426.432 - Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Discovery. 426.432 Section 426.432 Public Health... § 426.432 Discovery. (a) General rule. If the ALJ orders discovery, the ALJ must establish a reasonable timeframe for discovery. (b) Protective order—(1) Request for a protective order. Any party receiving a...

  19. 40 CFR 27.21 - Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Discovery. 27.21 Section 27.21... Discovery. (a) The following types of discovery are authorized: (1) Requests for production of documents for..., discovery is available only as ordered by the presiding officer. The presiding officer shall regulate the...

  20. 13 CFR 134.213 - Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Discovery. 134.213 Section 134.213... OFFICE OF HEARINGS AND APPEALS Rules of Practice for Most Cases § 134.213 Discovery. (a) Motion. A party may obtain discovery only upon motion, and for good cause shown. (b) Forms. The forms of discovery...

  1. 37 CFR 41.150 - Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Discovery. 41.150 Section 41... COMMERCE PRACTICE BEFORE THE BOARD OF PATENT APPEALS AND INTERFERENCES Contested Cases § 41.150 Discovery. (a) Limited discovery. A party is not entitled to discovery except as authorized in this subpart. The...

  2. 19 CFR 354.10 - Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Discovery. 354.10 Section 354.10 Customs Duties... ANTIDUMPING OR COUNTERVAILING DUTY ADMINISTRATIVE PROTECTIVE ORDER § 354.10 Discovery. (a) Voluntary discovery. All parties are encouraged to engage in voluntary discovery procedures regarding any matter, not...

  3. 14 CFR 13.220 - Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Discovery. 13.220 Section 13.220... INVESTIGATIVE AND ENFORCEMENT PROCEDURES Rules of Practice in FAA Civil Penalty Actions § 13.220 Discovery. (a) Initiation of discovery. Any party may initiate discovery described in this section, without the consent or...

  4. 49 CFR 604.38 - Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Discovery. 604.38 Section 604.38 Transportation... TRANSPORTATION CHARTER SERVICE Hearings. § 604.38 Discovery. (a) Permissible forms of discovery shall be within the discretion of the PO. (b) The PO shall limit the frequency and extent of discovery permitted by...

  5. 15 CFR 719.10 - Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Discovery. 719.10 Section 719.10... Discovery. (a) General. The parties are encouraged to engage in voluntary discovery regarding any matter... the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure relating to discovery apply to the extent consistent with this...

  6. 14 CFR 16.213 - Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Discovery. 16.213 Section 16.213... PRACTICE FOR FEDERALLY-ASSISTED AIRPORT ENFORCEMENT PROCEEDINGS Hearings § 16.213 Discovery. (a) Discovery... discovery permitted by this section if a party shows that— (1) The information requested is cumulative or...

  7. 28 CFR 76.21 - Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Discovery. 76.21 Section 76.21 Judicial... POSSESSION OF CERTAIN CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES § 76.21 Discovery. (a) Scope. Discovery under this part covers... as a general guide for discovery practices in proceedings before the Judge. However, unless otherwise...

  8. 36 CFR 1150.63 - Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Discovery. 1150.63 Section... PRACTICE AND PROCEDURES FOR COMPLIANCE HEARINGS Prehearing Conferences and Discovery § 1150.63 Discovery. (a) Parties are encouraged to engage in voluntary discovery procedures. For good cause shown under...

  9. 10 CFR 13.21 - Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Discovery. 13.21 Section 13.21 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES § 13.21 Discovery. (a) The following types of discovery are...) Unless mutually agreed to by the parties, discovery is available only as ordered by the ALJ. The ALJ...

  10. 49 CFR 1121.2 - Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Discovery. 1121.2 Section 1121.2 Transportation... TRANSPORTATION RULES OF PRACTICE RAIL EXEMPTION PROCEDURES § 1121.2 Discovery. Discovery shall follow the procedures set forth at 49 CFR part 1114, subpart B. Discovery may begin upon the filing of the petition for...

  11. 24 CFR 26.18 - Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Discovery. 26.18 Section 26.18... PROCEDURES Hearings Before Hearing Officers Discovery § 26.18 Discovery. (a) General. The parties are encouraged to engage in voluntary discovery procedures, which may commence at any time after an answer has...

  12. 38 CFR 42.21 - Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Discovery. 42.21 Section... IMPLEMENTING THE PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES ACT § 42.21 Discovery. (a) The following types of discovery are... creation of a document. (c) Unless mutually agreed to by the parties, discovery is available only as...

  13. 22 CFR 521.21 - Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Discovery. 521.21 Section 521.21 Foreign... Discovery. (a) The following types of discovery are authorized: (1) Requests for production of documents for... interpreted to require the creation of a document. (c) Unless mutually agreed to by the parties, discovery is...

  14. 31 CFR 10.71 - Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Discovery. 10.71 Section 10.71 Money... SERVICE Rules Applicable to Disciplinary Proceedings § 10.71 Discovery. (a) In general. Discovery may be... relevance, materiality and reasonableness of the requested discovery and subject to the requirements of § 10...

  15. 42 CFR 426.532 - Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Discovery. 426.532 Section 426.532 Public Health... § 426.532 Discovery. (a) General rule. If the Board orders discovery, the Board must establish a reasonable timeframe for discovery. (b) Protective order—(1) Request for a protective order. Any party...

  16. 39 CFR 955.15 - Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Discovery. 955.15 Section 955.15 Postal Service... APPEALS § 955.15 Discovery. (a) The parties are encouraged to engage in voluntary discovery procedures. In connection with any deposition or other discovery procedure, the Board may issue any order which justice...

  17. 49 CFR 1503.633 - Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Discovery. 1503.633 Section 1503.633... Rules of Practice in TSA Civil Penalty Actions § 1503.633 Discovery. (a) Initiation of discovery. Any party may initiate discovery described in this section, without the consent or approval of the ALJ, at...

  18. 43 CFR 35.21 - Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Discovery. 35.21 Section 35.21 Public... AND STATEMENTS § 35.21 Discovery. (a) The following types of discovery are authorized: (1) Requests...) Unless mutually agreed to by the parties, discovery is available only as ordered by the ALJ. The ALJ...

  19. 14 CFR 1264.120 - Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Discovery. 1264.120 Section 1264.120... PENALTIES ACT OF 1986 § 1264.120 Discovery. (a) The following types of discovery are authorized: (1..., discovery is available only as ordered by the presiding officer. The presiding officer shall regulate the...

  20. 22 CFR 128.6 - Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Discovery. 128.6 Section 128.6 Foreign... Discovery. (a) Discovery by the respondent. The respondent, through the Administrative Law Judge, may... discovery if the interests of national security or foreign policy so require, or if necessary to comply with...

  1. 37 CFR 11.52 - Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Discovery. 11.52 Section 11... Disciplinary Proceedings; Jurisdiction, Sanctions, Investigations, and Proceedings § 11.52 Discovery. Discovery... establishes that discovery is reasonable and relevant, the hearing officer, under such conditions as he or she...

  2. 24 CFR 26.42 - Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Discovery. 26.42 Section 26.42... PROCEDURES Hearings Pursuant to the Administrative Procedure Act Discovery § 26.42 Discovery. (a) General. The parties are encouraged to engage in voluntary discovery procedures, which may commence at any time...

  3. 49 CFR 386.37 - Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Discovery. 386.37 Section 386.37 Transportation... and Hearings § 386.37 Discovery. (a) Parties may obtain discovery by one or more of the following...; and requests for admission. (b) Discovery may not commence until the matter is pending before the...

  4. 29 CFR 1955.32 - Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Discovery. 1955.32 Section 1955.32 Labor Regulations...) PROCEDURES FOR WITHDRAWAL OF APPROVAL OF STATE PLANS Preliminary Conference and Discovery § 1955.32 Discovery... allow discovery by any other appropriate procedure, such as by interrogatories upon a party or request...

  5. 31 CFR 16.21 - Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Discovery. 16.21 Section 16.21 Money... FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES ACT OF 1986 § 16.21 Discovery. (a) The following types of discovery are authorized... to require the creation of a document. (c) Unless mutually agreed to by the parties, discovery is...

  6. 15 CFR 766.9 - Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Discovery. 766.9 Section 766.9... PROCEEDINGS § 766.9 Discovery. (a) General. The parties are encouraged to engage in voluntary discovery... provisions of the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure relating to discovery apply to the extent consistent with...

  7. 43 CFR 4.1130 - Discovery methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Discovery methods. 4.1130 Section 4.1130... Special Rules Applicable to Surface Coal Mining Hearings and Appeals Discovery § 4.1130 Discovery methods. Parties may obtain discovery by one or more of the following methods— (a) Depositions upon oral...

  8. The Europa Ocean Discovery mission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, B.C. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Chyba, C.F. [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States); Abshire, J.B. [National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Greenbelt, MD (United States). Goddard Space Flight Center] [and others

    1997-06-01

    Since it was first proposed that tidal heating of Europa by Jupiter might lead to liquid water oceans below Europa`s ice cover, there has been speculation over the possible exobiological implications of such an ocean. Liquid water is the essential ingredient for life as it is known, and the existence of a second water ocean in the Solar System would be of paramount importance for seeking the origin and existence of life beyond Earth. The authors present here a Discovery-class mission concept (Europa Ocean Discovery) to determine the existence of a liquid water ocean on Europa and to characterize Europa`s surface structure. The technical goal of the Europa Ocean Discovery mission is to study Europa with an orbiting spacecraft. This goal is challenging but entirely feasible within the Discovery envelope. There are four key challenges: entering Europan orbit, generating power, surviving long enough in the radiation environment to return valuable science, and complete the mission within the Discovery program`s launch vehicle and budget constraints. The authors will present here a viable mission that meets these challenges.

  9. Conceptos de ataque frente a variantes defensivas 6:0 y 5:1 [Concepts of attacks against the variants defensive 6:0 and 5:1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan de Dios Román Seco

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: La filosofía del juego de ataque contra diferentes Sistemas Defensivos tiene una raíz basada en los Principios Tácticos Colectivos del Ataque que se orienta y apoya a nivel práctico en los medios tácticos colectivos. Las diferentes estructuras colectivas en defensa exigen cumplir aquellos y saber elegir los medios tácticos adecuados. En síntesis, no existen "recetas" para resolver problemas sino la utilización de los medios tácticos adecuados. La estrategia tiene su fundamento y lleva al éxito siempre que se defina a partir de buenas bases tácticas. Palabras clave: Ataque, Defensa 6:0, Defensa 5.1 Abstract: The philosophy of the attack game against different Defensive Systems has a root based on the Principles Tactical Communities of the Attack that it is guided and it supports at practical level in the collective tactical means. The different collective structures in defense demand to complete those and to know how to choose the appropriate tactical means. In synthesis, recipes don't exist to solve problems but the use of the appropriate tactical means. The strategy has its foundation and it takes to the success whenever he/she is defined starting from good tactical bases. Key words: Attacks, variant defensive 6:0, variant defensive 5:1.

  10. Estudio de la viabilidad de fabricación de un sistema codo (fundición inoxidable ferrítica, GX 260 Cr27-tubo composite (Incolloy 800 HT+Stal 2465 solidario por fusión

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gutiérrez de Solabarría, S.

    1995-10-01

    Full Text Available Flying ashes captured by ciclones in the experimental plant for combustion in pressure fluid bed, in Escatrón Power Plant (Zaragoza, Spain, circulate through the gas cleaning system and are evacuated by means of pneumatic transport. The temperature of these ashes is aprox. 800 °C and the relative pressure is up to 8 negative bars relating the outdoor pressure of the transport pipe. The configuration of the pneumatic transport lines is Incolloy 800 HT quality composite tubes lined with Stal 2465 in straight stretches. Regarding direction changes, ferritic stainless casting, quality GX 260 Cr 27 elbows are used. The aim of this work is to study the possibility of manufacturing a solidary system by means of melting between the ferritic stainless casting elbow and the composite pipe.

    Las cenizas volantes captadas por ciclones en la planta experimental de combustión en lecho fluido a presión, de la central térmica de Escatrón (Zaragoza, circulan por el sistema de depuración de gases y son evacuadas mediante transporte neumático. Estas cenizas se encuentran a una temperatura aproximada de 800 °C y a una presión relativa de hasta 8 bares negativos con respecto a la presión en el exterior de la tubería de transporte. Para configurar las líneas de transporte neumático, se utilizan en los tramos rectos tubos composite de calidad Incolloy 800 HT recubiertos interiormente de material Stal 2465. Para los cambios de dirección, se utilizan codos de fundición inoxidable ferrítica de calidad GX 260 Cr 27. El objetivo del presente trabajo es estudiar la viabilidad de fabricación de un sistema solidario por fusión entre el codo de fundición inoxidable ferrítica y la tubería composite.

  11. Deep Learning in Drug Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawehn, Erik; Hiss, Jan A; Schneider, Gisbert

    2016-01-01

    Artificial neural networks had their first heyday in molecular informatics and drug discovery approximately two decades ago. Currently, we are witnessing renewed interest in adapting advanced neural network architectures for pharmaceutical research by borrowing from the field of "deep learning". Compared with some of the other life sciences, their application in drug discovery is still limited. Here, we provide an overview of this emerging field of molecular informatics, present the basic concepts of prominent deep learning methods and offer motivation to explore these techniques for their usefulness in computer-assisted drug discovery and design. We specifically emphasize deep neural networks, restricted Boltzmann machine networks and convolutional networks. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Discovery of the Higgs boson

    CERN Document Server

    Sharma, Vivek

    2016-01-01

    The recent observation of the Higgs boson has been hailed as the scientific discovery of the century and led to the 2013 Nobel Prize in physics. This book describes the detailed science behind the decades-long search for this elusive particle at the Large Electron Positron Collider at CERN and at the Tevatron at Fermilab and its subsequent discovery and characterization at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN. Written by physicists who played leading roles in this epic search and discovery, this book is an authoritative and pedagogical exposition of the portrait of the Higgs boson that has emerged from a large number of experimental measurements. As the first of its kind, this book should be of interest to graduate students and researchers in particle physics.

  13. Bioinformatics in translational drug discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wooller, Sarah K; Benstead-Hume, Graeme; Chen, Xiangrong; Ali, Yusuf; Pearl, Frances M G

    2017-08-31

    Bioinformatics approaches are becoming ever more essential in translational drug discovery both in academia and within the pharmaceutical industry. Computational exploitation of the increasing volumes of data generated during all phases of drug discovery is enabling key challenges of the process to be addressed. Here, we highlight some of the areas in which bioinformatics resources and methods are being developed to support the drug discovery pipeline. These include the creation of large data warehouses, bioinformatics algorithms to analyse 'big data' that identify novel drug targets and/or biomarkers, programs to assess the tractability of targets, and prediction of repositioning opportunities that use licensed drugs to treat additional indications. © 2017 The Author(s).

  14. The discovery of subatomic particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weinberg, S.

    1984-01-01

    This book developed from a course for students with no prior training in mathematics of physics to learn about the achievements of 20th century physics and classical physics. It covers the discovery of fundamental particles of ordinary atoms: the electron, the proton, and the neutron. The general outline is historical and it is for readers unfamiliar with classical physics who wish to understand the ideas and experiments that make up the history of 20th century physics. Contents include: A world of particles, the discovery of the electron, the atomic scale, the nucleus, more particles

  15. A Bitslice Implementation of Anderson's Attack on A5/1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulavintsev, Vadim; Semenov, Alexander; Zaikin, Oleg; Kochemazov, Stepan

    2018-03-01

    The A5/1 keystream generator is a part of Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) protocol, employed in cellular networks all over the world. Its cryptographic resistance was extensively analyzed in dozens of papers. However, almost all corresponding methods either employ a specific hardware or require an extensive preprocessing stage and significant amounts of memory. In the present study, a bitslice variant of Anderson's Attack on A5/1 is implemented. It requires very little computer memory and no preprocessing. Moreover, the attack can be made even more efficient by harnessing the computing power of modern Graphics Processing Units (GPUs). As a result, using commonly available GPUs this method can quite efficiently recover the secret key using only 64 bits of keystream. To test the performance of the implementation, a volunteer computing project was launched. 10 instances of A5/1 cryptanalysis have been successfully solved in this project in a single week.

  16. Investigation of layered Z-pinches on ANGARA-5-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Branitskij, A V; Grabovskij, E V; Zakharov, S V; Zurin, M V; Nedoseev, S L; Olejnik, G M; Smirnov, V P; Frolov, I N [Troitsk Inst. of Innovative and Fusion Research (Russian Federation)

    1997-12-31

    Experimental results of layered Z-pinch investigations on Angara-5-1 are presented. The level of current was 3-4 MA through a load with a 70-90 ns rise time. The initial-to-final radius ratio increased from 10-15 for a conventional single pinch, up to 30-50 for the double layered design. A power flux of about 8-12 TW/cm{sup 2} was achieved with front rise time about 3 ns. The final pinch diameter was down to 0.5-1 mm. (author). 4 figs., 1 ref.

  17. Quarks, history of a discovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Husson, D.

    2000-01-01

    This book gives a presentation of quarks and stresses on the historical aspects of the studies that led to their discovery. The 'aesthetical' motivations of the scientists in their research are explained with only a minimum of mathematical concepts. (J.S.)

  18. On the threshold of discovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherenkov, P.A.

    1986-01-01

    The author, the discoverer of the Cherenkov radiation, recalls some interesting circumstances of his discoery 50 years ago and puts it into the context of the knowledge of the period. The discovery of Cherenkov radiation which today is in practice used especially for the detection of charged particles, was correctly understood and appreciated somewhat belatedly. At first the discovery was met with distrust and the original article announcing it was rejected by the magazine Nature. In effect, the discovery was not the result of any planned experiment but was the by-product of another research. It was, of course, allowed by previous achievements in various fields of physics, namely progress reached in the study of luminescence by S.I. Vavilov and his pupils. The discovery was made during an experimental study of luminescence induced in liquids by the β and γ radiations of uranyl salts. During his attempts to suppress the background radiation from vessel walls the autor found a ''background'' from pure solvent which differed from luminescence by being independent of the concentration, temperature and viscosity of the liquid. A closer examination of the phenomenon more or less by accident revealed its marked spatial asymmetry which had major importance for the development of the theory of the new phenomenon by I.V. Tamm and I.M. Frank. (A.K.)

  19. DISCOVERY IN THE URBAN SPRAWL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    HYMOVITZ, LEON

    FOR A CULTURAL ENRICHMENT PROJECT ("DISCOVERY") IN A DISADVANTAGED PHILADELPIA HIGH SCHOOL, ATTENDANCE AT MUSIC, ART, AND THEATER EVENTS EARNED POINTS TOWARD A CERTIFICATE. THE STUDENTS ELECTED THE EVENTS FROM A PREPARED LIST OF ACTIVITIES, WHICH OFTEN WERE MADE PART OF THE ACADEMIC PROGRAM AND THE SCHOOL ASSEMBLIES. AS WELL AS OFFERING…

  20. Hubble 15 years of discovery

    CERN Document Server

    Lindberg Christensen, Lars; Kornmesser, M

    2006-01-01

    Hubble: 15 Years of Discovery was a key element of the European Space Agency's 15th anniversary celebration activities for the 1990 launch of the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope. As an observatory in space, Hubble is one of the most successful scientific projects of all time, both in terms of scientific output and its immediate public appeal.

  1. Applied metabolomics in drug discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuperlovic-Culf, M; Culf, A S

    2016-08-01

    The metabolic profile is a direct signature of phenotype and biochemical activity following any perturbation. Metabolites are small molecules present in a biological system including natural products as well as drugs and their metabolism by-products depending on the biological system studied. Metabolomics can provide activity information about possible novel drugs and drug scaffolds, indicate interesting targets for drug development and suggest binding partners of compounds. Furthermore, metabolomics can be used for the discovery of novel natural products and in drug development. Metabolomics can enhance the discovery and testing of new drugs and provide insight into the on- and off-target effects of drugs. This review focuses primarily on the application of metabolomics in the discovery of active drugs from natural products and the analysis of chemical libraries and the computational analysis of metabolic networks. Metabolomics methodology, both experimental and analytical is fast developing. At the same time, databases of compounds are ever growing with the inclusion of more molecular and spectral information. An increasing number of systems are being represented by very detailed metabolic network models. Combining these experimental and computational tools with high throughput drug testing and drug discovery techniques can provide new promising compounds and leads.

  2. Nobel Prize Honors Autophagy Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    Japanese cell biologist Yoshinori Ohsumi, PhD, was awarded this year's Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for his discovery of autophagy. His groundbreaking studies in yeast cells illuminated how cells break down and recycle damaged material, a process that is critical to the survival of both normal cells and some cancer cells. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  3. Translational medicine and drug discovery

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Littman, Bruce H; Krishna, Rajesh

    2011-01-01

    ..., and examples of their application to real-life drug discovery and development. The latest thinking is presented by researchers from many of the world's leading pharmaceutical companies, including Pfizer, Merck, Eli Lilly, Abbott, and Novartis, as well as from academic institutions and public- private partnerships that support translational research...

  4. New oil and gas discoveries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alazard-Toux, N.

    2004-01-01

    During the period 1999-2003, new oil and gas fields generated additional reserves of nearly 11 000 bcm of natural gas and 62 Gbbl of oil and condensates, volumes very much superior to those discovered in the five previous years. Two-thirds of these discoveries were located offshore, half in deep water. (author)

  5. Maximum Entropy in Drug Discovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Yuan Tseng

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Drug discovery applies multidisciplinary approaches either experimentally, computationally or both ways to identify lead compounds to treat various diseases. While conventional approaches have yielded many US Food and Drug Administration (FDA-approved drugs, researchers continue investigating and designing better approaches to increase the success rate in the discovery process. In this article, we provide an overview of the current strategies and point out where and how the method of maximum entropy has been introduced in this area. The maximum entropy principle has its root in thermodynamics, yet since Jaynes’ pioneering work in the 1950s, the maximum entropy principle has not only been used as a physics law, but also as a reasoning tool that allows us to process information in hand with the least bias. Its applicability in various disciplines has been abundantly demonstrated. We give several examples of applications of maximum entropy in different stages of drug discovery. Finally, we discuss a promising new direction in drug discovery that is likely to hinge on the ways of utilizing maximum entropy.

  6. Structural Biology Guides Antibiotic Discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polyak, Steven

    2014-01-01

    Modern drug discovery programs require the contribution of researchers in a number of specialist areas. One of these areas is structural biology. Using X-ray crystallography, the molecular basis of how a drug binds to its biological target and exerts its mode of action can be defined. For example, a drug that binds into the active site of an…

  7. 46 CFR 56.30-10 - Flanged joints (modifies 104.5.1(a)).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 104.5.1(a)). (a) Flanged or butt-welded joints are required for Classes I and I-L piping for nominal... Marine Safety Center. Pressure temperature ratings of the appropriate ANSI/ASME standard must not be... service pressure-temperature ratings for flanges of class 300 and lower, within the temperature...

  8. 7 CFR 5.1 - Parity index and index of prices received by farmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Parity index and index of prices received by farmers... § 5.1 Parity index and index of prices received by farmers. (a) The parity index and related indices... farmers, interest, taxes, and farm wage rates, as revised May 1976 and published in the May 28, 1976, and...

  9. National Ignition Facility sub-system design requirements computer system SSDR 1.5.1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spann, J.; VanArsdall, P.; Bliss, E.

    1996-01-01

    This System Design Requirement document establishes the performance, design, development and test requirements for the Computer System, WBS 1.5.1 which is part of the NIF Integrated Computer Control System (ICCS). This document responds directly to the requirements detailed in ICCS (WBS 1.5) which is the document directly above

  10. 26 CFR 31.3402(f)(5)-1 - Form and contents of withholding exemption certificates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) EMPLOYMENT TAXES AND COLLECTION OF INCOME TAX AT SOURCE EMPLOYMENT TAXES AND COLLECTION OF INCOME TAX AT SOURCE Collection of Income Tax at Source § 31.3402(f)(5)-1 Form and contents of... Internal Revenue Service (IRS). An employer may also download and print Form W-4 from the IRS Internet site...

  11. 26 CFR 1.142(a)(5)-1 - Exempt facility bonds: Sewage facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exempt facility bonds: Sewage facilities. 1.142... Bonds § 1.142(a)(5)-1 Exempt facility bonds: Sewage facilities. (a) In general. Under section 103(a), a... in section 142(a) is a sewage facility. This section defines the term sewage facility for purposes of...

  12. Wangai et al., Afr. J. Infect. Dis. (2011) 5(1): 1 - 6 SENSITIVITY OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJTCAM

    Wangai et al., Afr. J. Infect. Dis. (2011) 5(1): 1 - 6. 1. SENSITIVITY OF MICROSCOPY COMPARED TO MOLECULAR DIAGNOSIS OF P. FALCIPARUM: IMPLICATIONS ON MALARIA TREATMENT IN EPIDEMIC AREAS IN. KENYA. Laura Nyawira Wangai 1,2, Muriira Geoffrey Karau 3, Paul Nthakanio Njiruh 4, Omar Sabah 5 ...

  13. Quantifying the Ease of Scientific Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbesman, Samuel

    2011-02-01

    It has long been known that scientific output proceeds on an exponential increase, or more properly, a logistic growth curve. The interplay between effort and discovery is clear, and the nature of the functional form has been thought to be due to many changes in the scientific process over time. Here I show a quantitative method for examining the ease of scientific progress, another necessary component in understanding scientific discovery. Using examples from three different scientific disciplines - mammalian species, chemical elements, and minor planets - I find the ease of discovery to conform to an exponential decay. In addition, I show how the pace of scientific discovery can be best understood as the outcome of both scientific output and ease of discovery. A quantitative study of the ease of scientific discovery in the aggregate, such as done here, has the potential to provide a great deal of insight into both the nature of future discoveries and the technical processes behind discoveries in science.

  14. Arthritis Genetics Analysis Aids Drug Discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... NIH Research Matters January 13, 2014 Arthritis Genetics Analysis Aids Drug Discovery An international research team identified 42 new ... Edition Distracted Driving Raises Crash Risk Arthritis Genetics Analysis Aids Drug Discovery Oxytocin Affects Facial Recognition Connect with Us ...

  15. Bioinformatics for cancer immunotherapy target discovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Lars Rønn; Campos, Benito; Barnkob, Mike Stein

    2014-01-01

    therapy target discovery in a bioinformatics analysis pipeline. We describe specialized bioinformatics tools and databases for three main bottlenecks in immunotherapy target discovery: the cataloging of potentially antigenic proteins, the identification of potential HLA binders, and the selection epitopes...

  16. The circumstances of minor planet discovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pilcher, F.

    1989-01-01

    The circumstances of discoveries of minor planets are presented in tabular form. Complete data are given for planets 2125-4044, together with notes pertaining to these planets. Information in the table includes the permanent number; the official name; for planets 330 and forward, the table includes the provisional designation attached to the discovery apparition and the year, month, the day of discovery, and the discovery place

  17. The synthesis of 5-[1-11C]ethyl barbiturates from labelled malonic esters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gee, A.; Laangstroem, B.

    1991-01-01

    The synthesis of [ 11 C]phenobarbital, [ 11 C]pentobarbital and[ 11 C]amobarbital labelled in the 5-[1- 11 C]ethyl position is reported. The malonic esters R- CH(CO 2 Et) 2 [R phenyl-, 1-methylbutyl-, and 3- methylbutyl- were alkylated with [1- 11 C]ethyl iodide prepared from [ 11 C]carbon dioxide. Ring closure of the 2-[1- 11 C]ethyl-labelled malonic esters with urea afforded 5-[1- 11 C]ethyl-phenobarbital,-phenobarbital, -pentobarbital and -amobarbital synthesis times of 42-47 min, counted from [ 11 C] carbon dioxide. In typical syntheses starting with 3 GBq pentobarbitol and (81 mCi) [ 11 C]carbon dioxide, 150-215 MBq (4-6 mCi) were produced in 25-30% decay corrected -amobarbital radiochemical yields with radiochemical purities greater than 98%. (author)

  18. Magnetic properties of fcc (Co95Fe5)1-xAlx ribbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makhlouf, Salah A.; Parker, F.T.; Benameur, T.

    1999-01-01

    Rapidly quenched (Co 95 Fe 5 ) 1-x Al x ribbons are investigated by X-ray diffraction, magnetization, and Moessbauer effect measurements. A single fcc phase is obtained for all ribbons x ≤ 10 at.%. The lattice constant increases linearly with x and is discussed in connection with magnetic moment. The influence of Al substitution on both magnetization and Fe-atom hyperfine field (H) is studied. At 296 K, the magnetization decreases linearly while H drops nonlinearly as x increases. Al substitution leads to substantial differences in iron hyperfine fields in bcc and fcc systems. Fe moment is perturbed differently by Al substitution in fcc (Co 95 Fe 5 ) 1-x Al x and bcc Fe-Al systems

  19. 15 CFR 280.210 - Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Discovery. 280.210 Section 280.210... STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE ACCREDITATION AND ASSESSMENT PROGRAMS FASTENER QUALITY Enforcement § 280.210 Discovery. (a) General. The parties are encouraged to engage in voluntary discovery...

  20. 6 CFR 13.21 - Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Discovery. 13.21 Section 13.21 Domestic Security DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES § 13.21 Discovery. (a) In general. (1) The following types of discovery are authorized: (i) Requests for production of...

  1. 42 CFR 1005.7 - Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Discovery. 1005.7 Section 1005.7 Public Health... OF EXCLUSIONS, CIVIL MONEY PENALTIES AND ASSESSMENTS § 1005.7 Discovery. (a) A party may make a... and any forms of discovery, other than those permitted under paragraph (a) of this section, are not...

  2. 42 CFR 405.1037 - Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Discovery. 405.1037 Section 405.1037 Public Health... Appeals Under Original Medicare (Part A and Part B) Alj Hearings § 405.1037 Discovery. (a) General rules. (1) Discovery is permissible only when CMS or its contractor elects to participate in an ALJ hearing...

  3. 45 CFR 99.23 - Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Discovery. 99.23 Section 99.23 Public Welfare... DEVELOPMENT FUND Hearing Procedures § 99.23 Discovery. The Department, the Lead Agency, and any individuals or groups recognized as parties shall have the right to conduct discovery (including depositions) against...

  4. 29 CFR 1603.210 - Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Discovery. 1603.210 Section 1603.210 Labor Regulations... GOVERNMENT EMPLOYEE RIGHTS ACT OF 1991 Hearings § 1603.210 Discovery. (a) Unless otherwise ordered by the administrative law judge, discovery may begin as soon as the complaint has been transmitted to the administrative...

  5. 41 CFR 60-30.33 - Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Discovery. 60-30.33... 11246 Expedited Hearing Procedures § 60-30.33 Discovery. (a) Any party may serve requests for admissions... with § 60-30.8, the Administrative Law Judge may allow the taking of depositions. Other discovery will...

  6. 45 CFR 150.435 - Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Discovery. 150.435 Section 150.435 Public Welfare... AND INDIVIDUAL INSURANCE MARKETS Administrative Hearings § 150.435 Discovery. (a) The parties must identify any need for discovery from the opposing party as soon as possible, but no later than the time for...

  7. 10 CFR 1013.21 - Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Discovery. 1013.21 Section 1013.21 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES AND PROCEDURES § 1013.21 Discovery. (a) The following types of discovery are authorized: (1) Requests for production of documents for inspection and...

  8. 20 CFR 355.21 - Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Discovery. 355.21 Section 355.21 Employees... UNDER THE PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES ACT OF 1986 § 355.21 Discovery. (a) The following types of discovery are authorized: (1) Requests for production of documents for inspection and copying; (2) Requests...

  9. 34 CFR 81.16 - Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Discovery. 81.16 Section 81.16 Education Office of the... Discovery. (a) The parties to a case are encouraged to exchange relevant documents and information voluntarily. (b) The ALJ, at a party's request, may order compulsory discovery described in paragraph (c) of...

  10. 10 CFR 2.1018 - Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Discovery. 2.1018 Section 2.1018 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY... Geologic Repository § 2.1018 Discovery. (a)(1) Parties, potential parties, and interested governmental participants in the high-level waste licensing proceeding may obtain discovery by one or more of the following...

  11. 45 CFR 213.23a - Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Discovery. 213.23a Section 213.23a Public Welfare... Discovery. The Department and any party named in the notice issued pursuant to § 213.11 shall have the right to conduct discovery (including depositions) against opposing parties. Rules 26-37 of the Federal...

  12. 29 CFR 2200.208 - Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Discovery. 2200.208 Section 2200.208 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH REVIEW COMMISSION RULES OF PROCEDURE Simplified Proceedings § 2200.208 Discovery. Discovery, including requests for admissions, will only be...

  13. 47 CFR 65.105 - Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Discovery. 65.105 Section 65.105... OF RETURN PRESCRIPTION PROCEDURES AND METHODOLOGIES Procedures § 65.105 Discovery. (a) Participants... evidence. (c) Discovery requests pursuant to § 65.105(b), including written interrogatories, shall be filed...

  14. 28 CFR 71.21 - Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Discovery. 71.21 Section 71.21 Judicial... REMEDIES ACT OF 1986 Implementation for Actions Initiated by the Department of Justice § 71.21 Discovery. (a) The following types of discovery are authorized: (1) Requests for production of documents for...

  15. 13 CFR 134.310 - Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Discovery. 134.310 Section 134.310 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION RULES OF PROCEDURE GOVERNING CASES BEFORE THE... Designations § 134.310 Discovery. Discovery will not be permitted in appeals from size determinations or NAICS...

  16. 20 CFR 498.207 - Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Discovery. 498.207 Section 498.207 Employees... § 498.207 Discovery. (a) For the purpose of inspection and copying, a party may make a request to...) Any form of discovery other than that permitted under paragraph (a) of this section, such as requests...

  17. 29 CFR 1905.25 - Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Discovery. 1905.25 Section 1905.25 Labor Regulations... OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ACT OF 1970 Hearings § 1905.25 Discovery. (a) Depositions. (1) For reasons of... discovery. Whenever appropriate to a just disposition of any issue in a hearing, the presiding hearing...

  18. 34 CFR 33.21 - Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Discovery. 33.21 Section 33.21 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES ACT § 33.21 Discovery. (a) The following types of discovery are authorized: (1) Requests for production of documents for inspection and copying...

  19. 42 CFR 93.512 - Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Discovery. 93.512 Section 93.512 Public Health... Process § 93.512 Discovery. (a) Request to provide documents. A party may only request another party to...) Responses to a discovery request. Within 30 days of receiving a request for the production of documents, a...

  20. 49 CFR 209.313 - Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Discovery. 209.313 Section 209.313 Transportation... TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD SAFETY ENFORCEMENT PROCEDURES Disqualification Procedures § 209.313 Discovery. (a... parties. Discovery is designed to enable a party to obtain relevant information needed for preparation of...

  1. 12 CFR 1780.26 - Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Discovery. 1780.26 Section 1780.26 Banks and... OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Prehearing Proceedings § 1780.26 Discovery. (a) Limits on discovery. Subject to the limitations set out in paragraphs (b), (d), and (e) of this...

  2. 37 CFR 2.120 - Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Discovery. 2.120 Section 2... COMMERCE RULES OF PRACTICE IN TRADEMARK CASES Procedure in Inter Partes Proceedings § 2.120 Discovery. (a... to disclosure and discovery shall apply in opposition, cancellation, interference and concurrent use...

  3. 45 CFR 160.516 - Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Discovery. 160.516 Section 160.516 Public Welfare... ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS Procedures for Hearings § 160.516 Discovery. (a) A party may make a request to... forms of discovery, other than those permitted under paragraph (a) of this section, are not authorized...

  4. 46 CFR 550.502 - Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Discovery. 550.502 Section 550.502 Shipping FEDERAL... Proceedings § 550.502 Discovery. The Commission may authorize a party to a proceeding to use depositions, written interrogatories, and discovery procedures that, to the extent practicable, are in conformity with...

  5. 28 CFR 18.7 - Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Discovery. 18.7 Section 18.7 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE OFFICE OF JUSTICE PROGRAMS HEARING AND APPEAL PROCEDURES § 18.7 Discovery.... Such order may be entered upon a showing that the deposition is necessary for discovery purposes, and...

  6. 10 CFR 205.198 - Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Discovery. 205.198 Section 205.198 Energy DEPARTMENT OF... of Proposed Disallowance, and Order of Disallowance § 205.198 Discovery. (a) If a person intends to file a Motion for Discovery, he must file it at the same time that he files his Statement of Objections...

  7. 42 CFR 3.516 - Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Discovery. 3.516 Section 3.516 Public Health PUBLIC... AND PATIENT SAFETY WORK PRODUCT Enforcement Program § 3.516 Discovery. (a) A party may make a request... and any forms of discovery, other than those permitted under paragraph (a) of this section, are not...

  8. 12 CFR 908.46 - Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Discovery. 908.46 Section 908.46 Banks and... PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE IN HEARINGS ON THE RECORD Pre-Hearing Proceedings § 908.46 Discovery. (a) Limits on discovery. Subject to the limitations set out in paragraphs (b), (d), and (e) of this section, any party to...

  9. 15 CFR 785.8 - Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Discovery. 785.8 Section 785.8... INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE ADDITIONAL PROTOCOL REGULATIONS ENFORCEMENT § 785.8 Discovery. (a) General. The parties are encouraged to engage in voluntary discovery regarding any matter, not...

  10. 22 CFR 35.21 - Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Discovery. 35.21 Section 35.21 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE CLAIMS AND STOLEN PROPERTY PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES § 35.21 Discovery. (a) The following types of discovery are authorized: (1) Requests for production of documents for...

  11. 29 CFR 22.21 - Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Discovery. 22.21 Section 22.21 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES ACT OF 1986 § 22.21 Discovery. (a) The following types of discovery are authorized: (1) Requests for production of documents for inspection and copying; (2) Requests...

  12. 42 CFR 430.86 - Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Discovery. 430.86 Section 430.86 Public Health... Plans and Practice to Federal Requirements § 430.86 Discovery. CMS and any party named in the notice issued under § 430.70 has the right to conduct discovery (including depositions) against opposing parties...

  13. 21 CFR 17.23 - Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Discovery. 17.23 Section 17.23 Food and Drugs FOOD... HEARINGS § 17.23 Discovery. (a) No later than 60 days prior to the hearing, unless otherwise ordered by the..., depositions, and any forms of discovery, other than those permitted under paragraphs (a) and (e) of this...

  14. 45 CFR 96.65 - Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Discovery. 96.65 Section 96.65 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION BLOCK GRANTS Hearing Procedure § 96.65 Discovery. The use of interrogatories, depositions, and other forms of discovery shall not be allowed. ...

  15. 7 CFR 1.322 - Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Discovery. 1.322 Section 1.322 Agriculture Office of... Under the Program Fraud Civil Remedies Act of 1986 § 1.322 Discovery. (a) The following types of discovery are authorized: (1) Requests for production, inspection and photocopying of documents; (2...

  16. 45 CFR 1386.103 - Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Discovery. 1386.103 Section 1386.103 Public... Hearing Procedures § 1386.103 Discovery. The Department and any party named in the Notice issued pursuant to § 1386.90 has the right to conduct discovery (including depositions) against opposing parties as...

  17. 45 CFR 79.21 - Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Discovery. 79.21 Section 79.21 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES § 79.21 Discovery. (a) The following types of discovery are authorized: (1) Requests for production of documents for...

  18. 49 CFR 31.21 - Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Discovery. 31.21 Section 31.21 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES § 31.21 Discovery. (a) The following types of discovery are authorized: (1) Requests for production of documents for inspection and...

  19. 12 CFR 308.520 - Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Discovery. 308.520 Section 308.520 Banks and... PROCEDURE Program Fraud Civil Remedies and Procedures § 308.520 Discovery. (a) The following types of discovery are authorized: (1) Requests for production of documents for inspection and copying; (2) Requests...

  20. 47 CFR 1.729 - Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Discovery. 1.729 Section 1.729..., and Reports Involving Common Carriers Formal Complaints § 1.729 Discovery. (a) Subject to paragraph (i... seek discovery of any non-privileged matter that is relevant to the material facts in dispute in the...

  1. 7 CFR 283.12 - Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Discovery. 283.12 Section 283.12 Agriculture... of $50,000 or More § 283.12 Discovery. (a) Dispositions—(1) Motion for taking deposition. Only upon a... exist if the information sought appears reasonably calculated to lead to the discovery of admissible...

  2. Discovery of inhibitors of bacterial histidine kinases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velikova, N.R.

    2014-01-01

    Discovery of Inhibitors of Bacterial Histidine Kinases Summary

    The thesis is on novel antibacterial drug discovery (http://youtu.be/NRMWOGgeysM). Using structure-based and fragment-based drug discovery approach, we have identified small-molecule histidine-kinase

  3. 29 CFR 18.13 - Discovery methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Discovery methods. 18.13 Section 18.13 Labor Office of the... ADMINISTRATIVE LAW JUDGES General § 18.13 Discovery methods. Parties may obtain discovery by one or more of the following methods: Depositions upon oral examination or written questions; written interrogatories...

  4. Glycoscience aids in biomarker discovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serenus Hua1,2 & Hyun Joo An1,2,*

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The glycome consists of all glycans (or carbohydrates within abiological system, and modulates a wide range of important biologicalactivities, from protein folding to cellular communications.The mining of the glycome for disease markers representsa new paradigm for biomarker discovery; however, this effortis severely complicated by the vast complexity and structuraldiversity of glycans. This review summarizes recent developmentsin analytical technology and methodology as applied tothe fields of glycomics and glycoproteomics. Mass spectrometricstrategies for glycan compositional profiling are described, as arepotential refinements which allow structure-specific profiling.Analytical methods that can discern protein glycosylation at aspecific site of modification are also discussed in detail.Biomarker discovery applications are shown at each level ofanalysis, highlighting the key role that glycoscience can play inhelping scientists understand disease biology.

  5. Cyber-Enabled Scientific Discovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, Tony; Jameson, Leland

    2007-01-01

    It is often said that numerical simulation is third in the group of three ways to explore modern science: theory, experiment and simulation. Carefully executed modern numerical simulations can, however, be considered at least as relevant as experiment and theory. In comparison to physical experimentation, with numerical simulation one has the numerically simulated values of every field variable at every grid point in space and time. In comparison to theory, with numerical simulation one can explore sets of very complex non-linear equations such as the Einstein equations that are very difficult to investigate theoretically. Cyber-enabled scientific discovery is not just about numerical simulation but about every possible issue related to scientific discovery by utilizing cyberinfrastructure such as the analysis and storage of large data sets, the creation of tools that can be used by broad classes of researchers and, above all, the education and training of a cyber-literate workforce

  6. Astrobiology, discovery, and societal impact

    CERN Document Server

    Dick, Steven J

    2018-01-01

    The search for life in the universe, once the stuff of science fiction, is now a robust worldwide research program with a well-defined roadmap probing both scientific and societal issues. This volume examines the humanistic aspects of astrobiology, systematically discussing the approaches, critical issues, and implications of discovering life beyond Earth. What do the concepts of life and intelligence, culture and civilization, technology and communication mean in a cosmic context? What are the theological and philosophical implications if we find life - and if we do not? Steven J. Dick argues that given recent scientific findings, the discovery of life in some form beyond Earth is likely and so we need to study the possible impacts of such a discovery and formulate policies to deal with them. The remarkable and often surprising results are presented here in a form accessible to disciplines across the sciences, social sciences, and humanities.

  7. [Artificial Intelligence in Drug Discovery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, Takeshi; Kamada, Mayumi; Okuno, Yasushi

    2018-04-01

    According to the increase of data generated from analytical instruments, application of artificial intelligence(AI)technology in medical field is indispensable. In particular, practical application of AI technology is strongly required in "genomic medicine" and "genomic drug discovery" that conduct medical practice and novel drug development based on individual genomic information. In our laboratory, we have been developing a database to integrate genome data and clinical information obtained by clinical genome analysis and a computational support system for clinical interpretation of variants using AI. In addition, with the aim of creating new therapeutic targets in genomic drug discovery, we have been also working on the development of a binding affinity prediction system for mutated proteins and drugs by molecular dynamics simulation using supercomputer "Kei". We also have tackled for problems in a drug virtual screening. Our developed AI technology has successfully generated virtual compound library, and deep learning method has enabled us to predict interaction between compound and target protein.

  8. A quantum causal discovery algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giarmatzi, Christina; Costa, Fabio

    2018-03-01

    Finding a causal model for a set of classical variables is now a well-established task—but what about the quantum equivalent? Even the notion of a quantum causal model is controversial. Here, we present a causal discovery algorithm for quantum systems. The input to the algorithm is a process matrix describing correlations between quantum events. Its output consists of different levels of information about the underlying causal model. Our algorithm determines whether the process is causally ordered by grouping the events into causally ordered non-signaling sets. It detects if all relevant common causes are included in the process, which we label Markovian, or alternatively if some causal relations are mediated through some external memory. For a Markovian process, it outputs a causal model, namely the causal relations and the corresponding mechanisms, represented as quantum states and channels. Our algorithm opens the route to more general quantum causal discovery methods.

  9. Measurements of soft X-ray power and spectral features on Angara-5-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Branitskij, A.V.; Olejnik, G.M.

    1996-01-01

    In many tasks related to high temperature plasmas and ICF is it important to investigate the power and spectrum features of radiation with nanosecond resolution. Measurement methods and signal processing methods are presented. The methods were applied in experiments at the ''Angara-5-1'' facility in the 0.1-2 keV band. The time resolution was 0.5 ns. (author). 1 tab., 2 figs., 8 refs

  10. Methane and Trichloroethylene Oxidation by an Estuarine Methanotroph, Methylobacter sp. Strain BB5.1

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Kelly S.; Costello, Andria M.; Lidstrom, Mary E.

    1998-01-01

    An estuarine methanotroph was isolated from sediment enrichments and designated Methylobacter sp. strain BB5.1. In cells grown on medium with added copper, oxidation of methane and trichloroethylene occurred with similar Ks values, but the Vmax for trichloroethylene oxidation was only 0.1% of the methane oxidation Vmax. Cells grown on low-copper medium did not oxidize trichloroethylene and showed a variable rate of methane oxidation.

  11. Investigation of superfast composite pinch with unstable external liner on Angara-5-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Branitskij, A.V.; Grabovskij, E.V.; Fedulov, M.V.

    1996-01-01

    Results are presented of an experimental investigation at the ''Angara-5-1'' multiterawatt installation, of the nonlinear instability stage of the composite pinch. It is shown that an energy transfer from light outer shell to inner load takes place due to abnormal magnetic flux falling. Also a part of the plasma penetrates with the current, this taking place prior to the maximum compression of the outer shell. Possibly the mechanism of this process is new and unknown. (author). 5 figs., 6 refs

  12. Investigation of superfast composite pinch with unstable external liner on Angara-5-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Branitskij, A V; Grabovskij, E V; Fedulov, M V [Troitsk Inst. of Innovative and Fusion Research (Russian Federation); and others

    1997-12-31

    Results are presented of an experimental investigation at the ``Angara-5-1`` multiterawatt installation, of the nonlinear instability stage of the composite pinch. It is shown that an energy transfer from light outer shell to inner load takes place due to abnormal magnetic flux falling. Also a part of the plasma penetrates with the current, this taking place prior to the maximum compression of the outer shell. Possibly the mechanism of this process is new and unknown. (author). 5 figs., 6 refs.

  13. Measurements of soft X-ray power and spectral features on Angara-5-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Branitskij, A V; Olejnik, G M [Troitsk Inst. of Innovative and Fusion Research (Russian Federation)

    1997-12-31

    In many tasks related to high temperature plasmas and ICF is it important to investigate the power and spectrum features of radiation with nanosecond resolution. Measurement methods and signal processing methods are presented. The methods were applied in experiments at the ``Angara-5-1`` facility in the 0.1-2 keV band. The time resolution was 0.5 ns. (author). 1 tab., 2 figs., 8 refs.

  14. New concentrator of 5 MA on ``Angara-5-1`` for liner implosion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grabovskij, E V; Nedoseev, S L; Olejnik, G M; Pichugin, V E; Smirnov, V P; Zaivikhin, V V [Troitsk Inst. of Innovative and Fusion Research (Russian Federation)

    1997-12-31

    The new current concentrator on multimodule ``Angara-5-1`` was designed for low impedance loads (imploding liners). The optimization of the concentrator design was based on the optimum relation between effects of inductance and electron losses in vacuum magnetically insulated transmission lines. The design with a small diameter magnetic separatrix was chosen for eight unit current addition in vacuum. (author). 4 figs., 4 refs.

  15. Discovery of Approximate Differential Dependencies

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Jixue; Kwashie, Selasi; Li, Jiuyong; Ye, Feiyue; Vincent, Millist

    2013-01-01

    Differential dependencies (DDs) capture the relationships between data columns of relations. They are more general than functional dependencies (FDs) and and the difference is that DDs are defined on the distances between values of two tuples, not directly on the values. Because of this difference, the algorithms for discovering FDs from data find only special DDs, not all DDs and therefore are not applicable to DD discovery. In this paper, we propose an algorithm to discover DDs from data fo...

  16. The discovery of the antiproton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chamberlain, Owen

    1989-01-01

    A number of groups of particle physicists competed to provide track evidence of the existence of Dirac's postulated antiproton in the mid-1950s. The work of the several teams is described briefly. The author describes the work of his own group on the Bevatron in more detail, and how they finally observed the antiproton. The article finishes with an assessment of the importance of this discovery. (UK)

  17. Gas reserves, discoveries and production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saniere, A.

    2006-01-01

    Between 2000 and 2004, new discoveries, located mostly in the Asia/Pacific region, permitted a 71% produced reserve replacement rate. The Middle East and the offshore sector represent a growing proportion of world gas production Non-conventional gas resources are substantial but are not exploited to any significant extent, except in the United States, where they account for 30% of U.S. gas production. (author)

  18. CYP3A5* 1 is an Inhibitory Factor for Lung Cancer in Taiwanese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun-Tu Yeh

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available The expression of the cytochrome P450 CYP3A5 enzymes shows a wide variation across the general population and ethnic groups. This wide disparity implies interracial differences in drug clearance and susceptibility to diseases such as cancer. CYP3A5 polymorphisms were rapidly determined using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis in 113 Taiwanese patients with hepatoma, 70 with cervical cancer, 92 with breast cancer, 82 with oral cancer, 90 with thyroid cancer, 133 with lung cancer, and 270 healthy controls. The allelic frequencies of CYP3A5*1 were 25% in hepatoma patients, 33% in cervical cancer patients, 31% in breast cancer patients, 22% in oral cancer patients, 23% in thyroid cancer patients, 20% in lung cancer patients, and 27% in healthy subjects. Lung cancer patients had a significantly lower frequency (20% of CYP3A5*1 expression than healthy controls (p = 0.028, odds ratio = 1.49, 95% confidence interval = 1.04-2.13, but there was no statistically significant difference between healthy controls and other cancers. We suggest that CYP3A5*1 may play an important role in individual predisposition to lung cancer in Taiwan.

  19. Z-pinch implosion for ICF physics study on Angara-5-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Branitsky, A. V.; Fedulov, M. V.; Grabovsky, E. V.; Nedoseev, S. L.; Olejinik, G. M.; Smirnov, V. P.; Zakharov, S. V.

    1997-01-01

    Recent development of soft X-ray sources based on super-fast Z-pinch implosion has demonstrated the great promise of pulsed power for ICF physics study. The main direction of the 'Angara-5-1' program is oriented toward using the double liner scheme to confine radiation inside a cavity in order to enhance its intensity significantly. Collision of the external liner shell onto the inner leads to radiation penetration through the inner liner and a decrease in the radiation pulse duration to 3-5 ns. Testing this scheme on 'Angara-5-1' with current 3.5-5 MA demonstrates a flux intensity up to 3 TW/cm 2 . In spite of the fact that results of the experiment and a 1D-simulation are close, there are many issues with external liner stability during current sheath formation and implosion. Recent experimental efforts on Angara-5-1 focused on the 'cold start' problem and on the Rayleigh-Taylor instability for thick (gas-puff) and thin (doped foam) shells. Preionization makes the liner's plasma more homogeneous. The method also works in a plasma focus, according to the first results of a joint Polish-Russian experiment. A high current convolute increases ANGARA-5's load current from about 4 MA to 5.8 MA, which moves the radiation temperature toward the region of interest. We also outline a new approach to a generator intended to produce tens of MA, ANGARA-5-2

  20. Sea Level Rise Data Discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quach, N.; Huang, T.; Boening, C.; Gill, K. M.

    2016-12-01

    Research related to sea level rise crosses multiple disciplines from sea ice to land hydrology. The NASA Sea Level Change Portal (SLCP) is a one-stop source for current sea level change information and data, including interactive tools for accessing and viewing regional data, a virtual dashboard of sea level indicators, and ongoing updates through a suite of editorial products that include content articles, graphics, videos, and animations. The architecture behind the SLCP makes it possible to integrate web content and data relevant to sea level change that are archived across various data centers as well as new data generated by sea level change principal investigators. The Extensible Data Gateway Environment (EDGE) is incorporated into the SLCP architecture to provide a unified platform for web content and science data discovery. EDGE is a data integration platform designed to facilitate high-performance geospatial data discovery and access with the ability to support multi-metadata standard specifications. EDGE has the capability to retrieve data from one or more sources and package the resulting sets into a single response to the requestor. With this unified endpoint, the Data Analysis Tool that is available on the SLCP can retrieve dataset and granule level metadata as well as perform geospatial search on the data. This talk focuses on the architecture that makes it possible to seamlessly integrate and enable discovery of disparate data relevant to sea level rise.

  1. A New Universe of Discoveries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Córdova, France A.

    2016-01-01

    The convergence of emerging advances in astronomical instruments, computational capabilities and talented practitioners (both professional and civilian) is creating an extraordinary new environment for making numerous fundamental discoveries in astronomy, ranging from the nature of exoplanets to understanding the evolution of solar systems and galaxies. The National Science Foundation is playing a critical role in supporting, stimulating, and shaping these advances. NSF is more than an agency of government or a funding mechanism for the infrastructure of science. The work of NSF is a sacred trust that every generation of Americans makes to those of the next generation, that we will build on the body of knowledge we inherit and continue to push forward the frontiers of science. We never lose sight of NSF's obligation to "explore the unexplored" and inspire all of humanity with the wonders of discovery. As the only Federal agency dedicated to the support of basic research and education in all fields of science and engineering, NSF has empowered discoveries across a broad spectrum of scientific inquiry for more than six decades. The result is fundamental scientific research that has had a profound impact on our nation's innovation ecosystem and kept our nation at the very forefront of the world's science-and-engineering enterprise.

  2. Discovery of a Makemakean Moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Alex H.; Buie, Marc W.; Grundy, Will M.; Noll, Keith S.

    2016-01-01

    We describe the discovery of a satellite in orbit about the dwarf planet (136472) Makemake. This satellite, provisionally designated S/2015 (136472) 1, was detected in imaging data collected with the Hubble Space Telescope's Wide Field Camera 3 on UTC 2015 April 27 at 7.80 +/- 0.04 mag fainter than Makemake and at a separation of 0farcs57. It likely evaded detection in previous satellite searches due to a nearly edge-on orbital configuration, placing it deep within the glare of Makemake during a substantial fraction of its orbital period. This configuration would place Makemake and its satellite near a mutual event season. Insufficient orbital motion was detected to make a detailed characterization of its orbital properties, prohibiting a measurement of the system mass with the discovery data alone. Preliminary analysis indicates that if the orbit is circular, its orbital period must be longer than 12.4 days and must have a semimajor axis > or approx. = 21,000 km. We find that the properties of Makemake's moon suggest that the majority of the dark material detected in the system by thermal observations may not reside on the surface of Makemake, but may instead be attributable to S/2015 (136472) 1 having a uniform dark surface. This dark moon hypothesis can be directly tested with future James Webb Space Telescope observations. We discuss the implications of this discovery for the spin state, figure, and thermal properties of Makemake and the apparent ubiquity of trans-Neptunian dwarf planet satellites.

  3. Socratic Questioning-Guided Discovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hakan Türkçapar

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available “Socratic Method” is a way of teaching philosophical thinking and knowledge by asking questions which was used by antique period greek philosopher Socrates. Socrates was teaching knowledge to his followers by asking questions and the conversation between them was named “Socratic Dialogues”. In this meaning, no novel knowledge is taught to the individual but only what is formerly known is reminded and rediscovered. The form of socratic questioning which is used during the process of cognitive behavioral therapy is known as Guided Discovery. In this method it is aimed to make the client notice the piece of knowledge which he could notice but is not aware with a series of questions. Socratic method or guided discovery consists of several steps which are: Identifying the problem by listening to the client and making reflections, finding alternatives by examining and evaluating, reidentification by using the newly found information and questioning the old distorted belief and reaching to a conclusion and applying it. Question types used during these procedures are, questions for gaining information, questions revealing the meanings, questions revealing the beliefs, questions about behaviours during the similar past experiences, analyse questions and analytic synthesis questions. In order to make the patient feel understood it is important to be empathetic and summarising the problem during the interview. In this text, steps of Socratic Questioning-Guided Discovery will be reviewed with sample dialogues after eachstep. [JCBPR 2012; 1(1.000: 15-20

  4. GEMPAK 5.1 - A GENERAL METEOROLOGICAL PACKAGE (VAX VMS VERSION)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Des, Jardins M. L.

    1994-01-01

    GEMPAK is a general meteorological software package developed at NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center. It includes programs to analyze and display surface, upper-air, and gridded data, including model output. There are very general programs to list, edit, and plot data on maps, to display profiles and time series, to draw and fill contours, to draw streamlines, to plot symbols for clouds, sky cover, and pressure tendency, and draw cross sections in the case of gridded data and sounding data. In addition, there are Barnes objective analysis programs to grid surface and upper-air data. The programs include the capabilities to derive meteorological parameters from those found in the dataset, to perform vertical interpolations of sounding data to different coordinate systems, and to compute an extensive set of gridded diagnostic quantities by specifying various nested combinations of scalars and vector arithmetic, algebraic, and differential operators. The GEMPAK 5.1 graphics/transformation subsystem, GEMPLT, provides device-independent graphics. GEMPLT also has the capability to display output in a variety of map projections or overlaid on satellite imagery. GEMPAK 5.1 is written in FORTRAN 77 and C-language and has been implemented on VAX computers under VMS and on computers running the UNIX operating system. During installation and normal use, this package occupies approximately 100Mb of hard disk space. The UNIX version of GEMPAK includes drivers for several graphic output systems including MIT's X Window System (X11,R4), Sun GKS, PostScript (color and monochrome), Silicon Graphics, and others. The VMS version of GEMPAK also includes drivers for several graphic output systems including PostScript (color and monochrome). The VMS version is delivered with the object code for the Transportable Applications Environment (TAE) program, version 4.1 which serves as a user interface. A color monitor is recommended for displaying maps on video display devices. Data for rendering

  5. Preliminary Evaluation on Characteristics of Waste from Pyro-processing (FS v5.1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, In-Young; Choi, Heui-Joo

    2016-01-01

    In this study, characteristic of waste from pyro-processing which based on material balance FS v5.1 is evaluated for revising of A-KRS concept. To reduce volume and toxicity of PWR SNFs, the P and T Technology using pyro-processing and SFR is under development in KAERI. In accordance with this R and D, the A-KRS was developed by KAERI for disposal of waste from pyro-processing. After A-KRS concept development, material balance has been revised and characteristics of waste have been changed. To solve impending saturation of storage capacity of NPP sites, national policy on SNF management seems to be determined shortly. Demand on detailed analysis on impact of P and T using pyro-processing and SFR as base data is increasing. To compare direct disposal scenario to the P and T scenario using pyro-processing and SFR, updating of A-KRS reflecting amendment of material balance is required. In this study, characteristic of waste from pyro-processing which based on material balance FS v5.1 is evaluated. Every 15 types of outputs generated from pyro-processing are evaluated. Great reduction can be achieved by complete reuse of U/TRU/RE in SFR, because most of decay heat, radioactivity and radiotoxicity are generated from U/TRU/RE ingot. Within about 300 years, the fly ash filter containing Cs, Sr containing salt waste are important waste in perspective of decay heat and radioactivity. Importance of RE containing salt waste reduced. Management of hold-ups must be clarified because hold-ups take large portion of decay heat, radioactivity in the material balance FS v5.1

  6. Preliminary Evaluation on Characteristics of Waste from Pyro-processing (FS v5.1)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, In-Young; Choi, Heui-Joo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    In this study, characteristic of waste from pyro-processing which based on material balance FS v5.1 is evaluated for revising of A-KRS concept. To reduce volume and toxicity of PWR SNFs, the P and T Technology using pyro-processing and SFR is under development in KAERI. In accordance with this R and D, the A-KRS was developed by KAERI for disposal of waste from pyro-processing. After A-KRS concept development, material balance has been revised and characteristics of waste have been changed. To solve impending saturation of storage capacity of NPP sites, national policy on SNF management seems to be determined shortly. Demand on detailed analysis on impact of P and T using pyro-processing and SFR as base data is increasing. To compare direct disposal scenario to the P and T scenario using pyro-processing and SFR, updating of A-KRS reflecting amendment of material balance is required. In this study, characteristic of waste from pyro-processing which based on material balance FS v5.1 is evaluated. Every 15 types of outputs generated from pyro-processing are evaluated. Great reduction can be achieved by complete reuse of U/TRU/RE in SFR, because most of decay heat, radioactivity and radiotoxicity are generated from U/TRU/RE ingot. Within about 300 years, the fly ash filter containing Cs, Sr containing salt waste are important waste in perspective of decay heat and radioactivity. Importance of RE containing salt waste reduced. Management of hold-ups must be clarified because hold-ups take large portion of decay heat, radioactivity in the material balance FS v5.1.

  7. SCALE 5.1 Predictions of PWR Spent Nuclear Fuel Isotopic Compositions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radulescu, Georgeta [ORNL; Gauld, Ian C [ORNL; Ilas, Germina [ORNL

    2010-03-01

    The purpose of this calculation report is to document the comparison to measurement of the isotopic concentrations for pressurized water reactor (PWR) spent nuclear fuel determined with the Standardized Computer Analysis for Licensing Evaluation (SCALE) 5.1 (Ref. ) epletion calculation method. Specifically, the depletion computer code and the cross-section library being evaluated are the twodimensional (2-D) transport and depletion module, TRITON/NEWT,2, 3 and the 44GROUPNDF5 (Ref. 4) cross-section library, respectively, in the SCALE .1 code system.

  8. SPSS 11.5.1 for WindoWs的新功能简介

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘宝骏; 张锡斌; 吴思英; 洪荣涛

    2003-01-01

    @@ 一般认为SPSS、SAS与BMDP是国际公认的三大权威统计分析软件包.SPSS又以其语言简便、通俗易用、用户特多、适用专业范围广泛为其特色.SPSS早期为DOS版[1],2001年8月起相继推出了11.0.1至11.5.1版[2],此版功能更强,运行速度更快,简介如下.

  9. DISCOVERY OF A MAKEMAKEAN MOON

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, Alex H.; Buie, Marc W. [Southwest Research Institute, 1050 Walnut Street, Suite 300, Boulder, CO 80302 (United States); Grundy, Will M. [Lowell Observatory, Flagstaff, AZ (United States); Noll, Keith S., E-mail: aparker@boulder.swri.edu [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (United States)

    2016-07-01

    We describe the discovery of a satellite in orbit about the dwarf planet (136472) Makemake. This satellite, provisionally designated S/2015 (136472) 1, was detected in imaging data collected with the Hubble Space Telescope ’s Wide Field Camera 3 on UTC 2015 April 27 at 7.80 ± 0.04 mag fainter than Makemake and at a separation of 0.″57. It likely evaded detection in previous satellite searches due to a nearly edge-on orbital configuration, placing it deep within the glare of Makemake during a substantial fraction of its orbital period. This configuration would place Makemake and its satellite near a mutual event season. Insufficient orbital motion was detected to make a detailed characterization of its orbital properties, prohibiting a measurement of the system mass with the discovery data alone. Preliminary analysis indicates that if the orbit is circular, its orbital period must be longer than 12.4 days and must have a semimajor axis ≳21,000 km. We find that the properties of Makemake’s moon suggest that the majority of the dark material detected in the system by thermal observations may not reside on the surface of Makemake, but may instead be attributable to S/2015 (136472) 1 having a uniform dark surface. This “dark moon hypothesis” can be directly tested with future James Webb Space Telescope observations. We discuss the implications of this discovery for the spin state, figure, and thermal properties of Makemake and the apparent ubiquity of trans-Neptunian dwarf planet satellites.

  10. Polar Domain Discovery with Sparkler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duerr, R.; Khalsa, S. J. S.; Mattmann, C. A.; Ottilingam, N. K.; Singh, K.; Lopez, L. A.

    2017-12-01

    The scientific web is vast and ever growing. It encompasses millions of textual, scientific and multimedia documents describing research in a multitude of scientific streams. Most of these documents are hidden behind forms which require user action to retrieve and thus can't be directly accessed by content crawlers. These documents are hosted on web servers across the world, most often on outdated hardware and network infrastructure. Hence it is difficult and time-consuming to aggregate documents from the scientific web, especially those relevant to a specific domain. Thus generating meaningful domain-specific insights is currently difficult. We present an automated discovery system (Figure 1) using Sparkler, an open-source, extensible, horizontally scalable crawler which facilitates high throughput and focused crawling of documents pertinent to a particular domain such as information about polar regions. With this set of highly domain relevant documents, we show that it is possible to answer analytical questions about that domain. Our domain discovery algorithm leverages prior domain knowledge to reach out to commercial/scientific search engines to generate seed URLs. Subject matter experts then annotate these seed URLs manually on a scale from highly relevant to irrelevant. We leverage this annotated dataset to train a machine learning model which predicts the `domain relevance' of a given document. We extend Sparkler with this model to focus crawling on documents relevant to that domain. Sparkler avoids disruption of service by 1) partitioning URLs by hostname such that every node gets a different host to crawl and by 2) inserting delays between subsequent requests. With an NSF-funded supercomputer Wrangler, we scaled our domain discovery pipeline to crawl about 200k polar specific documents from the scientific web, within a day.

  11. Guided Discovery with Socratic Questioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hakan Türkçapar

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available “The Socratic method” is a way of teaching philosophical thinking and knowledge by asking questions. It was first used by in ancient times by the Greek philosopher Socrates who taught his followers by asking questions; these conversations between them are known as “Socratic dialogues”. In this methodology, no new knowledge is taught to the individual; rather, the individual is guided to remember and rediscover what was formerly known through this process. The main method used in cognitive therapy is guided discovery. There are various methods of guided discovery in cognitive therapy. The form of verbal exchange between the therapist and client which is used during the process of cognitive behavioral therapy is known as “socratic questioning”. In this method the goal is to make the client rediscover, with a series of questions, a piece of knowledge which he could otherwise know but is not presently conscious of. The Socratic Questioning consists of several steps, including: identifying the problem by listening to the client and making reflections, finding alternatives by examining and evaluating, reidentification by using the newly rediscovered information and questioning the old distorted belief, and reaching a new conclusion and applying it. Question types used during these procedures are: questions for collecting information, questions revealing meanings, questions revealing beliefs, questions about behaviours during similar past experiences, analytic questions and analytic synthesis questions. In order to make the patient feel understood, it is important to be empathetic and summarize the problem during the interview. In this text, steps of Socratic Questioning-Guided Discovery will be reviewed with sample dialogues provided for each step. [JCBPR 2015; 4(1.000: 47-53

  12. Knowledge discovery from data streams

    CERN Document Server

    Gama, Joao

    2010-01-01

    Since the beginning of the Internet age and the increased use of ubiquitous computing devices, the large volume and continuous flow of distributed data have imposed new constraints on the design of learning algorithms. Exploring how to extract knowledge structures from evolving and time-changing data, Knowledge Discovery from Data Streams presents a coherent overview of state-of-the-art research in learning from data streams.The book covers the fundamentals that are imperative to understanding data streams and describes important applications, such as TCP/IP traffic, GPS data, sensor networks,

  13. The synthesis of 5-(1- sup 11 C)ethyl barbiturates from labelled malonic esters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gee, A.; Laangstroem, B. (Uppsala Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Organic Chemistry)

    1991-01-01

    The synthesis of ({sup 11}C)phenobarbital, ({sup 11}C)pentobarbital and({sup 11}C)amobarbital labelled in the 5-(1-{sup 11}C)ethyl position is reported. The malonic esters R- CH(CO{sub 2}Et){sub 2} R phenyl-, 1-methylbutyl-, and 3- methylbutyl- were alkylated with (1-{sup 11}C)ethyl iodide prepared from ({sup 11}C)carbon dioxide. Ring closure of the 2-(1-{sup 11}C)ethyl-labelled malonic esters with urea afforded 5-(1-{sup 11}C)ethyl-phenobarbital,-phenobarbital, -pentobarbital and -amobarbital synthesis times of 42-47 min, counted from ({sup 11}C) carbon dioxide. In typical syntheses starting with 3 GBq pentobarbitol and (81 mCi) ({sup 11}C)carbon dioxide, 150-215 MBq (4-6 mCi) were produced in 25-30% decay corrected -amobarbital radiochemical yields with radiochemical purities greater than 98%. (author).

  14. The discovery of uranium fission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brix, P.

    1990-01-01

    Uranium was discovered 200 years ago. Its radioactive character was first demonstrated in 1896 and two years later radium was extracted from uranium minerals. In 1911 studies with alpha rays from radioactive decay led to the unexpected discovery of the atomic nucleus. Exposure of beryllium to alpha rays yielded neutrons, first detected in 1932. Starting in 1934, neutron irradiation of uranium produced radioactive substances erroneously attributed to transuranium elements but with confusing properties. Painstaking experiments by chemists left no doubt on 17 December 1938 that barium was produced by these irradiations: the neutrons had split some uranium nuclei. The physics of the fission process was understood two weeks later; after a few months, neutron multiplication was found to be probable. This review deals with the eminent scientists involved, their successes, errors and disappointments, and the unexpected insights which occurred on the paths and detours of scientific research. It is, therefore, instructive also to discuss how fission was not discovered. The momentous discovery must be considered inevitable; the great tragedy was that Germany started World War II just at the time when the possibility of nuclear chain reactions and bombs became known. The consequences and anxieties that remain after 50 years of nuclear fission demand that mankind act with reason and conscience to maintain peace. (author)

  15. Astroparticle physics: puzzles and discoveries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berezinsky, V

    2008-01-01

    Puzzles often give birth to the great discoveries, the false discoveries sometimes stimulate the exiting ideas in theoretical physics. The historical examples of both are described in Introduction and in section 'Cosmological Puzzles'. From existing puzzles most attention is given to Ultra High Energy Cosmic Ray (UHECR) puzzle and to cosmological constant problem. The 40-years old UHECR problem consisted in absence of the sharp steepening in spectrum of extragalactic cosmic rays caused by interaction with CMB radiation. This steepening is known as Greisen-Zatsepin-Kuzmin (GZK) cutoff. It is demonstrated here that the features of interaction of cosmic ray protons with CMB are seen now in the spectrum in the form of the dip and beginning of the GZK cutoff. The most serious cosmological problem is caused by large vacuum energy of the known elementary-particle fields which exceeds at least by 45 orders of magnitude the cosmological vacuum energy. The various ideas put forward to solve this problem during last 40 years, have weaknesses and cannot be accepted as the final solution of this puzzle. The anthropic approach is discussed

  16. The DOF transcription factor Dof5.1 influences leaf axial patterning by promoting Revoluta transcription in Arabidopsis

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Hyungsae

    2010-10-05

    Dof proteins are transcription factors that have a conserved single zinc finger DNA-binding domain. In this study, we isolated an activation tagging mutant Dof5.1-D exhibiting an upward-curling leaf phenotype due to enhanced expression of the REV gene that is required for establishing adaxialabaxial polarity. Dof5.1-D plants also had reduced transcript levels for IAA6 and IAA19 genes, indicating an altered auxin biosynthesis in Dof5.1-D. An electrophoretic mobility shift assay using the Dof5.1 DNA-binding motif and the REV promoter region indicated that the DNA-binding domain of Dof5.1 binds to a TAAAGT motif located in the 5′-distal promoter region of the REV promoter. Further, transient and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays verified binding activity of the Dof5.1 DNA-binding motif with the REV promoter. Consistent with binding assays, constitutive over-expression of the Dof5.1 DNA-binding domain in wild-type plants caused a downward-curling phenotype, whereas crossing Dof5.1-D to a rev mutant reverted the upward-curling phenotype of the Dof5.1-D mutant leaf to the wild-type. These results suggest that the Dof5.1 protein directly binds to the REV promoter and thereby regulates adaxialabaxial polarity. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  17. The DOF transcription factor Dof5.1 influences leaf axial patterning by promoting Revoluta transcription in Arabidopsis

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Hyungsae; Kim, Sungjin; Abbasi, Nazia; Bressan, Ray Anthony; Yun, Daejin; Yoo, Sangdong; Kwon, SukYun; Choi, Sangbong

    2010-01-01

    Dof proteins are transcription factors that have a conserved single zinc finger DNA-binding domain. In this study, we isolated an activation tagging mutant Dof5.1-D exhibiting an upward-curling leaf phenotype due to enhanced expression of the REV gene that is required for establishing adaxialabaxial polarity. Dof5.1-D plants also had reduced transcript levels for IAA6 and IAA19 genes, indicating an altered auxin biosynthesis in Dof5.1-D. An electrophoretic mobility shift assay using the Dof5.1 DNA-binding motif and the REV promoter region indicated that the DNA-binding domain of Dof5.1 binds to a TAAAGT motif located in the 5′-distal promoter region of the REV promoter. Further, transient and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays verified binding activity of the Dof5.1 DNA-binding motif with the REV promoter. Consistent with binding assays, constitutive over-expression of the Dof5.1 DNA-binding domain in wild-type plants caused a downward-curling phenotype, whereas crossing Dof5.1-D to a rev mutant reverted the upward-curling phenotype of the Dof5.1-D mutant leaf to the wild-type. These results suggest that the Dof5.1 protein directly binds to the REV promoter and thereby regulates adaxialabaxial polarity. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  18. The discovery of radioactivity: the centenary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patil, S.K.

    1995-01-01

    In the last decade of the nineteenth century, a number of fundamental discoveries of outstanding importance were made unexpectedly which marked the beginning of a new era in physics. A cascade of spectacular discoveries began with the announcement of the discovery of x-rays by Roentgen followed by the discoveries, in quick succession, of radioactivity by Becquerel, of Zeeman effect, of electron by J.J. Thomson, and of polonium and radium by the Curies. Both x-rays and radioactivity have wide applications in scientific, medical and industrial fields and have made outstanding contribution to the advancement of human knowledge and welfare. Radioactivity is well known and no other discovery in the field of physics or chemistry has had a more profound effect on our fundamental knowledge of nature. Present article, on the occasion of the centenary of the discovery of radioactivity, makes an attempt to describe some glimpses of the history of radioactivity. (author). 59 refs

  19. Experiment prediction for LOFT nuclear experiments L5-1 and L8-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, T.H.; Modro, S.M.

    1983-01-01

    The LOFT Experiments L5-1 and L8-2 simulated intermediate break loss-of-coolant accidents with core uncovery. This paper compares the predictions with the measured data for these experiments. The RELAP5 code was used to perform best estimate double-blind and single-blind predictions. The double-blind calculations are performed prior to the experiment and use specified nominal initial and boundary conditions. The single-blind calculations are performed after the experiment and use measured initial and boundary conditions while maintaining all other parameters constant, including the code version. Comparisons of calculated results with experimental results are discussed; the possible causes of discrepancies are explored and explained. RELAP5 calculated system pressure, mass inventory, and fuel cladding temperature agree reasonably well with the experiment results, and only slight changes are noted between the double-blind and single-blind predictions

  20. Experiment prediction for LOFT nuclear experiments L5-1/L8-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, T.H.; Modro, S.M.

    1982-01-01

    The LOFT Experiments L5-1 and L8-2 simulated intermediate break loss-of-coolant accidents with core uncovery. This paper compares the predictions with the measured data for these experiments. The RELAP5 code was used to perform best estimate double-blind and single-blind predictions. The double-blind calculations are performed prior to the experiment and use specified nominal initial and boundary conditions. The single-blind calculations are performed after the experiment and use measured initial and boundary conditions while maintaining all other parameters constant, including the code version. Comparisons of calculated results with experimental results are discussed; the possible causes of discrepancies are explored and explained. RELAP5 calculated system pressure, mass inventory, and fuel cladding temperature agree reasonably well with the experiment results, and only slight changes are noted between the double-blind and single-blind predictions

  1. Space power distribution of soft x-ray source ANGARA-5-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dyabilin, K S [High Energy Density Research Center, Moscow (Russian Federation); Fortov, V E; Grabovskij, E V; Lebedev, M E; Smirnov, V P [Troitsk Inst. of Innovative and Fusion Research, Troitsk (Russian Federation)

    1997-12-31

    The contribution deals with the investigation of shock waves in condensed targets generated by intense pulses of soft X radiation. Main attention is paid to the spatial distribution of the soft x-ray power, which influence strongly the shock wave front uniformity. Hot z-pinch plasma with the temperature of 60-100 eV produced by imploding double liner in the ANGARA-5-1 machine was used as a source of x rays. The maximum pinch current was as high as 3.5 MA. In order to eliminate the thermal heating of the targets, thick stepped Al/Pb, Sn/Pb, or pure Pb targets were used. The velocity of shock waves was determined by means of optical methods. Very uniform shock waves and shock pressures of up to several hundreds of GPa have been achieved. (J.U.). 3 figs., 2 refs.

  2. mHealth Visual Discovery Dashboard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Dezhi; Hohman, Fred; Polack, Peter; Sarker, Hillol; Kahng, Minsuk; Sharmin, Moushumi; al'Absi, Mustafa; Chau, Duen Horng

    2017-09-01

    We present Discovery Dashboard, a visual analytics system for exploring large volumes of time series data from mobile medical field studies. Discovery Dashboard offers interactive exploration tools and a data mining motif discovery algorithm to help researchers formulate hypotheses, discover trends and patterns, and ultimately gain a deeper understanding of their data. Discovery Dashboard emphasizes user freedom and flexibility during the data exploration process and enables researchers to do things previously challenging or impossible to do - in the web-browser and in real time. We demonstrate our system visualizing data from a mobile sensor study conducted at the University of Minnesota that included 52 participants who were trying to quit smoking.

  3. Discovery of massive neutral vector mesons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1976-01-01

    Personal accounts of the discovery of massive neutral vector mesons (psi particles) are given by researchers S. Ting, G. Goldhaber, and B. Richter. The double-arm spectrometer and the Cherenkov effect are explained in a technical note, and the solenoidal magnetic detector is discussed in an explanatory note for nonspecialists. Reprints of three papers in Physical Review Letters which announced the discovery of the particles are given: Experimental observation of a heavy particle J, Discovery of a narrow resonance in e + e - annihilation, and Discovery of a second narrow resonance in e + e - annihilation. A discussion of subsequent developments and scientific biographies of the three authors are also presented. 25 figures

  4. Recent discoveries of anticancer flavonoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raffa, Demetrio; Maggio, Benedetta; Raimondi, Maria Valeria; Plescia, Fabiana; Daidone, Giuseppe

    2017-12-15

    In this review we report the recent advances in anticancer activity of the family of natural occurring flavonoids, covering the time span of the last five years. The bibliographic data will be grouped, on the basis of biological information, in two great categories: reports in which the extract plants bioactivity is reported and the identification of each flavonoid is present or not, and reports in which the anticancer activity is attributable to purified and identified flavonoids from plants. Wherever possible, the targets and mechanisms of action as well as the structure-activity relationships of the molecules will be reported. Also, in the review it was thoroughly investigated the recent discovery on flavonoids containing the 2-phenyl-4H-chromen-4-one system even if some examples of unusual flavonoids, bearing a non-aromatic B-ring or other ring condensed to the base structure are reported. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Specificity of discoveries in radiochemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krivomazov, A.N.

    1977-01-01

    The development of radiochemistry as a science is elucidated. On the basis of original papers and archives materials which have become available only recently, specific features of opening the law of radioactive displacements and isotopy of radioactive elements are presented in detail. A contribution of Hevesy, Russel, Fajans, and Soddy into the solution of this problem is considered; an important role of Rutherford in putting down the priority conflict is shown. Two stages of scientific generalization are singled out in the history of opening the law of radioactive displacements: the stage of the rules and the stage of the laws. On this basis the solutions of the priority problems have been reconsidered. It is shown that the history of radiochemistry is rich in discoveries which have undergone a relatively long evolution

  6. Big Data in Drug Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Nathan; Cambruzzi, Jean; Cox, Peter J; Davies, Mark; Dunbar, James; Plumbley, Dean; Sellwood, Matthew A; Sim, Aaron; Williams-Jones, Bryn I; Zwierzyna, Magdalena; Sheppard, David W

    2018-01-01

    Interpretation of Big Data in the drug discovery community should enhance project timelines and reduce clinical attrition through improved early decision making. The issues we encounter start with the sheer volume of data and how we first ingest it before building an infrastructure to house it to make use of the data in an efficient and productive way. There are many problems associated with the data itself including general reproducibility, but often, it is the context surrounding an experiment that is critical to success. Help, in the form of artificial intelligence (AI), is required to understand and translate the context. On the back of natural language processing pipelines, AI is also used to prospectively generate new hypotheses by linking data together. We explain Big Data from the context of biology, chemistry and clinical trials, showcasing some of the impressive public domain sources and initiatives now available for interrogation. © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. A Tale of Two Discoveries: Comparing the Usability of Summon and EBSCO Discovery Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Anita K.; MacDonald, Jean B.

    2013-01-01

    Web-scale discovery systems are gaining momentum among academic libraries as libraries seek a means to provide their users with a one-stop searching experience. Illinois State University's Milner Library found itself in the unique position of having access to two distinct discovery products, EBSCO Discovery Service and Serials Solutions' Summon.…

  8. PIE on Safety-Tested AGR-1 Compact 5-1-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunn, John D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Morris, Robert Noel [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Baldwin, Charles A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Montgomery, Fred C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Gerczak, Tyler J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-08-01

    Post-irradiation examination (PIE) is being performed in support of tristructural isotropic (TRISO) coated particle fuel development and qualification for High-Temperature Gas-cooled Reactors (HTGRs). AGR-1 was the first in a series of TRISO fuel irradiation experiments initiated in 2006 under the Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) Fuel Development and Qualification Program; this work continues to be funded by the Department of Energy's Office of Nuclear Energy as part of the Advanced Reactor Technologies (ART) initiative. AGR-1 fuel compacts were fabricated at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in 2006 and irradiated for three years in the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) to demonstrate and evaluate fuel performance under HTGR irradiation conditions. PIE is being performed at INL and ORNL to study how the fuel behaved during irradiation, and to examine fuel performance during exposure to elevated temperatures at or above temperatures that could occur during a depressurized conduction cooldown event. This report summarizes safety testing of irradiated AGR-1 Compact 5-1-1 in the ORNL Core Conduction Cooldown Test Facility (CCCTF) and post-safety testing PIE.

  9. The book sealed with seven seals (Revelation 5. 1: three remarkable patristic interpretations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika Androsova

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This article examines various interpretations regarding the book written inside and out and sealed with seven seals (Revelation 5,1 which appears as the central symbol of the fifth chapter of the Revelation of Saint John. The fi gure of the book continues to be of great interest to commentators who find ever new interpretations of the passage. The author of this article has tried to collect these various interpretations and order them into three major groups. At the same time, the author was guided in her choice of these interpretations by the factor of their presence in the patristic tradition. The fi rst group of interpretations points to the Old Testament. The meaning of the Old Testament is opened by Christ and through the figure of Christ becomes understandable. The second group of interpretations envisages the book as holding those things which pertain to the fi nal fate of the world given over to Christ who appears as the fulfi llment of God’s plan of salvation and the master of destiny. In the third interpretation, the sealed book represents the divine testament which is inherited by Christ who accepts death for mankind. The author wishes to highlight a certain chain of borrowings linking the various interpretations as well as a certain planned inter-coordination of all these interpretations of the passage. The author concludes that in spite of the apparent diff erences between the various interpretations, they nevertheless share some common points which result from their thematic intertwining

  10. Study of Implosion of Twisted Nested Arrays at the Angara-5-1 Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitrofanov, K. N.; Zukakishvili, G. G.; Aleksandrov, V. V.; Grabovski, E. V.; Frolov, I. N.; Gribov, A. N.

    2018-01-01

    Results are presented from experimental studies of the implosion of twisted nested arrays in which the wires of the outer and inner arrays are twisted about the array axis in opposite directions (clockwise and counterclockwise). Experiments with twisted arrays were carried out at the Angara-5-1 facility at currents of up to 4 MA. The currents through the arrays were switched either simultaneously or the current pulse through the outer array was delayed by 10-15 ns with the help of an anode spark gap. It is shown that, in such arrays, the currents flow along the inclined wires and, accordingly, there are both the azimuthal and axial components of the discharge current. The process of plasma implosion in twisted arrays depends substantially on the value of the axial (longitudinal) magnetic field generated inside the array by the azimuthal currents. Two-dimensional simulations of the magnetic field in twisted nested arrays were performed in the ( r, z) geometry with allowance for the skin effect in the discharge electrodes. It is shown that, depending on the geometry of the discharge electrodes, different configurations of the magnetic field can be implemented inside twisted nested arrays. The calculated magnetic configurations are compared with the results of measurements of the magnetic field inside such arrays. It is shown that the configuration of the axial magnetic field inside a twisted nested array depends substantially on the distribution of the azimuthal currents between the inner and outer arrays.

  11. Accounting for discovery bias in genomic prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Our objective was to evaluate an approach to mitigating discovery bias in genomic prediction. Accuracy may be improved by placing greater emphasis on regions of the genome expected to be more influential on a trait. Methods emphasizing regions result in a phenomenon known as “discovery bias” if info...

  12. Intraday Price Discovery in Fragmented Markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.R. Ozturk (Sait); M. van der Wel (Michel); D.J.C. van Dijk (Dick)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractFor many assets, trading is fragmented across multiple exchanges. Price discovery measures summarize the informativeness of trading on each venue for discovering the asset’s true underlying value. We explore intraday variation in price discovery using a structural model with

  13. 40 CFR 209.22 - Other discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... PRACTICE GOVERNING PROCEEDINGS UNDER THE NOISE CONTROL ACT OF 1972 Rules of Practice Governing Hearings for Orders Issued Under Section 11(d) of the Noise Control Act § 209.22 Other discovery. (a) Further... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Other discovery. 209.22 Section 209.22...

  14. 12 CFR 509.102 - Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Discovery. 509.102 Section 509.102 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE IN ADJUDICATORY PROCEEDINGS Local Rules § 509.102 Discovery. (a) In general. A party may take the deposition of an...

  15. 7 CFR 283.28 - Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Discovery. 283.28 Section 283.28 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... Appeals of QC Claims of Less Than $50,000 § 283.28 Discovery. Upon motion and as ordered by the ALJ...

  16. 43 CFR 4.826 - Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Review Under Part 17 of This Title-Nondiscrimination in Federally Assisted Programs of the Department of... the person from whom discovery is sought, and for good cause shown, the administrative law judge may make any order which justice requires to limit or condition discovery in order to protect a party or...

  17. 26 CFR 31.3401(a)(5)-1 - Remuneration for services for foreign government or international organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... government or international organization. 31.3401(a)(5)-1 Section 31.3401(a)(5)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) EMPLOYMENT TAXES AND COLLECTION OF INCOME TAX AT SOURCE EMPLOYMENT TAXES AND COLLECTION OF INCOME TAX AT SOURCE Collection of Income Tax at Source § 31...

  18. Overexpression of the tonoplast aquaporin AtTIP5;1 conferred tolerance to boron toxicity in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Yongqi; Li, Lijuan; Ren, Fei; Lu, Pingli; Wei, Pengcheng; Cai, Jinghui; Xin, Lingguo; Zhang, Juan; Chen, Jia; Wang, Xuechen

    2010-06-01

    Boron (B) toxicity to plants is responsible for low crop productivity in many regions of the world. Here we report a novel and effective means to alleviate the B toxicity to plants under high B circumstance. Functional characterization of AtTIP5;1, an aquaporin gene, revealed that overexpression of AtTIP5;1 (OxAtTIP5;1) in Arabidopsis significantly increased its tolerance to high B toxicity. Compared to wild-type plants, OxAtTIP5;1 plants exhibited longer hypocotyls, accelerated development, increased silique production under high B treatments. GUS staining and quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) results demonstrated that the expression of AtTIP5;1 was induced by high B concentration treatment. Subcellular localization analysis revealed that the AtTIP5;1-GFP fusion protein was localized on the tonoplast membrane, which was consistent with the prediction based on bioinformatics. Taken together, our results suggest that AtTIP5;1 is involved in B transport pathway possibly via vacuolar compartmentation for B, and that overexpression of AtTIP5;1 in plants may provide an effective way to overcome the problem resulting from high B concentration toxicity. Copyright 2010 Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology and the Genetics Society of China. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Proteomic and metabolomic approaches to biomarker discovery

    CERN Document Server

    Issaq, Haleem J

    2013-01-01

    Proteomic and Metabolomic Approaches to Biomarker Discovery demonstrates how to leverage biomarkers to improve accuracy and reduce errors in research. Disease biomarker discovery is one of the most vibrant and important areas of research today, as the identification of reliable biomarkers has an enormous impact on disease diagnosis, selection of treatment regimens, and therapeutic monitoring. Various techniques are used in the biomarker discovery process, including techniques used in proteomics, the study of the proteins that make up an organism, and metabolomics, the study of chemical fingerprints created from cellular processes. Proteomic and Metabolomic Approaches to Biomarker Discovery is the only publication that covers techniques from both proteomics and metabolomics and includes all steps involved in biomarker discovery, from study design to study execution.  The book describes methods, and presents a standard operating procedure for sample selection, preparation, and storage, as well as data analysis...

  20. The discovery of the periodic table as a case of simultaneous discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scerri, Eric

    2015-03-13

    The article examines the question of priority and simultaneous discovery in the context of the discovery of the periodic system. It is argued that rather than being anomalous, simultaneous discovery is the rule. Moreover, I argue that the discovery of the periodic system by at least six authors in over a period of 7 years represents one of the best examples of a multiple discovery. This notion is supported by a new view of the evolutionary development of science through a mechanism that is dubbed Sci-Gaia by analogy with Lovelock's Gaia hypothesis. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  1. Automated discovery systems and the inductivist controversy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giza, Piotr

    2017-09-01

    The paper explores possible influences that some developments in the field of branches of AI, called automated discovery and machine learning systems, might have upon some aspects of the old debate between Francis Bacon's inductivism and Karl Popper's falsificationism. Donald Gillies facetiously calls this controversy 'the duel of two English knights', and claims, after some analysis of historical cases of discovery, that Baconian induction had been used in science very rarely, or not at all, although he argues that the situation has changed with the advent of machine learning systems. (Some clarification of terms machine learning and automated discovery is required here. The key idea of machine learning is that, given data with associated outcomes, software can be trained to make those associations in future cases which typically amounts to inducing some rules from individual cases classified by the experts. Automated discovery (also called machine discovery) deals with uncovering new knowledge that is valuable for human beings, and its key idea is that discovery is like other intellectual tasks and that the general idea of heuristic search in problem spaces applies also to discovery tasks. However, since machine learning systems discover (very low-level) regularities in data, throughout this paper I use the generic term automated discovery for both kinds of systems. I will elaborate on this later on). Gillies's line of argument can be generalised: thanks to automated discovery systems, philosophers of science have at their disposal a new tool for empirically testing their philosophical hypotheses. Accordingly, in the paper, I will address the question, which of the two philosophical conceptions of scientific method is better vindicated in view of the successes and failures of systems developed within three major research programmes in the field: machine learning systems in the Turing tradition, normative theory of scientific discovery formulated by Herbert Simon

  2. Swift: 10 Years of Discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    The conference Swift: 10 years of discovery was held in Roma at La Sapienza University on Dec. 2-5 2014 to celebrate 10 years of Swift successes. Thanks to a large attendance and a lively program, it provided the opportunity to review recent advances of our knowledge of the high-energy transient Universe both from the observational and theoretical sides. When Swift was launched on November 20, 2004, its prime objective was to chase Gamma-Ray Bursts and deepen our knowledge of these cosmic explosions. And so it did, unveiling the secrets of long and short GRBs. However, its multi-wavelength instrumentation and fast scheduling capabilities made it the most versatile mission ever flown. Besides GRBs, Swift has observed, and contributed to our understanding of, an impressive variety of targets including AGNs, supernovae, pulsars, microquasars, novae, variable stars, comets, and much more. Swift is continuously discovering rare and surprising events distributed over a wide range of redshifts, out to the most distant transient objects in the Universe. Such a trove of discoveries has been addressed during the conference with sessions dedicated to each class of events. Indeed, the conference in Rome was a spectacular celebration of the Swift 10th anniversary. It included sessions on all types of transient and steady sources. Top scientists from around the world gave invited and contributed talks. There was a large poster session, sumptuous lunches, news interviews and a glorious banquet with officials attending from INAF and ASI. All the presentations, as well as several conference pictures, can be found in the conference website (http://www.brera.inaf.it/Swift10/Welcome.html). These proceedings have been collected owing to the efforts of Paolo D’Avanzo who has followed each paper from submission to final acceptance. Our warmest thanks to Paolo for all his work. The Conference has been made possible by the support from La Sapienza University as well as from the ARAP

  3. Thermal properties of PZT95/5(1.8Nb) and PSZT ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DiAntonio, Christopher Brian; Rae, David F.; Corelis, David J.; Yang, Pin; Burns, George Robert

    2006-01-01

    Thermal properties of niobium-modified PZT95/5(1.8Nb) and PSZT ceramics used for the ferroelectric power supply have been studied from -100 C to 375 C. Within this temperature range, these materials exhibit ferroelectric-ferroelectric and ferroelectric-paraelectric phase transformations. The thermal expansion coefficient, heat capacity, and thermal diffusivity of different phases were measured. Thermal conductivity and Grueneisen constant were calculated at several selected temperatures between -60 C and 100 C. Results show that thermal properties of these two solid solutions are very similar. Phase transformations in these ceramics possess first order transformation characteristics including thermal hysteresis, transformational strain, and enthalpy change. The thermal strain in the high temperature rhombohedral phase region is extremely anisotropic. The heat capacity for both materials approaches to 3R (or 5.938 cal/(g-mole*K)) near room temperature. The thermal diffusivity and the thermal conductivity are quite low in comparison to common oxide ceramics, and are comparable to amorphous silicate glass. Furthermore, the thermal conductivity of these materials between -60 C and 100 C becomes independent of temperature and is sensitive to the structural phase transformation. These phenomena suggest that the phonon mean free path governing the thermal conductivity in this temperature range is limited by the lattice dimensions, which is in good agreement with calculated values. Effects of small compositional changes and density/porosity variations in these ceramics on their thermal properties are also discussed. The implications of these transformation characteristics and unusual thermal properties are important in guiding processing and handling procedures for these materials

  4. Discovery Mondays: Zoom on materials

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Following the success of the first Discovery Monday, which had over 100 visitors, the series of evening events in Microcosm continues. On Monday 2nd June, discover the world of materials. Find out how CERN scientists examine, manufacture and study different materials, at different scales. Did you know for example that using electrons you can observe a hair at a scale equivalent to looking at a boat with the naked eye? Also, that using ultrasound, you can measure the thickness of an object that is completely inaccessible? Find out more about these techniques, and also the high-tech machining and soldering that is carried out in CERN's central workshop. Plus, see how engineers can detect tiny leaks through solder points - essential for maintaining the vacuum in the LHC. The evening is open to all, without reservation, suggested age 12 and above. Rendez-vous in Microcosm on Monday 2nd June From 19.30 - 21.00 Free entry For more information : http://www.cern.ch/microcosm Using a scanning microscope, the head o...

  5. Mathematical models in biological discovery

    CERN Document Server

    Walter, Charles

    1977-01-01

    When I was asked to help organize an American Association for the Advancement of Science symposium about how mathematical models have con­ tributed to biology, I agreed immediately. The subject is of immense importance and wide-spread interest. However, too often it is discussed in biologically sterile environments by "mutual admiration society" groups of "theoreticians", many of whom have never seen, and most of whom have never done, an original scientific experiment with the biolog­ ical materials they attempt to describe in abstract (and often prejudiced) terms. The opportunity to address the topic during an annual meeting of the AAAS was irresistable. In order to try to maintain the integrity ;,f the original intent of the symposium, it was entitled, "Contributions of Mathematical Models to Biological Discovery". This symposium was organized by Daniel Solomon and myself, held during the 141st annual meeting of the AAAS in New York during January, 1975, sponsored by sections G and N (Biological and Medic...

  6. Knowledge Discovery from Vibration Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Deng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The framework as well as the particular algorithms of pattern recognition process is widely adopted in structural health monitoring (SHM. However, as a part of the overall process of knowledge discovery from data bases (KDD, the results of pattern recognition are only changes and patterns of changes of data features. In this paper, based on the similarity between KDD and SHM and considering the particularity of SHM problems, a four-step framework of SHM is proposed which extends the final goal of SHM from detecting damages to extracting knowledge to facilitate decision making. The purposes and proper methods of each step of this framework are discussed. To demonstrate the proposed SHM framework, a specific SHM method which is composed by the second order structural parameter identification, statistical control chart analysis, and system reliability analysis is then presented. To examine the performance of this SHM method, real sensor data measured from a lab size steel bridge model structure are used. The developed four-step framework of SHM has the potential to clarify the process of SHM to facilitate the further development of SHM techniques.

  7. The Discovery of Dabigatran Etexilate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanne evan Ryn

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Thromboembolic disease is a major cause of mortality and morbidity in the developed world and is caused by an excessive stimulation of coagulation. Thrombin is a key serine protease in the coagulation cascade and numerous efforts have been made to develop safe and effective orally active direct thrombin inhibitors (DTIs. Current anticoagulant therapy includes the use of indirect thrombin inhibitors (e.g. heparins, low-molecular-weight-heparins [LMWHs] and vitamin K antagonists (VKA such as warfarin. However there are several caveats in the clinical use of these agents including narrow therapeutic window, parenteral delivery, and food- and drug-drug interactions. Dabigatran is a synthetic, reversible DTI with high affinity and specificity for its target binding both free and clot-bound thrombin, and offers a favorable pharmacokinetic profile. Large randomized clinical trials have demonstrated that dabigatran provides comparable or superior thromboprophylaxis in multiple thromboembolic disease indications compared to standard of care. This minireview will highlight the discovery and development of dabigatran, the first in a class of new oral anticoagulant (NOAC agents to be licensed worldwide for the prevention of thromboembolism in the setting of orthopedic surgery and stroke prevent in atrial fibrillation.

  8. West Nile Virus Drug Discovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siew Pheng Lim

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The outbreak of West Nile virus (WNV in 1999 in the USA, and its continued spread throughout the Americas, parts of Europe, the Middle East and Africa, underscored the need for WNV antiviral development. Here, we review the current status of WNV drug discovery. A number of approaches have been used to search for inhibitors of WNV, including viral infection-based screening, enzyme-based screening, structure-based virtual screening, structure-based rationale design, and antibody-based therapy. These efforts have yielded inhibitors of viral or cellular factors that are critical for viral replication. For small molecule inhibitors, no promising preclinical candidate has been developed; most of the inhibitors could not even be advanced to the stage of hit-to-lead optimization due to their poor drug-like properties. However, several inhibitors developed for related members of the family Flaviviridae, such as dengue virus and hepatitis C virus, exhibited cross-inhibition of WNV, suggesting the possibility to re-purpose these antivirals for WNV treatment. Most promisingly, therapeutic antibodies have shown excellent efficacy in mouse model; one of such antibodies has been advanced into clinical trial. The knowledge accumulated during the past fifteen years has provided better rationale for the ongoing WNV and other flavivirus antiviral development.

  9. Shotgun Proteomics and Biomarker Discovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Hayes McDonald

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Coupling large-scale sequencing projects with the amino acid sequence information that can be gleaned from tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS has made it much easier to analyze complex mixtures of proteins. The limits of this “shotgun” approach, in which the protein mixture is proteolytically digested before separation, can be further expanded by separating the resulting mixture of peptides prior to MS/MS analysis. Both single dimensional high pressure liquid chromatography (LC and multidimensional LC (LC/LC can be directly interfaced with the mass spectrometer to allow for automated collection of tremendous quantities of data. While there is no single technique that addresses all proteomic challenges, the shotgun approaches, especially LC/LC-MS/MS-based techniques such as MudPIT (multidimensional protein identification technology, show advantages over gel-based techniques in speed, sensitivity, scope of analysis, and dynamic range. Advances in the ability to quantitate differences between samples and to detect for an array of post-translational modifications allow for the discovery of classes of protein biomarkers that were previously unassailable.

  10. [Fortuitous discovery of gallbladder cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiche, L; Metairie, S

    2001-12-01

    The prognosis of gallbladder cancer is basically dependent on the histological stage at diagnosis. In practice, the discovery of a small cancer of the bladder, generally during cholecystectomy give the patient a better care for curative treatment. The advent of laparoscopy has increased the number of cholecstectomies and could increase the frequency of this situation but also raises the difficult problem of metastatic dissemination. In the literature the figures on parietal metastasis after laparoscopy have ranged from 125% to 19%. The median delay to diagnosis of recurrence is 6 months. The cause of this phenomenon (role of the pneumoperitoneum) remains poorly elucidated. Risk factors for the development of a metastasis on the trocar orifice are: rupture of the gallbladder perioperatively and extraction of the gallbladder without protection. It is important to keep in mind this exceptional but serious risk and apply rigorous operative technique. In case of suspected gallbladder we do not advocate laparoscopy. Surgery (hepatectomy, lymphodenectomy, possibly resection of the biliary tract) would be indicted for all stages except pTis and T1a, taking into consideration the localization of the tumor and the patient's general status. It is also classical to recommend resection of the trocar orifices after laparoscopic cholecystectomy. There is a dual challenge today for small-sized gallbladder cancer: improving treatment and avoiding poorer prognosis due to the specific problems raised by laparoscopy.

  11. NIF Discovery Science Eagle Nebula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Jave; Martinez, David; Pound, Marc; Heeter, Robert; Casner, Alexis; Villette, Bruno; Mancini, Roberto

    2017-10-01

    The University of Maryland and and LLNL are investigating the origin and dynamics of the famous Pillars of the Eagle Nebula and similar parsec-scale structures at the boundaries of HII regions in molecular hydrogen clouds. The National Ignition Facility (NIF) Discovery Science program Eagle Nebula has performed NIF shots to study models of pillar formation. The shots feature a new long-duration x-ray source, in which multiple hohlraums mimicking a cluster of stars are driven with UV light in series for 10 to 15 ns each to create a 30 to 60 ns output x-ray pulse. The source generates deeply nonlinear hydrodynamics in the Eagle science package, a structure of dense plastic and foam mocking up a molecular cloud containing a dense core. Omega EP and NIF shots have validated the source concept, showing that earlier hohlraums do not compromise later ones by preheat or by ejecting ablated plumes that deflect later beams. The NIF shots generated radiographs of shadowing-model pillars, and also showed evidence that cometary structures can be generated. The velocity and column density profiles of the NIF shadowing and cometary pillars have been compared with observations of the Eagle Pillars made at the millimeter-wave BIMA and CARMA observatories. Prepared by LLNL under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  12. Discovery of Uniformly Expanding Universe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cahill R. T.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Saul Perlmutter and the Brian Schmidt – Adam Riess teams reported that their Friedmann-model GR-based analysis of their supernovae magnitude-redshift data re- vealed a new phenomenon of “dark energy” which, it is claimed, forms 73% of the energy / matter density of the present-epoch universe, and which is linked to the further claim of an accelerating expansion of the universe. In 2011 Perlmutter, Schmidt and Riess received the Nobel Prize in Physics “for the discovery of the accelerating ex- pansion of the Universe through observations of distant supernovae”. Here it is shown that (i a generic model-independent analysis of this data reveals a uniformly expanding universe, (ii their analysis actually used Newtonian gravity, and finally (iii the data, as well as the CMB fluctuation data, does not require “dark energy” nor “dark matter”, but instead reveals the phenomenon of a dynamical space, which is absent from the Friedmann model.

  13. Students Excited by Stellar Discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-01

    In the constellation of Ophiuchus, above the disk of our Milky Way Galaxy, there lurks a stellar corpse spinning 30 times per second -- an exotic star known as a radio pulsar. This object was unknown until it was discovered last week by three high school students. These students are part of the Pulsar Search Collaboratory (PSC) project, run by the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) in Green Bank, WV, and West Virginia University (WVU). The pulsar, which may be a rare kind of neutron star called a recycled pulsar, was discovered independently by Virginia students Alexander Snider and Casey Thompson, on January 20, and a day later by Kentucky student Hannah Mabry. "Every day, I told myself, 'I have to find a pulsar. I better find a pulsar before this class ends,'" said Mabry. When she actually made the discovery, she could barely contain her excitement. "I started screaming and jumping up and down." Thompson was similarly expressive. "After three years of searching, I hadn't found a single thing," he said, "but when I did, I threw my hands up in the air and said, 'Yes!'." Snider said, "It actually feels really neat to be the first person to ever see something like that. It's an uplifting feeling." As part of the PSC, the students analyze real data from NRAO's Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope (GBT) to find pulsars. The students' teachers -- Debra Edwards of Sherando High School, Leah Lorton of James River High School, and Jennifer Carter of Rowan County Senior High School -- all introduced the PSC in their classes, and interested students formed teams to continue the work. Even before the discovery, Mabry simply enjoyed the search. "It just feels like you're actually doing something," she said. "It's a good feeling." Once the pulsar candidate was reported to NRAO, Project Director Rachel Rosen took a look and agreed with the young scientists. A followup observing session was scheduled on the GBT. Snider and Mabry traveled to West Virginia to assist in the

  14. Functional principles of registry-based service discovery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sundramoorthy, V.; Tan, C.; Hartel, P.H.; Hartog, den J.I.; Scholten, J.

    2005-01-01

    As Service Discovery Protocols (SDP) are becoming increasingly important for ubiquitous computing, they must behave according to predefined principles. We present the functional Principles of Service Discovery for robust, registry-based service discovery. A methodology to guarantee adherence to

  15. Reactions of 5-[1-(2-phenylmethylidene]-3-phenylimidazolidine-2,4-diones with some organometallic reagents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa A. R. Akeng'a

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The reaction of Grignard reagents with 5-[1-(2-chlorophenylmethylidene]-3-phenylimidazolidine-2,4-dione, 4, and 5-[1-(2-bromophenylmethylidene]-3-phenylimidazolidine-2,4-dione, 5, gave exclusively 1,2-addition products, 6-8, in 70-80% yields. Lithium dibutylcuprate reacted with 4 to yield exclusively 1,2-addition product 9 (92%. No conjugate or 1,4-addition products were obtained. These results indicate that 5-[1-(2-phenylmethylidene]-3-phenylimidazolidine-2,4-diones do not react like normal unsaturated carbonyl compounds.

  16. Systems biology and biomarker discovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodland, Karin D.

    2010-12-01

    Medical practitioners have always relied on surrogate markers of inaccessible biological processes to make their diagnosis, whether it was the pallor of shock, the flush of inflammation, or the jaundice of liver failure. Obviously, the current implementation of biomarkers for disease is far more sophisticated, relying on highly reproducible, quantitative measurements of molecules that are often mechanistically associated with the disease in question, as in glycated hemoglobin for the diagnosis of diabetes [1] or the presence of cardiac troponins in the blood for confirmation of myocardial infarcts [2]. In cancer, where the initial symptoms are often subtle and the consequences of delayed diagnosis often drastic for disease management, the impetus to discover readily accessible, reliable, and accurate biomarkers for early detection is compelling. Yet despite years of intense activity, the stable of clinically validated, cost-effective biomarkers for early detection of cancer is pathetically small and still dominated by a handful of markers (CA-125, CEA, PSA) first discovered decades ago. It is time, one could argue, for a fresh approach to the discovery and validation of disease biomarkers, one that takes full advantage of the revolution in genomic technologies and in the development of computational tools for the analysis of large complex datasets. This issue of Disease Markers is dedicated to one such new approach, loosely termed the 'Systems Biology of Biomarkers'. What sets the Systems Biology approach apart from other, more traditional approaches, is both the types of data used, and the tools used for data analysis - and both reflect the revolution in high throughput analytical methods and high throughput computing that has characterized the start of the twenty first century.

  17. The nuclear agreement between the P5+1 and Iran: real progress?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sitt, Bernard

    2013-11-01

    The joint plan of action signed on the 24 November 2013 by the P5+1 and Iran is good news, and all the States parties to this document have expressed their satisfaction. This 'mutually agreed long-term comprehensive solution' - as it is repeatedly referred to in the preamble - constitutes a concrete materialisation of the softening of Iran's position since the election of Hassan Rouhani as the country's president (with the approval of the Supreme Guide Ali Khamenei). This plan of action was adopted after nearly eleven years of a crisis that was interrupted on one occasion only by the Paris Agreement signed on the 15 November 2004 between the EU3 and Iran (whose chief negotiator at the time was Hassan Rouhani), and which took a more radical turn following Mahmoud Ahmadinejad's accession to power. But this text, written in the conditional tense, is not strictly speaking an agreement. It is rather an agreement on the substance of a future agreement, albeit a precise and detailed one. Negotiations will be carried out over an initial six-month period, and a second phase will finalise a full agreement at most one year on from the adoption of the joint action plan. It is also underlined that this agreement will be an indivisible whole: nothing will be agreed unless everything is agreed. The limitations that Iran is prepared to accept on its nuclear programme would appear to be substantial: the retention of half of its stock of 20%-enriched uranium to produce fuel for the Teheran Research Reactor and the dilution of the other half to no more than 5%; no increase in its existing enrichment capabilities, but it will continue its research and development practices in this field; the suspension of the construction of the Arak heavy-water reactor; no reprocessing; and enhanced monitoring of nuclear activities by the IAEA. In exchange, no new sanctions or crude oil embargoes will be imposed; existing sanctions on petrochemical products and services will be suspended; and

  18. Biomarkers: in medicine, drug discovery, and environmental health

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vaidya, Vishal S; Bonventre, Joseph V

    2010-01-01

    ... Identification Using Mass Spectrometry Sample Preparation Protein Quantitation Examples of Biomarker Discovery and Evaluation Challenges in Proteomic Biomarker Discovery The Road Forward: Targeted ...

  19. Effective Online Group Discovery in Trajectory Databases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Xiaohui; Ceikute, Vaida; Jensen, Christian S.

    2013-01-01

    GPS-enabled devices are pervasive nowadays. Finding movement patterns in trajectory data stream is gaining in importance. We propose a group discovery framework that aims to efficiently support the online discovery of moving objects that travel together. The framework adopts a sampling-independen......GPS-enabled devices are pervasive nowadays. Finding movement patterns in trajectory data stream is gaining in importance. We propose a group discovery framework that aims to efficiently support the online discovery of moving objects that travel together. The framework adopts a sampling......-independent approach that makes no assumptions about when positions are sampled, gives no special importance to sampling points, and naturally supports the use of approximate trajectories. The framework's algorithms exploit state-of-the-art, density-based clustering (DBScan) to identify groups. The groups are scored...

  20. Drug discovery and developments in developing countries ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the major burden being in developing countries. Many of ... The driving force for drug discovery and development by pharmaceutical firms ... world and particularly in the third world countries ..... GFHR (2000) Global Forum for Health Research:.

  1. Story of Superconductivity: A Serendipitous Discovery

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    , offered a glimmerof hope to make this dream possible. It was a discoverytotally unexpected at that time, and we owe this discovery tothe painstaking andmethodical investigations of Onnes – firstto produce very low temperatures, and then ...

  2. Discovery of nuclear fission in Berlin 1938

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilscher, D.

    1989-01-01

    The story of the discovery of nuclear fission, one of the most exciting stories of how a scientific puzzle was finally solved and how the scientists involved were blind to many obvious indications, is described. (author). 29 refs

  3. Discovery of two new gravitation lens systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guertler, J.

    1988-01-01

    The discovery of new quasar and radio galaxy double images produced by the gravitation lens effect is reported. The light deflecting galaxies acting as gravitational lenses could be made visible by means of image processing procedures

  4. Queen's discovery lauded by top scientific journal

    CERN Multimedia

    McGrady, S

    2002-01-01

    A scientific breakthrough at Queen's University's Sudbury Neutrino Observatory has received major international recognition. The journal Science ranked the discovery that cracked the "neutrino problem" second, in the journal's top 10 scientific achievements of 2002 (1/2 page).

  5. Price discovery in European natural gas markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schultz, Emma; Swieringa, John

    2013-01-01

    We provide the first high-frequency investigation of price discovery within the physical and financial layers of Europe's natural gas markets. Testing not only looks at short-term return dynamics, but also considers each security's contribution to price equilibrium in the longer-term. Results show that UK natural gas futures traded on the Intercontinental Exchange display greater price discovery than physical trading at various hubs throughout Europe. - Highlights: • We use intraday data to gauge price discovery in European natural gas markets. • We explore short and long-term dynamics in physical and financial market layers. • Results show ICE's UK natural gas futures are the main venue for price discovery

  6. Discovery of Intrinsic Primitives on Triangle Meshes

    KAUST Repository

    Solomon, Justin; Ben-Chen, Mirela; Butscher, Adrian; Guibas, Leonidas

    2011-01-01

    The discovery of meaningful parts of a shape is required for many geometry processing applications, such as parameterization, shape correspondence, and animation. It is natural to consider primitives such as spheres, cylinders and cones

  7. The Uniframe .Net Web Service Discovery Service

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Berbeco, Robert W

    2003-01-01

    ...) and registered with Internet Information Server (IIS), and can be applied in numerous fashions This project uses the NET capabilities to create a distributed discovery service (called as UNWSDS...

  8. Modulation of Kir4.1 and Kir4.1-Kir5.1 channels by extracellular cations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søe, Rikke; Andreasen, Mogens; Klærke, Dan Arne

    2009-01-01

    This work demonstrates that extracellular Na(+) modulates the cloned inwardly rectifying K(+) channels Kir4.1 and Kir4.1-Kir5.1. Whole-cell patch clamp studies on astrocytes have previously indicated that inward potassium currents are regulated by external Na(+). We expressed Kir4.1 and Kir4.1-Kir5.......1 in Xenopus oocytes to disclose if Kir4.1 and/or Kir4.1-Kir5.1 at the molecular level are responsible for the observed effect of [Na(+)](o) and to investigate the regulatory mechanism of external cations further. Our results showed that Na(+) has a biphasic modulatory effect on both Kir4.1 and Kir4.1-Kir5.......1 currents. Depending on the Na(+)-concentration and applied voltage, the inward Kir4.1/Kir4.1-Kir5.1 currents are either enhanced or reduced by extracellular Na(+). The Na(+) activation was voltage-independent, whereas the Na(+)-induced reduction of the Kir4.1 and Kir4.1-Kir5.1 currents was both...

  9. The discovery of the structure of DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squires, G. L.

    2003-04-01

    On 25 April 1953, Nature published a letter by Francis Crick and James Watson, at the Cavendish Laboratory, Cambridge, proposing a structure for DNA. This letter marked the beginning of a revolution in biology. Besides Crick and Watson, two other scientists, Rosalind Franklin and Maurice Wilkins, played key roles in the discovery. After sketching the early careers of the four scientists, the present article gives an account of the physics and chemistry involved in the discovery, and the events leading up to it.

  10. Fission and the discovery of isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thoennessen, M.

    2014-01-01

    The discovery of new isotopes requires new developments in accelerator and detector technology. The new RI Beam Factory at RIKEN and the future projects FAIR at GSI and FRIB at MSU promise to expand the nuclear horizon even further. In the talk a short history of the role that fission played in the discovery of isotopes will be presented and future perspectives will be discussed

  11. The Gozo discovery bus : a successful experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Vella, Maryrose

    2008-01-01

    The introduction of a tourist discovery bus in Gozo came about as a result of an EU Project which is part of the Interreg III B Archimed programmes in which the Islands and Small States Institute of the University of Malta participated. Other countries participating in this programme besides Malta, represented by the Islands and Small States Institute, are Italy, Cyprus and Greece. The discovery bus service was aimed at encouraging more tourists to come to Gozo and enabling them to visit stra...

  12. Discovery of the Higgs boson and beyond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godbole, Rohini

    2014-01-01

    This talk is about the Higgs mechanism, the theoretical discovery of which, was awarded the 2013 Nobel Prize. It also discusses the discovery of the Higgs boson at the large hadron collider which provided the experimental proof that made the Nobel prize possible. It covers the implications of these for the quest of unravelling the fundamental laws of nature which seem to govern both, the behavior of the ultra small (subatomic particles) and the ultra large (the cosmos)

  13. Studying Scientific Discovery by Computer Simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-03-30

    Mendel’s laws of inheritance, the law of Gay- Lussac for gaseous reactions, tile law of Dulong and Petit, the derivation of atomic weights by Avogadro...neceseary mid identify by block number) scientific discovery -ittri sic properties physical laws extensive terms data-driven heuristics intensive...terms theory-driven heuristics conservation laws 20. ABSTRACT (Continue on revere. side It necessary and identify by block number) Scientific discovery

  14. Applying genetics in inflammatory disease drug discovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Folkersen, Lasse; Biswas, Shameek; Frederiksen, Klaus Stensgaard

    2015-01-01

    , with several notable exceptions, the journey from a small-effect genetic variant to a functional drug has proven arduous, and few examples of actual contributions to drug discovery exist. Here, we discuss novel approaches of overcoming this hurdle by using instead public genetics resources as a pragmatic guide...... alongside existing drug discovery methods. Our aim is to evaluate human genetic confidence as a rationale for drug target selection....

  15. Roentgen and the discovery of X rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gueret, Ph.

    1998-01-01

    In 1901, the first Nobel price of physics was attributed to Roentgen for his discovery of X rays. This paper recalls through the career of this physicist and research worker, the different steps that led him to this discovery. This paper tries also to solve the 'Roentgen mystery', i.e. the reasons that led him to stop his research work just after this exploit. (J.S.)

  16. Shuttle Discovery Landing at Edwards

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    The STS-29 Space Shuttle Discovery mission lands at NASA's then Ames-Dryden Flight Research Facility, Edwards AFB, California, early Saturday morning, 18 March 1989. Touchdown was at 6:35:49 a.m. PST and wheel stop was at 6:36:40 a.m. on runway 22. Controllers chose the concrete runway for the landing in order to make tests of braking and nosewheel steering. The STS-29 mission was very successful, completing the launch of a Tracking and Data Relay communications satellite, as well as a range of scientific experiments. Discovery's five-man crew was led by Commander Michael L. Coats, and included pilot John E. Blaha and mission specialists James P. Bagian, Robert C. Springer, and James F. Buchli. Space Shuttles are the main element of America's Space Transportation System and are used for space research and other space applications. The shuttles are the first vehicles capable of being launched into space and returning to Earth on a routine basis. Space Shuttles are used as orbiting laboratories in which scientists and mission specialists conduct a wide variety of scientific experiments. Crews aboard shuttles place satellites in orbit, rendezvous with satellites to carry out repair missions and return them to space, and retrieve satellites and return them to Earth for refurbishment and reuse. Space Shuttles are true aerospace vehicles. They leave Earth and its atmosphere under rocket power provided by three liquid-propellant main engines with two solid-propellant boosters attached plus an external liquid-fuel tank. After their orbital missions, they streak back through the atmosphere and land like airplanes. The returning shuttles, however, land like gliders, without power and on runways. Other rockets can place heavy payloads into orbit, but, they can only be used once. Space Shuttles are designed to be continually reused. When Space Shuttles are used to transport complete scientific laboratories into space, the laboratories remain inside the payload bay throughout

  17. The monoclonal antibody SM5-1 recognizes a fibronectin variant which is widely expressed in melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo Yajun

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previously we have generated the monoclonal antibody SM5-1 by using a subtractive immunization protocol of human melanoma. This antibody exhibits a high sensitivity for primary melanomas of 99% (248/250 tested and for metastatic melanoma of 96% (146/151 tested in paraffin embedded sections. This reactivity is superior to the one obtained by HMB-45, anti-MelanA or anti-Tyrosinase and is comparable to anti-S100. However, as compared to anti-S100, the antibody SM5-1 is highly specific for melanocytic lesions since 40 different neoplasms were found to be negative for SM5-1 by immunohistochemistry. The antigen recognized by SM5-1 is unknown. Methods In order to characterize the antigen recognized by mAb SM5-1, a cDNA library was constructed from the metastatic human melanoma cell line SMMUpos in the Uni-ZAP lambda phage and screened by mAb SM5-1. The cDNA clones identified by this approach were then sequenced and subsequently analyzed. Results Sequence analysis of nine independent overlapping clones (length 3100–5600 bp represent fibronectin cDNA including the ED-A, but not the ED-B region which are produced by alternative splicing. The 89aa splicing variant of the IIICS region was found in 8/9 clones and the 120aa splicing variant in 1/9 clones, both of which are included in the CS1 region of fibronectin being involved in melanoma cell adhesion and spreading. Conclusion The molecule recognized by SM5-1 is a melanoma associated FN variant expressed by virtually all primary and metastatic melanomas and may play an important role in melanoma formation and progression. This antibody is therefore not only of value in immunohistochemistry, but potentially also for diagnostic imaging and immunotherapy.

  18. Reporting Astronomical Discoveries: Past, Now, and Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaoka, Hitoshi; Green, Daniel W. E.; Samus, Nikolai N.; West, Richard

    2015-08-01

    Many new astronomical objects have been discovered over the years by amateur astronomers, and this continues to be the case. They have traditionally reported them (as have professional astronomers) to the Central Bureau for Astronomical Telegrams (CBAT), which was established in the 19th century. This procedure has worked very well throughout the 20th century, moving under the umbrella of the newly established IAU in 1920. The discoverers have been honored by the formal announcement of their discoveries in the publications of the CBAT.In recent years, some professional research groups have established other ways of announcing their discoveries of explosive objects such as novae and supernovae; some do not now report their discoveries or spectroscopic confirmations of the transients to the CBAT, including often spectroscopic reports of objects posted to the CBAT "Transient Objects Confirmation Page" -- the highly successful TOCP webpage, which assigns official positional designations to new transients posted there by approved, registered users. This leads to a delay in formal announcements of discoveries by amateur astronomers in many cases, as well as inconsistent designations being put into use by individual groups. Amateur astronomers are feeling frustrated about this situation, and they hope that the IAU will help to settle the situation.We have proposed the new IAU commission NC-52, which will treat these phenomena in a continuation of Commission 6, through the CBAT. We hope to continuously support the reporting of the discoveries by amateur astronomers, as well as professional astronomers, who all deserve and desire proper recognition. Our strategy will maintain the firm trust between the amateur and professional astronomers, which is necessary for true collaboration. The plan is for the CBAT to work with collaborators to assure that discoveries posted on the TOCP are promptly designated and announced by the CBAT, even when confirmations are made elsewhere

  19. 12 CFR 747.24 - Scope of document discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... act of Congress, or the principles of common law provide. (d) Time limits. All discovery, including... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Scope of document discovery. 747.24 Section 747... of Practice and Procedure § 747.24 Scope of document discovery. (a) Limits on discovery. (1) Subject...

  20. Choosing Discovery: A Literature Review on the Selection and Evaluation of Discovery Layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Kate B.; Greene, Courtney

    2012-01-01

    Within the next few years, traditional online public access catalogs will be replaced by more robust and interconnected discovery layers that can serve as primary public interfaces to simultaneously search many separate collections of resources. Librarians have envisioned this type of discovery tool since the 1980s, and research shows that…

  1. Resource-estimation models and predicted discovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, G.W.

    1982-01-01

    Resources have been estimated by predictive extrapolation from past discovery experience, by analogy with better explored regions, or by inference from evidence of depletion of targets for exploration. Changes in technology and new insights into geological mechanisms have occurred sufficiently often in the long run to form part of the pattern of mature discovery experience. The criterion, that a meaningful resource estimate needs an objective measure of its precision or degree of uncertainty, excludes 'estimates' based solely on expert opinion. This is illustrated by development of error measures for several persuasive models of discovery and production of oil and gas in USA, both annually and in terms of increasing exploration effort. Appropriate generalizations of the models resolve many points of controversy. This is illustrated using two USA data sets describing discovery of oil and of U 3 O 8 ; the latter set highlights an inadequacy of available official data. Review of the oil-discovery data set provides a warrant for adjusting the time-series prediction to a higher resource figure for USA petroleum. (author)

  2. On reliable discovery of molecular signatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Björkegren Johan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Molecular signatures are sets of genes, proteins, genetic variants or other variables that can be used as markers for a particular phenotype. Reliable signature discovery methods could yield valuable insight into cell biology and mechanisms of human disease. However, it is currently not clear how to control error rates such as the false discovery rate (FDR in signature discovery. Moreover, signatures for cancer gene expression have been shown to be unstable, that is, difficult to replicate in independent studies, casting doubts on their reliability. Results We demonstrate that with modern prediction methods, signatures that yield accurate predictions may still have a high FDR. Further, we show that even signatures with low FDR may fail to replicate in independent studies due to limited statistical power. Thus, neither stability nor predictive accuracy are relevant when FDR control is the primary goal. We therefore develop a general statistical hypothesis testing framework that for the first time provides FDR control for signature discovery. Our method is demonstrated to be correct in simulation studies. When applied to five cancer data sets, the method was able to discover molecular signatures with 5% FDR in three cases, while two data sets yielded no significant findings. Conclusion Our approach enables reliable discovery of molecular signatures from genome-wide data with current sample sizes. The statistical framework developed herein is potentially applicable to a wide range of prediction problems in bioinformatics.

  3. Predicting future discoveries from current scientific literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrič, Ingrid; Cestnik, Bojan

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge discovery in biomedicine is a time-consuming process starting from the basic research, through preclinical testing, towards possible clinical applications. Crossing of conceptual boundaries is often needed for groundbreaking biomedical research that generates highly inventive discoveries. We demonstrate the ability of a creative literature mining method to advance valuable new discoveries based on rare ideas from existing literature. When emerging ideas from scientific literature are put together as fragments of knowledge in a systematic way, they may lead to original, sometimes surprising, research findings. If enough scientific evidence is already published for the association of such findings, they can be considered as scientific hypotheses. In this chapter, we describe a method for the computer-aided generation of such hypotheses based on the existing scientific literature. Our literature-based discovery of NF-kappaB with its possible connections to autism was recently approved by scientific community, which confirms the ability of our literature mining methodology to accelerate future discoveries based on rare ideas from existing literature.

  4. Bioinformatics for discovery of microbiome variation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brejnrod, Asker Daniel

    of various molecular methods to build hypotheses about the impact of a copper contaminated soil. The introduction is a broad introduction to the field of microbiome research with a focus on the technologies that enable these discoveries and how some of the broader issues have related to this thesis......Sequencing based tools have revolutionized microbiology in recent years. Highthroughput DNA sequencing have allowed high-resolution studies on microbial life in many different environments and at unprecedented low cost. These culture-independent methods have helped discovery of novel bacteria...... 1 ,“Large-scale benchmarking reveals false discoveries and count transformation sensitivity in 16S rRNA gene amplicon data analysis methods used in microbiome studies”, benchmarked the performance of a variety of popular statistical methods for discovering differentially abundant bacteria . between...

  5. Neutron Diffraction and Inorganic Materials Discovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosseinsky, M.J.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: The discovery of complex inorganic materials is an important academic and technological challenge because of the opportunities these systems offer for observation of new phenomena, and the questions they pose for fundamental understanding. This presentation will illustrate the key role of neutron powder diffraction in enabling the discovery of new classes of materials, and in evaluating their properties and the conditions under which they need to be processed to optimise their behaviour in devices for applications. New chemistry is illustrated by the transition metal oxide hydrides, where both structure and ionic mobility required neutron scattering characterisation. The relationship between chemistry, structure and properties will be addressed by considering the difficulties in inducing superconductivity in analogues of magnesium diboride. The role of both neutron and X-ray diffraction in evaluating the processing of microwave dielectric ceramics will be highlighted, with the discovery of new phases shown to be a useful bonus in this type of in-situ study. (author)

  6. Virtual drug discovery: beyond computational chemistry?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilardoni, Francois; Arvanites, Anthony C

    2010-02-01

    This editorial looks at how a fully integrated structure that performs all aspects in the drug discovery process, under one company, is slowly disappearing. The steps in the drug discovery paradigm have been slowly increasing toward virtuality or outsourcing at various phases of product development in a company's candidate pipeline. Each step in the process, such as target identification and validation and medicinal chemistry, can be managed by scientific teams within a 'virtual' company. Pharmaceutical companies to biotechnology start-ups have been quick in adopting this new research and development business strategy in order to gain flexibility, access the best technologies and technical expertise, and decrease product developmental costs. In today's financial climate, the term virtual drug discovery has an organizational meaning. It represents the next evolutionary step in outsourcing drug development.

  7. Predictors of timing of pregnancy discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Molly; Upadhyay, Ushma; Biggs, M Antonia; Anthony, Renaisa; Holl, Jennifer; Roberts, Sarah Cm

    2018-04-01

    Earlier pregnancy discovery is important in the context of prenatal and abortion care. We evaluated characteristics associated with later pregnancy discovery among women seeking abortion care. Data come from a survey of women seeking abortion care at four family planning facilities in Utah. The participants completed a survey during the state-mandated abortion information visit they are required to complete prior to having an abortion. The outcome in this study was pregnancy discovery before versus after 6 weeks since respondents' last menstrual period (LMP). We used logistic regression to estimate the relationship between sociodemographic and health-related independent variables of interest and pregnancy discovery before versus after 6 weeks. Among the 458 women in the sample, 28% discovered their pregnancy later than 6 weeks since LMP. Most (n=366, 80%) knew the exact date of their LMP and a significant minority estimated it (n=92, 20%). Those who estimated the date of their LMP had higher odds of later pregnancy discovery than those who knew the exact date (adjusted odds ratio (aOR)=1.81[1.07-3.07]). Those who used illicit drugs weekly, daily, or almost daily had higher odds of later pregnancy discovery (aOR=6.33[2.44, 16.40]). Women who did not track their menstrual periods and those who frequently used drugs had higher odds of discovering their pregnancies later. Women who estimated the date of their LMP and who frequently used drugs may benefit from strategies to help them recognize their pregnancies earlier and link them to care when they discover their pregnancies later. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Genealogies and spiritualities in Genesis 4:17-22, 4:25-26, 5:1-32 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The three genealogies in Genesis 4:17-22, 4:25-26 en 5:1-32 show different intentions: the first wants (amongst other purposes) to give an aetiology of the trades; the second wants to stress the importance of a new beginning; the third wants to relate Adam to Noah. Each of these approaches to genealogy has a different ...

  9. The effects of 5.1 sound presentations on the perception of stereoscopic imagery in video games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullen, Brian; Galperin, Daniel; Collins, Karen; Hogue, Andrew; Kapralos, Bill

    2013-03-01

    Stereoscopic 3D (S3D) content in games, film and other audio-visual media has been steadily increasing over the past number of years. However, there are still open, fundamental questions regarding its implementation, particularly as it relates to a multi-modal experience that involves sound and haptics. Research has shown that sound has considerable impact on our perception of 2D phenomena, but very little research has considered how sound may influence stereoscopic 3D. Here we present the results of an experiment that examined the effects of 5.1 surround sound (5.1) and stereo loudspeaker setups on depth perception in relation to S3D imagery within a video game environment. Our aim was to answer the question: "can 5.1 surround sound enhance the participant's perception of depth in the stereoscopic field when compared to traditional stereo sound presentations?" In addition, our study examined how the presence or absence of Doppler frequency shift and frequency fall-off audio effects can also influence depth judgment under these conditions. Results suggest that 5.1 surround sound presentations enhance the apparent depth of stereoscopic imagery when compared to stereo presentations. Results also suggest that the addition of audio effects such as Doppler shift and frequency fall-off filters can influence the apparent depth of S3D objects.

  10. Net present value approaches for drug discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svennebring, Andreas M; Wikberg, Jarl Es

    2013-12-01

    Three dedicated approaches to the calculation of the risk-adjusted net present value (rNPV) in drug discovery projects under different assumptions are suggested. The probability of finding a candidate drug suitable for clinical development and the time to the initiation of the clinical development is assumed to be flexible in contrast to the previously used models. The rNPV of the post-discovery cash flows is calculated as the probability weighted average of the rNPV at each potential time of initiation of clinical development. Practical considerations how to set probability rates, in particular during the initiation and termination of a project is discussed.

  11. Toward discovery science of human brain function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biswal, Bharat B; Mennes, Maarten; Zuo, Xi-Nian

    2010-01-01

    Although it is being successfully implemented for exploration of the genome, discovery science has eluded the functional neuroimaging community. The core challenge remains the development of common paradigms for interrogating the myriad functional systems in the brain without the constraints...... individual's functional connectome exhibits unique features, with stable, meaningful interindividual differences in connectivity patterns and strengths. Comprehensive mapping of the functional connectome, and its subsequent exploitation to discern genetic influences and brain-behavior relationships...... in the brain. To initiate discovery science of brain function, the 1000 Functional Connectomes Project dataset is freely accessible at www.nitrc.org/projects/fcon_1000/....

  12. Henri Becquerel: the discovery of radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allisy, A.

    1996-01-01

    This paper recalls the history of the Becquerel family, the fascinating time of the discovery of radioactivity as well as some important related research published before the radium age. Henri Becquerel was the third in the line of a family of scientists which extended over more than a hundred years. Following in the footsteps of his father and grandfather gave him a thorough grounding in scientific research methods. Science at the turn of the century was very exciting, the discovery of X rays had just been announced and scientists everywhere were hoping to discover new phenomena. (author)

  13. Using Discovery Learning to Encourage Creative Thinking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mardia Hi. Rahman

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Creative thinking ability development is needed to be implemented by every educator including lecturers to their students. Therefore, they need to seriously act and design their learning process. One of the ways to develop student’s creative thinking is using discovery learning model. This research is conducted in physics education study program in 2016 with students who took learning and teaching class as research subject. From the research analysis result and discussion, it can be concluded that discovery learning model can encourage students’ creative thinking ability in learning and teaching strategy subject.

  14. The discovery of the tau lepton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perl, M.L.

    1992-09-01

    The discovery of the tau lepton and the third generation of fermions came from the convergence of three physics streams in the late 1960's and early 1970's. These streams were: the failed attempts by myself and others to understand the connection between the electron and the muon, the development of electron-positron storage rings, and the development of the theory of sequential leptons. In this paper I give the history of the discovery of the tau and the measurement of its major properties-the properties which established the tau as a sequential lepton

  15. Discovery stories in the science classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arya, Diana Jaleh

    School science has been criticized for its lack of emphasis on the tentative, dynamic nature of science as a process of learning more about our world. This criticism is the guiding force for this present body of work, which focuses on the question: what are the educational benefits for middle school students of reading texts that highlight the process of science in the form of a discovery narrative? This dissertation traces my journey through a review of theoretical perspectives of narrative, an analysis of first-hand accounts of scientific discovery, the complex process of developing age-appropriate, cohesive and engaging science texts for middle school students, and a comparison study (N=209) that seeks to determine the unique benefits of the scientific discovery narrative for the interest in and retained understanding of conceptual information presented in middle school science texts. A total of 209 middle school participants in nine different classrooms from two different schools participated in the experimental study. Each subject read two science texts that differed in topic (the qualities of and uses for radioactive elements and the use of telescopic technology to see planets in space) and genre (the discovery narrative and the "conceptually known exposition" comparison text). The differences between the SDN and CKE versions for each topic were equivalent in all possible ways (initial introduction, overall conceptual accuracy, elements of human interest, coherence and readability level), save for the unique components of the discovery narrative (i.e., love for their work, acknowledgement of the known, identification of the unknown and the explorative or experimental process to discovery). Participants generally chose the discovery narrative version as the more interesting of the two texts. Additional findings from the experimental study suggest that science texts in the form of SDNs elicit greater long-term retention of key conceptual information, especially

  16. The centenary of discovery of radium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazeron, J.-J.; Gerbaulet, A.

    1998-01-01

    Henri Becquerel presented the discovery of radium by Pierre and Marie Curie at the Paris Academy of Science on 26th December 1898. One century later, radium has been abandoned, mainly for radiation protection difficulties. It is, however, likely that modern techniques of brachytherapy have inherited to those designed for radium sources, and that radium has cured thousands and thousands patients all over the world for about eighty years. The history of discovery and medical use of radium is summarised. (Copyright (c) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  17. Computational neuropharmacology: dynamical approaches in drug discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aradi, Ildiko; Erdi, Péter

    2006-05-01

    Computational approaches that adopt dynamical models are widely accepted in basic and clinical neuroscience research as indispensable tools with which to understand normal and pathological neuronal mechanisms. Although computer-aided techniques have been used in pharmaceutical research (e.g. in structure- and ligand-based drug design), the power of dynamical models has not yet been exploited in drug discovery. We suggest that dynamical system theory and computational neuroscience--integrated with well-established, conventional molecular and electrophysiological methods--offer a broad perspective in drug discovery and in the search for novel targets and strategies for the treatment of neurological and psychiatric diseases.

  18. From the nucleus discovery to DWBA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, B.

    2007-01-01

    The author presents a brief review of the main events in the field of nuclear reactions that are acknowledged as milestones because of their importance due to either experimental setting or physical interpretation. It is shown that the pace of discoveries has been strongly dependent on the technical progress in detection means at the beginning of nuclear physics and now is linked to the development of simulation means. The discovery of the neutron, the development of the Geiger counter, the theory of the compound nucleus or the first direct reactions are among these milestones

  19. Synthesis of New Pyrazolo[5,1-c]triazine, Triazolo[5,1-c]triazine, Triazino[4,3-b]indazole and Benzimidazo[2,1-c]triazine Derivatives Incorporating Chromen-2-one Moiety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khalil, Mohamed A.; Sayed, Samia M.; Raslan, Mohamed A. [Aswan Univ., Aswan (Egypt)

    2013-10-15

    The versatile, hitherto unreported 3-(4-(2-phenyldiazenyl)-2-oxo-2H-chromen-3-yl)-3-oxopropanenitrile 3 was prepared by two convenient routes: either by the reaction of ethyl 4-(2-phenyldiazenyl)-2-oxo-2H-chromen-3-carboxylate 2 with acetonitrile in the presence of sodium hydride or by treatment of 4-(2-phenyldiazenyl)-3-(2-bromoacetyl)-2H-chromen-2-one 5 with potassium cyanide. Reaction of 3 with heterocyclic diazonium salts 6, 7, 14 and 17 furnished the corresponding hydrazones 8, 9, 15 and 18. The latter hydrazones underwent intramolecular cyclization into the corresponding pyrazolo[5,1-c]-1,2,4-triazine 10, 1,2,4-triazolo[5,1-c]-1,2,4-triazine 11, 1,2,4-triazino[4,3-b]indazole 16 and imidazo[2,1-c]-1,2,4-triazine 19 derivatives, respectively upon refluxing in pyridine.

  20. Microscopy Opening Up New Cancer Discovery Avenues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Today’s high-powered microscopes are allowing researchers to study the fine details of individual cells and to peer into cells, opening up new avenues of discovery about the inner workings of cells, including the events that can cause healthy cells to tra

  1. The Discovery of the Double Helix

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2011-01-01

    Professor James D. Watson has kindly agreed to make a presentation on the 1953 finding of the Double Helix at the Cavendish Laboratory by Francis Crick and himself. Being one of the greatest scientific discoveries in human history, little else needs to be added.

  2. Discovery and preclinical development of new antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Diarmaid; Karlén, Anders

    2014-05-01

    Antibiotics are the medical wonder of our age, but an increasing frequency of resistance among key pathogens is rendering them less effective. If this trend continues the consequences for cancer patients, organ transplant patients, and indeed the general community could be disastrous. The problem is complex, involving abuse and overuse of antibiotics (selecting for an increasing frequency of resistant bacteria), together with a lack of investment in discovery and development (resulting in an almost dry drug development pipeline). Remedial approaches to the problem should include taking measures to reduce the selective pressures for resistance development, and taking measures to incentivize renewed investment in antibiotic discovery and development. Bringing new antibiotics to the clinic is critical because this is currently the only realistic therapy that can ensure the level of infection control required for many medical procedures. Here we outline the complex process involved in taking a potential novel antibiotic from the initial discovery of a hit molecule, through lead and candidate drug development, up to its entry into phase I clinical trials. The stringent criteria that a successful drug must meet, balancing high efficacy in vivo against a broad spectrum of pathogens, with minimal liabilities against human targets, explain why even with sufficient investment this process is prone to a high failure rate. This emphasizes the need to create a well-funded antibiotic discovery and development pipeline that can sustain the continuous delivery of novel candidate drugs into clinical trials, to ensure the maintenance of the advanced medical procedures we currently take for granted.

  3. Knowledge discovery in the prediction of bankruptcy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Almeida, R.J.; Vieira, S.M.; Milea, D.V.; Kaymak, U.; Costa Sousa, da J.M.; Carvalho, J.P.; Dubois, D.; Kaymak, U.

    2009-01-01

    Knowledge discovery in databases (KDD) is the process of discovering interesting knowledge from large amounts of data. However, real-world datasets have problems such as incompleteness, redundancy, inconsistency, noise, etc. All these problems affect the performance of data mining algorithms. Thus,

  4. Discovery – Methotrexate: Chemotherapy Treatment for Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prior to the 1950s, treatment for the majority of cancers was limited to either surgery or the use of radiation. The discovery of the use of methotrexate in curing a rare cancer marked the first time a cancer had been cured. This led to the development of many of today’s common cancer treatments.

  5. 41 CFR 105-70.021 - Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Discovery. 105-70.021 Section 105-70.021 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System..., papers, and other data and documentary evidence. Nothing contained herein shall be interpreted to require...

  6. 5 CFR 185.122 - Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Discovery. 185.122 Section 185.122 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES..., answers, records, accounts, papers, and other data and documentary evidence. Nothing contained herein...

  7. (Self-) Discovery Service: Helping Students Help Themselves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debonis, Rocco; O'Donnell, Edward; Thomes, Cynthia

    2012-01-01

    EBSCO Discovery Service (EDS) has been heavily used by UMUC students since its implementation in fall 2011, but experience has shown that it is not always the most appropriate source for satisfying students' information needs and that they often need assistance in understanding how the tool works and how to use it effectively. UMUC librarians have…

  8. Scientific Discoveries the Year I Was Born

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherif, Abour

    2012-01-01

    The author has successfully used a learning activity titled "The Year I Was Born" to motivate students to conduct historical research and present key scientific discoveries from their birth year. The activity promotes writing, helps students enhance their scientific literacy, and also improves their attitude toward the learning of science. As one…

  9. Comment on "drug discovery: turning the titanic".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesterhuis, W Joost; Bosco, Anthony; Lake, Richard A

    2014-03-26

    The pathobiology-based approach to research and development has been the dominant paradigm for successful drug discovery over the last decades. We propose that the molecular and cellular events that govern a resolving, rather than an evolving, disease may reveal new druggable pathways.

  10. The discovery and development of antiretroviral agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lange, Joep M. A.; Ananworanich, Jintanat

    2014-01-01

    Since the discovery of HIV as the causative agent of AIDS in 1983/1984, remarkable progress has been made in finding antiretroviral drugs (ARVs) that are effective against it. A major breakthrough occurred in 1996 when it was found that triple drug therapy (HAART) could durably suppress viral

  11. The discovery of high temperature superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muller, K. A.; Bednorz, J.G.

    1988-01-01

    This article recalls the different stages which led to the display of high temperature superconductivity for Ba, La, Cu, O and the following avalanche of discoveries for other oxides; the numerous theoretical models which tentatively explain the current experimental results are also reviewed. 30 refs

  12. The discovery of high temperature superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muller, K.A.; Bednorz, J.G.

    1988-01-01

    This article recalls the different stages which led to the display of high temperature superconductivity for Ba La Cu O, and the following avalanche of discoveries for other oxides; the numerous theoretical models which tentatively explain the current experimental results are also reviewed [fr

  13. Zavoisky and the Discovery of EPR

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    moved to Kazan. In 1926, after finishing the nine-year secondary ... year student, he got a patent for an invention. Zavoisky was ... Early Attempts at NMR and Interruption by World War II ... band modulation) and, in some cases, he did not even apply the constant ... was awarded the Lenin Prize for the discovery of EPR. In the.

  14. Secure Service Discovery in Home Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholten, Johan; van Dijk, H.W.; De Cock, Danny; Preneel, Bart; Kung, Antonio; d'Hooge, Michel

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents an architecture for secure service discovery for use in home networks. We give an overview and rationale of a cluster-based home network architecture that bridges different, often vendor specific, network technologies. We show how it integrates security, communication, and

  15. The next generation of targeted mutation discovery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harakalova, M.

    2013-01-01

    Sequencing technologies (NGS) now allows efficient analysis of the complete protein-coding regions of genomes (exomes) for multiple samples in a single sequencing run. In Chapter 2, we present our results with a genomic DNA pooling strategy for rare variant discovery on a NGS platform. The high

  16. Pharmacological screening technologies for venom peptide discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prashanth, Jutty Rajan; Hasaballah, Nojod; Vetter, Irina

    2017-12-01

    Venomous animals occupy one of the most successful evolutionary niches and occur on nearly every continent. They deliver venoms via biting and stinging apparatuses with the aim to rapidly incapacitate prey and deter predators. This has led to the evolution of venom components that act at a number of biological targets - including ion channels, G-protein coupled receptors, transporters and enzymes - with exquisite selectivity and potency, making venom-derived components attractive pharmacological tool compounds and drug leads. In recent years, plate-based pharmacological screening approaches have been introduced to accelerate venom-derived drug discovery. A range of assays are amenable to this purpose, including high-throughput electrophysiology, fluorescence-based functional and binding assays. However, despite these technological advances, the traditional activity-guided fractionation approach is time-consuming and resource-intensive. The combination of screening techniques suitable for miniaturization with sequence-based discovery approaches - supported by advanced proteomics, mass spectrometry, chromatography as well as synthesis and expression techniques - promises to further improve venom peptide discovery. Here, we discuss practical aspects of establishing a pipeline for venom peptide drug discovery with a particular emphasis on pharmacology and pharmacological screening approaches. This article is part of the Special Issue entitled 'Venom-derived Peptides as Pharmacological Tools.' Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. 40 CFR 164.51 - Other discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Other discovery. 164.51 Section 164.51... GOVERNING HEARINGS, UNDER THE FEDERAL INSECTICIDE, FUNGICIDE, AND RODENTICIDE ACT, ARISING FROM REFUSALS TO... OTHER HEARINGS CALLED PURSUANT TO SECTION 6 OF THE ACT General Rules of Practice Concerning Proceedings...

  18. Resource Discovery within the Networked "Hybrid" Library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leigh, Sally-Anne

    This paper focuses on the development, adoption, and integration of resource discovery, knowledge management, and/or knowledge sharing interfaces such as interactive portals, and the use of the library's World Wide Web presence to increase the availability and usability of information services. The introduction addresses changes in library…

  19. Introduction to fragment-based drug discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erlanson, Daniel A

    2012-01-01

    Fragment-based drug discovery (FBDD) has emerged in the past decade as a powerful tool for discovering drug leads. The approach first identifies starting points: very small molecules (fragments) that are about half the size of typical drugs. These fragments are then expanded or linked together to generate drug leads. Although the origins of the technique date back some 30 years, it was only in the mid-1990s that experimental techniques became sufficiently sensitive and rapid for the concept to be become practical. Since that time, the field has exploded: FBDD has played a role in discovery of at least 18 drugs that have entered the clinic, and practitioners of FBDD can be found throughout the world in both academia and industry. Literally dozens of reviews have been published on various aspects of FBDD or on the field as a whole, as have three books (Jahnke and Erlanson, Fragment-based approaches in drug discovery, 2006; Zartler and Shapiro, Fragment-based drug discovery: a practical approach, 2008; Kuo, Fragment based drug design: tools, practical approaches, and examples, 2011). However, this chapter will assume that the reader is approaching the field with little prior knowledge. It will introduce some of the key concepts, set the stage for the chapters to follow, and demonstrate how X-ray crystallography plays a central role in fragment identification and advancement.

  20. Conference Abstracts: Translational Science and Drug Discovery ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... and Drug Discovery: Impact on Health, Wellness, Environment and Economics" conference, July 27-29th, 2015, at the Hennessy Park Hotel, Ebène Cybercity, Mauritius. The conference was hosted by the Society for Free radical Research Africa and the International Association of Medical and Biomedical Researchers.

  1. Discovery Learning: Zombie, Phoenix, or Elephant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakker, Arthur

    2018-01-01

    Discovery learning continues to be a topic of heated debate. It has been called a zombie, and this special issue raises the question whether it may be a phoenix arising from the ashes to which the topic was burnt. However, in this commentary I propose it is more like an elephant--a huge topic approached by many people who address different…

  2. Translating Genomic Discoveries to Cure Ultrahypermutant ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Translating Genomic Discoveries to Cure Ultrahypermutant Mismatch Repair Deficient Brain Tumours. Malignant brain tumours are the most common cause of death among children with cancer, but there is no known cure. This project will advance research in this important field. Inherited mutations and childhood cancer.

  3. Computer-Assisted Discovery and Proof

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, David H.; Borwein, Jonathan M.

    2007-12-10

    With the advent of powerful, widely-available mathematical software, combined with ever-faster computer hardware, we are approaching a day when both the discovery and proof of mathematical facts can be done in a computer-assisted manner. his article presents several specific examples of this new paradigm in action.

  4. Neutron Stars and the Discovery of Pulsars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenstein, George

    1985-01-01

    Part one recounted the story of the discovery of pulsars and examined the Crab Nebula, supernovae, and neutron stars. This part (experts from the book "Frozen Star") shows how an understanding of the nature of pulsars allowed astronomers to tie these together. (JN)

  5. Rough – Granular Computing knowledge discovery models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed M. Eissa

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Medical domain has become one of the most important areas of research in order to richness huge amounts of medical information about the symptoms of diseases and how to distinguish between them to diagnose it correctly. Knowledge discovery models play vital role in refinement and mining of medical indicators to help medical experts to settle treatment decisions. This paper introduces four hybrid Rough – Granular Computing knowledge discovery models based on Rough Sets Theory, Artificial Neural Networks, Genetic Algorithm and Rough Mereology Theory. A comparative analysis of various knowledge discovery models that use different knowledge discovery techniques for data pre-processing, reduction, and data mining supports medical experts to extract the main medical indicators, to reduce the misdiagnosis rates and to improve decision-making for medical diagnosis and treatment. The proposed models utilized two medical datasets: Coronary Heart Disease dataset and Hepatitis C Virus dataset. The main purpose of this paper was to explore and evaluate the proposed models based on Granular Computing methodology for knowledge extraction according to different evaluation criteria for classification of medical datasets. Another purpose is to make enhancement in the frame of KDD processes for supervised learning using Granular Computing methodology.

  6. Social Relationship Discovery Via Call Records

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Wen-Zhe

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Telecom users constitute a huge, but relatively sparse social network. Community discovery has been a research topic of data mining. Traditional algorithms are greatly influenced by outliers. This paper presents a new algorithm based on social triangle theory. Experiments show that the new algorithm is effective.

  7. Inseparability of science history and discovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Herndon

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Science is very much a logical progression through time. Progressing along a logical path of discovery is rather like following a path through the wilderness. Occasionally the path splits, presenting a choice; the correct logical interpretation leads to further progress, the wrong choice leads to confusion. By considering deeply the relevant science history, one might begin to recognize past faltering in the logical progression of observations and ideas and, perhaps then, to discover new, more precise understanding. The following specific examples of science faltering are described from a historical perspective: (1 Composition of the Earth's inner core; (2 Giant planet internal energy production; (3 Physical impossibility of Earth-core convection and Earth-mantle convection, and; (4 Thermonuclear ignition of stars. For each example, a revised logical progression is described, leading, respectively, to: (1 Understanding the endo-Earth's composition; (2 The concept of nuclear georeactor origin of geo- and planetary magnetic fields; (3 The invalidation and replacement of plate tectonics; and, (4 Understanding the basis for the observed distribution of luminous stars in galaxies. These revised logical progressions clearly show the inseparability of science history and discovery. A different and more fundamental approach to making scientific discoveries than the frequently discussed variants of the scientific method is this: An individual ponders and through tedious efforts arranges seemingly unrelated observations into a logical sequence in the mind so that causal relationships become evident and new understanding emerges, showing the path for new observations, for new experiments, for new theoretical considerations, and for new discoveries. Science history is rich in "seemingly unrelated observations" just waiting to be logically and causally related to reveal new discoveries.

  8. Discovery in a World of Mashups

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, T. A.; Ritschel, B.; Hourcle, J. A.; Moon, I. S.

    2014-12-01

    When the first digital information was stored electronically, discovery of what existed was through file names and the organization of the file system. With the advent of networks, digital information was shared on a wider scale, but discovery remained based on file and folder names. With a growing number of information sources, named based discovery quickly became ineffective. The keyword based search engine was one of the first types of a mashup in the world of Web 1.0. Embedded links from one document to another with prescribed relationships between files and the world of Web 2.0 was formed. Search engines like Google used the links to improve search results and a worldwide mashup was formed. While a vast improvement, the need for semantic (meaning rich) discovery was clear, especially for the discovery of scientific data. In response, every science discipline defined schemas to describe their type of data. Some core schemas where shared, but most schemas are custom tailored even though they share many common concepts. As with the networking of information sources, science increasingly relies on data from multiple disciplines. So there is a need to bring together multiple sources of semantically rich information. We explore how harvesting, conceptual mapping, facet based search engines, search term promotion, and style sheets can be combined to create the next generation of mashups in the emerging world of Web 3.0. We use NASA's Planetary Data System and NASA's Heliophysics Data Environment to illustrate how to create a multi-discipline mash-up.

  9. A novel theranostic nanobioconjugate. "1"2"5/"1"3"1I labeled phenylalanine conjugated boron nitride nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozge Kozgus Guldu; Perihan Unak; Suna Timur

    2017-01-01

    Here we report the synthesis of boron nitride nanotubes (BNNTs) via a chemical vapor deposition method, as potential agents for boron neutron capture therapy. BNNTs were functionalized with PAMAM[G-2] dendrimer and then, conjugated with l-Phe using EDC/NHS. After that, BNNTs were radiolabeled with "1"2"5/"1"3"1I, which are commonly used for both therapy and diagnosis in clinical and pre-clinical studies. BNNTs were radiolabeled with a maximum yield with "1"2"5/"1"3"1I in compared with 4-borono-l-phenyalanine which is currently used as a commercial drug. Radiolabeling parameters were optimized with thin layer radiochromatography and high performance liquid radiochromatography. BNNTs are promising nanobioconjugates as new theranostic agents. (author)

  10. Natural circulation cooldown analysis for Yonggwang 3 and 4 per US NRC BTP RSB 5-1 requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, J.T.; Ko, C.S.; Ro, T.S.; Simoni, L.P.

    2004-01-01

    The Natural Circulation Cooldown (NCC) analysis from normal operations to shutdown cooling entry conditions for Yonggwang units 3 and 4 (YGN 3 and 4) was performed within the requirements of U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Branch Technical Position (BTP) RSB 5-1. The results showed that the YGN 3 and 4 can be cooled and depressurized to the shutdown entry conditions (350 deg F, 410 psia) within 16 hours under natural circulation condition requiring only 78% of the minimum condensate water storage capacity in conformance with BTP RSB 5-1 requirements. The results also demonstrated that the safety grade Reactor Coolant Gas Vent System (RCGVS) has sufficient capacity for the RCS depressurization as well as for the steam void control in the reactor vessel upper head region. (author)

  11. Study on Seismogenesis of 2013 Ms5.1 Badong Earthquake in the Three Gorges Reservoir Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X.; Zeng, Z.; Xu, S.; He, C.

    2015-12-01

    On 16 December, 2013, an earthquake of Ms5.1 occurred in Badong County, the Three Gorges Reservoir area, China. We collected all the 150 published focal mechanism solutions (FMS) and inversed the tectonic stress field in Badong, the Three Gorges Dam and Huangling anticline area using the software SATSI (Hardebeck and Michael, 2006). Inversion results show that the orientations of maximum principle stress axis (σ1) in Badong plunge to NNE or SSW. Detailed characteristics of the stress field indicate that the σ1 axis is almost vertical in the center of Huangling anticline and turns horizontal to the west. As to deep structures, we studied the satellite gravity anomalies of 8-638 order in this area using the EIGEN-6C2 model provided by ICGRM. Combining the seismic sounding profile through the epicenter of Badong earthquake and the petrology data, we reinterpreted the deep structure in the study area. The results show that the deep crust in Badong is unstable and the deep material's upwelling leads to Huangling anticline continued uplifting, which is consistent with the result indicated from the stress filed. Both of them provide energy for the preparation of earthquake. The FMS shows that Gaoqiao Fault is the causative fault of this Ms5.1 earthquake. Field investigations indicated that the lithology and fracture characteristic in Badong is beneficial to reservoir water infiltration. Before the earthquake, reservoir water level raised to 175m, the highest storage level, which increased the loading. Based on above researches, we believe that the Ms5.1 Badong earthquake is controlled by deep tectonic environment and stress field in shallow crust. The reservoir water infiltration and uploading increase generated by water storage of the Three Gorges area reduced the strength of Gaoqiao Fault and changed its stress state. These factors jointly promoted an abrupt movement of the fault in the critical stress state, and triggered the Ms5.1 Badong earthquake.

  12. Inhibiting the corrosion of MNZh 5-1 alloy in neutral solutions of 5-chloro-1,2,3-benzotrialzol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsov, Yu. I.; Agafonkina, M. O.; Andreeva, N. P.; Arkhipushkin, I. A.; Kazansky, L. P.

    2017-11-01

    The adsorption and protective properties of 5-chloro-1,2,3-benzotriazol (5-chloro-BTA) are studied in relation to MNZh 5-1 alloy in a chloride borate buffer solution with pH 7.4. It is shown that this inhibitor can stabilize the passive state of the alloy at a concentration of 0.12 mmol/g. The adsorption of 5-chloro-BTA on a surface of MNZh 5-1 alloy is polymolecular; the free energy of adsorption is about 80 kJ/mol. The advantages of adsorption and protective properties of 5-chloro-BTA compared to BTA on both MNZh 5-1 alloy and the metals contained in the alloy (Ni, Cu) are shown. XPS data indicate a 5-chloro-BTA monolayer formed on the surface of the alloy. This monolayer was composed of inhibitor molecules, which are normally oriented toward a surface and are not removed during ultrasonic washing of the electrode.

  13. Discovery of the neutron (to the fiftieth anniversary of neutron discovery)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasechnik, M.V.

    1984-01-01

    Development of neutron physics in the USSR for the recent 50 years from the moment of neutron discovery is considered. History of neutron discovery is presented in brief. Neutron properties and fundamental problems of physics: electric dipole neutron moment, neutron β-decay, neutron interaction with nuclei and potential of nucleon interaction not conserving spatial parity are discussed. Main aspects of neutron physics application in power engineering, nuclear technology and other branches of science and technique are set forth

  14. Open Drug Discovery Toolkit (ODDT): a new open-source player in the drug discovery field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wójcikowski, Maciej; Zielenkiewicz, Piotr; Siedlecki, Pawel

    2015-01-01

    There has been huge progress in the open cheminformatics field in both methods and software development. Unfortunately, there has been little effort to unite those methods and software into one package. We here describe the Open Drug Discovery Toolkit (ODDT), which aims to fulfill the need for comprehensive and open source drug discovery software. The Open Drug Discovery Toolkit was developed as a free and open source tool for both computer aided drug discovery (CADD) developers and researchers. ODDT reimplements many state-of-the-art methods, such as machine learning scoring functions (RF-Score and NNScore) and wraps other external software to ease the process of developing CADD pipelines. ODDT is an out-of-the-box solution designed to be easily customizable and extensible. Therefore, users are strongly encouraged to extend it and develop new methods. We here present three use cases for ODDT in common tasks in computer-aided drug discovery. Open Drug Discovery Toolkit is released on a permissive 3-clause BSD license for both academic and industrial use. ODDT's source code, additional examples and documentation are available on GitHub (https://github.com/oddt/oddt).

  15. The Discovery of a Class of High-Temperature Superconductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, K. Alex; Bednorz, J. Georg

    1987-01-01

    Describes the new class of oxide superconductors, the importance of these materials, and the concepts that led to its discovery. Summarizes the discovery itself and its early confirmation. Discusses the observation of a superconductive glass state in percolative samples. (TW)

  16. History of the discovery of uranium fission by neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simane, C.

    1989-01-01

    The history is briefly described of the discovery of uranium fission by neutrons, based on the texts of original scientific studies, memories or biographies of those who participated in the discovery and of their contemporaries. Obstacles that stood in the way of the discovery are discussed. It is stated that only a few scientists contributed to the discovery of uranium fission. The fission process itself still remains subject of physical research which studies its detailed laws. (Z.M.). 2 tabs., 16 refs

  17. An extended dual search space model of scientific discovery learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Joolingen, Wouter; de Jong, Anthonius J.M.

    1997-01-01

    This article describes a theory of scientific discovery learning which is an extension of Klahr and Dunbar''s model of Scientific Discovery as Dual Search (SDDS) model. We present a model capable of describing and understanding scientific discovery learning in complex domains in terms of the SDDS

  18. A Taxonomy of Self-configuring Service Discovery Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sundramoorthy, V.; Hartel, Pieter H.; Scholten, Johan

    2007-01-01

    We analyze the fundamental concepts and issues in service discovery. This analysis places service discovery in the context of distributed systems by describing service discovery as a third generation naming system. We also describe the essential architectures and the functionalities in service

  19. Mass Spectrometry-Based Biomarker Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Weidong; Petricoin, Emanuel F; Longo, Caterina

    2017-01-01

    The discovery of candidate biomarkers within the entire proteome is one of the most important and challenging goals in proteomic research. Mass spectrometry-based proteomics is a modern and promising technology for semiquantitative and qualitative assessment of proteins, enabling protein sequencing and identification with exquisite accuracy and sensitivity. For mass spectrometry analysis, protein extractions from tissues or body fluids and subsequent protein fractionation represent an important and unavoidable step in the workflow for biomarker discovery. Following extraction of proteins, the protein mixture must be digested, reduced, alkylated, and cleaned up prior to mass spectrometry. The aim of our chapter is to provide comprehensible and practical lab procedures for sample digestion, protein fractionation, and subsequent mass spectrometry analysis.

  20. Historical aspects of the discovery of plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, David L.

    2016-01-01

    The historical events that led up to the discovery of plutonium and subsequently, how that discovery helped shape the modern period table of the elements, and ushered in a new era of nuclear science and technology are discussed. When the first of the transuranium elements, neptunium was discovered, it was realized that the radioactive βdecay of "2"3"9Np should lead to the formation of element 94. The scale of the experiments at that time, however, precluded its identification. Plutonium was first produced late in 1940 by Seaborg, McMillan, Kennedy, and Wahl1,2 by bombarding uranium with deuterons to produce the isotope "2"3"8Pu

  1. Panorama 2014 - New oil and gas discoveries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vially, Roland; Hureau, Geoffroy

    2013-12-01

    Spending on exploration increased significantly in 2012, and this growth should continue into 2013. Over a period of ten years, exploration budgets have increased five-fold, leading to major discoveries in regions as yet unexplored. In 2012, 25 billion barrels of oil equivalent (Gboe) were revealed. This is more than the average for the whole decade, but less than the amount for the previous year. Although knowledge of the volumes that have been discovered is still very fragmented, they should continue to fall into 2013. The main reason lies in the fact that spending on exploration is being shifted towards assessing discoveries made in previous years in the particularly prolific basins of Brazil and East Africa, while the exploration of border regions - such as the West African pre-salt formation - is still only in its early stages. (authors)

  2. The discovery of long-term potentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lømo, Terje

    2003-04-29

    This paper describes circumstances around the discovery of long-term potentiation (LTP). In 1966, I had just begun independent work for the degree of Dr medicinae (PhD) in Per Andersen's laboratory in Oslo after an eighteen-month apprenticeship with him. Studying the effects of activating the perforant path to dentate granule cells in the hippocampus of anaesthetized rabbits, I observed that brief trains of stimuli resulted in increased efficiency of transmission at the perforant path-granule cell synapses that could last for hours. In 1968, Tim Bliss came to Per Andersen's laboratory to learn about the hippocampus and field potential recording for studies of possible memory mechanisms. The two of us then followed up my preliminary results from 1966 and did the experiments that resulted in a paper that is now properly considered to be the basic reference for the discovery of LTP.

  3. Polonium: 110th anniversary of its discovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mould, R. F.

    2008-01-01

    It is appropriate that the 110 Th anniversary of the discovery of polonium by Marie and Pierre Curie is commemorated in a Polish journal since this element was named for Poland and was also the element discovered by the Curies before they discovered radium. Polonium's discovery and characteristics are described. Polonium has never been used in medicine, and was largely forgotten apart from a few minor industrial uses, and as a trigger for a nuclear weapon, until the murder in November 2006 in London using 210 Polonium, of the ex-KGB officer Alexander Litvinenko. Polonium had previously been linked, without any definite proof, with the deaths of a few scientists who had worked with the element, including Irene and Frederick Joliet-Curie. This review ends with possible evidence for such links. (authors)

  4. Discovery and Selection of Semantic Web Services

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Xia

    2013-01-01

    For advanced web search engines to be able not only to search for semantically related information dispersed over different web pages, but also for semantic services providing certain functionalities, discovering semantic services is the key issue. Addressing four problems of current solution, this book presents the following contributions. A novel service model independent of semantic service description models is proposed, which clearly defines all elements necessary for service discovery and selection. It takes service selection as its gist and improves efficiency. Corresponding selection algorithms and their implementation as components of the extended Semantically Enabled Service-oriented Architecture in the Web Service Modeling Environment are detailed. Many applications of semantic web services, e.g. discovery, composition and mediation, can benefit from a general approach for building application ontologies. With application ontologies thus built, services are discovered in the same way as with single...

  5. Golden Jubilee photos: A gargantuan discovery

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    In July 1973, a groundbreaking discovery was announced in CERN's Main Auditorium: the Gargamelle group had found proof of the weak neutral current. The discovery confirmed the electroweak theory, which had predicted that the weak force and the electromagnetic force were different facets of the same interaction. This paved the way for the Grand Unified Theory, which holds that just after the birth of the Universe all forces were actually the same... Gargamelle, whose "body" now reposes in the Microcosm garden, was a huge bubble chamber weighing around 1000 tonnes, filled with 18 tonnes of liquid freon. Its size, worthy of the giant Gargantua - the son of Gargamelle - was mighty enough to catch neutrinos, the elusive neutral particles which career through space without leaving any tracks. In the photograph, an unseen neutrino interacts with an electron and emerges as a neutrino instead of changing into a muon - what is seen (vertically) is the track of the electron. This lepton event offers p...

  6. Bayesian centroid estimation for motif discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Luis

    2013-01-01

    Biological sequences may contain patterns that signal important biomolecular functions; a classical example is regulation of gene expression by transcription factors that bind to specific patterns in genomic promoter regions. In motif discovery we are given a set of sequences that share a common motif and aim to identify not only the motif composition, but also the binding sites in each sequence of the set. We propose a new centroid estimator that arises from a refined and meaningful loss function for binding site inference. We discuss the main advantages of centroid estimation for motif discovery, including computational convenience, and how its principled derivation offers further insights about the posterior distribution of binding site configurations. We also illustrate, using simulated and real datasets, that the centroid estimator can differ from the traditional maximum a posteriori or maximum likelihood estimators.

  7. Bayesian centroid estimation for motif discovery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Carvalho

    Full Text Available Biological sequences may contain patterns that signal important biomolecular functions; a classical example is regulation of gene expression by transcription factors that bind to specific patterns in genomic promoter regions. In motif discovery we are given a set of sequences that share a common motif and aim to identify not only the motif composition, but also the binding sites in each sequence of the set. We propose a new centroid estimator that arises from a refined and meaningful loss function for binding site inference. We discuss the main advantages of centroid estimation for motif discovery, including computational convenience, and how its principled derivation offers further insights about the posterior distribution of binding site configurations. We also illustrate, using simulated and real datasets, that the centroid estimator can differ from the traditional maximum a posteriori or maximum likelihood estimators.

  8. Bioenergy Knowledge Discovery Framework Fact Sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2017-07-01

    The Bioenergy Knowledge Discovery Framework (KDF) supports the development of a sustainable bioenergy industry by providing access to a variety of data sets, publications, and collaboration and mapping tools that support bioenergy research, analysis, and decision making. In the KDF, users can search for information, contribute data, and use the tools and map interface to synthesize, analyze, and visualize information in a spatially integrated manner.

  9. The discovery of the electric current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotti, Piero

    1995-02-01

    The first battery, the so called voltaic pile, turns out to be the only and hidden entrance to the world of electrodynamics. It was not until 20 years after Alessandro Volta's discovery that the realisation came that the sensational novelty of the voltaic pile was not the permanent voltage source but the current source. This was not to be expected, and had, therefore, not been searched for specifically, but, rather had been found through a great deal of luck and coincidence in experimentation.

  10. Using Discovery Learning to Encourage Creative Thinking

    OpenAIRE

    Mardia Hi. Rahman

    2017-01-01

    Creative thinking ability development is needed to be implemented by every educator including lecturers to their students. Therefore, they need to seriously act and design their learning process. One of the ways to develop student’s creative thinking is using discovery learning model. This research is conducted in physics education study program in 2016 with students who took learning and teaching class as research subject. From the research analysis result and discussion, it can be concluded...

  11. Financing drug discovery for orphan diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Fagnan, David Erik; Gromatzky, Austin A.; Stein, Roger Mark; Fernandez, Jose-Maria; Lo, Andrew W.

    2014-01-01

    Recently proposed ‘megafund’ financing methods for funding translational medicine and drug development require billions of dollars in capital per megafund to de-risk the drug discovery process enough to issue long-term bonds. Here, we demonstrate that the same financing methods can be applied to orphan drug development but, because of the unique nature of orphan diseases and therapeutics (lower development costs, faster FDA approval times, lower failure rates and lower correlation of failures...

  12. The discovery of the top quark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinervo, P.K.

    1995-12-01

    The top quark and the Higgs boson are the heaviest elementary particles predicted by the standard model. The four lightest quark flavours, the up, down, strange and charm quarks, were well-established by the mid-1970's. The discovery in 1977 of the Τ resonances, a new family of massive hadrons, required the introduction of the fifth quark flavour. Experimental and theoretical studies have indicated that this quark also has a heavier partner, the top quark

  13. The Discovery of the Top Quark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinervo, P.K.

    1995-12-01

    The top quark and the Higgs boson are the heaviest elementary particles predicted by the standard model. The four lightest quark flavours, the up, down, strange and charm quarks, were well-established by the mid-1970's. The discovery in 1977 of the {Tau} resonances, a new family of massive hadrons, required the introduction of the fifth quark flavour. Experimental and theoretical studies have indicated that this quark also has a heavier partner, the top quark.

  14. Discovery of peptidic anti-­myotoxins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjärtun, Johanna; Laustsen, Andreas Hougaard; Munk, Andreas

    More than 2.5 millions envenomations and 125.000 death occur each year due to snakebite. Current antivenoms consist of immunoglobulinesderived from animals, and they are therefore associated with a high risk of adverse reactions in humans. The use of synthetic peptidic antitoxinsmay lead to safer...... and more effective antivenoms. This research reports the discovery of peptidic antitoxins against myotoxin II from B. asper....

  15. An invertebrate model for CNS drug discovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al-Qadi, Sonia; Schiøtt, Morten; Hansen, Steen Honoré

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: ABC efflux transporters at the blood brain barrier (BBB), namely the P-glycoprotein (P-gp), restrain the development of central nervous system (CNS) drugs. Consequently, early screening of CNS drug candidates is pivotal to identify those affected by efflux activity. Therefore, simple,...... barriers. CONCLUSION: Findings suggest a conserved mechanism of brain efflux activity between insects and vertebrates, confirming that this model holds promise for inexpensive and high-throughput screening relative to in vivo models, for CNS drug discovery....

  16. New discoveries in Upper and Middle Magdalena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carta Petrolera

    1998-01-01

    In six association contracts and one risk participation contract may give Colombia the possibility of finding new oil reserves. These prospects, located in the Upper and Middle Magdalena Valleys and the Eastern Plains. the completion process, evaluation, confirmation and commercialization should be in the next two years, these new discoveries also reveal interesting geological aspects; some in fractured limestone, similar to the found at Maracaibo lake in Venezuela, where vast oil fields were discovered

  17. Biomimicry as a basis for drug discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolb, V M

    1998-01-01

    Selected works are discussed which clearly demonstrate that mimicking various aspects of the process by which natural products evolved is becoming a powerful tool in contemporary drug discovery. Natural products are an established and rich source of drugs. The term "natural product" is often used synonymously with "secondary metabolite." Knowledge of genetics and molecular evolution helps us understand how biosynthesis of many classes of secondary metabolites evolved. One proposed hypothesis is termed "inventive evolution." It invokes duplication of genes, and mutation of the gene copies, among other genetic events. The modified duplicate genes, per se or in conjunction with other genetic events, may give rise to new enzymes, which, in turn, may generate new products, some of which may be selected for. Steps of the inventive evolution can be mimicked in several ways for purpose of drug discovery. For example, libraries of chemical compounds of any imaginable structure may be produced by combinatorial synthesis. Out of these libraries new active compounds can be selected. In another example, genetic system can be manipulated to produce modified natural products ("unnatural natural products"), from which new drugs can be selected. In some instances, similar natural products turn up in species that are not direct descendants of each other. This is presumably due to a horizontal gene transfer. The mechanism of this inter-species gene transfer can be mimicked in therapeutic gene delivery. Mimicking specifics or principles of chemical evolution including experimental and test-tube evolution also provides leads for new drug discovery.

  18. Discovery and History of Amino Acid Fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Shin-Ichi

    There has been a strong demand in Japan and East Asia for L-glutamic acid as a seasoning since monosodium glutamate was found to present umami taste in 1907. The discovery of glutamate fermentation by Corynebacterium glutamicum in 1956 enabled abundant and low-cost production of the amino acid, creating a large market. The discovery also prompted researchers to develop fermentative production processes for other L-amino acids, such as lysine. Currently, the amino acid fermentation industry is so huge that more than 5 million metric tons of amino acids are manufactured annually all over the world, and this number continues to grow. Research on amino acid fermentation fostered the notion and skills of metabolic engineering which has been applied for the production of other compounds from renewable resources. The discovery of glutamate fermentation has had revolutionary impacts on both the industry and science. In this chapter, the history and development of glutamate fermentation, including the very early stage of fermentation of other amino acids, are reviewed.

  19. Performance Evaluation of Frequent Subgraph Discovery Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saif Ur Rehman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to rapid development of the Internet technology and new scientific advances, the number of applications that model the data as graphs increases, because graphs have highly expressive power to model a complicated structure. Graph mining is a well-explored area of research which is gaining popularity in the data mining community. A graph is a general model to represent data and has been used in many domains such as cheminformatics, web information management system, computer network, and bioinformatics, to name a few. In graph mining the frequent subgraph discovery is a challenging task. Frequent subgraph mining is concerned with discovery of those subgraphs from graph dataset which have frequent or multiple instances within the given graph dataset. In the literature a large number of frequent subgraph mining algorithms have been proposed; these included FSG, AGM, gSpan, CloseGraph, SPIN, Gaston, and Mofa. The objective of this research work is to perform quantitative comparison of the above listed techniques. The performances of these techniques have been evaluated through a number of experiments based on three different state-of-the-art graph datasets. This novel work will provide base for anyone who is working to design a new frequent subgraph discovery technique.

  20. Pathways to new drug discovery in neuropsychiatry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berk Michael

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract There is currently a crisis in drug discovery for neuropsychiatric disorders, with a profound, yet unexpected drought in new drug development across the spectrum. In this commentary, the sources of this dilemma and potential avenues to redress the issue are explored. These include a critical review of diagnostic issues and of selection of participants for clinical trials, and the mechanisms for identifying new drugs and new drug targets. Historically, the vast majority of agents have been discovered serendipitously or have been modifications of existing agents. Serendipitous discoveries, based on astute clinical observation or data mining, remain a valid option, as is illustrated by the suggestion in the paper by Wahlqvist and colleagues that treatment with sulfonylurea and metformin reduces the risk of affective disorder. However, the identification of agents targeting disorder-related biomarkers is currently proving particularly fruitful. There is considerable hope for genetics as a purist, pathophysiologically valid pathway to drug discovery; however, it is unclear whether the science is ready to meet this promise. Fruitful paradigms will require a break from the orthodoxy, and creativity and risk may well be the fingerprints of success. See related article http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7015/10/150

  1. Systems Pharmacology in Small Molecular Drug Discovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zhou

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Drug discovery is a risky, costly and time-consuming process depending on multidisciplinary methods to create safe and effective medicines. Although considerable progress has been made by high-throughput screening methods in drug design, the cost of developing contemporary approved drugs did not match that in the past decade. The major reason is the late-stage clinical failures in Phases II and III because of the complicated interactions between drug-specific, human body and environmental aspects affecting the safety and efficacy of a drug. There is a growing hope that systems-level consideration may provide a new perspective to overcome such current difficulties of drug discovery and development. The systems pharmacology method emerged as a holistic approach and has attracted more and more attention recently. The applications of systems pharmacology not only provide the pharmacodynamic evaluation and target identification of drug molecules, but also give a systems-level of understanding the interaction mechanism between drugs and complex disease. Therefore, the present review is an attempt to introduce how holistic systems pharmacology that integrated in silico ADME/T (i.e., absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion and toxicity, target fishing and network pharmacology facilitates the discovery of small molecular drugs at the system level.

  2. A Technique Socratic Questioning-Guided Discovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hakan Türkçapar

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available “Socratic Method” is a way of teaching philosophical thinking and knowledge by asking questions which was used by antique period greek philosopher Socrates. Socrates was teaching knowledge to his followers by asking questions and the conversation between them was named “Socratic Dialogues”. In this meaning, no novel knowledge is taught to the individual but only what is formerly known is reminded and rediscovered. The form of socratic questioning which is used during the process of cognitive behavioral therapy is known as Guided Discovery. In this method it is aimed to make the client notice the piece of knowledge which he could notice but is not aware with a series of questions. Socratic method or guided discovery consists of several steps which are: Identifying the problem by listening to the client and making reflections, finding alternatives by examining and evaluating, reidentification by using the newly found information and questioning the old distorted belief and reaching to a conclusion and applying it. Question types used during these procedures are, questions for gaining information, questions revealing the meanings, questions revealing the beliefs, questions about behaviours during the similar past experiences, analyse questions and analytic synthesis questions. In order to make the patient feel understood it is important to be empathetic and summarising the problem during the interview. In this text, steps of Socratic Questioning-Guided Discovery will be reviewed with sample dialogues after each step

  3. Practical system for recording spatially lifelike 5.1 surround sound and 3D fully periphonic reproduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Robert E. (Robin)

    2005-04-01

    In acoustic spaces that are played as extensions of musical instruments, tonality is a major contributor to the experience of reality. Tonality is described as a process of integration in our consciousness over the reverberation time of the room of many sonic arrivals in three dimensions, each directionally coded in a learned response by the listeners unique head-related transfer function (HRTF). Preserving this complex 3D directionality is key to lifelike reproduction of a recording. Conventional techniques such as stereo or 5.1-channel surround sound position the listener at the apex of a triangle or the center of a circle, not the center of the sphere of lifelike hearing. A periphonic reproduction system for music and movie entertainment, Virtual Reality, and Training Simulation termed PerAmbio 3D/2D (Pat. pending) is described in theory and subjective tests that capture the 3D sound field with a microphone array and transform the periphonic signals into ordinary 6-channel media for either decoderless 2D replay on 5.1 systems, or lossless 3D replay with decoder and five additional speakers. PerAmbio 3D/2D is described as a practical approach to preserving the spatial perception of reality, where the listening room and speakers disappear, leaving the acoustical impression of the original venue.

  4. Development of a 5.1 T conduction-cooled YBCO coil composed of a stack of 12 single pancakes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyazaki, Hiroshi, E-mail: hiroshi17.miyazaki@toshiba.co.jp [Toshiba Corporation, Power Systems Company, 2-4 Suehiro-cho, Tsurumi-ku, Yokohama 230-0045 (Japan); Iwai, Sadanori; Tosaka, Taizo; Tasaki, Kenji; Hanai, Satoshi; Urata, Masami; Ioka, Shigeru; Ishii, Yusuke [Toshiba Corporation, Power Systems Company, 2-4 Suehiro-cho, Tsurumi-ku, Yokohama 230-0045 (Japan)

    2013-01-15

    Highlights: ► We confirmed that performance of YBCO coil was improved by using APC wire. ► We made a conduction-cooled YBCO coil composed of a stack of 12 single pancakes. ► The coil had a central magnetic field as high as 5.1 T at 10 K. ► We also tested the coil operation in a 4 T background magnetic field. -- Abstract: We fabricated and tested a 5 T-class conduction-cooled high-temperature superconducting (HTS) coil composed of a stack of 12 single pancake coils wound with YBCO-coated conductors. The length of each single pancake coil was 25 m, and the inner diameter of the coil was 50 mm. The voltage–current characteristics were measured in liquid nitrogen and under conduction-cooled conditions at 10–60 K. At 10 K, the central magnetic field of the 12 stacked pancake coils was as high as 5.1 T at 305 A. We also tested the coil operation in a 4 T background magnetic field.

  5. Research and Development Toward a 4.5-1.5 Angstrom Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) at SLAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tatchyn, R.; Arthur, J.; Baltay, M.

    1995-08-01

    In recent years significant studies have been initiated on the feasibility of utilizing a portion of the 3km S-band accelerator at SLAC to drive a short wavelength (4.5-1.5 A) Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS), a Free Electron Laser (FEL) operating in the Self- Amplified Spontaneous Emission (SASE) regime. Electron beam requirements for single-pass saturation in a minimal time include: (1) a peak current in the 7 kA range, (2) a relative energy spread of <0.05%, and (3) a transverse emittance, ε[r-m], approximating the diffraction limit condition ε = λ / 4π, where lambda(m) is the output wavelength. Requirements on the insertion device include field error levels of 0.02% for keeping the electron bunch centered on and in phase with the amplified photons, and a focusing beta of 8 m/rad for inhibiting the dilution of its transverse density. Although much progress has been made in developing individual components and beam processing techniques necessary for LCLS operation down to approx. 20 A, a substantial amount of research and development is still required in a number of theoretical and experimental areas leading to the construction and operation of a 4.5-1.5 A LCLS. In this paper we report on a research and development program underway and in planning at SLAC for addressing critical questions in these areas

  6. Discovery radiomics via evolutionary deep radiomic sequencer discovery for pathologically proven lung cancer detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafiee, Mohammad Javad; Chung, Audrey G; Khalvati, Farzad; Haider, Masoom A; Wong, Alexander

    2017-10-01

    While lung cancer is the second most diagnosed form of cancer in men and women, a sufficiently early diagnosis can be pivotal in patient survival rates. Imaging-based, or radiomics-driven, detection methods have been developed to aid diagnosticians, but largely rely on hand-crafted features that may not fully encapsulate the differences between cancerous and healthy tissue. Recently, the concept of discovery radiomics was introduced, where custom abstract features are discovered from readily available imaging data. We propose an evolutionary deep radiomic sequencer discovery approach based on evolutionary deep intelligence. Motivated by patient privacy concerns and the idea of operational artificial intelligence, the evolutionary deep radiomic sequencer discovery approach organically evolves increasingly more efficient deep radiomic sequencers that produce significantly more compact yet similarly descriptive radiomic sequences over multiple generations. As a result, this framework improves operational efficiency and enables diagnosis to be run locally at the radiologist's computer while maintaining detection accuracy. We evaluated the evolved deep radiomic sequencer (EDRS) discovered via the proposed evolutionary deep radiomic sequencer discovery framework against state-of-the-art radiomics-driven and discovery radiomics methods using clinical lung CT data with pathologically proven diagnostic data from the LIDC-IDRI dataset. The EDRS shows improved sensitivity (93.42%), specificity (82.39%), and diagnostic accuracy (88.78%) relative to previous radiomics approaches.

  7. Scientific Discoveries: What Is Required for Lasting Impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lømo, Terje

    2016-01-01

    I have been involved in two scientific discoveries of some impact. One is the discovery of long-term potentiation (LTP), the phenomenon that brief, high-frequency impulse activity at synapses in the brain can lead to long-lasting increases in their efficiency of transmission. This finding demonstrated that synapses are plastic, a property thought to be necessary for learning and memory. The other discovery is that nerve-evoked muscle impulse activity, rather than putative trophic factors, controls the properties of muscle fibers. Here I describe how these two discoveries were made, the unexpected difficulties of reproducing the first discovery, and the controversies that followed the second discovery. I discuss why the first discovery took many years to become generally recognized, whereas the second caused an immediate sensation and entered textbooks and major reviews but is now largely forgotten. In the long run, discovering a new phenomenon has greater impact than falsifying a popular hypothesis.

  8. Natural Products for Drug Discovery in the 21st Century: Innovations for Novel Drug Discovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Ekow Thomford

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The therapeutic properties of plants have been recognised since time immemorial. Many pathological conditions have been treated using plant-derived medicines. These medicines are used as concoctions or concentrated plant extracts without isolation of active compounds. Modern medicine however, requires the isolation and purification of one or two active compounds. There are however a lot of global health challenges with diseases such as cancer, degenerative diseases, HIV/AIDS and diabetes, of which modern medicine is struggling to provide cures. Many times the isolation of “active compound” has made the compound ineffective. Drug discovery is a multidimensional problem requiring several parameters of both natural and synthetic compounds such as safety, pharmacokinetics and efficacy to be evaluated during drug candidate selection. The advent of latest technologies that enhance drug design hypotheses such as Artificial Intelligence, the use of ‘organ-on chip’ and microfluidics technologies, means that automation has become part of drug discovery. This has resulted in increased speed in drug discovery and evaluation of the safety, pharmacokinetics and efficacy of candidate compounds whilst allowing novel ways of drug design and synthesis based on natural compounds. Recent advances in analytical and computational techniques have opened new avenues to process complex natural products and to use their structures to derive new and innovative drugs. Indeed, we are in the era of computational molecular design, as applied to natural products. Predictive computational softwares have contributed to the discovery of molecular targets of natural products and their derivatives. In future the use of quantum computing, computational softwares and databases in modelling molecular interactions and predicting features and parameters needed for drug development, such as pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamics, will result in few false positive leads in drug

  9. Natural Products for Drug Discovery in the 21st Century: Innovations for Novel Drug Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomford, Nicholas Ekow; Senthebane, Dimakatso Alice; Rowe, Arielle; Munro, Daniella; Seele, Palesa; Maroyi, Alfred; Dzobo, Kevin

    2018-05-25

    The therapeutic properties of plants have been recognised since time immemorial. Many pathological conditions have been treated using plant-derived medicines. These medicines are used as concoctions or concentrated plant extracts without isolation of active compounds. Modern medicine however, requires the isolation and purification of one or two active compounds. There are however a lot of global health challenges with diseases such as cancer, degenerative diseases, HIV/AIDS and diabetes, of which modern medicine is struggling to provide cures. Many times the isolation of "active compound" has made the compound ineffective. Drug discovery is a multidimensional problem requiring several parameters of both natural and synthetic compounds such as safety, pharmacokinetics and efficacy to be evaluated during drug candidate selection. The advent of latest technologies that enhance drug design hypotheses such as Artificial Intelligence, the use of 'organ-on chip' and microfluidics technologies, means that automation has become part of drug discovery. This has resulted in increased speed in drug discovery and evaluation of the safety, pharmacokinetics and efficacy of candidate compounds whilst allowing novel ways of drug design and synthesis based on natural compounds. Recent advances in analytical and computational techniques have opened new avenues to process complex natural products and to use their structures to derive new and innovative drugs. Indeed, we are in the era of computational molecular design, as applied to natural products. Predictive computational softwares have contributed to the discovery of molecular targets of natural products and their derivatives. In future the use of quantum computing, computational softwares and databases in modelling molecular interactions and predicting features and parameters needed for drug development, such as pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamics, will result in few false positive leads in drug development. This review

  10. Fatigue-induced dislocation structure of titanium alloy VT5-1ct at temperatures of 293-11 K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grinberg, N.M. (Inst. for Low Temperature Physics and Engineering, Ukrainian Academy of Sciences, Kharkov (Ukraine)); Aleksenko, E.N. (Inst. for Low Temperature Physics and Engineering, Ukrainian Academy of Sciences, Kharkov (Ukraine)); Moskalenko, V.A. (Inst. for Low Temperature Physics and Engineering, Ukrainian Academy of Sciences, Kharkov (Ukraine)); Smirnov, A.R.N. (Inst. for Low Temperature Physics and Engineering, Ukrainian Academy of Sciences, Kharkov (Ukraine)); Yakovenko, L.F. (Inst. for Low Temperature Physics and Engineering, Ukrainian Academy of Sciences, Kharkov (Ukraine)); Mozhaev, A.V. (Inst. for Low Temperature Physics and Engineering, Ukrainian Academy of Sciences, Kharkov (Ukraine)); Arinushkin, I.A. (Inst. for Low Temperature Physics and Engineering, Ukrainian Academy of Sciences, Kharkov (Ukraine))

    1993-07-05

    The dislocation structure formed during the final stage of fatigue at high- and low-amplitude stresses at T=293 K in air and T=293, 93 and 11 K in high vacuum is studied on the Ti alloy VT5-1ct which has been prepared by two processing methods. The [sigma]-N curves are plotted for corresponding experimental conditions. It is shown that slip alone is responsible for the plastic deformation. The characteristic features of the dislocation structure formed are reported. The morphology of the a phase does not influence the character of the dislocation structure. At lower temperatures, the substructure remains practically unaltered, although the likelihood of uniformly distributed dislocations is lower. The lifetime is essentially dependent on the environment, temperature and the alloy microstructure, the latter being especially important at low temperatures in the high-amplitude region. (orig.)

  11. Precursory diffuse carbon dioxide degassing signature related to a 5.1 magnitude earthquake in El Salvador, Central America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar, J. M. L.; Pérez, N. M.; Hernández, P. A.; Soriano, T.; Barahona, F.; Olmos, R.; Cartagena, R.; López, D. L.; Lima, R. N.; Melián, G.; Galindo, I.; Padrón, E.; Sumino, H.; Notsu, K.

    2002-12-01

    Anomalous changes in the diffuse emission of carbon dioxide have been observed before some of the aftershocks of the 13 February 2001 El Salvador earthquake (magnitude 6.6). A significant increase in soil CO 2 efflux was detected 8 days before a 5.1 magnitude earthquake on 8 May 2001 25 km away from the observation site. In addition, pre- and co-seismic CO 2 efflux variations have also been observed related to the onset of a seismic swarm beneath San Vicente volcano on May 2001. Strain changes and/or fluid pressure fluctuations prior to earthquakes in the crust are hypothesized to be responsible for the observed variations in gas efflux at the surface environment of San Vicente volcano.

  12. Research and development toward a 4.5-1.5{angstrom} linac coherent light source (LCLS) at SLAC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tatchyn, R.; Arthur, J.; Baltay, M. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    In recent years significant studies have been initiated on the theoretical and technical feasibility of utilizing a portion of the 3km S-band accelerator at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) to drive a short wavelength (4.5-1.5 {Angstrom}) Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS), a Free-Electron Laser (FEL) operating in the Self-Amplified Spontaneous Emission (SASE) regime. Electron beam requirements for single-pass saturation include: (1) a peak current in the 3-7 kA range, (2) a relative energy spread of <0.05%, ad (3) a transverse emittance, {epsilon}{le}{lambda}/4{pi}, where {lambda}[m] is the output wavelength. Requirements on the insertion device include field error levels of 0.1-0.2% for keeping the electron bunch centered on and in phase with the amplified photons, and a focusing beta of 4-8 m for inhibiting the dilution of its transverse density. Although much progress techniques necessary for LCLS operation down to {approximately}20 {angstrom}, a substantial amount of research and development is still required in a number of theoretical and experimental areas leading to the construction and operation of a 4.5-1.5 {angstrom} LCLS. In this paper we report on a research and development program underway and in planning at SLAC for addressing critical questions in these areas. These include the construction and operation of a linac test stand for developing laser-driven photocathode rf guns with normalized emittances approaching 1 mm-mr; development of advanced beam compression, stability, an emittance control techniques at multi-GeV energies; the construction and operation of a FEL Amplifier Test Experiment (FATE) for theoretical and experimental studies of SASE at IR wavelengths; an undulator development program to investigate superconducting, hybrid/permanent magnet (hybrid/PM), and pulsed-Cu technologies; theoretical and computational studies of high-gain FEL physics and LCLS component designs.

  13. Mechanism of inhibition of mouse Slo3 (KCa 5.1) potassium channels by quinine, quinidine and barium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrighton, David C; Muench, Stephen P; Lippiat, Jonathan D

    2015-09-01

    The Slo3 (KCa 5.1) channel is a major component of mammalian KSper (sperm potassium conductance) channels and inhibition of these channels by quinine and barium alters sperm motility. The aim of this investigation was to determine the mechanism by which these drugs inhibit Slo3 channels. Mouse (m) Slo3 (KCa 5.1) channels or mutant forms were expressed in Xenopus oocytes and currents recorded with 2-electrode voltage-clamp. Gain-of-function mSlo3 mutations were used to explore the state-dependence of the inhibition. The interaction between quinidine and mSlo3 channels was modelled by in silico docking. Several drugs known to block KSper also affected mSlo3 channels with similar levels of inhibition. The inhibition induced by extracellular barium was prevented by increasing the extracellular potassium concentration. R196Q and F304Y mutations in the mSlo3 voltage sensor and pore, respectively, both increased channel activity. The F304Y mutation did not alter the effects of barium, but increased the potency of inhibition by both quinine and quinidine approximately 10-fold; this effect was not observed with the R196Q mutation. Block of mSlo3 channels by quinine, quinidine and barium is not state-dependent. Barium inhibits mSlo3 outside the cell by interacting with the selectivity filter, whereas quinine and quinidine act from the inside, by binding in a hydrophobic pocket formed by the S6 segment of each subunit. Furthermore, we propose that the Slo3 channel activation gate lies deep within the pore between F304 in the S6 segment and the selectivity filter. © 2015 The Authors. British Journal of Pharmacology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of The British Pharmacological Society.

  14. Controlling the Rate of GWAS False Discoveries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brzyski, Damian; Peterson, Christine B; Sobczyk, Piotr; Candès, Emmanuel J; Bogdan, Malgorzata; Sabatti, Chiara

    2017-01-01

    With the rise of both the number and the complexity of traits of interest, control of the false discovery rate (FDR) in genetic association studies has become an increasingly appealing and accepted target for multiple comparison adjustment. While a number of robust FDR-controlling strategies exist, the nature of this error rate is intimately tied to the precise way in which discoveries are counted, and the performance of FDR-controlling procedures is satisfactory only if there is a one-to-one correspondence between what scientists describe as unique discoveries and the number of rejected hypotheses. The presence of linkage disequilibrium between markers in genome-wide association studies (GWAS) often leads researchers to consider the signal associated to multiple neighboring SNPs as indicating the existence of a single genomic locus with possible influence on the phenotype. This a posteriori aggregation of rejected hypotheses results in inflation of the relevant FDR. We propose a novel approach to FDR control that is based on prescreening to identify the level of resolution of distinct hypotheses. We show how FDR-controlling strategies can be adapted to account for this initial selection both with theoretical results and simulations that mimic the dependence structure to be expected in GWAS. We demonstrate that our approach is versatile and useful when the data are analyzed using both tests based on single markers and multiple regression. We provide an R package that allows practitioners to apply our procedure on standard GWAS format data, and illustrate its performance on lipid traits in the North Finland Birth Cohort 66 cohort study. Copyright © 2017 by the Genetics Society of America.

  15. The discovery of X-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farmelo, G.

    1995-01-01

    This paper relates the discovery of X-rays by Wilhelm Roentgen in november 1895 and the successive experiments carried out by the German searcher to try to identify the origin of the X radiations. Part of his biography is described, his curriculum at the university, his first experiments with cathodic rays, the first human body radiography and the radiography of various materials. In 1901, Roentgen received the first Nobel price just after being promoted to the rank of professor at the University of Munchen. (J.S.). 2 photos

  16. Advances in knowledge discovery in databases

    CERN Document Server

    Adhikari, Animesh

    2015-01-01

    This book presents recent advances in Knowledge discovery in databases (KDD) with a focus on the areas of market basket database, time-stamped databases and multiple related databases. Various interesting and intelligent algorithms are reported on data mining tasks. A large number of association measures are presented, which play significant roles in decision support applications. This book presents, discusses and contrasts new developments in mining time-stamped data, time-based data analyses, the identification of temporal patterns, the mining of multiple related databases, as well as local patterns analysis.  

  17. Big Data for cardiology: novel discovery?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer-Schönberger, Viktor

    2016-03-21

    Big Data promises to change cardiology through a massive increase in the data gathered and analysed; but its impact goes beyond improving incrementally existing methods. The potential of comprehensive data sets for scientific discovery is examined, and its impact on the scientific method generally and cardiology in particular is posited, together with likely consequences for research and practice. Big Data in cardiology changes how new insights are being discovered. For it to flourish, significant modifications in the methods, structures, and institutions of the profession are necessary. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2015. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Solar System Moons Discovery and Mythology

    CERN Document Server

    Blunck, Jürgen

    2010-01-01

    Starting from Mars outward this concise handbook provides thorough information on the satellites of the planets in the solar system. Each chapter begins with a section on the discovery and the naming of the planet's satellites or rings. This is followed by a section presenting the historic sources of those names. The book contains tables with the orbital and physical parameters of all satellites and is illustrated throughout with modern photos of the planets and their moons as well as historical and mythological drawings. The Cyrillic transcriptions of the satellite names are provided in a register. Readers interested in the history of astronomy and its mythological backgrounds will enjoy this beautiful volume.

  19. Pulsed laser deposition—invention or discovery?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkatesan, T

    2014-01-01

    The evolution of pulsed laser deposition had been an exciting process of invention and discovery, with the development of high T c superconducting films as the main driver. It has become the method of choice in research and development for rapid prototyping of multicomponent inorganic materials for preparing a variety of thin films, heterostructures and atomically sharp interfaces, and has become an indispensable tool for advancing oxide electronics. In this paper I will give a personal account of the invention and development of this process at Bellcore/Rutgers, the opportunity, challenges and mostly the extraordinary excitement that was generated, typical of any disruptive technology. (paper)

  20. Oncology drug discovery: planning a turnaround.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toniatti, Carlo; Jones, Philip; Graham, Hilary; Pagliara, Bruno; Draetta, Giulio

    2014-04-01

    We have made remarkable progress in our understanding of the pathophysiology of cancer. This improved understanding has resulted in increasingly effective targeted therapies that are better tolerated than conventional cytotoxic agents and even curative in some patients. Unfortunately, the success rate of drug approval has been limited, and therapeutic improvements have been marginal, with too few exceptions. In this article, we review the current approach to oncology drug discovery and development, identify areas in need of improvement, and propose strategies to improve patient outcomes. We also suggest future directions that may improve the quality of preclinical and early clinical drug evaluation, which could lead to higher approval rates of anticancer drugs.

  1. 60 years of CERN experiments and discoveries

    CERN Document Server

    Di Lella, Luigi

    2015-01-01

    The book contains a description of the most important experimental results achieved at CERN during the past 60 years, from the mid-1950s to the latest discovery of the Higgs particle. It covers the results from early accelerators at CERN to the most recent results at the LHC and thus provides an excellent review of the achievements of this outstanding laboratory. It reflects not only the impressive scientific progress achieved during the past six decades but demonstrates also the special way of successful international collaboration developed at CERN.

  2. Pulsar discovery by global volunteer computing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knispel, B; Allen, B; Cordes, J M; Deneva, J S; Anderson, D; Aulbert, C; Bhat, N D R; Bock, O; Bogdanov, S; Brazier, A; Camilo, F; Champion, D J; Chatterjee, S; Crawford, F; Demorest, P B; Fehrmann, H; Freire, P C C; Gonzalez, M E; Hammer, D; Hessels, J W T; Jenet, F A; Kasian, L; Kaspi, V M; Kramer, M; Lazarus, P; van Leeuwen, J; Lorimer, D R; Lyne, A G; Machenschalk, B; McLaughlin, M A; Messenger, C; Nice, D J; Papa, M A; Pletsch, H J; Prix, R; Ransom, S M; Siemens, X; Stairs, I H; Stappers, B W; Stovall, K; Venkataraman, A

    2010-09-10

    Einstein@Home aggregates the computer power of hundreds of thousands of volunteers from 192 countries to mine large data sets. It has now found a 40.8-hertz isolated pulsar in radio survey data from the Arecibo Observatory taken in February 2007. Additional timing observations indicate that this pulsar is likely a disrupted recycled pulsar. PSR J2007+2722's pulse profile is remarkably wide with emission over almost the entire spin period; the pulsar likely has closely aligned magnetic and spin axes. The massive computing power provided by volunteers should enable many more such discoveries.

  3. Discovery of convoys in trajectory databases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeung, Hoyoung; Yiu, Man Lung; Zhou, Xiaofang

    2008-01-01

    a group of objects that have traveled together for some time. More specifically, this paper formalizes the concept of a convoy query using density-based notions, in order to capture groups of arbitrary extents and shapes. Convoy discovery is relevant for real-life applications in throughput planning...... convoys are further processed to obtain the actual convoys. Our comprehensive empirical study offers insight into the properties of the paper's proposals and demonstrates that the proposals are effective and efficient on real-world trajectory data....

  4. A centralidade da Palavra de Deus em Lucas 5,1-11 (The centrality of the Word od God in Luke 5,1-11 - DOI: 10.5752/P.2175-5841.2013v11n30p682

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ildo Perondi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Pouca atenção foi dada pelos estudiosos para a função da Palavra de Deus no relato da pesca milagrosa em Lucas, tanto em nível literário, quanto teológico. Diante disso, o objetivo deste trabalho foi analisar a perícope de Lc 5,1-11, com enfoque na Palavra de Deus, proclamada em Jesus e por ele. A metodologia utilizada foi a análise e interpretação de textos, privilegiando o método histórico-crítico e os seus elementos essenciais, além do uso de outros métodos, baseados na ciência da linguagem. Pode-se dizer que a Palavra de Deus ocupa um lugar central na trama, dando cadência ao relato e elucidando o sentido teológico que Lucas pretende imprimir, o que fica evidente pelas alterações feitas pelo autor no relato original. Na perícope da pesca milagrosa, a Palavra é proclamada por Jesus em caráter performativo, faz o milagre acontecer, conduz Pedro à conversão e dá a ele uma nova missão. Na teologia de Lucas ouvimos o eco das comunidades primitivas, nascidas ao redor da Palavra do Senhor. Palavras-chave: Lucas. Pesca. Milagre. Pedro. Palavra.   Abstract The scholars haven’t given too much attention to the function of the Word of God in the report of the miraculous catch of fish in Luke, at the literary and theological level. Thus, the objective of this paper was to analyze the pericope of Luke 5:1-11, with emphasis on the Word of God proclaimed in Jesus and through Him. The methodology used was the analysis and interpretation of texts, focusing on the historical-critical method and its essential elements, besides the use of other methods, based on the science of language. It’s possible to say that the Word of God occupies a central place in the plot, giving cadence to the report and elucidating the theological sense that Luke wanted to print, which is evidenced by the changes he has made in the original report. In the pericope of the miraculous catch of fish, the Word is proclaimed by Jesus in a performative way

  5. The in silico drug discovery toolbox: applications in lead discovery and optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, Agostino; Costantino, Gabriele; Sartori, Luca; Radi, Marco

    2017-11-06

    Discovery and development of a new drug is a long lasting and expensive journey that takes around 15 years from starting idea to approval and marketing of new medication. Despite the R&D expenditures have been constantly increasing in the last few years, number of new drugs introduced into market has been steadily declining. This is mainly due to preclinical and clinical safety issues, which still represent about 40% of drug discontinuation. From this point of view, it is clear that if we want to increase drug-discovery success rate and reduce costs associated with development of a new drug, a comprehensive evaluation/prediction of potential safety issues should be conducted as soon as possible during early drug discovery phase. In the present review, we will analyse the early steps of drug-discovery pipeline, describing the sequence of steps from disease selection to lead optimization and focusing on the most common in silico tools used to assess attrition risks and build a mitigation plan. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  6. Discovery of a New Nearby Star

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teegarden, B. J.; Pravdo, S. H.; Covey, K.; Frazier, O.; Hawley, S. L.; Hicks, M.; Lawrence, K.; McGlynn, T.; Reid, I. N.; Shaklan, S. B.

    2003-01-01

    We report the discovery of a nearby star with a very large proper motion of 5.06 +/- 0.03 arcsec/yr. The star is called SO025300.5+165258 and referred to herein as HPMS (high proper motion star). The discovery came as a result of a search of the SkyMorph database, a sensitive and persistent survey that is well suited for finding stars with high proper motions. There are currently only 7 known stars with proper motions greater than 5 arcsec/yr. We have determined a preliminary value for the parallax of pi = 0.43 +/- 0.13 arcsec. If this value holds our new star ranks behind only the Alpha Centauri system (including Proxima Centauri) and Barnard's star in the list of our nearest stellar neighbours. The spectrum and measured tangential velocity indicate that HPMS is a main-sequence star with spectral type M6.5. However, if our distance measurement is correct, the HPMS is underluminous by 1.2 +/- 0.7 mag.

  7. Discovery Mondays: crystals and particles for medicine

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Question: what are as heavy as lead, as clear as glass, and appear as tiny specks in a doctor's scanner but large as life in a physicist's detector? Answer: the crystals you will be able to observe in all their facets on 1 September at the start of a new season of Discovery Mondays at Microcosm. Come along and meet the CERN physicists who use crystals not only in their detectors but also in the latest generation of scanners. Four workshops will be organised, each devoted to a different medical imaging technique. The first workshop will be run by a physicist from the Crystal Clear collaboration, who will present her collaboration's special breed of crystals, which emit light when they are traversed by high-energy particles, and explain to you these crystals' role in Positron Emission Tomographs. The second workshop will focus on an imaging technique known as the Compton Camera, also based on scintillating crystals. Crystals worth looking at and admiring. Come to the next Discovery Monday to find out how they ...

  8. Scientists Like Me: Faces of Discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enevoldsen, A. A. G.; Culp, S.; Trinh, A.

    2010-08-01

    During the International Year of Astronomy, Pacific Science Center is hosting a photography exhibit: Scientists Like Me: Faces of Discovery. The exhibit contains photographs of real, current astronomers and scientists working in astronomy and aerospace-related fields from many races, genders, cultural affiliations and walks of life. The photographs were taken and posters designed by Alyssa Trinh and Sarah Culp, high school interns in Discovery Corps, Pacific Science Center's youth development program. The direct contact between the scientists and the interns helps the intended audience of teachers and families personally connect with scientists. The finished posters from this exhibit are available online (http://pacificsciencecenter.org/scientists) for teachers to use in their classrooms, in addition to being displayed at Pacific Science Center and becoming part of Pacific Science Center's permanent art rotation. The objective of this project was to fill a need for representative photographs of scientists in the world community. It also met two of the goals of International Year of Astronomy: to provide a modern image of science and scientists, and to improve the gender-balanced representation of scientists at all levels and promote greater involvement by all people in scientific and engineering careers. We would like to build on the success of this project and create an annual summer internship, with different interns, focusing on creating posters for different fields of science.

  9. Discovery and progress of direct cardiac reprogramming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojima, Hidenori; Ieda, Masaki

    2017-06-01

    Cardiac disease remains a major cause of death worldwide. Direct cardiac reprogramming has emerged as a promising approach for cardiac regenerative therapy. After the discovery of MyoD, a master regulator for skeletal muscle, other single cardiac reprogramming factors (master regulators) have been sought. Discovery of cardiac reprogramming factors was inspired by the finding that multiple, but not single, transcription factors were needed to generate induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from fibroblasts. We first reported a combination of cardiac-specific transcription factors, Gata4, Mef2c, and Tbx5 (GMT), that could convert mouse fibroblasts into cardiomyocyte-like cells, which were designated as induced cardiomyocyte-like cells (iCMs). Following our first report of cardiac reprogramming, many researchers, including ourselves, demonstrated an improvement in cardiac reprogramming efficiency, in vivo direct cardiac reprogramming for heart regeneration, and cardiac reprogramming in human cells. However, cardiac reprogramming in human cells and adult fibroblasts remains inefficient, and further efforts are needed. We believe that future research elucidating epigenetic barriers and molecular mechanisms of direct cardiac reprogramming will improve the reprogramming efficiency, and that this new technology has great potential for clinical applications.

  10. Discovery Mondays - The detectors: tracking particles

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    View of a module from the LHCb vertex detector, which will be presented at the next Discovery Monday. How do you observe the invisible? In order to deepen still further our knowledge of the infinitely small, physicists accelerate beams of particles and generate collisions between them at extraordinary energies. The collisions give birth to showers of new particles. What are they? In order to find out, physicists slip into the role of detectives thanks to the detectors. At the next Discovery Monday you will find out about the different methods used at CERN to detect particles. A cloud chamber will allow you to see the tracks of cosmic particles live. You will also be given the chance to see real modules for the ATLAS and for the LHCb experiments. Strange materials will be on hand, such as crystals that are heavier than iron and yet as transparent as glass... Come to the Microcosm and become a top detective yourself! This event will take place in French. Join us at the Microcosm (Reception Building 33, M...

  11. Centenary of the discovery of superconductivity

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Vernède

    2011-01-01

    To mark the centenary of the discovery of the phenomenon of superconductivity, MANEP and the University of Geneva are organising open days at the PhysiScope between 8 and 15 April 2011. On 13 April CERN will make a contribution to the series of events with a lecture on superconductivity followed by a demonstration of the phenomenon at the Globe   Historic graph showing the superconducting transition of mercury, measured in Leiden in 1911 by H. Kamerlingh Onnes. On 8 April 2011 it will be a hundred years since the discovery of superconductivity by the Dutch physicist Kamerlingh Onnes. To mark the occasion, the University of Geneva and MANEP are organising a week-long interactive workshop at the PhysiScope. “The purpose of this initiative is to introduce the general public to this spectacular phenomenon by giving them an opportunity to take part in entertaining experiments”, explains Adriana Aleman, Head of Communications of the University of Geneva. As its contribution to the e...

  12. The Southern HII Region Discovery Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenger, Trey; Miller Dickey, John; Jordan, Christopher; Bania, Thomas M.; Balser, Dana S.; Dawson, Joanne; Anderson, Loren D.; Armentrout, William P.; McClure-Griffiths, Naomi

    2016-01-01

    HII regions are zones of ionized gas surrounding recently formed high-mass (OB-type) stars. They are among the brightest objects in the sky at radio wavelengths. HII regions provide a useful tool in constraining the Galactic morphological structure, chemical structure, and star formation rate. We describe the Southern HII Region Discovery Survey (SHRDS), an Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA) survey that discovered ~80 new HII regions (so far) in the Galactic longitude range 230 degrees to 360 degrees. This project is an extension of the Green Bank Telescope HII Region Discovery Survey (GBT HRDS), Arecibo HRDS, and GBT Widefield Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) HRDS, which together discovered ~800 new HII regions in the Galactic longitude range -20 degrees to 270 degrees. Similar to those surveys, candidate HII regions were chosen from 20 micron emission (from WISE) coincident with 10 micron (WISE) and 20 cm (SGPS) emission. By using the ATCA to detect radio continuum and radio recombination line emission from a subset of these candidates, we have added to the population of known Galactic HII regions.

  13. Discovery Mondays - The detectors: tracking particles

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    View of a module from the LHCb vertex detector, which will be presented at the next Discovery Monday. How do you observe the invisible? In order to deepen still further our knowledge of the infinitely small, physicists accelerate beams of particles at close to the speed of light, then generate collisions between them at extraordinary energies, giving birth to showers of new particles. What are these particles? In order to find out, physicists transform themselves into detectives with the help of the detectors. Located around the collision area, these exceptional machines are made up of various layers, each of which detects and measures specific properties of the particles that travel through them. Powerful computers then reconstruct their trajectory and record their charge, mass and energy in order to build up a kind of particle ID card. At the next Discovery Monday you will be able to find out about the different methods used at CERN to detect particles. A cloud chamber will provide live images of the trac...

  14. X-Ray Astronomy Discovery Experiments, III*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, P. C.

    2011-04-01

    The first paper established the existence of concurrent discovery experiments by Riccardo Giacconi and myself at the start of x-ray astronomy.footnotetextR. Giacconi et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 9, 439 (1962).^,footnotetextP. C. Fisher et al., Quasars and High Energy Astronomy including Proceedings of the 2^nd Texas Symposium on Relativistic Astrophysics 15 - 19 December 1964 (K. N. Douglas et. al., eds.) Gordon and Breach Science Publishers, New York, p. 253 (1969).^,footnotetextP. C. Fisher, BAPS 53 No. 2, 165 (2008). Paper II footnotetextP.C. Fisher, http://www.aps.org/units/fhp/index.cfm plus FHP link to April 2009 presentation H14.00006. described some acts by some individuals/institutions over four decades that may have caused the illusion that I had not made a discovery. Some additional data about this illusion, and the first possible measurement of x-ray emission from a black hole, will be presented. This paper's primary goal is for the American Physical Society to have Giacconi comment on several questions of a historical nature. [4pt] *Work supported by NASA contracts NAS5-1174 and NASw-909, the Lockheed Independent Research Program, and Ruffner Associates.

  15. Discovery Monday - Behind the plug: communication networks

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    Ever wondered what happens to your email when you click "send"? And when you make a phone call, how does your voice travel down the wire? Find out more about communication networks and their applications at the next Discovery Monday in Microcosm on 1 March. At CERN, networks are used for a multitude of reasons. Mobile phones, for example, are used in the laboratory's underground areas. Optical fibre cabling ensures that CERN's computers are connected to the rest of the world. But how do optical fibres work and what does the future have in store? CERN's experiments also need networks. Particle detectors are made of many layers, each relays complex information to a computer analysis centre which reconstitutes the passage of the particles resulting from collisions. Many billions of bytes are transmitted every second from a multitude of sources, to many computers.  No single computer can handle such a huge flow of information. The next Discovery Monday is your chance to find out how this works.  Participate i...

  16. Midwest Lake uranium discovery, Saskatchewan, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, F.

    1981-01-01

    The discovery of the Midwest Lake uranium deposit in Saskatchewan came some ten years after the start of exploration. The original mining rights were acquired on the basis of regional published, geology and proximity to the earlier discovery. Aerial radiometric surveys led to the location of a train of radioactive, glacially transported sandstone boulders and cobbles. The source of these mineralized erratics did not outcrop, and an extensive series of magnetic, electromagnetic, seismic and gravity surveys was carried out in an unsuccessful attempt to identify the source location. These surveys were followed by several programmes of diamond drilling, geochemical surveys and Pleistocene geological studies. None of these programmes or surveys encountered bedrock mineralization. When information about ore controls in the Athabasca Basin became available, a limited programme of three 300-m wildcat diamond-drill holes was proposed. The second of these holes cut weak radioactivity in a poorly cored intersection. This intersection was at an unconformity at a depth of 200 m. The programme terminated prematurely with early melting of lake ice. The first hole in the subsequent winter's follow-up drilling intersected uranium values in excess of 8%. (author)

  17. Feedback-Driven Dynamic Invariant Discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lingming; Yang, Guowei; Rungta, Neha S.; Person, Suzette; Khurshid, Sarfraz

    2014-01-01

    Program invariants can help software developers identify program properties that must be preserved as the software evolves, however, formulating correct invariants can be challenging. In this work, we introduce iDiscovery, a technique which leverages symbolic execution to improve the quality of dynamically discovered invariants computed by Daikon. Candidate invariants generated by Daikon are synthesized into assertions and instrumented onto the program. The instrumented code is executed symbolically to generate new test cases that are fed back to Daikon to help further re ne the set of candidate invariants. This feedback loop is executed until a x-point is reached. To mitigate the cost of symbolic execution, we present optimizations to prune the symbolic state space and to reduce the complexity of the generated path conditions. We also leverage recent advances in constraint solution reuse techniques to avoid computing results for the same constraints across iterations. Experimental results show that iDiscovery converges to a set of higher quality invariants compared to the initial set of candidate invariants in a small number of iterations.

  18. Business Model Discovery by Technology Entrepreneurs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Muegge

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Value creation and value capture are central to technology entrepreneurship. The ways in which a particular firm creates and captures value are the foundation of that firm's business model, which is an explanation of how the business delivers value to a set of customers at attractive profits. Despite the deep conceptual link between business models and technology entrepreneurship, little is known about the processes by which technology entrepreneurs produce successful business models. This article makes three contributions to partially address this knowledge gap. First, it argues that business model discovery by technology entrepreneurs can be, and often should be, disciplined by both intention and structure. Second, it provides a tool for disciplined business model discovery that includes an actionable process and a worksheet for describing a business model in a form that is both concise and explicit. Third, it shares preliminary results and lessons learned from six technology entrepreneurs applying a disciplined process to strengthen or reinvent the business models of their own nascent technology businesses.

  19. Panorama 2017 - New conventional oil and gas discoveries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hureau, Geoffroy; Vially, Roland

    2017-01-01

    In 2016, spending on exploration is expected to decline by approximately 35% for the second consecutive year (total exploration-production is down 24%). However, volumes discovered through conventional exploration should only fall by 25% due to several significant discoveries, particularly in Alaska and West Africa. The largest discovery in 2016 was an unconventional Permian shale basin in the United States, which could alone contain as many hydrocarbons as all of the year's conventional discoveries combined

  20. The Dynamic Radio Sky: An Opportunity for Discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    giant pulses from the Crab pulsar , a small number of dedicated radio transient surveys, and the serendipitous discovery of transient radio sources...used in the discovery of over 1800 radio pulsars . In 2003, the Parkes Multibeam Survey had covered the entire Galactic plane visible from Parkes... pulsars , and confirmed the neutron star nature of these sources, dubbed Rotating Radio Transients (RRATs). Since the discovery of the original 11 RRATs

  1. Evaluation of Geometric Progression (GP Buildup Factors using MCNP Codes (MCNP6.1 and MCNP5-1.60

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Kyung-O

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The gamma-ray buildup factors of three-dimensional point kernel code (QAD-CGGP are re-evaluated by using MCNP codes (MCNP6.1 and MCNPX5-1.60 and ENDF/B-VI.8 photoatomic data, which cover an energy range of 0.015–15 MeV and an iron thickness of 0.5–40 Mean Free Path (MFP. These new data are fitted to the Geometric Progression (GP fitting function and are then compared with ANS standard data equipped with QAD-CGGP. In addition, a simple benchmark calculation was performed to compare the QAD-CGGP results applied with new and existing buildup factors based on the MCNP codes. In the case of the buildup factors of low-energy gamma-rays, new data are evaluated to be about 5% higher than the existing data. In other cases, these new data present a similar trend based on the specific penetration depth, while existing data continuously increase beyond that depth. In a simple benchmark, the calculations using the existing data were slightly underestimated compared to the reference data at a deep penetration depth. On the other hand, the calculations with new data were stabilized with an increasing penetration depth, despite a slight overestimation at a shallow penetration depth.

  2. Discovery of the calcium, indium, tin, and platinum isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amos, S.; Gross, J.L.; Thoennessen, M.

    2011-01-01

    Currently, twenty-four calcium, thirty-eight indium, thirty-eight tin, and thirty-nine platinum isotopes have been observed and the discovery of these isotopes is discussed here. For each isotope a brief synopsis of the first refereed publication, including the production and identification method, is presented. - Highlights: Documentation of the discovery of all calcium, indium, tin and platinum isotopes. → Summary of author, journal, year, place and country of discovery for each isotope. → Brief description of discovery history of each isotope.

  3. Price discovery in a continuous-time setting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dias, Gustavo Fruet; Fernandes, Marcelo; Scherrer, Cristina

    We formulate a continuous-time price discovery model in which the price discovery measure varies (stochastically) at daily frequency. We estimate daily measures of price discovery using a kernel-based OLS estimator instead of running separate daily VECM regressions as standard in the literature. We...... show that our estimator is not only consistent, but also outperforms the standard daily VECM in finite samples. We illustrate our theoretical findings by studying the price discovery process of 10 actively traded stocks in the U.S. from 2007 to 2013....

  4. Conceptual Design For Interplanetary Spaceship Discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benton, Mark G.

    2006-01-01

    With the recently revived national interest in Lunar and Mars missions, this design study was undertaken by the author in an attempt to satisfy the long-term space exploration vision of human travel ``to the Moon, Mars, and beyond'' with a single design or family of vehicles. This paper describes a conceptual design for an interplanetary spaceship of the not-to-distant future. It is a design that is outwardly similar to the spaceship Discovery depicted in the novel ``2001 - A Space Odyssey'' and film of the same name. Like its namesake, this spaceship could one day transport a human expedition to explore the moons of Jupiter. This spaceship Discovery is a real engineering design that is capable of being implemented using technologies that are currently at or near the state-of-the-art. The ship's main propulsion and electrical power are provided by bi-modal nuclear thermal rocket engines. Configurations are presented to satisfy four basic Design Reference Missions: (1) a high-energy mission to Jupiter's moon Callisto, (2) a high-energy mission to Mars, (3) a low-energy mission to Mars, and (4) a high-energy mission to the Moon. The spaceship design includes dual, strap-on boosters to enable the high-energy Mars and Jupiter missions. Three conceptual lander designs are presented: (1) Two types of Mars landers that utilize atmospheric and propulsive braking, and (2) a lander for Callisto or Earth's Moon that utilizes only propulsive braking. Spaceship Discovery offers many advantages for human exploration of the Solar System: (1) Nuclear propulsion enables propulsive capture and escape maneuvers at Earth and target planets, eliminating risky aero-capture maneuvers. (2) Strap-on boosters provide robust propulsive energy, enabling flexibility in mission planning, shorter transit times, expanded launch windows, and free-return abort trajectories from Mars. (3) A backup abort propulsion system enables crew aborts at multiple points in the mission. (4) Clustered NTR

  5. Identification of road user related risk factors, Deliverable 5.1 of the H2020 project SafetyCube (Safety CaUsation, Benefits and Efficiency).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Filtness, A. & Papadimitriou, E. (Eds.) Leskovšek, B. Focant, N. Martensen, H. Sgarra, V. Usami, D.S. Soteropoulos, A. Stadlbauer, S. Theofilatos, A. Yannis, G. Ziakopoulos, A. Diamandouros, K. Durso, C. Goldenbeld, C. Loenis, B. Schermers, G. Petegem, J.-H. van Elvik, R. Hesjevoll, I.S. Quigley, C. & Papazikou, E.

    2017-01-01

    The present Deliverable (D5.1) describes the identification and evaluation of infrastructure related risk factors. It outlines the results of Task 5.1 of WP5 of SafetyCube, which aimed to identify and evaluate infrastructure related risk factors and related road safety problems by (i) presenting a

  6. Delivering Hubble Discoveries to the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenhamer, B.; Villard, R.; Weaver, D.; Cordes, K.; Knisely, L.

    2013-04-01

    Today's classrooms are significantly influenced by current news events, delivered instantly into the classroom via the Internet. Educators are challenged daily to transform these events into student learning opportunities. In the case of space science, current news events may be the only chance for educators and students to explore the marvels of the Universe. Inspired by these circumstances, the education and news teams developed the Star Witness News science content reading series. These online news stories (also available in downloadable PDF format) mirror the content of Hubble press releases and are designed for upper elementary and middle school level readers to enjoy. Educators can use Star Witness News stories to reinforce students' reading skills while exposing students to the latest Hubble discoveries.

  7. Using Aptamers for Cancer Biomarker Discovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Min Chang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aptamers are single-stranded synthetic DNA- or RNA-based oligonucleotides that fold into various shapes to bind to a specific target, which includes proteins, metals, and molecules. Aptamers have high affinity and high specificity that are comparable to that of antibodies. They are obtained using iterative method, called (Systematic Evolution of Ligands by Exponential Enrichment SELEX and cell-based SELEX (cell-SELEX. Aptamers can be paired with recent advances in nanotechnology, microarray, microfluidics, and other technologies for applications in clinical medicine. One particular area that aptamers can shed a light on is biomarker discovery. Biomarkers are important in diagnosis and treatment of cancer. In this paper, we will describe ways in which aptamers can be used to discover biomarkers for cancer diagnosis and therapeutics.

  8. Testing jumps via false discovery rate control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Yu-Min

    2013-01-01

    Many recently developed nonparametric jump tests can be viewed as multiple hypothesis testing problems. For such multiple hypothesis tests, it is well known that controlling type I error often makes a large proportion of erroneous rejections, and such situation becomes even worse when the jump occurrence is a rare event. To obtain more reliable results, we aim to control the false discovery rate (FDR), an efficient compound error measure for erroneous rejections in multiple testing problems. We perform the test via the Barndorff-Nielsen and Shephard (BNS) test statistic, and control the FDR with the Benjamini and Hochberg (BH) procedure. We provide asymptotic results for the FDR control. From simulations, we examine relevant theoretical results and demonstrate the advantages of controlling the FDR. The hybrid approach is then applied to empirical analysis on two benchmark stock indices with high frequency data.

  9. Testing jumps via false discovery rate control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Min Yen

    Full Text Available Many recently developed nonparametric jump tests can be viewed as multiple hypothesis testing problems. For such multiple hypothesis tests, it is well known that controlling type I error often makes a large proportion of erroneous rejections, and such situation becomes even worse when the jump occurrence is a rare event. To obtain more reliable results, we aim to control the false discovery rate (FDR, an efficient compound error measure for erroneous rejections in multiple testing problems. We perform the test via the Barndorff-Nielsen and Shephard (BNS test statistic, and control the FDR with the Benjamini and Hochberg (BH procedure. We provide asymptotic results for the FDR control. From simulations, we examine relevant theoretical results and demonstrate the advantages of controlling the FDR. The hybrid approach is then applied to empirical analysis on two benchmark stock indices with high frequency data.

  10. Genome engineering for microbial natural product discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Si-Sun; Katsuyama, Yohei; Bai, Linquan; Deng, Zixin; Ohnishi, Yasuo; Kim, Eung-Soo

    2018-03-03

    The discovery and development of microbial natural products (MNPs) have played pivotal roles in the fields of human medicine and its related biotechnology sectors over the past several decades. The post-genomic era has witnessed the development of microbial genome mining approaches to isolate previously unsuspected MNP biosynthetic gene clusters (BGCs) hidden in the genome, followed by various BGC awakening techniques to visualize compound production. Additional microbial genome engineering techniques have allowed higher MNP production titers, which could complement a traditional culture-based MNP chasing approach. Here, we describe recent developments in the MNP research paradigm, including microbial genome mining, NP BGC activation, and NP overproducing cell factory design. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The discovery of drug-induced illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jick, H

    1977-03-03

    The increased use of drugs (and the concurrent increased risks of drug-induced illness) require definition of relevant research areas and strategy. For established marketed drugs, research needs depend on the magnitudes of risk of an illness from a drug and the base-line risk. With the drug risk high and the base-line risk low, the problem surfaces in premarketing studies or through the epidemic that develops after marketing. If the drug adds slightly to a high base-line risk, the effect is undetectable. When both risks are low, adverse effects can be discovered by chance, but systematic case-referent studies can speed discovery. If both risks are high, clinical trials and nonexperimental studies may be used. With both risks intermediate, systematic evaluations, especially case-referent studies are needed. Newly marketed drugs should be routinely evaluated through compulsory registration and follow-up study of the earliest users.

  12. Natural Products in the Discovery of Agrochemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loiseleur, Olivier

    2017-12-01

    Natural products have a long history of being used as, or serving as inspiration for, novel crop protection agents. Many of the discoveries in agrochemical research in the last decades have their origin in a wide range of natural products from a variety of sources. In light of the continuing need for new tools to address an ever-changing array of fungal, weed and insect pests, new agricultural practices and evolving regulatory requirements, the needs for new agrochemical tools remains as critical as ever. In that respect, nature continues to be an important source for novel chemical structures and biological mechanisms to be applied for the development of pest control agents. Here we review several of the natural products and their derivatives which contributed to shape crop protection research in past and present.

  13. Centennial celebration of the discovery of radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bimbot, R.

    1999-01-01

    Initiated in January 1996 by a ceremony held at the French National Academy of Medicine, the centennial commemoration of the discovery of radioactivity will continue until the end of 1998 when a similar ceremony will take place at the Academy of Sciences. The manifestations are now organized over the whole French territory with the help of 22 regional committees. Educational actions and conferences have been stimulated by the recent edition of the booklet 'Radioactivity' in French, English and Spanish, which has been sent to all the middle and secondary schools in France. A series of international actions are also scheduled in France and abroad, with the help of the French Foreign Affairs Ministry. (authors)

  14. Guided discovery learning in geometry learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khasanah, V. N.; Usodo, B.; Subanti, S.

    2018-03-01

    Geometry is a part of the mathematics that must be learned in school. The purpose of this research was to determine the effect of Guided Discovery Learning (GDL) toward geometry learning achievement. This research had conducted at junior high school in Sukoharjo on academic years 2016/2017. Data collection was done based on student’s work test and documentation. Hypothesis testing used two ways analysis of variance (ANOVA) with unequal cells. The results of this research that GDL gave positive effect towards mathematics learning achievement. GDL gave better mathematics learning achievement than direct learning. There was no difference of mathematics learning achievement between male and female. There was no an interaction between sex differences and learning models toward student’s mathematics learning achievement. GDL can be used to improve students’ mathematics learning achievement in geometry.

  15. Gideon Mantell and the Discovery of Dinosaurs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Dennis R.

    1999-01-01

    Gideon Mantell and the Discovery of Dinosaurs is a scholarly yet accessible biography--the first in a generation--of a pioneering dinosaur hunter and scholar. Gideon Mantell discovered the Iguanodon (a famous tale set right in this book) and several other dinosaur species, spent over twenty-five years restoring Iguanodon fossils, and helped establish the idea of an Age of Reptiles that ended with their extinction at the conclusion of the Mesozoic Era. He had significant interaction with such well-known figures as James Parkinson, Georges Cuvier, Charles Lyell, Roderick Murchison, Charles Darwin, and Richard Owen. Dennis Dean, a well-known scholar of geology and the Victorian era, here places Mantell's career in its cultural context, employing original research in archives throughout the world, including the previously unexamined Mantell family papers in New Zealand.

  16. STS-114: Discovery Launch Readiness Press Conference

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    Michael Griffin, NASA Administrator; Wayne Hale, Space Shuttle Deputy Program Manager; Mike Wetmore, Director of Shuttle Processing; and 1st Lieutenant Mindy Chavez, Launch Weather Officer-United States Air Force 45th Weather Squadron are in attendance for this STS-114 Discovery launch readiness press conference. The discussion begins with Wayne Hale bringing to the table a low level sensor device for everyone to view. He talks in detail about all of the extensive tests that were performed on these sensors and the completion of these ambient tests. Chavez presents her weather forecast for the launch day of July 26th 2005. Michael Griffin and Wayne Hale answer questions from the news media pertaining to the sensors and launch readiness. The video ends with footage of Pilot Jim Kelly and Commander Eileen Collins conducting test flights in a Shuttle Training Aircraft (STA) that simulates Space Shuttle landing.

  17. Financing drug discovery for orphan diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagnan, David E; Gromatzky, Austin A; Stein, Roger M; Fernandez, Jose-Maria; Lo, Andrew W

    2014-05-01

    Recently proposed 'megafund' financing methods for funding translational medicine and drug development require billions of dollars in capital per megafund to de-risk the drug discovery process enough to issue long-term bonds. Here, we demonstrate that the same financing methods can be applied to orphan drug development but, because of the unique nature of orphan diseases and therapeutics (lower development costs, faster FDA approval times, lower failure rates and lower correlation of failures among disease targets) the amount of capital needed to de-risk such portfolios is much lower in this field. Numerical simulations suggest that an orphan disease megafund of only US$575 million can yield double-digit expected rates of return with only 10-20 projects in the portfolio. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  18. Discovery Monday: How to measure success

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    The last Discovery Monday which was carried out by the surveyors at CERN was a great success, one which they could not measure with their usual precision. The various entertaining as well as instructive experiments deserve a big "Thank you" to the SU group at the EST division. Children learn how to measure with the water level, like in Roman times.At CERN, photogrammetric techniques are used to precisely measure positions of complex ensembles like detectors. In Microcosm, photogrammetry is also invaluable to take the measure of visitors who can no longer cheat about their size. They were measured to a precision of one tenth of a millimetre and received a certificate.The alignment of accelerators is one of the big challenges for the surveyors at CERN. But even with good instruments, you need to have good eyes!

  19. Data Warehouse Discovery Framework: The Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apanowicz, Cas

    The cost of building an Enterprise Data Warehouse Environment runs usually in millions of dollars and takes years to complete. The cost, as big as it is, is not the primary problem for a given corporation. The risk that all money allocated for planning, design and implementation of the Data Warehouse and Business Intelligence Environment may not bring the result expected, fare out way the cost of entire effort [2,10]. The combination of the two above factors is the main reason that Data Warehouse/Business Intelligence is often single most expensive and most risky IT endeavor for companies [13]. That situation was the main author's inspiration behind founding of Infobright Corp and later on the concept of Data Warehouse Discovery Framework.

  20. Experiences in fragment-based drug discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Christopher W; Verdonk, Marcel L; Rees, David C

    2012-05-01

    Fragment-based drug discovery (FBDD) has become established in both industry and academia as an alternative approach to high-throughput screening for the generation of chemical leads for drug targets. In FBDD, specialised detection methods are used to identify small chemical compounds (fragments) that bind to the drug target, and structural biology is usually employed to establish their binding mode and to facilitate their optimisation. In this article, we present three recent and successful case histories in FBDD. We then re-examine the key concepts and challenges of FBDD with particular emphasis on recent literature and our own experience from a substantial number of FBDD applications. Our opinion is that careful application of FBDD is living up to its promise of delivering high quality leads with good physical properties and that in future many drug molecules will be derived from fragment-based approaches. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.