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Sample records for gutierrezia repens asteraceae

  1. Controle químico de Panicum repens e Paspalum repens Chemical control of Panicum repens and Paspalum repens

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    C.A. Carbonari

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Panicum repens e Paspalum repens são espécies infestantes de ambientes úmidos e alagados, freqüentes em margens de lagos, reservatórios, canais de irrigação e drenagem. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a eficiência de diferentes herbicidas no controle dessas duas espécies. O experimento foi conduzido no Núcleo de Pesquisas Avançadas em Matologia, do Departamento de Produção Vegetal, pertencente à Faculdade de Ciências Agronômicas/UNESP, campus de Botucatu-SP. As plantas foram cultivadas em caixas d'água e as pulverizações foram realizadas utilizando-se um pulverizador costal pressurizado a CO2. Os tratamentos testados foram: glyphosate a 2.400, 3.360 e 4.320 g e.a. ha-1 + Aterbane 0,5% v/v, glyphosate a 2.400, 3.360 e 4.320 g e.a. ha-1 + Silwet 0.1% v/v, imazapyr a 750 e 1.500 g e.a. ha-1 e diquat a 400 e 800 g i.a. ha-1 (em aplicações seqüenciais de 200+200 g i.a. ha-1 e 400+400 g i.a. ha-1, além de uma testemunha sem aplicação de herbicidas. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições. Avaliações visuais de controle foram realizadas, sendo a massa seca das plantas determinada ao final do estudo. O herbicida glyphosate na dose de 4.320 g e.a. ha-1, independentemente do adjuvante utilizado, assim como na dose de 3.360 g e.a. ha-1 com Aterbane, proporcionou bom controle de Panicum repens e, em todas as doses e adjuvantes testados, promoveu controle excelente de Paspalum repens. O herbicida imazapyr, independentemente da dose testada, apresentou resultados insatisfatórios no controle das plantas de Panicum repens, porém promoveu um excelente controle de Paspalum repens; o herbicida diquat, apesar das duas aplicações e independentemente da dose utilizada, mostrou-se ineficiente para controle das duas espécies.Two experiments were carried out to evaluate the susceptibility of Panicum repens and Paspalum repens Bergius to different herbicides applied in

  2. Dirofilaria repens transmission in southeastern Finland

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    Risto Pietikäinen

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The spread of vector-borne diseases to new regions has become a global threat due to climate change, increasing traffic, and movement of people and animals. Dirofilaria repens, the canine subcutaneous filarioid nematode, has expanded its distribution range northward during the last decades. The northernmost European locations, where the parasite life-cycle has been confirmed, are Estonia and the Novgorod Region in Russia. Results Herein, we describe an autochthonous D. repens infection in a Finnish woman. We also present two cases of D. repens infection in imported dogs indicating the life-cycle in the Russian Vyborg and St Petersburg areas, close to the Finnish border. Conclusions The most obvious limiting factor of the northern distribution of D. repens is the summer temperature, due to the temperature-dependent development of larvae in vectors. With continuing climate change, further spread of D. repens in Fennoscandia can be expected.

  3. Effects on reproduction in female offspring from Sprague-Dawley rats fed 10% snakeweed (Gutierrezia microcephala) throughout pregnancy and concurrent treatment with safflower oil.

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    Staley, E C; Smith, G S; Greenberg, J A

    1995-10-01

    Previous studies determined that safflower oil administration provided protection against the embryotoxicity seen following ingestion of 10% snakeweed (Gutierrezia microcephala) throughout pregnancy. Sixty-two young primiparous female rats born in those studies were paired with adult male Sprague-Dawley rats. After 4 d they were removed and carried their litters to term. Observations were made of the presence and extent of reproductive effects attributable to the 10% snakeweed exposure and differences in fecundity that were attributable to dosing with safflower oil or normal saline during the snakeweed exposure. Of the 62 rats, 50 carried litters to term and approximated the reproductive efficiency of normal primiparous Sprague-Dawley rats. There was no significant difference between the fecundity of females born to rats fed the 10% snakeweed and dosed with safflower oil, those born of rats fed snakeweed dosed with normal saline, or those fed a snakeweed-free diet and dosed with normal saline. Regardless of the diet or treatment administered, dams carrying their litters to parturition gave birth to healthy, normo-reproductive offspring. While the toxic principles in Gutierrezia species plants may act as estrogenic or anti-estrogenic compounds, they did not impair fertility in the female offspring of dosed rats.

  4. Telogen effluvium treated with Serenoa repens supplement

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    Michele Pezza

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Telogen effluvium is a non-scarring form of hair loss. Clinically, the disease is characterized by hair loss where more than normalamounts of hair fall out; it usually affects the whole scalp in a widespread manner. When hair loss is very pronounced and persists fora long time, alopecia becomes clinically evident. It is not associated to subjective symptoms. In this paper, the authors describe theclinical case of a 67-year old patient suffering from telogen effluvium, treated with a supplement containing amino acids (L-cystineand L-methionine, vitamin E, iron and extract of Serenoa repens.

  5. Growth of Aspergillus repens in Flue-Cured Tobacco 1

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    Welty, Ronald E.; Nelson, Larry A.

    1971-01-01

    In laboratory tests, flue-cured tobacco inoculated with Aspergillus repens was stored at 75, 80, 85, 87, and 95% relative humidity at 20 and 30 C. Samples were taken weekly for 4 weeks and evaluated for mold growth (colony count) and moisture content (MC). The weekly rate of fungus increase was slower at 20 C than at 30 C. Tobacco at 20 C with MC between 25 to 30% supported a slight to moderate increase in A. repens after 3 weeks of storage. However, tobacco at the same MC stored at 30 C was subject to rapid invasion by the fungus in as few as 1 to 2 weeks. Tobacco with MC above 30% stored at either 20 or 30 C became moldy in about 1 week. A mold index is proposed for evaluating populations of A. repens in tobacco. PMID:16349905

  6. Growth of Aspergillus repens in Flue-Cured Tobacco.

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    Welty, R E; Nelson, L A

    1971-05-01

    In laboratory tests, flue-cured tobacco inoculated with Aspergillus repens was stored at 75, 80, 85, 87, and 95% relative humidity at 20 and 30 C. Samples were taken weekly for 4 weeks and evaluated for mold growth (colony count) and moisture content (MC). The weekly rate of fungus increase was slower at 20 C than at 30 C. Tobacco at 20 C with MC between 25 to 30% supported a slight to moderate increase in A. repens after 3 weeks of storage. However, tobacco at the same MC stored at 30 C was subject to rapid invasion by the fungus in as few as 1 to 2 weeks. Tobacco with MC above 30% stored at either 20 or 30 C became moldy in about 1 week. A mold index is proposed for evaluating populations of A. repens in tobacco.

  7. Human Dirofilaria repens Infection in Romania: A Case Report

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    Ioana Popescu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Human dirofilariasis is a zoonotic infectious disease caused by the filarial nematodes of dogs Dirofilaria repens and Dirofilaria immitis. Depending on the species involved, human infections usually manifest as one cutaneous or visceral larva migrans that forms a painless nodule in the later course of disease. Dirofilariae are endemic in the Mediterranean, particularly in Italy. They are considered as emerging pathogens currently increasing their geographical range. We present one of the few known cases of human dirofilariasis caused by D. repens in Romania. The patient developed unusual and severe clinical manifestations that mimicked pathological conditions like cellulitis or deep venous thrombosis.

  8. Serenoa repens (saw palmetto): a systematic review of adverse events.

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    Agbabiaka, Taofikat B; Pittler, Max H; Wider, Barbara; Ernst, Edzard

    2009-01-01

    Serenoa repens (W. Bartram) Small, also known as saw palmetto, is one of the most widely used herbal preparations for the treatment of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) and benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Although a number of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and systematic reviews of the efficacy of S. repens for the treatment of LUTS and BPH have been published, no systematic review on its drug interactions or adverse events currently exists. This review assesses all available human safety data of S. repens monopreparations. Systematic literature searches were conducted from date of inception to February 2008 in five electronic databases; reference lists and our departmental files were checked for further relevant publications. Information was requested from spontaneous reporting schemes of the WHO and national safety bodies. Twenty-four manufacturers/distributors of S. repens preparations and four herbalist organizations were contacted for additional information. No language restrictions were imposed. Only reports of adverse events in humans from monopreparations of S. repens were included. Data from all articles, regardless of study design, reporting adverse events or interactions were independently extracted by the first author and validated by the second. Forty articles (26 randomized controlled trials, 4 non-randomized controlled trials, 6 uncontrolled trials and 4 case reports/series) were included. They suggest that adverse events associated with the use of S. repens are mild and similar to those with placebo. The most frequently reported adverse events are abdominal pain, diarrhoea, nausea, fatigue, headache, decreased libido and rhinitis. More serious adverse events such as death and cerebral haemorrhage are reported in isolated case reports and data from spontaneous reporting schemes, but causality is questionable. No drug interactions were reported. Currently available data suggest that S. repens is well tolerated by most users and is not

  9. Atractylosides in Callilepis laureola (Asteraceae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brookes, K.B.; Candy, H.A.; Pegel, K.H.

    1983-01-01

    In addition to the previously reported atractyloside, three more kaurenoid glucosides have been found in the root-stock of Callilepis laureola. These are carboxyatractyloside and the 6'-isovaleryl esters of atractyloside and carboxyatractyloside. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the two 6'-isovalerates. The #betta#-glucosidic nature of these poisonous Asteraceae atractylosides has been confirmed by 1 H and 13 C n.m.r. spectroscopic and molecular rotation evidence

  10. Isolation of an Antioxidative Substance Produced by Aspergillus repens.

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    Yagi, R; Doi, M

    1999-01-01

    The acidic fraction of an extract of the culture liquid of Aspergillus repens MA0197 showed strong antioxidative activity when tested by the ferric thiocyanate and TBA methods. Chromatographic purification of this acidic fraction gave an active substance identified as Neoechinulin A. This compound showed higher antioxidative activity than α-tocopherol and could be expected to act as an antioxidant in Katsuobushi.

  11. Maxillary sinusitis from Microascus cinereus and Aspergillus repens.

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    Aznar, C; de Bievre, C; Guiguen, C

    1989-02-01

    Microascus was associated with Aspergillus repens in a left maxillary sinus. Tissue contained septale filaments of two types, conidia, ostiolate perithecia containing ascospores corresponding to Microascus cinereus which was identified by culture. The abundance of sexual fructifications in the tissue indicates that pathogenicity is due to Microascus cinereus.

  12. Discrimination analysis of ononis repens and ononis spinosa of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Discrimination analysis of ononis repens and ononis spinosa of the British Isles. CE Stephens. Abstract. No Abstract. Journal of the Ghana Association Vol. 2 (3) 1999: pp.88-94. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/jgsa.v2i3.17997.

  13. Mycorrhizal symbioses of Salix repens : diversity and functional significance

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    Heijden, van der E.W.

    2000-01-01

    This thesis investigates the significance of different mycorrhizal fungi, belonging to different functional types (arbuscular mycorrhiza-AM and ectomycorrhiza-EcM), in Salix repens . A comparison between above-ground and below-ground observations on ectomycorrhizal

  14. Polyol concentrations in Aspergillus repens grown under salt stress.

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    Kelavkar, U P; Chhatpar, H S

    1993-09-01

    Na(+), K(+) and the ratio of Na(+)/K(+) were higher in cells of the halotolerant Aspergillus repens grown with 2 M NaCl than without NaCl. The osmolytes, proline, glycerol, betaine and glutamate, did not affect the Na(+)/K(+) ratio, nor the polyol content of cells under any conditions. The concentrations of polyols, consisting of glycerol, arabitol, erythritol and mannitol, changed markedly during growth, indicating that they have a crucial role in osmotic adaptation.

  15. Diuretic activity of ethanolic extract of Panicum repens L. roots and rhizomes.

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    Hozaien, Hoda E; El-Tantawy, Walid Hamdy; Temraz, Abeer; El-Gindi, Omayma D; Taha, Kamilia F

    2018-02-08

    The diuretic activity of ethanolic extract of Panicum repens was investigated in rats. A single oral dose of 500 mg/kg of P. repens extract were given to rats, after 24 h, urine volume, its sodium and potassium concentrations were estimated. Treatment with P. repens extract caused a significant increase in tested parameters as compared to their corresponding controls, p < 0.05.

  16. Eurotium (Aspergillus) repens metabolites and their biological activity.

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    Podojil, M; Sedmera, P; Vokoun, J; Betina, V; Baráthová, H; Duracková, Z; Horáková, K; Nemec, P

    1978-01-01

    Eurotium repens mycelium cultivated under static conditions was used to isolate and identify metabolities--echinulin, physcion, erythroglaucin, flavoglaucin and asperentin; the filtrate of the culture yielded asperentin 8-methylether. The broadest biological activity spectrum was displayed by asperentin which had antibacterial and antifungal effects and, at a concentration of 86 microgram/ml, caused 50% mor7 tality in Artemia saline larvae. The highest cytotoxicity towards HeLa cells was found in physcion which caused 50% growth inhibition at a concentration of 0.1 microgram/ml.

  17. Se enhanced phytoremediation of diesel in soil by Trifolium repens.

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    Xi, Ying; Song, Yizhi; Johnson, David M; Li, Meng; Liu, Huigang; Huang, Yingping

    2018-06-15

    A pot-culture experiment was conducted to assess the effects of selenium (Se) (0.5 mg kg -1 ) on Trifolium repens exposed to various levels of diesel (0, 15, 20, 25 g kg -1 ) for 30 days and 60 days. Exposure to diesel for 60 day led to concentration-dependent decreases in root morphogenesis, chlorophyll content and CAT activity, and to dose-dependent increases in MDA content and SOD activity. The residual diesel concentration in soil increased and the removal efficiency decreased with soil diesel concentration. The chlorophyll content and residual diesel concentration after were slightly higher at 30 days than at 60days. Application of Se to soil increased Trifolium repens tolerance to diesel and significantly increased the phytoremediation effect at 60 days, with a removal rate of 36 ± 8%, compared to 28 ± 7% in the control. These results contribute to the ongoing effort to develop an effective phytoremediation system for soils highly contaminated by diesel. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Characterization of oils from Duranta repens leaf and seed

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    Agomuo Emmanuel

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge of the chemical composition of unpopular sources of edible oils has become paramount to supplement the usage of widely known vegetable oils. In this study, the gas chromatographic quantification of fatty acids and phytochemicals was carried out, and the physicochemical and micronutrient composition of Duranta repens leaf and seed oil were evaluated using standard methods. The leaf oils contained significantly higher (p  oleic > myristic > stearic > capric > linoleic > lauric > palmitoleic for the seed oil, while for the leaf oil linoleic > palmitoleic > oleic > stearic > palmitic > myristic > capric > lauric > myristoleic. The major phytochemical constituents of the seed oils were catechin (68.12 ug/ml, saponin (44.03 ug/ml, rutin (32.89 ug/ml, linamarin (22.66 ug/ml and tannins (19.62 ug/ml, while kaempherol (84.05 ug/ml, rutin (62.26 ug/ml and saponins (45.63 ug/ml were mostly predominant in the leaf oil. Spartein, anthocyanins and phytates were among the least phytochemicals in composition, for both samples. These chemical properties evaluated, suggest that Duranta repens seed oil is more suitable for industrial and therapeutic purposes.

  19. A RUMINATE EMBRYO IN BLEPHARIS REPENS (VAHL. ROTH. (ACANTHACEAE

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    Nitin M. LABHANE

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The study of morphology of embryo is very significant considering the fact that the embryo represents the important step in the determination of the viability of the seed. Ruminate endosperm has been reported in about 58 families of angiosperms. The rumination caused by the activity of the seed coat or by the endosperm itself is quite recurrent in angiosperm. Ruminate endosperm due to seed coat is reported from the family Acanthaceae in Andrographis paniculata. The rumination of endosperm is also considered as phylogenetically important. Rumination of endosperm is very common, however very little is known about rumination in embryo. The present papers reports the de novo development of ruminate embryo in Blepharis repens. The development of ruminate embryo is seen as an adaptation to ensure proper aeration and optimum germination for survival of the species.

  20. First insights into the evolutionary history of the Davallia repens complex

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    Chen, C.-W.; Ngan, L.T.; Hidayat, A.; Evangelista, L.; Nooteboom, H.P.; Chiou, W.-L.

    2014-01-01

    Davallia repens and its close relatives have been identified as a species complex in this study because of the existence of continuously morphological variation. To decipher its evolutionary history, integrated methodologies were applied in this study including morphology, cytology, reproductive

  1. Antioxidative potential of Duranta repens (linn.) fruits against H 2 O 2 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of Duranta repens fruits were investigated on H2O2 induced oxidative cell death to evaluate its antioxidative potential in vitro. HEK293T cells were treated with different concentrations [0-1000 ìg/ ml] of ethanol extract (E-Ex) and methanol extract (M-Ex) of D. repens for 24h, and then treated with 100 ìM H2O2 for ...

  2. Treatment of male androgenetic alopecia with topical products containing Serenoa repens extract.

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    Wessagowit, Vesarat; Tangjaturonrusamee, Chinmanat; Kootiratrakarn, Tanawatt; Bunnag, Thareena; Pimonrat, Tanatya; Muangdang, Nattaporn; Pichai, Pitchayasak

    2016-08-01

    Male androgenetic alopecia (AGA) is a common hair problem. Serenoa repens extract has been shown to inhibit both types of 5-α reductase and, when taken orally, has been shown to increase hair growth in AGA patients. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of topical products containing S. repens extract for the treatment of male AGA. This was a pilot, prospective, open, within-subject comparison limited to 24 weeks using no placebo controls. In all, 50 male volunteers aged between 20 and 50 years received topical S. repens products for 24 weeks. The primary end-point was a hair count in an area of 2.54 cm(2) at week 24. Secondary end-points included hair restoration, investigators' photographic assessment, patients' evaluation and discovering adverse events. The average hair count and terminal hair count increased at weeks 12 and 24 compared to baseline. Some of these positive results levelled off at week 24, presumably because the concentrated topical product containing S. repens extract was stopped after 4 weeks. The patients were satisfied with the products and the side-effects were limited. The topical application of S. repens extract could be an alternative treatment in male pattern baldness in male patients who do not want or cannot tolerate the side-effects of standard medications, but the use of a concentrated S. repens product beyond 4 weeks may be necessary for sustained efficacy. © 2015 The Australasian College of Dermatologists.

  3. Produção de mudas de Duranta repens L. pelo processo de estaquia Seedlings production ofduranta Duranta repens L. using cuttings process

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    Genilda Canuto Amaral

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Devido a fácil adaptação ao clima, solo e por ter um potencial ornamental, a Duranta repens L. é muito utilizada no Brasil. Contudo, objetivou-se avaliar a produção de mudas de D. repens L. pelo processo de estaquia com fornecimento exógeno de AIB em diferentes estações do ano. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado, com quatro concentrações de AIB (0, 1000, 3000 e 5000 mg kg-1, três tipos de estacas (herbáceas, semilenhosas e lenhosas e duas épocas do ano (chuvosa e seca. Realizaram-se as avaliações do número de estacas com raízes, sobrevivência das estacas, número de brotações por estaca, comprimento médio da maior raiz e massa seca da parte aérea e da raiz. A dose indicada para propagação de D. repens é de 3000 mg kg-1AIB. As estacas herbáceas e semilenhosas são as mais indicadas e a época chuvosa é mais propícia para produção de mudas de D. repens.Due to easy adaptation to climate, soil and ornamental potential, Duranta repens L. is widely used in Brazil. The study evaluated the production of seedlings of D. repens L. using cutting process with the supply of exogenous IBA in different seasons. The experimental design was completely randomized, with four concentrations of IBA (0, 1000, 3000 e 5000 mg kg-1, three types of cuttings (softwood, semi-hardwood and hardwood and two seasons (wet and dry. We assessed the number of rooted cuttings, survival cuttings, number of shoots per cutting, average length of the longest root and dry mass of shoots and roots. The best dose for propagation of D. repens was 3000 mg kg-1 IBA. The softwood and semi-hardwood cuttings were the most suitable and the rainy season the more favorable for D. repens seedling production.

  4. (asteraceae nativas no rio grande do sul.

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    Anabela Silveira de Oliveira

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work describes the wood anatomy of Heterothalamus alienus and Heterothalamus rupestris (Astereae - Asteraceae, as part of the secondary xylem study in the named genus. For the two species it was recorded some features usually mentioned in the literature for the Asteraceae, as typically small vessels, grouped in a dendritic pattern, the presence of only simple perforation plates and of paratracheal parenchyma. Heterothalamus alienus shows spiral thickenings in the wood vessels and storied vasicentric axial parenchyma. Heterothalamus rupestris differs itself by the absence of spiral thickenings in wood vessels and by no storied axial parenchyma, in paratracheal vasicentric to unilateral patterns. Photomicrographs, quantitative data of anatomical features and a comparison between the two species of wood are also provided.

  5. Notas taxonómicas en Asteraceae

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    Adriana Bartoli

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Se describe una nueva variedad para Grindelia anethifolia y se amplía el área de distribución de Bidens andicola, Grindelia coronensis y Proustia cuneifolia var. mendocina.Taxonomic notes on Asteraceae. A new variety for Grindelia anethifolia is described, and the known area of Bidens andicola, Grindelia coronensis and Proustia cuneifolia var. mendocina is extended.

  6. Phytotoxic Potential of Onopordum acanthium L. (Asteraceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Watanabe, Yusuke; Novaes, Paula; Kato-Noguchi, Hisashi; Varela Montoya, Rosa; González Molinillo, José María; Macías Domínguez, Francisco Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Onopordum acanthium L. (Asteraceae) is a plant native to southern Europe and southwestern Asia, but it is invasive in disturbed areas and agricultural fields around the world, causing many agronomic problems by interfering with crops or preventing animals from grazing on pastures. Allelopathy could be one of the reasons that this plant has spread over different continents. The aim of the present study was to bioprospect O. acanthium leaf extracts through the isolation and purification of alle...

  7. Hepatotoxicity potential of saw palmetto (Serenoa repens) in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Y N; Devkota, A K; Sneeden, D C; Singh, K K; Halaweish, F

    2007-02-01

    Saw palmetto (Serenoa repens L.) is an herbal drug used to treat symptoms of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). There has been a report that a preparation containing this herb has caused cholestatic hepatitis in one person and some indications exist that it may have the potential to produce liver toxicity. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of saw palmetto on rat liver function by measuring its effects on several enzymes and formation of malondialdehyde (MDA), a byproduct of lipid peroxidation. A significant increase in these parameters is considered an indication of liver toxicity. Thirty-six rats were divided into 6 groups of 6 animals each. They were treated for 2 or 4 weeks with a placebo or saw palmetto at doses of 9.14 or 22.86 mg/kg/body wt./day; that is, 2 x and 5 x the maximum recommended daily human dosages. After 2 or 4 weeks, the animals were sacrificed and blood was collected to prepare serum for enzyme assays, which were performed using commercially available kits. A portion of the liver was removed, and a homogenate prepared for the lipid peroxidation assay. Results showed no significant difference in animal body weight, enzyme activity, or MDA formation at either time or dosage level, as compared to controls. The data indicate that at the doses and time periods tested, saw palmetto did not produce any significant effect on the normal biological markers of liver toxicity.

  8. Morphophysiological and chemical aspects of torpedograss (Panicum repens L., Poaceae

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    Simone Meredith Scheffer-Basso

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available This work evaluated some of the morphophysiological and bromatological aspects of torpedograss (Panicum repens L. through the quantification of accumulation, allocation and chemical composition of dry matter (DM during spring-summer. Four destructive harvests of aerial and underground parts were carried out on 23 October 2003, 3 December 2003, 22 January 2004 and 20 February 2004, corresponding to 31, 73, 123 and 152 days after the start of the spring. In these harvests, the DM accumulation was respectively 1,650; 4,470; 10,900 and 14,540 kg/ha in the aerial part, with leaf percentages between 45% (first harvest and 35% (last harvest. The crude protein (CP, neutral detergent fiber (NDF and acid detergent fiber (ADF changed between the first and the last harvest, from 9.9 to 7% (CP, 63.9% to 70.3% (FDN, and 37% to 40.8% (FDA, in samples composed by leaves, culms, inflorescences and stolons. The DM allocation to rhizomes (Rh, roots (R, leaves (L, culms+stolons (C and inflorescences (I changed, between the first and the last harvest, from 42 to 19% (Rh, 10 to 7% (R, 22 to 27% (L, 25 to 44% (C, and 0 to 2% (I.

  9. Evolutionary origin of the Asteraceae capitulum: Insights from Calyceraceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozner, Raúl; Zanotti, Christian; Johnson, Leigh A

    2012-01-01

    Phylogenies based on molecular data are revealing that generalizations about complex morphological structures often obscure variation and developmental patterns important for understanding the evolution of forms, as is the case for inflorescence morphology within the well-supported MGCA clade (Menyanthaceae + Goodeniaceae + Calyceraceae + Asteraceae). While the basal families share a basic thyrsic/thyrsoid structure of their inflorescences, Asteraceae possesses a capitulum that is widely interpreted as a racemose, condensed inflorescence. Elucidating the poorly known inflorescence structure of Calyceraceae, sister to Asteraceae, should help clarify how the Asteraceae capitulum evolved from thyrsic/thyrsoid inflorescences. The early development and structure of the inflorescence of eight species (five genera) of Calyceraceae were studied by SEM, and patterns of evolutionary change were interpreted via phylogenetic character mapping. The basic inflorescence structure of Calyceraceae is a cephalioid (a very condensed botryoid/thyrsoid). Optimization of inflorescence characters on a DNA sequence-derived tree suggests that the Asteraceae capitulum derives from a simple cephalioid through two morphological changes: loss of the terminal flower and suppression of the cymose branching pattern in the peripheral branches. Widely understood as a condensed raceme, the Asteraceae capitulum is the evolutionary result of a very reduced, condensed thyrsoid. Starting from that point, evolution worked separately only on the racemose developmental control/pattern within Asteraceae and mainly on the cymose developmental control/pattern within Calyceraceae, producing head-like inflorescences in both groups but with very different diversification potential. We also discuss possible remnants of the ancestral cephalioid structure in some Asteraceae.

  10. Androgen-independent effects of Serenoa repens extract (Prostasan®) on prostatic epithelial cell proliferation and inflammation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iglesias-Gato, Diego; Carsten, Tober; Vesterlund, Mattias

    2012-01-01

    Extracts from Serenoa repens are widely used for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and traditionally for prostatitis. In the present study we evaluated the biological effects of Serenoa repens extract (Prostasan®) on prostate cells beyond its known antiandrogenic actions. Prosta...

  11. Human Ocular Infection with Dirofilaria repens (Railliet and Henry, 1911) in an Area Endemic for Canine Dirofilariasis

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    Otranto, Domenico; Brianti, Emanuele; Gaglio, Gabriella; Dantas-Torres, Filipe; Azzaro, Salvatore; Giannetto, Salvatore

    2011-01-01

    Dirofilaria repens, which is usually found in canine subcutaneous tissues, is the main causative agent of human dirofilariasis in the Old Word. However, a relationship between animal and human cases of dirofilariasis caused by D. repens in a given area has never been demonstrated. The uneven distribution of D. repens in provinces in Sicily, Italy represented the foundation for this study. We report a human case of ocular infection with D. repens from Trapani Province, where canine dirofilariasis is endemic. The nematode was morphologically and molecularly identified and surgical removal of the parasite was documented. The relationship between the prevalence of D. repens in dogs and the occurrence of human cases of ocular dirofilariasis is discussed on the basis of a review of the historical literature. PMID:21633041

  12. Dirofilaria in Humans, Dogs, and Vectors in Austria (1978-2014)-From Imported Pathogens to the Endemicity of Dirofilaria repens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuehrer, Hans-Peter; Auer, Herbert; Leschnik, Michael; Silbermayr, Katja; Duscher, Georg; Joachim, Anja

    2016-05-01

    Dirofilaria repens and D. immitis are filarioid helminths with domestic and wild canids as main hosts and mosquitoes as vectors. Both species are known to cause zoonotic diseases, primarily pulmonary (D. immitis), ocular (D. repens), and subcutaneous (D. repens) dirofilariosis. Both D. immitis and D. repens are known as invasive species, and their distribution seems associated with climate change. Until very recently, both species were known to be nonendemic in Austria. Metadata on introduced and possibly autochthonous cases of infection with Dirofilaria sp. in dogs and humans in Austria are analysed, together with analyses of mosquito populations from Austria in ongoing studies. In Austria, most cases of Dirofilaria sp. in humans (30 cases of D. repens-six ocular and 24 subcutaneous) and dogs (approximately 50 cases-both D. immitis and D. repens) were most likely imported. However, occasionally infections with D. repens were discussed to be autochthonous (one human case and seven in dogs). The introduction of D. repens to Austria was confirmed very recently, as the parasite was detected in Burgenland (eastern Austria) for the first time in mosquito vectors during a surveillance program. For D. immitis, this could not be confirmed yet, but data from Germany suggest that the successful establishment of this nematode species in Austria is a credible scenario for the near future. The first findings of D. repens in mosquito vectors indicate that D. repens presumably invaded in eastern Austria. Climate analyses from central Europe indicate that D. immitis also has the capacity to establish itself in the lowland regions of Austria, given that both canid and culicid hosts are present.

  13. The complete chloroplast genome sequence of Aster spathulifolius (Asteraceae); genomic features and relationship with Asteraceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Kyoung Su; Park, SeonJoo

    2015-11-10

    Aster spathulifolius, a member of the Asteraceae family, is distributed along the coast of Japan and Korea. This plant is used for medicinal and ornamental purposes. The complete chloroplast (cp) genome of A. sphathulifolius consists of 149,473 bp that include a pair of inverted repeats of 24,751 bp separated by a large single copy region of 81,998 bp and a small single copy region of 17,973 bp. The chloroplast genome contains 78 coding genes, four rRNA genes and 29 tRNA genes. When compared to other cpDNA sequences of Asteraceae, A. spathulifolius showed the closest relationship with Jacobaea vulgaris, and its atpB gene was found to be a pseudogene, unlike J. vulgaris. Furthermore, evaluation of the gene compositions of J. vulgaris, Helianthus annuus, Guizotia abyssinica and A. spathulifolius revealed that 13.6-kb showed inversion from ndhF to rps15, unlike Lactuca of Asteraceae. Comparison of the synonymous (Ks) and nonsynonymous (Ka) substitution rates with J. vulgaris revealed that synonymous genes related to a small subunit of the ribosome showed the highest value (0.1558), while nonsynonymous rates of genes related to ATP synthase genes were highest (0.0118). These findings revealed that substitution has occurred at similar rates in most genes, and the substitution rates suggested that most genes is a purified selection. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Optical Analysis of Reduction Products of 2-Methylcyclohexanone by Aspergillus repens MA0197.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onishi, H; Doi, M; Shuto, Y; Kinoshita, Y

    1996-01-01

    The products of reduction of 2-methylcyclohexanone by Aspergillus repens MA0197 were analyzed quantitatively by GC after conversion to corresponding diastereoisomeric ( -)-menthyl carbonate derivatives. Although the contents varied considerably with time, the predominant production of S-alcohol was observed, that is, Prelog's rule was obeyed.

  15. A First Human Case of Ocular Dirofilariosis due to Dirofilaria repens in Northeastern France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argy, Nicolas; Sabou, Marcela; Billing, Alain; Hermsdorff, Christian; Candolfi, Ermanno; Abou-Bacar, Ahmed

    2011-01-01

    We report the first case of ocular dirofilariasis to be diagnosed in northeast France (Alsace region), in a man who presented with a suborbital mass after a journey to Senegal. Microscopic examination of the surgical specimen identified Dirofilaria repens. PMID:21461355

  16. A First Human Case of Ocular Dirofilariosis due to Dirofilaria repens in Northeastern France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Argy

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the first case of ocular dirofilariasis to be diagnosed in northeast France (Alsace region, in a man who presented with a suborbital mass after a journey to Senegal. Microscopic examination of the surgical specimen identified Dirofilaria repens.

  17. Dirofilaria repens: emergence of autochthonous human infections in the Czech Republic (case reports)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Matějů, J.; Chanová, M.; Modrý, David; Mitková, B.; Hrazdilová, K.; Žampachová, V.; Kolářová, L.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 16, APR 19 (2016), č. článku 171. ISSN 1471-2334 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Dirofilaria repens * Human dirofilariasis * Emerging disease * Autochthonous diseases in Czech Republic Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.768, year: 2016

  18. Zoonotic Dirofilaria repens (Nematoda: Filarioidea) in Aedes vexans mosquitoes, Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rudolf, Ivo; Šebesta, Oldřich; Mendel, Jan; Betášová, Lenka; Bocková, E.; Jedličková, Petra; Venclíková, Kristýna; Blažejová, Hana; Šikutová, Silvie; Hubálek, Zdeněk

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 113, č. 12 (2014), s. 4663-4667 ISSN 0932-0113 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 261504 - EDENEXT Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Aedes vexans * Mosquito vectors * Dirofilaria repens * Dogs * Zoonotic dirofilariosis * Setaria spp. Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 2.098, year: 2014

  19. Dirofilaria immitis and D. repens show circadian co-periodicity in naturally co-infected dogs

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ionică, A.M.; Matei, I.A.; D'Amico, G.; Bel, L.; Dumitrache, M.O.; Modrý, David; Mihalca, A. D.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 10, FEB 28 (2017), č. článku 116. ISSN 1756-3305 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : periodicity * microfilariae * co-infection * Dirofilaria immitis * Dirofilaria repens Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine OBOR OECD: Veterinary science Impact factor: 3.080, year: 2016

  20. Subcutaneous dirofilariosis (Dirofilaria repens: an infection spreading throughout the old world

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    Claudio Genchi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Two main Dirofilaria species infect dogs: D. immitis and D. repens. While D. immitis has a worldwide distribution, D. repens is currently found only in Europe, Asia, and Africa. Adult D. repens are located in subcutaneous tissues of natural hosts where they survive for long periods of time. First-stage larvae, microfilariae, circulate in the peripheral bloodstream, where they are taken up by the mosquito intermediate hosts. Infected mosquitoes then transmit infective third-stage (L3 larvae to new hosts through the blood meal. In dogs, most infections are asymptomatic, although cutaneous disorders such as pruritus, dermal swelling, subcutaneous nodules, and ocular conjunctivitis can be observed. Currently, two factors have increased the concerns about this parasitic infection 1 its spread throughout the European countries and to other continents and its prevalence in dog populations, where in some cases it has overcome D. immitis; and 2 its zoonotic potential, which is much greater than that of D. immitis. Results Different hypotheses can be put forward to explain these concerns. First, climate change has allowed more favorable conditions for survival of culicid vectors. Second, accidental hosts such as humans may have a less efficient immune reaction against a parasite that is located in subcutaneous tissues, and thus less exposed to the host’s immune response than, for instance, D. immitis. Furthermore, the absence of clinical signs in the majority of canine infections and the difficulty in diagnosing the infection, due to the lack of serologic tests and thus the reliance on the identification of microfilariae and differentiation from D. immitis to confirm the presence of the parasite, favor the further spread of this species. Finally, among the macrocyclic lactones currently used to prevent heartworm infection, only moxidectin has been found to be fully effective against the infective larvae transmitted by mosquitoes and

  1. First record of the alien pest Rhaponticum repens (Compositae in the Iberian Peninsula

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    Martínez-Flores, F.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available First record of the alien pest Rhaponticum repens (Compositae in the Iberian Peninsula.- Rhaponticum repens is reported for the first time for the flora of the Iberian Peninsula. The species is native from Central Asia and has become invasive in Argentina, Canada, Europe and the USA. It was detected for the first time in abandoned fields from Vilablareix, near the city of Girona (Catalonia, Spain and in the valley of the Vinalopó in Alicante (Valencia, Spain, where it was collected as early as in 1959 but misdentified. Molecular data, based on nrDNA region ITS, suggest that the reported populations may be closely related to plants from the United States. Due to the extremely noxious character of the species and the possible relationship of Spanish plants with the invasive American populations, some kind of monitoring is recommended.Rhaponticum repens (Compositae, una nueva planta alóctona para la Península Ibérica.- Se cita por primera vez la especie Rhaponticum repens para la flora de la Península Ibérica. Rhaponticum repens es una especie nativa de Asia central que actúa como invasora en diversos países como Argentina, Canadá o los Estados Unidos. Se ha encontrado por primera vez en campos de cultivo abandonados en el pueblo de Vilablareix, cerca de la ciudad de Girona (Cataluña, España y en el valle del Vinalopó (Valencia, España, donde fue recolectada y mal identificada en 1959. Los datos moleculares, obtenidos a partir de la región ITS del nrDNA, sugieren que estas poblaciones podrían estar relacionadas con plantas invasoras de Estados Unidos. Debido al carácter extremadamente invasor de la especie, y a su posible origen secundario a partir de las poblaciones norteamericanas, se recomienda el seguimiento de estas poblaciones.

  2. The origin of the bifurcating style in Asteraceae (Compositae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katinas, Liliana; Hernández, Marcelo P; Arambarri, Ana M; Funk, Vicki A

    2016-05-01

    The plant family Asteraceae (Compositae) exhibits remarkable morphological variation in the styles of its members. Lack of studies on the styles of the sister families to Asteraceae, Goodeniaceae and Calyceraceae, obscures our understanding of the origin and evolution of this reproductive feature in these groups. The aim of this work was to perform a comparative study of style morphology and to discuss the relevance of important features in the evolution of Asteraceae and its sister families. The histochemistry, venation and general morphology of the styles of members of Goodeniaceae, Calyceraceae and early branching lineages of Asteraceae were analysed and put in a phylogenetic framework to discuss the relevance of style features in the evolution of these families. The location of lipophilic substances allowed differentiation of receptive from non-receptive style papillae, and the style venation in Goodeniaceae and Calyceraceae proved to be distinctive. There were several stages of style evolution from Goodeniaceae to Asteraceae involving connation and elongation of veins, development of bilobation from an initially cup-shaped style, and a redistribution of the receptive and non-receptive papillae. These developments resulted in bifurcation in the styles of Asteraceae, with each branch face having a different function, and it is suggested here as a mechanism that promoted outcrossing, which in turn led to the great diversification in the family. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Specialist bees collect Asteraceae pollen by distinctive abdominal drumming (Osmia) or tapping (Melissodes, Svastra)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Four species of western US Osmia (Cephalosmia) bees that are Asteraceae specialists (oligoleges) were observed to employ a heretofore unappreciated, stereotypical means of collecting pollen, abdominal drumming, to gather pollen from 19 flowering species representing nine tribes of Asteraceae. Abdom...

  4. Asteraceae Pollen Provisions Protect Osmia Mason Bees (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) from Brood Parasitism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spear, Dakota M; Silverman, Sarah; Forrest, Jessica R K

    2016-06-01

    Many specialist herbivores eat foods that are apparently low quality. The compensatory benefits of a poor diet may include protection from natural enemies. Several bee lineages specialize on pollen of the plant family Asteraceae, which is known to be a poor-quality food. Here we tested the hypothesis that specialization on Asteraceae pollen protects bees from parasitism. We compared rates of brood parasitism by Sapyga wasps on Asteraceae-specialist, Fabeae-specialist, and other species of Osmia bees in the field over several years and sites and found that Asteraceae-specialist species were parasitized significantly less frequently than other species. We then tested the effect of Asteraceae pollen on parasites by raising Sapyga larvae on three pollen mixtures: Asteraceae, Fabeae, and generalist (a mix of primarily non-Asteraceae pollens). Survival of parasite larvae was significantly reduced on Asteraceae provisions. Our results suggest that specialization on low-quality pollen may evolve because it helps protect bees from natural enemies.

  5. Sodium chloride stress induced morphological and ultrastructural changes in Aspergillus repens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelavkar, U; Rao, K S; Ghhatpar, H S

    1993-06-01

    Halotolerant fungus, A. repens, showed a considerable difference in its growth rate, morphology, ultrastructural and molecular composition under NaCl stress as compared to control i.e. non-stressed condition. Light microscopic observations revealed significant differences in their mycelial thickness, their branching and septa. Transmission electron microscopic observations of both the conditions depicted significant differences in the qualitative and quantitative changes in mitochondria. Frequent pinocytotic vesiculation (vacuoles) of plasma membrane was observed in fungus under stress but no such vesiculation in control. The multivesiculate structures observed under stress with their origin from the cell membranes and subsequent release into vacuoles have not been reported in fungi under normal physiological conditions. The observations on pinocytosis are discussed in relation to ion compartmentation and salt tolerance in A. repens.

  6. [A case of human dirofilariasis (D. repens) of the spermatic cord].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fini, M; Perrone, A; Vagliani, G; Andreini, C; Salvi, G; Misuriello, G; Di Silverio, A

    1992-01-01

    A 52 year old man, living in the province of Trapani (Sicily), presented with right hydrocele and slight orchialgia. The patient underwent epididymectomy and resection of T. vaginalis. The "tunica" was involved by a granulomatous process, containing a parasite of genus Dirofilaria (D. repens). Dirofilaria repens is a filarial nematode. Dogs, foxes and cats are the definitive hosts and principal reservoirs of the parasite. In humans the parasite dies before reaching sexual maturity and the result is an inconspicuous granulomatous reaction in the subcutaneous tissue. S. Pampiglione et al. (Cattedra di Parassitologia Veterinaria dell'Università di Bologna-Italy) reported from 1971 more than 30 cases of human Dirofilariasis in Italy, suggesting that the parasite is able to migrate from the inoculation site to other districts (lung, eye etc.). The case is exceptional for the localization of the parasite (never reported) and can contribute to a better knowledge of the disease.

  7. Dirofilaria repens eyepiece: a case in Calabria and diagnostic indications concerning dirofilariosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Mancuso

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Dirofilaria repens is a nematode that affects dogs and other carnivores such as cats, wolves, foxes, which are final hosts. It is carried to the men by mosquitos (Anopheles, Culex and Aedes and, particularly, by Aedes albopictus. It causes in the humans the formation of subcutaneous nodules and, at ocular conjunctiva level, the formation of cysts. Its diagnosis is made by methods of Molecular Biology because the identification based only on the morphology is very difficult. In the mounth of November 2012, comes to the first aid of Cetraro Hospital a old woman with a conjunctival cyst to right eye which causes pain, itch and lachrymation. From this cyst, is extracted a worm, identified as Dirofilaria repens. This diagnosis is confirmed by investigations of Molecular Biology discharged in the Superior Institute of Health of Rome.

  8. Trifolium pratense and T. repens (Leguminosae: Edible Flower Extracts as Functional Ingredients

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    Rosa Tundis

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Trifolium pratense (red clover and T. repens (white clover edible flowers were investigated for their chemical profile and health properties. The total phenols and flavonoids contents were evaluated. Quercetin, kaempferol, luteolin, rutin, and myricetin were used as markers and quantified by HPLC. The antioxidant effects were investigated by using different in vitro assays. Moreover, α-amylase, α-glucosidase and lipase inhibitory activities were evaluated. T. repens flowers extract showed a good radical scavenging activity in both DPPH and ABTS tests with IC50 values of 10.3 and 21.4 μg/mL, respectively. White clover extract demonstrated promising α-amylase and lipase inhibitory activities with IC50 values of 25.0 and 1.3 μg/mL, respectively. The obtained results support the use of Trifolium flowers as healthy food ingredients.

  9. Phytotoxic potential of Onopordum acanthium L. (Asteraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Yusuke; Novaes, Paula; Varela, Rosa M; Molinillo, José M G; Kato-Noguchi, Hisashi; Macías, Francisco A

    2014-08-01

    Onopordum acanthium L. (Asteraceae) is a plant native to southern Europe and southwestern Asia, but it is invasive in disturbed areas and agricultural fields around the world, causing many agronomic problems by interfering with crops or preventing animals from grazing on pastures. Allelopathy could be one of the reasons that this plant has spread over different continents. The aim of the present study was to bioprospect O. acanthium leaf extracts through the isolation and purification of allelopathic secondary metabolites with phytotoxicity to explain their invasive behavior. Phytotoxic activity was tested using etiolated wheat coleoptiles. The most active extract was selected to perform a bioassay-guided isolation of two flavonoids, pectolarigenin (1) and scutellarein 4'-methyl ether (2), and two sesquiterpene lactones, elemanolide 11(13)-dehydromelitensin β-hydroxyisobutyrate (3) and acanthiolide (4). All compounds were isolated for the first time from O. acanthium, and acanthiolide (4) is described for the first time. Compound 3 strongly inhibited the growth of wheat coleoptiles and 1 showed an intermediate effect. The results indicate that these compounds could contribute to the invasion of O. acanthium in ecological systems and agricultural fields. Copyright © 2014 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  10. Phytochemical screening, antiglycation and antioxidant activities of whole plant of Boerhavia repens L. from Cholistan, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazneen, Fariha; Sheikh, Munir A; Jameel, Amir; Rahman, Ziaur

    2016-05-01

    Present study was aimed to explore a traditionally used indigenous medicinal plant Boerhavia repens (Nyctaginaceae family) of the Cholistan desert, Pakistan. Crude aqueous and methanolic extracts of the whole plant were investigated in vitro for preliminary phytochemical screening, antioxidant and antiglycation activities. Antioxidant activities were determined by total phenolic contents, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging and inhibition of lipid peroxidation. For antiglycation activities browning production was noted and thiobarbituric acid (TBA) technique was used to determine glycation level. Boerhavia repens expressed considerable amounts of phytochemicals. Extract yield was found to be 4.59%-7.85% g/100g of dry matter with total phenolics ranging from 47.9- 190.77mg/GAE per g for aqueous and methanol extract respectively. Strong inhibitory effect was exhibited by methanolic extract in linoleic acid per oxidation system (86.11%, EC50=0.99mg/mL) and DPPH assay (88.65%, EC50=212.33μg/ml). In term of browning maximum inhibition (81.50%) was exhibited by methanolic extract at 37°C at third week of incubation. Both extracts expressed significant (P>0.05) and comparable inhibition of glycation level. In conclusion, Boerhavia repens showed promising antioxidant and antiglycation activities validating its therapeutic potential.

  11. Mitigation of salt stress in white clover (Trifolium repens) by Azospirillum brasilense and its inoculation effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalid, Muhammad; Bilal, Muhammad; Hassani, Danial; Iqbal, Hafiz M N; Wang, Hang; Huang, Danfeng

    2017-12-01

    Salinity is one of the increasingly serious environmental problems worldwide for cultivating agricultural crops. The present study was aimed to ascertain the potential of beneficial soil bacterium Azospirillum brasilense to alleviate saline stress in Trifolium repens. Experimental plants (white clover) were grown from seeds and inoculated with or without A. brasilense bacterial strain supplemented with 0, 40, 80, or 120 mM NaCl into soil. The growth attributes including, shoot heights, root lengths, fresh and dry weights, leaf area and chlorophyll content were significantly enhanced in T. repens plants grown in A. brasilense inoculated soil than un-inoculated controls, particularly under elevated salinity conditions (40, 80 and 120 mM NaCl). Malondialdehyde content of leaf was recorded to be declined under saline conditions. Moreover, the K + /Na + ratio was also improved in bacterium-inoculated plants, since A. brasilense significantly reduced the root and shoot Na + level under high salty environment. Results revealed that soil inoculation with A. brasilense could significantly promote T. repens growth under both non-saline and saline environments, and this study might be extended to other vegetables and crops for the germination and growth enhancement.

  12. Morphological response to competition for light in the clonal Trifolium repens (Fabaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittebiere, Anne-Kristel; Renaud, Nolwenn; Clément, Bernard; Mony, Cendrine

    2012-04-01

    Plant communities in temperate zones are dominated by clonal plants that can plastically modify their growth characteristics in response to competition. Given that plants compete with one another, and the implications this has for species coexistence, we conducted a study to assess how clonal species morphologically respond to competition for light depending on its intensity and heterogeneity, which are determined by the competitor species. We assessed the morphological response to competition for light of the clonal species Trifolium repens L. by measuring its growth performance, and vertical and horizontal growth traits. We used five competitive environments, i.e., one without competitor and four differing by their competitor species creating different conditions of competition intensity and heterogeneity. The morphological response of Trifolium repens to competition for light depended on the competitor identity. Competition intensity and heterogeneity, determined by competitor identity, had an interactive effect on most traits. The increase in petiole elongation and specific leaf area due to increased competition intensity was observed only at low to intermediate competition heterogeneity. Competition heterogeneity promoted the elongation of clone connections allowing space exploration. Our results demonstrated that the intensity and heterogeneity of competition, which depended on competitor identity, are of primary importance in determining the plastic response of Trifolium repens. This emphasizes that it is important to consider the fine-scale spatial distribution of individuals when studying their interactions within plant communities.

  13. Development of Dirofilaria immitis and Dirofilaria repens in Aedes japonicus and Aedes geniculatus

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    Cornelia Silaghi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The mosquito-borne filarial nematodes Dirofilaria immitis and Dirofilaria repens primarily affect dogs but also cats, causing heartworm disease or subcutaneous dirofilariosis, respectively, and both may also cause zoonotic diseases in humans. Several mosquito species have been reported as competent vectors for these nematodes, but no data are available for the invasive mosquito species Aedes japonicus (Theobald, 1901. The objective of this study was to describe the development of both D. immitis and D. repens under standardised experimental laboratory conditions in mosquitoes. Methods For this purpose, both a laboratory strain and field-collected individuals of the invasive mosquito species Ae. japonicus and, for comparative purposes, a laboratory strain of Aedes geniculatus, a rare indigenous species sharing habitats with Ae. japonicus, and of the tropical species Aedes aegypti were used. Anticoagulated microfilariaemic blood was fed at a density of 3000 mf/ml to mosquitoes with a hemotek system. Blood-fed mosquitoes were incubated at 27 °C and 85% relative humidity, and specimens were dissected under the microscope at pre-set time points to observe developmental stages of both Dirofilaria species. Additionally, real-time PCRs were carried out in some microscopically negative samples to determine the infection rates. Results In field-collected Ae. japonicus infectious L3 larvae of both D. immitis and D. repens developed, rendering this mosquito species an efficient vector for both filarial species. Additionally, Ae. geniculatus was shown to be an equally efficient vector for both filarial species. Aedes japonicus mosquitoes from a laboratory colony were refractory to D. immitis but susceptible to D. repens, whereas Ae. aegypti was refractory to both filarial species. Conclusions To our knowledge, Aedes japonicus was for the first time shown to be an efficient vector for both D. immitis and D. repens, indicating that this

  14. Warionia (Asteraceae: a relict genus of Cichorieae?

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    Katinas, Liliana

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The genus Warionia, with its only species W. saharae, is endemic to the northwestern edge of the African Sahara desert. This is a somewhat thistle-like aromatic plant, with white latex, and fleshy, pinnately- partite leaves. Warionia is in many respects so different from any other genus of Asteraceae, that it has been tentatively placed in the tribes Cardueae, Cichorieae, Gundelieae, and Mutisieae. Until now, a comprehensive study of Warionia to have a complete context for discussing its taxonomic position is lacking. The general morphology, anatomy, palynology and chromosome number of W. saharae are investigated here, and the species is described and illustrated. Laticifers in leaves and stems indicate a relationship with Cichorieae, and are associated with the phloem, in contact with it or with the surrounding sclerenchyma sheath. The pollen features indicate a strong relation with Cardueae, namely the structure with Anthemoid pattern where the columellae are joined to the foot layer, the ectosexine with thin columellae, the endosexine with stout and ramified columellae, the conspicuous spines with globose bases and conspicuous apical channels, and the tectum surface very perforate. Chromosomal counts resulted in 2n = 34. The morphological and palynological evidence positions Warionia between the tribes Cardueae and Cichorieae suggesting that it could be a remnant of the ancestral stock that gave rise to both tribes.El género Warionia, y su única especie, W. saharae, es endémico del noroeste del desierto africano del Sahara. Es una planta semejante a un cardo, aromática, con látex blanco y hojas carnosas, pinnatipartidas. Warionia es tan diferente de otros géneros de Asteraceae que fue ubicada en las tribus Cardueae, Cichorieae, Gundelieae y Mutisieae. Hasta ahora, no existía un estudio global de Warionia como contexto para discutir su posición taxonómica. Se ha investigado aquí su morfología, anatomía, palinología y n

  15. Effectiveness on urinary symptoms and erectile function of Prostamev Plus® vs only extract Serenoa repens

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    Raffaele Marzano

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Prostatic inflammation is widespread in the male population. Two groups of 50 patients each with symptoms of prostatic inflammation and ecocolorDoppler indicative of prostatitis were identified. Both groups were further subdivided into two subgroups (respectively A1, A2, B1, and B2. Group A1 underwent therapy with oral levofloxacin 500 mg daily for 10 days plus co-treatment with oral Serenoa repens (320 mg plus Bromeline plus Nettle (Prostamev Plus® daily for two months; Group A2 with oral levofloxacin 500 mg daily for 10 days plus oral Serenoa repens extract 320 mg/day for two months; Group B1 specific antibiotic treatment for 10 days (included levofloxacin if sensitive plus co-treatment with oral Serenoa repens (320 mg plus Bromeline plus Nettle (Prostamev Plus® daily for two months; Group B2 with specific antibiotic treatment for 10 days plus Serenoa repens 320 mg/day for two months. The groups treated with Prostamev Plus® in comparison to the groups treated with Serenoa repens extract (saw palmetto achieved better improvements of both IPSS score, urinary flow and sexual life.

  16. The effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and root interaction on the competition between Trifolium repens and Lolium perenne.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Haiyan; Gao, Tao; Hu, Jian; Yang, Gaowen

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the factors that alter competitive interactions and coexistence between plants is a key issue in ecological research. A pot experiment was conducted to test the effects of root interaction and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) inoculation on the interspecies competition between Trifolium repens and Lolium perenne under different proportions of mixed sowing by the combination treatment of two levels of AMF inoculation (inoculation and non-inoculation) and two levels of root interaction (root interaction and non-root interaction). Overall, the aboveground and belowground biomass of T. repens and L. perenne were not altered by AMF inoculation across planting ratios, probably because the fertile soil reduced the positive effect of AMF on plant growth. Both inter- and intraspecies root interaction significantly decreased the aboveground biomass of T. repens , but tended to increase the aboveground biomass of L. perenne across planting ratios, and thus peaked at the 4:4 polyculture. These results showed that T. repens competed poorly with L. perenne because of inter and intraspecies root interaction. Our results indicate that interspecies root interaction regulates the competitive ability of grass L. perenne and legume T. repens in mixtures and further makes great contribution for overyielding. Furthermore, AMF may not be involved in plant-plant interaction in fertile condition.

  17. The effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and root interaction on the competition between Trifolium repens and Lolium perenne

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiyan Ren

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the factors that alter competitive interactions and coexistence between plants is a key issue in ecological research. A pot experiment was conducted to test the effects of root interaction and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF inoculation on the interspecies competition between Trifolium repens and Lolium perenne under different proportions of mixed sowing by the combination treatment of two levels of AMF inoculation (inoculation and non-inoculation and two levels of root interaction (root interaction and non-root interaction. Overall, the aboveground and belowground biomass of T. repens and L. perenne were not altered by AMF inoculation across planting ratios, probably because the fertile soil reduced the positive effect of AMF on plant growth. Both inter- and intraspecies root interaction significantly decreased the aboveground biomass of T. repens, but tended to increase the aboveground biomass of L. perenne across planting ratios, and thus peaked at the 4:4 polyculture. These results showed that T. repens competed poorly with L. perenne because of inter and intraspecies root interaction. Our results indicate that interspecies root interaction regulates the competitive ability of grass L. perenne and legume T. repens in mixtures and further makes great contribution for overyielding. Furthermore, AMF may not be involved in plant–plant interaction in fertile condition.

  18. Structural studies of chemical constituents of Thithonia Tagetiflora Desv (Asteraceae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ngoc Huynh, Vinh; Nguyen Thi Hoai, Thu; Phi Phung Nguyen, Kim

    2013-01-01

    Tithonia tagetiflora Desv. (Asteraceae) is a widespread plant in Vietnam, and the species of Tithonia are known as plants containing many biologically active compounds. However, T. tagetiflora's chemical composition remains mostly unknown. Therefore, we now report the structural elucidation of tw...

  19. Pharmacognostical study of achenes of some plants from Asteraceae family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.O. Bychkova

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper are represented morphological studies on determination of weight of 1000 achenes, and sieve analysis of fruits of some plants from Asteraceae family (Arctium lappa L., Leuzea carthamoides (Willd. D.C, Inula helenium L., Echinacea purpurea Moench., Calendula officinalis L.. Lipid, alcohol-soluble and water-soluble complexes in fruits of C. officinalis were studied.

  20. Cytogeography and chromosome evolution of subgenus Tridentatae of Artemisia (Asteraceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    E. Durant McArthur; Stewart C. Sanderson

    1999-01-01

    The subgenus Tridentatae of Artemisia (Asteraceae: Anthemideae) is composed of 11 species of various taxonomic and geographic complexities. It is centered on Artemisia tridentata with its three widespread common subspecies and two more geographically confined ones. Meiotic chromosome counts on pollen mother cells...

  1. Hyurterianum (Asteraceae, Inuleae), a new species from NE Anatolia, Turkey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gemici, Y.; Tan, K.; Yidirim, H.

    2008-01-01

    Helichrysum yurterianum Y. Gemici, Kit Tan, H. Yildirim & M. Gemici (Asteraceae, Inuleae) is described and illustrated. It is a serpentine endemic restricted to the province of Erzincan in NE Anatolia, Turkey. Its affinities are with H. arenarium and H. noeanum, which both have a wider distribution...

  2. The Anthelmintic Activity of Vernonia amygdalina (Asteraceae) and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Intestinal worms affect a host of individuals resulting in malnutrition, stunted growth, intellectual retardation and cognitive deficits. The aim of this study is to investigate the antihelminthic activity of Alstonia boonei De Wild (Apocynaceae) and Vernonia amygdalina (Asteraceae) using earth-worms (Lumbricus terretris).

  3. Taxonomic position and identity of Stenocephalum monticola (Vernonieae, Asteraceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dematteis, M.; Angulo, M.B.

    2008-01-01

    The genus Stenocephalum (Vernonieae, Asteraceae) includes six South American species that have cylindrical heads, 4–11 florets by capitula, cymose inflorescences and type ‘C’ pollen. Until now, Stenocephalum monticola has been considered as a synonym of S. apiculatum. However, the analysis of the

  4. Taxonomic novelties in Mikania (Asteraceae: Eupatorieae) from Atlantic Forest, Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borges, R.A.X.; Forzza, R.C.; Fraga, C.N.

    2010-01-01

    During studies of Brazilian Atlantic Forest Asteraceae, a new species and a replacement name were determined: Mikania amorimii from Bahia State and Mikania capixaba from Espírito Santo State. The former is a new species related to M. ternata but distinct by its leaves, involucral bracts and cypsela

  5. Biochemical Conservation and Evolution of Germacrene A Oxidase in Asteraceae*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Don Trinh; Göpfert, Jens Christian; Ikezawa, Nobuhiro; MacNevin, Gillian; Kathiresan, Meena; Conrad, Jürgen; Spring, Otmar; Ro, Dae-Kyun

    2010-01-01

    Sesquiterpene lactones are characteristic natural products in Asteraceae, which constitutes ∼8% of all plant species. Despite their physiological and pharmaceutical importance, the biochemistry and evolution of sesquiterpene lactones remain unexplored. Here we show that germacrene A oxidase (GAO), evolutionarily conserved in all major subfamilies of Asteraceae, catalyzes three consecutive oxidations of germacrene A to yield germacrene A acid. Furthermore, it is also capable of oxidizing non-natural substrate amorphadiene. Co-expression of lettuce GAO with germacrene synthase in engineered yeast synthesized aberrant products, costic acids and ilicic acid, in an acidic condition. However, cultivation in a neutral condition allowed the de novo synthesis of a single novel compound that was identified as germacrene A acid by gas and liquid chromatography and NMR analyses. To trace the evolutionary lineage of GAO in Asteraceae, homologous genes were further isolated from the representative species of three major subfamilies of Asteraceae (sunflower, chicory, and costus from Asteroideae, Cichorioideae, and Carduoideae, respectively) and also from the phylogenetically basal species, Barnadesia spinosa, from Barnadesioideae. The recombinant GAOs from these genes clearly showed germacrene A oxidase activities, suggesting that GAO activity is widely conserved in Asteraceae including the basal lineage. All GAOs could catalyze the three-step oxidation of non-natural substrate amorphadiene to artemisinic acid, whereas amorphadiene oxidase diverged from GAO displayed negligible activity for germacrene A oxidation. The observed amorphadiene oxidase activity in GAOs suggests that the catalytic plasticity is embedded in ancestral GAO enzymes that may contribute to the chemical and catalytic diversity in nature. PMID:20351109

  6. Macroevolutionary dynamics in the early diversification of Asteraceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panero, Jose L; Crozier, Bonnie S

    2016-06-01

    Spatial and temporal differences in ecological opportunity can result in disparity of net species diversification rates and consequently uneven distribution of taxon richness across the tree of life. The largest eudicotyledonous plant family Asteraceae has a global distribution and at least 460 times more species than its South American endemic sister family Calyceraceae. In this study, diversification rate dynamics across Asteraceae are examined in light of the several hypothesized causes for the family's evolutionary success that could be responsible for rate change. The innovations of racemose capitulum and pappus, and a whole genome duplication event occurred near the origin of the family, yet we found the basal lineages of Asteraceae that evolved in South America share background diversification rates with Calyceraceae and their Australasian sister Goodeniaceae. Instead we found diversification rates increased gradually from the origin of Asteraceae approximately 69.5Ma in the late Cretaceous through the Early Eocene Climatic Optimum at least. In contrast to earlier studies, significant rate shifts were not strongly correlated with intercontinental dispersals or polyploidization. The difference is due primarily to sampling more backbone nodes, as well as calibrations placed internally in Asteraceae that resulted in earlier divergence times than those found in most previous relaxed clock studies. Two clades identified as having transformed rate processes are the Vernonioid Clade and a clade within the Heliantheae alliance characterized by phytomelanic fruit (PF Clade) that represents an American radiation. In Africa, subfamilies Carduoideae, Pertyoideae, Gymnarrhenoideae, Cichorioideae, Corymbioideae, and Asteroideae diverged in a relatively short span of only 6.5millionyears during the Middle Eocene. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Development of saw palmetto (Serenoa repens) fruit and extract standard reference materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schantz, Michele M; Bedner, Mary; Long, Stephen E; Molloy, John L; Murphy, Karen E; Porter, Barbara J; Putzbach, Karsten; Rimmer, Catherine A; Sander, Lane C; Sharpless, Katherine E; Thomas, Jeanice B; Wise, Stephen A; Wood, Laura J; Yen, James H; Yarita, Takashi; NguyenPho, Agnes; Sorenson, Wendy R; Betz, Joseph M

    2008-10-01

    As part of a collaboration with the National Institutes of Health's Office of Dietary Supplements and the Food and Drug Administration's Center for Drug Evaluation and Research, the National Institute of Standards and Technology has developed two standard reference materials (SRMs) representing different forms of saw palmetto (Serenoa repens), SRM 3250 Serenoa repens fruit and SRM 3251 Serenoa repens extract. Both of these SRMs have been characterized for their fatty acid and phytosterol content. The fatty acid concentration values are based on results from gas chromatography with flame ionization detection (GC-FID) and mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis while the sterol concentration values are based on results from GC-FID and liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry analysis. In addition, SRM 3250 has been characterized for lead content, and SRM 3251 has been characterized for the content of beta-carotene and tocopherols. SRM 3250 (fruit) has certified concentration values for three phytosterols, 14 fatty acids as triglycerides, and lead along with reference concentration values for four fatty acids as triglycerides and 16 free fatty acids. SRM 3251 (extract) has certified concentration values for three phytosterols, 17 fatty acids as triglycerides, beta-carotene, and gamma-tocopherol along with reference concentration values for three fatty acids as triglycerides, 17 fatty acids as free fatty acids, beta-carotene isomers, and delta-tocopherol and information values for two phytosterols. These SRMs will complement other reference materials currently available with concentrations for similar analytes and are part of a series of SRMs being developed for dietary supplements.

  8. Literature as a source for history The case of the Repen Ripangi (1886

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willem van der Molen

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Teks sejarah berbeda dengan teks sastra. Teks sejarah menceritakan apa yangbenar-benar terjadi di masa lalu sementara teks sastra tidaklah demikian.Oleh karena itu, sejarawan sering menghindari penggunaan teks sastra dalampenelitian mereka. Saya berargumen bahwa teks sastra dapat menambahkandimensi lain pada wawasan sejarah, yang tidak ditemukan dalam dokumensejarah. Analisis puisi Jawa berjudul Repen Ripangi dari abad kesembilan belasmenunjukkan bahwa teks ini, selain memberikan laporan yang sangat menariktentang pendamaian ideologis seorang reformis muslim, juga membuka jalanbagi penulisnya dalam menyuarakan kritiknya terhadap kekuasaan kolonialBelanda.

  9. Evaluation of health state and growth of Gypsophila paniculata L. and Gypsophila repens L. groving in soil in variable fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Warner

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The influence of NPK fertilization on plant growth and roots yield of Gypsophila paniculata and Gypsophila repens was investigated. The nutrients were applied in different proportions. The health state of Gypsophila was also analyzed. The pathogens isolated from plants showing the diseases symptoms represented eight species: Alternaria dianthicola Neergaard; Fusarium avenaceum (Fr. Sacc.; Fusarium culmorum (W. G.Smith Sacc.; F.equiseti (Cola Sacc.; F.oxysporum Schlecht., Snyder et Hansen; F.sambucinum Fuck; Phytophthora sp. de Bary; Rhizoctonia solani K. Fusarium oxysporum and other species of fungi were isolated from Gypsophila paniculata, whilst from Gypsophila repens only Fusarium oxysporum was obtained.

  10. Combining mechanical rhizome removal and cover crops for Elytrigia repens control in organic barley systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melander, B; Nørremark, M; Kristensen, E F

    2013-01-01

    of vegetative propagules located within the plough layer to allow for quick re-establishment of a plant cover. A field experiment comparing the effects of conventional practices (stubble cultivation) with different combinations of rotary cultivation (One, Two or four passes) and cover crops (none vs. rye......-vetch-mustard mixture) on Elytrigia repens rhizome removal, shoot growth and suppression of a subsequent barley crop was examined in two growing seasons. Four passes with a modified rotary cultivator, where each pass was followed by rhizome removal, reduced E. repens shoot growth in barley by 84% and 97%. In general...

  11. NOTES FOR FLORA OF MATO GROSSO STATE: THE ASTERACEAE FAMILY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Cavalheiro

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The proposed work aimed to survey the Asteraceae species contained in the collection of the Herbarium UFMT for purposes of performing the preliminary version to compose the Flora of Mato Grosso State. Allied to this was held to update the number of species as well as the nomenclatural verification of all scientific names. Were found 150 species in 82 genera of which 33 are new records for the state and 16 are framed in IUCN categories. The species are distributed over all biomes: Cerrado, Pantanal and the Amazon forest, but the forest environment showed low number of samples, probably due to the difficulties of access by researchers. Finally, when we combine the analysis of the collection of UFMT to other herbaria that have herbarium collections in the state, we actually have a very real composition survey of Asteraceae for Mato Grosso State.

  12. New species of Ophryosporus (Eupatorieae Asteraceae from Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abundio Sagástegui Alva

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Ophryosporus marchii Sagást. & E. Rodr. is described as a new species of Ophryosporus Meyen (Eupatorieae: Asteraceae from the Department of Cajamarca, Peru. This new species is apparently endemic to the province of Contumaza and closest relative to O. sagasteguii H. Rob. It is critically compared with this species and data on its geographical distribution, ecology and conservation status are provided.

  13. Molecular evolution across the Asteraceae: micro- and macroevolutionary processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Nolan C; Barker, Michael S; Zhan, Shing H; Rieseberg, Loren H

    2011-12-01

    The Asteraceae (Compositae) is a large family of over 20,000 wild, weedy, and domesticated species that comprise approximately 10% of all angiosperms, including annual and perennial herbs, shrubs and trees, and species on every continent except Antarctica. As a result, the Asteraceae provide a unique opportunity to understand the evolutionary genomics of lineage radiation and diversification at numerous phylogenetic scales. Using publicly available expressed sequence tags from 22 species representing four of the major Asteraceae lineages, we assessed neutral and nonneutral evolutionary processes across this diverse plant family. We used bioinformatic tools to identify candidate genes under selection in each species. Evolution at silent and coding sites were assessed for different Gene Ontology functional categories to compare rates of evolution over both short and long evolutionary timescales. Our results indicate that patterns of molecular change across the family are surprisingly consistent on a macroevolutionary timescale and much more so more than would be predicted from the analysis of one (or many) examples of microevolution. These analyses also point to particular classes of genes that may be crucial in shaping the radiation of this diverse plant family. Similar analyses of nuclear and chloroplast genes in six other plant families confirm that many of these patterns are common features of the plant kingdom.

  14. Dirofilaria in Humans, Dogs, and Vectors in Austria (1978–2014)—From Imported Pathogens to the Endemicity of Dirofilaria repens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuehrer, Hans-Peter; Auer, Herbert; Leschnik, Michael; Silbermayr, Katja; Duscher, Georg; Joachim, Anja

    2016-01-01

    Background Dirofilaria repens and D. immitis are filarioid helminths with domestic and wild canids as main hosts and mosquitoes as vectors. Both species are known to cause zoonotic diseases, primarily pulmonary (D. immitis), ocular (D. repens), and subcutaneous (D. repens) dirofilariosis. Both D. immitis and D. repens are known as invasive species, and their distribution seems associated with climate change. Until very recently, both species were known to be nonendemic in Austria. Methodology and Principal Findings Metadata on introduced and possibly autochthonous cases of infection with Dirofilaria sp. in dogs and humans in Austria are analysed, together with analyses of mosquito populations from Austria in ongoing studies. In Austria, most cases of Dirofilaria sp. in humans (30 cases of D. repens—six ocular and 24 subcutaneous) and dogs (approximately 50 cases—both D. immitis and D. repens) were most likely imported. However, occasionally infections with D. repens were discussed to be autochthonous (one human case and seven in dogs). The introduction of D. repens to Austria was confirmed very recently, as the parasite was detected in Burgenland (eastern Austria) for the first time in mosquito vectors during a surveillance program. For D. immitis, this could not be confirmed yet, but data from Germany suggest that the successful establishment of this nematode species in Austria is a credible scenario for the near future. Conclusions The first findings of D. repens in mosquito vectors indicate that D. repens presumably invaded in eastern Austria. Climate analyses from central Europe indicate that D. immitis also has the capacity to establish itself in the lowland regions of Austria, given that both canid and culicid hosts are present. PMID:27196049

  15. Badania mieszańców w rodzaju Trifolium L. IV. Cytogenetyka mieszańca Trifolium repens L. × T. isthomocarpum Brot. [Investigations on hybrids of the genus Trifolium L. P. IV. Cytogenetics of the cross T. repens L. × T. isthomocarpum Brot.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Kazimierski

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Interspecific F1 hybrid between Trifolium repens (2n = 32 and T. isthomocarpum (2n = 16 was obtained. The hybrid is sterile and its disturbed meiotic divisions are described. It is suggested from cytogenetic evidence that one of the genomes of T. repens is similar to the genome of T. isthomacarpum.

  16. Novedades sobre el género Pilosella Hill.: (Asteraceae, Lactuceae) en España, II

    OpenAIRE

    Mateo Sanz, Gonzalo

    2016-01-01

    Se comunica la presencia de diversas especies nuevas del género Pilosella Hill. (Asteraceae, Lactuceae) en España. Novelties on the genus Pilosella Hill (Asteraceae, Lactuceae) in Spain, II. Several species of Pilosella Hill (Asteraceae, Lactuceae) found in Spain.

  17. Relations of enzymes inAspergillus repens grown under sodium chloride stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelavkar, U P; Chhatpar, H S

    1993-09-01

    Aspergillus repens, a salt-pan isolate, was halotolerant. When grown for 72 h (log phase) and 144 h (beginning of stationary phase) in a medium containing 2M sodium chloride, the activities of invertase, malate dehydrogenase (MDH), glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH), and glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) were found to have increased. Control cultures grown in a medium devoid of 2M NaCl failed to show such changes. The activities of MDH, G6PDH, and GDH increased with rising concentrations of Na(+) (as NaCl) when added up to 100MM in vitro. At higher concentrations they decreased. Changes in kinetic constants, Km and Vmax of these enzymes, as well as their de novo synthesis, were found to be some of the responses to NaCl stress-mediated changes.

  18. Panorama de la familia Asteraceae (= Compositae en la Republica Argentina An overview of the plant family Asteraceae ( = Compositae in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Katinas

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta un panorama de la familia Asteraceae en la República Argentina , que incluye una breve historia taxonómica, datos numéricos de tribus, géneros y especies, ejemplos de endemismos y daptaciones ecológicas y una reseña sobre la hipótesis del origen de la familia en Patagonia. En la Argentina, las asteráceas representan la familia más numerosa con 227 géneros (cinco son endémicos y ca. 1400 especies (92 son adventicias y 382 son endémicas. En términos de taxones nativos, se hallan representadas en nuestro país todas las tribus de Asteraceae excepto Inuleae (sensu Bremer. Las tribus Arctoteae y Calenduleae están representadas por taxones adventicios exclusivamente y Cardueae posee sólo una especie nativa. Barnadesieae y Mutisieae son las únicas tribus con géneros endémicos de Argentina y también presentan el porcentaje más alto de géneros y especies en el país en comparación con el resto de las tribus. El mayor número de especies nativas, endémicas y no endémicas, se da en las provincias fitogeográficas Altoandina y Patagónica. La tribu más representada en número de géneros es Heliantheae, y en número de especies nativas es Senecioneae.An overview of the family Asteraceae in Argentina that includes a brief taxonomic history, numerical data of tribes, genera and species, examples of endemisms and ecological adaptations, and a discussion on the hypothesis on the origin of the family in Patagonia is given. Asteraceae is the most numerous family in Argentina , with 227 genera (five are endemic and ca. 1400 species (92 are adventitious and 382 are endemic. In relation to the native taxa, all tribes of Asteraceae occur in Argentina excepting Inuleae (sensu Bremer. Tribes Arctoteae and Calenduleae are represented exclusively by adventitious taxa, and Cardueae has only one native species. Barnadesieae and Mutisieae are the only tribes with endemic genera in Argentina and they also present the highest percentage of

  19. Variable response of three Trifolium repens ecotypes to soil flooding by seawater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Anissia C; Colmer, Timothy D; Cawthray, Greg R; Hanley, Mick E

    2014-08-01

    Despite concerns about the impact of rising sea levels and storm surge events on coastal ecosystems, there is remarkably little information on the response of terrestrial coastal plant species to seawater inundation. The aim of this study was to elucidate responses of a glycophyte (white clover, Trifolium repens) to short-duration soil flooding by seawater and recovery following leaching of salts. Using plants cultivated from parent ecotypes collected from a natural soil salinity gradient, the impact of short-duration seawater soil flooding (8 or 24 h) on short-term changes in leaf salt ion and organic solute concentrations was examined, together with longer term impacts on plant growth (stolon elongation) and flowering. There was substantial Cl(-) and Na(+) accumulation in leaves, especially for plants subjected to 24 h soil flooding with seawater, but no consistent variation linked to parent plant provenance. Proline and sucrose concentrations also increased in plants following seawater flooding of the soil. Plant growth and flowering were reduced by longer soil immersion times (seawater flooding followed by drainage and freshwater inputs), but plants originating from more saline soil responded less negatively than those from lower salinity soil. The accumulation of proline and sucrose indicates a potential for solute accumulation as a response to the osmotic imbalance caused by salt ions, while variation in growth and flowering responses between ecotypes points to a natural adaptive capacity for tolerance of short-duration seawater soil flooding in T. repens. Consequently, it is suggested that selection for tolerant ecotypes is possible should the predicted increase in frequency of storm surge flooding events occur. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. The genus cicerbita wallr. (cichorieae- asteraceae) in Pakistan and Kashmir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bano, R.; Qaiser, M.; Roohi, B.

    2010-01-01

    The genus Cicerbita Wallr. of the tribe Cichorieae-Asteraceae is revised for Pakistan and Kashmir. A broader generic concept of the genus is accepted and in all 11 species have been recognized including 3 new species viz. Cicerbita astorensis, Roohi Bano and Qaiser, C. alii, Roohi Bano and Qaiser and C. gilgitensis Roohi Bano and Qaiser. 5 new combinations, including 3 at species and 2 at varietal level have also been proposed. An artificial key to all the species is provided. Latin diagnosis, illustrations of newly described species, world wide and local distribution and ecological notes of all the species are also furnished. (author)

  1. Antioxidant defense gene analysis in Brassica oleracea and Trifolium repens exposed to Cd and/or Pb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, F; Dumez, S; Brulle, F; Lemière, S; Platel, A; Nesslany, F; Cuny, D; Deram, A; Vandenbulcke, F

    2016-02-01

    This study focused on the expression analysis of antioxidant defense genes in Brassica oleracea and in Trifolium repens. Plants were exposed for 3, 10, and 56 days in microcosms to a field-collected suburban soil spiked by low concentrations of cadmium and/or lead. In both species, metal accumulations and expression levels of genes encoding proteins involved and/or related to antioxidant defense systems (glutathione transferases, peroxidases, catalases, metallothioneins) were quantified in leaves in order to better understand the detoxification processes involved following exposure to metals. It appeared that strongest gene expression variations in T. repens were observed when plants are exposed to Cd (metallothionein and ascorbate peroxidase upregulations) whereas strongest variations in B. oleracea were observed in case of Cd/Pb co-exposures (metallothionein, glutathione transferase, and peroxidase upregulations). Results also suggest that there is a benefit to use complementary species in order to better apprehend the biological effects in ecotoxicology.

  2. Seed characters and their usefulness in the separation of Asteraceae species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelli Fernandes Batista

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Studies on seed structure of Asteraceae have received little attention of botanists. Seed structure in Asteraceae is analyzed to evaluate the usefulness of characters in the separation of species through the analysis of nine weedy species. Seeds originate from anatropous, unitegmic and tenuinucellate ovules. The partial collapse of the developing seed coat is a common characteristic in the Asteraceae species studied. The testa consists of crushed and thin-walled cells in almost all of the species studied herein, except for Elephantopus mollis and Parthenium hysterophorus, which showed exotesta cells with U-shaped thickening. The analysis revealed high uniformity in seed characters.

  3. In vitro antioxidant assessment and a rapid HPTLC bioautographic method for the detection of anticholinesterase inhibitory activity of Geophila repens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Umesh Chandra Dash; Atish Kumar Sahoo

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:Geophila repens (L.) I.M.Johnst.(Rubiaceae),a small,creeping,perennial herb,is claimed to have memory-enhancing property.The goal of this study was to assess its antioxidant and anticholinesterase activity and conduct a rapid bioautographic enzyme assay for screening acetylcholinesterase (ACHE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) inhibition of G.repens extracts.METHODS:Antioxidant activity of G.repens extracts was assessed by performing 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH),nitric oxide (NO),superoxide (SOD),hydroxyl (OH) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) assays.Anticholinesterase activity was investigated by quantifying the AChE and BChE inhibitory activities of chloroform (CGR),ethyl acetate (EGR) and methanol (MGR) extract fractions from G.repens leaves.A rapid high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) bioautographic method for the detection of AChE and BChE inhibition was performed.RESULTS:Among all extract fractions,EGR exhibited the highest half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) in DPPH,SOD,NO,OH and TAC assays,with IC50 of (38.33 ± 3.21),(45.14 ± 1.78),(59.81 ± 1.32),(39.45 ± 0.79) and (43.76 ± 0.81) μg/mL respectively.EGR displayed competitive,reversible inhibition of AChE and BChE activities with IC50 of (68.63 ± 0.45) and (59.45 ± 0.45) μg/mL,respectively.Total phenolic and flavonoids contents of EGR were found to be 360.42 mg gallic acid equivalents and 257.31 mg quercetin equivalents per gram of extract.Phytoconstituents of the EGR extract that were inhibitors of cholinesterase produced white spots on the yellow background of HPTLC plates in the bioautographic test.CONCLUSION:The results of this study revealed that phenols and flavonoids could be responsible for the antioxidant,anticholinesterase activities of G.repens.

  4. Analgesic and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Methanol Extract of Cissus repens in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Wen Chang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate possible analgesic and anti-inflammatory mechanisms of the CRMeOH. Analgesic effect was evaluated in two models including acetic acid-induced writhing response and formalin-induced paw licking. The anti-inflammatory effect was evaluated by λ-carrageenan-induced mouse paw edema and histopathologic analyses. The results showed that CRMeOH (500 mg/kg decreased writhing response in the acetic acid assay and licking time in the formalin test. CRMeOH (100 and 500 mg/kg significantly decreased edema paw volume at 4th to 5th hours after λ-carrageenan had been injected. Histopathologically, CRMeOH abated the level of tissue destruction and swelling of the edema paws. These results were indicated that anti-inflammatory mechanism of CRMeOH may be due to declined levels of NO and MDA in the edema paw through increasing the activities of SOD, GPx, and GRd in the liver. Additionally, CRMeOH also decreased IL-1β, IL-6, NFκB, TNF-α, COX-2, and iNOS levels. The contents of two active ingredients, ursolic acid and lupeol, were quantitatively determined. This paper demonstrated possible mechanisms for the analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of CRMeOH and provided evidence for the classical treatment of Cissus repens in inflammatory diseases.

  5. Study on the phenolic constituents of the flowers and leaves of Trifolium repens L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kicel, Agnieszka; Wolbiś, Maria

    2012-11-01

    The flowers and leaves of Trifolium repens L. (Fabaceae) were subjected to phytochemical investigation in order to identify their major chemical constituents and to evaluate in vitro antioxidant activity of the isolated compounds against DPPH˙. A total of 12 flavonoids, pterocarpan and methyl caffeate were isolated, then characterised by UV, MS, NMR spectroscopy and identified as quercetin and kaempferol 3-O-(6″-α-rhamnopyranosyl-2″-β-xylopyranosyl)-β-galactopyranosides (1, 2), kaempferol 3-O-(2″,6″-α-dirhamnopyranosyl)-β-galactopyranoside, mauritianin (3), quercetin and kaempferol 3-O-(2″-β-xylopyranosyl)-β-galactopyranosides (4, 5), kaempferol and quercetin 3-O-β-(6″-O-acetyl)-galactopyranosides (6, 7), trifolin (8), hyperoside (9), myricetin 3-O-β-galactopyranoside (10), quercetin (11), ononin (12), medicarpin 3-O-β-glucopyranoside (13) and methyl caffeate (14). Mauritianin, ononin, pterocarpan and methyl caffeate have been reported in this plant for the first time. The compounds 4, 7, 9, 10, and 11 were tested for their antioxidant effect against DPPH˙. All studied compounds were found to have potent activity, but the most effective in the test were compounds 9, 10 and 11 (EC(50) values in the range 7.51-9.52 µM).

  6. Molecular evolution of the Li/li chemical defence polymorphism in white clover (Trifolium repens L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, K M; Sutherland, B L; Small, L L

    2007-10-01

    White clover (Trifolium repens) is naturally polymorphic for cyanogenesis (hydrogen cyanide release following tissue damage). The ecological factors favouring cyanogenic and acyanogenic plants have been examined in numerous studies over the last half century, making this one of the best-documented examples of an adaptive polymorphism in plants. White clover cyanogenesis is controlled by two, independently segregating Mendelian genes: Ac/ac controls the presence/absence of cyanogenic glucosides; and Li/li controls the presence/absence of their hydrolysing enzyme, linamarase. In this study, we examine the molecular evolution and population genetics of Li as it relates to the cyanogenesis polymorphism. We report here that Li exists as a single-copy gene in plants possessing linamarase activity, and that the absence of enzyme activity in li/li plants is correlated with the absence of much or all of the gene from the white clover genome. Consistent with this finding, we confirm by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction that Li gene expression is absent in plants lacking enzyme activity. In a molecular population genetic analysis of Li and three unlinked genes using a worldwide sample of clover plants, we find an absence of nucleotide variation and statistically significant deviations from neutrality at Li; these findings are consistent with recent positive directional selection at this cyanogenesis locus.

  7. A cryptic taxon rather than a hybrid species of Tragopogon (Asteraceae) from the Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mavrodiev, E. V.; Krahulec, František; Soltis, D. E.; Soltis, P.S.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 68, č. 1 (2013), s. 133-141 ISSN 0075-5974 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : DNA-sequence polyformism * nuclear ribosomal DNA * miscellus Asteraceae * evolution * fertility Subject RIV: EF - Botanics

  8. Terpenoids, flavonoids and other constituents of Eupatorium betonicaeforme (Asteraceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albuquerque, Maria Rose Jane R.; Pires, Andreza Maria L.; Pessoa, Otilia Deusdenia L.; Silveira, Edilberto R. [Ceara Univ., Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica Organica e Inorganica. Curso de Pos-Graduacao em Quimica Organica]. E-mail: opessoa@ufc.br

    2006-01-15

    A new acylated kaurene diterpene, characterized as 15{alpha}-decanoyloxy-kaur-16-en-19-oic acid, along with nine known compounds: pentacosanoic acid, 24{alpha}-ethyl-5{alpha}-cholesta-7,22E-dien-3{beta}-ol, 15{alpha}-hydroxy-kaur-16-en-19-oic acid, 8{beta}-angeloyloxy-9{beta},10{beta}-dihydroxy-1-oxogermacra-4E,11(13)dien-12,6{alpha}-olide, 3{beta}-hydroxyeicosan-1,5{beta}-olide, taraxasteryl acetate, 7-Omethylkaempferol, kaempferol, and nepetin were isolated from the flowers of Eupatorium betonicaeforme (Asteraceae). In addition, from the aerial parts were isolated taraxasteryl acetate and {alpha}- and {beta}-amyrin, while the mixture of {beta}-sitosterol and stigmasterol, and 6-acetyl-2,2-dimethylchroman-4-one were isolated from the roots. The structure elucidation of all compounds was performed by spectroscopic analysis and comparison with published data from literature. (author)

  9. Terpenoids, flavonoids and other constituents of Eupatorium betonicaeforme (Asteraceae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albuquerque, Maria Rose Jane R.; Pires, Andreza Maria L.; Pessoa, Otilia Deusdenia L.; Silveira, Edilberto R.

    2006-01-01

    A new acylated kaurene diterpene, characterized as 15α-decanoyloxy-kaur-16-en-19-oic acid, along with nine known compounds: pentacosanoic acid, 24α-ethyl-5α-cholesta-7,22E-dien-3β-ol, 15α-hydroxy-kaur-16-en-19-oic acid, 8β-angeloyloxy-9β,10β-dihydroxy-1-oxogermacra-4E,11(13)dien-12,6α-olide, 3β-hydroxyeicosan-1,5β-olide, taraxasteryl acetate, 7-Omethylkaempferol, kaempferol, and nepetin were isolated from the flowers of Eupatorium betonicaeforme (Asteraceae). In addition, from the aerial parts were isolated taraxasteryl acetate and α- and β-amyrin, while the mixture of β-sitosterol and stigmasterol, and 6-acetyl-2,2-dimethylchroman-4-one were isolated from the roots. The structure elucidation of all compounds was performed by spectroscopic analysis and comparison with published data from literature. (author)

  10. Die Plantfamilie Asteraceae: 4 Interessante groeivorme en ekonomies belangrike soorte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. P.J. Herman

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Die plantfamilie Asteraceae bevat ’n ryke verskeidenheid en interessante groeivorme soos eenjarige en meerjarige kruide, dwergstruike, struike, bome, slingerplante, sukkulente, waterplante, rosetplante, kussingplante, heide-agtige plante, platgroeiend, grasagtig  en doringrig. Die blare vertoon ook baie variasie in vorm en ander kenmerke byvoorbeeld afwisselend, teenoorstaande, saamgepak, sittend, gesteeld, enkelvoudig, gaafrandig, getand, gelob of diep verdeeld, saamgesteld, met drie tot vyf hoofare, gereduseer of heeltemal afwesig, glad of baie harig op die boonste of onderste oppervlakke. Soms is melksap teenwoordig en sommiges is aromaties. Sommige verteenwoordigers van die familie is ekonomies belangrik; sommiges is eetbaar of word vir medisyne gebruik terwyl ander giftig is, sommiges word as veevoer benut maar ander is onkruide en die hout van sommiges is in die verlede gebruik.

  11. First report of fasciation in Pitcher's Thistle, Cirsium pitcheri (Asteraceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlovic, Noel B.; Korte, Megan K; McEachern, A. Kathryn; Grundel, Ralph

    2013-01-01

    We document the first reported occurrence of fasciation in the federally threatened Pitcher’s thistle, Cirsium pitcheri (Asteraceae). In 2013, we discovered two adult plants of Pitcher’s thistle out of a total of 176 plants at West Beach, near Miller, Indiana, USA, that exhibited both normal and fasciated growth. Unlike plants with normal growth, a portion of the upper stems of these plants was flattened, and some flower heads were elongated into a fan-like shape. Each plant had one large fasciated terminal seed head and several less severely fasciated ancillary heads. The fasciated terminal head on one of the plants found produced an estimated 1153 seeds, whereas normal terminal heads typically produced 80 ± 9 viable seeds. The cause of this fasciation is unclear, but may be due to infection with phytoplasma

  12. Research of polysaccharide complexes from asteraceae family plants

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    Світлана Михайлівна Марчишин

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim of research. Depth study of polysaccharides in some little-known plant species of Asteraceae family is pressing question, considering that polysaccharides are important biologically active compounds widely used in pharmaceutical and medical practice as remedies and preventive medications. The aim of research was to determinate both quantitative content and monomeric composition of polysaccharide complexes from Asteraceae family plant species – Tagetes genus, Arnica genus, and Bellis genus.Materials and methods. Determination of polysaccharides was carried out by the precipitation reaction, using 96 % ethyl alcohol P and Fehling's solution after acid hydrolysis; quantitative content of this group of compounds was determined by gravimetric analysis. On purpose to identify the monomeric composition hydrolysis under sulfuric acid conditions was conducted. Qualitative monomeric composition of polysaccharides after hydrolysis was carried out by paper chromatography method in n-Butanol – Pyridine – Distilled water P (6:4:3 system along with saccharides reference samples.Results. Polysaccharide complexes from Tagetes erecta, Tagetes patula, Tagetes tenuifolia, Arnica montana, Arnica foliosa, wild and cultivated Bellis perennis herbs were studied. Water-soluble polysaccharides and pectin fractions were isolated from studied objects; their quantitative content and monomeric composition were determined.Conclusion. The highest amount of water-soluble polysaccharides was found in cultivated Bellis perennis herb (10,13 %, the highest amount of pectin compounds – in Tagetes tenuifolia herb (13,62 %; the lowest amount of water-soluble polysaccharides and pectin compounds was found in Arnica montana herb (4,61 % and Tagetes patula herb (3,62 %, respectively. It was found that polysaccharide complexes from all studied species include glucose and arabinose

  13. Salinity gradient in the Manamo River, a dammed distributary of the Orinoco Delta, and its influence on the presence of Eichhornia crassipes and Paspalum repens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olivares, E.; Colonnello, G.

    2000-01-01

    We describe a saline gradient established by the damming of the Manamo River, a former freshwater environment, in the Orinoco Delta and the influence of this gradient on the distribution of Eichhornia crassipes Solms (water hyacinth), and Paspalum repens Berg, The two most abundant aquatic macrophytes. The present work demonstrates, on the basis of measurements of leaf osmolality and ion concentrations, that salinity is acting in the dammed river as a regulator of the studied species E. Crassipes is a potential weed which was originally controlled by the hydrodynamics of waters in the Orinoco River. Plants and river water were sampled in ten sites, three of them with high salinity. The osmolality as well as relative proportions of the main soluble ions explain the relative tolerance to salinity of E. Crassipes in comparison with P. Repens. In sites where both species were present, the K+/Na+ ratio in the leaf sap was higher in the E. Crassipes than in P. repens (authors)

  14. Survival of Ranunculus repens L. (creeping buttercup) in an amphibious habitat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynn, D E; Waldren, S

    2003-01-01

    The turlough form of Ranunculus repens is subjected to several months' complete inundation with hard groundwater. Experimental flooding to the level of the soil surface had no effect on turlough or ruderal populations relative to drained controls. Experimental submergence resulted in direct tissue death of the ruderal population but did not affect the turlough population relative to drained controls. There was no detectable difference in the proportion of aerenchyma in drained, flooded and submerged roots of plants from either population. The proportion of aerenchyma increased with root age in the ruderal population. Up to twice the proportion of aerenchyma occurred in the lower third of the root in the turlough population relative to the middle and upper thirds. Submergence in artificially hardened tap water increased the amount of tissue death in the ruderal population, whereas it appeared to enhance the growth of plants from the turlough population relative to that of plants submerged in tap water. Only the ruderal population demonstrated a depth accommodation response in submerged conditions. Root concentrations of ethanol-soluble carbohydrates were up to three times higher in a field- collected turlough population during winter and autumn months than those in a ruderal population. Low levels of ethanol-insoluble carbohydrates were present in the turlough population but were absent from the ruderal population. Starch concentrations fluctuated greatly in the turlough population and were generally higher than those in the ruderal population. These results, together with those from previous investigations, suggest that the turlough population survives prolonged submergence by maintaining low levels of submerged photosynthesis, which may circulate oxygen within the plant tissues, and by utilizing storage carbohydrates for maintenance respiration. Copyright 2003 Annals of Botany Company

  15. Hypoglycemic activity of polysaccharide fractions containing ß-glucans from extracts of Rhynchelytrum repens (Willd. C.E. Hubb., Poaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.C.C.F.F. De Paula

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available ß-Glucans are soluble fibers with physiological functions, such as interference with absorption of sugars and reduction of serum lipid levels. The objective of the present study was to analyze the distribution of ß-glucans in different tissues of the African grass species Rhynchelytrum repens and also to evaluate their hypoglycemic activity. Leaf blades, sheaths, stems, and young leaves of R. repens were submitted to extraction with 4 M KOH. Analysis of the fractions revealed the presence of arabinose, glucose, xylose, and traces of rhamnose and galactose. The presence of ß-glucan in these fractions was confirmed by hydrolyzing the polymers with endo-ß-glucanase from Bacillus subtilis, followed by HPLC analysis of the characteristic oligosaccharides produced. The 4 M KOH fractions from different tissues were subjected to gel permeation chromatography on Sepharose 4B, with separation of polysaccharides with different degrees of polymerization, the highest molecular mass (above 2000 kDa being found in young leaves. The molecular mass of the leaf blade polymers was similar (250 kDa to that of maize coleoptile ß-glucan used for comparison. The 4 M KOH fraction injected into rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes showed hypoglycemic activity, reducing blood sugar to normal levels for approximately 24 h. This performance was better than that obtained with pure ß-glucan from barley, which decreased blood sugar levels for about 4 h. These results suggest that the activity of ß-glucans from R. repens is responsible for the use of this plant extract as a hypoglycemic drug in folk medicine.

  16. Influencia de la pendiente del terreno en la persistencia de Trifolium repens Ladino en pastizales de monte en Galicia

    OpenAIRE

    de Zulueta y Artaloytia, Julián

    2011-01-01

    R E S U M E NEnsayo comparativo de la diferencia de persistencia que presenta Trifolium repens Ladino cuando se siembra en laderas de pendiente 12 por 100 o menor del 4 por 100 en pastizales de monte con suelo arenoso y período de sequía estival. Estas condiciones de suelo y clima concurren, más o menos, en el polígono que tiene como vértices: Corcubión, Negreira, La Entrada, Cercedo y toda la zona al sur de esta localidad en la provincia de Pontevedra, exceptuando las altitudes superiores a ...

  17. An extinct Eocene taxon of the daisy family (Asteraceae): evolutionary, ecological and biogeographical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreda, Viviana D; Palazzesi, Luis; Katinas, Liliana; Crisci, Jorge V; Tellería, María C; Bremer, Kåre; Passalia, Mauro G; Passala, Mauro G; Bechis, Florencia; Corsolini, Rodolfo

    2012-01-01

    Morphological, molecular and biogeographical information bearing on early evolution of the sunflower alliance of families suggests that the clade containing the extant daisy family (Asteraceae) differentiated in South America during the Eocene, although palaeontological studies on this continent failed to reveal conclusive support for this hypothesis. Here we describe in detail Raiguenrayun cura gen. & sp. nov., an exceptionally well preserved capitulescence of Asteraceae recovered from Eocene deposits of northwestern Patagonia, Argentina. The fossil was collected from the 47·5 million-year-old Huitrera Formation at the Estancia Don Hipólito locality, Río Negro Province, Argentina. The arrangement of the capitula in a cymose capitulescence, the many-flowered capitula with multiseriate-imbricate involucral bracts and the pappus-like structures indicate a close morphological relationship with Asteraceae. Raiguenrayun cura and the associated pollen Mutisiapollis telleriae do not match exactly any living member of the family, and clearly represent extinct taxa. They share a mosaic of morphological features today recognized in taxa phylogenetically close to the root of Asteraceae, such as Stifftieae, Wunderlichioideae and Gochnatieae (Mutisioideae sensu lato) and Dicomeae and Oldenburgieae (Carduoideae), today endemic to or mainly distributed in South America and Africa, respectively. This is the first fossil genus of Asteraceae based on an outstandingly preserved capitulescence that might represent the ancestor of Mutisioideae-Carduoideae. It might have evolved in southern South America some time during the early Palaeogene and subsequently entered Africa, before the biogeographical isolation of these continents became much more pronounced. The new fossil represents the first reliable point for calibration, favouring an earlier date to the split between Barnadesioideae and the rest of Asteraceae than previously thought, which can be traced back at least 47·5

  18. Antiparasitic activity in Asteraceae with special attention to ethnobotanical use by the tribes of Odisha, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panda Sujogya Kumar

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this review is to survey the antiparasitic plants of the Asteraceae family and their applicability in the treatment of parasites. This review is divided into three major parts: (a literature on traditional uses of Asteraceae plants for the treatment of parasites; (b description of the major classes of chemical compounds from Asteraceae and their antiparasitic effects; and (c antiparasitic activity with special reference to flavonoids and terpenoids. This review provides detailed information on the reported Asteraceae plant extracts found throughout the world and on isolated secondary metabolites that can inhibit protozoan parasites such as Plasmodium, Trypanosoma, Leishmania, and intestinal worms. Additionally, special attention is given to the Asteraceae plants of Odisha, used by the tribes of the area as antiparasitics. These plants are compared to the same plants used traditionally in other regions. Finally, we provide information on which plants identified in Odisha, India and related compounds show promise for the development of new drugs against parasitic diseases. For most of the plants discussed in this review, the active compounds still need to be isolated and tested further.

  19. Antiparasitic activity in Asteraceae with special attention to ethnobotanical use by the tribes of Odisha, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panda, Sujogya Kumar; Luyten, Walter

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to survey the antiparasitic plants of the Asteraceae family and their applicability in the treatment of parasites. This review is divided into three major parts: (a) literature on traditional uses of Asteraceae plants for the treatment of parasites; (b) description of the major classes of chemical compounds from Asteraceae and their antiparasitic effects; and (c) antiparasitic activity with special reference to flavonoids and terpenoids. This review provides detailed information on the reported Asteraceae plant extracts found throughout the world and on isolated secondary metabolites that can inhibit protozoan parasites such as Plasmodium, Trypanosoma, Leishmania, and intestinal worms. Additionally, special attention is given to the Asteraceae plants of Odisha, used by the tribes of the area as antiparasitics. These plants are compared to the same plants used traditionally in other regions. Finally, we provide information on which plants identified in Odisha, India and related compounds show promise for the development of new drugs against parasitic diseases. For most of the plants discussed in this review, the active compounds still need to be isolated and tested further. PMID:29528842

  20. Evaluating the feasibility of using candidate DNA barcodes in discriminating species of the large Asteraceae family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Ting; Yao, Hui; Song, Jingyuan; Zhu, Yingjie; Liu, Chang; Chen, Shilin

    2010-10-26

    Five DNA regions, namely, rbcL, matK, ITS, ITS2, and psbA-trnH, have been recommended as primary DNA barcodes for plants. Studies evaluating these regions for species identification in the large plant taxon, which includes a large number of closely related species, have rarely been reported. The feasibility of using the five proposed DNA regions was tested for discriminating plant species within Asteraceae, the largest family of flowering plants. Among these markers, ITS2 was the most useful in terms of universality, sequence variation, and identification capability in the Asteraceae family. The species discriminating power of ITS2 was also explored in a large pool of 3,490 Asteraceae sequences that represent 2,315 species belonging to 494 different genera. The result shows that ITS2 correctly identified 76.4% and 97.4% of plant samples at the species and genus levels, respectively. In addition, ITS2 displayed a variable ability to discriminate related species within different genera. ITS2 is the best DNA barcode for the Asteraceae family. This approach significantly broadens the application of DNA barcoding to resolve classification problems in the family Asteraceae at the genera and species levels.

  1. Evaluating the feasibility of using candidate DNA barcodes in discriminating species of the large Asteraceae family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Chang

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Five DNA regions, namely, rbcL, matK, ITS, ITS2, and psbA-trnH, have been recommended as primary DNA barcodes for plants. Studies evaluating these regions for species identification in the large plant taxon, which includes a large number of closely related species, have rarely been reported. Results The feasibility of using the five proposed DNA regions was tested for discriminating plant species within Asteraceae, the largest family of flowering plants. Among these markers, ITS2 was the most useful in terms of universality, sequence variation, and identification capability in the Asteraceae family. The species discriminating power of ITS2 was also explored in a large pool of 3,490 Asteraceae sequences that represent 2,315 species belonging to 494 different genera. The result shows that ITS2 correctly identified 76.4% and 97.4% of plant samples at the species and genus levels, respectively. In addition, ITS2 displayed a variable ability to discriminate related species within different genera. Conclusions ITS2 is the best DNA barcode for the Asteraceae family. This approach significantly broadens the application of DNA barcoding to resolve classification problems in the family Asteraceae at the genera and species levels.

  2. Kunitz Proteinase Inhibitors Limit Water Stress Responses in White Clover (Trifolium repens L.) Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Afsana; Leung, Susanna; Nikmatullah, Aluh; Dijkwel, Paul P; McManus, Michael T

    2017-01-01

    The response of plants to water deficiency or drought is a complex process, the perception of which is triggered at the molecular level before any visible morphological responses are detected. It was found that different groups of plant proteinase inhibitors (PIs) are induced and play an active role during abiotic stress conditions such as drought. Our previous work with the white clover ( Trifolium repens L.) Kunitz Proteinase Inhibitor ( Tr-KPI ) gene family showed that Tr-KPIs are differentially regulated to ontogenetic and biotic stress associated cues and that, at least some members of this gene family may be required to maintain cellular homeostasis. Altered cellular homeostasis may also affect abiotic stress responses and therefore, we aimed to understand if distinct Tr-PKI members function during drought stress. First, the expression level of three Tr-KPI genes, Tr-KPI1 , Tr-KPI2 , and Tr-KPI5 , was measured in two cultivars and one white clover ecotype with differing capacity to tolerate drought. The expression of Tr-KPI1 and Tr-KPI5 increased in response to water deficiency and this was exaggerated when the plants were treated with a previous period of water deficiency. In contrast, proline accumulation and increased expression of Tr-NCED1 , a gene encoding a protein involved in ABA biosynthesis, was delayed in plants that experienced a previous drought period. RNAi knock-down of Tr-KPI1 and Tr-KPI5 resulted in increased proline accumulation in leaf tissue of plants grown under both well-watered and water-deficit conditions. In addition, increased expression of genes involved in ethylene biosynthesis was found. The data suggests that Tr-KPIs , particularly Tr-KPI5 , have an explicit function during water limitation. The results also imply that the Tr-KPI family has different in planta proteinase targets and that the functions of this protein family are not solely restricted to one of storage proteins or in response to biotic stress.

  3. Presence of Trifolium repens promotes complementarity of water use and N facilitation in diverse grass mixtures

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    Pauline eHernandez

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Legume species promote productivity and increase the digestibility of herbage in grasslands. Considerable experimental data also indicate that communities with legumes produce more above-ground biomass than is expected from monocultures. While it has been attributed to N facilitation, evidence to identify the mechanisms involved is still lacking and the role of complementarity in soil water acquisition by vertical root differentiation remains unclear. We used a 20-month mesocosm experiment to investigate the effects of species richness (single species, two- and five-species mixtures and functional diversity (presence of the legume Trifolium repens on a set of traits related to light, N and water use and measured at community level. We found a positive effect of Trifolium presence and abundance on biomass production and complementarity effects in the two-species mixtures from the second year. In addition the community traits related to water and N acquisition and use (leaf area, N, water-use efficiency and deep root growth were higher in the presence of Trifolium. With a multiple regression approach, we showed that the traits related to water acquisition and use were with N the main determinants of biomass production and complementarity effects in diverse mixtures. At shallow soil layers, lower root mass of Trifolium and higher soil moisture should increase soil water availability for the associated grass species. Conversely at deep soil layer, higher root growth and lower soil moisture mirror soil resource use increase of mixtures. Altogether, these results highlight N facilitation but almost soil vertical differentiation and thus complementarity for water acquisition and use in mixtures with Trifolium. Contrary to grass-Trifolium mixtures, no significant over-yielding was measured for grass mixtures even those having complementary traits (short and shallow vs tall and deep. Thus, vertical complementarity for soil resources uptake in mixtures

  4. Presence of Trifolium repens Promotes Complementarity of Water Use and N Facilitation in Diverse Grass Mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Pauline; Picon-Cochard, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    Legume species promote productivity and increase the digestibility of herbage in grasslands. Considerable experimental data also indicate that communities with legumes produce more above-ground biomass than is expected from monocultures. While it has been attributed to N facilitation, evidence to identify the mechanisms involved is still lacking and the role of complementarity in soil water acquisition by vertical root differentiation remains unclear. We used a 20-months mesocosm experiment to investigate the effects of species richness (single species, two- and five-species mixtures) and functional diversity (presence of the legume Trifolium repens) on a set of traits related to light, N and water use and measured at community level. We found a positive effect of Trifolium presence and abundance on biomass production and complementarity effects in the two-species mixtures from the second year. In addition the community traits related to water and N acquisition and use (leaf area, N, water-use efficiency, and deep root growth) were higher in the presence of Trifolium. With a multiple regression approach, we showed that the traits related to water acquisition and use were with N the main determinants of biomass production and complementarity effects in diverse mixtures. At shallow soil layers, lower root mass of Trifolium and higher soil moisture should increase soil water availability for the associated grass species. Conversely at deep soil layer, higher root growth and lower soil moisture mirror soil resource use increase of mixtures. Altogether, these results highlight N facilitation but almost soil vertical differentiation and thus complementarity for water acquisition and use in mixtures with Trifolium. Contrary to grass-Trifolium mixtures, no significant over-yielding was measured for grass mixtures even those having complementary traits (short and shallow vs. tall and deep). Thus, vertical complementarity for soil resources uptake in mixtures was not only

  5. Does white clover (Trifolium repens abundance in temperate pastures determine Sitona obsoletus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae larval populations?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Richard McNeill

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available To determine if host plant abundance determined the size of clover root weevil (CRW Sitona obsoletus larval populations, a study was conducted over four years in plots sown in ryegrass (Lolium perenne (cv. Nui sown at either 6 or 30 kg/ha and white clover (Trifolium repens sown at a uniform rate of 8 kg/ha. This provided a range of % white clover content to investigate CRW population establishment and impacts on white clover survival. Larval sampling was carried out in spring (October when larval densities are near their spring peak at Lincoln (Canterbury, New Zealand with % clover measured in autumn (April and spring (September of each year. Overall, mean larval densities measured in spring 2012, 2013, 2014 and 2015 were 310, 38, 59 and 31 larvae m-2, respectively. There was a significant decline in larval populations between 2012 and 2013, but spring populations were relatively uniform thereafter. The mean % white clover measured in autumns of 2012 to 2015 was 17, 10, 3 and 11%, respectively. In comparison, mean spring % white clover from 2012 to 2015, averaged c. 5% each year. Analysis relating spring (October larval populations to % white clover measured in each plot in autumn (April found the 2012 larval population to be statistically significantly larger in the ryegrass 6 kg/ha plots than 30 kg/ha plots. Thereafter, sowing rate had no significant effect on larval populations. From 2013 to 2015, spring larval populations had a negative relationship with the previous autumn % white clover with the relationship highly significant for the 2014 data. When CRW larval populations in spring 2013 to 2015 were predicted from the 2013 to 2015 autumn % white clover, respectively, based on their positive relationship in 2012, the predicted densities were substantially larger than those observed. Conversely, when 2015 spring larval data and % clover was regressed against 2012-2014 larval populations, observed densities tended to be higher than predicted

  6. Does the addition of Serenoa repens to tamsulosin improve its therapeutical efficacy in benign prostatic hyperplasia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Argirović Aleksandar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. It has been observed that a large number of patients with low urinary tract symptoms due to benign prostatic hyperplasia (LUTS/BPH has been treated with a combination of tamsulosin (TAM + Serenoa repens (SR (TAM + SR. The aim of this study was to compare a combination TAM + SR with TAM and SR alone, to see if there was any difference in efficacy and tolerance of each in patients with LUTS/BPH. Methods. In this prospective study patients had to have prostate volume (PV 3, a maximal flow rate (Qmax of 5-15 mL/s, with post voiding residual volume (PVR < 150 mL and serum prostatic antigen (PSA < 4 ng/mL. TAM (0.4 mg was administered once a day, SR (320 mg daily or SR (320 mg + TAM (0.4 mg daily for a median period of 6 months. Results. A total of 297 patients were recruited, whereas 265 patients were fully available: 87 into the group TAM, 97 into the group SR and 81 into the group TAM + SR. There was no statistically significant difference between the treatment groups in the sense of demographic and other baseline parameters. No difference was found among the 3 treatment groups, neither in the major endpoint of the study in the sense of a change between baseline and final evaluation in total IPSS, obstructive and irritative subscores, improvement of QoLs, increase in Qmax, nor for the second endpoint including diminution of PV, PSA and PVR. During the treatment period 20 (23% of the patients managed with TAM and 17 (21% with TAM + SR had drug-treated with related adverse reactions. No adverse effect was detected in the group SR. Conclusion. Treatment of BPH by both SR and TAM seems to be efficacious alone. None of them had superiority over another and, additionally, a combined therapy (TAM + SR does not provide extra benefits. Furthermore, SR is a well-tolerated agent that can be used alternatively in the treatment of LUTS/BPH.

  7. Rooting depth and root depth distribution of Trifolium repens × T. uniflorum interspecific hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, S N; Hofmann, R W; Williams, W M; van Koten, C

    2016-05-20

    Traits related to root depth distribution were examined in Trifolium repens × T. uniflorum backcross 1 (BC 1 ) hybrids to determine whether root characteristics of white clover could be improved by interspecific hybridization. Two white clover cultivars, two T. uniflorum accessions and two BC 1 populations were grown in 1 -m deep tubes of sand culture. Maximum rooting depth and root mass distribution were measured at four harvests over time, and root distribution data were fitted with a regression model to provide measures of root system shape. Morphological traits were measured at two depths at harvest 3. Root system shape of the hybrids was more similar to T. uniflorum than to white clover. The hybrids and T. uniflorum had a higher rate of decrease in root mass with depth than white clover, which would result in higher proportions of root mass in the upper profile. Percentage total root mass at 100-200 mm depth was higher for T. uniflorum than white clover, and for Crusader BC 1 than 'Crusader'. Roots of the hybrids and T. uniflorum also penetrated deeper than those of white clover. T. uniflorum had thicker roots at 50-100 mm deep than the other entries, and more of its fine root mass at 400-500 mm. The hybrids and white clover had more of their fine root mass higher in the profile. Consequently, T. uniflorum had a higher root length density at 400-500 mm than most entries, and a smaller decrease in root length density with depth. These results demonstrate that rooting characteristics of white clover can be altered by hybridization with T. uniflorum, potentially improving water and nutrient acquisition and drought resistance. Root traits of T. uniflorum are likely to be adaptations to soil moisture and fertility in its natural environment. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Kunitz Proteinase Inhibitors Limit Water Stress Responses in White Clover (Trifolium repens L. Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afsana Islam

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The response of plants to water deficiency or drought is a complex process, the perception of which is triggered at the molecular level before any visible morphological responses are detected. It was found that different groups of plant proteinase inhibitors (PIs are induced and play an active role during abiotic stress conditions such as drought. Our previous work with the white clover (Trifolium repens L. Kunitz Proteinase Inhibitor (Tr-KPI gene family showed that Tr-KPIs are differentially regulated to ontogenetic and biotic stress associated cues and that, at least some members of this gene family may be required to maintain cellular homeostasis. Altered cellular homeostasis may also affect abiotic stress responses and therefore, we aimed to understand if distinct Tr-PKI members function during drought stress. First, the expression level of three Tr-KPI genes, Tr-KPI1, Tr-KPI2, and Tr-KPI5, was measured in two cultivars and one white clover ecotype with differing capacity to tolerate drought. The expression of Tr-KPI1 and Tr-KPI5 increased in response to water deficiency and this was exaggerated when the plants were treated with a previous period of water deficiency. In contrast, proline accumulation and increased expression of Tr-NCED1, a gene encoding a protein involved in ABA biosynthesis, was delayed in plants that experienced a previous drought period. RNAi knock-down of Tr-KPI1 and Tr-KPI5 resulted in increased proline accumulation in leaf tissue of plants grown under both well-watered and water-deficit conditions. In addition, increased expression of genes involved in ethylene biosynthesis was found. The data suggests that Tr-KPIs, particularly Tr-KPI5, have an explicit function during water limitation. The results also imply that the Tr-KPI family has different in planta proteinase targets and that the functions of this protein family are not solely restricted to one of storage proteins or in response to biotic stress.

  9. Does White Clover (Trifolium repens) Abundance in Temperate Pastures Determine Sitona obsoletus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) Larval Populations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeill, Mark R; van Koten, Chikako; Cave, Vanessa M; Chapman, David; Hodgson, Hamish

    2016-01-01

    To determine if host plant abundance determined the size of clover root weevil (CRW) Sitona obsoletus larval populations, a study was conducted over 4 years in plots sown in ryegrass ( Lolium perenne ) (cv. Nui) sown at either 6 or 30 kg/ha and white clover ( Trifolium repens ) sown at a uniform rate of 8 kg/ha. This provided a range of % white clover content to investigate CRW population establishment and impacts on white clover survival. Larval sampling was carried out in spring (October) when larval densities are near their spring peak at Lincoln (Canterbury, New Zealand) with % clover measured in autumn (April) and spring (September) of each year. Overall, mean larval densities measured in spring 2012-2015 were 310, 38, 59, and 31 larvae m -2 , respectively. There was a significant decline in larval populations between 2012 and 2013, but spring populations were relatively uniform thereafter. The mean % white clover measured in autumns of 2012 to 2015 was 17, 10, 3, and 11%, respectively. In comparison, mean spring % white clover from 2012 to 2015, averaged c. 5% each year. Analysis relating spring (October) larval populations to % white clover measured in each plot in autumn (April) found the 2012 larval population to be statistically significantly larger in the ryegrass 6 kg/ha plots than 30 kg/ha plots. Thereafter, sowing rate had no significant effect on larval populations. From 2013 to 2015, spring larval populations had a negative relationship with the previous autumn % white clover with the relationship highly significant for the 2014 data. When CRW larval populations in spring 2013 to 2015 were predicted from the 2013 to 2015 autumn % white clover, respectively, based on their positive relationship in 2012, the predicted densities were substantially larger than those observed. Conversely, when 2015 spring larval data and % clover was regressed against 2012-2014 larval populations, observed densities tended to be higher than predicted, but the numbers

  10. Fire tolerance of a resprouting Artemisia (Asteraceae) shrub

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, S.L.; Fuhlendorf, S.D.; Goad, C.L.; Davis, C.A.; Hickman, K.R.; Leslie, David M.

    2011-01-01

    In North America, most Artemisia (Asteraceae) shrub species lack the ability to resprout after disturbances that remove aboveground biomass. We studied the response of one of the few resprouting Artemisia shrubs, Artemisia filifolia (sand sagebrush), to the effects of prescribed fires. We collected data on A. filifolia density and structural characteristics (height, canopy area, and canopy volume) in an A. filifolia shrubland in the southern Great Plains of North America. Our study sites included areas that had not been treated with prescribed fire, areas that had been treated with only one prescribed fire within the previous 5 years, and areas that had been treated with two prescribed fires within the previous 10 years. Our data were collected at time periods ranging from 1/2 to 5 years after the prescribed fires. Density of A. filifolia was not affected by one or two fires. Structural characteristics, although initially altered by prescribed fire, recovered to levels characteristic of unburned areas in 3-4 years after those fires. In contrast to most non-sprouting North American Artemisia shrub species, our research suggested that the resprouting A. filifolia is highly tolerant to the effects of fire. ?? 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  11. Vernonia condensata Baker (Asteraceae): A Promising Source of Antioxidants

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Jucélia Barbosa; Temponi, Vanessa dos Santos; Gasparetto, Carolina Miranda; Fabri, Rodrigo Luiz; Aragão, Danielle Maria de Oliveira; Pinto, Nícolas de Castro Campos; Ribeiro, Antônia; Scio, Elita; Del-Vechio-Vieira, Glauciemar; de Sousa, Orlando Vieira

    2013-01-01

    The present study evaluated the antioxidant potential of Vernonia condensata Baker (Asteraceae). Dried and powdered leaves were exhaustively extracted with ethanol by static maceration followed by partition to obtain the hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, and butanol fractions. Total phenols and flavonoids contents were determined through spectrophotometry and flavonoids were identified by HPLC-DAD system. The antioxidant activity was assessed by DPPH radical scavenging activity, TLC-bioautography, reducing power of Fe+3, phosphomolybdenum, and TBA assays. The total phenolic content and total flavonoids ranged from 0.19 to 23.11 g/100 g and from 0.13 to 4.10 g/100 g, respectively. The flavonoids apigenin and luteolin were identified in the ethyl acetate fraction. The IC50 of DPPH assay varied from 4.28 to 75.10 µg/mL and TLC-bioautography detected the antioxidant compounds. The reducing power of Fe+3 was 19.98 to 336.48 μg/mL, while the reaction with phosphomolybdenum ranged from 13.54% to 32.63% and 56.02% to 135.00% considering ascorbic acid and rutin as reference, respectively. At 30 mg/mL, the ethanolic extract and fractions revealed significant effect against lipid peroxidation. All these data sustain that V. condensata is an important and promising source of bioactive substances with antioxidant activity. PMID:24489987

  12. Lipid Nanocarriers for Oral Delivery of Serenoa repens CO2 Extract: A Study of Microemulsion and Self-Microemulsifying Drug Delivery Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guccione, Clizia; Bergonzi, Maria Camilla; Awada, Khaled M; Piazzini, Vieri; Bilia, Anna Rita

    2018-07-01

    The aim of this study was the development and characterization of lipid nanocarriers using food grade components for oral delivery of Serenoa repens CO 2 extract, namely microemulsions (MEs) and self-microemulsifying drug delivery systems (SMEDDSs) to improve the oral absorption. A commercial blend (CB) containing 320 of S. repens CO 2 extract plus the aqueous soluble extracts of nettle root and pineapple stem was formulated in two MEs and two SMEDDSs. The optimized ME loaded with the CB (CBM2) had a very low content of water (only 17.3%). The drug delivery systems were characterized by dynamic light scattering, transmission electron microscopy, and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with a diode-array detector analyses in order to evaluate the size, the homogeneity, the morphology, and the encapsulation efficiency. β -carotene was selected as marker for the quantitative HPLC analysis. Additionally, physical and chemical stabilities were acceptable during 3 wk at 4 °C. Stability of these nanocarriers in simulated stomach and intestinal conditions was proved. Finally, the improvement of oral absorption of S. repens was studied in vitro using parallel artificial membrane permeability assay. An enhancement of oral permeation was found in both CBM2 and CBS2 nanoformulations comparing with the CB and S. repens CO 2 extract. The best performance was obtained by the CBM2 nanoformulation (~ 17%) predicting a 30 - 70% passive oral human absorption in vivo . Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  13. Mycorrhizal associations as Salix repens L. communities in succession of dune ecosystems II Mycorrhizal dynamics and interactions of ectomycorrhizal and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijden, van der E.W.; Vosatka, M.

    2000-01-01

    Ectomycorrhizal (EcM) and arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) associations of Salix repens were studied at 16 sites in different successional stages of dune ecosystems (calcareous-acidic, dry-wet) in the Netherlands. High EcM colonization, low AM colonization, and lack of differences between habitats

  14. Larvicidal potential of Asteraceae family endophytic actinomycetes against Culex quinquefasciatus mosquito larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanvir, Rabia; Sajid, Imran; Hasnain, Shahida

    2014-01-01

    Pakistan is blessed with plants of Asteraceae family with known medicinal background used for centuries by Hakims (traditional physicians). Keeping in mind the background of their anti-larval potential, a total of 21 endophytic actinomycetes were isolated from four Asteraceae plants and screened against the first and fourth instar stages of Culex quinquefasciatus Say mosquito larvae. Of the 21 isolates, 6 of them gave strong larvicidal activity (80-100% mortality) in the screening results and 4 isolates gave a potent larvicidal activity (100% mortality) at the fourth instar stage. These isolates belonged to different species within the actinomycetes group, namely Streptomyces albovinaceus and Streptomyces badius. This communication reports the larvicidal potential of endophytic actinomycetes residing within the native Asteraceae plants in Pakistan. The study suggests further exploration through large-scale productions leading to the identification of the larvicidal compounds.

  15. The prevalence of Dirofilaria repens in cats, healthy dogs and dogs with concurrent babesiosis in an expansion zone in central Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajer, Anna; Rodo, Anna; Mierzejewska, Ewa J; Tołkacz, Katarzyna; Welc-Faleciak, Renata

    2016-09-05

    Dirofilaria repens is a mosquito-transmitted, filarial nematode parasitizing dogs, cats and other carnivores. Recently, this parasite has spread in central Europe, including Poland. The aim of the present study was to estimate the prevalence of D. repens in cats and dogs in different regions of the country and to investigate the occurrence and consequences of co-infection with another fast-spreading vector-borne parasite, Babesia canis. In the period 2013-2015, 147 blood samples from cats from central Poland and 257 blood samples from dogs from central, northern, southern and western Poland were collected. Prevalence of D. repens was determined by amplification and sequencing of the 12S rDNA gene fragment. Among dogs, 94 samples originated from clinically healthy dogs from central Poland (Masovia) and 58 samples originated from dogs that were infected with B. canis. Prevalence of D. repens was compared between these two groups of dogs. For the first time D. repens was identified in a cat from central Europe (0.7 % [95 % CL: 0-4.1 %]). The DNA of the filarial endosymbiotic bacterium Wolbachia was detected in two cats (1.4 % [95 % CL: 0-5.5 %]). In dogs, the parasite was detected only in samples from central Poland (Masovia) (local prevalence = 38 % [95 % CL: 25.9-51.8 %]). Prevalence of D. repens was significantly higher in dogs with babesiosis (90 % [95 % CL: 81.6-94.5 %]). Co-infections of D. repens and B. canis were confirmed by sequencing in 30 dogs with babesiosis, but no co-infections were identified in healthy dogs from Masovia. Statistical analyses of blood parameters revealed that dogs with co-infections suffered more severe anemia and thrombocytopenia, but presented milder changes in biochemical parameters (i.e. less elevated concentration of alkaline phosphatase [ALP] and serum urea) suggesting lower risk of hepatic or renal failure in comparison to dogs infected only with B. canis. These findings are important due to the spread of

  16. Floral Visitors of Three Asteraceae Species in a Xeric Environment in Central Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa-Castro, Dulce María; González-Tochihuitl, Guadalupe; Rivas-Arancibia, Sombra Patricia; Castaño-Meneses, Gabriela

    2016-12-01

    We describe the spatial variation in the structure and composition of the communities of insects visiting the inflorescences of Flaveria ramosissima Klatt, Florestina pedata (Cav.) Cass., and Parthenium bipinnatifidum (Ort.) Rollins (Asteraceae) in a xeric environment in Central Mexico. Inflorescences of the three Asteraceae were visited by a total of 96 species of Hymenoptera, Diptera, Lepidoptera, Coleoptera, and Hemiptera. Total species richness of floral visitors to the three Asteraceae and total abundance of insects of Fl. pedata and P. bipinnatifidum did not differ between low and high vegetation cover sites. Total abundance of insects visiting the inflorescences of F. ramosissima and abundance of Hymenoptera in all three Asteraceae were higher at the low vegetation coverage (LVC) site than at the high vegetation coverage (HVC) one. Diversity of insects of Fl. pedata and P. bipinnatifidum was higher at the HVC site. However, in F. ramosissima diversity was higher at the LVC site. The communities of insects of each Asteraceae were dissimilar between sites. These differences can be attributed to variation in the abundance of Lepidophora (Diptera: Bombyliidae), Miridae (Hemiptera), Melyridae (Coleoptera), Tiphiidae (Hymenoptera), Myrmecocystus mexicanus Wesmael, and Dorymyrmex grandulus (Forel) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). The first three insect groups were sensitive to LVC, high temperature, and low humidity, whereas the last three tolerated those same environmental conditions. Changes in temperature, humidity, and resources associated with vegetation coverage seem to differentially affect each species of floral visitors of the three Asteraceae species studied. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Phylogeny and biogeography of the genus Stevia (Asteraceae: Eupatorieae): an example of diversification in the Asteraceae in the new world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soejima, Akiko; Tanabe, Akifumi S; Takayama, Izumi; Kawahara, Takayuki; Watanabe, Kuniaki; Nakazawa, Miyuki; Mishima, Misako; Yahara, Tetsukazu

    2017-11-01

    The genus Stevia comprises approximately 200 species, which are distributed in North and South America, and are representative of the species diversity of the Asteraceae in the New World. We reconstructed the phylogenetic relationships using sequences of ITS and cpDNA and estimated the divergence times of the major clade of this genus. Our results suggested that Stevia originated in Mexico 7.0-7.3 million years ago (Mya). Two large clades, one with shrub species and another with herb species, were separated at about 6.6 Mya. The phylogenetic reconstruction suggested that an ancestor of Stevia was a small shrub in temperate pine-oak forests and the evolutionary change from a shrub state to a herb state occurred only once. A Brazilian clade was nested in a Mexican herb clade, and its origin was estimated to be 5.2 Mya, suggesting that the migration from North America to South America occurred after the formation of the Isthmus of Panama. The species diversity in Mexico appears to reflect the habitat diversity within the temperate pine-oak forest zone. The presence of many conspecific diploid-polyploid clades in the phylogenetic tree reflects the high frequency of polyploidization among the perennial Stevia species.

  18. Nuevas citas de Asteraceae para la provincia de Catamarca (Argentina New records of Asteraceae for the province of Catamarca (Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana E. Freire

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Se mencionan los siguientes nuevos registros de Asteráceas para la provincia de Catamarca, Argentina: Baccharis acaulis, B. boliviensis var. latifolia, B. flexuosa, B. glutinosa var. angustissima, B. stenophylla (Tribu Astereae, Eupatorium patens var. tomentosum (Tribu Eupatorieae, Cosmos bipinnatus, C. peucedanifolius var. peucedanifolius, Helianthus annuus (Tribu Heliantheae, Gamochaeta erythractis, G. longipedicellata, Gnaphalium lacteum, Tessaria integrifolia var. integrifolia (Tribu Inuleae, Chuquiraga ruscifolia (Tribu Mutisieae, Senecio crepidifolius, S. subulatus var. subulatus, Xenophyllum incisum var. incisum (Tribu Senecioneae. Se citan además el hábitat de los taxones y las provincias fitogeográficas que integran. Se propone una nueva combinación, Baccharis glutinosa Pers. var. angustissima (DC. Giuliano.The following Asteraceae are mentioned for the province of Catamarca: Baccharis acaulis, B. boliviensis var. latifolia, B. flexuosa, B. glutinosa var. angustissima, B. stenophylla (Tribe Astereae, Eupatorium patens var. tomentosum (Tribe Eupatorieae, Cosmos bipinnatus, C. peucedanifolius var. peucedanifolius, Helianthus annuus (Tribe Heliantheae, Gamochaeta erythractis, G. longipedicellata, Gnaphalium lacteum, Tessaria integrifolia var. integrifolia (Tribe Inuleae, Chuquiraga ruscifolia (Tribe Mutisieae, Senecio crepidifolius, S. subulatus var. subulatus, Xenophyllum incisum var. incisum (Tribe Senecioneae. The habitat and phytogeographic provinces of the taxa are mentioned. The following new combination is proposed: Baccharis glutinosa Pers. var. angustissima (DC. Giuliano.

  19. Microfilaricidal efficacy of a single administration of Advocate(®) (Bayer Animal Health) in dogs naturally infected with Dirofilaria immitis or Dirofilaria repens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frangipane di Regalbono, Antonio; Di Cesare, Angela; Traversa, Donato; Simonato, Giulia; Poser, Helen; Danesi, Patrizia; Furnari, Carmelo; Russi, Ilaria; Raele, Donato Antonio; Crisi, Paolo; Pampurini, Fabrizio; Pietrobelli, Mario

    2016-08-15

    The present study evaluated the microfilaricidal efficacy of a single application of the spot-on containing imidacloprid 10%/moxidectin 2.5% (Advocate(®), Bayer Animal Health) in dogs naturally infected either by Dirofilaria immitis or Dirofilaria repens. Dogs living in north-eastern and central-southern Italy, endemic for D. immitis and D. repens respectively, were randomly screened. Sixteen animals, eight infected with D. immitis and eight with D. repens, and fulfilling inclusion criteria were enrolled. Dogs infected with D. immitis received an adulticide treatment prior to the study and Advocate(®) 3 weeks after. The animals were divided in blocks of two (1:1, T1:T2) animals each, where Day 0 (D0) had an interval of 15days to compare T2 vs. T1 dogs during the first fortnight of examination (i.e. T2 dogs acted as control animals at each examination). At baseline (Days -15 and 0 for T2 and T1 dogs, respectively) the animals had a range of microfilaraemia of 180-99.700mff/ml (D. immitis) and 60-750 mff/ml (D. repens). All animals received a topical administration of Advocate(®) at D0 and were examined for microfilariae with microscopic and molecular tests at D15, D30, D60 and D90. All animals scored negative for mff at the first control post-treatment and throughout the study, with the exception of two D. immitis- infected animals that had a 2 mff/ml count at D15, and then become negative from Day 30 onwards. No adverse events were observed. The present study demonstrates the safety and the high microfilaricidal efficacy (99.97% and 100% for D. immitis and D. repens, respectively) of a single dose of moxidectin contained in Advocate(®) in naturally infected dogs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Herbarium collection-based phylogenetics of the ragweeds (Ambrosia, Asteraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Michael D; Quiroz-Claros, Elva; Brush, Grace S; Zimmer, Elizabeth A

    2018-03-01

    Ambrosia (Asteraceae) is a taxonomically difficult genus of weedy, wind-pollinated plants with an apparent center of diversity in the Sonoran Desert of North America. Determining Ambrosia's evolutionary relationships has been the subject of much interest, with numerous studies using morphological characters, cytology, comparative phytochemistry, and chloroplast restriction site variation to produce conflicting accounts the relationships between Ambrosia species, as well as the classification of their close relatives in Franseria and Hymenoclea. To resolve undetermined intra-generic relationships within Ambrosia, we used DNA extracted from tissues obtained from seed banks and herbarium collections to generate multi-locus genetic data representing nearly all putative species, including four from South America. We performed Bayesian and Maximum-Likelihood phylogenetic analyses of six chloroplast-genome and two nuclear-genome markers, enabling us to infer monophyly for the genus, resolve major infra-generic species clusters, as well as to resolve open questions about the evolutionary relationships of several Ambrosia species and former members of Franseria. We also provide molecular data supporting the hypothesis that A. sandersonii formed through the hybridization of A. eriocentra and A. salsola. The topology of our chloroplast DNA phylogeny is almost entirely congruent with the most recent molecular work based on chloroplast restriction site variation of a much more limited sampling of 14 North American species of Ambrosia, although our improved sampling of global Ambrosia diversity enables us to draw additional conclusions. As our study is the first direct DNA sequence-based phylogenetic analyses of Ambrosia, we analyze the data in relation to previous taxonomic studies and discuss several instances of chloroplast/nuclear incongruence that leave the precise geographic center of origin of Ambrosia in question. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. The explosive radiation of Cheirolophus (Asteraceae, Cardueae) in Macaronesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitales, Daniel; Garnatje, Teresa; Pellicer, Jaume; Vallès, Joan; Santos-Guerra, Arnoldo; Sanmartín, Isabel

    2014-06-02

    Considered a biodiversity hotspot, the Canary Islands have been the key subjects of numerous evolutionary studies concerning a large variety of organisms. The genus Cheirolophus (Asteraceae) represents one of the largest plant radiations in the Canarian archipelago. In contrast, only a few species occur in the Mediterranean region, the putative ancestral area of the genus. Here, our main aim was to reconstruct the phylogenetic and biogeographic history of Cheirolophus with special focus on explaining the origin of the large Canarian radiation. We found significant incongruence in phylogenetic relationships between nuclear and plastid markers. Each dataset provided resolution at different levels in Cheirolophus: the nuclear markers resolved the backbone of the phylogeny while the plastid data provided better resolution within the Canarian clade. The origin of Cheirolophus was dated in the Mid-Late Miocene, followed by rapid diversification into the three main Mediterranean lineages and the Macaronesian clade. A decrease in diversification rates was inferred at the end of the Miocene, with a new increase in the Late Pliocene concurrent with the onset of the Mediterranean climate. Diversification within the Macaronesian clade started in the Early-Mid Pleistocene, with unusually high speciation rates giving rise to the extant insular diversity. Climate-driven diversification likely explains the early evolutionary history of Cheirolophus in the Mediterranean region. It appears that the exceptionally high diversification rate in the Canarian clade was mainly driven by allopatric speciation (including intra- and interisland diversification). Several intrinsic (e.g. breeding system, polyploid origin, seed dispersal syndrome) and extrinsic (e.g. fragmented landscape, isolated habitats, climatic and geological changes) factors probably contributed to the progressive differentiation of populations resulting in numerous microendemisms. Finally, hybridization events and

  2. Combined use of isotopic fingerprint and metabolomics analysis for the authentication of saw palmetto (Serenoa repens) extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perini, Matteo; Paolini, Mauro; Camin, Federica; Appendino, Giovanni; Vitulo, Francesca; De Combarieu, Eric; Sardone, Nicola; Martinelli, Ernesto Marco; Pace, Roberto

    2018-04-22

    Saw palmetto (Serenoa repens, SP) is the most expensive oil source of the pharmaceutical and healthfood market, and its high cost and recurrent shortages have spurred the development of designer blends of fatty acids to mimic its phytochemical profile and fraudulently comply with the current authentication assays. To detect this adulteration, the combined use of isotopic fingerprint and omic analysis has been investigated, using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) to handle the complex databases generated by these techniques and to identify the possible source of the adulterants. Surprisingly, the presence of fatty acids of animal origin turned out to be widespread in commercial samples of saw palmetto oil. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Potential for the development of tolerance by Aspergillus amstelodami, A. repens and A. ruber after repeated exposure to potassium sorbate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viñas, I; Morlans, I; Sanchis, V

    1990-01-01

    Three strains of A. amstelodami, A. repens and A. ruber were exposed to various levels of potassium sorbate, and the MICs were determined. Selected strains of the molds were then repeatedly exposed to subinhibitory levels of the compound to determine whether increased tolerance might develop. The MIC of sorbate (pH 5.5 or 6.5) for 3 species of Aspergillus was 0.07%. Increasing levels of sorbate resulted in increasing growth suppression of the molds. The 3 Aspergillus species were tested for increased tolerance to potassium sorbate, and none was found. They developed a slight increase in tolerance dependent upon pH and the mold strain by subculturing at low levels of sorbate.

  4. Influence of quantity and lability of sediment organic matter on the biomass of two isoetids, Littorella uniflora and Echinodorus repens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pulido Pérez, Cristina; Lucassen, E.C.H.E.; Pedersen, Ole

    2011-01-01

    of the experiment, plants were harvested and their biomass, tissue nutrient concentration and (for L. uniflora) uprooting force were measured. 3. For both species, all plants survived and showed no signs of stress on all types of sediment. The biomass of E. repens increased as the fraction of organic matter...... was increased (from 6 to 39% of organic content, depending upon sediment type). However, in some of the sediment types, a higher fraction of organic matter led to a decline in biomass. The biomass of L. uniflora was less responsive to organic content and was decreased significantly only when the least labile......P>1. Despite real improvement in the water quality of many previously eutrophic lakes, the recovery of submerged vegetation has been poor. This lack of recovery is possibly caused by the accumulation of organic matter on the top layer of the sediment, which is produced under eutrophic conditions...

  5. Experimental evidence for the ancestry of allotetraploid Trifolium repens and creation of synthetic forms with value for plant breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williams Warren M

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background White clover (Trifolium repens is a ubiquitous weed of the temperate world that through use of improved cultivars has also become the most important legume of grazed pastures world-wide. It has long been suspected to be allotetraploid, but the diploid ancestral species have remained elusive. Putative diploid ancestors were indicated by DNA sequence phylogeny to be T. pallescens and T. occidentale. Here, we use further DNA evidence as well as a combination of molecular cytogenetics (FISH and GISH and experimental hybridization to test the hypothesis that white clover originated as a hybrid between T. pallescens and T. occidentale. Results T. pallescens plants were identified with chloroplast trnL intron DNA sequences identical to those of white clover. Similarly, T. occidentale plants with nuclear ITS sequences identical to white clover were also identified. Reciprocal GISH experiments, alternately using labeled genomic DNA probes from each of the putative ancestral species on the same white clover cells, showed that half of the chromosomes hybridized with each probe. F1 hybrids were generated by embryo rescue and these showed strong interspecific chromosome pairing and produced a significant frequency of unreduced gametes, indicating the likely mode of polyploidization. The F1 hybrids are inter-fertile with white clover and function as synthetic white clovers, a valuable new resource for the re-incorporation of ancestral genomes into modern white clover for future plant breeding. Conclusions Evidence from DNA sequence analyses, molecular cytogenetics, interspecific hybridization and breeding experiments supports the hypothesis that a diploid alpine species (T. pallescens hybridized with a diploid coastal species (T. occidentale to generate tetraploid T. repens. The coming together of these two narrowly adapted species (one alpine and the other maritime, along with allotetraploidy, has led to a transgressive hybrid with a

  6. Experimental evidence for the ancestry of allotetraploid Trifolium repens and creation of synthetic forms with value for plant breeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Warren M; Ellison, Nicholas W; Ansari, Helal A; Verry, Isabelle M; Hussain, S Wajid

    2012-04-24

    White clover (Trifolium repens) is a ubiquitous weed of the temperate world that through use of improved cultivars has also become the most important legume of grazed pastures world-wide. It has long been suspected to be allotetraploid, but the diploid ancestral species have remained elusive. Putative diploid ancestors were indicated by DNA sequence phylogeny to be T. pallescens and T. occidentale. Here, we use further DNA evidence as well as a combination of molecular cytogenetics (FISH and GISH) and experimental hybridization to test the hypothesis that white clover originated as a hybrid between T. pallescens and T. occidentale. T. pallescens plants were identified with chloroplast trnL intron DNA sequences identical to those of white clover. Similarly, T. occidentale plants with nuclear ITS sequences identical to white clover were also identified. Reciprocal GISH experiments, alternately using labeled genomic DNA probes from each of the putative ancestral species on the same white clover cells, showed that half of the chromosomes hybridized with each probe. F1 hybrids were generated by embryo rescue and these showed strong interspecific chromosome pairing and produced a significant frequency of unreduced gametes, indicating the likely mode of polyploidization. The F1 hybrids are inter-fertile with white clover and function as synthetic white clovers, a valuable new resource for the re-incorporation of ancestral genomes into modern white clover for future plant breeding. Evidence from DNA sequence analyses, molecular cytogenetics, interspecific hybridization and breeding experiments supports the hypothesis that a diploid alpine species (T. pallescens) hybridized with a diploid coastal species (T. occidentale) to generate tetraploid T. repens. The coming together of these two narrowly adapted species (one alpine and the other maritime), along with allotetraploidy, has led to a transgressive hybrid with a broad adaptive range.

  7. Genotypic and Phenotypic Diversity Does Not Affect Productivity and Drought Response in Competitive Stands of Trifolium repens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Heidrun; During, Heinjo J; Bruine de Bruin, Fabienne; Vermeulen, Peter J; Anten, Niels P R

    2016-01-01

    Clonal plants can form dense canopies in which plants of different genetic origin are competing for the uptake of essential resources. The competitive relationships among these clones are likely to be affected by extreme environmental conditions, such as prolonged drought spells, which are predicted to occur more frequently due to global climate change. This, in turn, may alter characteristics of the ecological system and its associated functioning. We hypothesized that the relative success of individual clones will depend on the size of the ramets as ramets with larger leaves and longer petioles (large ramets) were predicted to have a competitive advantage in terms of increased light interception over smaller-sized ramets. Under drier conditions the relative performances of genotypes were expected to change leading to a change in genotype ranking. We also hypothesized that increased genotypic and phenotypic diversity will increase stand performance and resistance to drought. These hypotheses and the mechanisms responsible for shifts in competitive relationships were investigated by subjecting genotypes of the important pasture legume Trifolium repens to competition with either genetically identical clones, genetically different but similarly sized clones, or genetically as well as morphologically different clones under well-watered and dry conditions. Competitive relationships were affected by ramet size with large genotypes outperforming small genotypes in diverse stands in terms of biomass production. However, large genotypes also produced relatively fewer ramets than small genotypes and could not benefit in terms of clonal reproduction from competing with smaller genotypes, indicating that evolutionary shifts in genotype composition will depend on whether ramet size or ramet number is under selection. In contrast to our hypotheses, diversity did not increase stand performance under different selection regimes and genotype ranking was hardly affected by soil

  8. Variation in chromosome numbers and nuclear DNA contents in genetic resources of Lactuca L. species (Asteraceae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Doležalová, I.; Lebeda, A.; Janeček, J.; Čihalíková, Jarmila; Křístková, E.; Vránová, O.

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 49, č. 4 (2002), s. 385-397 ISSN 0925-9864 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA6038204; GA AV ČR IBS5038104 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5038910 Keywords : Asteraceae * Chromosome number * Flow cytometry Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 0.579, year: 2002

  9. Offspring diversity in Hieracium subgen. Pilosella (Asteraceae): new cytotypes from hybridization experiments and from open pollination

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krahulcová, Anna; Krahulec, František

    2000-01-01

    Roč. 45, 1-2 (2000), s. 239-255 ISSN 0015-931X R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA6005803; GA AV ČR KSK6005114 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6005908 Keywords : Asteraceae * Hieracium subgen. Pilosella * aneuploids Subject RIV: EF - Botanics

  10. Helichrysum yurterianum (Asteraceae, Inuleae), a new species from NE Anatolia, Turkey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gemici, Yusuf; Tan, Kit; Yildirim, Hasan

    2008-01-01

    Helichrysum yurterianum Y. Gemici, Kit Tan, H. Yildirim & M. Gemici (Asteraceae, Inuleae) is described and illustrated. It is a serpentine endemic restricted to the province of Erzincan in NE Anatolia, Turkey. Its affinities are with H. arenarium and H. noeanum, which both have a wider distribution...

  11. Studies of a new hybrid taxon in the Artemisia tridentata (Asteraceae: Anthemideae) complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heather D. Garrison; Leila M. Shultz; E. Durant McArthur

    2013-01-01

    Members of the Artemisia tridentata complex (ASTERACEAE: Anthemideae: Artemisia subgen. Tridentatae) have adapted to changing environmental conditions through geographic migration, introgression, and hybridization. These processes have resulted in morphologic and genetic variation. A presumed hybrid ("Bonneville" big sagebrush) of the complex occurs in the...

  12. Host range of Secusio extensa (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae), and potential for biological control of Senecio madagascariensis (Asteraceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. M. Ramadan; K. T. Murai; T. Johnson

    2010-01-01

    Secusio extensa (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae) was evaluated as a potential biological control agent for Madagascar fireweed, Senecio madagascariensis (Asteraceae), which has invaded over 400 000 acres of rangeland in the Hawaiian Islands and is toxic to cattle and horses. The moth was introduced from southeastern Madagascar...

  13. Evolutionary transitions in the Asteraceae coincide with marked shifts in transposable element abundance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staton, S Evan; Burke, John M

    2015-08-20

    The transposable element (TE) content of the genomes of plant species varies from near zero in the genome of Utricularia gibba to more than 80% in many species. It is not well understood whether this variation in genome composition results from common mechanisms or stochastic variation. The major obstacles to investigating mechanisms of TE evolution have been a lack of comparative genomic data sets and efficient computational methods for measuring differences in TE composition between species. In this study, we describe patterns of TE evolution in 14 species in the flowering plant family Asteraceae and 1 outgroup species in the Calyceraceae to investigate phylogenetic patterns of TE dynamics in this important group of plants. Our findings indicate that TE families in the Asteraceae exhibit distinct patterns of non-neutral evolution, and that there has been a directional increase in copy number of Gypsy retrotransposons since the origin of the Asteraceae. Specifically, there is marked increase in Gypsy abundance at the origin of the Asteraceae and at the base of the tribe Heliantheae. This latter shift in genome composition has had a significant impact on the diversity and abundance distribution of TEs in a lineage-specific manner. We show that the TE-driven expansion of plant genomes can be facilitated by just a few TE families, and is likely accompanied by the modification and/or replacement of the TE community. Importantly, large shifts in TE composition may be correlated with major of phylogenetic transitions.

  14. Jurinea micevskii (Asteraceae), a new species from the Republic of Macedonia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stevanovic, Vladimir; Matevski, Vlado; Tan, Kit

    2010-01-01

    Jurinea micevskii (Asteraceae) is described and illustrated as a new species endemic to Mt Galicica in the southwestern Republic of Macedonia. It resembles J. taygetea, a narrow endemic of Mt Taigetos in the Peloponnese, southern Greece and J. bocconei from Mt Madoníe in north central Sicily...

  15. Cirsium nuttallii (Asteraceae: Cynareae) new to North Carolina and an illustrated key to southeastern congeners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krings, A.; Westbrooks, R.; Lloyd, J.

    2002-01-01

    Cirsium nuttallii (Asteraceae) is documented for North Carolina. The species had previously been known from Florida to South Carolina and from disjunct populations in Virginia. An illustrated key is provided to aid others in the diagnosis of Cirsium in North Carolina and the southeast.

  16. Baselines to detect population stability of the threatened alpine plant Packera franciscana (Asteraceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    James F. Fowler; Carolyn Hull Sieg; Shaula Hedwall

    2015-01-01

    Population size and density estimates have traditionally been acceptable ways to track species’ response to changing environments; however, species' population centroid elevation has recently been an equally important metric. Packera franciscana (Greene) W.A. Weber and A. Love (Asteraceae; San Francisco Peaks ragwort) is a single mountain endemic plant found only...

  17. On the distribution of Cerastium smolikanum (Caryophyllaceae) and Centaurea vlachorum (Asteraceae) in the Balkan Peninsula

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shuka, Lulezim; Tan, Kit

    2009-01-01

    Cerastium smolikanum (Caryophyllaceae) and Centaurea vlachorum (Asteraceae) are reported for the first () and () are reported for the first time in C and NE Albania. These two taxa were previously considered serpentine endemics restricted to a few localities in NW Greece and the extension...

  18. Comparative analysis of complete chloroplast genome sequence and inversion variation in Lasthenia burkei (Madieae, Asteraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Joseph F; Zanis, Michael J; Emery, Nancy C

    2014-04-01

    Complete chloroplast genome studies can help resolve relationships among large, complex plant lineages such as Asteraceae. We present the first whole plastome from the Madieae tribe and compare its sequence variation to other chloroplast genomes in Asteraceae. We used high throughput sequencing to obtain the Lasthenia burkei chloroplast genome. We compared sequence structure and rates of molecular evolution in the small single copy (SSC), large single copy (LSC), and inverted repeat (IR) regions to those for eight Asteraceae accessions and one Solanaceae accession. The chloroplast sequence of L. burkei is 150 746 bp and contains 81 unique protein coding genes and 4 coding ribosomal RNA sequences. We identified three major inversions in the L. burkei chloroplast, all of which have been found in other Asteraceae lineages, and a previously unreported inversion in Lactuca sativa. Regions flanking inversions contained tRNA sequences, but did not have particularly high G + C content. Substitution rates varied among the SSC, LSC, and IR regions, and rates of evolution within each region varied among species. Some observed differences in rates of molecular evolution may be explained by the relative proportion of coding to noncoding sequence within regions. Rates of molecular evolution vary substantially within and among chloroplast genomes, and major inversion events may be promoted by the presence of tRNAs. Collectively, these results provide insight into different mechanisms that may promote intramolecular recombination and the inversion of large genomic regions in the plastome.

  19. Composite aster Inula L. (Asteraceae: a new generic record for Nicobar Islands, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rathinam Sathiyaseelan

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new generic record for the flora of Nicobar Islands, Inula L. (Asteraceae represented by the species Inula cappa (Buch.-Ham. ex D.Don DC., collected from Chowra Island, Great Nicobar Islands.  

  20. Three new caespitose species of Senecio (Asteraceae, Senecioneae) from South Peru

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Montesinos, D.B.

    2014-01-01

    Three new species of the genus Senecio (Asteraceae, Senecioneae) belonging to S. ser. Suffruticosi subser. Caespitosi were discovered in the tributaries of the upper Tambo River, Moquegua Department, South Peru. Descriptions, diagnoses and discussions about their distribution, a table with the

  1. In vivo and in vitro effects of Bidens pilosa l. (asteraceae) leaf ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In vivo and in vitro effects of Bidens pilosa l. (asteraceae) leaf aqueous and ethanol extracts on primed-oestrogenized rat uterine muscle. ... In vitro isometric contraction measurement of oestrogen-primed rat uterine strips showed a significant high aqueous extract-induced contractile effect from 0.03-1.97mg/ml: on the ...

  2. Complete chloroplast genome of the multifunctional crop globe artichoke and comparison with other Asteraceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curci, Pasquale L; De Paola, Domenico; Danzi, Donatella; Vendramin, Giovanni G; Sonnante, Gabriella

    2015-01-01

    With over 20,000 species, Asteraceae is the second largest plant family. High-throughput sequencing of nuclear and chloroplast genomes has allowed for a better understanding of the evolutionary relationships within large plant families. Here, the globe artichoke chloroplast (cp) genome was obtained by a combination of whole-genome and BAC clone high-throughput sequencing. The artichoke cp genome is 152,529 bp in length, consisting of two single-copy regions separated by a pair of inverted repeats (IRs) of 25,155 bp, representing the longest IRs found in the Asteraceae family so far. The large (LSC) and the small (SSC) single-copy regions span 83,578 bp and 18,641 bp, respectively. The artichoke cp sequence was compared to the other eight Asteraceae complete cp genomes available, revealing an IR expansion at the SSC/IR boundary. This expansion consists of 17 bp of the ndhF gene generating an overlap between the ndhF and ycf1 genes. A total of 127 cp simple sequence repeats (cpSSRs) were identified in the artichoke cp genome, potentially suitable for future population studies in the Cynara genus. Parsimony-informative regions were evaluated and allowed to place a Cynara species within the Asteraceae family tree. The eight most informative coding regions were also considered and tested for "specific barcode" purpose in the Asteraceae family. Our results highlight the usefulness of cp genome sequencing in exploring plant genome diversity and retrieving reliable molecular resources for phylogenetic and evolutionary studies, as well as for specific barcodes in plants.

  3. Identification and validation of Asteraceae miRNAs by the expressed sequence tag analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monavar Feshani, Aboozar; Mohammadi, Saeed; Frazier, Taylor P; Abbasi, Abbas; Abedini, Raha; Karimi Farsad, Laleh; Ehya, Farveh; Salekdeh, Ghasem Hosseini; Mardi, Mohsen

    2012-02-10

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNA molecules that play a vital role in the regulation of gene expression. Despite their identification in hundreds of plant species, few miRNAs have been identified in the Asteraceae, a large family that comprises approximately one tenth of all flowering plants. In this study, we used the expressed sequence tag (EST) analysis to identify potential conserved miRNAs and their putative target genes in the Asteraceae. We applied quantitative Real-Time PCR (qRT-PCR) to confirm the expression of eight potential miRNAs in Carthamus tinctorius and Helianthus annuus. We also performed qRT-PCR analysis to investigate the differential expression pattern of five newly identified miRNAs during five different cotyledon growth stages in safflower. Using these methods, we successfully identified and characterized 151 potentially conserved miRNAs, belonging to 26 miRNA families, in 11 genus of Asteraceae. EST analysis predicted that the newly identified conserved Asteraceae miRNAs target 130 total protein-coding ESTs in sunflower and safflower, as well as 433 additional target genes in other plant species. We experimentally confirmed the existence of seven predicted miRNAs, (miR156, miR159, miR160, miR162, miR166, miR396, and miR398) in safflower and sunflower seedlings. We also observed that five out of eight miRNAs are differentially expressed during cotyledon development. Our results indicate that miRNAs may be involved in the regulation of gene expression during seed germination and the formation of the cotyledons in the Asteraceae. The findings of this study might ultimately help in the understanding of miRNA-mediated gene regulation in important crop species. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Development of novel low-copy nuclear markers for Hieraciinae (Asteraceae) and their perspective for other tribes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krak, Karol; Alvarez, Inés; Caklová, Petra; Costa, Andrea; Chrtek, Jindrich; Fehrer, Judith

    2012-02-01

    The development of three low-copy nuclear markers for low taxonomic level phylogenies in Asteraceae with emphasis on the subtribe Hieraciinae is reported. Marker candidates were selected by comparing a Lactuca complementary DNA (cDNA) library with public DNA sequence databases. Interspecific variation and phylogenetic signal of the selected genes were investigated for diploid taxa from the subtribe Hieraciinae and compared to a reference phylogeny. Their ability to cross-amplify was assessed for other Asteraceae tribes. All three markers had higher variation (2.1-4.5 times) than the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) in Hieraciinae. Cross-amplification was successful in at least seven other tribes of the Asteraceae. Only three cases indicating the presence of paralogs or pseudogenes were detected. The results demonstrate the potential of these markers for phylogeny reconstruction in the Hieraciinae as well as in other Asteraceae tribes, especially for very closely related species.

  5. Asteraceae visited by honeybees in Argentina: a record from entomopalynological studies Asteraceae visitadas por abejas melíferas en Argentina: un registro a partir de estudios entomopalinológicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María C. Telleria

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Entomopalynological studies of Asteraceae in Argentina revealed that 64 taxa occurred in food stored by honeybees. The most visited plant tribes were classified according to both the type of reward provided by the different taxa and the intensity that such reward is collected by honeybees. Exotic plant taxa were intensely visited inside the disturbed areas (e.g. Cardueae and Cichorieae tribes, whereas native taxa (e.g. Barnadesioideae, Mutisieae, Astereae and Eupatorieae were intensely visited in less disturbed areas. A large number of identified taxa of Asteraceae and the evaluation of its importance to honeybee nutrition were presented. The present study contributes to the knowledge of relationship between Asteraceae and honeybees.A partir de estudios entomopalinológicos se encontró que 64 taxa pertenecientes a la familia Asteraceae están presentes en los alimentos almacenados por las abejas melíferas. Los representantes exóticos fueron intensamente visitados en las áreas más alteradas (e.g. Cardueae and Cichorieae, mientras que algunos representantes nativos (e.g. Barnadesioideae, Mutisieae, Astereae y Eupatorieae fueron intensamente visitados en áreas menos alteradas. Se presenta un importante número de taxa de Asteraceae relevantes para la nutrición de las abejas melíferas. El presente trabajo contribuye a conocer la relación entre Asteraceae y abejas melíferas.

  6. Gene Capture from Across the Grass Family in the Allohexaploid Elymus repens (L.) Gould (Poaceae, Triticeae) as Evidenced by ITS, GBSSI, and Molecular Cytogenetics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mahelka, Václav; Kopecký, David

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 27, č. 6 (2010), s. 1370-1390 ISSN 0737-4038 R&D Projects: GA ČR GP206/09/P312; GA ČR GA206/09/1126 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516; CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : Elymus repens * hybridization * Triticeae Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 5.510, year: 2010

  7. Resolution of deep nodes yields an improved backbone phylogeny and a new basal lineage to study early evolution of Asteraceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panero, Jose L; Freire, Susana E; Ariza Espinar, Luis; Crozier, Bonnie S; Barboza, Gloria E; Cantero, Juan J

    2014-11-01

    A backbone phylogeny that fully resolves all subfamily and deeper nodes of Asteraceae was constructed using 14 chloroplast DNA loci. The recently named genus Famatinanthus was found to be sister to the Mutisioideae-Asteroideae clade that represents more than 99% of Asteraceae and was found to have the two chloroplast inversions present in all Asteraceae except the nine genera of Barnadesioideae. A monotypic subfamily Famatinanthoideae and tribe Famatinantheae are named herein as new. Relationships among the basal lineages of the family were resolved with strong support in the Bayesian analysis as (Barnadesioideae (Famatinanthoideae (Mutisioideae (Stifftioideae (Wunderlichioideae-Asteroideae))))). Ancestral state reconstruction of ten morphological characters at the root node of the Asteraceae showed that the ancestral sunflower would have had a woody habit, alternate leaves, solitary capitulescences, epaleate receptacles, smooth styles, smooth to microechinate pollen surface sculpturing, white to yellow corollas, and insect-mediated pollination. Herbaceous habit, echinate pollen surface, pubescent styles, and cymose capitulescences were reconstructed for backbone nodes of the phylogeny corresponding to clades that evolved shortly after Asteraceae dispersed out of South America. No support was found for discoid capitula, multiseriate involucres or bird pollination as the ancestral character condition for any node. Using this more resolved phylogenetic tree, the recently described Raiguenrayun cura+Mutisiapollis telleriae fossil should be associated to a more derived node than previously suggested when time calibrating phylogenies of Asteraceae. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Potential Asteraceae Invaders in Taiwan: Insights from the Flora and Herbarium Records of Casual and Naturalized Alien Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shan-Huah Wu

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Naturalization has been shown to be one of the primary stages of plant invasions; therefore, studies on naturalized plant species may generate valuable insights of possible invaders and invasions. Background information of casual and naturalized Asteraceae species provided by a comprehensive list of casual and naturalized species in Taiwan was examined to estimate the basic biological traits and geological origins of potential invasive species in this study. Besides, herbarium records were collected and analyzed to predict the invasiveness of casual and naturalized Asteraceae species. Our results showed that 44.0% out of the 51 casual and naturalized Asteraceae species were classified as invasive in the field, and a notable portion of these species were probably introduced accidently. Tropical Americas were the most important origins of casual and naturalized Asteraceae species, followed by Europe and temperate Americas. Most of the casual and naturalized Asteraceae species were annual herbs, and a few perennial species categorized as invasive may cause profound environmental problems. The herbarium record showed that species possessed different numbers of localities within the same time frame. We suggested that casual and naturalized Asteraceae species collected in more localities are more invasive than those species found in fewer localities within the same period of time.

  9. Genotypic and phenotypic diversity does not affect productivity and drought response in competitive stands of Trifolium repens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidrun eHuber

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Clonal plants can form dense canopies in which plants of different genetic origin are competing for the uptake of essential resources. The competitive relationships among these clones are likely to be affected by extreme environmental conditions, such as prolonged drought spells, which are predicted to occur more frequently due to global climate change. This, in turn, may alter characteristics of the ecological system and its associated functioning.We hypothesized that the relative success of individual clones will depend on the size of the ramets as ramets with larger leaves and longer petioles (large ramets were predicted to have a competitive advantage in terms of increased light interception over smaller-sized ramets. Under drier conditions the relative performances of genotypes were expected to change leading to a change in genotype ranking. We also hypothesized that increased genotypic and phenotypic diversity will increase stand performance and resistance to drought. These hypotheses and the mechanisms responsible for shifts in competitive relationships were investigated by subjecting genotypes of the important pasture legume Trifolium repens to competition with either genetically identical clones, genetically different but similarly sized clones, or genetically as well as morphologically different clones under well-watered and dry conditions.Competitive relationships were affected by ramet size with large genotypes outperforming small genotypes in diverse stands in terms of biomass production. However, large genotypes also produced relatively fewer ramets than small genotypes and could not benefit in terms of clonal reproduction from competing with smaller genotypes, indicating that evolutionary shifts in genotype composition will depend on whether ramet size or ramet number is under selection. In contrast to our hypotheses, diversity did not increase stand performance under different selection regimes and genotype ranking was hardly

  10. Atlas palinológico de la Amazonia Colombiana II. Familia Asteraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiménez Bulla Luis Carlos

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available We describe pollen from 26 genera of Asteraceae which belong to six tribes: Heliantheae (10, Eupatorieae (6, Vernonieae (6, Senecioneae (2, Mutisieae (1 and Inulineae (1. Tricolporate grains were dominant, but tetracolporate grains also appears. All grains are tectate and the most common sculpture type was echinate.Se describen 26 palinomorfos pertenecientes a los géneros más importantes en cuanto a número de especies de la familia Asteraceae y dentro de esta a las tribus Heliantheae (10, Eupatorieae (6, Vernonieae (6, Senecioneae (2, Mutisieae (1, Inulineae (1. Las aberturas son tricolporadas o tetracolporadas, los granos son tectados y el tipo de escultura que más se repite es la equinada.

  11. Pharmacological characterization and chemical fractionation of a liposterolic extract of saw palmetto (Serenoa repens): effects on rat prostate contractility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chua, Thiam; Eise, Nicole T; Simpson, Jamie S; Ventura, Sabatino

    2014-03-14

    Saw palmetto (Serenoa repens) was first used medicinally by native American Indians to treat urological disorders. Nowadays, saw palmetto extracts are widely used in Europe and North America to treat the urinary symptoms associated with benign prostatic hyperplasia even though its mechanisms of action are poorly understood. This study aimed to characterize the bioactive constituents of a lipid extract of saw palmetto that are able to affect contractility of the rat prostate gland. The mechanism of action will also be investigated. A commercially available lipid extract of saw palmetto was subjected to fractionation using normal phase column chromatography. Composition of fractions was assessed by proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H NMR) and mass spectrometry (MS). Contractile activities of these fractions were evaluated pharmacologically using isolated preparations of rat prostate gland and compared to the activity of the crude extract. Saw palmetto extract inhibited contractions of the rat prostate gland which were consistent with smooth muscle relaxant activity. Only the ethyl acetate fraction resulting from chromatography inhibited contractions of isolated rat prostates similarly to the inhibition produced by the crude lipid extract. Comparison with authentic samples and analysis of NMR data revealed that this bioactivity was due to the fatty acid components present in the ethyl acetate fraction. Bioassay using various pharmacological tools identified multiple contractile mechanisms which were affected by the bioactive constituents. A fatty acid component of saw palmetto extract causes inhibition of prostatic smooth muscle contractions via a non-specific mechanism. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Aspartic protease from Aspergillus (Eurotium) repens strain MK82 is involved in the hydrolysis and decolourisation of dried bonito (Katsuobushi).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Kenji; Matsubara, Sayaka; Umeda, Mayo; Tachibanac, Shusaku; Doi, Mikiharu; Takenaka, Shinji

    2013-04-01

    Katsuobushi is a dried, smoked and fermented bonito used in Japanese cuisine. During the fermentation process with several Aspergillus species, the colour of Katsuobushi gradually changes from a dark reddish-brown derived from haem proteins to pale pink. The change in colour gives Katsuobushi a higher ranking and price. This study aimed to elucidate the mechanism of decolourisation of Katsuobushi. A decolourising factor from the culture supernatant of Aspergillus (Eurotium) repens strain MK82 was purified to homogeneity. The purification was monitored by measuring the decolourising activity using equine myoglobin and bovine haemoglobin as substrates. It was found that the decolourising factor had protease activity towards myoglobin and haemoglobin. Complete inhibition of the enzyme by the inhibitor pepstatin A and the internal amino acid sequence classified the protein as an aspartic protease. The enzyme limitedly hydrolysed myoglobin between 1-Met and 2-Gly, 43-Lys and 44-Phe, and 70-Leu and 71-Thr. The purified enzyme decolourised blood of Katsuwonus pelamis (bonito) and a slice of dried bonito. It is proposed that aspartic protease plays a role in the decolourisation of Katsuobushi by the hydrolysis of haem proteins that allows the released haem to aggregate in the dried bonito. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. Allelopathic effects of aqueous extracts of Duranta repens on the germination and early growth of Lactuca sativa and Lycopersicum esculentum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junior Borella

    2010-04-01

    effect by one plant on another through production of chemical compounds released into the environment. In this work, the effects of aqueous extracts of Duranta repens fresh, dried leaves and fruit on the germination and early growth of lettuce and tomato were investigated. Aqueous extracts at concentrations of 1%, 2% and 4% (w/v were prepared and characterized as to pH and osmotic potential. Phytochemical analysis of leaves and fruits was also carried out. Germination parameters consisted of the percentage of germination (PG, speed of germination (VG and speed of germination index (IVG. Initial growth was evaluated through length (root and shoot and mass (fresh, dried and water content. Extracts of fresh and dry leaves altered the tomato PG and lettuce and tomato VG and IVG. All extracts affected the root length of the lettuce and tomato, as well as the length of the shoots and mass (dry and fresh of the lettuce. The phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of saponins and flavonoids. The action of the extracts was disassociated from any effect of osmotic potential and pH, indicating allelopathic activity.

  14. Allelopathic effects of aqueous extracts of Duranta repens on the germination and early growth of Lactuca sativa and Lycopersicum esculentum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celia Maria Tur

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Allelopathy can be efined as any stimulatory or inhibitory effect by one plant on another through production of chemical compounds released into the environment. In this work, the effects of aqueous extracts of Duranta repens fresh, dried leaves and fruit on the germination and early growth of lettuce and tomato were investigated. Aqueous extracts at concentrations of 1%, 2% and 4% (w/v were prepared and characterized as to pH and osmotic potential. Phytochemical analysis of leaves and fruits was also carried out. Germination parameters consisted of the percentage of germination (PG, speed of germination (VG and speed of germination index (IVG. Initial growth was evaluated through length (root and shoot and mass (fresh, dried and water content. Extracts of fresh and dry leaves altered the tomato PG and leaf lettuce and tomato VG and IVG. All extracts affected the root length of the lettuce and tomato, as well as the length of the shoots and mass (dry and fresh of the lettuce. The phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of saponins and flavonoids. The action of the extracts was disassociated from any effect of osmotic potential and pH, indicating allelopathic activity.

  15. Efecto antibacteriano del extracto etanólico del botoncillo (ACMELLA REPENS sobre Porphyromona gingivalis: Estudio in Vitro

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    Andrea Lizbeth Chamorro Benalcázar

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Determinar el efecto antibacteriano del extracto etanólico de Botoncillo (Acmella repens en diferentes concentraciones sobre la cepa de Porphyromona gingivalis. Materiales y metodos: En el presente estudio experimental, fueron utilizadas 24 cajas Petri con agar sangre, se inoculó P. gingivalis, y se colocaron discos con diferentes concentraciones del extracto etanólico de Botoncillo (25%, 50% y 100%, como sustancias control Clorhexidina al 0,12% y suero fisiológico. A los 7 días de incubación se midieron con una regla milimetrada los halos de inhibición formados alrededor de los respectivos discos. Resultados: el extracto de Botoncillo al 100% mostró diferencias significativas en comparación con la concentración del 25% y 50% (0 < 0.05. Al comparar el extracto de Botoncillo al 100% con la Clorhexidina 0,12% se observó valores de inhibición más altos para Clorhexidina 0,12%. Conclusión: El extracto etanólico de Botoncillo presentó un efecto antibacteriano sobre P. gingivalis.

  16. Invertebrate fauna associated with Torpedograss, Panicum repens (Cyperales: Poaceae), in Lake Okeechobee, Florida, and prospects for biological control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuda, J.P.; Dunford, J.C.; Leavengood, J.M. Jr.

    2007-01-01

    Torpedograss, Panicum repens L., is an adventive, rhizomatous grass species that has become an invasive weed of terrestrial, wetland, and aquatic environments in tropical and subtropical regions worldwide. Until recently, strategies for controlling torpedograss in the USA have focused almost exclusively on mechanical and chemical methods, either alone or in combination, with varied results. A survey of the arthropods and nematodes currently associated with the plant in Lake Okeechobee, Florida, was conducted as part of a feasibility study to determine whether torpedograss is an appropriate target for a classical biological control program. Overall, approximately 4,000 arthropods and 400 nematode specimens were collected. Sweep, clipped vegetation, and soil core samples were dominated by representatives of the arthropod orders Hemiptera, Hymenoptera, Diptera, and Acari. Lesion nematodes of the genus Pratylenchus were commonly associated with the roots of torpedograss. None of the organisms collected were torpedograss specialists. Although classical biological control of torpedograss is feasible based on the extent of the infestation, economic losses, resistance to conventional controls, and the report of a potentially host specific natural enemy in India, the botanical position of this grass weed will require a formal risk assessment before proceeding with a classical biological control program. (author) [es

  17. Morpho-anatomical features of underground systems in six Asteraceae species from the Brazilian Cerrado

    OpenAIRE

    Appezzato-da-Glória, Beatriz; Cury, Graziela

    2011-01-01

    In the Brazilian Cerrado (neotropical savanna), the development of bud-bearing underground systems as adaptive structures to fire and dry periods can comprise an important source of buds for this ecosystem, as already demonstrated in the Brazilian Campos grasslands and North American prairies. Asteraceae species from both woody and herbaceous strata have subterranean organs that accumulate carbohydrates, reinforcing the adaptive strategy of these plants to different environmental conditions. ...

  18. Toxicity of Thiophenes from Echinops transiliensis (Asteraceae) against Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) Larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Toxicity of Thiophenes from Echinops transiliensis (Asteraceae) against Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) Larvae by Hiroshi Nakano*a)b)c), Abbas...larvicides against Aedes aegypti. Structural differences among compounds 3, 5, and 8 consisted in differing AcO and OH groups attached to C(3’’) and C(4...serious human diseases including malaria, Japanese encephalitis, yellow fever, dengue, and filariasis. The urban-adapted Aedes aegypti mosquito has become

  19. Herbivoria por insetos galhadores mediada pelo sexo em Baccharis concinna (Asteraceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Carneiro, Marco Antonio A.; Fernandes, Geraldo Wilson; Souza, Og F. F. de; Souza, Wyller Vicente M.

    2006-01-01

    The interaction patterns between the dioecious shrub Baccharis concinna Barroso (Asteraceae) and its speciose galling insect community were studied in southeastern Brazil. Two hypotheses were tested in this study: "the differential reproduction and growth hypothesis" that predicts that male plants present fewer reproductive structures and are larger than female plants; and the 'sex-biased herbivory hypothesis' that predicts that male plants support a larger abundance of insect galls than fema...

  20. Assessment of In vitro Sun Protection Factor of Calendula Officinalis L. (Asteraceae) Essential Oil Formulation

    OpenAIRE

    Mishra, AK; Mishra, A; Chattopadhyay, P

    2012-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to study the sunscreen activity of herbal formulation. There is no evidence of the sun protection factor (SPF) studies on essential oil of Calendula flowers (Calendula officinalis L., Asteraceae). The study investigates the in vitro SPF by ultraviolet specrtophotometry method of Calendula flower oil in a cream formulation. Calendula oil was isolated by Clavenger's apparatus, compositions were identified by GC–MS and the cream of calendula flower oil was prepar...

  1. Morpho-anatomical features of underground systems in six Asteraceae species from the Brazilian Cerrado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appezzato-da-Glória, Beatriz; Cury, Graziela

    2011-09-01

    In the Brazilian Cerrado (neotropical savanna), the development of bud-bearing underground systems as adaptive structures to fire and dry periods can comprise an important source of buds for this ecosystem, as already demonstrated in the Brazilian Campos grasslands and North American prairies. Asteraceae species from both woody and herbaceous strata have subterranean organs that accumulate carbohydrates, reinforcing the adaptive strategy of these plants to different environmental conditions. This study aims to analyse the morpho-anatomy of underground systems of six species of Asteraceae (Mikania cordifolia L.f. Willd., Mikania sessilifolia DC, Trixis nobilis (Vell.) Katinas, Pterocaulon alopecuroides (Lam.) DC., Vernonia elegans Gardner and Vernonia megapotamica Spreng.), to describe these structures and to verify the occurrence and origin of shoot buds, and to analyse the presence of reserve substances. Individuals sampled in Cerrado areas in São Paulo State showed thick underground bud-bearing organs, with adventitious or lateral roots and presence of fructans. Xylopodium was found in all studied species, except for Trixis nobilis, which had stem tuber. The presence of fructans as reserve, and the capacity of structures in the formation of buds indicate the potential of herbaceous species of Asteraceae in forming a viable bud bank for vegetation regeneration in the Brazilian Cerrado.

  2. Eupatorium capilifolium (Lam. Small ex Porter & Britton (Asteraceae: Eupatorieae, REKAMAN BARU UNTUK FLORA JAWA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arifin Surya Dwipa Irsyam

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak Sebanyak 227 jenis tumbuhan Asteraceae terdapat di Pulau Jawa berdasarkan Flora of Java. Namun, suku Asteraceae di Pulau Jawa belum banyak ditinjau kembali sejak buku tersebut terbit 51 tahun yang lalu, sehingga memungkinkan adanya jenis-jenis tambahan yang belum terekam. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk memberikan informasi adanya jenis tambahan yang terdapat di Pulau Jawa. Penelitian dilakukan menggunakan metode jelajah di Labuan (Banten, Bogor (Jawa Barat, Malang, dan Situbondo (Jawa Timur. Eupatorium capillifolium (Lam. Small ex Porter & Britton merupakan rekaman baru yang dapat melengkapi flora Jawa. Jenis tersebut dikelompokkan ke dalam puak Eupatorieae. Abstract There are 227 species of Asteraceae in Java Island recorded in the Flora of Java. However, only few review of this family for Java since Flora of Java has published 51 years ago. Some possibilities of unrecorded species may occur after this Flora of Java published. This research was conducted to provide information on additional species in Java Island. This research was carried out using exploration method in Labuan (Banten, Bogor (West Java, Malang and Situbondo (East Java. Eupatorium capillifolium (Lam. Small ex Porter & Britton is a new record for completing the flora of Java Island. This species belongs to Eupatorieae tribe.   

  3. Nitric oxide contributes to minerals absorption, proton pumps and hormone equilibrium under cadmium excess in Trifolium repens L. plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shiliang; Yang, Rongjie; Pan, Yuanzhi; Ma, Mingdong; Pan, Jiang; Zhao, Yan; Cheng, Qingsu; Wu, Mengxi; Wang, Maohua; Zhang, Lin

    2015-09-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is a stress-signaling molecule in plants that mediates a wide range of physiological processes and responses to metal toxicity. In this work, various NO modulators (NO donor: SNP; NO scavenger: cPTIO; NO synthase inhibitor: l-NAME; and SNP analogs: sodium nitrite/nitrate and sodium ferrocyanide) were investigated to determine the role of NO in Trifolium repens L. plants exposed to Cd. Cd (100μM) markedly reduced biomass, NO production and chlorophyll (Chl a, Chl b and total Chl) concentration but stimulated reactive oxygen species (ROS) and Cd accumulation in plants. SNP (50μM) substantially attenuated growth inhibition, reduced hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and malonyldialdehyde (MDA) levels, stimulated ROS-scavenging enzymes/agents, and mitigated the H(+)-ATPase inhibition in proton pumps. Interestingly, SNP considerably up-regulated the levels of jasmonic acid (JA) and proline in plant tissues but down-regulated the levels of ethylene (ET) in both shoots and roots and the level of salicylic acid (SA) in roots only, which might be related to the elevated NO synthesis. Additionally, SNP (25-200μM) regulated mineral absorption and, particularly at 50μM, significantly enhanced the uptake of shoot magnesium (Mg) and copper (Cu) and of root calcium (Ca), Mg and iron (Fe). Nevertheless, the effects of SNP on plant growth were reversed by cPTIO and l-NAME, suggesting that the protective effect of SNP might be associated with NO synthesis in vivo. Moreover, SNP analogs did not display roles similar to that of SNP. These results indicated that NO depleted Cd toxicity by eliminating oxidative damage, enhancing minerals absorption, regulating proton pumps, and maintaining hormone equilibrium. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Lipido-sterolic extract of Serenoa repens (LSESr, Permixon) treatment affects human prostate cancer cell membrane organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrangeli, E; Lenti, L; Buchetti, B; Chinzari, P; Sale, P; Salvatori, L; Ravenna, L; Lococo, E; Morgante, E; Russo, A; Frati, L; Di Silverio, F; Russo, M A

    2009-04-01

    The molecular mechanism by which the lipido-sterolic extract of Serenoa repens (LSESr, Permixon) affects prostate cells remains to be fully elucidated. In androgen-independent PC3 prostate cancer cells, the LSESr-induced effects on proliferation and apoptosis were evaluated by counting cells and using a FACScan cytofluorimeter. PC3 cells were stained with JC-1 dye to detect mitochondrial membrane potential. Cell membrane lipid composition was evaluated by thin layer chromatography and gas chromatographic analysis. Akt phosphorylation was analyzed by Western blotting and cellular ultrastructure through electron microscopy. LSESr (12.5 and 25 microg/ml) administration exerted a biphasic action by both inhibiting proliferation and stimulating apoptosis. After 1 h, it caused a marked reduction in the mitochondrial potential, decreased cholesterol content and modified phospholipid composition. A decrease in phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) level was coupled with reduced Akt phosphorylation. After 24 h, all of these effects were restored to pre-treatment conditions; however, the saturated (SFA)/unsaturated fatty acid (UFA) ratio increased, mainly due to a significant decrease in omega 6 content. The reduction in cholesterol content could be responsible for both membrane raft disruption and redistribution of signaling complexes, allowing for a decrease of PIP2 levels, reduction of Akt phosphorylation and apoptosis induction. The decrease in omega 6 content appears to be responsible for the prolonged and more consistent increase in the apoptosis rate and inhibition of proliferation observed after 2-3 days of LSESr treatment. In conclusion, LSESr administration results in complex changes in cell membrane organization and fluidity of prostate cancer cells that have progressed to hormone-independent status. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  5. Gene capture from across the grass family in the allohexaploid Elymus repens (L.) Gould (Poaceae, Triticeae) as evidenced by ITS, GBSSI, and molecular cytogenetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahelka, Václav; Kopecký, David

    2010-06-01

    Four accessions of hexaploid Elymus repens from its native Central European distribution area were analyzed using sequencing of multicopy (internal transcribed spacer, ITS) and single-copy (granule-bound starch synthase I, GBSSI) DNA in concert with genomic and fluorescent in situ hybridization (GISH and FISH) to disentangle its allopolyploid origin. Despite extensive ITS homogenization, nrDNA in E. repens allowed us to identify at least four distinct lineages. Apart from Pseudoroegneria and Hordeum, representing the major genome constituents, the presence of further unexpected alien genetic material, originating from species outside the Triticeae and close to Panicum (Paniceae) and Bromus (Bromeae), was revealed. GBSSI sequences provided information complementary to the ITS. Apart from Pseudoroegneria and Hordeum, two additional gene variants from within the Triticeae were discovered: One was Taeniatherum-like, but the other did not have a close relationship with any of the diploids sampled. GISH results were largely congruent with the sequence-based markers. GISH clearly confirmed Pseudoroegneria and Hordeum as major genome constituents and further showed the presence of a small chromosome segment corresponding to Panicum. It resided in the Hordeum subgenome and probably represents an old acquisition of a Hordeum progenitor. Spotty hybridization signals across all chromosomes after GISH with Taeniatherum and Bromus probes suggested that gene acquisition from these species is more likely due to common ancestry of the grasses or early introgression than to recent hybridization or allopolyploid origin of E. repens. Physical mapping of rDNA loci using FISH revealed that all rDNA loci except one minor were located on Pseudoroegneria-derived chromosomes, which suggests the loss of all Hordeum-derived loci but one. Because homogenization mechanisms seem to operate effectively among Pseudoroegneria-like copies in this species, incomplete ITS homogenization in our samples

  6. Isolation by distance and isolation by environment contribute to population differentiation in Protea repens (Proteaceae L.), a widespread South African species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prunier, Rachel; Akman, Melis; Kremer, Colin T; Aitken, Nicola; Chuah, Aaron; Borevitz, Justin; Holsinger, Kent E

    2017-05-01

    The Cape Floristic Region (CFR) of South Africa is renowned for its botanical diversity, but the evolutionary origins of this diversity remain controversial. Both neutral and adaptive processes have been implicated in driving diversification, but population-level studies of plants in the CFR are rare. Here, we investigate the limits to gene flow and potential environmental drivers of selection in Protea repens L. (Proteaceae L.), a widespread CFR species. We sampled 19 populations across the range of P. repens and used genotyping by sequencing to identify 2066 polymorphic loci in 663 individuals. We used a Bayesian F ST outlier analysis to identify single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) marking genomic regions that may be under selection; we used those SNPs to identify potential drivers of selection and excluded them from analyses of gene flow and genetic structure. A pattern of isolation by distance suggested limited gene flow between nearby populations. The populations of P. repens fell naturally into two or three groupings, which corresponded to an east-west split. Differences in rainfall seasonality contributed to diversification in highly divergent loci, as do barriers to gene flow that have been identified in other species. The strong pattern of isolation by distance is in contrast to the findings in the only other widespread species in the CFR that has been similarly studied, while the effects of rainfall seasonality are consistent with well-known patterns. Assessing the generality of these results will require investigations of other CFR species. © 2017 Prunier et al. Published by the Botanical Society of America. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License (CC-BY-NC).

  7. Effet d'un deficit hydrique sur le trefle blanc (Trifolium repens L.). I. Role d'un apport de potassium

    OpenAIRE

    Shamsun-Noor, L.; Robin, Christophe; Guckert, Armand

    1990-01-01

    Le comportement du trèfle blanc (Trifolium repens L cv Crau) est étudié en situation de contrainte hydrique et après réhydratation en liaison avec la fertilisation potassique. Le déficit en eau occasionne une décroissance progressive importante du potentiel hydrique des feuilles et une fermeture rapide des stomates. Ces manifestations sont accompagnées d’une chute de l’activité photosynthétique et de la fixation symbiotique de l’azote. En présence de potassium, la diminution de l’activité...

  8. Heat treatment and false-positive heartworm antigen testing in ex vivo parasites and dogs naturally infected by Dirofilaria repens and Angiostrongylus vasorum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Venco

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Heartworm antigen testing is considered sensitive and specific. Currently available tests are reported as detecting a glycoprotein found predominantly in the reproductive tract of the female worm and can reach specificity close to 100%. Main concerns regard sensitivity in the case of light infections, the presence of immature females or cases of all-male infections. Research and development have been aimed at increasing sensitivity. Recently, heat treatment of serum prior to antigen testing has been shown to result in an increase in positive antigen test results, presumably due to disruption of natural antigen–antibody complexes. Cross-reactions in dogs with both natural and experimental infections with Angiostrongylus vasorum and Spirocerca lupi have been reported, but cross-reactions with other helminths have not been extensively studied. In order to evaluate potential cross-reactivity with other canine and feline parasites, two studies were performed. Study 1: Live adults of Dirofilaria immitis, Dirofilaria repens, Toxocara canis, Toxocara cati, Dipylidium caninum, Taenia taeniaeformis and Mesocestoides spp. larvae were washed and incubated in tubes with saline solution. All worms were alive at the time of removal from the saline. Saline solutions containing excretory/secretory antigens were then tested for heartworm with six different, commercially available antigen tests. All results were evaluated blind by three of the authors. Study 2: Sera from dogs with natural infections by A. vasorum or D. repens, living in areas free of heartworm disease, were tested with the same tests before and after heat treatment (103 °C for 10 min. Results Results suggest that antigens detected by currently available tests are not specific for D. immitis. They may give positive results through detection of different parasites’ antigens that are normally not released into the bloodstream or released in a low amount and/or bound to

  9. Comparison of tamsulosin plus serenoa repens with tamsulosin in the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia in Korean men: 1-year randomized open label study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Young Woo; Lim, Song Won; Kim, Jung Hoon; Ahn, Seung Hyun; Choi, Jae Duck

    2015-01-01

    In Korea, increasing attention has recently been given to the use of phytotherapeutic agents to alleviate the symptoms of BPH. Serenoa repens has been shown to have an equivalent efficacy to Finasteride or Tamsulosin in the treatment of BPH in previous studies. The present study was designed to compare the efficacy and safety of Serenoa repens plus tamsulosin with tamsulosin only over 12 months in men with LUTS secondary to BPH. One hundred forty men with symptomatic BPH (IPSS≥10) were recruited in our hospital for a 12-month, open-label, randomized trial. Patients were randomly assigned to either tamsulosin 0.2 mg/day plus Serenoa repens 320 mg/day (n=60) or tamsulosin 0.2 mg/day only (n=60). Prostate volume and PSA were measured at baseline and at end-point, whereas total IPSS, and its storage and voiding subscores, LUTS-related QoL, Qmax, and PVR were evaluated at baseline and later every 6 months. Total 103 patients were finally available: 50 in the TAM+SR group and 53 in the TAM group. At 12 months, total IPSS decreased by 5.8 with TAM+SR and 5.5 with TAM (p=0.693); the storage symptoms improved significantly more with TAM+SR (-1.7 vs. -0.8 with TAM, p=0.024). This benefit with regard to storage symptom in the TAM+SR group lasts at 12 months (-1.9 vs. -0.9, p=0.024). The changes of voiding subscore, LUTS-related QoL, Qmax, PVR, PSA, and prostate volume showed no significant differences between the TAM+SR and TAM groups. During the treatment period, 8 patients (16.9%) with TAM and 10 (20%) with TAM+SR had drug-related adverse reactions, which included ejaculatory disorders, postural hypotension, dizziness, headache, gastro-intestinal disorders, rhinitis, fatigue and asthenia. The combination treatment of Serenoa repens and tamsulosin was shown to be more effective than tamsulosin monotherapy in reducing storage symptoms in BPH patients after 6 months and up to 12 months of treatment. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Potencial antioxidante e antimicrobiano de espécies da família Asteraceae Antioxidant and antimicrobial potential of Asteraceae species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.L Fabri

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Espécies da família Asteraceae são amplamente utilizadas na medicina popular para diversos fins terapêuticos. Neste contexto, este estudo teve por objetivo averiguar a atividade antimicrobiana e antioxidante in vitro de extratos metanólicos de plantas pertencentes a Asteraceae, a maioria comumente utilizada na medicina tradicional. A prospecção química dos extratos também foi realizada. A atividade antimicrobiana foi avaliada pelo método de susceptibilidade em microdiluição em caldo e a atividade antioxidante determinada pelo ensaio com o radical DPPH. O extrato da folha de Baccharis dracunculifolia apresentou significativa atividade antimicrobiana para Pseudomonas aeruginosa,Bacillus cereus e Cryptococcus neoformans (CIM = 0,005; 0,005 e 0,039 mg mL-1, respectivamente. Os extratos das folhas de Bidens segetum e Matricaria chamomilla foram seletivos para Shigella sonnei e P. aeruginosa (CIM = 0,005 e 0,078 mg mL-1, respectivamente. Já as folhas de Acanthospermun australe e Baccharis trimera apresentaram atividade significativa apenas para Candida albicans (CIM = 0,039 mg mL-1 enquanto as folhas de Taraxacum officinale foram ativos contra ambas leveduras com CIM 0,039 mg mL-1. Em relação à atividade antioxidante, os extratos das folhas de B. dracunculifolia, T. officinale e das inflorescências de B. segetum apresentaram significativa atividade com CI50 de 5, 5 e 4 µg mL-1, respectivamente. A prospecção química dos extratos identificou presença de compostos como flavonoides, terpenos e outros que podem ser responsáveis pelas atividades observadas.Asteraceae species have been largely used in folk medicine for several therapeutic purposes. Thus, the aim of this work was to investigate the in vitro antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of methanol extracts from plants belonging to the Asteraceae family, most of which are commonly used in traditional medicine. Chemical prospecting of extracts was also performed. The

  11. Morpho-anatomical features of underground systems in six Asteraceae species from the Brazilian Cerrado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Appezzato-da-Glória

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In the Brazilian Cerrado (neotropical savanna, the development of bud-bearing underground systems as adaptive structures to fire and dry periods can comprise an important source of buds for this ecosystem, as already demonstrated in the Brazilian Campos grasslands and North American prairies. Asteraceae species from both woody and herbaceous strata have subterranean organs that accumulate carbohydrates, reinforcing the adaptive strategy of these plants to different environmental conditions. This study aims to analyse the morpho-anatomy of underground systems of six species of Asteraceae (Mikania cordifolia L.f. Willd., Mikania sessilifolia DC, Trixis nobilis (Vell. Katinas, Pterocaulon alopecuroides (Lam. DC., Vernonia elegans Gardner and Vernonia megapotamica Spreng., to describe these structures and to verify the occurrence and origin of shoot buds, and to analyse the presence of reserve substances. Individuals sampled in Cerrado areas in São Paulo State showed thick underground bud-bearing organs, with adventitious or lateral roots and presence of fructans. Xylopodium was found in all studied species, except for Trixis nobilis, which had stem tuber. The presence of fructans as reserve, and the capacity of structures in the formation of buds indicate the potential of herbaceous species of Asteraceae in forming a viable bud bank for vegetation regeneration in the Brazilian Cerrado.No Cerrado brasileiro (savana neotropical, o desenvolvimento de sistemas subterrâneos que produzem gemas, como estruturas adaptativas contra o fogo e períodos de seca, pode compreender um importante suprimento de gemas para esse ecossistema, como já demonstrado nos campos brasileiros e nas pradarias norte-americanas. Espécies de Asteraceae tanto do estrato lenhoso, quanto do herbáceo têm órgãos que acumulam carboidratos, reforçando a estratégia adaptativa dessas plantas a diferentes condições ambientais. Este estudo tem o objetivo de analisar a morfo

  12. Seasonal changes of fructans in dimorphic roots of Ichthyothere terminalis (Spreng.) Blake (Asteraceae) growing in Cerrado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida, Lorrayne Veloso; Ferri, Pedro Henrique; Seraphin, José Carlos; de Moraes, Moemy Gomes

    2017-11-15

    Cerrado is a floristically rich savanna in Brazil, whose vegetation consists of a physiognomic mosaic, influenced by rainfall seasonality. In the dry season rainfall is substantially lower and reduces soil water supply, mainly for herbs and subshrubs. Climatic seasonal variations may well define phenological shifts and induce fluctuations of plant reserve pools. Some Cerrado native species have thickened underground organs that bear buds and store reserves, as adaptive features to enable plant survival following environmental stresses. Asteraceae species accumulate fructans in storage organs, which are not only reserve, but also protecting compounds against the effects of cold and drought. Ichthyothere terminalis is one Asteraceae species abundant in cerrado rupestre, with underground organs consisting of thickened orthogravitropic and diagravitropic roots. The objectives of this study were to analyze how abiotic environmental factors and plant phenology influence fructan dynamics in field grown plants, and verify if fructan metabolism differs in both root types for one year. I. terminalis accumulates inulin-type fructans in 10-40% of the dry mass in both root types. Fructan dynamics have similar patterns described for other Asteraceae species, exhibiting a proportional increase of polysaccharides with the senescence of the aerial organs. Multivariate analyzes showed that, as rainfall decreased, environmental factors had a stronger influence on metabolite levels than phenological shifts in both root types. Only slight differences were found in fructan dynamics between orthogravitropic and diagravitropic roots, suggesting they may have similar fructan metabolism regulation. However, these small differences may reflect distinct microclimatic conditions in both root types and also represent the influence of sink strength. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Comparative genomics in the Asteraceae reveals little evidence for parallel evolutionary change in invasive taxa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgins, Kathryn A; Bock, Dan G; Hahn, Min A; Heredia, Sylvia M; Turner, Kathryn G; Rieseberg, Loren H

    2015-05-01

    Asteraceae, the largest family of flowering plants, has given rise to many notorious invasive species. Using publicly available transcriptome assemblies from 35 Asteraceae, including six major invasive species, we examined evidence for micro- and macro-evolutionary genomic changes associated with invasion. To detect episodes of positive selection repeated across multiple introductions, we conducted comparisons between native and introduced genotypes from six focal species and identified genes with elevated rates of amino acid change (dN/dS). We then looked for evidence of positive selection at a broader phylogenetic scale across all taxa. As invasive species may experience founder events during colonization and spread, we also looked for evidence of increased genetic load in introduced genotypes. We rarely found evidence for parallel changes in orthologous genes in the intraspecific comparisons, but in some cases we identified changes in members of the same gene family. Using among-species comparisons, we detected positive selection in 0.003-0.69% and 2.4-7.8% of the genes using site and stochastic branch-site models, respectively. These genes had diverse putative functions, including defence response, stress response and herbicide resistance, although there was no clear pattern in the GO terms. There was no indication that introduced genotypes have a higher proportion of deleterious alleles than native genotypes in the six focal species, suggesting multiple introductions and admixture mitigated the impact of drift. Our findings provide little evidence for common genomic responses in invasive taxa of the Asteraceae and hence suggest that multiple evolutionary pathways may lead to adaptation during introduction and spread in these species. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Vinicia tomentosa, new genus and species of Lychnophorinae (Vernonieae, Asteraceae from Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimiliano Dematteis

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available A new genus and species of the tribe Vernonieae (Asteraceae from the cerrado and campo rupestre vegetation of Minas Gerais (Brazil is described and illustrated. The new taxon, Vinicia tomentosa Dematt. is closely related to Chronopappus DC. and Lychnophora Mart., but differs in having pedunculate glomerules and the narrowly cylindrical involucre. The other two genera always have sessile glomerules and the involucre is turbinate to cylindrical in Lychnophora and ovoid in Chronopappus.

  15. Complete chloroplast genomes from apomictic Taraxacum (Asteraceae): Identity and variation between three microspecies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majeský, Ľuboš; Schwarzacher, Trude; Gornall, Richard; Heslop-Harrison, Pat

    2017-01-01

    Chloroplast DNA sequences show substantial variation between higher plant species, and less variation within species, so are typically excellent markers to investigate evolutionary, population and genetic relationships and phylogenies. We sequenced the plastomes of Taraxacum obtusifrons Markl. (O978); T. stridulum Trávniček ined. (S3); and T. amplum Markl. (A978), three apomictic triploid (2n = 3x = 24) dandelions from the T. officinale agg. We aimed to characterize the variation in plastomes, define relationships and correlations with the apomictic microspecies status, and refine placement of the microspecies in the evolutionary or phylogenetic context of the Asteraceae. The chloroplast genomes of accessions O978 and S3 were identical and 151,322 bp long (where the nuclear genes are known to show variation), while A978 was 151,349 bp long. All three genomes contained 135 unique genes, with an additional copy of the trnF-GGA gene in the LSC region and 20 duplicated genes in the IR region, along with short repeats, the typical major Inverted Repeats (IR1 and IR2, 24,431bp long), and Large and Small Single Copy regions (LSC 83,889bp and SSC 18,571bp in O978). Between the two Taraxacum plastomes types, we identified 28 SNPs. The distribution of polymorphisms suggests some parts of the Taraxacum plastome are evolving at a slower rate. There was a hemi-nested inversion in the LSC region that is common to Asteraceae, and an SSC inversion from ndhF to rps15 found only in some Asteraceae lineages. A comparative repeat analysis showed variation between Taraxacum and the phylogenetically close genus Lactuca, with many more direct repeats of 40bp or more in Lactuca (1% larger plastome than Taraxacum). When individual genes and non-coding regions were for Asteraceae phylogeny reconstruction, not all showed the same evolutionary scenario suggesting care is needed for interpretation of relationships if a limited number of markers are used. Studying genotypic diversity in

  16. A new polyacetylene from Vernonia scorpioides (Lam.) Pers. (Asteraceae) and its in vitro antitumoral activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buskuhl, Humberto; Freitas, Rilton A.; Biavatti, Maique W. [Universidade do Vale do Itajai, Itajai, SC (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias da Saude], e-mail: maique@ccs.ufsc.br; Monache, Franco Delle [Universita ' La Sapienza' , Rome (Italy). Dipt. di Chimica e Tecnologia delle Sostanze Biologicamente Attive; Barison, Andersson; Campos, Francinete R. [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Centro Politecnico. Dept. de Quimica; Corilo, Yuri E.; Eberlin, Marcos N. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica

    2009-07-01

    The dichloromethane fraction obtained from hydroalcoholic crude extract of leaves and flowers of Vernonia scorpioides (Asteraceae) was investigated, resulting in the isolation and structure elucidation of a new polyacetylene namely 5-octa-2,4,6-triynyl-furan-2(5H)-one. The structure of the isolated compound was determined based on IR, NMR (1D and 2D) and MS spectrometric data. The antitumor potential, including cytotoxicity to tumor cells and genotoxicity, was investigated. The results suggest that apoptotic cell death may have occurred, at least in part, via a caspase-dependent mechanism. (author)

  17. Taxonomical studies on endemic scorzonera pygmaea var. pygmaea and var. nutans stat. nov. (asteraceae) from turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koyuncu, O.; Kus, G.

    2014-01-01

    The taxonomic status of Scorzonera pygmaea var. pygmaea and var. nutans belonging to the tribe. cichoreae (Asteraceae). S. pygmaea samples were collected from Arayit mountain. We suggest that these two subspecies should be classified as varietes because of their morphological and anatomical characteristics, ecological and geographical similarities. Moreover being together in the same localities of these under species taxa supports our opinion, i.e. S. pygmaea Sibth. and Sm. var. pygmaea stat. nov. and S. pygmaea Sibth. and Sm. var. nutans (Czeczott) O. Koyuncu and Yaylac, stat. nov. (author)

  18. Serenoa repens extract additionally to quinolones in the treatment of chronic bacterial prostatitis. The preliminary results of a long term observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinos Stamatiou

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Chronic prostatitis displays a variety of symptoms (mainly local pain exhibiting variability in origin and intensity. The purpose of this article is to briefly present the preliminary results of our study examining the role of phytotherapeutic agents in the treatment of chronic prostatitis patients. Materials and methods: The study included in total fifty-six consecutive patients who visited the outpatient department. Subjects were randomized into two groups. Subjects in the first group (28 patients received prulifloxacin 600 mg for 15 days, while subjects in the second group (28 patients received prulifloxacin 600 mg for 15 days and Serenoa repens extract for 8 weeks. The response was tested using laboratory and clinical criteria. Results: We found statistically significant differences between the two groups regarding pain regression and no statistically significant regarding bacterial eradication. Moreover however while sexual dysfunction improvement was equally achieved in both groups, improvement of urinary symptoms was more evident in the 2nd group especially after the completion of the antibiotic treatment. Conclusions: Serenoa repens extract for 8 weeks seems to improve prostatitis related pain. Further randomized, placebo-controlled studies are needed to substantiate safer conclusions.

  19. Assemblages of endophagous insects on Asteraceae in São Paulo cerrados.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Adriana M; Fonseca, Carlos R; Prado, Paulo I; Almeida-Neto, Mário; Diniz, Soraia; Kubota, Umberto; Braun, Marina R; Raimundo, Rafael L G; Anjos, Luciano A; Mendonça, Tehra G; Futada, Silvia M; Lewinsohn, Thomas M

    2006-01-01

    A survey of the endophagous insects fauna associated to Asteraceae capitula was carried out from 2000 to 2002 in eight cerrado sensu stricto sites located in the Brazilian state of Sdo Paulo. Sixty-four endophagous species of Diptera and Lepidoptera were recorded from 49 asteracean host plants. Approximately half of the species were obtained from a single locality, with a large proportion emerging from a single sample (unicates). Thirty percent of the species were singletons (i.e. only one individual was recorded). The large proportion of rare species suggests a high species turnover among localities. Lepidopteran species were recorded on more host species than dipterans, confirming their more polyphagous food habit, also observed in other Brazilian biomes and in Europe. We conclude that the studied cerrado localities, all within São Paulo State, are isolated with its invertebrate fauna composed of many rare and exclusive species. We suggest that the maintenance of Asteraceae biodiversity and their endophagous insects depend on the conservation of all cerrado remnants in the state.

  20. Species richness in natural and disturbed habitats: Asteraceae and Flower-head insects (Tephritidae: Diptera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diniz, Soraia; Prado, Paulo I; Lewinsohn, Thomas M

    2010-01-01

    Anthropogenic changes in the landscape result in an environmental mosaic with serious consequences for biodiversity. The aim of the present study was to assess the effects of the anthropogenic changes on Asteraceae richness and abundance, and to evaluate the consequences for the richness of Tephritidae assemblages in five sampling sites, with three sampled habitats in each: cerrado (Brazilian savanna), eucalyptus stands and pasture. Sampling was carried out in 15 random transects (cerrados and one pasture) and in 30 transects (eucalyptus stands and the remaining pastures). Composition, species richness and insect abundance in each habitat type was estimated by sampling the flower heads for each species of host plant, collected by four people for 1h. Differences in mean abundance of plant population between habitats and sites were tested by two-way ANOVA. Differences in plant species richness between habitats and sites and effects of habitat, site and host plant richness on insect richness were tested using a generalized linear model with Poisson errors. Within each sampling site, cerrados showed higher species richness of Asteraceae than pastures and eucalyptus stands. There were also significant differences in plant richness among sites. Mean population abundance values were significantly different among habitats, but not among sites. Increased host plant richness led to significant insect species richness. There were no additional significant effects of habitat on insect richness. Therefore, anthropogenic alterations in landscape determined the impoverishment of plant assemblages and therefore of insect assemblages, because of the positive relationship between host plant richness and insect richness.

  1. Surface microstructures of daisy florets (Asteraceae) and characterization of their anisotropic wetting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Kerstin; Bennemann, Michael; Bohn, Holger F; Albach, Dirk C; Barthlott, Wilhelm

    2013-09-01

    The surface microstructures on ray florets of 62 species were characterized and compared with modern phylogenetic data of species affiliation in Asteraceae to determine sculptural patterns and their occurrence in the tribes of Asteraceae. Their wettability was studied to identify structural-induced droplet adhesion, which can be used for the development of artificial surfaces for water harvesting and passive surface water transport. The wettability was characterized by contact angle (CA) and tilt angle measurements, performed on fresh ray florets and their epoxy resin replica. The CAs on ray florets varied between 104° and 156°, but water droplets did not roll off when surface was tilted at 90°. Elongated cell structures and cuticle folding orientated in the same direction as the cell elongation caused capillary forces, leading to anisotropic wetting, with extension of water droplets along the length axis of epidermis cells. The strongest elongation of the droplets was also supported by a parallel, cell-overlapping cuticle striation. In artificial surfaces made of epoxy replica of ray florets, this effect was enhanced. The distribution of the identified four structural types exhibits a strong phylogenetic signal and allows the inference of an evolutionary trend in the modification of floret epidermal cells.

  2. Early evolution of the angiosperm clade Asteraceae in the Cretaceous of Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreda, Viviana D; Palazzesi, Luis; Tellería, Maria C; Olivero, Eduardo B; Raine, J Ian; Forest, Félix

    2015-09-01

    The Asteraceae (sunflowers and daisies) are the most diverse family of flowering plants. Despite their prominent role in extant terrestrial ecosystems, the early evolutionary history of this family remains poorly understood. Here we report the discovery of a number of fossil pollen grains preserved in dinosaur-bearing deposits from the Late Cretaceous of Antarctica that drastically pushes back the timing of assumed origin of the family. Reliably dated to ∼76-66 Mya, these specimens are about 20 million years older than previously known records for the Asteraceae. Using a phylogenetic approach, we interpreted these fossil specimens as members of an extinct early diverging clade of the family, associated with subfamily Barnadesioideae. Based on a molecular phylogenetic tree calibrated using fossils, including the ones reported here, we estimated that the most recent common ancestor of the family lived at least 80 Mya in Gondwana, well before the thermal and biogeographical isolation of Antarctica. Most of the early diverging lineages of the family originated in a narrow time interval after the K/P boundary, 60-50 Mya, coinciding with a pronounced climatic warming during the Late Paleocene and Early Eocene, and the scene of a dramatic rise in flowering plant diversity. Our age estimates reduce earlier discrepancies between the age of the fossil record and previous molecular estimates for the origin of the family, bearing important implications in the evolution of flowering plants in general.

  3. Investigation of plant latices of Asteraceae and Campanulaceae regarding proteolytic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sytwala, Sonja; Domsalla, André; Melzig, Matthias F

    2015-12-01

    Occurrence of plant latices is widespread, there are more than 40 families of plants characterized to establish lactiferous structures. The appearance of hydrolytic active proteins, incorporated in latices is already characterized, and hydrolytic active proteins are considerable, and for several plant families, the occurrence of hydrolytic active proteins is already specified e.g. Apocynaceae Juss., Caricaceae Dumort, Euphorbiaceae Juss., Moraceae Gaudich and Papaveraceae Juss. In our investigation, focused on latex bearing plants of order Asterales, Asteraceae and Campanulaceae in particular. The present outcomes represent a comprehensive study, relating to the occurrence of proteolytic active enzymes of order Asterales for the first time. 131 different species of Asteraceae and Campanulaceae were tested, and the appearance of plant latex proteases were determined in different quantities. Proteolytic activity was investigated by inhibitory studies and determination of residual activity in the following, enable us to characterize the proteases. Most of the considered species exhibit a serine protease activity and a multiplicity of species exhibited two or more subclasses of proteases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Roles of mucilage in Emilia fosbergii, a myxocarpic Asteraceae: Efficient seed imbibition and diaspore adhesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De-Paula, Orlando C; Marzinek, Juliana; Oliveira, Denise M T; Paiva, Élder A S

    2015-09-01

    Several angiosperm families have myxodiaspory, such as the Asteraceae in which cypselae are frequently wind-dispersed. The roles of mucilage in cypselae remain misunderstood, and the route of water uptake from substrate to embryo remains unknown. In this work, we analyze the fruits of Emilia fosbergii aiming to clarify how the water is absorbed and how the structure of the pericarp can be related to the processes of diaspore adhesion and seed imbibition. The anatomy and ultrastructure of the cypselae of Emilia fosbergii were analyzed with histochemical tests and light, scanning and transmission electron microscopy. We assessed the roles of mucilage in seed imbibition using apoplasmic tracing with Lucifer yellow and epifluorescence microscopy and in adhesion with a sand assay. We describe structural and ultrastructural aspects of the exocarpic cells, especially the mucilaginous twin hairs. Lucifer yellow was absorbed only by the twin hairs, the cells where water primarily enters the seed during seed imbibition. In the sand assay, the mucilage was adhesive. The twin hairs on the surface of the cypselae can play a dual role in the establishment of new plants of this species. First, these trichomes constitute the main passage for water intake, which is essential for seed imbibition and germination, and after imbibition, they release mucilage that can adhere the diaspore. Therefore, the presence of myxocarpy in Asteraceae could be important in anemochoric species to avoid secondary dispersal. © 2015 Botanical Society of America.

  5. Surface microstructures of daisy florets (Asteraceae) and characterization of their anisotropic wetting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, Kerstin; Bennemann, Michael; Bohn, Holger F; Barthlott, Wilhelm; Albach, Dirk C

    2013-01-01

    The surface microstructures on ray florets of 62 species were characterized and compared with modern phylogenetic data of species affiliation in Asteraceae to determine sculptural patterns and their occurrence in the tribes of Asteraceae. Their wettability was studied to identify structural-induced droplet adhesion, which can be used for the development of artificial surfaces for water harvesting and passive surface water transport. The wettability was characterized by contact angle (CA) and tilt angle measurements, performed on fresh ray florets and their epoxy resin replica. The CAs on ray florets varied between 104° and 156°, but water droplets did not roll off when surface was tilted at 90°. Elongated cell structures and cuticle folding orientated in the same direction as the cell elongation caused capillary forces, leading to anisotropic wetting, with extension of water droplets along the length axis of epidermis cells. The strongest elongation of the droplets was also supported by a parallel, cell-overlapping cuticle striation. In artificial surfaces made of epoxy replica of ray florets, this effect was enhanced. The distribution of the identified four structural types exhibits a strong phylogenetic signal and allows the inference of an evolutionary trend in the modification of floret epidermal cells. (paper)

  6. COROTIPOS PRELIMINARES DE PERÚ BASADOS EN LA DISTRIBUCIÓN DE LA FAMILIA ASTERACEAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berni Britto

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente estudio se basa en el concepto de categorías corológicas o corotipos para formular una nueva hipótesis de clasificación biogeográfica del Perú basado en la distribución de la familia Astera - ceae. La información recabada dio como resultado que existen 1669 especies de Asteraceae registradas en Perú (hasta el año 2008, distribuidas en 255 géneros. El territorio peruano se dividió en 218 Distritos de Reporte que representan a los 24 departamentos divididos en franjas de 500 m de altitud. La base de datos biogeográficos de Asteraceae se obtuvo cruzando los registros de distribución actualizados con los Distritos de Reporte, expresándose en una matriz de presencia-ausencia. El análisis de datos dio como resultado un total de 14 corotipos preliminares para el Perú: Abiseo, Amotape, Andino, Apurímac-Huan - cavelica, Chachapoyas-Huánuco, Huancabamba, Huascarán, Ica, Lima-Piura, Loreto-Ucayali, Manu, Pasco, Sandia y Tacna.

  7. The application of multiplex fluorimetric sensor for the analysis of flavonoids content in the medicinal herbs family Asteraceae, Lamiaceae, Rosaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oksana Sytar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The aim of our research work was to quantify total flavonoid contents in the leaves of 13 plant species family Asteraceae, 8 representatives of family Lamiaceae and 9 plant species belonging to familyRosaceae, using the multiplex fluorimetric sensor. Fluorescence was measured using optical fluorescence apparatus Multiplex(R 3 (Force-A, France for non-destructive flavonoids estimation. The content of total flavonoids was estimated by FLAV index (expressed in relative units, that is deduced from flavonoids UV absorbing properties. RESULTS: Among observed plant species, the highest amount of total flavonoids has been found in leaves ofHelianthus multiflorus (1.65 RU and Echinops ritro (1.27 RU, Rudbeckia fulgida (1.13 RU belonging to the family Asteraceae. Lowest flavonoid content has been observed in the leaves of marigold (Calendula officinalis (0.14 RU also belonging to family Asteraceae. The highest content of flavonoids among experimental plants of family Rosaceae has been estimated in the leaves of Rosa canina (1.18 RU and among plant species of family Lamiaceae in the leaves of Coleus blumei (0.90 RU. CONCLUSIONS: This research work was done as pre-screening of flavonoids content in the leaves of plant species belonging to family Asteraceae, Lamiaceae and Rosaceae. Results indicated that statistically significant differences (P > 0.05 in flavonoids content were observed not only between families, but also among individual plant species within one family.

  8. ASPECTOS TAXONÔMICOS, FITOGEOGRÁFICOS E USOS DE Pectis uniaristata DC. var. jangadensis (S.Moore) Keil (ASTERACEAE)

    OpenAIRE

    PEREIRA, ARILDO GONÇALO; NETO, GERMANO GUARIM

    2014-01-01

    Este trabalho discute os aspectos taxonômicos, fitogeográficos e outros relacionados à Pectis uniaristata var. jangadensis (S. Moore) Keil (Asteraceae) uma planta de ocorrência na vegetação do cerrado e do pantanal de Mato Grosso.

  9. Sesquiterpenoids in subtribe Centaureinae (Cass.) Dumort (tribe Cardueae, Asteraceae): distribution, (13)C NMR spectral data and biological properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, Maurizio; Bancheva, Svetlana; Rosselli, Sergio; Maggio, Antonella

    2013-11-01

    Asteraceae Bercht. & J. Presl is one of the biggest and most economically important plant families. The taxonomy and phylogeny of Asteraceae is rather complex and according to the latest and most reliable taxonomic classification of Panero & Funk, based on the analysis of nine chloroplast regions, the family is divided into 12 subfamilies and 35 tribes. One of the largest tribes of Asteraceae is Cardueae Cass. with four subtribes (Carlininae, Echinopinae, Carduinae and Centaureinae) and more than 2500 species. Susanna & Garcia-Jacas have organized the genera of Centaureinae (about 800 species) into seven informal groups, which recent molecular studies have confirmed: 1. Basal genera; 2. Volutaria group; 3. Rhaponticum group; 4. Serratula group; 5. Carthamus group; 6. Crocodylium group; 7. Centaurea group. This review summarizes reports on sesquiterpenoids from the Centaureinae subtribe of the Asteraceae family, as well as the (13)C NMR spectral data described in the literature. It further reviews studies concerning the biological activities of these metabolites. For this work, literature data on sesquiterpenes from the Centaureinae subtribe were retrieved with the help of the SciFinder database and other similar data banks. All entries from 1958 until the end of 2011 were considered. This review is addressed to scientists working in the metabolomics field such as chemists, botanists, etc., the spectroscopic data reported make this work a good tool for structural elucidation, the biological section gives useful information to those who wish to study the structure activity relationships. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Deep sequencing of amplicons reveals widespread intraspecific hybridization and multiple origins of polyploidy in big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata, Asteraceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryce A. Richardson; Justin T. Page; Prabin Bajgain; Stewart C. Sanderson; Joshua A. Udall

    2012-01-01

    Premise of the study: Hybridization has played an important role in the evolution and ecological adaptation of diploid and polyploid plants. Artemisia tridentata (Asteraceae) tetraploids are extremely widespread and of great ecological importance. These tetraploids are often taxonomically identified as A. tridentata subsp. wyomingensis or as autotetraploids of diploid...

  11. Evolution and Expression Patterns of CYC/TB1 Genes in Anacyclus: Phylogenetic Insights for Floral Symmetry Genes in Asteraceae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bello, María A.; Cubas, Pilar; Álvarez, Inés; Sanjuanbenito, Guillermo; Fuertes-Aguilar, Javier

    2017-01-01

    Homologs of the CYC/TB1 gene family have been independently recruited many times across the eudicots to control aspects of floral symmetry The family Asteraceae exhibits the largest known diversification in this gene paralog family accompanied by a parallel morphological floral richness in its specialized head-like inflorescence. In Asteraceae, whether or not CYC/TB1 gene floral symmetry function is preserved along organismic and gene lineages is unknown. In this study, we used phylogenetic, structural and expression analyses focused on the highly derived genus Anacyclus (tribe Anthemidae) to address this question. Phylogenetic reconstruction recovered eight main gene lineages present in Asteraceae: two from CYC1, four from CYC2 and two from CYC3-like genes. The species phylogeny was recovered in most of the gene lineages, allowing the delimitation of orthologous sets of CYC/TB1 genes in Asteraceae. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis indicated that in Anacyclus three of the four isolated CYC2 genes are more highly expressed in ray flowers. The expression of the four AcCYC2 genes overlaps in several organs including the ligule of ray flowers, as well as in anthers and ovules throughout development. PMID:28487706

  12. The application of multiplex fluorimetric sensor for the analysis of flavonoids content in the medicinal herbs family Asteraceae, Lamiaceae, Rosaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sytar, Oksana; Bruckova, Klaudia; Hunkova, Elena; Zivcak, Marek; Konate, Kiessoun; Brestic, Marian

    2015-01-16

    The aim of our research work was to quantify total flavonoid contents in the leaves of 13 plant species family Asteraceae, 8 representatives of family Lamiaceae and 9 plant species belonging to family Rosaceae, using the multiplex fluorimetric sensor. Fluorescence was measured using optical fluorescence apparatus Multiplex(R) 3 (Force-A, France) for non-destructive flavonoids estimation. The content of total flavonoids was estimated by FLAV index (expressed in relative units), that is deduced from flavonoids UV absorbing properties. Among observed plant species, the highest amount of total flavonoids has been found in leaves of Helianthus multiflorus (1.65 RU) and Echinops ritro (1.27 RU), Rudbeckia fulgida (1.13 RU) belonging to the family Asteraceae. Lowest flavonoid content has been observed in the leaves of marigold (Calendula officinalis) (0.14 RU) also belonging to family Asteraceae. The highest content of flavonoids among experimental plants of family Rosaceae has been estimated in the leaves of Rosa canina (1.18 RU) and among plant species of family Lamiaceae in the leaves of Coleus blumei (0.90 RU). This research work was done as pre-screening of flavonoids content in the leaves of plant species belonging to family Asteraceae, Lamiaceae and Rosaceae. Results indicated that statistically significant differences (P > 0.05) in flavonoids content were observed not only between families, but also among individual plant species within one family.

  13. Podospermic acid, 1,3,5-tri-O-(7,8-dihydrocaffeoyl) quinic acid from Podospermum laciniatum (Asteraceae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zidorn, Christian; Petersen, Bent O.; Udovicic ́, Vedrana

    2005-01-01

    A phytochemical investigation of Podospermum laciniatum (L.) DC. (Asteraceae) yielded the new quinic acid derivative podospermic acid (1,3,5-tridihydrocaffeoylquinic acid), which was named after the genus it was isolated from. The structure was established by HR mass spectrometry and extensive 1D...

  14. Ribosomal DNA, heterochromatin, and correlation with genome size in diploid and polyploid North American endemic sagebrushes (Artemisia, Asteraceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonia Garcia; Teresa Garnatje; Jaume Pellicer; E. Durant McArthur; Sonja Siljak-Yakovlev; Joan Valles

    2009-01-01

    Subgenus Tridentatae (Artemisia, Asteraceae) can be considered a polyploid complex. Both polyploidy and hybridization have been documented in the Tridentatae. Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) and fluorochrome banding were used to detect and analyze ribosomal DNA changes linked to polyploidization in this group by studying four diploidpolyploid species pairs. In...

  15. Morfoanatomia, tricomas glandulares e fitoquímica de Lomatozona artemisiifolia Baker (ASTERACEAE - EUPATORIEAE) - uma planta endêmica do Cerrado de Goiás

    OpenAIRE

    Trindade, Luma Mota Palmeira

    2013-01-01

    Morfoanatomia, tricomas glandulares e fitoquímica de Lomatozona artemisiifolia Baker (Asteraceae - Eupatorieae) – Uma planta endêmica do cerrado de Goiás - A família Asteraceae é amplamente distribuída, possuindo 24.000 espécies e 1.600 a 1700 gêneros, constituindo uma das maiores famílias de fanerógamas. No Cerrado, dentre as fanerógamas, é a segunda maior família em quantidade de espécies. Dentre as inúmeras espécies de Asteraceae está presente Lomatozona artemisiifolia Baker, pertence à tr...

  16. Vector-borne parasitic infections in dogs in the Baltic and Nordic countries: A questionnaire study to veterinarians on canine babesiosis and infections with Dirofilaria immitis and Dirofilaria repens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiškina, Valentina; Jokelainen, Pikka

    2017-09-15

    Canine vector-borne diseases have been spreading northwards in Europe, and canine babesiosis and infections with Dirofilaria immitis (heartworm) and Dirofilaria repens have been diagnosed also in the Baltic and the Nordic countries. We used an online questionnaire to survey how large a proportion of veterinarians in the Baltic (Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania) and the Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden) saw canine babesiosis cases and dogs infected with D. immitis and D. repens in 2016. In addition, questions regarding transmission, zoonotic potential, clinical signs, and treatment of the infections were asked. The questionnaire was completed by 122 veterinarians. In 2016, 23% of them had seen at least one case of canine babesiosis, 15% at least one dog with D. immitis infection, and 9% at least one dog with D. repens infection. A veterinarian working in the Baltic countries had 12.2 times higher odds to have seen a canine babesiosis case and 9.3 times higher odds to have seen a dog with D. repens infection than a veterinarian working in the Nordic countries did. While 48% of the veterinarians knew that canine babesiosis is not considered a zoonosis, 26% knew that D. immitis is zoonotic and 34% knew that D. repens is zoonotic. The results suggested that autochthonous cases of the three vector-borne parasitic infections were seen by veterinarians in the Baltic countries, whereas most cases seen by veterinarians in the Nordic countries appeared to be imported. A substantial proportion of the veterinarians did not know whether the parasites are zoonotic. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Pollen morphology of the genus Eremanthus Less. (Vernonieae, Asteraceae Morfologia polínica de espécies do gênero Eremanthus Less. (Vernonieae, Asteraceae

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    BenoÎt Loeuille

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the significance of the pollen morphology for generic and infrageneric taxonomy of the genus Eremanthus (Vernonieae, Asteraceae, and to provide additional data for its phylogenetic reconstruction, the pollen of 20 of the 23 species of the genus was examined using light and scanning electron microscopy. Acetolysed pollen grains were measured, described, and illustrated using light microscopy, while non-acetolysed pollen grains were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy. Pollen grains of these species are isopolar, oblate-spheroidal in most of the species, more rarely prolate spheroidal or suboblate, subtriangular amb, tricolporate and subechinolophate. The variation among quantitative characters does not correlate with the macromorphological subdivision of the genus or with the generic or specific limits.Com a finalidade de avaliar a importância da morfologia polínica para a taxonomia de Eremanthus (Vernonieae, Asteraceae em nível genérico e infragenérico e fornecer dados adicionais para a sua reconstrução filogenética, os grãos de pólen de 20 das 23 espécies do gênero foram examinados usando a microscopia de luz e eletrônica de varredura. Os grãos de pólen foram acetolisados, medidos, descritos e ilustrados sob microscópio de luz. Para a análise em microscópio eletrônico de varredura foram utilizados grãos de pólen com e/ou sem tratamento químico. As espécies apresentaram grãos de pólen isopolares, oblato-esferoidais, na maioria dos táxons, mais raramente prolato-esferoidais ou suboblatos, âmbito subtriangular, tricolporados e subechinolofados. A variação entre os caracteres quantitativos não se correlacionam com a subdivisão macromorfológica do gênero nem com os limites genéricos ou específicos.

  18. Heavy metal tolerance in Agropyron repens (L. P. Bauv. populations from the Legnica copper smelter area, Lower Silesia

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    Teresa Brej

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The copper smelter "Legnica" is one of the oldest plants in Lower Silesia. Among the few weed species spontaneously migrating to the area around the emitter there is couch grass (Agropyron repens (L. P. Bauv.. The purpose of this study was to analyse whether the local couch grass populations, growing at various distances from the smelter, differ in tolerance to heavy metals occurring in this area. The populations were tested for tolerance to five metals (Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd, Ni using the root elongation method. The highest tolerance to Pb developed in two populations localized nearest the smelter. Similarly, all populations of couch grass from the vicinity of the smelter show a high tolerance to copper, particularly the plants from the most contaminated site. The IT for the latter population is almost 1509r, even at the highest dose of Cu. For Zn a nearing IT as for Cu was obtained. Comparing the shape of IT curves for Cd, special emphasis is put on the fact that a fixed tolerance to cadmium occurs only in the population localized closest to the emitter. The analysis of Ni-tolerance curves, of which the content in local soil is minimal, does not confirm the thesis on possibility of development of co-tolerance in the surveyed populations. It appeared that stress conditions existing near the smelter do not inhibit seed production in couch grass, but prevent a successful course of their germination on polluted soil. The improvement of soil even by 50% (addition of unpolluted soil does not improve the poor process of germination in couch grass growing nearest to the smelter. Of importance is the fact that the highest number of seeds germinated on their own, polluted soil. The need of metals' content for plant germination in populations most distant from the smelter is evidenced by an almost 30% reduction of germination ability of local seeds after addition of unpolluted soil. Another significant observation was the fact that, in spite of a poor

  19. A Comparison of the First Two Sequenced Chloroplast Genomes in Asteraceae: Lettuce and Sunflower

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    Timme, Ruth E.; Kuehl, Jennifer V.; Boore, Jeffrey L.; Jansen, Robert K.

    2006-01-20

    Asteraceae is the second largest family of plants, with over 20,000 species. For the past few decades, numerous phylogenetic studies have contributed to our understanding of the evolutionary relationships within this family, including comparisons of the fast evolving chloroplast gene, ndhF, rbcL, as well as non-coding DNA from the trnL intron plus the trnLtrnF intergenic spacer, matK, and, with lesser resolution, psbA-trnH. This culminated in a study by Panero and Funk in 2002 that used over 13,000 bp per taxon for the largest taxonomic revision of Asteraceae in over a hundred years. Still, some uncertainties remain, and it would be very useful to have more information on the relative rates of sequence evolution among various genes and on genome structure as a potential set of phylogenetic characters to help guide future phylogenetic structures. By way of contributing to this, we report the first two complete chloroplast genome sequences from members of the Asteraceae, those of Helianthus annuus and Lactuca sativa. These plants belong to two distantly related subfamilies, Asteroideae and Cichorioideae, respectively. In addition to these, there is only one other published chloroplast genome sequence for any plant within the larger group called Eusterids II, that of Panax ginseng (Araliaceae, 156,318 bps, AY582139). Early chloroplast genome mapping studies demonstrated that H. annuus and L. sativa share a 22 kb inversion relative to members of the subfamily Barnadesioideae. By comparison to outgroups, this inversion was shown to be derived, indicating that the Asteroideae and Cichorioideae are more closely related than either is to the Barnadesioideae. Later sequencing study found that taxa that share this 22 kb inversion also contain within this region a second, smaller, 3.3 kb inversion. These sequences also enable an analysis of patterns of shared repeats in the genomes at fine level and of RNA editing by comparison to available EST sequences. In addition, since

  20. Seasonal and annual variations of metal uptake, bioaccumulation, and toxicity in Trifolium repens and Lolium perenne growing in a heavy metal-contaminated field.

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    Bidar, Géraldine; Pruvot, Christelle; Garçon, Guillaume; Verdin, Anthony; Shirali, Pirouz; Douay, Francis

    2009-01-01

    The reclamation of nonferrous metal-polluted soil by phytoremediation requires an overall and permanent plant cover. To select the most suitable plant species, it is necessary to study metal effects on plants over the time, thereby checking that metals remain stored in root systems and not transferred to aerial parts. In this purpose, the seasonal and annual variations of metal bioaccumulation, transfer, and phytotoxicity in Trifolium repens and Lolium perenne grown in a Cd-, Pb-, and Zn-contaminated soil were also studied. The experimental site was located near a closed smelter. In spring 2004, two areas were sown with T. repens and L. perenne, respectively. Thereafter, the samplings of plant roots and shoots and surrounding soils were realized in autumn 2004 and spring and autumn 2005. The soil agronomic characteristics, the Cd, Pb, and Zn concentrations in the surrounded soils and plant organs, as well as the oxidative alterations (superoxide dismutase [SOD], malondialdehyde [MDA], and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine [8-OHdG]) in plant organs were carried out. Whatever the sampling period, metal concentrations in soils and plants were higher than background values. Contrary to the soils, the fluctuations of metal concentrations were observed in plant organs over the time. Bioaccumulation and transfer factors confirmed that metals were preferentially accumulated in the roots as follows: Cd>Zn>Pb, and their transfer to shoots was limited. Foliar metal deposition was also observed. The results showed that there were seasonal and annual variations of metal accumulation in the two studied plant species. These variations differed according to the organs and followed nearly the same pattern for the two species. Oxidative alterations were observed in plant organs with regard to SOD antioxidant activities, MDA, and 8-OHdG concentrations. These alterations vary according to the temporal variations of metal concentrations. Metal concentrations in surrounded soils and plant

  1. Clave interactiva para los géneros de la familia Asteraceae (Compositae presentes en la reserva municipal de Cogua (Cundinamarca, Colombia

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    Juan Carlos Gómez

    2005-01-01

    Asteraceae presentes en la reserva, utilizando solamente los caracteres de tipo vegetativo, con escaso uso de los caracteres de inflorescencia, y nulo requerimiento de caracteres florales. Esto es un resultado asombroso y no esperado para la familia Asteraceae, cuyas claves tradicionales requieren, desde el comienzo caracteres reproductivos. Es posible apreciar así la alta efectividad de la clave y la gran utilidad del programa DELTA.

  2. A new genus and species of Lasiopteridi (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae on Haplopappus foliosus (Asteraceae from Chile

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    Valéria Cid Maia

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available A new genus and species of gall midge, Haplopappusmyia gregaria, is described and illustrated (larva, pupa, male, and female. This species induces apical galls on Haplopappus foliosus (Asteraceae, an endemic shrub from central Chile. The specimens were collected at La Ligua Municipality, Petorca Province, Valparaiso region, Chile, during spring of 2011–2014. This area corresponds to one of the fifth Mediterranean Matorral biome, considered among Earth's biodiversity hotspots. The new genus is characterized by presenting lateral margin of antennal scape with a mesal reentrance; four-segmented palpus, one-toothed tarsal claws, R5 straight, reaching C anterior to wing apex; male seventh and eighth tergites lacking sclerotization mesally, beyond proximal margin; presence of trichoid sensilla on the abdominal terga and sterna of both sexes, protrusible ovipositor with elongate fused cerci, and larva with 4 pairs of setose terminal papillae. Keywords: Gall midge, Morphology, Neotropical, Taxonomy

  3. A new genus and species of Lasiopteridi (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae on Haplopappus foliosus (Asteraceae from Chile

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    Valéria Cid Maia

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT A new genus and species of gall midge, Haplopappusmyia gregaria, is described and illustrated (larva, pupa, male, and female. This species induces apical galls on Haplopappus foliosus (Asteraceae, an endemic shrub from central Chile. The specimens were collected at La Ligua Municipality, Petorca Province, Valparaiso region, Chile, during spring of 2011-2014. This area corresponds to one of the fifth Mediterranean Matorral biome, considered among Earth's biodiversity hotspots. The new genus is characterized by presenting lateral margin of antennal scape with a mesal reentrance; four-segmented palpus, one-toothed tarsal claws, R5 straight, reaching C anterior to wing apex; male seventh and eighth tergites lacking sclerotization mesally, beyond proximal margin; presence of trichoid sensilla on the abdominal terga and sterna of both sexes, protrusible ovipositor with elongate fused cerci, and larva with 4 pairs of setose terminal papillae.

  4. A taxonomic revision of the genus lactuca L. (cicihorieae- asteraceae) from Pakistan and Kashmir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qaiser, M.; Bano, R.

    2011-01-01

    The genus Lactuca L. of the tribe Cichorieae-Asteraceae is taxonomically revised from Pakistan and Kashmir. The revision is based on study of large number of herbarium specimens. In few cases plants have also been studied in their natural habitat. A total of 13 species are recognized from Pakistan and Kashmir including 1 new species i.e. Lactuca erostrata Roohi Bano and Qaiser. A new combination Lactuca orientalis subsp. nuristanica (Podlech) Roohi Bano and Qaiser is also proposed. All the taxa valid or synonyms have been typified with the help of type specimens and literature. Key to the species along with detailed morphological description and ecological notes of each taxon are also given. (author)

  5. Heme-binding activity of methoxyflavones from Pentzia monodiana Maire (Asteraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Sergio; Dali-Yahia, Kamel; Vasquez-Ocmin, Pedro; Grougnet, Raphaël; Grellier, Philippe; Michel, Sylvie; Maciuk, Alexandre; Boutefnouchet, Sabrina

    2017-04-01

    A heme-binding assay based on mass spectrometry was performed on P. monodiana Maire (Asteraceae) extracts to identify metabolites able to form adducts with heminic part of haemoglobin, as potential antimalarial drugs. Main adducts were characterized and their stability was measured. Isolation of main constituents of P. monodiana Maire lead to identification of the two methoxyflavones 3'-O-methyleupatorin (7) and artemetin (8) involved in the adducts formation. Four seco-tanapartholides (1-4), a guaianolide (5), a germacranolide (6) and two other methoxyflavones (9, 10) were also characterized. Evaluation of isolated compounds on P. falciparum and T. brucei brucei showed a moderate antiprotozoal activity of the two methoxyflavones. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. A new acylated flavonol from the aerial parts of Asteriscus maritimus (L.) Less (Asteraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezzat, Marwa I; Ezzat, Shahira M; El Deeb, Kadriya S; El Fishawy, Ahlam M; El-Toumy, Sayed A

    2016-08-01

    Phytochemical investigation of the flowering aerial parts of Asteriscus maritimus (L.) Less (Asteraceae) led to the isolation of a new compound: patuletin 7-O-β-D-[(2″'S) 6″(3″'-hydroxy-2″'-methyl-propanoyl)] glucopyranoside, together with five known metabolites; β-sitosterol 2, chlorogenic acid 3, P-hydroxy -methylbenzoate 4, luteolin 5 and protocatechuic acid 6. The structures of the isolated compounds were determined by comprehensive analyses of its 1D and 2D NMR, HRMS and compared with previously known analogues. The ethanolic extract of the flowering aerial parts of A. maritimus was found to be safe (LD50 = 4.6 mg/kg) and possess significant antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities and this was in accordance with its high phenolic content (107.36 ± 0.051 mg GAE/g extract).

  7. Microsatellite primers for a species of South African everlasting daisy (Helichrysum odoratissimum; Gnaphalieae, Asteraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glennon, Kelsey L; Cron, Glynis V

    2016-05-01

    Microsatellites were developed for the widespread Helichrysum odoratissimum (Asteraceae) to estimate gene flow across diploid populations and to test if gene flow occurs among other closely related lineages within this genus. Ten primer pairs were developed and tested using populations across South Africa; however, only seven primer pairs were polymorphic for the target species. The seven polymorphic primers amplified di- and trinucleotide repeats with up to 16 alleles per locus among 125 diploid individuals used for analyses. These markers can be used to estimate gene flow among populations of known ploidy level of H. odoratissimum to test evolutionary hypotheses. Furthermore, these markers amplify successfully in other Helichrysum species, including the other three taxonomic Group 4 species, and therefore can be used to inform taxonomic work on these species.

  8. Microsatellite primers for a species of South African everlasting daisy (Helichrysum odoratissimum; Gnaphalieae, Asteraceae)1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glennon, Kelsey L.; Cron, Glynis V.

    2016-01-01

    Premise of the study: Microsatellites were developed for the widespread Helichrysum odoratissimum (Asteraceae) to estimate gene flow across diploid populations and to test if gene flow occurs among other closely related lineages within this genus. Methods and Results: Ten primer pairs were developed and tested using populations across South Africa; however, only seven primer pairs were polymorphic for the target species. The seven polymorphic primers amplified di- and trinucleotide repeats with up to 16 alleles per locus among 125 diploid individuals used for analyses. Conclusions: These markers can be used to estimate gene flow among populations of known ploidy level of H. odoratissimum to test evolutionary hypotheses. Furthermore, these markers amplify successfully in other Helichrysum species, including the other three taxonomic Group 4 species, and therefore can be used to inform taxonomic work on these species. PMID:27213125

  9. Synopsis of Plazia Ruiz & Pav. (Onoserideae, Asteraceae), including a new species from northern Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillon, Michael O; Luebert, Federico

    2014-01-01

    A synopsis of Plazia Ruiz & Pav. (Onoserideae, Asteraceae) is presented, including the description of a new species, Plazia robinsonii M.O.Dillon & Sagást., from a locality c. 20 kms west of Huamachuco, Department of La Libertad in northern Peru. It most closely resembles Plazia conferta Ruiz & Pav., a narrow endemic from central Peru some 450 km to the south; however, the latter species has larger leaves and smaller capitula. Plazia is a small genus of four species confined to the Andean Cordillera of Peru, Bolivia, Chile, and Argentina. A distribution map of the four species, an illustration of the new species, a photograph of the holotype, and a key to species are provided.

  10. Assessment of In vitro Sun Protection Factor of Calendula Officinalis L. (Asteraceae) Essential Oil Formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Ak; Mishra, A; Chattopadhyay, P

    2012-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to study the sunscreen activity of herbal formulation. There is no evidence of the sun protection factor (SPF) studies on essential oil of Calendula flowers (Calendula officinalis L., Asteraceae). The study investigates the in vitro SPF by ultraviolet specrtophotometry method of Calendula flower oil in a cream formulation. Calendula oil was isolated by Clavenger's apparatus, compositions were identified by GC-MS and the cream of calendula flower oil was prepared by homogenization method followed by evaluation for physical parameters. The sun protection factor of cream was evaluated by in vitro method employing UV-visible spectrophotometer (Shimazdu-1600). The SPF of Calendula oil in cream formulation exhibited good activity (SPF = 14.84 ± 0.16). Finding of this study suggested that calendula oil cream can be used to protect the skin from UV radiations in form of sunscreen cream and to maintain the natural pigmentation of the skin.

  11. Comparative transcriptome analysis of the Asteraceae halophyte Karelinia caspica under salt stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xia; Liao, Maoseng; Chang, Dan; Zhang, Fuchun

    2014-12-17

    Much attention has been given to the potential of halophytes as sources of tolerance traits for introduction into cereals. However, a great deal remains unknown about the diverse mechanisms employed by halophytes to cope with salinity. To characterize salt tolerance mechanisms underlying Karelinia caspica, an Asteraceae halophyte, we performed Large-scale transcriptomic analysis using a high-throughput Illumina sequencing platform. Comparative gene expression analysis was performed to correlate the effects of salt stress and ABA regulation at the molecular level. Total sequence reads generated by pyrosequencing were assembled into 287,185 non-redundant transcripts with an average length of 652 bp. Using the BLAST function in the Swiss-Prot, NCBI nr, GO, KEGG, and KOG databases, a total of 216,416 coding sequences associated with known proteins were annotated. Among these, 35,533 unigenes were classified into 69 gene ontology categories, and 18,378 unigenes were classified into 202 known pathways. Based on the fold changes observed when comparing the salt stress and control samples, 60,127 unigenes were differentially expressed, with 38,122 and 22,005 up- and down-regulated, respectively. Several of the differentially expressed genes are known to be involved in the signaling pathway of the plant hormone ABA, including ABA metabolism, transport, and sensing as well as the ABA signaling cascade. Transcriptome profiling of K. caspica contribute to a comprehensive understanding of K. caspica at the molecular level. Moreover, the global survey of differentially expressed genes in this species under salt stress and analyses of the effects of salt stress and ABA regulation will contribute to the identification and characterization of genes and molecular mechanisms underlying salt stress responses in Asteraceae plants.

  12. Capitate glandular trichomes in Aldama discolor (Heliantheae - Asteraceae): morphology, metabolite profile and sesquiterpene biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bombo, A B; Appezzato-da-Glória, B; Aschenbrenner, A-K; Spring, O

    2016-05-01

    The capitate glandular trichome is the most common type described in Asteraceae species. It is known for its ability to produce various plant metabolites of ecological and economic importance, among which sesquiterpene lactones are predominant. In this paper, we applied microscopy, phytochemical and molecular genetics techniques to characterise the capitate glandular trichome in Aldama discolor, a native Brazilian species of Asteraceae, with pharmacological potential. It was found that formation of trichomes on leaf primordia of germinating seeds starts between 24 h and 48 h after radicle growth indicates germination. The start of metabolic activity of trichomes was indicated by separation of the cuticle from the cell wall of secretory cells at the trichome tip after 72 h. This coincided with the accumulation of budlein A, the major sesquiterpene lactone of A. discolor capitate glandular trichomes, in extracts of leaf primordia after 96 h. In the same timeframe of 72-96 h post-germination, gene expression studies showed up-regulation of the putative germacrene A synthase (pGAS2) and putative germacrene A oxidase (pGAO) of A. discolor in the transcriptome of these samples, indicating the start of sesquiterpene lactone biosynthesis. Sequencing of the two genes revealed high similarity to HaGAS and HaGAO from sunflower, which shows that key steps of this pathway are highly conserved. The processes of trichome differentiation, metabolic activity and genetic regulation in A. discolor and in sunflower appear to be typical for other species of the subtribe Helianthinae. © 2015 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  13. Sex-mediated herbivory by galling insects on Baccharis concinna (Asteraceae Herbivoria por insetos galhadores mediada pelo sexo em Baccharis concinna (Asteraceae

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    Marco Antonio A. Carneiro

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The interaction patterns between the dioecious shrub Baccharis concinna Barroso (Asteraceae and its speciose galling insect community were studied in southeastern Brazil. Two hypotheses were tested in this study: "the differential reproduction and growth hypothesis" that predicts that male plants present fewer reproductive structures and are larger than female plants; and the 'sex-biased herbivory hypothesis' that predicts that male plants support a larger abundance of insect galls than female plants. Plants did not show sexual dimorphism in growth (= mean leaf number. However, male plants had longer shoots and a lower average number of inflorescences than female plants. These results corroborate the hypothesis that male plants grow more and reproduce less than female plants. No statistically significant difference was found in the number of galls between male and female plants, but a sex by environmental effect on gall number was detected. When each species of galling insect was individually analyzed per population of the host plant, the rates of attack varied between sex and population of the host plant, and they were highly variable among the species of galling insects. These results highlight the importance of the interaction between sex and environment in the community structure of galling insects and indicate that other variables besides host sex may influence the patterns of attack by galling herbivores.Os padrões de interação entre o arbusto dióico Baccharis concinna Barroso (Asteraceae e sua diversa comunidade de insetos galhadores foram estudados na região sudeste do Brasil. Duas hipóteses foram testadas neste estudo: "a hipótese do crescimento e reprodução diferenciais", que prevê que plantas masculinas apresentam menos estruturas reprodutivas e são maiores do que plantas femininas; e a "hipótese da herbivoria mediada pelo sexo" que prevê que plantas masculinas sustentam uma maior abundância de insetos galhadores do que

  14. Anatomia e histoquímica dos órgãos vegetativos de Siegesbeckia orientalis (Asteraceae Anatomy and histochemistry of the vegetative organs of Siegesbeckia orientalis (Asteraceae

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    D.B. Aguilera

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Descreveu-se a anatomia dos órgãos vegetativos de S. orientalis, em estrutura primária, enfatizando a caracterização e histoquímica de suas estruturas secretoras. Folhas, caules e raízes foram fixados em FAA50 e em sulfato ferroso e estocados em etanol 70%. Cortes transversais e longitudinais foram submetidos ao azul-de-toluidina pH 4,0, ao vermelho-de-rutênio, à reação de PAS, ao reativo Xylidine Ponceau, ao Sudan Black B e ao reativo Dragendorff. Anatomicamente, os órgãos vegetativos de S. orientalis são semelhantes aos caracteres descritos para Asteraceae. As raízes laterais são triarcas e o caule, um eustelo. Ductos estão ausentes na raiz e presentes no caule e na folha. Estas estruturas são de pequeno diâmetro, sendo delimitadas por quatro a cinco células epiteliais. No caule, os ductos estavam presentes no córtex, próximos à endoderme e na medula; nas folhas, associados aos feixes vasculares, tanto para o lado do xilema quanto para o do floema. As folhas são dorsiventrais e anfiestomáticas. Três tipos de estruturas secretoras foram observados: ductos, hidatódios e tricomas glandulares. Os testes histoquímicos aplicados demonstraram a presença de compostos fenólicos e alcalóides nos ductos e, nos tricomas, de compostos lipofílicos e fenólicos. Esses resultados indicam a complexidade da secreção produzida pelas estruturas secretoras na espécie.The anatomy of the vegetative organs of S. orientalis in primary structure was described, emphasizing the characterization and histochemistry of its secretory structures. Leaves, stems and roots were fixed in FAA50 and ferrous sulphate and stored in 70% ethanol. Cross and longitudinal sections were submitted to toluidine blue pH 4.0, ruthenium red, PAS reaction, Ponceau Xylidine reactive, Sudan Black B and Dragendorff reactive. Anatomically, S. orientalis vegetative organs are similar to the characters described for the Asteraceae. The lateral roots are triarches and

  15. Discovery of germacrene A synthases in Barnadesia spinosa: The first committed step in sesquiterpene lactone biosynthesis in the basal member of the Asteraceae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, Trinh-Don; Faraldos, Juan A.; Vardakou, Maria; Salmon, Melissa; O'Maille, Paul E.; Ro, Dae-Kyun

    2016-01-01

    The Andes-endemic Barnadesioideae lineage is the oldest surviving and phylogenetically basal subfamily of the Asteraceae (Compositae), a prolific group of flowering plants with world-wide distribution (∼24,000 species) marked by a rich diversity of sesquiterpene lactones (STLs). Intriguingly, there is no evidence that members of the Barnadesioideae produce STLs, specialized metabolites thought to have contributed to the adaptive success of the Asteraceae family outside South America. The biosynthesis of STLs requires the intimate expression and functional integration of germacrene A synthase (GAS) and germacrene A oxidase (GAO) to sequentially cyclize and oxidize farnesyl diphosphate into the advanced intermediate germacrene A acid leading to diverse STLs. Our previous discovery of GAO activity conserved across all major subfamilies of Asteraceae, including the phylogenetically basal lineage of Barnadesioideae, prompted further investigation of the presence of the gateway GAS in Barnadesioideae. Herein we isolated two terpene synthases (BsGAS1/BsGAS2) from the basal Barnadesia spinosa (Barnadesioideae) that displayed robust GAS activity when reconstituted in yeast and characterized in vitro. Despite the apparent lack of STLs in the Barnadesioideae, this work unambiguously confirms the presence of GAS in the basal genera of the Asteraceae. Phylogenetic analysis reveals that the two BsGASs fall into two distinct clades of the Asteraceae's GASs, and BsGAS1 clade is only retained in the evolutionary closer Cichorioideae subfamily, implicating BsGAS2 is likely the ancestral base of most GASs found in the lineages outside the Barnadesioideae. Taken together, these results show the enzymatic capacities of GAS and GAO emerged prior to the subsequent radiation of STL-producing Asteraceae subfamilies. - Highlights: • Sesquiterpene lactones are characteristic metabolites in Asteraceae family. • Barnadesioideae is the basal lineage of all Asteraceae plants

  16. WOOD ANATOMY OF TWO SPECIES OF THE GENUS Heterothalamus Lessing (ASTERACEAE FROM RIO GRANDE DO SUL (BRAZIL

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    Anabela Silveira de Oliveira

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The present work describes the wood anatomy of Heterothalamus alienus and Heterothalamus rupestris (Astereae - Asteraceae, as part of the secondary xylem study in the named genus. For the two species it was recorded some features usually mentioned in the literature for the Asteraceae, as typically small vessels, grouped in a dendritic pattern, the presence of only simple perforation plates and of paratracheal parenchyma. Heterothalamus alienus shows spiral thickenings in the wood vessels and storied vasicentric axial parenchyma. Heterothalamus rupestris differs itself by the absence of spiral thickenings in wood vessels and by no storied axial parenchyma, in paratracheal vasicentric to unilateral patterns. Photomicrographs, quantitative data of anatomical features and a comparison between the two  species of wood are also provided.

  17. Effect of Mycorrhizal Fungi and Trifluralin Herbicide on Emergence, Growth and Root Colonization of Clover (Trifolium repens L.

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    Hassan Shahgholi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Herbicides, despite of their control of weeds, have the potential to affect sensitive crops in rotation and also beneficial non-targeted soil microbes including vesicular arbuscular mycorrhiza (VAM fungi (6. AM fungi can increase the growth of crops through increasing uptake of phosphorus and insoluble micronutrients, and indirectly by improving soil quality parameters (30. However, several authors have reported different effects of herbicides on VAM symbiosis, which ranges from no adverse effects to slightly or highly toxic effects (6. Pesticides have also been reported to stimulate colonization of plant roots by AM fungi (27. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate the interaction effects of mycorrhizal fungi and Trifluralin herbicide on the growth and root colonization of clover. Materials and Methods: A factorial experiment was arranged in randomized complete block design with three replicates at the College of Agricultural, University of Shahrood during 2012. Treatments were included three levels of mycorrhiza inoculation, M1: non mycorrhiza (control, M2: Glommus mosseae and M3: Glommus intraradices and herbicide treatments were included four levels of Trifluralin(T1: 0, T2: 1000, T3: 1500 and T4: 2000 ml ha-1. In mycorrhizal treatments, 20 g inoculums were thoroughly mixed with soil. Seeds of clover (Trifolium repens L. were sown in the pots maintained near the field in order to provide normal environmental conditions. Seedlings were thinned to two plants per pot at three leaf stages. At the time of harvesting, the emergence and growth characteristics of clover and root colonization was also registered. Statistical analyses of data were performed with statistical software MSTATC. Significant differences between means refer to the probability level of 0.05 calculated by LSD test. Results and Discussion: The results showed that emergence, uniformity (EU values decreased and time to 10% (D10 and 90% (D90 of

  18. Novel anthraquinone derivatives produced by Phoma sorghina, an endophyte found in association with the medicinal plant Tithonia diversifolia (Asteraceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Borges, Warley de Souza; Pupo, Mônica Tallarico

    2006-01-01

    Three known anthraquinones (1,7-dihydroxy-3-methyl-9,10-anthraquinone, 1,6-dihydroxy-3-methyl-9,10-anthraquinone and 1-hydroxy-3-methyl-9,10-anthraquinone), one new anthraquinone (1,7-dihydroxy-3-hydroxymethyl-9,10-anthraquinone), and two new hexahydroanthraquinone derivatives, dendryols E and F, were isolated from the culture of the endophytic fungus Phoma sorghina, found in association with Tithonia diversifolia (Asteraceae). Their structures were identified on the basis of spectroscopic da...

  19. Gochnatia polymorpha (Less.) Cabrera (Asteraceae) changes in leaf structure due to differences in light and edaphic conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Rossatto,Davi Rodrigo; Kolb,Rosana Marta

    2010-01-01

    Gochnatia polymorpha (Less.) Cabrera is a widespread Asteraceae species found in different physiognomies of cerrado (Neotropical savanna) and in forest formations of southeast Brazil. This study describes some leaf anatomy characteristics of this species and quantitatively evaluates them in relation to different environments, as well as under different light conditions. We found quantitative differences in all anatomical parameters analyzed. The results demonstrate that high leaf anatomy plas...

  20. Multiple Polyploidization Events across Asteraceae with Two Nested Events in the Early History Revealed by Nuclear Phylogenomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chien-Hsun; Zhang, Caifei; Liu, Mian; Hu, Yi; Gao, Tiangang; Qi, Ji; Ma, Hong

    2016-11-01

    Biodiversity results from multiple evolutionary mechanisms, including genetic variation and natural selection. Whole-genome duplications (WGDs), or polyploidizations, provide opportunities for large-scale genetic modifications. Many evolutionarily successful lineages, including angiosperms and vertebrates, are ancient polyploids, suggesting that WGDs are a driving force in evolution. However, this hypothesis is challenged by the observed lower speciation and higher extinction rates of recently formed polyploids than diploids. Asteraceae includes about 10% of angiosperm species, is thus undoubtedly one of the most successful lineages and paleopolyploidization was suggested early in this family using a small number of datasets. Here, we used genes from 64 new transcriptome datasets and others to reconstruct a robust Asteraceae phylogeny, covering 73 species from 18 tribes in six subfamilies. We estimated their divergence times and further identified multiple potential ancient WGDs within several tribes and shared by the Heliantheae alliance, core Asteraceae (Asteroideae-Mutisioideae), and also with the sister family Calyceraceae. For two of the WGD events, there were subsequent great increases in biodiversity; the older one proceeded the divergence of at least 10 subfamilies within 10 My, with great variation in morphology and physiology, whereas the other was followed by extremely high species richness in the Heliantheae alliance clade. Our results provide different evidence for several WGDs in Asteraceae and reveal distinct association among WGD events, dramatic changes in environment and species radiations, providing a possible scenario for polyploids to overcome the disadvantages of WGDs and to evolve into lineages with high biodiversity. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  1. Development of novel low-copy nuclear markers for Hieraciinae (Asteraceae) and their perspective for other tribes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krak, Karol; Álvarez, I.; Caklová, Petra; Costa, A.; Chrtek, Jindřich; Fehrer, Judith

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 99, č. 2 (2012), s. 74-77 ISSN 0002-9122 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP506/10/1363; GA ČR GA206/05/0657 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : Asteraceae * Hieraciinae * low-copy nuclear markers Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 2.586, year: 2012

  2. Rapid Identification of Asteraceae Plants with Improved RBF-ANN Classification Models Based on MOS Sensor E-Nose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-Qin Zou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Plants from Asteraceae family are widely used as herbal medicines and food ingredients, especially in Asian area. Therefore, authentication and quality control of these different Asteraceae plants are important for ensuring consumers’ safety and efficacy. In recent decades, electronic nose (E-nose has been studied as an alternative approach. In this paper, we aim to develop a novel discriminative model by improving radial basis function artificial neural network (RBF-ANN classification model. Feature selection algorithms, including principal component analysis (PCA and BestFirst + CfsSubsetEval (BC, were applied in the improvement of RBF-ANN models. Results illustrate that in the improved RBF-ANN models with lower dimension data classification accuracies (100% remained the same as in the original model with higher-dimension data. It is the first time to introduce feature selection methods to get valuable information on how to attribute more relevant MOS sensors; namely, in this case, S1, S3, S4, S6, and S7 show better capability to distinguish these Asteraceae plants. This paper also gives insights to further research in this area, for instance, sensor array optimization and performance improvement of classification model.

  3. Hydrolase and fructosyltransferase activities implicated in the accumulation of different chain size fructans in three Asteraceae species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itaya, Nair M; Asega, Amanda F; Carvalho, Maria Angela M; Figueiredo-Ribeiro, Rita de Cássia L

    2007-09-01

    Fructans are widely distributed in Asteraceae from floras with seasonal growth and are thought to be involved in drought and freezing tolerance, in addition to storage function. Reserve organs of Vernonia herbacea and Viguiera discolor, from the cerrado, and of the perennial herb Smallanthus sonchifolius, endemic to Andean region, store over 80% inulin, with different DP (35, 150, and 15, respectively). The fructan pattern in Asteraceae species could be explained by characteristics of their respective 1-FFTs. Hydrolases and fructosyltransferases from S. sonchifolius, V. herbacea and V. discolor were analyzed in plants at the same environmental conditions. The higher 1-FEH activities found in the species with lower DP, S. sonchifolius and V. herbacea reinforce the hypothesis of the involvement of 1-FEH in fructan profile and suggest that the high DP fructan of V. discolor is a consequence of the low affinity of its 1-FEH to the native long chain inulin. Long term incubation with sucrose suggested that the affinity of 1-FFT of V. discolor for 1-kestose is low when compared to that of V. herbacea. Indeed 1-FFT from V. discolor was shown to be an hDP 1-FFT, preferring longer inulins as acceptors. Conversely, 1-FFT from V. herbacea seems to have a higher affinity for short fructo-oligosaccharides, including 1-kestose, as acceptor substrates. Differences in fructan enzymes of the three Asteraceae provide new information towards the understanding of fructan metabolism and control of carbon flow between low and high DP fructans.

  4. Parasitoid Wasps in Flower Heads of Asteraceae in the Brazilian Cerrado: Taxonomical Composition and Determinants of Diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, A R; Almeida-Neto, M; Almeida, A M; Fonseca, C R; Lewinsohn, T M; Penteado-Dias, A M

    2014-08-01

    This study provides the first survey of the parasitoid fauna reared in flower heads of Asteraceae in the Brazilian cerrado. We investigated the relative importance of herbivore richness and plant species commonness to differences in parasitoid species richness among the plant species. A total of 15,372 specimens from 192 morphospecies belonging to 103 genera of Hymenoptera were reared from the flower heads of 74 Asteraceae species. Chalcidoidea and Ichneumonoidea were the most common superfamilies, with Eulophidae and Braconidae as the main families of parasitoid wasps. Singletons and doubletons accounted for 45% of total parasitoid species richness. The number of parasitoid species per plant species ranged from 1 to 67, and the variation in parasitoid species richness among plants was mainly explained by the number of sites in which the plants were recorded. This study shows that there is a highly diversified fauna of Hymenoptera parasitoids associated with flower heads of Asteraceae in the Brazilian cerrado. Our findings suggest that the accumulation of parasitoid species on plants is mainly determined by the regional commonness of plant species rather than the number of herbivore species associated with the plants.

  5. Evolutionary Co-Option of Floral Meristem Identity Genes for Patterning of the Flower-Like Asteraceae Inflorescence1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broholm, Suvi K.; Tähtiharju, Sari

    2016-01-01

    The evolutionary success of Asteraceae, the largest family of flowering plants, has been attributed to the unique inflorescence architecture of the family, which superficially resembles an individual flower. Here, we show that Asteraceae inflorescences (flower heads, or capitula) resemble solitary flowers not only morphologically but also at the molecular level. By conducting functional analyses for orthologs of the flower meristem identity genes LEAFY (LFY) and UNUSUAL FLORAL ORGANS (UFO) in Gerbera hybrida, we show that GhUFO is the master regulator of flower meristem identity, while GhLFY has evolved a novel, homeotic function during the evolution of head-like inflorescences. Resembling LFY expression in a single flower meristem, uniform expression of GhLFY in the inflorescence meristem defines the capitulum as a determinate structure that can assume floral fate upon ectopic GhUFO expression. We also show that GhLFY uniquely regulates the ontogeny of outer, expanded ray flowers but not inner, compact disc flowers, indicating that the distinction of different flower types in Asteraceae is connected with their independent evolutionary origins from separate branching systems. PMID:27382139

  6. Evolutionary Co-Option of Floral Meristem Identity Genes for Patterning of the Flower-Like Asteraceae Inflorescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yafei; Zhang, Teng; Broholm, Suvi K; Tähtiharju, Sari; Mouhu, Katriina; Albert, Victor A; Teeri, Teemu H; Elomaa, Paula

    2016-09-01

    The evolutionary success of Asteraceae, the largest family of flowering plants, has been attributed to the unique inflorescence architecture of the family, which superficially resembles an individual flower. Here, we show that Asteraceae inflorescences (flower heads, or capitula) resemble solitary flowers not only morphologically but also at the molecular level. By conducting functional analyses for orthologs of the flower meristem identity genes LEAFY (LFY) and UNUSUAL FLORAL ORGANS (UFO) in Gerbera hybrida, we show that GhUFO is the master regulator of flower meristem identity, while GhLFY has evolved a novel, homeotic function during the evolution of head-like inflorescences. Resembling LFY expression in a single flower meristem, uniform expression of GhLFY in the inflorescence meristem defines the capitulum as a determinate structure that can assume floral fate upon ectopic GhUFO expression. We also show that GhLFY uniquely regulates the ontogeny of outer, expanded ray flowers but not inner, compact disc flowers, indicating that the distinction of different flower types in Asteraceae is connected with their independent evolutionary origins from separate branching systems. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  7. Biological Activities of Asteraceae (Achillea millefolium and Calendula officinalis) and Lamiaceae (Melissa officinalis and Origanum majorana) Plant Extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Risco, Mónica R; Mouhid, Lamia; Salas-Pérez, Lilia; López-Padilla, Alexis; Santoyo, Susana; Jaime, Laura; Ramírez de Molina, Ana; Reglero, Guillermo; Fornari, Tiziana

    2017-03-01

    Asteraceae (Achillea millefolium and Calendula officinalis) and Lamiaceae (Melissa officinalis and Origanum majorana) extracts were obtained by applying two sequential extraction processes: supercritical fluid extraction with carbon dioxide, followed by ultrasonic assisted extraction using green solvents (ethanol and ethanol:water 50:50). The extracts were analyzed in terms of the total content of phenolic compounds and the content of flavonoids; the volatile oil composition of supercritical extracts was analyzed by gas chromatography and the antioxidant capacity and cell toxicity was determined. Lamiaceae plant extracts presented higher content of phenolics (and flavonoids) than Asteraceae extracts. Regardless of the species studied, the supercritical extracts presented the lowest antioxidant activity and the ethanol:water extracts offered the largest, following the order Origanum majorana > Melissa officinalis ≈ Achillea millefolium > Calendula officinalis. However, concerning the effect on cell toxicity, Asteraceae (especially Achillea millefolium) supercritical extracts were significantly more efficient despite being the less active as an antioxidant agent. These results indicate that the effect on cell viability is not related to the antioxidant activity of the extracts.

  8. Is it possible to rapidly and noninvasively identify different plants from Asteraceae using electronic nose with multiple mathematical algorithms?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-Qin Zou

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Many plants originating from the Asteraceae family are applied as herbal medicines and also beverage ingredients in Asian areas, particularly in China. However, they may be confused due to their similar odor, especially when ground into powder, losing their typical macroscopic characteristics. In this paper, 11 different multiple mathematical algorithms, which are commonly used in data processing, were utilized and compared to analyze the electronic nose (E-nose response signals of different plants from Asteraceae family. Results demonstrate that three-dimensional plot scatter figure of principal component analysis with less extracted components could offer the identification results more visually; simultaneously, all nine kinds of artificial neural network could give classification accuracies at 100%. This paper presents a rapid, accurate, and effective method to distinguish Asteraceae plants based on their response signals in E-nose. It also gives insights to further studies, such as to find unique sensors that are more sensitive and exclusive to volatile components in Chinese herbal medicines and to improve the identification ability of E-nose. Screening sensors made by other novel materials would be also an interesting way to improve identification capability of E-nose.

  9. Primer reporte de empleo de marcadores AFLP en Asteraceae en Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grecia Montalvo Fernández

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Título en ingles: First report of the employment of AFLP markers in Asteraceae in Cuba. Resumen: Rhodogeron coronopifolius Griseb., es una especie vegetal de la familia Asteraceae, que se encuentra en peligro crítico de extinción. Es endémico de la provincia Villa Clara en la región central de Cuba. Habita en el matorral xeromorfo sub espinoso sobre serpentina. Existen solo cinco poblaciones naturales dentro de un área protegida, la principal causa de amenaza es la fragmentación de su hábitat por acciones antrópicas. Debido a su situación de conservación, se hace necesario realizar estudios de la diversidad genética de las poblaciones naturales para así generar información básica y diseñar una estrategia de conservación. El objetivo de este trabajo fue analizar de manera preliminar la diversidad genética de cuatro poblaciones de esta especie utilizando marcadores AFLP (Polimorfismo de Longitud de Fragmentos Amplificados. Se emplearon dos combinaciones de iniciadores y se evaluó el porcentaje de polimorfismo así como la similitud entre los individuos.  Se obtuvieron 165 loci de los cuales el 78,7 % fueron polimórficos. La población de mayor polimorfismo fue Corojito con 85,2%, de manera general el polimorfismo fue alto con valores entre 75 y  87%. La similitud entre los individuos también fue alta con un promedio de 0,74. El agrupamiento genético fue independiente a la población de procedencia, lo que sugiere que existe intercambio genético entre las poblaciones y que estas comparten más del 80 % de los alelos que fueron analizados. Los resultados obtenidos son importantes para el mantenimiento in situ de la especie y para tomar decisiones en aras de su conservación. Palabras clave: Rhodogeron coronopifolius, peligro de extinción, polimorfismo, conservación. Abstract: Rhodogeron coronopifolius Griseb., is a specie of Asteraceae family, in critical danger of extinction. It is an endemic of Villa Clara city in the

  10. Cheirolophus intybaceus (Asteraceae, Centaureinae or the constancy of 2C value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sánchez-Jiménez, I.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Cheirolophus intybaceus (Asteraceae, Centaureinae or the constancy of 2C value.- Cheirolophus intybaceus is a heliophyte growing in thermal Mediterranean scrublands along a coastal belt of 50 km large, stretching from Toulon (France to the Southern part of the Iberian Peninsula, occurring also in the Balearic Islands (with the exception of Minorca. Moreover, this species is also growing in high and sunny lands in the Mediterranean river basins, constituting a complex of taxa closely related among them. The objectives of this work are: i to provide new genome size data for some Asteraceae species; ii to study the variation of DNA amount along a species distribution area; iii to evaluate the discrimination capability of this parameter at low taxonomic levels. A signicantly positive correlation between the DNA amount and the latitude has been found, that is, in drier and warmer habitats genome size tends to decrease in this species. The variation in the whole distribution area of Ch. intybaceus is 1.15-fold. This low variability supports the constancy of 2C-value.

    Cheirolophus intybaceus es una especie heliófila propia de los matorrales mediterráneos termófilos que crece en una franja litoral de unos 50 km de anchura que va desde Tolón (Var, Francia hasta el sur de la península Ibérica, estando también presente en las islas Baleares (excepto en Menorca. Se encuentra también en las zonas elevadas y soleadas de las cuencas fluviales mediterráneas, formando un complejo de táxones estrechamente relacionados entre sí. Los objetivos de este trabajo son: i contribuir a la aportación de datos de tamaño del genoma para diversas especies de Asteraceae; ii estudiar la variación de la cantidad de ADN a lo largo del área de distribución de una especie; iii evaluar la capacidad de discriminación de este parámetro a niveles taxonómicos bajos. Se ha encontrado una correlación positiva y significativa entre la

  11. Serenoa repens associated with selenium and lycopene extract and bromelain and methylsulfonylmethane extract are able to improve the efficacy of levofloxacin in chronic bacterial prostatitis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tommaso Cai

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To date, the management of patients with chronic bacterial prostatitis (CBP is not satisfactory, especially in terms of symptoms relief. Here, we evaluated the efficacy and the safety of a combination of serenoa repens, selenium and lycopene extract + bromelain and methylsulfonylmethane extract associated with levofloxacin in patients with CBP. Materials and methods: All patients with clinical and instrumental diagnosis of CBP, admitted to a single Urological Institution from March to June 2015 were enrolled in this phase III study. All enrolled patients were randomized into two groups: Group A received levofloxacin 500 mg o.d. for 14 days associated with lycopene and methylsulfonylmethane; Group B received levofloxacin (500 mg o.d. for 14 days only. Clinical and microbiological analyses were carried out at the time of admission (T0 and during the followups at 1 month (T1 and 6 months (T2 from the end of the treatment. NIH Chronic Prostatitis Symptom Index (CPSI, International Prostatic Symptom Score (IPSS and Quality of Well-Being (QoL questionnaires were used. The main outcome measures were the rate of microbiological cure and the improvement in questionnaire results from baseline at the end of the follow-ups period. Results: Forty patients were enrolled in Group A and 39 in Group B. During the follow-up (T1, we recorded a significant changes in terms of NIH-CPSI and IPSS in Group A (mean difference: 17.6 ± 2.65; 12.2 ± 2.33; p < 0.01; p < 0.05, respectively and versus Group B at the intergroup analysis (mean difference: -9 ± 1.82; -8.33 ± 1.71; p < 0.05; p < 0.05, respectively. No differences were reported in terms of microbiological findings between the two groups. At the second follow-up visit (T2, questionnaire results demonstrated statistically significant differences between groups (p < 0.001. One patient in Group A (2.5% and 7 patients (17.9% in Group B showed a symptomatic and microbiological recurrence (p = 0

  12. [Associating Serenoa repens, Urtica dioica and Pinus pinaster. Safety and efficacy in the treatment of lower urinary tract symptoms. Prospective study on 320 patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavone, C; Abbadessa, D; Tarantino, M L; Oxenius, I; Laganà, A; Lupo, A; Rinella, M

    2010-01-01

    Serenoa repens (saw palmetto) has been employed for the treatment of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) for several years. Its mechanism of action is believed to be due to antiandrogenic, antiproliferative and antinflammatory properties. An association of Serenoa with the nettle "Urtica dioica" showing antiproliferative activity and the pine "Pinus pinaster" derivative, showing antinflammatory action, has been proposed in recent years. Such an action is hoped to act not only by reducing LUTS but also by preventing the development of prostate cancer. During the years 2007 and 2008, 320 patients suffering from LUTS were treated with an association of Serenoa repens 320 mg, Urtica dioica 120 mg and Pinus pinaster 5 mg, named IPBTRE. This treatment was administered to all patients for a minimal duration of 30 days to a maximum of a year, either alone or in association with antibiotics or alpha-blockers, if needed. Outcome analysis was based on evaluation of symptoms, prostate volume and maximum flow rate (Qmax). From a careful analysis of the data collected in our database, the following observations can be made: ages varied between 19 and 78 years. The patients were affected by BPH in 46% of cases, chronic prostatitis syndrome in 43%, chronic genital-pelvic pain in 7% and other conditions in 4%, the absolute numbers being 147, 138, 22 and 7 patients, respectively. No untoward side effect was reported in any case. Variations in symptom score could be fully evaluated only in 80 of 320 patients (25%), of whom 68 (85%) reported a significant benefit, with special reference to an improvement of pain, urgency, strangury and nocturia. Data on variations in prostate volume, as measured by digital rectal examination, were available in 84 (26.5%) patients. No significant change was observed. Qmax after treatment was measured in 83 (26%) patients. It did not show significant changes from the initial values. The association tested in our study appeared to be safe and well

  13. Anatomy of the underground system in Vernonia grandiflora Less. and V. brevifolia Less. (Asteraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Hissae Hayashi

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available This work dealt with the anatomy of the underground system in Vernonia grandiflora Less. and V. brevifolia Less. (Vernonieae; Asteraceae, two perennial geophytes, to elucidate their ability to sprout in the Brazilian Cerrado conditions. V. grandiflora, a subshrubby species, possessed a thickened underground system constituted by a xylopodium and many tuberous roots. The xylopodium had stem and root structure and its buds were axillary or originated from the cortical parenchyma proliferation. The tuberous roots produced by this organ were adventitious and accumulated inulin-type fructans mainly in the cortical parenchyma. The thickened underground system of V. brevifolia, an herbaceous species, was a tuberous primary root whose buds originated from the proliferated pericycle. The occurrence of these bud-forming underground systems, which stored reserve compounds, enabled these plants to survive throughout unfavourable environmental conditions in the Cerrado, such as dry season and frequent fires in the winter.Este trabalho teve como objetivo estudar a anatomia dos sistemas subterrâneos de Vernonia grandiflora Less. e V. brevifolia Less. (Vernonieae; Asteraceae, duas geófitas perenes, a fim de esclarecer sua capacidade para brotar em condições de Cerrado. O sistema subterrâneo espessado de V. grandiflora, uma espécie subarbustiva, é constituído pelo xilopódio e por várias raízes tuberosas. O xilopódio possui estrutura mista (radicular e caulinar e suas gemas são de origem axilar ou se originam a partir da proliferação do parênquima cortical. As raízes tuberosas produzidas por este órgão são adventícias e acumulam frutanos do tipo inulina, principalmente no parênquima cortical. Em V. brevifolia, uma espécie herbácea, o sistema subterrâneo espessado é constituído pela raiz primária cujas gemas são originadas a partir do periciclo proliferado. A ocorrência destes sistemas subterrâneos gemíferos, que armazenam compostos

  14. Comparative Anatomical Investigations on six Endemic Tanacetum (Asteraceae) Taxa from Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tekin, M.; Kartal, C.

    2016-01-01

    Tanacetum is one of the large genera, belonging to the Anthemideae tribe of Asteraceae family and has numerous medicinal plants and widely usage in folk medicine. In this study, anatomical features of six endemic species to Turkey viz. Tanacetum albipannosum, T. argenteum subsp. argenteum, T. cappadocicum, T. densum subsp. sivasicum, T. haussknechtii and T. heterotomum, were investigated for the first time. The specimens were collected from their natural habitats in Sivas province (Turkey). Transverse sections of root, stem, petiole and leaflet were observed under light microscope for various anatomical features. The results showed that, root included periderm in the outer. There were parenchymatous cortex, endodermis and pericycle under the periderm respectively. Primary xylem ridges were triarch in T. albipannosum, T. densum subsp. sivasicum, T. haussknechtii and T. heterotomum, pentarch in T. cappadocicum and hexarch in T. argenteum subsp. argenteum, and pith was filled with xylem elements. Stem was made up epidermis, parenchymatous cortex, endodermis, vascular bundles and parenchymatous pith from exterior to interior. T. heterotomum had a cavity formed by the disintegration of the cells in the center. The amphistomatic leaflets had a single layered epidermis with usually silvery or whitish tomentose indumentum and equifacial mesophyll. Stomata are anomocytic. There were significant difference among examined taxa in respect to contour of petiole, structure of cortex parenchyma and organization of vascular bundles. The anatomical characteristic features of petiole proved to be a useful tool for the taxonomic discrimination of the six studied taxa. (author)

  15. Phytochemical and Cytogenetic Characterization of Centaurea solstitialis L. (Asteraceae) from Croatia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carev, Ivana; Ruščić, Mirko; Skočibušić, Mirjana; Maravić, Ana; Siljak-Yakovlev, Sonja; Politeo, Olivera

    2017-02-01

    The cytogenetic characterization of Centaurea solstitialis L. (Asteraceae) showed a chromosome number of 2n = 16. Karyotype is composed by four pairs of metacentric, two pairs of submetacentric and two pairs of subtelocentric chromosomes. Physical mapping of two rDNA probes revealed two loci of 35S and one locus of 5S rRNA genes. Chromomycin fluorochrome banding revealed that all rDNA loci were GC rich. The genome size (2C-value) of 1.95 pg classes this species in the group of very small genomes. Chemical composition of C. solstitialis volatile oil (VO) from Croatia, studied with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry showed dominant components as it follows: hexadecanoic acid, α-linolenic acid, germacrene D and heptacosane. Antioxidant capacity, measured by ferric reducing power assay and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl methods, as well as inhibition of acetyl- and butyrylcholinesterase of VO was lower comparing to a standard solutions. Volatile oil tested with disc diffusion method showed good inhibitory potential against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli and all tested fungi: Candida albicans, Penicillium funiculosum and Aspergillus fumigatus. The microdilution method showed best activity against Chronobacter sakazakii and A. fumigatus. © 2017 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zurich, Switzerland.

  16. Embryology of Ageratum conyzoides L. and A. fastigiatum R.M. King & H. Rob. (Asteraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael de Oliveira Franca

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Ageratum has a complex circumscription, and recent studies have indicated its polyphyletism. The genus has been placed in the tribe Eupatorieae whose embryology is not fully known. Embryological data are conservative and important indicators of phylogenetic relationships and can improve family relationships. This study presents, for the first time in Eupatorieae, embryological data for Ageratum conyzoides and A. fastigiatum. Both species have common features of the family such as a unitegmic anatropous ovule, basal placentation, secretory tapetum, Polygonum megagametophyte, and Asterad embryogenesis. The data obtained reinforce the heterogeneity of the family embryology and show, for the first time, the anther wall development of the monocotyledonous type for Asteraceae. The species studied show also differences between themselves. A. conyzoides has bisporangiated and introrse anthers, conspicuous pappus, and cypselae with trichomes on the ribs, whereas A. fastigiatum has tetrasporangiate and latrorse anthers, pappus absent at maturity, and glabrous cypselae. The data presented support recent phylogenetic molecular studies, suggesting the replacement of A. fastigiatum to another genus along with Gyptidinae.

  17. Anti-inflammatory intestinal activity of Arctium lappa L. (Asteraceae) in TNBS colitis model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida, Ana Beatriz Albino; Sánchez-Hidalgo, Marina; Martín, Antonio Ramón; Luiz-Ferreira, Anderson; Trigo, José Roberto; Vilegas, Wagner; dos Santos, Lourdes Campaner; Souza-Brito, Alba Regina Monteiro; de la Lastra, Catalina Alarcón

    2013-03-07

    In Brazilian traditional medicine, Arctium lappa (Asteraceae), has been reported to relieve gastrointestinal symptoms. In the present study, we investigated the effects of the lactone sesquiterpene onopordopicrin enriched fraction (ONP fraction) from Arctium lappa in an experimental colitis model induced by 2,4,6 trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid and performed experiments to elucidate the underlying action mechanisms involved in that effect. ONP fraction (25 and 50 mg/kg/day) was orally administered 48, 24 and 1 h prior to the induction of colitis and 24 h after. The inflammatory response was assessed by gross appearance, myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) levels and a histological study of the lesions. We determined cyclooxygenase (COX)-1 and -2 protein expressions by western blotting and immunohistochemistry assays. TNBS group was characterized by increased colonic wall thickness, edema, diffuse inflammatory cell infiltration, increased MPO activity and TNF-α levels. On the contrary, ONP fraction (25 and 50 mg/kg) treatment significantly reduced the macroscopic inflammation scores (pArctium lappa exert marked protective effects in acute experimental colitis, confirming and justifying, at least in part, the popular use of this plant to treat gastrointestinal diseases. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Insecticide Activity of Ageratina jahnii and Ageratina pichinchensis (Asteraceae against Lutzomyia migonei (Diptera: Psychodidae

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    Lizzeth Torres

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Insects are mostly pathogens transmitters, thus the necessity of finding effective bioinsecticides to combat them. In the present investigation, the insecticide activity of Ageratina jahnii and Ageratina pichinchensis (Asteraceae essential oils, methanol, and aqueous extracts was evaluated against Lutzomyia migonei (Diptera: Psychodidae females, Leishmania transmitters, a wide distributed parasitosis in Latin America. Materials and Methods: All extracts were prepared by maceration at room temperature, and essential oils were obtained by hydrodistillation process. Females of L. migonei were used in the bioassays using the adulticide test in pots. Results: Essential oils from both assayed plant species showed 100% of L. migonei mortality at 48 h of exposure at the concentration of 10 mg/ml. A. jahnii essential oil exhibited the following values, LD50 = 0.39 mg/ml, LD90 = 1.57 mg/ml, LD95 = 2.31 mg/ml, and LD99 = 4.80 mg/ml while for A. pichinchensis essential oil values were LD50 = 0.31 mg/ml, LD90 = 0.99 mg/ml, LD95 = 1.38 mg/ml, and LD99 = 2.55 mg/ml. Conclusion: Higher toxicity was observed with A. pichinchensis essential oil against L. migonei, comparing to A. jahnii oil. Two new plant species are being reported, showing bioactive properties against common tropical disease vectors such as L. migonei, hence, opening possibilities to a more environmental friendly control.

  19. Isolation and structural elucidation of secondary metabolites of plants of the families asteraceae and urticaceae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villagra Quesada, E.

    2002-01-01

    A phytochemistry study of plant's species of the Asteraceae and Urticaceae family is proposed in order to isolate and to elucidate the structure of active principles; due to the fact that several studies have found that some of these families have compounds with anti-inflammatory activity, mainly lactonas sesquiterpenicas . The phytochemistry study was carried out through the application of chromatography techniques, for the separation and purification of the compounds. Includes chromatography of column, fine and liquid layer of high resolution. On the other hand, spectroscopic techniques were used for the elucidation, mainly of nuclear magnetic resonance (RMN) as much of one as of two dimensions. In this way, it was possible to isolate 14 compounds in Decachaeta thieleana and 10 in Phenax mexicanus, from which 6 correspond compounds of innovative structure. The comparison of the results obtained in Decachaeta thieleana (with previous studies) evidences that specimens, orphologically identical (the same species, but different locations), possess totally different compounds. This suggests that the studied specimens do not correspond to the same species. However, the determination of such a cause not only evade the objectives of this work but also the area of study of Chemistry [es

  20. Key processes for Cheirolophus (Asteraceae diversification on oceanic islands inferred from AFLP data.

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    Daniel Vitales

    Full Text Available The radiation of the genus Cheirolophus (Asteraceae in Macaronesia constitutes a spectacular case of rapid diversification on oceanic islands. Twenty species - nine of them included in the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species - have been described to date inhabiting the Madeiran and Canarian archipelagos. A previous phylogenetic study revealed that the diversification of Cheirolophus in Macaronesia started less than 2 Ma. As a result of such an explosive speciation process, limited phylogenetic resolution was reported, mainly due to the low variability of the employed molecular markers. In the present study, we used highly polymorphic AFLP markers to i evaluate species' boundaries, ii infer their evolutionary relationships and iii investigate the patterns of genetic diversity in relation to the potential processes likely involved in the radiation of Cheirolophus. One hundred and seventy-two individuals representing all Macaronesian Cheirolophus species were analysed using 249 AFLP loci. Our results suggest that geographic isolation played an important role in this radiation process. This was likely driven by the combination of poor gene flow capacity and a good ability for sporadic long-distance colonisations. In addition, we also found some traces of introgression and incipient ecological adaptation, which could have further enhanced the extraordinary diversification of Cheirolophus in Macaronesia. Last, we hypothesize that current threat categories assigned to Macaronesian Cheirolophus species do not reflect their respective evolutionary relevance, so future evaluations of their conservation status should take into account the results presented here.

  1. Aspectos de la biología reproductiva de Stevia rebaudiana (Asteraceae

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    Irene Caponio

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available El género SteviaCav. (Asteraceae presenta alrededor de 200 especies en el continente americano. Stevia rebaudiana (Bertoni Bertoni, originaria de Paraguay, es la única especie cultivada. Ha sido ampliamente estudiada desde el punto de vista químico, por los principios activos que poseen sus hojas. Sin embargo existe controversia respecto a su sistema reproductivo, ya que es considerada apomíctica obligada por algunos autores, mientras otros la consideran de reproducción sexual. A los efectos de clarificar esta cuestión se realizaron estudios de: megasporogénesis, megagametogénesis, fenología de la floración, viabilidad de polen y receptividad estigmática en tres ecotipos en condiciones de autopolinización y polinización cruzada. De acuerdo a los resultados obtenidos, las plantas analizadas se reproducen sexualmente y poseen un sistema de autoincompatibilidad que impide la autofertilización.

  2. The genus Pterocaulon (Asteraceae) - A review on traditional medicinal uses, chemical constituents and biological properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medeiros-Neves, Bruna; Teixeira, Helder Ferreira; von Poser, Gilsane Lino

    2018-06-15

    Species of the genus Pterocaulon (Asteraceae) are used in different parts of the world for mainly to treat skin and liver diseases, as well as disorders of the respiratory system, among others. This review aims to discuss the present state of the art concerning the ethnobotanical uses, secondary metabolites and biological effects of Pterocaulon species and their chemical components. The available information on the genus Pterocaulon was gathered from scientific databases (Web of Science, Pubmed, ScienceDirect, Scopus, ChemSpider, SciFinder ACS Publications, Wiley Online Library). Information was also obtained from local publications, M.Sc. and Ph.D. dissertations. All studies on the ethnobotany, phytochemistry, pharmacology and toxicology of the plants until December 2017 were included in this review. Approximately 40 coumarins and 30 flavonoids have been isolated from Pterocaulon species. Coumarins have been considered the chemotaxonomic markers in the genus and the most active components. Pharmacological studies carried out with extracts and isolated compounds revealed in vitro bioactivities that include antifungal, antiviral, and cytotoxicity. Most of the pharmacological investigations were not correlated with traditional uses of the plants. Pterocaulon species, a rich source of coumarins, have great ethnomedical potential. Nevertheless, further studies into the pharmacological activities are necessary since none of the purported effects of these plants was fully assessed. In-depth research regarding the toxicity are also required to ensure the safety of these medicinal plants. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Morpho-anatomy and ontogeny of the underground system of Chrysolaena simplex (Less. Dematt. (Asteraceae

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    Vanessa S. Santos

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of thickened underground systems in Asteraceae is widely reported in the literature. Given the great complexity of underground systems, which may originate from roots, stems, or both, morpho-anatomical analyses are essential to ensure the use of correct terminology. The goals of this study were to describe the morpho-anatomy and ontogeny, investigate the occurrence of secondary metabolites and evaluate the effects of seasonality on the underground system of Chrysolaena simplex (Less. Dematt. Samples were studied using standard protocols of plant anatomy, scanning electron microscopy, histochemical and phytochemical. The underground system of C. simplex was categorised as a rhizophore which started from cotyledonary node. In adult individuals, with rhizophores completely developed, the primary roots degenerated and adventitious radicular systems are formed. The buds in the subterranean portions promote the rhizophore growing, and form aerial stems when exposed to light. Lipophilic droplets were evident in the parenchymatous cells of the cortex and pith, endodermis and buds. Inulin-type fructans were observed in the stem axis and buds of the rhizophore. The presence of buds, secondary metabolites and the storage of fructans and lipids in the rhizophore can be seen as adaptive traits.

  4. Molecular phylogeny of Subtribe Artemisiinae (Asteraceae), including Artemisia and its allied and segregate genera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Linda E; Bates, Paul L; Evans, Timothy M; Unwin, Matthew M; Estes, James R

    2002-01-01

    Background Subtribe Artemisiinae of Tribe Anthemideae (Asteraceae) is composed of 18 largely Asian genera that include the sagebrushes and mugworts. The subtribe includes the large cosmopolitan, wind-pollinated genus Artemisia, as well as several smaller genera and Seriphidium, that altogether comprise the Artemisia-group. Circumscription and taxonomic boundaries of Artemisia and the placements of these small segregate genera is currently unresolved. Results We constructed a molecular phylogeny for the subtribe using the internal transcribed spacers (ITS) of nuclear ribosomal DNA analyzed with parsimony, likelihood, and Bayesian criteria. The resulting tree is comprised of three major clades that correspond to the radiate genera (e.g., Arctanthemum and Dendranthema), and two clades of Artemisia species. All three clades have allied and segregate genera embedded within each. Conclusions The data support a broad concept of Artemisia s.l. that includes Neopallasia, Crossostephium, Filifolium, Seriphidium, and Sphaeromeria. However, the phylogeny excludes Elachanthemum, Kaschgaria, and Stilnolepis from the Artemisia-group. Additionally, the monophyly of the four subgenera of Artemisia is also not supported, with the exception of subg. Dracunculus. Homogamous, discoid capitula appear to have arisen in parallel four to seven times, with the loss of ray florets. Thus capitular morphology is not a reliable taxonomic character, which traditionally has been one of the defining characters. PMID:12350234

  5. Polyphenolic-polysaccharide conjugates from plants of Rosaceae/Asteraceae family as potential radioprotectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zbikowska, Halina Malgorzata; Szejk, Magdalena; Saluk, Joanna; Pawlaczyk-Graja, Izabela; Gancarz, Roman; Olejnik, Alicja Klaudia

    2016-05-01

    Polyphenolic-polysaccharide macromolecular, water-soluble glycoconjugates, isolated from the selected medicinal plants of Rosaceae/Asteraceae family: from leaves of Fragaria vesca L., Rubus plicatus Whe. et N. E., and from flowering parts of Sanguisorba officinalis L., and Erigeron canadensis L., were investigated for their ability to protect proteins and lipids of human plasma against γ-radiation-induced oxidative damage. Treatment of plasma with plant conjugates (6, 30, 150 μg/ml) prior exposure to 100 Gy radiation resulted in a significant inhibition of lipid peroxidation, evaluated by TBARS levels; conjugates isolated from E. canadensis and R. plicatus and a reference flavonoid quercetin showed similar high potential (approx. 70% inhibition, at 6 μg/ml). The conjugates prevented radiation-induced oxidation of protein thiols and significantly improved plasma total antioxidant capacity, estimated with Ellman's reagent and ABTS(.+) assay, respectively. The results demonstrate by the first time a significant radioprotective capability of the polyphenolic-polysaccharide conjugates isolated from E. canadensis, R. plicatus, S. officinalis and to the less extent from F. vesca. The abilities of these substances to inhibit radiation-induced lipid peroxidation and thiol oxidation in plasma seems to be mediated, but not limited to ROS scavenging activity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Morpho-anatomy and ontogeny of the underground system of Chrysolaena simplex (Less.) Dematt. (Asteraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Vanessa S; Souza, Vinicius P; Vilhalva, Divina A A; Ferreira, Fernanda P S; Paula, José R; Rezende, Maria Helena

    2016-03-01

    The occurrence of thickened underground systems in Asteraceae is widely reported in the literature. Given the great complexity of underground systems, which may originate from roots, stems, or both, morpho-anatomical analyses are essential to ensure the use of correct terminology. The goals of this study were to describe the morpho-anatomy and ontogeny, investigate the occurrence of secondary metabolites and evaluate the effects of seasonality on the underground system of Chrysolaena simplex (Less.) Dematt. Samples were studied using standard protocols of plant anatomy, scanning electron microscopy, histochemical and phytochemical. The underground system of C. simplex was categorised as a rhizophore which started from cotyledonary node. In adult individuals, with rhizophores completely developed, the primary roots degenerated and adventitious radicular systems are formed. The buds in the subterranean portions promote the rhizophore growing, and form aerial stems when exposed to light. Lipophilic droplets were evident in the parenchymatous cells of the cortex and pith, endodermis and buds. Inulin-type fructans were observed in the stem axis and buds of the rhizophore. The presence of buds, secondary metabolites and the storage of fructans and lipids in the rhizophore can be seen as adaptive traits.

  7. Flower structure and developmental stages of the capitulum of Smallanthus sonchifolius (Asteraceae): reproductive implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibañez, M S; Mercado, M I; Coll Aráoz, M V; Zannier, M L; Grau, A; Ponessa, G I

    2017-03-01

    Yacon (Smallanthus sonchifolius, Asteraceae) is an ancient andean crop that has numerous dietary and medicinal properties. Morphological and anatomical features and developmental changes of the capitulum were studied. A ray floret is a pistillate, female flower, while a disc floret is a staminate male flower, and the former opens before the latter, being pseudanthium protogynous. The capitulum presents interesting attributes for pollinators such as flower structure, nectaries and pollenkitt. Gynoecial nectaries were found on undeveloped ovary in the disc floret, but not in the ray floret. Glandular trichomes were observed on the abaxial epidermis of corolla in the ray floret, but not in the disc floret. Capitulum development was divided into eight stages. Stigma receptivity varied with these stages. Pollen viability was low (15%). In accordance with low viability, pollen grains exhibit diverse sizes and shapes, reduction in length of spines, and abnormal protoplasm. Examination of ovary development in the ray floret showed that a mature ovule was formed, but fertilization did not occur. In advanced developmental stages, the capitulum showed proliferation of the endothelium, degeneration of the embryo sac, and all harvested cypselae had aborted seeds. Problems found in pollen viability and aborted cypselae could be the result of a history of vegetative propagation in the domestication process.

  8. Key processes for Cheirolophus (Asteraceae) diversification on oceanic islands inferred from AFLP data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitales, Daniel; García-Fernández, Alfredo; Pellicer, Jaume; Vallès, Joan; Santos-Guerra, Arnoldo; Cowan, Robyn S; Fay, Michael F; Hidalgo, Oriane; Garnatje, Teresa

    2014-01-01

    The radiation of the genus Cheirolophus (Asteraceae) in Macaronesia constitutes a spectacular case of rapid diversification on oceanic islands. Twenty species - nine of them included in the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species - have been described to date inhabiting the Madeiran and Canarian archipelagos. A previous phylogenetic study revealed that the diversification of Cheirolophus in Macaronesia started less than 2 Ma. As a result of such an explosive speciation process, limited phylogenetic resolution was reported, mainly due to the low variability of the employed molecular markers. In the present study, we used highly polymorphic AFLP markers to i) evaluate species' boundaries, ii) infer their evolutionary relationships and iii) investigate the patterns of genetic diversity in relation to the potential processes likely involved in the radiation of Cheirolophus. One hundred and seventy-two individuals representing all Macaronesian Cheirolophus species were analysed using 249 AFLP loci. Our results suggest that geographic isolation played an important role in this radiation process. This was likely driven by the combination of poor gene flow capacity and a good ability for sporadic long-distance colonisations. In addition, we also found some traces of introgression and incipient ecological adaptation, which could have further enhanced the extraordinary diversification of Cheirolophus in Macaronesia. Last, we hypothesize that current threat categories assigned to Macaronesian Cheirolophus species do not reflect their respective evolutionary relevance, so future evaluations of their conservation status should take into account the results presented here.

  9. Isolation and characterization of microsatellite markers for Dendranthema morifolium (Asteraceae) using next-generation sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, W-J; Ye, S; Du, L-H; Li, S-M; Miao, X; Shang, F-D

    2016-10-05

    Dendranthema morifolium (Asteraceae) is a perennial herbaceous plant native to China. A long history of artificial crossings may have resulted in complex genetic background and decreased genetic diversity. To protect the genetic diversity of D. morifolium and enabling breeding of new D. morifolium cultivars, we developed a set of molecular markers. We used pyrosequencing of an enriched microsatellite library by Roche 454 FLX+ platform, to isolate D. morifolium simple sequence repeats (SSRs). A total of 32,863 raw reads containing 2251 SSRs were obtained. To test the effectiveness of these SSR markers, we designed primers by randomly selecting 100 novel SSRs, and amplified them across 60 cultivars representing five different petal shape groups. Sixteen SSRs were polymorphic with the number of alleles ranging from 6 to 19, and their expected and observed heterozygosities ranging from 0.477 to 0.848, and 0.250 to 0.804, respectively. The polymorphism information content ranged from 0.459 to 0.854 and the inbreeding coefficient ranged from -0.119 to 0.759. An unweighted pair-group method arithmetic average analysis was performed to survey the phylogenetic relationships of these 60 cultivars and five clusters were identified. These markers can be used for investigating genetic relationships and identifying elite alleles through linkage and association analyses.

  10. Volatiles and Nonvolatiles in Flourensia campestris Griseb. (Asteraceae), How Much Do Capitate Glandular Trichomes Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piazza, Leonardo A; López, Daniela; Silva, Mariana P; López Rivilli, Marisa J; Tourn, Mónica G; Cantero, Juan J; Scopel, Ana L

    2018-03-01

    The distribution and ultrastructure of capitate glandular trichomes (GTs) in Flourensia species (Asteraceae) have been recently elucidated, but their metabolic activity and potential biological function remain unexplored. Selective nonvolatile metabolites from isolated GTs were strikingly similar to those found on leaf surfaces. The phytotoxic allelochemical sesquiterpene (-)-hamanasic acid A ((-)-HAA) was the major constituent (ca. 40%) in GTs. Although GTs are quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs)-accumulating species, glycine betaine was not found in GTs; it was only present in the leaf mesophyll. Two (-)-HAA accompanying surface secreted products: compounds 4-hydroxyacetophenone (piceol; 1) and 2-hydroxy-5-methoxyacetophenone (2), which were isolated and fully characterized (GC/MS, NMR), were present in the volatiles found in GTs. The essential oils of fresh leaves revealed ca. 33% monoterpenes, 26% hydrocarbon- and 30% oxygenated sesquiterpenes, most of them related to cadinene and bisabolene derivatives. Present results suggest a main role of GTs in determining the volatile and nonvolatile composition of F. campestris leaves. Based on the known activities of the compounds identified, it can be suggested that GTs in F. campestris would play key ecological functions in plant-pathogen and plant-plant interactions. In addition, the strikingly high contribution of compounds derived from cadinene and bisabolene pathways, highlights the potential of this species as a source of high-valued bioproducts. © 2018 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zurich, Switzerland.

  11. Polyphenolic content and antioxidant activity of some wild Saudi Arabian Asteraceae plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahat, Abdelaaty A; Ibrahim, Abeer Y; Elsaid, Mansour S

    2014-07-01

    To study the antioxidant properties of crude extract of different Asteraceae plants. The antioxidant properties of six extracts were evaluated using different antioxidant tests, including free radical scavenging, reducing power, metal chelation, superoxide anion radical scavenging, total antioxidant capacity and inhibition of lipid peroxidation activities. Picris cyanocarpa (P. cyanocarpa) and Anthemis deserti (A. deserti) had powerful antioxidant properties as radical scavenger, reducing agent and superoxide anion radical scavenger while Achillia fragrantissima (A. fragrantissima) and Artemissia monosperma (A. monosperma) were the most efficient as ion chelator (100% at 100, 200 and 400 μg/mL) A. fragrantissima and Rhantarium appoposum (R. appoposum) showed 100% inhibition on peroxidation of linoleic acid emulsion at 200 and 400 μg/mL, while butylatedhydroxy toluene and ascorbic acid showed 100 and 95% inhibition percentage at 400 μg/mL, respectively. Those various antioxidant activities were compared to standard antioxidants such as butylated hydroxyl toluene and ascorbic acid. In most tests P. cyanocarpa and A. deserti had powerful antioxidant properties as radical scavenger, reducing agent and superoxide anion radical scavenger. Copyright © 2014 Hainan Medical College. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Patterns of MADS-box gene expression mark flower-type development in Gerbera hybrida (Asteraceae

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    Teeri Teemu H

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The inflorescence of the cut-flower crop Gerbera hybrida (Asteraceae consists of two principal flower types, ray and disc, which form a tightly packed head, or capitulum. Despite great interest in plant morphological evolution and the tractability of the gerbera system, very little is known regarding genetic mechanisms involved in flower type specification. Here, we provide comparative staging of ray and disc flower development and microarray screening for differentially expressed genes, accomplished via microdissection of hundreds of coordinately developing flower primordia. Results Using a 9K gerbera cDNA microarray we identified a number of genes with putative specificity to individual flower types. Intrestingly, several of these encode homologs of MADS-box transcription factors otherwise known to regulate flower organ development. From these and previously obtained data, we hypothesize the functions and protein-protein interactions of several gerbera MADS-box factors. Conclusion Our RNA expression results suggest that flower-type specific MADS protein complexes may play a central role in differential development of ray and disc flowers across the gerbera capitulum, and that some commonality is shared with known protein functions in floral organ determination. These findings support the intriguing conjecture that the gerbera flowering head is more than a mere floral analog at the level of gene regulation.

  13. Anatomy and fructan distribution in vegetative organs of Dimerostemma vestitum (Asteraceae) from the campos rupestres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Taiza M; Vilhalva, Divina A A; Moraes, Moemy G; Figueiredo-Ribeiro, Rita de Cássia L

    2015-01-01

    Among the compounds stored by plants, several functions are assigned to fructans, such as source of energy and protection against drought and extreme temperatures. In the present study we analyzed the anatomy and distribution of fructans in vegetative organs of Dimerostemma vestitum (Asteraceae), an endemic species from the Brazilian campos rupestres. D. vestitumhas amphistomatic and pubescent leaves, with both glandular and non-glandular trichomes. In the basal aerial stem the medulla has two types of parenchyma, which differ from the apical portion. The xylopodium has mixed anatomical origin. Interestingly, although inulin-type fructans with high degree of polymerization were found in all analyzed organs except the leaves, the highest amount and maximum degree of polymerization were detected in the xylopodium. Inulin sphero-crystals were visualized under polarized light in the medulla and in the vascular tissues mainly in the central region of the xylopodium, which has abundant xylem parenchyma. Secretory structures accumulating several compounds but not inulin were identified within all the vegetative organs. The presence of these compounds, in addition to inulin, might be related to the strategies of plants to survive adverse conditions in a semi-arid region, affected seasonally by water restriction and frequently by fire.

  14. Bioactive Secondary Metabolites from Schizogyne sericea (Asteraceae) Endemic to Canary Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venditti, Alessandro; Bianco, Armandodoriano; Muscolo, Camilla; Zorzetto, Christian; Sánchez-Mateo, Candelaria C; Rabanal, Rosa M; Quassinti, Luana; Bramucci, Massimo; Damiano, Silvia; Iannarelli, Romilde; Lupidi, Giulio; Papa, Fabrizio; Petrelli, Dezemona; Vitali, Luca A; Vittori, Sauro; Maggi, Filippo

    2016-07-01

    Schizogyne sericea (Asteraceae) is a halophytic shrub endemic to the Canary Islands and traditionally employed as analgesic, astringent, anti-inflammatory, and vulnerary. A comprehensive phytochemical investigation was conducted on the flowering aerial parts by analyzing both essential oil constituents and polar compounds. The essential oil was dominated by p-cymene, with the noteworthy occurrence of β-pinene and thymol esters. From the EtOH extract, eight compounds were isolated and structurally elucidated. Essential oil, polar fractions, and isolates (2), (4), and (5) were separately in vitro assayed for antiproliferative activity on human tumor cell lines (A375, MDA-MB 231, and HCT116) by MTT assay, for antioxidant potential by DPPH, ABTS, and FRAP assays, and for antimicrobial activity by the agar disk diffusion method. Results revealed that essential oil and compounds 1 and 2 exert a strong inhibition on tumor cells, and in some cases, higher than that of cisplatin. Fractions containing thymol derivatives (1 and 2) and caffeoylquinic acid derivatives 4 and 5 displayed antioxidant activity comparable to that of Trolox, making S. sericea extract an interesting natural product with potential applications as preservative or in the treatment of diseases in which oxidative stress plays an important role. © 2016 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zürich.

  15. Cytonuclear Coordination Is Not Immediate upon Allopolyploid Formation in Tragopogon miscellus (Asteraceae) Allopolyploids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sehrish, Tina; Symonds, V. Vaughan; Soltis, Douglas E.; Soltis, Pamela S.; Tate, Jennifer A.

    2015-01-01

    Allopolyploids, formed by hybridization and chromosome doubling, face the immediate challenge of having duplicated nuclear genomes that interact with the haploid and maternally inherited cytoplasmic (plastid and mitochondrial) genomes. Most of our knowledge of the genomic consequences of allopolyploidy has focused on the fate of the duplicated nuclear genes without regard to their potential interactions with cytoplasmic genomes. As a step toward understanding the fates of nuclear-encoded subunits that are plastid-targeted, here we examine the retention and expression of the gene encoding the small subunit of Ribulose-1, 5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco; rbcS) in multiple populations of allotetraploid Tragopogon miscellus (Asteraceae). These polyploids formed recently (~80 years ago) and repeatedly from T. dubius and T. pratensis in the northwestern United States. Examination of 79 T. miscellus individuals from 10 natural populations, as well as 25 synthetic allotetraploids, including reciprocally formed plants, revealed a low percentage of naturally occurring individuals that show a bias in either gene (homeolog) loss (12%) or expression (16%), usually toward maintaining the maternal nuclear copy of rbcS. For individuals showing loss, seven retained the maternally derived rbcS homeolog only, while three had the paternally derived copy. All of the synthetic polyploid individuals examined (S0 and S1 generations) retained and expressed both parental homeologs. These results demonstrate that cytonuclear coordination does not happen immediately upon polyploid formation in Tragopogon miscellus. PMID:26646761

  16. Anatomy and fructan distribution in vegetative organs of Dimerostemma vestitum (Asteraceae from the campos rupestres

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    Taiza M. Silva

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Among the compounds stored by plants, several functions are assigned to fructans, such as source of energy and protection against drought and extreme temperatures. In the present study we analyzed the anatomy and distribution of fructans in vegetative organs of Dimerostemma vestitum (Asteraceae, an endemic species from the Brazilian campos rupestres. D. vestitum has amphistomatic and pubescent leaves, with both glandular and non-glandular trichomes. In the basal aerial stem the medulla has two types of parenchyma, which differ from the apical portion. The xylopodium has mixed anatomical origin. Interestingly, although inulin-type fructans with high degree of polymerization were found in all analyzed organs except the leaves, the highest amount and maximum degree of polymerization were detected in the xylopodium. Inulin sphero-crystals were visualized under polarized light in the medulla and in the vascular tissues mainly in the central region of the xylopodium, which has abundant xylem parenchyma. Secretory structures accumulating several compounds but not inulin were identified within all the vegetative organs. The presence of these compounds, in addition to inulin, might be related to the strategies of plants to survive adverse conditions in a semi-arid region, affected seasonally by water restriction and frequently by fire.

  17. Concomitant chemopreventive and antibacterial effects of some Iranian plants from the genus Cousinia (Asteraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Reza Shahverdi

    Full Text Available During the past several years, various species of Cousinia (Asteraceae have been authenticated in Iran. However, data concerning their biological activities remain limited. The main purpose of this research was to assess potential cytotoxicity and matrix metalloproteinases (MMP inhibitory effects of seven ethanol extracts of Cousinia using a cell line model (Fibrosarcoma-WEHI 164. We further investigated the antibacterial activity of these Cousinia ethanol extracts, using disk diffusion method. Among the ethanol extracts, the total extract of C. sulabadensis elicited significant inhibition of MMP activity in a dose-response fashion (49.2 ± 0.51, p < 0.05. However, this extract exhibited the lowest cytotoxicity effect at all tested concentrations. The concentration necessary to produce a 50% cell death rate (IC50 with C. shulabadensis was 304.5 ± 0.61 µg/mL. The calculated IC50 for cytotoxicity of the other Cousinia species extracts ranged between 18.4 ± 0.59 to 87.9 ± 0.58 µg/mL. The highest antibacterial activity was observed for the total extract of Cousinia phyllocephala. In conclusion, this study supports that Cousinia species display a remarkable inhibition of matrix metalloproteinases activity. The concomitant MMP-inhibitory and low cytotoxicity effects observed in C. sulabadensis might coin this extract for future potential anti-invasive herbal medicine studies.

  18. Antioxidant activities of extracts from Barkleyanthus salicifolius (Asteraceae) and Penstemon gentianoides (Scrophulariaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez, Mariana; Nieto, Antonio; Marin, Juan C; Keck, Anna-Sigrid; Jeffery, Elizabeth; Céspedes, Carlos L

    2005-07-27

    Various extracts of the aerial parts of Barkleyanthus salicifolius (Asteraceae) and Penstemon gentianoides (Scrophulariaceae) have been used in folk medicine to treat many ailments, particularly inflammation and migraine. Neither the bioactive components responsible nor the mechanisms involved have been evaluated. Here are reported antioxidant activities of their methanol, dichloromethane, and ethyl acetate extracts. Samples were evaluated for oxygen radical absorption capacity (ORAC), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging, and inhibition of the formation of thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS), a measure of lipid peroxidation. Antioxidant activities were strongly correlated with total polyphenol content. The most active extracts from P. gentianoides in scavenging DPPH radicals and inhibiting TBARS formation were the methanol extract (A) and a further ethyl acetate extract of this (E). Partition E was further divided into eight fractions, and both E and the fractions were compared for activity against butylated hydroxytoluene, quercetin, and tocopherol. Partition E and the most active fractions, 5 and 6, were found to have I(50) values of 14.1, 38.6, and 41.8 ppm, respectively, against DPPH and 18.5, 26.0, and 12.7 ppm, respectively, against TBARS formation. Consistent with this finding, partition E and fractions 4-6 had the greatest ORAC and FRAP values. These results show that these plants could be useful antioxidant sources.

  19. Recent assembly of the global herbaceous flora: evidence from the paper daisies (Asteraceae: Gnaphalieae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Ze-Long; Funk, Vicki A; Meng, Ying; Deng, Tao; Sun, Hang; Wen, Jun

    2016-03-01

    The global flora is thought to contain a large proportion of herbs, and understanding the general spatiotemporal processes that shaped the global distribution of these communities is one of the most difficult issues in biogeography. We explored patterns of world-wide biogeography in a species-rich herbaceous group, the paper daisy tribe Gnaphalieae (Asteraceae), based on the hitherto largest taxon sampling, a total of 835 terminal accessions representing 80% of the genera, and encompassing the global geographic range of the tribe, with nuclear internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and external transcribed spacer (ETS) sequences. Biogeographic analyses indicate that Gnaphalieae originated in southern Africa during the Oligocene, followed by repeated migrations into the rest of Africa and the Mediterranean region, with subsequent entries into other continents during various periods starting in the Miocene. Expansions in the late Miocene to Pliocene appear to have been the driving force that shaped the global distribution of the tribe as forests were progressively broken up by the mid-continent aridification and savannas and grasslands expanded into the interior of the major continents. This pattern of recent colonizations may explain the world-wide distribution of many other organisms in open ecosystems and it is highlighted here as an emerging pattern in the evolution of the global flora. © 2015 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  20. Anatomy and ultrastructure of floral nectary of lnula helenium L (Asteraceae

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    Aneta Sulborska

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Floral nectaries of Inula helenium L. only occurred in disc florets and were situated above the inferior ovary. The shape of the investigated glands (five-armed star with rounded tips and deep incisions - observed from above clearly differed from the shape of the nectaries of other Asteraceae, also the height of nectary was much lower (129 µm. The glandular tissue of the nectaries of elecampane was composed of a single-layered epidermis and 5--9 layers of secretory cells. Nectar was released through modified stomata, mainly arranged in the top part of the gland. The secretory cells were characterised by granular cytoplasm and the presence of a large, often lobate, cell nucleus. In the cytosol, numerous amoeboid plastids, mitochondria, Golgi bodies and ribosomes were present. In small vacuoles, myelin-like structures, fibrous material and vesicles with the content of substances which can be secretion, were observed. The plastid stroma showed different electron density and the presence of internal tubules and plastoglobules. Vesicular extensions forming bright zones were visible between the membranes of the nuclear envelope. Adjacent to the plasmalemma, as well as between the plasmalemma and the cell wall, secretory vesicles occurred, indicating the granulocrine mechanism of nectar secretion.

  1. Biotechnological potential of endophytic actinomycetes associated with Asteraceae plants: isolation, biodiversity and bioactivities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanvir, Rabia; Sajid, Imran; Hasnain, Shahida

    2014-04-01

    Endophytic actinomycetes from five Asteraceae plants were isolated and evaluated for their bioactivities. From Parthenium hysterophorus, Ageratum conyzoides, Sonchus oleraceus, Sonchus asper and Hieracium canadense, 42, 45, 90, 3, and 2 isolates, respectively, were obtained. Of the isolates, 86 (47.2 %) showed antimicrobial activity. Majority of the isolates were recovered from the roots (n = 127, 69.7 %). The dominant genus was Streptomyces (n = 96, 52.7 %), while Amycolatopsis, Pseudonocardia, Nocardia and Micromonospora were also recovered. Overall, 36 of the 86 isolates were significantly bioactivity while 18 (20.9 %) showed strong bioactivity. In total, 52.1 and 66.6 % showed potent cytotoxicity and antioxidant activities. The LC50 for 15 strains was <20 μg/ml. Compared to the ascorbate standard (EC50 0.34 μg/ml), all isolates gave impressive results with notable EC50 values of 0.65, 0.67, 0.74 and 0.79 μg/ml.

  2. Estudio de la propagación sexual del arboloco Montanoa quadrangularis Schultz Bipontianus Asteraceae

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    William Escobar-Torres

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Sexual propagation of arboloco Montanoa quadrangularis Schultz Bipontianus (Asteraceae. Objective. To develop sexual propagationmethodologies for Montanoa quadrangularis Schultz Bipontianus (arboloco. Materials and methods. Seeds were harvested from treesgrown at the Chilaca environmental station (Geoambiente Ltda. located in Pacho, Cundinamarca, Colombia. The study was carried out intwo phases: firstly, substrate effect on germination responses was evaluated in seedbed conditions. Substrates evaluated were: local soil,local soil mixed with worm humus, and peat. Additionally, two spatial arrangements were assessed: seeds sown at random and at 0.5 cmin depth. Secondly, in nursery conditions the effect of the substrates local soil, local soil mixed with worm humus and peat, as well as theeffect of developmental stages of the plants (with 2, 4, and 6 leaves on their further growth and development were evaluated. Results. Inseedbed conditions, the germination capacity was highly influenced by peat substrate (83.67% whereas in local soil the germinationcapacity was 40.83%. In nursery conditions, 6-leaf plants grown in local soil mixed with worm humus showed the best responses onparameters such as plant total length (9.51 cm, leaf area (36.69 cm2, and total dry weight (0.10 g. Conclusions. The type of substrateused in seedbed conditions influenced the germination capacity of M. quadrangularis seeds. The substrate and the developmental stage ofthe plant had a significant influence on the growth and development of arboloco plants.

  3. Home at Last II: Gerbera hieracioides (Kunth Zardini (Mutisieae, Asteraceae is really a Chaptalia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaodan Xu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Gerbera hieracioides (Kunth Zardini of the Gerbera-complex (Mutisieae, Asteraceae/Compositae is distributed in Ecuador and Peru. This perennial herb was first named as Onoseris hieracioides Kunth and was later recognised as Trichocline hieracioides (Kunth Ferreyra. Now it is generally treated as Gerbera hieracioides (Kunth Zardini but it has never been included in any section of Gerbera. In this study, the position of Gerbera hieracioides is assessed based on morphology and a molecular phylogeny that includes G. hieracioides and 28 other species from the Gerbera-complex. Morphologically, G. hieracioides bears leaves with the adaxial epidermal surface without stomates but with soft thin trichomes, bracteate scapes, trimorphic capitula and inner ray florets with the corolla shorter than the style. These characters suggest that the species is most closely related to Chaptalia rather than to Gerbera or Trichocline. Furthermore, the phylogenetic results based on two nuclear (ITS and ETS and two chloroplast (trnL–trnF and trnL–rpl32 sequences strongly support the placement of G. hieracioides nested within Chaptalia. As both morphological characters and the molecular phylogenetic results support the transfer of G. hieracioides to Chaptalia, this enigmatic taxon is recognised as Chaptalia hieracioides (Kunth X.-D. Xu & W. Zheng.

  4. Antimicrobial and antioxidative activity of various leaf extracts of Amphoricarpos vis. (Asteraceae taxa

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    Gavrilović Milan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The antimicrobial and antioxidative activities of diethyl ether, 80% methanol and 50% acetone extracts of the leaves of three Amphoricarpos taxa (Asteraceae; A. neumayerianus, A. autariatus ssp. autariatus and A. autariatus ssp. bertisceus from the Balkan Peninsula were investigated. The antimicrobial activity was determined by the broth microdilution assay against eight bacterial and eight fungal species. The in vitro antioxidative activity was assessed by the DPPH assay. The total phenolic and flavonoid contents were also determined. The most sensitive bacterial species were Bacillus cereus and Staphylococcus aureus. The best antibacterial potential was obtained for the methanol extract of A. neumayerianus, while the diethyl ether extract of this species showed the lowest effect. In general, the tested extracts showed higher activity than the commercial antibiotics streptomycin and ampicillin. Also, all micromycetes were sensitive to the tested extracts. The most sensitive was Trichoderma viride. The highest and lowest antifungal effect was determined in A. a. ssp. autariatus for the diethyl ether and acetone extracts, respectively. The highest total phenolic and flavonoid contents were determined in the methanol extract of A. a. autariatus. The best antioxidative activity was demonstrated by the methanol extract of A. a. ssp. autariatus as comparing to matching extracts from the other two taxa.

  5. Control of Three Stored−Product Beetles with Artemisia haussknechtii (Boiss (Asteraceae Essential Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Mehdi Hashemi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Fumigant toxicity of the essential oil of aerial parts from Artemisia haussknechtii (Boiss (Asteraceae was investigated against the cowpea weevil Callosobruchus maculatus (Fab., the rice weevil Sitophilus oryzae (L., and the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum (Herbst. Dry ground plants were subjected to hydro−distillation using a Clevenger−type apparatus and the chemical composition of the volatile oil was studied by gas chromatography−mass spectrometry (GC−MS. The major components of the oil were camphor (29.24%, 1, 8−cineol (27.62%, yomogi alcohol (5.23%, and camphene (4.80%. The essential oil in same concentrations was assayed against (1−7 days old adults of insect species and percentage mortality was recorded after 24, 48, and 72 h exposure times. LC50 values were varied between 19.84 and 103.59 μL L-1 air, depending on insect species and exposure time. Callosobruchus maculatus was more susceptible than other species. These results suggested that A. haussknechtii oil might have potential as a control agent against C. maculatus, S. oryzae and T. castaneum.

  6. Caracterização morfoanatômica de Ageratum fastigiatum (Asteraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glauciemar Del-Vechio-Vieira

    Full Text Available Ageratum fastigiatum (Gardn. R. M. King et H. Rob. (Asteraceae, conhecido como "matapasto", é uma planta usada na medicina popular como cicatrizante e antimicrobiano. O objetivo deste trabalho foi realizar caracterização morfoanatômica da folha, dos ramos e da raiz de A. fastigiatum. Secções transversais e paradérmicas, coradas com safranina/azul de astra e azul de toluidina foram analisadas ao microscópio. As folhas são alternas ou fasciculadas; a inflorescência é constituída de capítulos; as flores com corola lilás; ausência de pápus. A raiz apresenta crescimento secundário na zona de ramificação com estruturas secretoras. O caule possui epiderme uniestratificada, estômatos, tricomas tectores simples e tricomas glandulares capitados. O pecíolo exibe contorno côncavo-convexo e a epiderme é unisseriada. A lâmina foliar é anfiestomática e o mesófilo dorsiventral. A epiderme possui células de contorno sinuoso e os estômatos são do tipo anomocítico. Os caracteres morfoanatômicos permitiram estabelecer parâmetros para identificação do A. fastigiatum.

  7. Insecticide Activity of Ageratina jahnii and Ageratina pichinchensis (Asteraceae) against Lutzomyia migonei (Diptera: Psychodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Lizzeth; Rojas, Janne; Rondón, Maritza; Morales, Antonio; Nieves, Elsa

    2017-01-01

    Insects are mostly pathogens transmitters, thus the necessity of finding effective bioinsecticides to combat them. In the present investigation, the insecticide activity of Ageratina jahnii and Ageratina pichinchensis (Asteraceae) essential oils, methanol, and aqueous extracts was evaluated against Lutzomyia migonei (Diptera: Psychodidae) females, Leishmania transmitters, a wide distributed parasitosis in Latin America. All extracts were prepared by maceration at room temperature, and essential oils were obtained by hydrodistillation process. Females of L. migonei were used in the bioassays using the adulticide test in pots. Essential oils from both assayed plant species showed 100% of L. migonei mortality at 48 h of exposure at the concentration of 10 mg/ml. A. jahnii essential oil exhibited the following values, LD 50 = 0.39 mg/ml, LD 90 = 1.57 mg/ml, LD 95 = 2.31 mg/ml, and LD 99 = 4.80 mg/ml while for A. pichinchensis essential oil values were LD 50 = 0.31 mg/ml, LD 90 = 0.99 mg/ml, LD 95 = 1.38 mg/ml, and LD 99 = 2.55 mg/ml. Higher toxicity was observed with A. pichinchensis essential oil against L. migonei , comparing to A. jahnii oil. Two new plant species are being reported, showing bioactive properties against common tropical disease vectors such as L. migonei , hence, opening possibilities to a more environmental friendly control.

  8. Analysis of Mycosporine-Like Amino Acids in Selected Algae and Cyanobacteria by Hydrophilic Interaction Liquid Chromatography and a Novel MAA from the Red Alga Catenella repens

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    Anja Hartmann

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs, a group of small secondary metabolites found in algae, cyanobacteria, lichens and fungi, have become ecologically and pharmacologically relevant because of their pronounced UV-absorbing and photo-protective potential. Their analytical characterization is generally achieved by reversed phase HPLC and the compounds are often quantified based on molar extinction coefficients. As an alternative approach, in our study a fully validated hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC method is presented. It enables the precise quantification of several analytes with adequate retention times in a single run, and can be coupled directly to MS. Excellent linear correlation coefficients (R2 > 0.9991 were obtained, with limit of detection (LOD values ranging from 0.16 to 0.43 µg/mL. Furthermore, the assay was found to be accurate (recovery rates from 89.8% to 104.1% and precise (intra-day precision: 5.6%, inter-day precision ≤6.6%. Several algae were assayed for their content of known MAAs like porphyra-334, shinorine, and palythine. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS data indicated a novel compound in some of them, which could be isolated from the marine species Catenella repens and structurally elucidated by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR as (E-3-hydroxy-2-((5-hydroxy-5-(hydroxymethyl-2-methoxy-3-((2-sulfoethylaminocyclohex-2-en-1-ylideneamino propanoic acid, a novel MAA called catenelline.

  9. Arbuscular mycorrhiza enhanced arsenic resistance of both white clover (Trifolium repens Linn.) and ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) plants in an arsenic-contaminated soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong Yan; Zhu Yongguan; Smith, F. Andrew; Wang Youshan; Chen Baodong

    2008-01-01

    In a compartmented cultivation system, white clover (Trifolium repens Linn.) and ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.), with their roots freely intermingled, or separated by 37 μm nylon mesh or plastic board, were grown together in an arsenic (As) contaminated soil. The influence of AM inoculation on plant growth, As uptake, phosphorus (P) nutrition, and plant competitions were investigated. Results showed that both plant species highly depended on mycorrhizas for surviving the As contamination. Mycorrhizal inoculation substantially improved plant P nutrition, and in contrast markedly decreased root to shoot As translocation and shoot As concentrations. It also showed that mycorrhizas affected the competition between the two co-existing plant species, preferentially benefiting the clover plants in term of nutrient acquisition and biomass production. Based on the present study, the role of AM fungi in plant adaptation to As contamination, and their potential use for ecological restoration of As contaminated soils are discussed. - Both white clover and ryegrass highly depend on the mycorrhizal associations for surviving heavy arsenic contamination

  10. Effect of Water Extract Originated from Different Part of Russian Knapweed (Acroptilon repens L. on Growth of Purslane (Portulaca oleracea L.

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    Alireza PIRZAD

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate probable allelopathic effect of water extract originated from different parts of russian knapweed (Acroptilon repens L. on growth of purslane (Portulaca oleracea L., a factorial experiment was conducted based on randomized complete block design with three replications at greenhouse condition in 2011. Treatments were water extract concentrations (0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 percent obtained from different part of russian knapweed (aerial part, flower and root. Results showed the significant effect of extract type on seedling length, and extract concentration on shoot length, root length and seedling length. Interaction effect between extract type and concentration on the ratio of root/shoot length, seedling fresh weight, seedling dry weight and germination percentage was significant, too. Means comparison indicated that the longest root (3.55 cm, shoot (4.65 cm and seedling (8.20 cm were obtained from control treatment, reducing with higher concentration of extract. The longest shoot (6.95 cm belonged to extract originated from russian knapweed flowers. The highest ratio of root/shoot length (0.73, seedling fresh weight (0.61g and seedling dry weight (0.044 g belonged to control treatment. In general, increasing of extract concentration caused in reduction of germination and seedling traits. Meanwhile, extracts of aerial part had more sever reducing effect than root and flower extracts.

  11. Analysis of Mycosporine-Like Amino Acids in Selected Algae and Cyanobacteria by Hydrophilic Interaction Liquid Chromatography and a Novel MAA from the Red Alga Catenella repens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Anja; Becker, Kathrin; Karsten, Ulf; Remias, Daniel; Ganzera, Markus

    2015-01-01

    Mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs), a group of small secondary metabolites found in algae, cyanobacteria, lichens and fungi, have become ecologically and pharmacologically relevant because of their pronounced UV-absorbing and photo-protective potential. Their analytical characterization is generally achieved by reversed phase HPLC and the compounds are often quantified based on molar extinction coefficients. As an alternative approach, in our study a fully validated hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) method is presented. It enables the precise quantification of several analytes with adequate retention times in a single run, and can be coupled directly to MS. Excellent linear correlation coefficients (R2 > 0.9991) were obtained, with limit of detection (LOD) values ranging from 0.16 to 0.43 µg/mL. Furthermore, the assay was found to be accurate (recovery rates from 89.8% to 104.1%) and precise (intra-day precision: 5.6%, inter-day precision ≤6.6%). Several algae were assayed for their content of known MAAs like porphyra-334, shinorine, and palythine. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) data indicated a novel compound in some of them, which could be isolated from the marine species Catenella repens and structurally elucidated by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) as (E)-3-hydroxy-2-((5-hydroxy-5-(hydroxymethyl)-2-methoxy-3-((2-sulfoethyl)amino)cyclohex-2-en-1-ylidene)amino) propanoic acid, a novel MAA called catenelline. PMID:26473886

  12. Influence of fly ash aided phytostabilisation of Pb, Cd and Zn highly contaminated soils on Lolium perenne and Trifolium repens metal transfer and physiological stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopareva-Pohu, Alena; Verdin, Anthony; Garcon, Guillaume; Lounes-Hadj Sahraoui, Anissa; Pourrut, Bertrand; Debiane, Djouher; Waterlot, Christophe; Laruelle, Frederic

    2011-01-01

    Due to anthropogenic activities, large extends of soils are highly contaminated by Metal Trace Element (MTE). Aided phytostabilisation aims to establish a vegetation cover in order to promote in situ immobilisation of trace elements by combining the use of metal-tolerant plants and inexpensive mineral or organic soil amendments. Eight years after Coal Fly Ash (CFA) soil amendment, MTE bioavailability and uptake by two plants, Lolium perenne and Trifolium repens, were evaluated, as some biological markers reflecting physiological stress. Results showed that the two plant species under study were suitable to reduce the mobility and the availability of these elements. Moreover, the plant growth was better on CFA amended MTE-contaminated soils, and the plant sensitivity to MTE-induced physiological stress, as studied through photosynthetic pigment contents and oxidative damage was lower or similar. In conclusion, these results supported the usefulness of aided phytostabilisation of MTE-highly contaminated soils. - Highlights: → Aided phytostabilisation aims to establish a vegetation cover in order to promote immobilisation of MTE. → 8 years after the soil amendments, a pot culture study was carried out in greenhouse conditions. → MTE bioavailability and uptake by the two plants was drastically decreased with amendments. → Our results support the usefulness of aided phytostabilisation of MTE-highly contaminated soils. → CFA addition contributed to the reduction of the MTE mobility and availability for the plants. - Efficiency of Coal Fly Ash amendment for phytostabilisation of Pb, Cd and Zn in MTE-highly contaminated soils.

  13. Arbuscular mycorrhiza enhanced arsenic resistance of both white clover (Trifolium repens Linn.) and ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) plants in an arsenic-contaminated soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong Yan; Zhu Yongguan [Department of Soil Environmental Science, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 18 Shuangqing Road, Beijing 100085 (China); Smith, F. Andrew [Soil and Land Systems, School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Waite Campus, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA 5005 (Australia); Wang Youshan [Institute of Plant Nutrition and Resources, Beijing Academy of Agriculture and Forestry, Beijing 100089 (China); Chen Baodong [Department of Soil Environmental Science, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 18 Shuangqing Road, Beijing 100085 (China)], E-mail: bdchen@rcees.ac.cn

    2008-09-15

    In a compartmented cultivation system, white clover (Trifolium repens Linn.) and ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.), with their roots freely intermingled, or separated by 37 {mu}m nylon mesh or plastic board, were grown together in an arsenic (As) contaminated soil. The influence of AM inoculation on plant growth, As uptake, phosphorus (P) nutrition, and plant competitions were investigated. Results showed that both plant species highly depended on mycorrhizas for surviving the As contamination. Mycorrhizal inoculation substantially improved plant P nutrition, and in contrast markedly decreased root to shoot As translocation and shoot As concentrations. It also showed that mycorrhizas affected the competition between the two co-existing plant species, preferentially benefiting the clover plants in term of nutrient acquisition and biomass production. Based on the present study, the role of AM fungi in plant adaptation to As contamination, and their potential use for ecological restoration of As contaminated soils are discussed. - Both white clover and ryegrass highly depend on the mycorrhizal associations for surviving heavy arsenic contamination.

  14. Seasonal dynamics in arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal colonization and spore numbers in the rhizosphere of dactylis glomerata l. and trifolium repens L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xin, G.; Ye, S.; Wang, Y.; Wu, E.; Sugawara, K.

    2012-01-01

    The seasonal dynamics in the colonization of the rhizosphere of orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.) and white clover (Trifolium repens L.) pastures by arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi and the production of spores in an artifical Japanese grassland was investigated over 12 months (between December 2001 and December 2002). The results showed that the AM fungal colonization fluctuated seasonally in the rhizosphere of both pastures. The total AM fungal colonization of the two pastures decreased during winter, then increased from March to June as the pastures grew, but slightly decreased again in July and August, and again followed an increase in September. There was significant difference of the colonization by arbuscules and vesicles between the two pastures ( p <0.05). Besides, the vesicular colonization of orchardgrass was higher than that of white clover, but the opposite trend was observed for arbuscular colonization. Similarly, the numbers of AM fungal spores in the pastures varied throughout the year, decreasing from spring to summer, then slowly increasing in late summer, reaching peak levels in winter. There is significant correlation between the frequency of spores in the rhizosphere soil and both soil temperature and pH. (author)

  15. Discovery of germacrene A synthases in Barnadesia spinosa: The first committed step in sesquiterpene lactone biosynthesis in the basal member of the Asteraceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Trinh-Don; Faraldos, Juan A; Vardakou, Maria; Salmon, Melissa; O'Maille, Paul E; Ro, Dae-Kyun

    2016-10-28

    The Andes-endemic Barnadesioideae lineage is the oldest surviving and phylogenetically basal subfamily of the Asteraceae (Compositae), a prolific group of flowering plants with world-wide distribution (∼24,000 species) marked by a rich diversity of sesquiterpene lactones (STLs). Intriguingly, there is no evidence that members of the Barnadesioideae produce STLs, specialized metabolites thought to have contributed to the adaptive success of the Asteraceae family outside South America. The biosynthesis of STLs requires the intimate expression and functional integration of germacrene A synthase (GAS) and germacrene A oxidase (GAO) to sequentially cyclize and oxidize farnesyl diphosphate into the advanced intermediate germacrene A acid leading to diverse STLs. Our previous discovery of GAO activity conserved across all major subfamilies of Asteraceae, including the phylogenetically basal lineage of Barnadesioideae, prompted further investigation of the presence of the gateway GAS in Barnadesioideae. Herein we isolated two terpene synthases (BsGAS1/BsGAS2) from the basal Barnadesia spinosa (Barnadesioideae) that displayed robust GAS activity when reconstituted in yeast and characterized in vitro. Despite the apparent lack of STLs in the Barnadesioideae, this work unambiguously confirms the presence of GAS in the basal genera of the Asteraceae. Phylogenetic analysis reveals that the two BsGASs fall into two distinct clades of the Asteraceae's GASs, and BsGAS1 clade is only retained in the evolutionary closer Cichorioideae subfamily, implicating BsGAS2 is likely the ancestral base of most GASs found in the lineages outside the Barnadesioideae. Taken together, these results show the enzymatic capacities of GAS and GAO emerged prior to the subsequent radiation of STL-producing Asteraceae subfamilies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Selective advantage of ray florets in Scalesia affinis and S. pedunculata (Asteraceae), two endemic species from the Galápagos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lene Rostgaard; Philipp, Marianne; Siegismund, Hans R.

    2002-01-01

    The presence of neuter ray florets in species within Asteraceae is generally believed to increase pollinator attraction. In the endemic Galápagos genus Scalesia (Asteraceae) a natural variation in the presence/absence of neuter ray florets is found. To evaluate whether the presence of ray florets...... plays a selective role on female reproductive success we chose two species of Scalesia, Scalesia affinis that carries ray florets and S. pedunculata that is rayless. On Santa Cruz Island capitula of S. pedunculata were equipped with fake ray florets while others were untouched. On Isabela Island ray...

  17. Functional diversification of duplicated CYC2 clade genes in regulation of inflorescence development in Gerbera hybrida (Asteraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juntheikki-Palovaara, Inka; Tähtiharju, Sari; Lan, Tianying; Broholm, Suvi K; Rijpkema, Anneke S; Ruonala, Raili; Kale, Liga; Albert, Victor A; Teeri, Teemu H; Elomaa, Paula

    2014-09-01

    The complex inflorescences (capitula) of Asteraceae consist of different types of flowers. In Gerbera hybrida (gerbera), the peripheral ray flowers are bilaterally symmetrical and lack functional stamens while the central disc flowers are more radially symmetrical and hermaphroditic. Proteins of the CYC2 subclade of the CYC/TB1-like TCP domain transcription factors have been recruited several times independently for parallel evolution of bilaterally symmetrical flowers in various angiosperm plant lineages, and have also been shown to regulate flower-type identity in Asteraceae. The CYC2 subclade genes in gerbera show largely overlapping gene expression patterns. At the level of single flowers, their expression domain in petals shows a spatial shift from the dorsal pattern known so far in species with bilaterally symmetrical flowers, suggesting that this change in expression may have evolved after the origin of Asteraceae. Functional analysis indicates that GhCYC2, GhCYC3 and GhCYC4 mediate positional information at the proximal-distal axis of the inflorescence, leading to differentiation of ray flowers, but that they also regulate ray flower petal growth by affecting cell proliferation until the final size and shape of the petals is reached. Moreover, our data show functional diversification for the GhCYC5 gene. Ectopic activation of GhCYC5 increases flower density in the inflorescence, suggesting that GhCYC5 may promote the flower initiation rate during expansion of the capitulum. Our data thus indicate that modification of the ancestral network of TCP factors has, through gene duplications, led to the establishment of new expression domains and to functional diversification. © 2014 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Self-organizing maps of molecular descriptors for sesquiterpene lactones and their application to the chemotaxonomy of the Asteraceae family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scotti, Marcus T; Emerenciano, Vicente; Ferreira, Marcelo J P; Scotti, Luciana; Stefani, Ricardo; da Silva, Marcelo S; Mendonça Junior, Francisco Jaime B

    2012-04-20

    The Asteraceae, one of the largest families among angiosperms, is chemically characterised by the production of sesquiterpene lactones (SLs). A total of 1,111 SLs, which were extracted from 658 species, 161 genera, 63 subtribes and 15 tribes of Asteraceae, were represented and registered in two dimensions in the SISTEMATX, an in-house software system, and were associated with their botanical sources. The respective 11 block of descriptors: Constitutional, Functional groups, BCUT, Atom-centred, 2D autocorrelations, Topological, Geometrical, RDF, 3D-MoRSE, GETAWAY and WHIM were used as input data to separate the botanical occurrences through self-organising maps. Maps that were generated with each descriptor divided the Asteraceae tribes, with total index values between 66.7% and 83.6%. The analysis of the results shows evident similarities among the Heliantheae, Helenieae and Eupatorieae tribes as well as between the Anthemideae and Inuleae tribes. Those observations are in agreement with systematic classifications that were proposed by Bremer, which use mainly morphological and molecular data, therefore chemical markers partially corroborate with these classifications. The results demonstrate that the atom-centred and RDF descriptors can be used as a tool for taxonomic classification in low hierarchical levels, such as tribes. Descriptors obtained through fragments or by the two-dimensional representation of the SL structures were sufficient to obtain significant results, and better results were not achieved by using descriptors derived from three-dimensional representations of SLs. Such models based on physico-chemical properties can project new design SLs, similar structures from literature or even unreported structures in two-dimensional chemical space. Therefore, the generated SOMs can predict the most probable tribe where a biologically active molecule can be found according Bremer classification.

  19. Novel anthraquinone derivatives produced by Phoma sorghina, an endophyte found in association with the medicinal plant Tithonia diversifolia (Asteraceae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borges, Warley de Souza; Pupo, Monica Tallarico

    2006-01-01

    Three known anthraquinones (1,7-dihydroxy-3-methyl-9,10-anthraquinone, 1,6-dihydroxy- 3-methyl-9,10-anthraquinone and 1-hydroxy-3-methyl-9,10-anthraquinone), one new anthraquinone (1,7-dihydroxy-3-hydroxymethyl-9,10-anthraquinone), and two new hexahydro anthraquinone derivatives, dendryols E and F, were isolated from the culture of the endophytic fungus Phoma sorghina, found in association with Tithonia diversifolia (Asteraceae). Their structures were identified on the basis of spectroscopic data, mainly 1D and 2D NMR. (author)

  20. Novel anthraquinone derivatives produced by Phoma sorghina, an endophyte found in association with the medicinal plant Tithonia diversifolia (Asteraceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borges, Warley de Souza; Pupo, Monica Tallarico [Sao Paulo Univ., Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas]. E-mail: mtpupo@fcfrp.usp.br

    2006-09-15

    Three known anthraquinones (1,7-dihydroxy-3-methyl-9,10-anthraquinone, 1,6-dihydroxy- 3-methyl-9,10-anthraquinone and 1-hydroxy-3-methyl-9,10-anthraquinone), one new anthraquinone (1,7-dihydroxy-3-hydroxymethyl-9,10-anthraquinone), and two new hexahydro anthraquinone derivatives, dendryols E and F, were isolated from the culture of the endophytic fungus Phoma sorghina, found in association with Tithonia diversifolia (Asteraceae). Their structures were identified on the basis of spectroscopic data, mainly 1D and 2D NMR. (author)

  1. Morphogenesis of galls induced by Baccharopelma dracunculifoliae (Hemiptera: Psyllidae on Baccharis dracunculifolia (Asteraceae leaves

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    M. Arduin

    Full Text Available The commonest insect gall on Baccharis dracunculifolia (Asteraceae leaves is induced by Baccharopelma dracunculifoliae (Hemiptera, Psyllidae. The gall-inducing insect attacks young leaves in both the unfolded and the fully expanded stages. Four developmental phases were observed in this type of gall: 1 A folding phase, during which the leaf lamina folded upward alongside the midrib and the edges of the upper portion of the leaf approached each other, forming a longitudinal slit. A single chamber was formed on the adaxial surface of the leaf; 2 A swelling phase, in which the folded leaf tissues thickened and the edges of the leaf drew closer together, narrowing the slit. In this phase the gall matured, turning succulent, fusiform and pale green. The single nymphal chamber was lined with white wax and was able to house from one to several nymphs; 3 A dehiscence phase, characterized by the opening of the slit to release inducers; and 4 A senescence phase, when the gall turned dark and dry. The dermal system of the mature gall was composed of a single-layered epidermis. The mesophyll was swollen, and the swelling was due mainly to hyperplasia of the parenchyma. The vascular tissues along the midrib vein were conspicuous and the perivascular fibers resembled parenchymal cells. The hypertrophied secretory cavities contained low lipophylic content. This gall does not form nutritive tissue, but salivary sheaths left by the inducers were observed near the parenchyma, vascular bundles and secretory cavities. This study complements our current knowledge of gall biology and sheds further light on the plasticity of plant tissues stimulated by biotic factors.

  2. Effects of origin, seasons and storage under different temperatures on germination of Senecio vulgaris (Asteraceae) seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndihokubwayo, Noel; Nguyen, Viet-Thang; Cheng, Dandan

    2016-01-01

    Invasive plants colonize new environments, become pests and cause biodiversity loss, economic loss and health damage. Senecio vulgaris L. (Common groundsel, Asteraceae), a widely distributing cosmopolitan weed in the temperate area, is reported with large populations in the north-eastern and south-western part, but not in southern, central, or north-western parts of China. We studied the germination behavior of S. vulgaris to explain the distribution and the biological invasion of this species in China. We used seeds originating from six native and six invasive populations to conduct germination experiments in a climate chamber and under outdoor condition. When incubated in a climate chamber (15 °C), seeds from the majority of the populations showed >90% germination percentage (GP) and the GP was equal for seeds with a native and invasive origin. The mean germination time (MGT) was significantly different among the populations. Under outdoor conditions, significant effects of origin, storage conditions (stored at 4 °C or ambient room temperature, ca. 27 °C) and seasons (in summer or autumn) were observed on the GP while the MGT was only affected by the season. In autumn, the GP (38.6%) was higher and the MGT was slightly longer than that in summer. In autumn, seeds stored at 4 °C showed higher GP than those stored at ambient room temperature (ca.27 °C), and seeds from invasive populations revealed higher GP than those from native populations. The results implied that the high temperature in summer has a negative impact on the germination and might cause viability loss or secondary dormancy to S. vulgaris seeds. Our study offers a clue to exploring what factor limits the distribution of S. vulgaris in China by explaining why, in the cities in South-East China and central China such as Wuhan, S. vulgaris cannot establish natural and viable populations.

  3. ent-Pimarane and ent-Kaurane Diterpenes from Aldama discolor (Asteraceae and Their Antiprotozoal Activity

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    Mauro S. Nogueira

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Aldama discolor (syn.Viguiera discolor is an endemic Asteraceae from the Brazilian “Cerrado”, which has not previously been investigated for its chemical constituents and biological activity. Diterpenes are common secondary metabolites found in Aldama species, some of which have been reported to present potential antiprotozoal and antimicrobial activities. In this study, the known ent-3-α-hydroxy-kaur-16-en-18-ol (1, as well as three new diterpenes, namely, ent-7-oxo-pimara-8,15-diene-18-ol (2, ent-2S,4S-2-19-epoxy-pimara-8(3,15-diene-7β-ol (3 and ent-7-oxo-pimara-8,15-diene-3β-ol (4, were isolated from the dichloromethane extract of A. discolor leaves and identified by means of MS and NMR. The compounds were assayed in vitro against Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense, T. cruzi and Leishmania donovani, Plasmodium falciparum and also tested for cytotoxicity against mammalian cells (L6 cell line. The ent-kaurane 1 showed significant in vitro activity against both P. falciparum (IC 50 = 3.5 μ M and L. donovani (IC 50 = 2.5 μ M and ent-pimarane 2 against P. falciparum (IC 50 = 3.8 μ M. Both compounds returned high selectivity indices (SI >10 in comparison with L6 cells, which makes them interesting candidates for in vivo tests. In addition to the diterpenes, the sesquiterpene lactone budlein A (5, which has been reported to possess a strong anti-T. b. rhodesiense activity, was identified as major compound in the A. discolor extract and explains its high activity against this parasite (100% growth inhibition at 2 μ g/mL.

  4. Phylogeography and disjunct distribution in Lychnophora ericoides (Asteraceae), an endangered cerrado shrub species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collevatti, Rosane Garcia; Rabelo, Suelen Gonçalves; Vieira, Roberto F

    2009-09-01

    Lychnophora ericoides (Asteraceae) presents disjunct geographical distribution in cerrado rupestre in the south-east and central Brazil. The phylogeography of the species was investigated to understand the origin of the disjunct geographical distribution. Populations in the south and centre of Serra do Espinhaço, south-east Brazil and on ten other localities in Federal District and Goiás in central Brazil were sampled. Analyses were based on the polymorphisms at chloroplast (trnL intron and psbA-trnH intergenic spacer) and nuclear (ITS nrDNA) genomes. From 12 populations, 192 individuals were sequenced. Network analysis, AMOVA and the Mantel test were performed to understand the relationships among haplotypes and population genetic structure. To understand better the origin of disjunct distribution, demographic parameters and time to most recent common ancestor (T(MRCA)) were estimated using coalescent analyses. A remarkable differentiation between populations from the south-east and central Brazil was found and no haplotype was shared between these two regions. No significant effect of isolation by distance was detected. Coalescent analyses showed that some populations are shrinking and others are expanding and that gene flow between populations from the south-east and central Brazil was probably negligible. The results strongly support that the disjunct distribution of L. ericoides may represent a climatic relict and that long-distance gene flow is unlikely. With an estimated time to most recent common ancestor (T(MRCA)) dated from approx. 790,655 +/- 36,551 years bp (chloroplast) and approx. 623,555 +/- 55,769 years bp (ITS), it was hypothesized that the disjunct distribution may be a consequence of an expansion of the geographical distribution favoured by the drier and colder conditions that prevailed in much of Brazil during the Kansan glaciation, followed by the retraction of the distribution due to the extinction of populations in some areas as climate

  5. Atividades antiúlcera e antioxidante Baccharis trimera (Less DC (Asteraceae

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    Larissa Funabashi de Toledo Dias

    Full Text Available A "carqueja", Baccharis trimera (Less DC (Asteraceae, é uma espécie vegetal característica de regiões tropicais, muito utilizada na medicina popular como antiinflamatória, hipoglicemiante e em tratamento de problemas digestivos. A avaliação da atividade antiúlcera do extrato bruto liofilizado e do extrato liofilizado da "resina" (porção que durante a concentração dos extratos ficava depositada no fundo do recipiente com aspecto viscoso e pegajoso foi realizada através de indução aguda por etanol acidificado. O extrato bruto liofilizado, na dose de 400 mg/ kg, reduziu a área de lesão em 90%, 200 mg/kg, 87%, 100 mg/kg, 66% e o fármaco controle (lansoprazol, 66%. O extrato liofilizado da "resina", administrado na dose de 400 mg/kg, reduziu a área de lesão em 82%, 200 mg/kg, 82%, 100 mg/kg, 53% e o fármaco controle (lansoprazol, 70%. A atividade antioxidante foi ensaiada com extrato bruto liofilizado, extrato liofilizado da "resina", pó da droga e frações clorofórmica, acetato de etila, etanol e etanol 50% através do método que reduz o radical 2,2'-difenil-1-picril-hidrazil (DPPH, permitindo após o equilíbrio da reação, calcular a quantidade de antioxidante gasta para reduzir 50% do DPPH, apresentando resultado evidente, comparado à vitamina E. Não foram verificados sinais de alteração aparente no ensaio de toxicidade na dose única de 5g/kg, em camundongos.

  6. Relation between flower head traits and florivory in Asteraceae: a phylogenetically controlled approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguro, Michio; Sakai, Satoki

    2015-03-01

    • While much research has examined the relation between leaf traits and herbivory, very little is known about the interaction between floral traits, particularly biochemical traits, and florivory. We investigated patterns between floral traits and florivory across multiple species using phylogenetic comparative approaches to enhance our understanding of the evolution of plant-florivore interactions.• The relation between the intensity of florivory and five biochemical traits (concentrations of carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, water, and total phenolics) and two morphological traits (diameter and number of flower heads) were investigated in wild individuals of 18 native species of Asteraceae. The phylogenetic signals in the morphological traits and intensity of florivory were also tested.• We found that species with higher nitrogen, water, and total phenolics and lower phosphorus concentrations in the flower heads and species with a large number and diameter of flower heads tended to be attacked by florivores. In addition, we found significant phylogenetic signals in florivory and morphological traits.• Our results clearly show that biochemical traits also play important roles in plant-florivore interactions, as previously shown in plant-leaf herbivore interactions. The positive relationship between florivory and total phenolics implies that phenolic compounds in flower heads may not act as a defense in the species. In addition, the observed pattern of signals in florivory might not be solely explained by the signals of the measured traits and other plant traits may also play significant roles in plant-florivore interaction in these species. © 2015 Botanical Society of America, Inc.

  7. Floral development and evolution of capitulum structure in Anacyclus (Anthemideae, Asteraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bello, M Angélica; Álvarez, Inés; Torices, Rubén; Fuertes-Aguilar, Javier

    2013-11-01

    Most of the diversity in the pseudanthia of Asteraceae is based on the differential symmetry and sexuality of its flowers. In Anacyclus, where there are (1) homogamous capitula, with bisexual, mainly actinomorphic and pentamerous flowers; and (2) heterogamous capitula, with peripheral zygomorphic, trimerous and long-/short-rayed female flowers, the floral ontogeny was investigated to infer their origin. Floral morphology and ontogeny were studied using scanning electron microscope and light microscope techniques. Disc flowers, subtended by paleae, initiate acropetally. Perianth and androecium initiation is unidirectional/simultaneous. Late zygomorphy occurs by enlargement of the adaxial perianth lobes. In contrast, ray flowers, subtended by involucral bracts, initiate after the proximal disc buds, breaking the inflorescence acropetal pattern. Early zygomorphy is manifested through the fusion of the lateral and abaxial perianth lobes and the arrest of the adaxials. We report atypical phenotypes with peripheral 'trumpet' flowers from natural populations. The peripheral 'trumpet' buds initiate after disc flowers, but maintain an actinomorphic perianth. All phenotypes are compared and interpreted in the context of alternative scenarios for the origin of the capitulum and the perianth identity. Homogamous inflorescences display a uniform floral morphology and development, whereas the peripheral buds in heterogamous capitula display remarkable plasticity. Disc and ray flowers follow different floral developmental pathways. Peripheral zygomorphic flowers initiate after the proximal actinomorphic disc flowers, behaving as lateral independent units of the pseudanthial disc from inception. The perianth and the androecium are the most variable whorls across the different types of flowers, but their changes are not correlated. Lack of homology between hypanthial appendages and a calyx, and the perianth double-sided structure are discussed for Anacyclus together with potential

  8. The potential medicinal value of plants from Asteraceae family with antioxidant defense enzymes as biological targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koc, Suheda; Isgor, Belgin S; Isgor, Yasemin G; Shomali Moghaddam, Naznoosh; Yildirim, Ozlem

    2015-05-01

    Plants and most of the plant-derived compounds have long been known for their potential pharmaceutical effects. They are well known to play an important role in the treatment of several diseases from diabetes to various types of cancers. Today most of the clinically effective pharmaceuticals are developed from plant-derived ancestors in the history of medicine. The aim of this study was to evaluate the free radical scavenging activity and total phenolic and flavonoid contents of methanol, ethanol, and acetone extracts from flowers and leaves of Onopordum acanthium L., Carduus acanthoides L., Cirsium arvense (L.) Scop., and Centaurea solstitialis L., all from the Asteraceae family, for investigating their potential medicinal values of biological targets that are participating in the antioxidant defense system such as catalase (CAT), glutathione S-transferase (GST), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx). In this study, free radical scavenging activity and total phenolic and flavonoid contents of the plant samples were assayed by DPPH, Folin-Ciocalteu, and aluminum chloride colorimetric methods. Also, the effects of extracts on CAT, GST, and GPx enzyme activities were investigated. The highest phenolic and flavonoid contents were detected in the acetone extract of C. acanthoides flowers, with 90.305 mg GAE/L and 185.43 mg Q/L values, respectively. The highest DPPH radical scavenging was observed with the methanol leaf extracts of C. arvense with an IC50 value of 366 ng/mL. The maximum GPx and GST enzyme inhibition activities were observed with acetone extracts from the flower of C. solstitialis with IC50 values of 79 and 232 ng/mL, respectively.

  9. ent-Pimarane and ent-Kaurane Diterpenes from Aldama discolor (Asteraceae) and Their Antiprotozoal Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, Mauro S; Da Costa, Fernando B; Brun, Reto; Kaiser, Marcel; Schmidt, Thomas J

    2016-09-15

    Aldama discolor (syn.Viguiera discolor) is an endemic Asteraceae from the Brazilian "Cerrado", which has not previously been investigated for its chemical constituents and biological activity. Diterpenes are common secondary metabolites found in Aldama species, some of which have been reported to present potential antiprotozoal and antimicrobial activities. In this study, the known ent-3-α-hydroxy-kaur-16-en-18-ol (1), as well as three new diterpenes, namely, ent-7-oxo-pimara-8,15-diene-18-ol (2), ent-2S,4S-2-19-epoxy-pimara-8(3),15-diene-7β-ol (3) and ent-7-oxo-pimara-8,15-diene-3β-ol (4), were isolated from the dichloromethane extract of A. discolor leaves and identified by means of MS and NMR. The compounds were assayed in vitro against Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense, T. cruzi and Leishmania donovani, Plasmodium falciparum and also tested for cytotoxicity against mammalian cells (L6 cell line). The ent-kaurane 1 showed significant in vitro activity against both P. falciparum (IC 50 = 3.5 μ M) and L. donovani (IC 50 = 2.5 μ M) and ent-pimarane 2 against P. falciparum (IC 50 = 3.8 μ M). Both compounds returned high selectivity indices (SI >10) in comparison with L6 cells, which makes them interesting candidates for in vivo tests. In addition to the diterpenes, the sesquiterpene lactone budlein A (5), which has been reported to possess a strong anti-T. b. rhodesiense activity, was identified as major compound in the A. discolor extract and explains its high activity against this parasite (100% growth inhibition at 2 μ g/mL).

  10. Evaluation of Selected Ornamental Asteraceae as a Pollen Source for Urban Bees

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    Wróblewska Anna

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Offering more floral resources for urban bees can be achieved by growing ornamental bee plants. The aim of the present study was to evaluate selected Asteraceae (Calendula officinalis ‘Persimmon Beauty’ and ‘Santana’, Centaurea macrocephala, Cosmos sulphureus, Dahlia pinnata, Tagetes patula, Tithonia rotundifolia, and Zinnia elegans as pollen sources for pollinators. Under urban conditions in Lublin, SE Poland, the investigated plants flowered from late June to the end of October. The mass of pollen produced in florets and capitula was found to be species-related. The highest pollen amounts per 10 florets (10.1 mg as well as per capitulum (249.7 mg were found for C. macrocephala. The mass of pollen yielded by a single plant depended on both the pollen mass delivered per disk florets and the proportion of disk florets in capitulum, and the flowering abundance of the plants. A single plant of D. pinnata and a single plant of T. rotundifolia each produced the largest pollen mass. Mean pollen yield per 1m2 of a plot ranged from 6.2 g (Z. elegans to 60.7 g (D. pinnata. Pollen grains are tricolporate, with echinate exine, medium or small in size. They can be categorised as oblatespherical, spherical, and prolatespherical. The principal visitors to C. macrocephala, C. sulphureus, and C. officinalis were honey bees, whereas bumble bees dominated on T. rotundifolia and D. pinnata. A magnet plant for butterflies was Z. elegans. Among the investigated species, D. pinnata, C. macrocephala, and T. rotundifolia were found to be the most valuable sources of pollen flow for managed and wild bees.

  11. Sesquiterpene lactones from the Yugoslavian wild growing plant families Asteraceae and Apiaceae (REVIEW

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    MILUTIN STEFANOVIC

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available 1. Introduction 2. Results 3. Asteraceae 3.1. Genus Artemisia L. 3.1.1. Artemisia annua L. 3.1.2. Artemisia vulgaris L. 3.1.3. Artemisia absinthium L. (warmwood 3.1.4. Artemisia scoparia W. et K. 3.1.5. Artemisia camprestris L. 3.2. Genus Ambrosia L. 3.2.1. Ambrosia artemisiifolia L. (the common rag weed 3.3. Genus Tanacetum L. (syn. Chrysanthemum L. 3.3.1. Tanacetum parthenium L. (feverfew 3.3.2. Tanacetum serotinum L. 3.3.3. Tanacetum vulgare L. (tansy 3.3.4. Tanacetum macrophyllum Willd. 3.3.5. Tanacetum corymbosum L. 3.4. Genus Telekia Baumg. 3.4.1. Telekia speciosa (Schreb. Baumg. 3.5. Genus Inula L. 3.5.1. Inula helenium L. 3.5.2. Inula spiraeifolia L. 3.6. Genus Eupatorium L. 3.6.1. Eupatorium cannabinum L. 3.7. Genus Achillea L. 3.7.1. Achillea abrotanoides Vis. 3.7.2. Achillea millefolium subsp. pannonica 3.7.3. Achillea crithmifolia W. et K. 3.7.4. Achillea clypeolata Sibth. et Sm. 3.7.5. Achillea serbica Nyman 3.7.6. Achillea depressa Janka 3.8. Genus Anthemis L. 3.8.1. Anthemis carpatica Willd. 3.8.2. Anthemis cretica L. subsp. cretica 3.9. Genus Centaurea L. 3.9.1. Centaurea derventana Vis. et Panc. 3.9.2. Centaurea kosaninii Hayek 3.9.3. Centaurea solstitialis L. 4. Apiaceae 4.1. Genus Laserpitium L. 4.1.1. Laserpitium siler L. 4.1.2. Laserpitium marginatum L. 4.1.3. Laserpitium latifolium L. 4.1.4. Laserpitium alpinum W. K. 4.2. Genus Angelica L. 4.2.1. Angelica silvestris L. 4.3. Genus Peucedanum L. 4.3.1. Peucedanum austriacum (Jacq. Koch

  12. Comparative Analysis of the Genomic DNA Isolation Methods on Inula sp. (Asteraceae

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    Emre SEVİNDİK

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Simple, fast, low-cost and high throughput protocols are required for DNA isolation of plant species. In this study, phenol chloroform isoamyl alcohol and commercial (Sigma DNA isolation kit methods were applied on some Inula species that belong to Asteraceae family. Genomic DNA amounts, A260, A280, A260/A230 and purity degrees (A260/A280 that were obtained through both methods were measured through electrophoresis and spectrophotometer. Additionally, PCR amplification was realized by primer pairs specific to nrDNA ITS, cpDNA ndhF (972F-1603R and trnL-F regions. Results showed that maximum genomic DNA in nanograms obtained by phenol chloroform isoamyl alcohol method. The study also revealed that I. macrocephala had the maximum DNA and I. heterolepis had the minimum DNA amount. A260/A280 purity degrees showed that the highest and lowest purity in gDNAs obtained through phenol-choloform isoamyl alcohol method were in I.aucheriana and I. salicina, respectively. The highest and lowest purity degrees of gDNAs obtained through commercial kit was observed in I. fragilis and I. macrocephala samples, respectively. PCR amplification results showed that while band profiles of each three regions (ITS, trnL-F and ndhF did not yield positive results in PCR amplifications using phenol-choloform isoamyl alcohol method; PCR band profiles obtained through commercial kit yielded positive results. As a result, it is fair to say that the relation of genomic DNA with PCR was found to be more efficient although the maximum amount of genomic DNA was obtained through phenol chloroform isoamyl alcohol method.

  13. Effects of origin, seasons and storage under different temperatures on germination of Senecio vulgaris (Asteraceae seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noel Ndihokubwayo

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Invasive plants colonize new environments, become pests and cause biodiversity loss, economic loss and health damage. Senecio vulgaris L. (Common groundsel, Asteraceae, a widely distributing cosmopolitan weed in the temperate area, is reported with large populations in the north–eastern and south–western part, but not in southern, central, or north-western parts of China. We studied the germination behavior of S. vulgaris to explain the distribution and the biological invasion of this species in China. We used seeds originating from six native and six invasive populations to conduct germination experiments in a climate chamber and under outdoor condition. When incubated in a climate chamber (15 °C, seeds from the majority of the populations showed >90% germination percentage (GP and the GP was equal for seeds with a native and invasive origin. The mean germination time (MGT was significantly different among the populations. Under outdoor conditions, significant effects of origin, storage conditions (stored at 4 °C or ambient room temperature, ca. 27 °C and seasons (in summer or autumn were observed on the GP while the MGT was only affected by the season. In autumn, the GP (38.6% was higher and the MGT was slightly longer than that in summer. In autumn, seeds stored at 4 °C showed higher GP than those stored at ambient room temperature (ca.27 °C, and seeds from invasive populations revealed higher GP than those from native populations. The results implied that the high temperature in summer has a negative impact on the germination and might cause viability loss or secondary dormancy to S. vulgaris seeds. Our study offers a clue to exploring what factor limits the distribution of S. vulgaris in China by explaining why, in the cities in South-East China and central China such as Wuhan, S. vulgaris cannot establish natural and viable populations.

  14. A volatolomic approach for studying plant variability: the case of selected Helichrysum species (Asteraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuliani, Claudia; Lazzaro, Lorenzo; Calamassi, Roberto; Calamai, Luca; Romoli, Riccardo; Fico, Gelsomina; Foggi, Bruno; Mariotti Lippi, Marta

    2016-10-01

    The species of Helichrysum sect. Stoechadina (Asteraceae) are well-known for their secondary metabolite content and the characteristic aromatic bouquets. In the wild, populations exhibit a wide phenotypic plasticity which makes critical the circumscription of species and infraspecific ranks. Previous investigations on Helichrysum italicum complex focused on a possible phytochemical typification based on hydrodistilled essential oils. Aims of this paper are three-fold: (i) characterizing the volatile profiles of different populations, testing (ii) how these profiles vary across populations and (iii) how the phytochemical diversity may contribute in solving taxonomic problems. Nine selected Helichrysum populations, included within the H. italicum complex, Helichrysum litoreum and Helichrysum stoechas, were investigated. H. stoechas was chosen as outgroup for validating the method. After collection in the wild, plants were cultivated in standard growing conditions for over one year. Annual leafy shoots were screened in the post-blooming period for the emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) by means of headspace solid phase microextraction coupled with gas-chromatography and mass spectrometry (HS-SPME-GC/MS). The VOC composition analysis revealed the production of overall 386 different compounds, with terpenes being the most represented compound class. Statistical data processing allowed the identification of the indicator compounds that differentiate the single populations, revealing the influence of the geographical provenance area in determining the volatile profiles. These results suggested the potential use of VOCs as valuable diacritical characters in discriminating the Helichrysum populations. In addition, the cross-validation analysis hinted the potentiality of this volatolomic study in the discrimination of the Helichrysum species and subspecies, highlighting a general congruence with the current taxonomic treatment of the genus. The consistency

  15. Diversity of pyrrolizidine alkaloids in native and invasive Senecio pterophorus (Asteraceae): implications for toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castells, Eva; Mulder, Patrick P J; Pérez-Trujillo, Míriam

    2014-12-01

    Changes in plant chemical defenses after invasion could have consequences on the invaded ecosystems by modifying the interactions between plants and herbivores and facilitating invasion success. However, no comprehensive biogeographical studies have yet determined the phenotypic levels of plant chemical defenses, as consumed by local herbivores, covering large distributional areas of a species. Senecio pterophorus is a perennial shrub native to Eastern South Africa, expanded into Western South Africa and introduced into Australia and Europe. As other Asteraceae, S. pterophorus contains pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) toxic to vertebrate and invertebrate herbivores. Here we analyzed S. pterophorus PAs by LC-MS/MS on foliage sampled across its entire distributional range, including the native and all non-native areas. PA concentrations and diversity was very high: we found 57 compounds belonging to 6 distinct necine base-types, including the highly toxic 1,2-unsaturated PAs (retronecine and otonecines) and the less toxic 1,2-saturated PAs (platynecine and rosmarinecines). Plants from different origins diverged in their PA absolute and relative concentrations. Rosmarinine was the most abundant compound in Australia and South Africa, but it was nearly absent in Europe. We characterized three plant chemotypes: retrorsine-senkirkine chemotype in Eastern South Africa, rosmarinine chemotype in Australia and Western South Africa, and acetylseneciphylline chemotype in Europe. PA absolute concentrations were highest in Australia. The increased absolute and relative concentrations of retronecine PAs from Australia and Europe, respectively, indicate that S. pterophorus is potentially more toxic in the invasive range than in the native range. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Origins and recent radiation of Brazilian Eupatorieae (Asteraceae) in the eastern Cerrado and Atlantic Forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Vanessa Lopes; Panero, Jose L; Schilling, Edward E; Crozier, Bonnie S; Moraes, Marta Dias

    2016-04-01

    The remarkable diversity of Eupatorieae in the Brazilian flora has received little study, despite the tribe's very high levels of endemism and importance in the threatened Cerrado and the Atlantic Forest biodiversity hotspots. Eupatorieae are one of the largest tribes in Asteraceae with 14 of 19 recognized subtribes occurring in Brazil. We constructed the largest phylogeny of Brazilian Eupatorieae to date that sampled the nrITS and ETS, chloroplast ndhI and ndhF genes, and the ndhI-ndhG intergenic spacer for 183 species representing 77 of the 85 Brazilian genera of the tribe. Maximum likelihood and Bayesian phylogenetic analyses showed that these species are not collectively monophyletic, so their distribution reflects multiple introductions into Brazil. A novel clade was found that includes 75% of the genera endemic to Brazil (Cerrado-Atlantic Forest Eupatorieae, "CAFE" clade). This radiation of at least 247 species concentrated in the Cerrado and Atlantic Forest biomes of central eastern Brazil is <7 my old and exhibits several ecologically diverse life forms. Eight subtribes of Brazilian Eupatorieae (Ageratinae, Alomiinae, Ayapaninae, Critoniinae, Disynaphiinae, Eupatoriinae, Gyptidinae and Hebecliniinae) and 16 genera (Ageratum, Agrianthus, Austroeupatorium, Bejaranoa, Chromolaena, Critonia, Disynaphia, Grazielia, Hatschbachiella, Heterocondylus, Koanophyllon, Lasiolaena, Neocabreria, Praxelis, Stylotrichium, and Symphyopappus) were found to be polyphyletic. We attribute incongruities between the molecular phylogenetic results and the current classification of the tribe mostly to convergent evolution of morphological characters traditionally used in the classification of the tribe. We used these phylogenetic results to suggest changes to the classification of some subtribes and genera of Eupatorieae that occur in Brazil. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Estudo anatômico de folha e caule de Elephantopus mollis Kunth (Asteraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Bonissoni Empinotti

    Full Text Available Conhecida comumente como erva-de-colégio, erva-grossa e sussuaiá, Elephantopus mollis Kunth (Asteraceae é uma espécie herbácea perene, de base sublenhosa, ramos curtos e flores arroxeadas. Suas folhas são empregadas como emoliente, resolutivo, sudorífico e no tratamento de bronquite, tosse e gripe na medicina popular. O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar caracteres anatômicos foliares e caulinares, a fim de fornecer subsídios aplicáveis à identificação da planta medicinal. Folhas adultas e fragmentos de caules foram fixados, seccionados e corados com azul de astra/fucsina básica ou com azul de toluidina. Testes microquímicos e análise ultra-estrutural de superfície foram também executados. A folha possui epiderme uniestratificada, recoberta por cutícula estriada e, em vista frontal, tem células com contorno ondulado. Ocorrem tricomas tectores e glandulares. Os primeiros são eretos, pluricelulares e unisseriados. Os tricomas glandulares são capitados e bisseriados. O mesofilo é dorsiventral e a nervura central é percorrida por feixes vasculares colaterais dispostos em arco aberto. O caule, em estrutura secundária inicial, possui epiderme unisseriada com cutícula estriada e tricomas semelhantes aos da folha. No córtex, observam-se colênquima anelar alternado com clorênquima e endoderme com estrias de Caspary. Calotas esclerenquimáticas apõem-se ao floema. Este é formado pelo câmbio vascular em direção à periferia e o xilema é gerado de modo centrípeto. A medula é parenquimática. Pequenos cristais de oxalato de cálcio estão presentes na folha e no caule.

  18. Adulticide effect of Monticalia greenmaniana (Asteraceae) against Lutzomyia migonei (Diptera: Psychodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cárdenas, José; Rojas, Janne; Rondón, Maritza; Nieves, Elsa

    2012-08-01

    Leishmaniasis is a public health problem that has been increasing year by year, with the further difficulty that an efficient control system is not available. Therefore, it is necessary to search for less contaminating and dangerous alternatives for controlling Leishmania transmitting sandflies. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the activity of Monticalia greenmaniana (Asteraceae) extracts and essential oil as an adulticide against Lutzomyia migonei (Diptera: Psychodidae) females, from a laboratory colony, in experimental conditions. Dry aerial parts of M. greenmaniana (Hieron) Jeffrey were used. Methanolic and aqueous extracts were prepared, and essential oil was obtained by hydrodistillation. Adulticide tests in pots, adulticide tests in cages, and knocked-down effects were determined. The results obtained demonstrated that methanolic and aqueous extracts produced adulticide activity. The essential oil from M. greenmaniana was proved to be the most toxic against L. migonei, with a 95 % death rate at a concentration of 0.01 mg/ml during a 1-h exposure. The essential oil showed a DL50 = 0.0050 and DL98 = 0.0066 mg/ml. The methanolic extract was DL50 = 0.130 and DL98 = 1.016 mg/ml, and the aqueous extract, DL50 = 0.487 and DL98 10.924 mg/ml. The knocked-down effect for the M. greenmaniana oil showed a KDTL50 = 48.6 and KDTL98 = 90.1 min. It was concluded that the essential oil from M. greenmaniana showed a strong insecticide effect against L. migonei females, which encourages us to continue these studies in search for control alternatives against sandflies.

  19. Multiple doses of saw palmetto (Serenoa repens) did not alter cytochrome P450 2D6 and 3A4 activity in normal volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markowitz, John S; Donovan, Jennifer L; Devane, C Lindsay; Taylor, Robin M; Ruan, Ying; Wang, Jun-Sheng; Chavin, Kenneth D

    2003-12-01

    Saw palmetto (Serenoa repens) is the most commonly used herbal preparation in the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia. The objective of this study was to determine whether a characterized saw palmetto product affects the activity of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2D6 or 3A4 in healthy volunteers (6 men and 6 women). The probe substrates dextromethorphan (CYP2D6 activity) and alprazolam (CYP3A4 activity) were administered orally at baseline and again after exposure to saw palmetto (320-mg capsule once daily) for 14 days. Dextromethorphan metabolic ratios and alprazolam pharmacokinetics were determined at baseline and after saw palmetto treatment. The mean ratio of dextromethorphan to its metabolite was 0.038 +/- 0.044 at baseline and 0.048 +/- 0.080 after 14 days of saw palmetto administration (P =.704, not significant [NS]), indicating a lack of effect on CYP2D6 activity. The area under the plasma alprazolam concentration versus time curve was 476 +/- 178 h. ng. mL(-1) at baseline and 479 +/- 125 h. ng. mL(-1) after saw palmetto treatment (P =.923, NS), indicating a lack of effect on CYP3A4 activity. The elimination half-life of alprazolam was 11.4 +/- 3.1 hours at baseline and 11.6 +/- 2.7 hours after saw palmetto treatment (P =.770, NS), also indicating a lack of effect on CYP3A4 activity. Our results indicate that extracts of saw palmetto at generally recommended doses are unlikely to alter the disposition of coadministered medications primarily dependent on the CYP2D6 or CYP3A4 pathways for elimination. These conclusions must be weighed in the context of the study's limited assessments and regarded as only the initial investigation into the drug interaction potential of saw palmetto.

  20. Inhibition of the DHT-induced PSA secretion by Verbascum xanthophoeniceum and Serenoa repens extracts in human LNCaP prostate epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcoccia, D; Georgiev, M I; Alipieva, K I; Lorenzetti, S

    2014-08-08

    Verbascum xanthophoeniceum is a mullein plant, typical of Balkan region and some parts of Turkey, traditionally used as phytotherapeutic agent due to its anti-inflammatory properties. It is rich in phenylethanoid and iridoid metabolites whose anti-inflammatory properties are under characterization. The role of Verbascum xanthophoeniceum crude methanolic extract and its isolated phenylethanoid glycoside verbascoside have been evaluated, in comparison to a saw palmetto extract, on a human in vitro model of androgen-regulated prostate epithelium, the LNCaP cell line. Cytotoxicity and DHT-induced free and total PSA secretion have been thoroughly studied. We have found that similar to saw palmetto, Verbascum xanthophoeniceum extract and its isolated phenylethanoid glycoside verbascoside have no cytotoxicity in human LNCaP prostate epithelial cells, whereas an inhibitory effect on the DHT-induced free and total PSA secretion, a recognized anti-androgen like activity, has been shown in case of both Verbascum xanthophoeniceum extract and pure verbascoside. Furthermore, in the absence of the endogenous androgen DHT, an androgen-like activity in Verbascum xanthophoeniceum is detectable as it is for saw palmetto, suggesting that a mixed androgen-antiandrogen activity is present. For the first time, Serenoa repens and Verbascum xanthophoeniceum extracts have shown an absence of cytotoxicity and an inhibitory effect on DHT-induced PSA secretion in an in vitro model of human prostate epithelium, whereas the phenylethanoid glycoside verbascoside appeared to explain only part of the Verbascum xanthophoeniceum inhibitory activity on PSA secretion. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Mercury and flooding cycles in the Tapajos river basin, Brazilian Amazon: The role of periphyton of a floating macrophyte (Paspalum repens)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coelho-Souza, Sergio A.; Guimaraes, Jean R.D.; Miranda, Marcio R.; Poirier, Hugo; Mauro, Jane B.N.; Lucotte, Marc; Mergler, Donna

    2011-01-01

    Methylmercury (MeHg) increases mercury (Hg) toxicity and is biomagnified in the trophic chain contaminating riverine Amazon populations. Freshwater macrophyte roots are a main site of Hg methylation in different Brazilian environments. Paspalum repens periphyton was sampled in four floodplain lakes during the dry, rainy and wet seasons for measurement of total Hg (THg), MeHg, Hg methylation potentials, %C, %N, δ 13 C, δ 15 N and bacterial heterotrophic production as 3 H-leucine incorporation rate. THg concentration varied from 67 to 198 ng/g and the potential of Me 203 Hg formation was expressive (1-23%) showing that periphyton is an important matrix both in the accumulation of Hg and in MeHg production. The concentration of MeHg varied from 1 to 6 ng/g DW and was positively correlated with Me 203 Hg formation. Though methylmercury formation is mainly a bacterial process, no significant correlation was observed between the methylation potentials and bacterial production. The multiple regressions analyses suggested a negative correlation between THg and %C and %N and between methylation potential and δ 13 C. The discriminant analysis showed a significant difference in periphyton δ 15 N, δ 13 C and THg between seasons, where the rainy season presented higher δ 15 N and the wet period lighter δ 13 C, lower THg values and higher Me 203 Hg formation. This exploratory study indicates that the flooding cycle could influence the periphyton composition, mercury accumulation and methylmercury production. - Research highlights: → During rainy season mercury (Hg 2+ ) is carried out from terrestrial to aquatic systems by runoff. → Macrophyte roots accumulates Hg 2+ from suspended particulate matter (SPM). → Hg methylation increases during the wet season. → Flooded forest is a source of labile organic carbon and bioavailable Hg. → Macrophytes decompose during the dry season and made up terrestrial soil.

  2. Air quality biomonitoring: assessment of air pollution genotoxicity in the Province of Novara (North Italy) by using Trifolium repens L. and molecular markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piraino, F; Aina, R; Palin, L; Prato, N; Sgorbati, S; Santagostino, A; Citterio, S

    2006-12-15

    Mixed air pollutants are considered a major cause of DNA damage in living species. In this study Trifolium repens L. cv Regal was used as a bioindicator to assess the genotoxicity of air stressors in the Italian province of Novara. Two on-site biomonitoring experiments were performed during the spring and autumn of 2004. Test plants were exposed at 19 monitoring sites distributed homogeneously throughout the province, and each experiment lasted for a period of 6 weeks. Genotoxicity was evaluated with Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP) molecular markers. The results show the predominantly rural central-west region of the Novara Province to have the worst air quality with regard to genotoxicity. Analyses of geomorphology, land use and climatic factors suggest that the compromised air quality in the region could be attributed to wind strength and direction, transporting pollution from vehicular traffic on the A4 highway and from the urban/industrialized centres of Novara and Vercelli. Plant growth, changes in plant photochemical efficiency and the presence of ozone related leaf injuries were also measured to better interpret the results of genotoxicity. Statistical analyses show that although climatic factors such as light intensity and temperature influence plant growth, they do not contribute to atmospheric stressor-induced DNA damage. Further analyses indicated that, as expected, a mixture of genotoxic and non-genotoxic pollutants coexist in the Novara Province troposphere, and that the elevated ozone concentrations experienced during the study may have contributed to the DNA damage in the tested plants by enhancing genotoxicity via interaction with other air stressors.

  3. Serenoa repens extracts promote hair regeneration and repair of hair loss mouse models by activating TGF-β and mitochondrial signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, H-L; Gao, Y-H; Yang, J-Q; Li, J-B; Gao, J

    2018-06-01

    Plenty of plant extracts have been used for treating hair loss. This study aims to investigate the effects of liposterolic extracts of Serenoa repens (LSESr) on hair cell growth and regeneration of hair, and clarify the associated mechanisms. Human keratinocyte cells (HACAT) were cultured, incubated with dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and treated with LSESr. Cell viability was examined by using 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2-H- tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Hair loss C57BL/6 mouse model was established by inducing with DHT. Hair growth, density, and thickness were evaluated. Back skin samples were collected and stained with hematoxylin and eosin (HE) assay. B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2), Bcl-2 associated protein X (Bax), cleaved caspase 3 and transforming growth factor β2 (TGF-β2) were examined using Western blot assay. LSESr treatment significantly increased HACAT cell viabilities compared to DHT-only treated cells (p<0.05). LSESr treatment post injection of DHT significantly converted skin color from pink to gray and increased hair density, weight and thickness compared to DHT-only treated mice (p<0.05). LSESr treatment significantly triggered follicle growth and decreased inflammatory response. LSESr treatment significantly decreased TGF-β2 and cleaved caspase 3 expression of hair loss mouse models compared to that of DHT treated mice (p<0.05). LSESr treatment significantly enhanced Bcl-2 expression and reduced Bax expression compared to that of DHT treated mice (p<0.05). Meanwhile, effects of LSESr were substantial even achieving to the potential of finasteride. LSESr promoted the hair regeneration and repair of hair loss mouse models by activating TGF-β signaling and mitochondrial signaling pathway.

  4. Knock-down of transcript abundance of a family of Kunitz proteinase inhibitor genes in white clover (Trifolium repens) reveals a redundancy and diversity of gene function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Afsana; Leung, Susanna; Burgess, Elisabeth P J; Laing, William A; Richardson, Kim A; Hofmann, Rainer W; Dijkwel, Paul P; McManus, Michael T

    2015-12-01

    The transcriptional regulation of four phylogenetically distinct members of a family of Kunitz proteinase inhibitor (KPI) genes isolated from white clover (Trifolium repens; designated Tr-KPI1, Tr-KPI2, Tr-KPI4 and Tr-KPI5) has been investigated to determine their wider functional role. The four genes displayed differential transcription during seed germination, and in different tissues of the mature plant, and transcription was also ontogenetically regulated. Heterologous over-expression of Tr-KPI1, Tr-KPI2, Tr-KPI4 and Tr-KPI5 in Nicotiana tabacum retarded larval growth of the herbivore Spodoptera litura, and an increase in the transcription of the pathogenesis-related genes PR1 and PR4 was observed in the Tr-KPI1 and Tr-KPI4 over-expressing lines. RNA interference (RNAi) knock-down lines in white clover displayed significantly altered vegetative growth phenotypes with inhibition of shoot growth and a stimulation of root growth, while knock-down of Tr-KPI1, Tr-KPI2 and Tr-KPI5 transcript abundance also retarded larval growth of S. litura. Examination of these RNAi lines revealed constitutive stress-associated phenotypes as well as altered transcription of cellular signalling genes. These results reveal a functional redundancy across members of the KPI gene family. Further, the regulation of transcription of at least one member of the family, Tr-KPI2, may occupy a central role in the maintenance of a cellular homeostasis. © 2015 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  5. Field clinical study evaluating the efficacy and safety of an oral formulation containing milbemycin oxime/praziquantel (Milbemax®, Novartis Animal Health) in the chemoprevention of the zoonotic canine infection by Dirofilaria repens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Cesare, Angela; Braun, Gabriele; Di Giulio, Emanuela; Paoletti, Barbara; Aquilino, Vincenzo; Bartolini, Roberto; La Torre, Francesco; Meloni, Silvana; Drake, Jason; Pandolfi, Federico; Avolio, Stefania; Traversa, Donato

    2014-07-29

    Dirofilaria repens is the causative agent of subcutaneous dirofilariosis of dogs, other animals and humans. This nematode is transmitted by mosquitoes of Aedes, Anopheles and Culex genera. In dogs, the parasite may cause subclinical infection or cutaneous signs. Recently, D. repens has emerged and spread in different geographical areas, with an increase of cases in dogs and humans. Chemoprevention in dogs in endemic areas is the most reliable approach for controlling this infection. This paper describes a randomized, blocked and multicentric clinical field study investigating the efficacy of an oral, chewable formulation containing milbemycin oxime/praziquantel (Milbemax®, Novartis Animal Health) in the chemoprevention of subcutaneous dirofilariosis in dogs. This study was conducted in endemic areas of Italy. A total of 249 dogs, at two sites, negative for D. repens, were allocated into two groups (i.e. Treated -T1 vs Untreated-T2) with a ratio of 1:1, and subjected to clinical visits and blood sampling once monthly until the end of the study. All blood samples were microscopically and genetically examined. Animals belonging to T1 group received a minimum target dose of 0.5 mg/kg bodyweight of milbemycin oxime and 5 mg/kg of praziquantel in commercial tablets (Milbemax®) according body weight once every 4 weeks. Animals of group T2 were not treated with Milbemax® but received, when necessary, specific parasiticide treatments. The study duration was 336 ± 2 days for each dog. A total of 219 dogs completed the study (i.e. 111 in T1 and 108 in T2), while 30 dogs (i.e. 13 in T1, 17 in T2) were withdrawn for a variety of reasons unrelated to administration of Milbemax®. The percentages of animals not showing microfilariae of D. repens were 100% (111 animals) in T1 and 94.7% (108 animals out of 114) in group T2. Milbemax® was shown to be safe in treated dogs. The results of this study confirm that the monthly use of Milbemax® in dogs is effective and safe for the

  6. Rapid Genetic and Epigenetic Alterations under Intergeneric Genomic Shock in Newly Synthesized Chrysanthemum morifolium × Leucanthemum paludosum Hybrids (Asteraceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haibin; Jiang, Jiafu; Chen, Sumei; Qi, Xiangyu; Fang, Weimin; Guan, Zhiyong; Teng, Nianjun; Liao, Yuan; Chen, Fadi

    2014-01-01

    The Asteraceae family is at the forefront of the evolution due to frequent hybridization. Hybridization is associated with the induction of widespread genetic and epigenetic changes and has played an important role in the evolution of many plant taxa. We attempted the intergeneric cross Chrysanthemum morifolium × Leucanthemum paludosum. To obtain the success in cross, we have to turn to ovule rescue. DNA profiling of the amphihaploid and amphidiploid was investigated using amplified fragment length polymorphism, sequence-related amplified polymorphism, start codon targeted polymorphism, and methylation-sensitive amplification polymorphism (MSAP). Hybridization induced rapid changes at the genetic and the epigenetic levels. The genetic changes mainly involved loss of parental fragments and gaining of novel fragments, and some eliminated sequences possibly from the noncoding region of L. paludosum. The MSAP analysis indicated that the level of DNA methylation was lower in the amphiploid (∼45%) than in the parental lines (51.5–50.6%), whereas it increased after amphidiploid formation. Events associated with intergeneric genomic shock were a feature of C. morifolium × L. paludosum hybrid, given that the genetic relationship between the parental species is relatively distant. Our results provide genetic and epigenetic evidence for understanding genomic shock in wide crosses between species in Asteraceae and suggest a need to expand our current evolutionary framework to encompass a genetic/epigenetic dimension when seeking to understand wide crosses. PMID:24407856

  7. Rapid genetic and epigenetic alterations under intergeneric genomic shock in newly synthesized Chrysanthemum morifolium x Leucanthemum paludosum hybrids (Asteraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haibin; Jiang, Jiafu; Chen, Sumei; Qi, Xiangyu; Fang, Weimin; Guan, Zhiyong; Teng, Nianjun; Liao, Yuan; Chen, Fadi

    2014-01-01

    The Asteraceae family is at the forefront of the evolution due to frequent hybridization. Hybridization is associated with the induction of widespread genetic and epigenetic changes and has played an important role in the evolution of many plant taxa. We attempted the intergeneric cross Chrysanthemum morifolium × Leucanthemum paludosum. To obtain the success in cross, we have to turn to ovule rescue. DNA profiling of the amphihaploid and amphidiploid was investigated using amplified fragment length polymorphism, sequence-related amplified polymorphism, start codon targeted polymorphism, and methylation-sensitive amplification polymorphism (MSAP). Hybridization induced rapid changes at the genetic and the epigenetic levels. The genetic changes mainly involved loss of parental fragments and gaining of novel fragments, and some eliminated sequences possibly from the noncoding region of L. paludosum. The MSAP analysis indicated that the level of DNA methylation was lower in the amphiploid (∼45%) than in the parental lines (51.5-50.6%), whereas it increased after amphidiploid formation. Events associated with intergeneric genomic shock were a feature of C. morifolium × L. paludosum hybrid, given that the genetic relationship between the parental species is relatively distant. Our results provide genetic and epigenetic evidence for understanding genomic shock in wide crosses between species in Asteraceae and suggest a need to expand our current evolutionary framework to encompass a genetic/epigenetic dimension when seeking to understand wide crosses.

  8. Genetic Analysis of Floral Symmetry in Van Gogh's Sunflowers Reveals Independent Recruitment of CYCLOIDEA Genes in the Asteraceae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Mark A.; Tang, Shunxue; Draeger, Dörthe; Nambeesan, Savithri; Shaffer, Hunter; Barb, Jessica G.; Knapp, Steven J.; Burke, John M.

    2012-01-01

    The genetic basis of floral symmetry is a topic of great interest because of its effect on pollinator behavior and, consequently, plant diversification. The Asteraceae, which is the largest family of flowering plants, is an ideal system in which to study this trait, as many species within the family exhibit a compound inflorescence containing both bilaterally symmetric (i.e., zygomorphic) and radially symmetric (i.e., actinomorphic) florets. In sunflower and related species, the inflorescence is composed of a single whorl of ray florets surrounding multiple whorls of disc florets. We show that in double-flowered (dbl) sunflower mutants (in which disc florets develop bilateral symmetry), such as those captured by Vincent van Gogh in his famous nineteenth-century sunflower paintings, an insertion into the promoter region of a CYCLOIDEA (CYC)-like gene (HaCYC2c) that is normally expressed specifically in WT rays is instead expressed throughout the inflorescence, presumably resulting in the observed loss of actinomorphy. This same gene is mutated in two independent tubular-rayed (tub) mutants, though these mutations involve apparently recent transposon insertions, resulting in little or no expression and radialization of the normally zygomorphic ray florets. Interestingly, a phylogenetic analysis of CYC-like genes from across the family suggests that different paralogs of this fascinating gene family have been independently recruited to specify zygomorphy in different species within the Asteraceae. PMID:22479210

  9. Hieracium caespitosum and Hieracium piloselloides (Asteraceae) in the Black Hills National Forest: New state records for South Dakota, U.S.A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian E. Dickerson; Cheryl Mayer; Justin Ramsey; Zach Mergen; Mark Gabel

    2016-01-01

    Hieracium spp. (Asteraceae) are noted for their taxonomic complexity, frequent incidence of apomixis and polyploidy, and invasive tendencies. Here we report the Eurasian taxa, Hieracium caespitosum Dumort. and Hieracium piloselloides Vill., as recent additions to the flora of South Dakota. Plants were collected at three locations in the Black Hills during 2014 and 2015...

  10. Type specimens of taxa of Artemisia L. (Asteraceae from Siberia and the Far East kept in the Herbarium of V.L. Komarov Botanical Insitute

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Korobkov

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Typification of 97 Artemisia (Asteraceae taxa from Siberia and the Far East kept in the Herbarium of V.L. Komarov Botanical Institute was carried out. Holotypes for 39 taxa, lectotypes for 48 taxa, 28 syntypes and 4 isotypes are given.

  11. Morphometric, AFLP and plastid microsatellite variation in populations of Scalesia divisa and S. incisa (Asteraceae) from the Galápagos Islands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    NIELSEN, LENE ROSTGAARD; Cowan, Robyn S.; SIEGISMUND, HANS R.

    2003-01-01

    Scalesia divisa and S. incisa (Asteraceae), both endemic to the Galápagos Islands, are found only on San Cristóbal, where S. divisa grows in the north-west of the island while S. incisa occurs in the north-east. At localities in between, populations with deviating individuals occur. Here we analyse...

  12. The first record of Baccharis L. (Asteraceae) as a host-plant genus for Nepticulidae (Lepidoptera), with description of new Stigmella species from South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    We record the first Nepticulidae species found to feed on Baccharis L. (Asteraceae). Despite the high species richness of Baccharis in the Western Hemisphere, no nepticulid has ever been recorded feeding on Baccharis. In this paper we describe four new Stigmella Schrank species feeding on Baccharis:...

  13. Seed size and nutrient content variation for twenty-one invasive and native California and Oregon taxa of the tribe Cynareae (Asteraceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seed characteristics are important for seed dispersal, seedling growth, and seedling survival, but there is little information on seed characteristics for several taxa of the tribe Cynareae (Family: Asteraceae). We determined seed characteristics and their variation from natural populations of twen...

  14. Effects of herbicide and nitrogen fertilizer on non-target plant reproduction and indirect effects on pollination in Tanacetum vulgare (Asteraceae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dupont, Yoko Luise; Strandberg, Beate; Damgaard, Christian Frølund

    2018-01-01

    and nitrogen fertilizer on reproductive features of Tanacetum vulgare (Asteraceae). The study was carried out in an experimental set-up, in which plots of 7x7 m were treated with one of six treatments: four levels of the herbicide glyphosate (0%, 1%, 5%, and 25% of label rate of 1440 g a.i. ha-1) without...

  15. Open field experiment to assess the host specificity of Lixus cardui (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), a potential candidate for biological control of Onopordum acanthium (Asteraceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scotch thistle Onopordum acanthium (Asteraceae) is native to Europe and Asia and has been accidentally introduced to temperate climates elsewhere, including North America and Australia. In the USA, the weed is most problematic in the semi-arid parts of the Northwest, California and Nevada. Lixus car...

  16. Repeated reunions and splits feature the highly dynamic evolution of 5S and 35S ribosomal RNA genes (rDNA) in the Asteraceae family

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Garcia, S.; Panero, J.L.; Široký, Jiří; Kovařík, Aleš

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 176 (2010), s. 1-18 ISSN 1471-2229 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040507; CEZ:AV0Z50040702 Keywords : organization of rDNA unit * intergenic spacer * Asteraceae Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 4.085, year: 2010

  17. The Impact of Reconstruction Methods, Phylogenetic Uncertainty and Branch Lengths on Inference of Chromosome Number Evolution in American Daisies (Melampodium, Asteraceae)

    OpenAIRE

    McCann, Jamie; Schneeweiss, Gerald M.; Stuessy, Tod F.; Villase?or, Jose L.; Weiss-Schneeweiss, Hanna

    2016-01-01

    Chromosome number change (polyploidy and dysploidy) plays an important role in plant diversification and speciation. Investigating chromosome number evolution commonly entails ancestral state reconstruction performed within a phylogenetic framework, which is, however, prone to uncertainty, whose effects on evolutionary inferences are insufficiently understood. Using the chromosomally diverse plant genus Melampodium (Asteraceae) as model group, we assess the impact of reconstruction method (ma...

  18. Efeito de diferentes sistemas de pastejo sobre o desempenho de suínos mantidos em pastagem de trevo-branco (Trifolium repens L. Effect of different grazing systems on the performance of pigs, in growing and finishing phases, kept on white clover (Trifolium repens L. pasture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denyse Maria Galvão Leite

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo foi conduzido com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito dos sistemas de pastejo contínuo, alternado e rotativo sobre as características de desempenho de suínos (consumo de ração, ganho de peso, conversão alimentar e espessura de toucinho nas fases de crescimento e terminação mantidos em pastagem de trevo-branco (Trifolium repens L.. Foram realizadas também avaliações da disponibilidade e composição química da pastagem. Trinta e seis suínos machos foram distribuídos em um delineamento de blocos casualizados, com três tratamentos e três repetições, e doze foram mantidos em sistema de confinamento. Não foi observada influência significativa dos sistemas de pastejo sobre as características de desempenho dos animais e a disponibilidade de forragem. Entretanto, houve diferença significativa na composição química da pastagem entre os sistemas de pastejo estudados. Os suínos em sistemas de pastejo contínuo, alternado e rotativo consumiram de 13,41 a 15,92% a menos de ração e apresentaram menores ganhos de peso e espessura de toucinho que aqueles criados em confinamento. Não foram registradas diferenças significativas na conversão alimentar entre os suínos mantidos em confinamento e em pastagem.This trial was carried out to determine the effect of continuous, alternated or rotational grazing systems on the performance of pigs (feed intake, weight gain, feed conversion and backfat thickness, in the growing and finishing phases, as well as the forage availability and chemical composition of a white clover pasture (Trifolium repens L.. Thirty-six castrated pigs were allotted to a randomized complete-block experimental design with three treatments and three replications. Twelve feedlot pigs were kept on a rearing system. No significant differences were found between grazing systems on parameters of animal performance and forage on offer. However, significant differences were observed on the pasture chemical composition

  19. Metabolomic analysis applied to chemosystematics and evolution of megadiverse Brazilian Vernonieae (Asteraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallon, Marília Elias; Monge, Marcelo; Casoti, Rosana; Da Costa, Fernando Batista; Semir, João; Gobbo-Neto, Leonardo

    2018-06-01

    Vernonia sensu lato is the largest and most complex genus of the tribe Vernonieae (Asteraceae). The tribe is chemically characterized by the presence of sesquiterpene lactones and flavonoids. Over the years, several taxonomic classifications have been proposed for Vernonia s.l. and for the tribe; however, there has been no consensus among the researches. According to traditional classification, Vernonia s.l. comprises more than 1000 species divided into sections, subsections and series (sensu Bentham). In a more recent classification, these species have been segregated into other genera and some subtribes were proposed, while the genus Vernonia sensu stricto was restricted to 22 species distributed mainly in North America (sensu Robinson). In this study, species from the subtribes Vernoniinae, Lepidaploinae and Rolandrinae were analyzed by UHPLC-UV-HRMS followed by multivariate statistical analysis. Data mining was performed using unsupervised (HCA and PCA) and supervised methods (OPLS-DA). The HCA showed the segregation of the species into four main groups. Comparing the HCA with taxonomical classifications of Vernonieae, we observed that the groups of the dendogram, based on metabolic profiling, were in accordance with the generic classification proposed by Robinson and with previous phylogenetic studies. The species of the genera Stenocephalum, Stilpnopappus, Strophopappus and Rolandra (Group 1) were revealed to be more related to the species of the genus Vernonanthura (Group 2), while the genera Cyrtocymura, Chrysolaena and Echinocoryne (Group 3) were chemically more similar to the genera Lessingianthus and Lepidaploa (Group 4). These findings indicated that the subtribes Vernoniinae and Lepidaploinae are non-chemically homogeneous groups and highlighted the application of untargeted metabolomic tools for taxonomy and as indicators of species evolution. Discriminant compounds for the groups obtained by OPLS-DA were determined. Groups 1 and 2 were characterized

  20. Anticonvulsant properties of methanol leaf extract of Laggera Aurita Linn. F. (Asteraceae) in laboratory animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malami, S; Kyari, H; Danjuma, N M; Ya'u, J; Hussaini, I M

    2016-09-15

    Preparation of Laggera aurita Linn. (Asteraceae) is widely used in traditional medicine to treat various kinds of diseases such as epilepsy, malaria, fever, pain and asthma. Its efficacy is widely acclaimed among communities in Northern Nigeria. The present study is aimed at establishing the possible anticonvulsant effects of the methanol leaf extract of Laggera aurita using acute and chronic anticonvulsant models. Median lethal dose (LD50) was determined in mice and rats via oral and intraperitoneal routes. Anticonvulsant screening of the extract was performed using maximal electroshock-induced seizure test in day-old chicks; pentylenetetrazole-, strychnine- and picrotoxin- induced seizure models in mice. Similarly; its effects on pentylenetetrazole-induce kindling in rats as well as when co-administered with fluphenamic and cyproheptadine in mice, were evaluated. Median lethal dose (LD50) values were found to be >5000mg/kg, p.o. and 2154mg/kg, i.p., each for both rats and mice. The extract showed dose dependent protection against tonic hind limb extension (THLE) and significantly (p<0.05) decreased the mean recovery from seizure in the maximal electroshock-induced seizure. In the pentylenetetrazole-induced seizure model, the extract offered 50% protection at 600mg/kg and also increased the mean onset of seizure at all doses with significant (p<0.05) increase at the highest dose (600mg/kg). Similarly the extract produced significant (p<0.05) increase in the onset of seizures in both strychnine- and picrotoxin- induced seizure models, at all the doses except at 150mg/kg for the picrotoxin model. Co-administration of fluphenamic acid (FFA) (5mg/kg) and the extract (600mg/kg) showed an enhanced effect with percentage protection of 70% while co-administration of FFA (5mg/kg) and phenytoin (5mg/kg) as well phenytoin (5mg/kg) and the extract (600mg/kg) produced an additive effect. Administration of the extract (600mg/kg), phenytoin (20mg/kg) and cyproheptadine (4mg

  1. Morfoanatomia e ontogênese do fruto e semente de Vernonia platensis (Spreng. Less. (Asteraceae Morphology, anatomy and ontogeny of the fruit and seed of Vernonia platensis (Spreng. Less. (Asteraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natália Arias Galastri

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Asteraceae possui cerca de 23.000 espécies e Vernonieae tem sua maior representatividade no Brasil, sendo Vernonia o maior gênero da tribo. Devido à ampla ocorrência nos Cerrados, V. platensis foi selecionada para a realização deste trabalho, que objetiva descrever a morfoanatomia e o desenvolvimento do pericarpo e da semente desta espécie, comparando os resultados com a literatura. O material coletado foi processado segundo técnicas usuais. O ovário é ínfero, bicarpelar, sincárpico, unilocular, com um óvulo anátropo, unitegumentado, tenuinucelado, formado em placentação basal. A parede ovariana é homogênea, com células mais densas perifericamente. O tegumento possui três regiões, destacando-se evidente endotélio. Na maturidade, a maioria das camadas colapsa, mantendo-se as fibras mesocárpicas externas; o pápus duplo persiste formado por células lignificadas. A semente madura apresenta testa restrita a uma faixa de células colapsadas; o endosperma é celular, persistindo residualmente na maturidade, e o embrião exibe eixo hipocótilo-radícula axial, espesso e curto. Em apenas 40% das cipselas maduras analisadas, há sementes completamente desenvolvidas. As observações deste trabalho corroboram pesquisas anteriores com Asteraceae, mas destaca-se o papel nutritivo do tegumento no desenvolvimento seminal e a baixa produção de sementes em V. platensis.The Asteraceae comprises approximately 23,000 species and Vernonieae is best represented in Brazil; Vernonia is the largest genus in this tribe. Due to occurrence in extensive areas of Cerrado, Vernonia platensis was selected for this work that aims to describe the morphology, anatomy and development of the pericarp and seed of this species, comparing the results with the literature. The collected material was processed by conventional techniques. The ovary is inferior, bicarpellate, syncarpous, unilocular with a single anatropous ovule, unitegmic, tenuinucelate

  2. Mercury and flooding cycles in the Tapajos river basin, Brazilian Amazon: The role of periphyton of a floating macrophyte (Paspalum repens)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coelho-Souza, Sergio A., E-mail: sacs@biof.ufrj.br [Lab. Tracadores Wolfgang C. Pfeiffer, SL 049, Instituto de Biofisica Carlos Chagas Filho/UFRJ, Bloco G, Centro de Ciencias e Saude, Ilha do Fundao, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, CEP 21949-902 (Brazil); Guimaraes, Jean R.D.; Miranda, Marcio R. [Lab. Tracadores Wolfgang C. Pfeiffer, SL 049, Instituto de Biofisica Carlos Chagas Filho/UFRJ, Bloco G, Centro de Ciencias e Saude, Ilha do Fundao, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, CEP 21949-902 (Brazil); Poirier, Hugo [Chaire de Reserche en Environment, Universite du Quebec a Montreal (UQaM), CP 8888, Montreal, H3C 3P8 (Canada); Mauro, Jane B.N. [Lab. Tracadores Wolfgang C. Pfeiffer, SL 049, Instituto de Biofisica Carlos Chagas Filho/UFRJ, Bloco G, Centro de Ciencias e Saude, Ilha do Fundao, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, CEP 21949-902 (Brazil); Lucotte, Marc [Chaire de Reserche en Environment, Universite du Quebec a Montreal (UQaM), CP 8888, Montreal, H3C 3P8 (Canada); Mergler, Donna [CINBIOSE, UQaM, CP 8888, succ. Centre-ville, Montreal, H3C 3P8 (Canada)

    2011-06-15

    Methylmercury (MeHg) increases mercury (Hg) toxicity and is biomagnified in the trophic chain contaminating riverine Amazon populations. Freshwater macrophyte roots are a main site of Hg methylation in different Brazilian environments. Paspalum repens periphyton was sampled in four floodplain lakes during the dry, rainy and wet seasons for measurement of total Hg (THg), MeHg, Hg methylation potentials, %C, %N, {delta}{sup 13}C, {delta}{sup 15}N and bacterial heterotrophic production as {sup 3}H-leucine incorporation rate. THg concentration varied from 67 to 198 ng/g and the potential of Me{sup 203}Hg formation was expressive (1-23%) showing that periphyton is an important matrix both in the accumulation of Hg and in MeHg production. The concentration of MeHg varied from 1 to 6 ng/g DW and was positively correlated with Me{sup 203}Hg formation. Though methylmercury formation is mainly a bacterial process, no significant correlation was observed between the methylation potentials and bacterial production. The multiple regressions analyses suggested a negative correlation between THg and %C and %N and between methylation potential and {delta}{sup 13}C. The discriminant analysis showed a significant difference in periphyton {delta}{sup 15}N, {delta}{sup 13}C and THg between seasons, where the rainy season presented higher {delta}{sup 15}N and the wet period lighter {delta}{sup 13}C, lower THg values and higher Me{sup 203}Hg formation. This exploratory study indicates that the flooding cycle could influence the periphyton composition, mercury accumulation and methylmercury production. - Research highlights: {yields} During rainy season mercury (Hg{sup 2+}) is carried out from terrestrial to aquatic systems by runoff. {yields} Macrophyte roots accumulates Hg{sup 2+} from suspended particulate matter (SPM). {yields} Hg methylation increases during the wet season. {yields} Flooded forest is a source of labile organic carbon and bioavailable Hg. {yields} Macrophytes

  3. Observational study: daily treatment with a new compound “tradamixina” plus serenoa repens for two months improved the lower urinary tract symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) are associated with great emotional costs to individuals and substantial economic costs to society. This study seeks to evaluate the effect of a new natural compound “Tradamixina plus Serenoa Repens” in order to improve lower urinary tract symptoms. Methods 100 patients (≥45years) who had had LUTS/BPH for >6 mo at screening and with IPSS -The international Prostate symptom scores- ≥13 and maximum urinary flow rate (Qmax) ≥4 to ≤15 ml/s. were recruited. The compound “Tradamixina plus Serenoa Repens” (80 mg of Alga Ecklonia Bicyclis, 100 mg of Tribulus Terrestris and 100 mg of D-Glucosamine and N-Acetyl-D-Glucosamine plus 320 mg of Serenoa Repens) was administered daily for 2 months. At visit and after 60 days of treatment patients were evaluated by means of detailed medical urological history, clinical examination, laboratory investigations (total PSA), and instrumental examination like urolfowmetry. Efficacy measures included IPSS-International Prostate Sympto, BPH Impact Index (BII), Quality-of-Life (QoL) Index. Measures were assessed at baseline and end point (12 wk or end of therapy) and also at screening, 1 and 4 wk for IPSS, and 4 wk for BII. Statistical significance was interpreted only if the results of the preceding analysis were significant at the 0.05 level. Results After 2 months of treatment the change from baseline to week 12 relative to “Tradamixina plus Seronea Repens” in total IPSS and Qol was statistically significant. Differences from baseline in BII were statistically significant for “Tradamixina plus Seronea Repens” above all differences in BII were also significant at 4 wk (LSmean ± SE: -0.8 ± 0.2). In the distribution of subjects over the PGI-I and CGI-I response categories were significant for”Tradamixina plus Seronea Repens” (PGI-I: p = 0.001; CGI-I). We also observed a decrease of total PSA. Conclusion The daily treatment with a new compound “Tradamixina plus

  4. Transcription of Biotic Stress Associated Genes in White Clover (Trifolium repens L.) Differs in Response to Cyst and Root-Knot Nematode Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Afsana; Mercer, Chris F; Leung, Susanna; Dijkwel, Paul P; McManus, Michael T

    2015-01-01

    The transcription of four members of the Kunitz proteinase inhibitor (KPI) gene family of white clover (Trifolium repens L.), designated as Tr-KPI1, Tr-KPI2, Tr-KPI4 and Tr-KPI5, was investigated at both local infection (roots) and systemic (leaf tissue) sites in white clover in response to infection with the clover root knot nematode (CRKN) Meloidogyne trifoliophila and the clover cyst nematode (CCN) Heterodera trifolii. Invasion by the CRKN resulted in a significant decrease in transcript abundance of Tr-KPI4 locally at both 4 days post-infection (dpi) and at 8 dpi, and an increase in transcription of Tr-KPI1 systemically at 8 dpi. In contrast, an increase in transcript abundance of all four Tr-KPI genes locally at 4 and 8 dpi, and an increase of Tr-KPI1, Tr-KPI2, and Tr-KPI5 at 8 dpi systemically was observed in response to infection with the CCN. Challenge of a resistant (R) genotype and a susceptible (S) genotype of white clover with the CCN revealed a significant increase in transcript abundance of all four Tr-KPI genes locally in the R genotype, while an increase in abundance of only Tr-KPI1, Tr-KPI2, and Tr-KPI5 was observed in the S genotype, and only at 4 dpi. The transcript abundance of a member of the1-AMINOCYCLOPROPANE-1-CARBOXYLATE (ACC) SYNTHASE gene family from white clover (Tr-ACS1) was significantly down-regulated locally in response to CRKN infection at 4 and 8 dpi and at 4 dpi, systemically, while abundance increased locally and systemically at 8 dpi in response to CCN challenge. Conversely, the abundance of the jasmonic acid (JA) signalling gene, CORONATINE-INSENSITIVE PROTEIN 1 from white clover (Tr-COI1) increased significantly at 8 dpi locally in response to CRKN infection, but decreased at 8 dpi in response to CCN infection. The significance of this differential regulation of transcription is discussed with respect to differences in infection strategy of the two nematode species.

  5. O gênero Piptocarpha R.Br. (Asteraceae: Vernonieae no estado do Paraná, Brasil The genus Piptocarpha R.Br. (Asteraceae: Vernonieae in the Paraná state, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa Grokoviski

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo abrange o gênero Piptocarpha R.Br. (Vernonieae: Asteraceae no Estado do Paraná, Brasil. A metodologia consistiu no levantamento bibliográfico, coleta de material e observação de campo, estudos morfológicos e taxonômicos do material vivo e herborizado. Foram confirmadas para o Estado do Paraná nove espécies, sendo quatro escandentes: Piptocarpha leprosa (Less. Baker, P. oblonga (Gardner Baker, P. quadrangularis (Vell. Baker e P. sellowii (Sch.Bip. Baker; e cinco arbóreas: Piptocarpha angustifolia Dusén ex Malme, P. axillaris (Less. Baker, P. densifolia Dusén ex G.L. Smith, P. macropoda (DC. Baker e P. regnellii (Sch.Bip. Cabrera. São apresentadas chave de identificação, descrições morfológicas, época de floração e frutificação, nomes populares, distribuição geográfica, comentários e ilustrações para cada táxon estudado.The present study analysed the genus Piptocarpha R.Br. (Vernonieae: Asteraceae in the State of Paraná, Brazil. The methodology consisted of examining literature, botanical collections and field observations, morphological and taxonomic study of herborized specimens. Nine species were confirmed, four of these are scandent species: Piptocarpha leprosa (Less. Baker, P. oblonga (Gardner Baker, P. quadrangularis (Vell. Baker and P. sellowii (Sch.Bip. Baker; and five are trees species: Piptocarpha angustifolia Dusén ex Malme, P. axillaris (Less. Baker, P. densifolia Dusén ex G.L. Smith, P. macropoda (DC. Baker and P. regnellii (Sch.Bip. Cabrera. Identification key, descriptions, flowering and fruiting time, popular names, geographical distribution, comments and illustrations are provided for each studied taxa.

  6. Isolation and Characterization of 11 New Microsatellite Loci in Erigeron breviscapus (Asteraceae, an Important Chinese Traditional Herb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junbo Yang

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Erigeron breviscapus (Vant. Hand.-Mazz. (Asteraceae is a species endemic to southwestern China and an important traditional Chinese herb for cardiovascular and cerebral vessel diseases. Applying a modified biotin-streptavidin capture method, 11 microsatellite loci were discovered. Polymorphism of each locus was assessed in 24 individuals collected from five wild populations. The number of alleles per locus ranged from 2 to 7, with an average of 4.273. The observed (HO and expected (HE heterozygosities varied from 0.250 to 0.958 and from 0.337 to 0.786, respectively. Over half of these loci were successfully amplified in two congeneric species. The developed microsatellite markers will be useful for future population genetics and conservation studies, as well as accurate identification of different varieties.

  7. Phylogenetic relationships and generic delimitation in Inuleae subtribe Inulinae (Asteraceae) based on ITS and cpDNA sequence data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Englund, Marcus; Pornpongrungrueng, Pimwadee; Gustafsson, Mats

    2009-01-01

    Phylogenetic relationships in Inuleae subtribe Inulinae (Asteraceae) were investigated. DNA sequence data from three chloroplast regions (ndhF, trnL-F and psbA-trnH) and the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region were analysed separately and in combination using parsimony...... and Bayesian inference. A total of 163 ingroup taxa were included, of which 60 were sampled for all four markers. Conflicts between chloroplast and nuclear data were assessed using partitioned Bremer support (PBS). Rather than averaging PBS over several trees from constrained searches, individual trees were...... considered by evaluating PBS ranges. Criteria to be used in the detection of a significant conflict between data partitions are proposed. Three nodes in the total data tree were found to encompass significant conflict that could result from ancient hybridization. Neither of the large, heterogeneous...

  8. [Diversity of Plants Belonging to the Genus Ligularia (Asteraceae) Based on Terpenoids and Synthetic Studies on Some Terpenoids].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tori, Motoo

    2016-01-01

    The terpenoid constituents of Ligularia virgaurea (30 samples), Ligularia pleurocaulis (8 samples), Ligularia dictyoneura (8 samples), Ligularia brassicoides (5 samples), Ligularia lingiana (1 sample), and Ligularia liatroides (1 sample)(all belonging to section Senecillis of Ligularia, Asteraceae and collected in Yunnan, Sichuan, Qinghai, and Gansu provinces, China), from which 220 compounds were isolated, including 113 novel ones, are reviewed. Five chemotypes were identified in L. virgaurea based on their chemical constituents, while three clades were detected from the base sequences. Although intra-specific diversity was found in L. virgaurea, more samples were needed of other species in order to reach a definite conclusion. Inter-specific diversity was also examined in section Senecillis but was restricted due to the scarcity of samples. Synthetic studies on chiral natural products to determine their absolute configurations, especially those of riccardiphenols A and B as well as crispatanolide, which were all isolated from the liverwort, are briefly reviewed.

  9. Pollen morphology and its relationship to the taxonomy of the some taxa of helichrysum gaertner (asteraceae) in turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elkiran, O.; Bagci, E.

    2017-01-01

    Palynological studies of Helichrysum chionophilum, Helichrysum noeanum, Helichrysum arenarium subsp. aucheri, Helichrysum graveolens, H. plicatum subsp. plicatum and H. plicatum subsp. polyphyllum (Asteraceae) from Turkey have been carried out. H. chionophilum, H. noeanum and H. arenarium subsp. aucheri are endemics to Turkey. Pollen features of both taxa were observed with the Light and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The pollen type of both taxa were determined as tricolporate, pollen shapes were spheroidal and oblate-spheroidal, reticular pollen ornamentation was observed. The studies show that the pollen of the six taxa are very similar regarding pollen shapes, apertures, and ornamentation, but may be distinguished by colpus length (Clg), pore width (Plt) and pore length (Plg). The findings obtained from the study are discussed with each other and the genus patterns. (author)

  10. Evaluation of antimalarial, free-radical-scavenging and insecticidal activities of Artemisia scoparia and A. Spicigera, Asteraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fariba H. Afshar

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Artemisia species (Asteraceae, widespread throughout the world, are a group of important medicinal plants. The extracts of two medicinal plants of this genus, Artemisia scoparia Waldst. & Kit. and A. spicigera C. Koch, were evaluated for potential antimalarial, free-radical-scavenging and insecticidal properties, using the heme biocrystallisation and inhibition assay, the DPPH assay and the contact toxicity bioassay using the pest Tribolium castaneum, respectively. The methanol extracts of both species showed strong free-radical-scavenging activity and the RC50 values were 0.0317 and 0.0458 mg/mL, respectively, for A. scoparia and A. spicigera. The dichloromethane extracts of both species displayed a moderate level of potential antimalarial activity providing IC50 at 0.778 and 0.999 mg/mL for A. scoparia and A. spicigera, respectively. Both species of Artemisia showed insecticidal properties. However, A. spicigera was more effective than A. scoparia.

  11. ALELOPATIA DE Arctium minus BERNH (ASTERACEAE NA GERMINAÇÃO E CRESCIMENTO RADICULAR DE SORGO E PEPINO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdenir José Belinelo

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this work were identified and characterize the allelopatic activity of extracts obtained from Arctium minus (Hill Bernh (Asteraceae. The fitotoxic activity of organic extracts (1 e 100 mg.L-1 and aqueous extract (5,00 e 0,05% m/v on the germination and radicular growth of the monocotyledon Sorghum bicolor L. (sorghum, and the dicotyledon Cucumis sativus L. (cucumber were evaluated. The results showed the presence of allelopatic activity variable in according to the extract concentration and with the target plant. The intensity of induced inhibitory effect was higher for the ethanolic extract in concentration of 100 mg.L-1 for Sorghum bicolor L. The results also indicates the existence of the potential use of Arctium minus (Hill Bernh ethanolic extract as a natural herbicide and open perspectives for the research of the constituent(s with higher allelopatic activity.

  12. Evolution and diversification of the CYC/TB1 gene family in Asteraceae--a comparative study in Gerbera (Mutisieae) and sunflower (Heliantheae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tähtiharju, Sari; Rijpkema, Anneke S; Vetterli, Adrien; Albert, Victor A; Teeri, Teemu H; Elomaa, Paula

    2012-04-01

    Plant-specific TCP domain transcription factors have been shown to regulate morphological novelties during plant evolution, including the complex architecture of the Asteraceae inflorescence that involves different types of flowers. We conducted comparative analysis of the CYCLOIDEA/TEOSINTE BRANCHED1 (CYC/TB1) gene family in Gerbera hybrida (gerbera) and Helianthus annuus (sunflower), two species that represent distant tribes within Asteraceae. Our data confirm that the CYC/TB1 gene family has expanded in Asteraceae, a condition that appears to be connected with the increased developmental complexity and evolutionary success of this large plant family. Phylogenetic analysis of the CYC/TB1 gene family revealed both shared and lineage-specific duplications in gerbera and sunflower, corresponding to the three gene lineages previously identified as specific to core eudicots: CYC1, CYC2, and CYC3. Expression analyses of early stages of flower primordia development indicated that especially within the CYC2 clade, with the greatest number of secondary gene duplications, gene expression patterns are conserved between the species and associated with flower and inflorescence development. All sunflower and gerbera CYC2 clade genes showed differential expression between developing flower types, being upregulated in marginal ray (and trans) flowers. One gene in gerbera (GhCYC3) and two in sunflower (HaCYC2d and HaCYC2c) were indicated to be strong candidates as regulators of ray flower identity, a function that is specific for Asteraceae. Our data further showed that other CYC2 clade genes are likely to have more specialized functions at the level of single flowers, including the late functions in floral reproductive organs that may be more conserved across plant families. The expression patterns of CYC1 and CYC3 clade genes showed more differences between the two species but still pointed to possible conserved functions during vegetative plant development. Pairwise protein

  13. Powdery mildew of Chrysanthemum × morifolium: phylogeny and taxonomy in the context of Golovinomyces species on Asteraceae hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradshaw, Michael; Braun, Uwe; Götz, Monika; Meeboon, Jamjan; Takamatsu, Susumu

    2017-01-01

    The taxonomic history of the common powdery mildew of Chrysanthemum × morifolium (chrysanthemum, florist's daisy), originally described in Germany as Oidium chrysanthemi, is discussed. The position of O. chrysanthemi was investigated on the basis of morphological traits and molecular phylogenetic analyses. Based on the results of this study, this species, which is closely related to Golovinomyces artemisae, was reassessed and reallocated to Golovinomyces. The phylogenetic analysis and taxonomic reassessment of the chrysanthemum powdery mildew is supplemented by a morphological description, a summary of its worldwide distribution data, and a brief discussion of the introduction of this fungus to North America. G. chrysanthemi differs from true G. artemisiae in that it has much longer conidiophores, is not constricted at the base, and has much larger and most importantly longer conidia. The close affinity of Golovinomyces to Artemisia and Chrysanthemum species signifies a coevolutionary event between the powdery mildews concerned and their host species in the subtribe Artemisiinae (Asteraceae tribe Anthemideae). This conclusion is fully supported by the current phylogeny and taxonomy of the host plant genera and the coevolution that occurred with the host and pathogen. The following powdery mildew species, which are associated with hosts belonging to the tribe Anthemideae of the Asteraceae, are epitypified: Alphitomorpha depressa β artemisiae (≡ Alphitomorpha artemisiae), Erysiphe artemisiae, and Oidium chrysanthemi. Erysiphe macrocarpa is neotypified. Their sequences were retrieved from the epitype collections and have been added to the phylogenetic tree. Golovinomyces orontii, an additional powdery mildew species on Chrysanthemum ×morifolium, is reported. This species is rarely found as a spontaneous infection and was obtained from inoculation experiments.

  14. Relationship between the species-representative phenotype and intraspecific variation in Ranunculaceae floral organ and Asteraceae flower numbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitazawa, Miho S; Fujimoto, Koichi

    2016-04-01

    Phenotypic variation in floral morphologies contributes to speciation by testing various morphologies that might have higher adaptivity, leading eventually to phylogenetic diversity. Species diversity has been recognized, however, by modal morphologies where the variation is averaged out, so little is known about the relationship between the variation and the diversity. We analysed quantitatively the intraspecific variation of the organ numbers within flowers of Ranunculaceae, a family which branched near the monocot-eudicot separation, and the numbers of flowers within the capitula of Asteraceae, one of the most diverse families of eudicots. We used four elementary statistical quantities: mean, standard deviation (s.d.), degree of symmetry (skewness) and steepness (kurtosis). While these four quantities vary among populations, we found a common relationship between s.d. and the mean number of petals and sepals in Ranunculaceae and number of flowers per capitulum in Asteraceae. The s.d. is equal to the square root of the difference between the mean and specific number, showing robustness: for example, 3 in Ficaria sepals, 5 in Ranunculus petals and Anemone tepals, and 13 in Farfugium ray florets. This square-root relationship was not applicable to Eranthis petals which show little correlation between the s.d. and mean, and the stamens and carpels of Ranunculaceae whose s.d. is proportional to the mean. The specific values found in the square-root relationship provide a novel way to find the species-representative phenotype among varied morphologies. The representative phenotype is, in most cases, unique to the species or genus level, despite intraspecific differences of average phenotype among populations. The type of variation shown by the statistical quantities indicates not only the robustness of the morphologies but also how flowering plants changed during evolution among representative phenotypes that eventually led to phylogenetic diversification. © The

  15. Outstanding Anti-inflammatory Potential of Selected Asteraceae Species through the Potent Dual Inhibition of Cyclooxygenase-1 and 5-Lipoxygenase.

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    Chagas-Paula, Daniela Aparecida; Oliveira, Tiago Branquinho; Faleiro, Danniela Príscylla Vasconcelos; Oliveira, Rejane Barbosa; Costa, Fernando Batista Da

    2015-09-01

    Cyclooxygenase and 5-lipoxygenase are enzymes that catalyze important inflammatory pathways, suggesting that dual cyclooxygenase/lipoxygenase inhibitors should be more efficacious as anti-inflammatory medicines with lower side effects than the currently available nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Many plants from the family Asteraceae have anti-inflammatory activities, which could be exerted by inhibiting the cyclooxygenase-1 and 5-lipoxygenase enzymes. Nevertheless, only a small number of compounds from this family have been directly evaluated for their ability to inhibit the enzymes in cell-free assays. Therefore, this study systematically evaluated 57 Asteraceae extracts in vitro in enzyme activity experiments to determine whether any of these extracts exhibit dual inhibition of cyclooxygenase-1 and 5-lipoxygenase. The chemical profiles of the extracts were obtained by the high-performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet-diode array detector method, and their major constituents were dereplicated. Of the 57 tested extracts, 13 (26.6 %, IC50 range from 0.03-36.2 µg/mL) of them displayed dual inhibition. Extracts from known anti-inflammatory herbs, food plants, and previously uninvestigated species are among the most active. Additionally, the extract action was found to be specific with IC50 values close to or below those of the standard inhibitors. Thus, the active extracts and active substances of these species are potent inhibitors acting through the mechanism of dual inhibition of cyclooxygenase-1 and 5-lipoxygenase. The extracts were prepared for this study using nontoxic extraction solvents (EtOH-H2O), requiring only a small amount of plant material to carry out the bioassays and the phytochemical analyses. In summary, this study demonstrated the potential of the investigated species as dual inhibitors, revealing their potential as pharmaceuticals or nutraceuticals. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  16. Toxicological evaluation of the natural products and some semisynthetic derivatives of Heterotheca inuloides Cass (Asteraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Chávez, José Luis; Coballase-Urrutia, Elvia; Sicilia-Argumedo, Gloria; Ramírez-Apan, Teresa; Delgado, Guillermo

    2015-12-04

    Heterotheca ineuloides Cass (Asteraceae), popularly known as árnica mexicana, is widely used in Mexican traditional medicine to treat bruises, dermatological problems, rheumatic pains, and other disorders as cancer. The major constituents in H. inuloides are cadinane type sesquiterpenes, flavonoids and phytosterols. Compounds with a cadinane skeleton have been proved to possess cytotoxic activity against human-tumor cell lines and brine shrimp, and display toxic effects in different animal species. Although this plant has been widely used, there is little available information on the safety and toxicity especially of pure compounds. Evaluate the potential toxicity of the natural products isolated from H. inuloides and some semisynthetic derivatives. The toxic aspects of the following natural products isolated from dried flowers of H. inuloides: 7-hydroxy-3,4-dihydrocadalene (1), 7-hydroxycadalene (2), 3,7-dihydroxy-3(4H)-isocadalen-4-one (3), (1R,4R)-1-hydroxy-4H-1,2,3,4- tetrahydrocadalen-15-oic acid (4), D-chiro-inositol (5), quercetin (6), quercetin-3,7,3'-trimethyl ether (7), quercetin-3,7,3',4'-tetramethyl ether (8), eriodictyol-7,4'-dimethyl ether (9), α-spinasterol (10), caryolan-1,9β-diol (11) and 7-(3,3-dimethylallyloxy)-coumarin (12) as well as the toxic aspects of the semisynthetic compounds 7-acetoxy-3,4-dihydrocadalene (13), 7-benzoxy-3,4-dihydrocadalene (14), 7-acetoxycadalene (15), 7-benzoxycadalene (16), quercetin pentaacetate (17), 7-hydroxycalamenene (18), 3,8-dimethyl-5-(1-methylethyl)-1,2-naphthoquinone (19), and 4-isopropyl-1,6-dimethylbenzo[c]oxepine-7,9-dione (20). Toxic activities of compounds were determined by sulforhodamine B (SRB) assay, Artemia salina assay, RAW264.7 macrophage cells. Additionally, the acute toxicity in mouse of compound 1, the major natural sesquiterpene isolated from the acetone extract, was evaluated. The best cytotoxicity activity was observed for mansonone C (19) on K562 cell line with IC50 1.45 ± 0.14 μM, for

  17. QUALITATIVE COMPOSITION AND ORGANI C ACIDS CONTENT IN THE ABOVEGROUN D PART OF PLANTS FRO M FAMILIES LAMIACEAE, ASTERACEAE, APIACEAE AND CHENOPODIACEAE

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    S. M. Marchyshyn

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background. Organic acids are the compounds of aliphatic or aromatic orders, which are widespread in flora and have a wide range of biological activity. We studied the qualitative composition and quantitative contents of organic acids in the aboveground part of some unofficial medicinal plants from families Lamiaceae, Asteraceae, Apiaceae and Chenopodiaceae is relevant. Objective. The objects of the research are the aboveground part of unofficial medicinal plants from families Lamiaceae, Asteraceae, Apiaceae and Chenopodiaceae. Methods. Identification of organic acids was performed by means of thin-layer and paper chromatography, their content was determined by means of gas chromatography, the quantitative amount of organic acids was defined by titrimetric analysis. Results. In the studied raw plants the quality of organic acids and their total contents were determined (in terms of malic acid. It is established that the maximum content of organic acids is accumulated in the grass Hyssopus officinalis L. (Lamiaceae, and the minimal is in the leaves of Chrysánthemum xhortorum L. variety Apro (Asteraceae. In all studied raw plants the dominance of aliphatic acids (citric, malic, oxalic and malonic was determined by means of gas chromatography. Benzoic is predominant among the aromatic acids. Conclusions. In the studied raw plants the quality of organic acids and their total content were determined. The following results can be used in developing the methods of quality control of the studied raw plants and during the study of new bioactive substances.

  18. Sesquiterpene lactone mix as a diagnostic tool for Asteraceae allergic contact dermatitis: chemical explanation for its poor performance and Sesquiterpene lactone mix II as a proposed improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Mathias; Brinkmann, Jürgen; Schmidt, Thomas J

    2012-05-01

    Two preparations are currently in use for the diagnosis of allergic contact dermatitis caused by Asteraceae: (i) Sesquiterpene lactone (SL) mix [three pure sesquiterpene lactones (STLs)], whose use has been questioned, owing to an insufficient rate of true-positive results; and (ii) Compositae mix, consisting of five Asteraceae extracts, which is problematic because of lack of standardization and questionable reproducibility. To analyse the reasons for the narrow sensitivity of SL mix from a chemoinformatic point of view, and to propose a solution by rational selection of alternative constituents for a new SL mix II covering a broader cohort of allergic patients. Structural and biological information on allergenic STLs was retrieved from databases and the literature, and molecular modelling and chemoinformatic computations were performed. An explanation for the insufficient hit rate of SL mix is that the three constituents possess extremely similar molecular structures/properties and do not represent well the structural diversity of allergenic STLs. STLs that are known as constituents of Compositae mix plants show much a wider diversity, which explains the higher positive rate. On the basis of their positions in chemical property space, a new collection of STLs that more evenly cover the overall structural diversity spectrum is proposed. SL mix II is likely to detect a larger number of patients sensitized to Asteraceae. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  19. Elisa de captura com IgY para quantificação de acetato de lupeol em Vernonia scorpioides lam. Pers (asteraceae Capture IgY-elisa to quantify lupeol acetate in Vernonia scorpioides lam. Pers (asteraceae

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    Ronald Bastos Freire

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available O presente experimento descreve, pela primeira vez, a elaboração de um ensaio imunoenzimático (ELISA de captura com anticorpos IgY para a detecção e quantificação de acetato de lupeol (LAc em Vernonia scorpioides Lam. Pers (Asteraceae. Anticorpos anti-LAc, obtidos partir do soro das aves e gemas de seus ovos, após imunização com o conjugado acetato de lupeol-cBSA, foram concentrados em coluna contendo LAc-BSA acoplado a sepharose. A eficácia da metodologia de detecção imunológica foi de 97%, com índices de sensibilidade e especificidade de 99% e 95%, respectivamente com limites de detecção do ensaio entre 0,02µg.g-1 (inferior e 10 µg.g-1 (superior. A robustez do método foi atestada pela sua elevada reprodutibilidade (entre 94,75% e 96,81%, e pelo baixo coeficiente de variação interna (4,22 ± 1,03% nas condições de execução descritas.For the first time, a yolk immunoglobulins-based immunenzymatic assay (capture IgY-ELISA was carried out to detect Lupeol acetate (LAc from Vernonia scorpioides Lam. Pers (Asteraceae. Antibodies (IgY against lupeol acetate (anti-LAc antibodies were raised in White Leghorn hens immunized with LAc conjugated to the bovine serum albumin (LAc-BSA. The anti-LAc antibodies were recovered by cleanup columns containing LAc-BSA coupled to sepharose. The capture IgY-ELISA efficacy was of 97% when the predictive indices of sensitivity and specificity were 99.0% and 95%, respectively. The lowest and highest detection limits were of 0.02µg g-1 and 10µg.g-1 of plant extract, respectively. The strength of this method was attested by its high reproducibility (between 94.75% and 96.81%, and a low internal variation (4.22 ± 1.03%, under the described conditions.

  20. Meiotic analysis of the germoplasm of three medicinal species from Asteraceae family Análise meiótica do germoplasma de três espécies medicinais da família Asteraceae

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    Denise Olkoski

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Cytogenetic characterization was carried out on 12 accessions from Aster squamatus (Spreng. Hieron., Pterocaulon polystachyum DC, and Solidago microglossa DC by studying their meiotic behavior and pollen viability. These species are from the Asteraceae family, native to Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil, and are important for medicinal use. Young inflorescences with four accessions of each species were collected, fixed in ethanol-acetic acid (3:1, and conserved in ethanol 70% until use. The method used was that of squashing the anthers and coloring with acetic orcein 2%. Meiosis was regular in all accessions, presenting chromosomal associations preferentially bivalent, where n=10 was found for Aster squamatus and n=9 for Pterocaulon polystachyum, and Solidago microglossa. The studied accessions presented a Meiotic Index (MI that varied from 65% to 87% in Aster squamatus, 85% to 92% in Pterocaulon polystachyum, and 64% to 92% in Solidago microglossa, indicating meiotic stability, although irregularities appeared during the cellular division. The pollen viability estimative was high in all studied accessions. These results indicate that the studied species can be included in future studies of genetic breeding.Foi realizada a caracterização citogenética de doze acessos de Aster squamatus, Pterocaulon polystachyum e Solidago microglossa, espécies da família Asteraceae, nativas do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil, por meio do estudo do comportamento meiótico e da viabilidade polínica, que possuem grande importância para uso medicinal. Inflorescências jovens de quatro acessos de cada espécie foram fixadas em álcool-ácido acético (3:1 e conservadas em álcool 70% até o uso. O método utilizado foi o de esmagamento de anteras e a coloração com orceína acética 2%. A meiose foi regular em todos os acessos, apresentando associações cromossômicas preferencialmente em bivalentes, encontrando-se n=10 para Aster squamatus e n=9 para Pterocaulon

  1. Antibacterial and antioxidant activities of the essential oil of Artemisia echegarayi Hieron. (Asteraceae Actividad antibacteriana y antioxidante del aceite esencial extraído de Artemisia echegarayi Hieron. (Asteraceae

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    A. Laciar

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Artemisia echegarayi Hieron. (Asteraceae is commonly known in Argentina as “ajenjo”. Many studies report high efficacy of essential oils against food-borne pathogenic bacteria. The antimicrobial activity and minimal inhibitory concentration of A. echegarayi essential oil were evaluated against seven bacterial species of significant importance in food hygiene, by using the disc diffusion assay and the micro-well dilution method, respectively. Volatile components of the extract were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and major components were determined. Furthermore, the essential oil was tested for its antioxidant activity. The essential oil inhibited the growth of gram-positive and gram-negative tested bacteria, with the exception of Proteus mirabilis. A. echegarayi essential oil presented the lowest minimal inhibitory concentration against Listeria monocytogenes and Bacillus cereus. Two terpenes, thujone and camphor, were identified from this essential oil as the principal constituents responsible for antibacterial activity. The oil showed a free radical scavenging activity equivalent to 50% of the reference compound. These preliminary studies showed promising results since this essential oil may provide an alternative to promote its use as a natural food additive.Artemisia echegarayi Hieron. (Asteraceae, conocida como “ajenjo”, es una planta típica de la región de Cuyo (Argentina. En este trabajo se evaluó la actividad antimicrobiana in vitro y la concentración inhibitoria mínima del aceite esencial extraído de sus partes aéreas frente a especies bacterianas que con frecuencia contaminan los alimentos. Se utilizaron las técnicas de difusión con discos en agar y microdilución en placa respectivamente. Además, se determinó la actividad antioxidante de este aceite esencial in vitro por espectrofotometría. En general, tanto las bacterias gram-positivas como las gram-negativas fueron inhibidas por este aceite, con

  2. Repeated reunions and splits feature the highly dynamic evolution of 5S and 35S ribosomal RNA genes (rDNA) in the Asteraceae family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Sònia; Panero, José L; Siroky, Jiri; Kovarik, Ales

    2010-08-16

    In flowering plants and animals the most common ribosomal RNA genes (rDNA) organisation is that in which 35S (encoding 18S-5.8S-26S rRNA) and 5S genes are physically separated occupying different chromosomal loci. However, recent observations established that both genes have been unified to a single 35S-5S unit in the genus Artemisia (Asteraceae), a genomic arrangement typical of primitive eukaryotes such as yeast, among others. Here we aim to reveal the origin, distribution and mechanisms leading to the linked organisation of rDNA in the Asteraceae by analysing unit structure (PCR, Southern blot, sequencing), gene copy number (quantitative PCR) and chromosomal position (FISH) of 5S and 35S rRNA genes in approximately 200 species representing the family diversity and other closely related groups. Dominant linked rDNA genotype was found within three large groups in subfamily Asteroideae: tribe Anthemideae (93% of the studied cases), tribe Gnaphalieae (100%) and in the "Heliantheae alliance" (23%). The remaining five tribes of the Asteroideae displayed canonical non linked arrangement of rDNA, as did the other groups in the Asteraceae. Nevertheless, low copy linked genes were identified among several species that amplified unlinked units. The conserved position of functional 5S insertions downstream from the 26S gene suggests a unique, perhaps retrotransposon-mediated integration event at the base of subfamily Asteroideae. Further evolution likely involved divergence of 26S-5S intergenic spacers, amplification and homogenisation of units across the chromosomes and concomitant elimination of unlinked arrays. However, the opposite trend, from linked towards unlinked arrangement was also surmised in few species indicating possible reversibility of these processes. Our results indicate that nearly 25% of Asteraceae species may have evolved unusual linked arrangement of rRNA genes. Thus, in plants, fundamental changes in intrinsic structure of rDNA units, their copy

  3. Next-generation sampling: Pairing genomics with herbarium specimens provides species-level signal in Solidago (Asteraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, James B; Semple, John C

    2015-06-01

    The ability to conduct species delimitation and phylogeny reconstruction with genomic data sets obtained exclusively from herbarium specimens would rapidly enhance our knowledge of large, taxonomically contentious plant genera. In this study, the utility of genotyping by sequencing is assessed in the notoriously difficult genus Solidago (Asteraceae) by attempting to obtain an informative single-nucleotide polymorphism data set from a set of specimens collected between 1970 and 2010. Reduced representation libraries were prepared and Illumina-sequenced from 95 Solidago herbarium specimen DNAs, and resulting reads were processed with the nonreference Universal Network-Enabled Analysis Kit (UNEAK) pipeline. Multidimensional clustering was used to assess the correspondence between genetic groups and morphologically defined species. Library construction and sequencing were successful in 93 of 95 samples. The UNEAK pipeline identified 8470 single-nucleotide polymorphisms, and a filtered data set was analyzed for each of three Solidago subsections. Although results varied, clustering identified genomic groups that often corresponded to currently recognized species or groups of closely related species. These results suggest that genotyping by sequencing is broadly applicable to DNAs obtained from herbarium specimens. The data obtained and their biological signal suggest that pairing genomics with large-scale herbarium sampling is a promising strategy in species-rich plant groups.

  4. Combined treatment with caffeic and ferulic acid from Baccharis uncinella C. DC. (Asteraceae) protects against metabolic syndrome in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocco, B M; Fernandes, G W; Lorena, F B; Cysneiros, R M; Christoffolete, M A; Grecco, S S; Lancellotti, C L; Romoff, P; Lago, J H G; Bianco, A C; Ribeiro, M O

    2016-03-01

    Fractionation of the EtOH extract from aerial parts of Baccharis uncinella C. DC. (Asteraceae) led to isolation of caffeic and ferulic acids, which were identified from spectroscopic and spectrometric evidence. These compounds exhibit antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties and have been shown to be effective in the prevention/treatment of metabolic syndrome. This study investigated whether the combined treatment of caffeic and ferulic acids exhibits a more significant beneficial effect in a mouse model with metabolic syndrome. The combination treatment with caffeic and ferulic acids was tested for 60 days in C57 mice kept on a high-fat (40%) diet. The data obtained indicated that treatment with caffeic and ferulic acids prevented gain in body weight induced by the high-fat diet and improved hyperglycemia, hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia. The expression of a number of metabolically relevant genes was affected in the liver of these animals, showing that caffeic and ferulic acid treatment results in increased cholesterol uptake and reduced hepatic triglyceride synthesis in the liver, which is a likely explanation for the prevention of hepatic steatosis. In conclusion, the combined treatment of caffeic and ferulic acids displayed major positive effects towards prevention of multiple aspects of the metabolic syndrome and liver steatosis in an obese mouse model.

  5. Physiological response and differential leaf proteome pattern in the European invasive Asteraceae Solidago canadensis colonizing a former cokery soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Immel, Françoise; Renaut, Jenny; Masfaraud, Jean-François

    2012-02-02

    Derelict contaminated sites are often colonized spontaneously by plant species leading to a vegetal cover thought to limit particle dispersal and polluted water infiltration. Those plants must cope with soil pollutants through tolerance mechanisms that are not yet fully understood. Here, we focused our attention on a particular Asteraceae plant, Solidago canadensis, considered as invasive in Europe. S. canadensis spontaneously growing on either polluted (NM soil) or control soils dumped on experimental plots were studied for their physiological status, oxidative stress and 2D-DIGE of leaf extracts. S. canadensis tolerance to soil pollutants was demonstrated since growth rates, allocation to reproduction ratios and Fv/Fm ratios were similar in plants from control and NM soil. At the cell level, the catalase activity level was increased in plants collected on NM soil while lipoperoxidation was unaffected. Also, the leaf proteomic study revealed thirty down-regulated and sixty-six up-regulated proteins. Abundances of proteins related to oxidative stress, carbohydrate metabolism, ion transport were mainly up-regulated while those of proteins involved in cell cycle and transcription/translation were mostly down-regulated. Proteins associated to protein metabolism were either down- or up-regulated. Considered altogether, we highlighted that S. canadensis exhibited a complex proteome response when experiencing a multicontaminated soil. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Volatile constituents from Baccharis spp. L. (Asteraceae): Chemical support for the conservation of threatened species in Uruguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minteguiaga, Manuel; Andrés González, H; Cassel, Eduardo; Umpierrez, Noelia; Fariña, Laura; Dellacassa, Eduardo

    2018-03-14

    Chemical bioprospecting is an important tool for generating knowledge regarding local human-threatened floras and for conservation management. For Baccharis L. (Asteraceae), several volatile components have been reported for Brazil, Argentina, Bolivia, and Chile as a result of bioprospection, but not for Uruguayan flora, which is composed of more than 50 native species. In this work, through collection of aerial parts of different species and volatile simultaneous-distillation extraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses, 12 native species of Baccharis were studied (B. articulata, B. cultrata, B. genistifolia, B. gibertii, B. gnaphalioides, B. ochracea, B. phyteumoides, B. punctulata, B. crispa, B. dracunculifolia, B. linearifolia subsp. linearifolia, and B. spicata). A detailed analysis of the male and female volatile composition was conducted for the last four species. The profiles of B. cultrata, B. genistifolia, B. gibertii, and B. gnaphalioides are reported for the first time. Because half of the species analysed in this work are in Uruguay and are threatened or potentially threatened by human economic activities, the importance of their conservation as natural, sustainable resources is highlighted. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  7. Fly pollination of Gorteria diffusa (Asteraceae), and a possible mimetic function for dark spots on the capitulum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, S.D.; Midgley, J.J.

    1997-01-01

    We investigated the functional significance of raised black spots on the ray florets of Gorteria diffusa (Asteraceae) in South Africa. Field observations showed that G. diffusa is pollinated by a small bee-fly, Megapalpus nitidus (Bombyliidae). which is strikingly similar to the raised spots that occur on some of the ray florets. Removal of the spots resulted in a significant decrease in the rate of fly visits to capitula, but did not significantly affect seed set. Replacement of the spots with simple ink spots also significantly reduced the rate of pollinator visits, suggesting that flies respond to details in the structure of the spots. Investigations using scanning electron microscopy showed that the spots of G. diffusa consist of a complex of different cell types. Differences in epidermal sculpturing may partly explain the UV reflectance pattern of these spots, which is similar to that of the flies. Mate flies are strongly attracted to the spots, as well as to other flies sitting in the capitula, although female flies also visit the capitula. We conclude that the spots of G. diffusa mimic resting flies, thereby eliciting mate-seeking and aggregation responses in fly pollinators. Similar dark spots have evolved in unrelated South African Gazania. Dimorphotheca, and Pelargonium species pollinated by bee-flies

  8. On the road to diploidization? Homoeolog loss in independently formed populations of the allopolyploid Tragopogon miscellus (Asteraceae

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    Soltis Pamela S

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Polyploidy (whole-genome duplication is an important speciation mechanism, particularly in plants. Gene loss, silencing, and the formation of novel gene complexes are some of the consequences that the new polyploid genome may experience. Despite the recurrent nature of polyploidy, little is known about the genomic outcome of independent polyploidization events. Here, we analyze the fate of genes duplicated by polyploidy (homoeologs in multiple individuals from ten natural populations of Tragopogon miscellus (Asteraceae, all of which formed independently from T. dubius and T. pratensis less than 80 years ago. Results Of the 13 loci analyzed in 84 T. miscellus individuals, 11 showed loss of at least one parental homoeolog in the young allopolyploids. Two loci were retained in duplicate for all polyploid individuals included in this study. Nearly half (48% of the individuals examined lost a homoeolog of at least one locus, with several individuals showing loss at more than one locus. Patterns of loss were stochastic among individuals from the independently formed populations, except that the T. dubius copy was lost twice as often as T. pratensis. Conclusion This study represents the most extensive survey of the fate of genes duplicated by allopolyploidy in individuals from natural populations. Our results indicate that the road to genome downsizing and ultimate genetic diploidization may occur quickly through homoeolog loss, but with some genes consistently maintained as duplicates. Other genes consistently show evidence of homoeolog loss, suggesting repetitive aspects to polyploid genome evolution.

  9. Next-Generation Sequencing of the Chrysanthemum nankingense (Asteraceae) Transcriptome Permits Large-Scale Unigene Assembly and SSR Marker Discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haibin; Jiang, Jiafu; Chen, Sumei; Qi, Xiangyu; Peng, Hui; Li, Pirui; Song, Aiping; Guan, Zhiyong; Fang, Weimin; Liao, Yuan; Chen, Fadi

    2013-01-01

    Background Simple sequence repeats (SSRs) are ubiquitous in eukaryotic genomes. Chrysanthemum is one of the largest genera in the Asteraceae family. Only few Chrysanthemum expressed sequence tag (EST) sequences have been acquired to date, so the number of available EST-SSR markers is very low. Methodology/Principal Findings Illumina paired-end sequencing technology produced over 53 million sequencing reads from C. nankingense mRNA. The subsequent de novo assembly yielded 70,895 unigenes, of which 45,789 (64.59%) unigenes showed similarity to the sequences in NCBI database. Out of 45,789 sequences, 107 have hits to the Chrysanthemum Nr protein database; 679 and 277 sequences have hits to the database of Helianthus and Lactuca species, respectively. MISA software identified a large number of putative EST-SSRs, allowing 1,788 primer pairs to be designed from the de novo transcriptome sequence and a further 363 from archival EST sequence. Among 100 primer pairs randomly chosen, 81 markers have amplicons and 20 are polymorphic for genotypes analysis in Chrysanthemum. The results showed that most (but not all) of the assays were transferable across species and that they exposed a significant amount of allelic diversity. Conclusions/Significance SSR markers acquired by transcriptome sequencing are potentially useful for marker-assisted breeding and genetic analysis in the genus Chrysanthemum and its related genera. PMID:23626799

  10. Propagule pressure, genetic structure, and geographic origins of Chondrilla juncea (Asteraceae): an apomictic invader on three continents.

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    Gaskin, John F; Schwarzländer, Mark; Kinter, C Lynn; Smith, James F; Novak, Stephen J

    2013-09-01

    Assessing propagule pressure and geographic origins of invasive species provides insight into the invasion process. Rush skeletonweed (Chondrilla juncea; Asteraceae) is an apomictic, perennial plant that is invasive in Australia, South America (Argentina), and North America (Canada and the United States). This study comprehensively compares propagule pressure and geographic structure of genotypes to improve our understanding of a clonal invasion and enhance management strategies. • We analyzed 1056 native range plants from Eurasia and 1156 plants from three invaded continents using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) techniques. We used measures of diversity (Simpson's D) and evenness (E), analysis of molecular variance, and Mantel tests to compare invasions, and genotype similarity to determine origins of invasive genotypes. • We found 682 unique genotypes in the native range, but only 13 in the invaded regions. Each invaded region contained distinct AFLP genotypes, suggesting independent introduction events, probably with different geographic origins. Relatively low propagule pressure was associated with each introduction around the globe, but levels of among-population variation differed. We found exact AFLP genotype matches between the native and invaded ranges for five of the 13 invasive genotypes. • Invasion dynamics can vary across invaded ranges within a species. Intensive sampling for molecular analyses can provide insight for understanding intraspecific invasion dynamics, which can hold significance for the management of plant species, especially by finding origins and distributions of invasive genotypes for classical biological control efforts.

  11. Selfing ability and dispersal are positively related, but not affected by range position: a multispecies study on southern African Asteraceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Waal, C; Rodger, J G; Anderson, B; Ellis, A G

    2014-05-01

    Dispersal and breeding system traits are thought to affect colonization success. As species have attained their present distribution ranges through colonization, these traits may vary geographically. Although several theories predict associations between dispersal ability, selfing ability and the relative position of a population within its geographic range, there is little theoretical or empirical consensus on exactly how these three variables are related. We investigated relationships between dispersal ability, selfing ability and range position across 28 populations of 13 annual, wind-dispersed Asteraceae species from the Namaqualand region of South Africa. Controlling for phylogeny, relative dispersal ability--assessed from vertical fall time of fruits--was positively related to an index of autofertility--determined from hand-pollination experiments. These findings support the existence of two discrete syndromes: high selfing ability associated with good dispersal and obligate outcrossing associated with lower dispersal ability. This is consistent with the hypothesis that selection for colonization success drives the evolution of an association between these traits. However, no general effect of range position on dispersal or breeding system traits was evident. This suggests selection on both breeding system and dispersal traits acts consistently across distribution ranges. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2014 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  12. Morphological and anatomical features of cypsela of some crepis taxa (asteraceae) from turkey and their taxonomic importance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ru, J.; Cheng, X.Y.; Wang, C.

    2015-01-01

    Fruit morphology and anatomy have taxonomic importance in Asteraceae. The fruits structures of Crepis from Turkey, which include five species (C. alpina, C. smyrnaea, C. pulchra, C. zacintha, C. sancta) and two subspecies (C. foetida subsp. foetida and C. foetida subsp. rhoeadifolia) were studied for fruit morphological and anatomical characters with one-way analysis of variance, cluster analysis and principal component analysis. Fruit size, shape, color, and the presence of beak were observed with stereomicroscopy. Whereas the surface patterns of fruit and pappus were examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Furthermore, pericarp structure, thicknesses of testa and endosperm, and number of rib, cotyledon width in cypsela were studied anatomically. Results indicated that cypsela sizes, the presence or absence of beak on the cypsela, fruit and pappus surfaces, pericarp. Thickness of testa and endosperm, and number of ribs are of major importance to illustrate interspecific relations among the examined taxa. Also, this investigation is a preliminary study, which was performed to use fruit morphological and anatomical characters for their practicality on the classification of taxa within the genus. (author)

  13. The Evolutionary History Of The White-Rayed Species Of Melampodium (Asteraceae) Involved Multiple Cycles Of Hybridization And Polyploidization1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebernig, Carolin A.; Weiss-Schneeweiss, Hanna; Blöch, Cordula; Turner, Barbara; Stuessy, Tod F.; Obermayer, Renate; Villaseñor, Jose L.; Schneeweiss, Gerald M.

    2014-01-01

    Premise of the study Polyploidy plays an important role in race differentiation and eventually speciation. Underlying mechanisms include chromosomal and genomic changes facilitating reproductive isolation and/or stabilization of hybrids. A prerequisite for studying these processes is a sound knowledge on the origin of polyploids. A well-suited group for studying polyploid evolution consists of the three species of Melampodium ser. Leucantha (Asteraceae): M. argophyllum, M. cinereum, and M. leucanthum. Methods The origin of polyploids was inferred using network and tree-based phylogenetic analyses of several plastid and nuclear DNA sequences and of fingerprint data (AFLP). Genome evolution was assessed via genome size measurements, karyotype analysis, and in situ hybridization of ribosomal DNA. Key results Tetraploid cytotypes of the phylogenetically distinct M. cinereum and M. leucanthum had, compared to the diploid cytotypes, doubled genome sizes and no evidence of gross chromosomal rearrangements. Hexaploid M. argophyllum constituted a separate lineage with limited intermixing with the other species, except in analyses from nuclear ITS. Its genome size was lower than expected if M. cinereum and/or M. leucanthum were involved in its origin, and no chromosomal rearrangements were evident. Conclusions Polyploids in M. cinereum and M. leucanthum are of recent autopolyploid origin in line with the lack of significant genomic changes. Hexaploid M. argophyllum also appears to be of autopolyploid origin against the previous hypothesis of an allopolyploid origin involving the other two species, but some gene flow with the other species in early phases of differentiation cannot be excluded. PMID:22645096

  14. A New Alkamide with an Endoperoxide Structure from Acmella ciliata (Asteraceae) and Its in Vitro Antiplasmodial Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, Narjara; Saar, Julia; Santos, Alan Diego C; Barison, Andersson; Sandjo, Louis P; Kaiser, Marcel; Schmidt, Thomas J; Biavatti, Maique W

    2016-06-11

    From the aerial parts of Acmella ciliata (H.B.K.) Cassini (basionym Spilanthes ciliata Kunth; Asteraceae), three alkamides were isolated and identified by mass- and NMR spectroscopic methods as (2E,6E,8E)-N-isobutyl-2,6,8-decatrienamide (spilanthol, (1)), N-(2-phenethyl)-2E-en-6,8-nonadiynamide (2) and (2E,7Z)-6,9-endoperoxy-N-isobutyl-2,7-decadienamide (3). While 1 and 2 are known alkamides, compound 3 has not been described until now. It was found that the unusual cyclic peroxide 3 exists as a racemate of both enantiomers of each alkamide; the 6,9-cis- as well as the 6,9-trans-configured diastereomers, the former represents the major, the latter the minor constituent of the mixture. In vitro tests for activity against the human pathogenic parasites Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense and Plasmodium falciparum revealed that 1 and 3 possess activity against the NF54 strain of the latter (IC50 values of 4.5 and 5.1 µM, respectively) while 2 was almost inactive. Compound 3 was also tested against multiresistant P. falciparum K1 and was found to be even more active against this parasite strain (IC50 = 2.1 µM) with considerable selectivity (IC50 against L6 rat skeletal myoblasts = 168 µM).

  15. Dispersal, dormancy and life-history tradeoffs at the individual, population and species levels in southern African Asteraceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Waal, Caroli; Anderson, Bruce; Ellis, Allan G

    2016-04-01

    Dispersal and dormancy are important risk-reducing strategies in unpredictable environments. Negative covariation between these strategies is theoretically expected, but empirical evidence is limited and inconsistent. Moreover, covariation may be affected by other life-history traits and may vary across levels of biological organization. We assessed dispersal (vertical fall time of fruits, a proxy for wind dispersal ability) and dormancy (germination fractions measured during germination trials) in populations of 15 annual and 12 perennial wind-dispersed species in six Asteraceae genera from South Africa. Dormancy was higher in annuals than in perennials, whereas fall time was largely determined by evolutionary history. Controlling for phylogeny, dispersal and dormancy was negatively associated across species and life-history categories. Negative covariation between dispersal and dormancy was not evident at either the individual level (except for seed heteromorphic species) or the population level. Our study provides rare empirical support for the theoretical expectation of tradeoffs between dormancy and the alternative risk-reducing strategies, perenniality and dispersal, but refutes the expectation of increased dispersability in perennials. Although negative covariation between dispersal and dormancy at the species level appears not to be a simple consequence of upscaling individual-level mechanistic tradeoffs, our findings suggest that selection for one strategy may constrain evolution of the other. © 2015 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  16. Impact of sesquiterpenes from Inula racemosa (Asteraceae) on growth, development and nutrition of Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Mandeep; Kumar, Rakesh; Upendrabhai, Deep Patel; Singh, Inder Pal; Kaur, Sanehdeep

    2017-05-01

    The use of botanical pesticides for protecting crops from insect pests has assumed greater importance all over the world owing to growing awareness of harmful effects of indiscriminate use of synthetic pesticides. Inula racemosa Hook. f. (Asteraceae), a medicinally important perennial herb, is rich in sesquiterpenes with many biological activities. The present studies were conducted with the objective to evaluate the sesquiterpenes isolated from I. racemosa for insecticidal activity against Spodoptera litura (F.). Alantolactone and isoalantolactone isolated from I. racemosa exerted growth inhibitory effects on S. litura. Addition of both the sesquiterpenes to larval diet extended the development period and reduced pupation as well as adult emergence. The dietary utilisation experiments on third-instar larvae of S. litura revealed reduction in consumption and growth rates of larvae as well as efficiency of conversion of ingested and digested food owing to alantolactone and isoalantolactone. The root extract of I. racemosa, which is rich in two sesquiterpenes, i.e. alantolactone and isoalantolactone, has the potential for management of S. litura. However, there is a need to understand the specific mechanism of action of these compounds. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. Most Compositae (Asteraceae) are descendants of a paleohexaploid and all share a paleotetraploid ancestor with the Calyceraceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Michael S; Li, Zheng; Kidder, Thomas I; Reardon, Chris R; Lai, Zhao; Oliveira, Luiz O; Scascitelli, Moira; Rieseberg, Loren H

    2016-07-01

    Like many other flowering plants, members of the Compositae (Asteraceae) have a polyploid ancestry. Previous analyses found evidence for an ancient duplication or possibly triplication in the early evolutionary history of the family. We sought to better place this paleopolyploidy in the phylogeny and assess its nature. We sequenced new transcriptomes for Barnadesia, the lineage sister to all other Compositae, and four representatives of closely related families. Using a recently developed algorithm, MAPS, we analyzed nuclear gene family phylogenies for evidence of paleopolyploidy. We found that the previously recognized Compositae paleopolyploidy is also in the ancestry of the Calyceraceae. Our phylogenomic analyses uncovered evidence for a successive second round of genome duplication among all sampled Compositae except Barnadesia. Our analyses of new samples with new tools provide a revised view of paleopolyploidy in the Compositae. Together with results from a high density Lactuca linkage map, our results suggest that the Compositae and Calyceraceae have a common paleotetraploid ancestor and that most Compositae are descendants of a paleohexaploid. Although paleohexaploids have been previously identified, this is the first example where the paleotetraploid and paleohexaploid lineages have survived over tens of millions of years. The complex polyploidy in the ancestry of the Compositae and Calyceraceae represents a unique opportunity to study the long-term evolutionary fates and consequences of different ploidal levels. © 2016 Botanical Society of America.

  18. Prosexual Effect of Chrysactinia mexicana A. Gray (Asteraceae, False Damiana, in a Model of Male Sexual Behavior

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    R. Estrada-Reyes

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Chrysactinia mexicana A. Gray (Asteraceae and Turnera diffusa Willd (Turneraceae are employed in traditional medicine as aphrodisiacs; however, there is no scientific evidence supporting the prosexual properties of C. mexicana. The aim of this study was to determine whether an aqueous extract of C. mexicana (Cm stimulates rat male sexual behavior in the sexual exhaustion paradigm. Sexually exhausted (SExh male rats were treated with Cm (80, 160, and 320 mg/kg, an aqueous extract of T. diffusa (Td, or yohimbine. The sexual exhaustion state in the control group was characterized by a low percentage of males exhibiting mounts, intromissions, and ejaculations and no males demonstrating mating behavior after ejaculation. Cm (320 mg/kg, Td, or yohimbine significantly increased the proportion of SExh rats that ejaculated and resumed copulation after ejaculation. In males that exhibited reversal of sexual exhaustion, Cm (320 mg/kg improved sexual performance by reducing the number of intromissions and shrinking ejaculation latency. The effects of treatments on sexual behavior were not related with alterations in general locomotion. In conclusion, the prosexual effects of Cm, as well as those of Td, are established at a central level, which supports the traditional use of C. mexicana for stimulating sexual activity.

  19. Prosexual Effect of Chrysactinia mexicana A. Gray (Asteraceae), False Damiana, in a Model of Male Sexual Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada-Reyes, R; Ferreyra-Cruz, O A; Jiménez-Rubio, G; Hernández-Hernández, O T; Martínez-Mota, L

    Chrysactinia mexicana A. Gray (Asteraceae) and Turnera diffusa Willd (Turneraceae) are employed in traditional medicine as aphrodisiacs; however, there is no scientific evidence supporting the prosexual properties of C. mexicana . The aim of this study was to determine whether an aqueous extract of C. mexicana (Cm) stimulates rat male sexual behavior in the sexual exhaustion paradigm. Sexually exhausted (SExh) male rats were treated with Cm (80, 160, and 320 mg/kg), an aqueous extract of T. diffusa (Td), or yohimbine. The sexual exhaustion state in the control group was characterized by a low percentage of males exhibiting mounts, intromissions, and ejaculations and no males demonstrating mating behavior after ejaculation. Cm (320 mg/kg), Td, or yohimbine significantly increased the proportion of SExh rats that ejaculated and resumed copulation after ejaculation. In males that exhibited reversal of sexual exhaustion, Cm (320 mg/kg) improved sexual performance by reducing the number of intromissions and shrinking ejaculation latency. The effects of treatments on sexual behavior were not related with alterations in general locomotion. In conclusion, the prosexual effects of Cm, as well as those of Td, are established at a central level, which supports the traditional use of C. mexicana for stimulating sexual activity.

  20. Cytoprotective and Antioxidant Effects of an Edible Herb, Enhydra fluctuans Lour. (Asteraceae), against Experimentally Induced Lead Acetate Intoxication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dua, Tarun K; Dewanjee, Saikat; Khanra, Ritu; Joardar, Swarnalata; Barma, Sujata; Das, Shilpa; Zia-Ul-Haq, M; De Feo, Vincenzo

    2016-01-01

    Enhydra fluctuans Lour. (Asteraceae), an edible aquatic herb, is traditionally employed against toxic effects of heavy metals in India. The present study was planned to discover the protective effect of edible extract of E. fluctuans (AEEF) against Pb toxicity. The cytoprotective role of AEEF was determined on murine hepatocytes employing MTT assay and Hoechst staining. The effects on lipid peroxidation, protein carbonylation, endogenous redox systems and the transcription levels of apoptotic proteins were studied after incubating the hepatocytes with AEEF (400 μg/ml) + Pb-acetate (6.8 μM). The defensive role of AEEF (100 mg/kg) against Pb-acetate (5 mg/kg) intoxication was measured in mice by in vivo assays. Biochemical, haematological and histological parameters, intracellular Pb burden and redox status were measured. AEEF exhibited a concentration dependent cytoprotective effect against Pb-induced cytotoxicity in vitro. Pb-acetate incubation significantly (p intoxicated animals. However, concurrent administration of AEEF (100 mg/kg) could significantly (p < 0.05-0.01) reinstate the Pb-acetate mediated toxicity. Presence of metal chelators and phyto-antioxidants within AEEF would offer overall protection through promoting Pb clearance coupled with restoring redox balance.

  1. Phenolic Profiling of the South American “Baylahuen” Tea (Haplopappus spp., Asteraceae by HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS

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    Guillermo Schmeda-Hirschmann

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aerial parts of several Haplopappus species (Asteraceae, known under the common name “baylahuen”, are used as herbal teas in Chile and Argentina. In Chile, “baylahuen” comprises H. multifolius, H. taeda, H. baylahuen and H. rigidus. Little is known about the chemical identity of the infusion constituents in spite of widespread consumption. The aim of the present work was the characterization of phenolics occurring in the infusions and methanol extracts of “baylahuen” by HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS. A simple HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS method was developed for the fast identification and differentiation of Haplopappus spp. used as a tea source, based on the phenolics from the tea and methanol extracts. Some 27 phenolics were tentatively identified in the infusions and methanol extract, including 10 caffeoyl quinic and feruloyl quinic acid derivatives and 17 flavonoids. The HPLC patterns of the Haplopappus tea and methanol extract allow a clear differentiation at the species level. The occurrence of hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives and flavonoids can explain the reputed nutraceutical and health beneficial properties of this herbal tea.

  2. Biochemical characterization of Helichrysum italicum (Roth) G.Don subsp. italicum (Asteraceae) from Montenegro: phytochemical screening, chemotaxonomy, and antioxidant properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kladar, Nebojša V; Anačkov, Goran T; Rat, Milica M; Srđenović, Branislava U; Grujić, Nevena N; Šefer, Emilia I; Božin, Biljana N

    2015-03-01

    The chemical composition and antioxidant properties of the essential oil and EtOH extract of immortelle (Helichrysum italicum (Roth) G.Don subsp. italicum, Asteraceae) collected in Montenegro were evaluated. The essential oil was characterized by GC/MS analysis, and the content of total phenolics and flavonoids in the EtOH extract was determined using the FolinCiocalteu reagent. The free-radical-scavenging capacity (RSC) of both the essential oil and the EtOH extract was assessed with the 2,2-diphenyl-1-pycrylhydrazyl (DPPH) method. Moreover, the inhibition of hydroxyl radical ((.) OH) generation by the EtOH extract of immortelle was evaluated for the first time here. Neryl acetate (28.2%) and γ-curcumene (18.8%) were the main compounds in the essential oil, followed by neryl propionate (9.1%) and ar-curcumene (8.3%). The chemical composition of the oils of the examined and additional 16 selected Helichrysum italicum taxa described in literature were compared using principal component (PCA) and cluster (CA) analyses. The results of the statistical analyses implied the occurrence of at least four different main and three subchemotypes of essential oils. Considering the antioxidant properties, the EtOH extract of immortelle exhibited similar potential as propyl gallate and quercetin, while the essential oil exhibited relatively weak DPPH(.) -scavenging capacity. Copyright © 2015 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  3. Genetic variation in Mediterranean Helichrysum italicum (Asteraceae; Gnaphalieae): do disjunct populations of subsp. microphyllum have a common origin?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galbany-Casals, M; Blanco-Moreno, J M; Garcia-Jacas, N; Breitwieser, I; Smissen, R D

    2011-07-01

    The yellow-flowered everlasting daisy Helichrysum italicum (Asteraceae, Gnaphalieae) is widely distributed in the Mediterranean basin, where it grows in continuous and widespread populations in diverse open habitats. Helichrysum italicum subsp. microphyllum has a disjunct distribution in the Balearic Islands (Majorca and Dragonera), Corsica, Sardinia, Crete and Cyprus. Numerous morphological intermediates between subsp. italicum and subsp. microphyllum are known from Corsica, where the two subspecies co-occur. The aims of the study were to investigate if subsp. microphyllum has a common origin, constituting an independent gene pool from subsp. italicum, or if the morphological differences between subsp. microphyllum and subsp. italicum have arisen independently in different locations from a common wider gene pool. Our analyses of AFLP, cpDNA sequences and morphological characters show that there is geographic structure to the genetic variation within H. italicum, with eastern and western Mediterranean groups, which do not correspond with the division into subsp. microphyllum and subsp. italicum as currently circumscribed. Local selection on quantitative trait loci provides sufficient explanation for the morphological divergence observed and is consistent with genetic data. Within the western Mediterranean group of the species we found considerable polymorphism in chloroplast DNA sequences among and within some populations. Comparison with chloroplast DNA sequences from other Helichrysum species showed that some chloroplast haplotypes are shared across species. © 2010 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  4. Anthelmintic Activity of Crude Extract and Essential Oil of Tanacetum vulgare (Asteraceae against Adult Worms of Schistosoma mansoni

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    Loyana Silva Godinho

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Schistosomiasis, a parasitic disease caused by trematode flatworms of the genus Schistosoma, affects more than 200 million people worldwide, and its control is dependent on a single drug, praziquantel. Tanacetum vulgare (Asteraceae is used in folk medicine as a vermifuge. This study aimed to investigate the in vitro schistosomicidal activity of the crude extract (TV and the essential oil (TV-EO from the aerial parts of T. vulgare. TV-EO was obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC/MS, which allowed the identification of β-thujone (84.13% as the major constituent. TV and TV-EO, at 200 μg/mL, decreased motor activity and caused 100% mortality of all adult worms. At 100 and 50 μg/mL, only TV caused death of all adult worms, while TV-EO was inactive. TV (200 μg/mL was also able to reduce viability and decrease production of developed eggs. Confocal laser scanning microscopy showed morphological alterations in the tegument of the S. mansoni surface after incubation with TV (50 and 100 μg/mL. Quantitative analysis on the schistosomes tegument showed that TV caused changes in the numbers of tubercles of S. mansoni male worms in a dose-dependent manner. The findings suggest that T. vulgare is a potential source of schistosomicidal compounds.

  5. Effects of Hydroalcoholic Extract of Tanacetum Sonbolii (Asteraceae on Pain-related Behaviors during Formalin Test in Mice

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    Mohammad Sofiabadi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Tanacetum sonbolii (Asteraceae is an endemic species in Iran. In the present study, we examined the effects of Tanacetum sonbolii hydroalcoholic extract on the formalin test in mice. Methods: 126 Swiss albino mice weighing 230-280g were used as subjects. The formalin test was performed on two control groups (marked as intact and saline groups n = 6 in each group and an experimental group. In all groups, the formalin test was recorded for 60 min after administration of extract and drugs in mice. Results: The results showed that Tanacetum sonbolii (150 and 300 mg/kg produced significant antinociception in phase 2. In addition, different doses of Tanacetum sonbolii extract (600, 900 and 1200 mg/kg also induced antinociceptive effects in phase1 and phase 2. On the other hand, morphine could induce antinociception in a dose-dependent manner. Diclofenac (10 mg/kg failed to affect the pain scores compared to Tanacetum sonbolii (300 mg/kg group. Discussion: It seems that administration of hydroalcoholic extract of Tanacetum sonbolii has the potential to relieve pain through both central and peripheral mechanisms in persistent inflammatory nociception.

  6. Antinociceptive activity and toxicological study of aqueous extract of Egletes viscosa Less (Asteraceae Atividade antinociceptiva e estudo toxicológico de extrato aquoso de Egletes viscosa Lessa (Asteraceae

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    Adriano Antunes S. Araújo

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Egletes viscosa Less (Asteraceae, popularly known as "macela" or "macela-da-terra", is a plant widely used in popular medicine due to its anti-inflammatory, bactericidal, antidiarrhoea, mio-relaxant, antispasmodic, antinociceptive, digestive, and anti-viral properties. Phytochemical screening of aqueous extract of Egletes viscosa (AEEV revealed the high presence of flavonoids. This study examined the oral antinociceptive potential of AEEV in rodents using different concentrations (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg, p.o.. The results showed significant antinociceptive action when tested in writhing (200 and 400 mg/kg-pEgletes viscosa Less (Asteraceae, popularmente conhecida como "macela" ou "macela-da-terra", é uma planta largamente usada na medicina popular devido as suas propriedades: anti-inflamatória, bactericida, antidiarréica, mio-relaxante, anti-espasmódica, antinociceptiva, digestiva e anti-viral. Análise fitoquímica do extrato aquoso da Egletes viscosa (AEEV mostrou elevada presença de flavonóides. Este estudo examinou o potencial antinociceptivo do AEEV em roedores usando diferentes concentrações (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg, p.o.. Os resultados mostraram significante efeito antinociceptivo quando testadas as doses (200 mg/kg-p<0.01; 400 mg/kg-p<0.05 e na segunda fase dos testes com formalina (200 and 400 mg/kg-p<0.001. Este efeito antinociceptivo foi similar ao ácido acetilsalicílico (300 mg/kg nas doses de 200 e 400 mg/kg. Adicionalmente, estas observações sugerem que o AEEV é efetivo contra dores inflamatórias contínuas. AEEV foi bem tolerada. No teste de toxicidade aguda, utilizando uma administração oral de 5 g/kg de AEEV, não foi observado casos de mortalidade. Da mesma maneira, no estudo subcrônico nenhuma mortalidade foi observada após 30 dias de administração oral diária de 100 mg/kg do AEEV. Não houve diferença significativa entre os pesos corporal e dos órgãos isolados quando comparados grupo controle e teste

  7. Análise de crescimento e anatomia foliar da planta medicinal Ageratum conyzoides L. (Asteraceae cultivada em diferentes substratos Growth analysis and leaf anatomy of the medicinal plant Ageratum conyzoides L. (Asteraceae grown on different substrates

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    A.A Millani

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Ageratum conyzoides L. (Asteraceae é uma espécie herbácea que ocorre em áreas de cerrado e, por se tratar de planta medicinal, é cultivada em escala familiar. O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar possíveis alterações no desenvolvimento das plantas quando cultivadas em solos com texturas diferentes (solo de cerrado, franco arenoso ou solo de terra roxa, muito argiloso. Foram analisados aos 40, 70 e 90 dias, o comprimento do caule e da raiz, massa seca da parte aérea (caule e folhas e das raízes, número de folhas e área foliar; além de parâmetros anatômicos foliares, como a densidade de tricomas. Os resultados mostraram que os comprimentos do caule e da raiz aumentaram no decorrer do experimento, independentemente do substrato (com exceção do comprimento da raiz de plantas cultivadas em solo de terra roxa. Porém, o comprimento do caule foi sempre maior nas plantas cultivadas em solo de cerrado, enquanto o comprimento da raiz foi significativamente maior somente aos 90 dias de cultivo neste solo. As biomassas secas da raiz e do caule também foram maiores nas plantas cultivadas em solo de cerrado por 70 e 90 dias, respectivamente. A massa seca foliar foi maior nas plantas cultivadas em solo de cerrado a partir dos 70 dias de experimento. Esse aumento foi devido ao maior número de folhas produzidas e a maior área foliar dessas plantas. No geral, a anatomia foliar não diferiu, porém o número de tricomas glandulares foi maior nas plantas cultivadas em solo de cerrado. Os resultados indicaram que esta espécie tem melhor desenvolvimento quando cultivada em solo mais arenoso.Ageratum conyzoides L. (Asteraceae is a herbaceous species found in cerrado areas and grown in family scale since it is a medicinal plant. The aim of this work was to study possible alterations in the plant development when grown in soils presenting different textures (a sandy-loam cerrado soil, or a very clayish red earth soil. At 40, 70 and 90 days, stem

  8. Caracterização morfoanatômica das folhas de Eremanthus erythropappus (DC. MacLeisch, Asteraceae Leaf morpho-anatomical characterization of Eremanthus erythropappus (DC. MacLeisch, Asteraceae

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    Rafael C. Dutra

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Eremanthus erythropappus (DC. MacLeisch (Asteraceae, popularmente conhecida como "candeia-da-serra", é uma espécie utilizada na medicina tradicional como cicatrizante e antimicrobiano. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi comparar o número de tricomas glandulares nas folhas jovens e adultas de E. erythropappus, assim como realizar a caracterização morfoanatômica destas folhas. Secções transversais e paradérmicas das folhas foram submetidas às microtécnicas fotônicas e à microscopia eletrônica de varredura. A quantificação dos tricomas glandulares foi realizada em folhas jovens e adultas com auxílio de câmara clara. As folhas são alternas ou fasciculadas e a lâmina foliar possui epiderme uniestratificada, revestida por cutícula delgada e lisa e mesofilo dorsiventral. Em ambas as faces da epiderme, ocorrem estômatos predominantemente anomocíticos e tricomas glandulares inseridos em depressões. Na face abaxial observam-se numerosos tricomas tectores. O parênquima paliçádico é uniestratificado e o parênquima voltado para a face abaxial é formado por três a cinco camadas de células com disposição compacta. As folhas jovens e adultas apresentam respectivamente 21,78±5,83 e 17,80±6,69 tricomas glandulares na face adaxial. A análise morfoanatômica das folhas de E. erythropappus mostra-se um método rápido e prático para a identificação e controle de qualidade de espécies vegetais utilizadas na terapêutica.Eremanthus erythropappus (DC. MacLeisch (Asteraceae, commonly known as 'candeia-da-serra', is a plant used in folk medicine as wound healing and antimicrobial. The aim of this study was to compare the number of glandular trichomes between the young and the mature leaves, as well as to perform the morpho-anatomical characterization of E. erythropappus leaves. Transverse and paradermal sections of the leaves were prepared according to light and scanning microtechniques for the morpho-anatomical characterization

  9. Construction and characterization of two BAC libraries representing a deep-coverage of the genome of chicory (Cichorium intybus L., Asteraceae

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    Gonthier Lucy

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Asteraceae represents an important plant family with respect to the numbers of species present in the wild and used by man. Nonetheless, genomic resources for Asteraceae species are relatively underdeveloped, hampering within species genetic studies as well as comparative genomics studies at the family level. So far, six BAC libraries have been described for the main crops of the family, i.e. lettuce and sunflower. Here we present the characterization of BAC libraries of chicory (Cichorium intybus L. constructed from two genotypes differing in traits related to sexual and vegetative reproduction. Resolving the molecular mechanisms underlying traits controlling the reproductive system of chicory is a key determinant for hybrid development, and more generally will provide new insights into these traits, which are poorly investigated so far at the molecular level in Asteraceae. Findings Two bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC libraries, CinS2S2 and CinS1S4, were constructed from HindIII-digested high molecular weight DNA of the contrasting genotypes C15 and C30.01, respectively. C15 was hermaphrodite, non-embryogenic, and S2S2 for the S-locus implicated in self-incompatibility, whereas C30.01 was male sterile, embryogenic, and S1S4. The CinS2S2 and CinS1S4 libraries contain 89,088 and 81,408 clones. Mean insert sizes of the CinS2S2 and CinS1S4 clones are 90 and 120 kb, respectively, and provide together a coverage of 12.3 haploid genome equivalents. Contamination with mitochondrial and chloroplast DNA sequences was evaluated with four mitochondrial and four chloroplast specific probes, and was estimated to be 0.024% and 1.00% for the CinS2S2 library, and 0.028% and 2.35% for the CinS1S4 library. Using two single copy genes putatively implicated in somatic embryogenesis, screening of both libraries resulted in detection of 12 and 13 positive clones for each gene, in accordance with expected numbers. Conclusions This

  10. Construction and characterization of two BAC libraries representing a deep-coverage of the genome of chicory (Cichorium intybus L., Asteraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonthier, Lucy; Bellec, Arnaud; Blassiau, Christelle; Prat, Elisa; Helmstetter, Nicolas; Rambaud, Caroline; Huss, Brigitte; Hendriks, Theo; Bergès, Hélène; Quillet, Marie-Christine

    2010-08-11

    The Asteraceae represents an important plant family with respect to the numbers of species present in the wild and used by man. Nonetheless, genomic resources for Asteraceae species are relatively underdeveloped, hampering within species genetic studies as well as comparative genomics studies at the family level. So far, six BAC libraries have been described for the main crops of the family, i.e. lettuce and sunflower. Here we present the characterization of BAC libraries of chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) constructed from two genotypes differing in traits related to sexual and vegetative reproduction. Resolving the molecular mechanisms underlying traits controlling the reproductive system of chicory is a key determinant for hybrid development, and more generally will provide new insights into these traits, which are poorly investigated so far at the molecular level in Asteraceae. Two bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) libraries, CinS2S2 and CinS1S4, were constructed from HindIII-digested high molecular weight DNA of the contrasting genotypes C15 and C30.01, respectively. C15 was hermaphrodite, non-embryogenic, and S2S2 for the S-locus implicated in self-incompatibility, whereas C30.01 was male sterile, embryogenic, and S1S4. The CinS2S2 and CinS1S4 libraries contain 89,088 and 81,408 clones. Mean insert sizes of the CinS2S2 and CinS1S4 clones are 90 and 120 kb, respectively, and provide together a coverage of 12.3 haploid genome equivalents. Contamination with mitochondrial and chloroplast DNA sequences was evaluated with four mitochondrial and four chloroplast specific probes, and was estimated to be 0.024% and 1.00% for the CinS2S2 library, and 0.028% and 2.35% for the CinS1S4 library. Using two single copy genes putatively implicated in somatic embryogenesis, screening of both libraries resulted in detection of 12 and 13 positive clones for each gene, in accordance with expected numbers. This indicated that both BAC libraries are valuable tools for molecular

  11. Unraveling systematic inventory of Echinops (Asteraceae) with special reference to nrDNA ITS sequence-based molecular typing of Echinops abuzinadianus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, M A; Al-Hemaid, F M; Lee, J; Hatamleh, A A; Gyulai, G; Rahman, M O

    2015-10-02

    The present study explored the systematic inventory of Echinops L. (Asteraceae) of Saudi Arabia, with special reference to the molecular typing of Echinops abuzinadianus Chaudhary, an endemic species to Saudi Arabia, based on the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences (ITS1-5.8S-ITS2) of nuclear ribosomal DNA. A sequence similarity search using BLAST and a phylogenetic analysis of the ITS sequence of E. abuzinadianus revealed a high level of sequence similarity with E. glaberrimus DC. (section Ritropsis). The novel primary sequence and the secondary structure of ITS2 of E. abuzinadianus could potentially be used for molecular genotyping.

  12. First description of leaf-mining Nepticulidae and Tischeriidae (Insecta, Lepidoptera) feeding on the Chilean endemic plant genus Podanthus Lag. (Asteraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stonis, Jonas R; Diškus, Arūnas; Remeikis, Andrius; Torres, Nixon Cumbicus

    2016-01-05

    Despite taxonomic and conservation interest in the Chilean endemic plant genus Podanthus Lag. (Asteraceae: subfamily Asteroideae, tribe Heliantheae), no Podanthus-feeding Nepticulidae or Tischeriidae have ever been recorded. Here, on the basis of material reared from Podanthus from central Mediterranean Chile, we present the description of Stigmella podanthae sp. nov. (Nepticulidae) and a re-description of Astrotischeria chilei Puplesis & Diškus, 2003. Females and host-plant of the latter species were previously unknown. Both treated species are illustrated with numerous photographs of the leaf-mines, adults of both sexes, and male and female genitalia.

  13. Not only size matters: achene morphology affects time of seedling emergence in three heterocarpic species of Anacyclus (Anthemideae, Asteraceae

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    Torices, Rubén

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The production of two or more distinct fruit types by an individual, i.e. heterocarpy, is considered as a mixed dispersal strategy in which a proportion of the offspring is able to colonize new sites, whilst others remain near the maternal location. Here, we aimed to explore the effects of achene morphology (winged vs. unwinged achenes and achene size –measured here as achene mass– on post-dispersal life-history traits (probability and time of seedling emergence in three heterocarpic Anacyclus species (Anthemideae, Asteraceae. Morphology, size and germination performance were studied in achenes from six populations of Anacyclus clavatus (Desf. Pers., A. homogamos (Maire Humphries, and A. valentinus L. Our results show that achene morphology and size were related to their position within the capitulum, such that outer, winged achenes were significantly heavier than the inner, unwinged ones. Additionally, winged achenes germinated faster than unwinged ones. This pattern may be related to the sequential achene time of release displayed by these species. Finally, our findings cast doubt on the role of wings as structures that favor dispersal by wind in these three species of Anacyclus.La producción de dos o más tipos de frutos diferentes por un mismo individuo, i.e. heterocarpia, es considerada como una estrategia mixta de dispersión en la que una parte de la descendencia es capaz de colonizar nuevos sitios, mientras que la otra permanece cerca de la planta madre. En este trabajo, nuestro objetivo fue explorar los efectos de la morfología del aquenio (aquenios alados vs. no alados y de su tamaño –medido aquí como masa del aquenio– en la etapa del ciclo de vida siguiente a la dispersión (probabilidad de germinación y tiempo de emergencia de las plántulas de tres especies heterocárpicas del género Anacyclus (Anthemideae, Asteraceae. Se estudió la morfología, el tamaño y la germinación en aquenios de seis poblaciones de Anacyclus

  14. Relationship between seed bank expression, adult longevity and aridity in species of Chaetanthera (Asteraceae) in central Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arroyo, M T K; Chacon, P; Cavieres, L A

    2006-09-01

    Broad surveys have detected inverse relationships between seed and adult longevity and between seed size and adult longevity. However, low and unpredictable precipitation is also associated with seed bank (SB) expression in semi-arid and arid areas. The relationship between adult longevity, SB formation, seed mass and aridity is examined in annual and perennial herbs of Chaetanthera (Asteraceae) from the Chilean Mediterranean-type climate and winter-rainfall desert areas over a precipitation range of one order of magnitude. Seeds of 18 species and subtaxa (32 populations) were buried in field locations, and exhumed after two successive germination periods. Seeds not germinating in the field were tested in a growth chamber, and remnant intact seed tested for viability. Seed banks were classed as transient or persistent. The effect of life form, species, population and burial time on persistent SB size was assessed with factorial ANOVA. Persistent seed bank size was compared with the Martonne aridity index (shown to be a surrogate for inter-annual variation in precipitation) and seed size using linear regression. ANCOVA assessed the effect of life-form on SB size with aridity as covariate. Three species had a transient SB and 15 a persistent SB. ANOVA revealed a significant effect of life-form on SB size with annuals having larger SB size and greater capacity to form a persistent SB than perennials. Significant inter-population variation in SB size was found in 64% of cases. Seed mass was negatively correlated with persistent SB size. Persistent seed bank size was significantly correlated with the Martonne aridity index in the perennial and annual species, with species from more arid areas having larger persistent SBs. However, when aridity was considered as a covariate, ANCOVA revealed no significant differences between the annual and perennial herbs. Persistent seed bank size in Chaetanthera appears to reflect environmental selection rather than any trade-off with

  15. Spines vs. microspines: an overview of the sculpture exine in selected basal and derived Asteraceae with focus on Asteroideae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tellería, María C

    2017-11-01

    This study presents a detailed examination of the echinate and microechinate sculpturing in relation to the size of pollen grains in 31 selected species of Asteraceae belonging to the subfamilies Barnadesioideae, Mutisioideae, Carduoideae and Asteroideae. The aims were to recognize sculpturing patterns, under LM and SEM, within large and small pollen of both basal and derived species and to explore the features that could have taxonomic value to apply in palynological disciplines. The detailed examination of the exine surface showed both the relevance and limits of sculptural patterns for taxonomy. Under LM, the microechinate sculpture gave little taxonomic information, whereas in the echinate sculpture, three exine types and two subtypes were recognized. Type I included microechinate exine, which is commonly present in large pollen grains of the basal lineages. Types II (subtypes IIa and IIb) and III included echinate and smaller pollen grains. In these types, spines were always regularly arranged and, were characterized by the length, shape, tip, perforations and distribution. Type IIa included more or less conical spines usually with a distended base, less than 4 µm in length, present in species of different tribes like Astereae, Eupatorieae, Helenieae, Gnaphalieae, Senecioideae and Heliantheae to a lesser extent. Type IIb includes slender spines with narrower bases, longer than 4 µm, present in species of Coreopsideae, Heliantheae, Tageteae and Eupatorieae to a lesser extent. Type III included spines with swollen base, blunt tip and perforations over their entire surface. This type was present in only one of the basal species-Carduus thoermeri-and in one species of the derived tribe Helenieae, Gaillardia megapotamica. Probably, this is due to evolutionary convergence.

  16. Bioactivity of the extracts and isolation of lignans and a sesquiterpene from the aerial parts of Centaurea pamphylica (Asteraceae

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    Shoeb M.

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Centaurea pamphylica Boiss. & Heldr. (Family: Asteraceae, commonly known as ‘pamphylia daisy', is a Turkish endemic species of the genus Centaurea that comprises ca. 500 species, many of which have been used as traditional medicines.  The n-hexane, dichloromethane (DCM and methanol (MeOH extracts of the aerial parts of C. pamphylica were assessed for antioxidant activity and general toxicity using, respectively, the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH, and the brine shrimp lethality assays. The reversed-phase preparative HPLC and PTLC were used to isolate compounds from the extracts.  The structures of these compounds [1-4] were elucidated by spectroscopic means, and also by direct comparison with the respective published data.  Both the DCM and the MeOH extract showed significant levels of antioxidant activities with the RC50 values of 72.6 x 10-2 and 47.3 ´ 10-2 mg/mL, respectively. The MeOH extract exhibited low levels of toxicity towards brine shrimps (LD50 = 125.0 ´ 10-2 mg/mL. Three major bioactive components of the MeOH extract were matairesinoside [1], arctiin [2] and matairesinol [3]. An eudesmane-type sesquiterpene, pterodontriol [4], was also isolated from the DCM extract.  Since reactive oxygen species are important contributors to various ailments, the antioxidant properties of the extracts as well as the isolated compounds may be of medicinal significance. This is the first report on the occurrence of 1-4 in C. pamphylica, and 4 in the genus Centaurea.  

  17. Seed Dormancy, After‐ripening and Light Requirements of Four Annual Asteraceae in South‐western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    SCHÜTZ, W.; MILBERG, P.; LAMONT, B. B.

    2002-01-01

    The role of dormancy, temperature and light in the regulation of seed germination of four annual Asteraceae from south‐western Australia was investigated. The experiments aimed to identify after‐ripening patterns, and to relate these to climatic conditions of the habitat in which the species occur. Seeds of all species were strongly dormant at maturity and maintained high levels of dormancy for time periods corresponding to the duration of summer in south‐western Australia. Dry after‐ripening was promoted best by temperatures lower than those prevailing in the dry season, although differences among storage temperatures were mostly insignificant. Germination percentages were highest at average winter temperatures (15 °C). A logistic model revealed significant differences in germinability among species, but not between incubation temperatures or light and dark treatments across species. Three species with seeds >0·5 mg germinated better in darkness than in light, whereas germination in darkness was almost inhibited in the species with the smallest seeds (0·14 mg). The course of dormancy loss, tested over a range of fluctuating incubation temperatures (7–30 °C), showed that seeds of three species came out of dormancy first at temperatures that prevail in south‐western Australia during the winter (10–15 °C). Seeds from one species, introduced from South Africa, first lost dormancy at the lowest temperature (7 °C). All species showed after‐ripening patterns of Type 1, typical of species growing in Mediterranean climates. The germination characteristics of the investigated species can be interpreted as ensuring that initial growth and establishment occur during the winter growing season, thereby avoiding the hot and dry summer conditions that follow seed dispersal. PMID:12451026

  18. In and out of Madagascar: Dispersal to Peripheral Islands, Insular Speciation and Diversification of Indian Ocean Daisy Trees (Psiadia, Asteraceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strijk, Joeri S.; Noyes, Richard D.; Strasberg, Dominique; Cruaud, Corinne; Gavory, Fredéric; Chase, Mark W.; Abbott, Richard J.; Thébaud, Christophe

    2012-01-01

    Madagascar is surrounded by archipelagos varying widely in origin, age and structure. Although small and geologically young, these archipelagos have accumulated disproportionate numbers of unique lineages in comparison to Madagascar, highlighting the role of waif-dispersal and rapid in situ diversification processes in generating endemic biodiversity. We reconstruct the evolutionary and biogeographical history of the genus Psiadia (Asteraceae), a plant genus with near equal numbers of species in Madagascar and surrounding islands. Analyzing patterns and processes of diversification, we explain species accumulation on peripheral islands and aim to offer new insights on the origin and potential causes for diversification in the Madagascar and Indian Ocean Islands biodiversity hotspot. Our results provide support for an African origin of the group, with strong support for non-monophyly. Colonization of the Mascarenes took place by two evolutionary distinct lineages from Madagascar, via two independent dispersal events, each unique for their spatial and temporal properties. Significant shifts in diversification rate followed regional expansion, resulting in co-occurring and phenotypically convergent species on high-elevation volcanic slopes. Like other endemic island lineages, Psiadia have been highly successful in dispersing to and radiating on isolated oceanic islands, typified by high habitat diversity and dynamic ecosystems fuelled by continued geological activity. Results stress the important biogeographical role for Rodrigues in serving as an outlying stepping stone from which regional colonization took place. We discuss how isolated volcanic islands contribute to regional diversity by generating substantial numbers of endemic species on short temporal scales. Factors pertaining to the mode and tempo of archipelago formation and its geographical isolation strongly govern evolutionary pathways available for species diversification, and the potential for successful

  19. Polyploidisation and Geographic Differentiation Drive Diversification in a European High Mountain Plant Group (Doronicum clusii Aggregate, Asteraceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pachschwöll, Clemens; Escobar García, Pedro; Winkler, Manuela; Schneeweiss, Gerald M.; Schönswetter, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Range shifts (especially during the Pleistocene), polyploidisation and hybridization are major factors affecting high-mountain biodiversity. A good system to study their role in the European high mountains is the Doronicum clusii aggregate (Asteraceae), whose four taxa (D. clusii s.s., D. stiriacum, D. glaciale subsp. glaciale and D. glaciale subsp. calcareum) are differentiated geographically, ecologically (basiphilous versus silicicolous) and/or via their ploidy levels (diploid versus tetraploid). Here, we use DNA sequences (three plastid and one nuclear spacer) and AFLP fingerprinting data generated for 58 populations to infer phylogenetic relationships, origin of polyploids—whose ploidy level was confirmed by chromosomally calibrated DNA ploidy level estimates—and phylogeographic history. Taxonomic conclusions were informed, among others, by a Gaussian clustering method for species delimitation using dominant multilocus data. Based on molecular data we identified three lineages: (i) silicicolous diploid D. clusii s.s. in the Alps, (ii) silicicolous tetraploid D. stiriacum in the eastern Alps (outside the range of D. clusii s.s.) and the Carpathians and (iii) the basiphilous diploids D. glaciale subsp. glaciale (eastern Alps) and D. glaciale subsp. calcareum (northeastern Alps); each taxon was identified as distinct by the Gaussian clustering, but the separation of D. glaciale subsp. calcareum and D. glaciale subsp. glaciale was not stable, supporting their taxonomic treatment as subspecies. Carpathian and Alpine populations of D. stiriacum were genetically differentiated suggesting phases of vicariance, probably during the Pleistocene. The origin (autopolyploid versus allopolyploid) of D. stiriacum remained unclear. Doronicum glaciale subsp. calcareum was genetically and morphologically weakly separated from D. glaciale subsp. glaciale but exhibited significantly higher genetic diversity and rarity. This suggests that the more widespread D. glaciale subsp

  20. Polyploidisation and geographic differentiation drive diversification in a European High Mountain Plant Group (Doronicum clusii Aggregate, Asteraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pachschwöll, Clemens; Escobar García, Pedro; Winkler, Manuela; Schneeweiss, Gerald M; Schönswetter, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Range shifts (especially during the Pleistocene), polyploidisation and hybridization are major factors affecting high-mountain biodiversity. A good system to study their role in the European high mountains is the Doronicum clusii aggregate (Asteraceae), whose four taxa (D. clusii s.s., D. stiriacum, D. glaciale subsp. glaciale and D. glaciale subsp. calcareum) are differentiated geographically, ecologically (basiphilous versus silicicolous) and/or via their ploidy levels (diploid versus tetraploid). Here, we use DNA sequences (three plastid and one nuclear spacer) and AFLP fingerprinting data generated for 58 populations to infer phylogenetic relationships, origin of polyploids-whose ploidy level was confirmed by chromosomally calibrated DNA ploidy level estimates-and phylogeographic history. Taxonomic conclusions were informed, among others, by a Gaussian clustering method for species delimitation using dominant multilocus data. Based on molecular data we identified three lineages: (i) silicicolous diploid D. clusii s.s. in the Alps, (ii) silicicolous tetraploid D. stiriacum in the eastern Alps (outside the range of D. clusii s.s.) and the Carpathians and (iii) the basiphilous diploids D. glaciale subsp. glaciale (eastern Alps) and D. glaciale subsp. calcareum (northeastern Alps); each taxon was identified as distinct by the Gaussian clustering, but the separation of D. glaciale subsp. calcareum and D. glaciale subsp. glaciale was not stable, supporting their taxonomic treatment as subspecies. Carpathian and Alpine populations of D. stiriacum were genetically differentiated suggesting phases of vicariance, probably during the Pleistocene. The origin (autopolyploid versus allopolyploid) of D. stiriacum remained unclear. Doronicum glaciale subsp. calcareum was genetically and morphologically weakly separated from D. glaciale subsp. glaciale but exhibited significantly higher genetic diversity and rarity. This suggests that the more widespread D. glaciale subsp

  1. Polyploidisation and geographic differentiation drive diversification in a European High Mountain Plant Group (Doronicum clusii Aggregate, Asteraceae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clemens Pachschwöll

    Full Text Available Range shifts (especially during the Pleistocene, polyploidisation and hybridization are major factors affecting high-mountain biodiversity. A good system to study their role in the European high mountains is the Doronicum clusii aggregate (Asteraceae, whose four taxa (D. clusii s.s., D. stiriacum, D. glaciale subsp. glaciale and D. glaciale subsp. calcareum are differentiated geographically, ecologically (basiphilous versus silicicolous and/or via their ploidy levels (diploid versus tetraploid. Here, we use DNA sequences (three plastid and one nuclear spacer and AFLP fingerprinting data generated for 58 populations to infer phylogenetic relationships, origin of polyploids-whose ploidy level was confirmed by chromosomally calibrated DNA ploidy level estimates-and phylogeographic history. Taxonomic conclusions were informed, among others, by a Gaussian clustering method for species delimitation using dominant multilocus data. Based on molecular data we identified three lineages: (i silicicolous diploid D. clusii s.s. in the Alps, (ii silicicolous tetraploid D. stiriacum in the eastern Alps (outside the range of D. clusii s.s. and the Carpathians and (iii the basiphilous diploids D. glaciale subsp. glaciale (eastern Alps and D. glaciale subsp. calcareum (northeastern Alps; each taxon was identified as distinct by the Gaussian clustering, but the separation of D. glaciale subsp. calcareum and D. glaciale subsp. glaciale was not stable, supporting their taxonomic treatment as subspecies. Carpathian and Alpine populations of D. stiriacum were genetically differentiated suggesting phases of vicariance, probably during the Pleistocene. The origin (autopolyploid versus allopolyploid of D. stiriacum remained unclear. Doronicum glaciale subsp. calcareum was genetically and morphologically weakly separated from D. glaciale subsp. glaciale but exhibited significantly higher genetic diversity and rarity. This suggests that the more widespread D. glaciale

  2. Chemical Characterization, Antileishmanial Activity, and Cytotoxicity Effects of the Essential Oil from Leaves of Pluchea carolinensis (Jacq.) G. Don. (Asteraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Marley; Scull, Ramón; Satyal, Prabodh; Setzer, William N; Monzote, Lianet

    2017-09-01

    Current strategies to control leishmaniasis are mainly based on chemotherapy. However, none of the available drugs can be considered to be ideal to treat this disease. Because of the hydrophobic nature and bioactivities of their components, essential oils (EOs) can be considered as important sources for developing agents against intracellular pathogens, such as Leishmania parasites. In this study, we report the chemical characterization, antileishmanial activities, and cytotoxicity effect of the EO from Pluchea carolinensis (Jacq.) G. Don. (Asteraceae). Chemical analysis revealed that EO from aerial part from P. carolinensis is composed of 44 compounds. The main component was selin-11-en-4α-ol, which made up 51.0%. In vitro antileishmanial studies showed that P. carolinensis EO inhibited the growth of promastigotes (IC 50  = 24.7 ± 7.1 μg/mL) and amastigotes (IC 50  = 6.2 ± 0.1 μg/mL) of Leishmania amazonensis, while cytotoxicity evaluation revealed fivefold higher values than those for the parasites. In a model of experimental cutaneous leishmaniasis in BALB/c mice, five doses of EO at 30 mg/kg by intralesional route demonstrated smaller lesion size and parasite burden (p < 0.05) compared with animals treated with Glucantime® and untreated mice. In conclusion, in vitro and in vivo results showed the potentialities of EO from P. carolinensis with the future possibility of a new alternative in the treatment for leishmaniasis. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. In and out of Madagascar: dispersal to peripheral islands, insular speciation and diversification of Indian Ocean daisy trees (Psiadia, Asteraceae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joeri S Strijk

    Full Text Available Madagascar is surrounded by archipelagos varying widely in origin, age and structure. Although small and geologically young, these archipelagos have accumulated disproportionate numbers of unique lineages in comparison to Madagascar, highlighting the role of waif-dispersal and rapid in situ diversification processes in generating endemic biodiversity. We reconstruct the evolutionary and biogeographical history of the genus Psiadia (Asteraceae, a plant genus with near equal numbers of species in Madagascar and surrounding islands. Analyzing patterns and processes of diversification, we explain species accumulation on peripheral islands and aim to offer new insights on the origin and potential causes for diversification in the Madagascar and Indian Ocean Islands biodiversity hotspot. Our results provide support for an African origin of the group, with strong support for non-monophyly. Colonization of the Mascarenes took place by two evolutionary distinct lineages from Madagascar, via two independent dispersal events, each unique for their spatial and temporal properties. Significant shifts in diversification rate followed regional expansion, resulting in co-occurring and phenotypically convergent species on high-elevation volcanic slopes. Like other endemic island lineages, Psiadia have been highly successful in dispersing to and radiating on isolated oceanic islands, typified by high habitat diversity and dynamic ecosystems fuelled by continued geological activity. Results stress the important biogeographical role for Rodrigues in serving as an outlying stepping stone from which regional colonization took place. We discuss how isolated volcanic islands contribute to regional diversity by generating substantial numbers of endemic species on short temporal scales. Factors pertaining to the mode and tempo of archipelago formation and its geographical isolation strongly govern evolutionary pathways available for species diversification, and the

  4. Mucoadhesive formulation of Bidens pilosa L. (Asteraceae reduces intestinal injury from 5-fluorouracil-induced mucositis in mice

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    Paulo Henrique Marcelino de Ávila

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal mucositis induced during cancer treatment is considered a serious dose-limiting side effect of chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy. Frequently, interruption of the cancer treatment due to this pathology leads to a reduction in cure rates, increase of treatment costs and decrease life quality of the patient. Natural products such as Bidens pilosa L. (Asteraceae, represent a potential alternative for the treatment of mucositis given its anti-inflammatory properties. In this study, B. pilosa glycolic extract was formulated (BPF with poloxamer, a mucoadhesive copolymer, was used for treatment of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU-induced mucositis in mice. As expected, animals only treated with 5-FU (200 mg/kg presented marked weight loss, reduction of intestinal villi, crypts and muscular layer, which was associated with severe disruption of crypts, edema, inflammatory infiltrate and vacuolization in the intestinal tissue, as compared to the control group and healthy animals only treated with BPF. On the other hand, the treatment of intestinal mucositis-bearing mice with BPF (75, 100 or 125 mg/kg managed to mitigate clinical and pathologic changes, noticeably at 100 mg/kg. This dose led to the restoration of intestinal proliferative activity through increasing Ki-67 levels; modulated the expression of Bax, Bcl2 and p53 apoptotic markers protecting intestinal cells from cell death. Moreover, this treatment regulated lipid peroxidation and inflammatory infiltration. No acute toxic effects were observed with this formulation. This work demonstrated that BPF was safe and effective against 5-FU-induced intestinal mucositis in mice. Additional studies are already in progress to further characterize the mechanisms involved in the protective effects of this technological formulation toward the development of a new medicine for the prevention and treatment of intestinal injury in patients undergoing chemotherapy/radiotherapy.

  5. Serenoa repens, lycopene and selenium versus tamsulosin for the treatment of LUTS/BPH. An Italian multicenter double-blinded randomized study between single or combination therapy (PROCOMB trial).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgia, Giuseppe; Russo, Giorgio I; Voce, Salvatore; Palmieri, Fabiano; Gentile, Marcello; Giannantoni, Antonella; Blefari, Franco; Carini, Marco; Minervini, Andrea; Ginepri, Andrea; Salvia, Giuseppe; Vespasiani, Giuseppe; Santelli, Giorgio; Cimino, Sebastiano; Allegro, Rosalinda; Collura, Zaira; Fragalà, Eugenia; Arnone, Salvatore; Pareo, Rosaria M

    2014-11-01

    Phytotherapy has been used to treat patients with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). We evaluated the efficacy and tolerability of combination therapy between Serenoa Repens (SeR), Lycopene (Ly), and Selenium (Se) + tamsulosin versus single therapies. PROCOMB trial (ISRCTN78639965) was a randomized double-blinded, double-dummy multicenter study of 225 patients between 55 and 80 years old, PSA ≤ 4 ng/ml, IPSS ≥12, prostate volume ≤60 cc, Qmax ≤15 ml/sec, postvoid residual urine (PVR) tamsulosin 0.4 mg), group C (SeR-Se-Ly + tamsulosin 0.4 mg). The primary endpoints of the study were the reduction of IPSS, PVR, and increase of Qmax in group C versus monotherapy groups. The decrease for combination therapy was significantly greater versus group A (P tamsulosin therapy is more effective than single therapies in improving IPSS and increasing Qmax in patients with LUTS. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Viper and cobra venom neutralization by beta-sitosterol and stigmasterol isolated from the root extract of Pluchea indica Less. (Asteraceae).

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    Gomes, A; Saha, Archita; Chatterjee, Ipshita; Chakravarty, A K

    2007-09-01

    We reported previously that the methanolic root extract of the Indian medicinal plant Pluchea indica Less. (Asteraceae) could neutralize viper venom-induced action [Alam, M.I., Auddy, B., Gomes, A., 1996. Viper venom neutralization by Indian medicinal plant (Hemidesmus indicus and P. indica) root extracts. Phytother. Res. 10, 58-61]. The present study reports the neutralization of viper and cobra venom by beta-sitosterol and stigmasterol isolated from the root extract of P. indica Less. (Asteraceae). The active fraction (containing the major compound beta-sitosterol and the minor compound stigmasterol) was isolated and purified by silica gel column chromatography and the structure was determined using spectroscopic analysis (EIMS, (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR). Anti-snake venom activity was studied in experimental animals. The active fraction was found to significantly neutralize viper venom-induced lethal, hemorrhagic, defibrinogenation, edema and PLA(2) activity. Cobra venom-induced lethality, cardiotoxicity, neurotoxicity, respiratory changes and PLA(2) activity were also antagonized by the active component. It potentiated commercial snake venom antiserum action against venom-induced lethality in male albino mice. The active fraction could antagonize venom-induced changes in lipid peroxidation and superoxide dismutase activity. This study suggests that beta-sitosterol and stigmasterol may play an important role, along with antiserum, in neutralizing snake venom-induced actions.

  7. Development of expressed sequence tag-simple sequence repeat markers for genetic characterization and population structure analysis of Praxelis clematidea (Asteraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Q Z; Huang, M; Downie, S R; Chen, Z X

    2016-05-23

    Invasive plants tend to spread aggressively in new habitats and an understanding of their genetic diversity and population structure is useful for their management. In this study, expressed sequence tag-simple sequence repeat (EST-SSR) markers were developed for the invasive plant species Praxelis clematidea (Asteraceae) from 5548 Stevia rebaudiana (Asteraceae) expressed sequence tags (ESTs). A total of 133 microsatellite-containing ESTs (2.4%) were identified, of which 56 (42.1%) were hexanucleotide repeat motifs and 50 (37.6%) were trinucleotide repeat motifs. Of the 24 primer pairs designed from these 133 ESTs, 7 (29.2%) resulted in significant polymorphisms. The number of alleles per locus ranged from 5 to 9. The relatively high genetic diversity (H = 0.2667, I = 0.4212, and P = 100%) of P. clematidea was related to high gene flow (Nm = 1.4996) among populations. The coefficient of population differentiation (GST = 0.2500) indicated that most genetic variation occurred within populations. A Mantel test suggested that there was significant correlation between genetic distance and geographical distribution (r = 0.3192, P = 0.012). These results further support the transferability of EST-SSR markers between closely related genera of the same family.

  8. Pre-release efficacy assessment of the leaf-mining moth Digitivalva delaireae (Lepidoptera: Glyphipterigidae), a potential biological control agent for Cape-ivy, Delairea odorata (Asteraceae), in western North America

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    The leaf-mining moth Digitivalva delaireae Gaedike & Kruger (Lepidoptera: Glyphipterigidae) is a potential biological control agent for the invasive vine Cape-ivy, Delairea odorata Lemaire (Asteraceae), in western North America, where two morphological varieties (stipulate and exstipulate) of Cape-i...

  9. In vitro schistosomicidal and antiviral activities of Arctium lappa L. (Asteraceae) against Schistosoma mansoni and Herpes simplex virus-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Mirna Meana; Zuza, Ohana; Riani, Lorena R; de Faria Pinto, Priscila; Pinto, Pedro Luiz Silva; Silva, Marcos P; de Moraes, Josué; Ataíde, Ana Caroline Z; de Oliveira Silva, Fernanda; Cecílio, Alzira Batista; Da Silva Filho, Ademar A

    2017-10-01

    Schistosomiasis and herpes diseases represent serious issues to the healthcare systems, infecting a large number of people worldwide, mainly in developing countries. Arctium lappa L. (Asteraceae), known as "bardana" and "burdock", is a medicinal plant popularly used for several purposes, including as antiseptic. In this study, we evaluated the in vitro schistosomicidal and antiherpes activities of the crude extract of A. lappa, which have not yet been described. Fruits of A. lappa L. were extracted by maceration with ethanol: H 2 O (96:4 v/v) in order to obtain the hydroalcoholic extract of A. lappa (AL). In vitro schistosomicidal assays were assessed against adult worms of Schistosoma mansoni, while the in vitro antiviral activity of AL was evaluated on replication of Herpes simplex virus type-1 (HSV-1). Cell viability was measured by MTT assay, using Vero cells and chemical composition of AL was determined by qualitative UPLC-ESI-QTOF-MS analysis. UPLC-ESI-QTOF-MS analysis of AL revealed the presence of dibenzylbutyrolactone lignans, such as arctiin and arctigenin. Results showed that AL was not cytotoxic to Vero cells even when tested at 400μg/mL. qPCR results indicated a significant viral load decreased for all tested concentrations of AL (400, 50, and 3.125μg/mL), which showed similar antiviral effect to acyclovir (50μg/mL) when tested at 400μg/mL. Also, AL (400, 200, and 100μg/mL) caused 100% mortality and significantly reduction on motor activity of all adult worms of S. mansoni. Confocal laser scanning microscopy showed tegumental morphological alterations and changes on the numbers of tubercles of S. mansoni worms in a dose-dependent manner after treatment with AL. This report provides the first evidence for the in vitro schistosomicidal and antiherpes activities of AL, opening the route to further schistosomicidal and antiviral studies with AL and their compounds, especially lignans. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. [Relocation of Espeletia grandiflora (Asteraceae) plants as a strategy for enrichment of disturbed paramo areas (PNN Chingaza, Colombia)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas-Zamora, Oscar; Insuasty-Torres, Jennyfer; de Cardenas, Camilo los Angeles; Ríos, Orlando Vargas

    2013-03-01

    Ecological restoration of the Andean paramos faces several ecological barriers mainly at the phase of dispersal and establishment of native species. With the aim to contribute to the enrichment of degraded areas, different strategies have to be developed to overcome those barriers. In this work we studied the response of individuals of Espeletia grandiflora (Asteraceae) to the relocation as a strategy for ecological restoration programs. We also evaluated the effect of size of relocated individuals on their survival and development. The work was carried out in an experimental plot at 3 424m altitude in the sector "Lagunas de Siecha" of Chingaza National Park, Colombia. We relocated 200 plants that belonged to three different size classes: 5, 10 and 15cm of initial height. The following variables were registered: survival, plant height, number of living leaves and stem diameter of each individual. We also evaluated the differences between individuals in survival and development. In terms of survival the most efficient size classes corresponded to 15cm high; the survival was 85% after two years. The relative growth rates for height and stem diameter decreases with the increase in size, but the absolute increase in height did not show significant differences between the three sizes tested. Since the stem diameter was found the strongest survival predictor after two years of relocation activities, we suggest its use as a criterion for selection of relocation individuals. The relocation of individuals of E. grandiflora had a positive side effect, carrying other species that may contribute to the enrichment and restoration of degraded areas. Among these, we found species of the genus Hypericum, as well as Arcytophyllum nitidum and Calamagrostis effusa, which should be evaluated in terms of survival and development for the subsequent implementation of the relocation strategy. In this study we verified the successful relocation of individuals of E. grandiflora as a

  11. Homeolog loss and expression changes in natural populations of the recently and repeatedly formed allotetraploid Tragopogon mirus (Asteraceae

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    Soltis Pamela S

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although polyploidy has long been recognized as a major force in the evolution of plants, most of what we know about the genetic consequences of polyploidy comes from the study of crops and model systems. Furthermore, although many polyploid species have formed repeatedly, patterns of genome evolution and gene expression are largely unknown for natural polyploid populations of independent origin. We therefore examined patterns of loss and expression in duplicate gene pairs (homeologs in multiple individuals from seven natural populations of independent origin of Tragopogon mirus (Asteraceae, an allopolyploid that formed repeatedly within the last 80 years from the diploids T. dubius and T. porrifolius. Results Using cDNA-AFLPs, we found differential band patterns that could be attributable to gene silencing, novel expression, and/or maternal/paternal effects between T. mirus and its diploid parents. Subsequent cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence (CAPS analyses of genomic DNA and cDNA revealed that 20 of the 30 genes identified through cDNA-AFLP analysis showed additivity, whereas nine of the 30 exhibited the loss of one parental homeolog in at least one individual. Homeolog loss (versus loss of a restriction site was confirmed via sequencing. The remaining gene (ADENINE-DNA GLYCOSYLASE showed ambiguous patterns in T. mirus because of polymorphism in the diploid parent T. dubius. Most (63.6% of the homeolog loss events were of the T. dubius parental copy. Two genes, NUCLEAR RIBOSOMAL DNA and GLYCERALDEHYDE-3-PHOSPHATE DEHYDROGENASE, showed differential expression of the parental homeologs, with the T. dubius copy silenced in some individuals of T. mirus. Conclusions Genomic and cDNA CAPS analyses indicated that plants representing multiple populations of this young natural allopolyploid have experienced frequent and preferential elimination of homeologous loci. Comparable analyses of synthetic F1 hybrids showed only

  12. [Loss of pubescence and their physiological effects on endangered rosette Espeletia paipana (Asteraceae), Boyacá-Colombia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buitrago, Sindy; Vanegast, Leidy; Ramos, Carolina

    2015-09-01

    Espeletia paipana is an endangered giant caulescent rosette endemic to (Asteraceae), Boyacdi-Colombia. Espelelia paipana is an endangered giant caulescent rosette endemic to Boyacá department. In order to establish whether a plant disease, characterized by the loss of leaf pubescence (PPF) and attributed to the pathogenic action of endophytic microorganisms, is the cause of the increasing mortality of population, the physiological performance of the species was evaluated with and without PPF. The incidence (% leaves affected in each of the 27 individuals in the current population) and severity (% leaf area affected on 135 leaves) of the PPF were monitored over a period of nine months, in three topographic zones of different heights. During four consecutive days in both dry and wet season, physiological parameters as chlorophyll content index (ICC), stomatal conductance (Gs) and leaf temperature (Tfol) were measured in healthy and affected leaves. The study was complemented with isolations and pathogenicity tests to identify the causal agent of the PPF. Overall, although the disease incidence in E. paipana was constant over time, the severity progressed surpassing 60 % of the leaf area. The increasing of severity in the upper side of leaves was attributed to the photo-oxidative effect of high radiation between 11:00 h and 14:00 h of the day. The reduction of functional leaf area because of the PPF, led to low Gs with serious implications for carbon fixation and thus limiting growth and biomass renewal. The effect of season in Tfol varied according to the topographic zone, while the ICC did not present a defined pattern with respect to the PPF; its low values could be associated with the production of other pigments. Finally, although it is not possible to ensure that Botrytis sp. is the causative of the loss of leaf pubescence, it is postulated as the most probably causal agent due to its high representativeness in the isolates and its infectious potential during

  13. Insect herbivores associated with Baccharis dracunculifolia (Asteraceae: responses of gall-forming and free-feeding insects to latitudinal variation

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    Marcílio Fagundes

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The spatial heterogeneity hypothesis has been invoked to explain the increase in species diversity from the poles to the tropics: the tropics may be more diverse because they contain more habitats and microhabitats. In this paper, the spatial heterogeneity hypothesis prediction was tested by evaluating the variation in richness of two guilds of insect herbivores (gall-formers and free-feeders associated with Baccharis dracunculifolia (Asteraceae along a latitudinal variation in Brazil. The seventeen populations of B. dracunculifolia selected for insect herbivores sampling were within structurally similar habitats, along the N-S distributional limit of the host plant, near the Brazilian sea coast. Thirty shrubs were surveyed in each host plant population. A total of 8 201 galls and 864 free-feeding insect herbivores belonging to 28 families and 88 species were sampled. The majority of the insects found on B. dracunculifolia were restricted to a specific site rather than having ageographic distribution mirroring that of the host plant. Species richness of free-feeding insects was not affected by latitudinal variation corroborating the spatial heterogeneity hypothesis. Species richness of gall-forming insects was positively correlated with latitude, probably because galling insect associated with Baccharris genus radiated in Southern Brazil. Other diversity indices and evenness estimated for both gall-forming and free feeding insect herbivores, did not change with latitude, suggesting a general structure for different assemblages of herbivores associated with the host plant B. dracunculifolia. Thus it is probable that, insect fauna sample in each site resulted of large scale events, as speciation, migration and coevolution, while at local level, the population of these insects is regulated by ecological forces which operate in the system. Rev. Biol. Trop. 59 (3: 1419-1432. Epub 2011 September 01.La hipótesis de heterogeneidad espacial se ha

  14. Effects of Salicylic Acid on Some Morphophysiological Characteristics of Border Flowers from Asteraceae Family under Water Deficit

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    majid zargarian

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In order to improve physical and mental human healthy, development of the urban area landscape is necessary. Water deficit is one of the most important problems in arid and semi- arid regions. Water deficit causes to reduce growth of different plants parts, including roots, aerial parts, leaf area, height, dry weight, proteins, amino acids and chlorophyll. Using drought tolerance plantsisone solution. Moreover, one physiological method to decrease the hazardous effects of environmental stresses on plants is to applyplant growth regulators such as salicylic acid (SA. SA is one of the plant phenolic compounds in low amounts (mg/g wet weight or lower. This hormone can perform an important role in resistance to stresses. Asteraceae is one of the biggest plant families with over 20,000 species which is distributed worldwide in moderate and tropical regions. A lot of border flowers of this family are widely used in landscaping. Toselect drought tolerance flowers and application of materials that reducing stress effects, this experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of salicylic acid on some morphological and physiological characteristics of five border flowers of this family. Materials and Methods: The field experiment was conducted as split plot on randomized complete blocks design with four replications in which factors included two levels of water deficit (50, 100% FC as main plot and two levels of SA (0, 1mmol/L-1 as sub plot in the horticulturedepartment of faculty of Agriculture atFerdowsi University of Mashhad. In this investigation five border flowers (Ageratum houstonianum‘Blue Danube’, Tagetserecta ‘Discovery Yellow’, Tagetspatula‘Hero Harmony’, Zinnia elegans ‘Lilliput rose’andCallistephuschinensis ‘Milady Mix’ of Asteraceae family were chosen for study. The soil mixture was analyzed before starting the test. According to the result of physicochemical analysis of the soil, it had loamy texture

  15. Atividade antibacteriana e a preditividade do condimento Artemisia dracunculus Linn. (Asteraceae, variedade inodora - estragão -, frente à Salmonella sp Antimicrobial activity and preditivity of Artemisia acunculus (Asteraceae, var. inodora - tarragon -, as condiment, against Salmonella sp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heloisa Helena Carvalho

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a atividade antibacteriana de extrato aquoso do condimento estragão - Artemisia dracunculus linn. (Asteraceae, variedade inodora -, frente à Salmonella enteritidis (ATCC 11076, por meio do sistema de tubos múltiplos e pelo emprego de desinibidores bacterianos, determinando-se a Intensidade de Inibição/Inativação (IINIB/IINAB, observando-se expressiva inibição, bem como ausência de inativação sobre esta salmonela. Na presença do fator matéria orgânica/sujeira representada pelo leite, estes atributos repetiram-se, embora com menor intensidade de inibição. Posteriormente, avaliou-se a preditividade de uma técnica oficial de isolamento desta bactéria, utilizando uma solução experimental de leite e caldo BHI (Brain Heart Infusion, contaminada com 10(4 UFC/mL da salmonela em estudo. Verificou-se a ausência de isolamento desta bactéria em alíquotas de 25 mL, após períodos de 24, 48 e 72 h de incubação a 36ºC, comprometendo a Validade Preditiva dos Resultados Negativos (VPR- do teste. Sugere-se que, nas investigações epidemiológicas de surtos toxiinfectivos alimentares, devem-se ser acrescidas informações sobre condimentação vegetal, entre outras, pertinentes à complexidade crescente do sistema de alimentação e nutrição.It was evaluated antibacterial activity of watery extract of the condiment tarragon - Artemisia dracunculus linn., var. inodora -, against the Salmonella enteritidis (ATCC 11076, through the system of multiple pipes and the job of bacterial inhibitors, it was determined Intensity of inhibition/inativation (IINIB/IINAB, observing expressive inhibition, as well as absence of inativation on this salmonela. In presence of the organic substance, represented by skimmed barren milk, these attributes if had repeated, even so with lesser intensity of inhnibition. Later, it was evaluated preditividade of one official technique of isolation of this bacterium, using an experimental solution of milk

  16. Nova espécie de Dasineura Rondani, 1840 (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae em capítulos de Hypochaeris chillensis (Kunth Britton (Asteraceae para o Brasil

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    Alessandre Pereira-Colavite

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Uma nova espécie de Dasineura Rondani, 1840 (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae para o Brasil, Dasineura occulta sp. nov., é descrita associada a Hypochaeris chillensis (Kunth Britton (Asteraceae, uma espécie invasora e característica de ambientes antropizadas. Esta nova espécie foi encontrada ocupando capítulos e não há formação de galhas ou alterações no tecido das inflorescências que possam ser reconhecidas externamente. São apresentados desenhos de caracteres morfológicos de adultos (macho e fêmea, larva e pupa. Pranchas da ocupação do hospedeiro também são incluídas.

  17. Three new genera and three new species of Nearctic Lasiopteridi (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae: Cecidomyiinae) from Asteraceae and Caprifoliaceae, and the tribe Rhopalomyiini subsumed under Oligotrophini.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagné, Raymond J

    2016-08-30

    Three new Nearctic genera of gall midges (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae), each with a new species, are described: Helianthecis Gagné for Helianthecis capitum Gagné, new species, that lives in flower heads of Helianthus spp. (Asteraceae) from North Dakota to Texas; Lonicerae Gagné for Lonicerae russoi Gagné, new species, and Lonicerae lonicera (Felt), new combination, that form bud galls on Lonicera spp. (Caprifoliaceae) in California; and Chiosperma Gagné for Chiosperma turgidum Gagné, new species, that forms a bud gall on Symphoricarpos albus (L.) S.F. Blake (Caprifoliaceae) in Washington. The three new genera belong to the supertribe Lasiopteridi and are placed in the tribe Oligotrophini. The tribes Oligotrophini and Rhopalomyiini are combined.

  18. Investigating the potential of under-utilised plants from the Asteraceae family as a source of natural antimicrobial and antioxidant extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenny, O; Smyth, T J; Walsh, D; Kelleher, C T; Hewage, C M; Brunton, N P

    2014-10-15

    Antimicrobial properties of ethanol and water extracts from eight Asteraceae species were investigated against three Gram positive (Staphylococcus aureus, MRSA and Bacillus cereus) and two Gram negative (Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium) bacterial strains. Ethanol extracts from Centaurea scabiosa, Arctium minus, Taraxacum officinale, Centaurea nigra and Cirsium palustre demonstrated antimicrobial activity against strains of S. aureus, MRSA and B. cereus (MIC=187.5-365μg/ml). Ethanol extracts also had higher antioxidant activities and phenolic content demonstrating a link between these compounds and the bioactivity of these extracts. Further investigation into the phenolic content of ethanol extracts using UPLC-MS/MS lead to the identification and quantification of numerous phenolic compounds in all species including; 18 from Cirsium arvense, 16 from Cirsium vulgare, 19 from C. palustre, 15 from C. nigra, 17 from C. scabiosa, 14 from Sonchus asper, 17 from A. minus and 11 from T. officinale. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The effect of polyphenolic-polysaccharide conjugates from selected medicinal plants of Asteraceae family on the peroxynitrite-induced changes in blood platelet proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saluk-Juszczak, Joanna; Pawlaczyk, Izabela; Olas, Beata; Kołodziejczyk, Joanna; Ponczek, Michal; Nowak, Pawel; Tsirigotis-Wołoszczak, Marta; Wachowicz, Barbara; Gancarz, Roman

    2010-12-01

    Lots of plants belonging to Asteraceae family are very popular in folk medicine in Poland. These plants are also known as being rich in acidic polysaccharides, due to the presence of hexuronic acids or its derivatives. Our preliminary experiments have shown that the extract from Conyza canadensis L. possesses various biological activity, including antiplatelet, antiocoagulant and antioxidant properties. The aim of our study was to assess if macromolecular glycoconjugates from selected herbal plants of Asteraceae family: Achillea millefolium L., Arnica montana L., Echinacea purpurea L., Solidago virgaurea L., Chamomilla recutita (L.) Rauschert., and Conyza canadensis L. protect platelet proteins against nitrative and oxidative damage induced by peroxynitrite, which is responsible for oxidative/nitrative modifications of platelet proteins: the formation of 3-nitrotyrosine and carbonyl groups. These modifications may lead to changes of blood platelet functions and can have pathological consequences. The role of these different medicinal plants in the defence against oxidative/nitrative stress in human platelets is still unknown, therefore the oxidative damage to platelet proteins induced by peroxynitrite and protectory effects of tested conjugates by the estimation of carbonyl group level and nitrotyrosine formation (a marker of protein nitration) were studied in vitro. The antioxidative properties of the polyphenolic-polysaccharide conjugates from selected tested medicinal plants were also compared with the action of a well characterized antioxidative commercial polyphenol - resveratrol (3,4',5-trihydroxystilbene). The obtained results demonstrate that the compounds from herbal plants: A. millefolium, A. montana, E. purpurea, C. recutita, S. virgaurea, possess antioxidative properties and protect platelet proteins against peroxynitrite toxicity in vitro, similar to the glycoconjugates from C. canadensis. However, in the comparative studies, the polyphenolic

  20. Geography shapes the phylogeny of frailejones (Espeletiinae Cuatrec., Asteraceae: a remarkable example of recent rapid radiation in sky islands

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    Mauricio Diazgranados

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background The páramo ecosystem, located above the timberline in the tropical Andes, has been the setting for some of the most dramatic plant radiations, and it is one of the world’s fastest evolving and most diverse high-altitude ecosystems. Today 144+ species of frailejones (subtribe Espeletiinae Cuatrec., Asteraceae dominate the páramo. Frailejones have intrigued naturalists and botanists, not just for their appealing beauty and impressive morphological diversity, but also for their remarkable adaptations to the extremely harsh environmental conditions of the páramo. Previous attempts to reconstruct the evolutionary history of this group failed to resolve relationships among genera and species, and there is no agreement regarding the classification of the group. Thus, our goal was to reconstruct the phylogeny of the frailejones and to test the influence of the geography on it as a first step to understanding the patterns of radiation of these plants. Methods Field expeditions in 70 páramos of Colombia and Venezuela resulted in 555 collected samples from 110 species. Additional material was obtained from herbarium specimens. Sequence data included nrDNA (ITS and ETS and cpDNA (rpl16, for an aligned total of 2,954 bp. Fragment analysis was performed with AFLP data using 28 primer combinations and yielding 1,665 fragments. Phylogenies based on sequence data were reconstructed under maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference. The AFLP dataset employed minimum evolution analyses. A Monte Carlo permutation test was used to infer the influence of the geography on the phylogeny. Results Phylogenies reconstructed suggest that most genera are paraphyletic, but the phylogenetic signal may be misled by hybridization and incomplete lineage sorting. A tree with all the available molecular data shows two large clades: one of primarily Venezuelan species that includes a few neighboring Colombian species; and a second clade of only

  1. Purificação do flavonóide trans-tilirosídeo do extrato metanólico das folhas de Gochnatia barrosii Cabrera (asteraceae e avaliação da sua atividade nematicida Purification of the flavonoid trans-tiliroside from the methanolic extract of Gochnatia barrosii Cabrera (Asteraceae leaves and evaluation of the nematicidal activity

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    Helvécio Martins dos Santos Júnior

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available O fracionamento do extrato metanólico das folhas de Gochnatia barrosii Cabrera (Asteraceae resultou no isolamento do flavonol glicosídico trans-tilirosídeo [kaempferol 3-O- -D-(6''-O-E-p-cumaroil-glicopiranosídeo], que nunca tinha sido identificado na referida espécie vegetal. Em teste realizado in vitro, observou-se que tal substância a 500 μg/mL, não tem efeito sobre a mortalidade de juvenis do segundo estágio do nematóide Meloidogyne exigua Goeldi.Fractionation of the methanolic extract from Gochnatia barrosii Cabrera (Asteraceae leaves resulted in the isolation of the flavonol glycoside trans-tiliroside [kaempferol 3-O- -D-(6''-O-E-p-coumaroyl-glucopyranoside], which had never been found in such plant species. Such substance at 500 μg/mL caused no in vitro effect on the mortality of second-stage juveniles of the nematode Meloidogyne exigua Goeldi.

  2. Effects of D-004, a lipid extract of the fruit of the Cuban royal palm (Roystonea regia) or the lipidosterolic extract of saw palmetto (Serenoa repens) on the sexual activity in male rats: A controlled, experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Lilia C; Mas, Rosa; Fernández, Julio; Mendoza, Sarahí; Gámez, Rafael; Pardo, Balia

    2008-02-01

    The etiology of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is not completely understood, but hormonal changes in aging men seem to be pivotal. Dihydrotestosterone, a potent, active metabolite of testosterone, is formed by the enzymatic action of prostate 5α-reductase and causes cell growth and hyperplasia. Consistent with this action, male sexual dysfunction has been clinically documented to be among the drug-related adverse events associated with 5α-reductase inhibitors. The lipidosterolic extract of saw palmetto (LESP) fruit (Serenoa repens) has been used to treat BPH. D-004, a lipid extract of Roystonea regia Royal palm fruit, has been found to prevent prostatic hyperplasia induced by testoste-rone in rodents and to competitively inhibit prostate 5α-reductase activity in vitro. The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of D-004 and LESP, administered as single or repeated doses, on the sexual activity in male rats. This controlled, experimental study was conducted at the Pharmacology Department, Centre of Natural Products, National Centre for Scientific Research, Havana City, Cuba. Adult male Wistar rats weighing 250 to 300 g were randomized into 5 groups: 2 groups treated orally with D-004 (400 and 800 mg/kg); 2 groups treated orally with LESP (400 and 800 mg/kg); and 1 control group orally administered a water vehicle. Sexual activity behavior (the number of mounts and intromissions, mount latency, and intromission latency) was assessed during 2 observation periods: 90 minutes after the initial dose and at the end of the 30-day treatment. Latency was defined as time elapsed between the first mount and intromission. A total of 50 rats (mean [SD] age, 10 [3] weeks; mean [SD] weight, 295 [10] g) were included in the experiment. There were no significant difterences in the mean number of mounts, intromissions, mount latency, or intromission latency in the groups treated with single or repeated doses of D-004 or LESP (400 and 800 mg/kg) compared with the

  3. Use of Bidens pilosa L. (Asteraceae and Curcuma longa L. (Zingiberaceae to treat intestinal mucositis in mice: Toxico-pharmacological evaluations

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    Carla Caroline Cunha Bastos

    Full Text Available Introduction: Several studies towards the development of an effective treatment for intestinal mucositis have been reported, since this condition represents a major problem in clinical oncology practice due to cytotoxic effects of chemotherapy. However standardized protocols and universally accepted treatment options are yet to be established. Objectives: Given above, this study evaluated the protective effects of a mucoadhesive formulation containing both Bidens pilosa L. (Asteraceae (BP and curcuminoids from Curcuma longa L. (Zingiberaceae (CL on intestinal mucositis induced by 5-fluoruoacil (5-FU in mice. Results: As expected, animals only treated with 5-FU (200 mg/kg showed a significant reduction of 60.3 and 42.4% in villi and crypts size, respectively, when compared to control. On the other hand, the proposed therapeutic/prophylactic treatment with mucoadhesive formulations managed to reduce histopathologic changes in mice bearing mucositis, especially at 125 mg/kg BP + 15 mg/kg CL dose. The formulation promoted an increase of 275.5% and 148.7% for villi and crypts size, respectively. Moreover, chemotherapy-related weight loss was reduced by 7.4% following the treatment. In addition, an increase of 10 and 30.5% in red and white blood cells was observed when compared to 5-FU group. Furthermore, treatments with the mucoadhesive formulation containing BP/CL up modulated Ki-67 and Bcl-2 expression while reduced pro-apoptotic regulator Bax. The formulation also modulated inflammatory response triggered by 5-FU through reduction of 68% of myeloperoxidase activity and a 4-fold increase in anti-inflammatory IL-10 levels. In parallel, the oxidative stress via lipid peroxidation was reduced as indicated by decrease of 63% of malondialdehyde concentrations. Additionally, the new formulation presented low acute oral systemic toxicity, being classified in the category 5 (2000 mg/kg < LD50 < 5000 mg/kg of the Globally Harmonized

  4. Palinologia de espécies de Asteraceae de utilidade medicinal para a comunidade da Vila Dois Rios, Ilha Grande, Angra dos Reis, RJ, Brasil Pollen morpology of species of Asteraceae with medicinal utility for the community from Vila Dois Rios, Ilha Grande, Angra dos Reis, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Neto Galvão

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho trata da morfologia polínica e de descrições taxonômicas de 12 espécies de Asteraceae correspondentes em 12 diferentes gêneros, distribuídos em nove tribos. Todas as espécies estudadas são utilizadas como medicamentos pelos moradores da Vila Dois Rios, Ilha Grande, Angra dos Reis, Rio de Janeiro. Neste estudo objetivou-se caracterizar os tipos polínicos das espécies usadas por esta comunidade e fornecer chaves diagnósticas de caracteres macromorfológicos e micromorfológicos que auxiliem a identificação das mesmas. A identificação taxonômica e palinológica correta é pré-requisito para estudos que validem a eficácia e segurança terapêutica dessas espécies. Deve-se considerar, ainda, que a utilização desses conhecimentos é importante para a comunidade, como por exemplo, na melissopalinologia. Os grãos de pólen foram acetolisados, medidos, descritos e ilustrados sob microscopia de luz. Para observar detalhes da superfície e abertura, grãos de pólen não acetolisados foram analisados em microscópio eletrônico de varredura. Foram estudadas as características dos grãos de pólen como forma, tamanho, constituição da sexina e abertura. Os resultados mostraram que a morfologia polínica é bem definida entre as espécies estudadas, podendo ser usada para sua identificação e sustenta o caráter euripalinológico de Asteraceae.This study is a palynologycal characterization and taxonomic description of 12 species within 12 genera, distributed in nine tribes from Asteracaeae. All studied species are used as medicines by people from Vila Dois Rios and they occur in Ilha Grande. This work aimed to characterize the pollen grains of medicinal species of Asteraceae from Vila Dois Rios and provide diagnostic keys based on macromorphological and pollen characters to help their identification, since the correct taxonomic and palynological recognition of these species is necessary for further studies on therapeutic

  5. Short-term effects of dimethoate on metabolic responses in Chrysolina pardalina (Chrysomelidae) feeding on Berkheya coddii (Asteraceae), a hyper-accumulator of nickel

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    Augustyniak, M.; Migula, P. [Department of Animal Physiology and Ecotoxicology, University of Silesia, Bankowa 9, PL 40-007 Katowice (Poland); Mesjasz-Przybylowicz, J. [Materials Research Group, iThemba Laboratory for Accelerator Based Sciences, P.O. Box 722, Somerset West 7129 (South Africa); Tarnawska, M.; Nakonieczny, M. [Department of Animal Physiology and Ecotoxicology, University of Silesia, Bankowa 9, PL 40-007 Katowice (Poland); Babczynska, A. [Department of Animal Physiology and Ecotoxicology, University of Silesia, Bankowa 9, PL 40-007 Katowice (Poland)], E-mail: ababczyn@us.edu.pl; Przybylowicz, W. [Materials Research Group, iThemba Laboratory for Accelerator Based Sciences, P.O. Box 722, Somerset West 7129 (South Africa); Augustyniak, M.G. [Faculty of Earth Sciences, University of Silesia, Bedzinska 60, PL 41-200 Sosnowiec (Poland)

    2007-11-15

    Berkheya coddii Roessler (Asteraceae) is a hyper-accumulator of nickel, which can be used in phytomining and phytoremediation. Chrysolina pardalina Fabricius (Chrysomelidae) is a phytophagous leaf beetle, which may be useful in controlling population levels of B. coddii after it has been introduced into a new habitat. The aim of this study was to investigate the response of C. pardalina to topical application of dimethoate. Data recorded included the activity of acetylcholinesterase (AChE), the concentration of glutathione (GSH), and the activity of selected enzymes connected with GSH metabolism. Assays were carried out several times during the first 24 h after exposure to dimethoate. At the dosages used in this study, dimethoate was not as toxic as expected. AChE activity was significantly decreased 14 and 24 h after application. GST activity was significantly decreased 24 h after application. GSTPx activity was significantly decreased 2, 14 and 24 h after application. GR activity was significantly increased 4 h after application. GSH concentration was significantly increased 24 h after application. Long-term exposure to high levels of nickel may have caused adaptive changes in the enzymes that enable C. pardalina to deal with other stressors, including organophosphate pesticides. - Long-term exposure to high levels of nickel may have caused adaptive changes in the enzymes that enable Chrysolina pardalina to deal with other stressors, including organophosphate pesticides.

  6. Host Jumps and Radiation, Not Co‐Divergence Drives Diversification of Obligate Pathogens. A Case Study in Downy Mildews and Asteraceae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Young-Joon; Thines, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Even though the microevolution of plant hosts and pathogens has been intensely studied, knowledge regarding macro-evolutionary patterns is limited. Having the highest species diversity and host-specificity among Oomycetes, downy mildews are a useful a model for investigating long-term host-pathogen coevolution. We show that phylogenies of Bremia and Asteraceae are significantly congruent. The accepted hypothesis is that pathogens have diverged contemporarily with their hosts. But maximum clade age estimation and sequence divergence comparison reveal that congruence is not due to long-term coevolution but rather due to host-shift driven speciation (pseudo-cospeciation). This pattern results from parasite radiation in related hosts, long after radiation and speciation of the hosts. As large host shifts free pathogens from hosts with effector triggered immunity subsequent radiation and diversification in related hosts with similar innate immunity may follow, resulting in a pattern mimicking true co-divergence, which is probably limited to the terminal nodes in many pathogen groups. PMID:26230508

  7. Fumigant toxicity and acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity of 4 Asteraceae plant essential oils and their constituents against Japanese termite (Reticulitermes speratus Kolbe).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Seon-Mi; Kim, Junheon; Kang, Jaesoon; Koh, Sang-Hyun; Ahn, Young-Joon; Kang, Kyu-Suk; Park, Il-Kwon

    2014-07-01

    This study investigated the fumigant toxicity of 4 Asteraceae plant essential oils and their constituents against the Japanese termite Reticulitermes speratus Kolbe. Fumigant toxicity varied with plant essential oils or constituents, exposure time, and concentration. Among the tested essential oils, those from Chamaemelum nobile exhibited the strongest fumigant toxicity, followed by those from Santolina chamaecyparissus, Ormenis multicaulis, and Eriocephalus punctulatus at 2 days after treatment. In all, 15, 24, 19, and 9 compounds were identified in the essential oils from C. nobile, E. punctulatus, O. multicaulis, and S. chamaecyparissus, respectively, by using gas chromatography, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, or open-column chromatography. The identified compounds were tested individually for their fumigant toxicity against Japanese termites. Among the test compounds, trans-pinocarveol, caryophyllene oxide, sabinene hydrate, and santolina alcohol showed strong fumigant toxicity against Japanese termites. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition activity of the identified compounds from C. nobile, E. punctulatus, O. multicaulis, and S. chamaecyparissus essential oils were tested to determine the mode of their action. The IC50 values of (+)-α-pinene, (-)-limonene, (-)-α-pinene, β-pinene, and β-phellandrene against Japanese termite AChE were 0.03, 0.13, 0.41, 0.42, and 0.67mg/mL, respectively. Further studies are warranted to determine the potential of these essential oils and their constituents as fumigants for termite control. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Species tree phylogeny and character evolution in the genus Centipeda (Asteraceae): evidence from DNA sequences from coding and non-coding loci from the plastid and nuclear genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nylinder, Stephan; Cronholm, Bodil; de Lange, Peter J; Walsh, Neville; Anderberg, Arne A

    2013-08-01

    A species tree phylogeny of the Australian/New Zealand genus Centipeda (Asteraceae) is estimated based on nucleotide sequence data. We analysed sequences of nuclear ribosomal DNA (ETS, ITS) and three plasmid loci (ndhF, psbA-trnH, and trnL-F) using the multi-species coalescent module in BEAST. A total of 129 individuals from all 10 recognised species of Centipeda were sampled throughout the species distribution ranges, including two subspecies. We conclude that the inferred species tree topology largely conform previous assumptions on species relationships. Centipeda racemosa (Snuffweed) is the sister to remaining species, which is also the only consistently perennial representative in the genus. Centipeda pleiocephala (Tall Sneezeweed) and C. nidiformis (Cotton Sneezeweed) constitute a species pair, as does C. borealis and C. minima (Spreading Sneezeweed), all sharing the symplesiomorphic characters of spherical capitulum and convex receptacle with C. racemosa. Another species group comprising C. thespidioides (Desert Sneezeweed), C. cunninghamii (Old man weed, or Common sneeze-weed), C. crateriformis is well-supported but then include the morphologically aberrant C. aotearoana, all sharing the character of having capitula that mature more slowly relative the subtending shoot. Centipeda elatinoides takes on a weakly supported intermediate position between the two mentioned groups, and is difficult to relate to any of the former groups based on morphological characters. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The Impact of Reconstruction Methods, Phylogenetic Uncertainty and Branch Lengths on Inference of Chromosome Number Evolution in American Daisies (Melampodium, Asteraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCann, Jamie; Schneeweiss, Gerald M; Stuessy, Tod F; Villaseñor, Jose L; Weiss-Schneeweiss, Hanna

    2016-01-01

    Chromosome number change (polyploidy and dysploidy) plays an important role in plant diversification and speciation. Investigating chromosome number evolution commonly entails ancestral state reconstruction performed within a phylogenetic framework, which is, however, prone to uncertainty, whose effects on evolutionary inferences are insufficiently understood. Using the chromosomally diverse plant genus Melampodium (Asteraceae) as model group, we assess the impact of reconstruction method (maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood, Bayesian methods), branch length model (phylograms versus chronograms) and phylogenetic uncertainty (topological and branch length uncertainty) on the inference of chromosome number evolution. We also address the suitability of the maximum clade credibility (MCC) tree as single representative topology for chromosome number reconstruction. Each of the listed factors causes considerable incongruence among chromosome number reconstructions. Discrepancies between inferences on the MCC tree from those made by integrating over a set of trees are moderate for ancestral chromosome numbers, but severe for the difference of chromosome gains and losses, a measure of the directionality of dysploidy. Therefore, reliance on single trees, such as the MCC tree, is strongly discouraged and model averaging, taking both phylogenetic and model uncertainty into account, is recommended. For studying chromosome number evolution, dedicated models implemented in the program ChromEvol and ordered maximum parsimony may be most appropriate. Chromosome number evolution in Melampodium follows a pattern of bidirectional dysploidy (starting from x = 11 to x = 9 and x = 14, respectively) with no prevailing direction.

  10. Short-term effects of dimethoate on metabolic responses in Chrysolina pardalina (Chrysomelidae) feeding on Berkheya coddii (Asteraceae), a hyper-accumulator of nickel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Augustyniak, M.; Migula, P.; Mesjasz-Przybylowicz, J.; Tarnawska, M.; Nakonieczny, M.; Babczynska, A.; Przybylowicz, W.; Augustyniak, M.G.

    2007-01-01

    Berkheya coddii Roessler (Asteraceae) is a hyper-accumulator of nickel, which can be used in phytomining and phytoremediation. Chrysolina pardalina Fabricius (Chrysomelidae) is a phytophagous leaf beetle, which may be useful in controlling population levels of B. coddii after it has been introduced into a new habitat. The aim of this study was to investigate the response of C. pardalina to topical application of dimethoate. Data recorded included the activity of acetylcholinesterase (AChE), the concentration of glutathione (GSH), and the activity of selected enzymes connected with GSH metabolism. Assays were carried out several times during the first 24 h after exposure to dimethoate. At the dosages used in this study, dimethoate was not as toxic as expected. AChE activity was significantly decreased 14 and 24 h after application. GST activity was significantly decreased 24 h after application. GSTPx activity was significantly decreased 2, 14 and 24 h after application. GR activity was significantly increased 4 h after application. GSH concentration was significantly increased 24 h after application. Long-term exposure to high levels of nickel may have caused adaptive changes in the enzymes that enable C. pardalina to deal with other stressors, including organophosphate pesticides. - Long-term exposure to high levels of nickel may have caused adaptive changes in the enzymes that enable Chrysolina pardalina to deal with other stressors, including organophosphate pesticides

  11. Terpenoid Composition and Base Sequences of Ligularia virgaurea (Asteraceae) Grown in the Hengduan Mountain Area in China and a Comment on Drawing Structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tori, Motoo

    2016-01-01

    A chemical analysis of 30 samples of Ligularia virgaurea (Asteraceae) collected in Sichuan province and its adjacent territories in China was reviewed. These samples afforded 146 compounds, 73 of which were novel, and the chemical constituents were classified into 8 categories: (1) simple eremophilanes (without ring C) and eudesmanes including nor-derivatives, (2) furanoeremophilanes and lactones with a 1(10)-saturated bond, (3) furanoeremophilanes and lactones with a 1(10)-unsaturated bond, 1,10-epoxide, or 10-ol, (4) furanoeremophilanes and lactones with 1(10)-en-2-one, 1(10)-en-2-ol, or 1-en-3-one, (5) furanoeremophilanes and lactones with 1(10)-en-9-one, 1(10)-en-9-ol, or 1,10-epoxy-9-one, (6) cacalol and their derivatives, (7) bakkanes and their derivatives, and (8) others, as shown in Tables 1-7. In these studies, five chemotypes were identified in addition to three clades from the DNA sequences of L. virgaurea. The structural determination of some compounds was also discussed and a comment on how to express the real structure was proposed, particularly for spiro compounds.

  12. Insecticidal and acetylcholine esterase inhibition activity of Asteraceae plant essential oils and their constituents against adults of the German cockroach (Blattella germanica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeom, Hwa-Jeong; Jung, Chan-Sik; Kang, Jaesoon; Kim, Junheon; Lee, Jae-Hyeon; Kim, Dong-Soo; Kim, Hyun-Seok; Park, Pil-Sun; Kang, Kyu-Suk; Park, Il-Kwon

    2015-03-04

    The fumigant and contact toxicities of 16 Asteraceae plant essential oils and their constituents against adult male and female Blattella germanica were examined. In a fumigant toxicity test, tarragon oil exhibited 100% and 90% fumigant toxicity against adult male German cockroaches at 5 and 2.5 mg/filter paper, respectively. Fumigant toxicities of Artemisia arborescens and santolina oils against adult male German cockroaches were 100% at 20 mg/filter paper, but were reduced to 60% and 22.5% at 10 mg/filter paper, respectively. In contact toxicity tests, tarragon and santolina oils showed potent insecticidal activity against adult male German cockroaches. Components of active oils were analyzed using gas chromatography, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, or nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometer. Among the identified compounds from active essential oils, estragole demonstrated potent fumigant and contact toxicity against adult German cockroaches. β-Phellandrene exhibited inhibition of male and female German cockroach acetylcholinesterase activity with IC50 values of 0.30 and 0.28 mg/mL, respectively.

  13. Evolution of apomixis loci in Pilosella and Hieracium (Asteraceae) inferred from the conservation of apomixis-linked markers in natural and experimental populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hand, M L; Vít, P; Krahulcová, A; Johnson, S D; Oelkers, K; Siddons, H; Chrtek, J; Fehrer, J; Koltunow, A M G

    2015-01-01

    The Hieracium and Pilosella (Lactuceae, Asteraceae) genera of closely related hawkweeds contain species with two different modes of gametophytic apomixis (asexual seed formation). Both genera contain polyploid species, and in wild populations, sexual and apomictic species co-exist. Apomixis is known to co-exist with sexuality in apomictic Pilosella individuals, however, apomictic Hieracium have been regarded as obligate apomicts. Here, a developmental analysis of apomixis within 16 Hieracium species revealed meiosis and megaspore tetrad formation in 1 to 7% of ovules, for the first time indicating residual sexuality in this genus. Molecular markers linked to the two independent, dominant loci LOSS OF APOMEIOSIS (LOA) and LOSS OF PARTHENOGENESIS (LOP) controlling apomixis in Pilosella piloselloides subsp. praealta were screened across 20 phenotyped Hieracium individuals from natural populations, and 65 phenotyped Pilosella individuals from natural and experimental cross populations, to examine their conservation, inheritance and association with reproductive modes. All of the tested LOA and LOP-linked markers were absent in the 20 Hieracium samples irrespective of their reproductive mode. Within Pilosella, LOA and LOP-linked markers were essentially absent within the sexual plants, although they were not conserved in all apomictic individuals. Both loci appeared to be inherited independently, and evidence for additional genetic factors influencing quantitative expression of LOA and LOP was obtained. Collectively, these data suggest independent evolution of apomixis in Hieracium and Pilosella and are discussed with respect to current knowledge of the evolution of apomixis. PMID:25026970

  14. Suitability of Root and Rhizome Anatomy for Taxonomic Classification and Reconstruction of Phylogenetic Relationships in the Tribes Cardueae and Cichorieae (Asteraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginko, Elisabeth; Dobeš, Christoph; Saukel, Johannes

    2016-05-27

    The value of root and rhizome anatomy for the taxonomic characterisation of 59 species classified into 34 genera and 12 subtribes from the Asteraceae tribes Cardueae and Cichorieae was assessed. In addition, the evolutionary history of anatomical characters was reconstructed using a nuclear ribosomal DNA sequence-based phylogeny of the Cichorieae. Taxa were selected with a focus on pharmaceutically relevant species. A binary decision tree was constructed and discriminant function analyses were performed to extract taxonomically relevant anatomical characters and to infer the separability of infratribal taxa, respectively. The binary decision tree distinguished 33 species and two subspecies, but only five of the genera (sampled for at least two species) by a unique combination of hierarchically arranged characters. Accessions were discriminated-except for one sample worthy of discussion-according to their subtribal affiliation in the discriminant function analyses (DFA). However, constantly expressed subtribe-specific characters were almost missing and even in combination, did not discriminate the subtribes. Most anatomical characters showed at least some degree of homoplasious evolution limiting their suitability as phylogenetically informative characters.

  15. The Impact of Reconstruction Methods, Phylogenetic Uncertainty and Branch Lengths on Inference of Chromosome Number Evolution in American Daisies (Melampodium, Asteraceae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamie McCann

    Full Text Available Chromosome number change (polyploidy and dysploidy plays an important role in plant diversification and speciation. Investigating chromosome number evolution commonly entails ancestral state reconstruction performed within a phylogenetic framework, which is, however, prone to uncertainty, whose effects on evolutionary inferences are insufficiently understood. Using the chromosomally diverse plant genus Melampodium (Asteraceae as model group, we assess the impact of reconstruction method (maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood, Bayesian methods, branch length model (phylograms versus chronograms and phylogenetic uncertainty (topological and branch length uncertainty on the inference of chromosome number evolution. We also address the suitability of the maximum clade credibility (MCC tree as single representative topology for chromosome number reconstruction. Each of the listed factors causes considerable incongruence among chromosome number reconstructions. Discrepancies between inferences on the MCC tree from those made by integrating over a set of trees are moderate for ancestral chromosome numbers, but severe for the difference of chromosome gains and losses, a measure of the directionality of dysploidy. Therefore, reliance on single trees, such as the MCC tree, is strongly discouraged and model averaging, taking both phylogenetic and model uncertainty into account, is recommended. For studying chromosome number evolution, dedicated models implemented in the program ChromEvol and ordered maximum parsimony may be most appropriate. Chromosome number evolution in Melampodium follows a pattern of bidirectional dysploidy (starting from x = 11 to x = 9 and x = 14, respectively with no prevailing direction.

  16. Genomic and transcriptomic alterations following intergeneric hybridization and polyploidization in the Chrysanthemum nankingense×Tanacetum vulgare hybrid and allopolyploid (Asteraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Xiangyu; Wang, Haibin; Song, Aiping; Jiang, Jiafu; Chen, Sumei; Chen, Fadi

    2018-01-01

    Allopolyploid formation involves two major events: interspecific hybridization and polyploidization. A number of species in the Asteraceae family are polyploids because of frequent hybridization. The effects of hybridization on genomics and transcriptomics in Chrysanthemum nankingense×Tanacetum vulgare hybrids have been reported. In this study, we obtained allopolyploids by applying a colchicine treatment to a synthesized C. nankingense × T. vulgare hybrid. Sequence-related amplified polymorphism (SRAP), methylation-sensitive amplification polymorphism (MSAP), and high-throughput RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) technologies were used to investigate the genomic, epigenetic, and transcriptomic alterations in both the hybrid and allopolyploids. The genomic alterations in the hybrid and allopolyploids mainly involved the loss of parental fragments and the gain of novel fragments. The DNA methylation level of the hybrid was reduced by hybridization but was restored somewhat after polyploidization. There were more significant differences in gene expression between the hybrid/allopolyploid and the paternal parent than between the hybrid/allopolyploid and the maternal parent. Most differentially expressed genes (DEGs) showed down-regulation in the hybrid/allopolyploid relative to the parents. Among the non-additive genes, transgressive patterns appeared to be dominant, especially repression patterns. Maternal expression dominance was observed specifically for down-regulated genes. Many methylase and methyltransferase genes showed differential expression between the hybrid and parents and between the allopolyploid and parents. Our data indicate that hybridization may be a major factor affecting genomic and transcriptomic changes in newly formed allopolyploids. The formation of allopolyploids may not simply be the sum of hybridization and polyploidization changes but also may be influenced by the interaction between these processes.

  17. Demographic histories of adaptively diverged riparian and non-riparian species of Ainsliaea (Asteraceae) inferred from coalescent analyses using multiple nuclear loci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsui, Yuki; Setoguchi, Hiroaki

    2012-12-28

    Understanding demographic histories, such as divergence time, patterns of gene flow, and population size changes, in ecologically diverging lineages provide implications for the process and maintenance of population differentiation by ecological adaptation. This study addressed the demographic histories in two independently derived lineages of flood-resistant riparian plants and their non-riparian relatives [Ainsliaea linearis (riparian) and A. apiculata (non-riparian); A. oblonga (riparian) and A. macroclinidioides (non-riparian); Asteraceae] using an isolation-with-migration (IM) model based on variation at 10 nuclear DNA loci. The highest posterior probabilities of the divergence time parameters were estimated to be ca. 25,000 years ago for A. linearis and A. apiculata and ca. 9000 years ago for A. oblonga and A. macroclinidioides, although the confidence intervals of the parameters had broad ranges. The likelihood ratio tests detected evidence of historical gene flow between both riparian/non-riparian species pairs. The riparian populations showed lower levels of genetic diversity and a significant reduction in effective population sizes compared to the non-riparian populations and their ancestral populations. This study showed the recent origins of flood-resistant riparian plants, which are remarkable examples of plant ecological adaptation. The recent divergence and genetic signatures of historical gene flow among riparian/non-riparian species implied that they underwent morphological and ecological differentiation within short evolutionary timescales and have maintained their species boundaries in the face of gene flow. Comparative analyses of adaptive divergence in two sets of riparian/non-riparian lineages suggested that strong natural selection by flooding had frequently reduced the genetic diversity and size of riparian populations through genetic drift, possibly leading to fixation of adaptive traits in riparian populations. The two sets of riparian

  18. Phylogenetic relationships and generic delimitation of Eurasian Aster (Asteraceae: Astereae) inferred from ITS, ETS and trnL-F sequence data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei-Ping; Yang, Fu-Sheng; Jivkova, Todorka; Yin, Gen-Shen

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims The classification and phylogeny of Eurasian (EA) Aster (Asterinae, Astereae, Asteraceae) remain poorly resolved. Some taxonomists adopt a broad definition of EA Aster, whereas others favour a narrow generic concept. The present study aims to delimit EA Aster sensu stricto (s.s.), elucidate the phylogenetic relationships of EA Aster s.s. and segregate genera. Methods The internal and external transcribed spacers of nuclear ribosomal DNA and the plastid DNA trnL-F region were used to reconstruct the phylogeny of EA Aster through maximum parsimony and Bayesian analyses. Key Results The analyses strongly support an Aster clade including the genera Sheareria, Rhynchospermum, Kalimeris (excluding Kalimeris longipetiolata), Heteropappus, Miyamayomena, Turczaninowia, Rhinactinidia, eastern Asian Doellingeria, Asterothamnus and Arctogeron. Many well-recognized species of Chinese Aster s.s. lie outside of the Aster clade. Conclusions The results reveal that EA Aster s.s. is both paraphyletic and polyphyletic. Sheareria, Rhynchospermum, Kalimeris (excluding K. longipetiolata), Heteropappus, Miyamayomena, Turczaninowia, Rhinactinidia, eastern Asian Doellingeria, Asterothamnus and Arctogeron should be included in Aster, whereas many species of Chinese Aster s.s. should be excluded. The recircumscribed Aster should be divided into two subgenera and nine sections. Kalimeris longipetiolata, Aster batangensis, A. ser. Albescentes, A. series Hersileoides, a two-species group composed of A. senecioides and A. fuscescens, and a six-species group including A. asteroides, should be elevated to generic level. With the Aster clade, they belong to the Australasian lineages. The generic status of Callistephus should be maintained. Whether Galatella (including Crinitina) and Tripolium should remain as genera or be merged into a single genus remains to be determined. In addition, the taxonomic status of A. auriculatus and the A. pycnophyllus–A. panduratus clade remains

  19. High and uneven levels of 45S rDNA site-number variation across wild populations of a diploid plant genus (Anacyclus, Asteraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosato, Marcela; Álvarez, Inés; Nieto Feliner, Gonzalo; Rosselló, Josep A

    2017-01-01

    The nuclear genome harbours hundreds to several thousand copies of ribosomal DNA. Despite their essential role in cellular ribogenesis few studies have addressed intrapopulation, interpopulation and interspecific levels of rDNA variability in wild plants. Some studies have assessed the extent of rDNA variation at the sequence and copy-number level with large sampling in several species. However, comparable studies on rDNA site number variation in plants, assessed with extensive hierarchical sampling at several levels (individuals, populations, species) are lacking. In exploring the possible causes for ribosomal loci dynamism, we have used the diploid genus Anacyclus (Asteraceae) as a suitable system to examine the evolution of ribosomal loci. To this end, the number and chromosomal position of 45S rDNA sites have been determined in 196 individuals from 47 populations in all Anacyclus species using FISH. The 45S rDNA site-number has been assessed in a significant sample of seed plants, which usually exhibit rather consistent features, except for polyploid plants. In contrast, the level of rDNA site-number variation detected in Anacyclus is outstanding in the context of angiosperms particularly regarding populations of the same species. The number of 45S rDNA sites ranged from four to 11, accounting for 14 karyological ribosomal phenotypes. Our results are not even across species and geographical areas, and show that there is no clear association between the number of 45S rDNA loci and the life cycle in Anacyclus. A single rDNA phenotype was detected in several species, but a more complex pattern that included intra-specific and intra-population polymorphisms was recorded in A. homogamos, A. clavatus and A. valentinus, three weedy species showing large and overlapping distribution ranges. It is likely that part of the cytogenetic changes and inferred dynamism found in these species have been triggered by genomic rearrangements resulting from contemporary

  20. Composição química volátil e não-volátil de Eupatorium ballotifolium Kunth, Asteraceae

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    Maria Rose Jane R. Albuquerque

    Full Text Available Este trabalho descreve a composição química dos óleos essenciais e o isolamento de onze substâncias de Eupatorium ballotifolium Kunth, Asteraceae. Os óleos essenciais foram obtidos por hidrodestilação, analisados por CG-EM e avaliados quanto às suas atividades frente à enzima acetilcolinesterase. O rendimento dos óleos foi de 0,11% para as folhas e 0,03% para os talos. Os principais constituintes dos óleos foram os sesquiterpenos β-cariofileno (24,9 e 22,2%, espatulenol (17,7 e 12,4% e epóxi-allo-aromadendreno (23,0 e 23,6%. Do extrato hexânico da parte aérea foi isolada a mistura de β-sitosterol e estigmasterol, incluindo suas formas glicosiladas, e os triterpenos acetato de taraxasterila e taraxasterol, enquanto, do extrato etanólico foram isolados os flavonóides nepetina and 3-O-glicosil-quercetina. Do extrato hexânico das raízes foram isolados os triterpenos epi-friedelanol e damara-20,24-dien-3β-ol e do extrato etanólico a cumarina 11-hidroxi-11,12-di-hidroobliquina. As estruturas de todos os compostos foram determinadas usando técnicas espectroscópica tais como IV, EM e RMN ¹H e 13C.

  1. [Phagodeterrent activity of the plants Tithonia diversifolia and Montanoa hibiscifolia (Asteraceae) on adults of the pest insect Bemisia tabaci (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae)].

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    Bagnarello, Gina; Hilje, Luko; Bagnarello, Vanessa; Cartín, Victor; Calvo, Marco

    2009-12-01

    Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) is a polyphagous, cosmopolitan and worldwide relevant pest, mainly acting as a virus vector on many crops. A sound preventive approach to deal with it would be the application of repellent or deterrent substances hopefully present in tropical plants, which in turn may contribute to take advantage of the remarkable rich Mesoamerican biodiversity. Therefore, extracts of two wild plants belonging to family Asteraceae, titonia (Tithonia diversifolia) and "tora" (Montanoa hibiscifolia), were tested for phagodeterrence to B. tabaci adults. The crude leaf extract of each one, as well as four fractions thereof (hexane, dichlorometane, ethyl acetate, and methanol) were tested under greenhouse conditions; in addition, the extracts were submitted to a phytochemical screening to determine possible metabolites causing phagodeterrence. Both restricted-choice and unrestricted-choice experiments were conducted. In the former ones, each fraction was tested at four doses (0.1, 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5% v/v), which were compared with four control treatments: distilled water, endosulfan, an agricultural oil (Aceite Agricola 81 SC), and the emulsifier Citowett. Tomato plants were sprayed and placed inside sleeve cages, where 50 B. tabaci adults were released. The criterion to appraise phagodeterrence was the number of landed adults on plants at 48h. For the unrestricted-choice experiments, only the two highest doses (1.0 and 1.5%) of the crude extracts of each species were tested, and compared to distilled water and the agricultural oil. The titonia and "tora" crude extracts caused phagodeterrence, and for both plant species the methanol fraction stood out. Results suggest that metabolites causing phagodeterrence are several sesquiterpenic lactones, polyphenolic compounds (flavonoids and tannins) and saponins.

  2. Identificação de espécies da família Asteraceae, revisão sobre usos e triagem fitoquímica do gênero Eremanthus da Reserva Boqueirão, Ingaí-MG Asteraceae species identification, use revision and phytochemical screening of Eremanthus genus in Boqueirão Ecological Reserve, Ingaí - Minas Gerais State, Brazil

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    A.O. Ribeiro

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de identificar espécies da família Asteraceae, revisar seus usos e realizar triagem fitoquímica preliminar do gênero Eremanthus procederam-se coletas botânicas semanais de espécimes na Reserva Boqueirão, localizada em Ingaí, Minas Gerais. As amostras foram herborizadas e identificadas utilizando-se bibliografia especializada e comparação com espécimes disponíveis no Herbário ESAL, da Universidade Federal de Lavras. A revisão dos usos foi feita através de consulta a obras clássicas e artigos científicos contendo relatos sobre levantamentos etnobotânicos realizados na área de estudo. Para triagem fitoquímica empregaram-se reagentes específicos para cada grupo de metabólito. Foram levantadas 102 espécies da família Asteraceae, sendo 32 delas úteis para o homem. A triagem fitoquímica dos extratos hidroalcoólicos indicaram a presença de açúcares redutores, carboidratos, aminoácidos, taninos, flavonóides, glicosídeos cardiotônicos, carotenóides, esteróides e triterpenóides, depsídeos e depsidonas, derivados de cumarina, saponinas espumídicas, alcalóides, purinas, polissacarídeos e antraquinonas. Não foram detectados ácidos orgânicos, catequinas, lactonas sesquiterpênicas e azulenos.To identify Asteraceae species, review the utilization and perform a preliminary phytochemical screening of some species of Eremanthus genus, plants were weekly collected in Boqueirão Ecological Reserve, located in Ingaí, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. The samples were herborized and identified by using a specialized bibliography and comparison with the species available in the Herbarium ESAL of the Federal University of Lavras. The utilization review was carried out by means of bibliographical research and ethnobotanical surveys in the sampling area. Specific reagents for each group of compounds were used for phytochemical screening. From the 102 Asteraceae species investigated, 32 were reported to be of use to

  3. Avaliação do efeito de polietilenoglicóis no perfil de extratos de Mikania glomerata Spreng., Asteraceae, e Passiflora edulis Sims, Passifloraceae Evaluation of PEG effects on the extracts obtaining from Passiflora edulis Sims, Passifloraceae, and Mikania glomerata Spreng., Asteraceae

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    Jorge de Medeiros

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Os polietilenoglicóis (PEG são polímeros hidrossolúveis capazes de reduzir a constante dielétrica de solventes como a água, e assim são utilizados como cossolventes para solubilização de diferentes fármacos. Atualmente, o PEG tem sido empregado satisfatoriamente na obtenção de extratos de matérias-primas vegetais por favorecer a extração de substâncias com polaridades semelhantes às extraídas pelos solventes hidroetanólicos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da concentração e da massa molar de PEG (400 e 4000 g/mol sobre a extração de flavonoides totais a partir de Passiflora edulis Sims, Passifloraceae, (maracujá e de cumarina a partir da Mikania glomerata Spreng., Asteraceae, (guaco. Este estudo revelou que o aumento da concentração de PEG promoveu um aumento na capacidade extrativa de flavonoides totais e cumarina a partir da Passiflora edulis e Mikania glomerata respectivamente, comportamento atribuído a alterações da constante dielétrica. Apesar de elevar a capacidade extrativa, os líquidos extratores contendo PEG exigiram elevada relação planta:solvente para alcançar teores extrativos semelhante ao solvente hidroetanólico utilizado, com exceção da extração de flavonoides totais com PEG 4000 g/mol a partir da Passilfora edulis.Polyethylene glycols (PEG are hydrosoluble polymers able to reducing dielectric constant of solvents like water and thus are used as cosolvents to enhance the aqueous solubility of several drugs. Actually, the PEG have been successful applied to obtain extracts of plant raw material once can facilitate the extraction of substances with polarities similar to those extracted by hydroethanol solvents. In this study, the objective was to evaluate the effect of PEG concentration and molecular weight (400 and 4000 g/mol on the extraction of total flavonoids from Passiflora edulis Sims, Passifloraceae, and coumarin from Mikania glomerata Spreng., Asteraceae. The results

  4. Anatomia de raiz, caule e folha e identificação de estruturas secretoras de Achillea millefolium L. (Asteraceae - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.163 Anatomy of root, stem and leaf and identification of secretory structures of Achillea millefolium L. (Asteraceae- DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.163

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    Ismar Sebastião Moscheta

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Realizou-se o estudo anatômico dos órgãos vegetativos raiz, caule e folha, e extraíram-se os óleos essenciais das diferentes partes da planta, identificando-se as possíveis estruturas secretoras desses óleos. Utilizou-se material fresco para a realização dos testes histoquímicos e para a confecção de lâminas semipermanentes, as quais se coraram com Safrablau. Para a confecção de lâminas permanentes, utilizou-se material fixado em FAA 50%, incluído em historesina. Observaram-se pêlos tectores no escapo e na folha, enquanto que pêlos glandulares foram encontrados no escapo e na flor. Canais secretores de origem esquizógena acompanham os feixes vasculares no rizoma, no escapo, na folha e na bráctea da flor. Na raiz, esses canais estão ausentes. Na folha e na inflorescência fechada, observouse maior quantidade de óleos essenciais. A folha é anfistomática e os estômatos, do tipo anomocítico, estão presentes também no escapo. A estrutura geral de Achillea millefolium é semelhante à de outras espécies da família Asteraceae.An anatomic study of the vegetative organs: root, stem and leaf was made. The essential oils were extracted from the plant identifying the possible secretory structures. Fresh material was used in order to perform histochemical tests and to prepare semi-permanent slides, which were colored with Safrabau. For the preparation of the semi-permanent slides, material fixed in FAA 50% was used including historesina. Tector hairs can be observed in the scape and flower. Secretory channels of schizogeneous origin follow the vascular bundles in the rhizome, scape, leaf and bract of the flower. In the root, these channels are absent. In the leaf and in the unopened inflorescence there is a greater quantity of the essential oils. The leaf is amphistomatic and the stomata of anomocytic type are present in the scape as well. The general structure of the Achillea millefolium is similar to the structures of the

  5. Two new herb gall wasps from Spain, including the description of a new species of Aulacidea Ashmead, 1897 (Hymenoptera, Cynipidae, “Aylacini” inducing galls on Serratula nudicaulis L. DC (Asteraceae

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    Nieves-Aldrey, J. L.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Two new species of herb gall wasps are recorded from Spain, which induce galls on flower heads of Serratula nudicaulis L. DC (Asteraceae. Isocolus serratulae (Mayr, 1882 is recorded for the first time in Spain, while a new species of Aulacidea Ashmead, 1897, Aulacidea pilarae sp. n., is described. This new species is similar to Aulacidea serratulae Diakontschuk, 1984, which is found throughout Oriental Europe. However, those two congeneric species may be distinguished by the morphology of the adults.Se citan dos nuevas especies de avispas de las agallas en plantas herbáceas para España. Las dos especies inducen agallas en cabezuelas florales de Serratula nudicaulis L. DC (Asteraceae y se han encontrado en el valle del Lozoya (Madrid, España Central. Isocolus serratulae (Mayr, 1882 se cita por primera vez para la Península Ibérica y se describe una especie nueva de Aulacidea Ashmead, 1897: A. pilarae sp. n. La nueva especie es similar a Aulacidea serratulae Diakontschuk, 1984 citada de Europa oriental, diferenciándose por la morfología de los adultos.

  6. ST proteins, a new family of plant tandem repeat proteins with a DUF2775 domain mainly found in Fabaceae and Asteraceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albornos, Lucía; Martín, Ignacio; Iglesias, Rebeca; Jiménez, Teresa; Labrador, Emilia; Dopico, Berta

    2012-11-07

    Many proteins with tandem repeats in their sequence have been described and classified according to the length of the repeats: I) Repeats of short oligopeptides (from 2 to 20 amino acids), including structural cell wall proteins and arabinogalactan proteins. II) Repeats that range in length from 20 to 40 residues, including proteins with a well-established three-dimensional structure often involved in mediating protein-protein interactions. (III) Longer repeats in the order of 100 amino acids that constitute structurally and functionally independent units. Here we analyse ShooT specific (ST) proteins, a family of proteins with tandem repeats of unknown function that were first found in Leguminosae, and their possible similarities to other proteins with tandem repeats. ST protein sequences were only found in dicotyledonous plants, limited to several plant families, mainly the Fabaceae and the Asteraceae. ST mRNAs accumulate mainly in the roots and under biotic interactions. Most ST proteins have one or several Domain(s) of Unknown Function 2775 (DUF2775). All deduced ST proteins have a signal peptide, indicating that these proteins enter the secretory pathway, and the mature proteins have tandem repeat oligopeptides that share a hexapeptide (E/D)FEPRP followed by 4 partially conserved amino acids, which could determine a putative N-glycosylation signal, and a fully conserved tyrosine. In a phylogenetic tree, the sequences clade according to taxonomic group. A possible involvement in symbiosis and abiotic stress as well as in plant cell elongation is suggested, although different STs could play different roles in plant development. We describe a new family of proteins called ST whose presence is limited to the plant kingdom, specifically to a few families of dicotyledonous plants. They present 20 to 40 amino acid tandem repeat sequences with different characteristics (signal peptide, DUF2775 domain, conservative repeat regions) from the described group of 20 to 40

  7. Why do different oceanic archipelagos harbour contrasting levels of species diversity? The macaronesian endemic genus Pericallis (Asteraceae) provides insight into explaining the 'Azores diversity Enigma'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, K E; Pérez-Espona, S; Reyes-Betancort, J A; Pattinson, D; Caujapé-Castells, J; Hiscock, S J; Carine, M A

    2016-10-08

    Oceanic archipelagos typically harbour extensive radiations of flowering plants and a high proportion of endemics, many of which are restricted to a single island (Single Island Endemics; SIEs). The Azores represents an anomaly as overall levels of endemism are low; there are few SIEs and few documented cases of intra-archipelago radiations. The distinctiveness of the flora was first recognized by Darwin and has been referred to as the 'Azores Diversity Enigma' (ADE). Diversity patterns in the Macaronesian endemic genus Pericallis (Asteraceae) exemplify the ADE. In this study we used morphometric, Amplified Length Polymorphisms, and bioclimatic data for herbaceous Pericallis lineages endemic to the Azores and the Canaries, to test two key hypotheses proposed to explain the ADE: i) that it is a taxonomic artefact or Linnean shortfall, ie. the under description of taxa in the Azores or the over-splitting of taxa in the Canaries and (ii) that it reflects the greater ecological homogeneity of the Azores, which results in limited opportunity for ecological diversification compared to the Canaries. In both the Azores and the Canaries, morphological patterns were generally consistent with current taxonomic classifications. However, the AFLP data showed no genetic differentiation between the two currently recognized Azorean subspecies that are ecologically differentiated. Instead, genetic diversity in the Azores was structured geographically across the archipelago. In contrast, in the Canaries genetic differentiation was mostly consistent with morphology and current taxonomic treatments. Both Azorean and Canarian lineages exhibited ecological differentiation between currently recognized taxa. Neither a Linnean shortfall nor the perceived ecological homogeneity of the Azores fully explained the ADE-like pattern observed in Pericallis. Whilst variation in genetic data and morphological data in the Canaries were largely congruent, this was not the case in the Azores, where

  8. Chromolaena odorata (L.) R.M. King & H. Rob. (Asteraceae) in sub-Saharan Africa: A synthesis and review of its medicinal potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omokhua, Aitebiremen G; McGaw, Lyndy J; Finnie, Jeffrey F; Van Staden, Johannes

    2016-05-13

    Chromolaena odorata (L.) R.M. King & H. Rob. (Asteraceae) is a scrambling perennial shrub that originated in the Americas, but is now common in sub-Saharan Africa, Asia and Oceania, where it has become a serious weed. The species, particularly the biotype found in Asia and West Africa, has many ethnopharmacological uses, including treatment of malaria, wounds, diarrhoea, skin infection, toothache, dysentery, stomach ache, sore throat, convulsions, piles, coughs and colds. Furthermore, no attempt has been made to synthesise and review the available literature on the usefulness of the plant in the sub-Saharan African region, hence this paper examines the beneficial attributes of C. odorata in sub-Saharan Africa. Published information on the species was gathered by the use of different database platforms, including Google Scholar, ScienceDirect, SciFinder and Scopus. Records indicate that two biotypes of C. odorata are present in sub-Saharan Africa viz. the more widespread Asian/West African C. odorata biotype (AWAB) and the southern African biotype (SAB). While the usefulness of the former is well elucidated in the literature, such information on the latter is still scarce. Although the importance of AWAB C. odorata as a fallow species and as a soil fertility improvement plant in the slash and burn rotation system of agriculture in West Africa is increasingly being recognised, its usage in traditional medicinal practice is far more appreciated. The species has a wide range of ethnopharmacological uses, possibly because of the presence of flavonoids, essential oils, phenolics, tannins and saponins. The plant is reported to have antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anthelminthic, antifungal, cytotoxic, anticonvulsant, antiprotozoal, antispasmodic, antipyretic and analgesic properties. While the results of this review suggest that the AWAB plant can be exploited as an alternative to other threatened plant species known to possess similar medicinal potential

  9. Efficacy and safety of a hexanic extract of Serenoa repens (Permixon® ) for the treatment of lower urinary tract symptoms associated with benign prostatic hyperplasia (LUTS/BPH): Systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials and observational studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vela-Navarrete, Remigio; Alcaraz, Antonio; Rodríguez-Antolín, Alfredo; Miñana López, Bernardino; Fernández-Gómez, Jesús M; Angulo, Javier C; Castro Díaz, David; Romero-Otero, Javier; Brenes, Francisco J; Carballido, Joaquín; Molero García, José M; Fernández-Pro Ledesma, Antonio; Cózar Olmos, José Manuel; Manasanch Dalmau, José; Subirana Cachinero, Isaac; Herdman, Michael; Ficarra, Vincenzo

    2018-04-25

    To comprehensively evaluate the efficacy and safety of the hexanic extract of Serenoa repens (HESr, Permixon), at a dose of 320 mg daily, as monotherapy for the treatment of LUTS/BPH. Systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized and observational studies in patients with LUTS/BPH identified through searches in Medline, Web of Knowledge [ISI], Scopus, the Cochrane Library, and bibliographic references up to March 2017. Articles studying S. repens extracts other than Permixon were excluded. Data was collected on IPSS score, peak urinary flow (Qmax), nocturia, quality of life, prostate volume, sexual function, and adverse drug reactions (ADR). Data obtained from randomized controlled trials (RCT) and observational studies (OS) were analysed jointly and separately using a random effects model. A sub-group analysis was performed of studies which included patients on longer-term treatment (≥one year). Data from 27 studies (15 RCTs and 12 OS) were included for meta-analysis (total N=5,800). Compared with placebo, the HESr was associated with 0.64 (95% CI -0.98 to -0.31) fewer voids per night (p=0.0001) and an additional mean increase in Qmax of 2.75 mL/s (95% CI 0.57 to 4.93; p=0.01). When compared with alpha-blockers, the HESr showed similar improvements on IPSS (WMD 0.57; 95%CI, -0.27 to 1.42; p=0.18) and a comparable increase in Qmax to tamsulosin (WMD -0.02; 95%CI, -0.71 to 0.66; p=0.95). Efficacy assessed using the IPSS was similar after 6 months of treatment between the HESr and 5ARIs. Analysis of all available published data for the HESr showed a mean improvement in IPSS score from baseline of -5.73 points (95% CI -6.91 to -4.54; pBPH. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  10. Reubicación de plantas de Espeletia grandiflora (Asteraceae como estrategia para el enriquecimiento de áreas de páramo alteradas (PNN Chingaza, Colombia

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    Oscar Rojas-Zamora

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available El trasplante o reubicación de individuos ha sido ampliamente usado para la adición de especies en procesos de restauración. En este trabajo se estudió la respuesta de individuos de Espeletia grandiflora a la reubicación como estrategia de restauración ecológica; así mismo, se evaluó el efecto del tamaño de los individuos reubicados sobre la supervivencia y desarrollo. Se reubicaron individuos de tres diferentes tamaños, 5, 10 y 15cm de altura. Se registraron las variables supervivencia, altura de la planta, número de hojas vivas y diámetro del tallo de cada uno de los individuos, se evaluaron las posibles diferencias en cuanto a supervivencia y desarrollo. La categoría de tamaño más eficaz corresponde a la de 15cm de altura, que presentó una supervivencia del 85% luego de dos años. Se sugiere el uso del diámetro del tallo como criterio de selección de los individuos a reubicar, ya que es la variable que mejor predice la supervivencia dos años luego de la reubicación. Las tasas de crecimiento relativo en altura y diámetro del tallo disminuyen conforme aumenta el tamaño de los individuos; sin embargo, el incremento absoluto en altura no presenta diferencias entre los tres tamaños evaluados. A partir de los resultados se verifica el éxito de la reubicación de plantas de E. grandiflora como estrategia de enriquecimiento en pastizales de páramos alterados.Relocation of Espeletia grandiflora (Asteraceae plants as a strategy for enrichment of disturbed paramo areas (PNN Chingaza, Colombia. Ecological restoration of the Andean paramos faces several ecological barriers mainly at the phase of dispersal and establishment of native species. With the aim to contribute to the enrichment of degraded areas, different strategies have to be developed to overcome those barriers. In this work we studied the response of individuals of Espeletia grandiflora (Asteraceae to the relocation as a strategy for ecological restoration programs

  11. Utilização de espécies de Asteraceae por comunidades rurais do nordeste do Brasil: relatos em Camocim de São Félix, Pernambuco

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    Aryecha Arruda Silva

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2013v26n2p93   Asteraceae, com aproximadamente 2.000 espécies registradas no Brasil, destaca-se nos estudos etnobotânicos, posicionando-se quase sempre entre as quatro famílias com maior número de espécies na flora útil, principalmente para fins medicinais. Neste estudo investigou-se a importância dessa família em quatro comunidades rurais do município de Camocim de São Félix, em um brejo de altitude, no agreste de Pernambuco. Os trabalhos de campo foram realizados no período de dezembro de 2010 a maio de 2011. Para a coleta dos dados etnobotânicos, foram realizadas entrevistas semiestruturadas com 50 moradores, de ambos os sexos, na maioria agricultores, com renda familiar inferior a um salário-mínimo, sendo coletadas as espécies por eles citadas. Os entrevistados mostraram um diversificado conhecimento sobre as Asteraceae, citando 19 espécies, nas seguintes categorias: medicinal (12, ornamental (6, tecnológica (3 e alimentícia (2, algumas delas incluídas em mais de uma categoria. Acanthospermum hispidum DC., espécie ruderal conhecida como espinho-de-cigano, foi a planta mais citada como medicinal, indicada para o tratamento de problemas respiratórios, infecções, doenças renais e odontalgias. As espécies Dahlia pinnata Cav., Tagetes erecta L. e Zinnia elegans Jacq. são utilizadas como ornamentais. Lactuca sativa L. (cultivada e Emilia sonchifolia (L. DC. (daninha foram as únicas citadas como alimentícias e Conyza bonariensis (L. Cronquist, Egletes viscosa Less. e Parthenium hysterophorus L. foram citadas para fins tecnológicos.

  12. Anti-plasmodial activity of Dicoma tomentosa (Asteraceae) and identification of urospermal A-15-O-acetate as the main active compound

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Natural products could play an important role in the challenge to discover new anti-malarial drugs. In a previous study, Dicoma tomentosa (Asteraceae) was selected for its promising anti-plasmodial activity after a preliminary screening of several plants traditionally used in Burkina Faso to treat malaria. The aim of the present study was to further investigate the anti-plasmodial properties of this plant and to isolate the active anti-plasmodial compounds. Methods Eight crude extracts obtained from D. tomentosa whole plant were tested in vitro against two Plasmodium falciparum strains (3D7 and W2) using the p-LDH assay (colorimetric method). The Peters’ four-days suppressive test model (Plasmodium berghei-infected mice) was used to evaluate the in vivo anti-plasmodial activity. An in vitro bioguided fractionation was undertaken on a dichloromethane extract, using preparative HPLC and TLC techniques. The identity of the pure compound was assessed using UV, MS and NMR spectroscopic analysis. In vitro cytotoxicity against WI38 human fibroblasts (WST-1 assay) and haemolytic activity were also evaluated for extracts and pure compounds in order to check selectivity. Results The best in vitro anti-plasmodial results were obtained with the dichloromethane, diethylether, ethylacetate and methanol extracts, which exhibited a high activity (IC50 ≤ 5 μg/ml). Hot water and hydroethanolic extracts also showed a good activity (IC50 ≤ 15 μg/ml), which confirmed the traditional use and the promising anti-malarial potential of the plant. The activity was also confirmed in vivo for all tested extracts. However, most of the active extracts also exhibited cytotoxic activity, but no extract was found to display any haemolytic activity. The bioguided fractionation process allowed to isolate and identify a sesquiterpene lactone (urospermal A-15-O-acetate) as the major anti-plasmodial compound of the plant (IC50 < 1 μg/ml against both 3D7 and W2 strains). This was also

  13. Anatomia dos órgãos vegetativos e histolocalização de compostos fenólicos e lipídicos em Porophyllum ruderale (Asteraceae Vegetative organ anatomy and histolocalization of lipids and phenolics compounds in Porophyllum ruderale (Asteraceae

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    M.C.M. Fonseca

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Porophyllum ruderale (Asteraceae é uma erva ruderal e aromática conhecida popularmente como couve-cravinho. Na medicina popular, é utilizada como cicatrizante e antiinflamatória, antifúngica, antibacteriana, calmante, no combate à hipertensão arterial, no tratamento de leishmaniose, no tratamento de edemas e traumatismos, no tratamento de picada de cobra, doenças reumáticas e dores em geral. A atividade cicatrizante tem sido relacionada à presença de teores variáveis de compostos fenólicos do tipo taninos. Os objetivos do trabalho foram caracterizar as estruturas secretoras quanto à histolocalização dos compostos fenólicos e lipídicos e descrever a anatomia da raiz, do caule e da folha de couve-cravinho. De cinco plantas cultivadas, em fase de prefloração, foram coletadas a raiz, o caule e a folha, os quais foram fixados em FAA 50 ou em sulfato ferroso em formalina neutra tamponada (para observação de compostos fenólicos e submetidos ao teste com Sudan III, visando a observação de compostos lipídicos. O laminário foi obtido utilizando-se metodologia tradicional. As raízes são tetrarcas, desenvolvem estrutura secundária e apresentam ductos secretores, os quais estavam presentes no córtex. O caule possui epiderme unisseriada recoberta por cutícula relativamente espessa; o parênquima cortical é intercalado com o colênquima subepidérmico; a medula é parenquimática; e os feixes são colaterais. Nos caules, os ductos também estavam presentes, porém somente nos jovens a reação para compostos fenólicos foi positiva. Nas folhas, o contorno das células epidérmicas é sinuoso e a epiderme é unisseriada e recoberta por cutícula delgada. São evidentes duas a três camadas de colênquima subepidérmico, e imerso no parênquima fundamental está o feixe colateral. No limbo foliar, foram observados ductos delimitados por várias camadas de células epiteliais, cujo conteúdo reagiu positivamente, indicando a

  14. Lactonas sesquiterpénicas de las plantas Viguiera sylvatica y Decachaeta thieleana (Asteraceae modulan la producción de óxido nítrico y la fagocitosis de macrófagos RAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar A Dupuy L

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Las plantas de la familia Asteraceae son una fuente potencial de lactonas sesquiterpénicas con propiedades antiinflamatorias. Los macrófagos son células que desempeñan una función central en la regulación de la respuesta inmune. Este estudio evaluó el efecto in vitro de dos lactonas sesquiterpénicas, un millerenólido y thieleanina, sobre la producción de óxido nítrico (NO en una línea celular de macrófagos de ratón (RAW, utilizando el reactivo de Griess. Además, se estudió el efecto sobre la capacidad fagocítica de RAW, evaluando al microscopio la fagocitosis de partículas inertes de látex y la reducción de nitroazul de tetrazolio (NBT. Se observó que los macrófagos tratados con lactona sesquiterpénica (>2.5 µg/ml disminuyeron la producción de NO. Además, se observó una disminución de la cantidad de macrófagos capaces de reducir NBT, después que fueron tratados con millerenólido (3 µg/ml o thieleanina (7.5 µg/ ml. Por otro lado, la exposición a 4 µg/ml de millerenólido ó 7.5 µg/ml de thieleanina redujo la cantidad promedio de partículas de látex fagocitadas. No se observaron diferencias entre tratamientos y control en cuanto al porcentaje de células fagocíticas. Sólo se observaron efectos citotóxicos sobre los macrófagos, cuando la concentración de millerenólido se incrementó a 8 µg/ml o la de thieleanina se aumentó a 25 µg/ml. Estos resultados sugieren que el millerenólido y la thieleanina podrían ser compuestos útiles en la elaboración de drogas antiinflamatorias.Sesquiterpene lactones of the plants Viguiera sylvatica and Decachaeta thieleana (Asteraceae modulate nitric oxide production and phagocytosis of macrophages cell line RAW. Different species of the Asteraceae family are a potential source of sesquiterpene lactones with anti-inflammatory properties. Macrophages play a central role in the regulation of immune responses. In the present study, the in vitro effect of two sesquiterpene

  15. Toxicological screening of Mikania glomerata Spreng., Asteraceae, extract in male Wistar rats reproductive system, sperm production and testosterone level after chronic treatment Triagem toxocológica do extrato de Mikania glomerata Spreng., Asteraceae, no sistema reprodutor, produção espermática e nível de testosterona em machos de ratos Wistar após tratamento crônico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita de Cássia da Silveira e Sá

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Some compounds present in therapeutic plants may be responsible for the occurrence of adverse side effects. Coumarin and flavonoids are substances found in many plant species that showed antifertility activity in female rats and dogs, respectively. Mikania glomerata Spreng., Asteraceae, known as guaco in Brazil, is a plant largely used in folk medicine and its leaves are reported to have coumarin and flavonoids. This work analyzes the effect of chronic administration of M. glomerata on the reproductive system of male rats. Thirty-day-old Wistar rats were treated with M. glomerata hydroalcoholic extract at a dose of 3.3 g/kg of body weight for ninety days. Body and organ weights, gamete concentration on the epididymis cauda, serum testosterone level and food consumption were evaluated. No significant alteration was observed in any of the variables analyzed, suggesting the absence of toxic action or antifertility activity of the M. glomerata hydroalcoholic extract.As plantas medicinais podem apresentar na sua constituição compostos capazes de causar efeitos adversos no organismo. Cumarina e flavonoides são substâncias encontradas em muitas espécies vegetais, cuja interferência na fertilidade de ratas e cadelas, respectivamente, foi evidenciada em estudos prévios. Mikania glomerata Spreng., Asteraceae, (guaco é uma planta usada no tratamento de doenças respiratórias e em suas folhas foi detectada a presença de cumarina e flavonoides. Neste estudo, avaliou-se o efeito do extrato hidroalcoólico, preparado com partes aéreas de guaco, no sistema reprodutor de ratos submetidos a tratamento crônico. Ratos Wistar (trinta dias de idade foram tratados com extrato hidroalcoólico de guaco na dose de 3,3 g/kg de peso corporal durante noventa dias. O peso corporal e de órgãos, a produção de espermatozoides, a concentração de testosterona plasmática e o consumo de ração foram avaliados. Não foi observada nenhuma alteração significativa

  16. Desenvolvimento de forma farmacêutica líquida de uso oral, isenta de substâncias glicogênicas, com extrato fluido de Mikania glomerata Sprengel - Asteraceae (guaco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.C. Lubi

    Full Text Available Mikania glomerata Sprengel, Asteraceae (guaco é tradicionalmente empregado como expectorante na forma de infusão, extrato fluido, tintura e xarope. Este trabalho teve como objetivo o desenvolvimento de uma forma farmacêutica líquida, isenta de substâncias glicogênicas, veiculando o extrato fluido desta, como substituto do xarope de guaco para pessoas, que por alguma restrição não possam ingerir sacarose ou açúcar invertido, componente dos xaropes em geral. Desenvolveu-se uma formulação líquida, definindo-se as concentrações de conservantes, agentes umectantes, edulcorantes e flavorizantes, testaram-se polímeros, espessantes usuais em processos tecnológicos, para reproduzir a viscosidade fornecida pelos xaropes. Analisou-se o comportamento reológico e uma avaliação preliminar das características físicas do produto. Dos polímeros testados, o alginato de sódio (1% foi o que apresentou melhores resultados frente aos parâmetros analisados, com comportamento reológico semelhante ao dos fluidos Newtonianos, e pH adequado ao uso oral, além da compatibilidade frente ao extrato fluido de guaco.

  17. Online identification of chlorogenic acids, sesquiterpene lactones, and flavonoids in the Brazilian arnica Lychnophora ericoides Mart. (Asteraceae) leaves by HPLC-DAD-MS and HPLC-DAD-MS/MS and a validated HPLC-DAD method for their simultaneous analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobbo-Neto, Leonardo; Lopes, Norberto P

    2008-02-27

    Lychnophora ericoides Mart. (Asteraceae, Vernonieae) is a plant, endemic to Brazil, with occurrence restricted to the "cerrado" biome. Traditional medicine employs alcoholic and aqueous-alcoholic preparations of leaves from this species for the treatment of wounds, inflammation, and pain. Furthermore, leaves of L. ericoides are also widely used as flavorings for the Brazilian traditional spirit "cachaça". A method has been developed for the extraction and HPLC-DAD analysis of the secondary metabolites of L. ericoides leaves. This analytical method was validated with 11 secondary metabolites chosen to represent the different classes and polarities of secondary metabolites occurring in L. ericoides leaves, and good responses were obtained for each validation parameter analyzed. The same HPLC analytical method was also employed for online secondary metabolite identification by HPLC-DAD-MS and HPLC-DAD-MS/MS, leading to the identification of di- C-glucosylflavones, coumaroylglucosylflavonols, flavone, flavanones, flavonols, chalcones, goyazensolide, and eremantholide-type sesquiterpene lactones and positional isomeric series of chlorogenic acids possessing caffeic and/or ferulic moieties. Among the 52 chromatographic peaks observed, 36 were fully identified and 8 were attributed to compounds belonging to series of caffeoylferuloylquinic and diferuloylquinic acids that could not be individualized from each other.

  18. Essential oil composition and biological activity from Artemisia caerulescens subsp. densiflora (Viv.) Gamisans ex Kerguélen & Lambinon (Asteraceae), an endemic species in the habitat of La Maddalena Archipelago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ornano, Luigi; Venditti, Alessandro; Ballero, Mauro; Sanna, Cinzia; Donno, Yuri; Quassinti, Luana; Bramucci, Massimo; Vitali, Luca A; Petrelli, Dezemona; Tirillini, Bruno; Papa, Fabrizio; Maggi, Filippo; Bianco, Armanodoriano

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the composition of the essential oil obtained from a population of Artemisia caerulescens subsp. densiflora growing in Razzoli, an island in the La Maddalena Archipelago (Sardinia, Italy). A. caerulescens sups. densiflora Viv. (Asteraceae), a wild herb, seldom studied in the Mediterranean, represents one of the many rare endemic species growing in North Sardinia. The essential oil composition was analysed by means of GC/MS analysis, which showed davana ethers as the major volatile components, accounting together for 17.5%, followed by (E)-nerolidol (4.5%), β-oplopenone (3.3%), cis-sabinene hydrate (5.2%) and terpinen-4-ol (4.7%). The oil was tested for antioxidant activity by means of DPPH test, inhibition of lipid oxidation test and hypochlorous acid test, which showed a quite interesting scavenger capacity. For the first time, we reported the cytotoxic activity of the essential oil of A. caerulescens subsp. densiflora, against three human tumour cell lines (A375, MDA-MB231 and HCT116), with IC50 values in the range 5.20-7.61 μg/mL, which deserved further studies to support its use as chemopreventive agent. Finally, the antimicrobial activity of the essential oil, displayed on a panel of human pathogens, was very low.

  19. Evaluation of Asteraceae herbal extracts in the management of diabetes and obesity. Contribution of caffeoylquinic acids on the inhibition of digestive enzymes activity and formation of advanced glycation end-products (in vitro).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spínola, Vítor; Castilho, Paula C

    2017-11-01

    The study was performed to assess, for the first time, the in vitro anti-diabetic potential of ten Asteraceae plant extracts to inhibit the activity of digestive enzymes (α-amylase, α-, β-glucosidases and lipase) responsible for hydrolysis/digestion of sugar and lipids. Prevention of advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) formation was evaluated in bovine serum albumin/ribose glycation reaction model. The phytochemical profiles and caffeoylquinic acids (CQAs) contents were determined for the methanolic extract of each plant. Analyzed plant extracts exhibited significant inhibitory activity against key digestive enzymes linked to type II diabetes and obesity. A strong inhibition was observed for glucosidases and mild activity towards amylase and lipase (compared to reference compounds). Moreover, some extracts exhibited potent ability to prevent formation of AGEs, implicated in some diabetic complications. Caffeoylquinic acids were dominant in all plant extracts and findings demonstrate that these compounds are the most relevant hypoglycemic and anti-glycation agents. From the obtained results, Argyranthemum pinnatifidum, Helichrysum melaleucum, and Phagnalon lowei are good candidates for further development of phyto-pharmaceutical preparations as complementary therapy for diabetes and obesity control. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. LAS PRÁCTICAS DE CAMPO UNA ESTRATEGIA DIDÁCTICA PARA CONSERVAR EL ECOSISTEMA DE PÁRAMO DESDE ELESTUDIO ECOFISIOLÓGICO DEL FRAILEJÓN (ASTERACEAE: ESPELETIA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryury Fernanda Gómez Barrera

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Esta investigación destaca la importancia del maestro de ciencias como promotor de actitudes, conocimientos y prácticas hacia la conservación del ecosistema páramo a través de las prácticas de campo, en estudiantes de secundaria del Colegio Siervas de San José, como un acercamiento a la conservación de los ecosistemas Colombianos. Recurriendo para ello al estudio ecofisiológico de una planta concreta, endémica y de gran significado ecológico y social para el ecosistema páramo, el  frailejón (Asteraceae: Espeletia. La investigación presenta un enfoque  mixto o multimodal, recurriendo a la IEP (Investigación como Estrategia Pedagógica como metodología  central y fundamental para el desarrollo de esta investigación, se logran describir las nociones de las estudiantes en cuanto a la conservación, la ecofisiología, el páramo y el frailejón; y se caracterizaron algunas  actitudes, prácticas y conocimientos conservacionistas de las estudiantes en cuanto al páramo evidenciando las transformaciones durante el proceso.

  1. Chemical Composition and Antimicrobial Activity of Essential Oils from the Aerial Parts of Asteriscus graveolens (Forssk.) Less. and Pulicaria incisa (Lam.) DC.: Two Asteraceae Herbs Growing Wild in the Hoggar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaib, Faiza; Allali, Hocine; Bennaceur, Malika; Flamini, Guido

    2017-08-01

    In recent years, antimicrobial activities of essential oils have been intensively explored, mainly in researching and developing new antimicrobial agents to overcome microbial resistance. The present study investigates the chemical composition and antimicrobial activities of essential oils obtained from two Asteraceae: Asteriscus graveolens (Forssk.) Less. and Pulicaria incisa (Lam.) DC. Chemical analysis was performed using a combination of capillary GC-FID and GC/MS analytical techniques. The major component of Asteriscus graveolens were cis-chrysanthenyl acetate (31.1%), myrtenyl acetate (15.1%), and kessane (11.5%), while for Pulicaria incisa the main components were chrysanthenone (45.3%) and 2,6-dimethylphenol (12.6%). The oils obtained from the aerial parts were tested against sixteen microbial strains by agar well diffusion technique and dilution methods and showed minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) in the range of 19 - 1250 μg/ml. A good antibacterial activity against a common nosocomial pathogen, Acinetobacter baumanniiATCC 19606 was observed, especially from Pulicaria incisa essential oil, with a MIC value up to 19 μg/ml. These results give significant information about the pharmacological activity of these essential oils, which suggest their benefits to human health, having the potential to be used for medical purposes. © 2017 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zurich, Switzerland.

  2. β-Cell protection and antidiabetic activities of Crassocephalum crepidioides (Asteraceae) Benth. S. Moore extract against alloxan-induced oxidative stress via regulation of apoptosis and reactive oxygen species (ROS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahar, Entaz; Akter, Kazi-Marjahan; Lee, Geum-Hwa; Lee, Hwa-Young; Rashid, Harun-Or; Choi, Min-Kyung; Bhattarai, Kashi Raj; Hossain, Mir Mohammad Monir; Ara, Joushan; Mazumder, Kishor; Raihan, Obayed; Chae, Han-Jung; Yoon, Hyonok

    2017-03-29

    Medicinal plants are becoming more popular in the treatment of various diseases because of the adverse effects of the current therapy, especially antioxidant plant components such as phenols and flavonoids have a protective role against oxidative stress-induced degenerative diseases like diabetes. Thus, the purpose of this study was to investigate β-cell protection and antidiabetic activities of Crassocephalum crepidioides (Asteraceae) Benth. S. Moore. The in-vitro study was conducted by the pancreatic β-cell culture and α-amylase inhibition technique which includes two methods, namely starch-iodine method and 3,5-dinitrosalicylic acid (DNSA) method. On the other hand, the in-vivo study was performed by oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) method and alloxan-induced diabetes method by using Wistar albino rat. At the end pancreatic specimens were removed and processed for histopathological study. The plant extract showed significant (*p < 0.05, **p < 0.01) effect on hyperglycemia as compared to standard (Gliclazide) in OGTT. The plant extract showed efficient protection activity of pancreatic β-cell from cell death in INS-1 cell line by significantly reduced (*p < 0.05, **p < 0.01) the levels alloxan-induced apoptosis and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation. In addition, the plant extract showed a significant (*p < 0.05, **p < 0.01) effect on hyperglycemia by increases in percent of β-cells present in each islet (45% - 60%) compared to the diabetic group. The result showed that C. crepidioides had β-cell protection and antidiabetic activities in pancreatic β-cell culture and Wistar albino rat.

  3. Genetic variation of white clover ( Trifolium repens L.) collections ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and simple sequence repeat (SSR) to investigate the genetic relationships among white clover germplasms of China, and four commercial cultivars were included for a comparison. The results revealed that the populations showed diverse morphological traits, RAPD and SSR patterns.

  4. Dirofilaria repens microfilariae in Aedes vexans mosquitoes in Slovakia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bocková, E.; Rudolf, Ivo; Kočišová, A.; Betášová, Lenka; Venclíková, Kristýna; Mendel, Jan; Hubálek, Zdeněk

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 112, č. 10 (2013), s. 3465-3470 ISSN 0932-0113 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Dirofilaria * mosquitoes * Aedes vexans Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 2.327, year: 2013

  5. Genetic variation of white clover (Trifolium repens L.) collections ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-05-24

    May 24, 2010 ... incompatibility mechanism of disomic inheritance (Thomas,. 1987). In essence ..... Badr A, Sayed-Ahmed H, El-Shanshouri A, Watson LE (2002). Ancestors of white ... Caradus JR, Woodfield DR (1997). World checklist of ... within a natural population of white clover (Trifolium repense L). J. Ecol. 73: 615-624 ...

  6. Het cyanophore karakter van witte klaver (Trifolium repens L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waal, de D.

    1942-01-01

    The positive correlation found in New Zealand between quality of white clover and its hydrocyanic acid content, could not be confirmed for Dutch white clover in the Netherlands. HCN occurred bound to an incompletely identified glucoside. As Weevers and Treub et al. found the glucoside and HCN

  7. Gochnatia polymorpha (Less. Cabrera (Asteraceae changes in leaf structure due to differences in light and edaphic conditions Gochnatia polymorpha (Less. Cabrera modifica sua estrutura foliar devido a diferenças na luminosidade e condições edáficas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davi Rodrigo Rossatto

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Gochnatia polymorpha (Less. Cabrera is a widespread Asteraceae species found in different physiognomies of cerrado (Neotropical savanna and in forest formations of southeast Brazil. This study describes some leaf anatomy characteristics of this species and quantitatively evaluates them in relation to different environments, as well as under different light conditions. We found quantitative differences in all anatomical parameters analyzed. The results demonstrate that high leaf anatomy plasticity is an adaptive advantage that allows this species to occur in diverse cerrado conditions.Gochnatia polymorpha (Less. Cabrera é uma espécie de Asteraceae com ampla distribuição no bioma cerrado, sendo encontrada em diversas fisionomias florestais da região sudeste do Brasil. O presente estudo descreve alguns caracteres anatômicos foliares dessa espécie e os analisa quantitativamente em função de sua ocorrência nas formações florestais e também das diferenças de luminosidade. Foram encontradas diferenças quantitativas em todos os parâmetros anatômicos analisados. Os resultados demonstram que a alta plasticidade anatômica foliar nesta espécie pode ser considerada como uma vantagem adaptativa que a permite ocorrer em diversos ambientes do cerrado.

  8. Кристаллы в тканях семянок видов Asteraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Boyko

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Представлены результаты морфо- логических и анатомических исследований, а также сканирующей электронной микроскопии семянок 48 видов из 30 родов, относящихся к 7 трибам семейства Asteraceae. Карпологическое изучение семя- нок выявило наличие нескольких типов кристаллов (крупных одиночных, мелких многочисленных, друз, рафид в клетках и межклеточном пространстве раз- ных тканей покровов семени и в чешуйках хохолка семянки. Впервые выявлены кристаллы в семянках: крупные одиночные во всех клетках экзокарпия (Anacyclus pyrethrum, Pyrethrum poteriifolium, Helenium aromaticum, H. autumnale, Gaillardia aristata; крупные одиночные во всех клетках эндокарпия (Gaillardia aristata; крупные одиночные в клетках нижней части чешуек хохолка (Balduina multiflora, Gaillardia aristata; мелкие многочисленные во многих клетках экзокарпия (Argyranthemum pinnatifidum; мелкие многочисленные во всех клетках экзокарпия (Psilostrophe bakeri; мелкие многочисленные во многих клетках экзокарпия (Baileya pleniradiata; друзы в клетках экзокарпия (Gynura aurantiaca, Pyrethrum parthenifolium, Synedrella nodiflora; друзы в клетках карпоподиума (Stokesia laevis. Полученных данные могут быть использованы при таксономических построениях в

  9. ( Asteraceae ) methanol extracts against Helicobacter pylori

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methanol vehicle did not affect H. pylori growth. Conclusion: The observed antibacterial effect of G. glutinosum extracts may be of benefit as an adjuvant treatment of diseases caused by H. pylori. Key words: Gymnosperma glutinosum, Helicobacter pylori, methanol extract, minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC).

  10. Palynological studies on five species of Asteraceae

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-04-06

    Apr 6, 2009 ... obtained from this investigation showed that the pollen shape is spheroidal in G. nigritiana, E. praetermissa and C. odorata while it is elliptic in V. guineensis and L. pterodonta. The pollen ... other palynological features of Talinum and Calandrinia .... the months of February-April, 1990. Nig. J. Bot. 5177-185.

  11. Pharmacological evaluation of Vernonia elaeagnifolia (Asteraceae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Method: Qualitative phytochemical analysis of V. elaeagnifolia leaves was performed. Thirty healthy albino rabbits were divided into six ... was administered at 250 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg per oral. Lipid profile, hepatic enzymes and oxidative ... from local market of Faisalabad, Pakistan. The rabbits were kept in iron cages at ...

  12. Morphometric study of Euchiton (Gnaphalieae: Asteraceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flann, C.M.

    2010-01-01

    A morphometric study was undertaken to survey taxa in the genus Euchiton Cass., distributed across Australia, New Zealand and South-east Asia. Phenetic analyses of herbarium specimens showed several taxa to be well delimited, including E. brassii (Mattf.) Anderb., E. breviscapus (Mattf.) Anderb., E.

  13. Hieracium glabrescens (Asteraceae Rediscovered in the Carpathians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szeląg Zbigniew

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of Hieracium glabrescens (F. W. Schultz Murr in the Carpathians is confirmed after over a century by a new locality from the Apuseni Mountains in Romania. This locality, very significant from the phytogeographical point of view, is disjoined ca 500 km from the nearest Balkan localities of the species. The origin of H. glabrescens in the Apuseni Mountains is briefly discussed.

  14. (Asteraceae) Fraction against Human Cancer Cell Lines

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the anti-proliferative and apoptotic activity of crude and dichloromethane fraction of A. sieberi against seven cancer cell lines (Colo20, HCT116, DLD, MCF7, Jurkat, HepG2 and L929). Methods: A. sieberi was extracted with methanol and further purification was carried out using liquidliquid extraction ...

  15. Anatomia foliar de Richterago Kuntze (Mutisieae, Asteraceae Leaf anatomy of Richterago Kuntze (Mutisieae, Asteraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gladys Flávia de A. Melo-de-Pinna

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available A estrutura interna da folha de espécies de Richterago mostrou-se bastante variável em relação à organização do mesofilo e à distribuição dos estômatos. Como caráter de valor taxonômico, apenas o tipo de tricoma tector foi utilizado nas relações entre R. arenaria e R. lanata,R. conduplicata e R. radiata, cujas folhas são morfologicamente semelhantes. Caracteres relacionados com adaptações ao ambiente xérico, como a ocorrência de extensões da bainha das unidades vasculares e traqueídes terminais, foram encontrados em todas as espécies. Hidatódios foram observados apenas nas duas espécies ribeirinhas (R. polymorpha e R. riparia, sendo o primeiro registro de hidatódios em representantes da tribo Mutisieae.Leaf anatomy of Richterago species revealed rather variability concerning mesophyll organization and stomata arrangement. As a character of taxonomic value, only non-glandular thricomes were used to compare R. arenaria and R. lanata,R. conduplicata and R. radiata, whose leaves are morphologically similar. Anatomical xeromorphic characters, e.g. the bundles sheath extensions and terminal tracheids were observed in all species. The waterside species (R. polymorpha e R. riparia showed hydathodes in the leaves, which represent the first record in Mutisieae.

  16. Chemical constituents of Vernonia scorpioides (Lam) Pers. (Asteraceae); Constituintes quimicos de Vernonia scorpioides (Lam) Pers. (Asteraceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machado, Adalva Lopes; Aragao, Fabiana Martins; Bandeira, Paulo N.; Santos, Helcio Silva dos; Albuquerque, Maria Rose Jane R., E-mail: rjane_7@hotmail.com [Universidade Estadual Vale do Acarau, Sobral, CE (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Exatas e Tecnologia. Coordenaco de Quimica; Pessoa, Otilia Deusdenia L.; Silveira, Edilberto R. [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFCE), Fortaleza (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias. Departamento de Quimica Organica e Inorganica; Nunes, Edson Paula [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFCE), Fortaleza (Brazil). Departamento de Biologia; Braz-Filho, Raimundo [Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro (UFRRJ), Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ (Brazil). Departamento de Quimica

    2013-09-01

    The chemical investigation of hexane and ethanol extracts from the aerial parts of Vernonia scorpioides resulted in the isolation and characterization of a new polyacetylene lactone, rel-4-dihydro-4{beta}-hydroxy-5{alpha}-octa-2,4,6-triynyl-furan-2-(5H)-one, along with the new ethyl 3,4-dihydroxy-6,8,10-triynyldodecanoate, and seven known compounds: taraxasteryl acetate, lupeyl acetate, lupeol, lupenone, {beta}-sitosterol, stigmasterol and luteolin. The structure of all compounds was determined by spectrometric techniques (HR-ESI-MS, {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C NMR and IV) and comparison with published spectral data. (author)

  17. Floral biology of candeia (Eremanthus erythropappus, Asteraceae Biologia floral da candeia (Eremanthus erythropappus, Asteraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio de Almeida Vieira

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Floral biology and pollinators of candeia (Eremanthus erythropappus were analyzed in a natural population. We studied anthesis, flower morphology, stigmatic receptivity, pollen viability and floral visitors. The small flowers (10.17 mm in length are pink, hermaphrodites and organized in dense capitula (mean = 29 flowers. We observed a large percentage of viable pollen (77.25% and relatively scarce nectar availability for floral visitors (0.63 μL. The bees Apis mellifera and Trigona sp. were the most frequent visitors. The length of the bud, style and flowers varied significantly among plants. O objetivo deste trabalho foi examinar e documentar a biologia floral e os polinizadores da candeia (Eremanthus erythropappus em uma população natural, sendo estudados a antese, a morfologia floral, a receptividade estigmática, a viabilidade de pólen e os visitantes florais. As flores pequenas (10,17 mm de comprimento são cor de rosa, hermafroditas e organizadas em densos capítulos (média = 29 flores. Foi observada alta porcentagem de pólen viável (77,25% e relativamente pouca disponibilidade de néctar para os visitantes florais (0,63 μL. As abelhas Apis mellifera e Trigona sp. foram os visitantes mais frequentes. Os comprimentos dos botões, estiletes e flores variaram significativamente entre plantas.

  18. Stress-induced memory alters growth of clonal offspring of white clover (Trifolium repens)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    González, Alejandra Pilar Rendina; Chrtek, Jindřich; Dobrev, Petre; Dumalasová, Veronika; Fehrer, Judith; Mráz, Patrik; Latzel, Vít

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 103, č. 9 (2016), s. 1567-1574 ISSN 0002-9122 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-06802S Institutional support: RVO:67985939 ; RVO:61389030 Keywords : asexual reproduction * DNA methylation * epigenetic variation Subject RIV: EF - Botanics; EF - Botanics (UEB-Q) Impact factor: 3.050, year: 2016

  19. Fate in Soil of Flavonoids Released from White Clover (Trifolium repens L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, Sandra C. K.; Pedersen, Hans A.; Spliid, Niels H.

    2012-01-01

    the presence in soil of bioactive secondary metabolites from clover has received limited attention. In this paper we examine for the first time the release of flavonoids both from field-grown white clover and from soil-incorporated white clover plants of flavonoids, as analyzed by LC-MS/MS. The dominant...... flavonoid aglycones were formononetin, medicarpin, and kaempferol. Soil-incorporated white clover plants generated high concentrations of the glycosides kaempferol-Rha-Xyl-Gal and quercetin-Xyl-Gal. Substantial amounts of kaempferol persisted in the soil for days while the other compounds were degraded...

  20. Response to flooding intensity in Elytrigia repens, E. intermedia (Poaceae: Triticeae) and their hybrid

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mahelka, Václav

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 46, - (2006), s. 82-90 ISSN 0043-1737 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/05/0778; GA ČR GD206/03/H137; GA MZe QC1362 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : phenotypic plasticity * flooding * weed Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.705, year: 2006

  1. Air-propelled abrasive grit can damage the perennial weed, quackgrass, Elytrigia repens (L.) Nevski

    Science.gov (United States)

    New techniques are needed to control quackgrass in organic crops. With greater than or equal to 2 applications of abrasive air-propelled (800 kPa) corncob grit to 15 cm tall quackgrass tillers, regrowth was minimal at 5 weeks after treatment. Abrasive grits may be effective tools to help manage pere...

  2. Subconjunctival Dirofilaria repens Infestation: A Light and Scanning Electron Microscopy Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melsom, Henrik A; Kurtzhals, Jørgen A L; Qvortrup, Klaus

    2011-01-01

    injection, proptosis and diplopia. The patient underwent incisional extraction of a nine cm long worm, which was analysed histologically. Results: The worm was structureless, greyish-white in colour and measuring nine cm in length and 0.5 mm in diameter. Histopathological examination of the worm showed...

  3. Elytrigia repens population dynamics under different management schemes in organic cropping systems on coarse sand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Ilse A.; Melander, Bo; Askegaard, Margrethe

    2014-01-01

    -year crop rotations including various cash crops and grass-clover leys; two rotations running during the first two courses with the one replaced with another rotation during the last course. The rotations were combined with four combinations of the treatments; with and without animal manure (‘without...

  4. Antileishmanial activity of 12-methoxycarnosic acid from Salvia repens Burch. ex Benth. (Lamiaceae)

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mokoka, TA

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available .5 ml/min, and the injection volume was 35 µl (350 µg extract in DMSO). Thirty-five one-92 minute fractions were collected in 96 deep well plates during the run (Screenmates 96 well, 93 Matrix Technology, Hudson, USA) and dried in a GeneVac EZ-2 Plus...) at two different concentrations (5 µg/ml) and (0.8 102 6 µg/ml) against L. donovani amastigotes (MHOM/ET/67/L82) in 96-well microtiter plate. The 103 plate was read in a spectramax Gemini XS microplate fluorometer (Molecular Devices 104 Cooperation...

  5. An updated distribution of Solidago × niederederi (Asteraceae in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pliszko Artur

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an updated map of the distribution of Solidago ×niederederi, a natural hybrid between S. canadensis and S. virgaurea, in Poland is presented using the ATPOL cartogram method. A compiled list of 55 localities of the hybrid within 40 cartogram units (10-km squares is provided and its negative impact on S. virgaurea is highlighted.

  6. Asteraceae - an evaluation of hutchinsons beetle-daisy hypothesis

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Midgley, JJ

    1993-05-01

    Full Text Available repel the beetles. However in this review of plant mimicry worldwide, it is considered an exceptionally intriguing example of Batesian mimicry. Despite the fact there still appears to be a dearth of information on the interaction between beetle...

  7. Tithonia (Asteraceae) in Nigeria | Olorode | Ife Journal of Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study confirms the chromosome number of n=17 in Tithonia but raises questions as to whether exclusion of polyploidy in the speciation of Tithonia is fully justified. There is no cytological evidence from microsporogenesis to implicate meiotic irregularities in the seed-sterility of T. Diversifolia. Keywords: Tithonia, Annual ...

  8. Cytotype distribution and phylogeography of Hieracium intybaceum (Asteraceae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zahradníček, Jaroslav; Chrtek, Jindřich

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 179, č. 3 (2015), s. 487-498 ISSN 0024-4074 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP506/10/1363 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : AFLP * glacial refugia * geographical parthenogenesis Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 2.523, year: 2015

  9. The Rare Perennial Balduina atropurpurea (Asteraceae) at Fort Stewart, Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-06-01

    Pinckneya pubens. HAIRY FEVER TREE Rhus copallina. WINGED SUMAC Vaccinium corymbosum . HIGHBUSH BLUEBERRY Tree species Acer rubrum. RED MAPLE...described as non-alluvial wetlands. These are communities with variable hydroperiods occurring in basins or depressions , or on slopes, with no...which may result in inbreeding depression (e.g., Ellstrand, Torres, and Levin 1978; Lande 1988; Watkins and Levin 1990; Ellstrand and Elam 1993

  10. Efectos embriotóxicos de Picrosia longifolia Don (Asteraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Benavides

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Se ha evaluado los probables efectos tóxicos del extracto acuoso de Picrosia longifolia Don “Achicoria” sobre el desarrollo de embriones preimplantacionales de ratón. Extracto acuoso de P. longifolia al 20%, 10% y 0% fue suministrado a ratonas preñadas hasta las 86 horas postcópula (hpc. Al evaluar el estadio embrionario se encontró que el extracto acuoso de P. longifolia al 10% y 20% causó retraso en el desarrollo embrionario. También se observó una disminución en la viabilidad embrionaria en los grupos tratados. Tanto la disminución de viabilidad como el retraso en el desarrollo se produjo en una forma dosis dependiente.

  11. Hieracium sinoaestivum (Asteraceae, a new species from North China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Sennikov

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Hieracium sinoaestivum Sennikov sp. nov. is described as new to science and illustrated. This presumably apomictic species is solely known from two old collections made in a single locality in the Shanxi Province of China. It belongs to the hybridogenous group H. sect. Aestiva (H. sect. Prenanthoidea × H. sect. Umbellata and is most similar to H. veresczaginii from southern Siberia. The new species occurs at low altitudes in the forest belt of Lülian Mts. and belongs to taiga forest elements.

  12. ESTUDIOS CROMOSOMICOS EN ESPECIES ARGENTINAS DE VERNONIA (ASTERACEAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimiliano Dematteis

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Se estudian los cromosomas de once especies de Vernonia de Argentina. Los resultados incluyen el recuento en siete especies que nunca se han investigado citológicamente. Los cariotipos de seis taxones son analizados, cinco de ellos se describen por primera vez sobre: V. chamaedrys n = 17, 2n = 34 = 22m + 12 sm; V.loretensis n= 17, 2n = 34 = 20 m + 14 sm; V.rubricaulis n = 16, 2n = 32 = 20m + 12sm; V.remotiflora n = 14, 2n = 28 = 16m + 12sm y V.lepidifera n= 10, 2n = 20 = 8 m + 12sm. El registro de 2n = 4x = 28 para V.remotiflora apoya la existencia del número cromosómico básico x = 7. En un inoforme previo un conteo de cromosomas muestra que Vernonia es multibasic con x = 7, 9, 10, 11, 12, 15, 17 y 19. La importancia de los resultados se discuten en relación a los datos cromosómicos disponibles para el género

  13. A putative hybrid swarm within Oonopsis foliosa (Asteraceae: Astereae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, J.F.; Brown, G.K.

    2004-01-01

    Oo??nopsis foliosa var. foliosa and var. monocephala are endemic to short-grass steppe of southeastern Colorado and until recently were considered geographically disjunct. The only known qualitative feature separating these 2 varieties is floral head type; var. foliosa has radiate heads, whereas var. monocephala heads are discoid. Sympatry between these varieties is restricted to a small area in which a range of parental types and intermediate head morphologies is observed. We used distribution mapping, morphometric analyses, chromosome cytology, and pollen stainability to characterize the sympatric zone. Morphometrics confirms that the only discrete difference between var. foliosa and var. monocephala is radiate versus discoid heads, respectively. The outer florets of putative hybrid individuals ranged from conspicuously elongated yet radially symmetric disc-floret corollas, to elongated radially asymmetric bilabiate- or deeply cleft corollas, to stunted ray florets with appendages remnant of corolla lobes. Chromosome cytology of pollen mother cells from both putative parental varieties and a series of intermediate morphological types collected at the sympatric zone reveal evidence of translocation heterozygosity. Pollen stainability shows no significant differences in viability between the parental varieties and putative hybrids. The restricted distribution of putative hybrids to a narrow zone of sympatry between the parental types and the presence of meiotic chromosome-pairing anomalies in these intermediate plants are consistent with a hybrid origin. The high stainability of putative-hybrid pollen adds to a growing body of evidence that hybrids are not universally unfit.

  14. Flower morphology and floral sequence in Artemisia annua (Asteraceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premise of the study: Artemisia annua produces phytochemicals possessing antimalarial, antitumor, anti-inflammatory, and anthelmintic activities. The main active ingredient, artemisinin, is extremely effective against malaria. Breeding to develop cultivars producing high levels of artemisinin can he...

  15. Phomalactone from a phytopathogenic fungus infecting Zinnia elegans (Asteraceae) leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinnia elegans plants are infected by a fungus that causes necrosis with dark red spots particularly in late spring to the middle of summer in the Mid-South part of the United States. This fungal disease when untreated causes the leaves to wilt and eventually kills the plant. The fungus was isolated...

  16. EPIDERMAL CHARACTERS OF BACCHARIS (ASTERACEAE SPECIES USED IN TRADITIONAL MEDICINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FREIRE SUSANA E.

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available A morphological study of 38 species of Baccharis used in traditional medicinewas carried out to provide some epidermal characters that will contribute to theknowledge of the genus. The present study revealed: 1 seven different types oftrichomes: conical, aseptate fl agellate, fi liform fl agellate, 1-armed, 2-4-armed,bulbiferous fl agellate, and glandular biseriate; 2 that 28 of the total of 38 specieshave trichomes in tufts; 3 six different types of stomata: anomocytic, anisocytic,cyclocytic, actinocytic, tetracytic, and staurocytic; 4 that some trichome types,such as 2-4-armed (B. dracunculifolia and aseptate fl agellate branched (B. trinervis,show a high diagnostic value; 5 that the stomata types can be used to differentiatespecies with similar trichomes type (e.g. B. trimera and B. articulata.Illustrations of the studied characters are provided.

  17. Genomic diversity and phylogenetic relationships in the genus Parthenium (Asteraceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guayule (Parthenium argentatum A. Gray) is a perennial hardwood shrub native to the North American Chihuahuan Desert that holds promise as a sustainable source of natural rubber and hypoallergenic latex. The improvement of guayule for commercial-scale production could be potentially accelerated thro...

  18. Centaurea tchihatcheffii Fischer & C.A. Meyer (Asteraceae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Kit; Vural, Mecit

    2007-01-01

    Abstract   Centaurea tchihatcheffii is a steppic annual possessing some unique features absent in other Centaureas. The chromosome number is 2n = 20, differing from all other annual species of Centaurea sect. Cyanus. The type locality as published is erroneous and the correct provenance is provided....

  19. Mineral nutrition and in vitro growth of Gerbera hybrida (Asteraceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerbera hybrida (G. jamesonii x G. viridifolia) or gerbera daisy is one of the most popular flowering ornamental plants worldwide and is sold as bedding, potted plants, and cut flowers. Gerbera daisies are propagated by in vitro culture because conventional propagation methods, by division of clumps...

  20. Genetic diversity and evolution in Lactuca L. (Asteraceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wei, Z.

    2016-01-01

    Cultivated lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) is an important leafy vegetable worldwide. However, the phylogenetic relationships between domesticated lettuce and its wild relatives are still not clear. In this thesis, I focus on the phylogenetic relationships within Lactuca L.,

  1. 7 CFR 201.56-2 - Sunflower family, Asteraceae (Compositae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Germination Tests in the Administration of the Act § 201.56... any attached seed coats at the end of the test period for evaluation of cotyledons.) (ii) Epicotyl: (A... adventitious roots. (Seedlings with roots bound within tough seed coats should be left in the test until the...

  2. Phylogenetic analysis of Artemisia L. (Asteraceae) based on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2009-12-01

    Dec 1, 2009 ... African Journal of Biotechnology Vol. 8 (23), pp. 6561-6568, 1 ... 3National Center of Excellence in Geology, University of Peshawar, Peshawar, Pakistan. Accepted 2 ... of the genus Artemisia in the South Asian region repre-.

  3. Burial increases seed longevity of two Artemisia tridentata (Asteraceae) subspecies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijayratne, Upekala C.; Pyke, David A.

    2012-01-01

    Premise of the study: Seed longevity and persistence in soil seed banks may be especially important for population persistence in ecosystems where opportunities for seedling establishment and disturbance are unpredictable. The fire regime, an important driver of population dynamics in sagebrush steppe ecosystems, has been altered by exotic annual grass invasion. Soil seed banks may play an active role in postfire recovery of the foundation shrub Artemisia tridentata, yet conditions under which seeds persist are largely unknown. Methods: We investigated seed longevity of two Artemisia tridentata subspecies in situ by retrieving seed bags that were placed at varying depths over a 2 yr period. We also sampled naturally dispersed seeds in litter and soil immediately after seed dispersal and before flowering in subsequent seasons to estimate seed persistence. Key results: After 24 mo, seeds buried at least 3 cm below the soil surface retained 30–40% viability whereas viability of seeds on the surface and under litter declined to 0 and Artemisia tridentata has the potential to form a short-term soil seed bank that persists longer than has been commonly assumed, and that burial is necessary for seed longevity. Use of seeding techniques that promote burial of some seeds to aid in formation of a soil seed bank may increase restoration potential.

  4. Larvicidal and ovicidal properties of some plants from asteraceae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The hatch rates were assessed at 48 hours post-treatment while the percentage mortality of 2nd instar larvae was determined 24 hours post treatment. Spilanthes filicaulis exerted 100% mortality at 1000, 500 and 250 mg/L while Bidens pilosa and Acanthospermum hispidum exerted 100% mortality at 1000 and 500mg/L.

  5. Flavonoids and coumarins from Hieracium pilosella L. (Asteraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadeusz Krzaczek

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Typical chromatographic methods were successfully applied to isolate nine flavonoid compounds and two coumarin glycosides from the inflorescences and the herb of Hieracium pilosella L. Repeated column chromatography, occasionally paper chromatography and recrystallization made the separation of three flavonoid aglycones and six glycosides - possible. Coumarin glycosides were isolated by preparative thin layer chromatography. Subsequent UV, NMR and MS analyses have led to identification of the following flavonoid derivatives: known for the species - apigenin, luteolin, luteolin 7-O- ß-glucopyranoside, luteolin 4’-O-ß-glucopyranoside, isoetin 7-O-ß- -glucopyranoside, isoetin 4’-O-ß-glucuronide and new for the species – kaempferol 3-methyl ether and apigenin 7-O-ß-glucopyranoside. Third isoetin glycoside contained two different sugar moieties: xylose and glucose, probably attached to the hydroxyl groups at C-4’ or C-4’ and C-2’(or 5’ of an aglycone. Umbelliferone 7-O-ß-glucopyranoside (skimmin and new for the genus Hieracium esculetin 7-O-ß-glucopyranoside (cichoriin were determined by NMR and MS methods.

  6. Karyotype and genome size analyses in species of Helichrysum (Asteraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narjes Azizi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Karyotype studies were performed in 18 populations of eight Helichrysum species in Iran. Those species showed chromosome numbers of 2n = 2x = 14; 2n = 4x = 24, 28 and 32; 2n = 6x = 36; 2n = 7x = 42; 2n = 8x = 48; 2n = 9x = 54; and 2n = 10x = 60. The chromosome numbers of H. davisianum, H. globiferum, H. leucocephalum and H. oocephalum are reported here for the first time. New ploidy levels are reported for H. oligocephalum (2n = 4x = 24 and H. plicatum (2n = 4x = 32. The chromosomes were metacentric and submetacentric. An ANOVA among H. globiferum and H. leucocephalum populations showed significant differences for the coefficient of variation for chromosome size, total form percentage and the asymmetry indices, indicating that changes in the chromosome structure of Helichrysum species occurred during their diversification. Significant positive correlations among the species and populations studied, in terms of the total chromosome length, lengths of the short arms and lengths of the long arms, indicate that these karyotypic features change simultaneously during speciation events. The genome sizes of Helichrysum species are reported here for first time. The 2C DNA content ranged from 8.13 pg (in H. rubicundum to 18.4 pg (in H. leucocephalum and H. davisianum. We found that C-value correlated significantly with ploidy level, total chromosome length, lengths of the long arms and lengths of the short arms (p<0.05, indicating that changes in chromosome structure are accompanied by changes in DNA content.

  7. Etnobotánica de Heliopsis longipes (Asteraceae: Heliantheae)

    OpenAIRE

    Cilia-Lopez, V. Gabriela; Aguirre-Rivera, J. Rogelio; Reyes-Agüero, Juan Antonio; Juárez-Flores, Bertha I.

    2008-01-01

    Heliopsis longipes, conocido con el nombre común de chilcuague es una hierba perenne endémica de la sierra de Alvarez y sierra Gorda, región donde coinciden parte de los territorios de San Luis Potosí, Guanajuato y Querétaro, y de donde se conoce que su raíz tiene usos tradicionales. Los objetivos de este trabajo fueron registrar las formas actuales de uso tradicional del chilcuague y estimar la demanda actual de su raíz. Se realizaron entrevistas a recolectores, comerciantes y consumidores e...

  8. Wood anatomy of Argyroxiphium (Asteraceae): adaptive radiation and ecological correlations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlquist, S.

    1997-01-01

    Wood anatomy shows close correlation with ecology: A. kauense, A. sandwicense (stem), and A. virescens, which occur in dry localities, show xeromorphic wood patterns. The most mesomorphic woods are those of the bog species A. grayanum and root wood of A. sandwicense. The wood of A. caliginis is xeromorphic, despite the bog habitat of the species, a fact explainable if A. caliginis is a recent entrant into the bog habitat Libriform wall thickness appears correlated with habit. Quantitative features of stem woods of Argyroxiphium are comparable to woods ranging from desert to moist montane forest areas in California. The similarities to woods from each Californian habitat are correlative to the relative moisture availability of the respective Hawaiian habitats of the Argyroxiphium species. (author)

  9. Nuclear DNA content variation within the genus Taraxacum (Asteraceae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Záveský, L.; Jarolímová, Vlasta; Štěpánek, Jan

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 40, - (2005), s. 91-104 ISSN 1211-9520 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GD206/03/H137; GA ČR(CZ) GA206/05/0970 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : Taraxacum * C-value * genome size Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.033, year: 2005

  10. A new species of Camchaya (Asteraceae, Vernonieae from Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukhonthip Bunwong

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Camchaya thailandica Bunwong, Chantar. & S.C.Keeley, sp. nov. from Phu Phrabat Historical Park, Udon Thani, Thailand is described as a new species. Plant of this new species are similar to C. gracilis (Gagnep. Bunwong & H.Rob. but differ inovate phyllaries without margin spines, 10-ribbed achenes, and broadly ovate leaves. This species is a rare endemic known only from the type collection and probably confined to open areas of sandstone hills in Udon Thani province.

  11. nature of ergastic substances in some nigerian asteraceae 160

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    Bayero Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences, 5(2): 160 – 167. Received: ... Department of Plant Biology and Biotechnology, University of Benin, PMB 1154, Benin City ... Test for Starch. Thin hard sections of the seeds were cut with sharp razor blades and placed on a slide. Few drops of. Lugol's iodine solution were added.

  12. Acanthospermum hispidum DC (Asteraceae: perspectives for a phytotherapeutic product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evani de L. Araújo

    Full Text Available The "Espinho-de-cigano" plant (Acanthospermum hispidum DC is used throughout northeastern (NE Brazil as a folk medicine for asthma. Although little is actually known about the effectiveness and safety of this plant extract product, it is possible to find numerous medicines prepared from it in public health services or in stores selling natural products. This study aimed to undertake a literature review relative to Acanthospermum hispidum covering the period between 1926-2006 within the areas of ethnobotany, phytochemistry and pharmacology. The objective was to contribute to a better knowledge of this species and its uses, as well as to aid in improving its performance as a natural medicine. The species is easily identifiable and grows abundantly during the rainy seasons in NE Brazil; is amenable to cultivation without lose of its phytochemical profile, and toxicological studies have showed its safety as a medicine (although more studies will be required in that direction. As such, the compilation of the accumulated knowledge concerning this species will aid in evaluating its pharmacological value, guaranteeing quality control of the final product, and in preparing recommendations for usages and dosages that offer both safety and efficiency to the user.

  13. Ethnobotany, chemistry, and biological activities of the genus Tithonia (Asteraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chagas-Paula, Daniela A; Oliveira, Rejane B; Rocha, Bruno A; Da Costa, Fernando B

    2012-02-01

    The genus Tithonia is an important source of diverse natural products, particularly sesquiterpene lactones, diterpenes, and flavonoids. The collected information in this review attempts to summarize the recent developments in the ethnobotany, biological activities, and secondary metabolite chemistry of this genus. More than 100 structures of natural products from Tithonia are reported in this review. The species that has been most investigated in this genus is T. diversifolia, from which ca. 150 compounds were isolated. Biological studies are described to evaluate the anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antimalarial, antiviral, antidiabetic, antidiarrhoeal, antimicrobial, antispasmodic, vasorelaxant, cancer-chemopreventive, cytotoxic, toxicological, bioinsecticide, and repellent activities. A few of these studies have been carried out with isolated compounds from Tithonia species, but the majority has been conducted with different extracts. The relationship between the biological activity and the toxicity of compounds isolated from the plants of this genus as well as T. diversifolia extracts still remains unclear, and mechanisms of action remain to be determined. Copyright © 2012 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  14. Trichomes in the tribe Lactuceae (Asteraceae) - taxonomic implications

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krak, Karol; Mráz, P.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 63, č. 5 (2008), s. 616-630 ISSN 0006-3088 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : Compositae * micromorphological characters * systematics Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 0.406, year: 2008

  15. Intoxicação por Baccharidastrum triplinervium (Asteraceae em bovinos Poisoning in cattle by Baccharidastrum triplinervium (Asteraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingeborg Maria Langohr

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available É descrito um surto de intoxicação por Baccharidastrum triplinervium em bovinos do Paraná, Brasil. A doença ocorreu no início do verão, durante um período de forte estiagem. Os sinais clínicos iniciaram dois dias após a introdução de 50 vacas e 8 novilhas em uma pastagem com alta densidade de B. triplinervium, que apresentava sinais de ter sido consumido pelos animais. Adoeceram 15 bovinos (9 vacas e 6 novilhas. Desses, morreram duas vacas e quatro novilhas após um curso clínico de 12 a 60 horas. O quadro clínico incluía prostração, atonia ruminal, timpanismo moderado, desidratação acentuada, diarréia e anorexia. Os animais ficavam inquietos, se deitavam e se levantavam constantemente, permanecendo cada vez mais tempo deitados em decúbito esternal. Uma vez nessa posição, manifestavam gemidos e mantinham a cabeça estendida ou voltada para o flanco. Adicionalmente, observou-se nas vacas queda abrupta da produção de leite. Os demais bovinos afetados apresentaram sinais clínicos mais leves, voltando a ingerir um pouco de alimento já no dia seguinte ao aparecimento dos sinais clínicos; a produção de leite voltou aos níveis normais uma semana após. As principais lesões macroscópicas, em dois animais necropsiados, foram observadas principalmente nos compartimentos gástricos. Consistiam de edema da parede do rúmen, e de avermelhamento difuso da mucosa do rúmen, do retículo, do abomaso e de algumas folhas do omaso. Histologicamente, as lesões mais importantes incluíam degeneração balonosa e necrose multifocal com infiltrado neutrofílico discreto no epitélio de revestimento do rúmen. O diagnóstico foi baseado em dados epidemiológicos e na reprodução experimental com as partes aéreas superiores (20 e 30g/kg de B. triplinervium em três bovinos. A análise química de material seco de B. triplinervium, colhido no local do surto, foi negativa para tricotecenos macrocíclicos.An outbreak of poisoning by Baccharidastrum triplinervium in cattle from Paraná, Brazil, is described. The disease occurred during a severe drought in early summer. The onset of clinical signs was two days after 50 cows and 8 heifers had been introduced into a pasture with high density of B. triplinervium that showed signs of having been consumed by the animals. Fifteen animals (9 cows and 6 heifers got sick. Of these 15, two cows and four heifers died after a clinical course of 12-60 hours. Clinical signs included depression, ruminal atony, moderate bloat, marked dehydration, mild diarrhea and anorexia. The animals were restless, laying down and getting up constantly, remaining progressively longer periods in sternal recumbency. Once in that position, the animals had an extended head or the head turned to one of the sides of the body, and were groaning. Additionally, the cows had an abrupt fall in milk yield. The remaining affected cattle presented milder clinical signs and were partially back to their feed on the day following the onset of the clinical signs. The milk production was back to normal values within one week. The main gross lesions observed in two necropsied cows were in the forestomachs and abomasum, consisting of edema of the ruminal wall, as well as of diffuse reddening of the mucosae of the rumen, reticulum, abomasum and of some of the omasal folds. The main histological lesions included multifocal ballooning degeneration and necrosis of the lining epithelium of the rumen, associated with neutrophilic infiltrate. The diagnosis was based on the epidemiological data and on the experimental reproduction of the disease by force-feeding 3 bovine with the aeral fresh parts (20 and 30g/kg of B. triplinervium. Chemical analysis of dried material from B. triplinervium harvested at the site of the outbreak was negative for macrocyclic trichothecenes.

  16. Reproductive biology in species of Bidens L. (Asteraceae Biologia reprodutiva em espécies de Bidens L. (Asteraceae

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    Maria Tereza Grombone-Guaratini

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Studies about reproductive biology of weed species can have implications on the establishment of controlling practices that minimize the effects of these weed populations on agricultural fields. The pollination biology of Bidens alba (L. DC., B. pilosa L., and Bidens subalternans DC., was studied at different sites and climatic seasons. Bidens pilosa and B. subalternans are widely distributed in agricultural areas, in disturbed habitats, and along road sides. Bidens alba occur only along the coast. The three species are self-compatible and non agamospermous. The composition of the pollinator community changes during the year and between sites. Hymenopterans and lepidopterans are the most frequent visitors to Bidens species in both areas studied. Although the species are self-compatible, the presence of pollinators may affect the levels of inbreeding. The attraction of insects by Bidens species may be benefical to agricultural crop and may also have important implications for conservation biology.Estudos de biologia reprodutiva de espécies invasoras podem ter implicações sobre o estabelecimento de práticas de controle que minimizem o efeito das populaç