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Sample records for gutierrezia repens asteraceae

  1. Subconjunctival Dirofilaria Repens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neichev I.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Dirofilariasis is a relatively rare zoonotic disease that affects mainly dogs. The two most common representatives are Dirofilaria immitis and Dirofilaria nochtiella. Studies have documented the spread of the disease across Central and Eastern Europe in recent years due to global changes. In Bulgaria since 2001 there are around 20 cases of dirofilariasis in dogs registered yearly. We report a case of subconjuctival dirofilariasis in a 47-year-old woman living in Southwestern Bulgaria. The infection manifested as a painful, inflamed nodule in the left eye, containing a vital parasite. Morphological analysis aroused suspicion for a filarial worm belonging to the genus Dirofilaria. Subsequent analysis confirmed suspicions and identified the parasite as Dirofilaria repens. After removal, the subconjunctival nodule completely resolved and the patient was successfully cured.

  2. Controle químico de Panicum repens e Paspalum repens Chemical control of Panicum repens and Paspalum repens

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    C.A. Carbonari

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Panicum repens e Paspalum repens são espécies infestantes de ambientes úmidos e alagados, freqüentes em margens de lagos, reservatórios, canais de irrigação e drenagem. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a eficiência de diferentes herbicidas no controle dessas duas espécies. O experimento foi conduzido no Núcleo de Pesquisas Avançadas em Matologia, do Departamento de Produção Vegetal, pertencente à Faculdade de Ciências Agronômicas/UNESP, campus de Botucatu-SP. As plantas foram cultivadas em caixas d'água e as pulverizações foram realizadas utilizando-se um pulverizador costal pressurizado a CO2. Os tratamentos testados foram: glyphosate a 2.400, 3.360 e 4.320 g e.a. ha-1 + Aterbane 0,5% v/v, glyphosate a 2.400, 3.360 e 4.320 g e.a. ha-1 + Silwet 0.1% v/v, imazapyr a 750 e 1.500 g e.a. ha-1 e diquat a 400 e 800 g i.a. ha-1 (em aplicações seqüenciais de 200+200 g i.a. ha-1 e 400+400 g i.a. ha-1, além de uma testemunha sem aplicação de herbicidas. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições. Avaliações visuais de controle foram realizadas, sendo a massa seca das plantas determinada ao final do estudo. O herbicida glyphosate na dose de 4.320 g e.a. ha-1, independentemente do adjuvante utilizado, assim como na dose de 3.360 g e.a. ha-1 com Aterbane, proporcionou bom controle de Panicum repens e, em todas as doses e adjuvantes testados, promoveu controle excelente de Paspalum repens. O herbicida imazapyr, independentemente da dose testada, apresentou resultados insatisfatórios no controle das plantas de Panicum repens, porém promoveu um excelente controle de Paspalum repens; o herbicida diquat, apesar das duas aplicações e independentemente da dose utilizada, mostrou-se ineficiente para controle das duas espécies.Two experiments were carried out to evaluate the susceptibility of Panicum repens and Paspalum repens Bergius to different herbicides applied in

  3. Dirofilaria repens transmission in southeastern Finland

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    Risto Pietikäinen

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The spread of vector-borne diseases to new regions has become a global threat due to climate change, increasing traffic, and movement of people and animals. Dirofilaria repens, the canine subcutaneous filarioid nematode, has expanded its distribution range northward during the last decades. The northernmost European locations, where the parasite life-cycle has been confirmed, are Estonia and the Novgorod Region in Russia. Results Herein, we describe an autochthonous D. repens infection in a Finnish woman. We also present two cases of D. repens infection in imported dogs indicating the life-cycle in the Russian Vyborg and St Petersburg areas, close to the Finnish border. Conclusions The most obvious limiting factor of the northern distribution of D. repens is the summer temperature, due to the temperature-dependent development of larvae in vectors. With continuing climate change, further spread of D. repens in Fennoscandia can be expected.

  4. Nodulation potential of four Trifolium repens cultivars under field ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Four Trifolium repens (white clover) cultivars were evaluated under field conditions to determine the potential of these cultivars to sucessfully develop Rhizobium-associated root nodules. Nodulation of T. repens is often poor, because of suboptimal environmental conditions or absence of host-specific rhizobia. The cultivars ...

  5. Telogen effluvium treated with Serenoa repens supplement

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    Michele Pezza

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Telogen effluvium is a non-scarring form of hair loss. Clinically, the disease is characterized by hair loss where more than normalamounts of hair fall out; it usually affects the whole scalp in a widespread manner. When hair loss is very pronounced and persists fora long time, alopecia becomes clinically evident. It is not associated to subjective symptoms. In this paper, the authors describe theclinical case of a 67-year old patient suffering from telogen effluvium, treated with a supplement containing amino acids (L-cystineand L-methionine, vitamin E, iron and extract of Serenoa repens.

  6. Detection of Dirofilaria repens microfilariae in a dog from Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maia, Carla; Lorentz, Susanne; Cardoso, Luís; Otranto, Domenico; Naucke, Torsten J

    2016-01-01

    Dirofilaria repens causes subcutaneous infection in dogs and cats, and is the main agent of human dirofilariosis in Europe. Detection of D. repens is described in a dog from Portugal, a finding that simultaneously represents the first presumable case of autochthonous infection with the parasite in any animal host species in the country. A mixed D. repens/Dirofilaria immitis infection (20:1 ratio) was found, with an overall density of 1267 microfilariae per millilitre of blood. Morphological features, including morphometry, and acid phosphatase histochemical staining confirmed identity of the two filarioids. Distribution of D. repens in Portugal should be further assessed at the population level both in vertebrate hosts and in vectors. Due to the zoonotic potential of the parasite, preventive measures such as the administration of microfilaricides and insect repellents should be put into practice to protect animals and public health.

  7. Antileishmanial activity of 12-methoxycarnosic acid from Salvia repens Burch. ex Benth. (Lamiaceae)

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mokoka, TA

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In South Africa, Salvia repens is used traditionally to treat sores, stomach ache and diarrhoea. The high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-based activity profiling of S. repens whole plant extract showed an active abietane diterpene...

  8. The family Asteraceae: General introduction

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    P. P. J. Herman

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available The family Asteraceae (the daisy family is probably the largest plant family in the world. It is cosmopolitan in distribution and is economically important as many members are used for food, medicinal purposes, grazing for stock, or ornamentals, while some are troublesome weeds or poisonous to animals. The ‘flower ’is actually a collection of flowers grouped together to form a capitulum.

  9. Discrimination analysis of ononis repens and ononis spinosa of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Discrimination analysis of ononis repens and ononis spinosa of the British Isles. CE Stephens. Abstract. No Abstract. Journal of the Ghana Association Vol. 2 (3) 1999: pp.88-94. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/jgsa.v2i3.17997.

  10. Mycorrhizal symbioses of Salix repens : diversity and functional significance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijden, van der E.W.

    2000-01-01

    This thesis investigates the significance of different mycorrhizal fungi, belonging to different functional types (arbuscular mycorrhiza-AM and ectomycorrhiza-EcM), in Salix repens . A comparison between above-ground and below-ground observations on ectomycorrhizal

  11. Diuretic activity of ethanolic extract of Panicum repens L. roots and rhizomes.

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    Hozaien, Hoda E; El-Tantawy, Walid Hamdy; Temraz, Abeer; El-Gindi, Omayma D; Taha, Kamilia F

    2018-02-08

    The diuretic activity of ethanolic extract of Panicum repens was investigated in rats. A single oral dose of 500 mg/kg of P. repens extract were given to rats, after 24 h, urine volume, its sodium and potassium concentrations were estimated. Treatment with P. repens extract caused a significant increase in tested parameters as compared to their corresponding controls, p < 0.05.

  12. Circulation of Dirofilaria repens and Dirofilaria immitis in Moldova.

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    Șuleșco, Tatiana; von Thien, Heidrun; Toderaș, Lidia; Toderaș, Ion; Lühken, Renke; Tannich, Egbert

    2016-12-03

    Over the last two decades, a significant spread of dirofilariasis has been observed in eastern and central Europe. However, data on the circulation of Dirofilaria spp. in Moldova were absent although direct neighbor states reported high incidence rates of human dirofilariasis. Daily mean temperature data were used to calculate Dirofilaria spp. development units, which were used to estimate the potential for complete extrinsic development in the mosquitoes (= sum of potential Dirofilaria spp. transmission days). In addition, 4,481 adult female mosquitoes were collected from 25 trapping sites. From 2010 to 2015, sampling was conducted with Centers for Disease Control miniature light traps, indoor resting mosquito collections as well as human landing catches in urban, rural and natural areas. Mosquitoes were analyzed for the presence of D. repens and D. immitis DNA using a duplex real-time PCR assay targeting nucleotide differences within the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (D. repens) and 16S rRNA gene fragment (D. immitis). The average of the yearly sum of potential Dirofilaria spp. transmission days between 2010 and 2015 ranged from 90 to 140 days with an increasing gradient from the North to the South of Moldova. Positive mosquito pools for D. repens were found countrywide at 13 of the 25 trapping sites and in 17 of the 22 screened mosquito taxa (26.51% of all 347 tested pools), while D. immitis was detected only at 4 of the trapping sites (Center and South) in 4 different mosquito species (8.65% of all 347 tested pools). Highest infection rates (EIR) per 100 specimens for both Dirofilaria species were found in An. maculipennis (s.l.) (D. repens: EIR = 4.91; D. immitis: EIR = 2.01), whereas the most frequent mosquito taxon Cx. pipiens (s.l.)/torrentium had significantly lower infections rates (D. repens: EIR = 0.88; D. immitis: EIR = 0.47). The temperature conditions in Moldova are suitable for transmission of Dirofilaria spp. within the entire

  13. Differential benefits of arbuscular mycorrhizal and ectomycorrhizal infection of salix repens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijden, van der E.W.

    2001-01-01

    The functional significance of arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) and ectomycorrhiza (EcM) for Salix repens, a dual mycorrhizal plant, was investigated over three harvest periods (12, 20 and 30 weeks). Cuttings of S. repens were collected in December (low shoot P) and March (high shoot P). Glomus mosseae

  14. Hierochloë repens (Host) Simonk. (Gramineae) in Serbia

    OpenAIRE

    Perić Ranko; Panjković Biljana; Stojšić Vida; Rilak Sara

    2017-01-01

    During a field study of steppic flora and vegetation conducted on the [Veliki] Rimski Šanac in the vicinity of Gospođinci and on the Deliblato Sands (Serbia: Vojvodina Province), we found Hierochloë repens, a Eurasian species from the family Gramineae that is autochthonous on the Pannonian Plain as well and was for a long time neglected in the flora of Serbia. After examination of herbarium specimens from Serbia belonging to the H. odorata complex, we conclude that the only member of the comp...

  15. Se enhanced phytoremediation of diesel in soil by Trifolium repens.

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    Xi, Ying; Song, Yizhi; Johnson, David M; Li, Meng; Liu, Huigang; Huang, Yingping

    2018-06-15

    A pot-culture experiment was conducted to assess the effects of selenium (Se) (0.5 mg kg -1 ) on Trifolium repens exposed to various levels of diesel (0, 15, 20, 25 g kg -1 ) for 30 days and 60 days. Exposure to diesel for 60 day led to concentration-dependent decreases in root morphogenesis, chlorophyll content and CAT activity, and to dose-dependent increases in MDA content and SOD activity. The residual diesel concentration in soil increased and the removal efficiency decreased with soil diesel concentration. The chlorophyll content and residual diesel concentration after were slightly higher at 30 days than at 60days. Application of Se to soil increased Trifolium repens tolerance to diesel and significantly increased the phytoremediation effect at 60 days, with a removal rate of 36 ± 8%, compared to 28 ± 7% in the control. These results contribute to the ongoing effort to develop an effective phytoremediation system for soils highly contaminated by diesel. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Identification of a new begomovirus infecting Duranta repens in Pakistan.

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    Anwar, Sidra; Tahir, Muhammad

    2018-03-01

    Ornamental perennial plants may serve as reservoirs for viruses that infect field crops. Duranta repens is an ornamental shrub that frequently exhibits leaf curl symptoms typical of begomoviral infection. Two begomoviruses or DNA-A components (isolates 57SA and 58SA) along with a DNA-B component (31SA) were identified in a symptomatic D. repens plant. Isolates 57SA and 58SA showed the highest nucleotide sequence identity of 90% and 92.2% to catharanthus yellow mosaic virus (CaYMV) and chilli leaf curl India virus (ChiLCINV), respectively, whereas 31SA shared the highest nucleotide sequence identity of 95.2% with the DNA-B component of tomato leaf curl New Delhi Virus (ToLCNDV). Isolate 57SA (showing < 91% highest nucleotide sequence identity) may thus be considered a member of a distinct species, and we propose the name "duranta leaf curl virus" (DLCV) for this virus. In addition, isolate 58SA (showing highest nucleotide sequence identity < 94%) is a newly identified strain of ChiLCINV for which the name "Duranta" strain is proposed. Further analysis showed that 57SA, 58SA and 31SA are recombinant, again highlighting the importance of recombination in begomovirus evolution. This is the first identification of DLCV. Also, a mixed infection with two viruses (or DNA-A components) and one DNA-B is reported.

  17. Characterization of oils from Duranta repens leaf and seed

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    Agomuo Emmanuel

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge of the chemical composition of unpopular sources of edible oils has become paramount to supplement the usage of widely known vegetable oils. In this study, the gas chromatographic quantification of fatty acids and phytochemicals was carried out, and the physicochemical and micronutrient composition of Duranta repens leaf and seed oil were evaluated using standard methods. The leaf oils contained significantly higher (p  oleic > myristic > stearic > capric > linoleic > lauric > palmitoleic for the seed oil, while for the leaf oil linoleic > palmitoleic > oleic > stearic > palmitic > myristic > capric > lauric > myristoleic. The major phytochemical constituents of the seed oils were catechin (68.12 ug/ml, saponin (44.03 ug/ml, rutin (32.89 ug/ml, linamarin (22.66 ug/ml and tannins (19.62 ug/ml, while kaempherol (84.05 ug/ml, rutin (62.26 ug/ml and saponins (45.63 ug/ml were mostly predominant in the leaf oil. Spartein, anthocyanins and phytates were among the least phytochemicals in composition, for both samples. These chemical properties evaluated, suggest that Duranta repens seed oil is more suitable for industrial and therapeutic purposes.

  18. Bullous pemphigoid resembling erythema gyratum repens – case report

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    Małgorzata P. Dominiak

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Bullous pemphigoid is one of the most common autoimmune bullous dermatoses. It is typically diagnosed in elderly patients and can have various clinical presentations. So far, only individual cases of erythema gyratum repens-like bullous pemphigoid have been described in literature worldwide. Objective. Presentation of the case of a patient with bullae forming a wood grain arrangement. Case report. A 76-year-old female patient hospitalised at the Department of Dermatology with erythematous and edematous figurate lesions and tense bullae on the trunk and extremities. On direct immunofluorescence, complement deposits at the basement membrane zone were found. BIOCHIP indirect immunofluorescence revealed circulating anti-BP180 IgG antibodies. Conclusions . In patients with suspected bullous pemphigoid, direct and indirect immunofluorescence assays are required. As part of the diagnosis of both pemphigoid and erythema gyratum repens, malignancy needs to be excluded as a potential cause of skin lesions. In the presented patient, medical history and additional tests did not demonstrate the presence of a neoplasm. The patient requires further clinical follow-up.

  19. Palynological studies on five species of Asteraceae

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-04-06

    Apr 6, 2009 ... It is therefore likely that the nature of the pollen grains in these species could be an evolutionary modification often ... Fossil records showed that the genus Senecio came into existence first and other genera developed from it in due course. It is likely Asteraceae and Rubiaceae have risen from a common ...

  20. Antiinflammatory, Diuretic and Antimicrobial Activities of Rungia pectinata Linn. and Rungia repens Nees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swain, S R; Sinha, B N; Murthy, P N

    2008-09-01

    The hydroalcoholic extracts prepared from leaves of Rungia pectinata and Rungia repens were investigated for antiinflammatory and diuretic activity in wistar rats. The results obtained were compared with that of standard drug aspirin and frusemide for their antiinflammatory and diuretic activity respectively. The acute toxicity study was also carried out using adult swiss albino mice of either sex which indicates the safety of the extracts even at a dose of 4000 mg/kg. R. pectinata showed better anti-inflammatory activity than R. repens. In the present study, it was demonstrated that hydroalcoholic extracts of both R. repens and R. pectinata produce diuretic effect by increasing the excretion of Na(+), K(+) and Cl(-). Results showed that R. repens is most effective in increasing urinary electrolyte concentration of Na(+) and K(+) ions. The antimicrobial potency of the aerial parts of Rungia pectinata and Rungia repens have been studied using the petroleum ether, benzene, chloroform, acetone and ethanol extract against a wide number of bacteria and fungi by disc diffusion method. The ethanol extract at a concentration of 30 to 60 μg/disc showed significant activity against the bacteria and fungus investigated. All the extracts of R. pectinata and R. repens have got moderate action but chloroform and acetone extracts of R. repens and ethanol extract of R. pectinata have got significant activity against Trichophyton mentagrophytes.

  1. [Subcutaneous Dirofilaria repens dirofilariasis in the Sfax region (Tunisia)].

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    Makni, F; Hachicha, L; Abdelkafi, N; Guiaâ, N; Sellami, H; Sellami, T; Ayadi, A

    2007-01-01

    Subcutaneous dirofilariasis is zoonotic infection caused by Dirofilaria repens, the principal reservoir of which is the dog. Clinical expression is usually benign but problems of differential diagnosis are present in some cases. We report the first case of dirofilariasis diagnosed in our area (Sfax, southern Tunisia). A 21 year-old woman consulted for multiple erythematous and pruriginous papules on the shoulders, limbs and buttocks. She was treated with antihistamines and dermatological topical steroids without improvement. The diagnosis was confirmed by histological examination, which revealed sections of an adult dirofilaria about 200 microm in diameter with a multilayered cuticle. The condition resolved spontaneously with disappearance of lesions after 3 months. Subcutaneous dirofilariasis is rare in Tunisia. The prevalence is probably underestimated since clinical signs are non-specific and spontaneous cure is common.

  2. Antioxidative potential of Duranta repens (linn.) fruits against H 2 O 2 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of Duranta repens fruits were investigated on H2O2 induced oxidative cell death to evaluate its antioxidative potential in vitro. HEK293T cells were treated with different concentrations [0-1000 ìg/ ml] of ethanol extract (E-Ex) and methanol extract (M-Ex) of D. repens for 24h, and then treated with 100 ìM H2O2 for ...

  3. (asteraceae nativas no rio grande do sul.

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    Anabela Silveira de Oliveira

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work describes the wood anatomy of Heterothalamus alienus and Heterothalamus rupestris (Astereae - Asteraceae, as part of the secondary xylem study in the named genus. For the two species it was recorded some features usually mentioned in the literature for the Asteraceae, as typically small vessels, grouped in a dendritic pattern, the presence of only simple perforation plates and of paratracheal parenchyma. Heterothalamus alienus shows spiral thickenings in the wood vessels and storied vasicentric axial parenchyma. Heterothalamus rupestris differs itself by the absence of spiral thickenings in wood vessels and by no storied axial parenchyma, in paratracheal vasicentric to unilateral patterns. Photomicrographs, quantitative data of anatomical features and a comparison between the two species of wood are also provided.

  4. Produção de mudas de Duranta repens L. pelo processo de estaquia Seedlings production ofduranta Duranta repens L. using cuttings process

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    Genilda Canuto Amaral

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Devido a fácil adaptação ao clima, solo e por ter um potencial ornamental, a Duranta repens L. é muito utilizada no Brasil. Contudo, objetivou-se avaliar a produção de mudas de D. repens L. pelo processo de estaquia com fornecimento exógeno de AIB em diferentes estações do ano. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado, com quatro concentrações de AIB (0, 1000, 3000 e 5000 mg kg-1, três tipos de estacas (herbáceas, semilenhosas e lenhosas e duas épocas do ano (chuvosa e seca. Realizaram-se as avaliações do número de estacas com raízes, sobrevivência das estacas, número de brotações por estaca, comprimento médio da maior raiz e massa seca da parte aérea e da raiz. A dose indicada para propagação de D. repens é de 3000 mg kg-1AIB. As estacas herbáceas e semilenhosas são as mais indicadas e a época chuvosa é mais propícia para produção de mudas de D. repens.Due to easy adaptation to climate, soil and ornamental potential, Duranta repens L. is widely used in Brazil. The study evaluated the production of seedlings of D. repens L. using cutting process with the supply of exogenous IBA in different seasons. The experimental design was completely randomized, with four concentrations of IBA (0, 1000, 3000 e 5000 mg kg-1, three types of cuttings (softwood, semi-hardwood and hardwood and two seasons (wet and dry. We assessed the number of rooted cuttings, survival cuttings, number of shoots per cutting, average length of the longest root and dry mass of shoots and roots. The best dose for propagation of D. repens was 3000 mg kg-1 IBA. The softwood and semi-hardwood cuttings were the most suitable and the rainy season the more favorable for D. repens seedling production.

  5. Evolutionary origin of the Asteraceae capitulum: Insights from Calyceraceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozner, Raúl; Zanotti, Christian; Johnson, Leigh A

    2012-01-01

    Phylogenies based on molecular data are revealing that generalizations about complex morphological structures often obscure variation and developmental patterns important for understanding the evolution of forms, as is the case for inflorescence morphology within the well-supported MGCA clade (Menyanthaceae + Goodeniaceae + Calyceraceae + Asteraceae). While the basal families share a basic thyrsic/thyrsoid structure of their inflorescences, Asteraceae possesses a capitulum that is widely interpreted as a racemose, condensed inflorescence. Elucidating the poorly known inflorescence structure of Calyceraceae, sister to Asteraceae, should help clarify how the Asteraceae capitulum evolved from thyrsic/thyrsoid inflorescences. The early development and structure of the inflorescence of eight species (five genera) of Calyceraceae were studied by SEM, and patterns of evolutionary change were interpreted via phylogenetic character mapping. The basic inflorescence structure of Calyceraceae is a cephalioid (a very condensed botryoid/thyrsoid). Optimization of inflorescence characters on a DNA sequence-derived tree suggests that the Asteraceae capitulum derives from a simple cephalioid through two morphological changes: loss of the terminal flower and suppression of the cymose branching pattern in the peripheral branches. Widely understood as a condensed raceme, the Asteraceae capitulum is the evolutionary result of a very reduced, condensed thyrsoid. Starting from that point, evolution worked separately only on the racemose developmental control/pattern within Asteraceae and mainly on the cymose developmental control/pattern within Calyceraceae, producing head-like inflorescences in both groups but with very different diversification potential. We also discuss possible remnants of the ancestral cephalioid structure in some Asteraceae.

  6. 7 CFR 201.56-2 - Sunflower family, Asteraceae (Compositae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sunflower family, Asteraceae (Compositae). 201.56-2...-2 Sunflower family, Asteraceae (Compositae). Kinds of seed: Artichoke, cardoon, chicory, dandelion, endive, great burdock, lettuce, safflower, salsify, Louisiana sagewort, and sunflower. (a) Lettuce. (1...

  7. Molecular Study of Dirofilaria immitis and Dirofilaria repens in Dogs from Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rjeibi, M R; Rouatbi, M; Mabrouk, M; Tabib, I; Rekik, M; Gharbi, M

    2017-10-01

    Dirofilaria immitis and Dirofilaria repens are mosquito-borne nematodes which infect primarily dogs as their main definitive hosts. They cause cardiopulmonary (D. immitis) or cutaneous (D. repens) dirofilariasis in canids and other carnivores and can accidentally be transmitted to humans where they can induce a variety of clinical outcomes depending on organ localization. Dirofilaria spp. infection in dogs was assessed using molecular methods (PCR and sequencing) to identify the different Dirofilaria species occurring in 200 dogs from Northern and Central Tunisia. The overall molecular prevalence of Dirofilaria spp. was 17.5% (35/200). The prevalence of D. immitis (14.5%) was significantly higher than for D. repens (3%). Molecular prevalence of D. immitis was significantly higher in suburban compared to urban and rural regions. There was no difference in molecular prevalence of D. immitis or D. repens according to the dogs' (sex or use). Dirofilaria immitis amplicons (accession numbers KR676386) fall into the same clade with D. immitis from China, India and Taiwan. Comparison of the partial sequences of D. repensITS2 rDNA gene (KR676387) revealed 99.6% similarity with D. repens reported in dogs from USA. It had also 97.6% similarity with D. repens from mosquitoes in Czech Republic. High dog parasite burdens should motivate both medical doctors and veterinarians to consider these frequent infections. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  8. Morphophysiological and chemical aspects of torpedograss (Panicum repens L., Poaceae

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    Simone Meredith Scheffer-Basso

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available This work evaluated some of the morphophysiological and bromatological aspects of torpedograss (Panicum repens L. through the quantification of accumulation, allocation and chemical composition of dry matter (DM during spring-summer. Four destructive harvests of aerial and underground parts were carried out on 23 October 2003, 3 December 2003, 22 January 2004 and 20 February 2004, corresponding to 31, 73, 123 and 152 days after the start of the spring. In these harvests, the DM accumulation was respectively 1,650; 4,470; 10,900 and 14,540 kg/ha in the aerial part, with leaf percentages between 45% (first harvest and 35% (last harvest. The crude protein (CP, neutral detergent fiber (NDF and acid detergent fiber (ADF changed between the first and the last harvest, from 9.9 to 7% (CP, 63.9% to 70.3% (FDN, and 37% to 40.8% (FDA, in samples composed by leaves, culms, inflorescences and stolons. The DM allocation to rhizomes (Rh, roots (R, leaves (L, culms+stolons (C and inflorescences (I changed, between the first and the last harvest, from 42 to 19% (Rh, 10 to 7% (R, 22 to 27% (L, 25 to 44% (C, and 0 to 2% (I.

  9. Biosystematic studies of Elymus repens (L. Gould (Poaceae: patterns of phenotypic variation

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    Magdalena Szczepaniak

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Inter- and intrapopulational morphological variability of Elymus repens, a cool-season peren-nial grass and a tenacious weed that spreads both by seeds and rhizomes forming a thick and stout net, was examined. Multivariate statistical analysis of 48 initial morphological characters obtained from 44 population samples (1180 specimens collected in different habitats revealed the conspicuous variation within E. repens. Principal Component Analysis revealed three extremes of the morphological gradient that were referred to as three varieties of E. repens: var. repens, var. aristatus and var. subulatus, not correlated with the habitat type or geographi-cal location. Canonical Discriminant Analysis proved the taxonomic usefulness of characters such as awned or awnless glumes and lemmas as well as the shape of glumes for variety di-stinction. Results of morphological analysis, in relation to the low level of genetic variation showed in the previous studies, suggest that the extensive morphological variation of E. re-pens can be caused by its plasticity where different morphological patterns are realized on the same genome basis. Additionally, the open-pollinated system of mating results in new combi-nations of morphological characters of plants that further reproduce vegetatively by rhizomes. The nomenclature, taxonomic descriptions and a key to the three varieties are provided.

  10. NOTES ON THE ASTERACEAE OF SUMATERA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SRI SUDARMIYATI TJITROSOEDIRDJO

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available An account of the tribe composition, endemic taxa, comparison with ad jacent areas and weedy Asteraceae of Sumatera is given. Based on the records of January 2000, there are 133 species of 74 genera in 11 tribes. The tribe Heliantheae is the largest, with 28% of the total number of the genera, followed by Astereae with 15%, Inuleae 12%, Senecioneae 10%, Anthemideae, Eupatorieae and Lactuceae 8%, the other tribes are represented by 4% or less. The most diverse genus is Blumea with 14 species. Other genera are only represented by 10 species or less, usually 4, or 3, or 2, and mostly by 1 species only. Thirty nine or about 53% are exotic genera and the native ones are less than half of the total number of the genera. In terms of indigenous and endemic species, Sumatera is richer than Java. There are 1 genus, 7 species and 2 varieties of Asteraceae endemic to Sumatera. A number of 43 important weed species were introduced from Tropical America, Africa, Asia and Europe. Among these Chromolaena odorata and Mikania micrantha are reported as the most noxious ones. List of the genera and species recorded in Sumatera is provided in this paper.

  11. No evidence of Dirofilaria repens infection in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides) from Brandenburg, Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Härtwig, Vera; Schulze, Christoph; Pfeffer, Martin; Daugschies, Arwid; Dyachenko, Viktor

    2016-02-01

    Dirofilaria (D.) repens is a nematode causing dirofilariasis in dogs, cats and in humans. Red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides) are well-known wildlife reservoirs for zoonotic diseases. These two species are highly abundant in Germany, frequently exposed to vector mosquitoes and potentially susceptible to Dirofilaria infections. To obtain data about D. repens infections in these animals, red fox and raccoon dog carcasses (hunted or found dead) were collected from January to September 2009 in the Federal State of Brandenburg, Germany. Lung tissue samples were subjected to DNA extraction and examined for the presence of Dirofilaria DNA by means of D. repens-specific PCR. D. repens-specific DNA could not be amplified from the lungs of red foxes (n = 122; 0%) nor from the lungs of raccoon dogs (n = 13; 0%), suggesting a limited role if a role at all in the natural transmission cycle of D. repens in Brandenburg.

  12. Is molecular xenomonitoring of mosquitoes for Dirofilaria repens suitable for dirofilariosis surveillance in endemic regions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masny, Aleksander; Sałamatin, Rusłan; Rozej-Bielicka, Wioletta; Golab, Elzbieta

    2016-02-01

    Dirofilaria repens is a parasite of animals and humans, transferred by mosquitoes. The assessment of the presence of D. repens-infected vertebrate hosts in the investigated area can be performed by xenomonitoring—detection of the parasite in blood-feeding arthropods. Our study aimed to evaluate PCR xenomonitoring of mosquitoes as a tool for dirofilariosis surveillance in Poland. We were also interested whether inter-study comparisons at the international level would be possible. Mosquitoes were collected in a single locality in Mazowsze province in Poland, in which between 12 and 20% of dogs were infected with D. repens and autochthonous human dirofilariosis was confirmed. All captured female mosquitoes were divided into pools; alternatively, single mosquitoes were analyzed; DNA was isolated and subjected to PCR and real-time PCR for detection of D. repens. The estimations of infection rates of mosquitoes with D. repens, based on PCR results, varied from 0 to 1.57% even between assays for detection of distinct fragments of the same marker—cytochrome oxidase subunit one gene. Polymorphisms of the DNA sequence within binding sites of the primers used in D. repens xenomonitoring assays, applied in European studies, were identified. Non-specific amplification of Setaria tundra (Nematoda: Onchocercidae) DNA occurred. Surveillance of dirofilariosis by PCR mosquito xenomonitoring is possible; however, the efficiency of the approach on territories where the prevalence of the disease among definitive hosts is lower than 12% remains unknown. Furthermore, mosquito infection rate estimations can be PCR assay dependent, which makes inter-study comparisons difficult. The results obtained in independent European xenomonitoring studies were contradictory. International collaboration would be required to establish a standardized set of assays for sensitive and specific xenomonitoring-based dirofilariosis surveillance.

  13. Dirofilaria in Humans, Dogs, and Vectors in Austria (1978-2014-From Imported Pathogens to the Endemicity of Dirofilaria repens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans-Peter Fuehrer

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Dirofilaria repens and D. immitis are filarioid helminths with domestic and wild canids as main hosts and mosquitoes as vectors. Both species are known to cause zoonotic diseases, primarily pulmonary (D. immitis, ocular (D. repens, and subcutaneous (D. repens dirofilariosis. Both D. immitis and D. repens are known as invasive species, and their distribution seems associated with climate change. Until very recently, both species were known to be nonendemic in Austria.Metadata on introduced and possibly autochthonous cases of infection with Dirofilaria sp. in dogs and humans in Austria are analysed, together with analyses of mosquito populations from Austria in ongoing studies. In Austria, most cases of Dirofilaria sp. in humans (30 cases of D. repens-six ocular and 24 subcutaneous and dogs (approximately 50 cases-both D. immitis and D. repens were most likely imported. However, occasionally infections with D. repens were discussed to be autochthonous (one human case and seven in dogs. The introduction of D. repens to Austria was confirmed very recently, as the parasite was detected in Burgenland (eastern Austria for the first time in mosquito vectors during a surveillance program. For D. immitis, this could not be confirmed yet, but data from Germany suggest that the successful establishment of this nematode species in Austria is a credible scenario for the near future.The first findings of D. repens in mosquito vectors indicate that D. repens presumably invaded in eastern Austria. Climate analyses from central Europe indicate that D. immitis also has the capacity to establish itself in the lowland regions of Austria, given that both canid and culicid hosts are present.

  14. First record of the alien pest Rhaponticum repens (Compositae) in the Iberian Peninsula

    OpenAIRE

    López-Alvarado, J.

    2011-01-01

    First record of the alien pest Rhaponticum repens (Compositae) in the Iberian Peninsula.- Rhaponticum repens is reported for the first time for the flora of the Iberian Peninsula. The species is native from Central Asia and has become invasive in Argentina, Canada, Europe and the USA. It was detected for the first time in abandoned fields from Vilablareix, near the city of Girona (Catalonia, Spain) and in the valley of the Vinalopó in Alicante (Valencia, Spain), where it was collected as earl...

  15. Subconjunctival Dirofilaria repens Infestation: A Light and Scanning Electron Microscopy Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melsom, Henrik A; Kurtzhals, Jørgen A L; Qvortrup, Klaus

    2011-01-01

    and longitudinal ridges at the anterior end. The tail was relatively short with spirally coiled ridges indicating a male Dirofilaria repens. Conclusions: Humans are an uncommon and accidental host of Dirofilaria repens which is rarely seen in Northern Europe but should be considered as a differential diagnosis...... to other nematode ocular infections. A travel history is helpful in diagnosing the potential involved organisms. No further treatment is necessary beyond surgical removal since this organism fails to mature and thereby does not cause microfilariaemia in humans....

  16. Melilotoside Derivatives from Artemisia splendens (Asteraceae

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    Fariba H. Afshar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A combination of solid-phase-extraction (SPE and reversed-phase preparative high-performance liquid chromatography (prep-HPLC of the methanolic extract of the aerial parts of Artemisia splendens (common name: “Asia Minor Wormwood”, an endemic Iranian species, afforded Z- and E-melilotosides (1 and 2, Z- and E-4-methoxy-melilotosides (3 and 4, and a new dimer, bis-ortho-Z-melilotoside (5, named: splendenoside. Whilst the structures of these compounds (1-5 were elucidated unequivocally by spectroscopic means, the in vitro free-radical-scavenging property of 1-5 was determined by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH assay. This is the first report on the occurrence of any melilotoside derivatives in the genus Artemisia. Artemisia splendens, Asteraceae, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH, free-radical scavenger, melilotoside, splendenoside

  17. Dirofilaria repens: emergence of autochthonous human infections in the Czech Republic (case reports)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Matějů, J.; Chanová, M.; Modrý, David; Mitková, B.; Hrazdilová, K.; Žampachová, V.; Kolářová, L.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 16, APR 19 (2016), č. článku 171. ISSN 1471-2334 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Dirofilaria repens * Human dirofilariasis * Emerging disease * Autochthonous diseases in Czech Republic Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.768, year: 2016

  18. A First Human Case of Ocular Dirofilariosis due to Dirofilaria repens in Northeastern France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argy, Nicolas; Sabou, Marcela; Billing, Alain; Hermsdorff, Christian; Candolfi, Ermanno; Abou-Bacar, Ahmed

    2011-01-01

    We report the first case of ocular dirofilariasis to be diagnosed in northeast France (Alsace region), in a man who presented with a suborbital mass after a journey to Senegal. Microscopic examination of the surgical specimen identified Dirofilaria repens. PMID:21461355

  19. A First Human Case of Ocular Dirofilariosis due to Dirofilaria repens in Northeastern France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Argy

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the first case of ocular dirofilariasis to be diagnosed in northeast France (Alsace region, in a man who presented with a suborbital mass after a journey to Senegal. Microscopic examination of the surgical specimen identified Dirofilaria repens.

  20. Zoonotic Dirofilaria repens (Nematoda: Filarioidea) in Aedes vexans mosquitoes, Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rudolf, Ivo; Šebesta, Oldřich; Mendel, Jan; Betášová, Lenka; Bocková, E.; Jedličková, Petra; Venclíková, Kristýna; Blažejová, Hana; Šikutová, Silvie; Hubálek, Zdeněk

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 113, č. 12 (2014), s. 4663-4667 ISSN 0932-0113 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 261504 - EDENEXT Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Aedes vexans * Mosquito vectors * Dirofilaria repens * Dogs * Zoonotic dirofilariosis * Setaria spp. Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 2.098, year: 2014

  1. Biodiversity and ecology of flower-associated actinomycetes in different flowering stages of Protea repens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human, Zander R; Crous, Casparus J; Roets, Francois; Venter, Stephanus N; Wingfield, Michael J; de Beer, Z Wilhelm

    2018-02-01

    Actinomycete bacteria have previously been reported from reproductive structures (infructescences) of Protea (sugarbush/suikerbos) species, a niche dominated by fungi in the genera Knoxdaviesia and Sporothrix. It is probable that these taxa have symbiotic interactions, but a lack of knowledge regarding their diversity and general ecology precludes their study. We determined the diversity of actinomycetes within Protea repens inflorescence buds, open inflorescences, young and mature infructescences, and leaf litter surrounding these trees. Since the P. repens habitat is fire-prone, we also considered the potential of these bacteria to recolonise infructescences after fire. Actinomycetes were largely absent from flower buds and inflorescences but were consistently present in young and mature infructescences. Two Streptomyces spp. were the most consistent taxa recovered, one of which was also routinely isolated from leaf litter. Lower colonisation rates were evident in samples from a recently burnt site. One of the most consistent taxa isolated from older trees in the unburnt site was absent from this site. Our findings show that P. repens has a distinct community of actinomycetes dominated by a few species. These communities change over time and infructescence developmental stage, season and the age of the host population. Mature infructescences appear to be important sources of inoculum for some of the actinomycetes, seemingly disrupted by fire. Increased fire frequency limiting maturation of P. repens infructescences could thus impact future actinomycete colonisation in the landscape. Streptomyces spp. are likely to share this niche with the ophiostomatoid fungi, which merits further study regarding their interactions and mode of transfer.

  2. Assessment of Boeremia exigua var. rhapontica, as a biological control agent of Russian knapweed (Rhaponticum repens)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berner, Dana; Cavin, Craig; Woudenberg, Joyce H.C.; Tunali, Berna; Büyük, Orhan; Kansu, Bayram

    Abstract Russian knapweed (Rhaponticum repens (L.) Hidalgo) is an herbaceous perennial weed that was introduced and has become invasive in the United States, particularly in the semi-arid west. It is characterized by its extensive root system, low seed production, and persistence. The weed has

  3. Dirofilaria immitis and D. repens show circadian co-periodicity in naturally co-infected dogs

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ionică, A.M.; Matei, I.A.; D'Amico, G.; Bel, L.; Dumitrache, M.O.; Modrý, David; Mihalca, A. D.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 10, FEB 28 (2017), č. článku 116. ISSN 1756-3305 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : periodicity * microfilariae * co-infection * Dirofilaria immitis * Dirofilaria repens Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine OBOR OECD: Veterinary science Impact factor: 3.080, year: 2016

  4. Subcutaneous dirofilariosis (Dirofilaria repens: an infection spreading throughout the old world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Genchi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Two main Dirofilaria species infect dogs: D. immitis and D. repens. While D. immitis has a worldwide distribution, D. repens is currently found only in Europe, Asia, and Africa. Adult D. repens are located in subcutaneous tissues of natural hosts where they survive for long periods of time. First-stage larvae, microfilariae, circulate in the peripheral bloodstream, where they are taken up by the mosquito intermediate hosts. Infected mosquitoes then transmit infective third-stage (L3 larvae to new hosts through the blood meal. In dogs, most infections are asymptomatic, although cutaneous disorders such as pruritus, dermal swelling, subcutaneous nodules, and ocular conjunctivitis can be observed. Currently, two factors have increased the concerns about this parasitic infection 1 its spread throughout the European countries and to other continents and its prevalence in dog populations, where in some cases it has overcome D. immitis; and 2 its zoonotic potential, which is much greater than that of D. immitis. Results Different hypotheses can be put forward to explain these concerns. First, climate change has allowed more favorable conditions for survival of culicid vectors. Second, accidental hosts such as humans may have a less efficient immune reaction against a parasite that is located in subcutaneous tissues, and thus less exposed to the host’s immune response than, for instance, D. immitis. Furthermore, the absence of clinical signs in the majority of canine infections and the difficulty in diagnosing the infection, due to the lack of serologic tests and thus the reliance on the identification of microfilariae and differentiation from D. immitis to confirm the presence of the parasite, favor the further spread of this species. Finally, among the macrocyclic lactones currently used to prevent heartworm infection, only moxidectin has been found to be fully effective against the infective larvae transmitted by mosquitoes and

  5. Human dirofilariasis due to Dirofilaria repens in Ukraine, an emergent zoonosis: epidemiological report of 1465 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sałamatin, Rusłan V; Pavlikovska, Tamara M; Sagach, Olga S; Nikolayenko, Svitlana M; Kornyushin, Vadim V; Kharchenko, Vitaliy O; Masny, Aleksander; Cielecka, Danuta; Konieczna-Sałamatin, Joanna; Conn, David Bruce; Golab, Elzbieta

    2013-12-01

    The filarial nematode Dirofilaria repens is currently considered to be one of the most extensively spreading human and animal parasites in Europe. In Ukraine, reporting cases of dirofilariasis has been mandatory since 1975, and the disease was included in the national surveillance system for notifiable diseases. Up until December 31st 2012, a total of 1533 cases have been registered, with 1465 cases occurring within the previous 16 years. Most of the cases of dirofilariasis were registered in 6 regions: Kyiv, and the Donetsk, Zaporizhzhya, Dnipropetrovsk, Kherson and Chernihiv oblasts. In the years 1997-2002 the highest incidence rate was noted in the Kherson oblast in the south of the country (9.79 per 100 000 people), and the lowest in western Ukraine (0.07-1.68 per 100 000 people). D. repens infections were registered in all oblasts. Parasitic lesions were most often located in the head, the subconjunctival tissue and around the eyes. D. repens lesions were also found in the limbs, torso, male sexual organs, and female mammary glands. Dirofilariasis was diagnosed in persons aged from 11 months to 90 years old, most often among people between 21-40 years of age. Most patients had only one parasitic skin lesion; the majority of isolated nematodes were female. The results of our analysis point to a constant increase in D. repens dirofilariasis incidence in humans in Ukraine. Despite educational efforts, infections have become more frequent and the territory in which the disease occurs has enlarged to encompass the whole of Ukraine. Nevertheless, the Ukrainian sanitary-epidemiological services managed to achieve some measure of success, e.g. by creating a registration system for D. repens infections and establishing proper diagnostics for the disease.

  6. First record of the alien pest Rhaponticum repens (Compositae in the Iberian Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martínez-Flores, F.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available First record of the alien pest Rhaponticum repens (Compositae in the Iberian Peninsula.- Rhaponticum repens is reported for the first time for the flora of the Iberian Peninsula. The species is native from Central Asia and has become invasive in Argentina, Canada, Europe and the USA. It was detected for the first time in abandoned fields from Vilablareix, near the city of Girona (Catalonia, Spain and in the valley of the Vinalopó in Alicante (Valencia, Spain, where it was collected as early as in 1959 but misdentified. Molecular data, based on nrDNA region ITS, suggest that the reported populations may be closely related to plants from the United States. Due to the extremely noxious character of the species and the possible relationship of Spanish plants with the invasive American populations, some kind of monitoring is recommended.Rhaponticum repens (Compositae, una nueva planta alóctona para la Península Ibérica.- Se cita por primera vez la especie Rhaponticum repens para la flora de la Península Ibérica. Rhaponticum repens es una especie nativa de Asia central que actúa como invasora en diversos países como Argentina, Canadá o los Estados Unidos. Se ha encontrado por primera vez en campos de cultivo abandonados en el pueblo de Vilablareix, cerca de la ciudad de Girona (Cataluña, España y en el valle del Vinalopó (Valencia, España, donde fue recolectada y mal identificada en 1959. Los datos moleculares, obtenidos a partir de la región ITS del nrDNA, sugieren que estas poblaciones podrían estar relacionadas con plantas invasoras de Estados Unidos. Debido al carácter extremadamente invasor de la especie, y a su posible origen secundario a partir de las poblaciones norteamericanas, se recomienda el seguimiento de estas poblaciones.

  7. Are carbon and nitrogen exchange between fungi and the orchid Goodyera repens affected by irradiance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebel, Heiko T; Bidartondo, Martin I; Gebauer, Gerhard

    2015-02-01

    The green orchid Goodyera repens has been shown to transfer carbon to its mycorrhizal partner, and this flux may therefore be affected by light availability. This study aimed to test whether the C and N exchange between plant and fungus is dependent on light availability, and in addition addressed the question of whether flowering and/or fruiting individuals of G. repens compensate for changes in leaf chlorophyll concentration with changes in C and N flows from fungus to plant. The natural abundances of stable isotopes of plant C and N were used to infer changes in fluxes between orchid and fungus across natural gradients of irradiance at five sites. Mycorrhizal fungi in the roots of G. repens were identified by molecular analyses. Chlorophyll concentrations in the leaves of the orchid and of reference plants were measured directly in the field. Leaf δ(13)C values of G. repens responded to changes in light availability in a similar manner to autotrophic reference plants, and different mycorrhizal fungal associations also did not affect the isotope abundance patterns of the orchid. Flowering/fruiting individuals had lower leaf total N and chlorophyll concentrations, which is most probably explained by N investments to form flowers, seeds and shoot. The results indicate that mycorrhizal physiology is relatively fixed in G. repens, and changes in the amount and direction of C flow between plant and fungus were not observed to depend on light availability. The orchid may instead react to low-light sites through increased clonal growth. The orchid does not compensate for low leaf total N and chlorophyll concentrations by using a (13)C- and (15)N-enriched fungal source. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Specialist bees collect Asteraceae pollen by distinctive abdominal drumming (Osmia) or tapping (Melissodes, Svastra)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Four species of western US Osmia (Cephalosmia) bees that are Asteraceae specialists (oligoleges) were observed to employ a heretofore unappreciated, stereotypical means of collecting pollen, abdominal drumming, to gather pollen from 19 flowering species representing nine tribes of Asteraceae. Abdom...

  9. Asteraceae Pollen Provisions Protect Osmia Mason Bees (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) from Brood Parasitism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spear, Dakota M; Silverman, Sarah; Forrest, Jessica R K

    2016-06-01

    Many specialist herbivores eat foods that are apparently low quality. The compensatory benefits of a poor diet may include protection from natural enemies. Several bee lineages specialize on pollen of the plant family Asteraceae, which is known to be a poor-quality food. Here we tested the hypothesis that specialization on Asteraceae pollen protects bees from parasitism. We compared rates of brood parasitism by Sapyga wasps on Asteraceae-specialist, Fabeae-specialist, and other species of Osmia bees in the field over several years and sites and found that Asteraceae-specialist species were parasitized significantly less frequently than other species. We then tested the effect of Asteraceae pollen on parasites by raising Sapyga larvae on three pollen mixtures: Asteraceae, Fabeae, and generalist (a mix of primarily non-Asteraceae pollens). Survival of parasite larvae was significantly reduced on Asteraceae provisions. Our results suggest that specialization on low-quality pollen may evolve because it helps protect bees from natural enemies.

  10. Dirofilaria repens eyepiece: a case in Calabria and diagnostic indications concerning dirofilariosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Mancuso

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Dirofilaria repens is a nematode that affects dogs and other carnivores such as cats, wolves, foxes, which are final hosts. It is carried to the men by mosquitos (Anopheles, Culex and Aedes and, particularly, by Aedes albopictus. It causes in the humans the formation of subcutaneous nodules and, at ocular conjunctiva level, the formation of cysts. Its diagnosis is made by methods of Molecular Biology because the identification based only on the morphology is very difficult. In the mounth of November 2012, comes to the first aid of Cetraro Hospital a old woman with a conjunctival cyst to right eye which causes pain, itch and lachrymation. From this cyst, is extracted a worm, identified as Dirofilaria repens. This diagnosis is confirmed by investigations of Molecular Biology discharged in the Superior Institute of Health of Rome.

  11. Trifolium pratense and T. repens (Leguminosae: Edible Flower Extracts as Functional Ingredients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Tundis

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Trifolium pratense (red clover and T. repens (white clover edible flowers were investigated for their chemical profile and health properties. The total phenols and flavonoids contents were evaluated. Quercetin, kaempferol, luteolin, rutin, and myricetin were used as markers and quantified by HPLC. The antioxidant effects were investigated by using different in vitro assays. Moreover, α-amylase, α-glucosidase and lipase inhibitory activities were evaluated. T. repens flowers extract showed a good radical scavenging activity in both DPPH and ABTS tests with IC50 values of 10.3 and 21.4 μg/mL, respectively. White clover extract demonstrated promising α-amylase and lipase inhibitory activities with IC50 values of 25.0 and 1.3 μg/mL, respectively. The obtained results support the use of Trifolium flowers as healthy food ingredients.

  12. [A case of human dirofilariasis (D. repens) of the spermatic cord].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fini, M; Perrone, A; Vagliani, G; Andreini, C; Salvi, G; Misuriello, G; Di Silverio, A

    1992-01-01

    A 52 year old man, living in the province of Trapani (Sicily), presented with right hydrocele and slight orchialgia. The patient underwent epididymectomy and resection of T. vaginalis. The "tunica" was involved by a granulomatous process, containing a parasite of genus Dirofilaria (D. repens). Dirofilaria repens is a filarial nematode. Dogs, foxes and cats are the definitive hosts and principal reservoirs of the parasite. In humans the parasite dies before reaching sexual maturity and the result is an inconspicuous granulomatous reaction in the subcutaneous tissue. S. Pampiglione et al. (Cattedra di Parassitologia Veterinaria dell'Università di Bologna-Italy) reported from 1971 more than 30 cases of human Dirofilariasis in Italy, suggesting that the parasite is able to migrate from the inoculation site to other districts (lung, eye etc.). The case is exceptional for the localization of the parasite (never reported) and can contribute to a better knowledge of the disease.

  13. Ejemplares tipo de Asteraceae (= Compositae de A. L. Cabrera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana E. Freire

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Freire, S. E. & Iharlegui, L. 2000. Ejemplares tipo de Asteraceae (= Compositae de A. L.Cabrera. Darwiniana 38(3-4: 307-364.El presente trabajo representa un catálogo de los ejemplares tipo de 426 especies y 82 variedades deAsteraceae descriptas por A. L. Cabrera entre los años 1931 y 1999. Los taxones se presentan en ordenalfabético. Para cada taxón se indica: diagnosis original, tipo nomenclatural, categoría del tipo, herbario,etiqueta original y nombre actualizado

  14. Warionia (Asteraceae: a relict genus of Cichorieae?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katinas, Liliana

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The genus Warionia, with its only species W. saharae, is endemic to the northwestern edge of the African Sahara desert. This is a somewhat thistle-like aromatic plant, with white latex, and fleshy, pinnately- partite leaves. Warionia is in many respects so different from any other genus of Asteraceae, that it has been tentatively placed in the tribes Cardueae, Cichorieae, Gundelieae, and Mutisieae. Until now, a comprehensive study of Warionia to have a complete context for discussing its taxonomic position is lacking. The general morphology, anatomy, palynology and chromosome number of W. saharae are investigated here, and the species is described and illustrated. Laticifers in leaves and stems indicate a relationship with Cichorieae, and are associated with the phloem, in contact with it or with the surrounding sclerenchyma sheath. The pollen features indicate a strong relation with Cardueae, namely the structure with Anthemoid pattern where the columellae are joined to the foot layer, the ectosexine with thin columellae, the endosexine with stout and ramified columellae, the conspicuous spines with globose bases and conspicuous apical channels, and the tectum surface very perforate. Chromosomal counts resulted in 2n = 34. The morphological and palynological evidence positions Warionia between the tribes Cardueae and Cichorieae suggesting that it could be a remnant of the ancestral stock that gave rise to both tribes.El género Warionia, y su única especie, W. saharae, es endémico del noroeste del desierto africano del Sahara. Es una planta semejante a un cardo, aromática, con látex blanco y hojas carnosas, pinnatipartidas. Warionia es tan diferente de otros géneros de Asteraceae que fue ubicada en las tribus Cardueae, Cichorieae, Gundelieae y Mutisieae. Hasta ahora, no existía un estudio global de Warionia como contexto para discutir su posición taxonómica. Se ha investigado aquí su morfología, anatomía, palinología y n

  15. Mitigation of salt stress in white clover (Trifolium repens) by Azospirillum brasilense and its inoculation effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalid, Muhammad; Bilal, Muhammad; Hassani, Danial; Iqbal, Hafiz M N; Wang, Hang; Huang, Danfeng

    2017-12-01

    Salinity is one of the increasingly serious environmental problems worldwide for cultivating agricultural crops. The present study was aimed to ascertain the potential of beneficial soil bacterium Azospirillum brasilense to alleviate saline stress in Trifolium repens. Experimental plants (white clover) were grown from seeds and inoculated with or without A. brasilense bacterial strain supplemented with 0, 40, 80, or 120 mM NaCl into soil. The growth attributes including, shoot heights, root lengths, fresh and dry weights, leaf area and chlorophyll content were significantly enhanced in T. repens plants grown in A. brasilense inoculated soil than un-inoculated controls, particularly under elevated salinity conditions (40, 80 and 120 mM NaCl). Malondialdehyde content of leaf was recorded to be declined under saline conditions. Moreover, the K + /Na + ratio was also improved in bacterium-inoculated plants, since A. brasilense significantly reduced the root and shoot Na + level under high salty environment. Results revealed that soil inoculation with A. brasilense could significantly promote T. repens growth under both non-saline and saline environments, and this study might be extended to other vegetables and crops for the germination and growth enhancement.

  16. [Effects of bamboo charcoal on the growth of Trifolium repens and soil bacterial community structure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Song-Hao; He, Dong-Hua; Shen, Qiu-Lan; Xu, Qiu-Fang

    2014-08-01

    The effects of addition rates (0, 3% and 9%) and particle sizes (0.05, 0.05-1.0 and 1.0-2.0 mm) of bamboo charcoal on the growth of Trifolium repens and soil microbial community structure were investigated. The results showed that bamboo charcoal addition greatly promoted the early growth of T. repens, with the 9% charcoal addition rate being slightly better than the 3% charcoal addition rate. The effects of different particle sizes of bamboo charcoal on the growth of T. repens were not different significantly. Growth promotion declined with time during 120 days after sowing, and disappeared completely after 5 months. DGGE analysis of the bacterial 16S rDNA V3 fragment indicated that bamboo charcoal altered the soil bacterial community structure. The amount and Shannon diversity index of bacteria in the bamboo charcoal addition treatments increased compared with CK. The quantitative analysis showed that the amount of bacteria in the treatment with bamboo charcoal of fine particle (D charcoal had a great effect on soil bacteria amount compared with the charcoal of other sizes at the same addition rate.

  17. Rhizome Fragmentation by Vertical Disks Reduces Elymus repens Growth and Benefits Italian Ryegrass-White Clover Crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Björn Ringselle

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Tillage controls perennial weeds, such as Elymus repens, partly because it fragments their underground storage organs. However, tillage is difficult to combine with a growing crop, which limits its application. The aim of this study was to evaluate how soil vertical cutting with minimum soil disturbance and mowing affect the growth and competitive ability of E. repens in a grass–clover crop. A tractor-drawn prototype with vertical disks was used to fragment E. repens rhizomes with minimal soil and crop disturbance. In experiments performed in 2014 and 2015 at a field site close to Uppsala, Sweden, the rhizomes were fragmented before crop sowing (ERF, during crop growth (LRF, or both (ERF+LRF. Fragmentation was combined with repeated mowing (yes/no and four companion crop treatments (none, Italian ryegrass, white clover, and grass/clover mixture. The results showed that in the grass–clover crop, rhizome fragmentation reduced E. repens rhizome biomass production and increased Italian ryegrass shoot biomass. ERF and LRF both reduced E. repens rhizome biomass by about 38% compared with the control, while ERF+LRF reduced it by 63%. Italian ryegrass shoot biomass was increased by 78% by ERF, 170% by LRF and 200% by ERF+LRF. Repeated mowing throughout the experiment reduced E. repens rhizome biomass by about 75%. Combining repeated mowing with rhizome fragmentation did not significantly increase the control effect compared to mowing alone. We concluded that rhizome fragmentation using vertical disks can be used both before sowing and during crop growth to enhance the controlling effect of grass–clover crops on E. repens.

  18. A new species of Sphagneticola (Asteraceae: Ecliptinae) from Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Orchard, A.E.

    2013-01-01

    A new species, Sphagneticola annua (Asteraceae: Ecliptinae) is described from the coast of Wetar Island, Indonesia. It differs from the four other species in this genus in having an annual lifeform, and in having disc florets which are apparently functionally staminate, with glabrous corollas. The

  19. How to study the Asteraceae (compositae) with special reference to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hence, an illustrated guide on how to study the morphology, particularly flower morphology, of the Asteraceae is provided to help beginners in plant taxonomic or systematic studies. A review of the accumulated information about the chemistry and biology of the family is also provided. Project ideas, review topics and taxa ...

  20. The Anthelmintic Activity of Vernonia amygdalina (Asteraceae) and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Intestinal worms affect a host of individuals resulting in malnutrition, stunted growth, intellectual retardation and cognitive deficits. The aim of this study is to investigate the antihelminthic activity of Alstonia boonei De Wild (Apocynaceae) and Vernonia amygdalina (Asteraceae) using earth-worms (Lumbricus terretris).

  1. Pharmacognostical study of achenes of some plants from Asteraceae family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.O. Bychkova

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper are represented morphological studies on determination of weight of 1000 achenes, and sieve analysis of fruits of some plants from Asteraceae family (Arctium lappa L., Leuzea carthamoides (Willd. D.C, Inula helenium L., Echinacea purpurea Moench., Calendula officinalis L.. Lipid, alcohol-soluble and water-soluble complexes in fruits of C. officinalis were studied.

  2. Lactuca serriola (Asteraceae, a Newly Naturalized Plant in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiu-Mei Wang

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available A newly naturalized herb was recently recorded here. Lactuca serriola L. (Asteraceae was found in the central part of western Taiwan and Penghu island, as an alien weed. This report gives taxonomic descriptions and illustrations. Photographs are also provided for identification.

  3. Palynological studies on five species of Asteraceae | Mbagwu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Palynological studies on five species of the family Asteraceae namely Guternbergia nigritiana, Emilia praetemissa, Vernonia guineensis, Lagera pterodonta and Chromolena odorata was carried out. Results obtained from this investigation showed that the pollen shape is spheroidal in G. nigritiana, E. praetermissa and C.

  4. Taxonomic position and identity of Stenocephalum monticola (Vernonieae, Asteraceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dematteis, M.; Angulo, M.B.

    2008-01-01

    The genus Stenocephalum (Vernonieae, Asteraceae) includes six South American species that have cylindrical heads, 4–11 florets by capitula, cymose inflorescences and type ‘C’ pollen. Until now, Stenocephalum monticola has been considered as a synonym of S. apiculatum. However, the analysis of the

  5. Hyurterianum (Asteraceae, Inuleae), a new species from NE Anatolia, Turkey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gemici, Y.; Tan, K.; Yidirim, H.

    2008-01-01

    Helichrysum yurterianum Y. Gemici, Kit Tan, H. Yildirim & M. Gemici (Asteraceae, Inuleae) is described and illustrated. It is a serpentine endemic restricted to the province of Erzincan in NE Anatolia, Turkey. Its affinities are with H. arenarium and H. noeanum, which both have a wider distribution...

  6. The effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and root interaction on the competition between Trifolium repens and Lolium perenne

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiyan Ren

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the factors that alter competitive interactions and coexistence between plants is a key issue in ecological research. A pot experiment was conducted to test the effects of root interaction and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF inoculation on the interspecies competition between Trifolium repens and Lolium perenne under different proportions of mixed sowing by the combination treatment of two levels of AMF inoculation (inoculation and non-inoculation and two levels of root interaction (root interaction and non-root interaction. Overall, the aboveground and belowground biomass of T. repens and L. perenne were not altered by AMF inoculation across planting ratios, probably because the fertile soil reduced the positive effect of AMF on plant growth. Both inter- and intraspecies root interaction significantly decreased the aboveground biomass of T. repens, but tended to increase the aboveground biomass of L. perenne across planting ratios, and thus peaked at the 4:4 polyculture. These results showed that T. repens competed poorly with L. perenne because of inter and intraspecies root interaction. Our results indicate that interspecies root interaction regulates the competitive ability of grass L. perenne and legume T. repens in mixtures and further makes great contribution for overyielding. Furthermore, AMF may not be involved in plant–plant interaction in fertile condition.

  7. Effects of ozone on inter- and intra-species competition and photosynthesis in mesocosms of Lolium perenne and Trifolium repens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayes, F. [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Environment Centre Wales, Deiniol Road, Bangor, Gwynedd LL57 2UW (United Kingdom)], E-mail: fhay@ceh.ac.uk; Mills, G. [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Environment Centre Wales, Deiniol Road, Bangor, Gwynedd LL57 2UW (United Kingdom); Ashmore, M. [Environment Department, University of York, Heslington York YO10 5DD (United Kingdom)

    2009-01-15

    Trifolium repens and Lolium perenne were exposed as both monocultures and two-species mixtures to an episodic rural ozone regime in large, well-watered containers within solardomes for 12 weeks. There were reductions in biomass for T. repens, but not L. perenne, and the proportion of T. repens decreased in ozone-exposed mixtures compared to the control. In addition, leaf biomass of T. repens was maintained at the expense of biomass partitioning to the stolons. The decreased growth corresponded with decreased photosynthetic capacity for T. repens, however, by the end of the exposure there was also decreased photosynthetic capacity of L. perenne, a species previously considered insensitive to ozone. The observed decreases in photosynthetic efficiency and capacity in elevated ozone indicate that the ability of such ubiquitous vegetation to act as a sink for atmospheric carbon may be reduced in future climates. - Ozone causes changes in biomass partitioning, and photosynthetic efficiency and capacity that could decrease the ability of plants to act as a carbon sink.

  8. Effectiveness on urinary symptoms and erectile function of Prostamev Plus® vs only extract Serenoa repens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaele Marzano

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Prostatic inflammation is widespread in the male population. Two groups of 50 patients each with symptoms of prostatic inflammation and ecocolorDoppler indicative of prostatitis were identified. Both groups were further subdivided into two subgroups (respectively A1, A2, B1, and B2. Group A1 underwent therapy with oral levofloxacin 500 mg daily for 10 days plus co-treatment with oral Serenoa repens (320 mg plus Bromeline plus Nettle (Prostamev Plus® daily for two months; Group A2 with oral levofloxacin 500 mg daily for 10 days plus oral Serenoa repens extract 320 mg/day for two months; Group B1 specific antibiotic treatment for 10 days (included levofloxacin if sensitive plus co-treatment with oral Serenoa repens (320 mg plus Bromeline plus Nettle (Prostamev Plus® daily for two months; Group B2 with specific antibiotic treatment for 10 days plus Serenoa repens 320 mg/day for two months. The groups treated with Prostamev Plus® in comparison to the groups treated with Serenoa repens extract (saw palmetto achieved better improvements of both IPSS score, urinary flow and sexual life.

  9. First record of the alien pest Rhaponticum repens (Compositae) in the Iberian Peninsula = Rhaponticum repens (Compositae), una nueva planta alóctona para la Península Ibérica

    OpenAIRE

    López-Alvarado, J.; Crespo, M.B.; Garcia-Jacas, N.; Alonso, M.A.; Vilar Sais, Lluís; Cristóbal, J.C.; Susanna, A.; Martínez-Flores, F.; Juan, A.; Sáez, L.

    2011-01-01

    First record of the alien pest Rhaponticum repens (Compositae) in the Iberian Peninsula.- Rhaponticum repens is reported for the first time for the flora of the Iberian Peninsula. The species is native from Central Asia and has become invasive in Argentina, Canada, Europe and the USA. It was detected for the first time in abandoned fields from Vilablareix, near the city of Girona (Catalonia, Spain) and in the valley of the Vinalopó in Alicante (Valencia, Spain), where it was collected as earl...

  10. Influence of quantity and lability of sediment organic matter on the biomass of two isoetids, Littorella uniflora and Echinodorus repens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pulido Pérez, Cristina; Lucassen, E.C.H.E.; Pedersen, Ole

    2011-01-01

    . Hence, our objective was to study the combined effects of quantity and lability of sediment organic matter on the biomass of Echinodorus repens and Littorella uniflora and on the force required to uproot plants of L. uniflora. 2. Lake sediments, rich in organic matter, were collected from four lakes......, two with healthy populations of isoetids and two from which isoetids had disappeared. The four lake sediments were mixed with sand to prepare a range of experimental sediments that differed in quantity and lability of sediment organic matter. Two isoetid species, E. repens and L. uniflora, were grown...... of the experiment, plants were harvested and their biomass, tissue nutrient concentration and (for L. uniflora) uprooting force were measured. 3. For both species, all plants survived and showed no signs of stress on all types of sediment. The biomass of E. repens increased as the fraction of organic matter...

  11. Heat treatment of serum samples from stray dogs naturally exposed to Dirofilaria immitis and Dirofilaria repens in Romania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciucă, L; Genchi, M; Kramer, L; Mangia, C; Miron, L D; Prete, L Del; Maurelli, M P; Cringoli, G; Rinaldi, L

    2016-07-30

    Pre-heating of serum samples has been shown to reverse false negative antigen tests for Dirofilaria immitis infection in dogs. Here the authors report the results of serum sampling in a population of dogs naturally exposed to D. immitis and Dirofilaria repens infection by testing in ELISA before and after heat treatment. Of 194 dogs sampled from four cities in Romania, D. immitis circulating antigens were found in 16 (8.2%) non heated samples and in 52 (26.8%) heated samples. Of the 108 dogs examined by Knott test, 24 dogs (22.2%) were positive for circulating mf. Subsequent PCR identification showed six dogs had D. immitis mf only, 12 dogs, had only D. repens mf, and 5 were positive for both. Fifty% of dogs with circulating D. immitis mf had positive antigen tests before and after heating, while the other 50% reverted to positive only after heat treatment. Sixty% of dogs with mixed D. immitis/D. repens infection were antigen positive before and after heating, while the other 40% converted to positive after heating. Antigen testing for D. immitis in the 12 dogs with only D. repens mf gave conflicting results. Only two dogs (16%) were antigen negative both before and after heat treatment. Six dogs (50%) became antigen positive after heating and four dogs (30%) were antigen positive both before and after heat treatment. Results would suggest that: false negative result for antigen testing can be reverted by heating of the serum sample; dogs infected with D. repens may have also an occult infection with D. immitis; heat treatment of serum from D. repens-infected dogs can reveal an occult infection with D. immitis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. First record of the alien pest Rhaponticum repens (Compositae) in the Iberian Peninsula

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez-Flores, F.; Juan, A.; Susanna, A.; Cristóbal, J. C.; Vilar, L.; Alonso, M. A.; Garcia-Jacas, N.; Crespo, M. B.; López-Alvarado, J.; Sáez, L.

    2011-01-01

    First record of the alien pest Rhaponticum repens (Compositae) in the Iberian Peninsula.- Rhaponticum repens is reported for the first time for the flora of the Iberian Peninsula. The species is native from Central Asia and has become invasive in Argentina, Canada, Europe and the USA. It was detected for the first time in abandoned fields from Vilablareix, near the city of Girona (Catalonia, Spain) and in the valley of the Vinalopó in Alicante (Valencia, Spain), where it was collected as earl...

  13. Evaluation of health state and growth of Gypsophila paniculata L. and Gypsophila repens L. groving in soil in variable fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Warner

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The influence of NPK fertilization on plant growth and roots yield of Gypsophila paniculata and Gypsophila repens was investigated. The nutrients were applied in different proportions. The health state of Gypsophila was also analyzed. The pathogens isolated from plants showing the diseases symptoms represented eight species: Alternaria dianthicola Neergaard; Fusarium avenaceum (Fr. Sacc.; Fusarium culmorum (W. G.Smith Sacc.; F.equiseti (Cola Sacc.; F.oxysporum Schlecht., Snyder et Hansen; F.sambucinum Fuck; Phytophthora sp. de Bary; Rhizoctonia solani K. Fusarium oxysporum and other species of fungi were isolated from Gypsophila paniculata, whilst from Gypsophila repens only Fusarium oxysporum was obtained.

  14. Brine shrimp lethality bioassay of selected Centaurea L. species (Asteraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janaćković P.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Ether extracts of 15 Centaurea L. species (Asteraceae methanol extracts of 12species, and cnicin isolated from C. derventana were tested for general bioactivity using the brine shrimp lethality test. Cnicin showed the most potent activity with LC50 0.2. Also, ether extract of C. splendens showed significant activity with LC50 7.3, as did methanol extract of C. arenaria with LC50 12.4.

  15. New species of Ophryosporus (Eupatorieae Asteraceae from Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abundio Sagástegui Alva

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Ophryosporus marchii Sagást. & E. Rodr. is described as a new species of Ophryosporus Meyen (Eupatorieae: Asteraceae from the Department of Cajamarca, Peru. This new species is apparently endemic to the province of Contumaza and closest relative to O. sagasteguii H. Rob. It is critically compared with this species and data on its geographical distribution, ecology and conservation status are provided.

  16. Ecological significance of assimilate distribution in Agropyron repens clones under influence of the copper smelter Legnica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Brej

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The studies on couch grass (Agropyron repens (L. P. Beauv. populations growing in stress conditions in close vicinity of a copper smelter concern the integrity of clonal structure. The connections of tillers within a clone and the interclonal integrity was investigated by means of assimilate translocation, using 14C. It was found that heavy metal stress affects the phenotypic plasticity of couch grass in regard to clonal growth of the phalanx type. The phalanx type growth is supported by a considerable integration, which allows the redistribution of resources, through internal routes, from places rich in resources to such clone parts, which cover a surface poor in nutritive compounds. In an unpolluted (control couch grass population representing the guerilla type of growth, the translocation of assimilates concerns only the closest (sister ramets. The phalanx type of growth in couch grass subjected to contamination favours also the accumulation of organic matter and macronutrients (N, Ca in zones of occurrence of Agropyron repens clusters, which are in deficit in areas close to the smelter. The irregular accumulation of heavy metals and the deficit of macronutrients in soil, form near the smelter a patchy environment. In this patchy environment couch grass, as one of few plants, finds appropriate conditions for foraging. The whole of factors in the studied polluted area creates a unique dynamic system between couch grass clones and the local ecological conditions.

  17. Dirofilaria in Humans, Dogs, and Vectors in Austria (1978–2014)—From Imported Pathogens to the Endemicity of Dirofilaria repens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuehrer, Hans-Peter; Auer, Herbert; Leschnik, Michael; Silbermayr, Katja; Duscher, Georg; Joachim, Anja

    2016-01-01

    Background Dirofilaria repens and D. immitis are filarioid helminths with domestic and wild canids as main hosts and mosquitoes as vectors. Both species are known to cause zoonotic diseases, primarily pulmonary (D. immitis), ocular (D. repens), and subcutaneous (D. repens) dirofilariosis. Both D. immitis and D. repens are known as invasive species, and their distribution seems associated with climate change. Until very recently, both species were known to be nonendemic in Austria. Methodology and Principal Findings Metadata on introduced and possibly autochthonous cases of infection with Dirofilaria sp. in dogs and humans in Austria are analysed, together with analyses of mosquito populations from Austria in ongoing studies. In Austria, most cases of Dirofilaria sp. in humans (30 cases of D. repens—six ocular and 24 subcutaneous) and dogs (approximately 50 cases—both D. immitis and D. repens) were most likely imported. However, occasionally infections with D. repens were discussed to be autochthonous (one human case and seven in dogs). The introduction of D. repens to Austria was confirmed very recently, as the parasite was detected in Burgenland (eastern Austria) for the first time in mosquito vectors during a surveillance program. For D. immitis, this could not be confirmed yet, but data from Germany suggest that the successful establishment of this nematode species in Austria is a credible scenario for the near future. Conclusions The first findings of D. repens in mosquito vectors indicate that D. repens presumably invaded in eastern Austria. Climate analyses from central Europe indicate that D. immitis also has the capacity to establish itself in the lowland regions of Austria, given that both canid and culicid hosts are present. PMID:27196049

  18. Badania mieszańców w rodzaju Trifolium L. IV. Cytogenetyka mieszańca Trifolium repens L. × T. isthomocarpum Brot. [Investigations on hybrids of the genus Trifolium L. P. IV. Cytogenetics of the cross T. repens L. × T. isthomocarpum Brot.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Kazimierski

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Interspecific F1 hybrid between Trifolium repens (2n = 32 and T. isthomocarpum (2n = 16 was obtained. The hybrid is sterile and its disturbed meiotic divisions are described. It is suggested from cytogenetic evidence that one of the genomes of T. repens is similar to the genome of T. isthomacarpum.

  19. Panorama de la familia Asteraceae (= Compositae en la Republica Argentina An overview of the plant family Asteraceae ( = Compositae in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Katinas

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta un panorama de la familia Asteraceae en la República Argentina , que incluye una breve historia taxonómica, datos numéricos de tribus, géneros y especies, ejemplos de endemismos y daptaciones ecológicas y una reseña sobre la hipótesis del origen de la familia en Patagonia. En la Argentina, las asteráceas representan la familia más numerosa con 227 géneros (cinco son endémicos y ca. 1400 especies (92 son adventicias y 382 son endémicas. En términos de taxones nativos, se hallan representadas en nuestro país todas las tribus de Asteraceae excepto Inuleae (sensu Bremer. Las tribus Arctoteae y Calenduleae están representadas por taxones adventicios exclusivamente y Cardueae posee sólo una especie nativa. Barnadesieae y Mutisieae son las únicas tribus con géneros endémicos de Argentina y también presentan el porcentaje más alto de géneros y especies en el país en comparación con el resto de las tribus. El mayor número de especies nativas, endémicas y no endémicas, se da en las provincias fitogeográficas Altoandina y Patagónica. La tribu más representada en número de géneros es Heliantheae, y en número de especies nativas es Senecioneae.An overview of the family Asteraceae in Argentina that includes a brief taxonomic history, numerical data of tribes, genera and species, examples of endemisms and ecological adaptations, and a discussion on the hypothesis on the origin of the family in Patagonia is given. Asteraceae is the most numerous family in Argentina , with 227 genera (five are endemic and ca. 1400 species (92 are adventitious and 382 are endemic. In relation to the native taxa, all tribes of Asteraceae occur in Argentina excepting Inuleae (sensu Bremer. Tribes Arctoteae and Calenduleae are represented exclusively by adventitious taxa, and Cardueae has only one native species. Barnadesieae and Mutisieae are the only tribes with endemic genera in Argentina and they also present the highest percentage of

  20. The genus cicerbita wallr. (cichorieae- asteraceae) in Pakistan and Kashmir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bano, R.; Qaiser, M.; Roohi, B.

    2010-01-01

    The genus Cicerbita Wallr. of the tribe Cichorieae-Asteraceae is revised for Pakistan and Kashmir. A broader generic concept of the genus is accepted and in all 11 species have been recognized including 3 new species viz. Cicerbita astorensis, Roohi Bano and Qaiser, C. alii, Roohi Bano and Qaiser and C. gilgitensis Roohi Bano and Qaiser. 5 new combinations, including 3 at species and 2 at varietal level have also been proposed. An artificial key to all the species is provided. Latin diagnosis, illustrations of newly described species, world wide and local distribution and ecological notes of all the species are also furnished. (author)

  1. Comparative leaf morphology and anatomy of three Asteraceae species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Milan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper was to describe and compare the morphology and anatomy of mature leaves of Mikania glomerata Spreng., Porophyllum ruderale Cass. and Vernonia condensata Baker (Asteraceae species that have different habits emphasizing their secretory structures. Longitudinal and transversal sections of mature leaf blades of the three species were analyzed at the apex, base, and medium third part of the midvein of the leaf blade and of the margin. M. glomerata had uniseriate glandular trichomes and secretory ducts; P. ruderale had hydathodes and secretory cavities; and V. condensata had idioblasts and uni-and biseriate glandular trichomes.Este trabalho teve por objetivo descrever e comparar a morfo-anatomia das folhas adultas de Mikania glomerata Spreng., Porophyllum ruderale Cass. e Vernonia condensata Baker (Asteraceae, que possuem diferentes hábitos, enfatizando suas estruturas secretoras. Secções longitudinais e transversais dos limbos foliares foram analisadas nas regiões do ápice, da base e do terço médio na altura da nervura central, do limbo foliar e da margem. M. glomerata apresentou tricomas glandulares unisseriados e ductos secretores; P. ruderale tinha hidatódios e cavidades secretoras; e V. condensata apresentou idioblastos e tricomas glandulares uni- ou bisseriados.

  2. Antioxidant defense gene analysis in Brassica oleracea and Trifolium repens exposed to Cd and/or Pb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, F; Dumez, S; Brulle, F; Lemière, S; Platel, A; Nesslany, F; Cuny, D; Deram, A; Vandenbulcke, F

    2016-02-01

    This study focused on the expression analysis of antioxidant defense genes in Brassica oleracea and in Trifolium repens. Plants were exposed for 3, 10, and 56 days in microcosms to a field-collected suburban soil spiked by low concentrations of cadmium and/or lead. In both species, metal accumulations and expression levels of genes encoding proteins involved and/or related to antioxidant defense systems (glutathione transferases, peroxidases, catalases, metallothioneins) were quantified in leaves in order to better understand the detoxification processes involved following exposure to metals. It appeared that strongest gene expression variations in T. repens were observed when plants are exposed to Cd (metallothionein and ascorbate peroxidase upregulations) whereas strongest variations in B. oleracea were observed in case of Cd/Pb co-exposures (metallothionein, glutathione transferase, and peroxidase upregulations). Results also suggest that there is a benefit to use complementary species in order to better apprehend the biological effects in ecotoxicology.

  3. Circulation of Dirofilaria repens, Setaria tundra, and Onchocercidae species in Hungary during the period 2011-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemenesi, Gábor; Kurucz, Kornélia; Kepner, Anett; Dallos, Bianka; Oldal, Miklós; Herczeg, Róbert; Vajdovics, Péter; Bányai, Krisztián; Jakab, Ferenc

    2015-11-30

    Dirofilaria repens and recently Dirofilaria immitis are known to be endemic in Hungary. Since there is no related research on Dirofilaria carrier mosquito species from Hungary, we conducted a three-year mosquito surveillance study between 2011 and 2013. During the study period we examined 23,139 female mosquitoes with a generic filaria-specific TaqMan PCR assay, and characterized them by sequencing a 500 bp segment of 12S rRNA. An important result of our study was the detection of Setaria tundra and D. repens along with an unidentified Onchocercidae nematode. D. repens is known to be endemic in Hungary, however, the detection of S. tundra in all sampling sites throughout the study period indicates for the first time the endemicity of this parasite in Hungary. The Onchocercidae sp. nematode showed 95% nucleotide identity with previously detected unidentified nematodes from Germany, indicating a broader geographical distribution of this nematode in Europe. D. immitis specific DNA was not detected among the screened mosquitoes in this study. Here we report 11 mosquito species as potential vector organisms for local filarial infections, including Aedes vexans, Ochlerotatus annulipes, Ochlerotatus sticticus, Coquillettidia richiardii, Anopheles hyrcanus and Ochlerotatus rusticus. Dirofilaria development unit was calculated and the potential transmission period was estimated, which ranged between 65 and 113 days between sampling seasons. A relatively high infection rate (36.8%) was identified, which is a notable finding for veterinary and human health professionals. Moreover, the results of our study widen the group of possible mosquito vector species for D. repens and S. tundra in Central Europe. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Regulation of correlative inhibition of axillary bud outgrowth by basal branches varies with growth stage in Trifolium repens

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, Roderick G.; Hay, Michael J. M.

    2015-01-01

    In Trifolium repens the decline in bud outgrowth that occurs with distance from basal root systems is due to correlative inhibition by the first-formed basal branches. The apical and axillary buds on these basal branches are the source of the inhibitory effect, but their mode of action is unclear. Inhibition might occur via basal branches being a sink for xylem-transported branching stimulants or alternatively by providing a source of inhibitory signals, or by both mechanisms. To distinguish ...

  5. Extra petals in the buttercup (Ranunculus repens) provide a quick method to estimate the age of meadows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, John

    2009-01-01

    Background and Aims There is a widely used crude method to estimate the age of hedgerows (Hooper's rule) based on species' richness. The aim of this study was to try and establish a similar field method for estimating the age of grasslands based on the accumulation of macro-somatic mutations. Methods A countrywide survey was carried out by the British public to investigate the relationship between grassland age and the number of Ranunculus repens (creeping buttercup) plants with extra petals. In addition the relationship between grassland age and R. repens pollen viability was also investigated. Key Results Each plant with flowers with additional petals in a sample of 100 was found to equate to approx. 7 years. A higher significant correlation was observed between pollen viability and population age; however, this is not amenable to providing field estimates. Conclusions The age of British grasslands can be easily and reliably estimated in the field by counting the number flowers with additional petals in R. repens in meadows up to 200 years old. An attempt to estimate the heritability of extra petals suggests that the phenotype results from the slow accumulation of somatic mutations in a species that primarily reproduces vegetatively. PMID:19491088

  6. Extra petals in the buttercup (Ranunculus repens) provide a quick method to estimate the age of meadows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, John

    2009-09-01

    There is a widely used crude method to estimate the age of hedgerows (Hooper's rule) based on species' richness. The aim of this study was to try and establish a similar field method for estimating the age of grasslands based on the accumulation of macro-somatic mutations. A countrywide survey was carried out by the British public to investigate the relationship between grassland age and the number of Ranunculus repens (creeping buttercup) plants with extra petals. In addition the relationship between grassland age and R. repens pollen viability was also investigated. Each plant with flowers with additional petals in a sample of 100 was found to equate to approx. 7 years. A higher significant correlation was observed between pollen viability and population age; however, this is not amenable to providing field estimates. The age of British grasslands can be easily and reliably estimated in the field by counting the number flowers with additional petals in R. repens in meadows up to 200 years old. An attempt to estimate the heritability of extra petals suggests that the phenotype results from the slow accumulation of somatic mutations in a species that primarily reproduces vegetatively.

  7. Dirofilaria repens in the Russian Federation: current epidemiology, diagnosis, and treatment from a federal reference center perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ermakova, Larisa Alexandrovna; Nagorny, Sergey Andreevich; Krivorotova, Elena Yurievna; Pshenichnaya, Natalia Yurievna; Matina, Olga Nikolaevna

    2014-06-01

    Dirofilariasis is an emerging zoonotic infection in which the human serves as an accidental host. Russia has been one of the most important endemic regions worldwide for Dirofilaria repens, the most prevalent Dirofilaria species in Europe. Based on a cohort of patients at the Rostov Medical University, we provide an epidemiological description of 236 human cases, reporting common clinical symptoms and treatment options for D. repens infections in humans. The performance of a non-commercial immunoassay was validated in a diagnostic sub-study (diagnostic accuracy 83%). Data from mosquito surveys and cross-sectional surveys of dogs, the main reservoir of D. repens, are also presented. Results showed important variations in prevalence depending on sex, geographic location, and the use of dogs (professional service dogs or pets). The particularly high prevalence of Dirofilaria infection in professional dogs used in the police force and armed forces poses a particular problem, since these dogs may serve as epidemiologically important amplifiers within the region of the former Soviet Union. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  8. Behavior of Trifolium repens and Lolium perenne growing in a heavy metal contaminated field: Plant metal concentration and phytotoxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bidar, G. [Laboratoire Sols et Environnement, Institut Superieur d' Agriculture, 48 Boulevard Vauban, 59046 Lille Cedex (France); LCE-EA2598, Toxicologie Industrielle et Environnementale, MREI2, Maison de la Recherche en Environnement Industriel de Dunkerque 2, Universite du Littoral-Cote d' Opale, 189A Avenue Maurice Schumann, 59140 Dunkerque (France); Garcon, G. [LCE-EA2598, Toxicologie Industrielle et Environnementale, MREI2, Maison de la Recherche en Environnement Industriel de Dunkerque 2, Universite du Littoral-Cote d' Opale, 189A Avenue Maurice Schumann, 59140 Dunkerque (France); Pruvot, C. [Laboratoire Sols et Environnement, Institut Superieur d' Agriculture, 48 Boulevard Vauban, 59046 Lille Cedex (France); Dewaele, D. [Centre Commun de Mesures, MREI 1, Universite du Littoral-Cote d' Opale, 145, Avenue Maurice Schumann, 59140 Dunkerque (France); Cazier, F. [Centre Commun de Mesures, MREI 1, Universite du Littoral-Cote d' Opale, 145, Avenue Maurice Schumann, 59140 Dunkerque (France); Douay, F. [Laboratoire Sols et Environnement, Institut Superieur d' Agriculture, 48 Boulevard Vauban, 59046 Lille Cedex (France); Shirali, P. [LCE-EA2598, Toxicologie Industrielle et Environnementale, MREI2, Maison de la Recherche en Environnement Industriel de Dunkerque 2, Universite du Littoral-Cote d' Opale, 189A Avenue Maurice Schumann, 59140 Dunkerque (France)]. E-mail: pirouz.shirali@univ-littoral.fr

    2007-06-15

    The use of a vegetation cover for the management of heavy metal contaminated soils needs prior investigations on the plant species the best sustainable. In this work, behaviors of Trifolium repens and Lolium perenne, growing in a metal-polluted field located near a closed lead smelter, were investigated through Cd, Pb and Zn-plant metal concentrations and their phytotoxicity. In these plant species, metals were preferentially accumulated in roots than in shoots, as follow: Cd > Zn > Pb. Plant exposure to such metals induced oxidative stress in the considered organs as revealed by the variations in malondialdehyde levels and superoxide dismutase activities. These oxidative changes were closely related to metal levels, plant species and organs. Accordingly, L. perenne seemed to be more affected by metal-induced oxidative stress than T. repens. Taken together, these findings allow us to conclude that both the plant species could be suitable for the phytomanagement of metal-polluted soils. - Usefulness of Trifolium repens and Lolium perenne for the phytomanagement of heavy metal-contaminated soils.

  9. A cryptic taxon rather than a hybrid species of Tragopogon (Asteraceae) from the Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mavrodiev, E. V.; Krahulec, František; Soltis, D. E.; Soltis, P.S.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 68, č. 1 (2013), s. 133-141 ISSN 0075-5974 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : DNA-sequence polyformism * nuclear ribosomal DNA * miscellus Asteraceae * evolution * fertility Subject RIV: EF - Botanics

  10. Terpenoids, flavonoids and other constituents of Eupatorium betonicaeforme (Asteraceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albuquerque, Maria Rose Jane R.; Pires, Andreza Maria L.; Pessoa, Otilia Deusdenia L.; Silveira, Edilberto R. [Ceara Univ., Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica Organica e Inorganica. Curso de Pos-Graduacao em Quimica Organica]. E-mail: opessoa@ufc.br

    2006-01-15

    A new acylated kaurene diterpene, characterized as 15{alpha}-decanoyloxy-kaur-16-en-19-oic acid, along with nine known compounds: pentacosanoic acid, 24{alpha}-ethyl-5{alpha}-cholesta-7,22E-dien-3{beta}-ol, 15{alpha}-hydroxy-kaur-16-en-19-oic acid, 8{beta}-angeloyloxy-9{beta},10{beta}-dihydroxy-1-oxogermacra-4E,11(13)dien-12,6{alpha}-olide, 3{beta}-hydroxyeicosan-1,5{beta}-olide, taraxasteryl acetate, 7-Omethylkaempferol, kaempferol, and nepetin were isolated from the flowers of Eupatorium betonicaeforme (Asteraceae). In addition, from the aerial parts were isolated taraxasteryl acetate and {alpha}- and {beta}-amyrin, while the mixture of {beta}-sitosterol and stigmasterol, and 6-acetyl-2,2-dimethylchroman-4-one were isolated from the roots. The structure elucidation of all compounds was performed by spectroscopic analysis and comparison with published data from literature. (author)

  11. In vitro antioxidant activity of Ageratum houstonianum Mill. (Asteraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Tennyson

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the antioxidant property of Ageratum houstonianum leaves. Method: The present study was conducted in three different solvent extracts of leaves of Ageratum houstonianum Mill. (Asteraceae to evaluate the antioxidant properties such as 1,1-diphenyl-2- picrylhydrazyl (DPPH and hydroxyl radicals which were carried out at various concentrations under in vitro condition. Results: It was found that ethyl acetate extract could scavenge both the oxidants at 500毺 g/mL with high percentage inhibition (88.26 暲0.35 of DPPH, and in the case of hydroxyl radicals the maximum percentage inhibition was 75.81 暲0.39, which were found to be greater in ethyl acetate extract than in positive controls such as Butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT and ascorbic acid. The next higher inhibitory extract was found to be methanol. Conclusion: This shows that the plant Ageratum houstonianum may be a potent source of natural antioxidant

  12. Phytochemical and immunomodulatory properties of an Echinacea laevigata (Asteraceae) tincture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senchina, David S; Strauch, Jennifer H; Hoffmann, Griffin B; Shah, Nisarg B; Laflen, Brad K; Dumke, Breanna L; Dao, Chinh T; Dias, Amila S; Perera, M Ann

    2011-04-01

    Echinacea preparations are consumed for the prevention or treatment of upper respiratory infections. The objective of this study was to provide the first data regarding the in vitro immunomodulatory properties of the American federally endangered species Echinacea laevigata (Asteraceae). Human peripheral blood mononuclear cells were cultured with root tinctures from E. laevigata, E. angustifolia, E. pallida, and E. purpurea. Cytokine production (tumor necrosis factor [TNF], interleukin [IL]-2, IL-10) and mononuclear cell proliferation were measured. High-performance liquid chromatography was used to assay levels of known bioactive compounds from all extracts tested to statistically determine whether there were relationships between extract phytochemical content and observed immune effects. E. laevigata extract was most similar to E. pallida extract and able to augment IL-10 and mononuclear cell proliferation, but not TNF or IL-2. Echinacoside, a caffeic acid derivative, correlated most strongly with results. This species may deserve continued investigation in both experimental and therapeutic contexts.

  13. Microsatellite Markers for the Invasive Species Bidens alba (Asteraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Bin Lu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Premise of the study: Microsatellite markers were developed in the invasive species Bidens alba (Asteraceae to assess its population structure and to facilitate tracking its expansion in China. Methods and Results: Using 454 pyrosequencing, 20 microsatellite primer sets were developed for B. alba. The markers were tested on one population of B. alba (30 individuals and one population of the closely related B. pilosa (30 individuals in China. For B. alba, all of the markers were polymorphic, and the number of alleles per locus ranged from three to 32. The expected heterozygosity values were from 0.3787 to 0.9284, and the Shannon–Wiener index was from 0.6796 to 2.8401. Conclusions: These markers will be useful for investigating the genetic structure, genetic diversity, and invasion dynamics of B. alba and will also be useful in studies of B. pilosa.

  14. Research of polysaccharide complexes from asteraceae family plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Світлана Михайлівна Марчишин

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim of research. Depth study of polysaccharides in some little-known plant species of Asteraceae family is pressing question, considering that polysaccharides are important biologically active compounds widely used in pharmaceutical and medical practice as remedies and preventive medications. The aim of research was to determinate both quantitative content and monomeric composition of polysaccharide complexes from Asteraceae family plant species – Tagetes genus, Arnica genus, and Bellis genus.Materials and methods. Determination of polysaccharides was carried out by the precipitation reaction, using 96 % ethyl alcohol P and Fehling's solution after acid hydrolysis; quantitative content of this group of compounds was determined by gravimetric analysis. On purpose to identify the monomeric composition hydrolysis under sulfuric acid conditions was conducted. Qualitative monomeric composition of polysaccharides after hydrolysis was carried out by paper chromatography method in n-Butanol – Pyridine – Distilled water P (6:4:3 system along with saccharides reference samples.Results. Polysaccharide complexes from Tagetes erecta, Tagetes patula, Tagetes tenuifolia, Arnica montana, Arnica foliosa, wild and cultivated Bellis perennis herbs were studied. Water-soluble polysaccharides and pectin fractions were isolated from studied objects; their quantitative content and monomeric composition were determined.Conclusion. The highest amount of water-soluble polysaccharides was found in cultivated Bellis perennis herb (10,13 %, the highest amount of pectin compounds – in Tagetes tenuifolia herb (13,62 %; the lowest amount of water-soluble polysaccharides and pectin compounds was found in Arnica montana herb (4,61 % and Tagetes patula herb (3,62 %, respectively. It was found that polysaccharide complexes from all studied species include glucose and arabinose

  15. Study on the phenolic constituents of the flowers and leaves of Trifolium repens L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kicel, Agnieszka; Wolbiś, Maria

    2012-11-01

    The flowers and leaves of Trifolium repens L. (Fabaceae) were subjected to phytochemical investigation in order to identify their major chemical constituents and to evaluate in vitro antioxidant activity of the isolated compounds against DPPH˙. A total of 12 flavonoids, pterocarpan and methyl caffeate were isolated, then characterised by UV, MS, NMR spectroscopy and identified as quercetin and kaempferol 3-O-(6″-α-rhamnopyranosyl-2″-β-xylopyranosyl)-β-galactopyranosides (1, 2), kaempferol 3-O-(2″,6″-α-dirhamnopyranosyl)-β-galactopyranoside, mauritianin (3), quercetin and kaempferol 3-O-(2″-β-xylopyranosyl)-β-galactopyranosides (4, 5), kaempferol and quercetin 3-O-β-(6″-O-acetyl)-galactopyranosides (6, 7), trifolin (8), hyperoside (9), myricetin 3-O-β-galactopyranoside (10), quercetin (11), ononin (12), medicarpin 3-O-β-glucopyranoside (13) and methyl caffeate (14). Mauritianin, ononin, pterocarpan and methyl caffeate have been reported in this plant for the first time. The compounds 4, 7, 9, 10, and 11 were tested for their antioxidant effect against DPPH˙. All studied compounds were found to have potent activity, but the most effective in the test were compounds 9, 10 and 11 (EC(50) values in the range 7.51-9.52 µM).

  16. The Combined Toxic and Genotoxic Effects of Cd and As to Plant Bioindicator Trifolium repens L

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghiani, Alessandra; Fumagalli, Pietro; Nguyen Van, Tho; Gentili, Rodolfo; Citterio, Sandra

    2014-01-01

    This study was undertaken to investigate combined toxic and genotoxic effects of cadmium (Cd) and arsenic (As) on white clover, a pollutant sensitive plant frequently used as environmental bioindicator. Plants were exposed to soil spiked with increasing concentrations of cadmium sulfate (20, 40 and 60 mg Kg−1) or sodium arsenite (5, 10 and 20 mg Kg−1) as well as with their combinations. Metal(loid) bioavailability was assessed after soil contamination, whereas plant growth, metal(loid) concentration in plant organs and DNA damage were measured at the end of plant exposition. Results showed that individual and joint toxicity and genotoxicity were related to the concentration of Cd and As measured in plant organs, and that As concentration was the most relevant variable. Joint effects on plant growth were additive or synergistic, whereas joint genotoxic effects were additive or antagonistic. The interaction between Cd and As occurred at both soil and plant level. In soil the presence of As limited the bioavailability of Cd, whereas the presence of Cd increased the bioavailability of As. Nevertheless only As biovailability determined the amount of As absorbed by plants. The amount of Cd absorbed by plant was not linearly correlated with the fraction of bioavailable Cd in soil suggesting the involvement of additional factors, such as plant uptake mechanisms. These results reveal that the simultaneous presence in soil of Cd and As, although producing an additive or synergistic toxic effect on Trifolium repens L. growth, generates a lower DNA damage. PMID:24914541

  17. Analgesic and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Methanol Extract of Cissus repens in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Wen Chang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate possible analgesic and anti-inflammatory mechanisms of the CRMeOH. Analgesic effect was evaluated in two models including acetic acid-induced writhing response and formalin-induced paw licking. The anti-inflammatory effect was evaluated by λ-carrageenan-induced mouse paw edema and histopathologic analyses. The results showed that CRMeOH (500 mg/kg decreased writhing response in the acetic acid assay and licking time in the formalin test. CRMeOH (100 and 500 mg/kg significantly decreased edema paw volume at 4th to 5th hours after λ-carrageenan had been injected. Histopathologically, CRMeOH abated the level of tissue destruction and swelling of the edema paws. These results were indicated that anti-inflammatory mechanism of CRMeOH may be due to declined levels of NO and MDA in the edema paw through increasing the activities of SOD, GPx, and GRd in the liver. Additionally, CRMeOH also decreased IL-1β, IL-6, NFκB, TNF-α, COX-2, and iNOS levels. The contents of two active ingredients, ursolic acid and lupeol, were quantitatively determined. This paper demonstrated possible mechanisms for the analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of CRMeOH and provided evidence for the classical treatment of Cissus repens in inflammatory diseases.

  18. Protoxenicins A and B, Cytotoxic Long-Chain Acylated Xenicanes from the Soft Coral Protodendron repens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urda, Carlos; Fernández, Rogelio; Pérez, Marta; Rodríguez, Jaime; Jiménez, Carlos; Cuevas, Carmen

    2017-03-24

    Two new xenicanes, named protoxenicins A (1) and B (2), were isolated from an organic extract of the soft coral Protodendron repens, collected off the coast of Okuza (Tanzania), being the first chemical study of an organism belonging to this genus. Their planar structures were determined by 1D and 2D NMR and HRESIMS techniques, while the relative configurations were elucidated by comparison of their chemical shifts and coupling constants with the literature values of their congeners, as well as by ROESY experiments, chemical derivatization, and molecular mechanics calculations. This is the first report of a xenicin acylated with a long saturated fatty acid. Furthermore, the absolute configuration of the stereogenic centers of the cyclononane ring and at C-1 in 1 was determined by Mosher's method. Protoxenicin B (2) is present in solution as a mixture of two conformers in a 2:1 ratio deduced by 1 H NMR. Both xenicanes display significant cytotoxic activity against a panel of different tumor cell lines.

  19. Salinity gradient in the Manamo River, a dammed distributary of the Orinoco Delta, and its influence on the presence of Eichhornia crassipes and Paspalum repens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olivares, E.; Colonnello, G.

    2000-01-01

    We describe a saline gradient established by the damming of the Manamo River, a former freshwater environment, in the Orinoco Delta and the influence of this gradient on the distribution of Eichhornia crassipes Solms (water hyacinth), and Paspalum repens Berg, The two most abundant aquatic macrophytes. The present work demonstrates, on the basis of measurements of leaf osmolality and ion concentrations, that salinity is acting in the dammed river as a regulator of the studied species E. Crassipes is a potential weed which was originally controlled by the hydrodynamics of waters in the Orinoco River. Plants and river water were sampled in ten sites, three of them with high salinity. The osmolality as well as relative proportions of the main soluble ions explain the relative tolerance to salinity of E. Crassipes in comparison with P. Repens. In sites where both species were present, the K+/Na+ ratio in the leaf sap was higher in the E. Crassipes than in P. repens (authors)

  20. Systemic colonization of clover (Trifolium repens by Clostridium botulinum strain 2301

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias eZeiller

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, cases of botulism in cattle and other farm animals and also in farmers increased dramatically. It was proposed, that these cases could be affiliated with the spreading of compost or other organic manures contaminated with Clostridium botulinum spores on farm land. Thus, soils and fodder plants and finally farm animals could be contaminated. Therefore, the colonization behavior and interaction of the botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT D producing C. botulinum strain 2301 and the non-toxin producing Clostridium sporogenes strain 1739 were investigated on clover (Trifolium repens in a field experiment as well as in phytochamber experiments applying axenic and additionally soil based systems under controlled conditions. Plants were harvested and divided into root and shoot parts for further DNA isolation and PCR assays; subsamples were fixed for fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH analysis in combination with confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM. To target C. botulinum and C. sporogenes, 16S rDNA directed primers were used and to specifically detect C. botulinum, BoNT D toxin genes targeted primers, using a multiplex PCR approach, were applied. Our results demonstrate an effective colonization of roots and shoots of clover by C. botulinum strain 2301 and C. sporogenes strain 1739. Detailed analysis of colonization behavior showed that C. botulinum can occur as individual cells, in cell clusters and in microcolonies within the rhizosphere, lateral roots and within the roots tissue of clover. In addition, we observed significant differences in the growth behavior of clover plants when inoculated with Clostridia spores, indicating a plant growth promoting effect. Inoculated plants showed an increased growth index (shoot size, wet and dry weight and an enlarged root system, which suggests the involvement of phytohormonal effects induced by the systemic colonization of clover by C. botulinum strain 2301.

  1. Systemic colonization of clover (Trifolium repens) by Clostridium botulinum strain 2301.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeiller, Matthias; Rothballer, Michael; Iwobi, Azuka N; Böhnel, Helge; Gessler, Frank; Hartmann, Anton; Schmid, Michael

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, cases of botulism in cattle and other farm animals and also in farmers increased dramatically. It was proposed, that these cases could be affiliated with the spreading of compost or other organic manures contaminated with Clostridium botulinum spores on farm land. Thus, soils and fodder plants and finally farm animals could be contaminated. Therefore, the colonization behavior and interaction of the botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT D) producing C. botulinum strain 2301 and the non-toxin producing Clostridium sporogenes strain 1739 were investigated on clover (Trifolium repens) in a field experiment as well as in phytochamber experiments applying axenic and additionally soil based systems under controlled conditions. Plants were harvested and divided into root and shoot parts for further DNA isolation and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays; subsamples were fixed for fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis in combination with confocal laser scanning microscopy. In addition, we observed significant differences in the growth behavior of clover plants when inoculated with clostridial spores, indicating a plant growth promoting effect. Inoculated plants showed an increased growth index (shoot size, wet and dry weight) and an enlarged root system induced by the systemic colonization of clover by C. botulinum strain 2301. To target C. botulinum and C. sporogenes, 16S rDNA directed primers were used and to specifically detect C. botulinum, BoNT D toxin genes targeted primers, using a multiplex PCR approach, were applied. Our results demonstrate an effective colonization of roots and shoots of clover by C. botulinum strain 2301 and C. sporogenes strain 1739. Detailed analysis of colonization behavior showed that C. botulinum can occur as individual cells, in cell clusters and in microcolonies within the rhizosphere, lateral roots and within the roots tissue of clover.

  2. Antiparasitic activity in Asteraceae with special attention to ethnobotanical use by the tribes of Odisha, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panda, Sujogya Kumar; Luyten, Walter

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to survey the antiparasitic plants of the Asteraceae family and their applicability in the treatment of parasites. This review is divided into three major parts: (a) literature on traditional uses of Asteraceae plants for the treatment of parasites; (b) description of the major classes of chemical compounds from Asteraceae and their antiparasitic effects; and (c) antiparasitic activity with special reference to flavonoids and terpenoids. This review provides detailed information on the reported Asteraceae plant extracts found throughout the world and on isolated secondary metabolites that can inhibit protozoan parasites such as Plasmodium, Trypanosoma, Leishmania, and intestinal worms. Additionally, special attention is given to the Asteraceae plants of Odisha, used by the tribes of the area as antiparasitics. These plants are compared to the same plants used traditionally in other regions. Finally, we provide information on which plants identified in Odisha, India and related compounds show promise for the development of new drugs against parasitic diseases. For most of the plants discussed in this review, the active compounds still need to be isolated and tested further. PMID:29528842

  3. Antiparasitic activity in Asteraceae with special attention to ethnobotanical use by the tribes of Odisha, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panda Sujogya Kumar

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this review is to survey the antiparasitic plants of the Asteraceae family and their applicability in the treatment of parasites. This review is divided into three major parts: (a literature on traditional uses of Asteraceae plants for the treatment of parasites; (b description of the major classes of chemical compounds from Asteraceae and their antiparasitic effects; and (c antiparasitic activity with special reference to flavonoids and terpenoids. This review provides detailed information on the reported Asteraceae plant extracts found throughout the world and on isolated secondary metabolites that can inhibit protozoan parasites such as Plasmodium, Trypanosoma, Leishmania, and intestinal worms. Additionally, special attention is given to the Asteraceae plants of Odisha, used by the tribes of the area as antiparasitics. These plants are compared to the same plants used traditionally in other regions. Finally, we provide information on which plants identified in Odisha, India and related compounds show promise for the development of new drugs against parasitic diseases. For most of the plants discussed in this review, the active compounds still need to be isolated and tested further.

  4. Neuropharmacological properties of Mikania scandens (L. Willd. (Asteraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Protapaditya Dey

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Mikania scandens (L. Willd. (Asteraceae, known as climbing hemp weed in English, is a herbaceous climbing vine grown as a weed throughout the plains of the Indian subcontinent. The present study evaluated some neuropharmacological properties of hydroalcoholic extract of aerial parts from M. scandens (HAMS in experimental animal models. HAMS (at 250 and 500 mg/kg body weight, i.p. was evaluated for central antinociceptive activity by tail flick method. Locomotor depressant activity was measured by means of an actophotometer. Skeletal muscle relaxant effect was evaluated by using rotarod apparatus and sedative potentiating property by phenobarbitone-induced sleep potentiation study. The results of the present study revealed significant (P<0.001 and dose-dependent central antinociceptive, locomotor depressant, muscle relaxant, and sedative potentiating effects of HAMS, demonstrating its depressant action on the central nervous system (CNS. From the present study, it can be concluded that the aerial parts of M. scandens possessed prominent depressant action on the CNS, as manifested by the important neuropharmacological properties in mice.

  5. Neuropharmacological properties of Mikania scandens (L.) Willd. (Asteraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Protapaditya; Chandra, Sangita; Chatterjee, Priyanka; Bhattacharya, Sanjib

    2011-10-01

    Mikania scandens (L.) Willd. (Asteraceae), known as climbing hemp weed in English, is a herbaceous climbing vine grown as a weed throughout the plains of the Indian subcontinent. The present study evaluated some neuropharmacological properties of hydroalcoholic extract of aerial parts from M. scandens (HAMS) in experimental animal models. HAMS (at 250 and 500 mg/kg body weight, i.p.) was evaluated for central antinociceptive activity by tail flick method. Locomotor depressant activity was measured by means of an actophotometer. Skeletal muscle relaxant effect was evaluated by using rotarod apparatus and sedative potentiating property by phenobarbitone-induced sleep potentiation study. The results of the present study revealed significant (P<0.001) and dose-dependent central antinociceptive, locomotor depressant, muscle relaxant, and sedative potentiating effects of HAMS, demonstrating its depressant action on the central nervous system (CNS). From the present study, it can be concluded that the aerial parts of M. scandens possessed prominent depressant action on the CNS, as manifested by the important neuropharmacological properties in mice.

  6. DNA-based identification of Calendula officinalis (Asteraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmiderer, Corinna; Lukas, Brigitte; Ruzicka, Joana; Novak, Johannes

    2015-11-01

    For the economically important species Calendula officinalis, a fast identification assay based on high-resolution melting curve analysis was designed. This assay was developed to distinguish C. officinalis from other species of the genus and other Asteraceae genera, and to detect C. officinalis as an adulterant of saffron samples. For this study, five markers (ITS, rbcL, 5' trnK-matK, psbA-trnH, trnL-trnF) of 10 Calendula species were sequenced and analyzed for species-specific mutations. With the application of two developed primer pairs located in the trnK 5' intron and trnL-trnF, C. officinalis could be distinguished from other species of the genus and all outgroup samples tested. Adulterations of Calendula DNA in saffron could be detected down to 0.01%. With the developed assay, C. officinalis can be reliably identified and admixtures of this species as adulterant of saffron can be revealed at low levels.

  7. DNA-based identification of Calendula officinalis (Asteraceae)1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmiderer, Corinna; Lukas, Brigitte; Ruzicka, Joana; Novak, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    Premise of the study: For the economically important species Calendula officinalis, a fast identification assay based on high-resolution melting curve analysis was designed. This assay was developed to distinguish C. officinalis from other species of the genus and other Asteraceae genera, and to detect C. officinalis as an adulterant of saffron samples. Methods and Results: For this study, five markers (ITS, rbcL, 5′ trnK-matK, psbA-trnH, trnL-trnF) of 10 Calendula species were sequenced and analyzed for species-specific mutations. With the application of two developed primer pairs located in the trnK 5′ intron and trnL-trnF, C. officinalis could be distinguished from other species of the genus and all outgroup samples tested. Adulterations of Calendula DNA in saffron could be detected down to 0.01%. Conclusions: With the developed assay, C. officinalis can be reliably identified and admixtures of this species as adulterant of saffron can be revealed at low levels. PMID:26649268

  8. Seasonal variation in the biochemical composition of red seaweed ( Catenella repens) from Gangetic delta, northeast coast of India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Kakoli; Ghosh, Rajrupa; Homechaudhuri, Sumit; Mitra, Abhijit

    2009-10-01

    The biochemical composition of red seaweeds, Catenella repens was investigated in this present study along with subsequent analysis of relevant physico-chemical variables. In this study, the relationship between the nutritive components of this species and the ambient environmental parameters was established. Protein content varied from 2.78 ± 0.30% of dry weight (stn.3) to 16.03 ± 0.96% of dry weight (stn.1) with highest values during monsoon. The protein levels were positively correlated with dissolved nitrate content and negatively correlated with water temperature (except stn.3) and salinity. Carbohydrate content of this species varied significantly ( p seaweed species was greater in pre-monsoon than monsoon and post-monsoon in all the selected stations. Compared with the three seasons, samples of red seaweed collected in pre-monsoon has high carbohydrate-astaxanthin in contrast to protein-lipid which showed high values during monsoon. Statistical analysis computed among the environmental and biochemical parameters suggests the potential role played by the abiotic parameters on biosynthetic pathways of seaweed. This paper also highlights the influence of the nutritional quality of water that can be used for mass cultivation of Catenella repens.

  9. Potential mosquito (Diptera:Culicidae) vector of Dirofilaria repens and Dirofilaria immitis in urban areas of Eastern Slovakia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocková, Eva; Iglódyová, Adriana; Kočišová, Alica

    2015-12-01

    This paper follows the study from 2013 focused on the molecular screening of mosquitoes as vectors of Dirofilaria spp. which provided the information on Aedes vexans as a potential vector of Dirofilaria repens in Slovakia. Current entomological and molecular research indicates that Ae. vexans can participate also in the transmission of Dirofilaria immitis within the region. Using the standard PCR method, we examined 10,500 mosquitoes (Ae. vexans, Ae. rossicus, Anopheles maculipennis s.l., Ochlerotatus sticticus, Ochlerotatus cantans, Ochlerotatus caspius, Culex pipiens/Culex torrentium, Coquillettidia richiardii), collected using CO2-baited traps at six locations in the Eastern Slovakia. Out of 105 pools, 6 pools of mosquitoes Ae. vexans were positive for D. repens DNA (minimum infective rate in Ae. vexas was 6:6.900, i.e. 0.8 per 1.000 mosquitoes), within which 4 were concurrently positive for D. immitis (minimum infective rate in Ae. vexans was 4:6.900 i.e. 0.5 per 1.000 mosquitoes).

  10. Regulation of correlative inhibition of axillary bud outgrowth by basal branches varies with growth stage in Trifolium repens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Roderick G; Hay, Michael J M

    2015-07-01

    In Trifolium repens the decline in bud outgrowth that occurs with distance from basal root systems is due to correlative inhibition by the first-formed basal branches. The apical and axillary buds on these basal branches are the source of the inhibitory effect, but their mode of action is unclear. Inhibition might occur via basal branches being a sink for xylem-transported branching stimulants or alternatively by providing a source of inhibitory signals, or by both mechanisms. To distinguish between these mechanisms, four experiments were conducted on plants varying in initial growth stage from 10 to 19 nodes along their main stems to determine any variation in the relative importance of the operative mechanisms of correlative inhibition. Inhibitory signal exported into the main stem, detected as a branching response to girdling of basal branches, was relatively more significant in smaller (initially with 10-15 nodes on the main stem) than in larger (>19 nodes on main stem) plants. This signal was shown not to involve auxin fluxes, and is unidentified. However, across all stages of growth, the predominant mechanism driving correlative inhibition was the action of axillary and apical buds of basal branches as sinks for the stimulatory signal. This study indicates that the relative importance of the mechanisms regulating bud outgrowth in T. repens varies with growth stage and that, during intermediate stages, regulation has some similarity to that in Pisum. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  11. Nuevas citas de Asteraceae para la provincia de Catamarca (Argentina New records of Asteraceae for the province of Catamarca (Argentina

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    Susana E. Freire

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Se mencionan los siguientes nuevos registros de Asteráceas para la provincia de Catamarca, Argentina: Baccharis acaulis, B. boliviensis var. latifolia, B. flexuosa, B. glutinosa var. angustissima, B. stenophylla (Tribu Astereae, Eupatorium patens var. tomentosum (Tribu Eupatorieae, Cosmos bipinnatus, C. peucedanifolius var. peucedanifolius, Helianthus annuus (Tribu Heliantheae, Gamochaeta erythractis, G. longipedicellata, Gnaphalium lacteum, Tessaria integrifolia var. integrifolia (Tribu Inuleae, Chuquiraga ruscifolia (Tribu Mutisieae, Senecio crepidifolius, S. subulatus var. subulatus, Xenophyllum incisum var. incisum (Tribu Senecioneae. Se citan además el hábitat de los taxones y las provincias fitogeográficas que integran. Se propone una nueva combinación, Baccharis glutinosa Pers. var. angustissima (DC. Giuliano.The following Asteraceae are mentioned for the province of Catamarca: Baccharis acaulis, B. boliviensis var. latifolia, B. flexuosa, B. glutinosa var. angustissima, B. stenophylla (Tribe Astereae, Eupatorium patens var. tomentosum (Tribe Eupatorieae, Cosmos bipinnatus, C. peucedanifolius var. peucedanifolius, Helianthus annuus (Tribe Heliantheae, Gamochaeta erythractis, G. longipedicellata, Gnaphalium lacteum, Tessaria integrifolia var. integrifolia (Tribe Inuleae, Chuquiraga ruscifolia (Tribe Mutisieae, Senecio crepidifolius, S. subulatus var. subulatus, Xenophyllum incisum var. incisum (Tribe Senecioneae. The habitat and phytogeographic provinces of the taxa are mentioned. The following new combination is proposed: Baccharis glutinosa Pers. var. angustissima (DC. Giuliano.

  12. Presence of Trifolium repens Promotes Complementarity of Water Use and N Facilitation in Diverse Grass Mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Pauline; Picon-Cochard, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    Legume species promote productivity and increase the digestibility of herbage in grasslands. Considerable experimental data also indicate that communities with legumes produce more above-ground biomass than is expected from monocultures. While it has been attributed to N facilitation, evidence to identify the mechanisms involved is still lacking and the role of complementarity in soil water acquisition by vertical root differentiation remains unclear. We used a 20-months mesocosm experiment to investigate the effects of species richness (single species, two- and five-species mixtures) and functional diversity (presence of the legume Trifolium repens) on a set of traits related to light, N and water use and measured at community level. We found a positive effect of Trifolium presence and abundance on biomass production and complementarity effects in the two-species mixtures from the second year. In addition the community traits related to water and N acquisition and use (leaf area, N, water-use efficiency, and deep root growth) were higher in the presence of Trifolium. With a multiple regression approach, we showed that the traits related to water acquisition and use were with N the main determinants of biomass production and complementarity effects in diverse mixtures. At shallow soil layers, lower root mass of Trifolium and higher soil moisture should increase soil water availability for the associated grass species. Conversely at deep soil layer, higher root growth and lower soil moisture mirror soil resource use increase of mixtures. Altogether, these results highlight N facilitation but almost soil vertical differentiation and thus complementarity for water acquisition and use in mixtures with Trifolium. Contrary to grass-Trifolium mixtures, no significant over-yielding was measured for grass mixtures even those having complementary traits (short and shallow vs. tall and deep). Thus, vertical complementarity for soil resources uptake in mixtures was not only

  13. Does the addition of Serenoa repens to tamsulosin improve its therapeutical efficacy in benign prostatic hyperplasia?

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    Argirović Aleksandar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. It has been observed that a large number of patients with low urinary tract symptoms due to benign prostatic hyperplasia (LUTS/BPH has been treated with a combination of tamsulosin (TAM + Serenoa repens (SR (TAM + SR. The aim of this study was to compare a combination TAM + SR with TAM and SR alone, to see if there was any difference in efficacy and tolerance of each in patients with LUTS/BPH. Methods. In this prospective study patients had to have prostate volume (PV 3, a maximal flow rate (Qmax of 5-15 mL/s, with post voiding residual volume (PVR < 150 mL and serum prostatic antigen (PSA < 4 ng/mL. TAM (0.4 mg was administered once a day, SR (320 mg daily or SR (320 mg + TAM (0.4 mg daily for a median period of 6 months. Results. A total of 297 patients were recruited, whereas 265 patients were fully available: 87 into the group TAM, 97 into the group SR and 81 into the group TAM + SR. There was no statistically significant difference between the treatment groups in the sense of demographic and other baseline parameters. No difference was found among the 3 treatment groups, neither in the major endpoint of the study in the sense of a change between baseline and final evaluation in total IPSS, obstructive and irritative subscores, improvement of QoLs, increase in Qmax, nor for the second endpoint including diminution of PV, PSA and PVR. During the treatment period 20 (23% of the patients managed with TAM and 17 (21% with TAM + SR had drug-treated with related adverse reactions. No adverse effect was detected in the group SR. Conclusion. Treatment of BPH by both SR and TAM seems to be efficacious alone. None of them had superiority over another and, additionally, a combined therapy (TAM + SR does not provide extra benefits. Furthermore, SR is a well-tolerated agent that can be used alternatively in the treatment of LUTS/BPH.

  14. Does white clover (Trifolium repens abundance in temperate pastures determine Sitona obsoletus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae larval populations?

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    Mark Richard McNeill

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available To determine if host plant abundance determined the size of clover root weevil (CRW Sitona obsoletus larval populations, a study was conducted over four years in plots sown in ryegrass (Lolium perenne (cv. Nui sown at either 6 or 30 kg/ha and white clover (Trifolium repens sown at a uniform rate of 8 kg/ha. This provided a range of % white clover content to investigate CRW population establishment and impacts on white clover survival. Larval sampling was carried out in spring (October when larval densities are near their spring peak at Lincoln (Canterbury, New Zealand with % clover measured in autumn (April and spring (September of each year. Overall, mean larval densities measured in spring 2012, 2013, 2014 and 2015 were 310, 38, 59 and 31 larvae m-2, respectively. There was a significant decline in larval populations between 2012 and 2013, but spring populations were relatively uniform thereafter. The mean % white clover measured in autumns of 2012 to 2015 was 17, 10, 3 and 11%, respectively. In comparison, mean spring % white clover from 2012 to 2015, averaged c. 5% each year. Analysis relating spring (October larval populations to % white clover measured in each plot in autumn (April found the 2012 larval population to be statistically significantly larger in the ryegrass 6 kg/ha plots than 30 kg/ha plots. Thereafter, sowing rate had no significant effect on larval populations. From 2013 to 2015, spring larval populations had a negative relationship with the previous autumn % white clover with the relationship highly significant for the 2014 data. When CRW larval populations in spring 2013 to 2015 were predicted from the 2013 to 2015 autumn % white clover, respectively, based on their positive relationship in 2012, the predicted densities were substantially larger than those observed. Conversely, when 2015 spring larval data and % clover was regressed against 2012-2014 larval populations, observed densities tended to be higher than predicted

  15. Presence of Trifolium repens promotes complementarity of water use and N facilitation in diverse grass mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pauline eHernandez

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Legume species promote productivity and increase the digestibility of herbage in grasslands. Considerable experimental data also indicate that communities with legumes produce more above-ground biomass than is expected from monocultures. While it has been attributed to N facilitation, evidence to identify the mechanisms involved is still lacking and the role of complementarity in soil water acquisition by vertical root differentiation remains unclear. We used a 20-month mesocosm experiment to investigate the effects of species richness (single species, two- and five-species mixtures and functional diversity (presence of the legume Trifolium repens on a set of traits related to light, N and water use and measured at community level. We found a positive effect of Trifolium presence and abundance on biomass production and complementarity effects in the two-species mixtures from the second year. In addition the community traits related to water and N acquisition and use (leaf area, N, water-use efficiency and deep root growth were higher in the presence of Trifolium. With a multiple regression approach, we showed that the traits related to water acquisition and use were with N the main determinants of biomass production and complementarity effects in diverse mixtures. At shallow soil layers, lower root mass of Trifolium and higher soil moisture should increase soil water availability for the associated grass species. Conversely at deep soil layer, higher root growth and lower soil moisture mirror soil resource use increase of mixtures. Altogether, these results highlight N facilitation but almost soil vertical differentiation and thus complementarity for water acquisition and use in mixtures with Trifolium. Contrary to grass-Trifolium mixtures, no significant over-yielding was measured for grass mixtures even those having complementary traits (short and shallow vs tall and deep. Thus, vertical complementarity for soil resources uptake in mixtures

  16. Mycorrhizal associations as Salix repens L. communities in succession of dune ecosystems II Mycorrhizal dynamics and interactions of ectomycorrhizal and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijden, van der E.W.; Vosatka, M.

    2000-01-01

    Ectomycorrhizal (EcM) and arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) associations of Salix repens were studied at 16 sites in different successional stages of dune ecosystems (calcareous-acidic, dry-wet) in the Netherlands. High EcM colonization, low AM colonization, and lack of differences between habitats

  17. Molecular survey of Dirofilaria immitis and Dirofilaria repens by new real-time TaqMan®PCR assay in dogs and mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in Corsica (France).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahir, Djamel; Bittar, Fadi; Barré-Cardi, Hélène; Sow, Doudou; Dahmani, Mustapha; Mediannikov, Oleg; Raoult, Didier; Davoust, Bernard; Parola, Philippe

    2017-02-15

    Dirofilaria immitis and D. repens are filarioid nematodes of animals and humans, transmitted by the bite of infected mosquitoes. Domestic and wild canids are a major natural host and reservoir for these parasites. In this study, we designed a duplex real-time PCR protocol targeting the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene, detecting both D. immitis and D. repens using two primer pairs and two Dirofilaria-specific hydrolysable probes. The sensitivity and specificity of the primers and probes were tested in both experimental and naturally infected samples. The detection limits of this assay were evaluated using plasmid DNA from D. immitis and D. repens. No cross-reaction was observed when testing this system against DNA from other filarial nematodes. The detection limit of the real-time PCR system was one copy per reaction mixture containing 5μl of template DNA. Field application of the new duplex real-time assay was conducted in Corsica. The prevalence rate of D. immitis was 21.3% (20/94) in dogs. In a locality where most dogs with Dirofilaria spp. infection were found, D. immitis and D. repens were detected in 5% (20/389) and 1.5% (6/389) of the Aedes albopictus population, respectively. These results suggest that this sensitive assay is a powerful tool for monitoring dirofilariosis in endemic or high risk areas. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. The contribution of DNA metabarcoding to fungal conservation: diversity assessment, habitat partitioning and mapping red-listed fungi in protected coastal Salix repens communities in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geml, József; Gravendeel, Barbara; van der Gaag, Kristiaan J; Neilen, Manon; Lammers, Youri; Raes, Niels; Semenova, Tatiana A; de Knijff, Peter; Noordeloos, Machiel E

    2014-01-01

    Western European coastal sand dunes are highly important for nature conservation. Communities of the creeping willow (Salix repens) represent one of the most characteristic and diverse vegetation types in the dunes. We report here the results of the first kingdom-wide fungal diversity assessment in S. repens coastal dune vegetation. We carried out massively parallel pyrosequencing of ITS rDNA from soil samples taken at ten sites in an extended area of joined nature reserves located along the North Sea coast of the Netherlands, representing habitats with varying soil pH and moisture levels. Fungal communities in Salix repens beds are highly diverse and we detected 1211 non-singleton fungal 97% sequence similarity OTUs after analyzing 688,434 ITS2 rDNA sequences. Our comparison along a north-south transect indicated strong correlation between soil pH and fungal community composition. The total fungal richness and the number OTUs of most fungal taxonomic groups negatively correlated with higher soil pH, with some exceptions. With regard to ecological groups, dark-septate endophytic fungi were more diverse in acidic soils, ectomycorrhizal fungi were represented by more OTUs in calcareous sites, while detected arbuscular mycorrhizal genera fungi showed opposing trends regarding pH. Furthermore, we detected numerous red listed species in our samples often from previously unknown locations, indicating that some of the fungal species currently considered rare may be more abundant in Dutch S. repens communities than previously thought.

  19. Pharmacological characterization of Cirsium ligulare Boiss. (Asteraceae herb decoction

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    Dobrić Silva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Data on phytochemical and pharmacological investigations of genus Cirsium Mill. (Asteraceae are scarce. Some data suggest that decoctions or infusions prepared from these plants are used in folk medicine as tonics, particularly in inflammatory, liver and stomach diseases. So far there have been no pharmacological investigations related to Cirsium ligulare (C. ligulare Boiss. Accordingly, the aim of this study was to estimate antioxidative, anti-inflammatory and gastroprotective activities of aqueous extracts of C. ligulare herb prepared as 5% and 10% decoctions. Methods. Antioxidative activity was determined using the method of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical scavenging. Investigations of anti-inflammatory (a model of systemic inflammatory response induced by endotoxin of Escherichia coli and carrageenan-induced rat paw oedema model for local inflammatory response, as well as gastroprotective effects (a model of stress-ulcer induced by absolute ethanol, were conducted in adult female Wistar rats that were given the aqueous extracts of C. ligulare herb per os. Indomethacin and ranitidine were used as reference drugs for evaluation of local anti-inflammatory and gastroprotective effects, respectively. Results. The results demonstrated that aqueous extracts of C. ligulare herb produced strong antioxidative activity, diminished body weight loss induced by endotoxin, significantly reduced carrageenan-induced paw oedema, and prevented the ulcerogenic action of absolute ethanol. Both anti-inflammatory and gastroprotective activities of the extract tested were comparable to those of the reference drugs. Conclusion. Presented results justify the traditional use of C. ligulare herb decoctions and further phytochemical and pharmacological investigations are warranted. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. 173021

  20. Herbarium collection-based phylogenetics of the ragweeds (Ambrosia, Asteraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Michael D; Quiroz-Claros, Elva; Brush, Grace S; Zimmer, Elizabeth A

    2018-03-01

    Ambrosia (Asteraceae) is a taxonomically difficult genus of weedy, wind-pollinated plants with an apparent center of diversity in the Sonoran Desert of North America. Determining Ambrosia's evolutionary relationships has been the subject of much interest, with numerous studies using morphological characters, cytology, comparative phytochemistry, and chloroplast restriction site variation to produce conflicting accounts the relationships between Ambrosia species, as well as the classification of their close relatives in Franseria and Hymenoclea. To resolve undetermined intra-generic relationships within Ambrosia, we used DNA extracted from tissues obtained from seed banks and herbarium collections to generate multi-locus genetic data representing nearly all putative species, including four from South America. We performed Bayesian and Maximum-Likelihood phylogenetic analyses of six chloroplast-genome and two nuclear-genome markers, enabling us to infer monophyly for the genus, resolve major infra-generic species clusters, as well as to resolve open questions about the evolutionary relationships of several Ambrosia species and former members of Franseria. We also provide molecular data supporting the hypothesis that A. sandersonii formed through the hybridization of A. eriocentra and A. salsola. The topology of our chloroplast DNA phylogeny is almost entirely congruent with the most recent molecular work based on chloroplast restriction site variation of a much more limited sampling of 14 North American species of Ambrosia, although our improved sampling of global Ambrosia diversity enables us to draw additional conclusions. As our study is the first direct DNA sequence-based phylogenetic analyses of Ambrosia, we analyze the data in relation to previous taxonomic studies and discuss several instances of chloroplast/nuclear incongruence that leave the precise geographic center of origin of Ambrosia in question. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. A nomenclator for the frailejones (Espeletiinae Cuatrec., Asteraceae

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    Mauricio Diazgranados

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The páramos and high Andean forests of the tropical Andes are largely dominated by frailejones (Espeletiinae Cuatrec., Asteraceae. These plants are ecologically and culturally essential for both ecosystems and local inhabitants. The frailejones have been studied for over two centuries, but the taxonomic knowledge is still sparse and incomplete. The inedited monograph by Cuatrecasas contains only ca. 70% of the species known today, and publications in the last decade disagree regarding the number of taxa within the group, with estimates ranging from 3 genera and 90 species to 8 genera and 154 species. Moreover the literature contains inexact information about their distribution. As part of a study of the phylogenetic and biogeographic relationships of the group, a thorough revision of the nomenclature was needed as a first step. Currently the subtribe has 8 recognized genera, 141 species, 17 subspecies, 22 varieties, 8 forms, 33 recognized hybrids, 142 synonyms and 5 invalid names, for a total of 368 names (autonyms not counted. The most current list of taxa is presented here, along with some notes and Spanish names. Tamananthus crinitus V.M.Badillo is not included within the subtribe. Various previous species or infraspecific taxa (i.e. Carramboa tachirensis (Aristeg. Cuatrec., Espeletia algodonosa Aristeg., E. aurantia Aristeg., E. brassicoidea var. macroclada, E. brassicoidea var. pedunculata, E. garcibarrigae Cuatrec. and Espeletiopsis cristalinensis (Cuatrec. Cuatrec. are proposed or confirmed as hybrids. Two new records for Colombia are mentioned: Ruilopezia cardonae (Cuatrec. Cuatrec., which is the first report of Ruilopezia for that country, and Espeletia steyermarkii Cuatrec. Observations regarding the frequency of hybrids in the subtribe are also given.

  2. The prevalence of Dirofilaria repens in cats, healthy dogs and dogs with concurrent babesiosis in an expansion zone in central Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajer, Anna; Rodo, Anna; Mierzejewska, Ewa J; Tołkacz, Katarzyna; Welc-Faleciak, Renata

    2016-09-05

    Dirofilaria repens is a mosquito-transmitted, filarial nematode parasitizing dogs, cats and other carnivores. Recently, this parasite has spread in central Europe, including Poland. The aim of the present study was to estimate the prevalence of D. repens in cats and dogs in different regions of the country and to investigate the occurrence and consequences of co-infection with another fast-spreading vector-borne parasite, Babesia canis. In the period 2013-2015, 147 blood samples from cats from central Poland and 257 blood samples from dogs from central, northern, southern and western Poland were collected. Prevalence of D. repens was determined by amplification and sequencing of the 12S rDNA gene fragment. Among dogs, 94 samples originated from clinically healthy dogs from central Poland (Masovia) and 58 samples originated from dogs that were infected with B. canis. Prevalence of D. repens was compared between these two groups of dogs. For the first time D. repens was identified in a cat from central Europe (0.7 % [95 % CL: 0-4.1 %]). The DNA of the filarial endosymbiotic bacterium Wolbachia was detected in two cats (1.4 % [95 % CL: 0-5.5 %]). In dogs, the parasite was detected only in samples from central Poland (Masovia) (local prevalence = 38 % [95 % CL: 25.9-51.8 %]). Prevalence of D. repens was significantly higher in dogs with babesiosis (90 % [95 % CL: 81.6-94.5 %]). Co-infections of D. repens and B. canis were confirmed by sequencing in 30 dogs with babesiosis, but no co-infections were identified in healthy dogs from Masovia. Statistical analyses of blood parameters revealed that dogs with co-infections suffered more severe anemia and thrombocytopenia, but presented milder changes in biochemical parameters (i.e. less elevated concentration of alkaline phosphatase [ALP] and serum urea) suggesting lower risk of hepatic or renal failure in comparison to dogs infected only with B. canis. These findings are important due to the spread of

  3. Estudo fitoquímico da espécie Pterocaulon interruptum DC. (Asteraceae Phytochemical study of Pterocaulon interruptum Dc., Asteraceae

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    Ana Carolina Winkler Heemann

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available A análise fitoquímica das partes aéreas de Pterocaulon interruptum DC. (Asteraceae resultou no isolamento de cinco compostos: uma cumarina, sabandinol, dois esteróides, estigmasterol e 3-O-acetil-taraxasterol e dois flavonóides, quercetina e taxifolina 7-O-prenilada. As estruturas destas substâncias foram estabelecidas por análises espectroscópicas, sendo que este é o primeiro trabalho sobre o isolamento destes compostos em Pterocaulon interruptum DC.Chemical investigation of the aerial parts of Pterocaulon interruptum DC., Asteraceae, resulted in the isolation of five compounds: one coumarin, sabandinol, two steroids, stigmasterol and 3-O-acetyl taraxasterol and two flavonoids, quercetin (flavonol and 7-O-prenyl taxifolin (dihydroxyflavonol. The structures of these compounds were established by spectroscopic analysis. This paper deals with the first report of these compounds in Pterocaulon interruptum DC.

  4. Host range of Secusio extensa (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae), and potential for biological control of Senecio madagascariensis (Asteraceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. M. Ramadan; K. T. Murai; T. Johnson

    2010-01-01

    Secusio extensa (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae) was evaluated as a potential biological control agent for Madagascar fireweed, Senecio madagascariensis (Asteraceae), which has invaded over 400 000 acres of rangeland in the Hawaiian Islands and is toxic to cattle and horses. The moth was introduced from southeastern Madagascar...

  5. Composite aster Inula L. (Asteraceae: a new generic record for Nicobar Islands, India

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    Rathinam Sathiyaseelan

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new generic record for the flora of Nicobar Islands, Inula L. (Asteraceae represented by the species Inula cappa (Buch.-Ham. ex D.Don DC., collected from Chowra Island, Great Nicobar Islands.  

  6. Offspring diversity in Hieracium subgen. Pilosella (Asteraceae): new cytotypes from hybridization experiments and from open pollination

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krahulcová, Anna; Krahulec, František

    2000-01-01

    Roč. 45, 1-2 (2000), s. 239-255 ISSN 0015-931X R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA6005803; GA AV ČR KSK6005114 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6005908 Keywords : Asteraceae * Hieracium subgen. Pilosella * aneuploids Subject RIV: EF - Botanics

  7. Variation in chromosome numbers and nuclear DNA contents in genetic resources of Lactuca L. species (Asteraceae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Doležalová, I.; Lebeda, A.; Janeček, J.; Čihalíková, Jarmila; Křístková, E.; Vránová, O.

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 49, č. 4 (2002), s. 385-397 ISSN 0925-9864 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA6038204; GA AV ČR IBS5038104 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5038910 Keywords : Asteraceae * Chromosome number * Flow cytometry Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 0.579, year: 2002

  8. Endive, Chicory, and their wild relatives. A systematic and phylogenetic study of Cichorium (Asteraceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiers, Annemieke M.

    2000-01-01

    This thesis describes a systematic and phylogenetic analysis of the genus Cichorium. Cichorium is a small genus within the Asteraceae family (tribe Lactuceae) and is well known because of its two widely cultivated species: C. endivia (endive) and C. intybus (chicory). The genus occurs in the Old

  9. Helichrysum yurterianum (Asteraceae, Inuleae), a new species from NE Anatolia, Turkey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gemici, Yusuf; Tan, Kit; Yildirim, Hasan

    2008-01-01

    Helichrysum yurterianum Y. Gemici, Kit Tan, H. Yildirim & M. Gemici (Asteraceae, Inuleae) is described and illustrated. It is a serpentine endemic restricted to the province of Erzincan in NE Anatolia, Turkey. Its affinities are with H. arenarium and H. noeanum, which both have a wider distribution...

  10. Three new caespitose species of Senecio (Asteraceae, Senecioneae) from South Peru

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Montesinos, D.B.

    2014-01-01

    Three new species of the genus Senecio (Asteraceae, Senecioneae) belonging to S. ser. Suffruticosi subser. Caespitosi were discovered in the tributaries of the upper Tambo River, Moquegua Department, South Peru. Descriptions, diagnoses and discussions about their distribution, a table with the

  11. In vivo and in vitro effects of Bidens pilosa l. (asteraceae) leaf ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In vivo and in vitro effects of Bidens pilosa l. (asteraceae) leaf aqueous and ethanol extracts on primed-oestrogenized rat uterine muscle. ... In vitro isometric contraction measurement of oestrogen-primed rat uterine strips showed a significant high aqueous extract-induced contractile effect from 0.03-1.97mg/ml: on the ...

  12. Androgen-independent effects of Serenoa repens extract (Prostasan®) on prostatic epithelial cell proliferation and inflammation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iglesias-Gato, Diego; Carsten, Tober; Vesterlund, Mattias

    2012-01-01

    . Prostasan® inhibited epidermal growth factor (EGF) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced proliferation of the prostatic epithelial, androgen independent cell line PC-3. At effective concentrations of 50 µg/mL, Prostasan® partly displaced EGF from EGF receptor (EGFR) but fully blocked EGF-induced cell...... proliferation of PC-3 cells. Similarly, Prostasan® inhibited LPS-induced proliferation of PC-3 cells without affecting LPS activation of the NFĸB pathway via toll-like receptor-4 (TLR-4). Additionally, Prostasan® reduced the constitutive secretion of monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1), the LPS......-induced secretion of IL-12 and inhibited MCP-1 and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) production in the presence of LPS on PC-3 cells. Taken together, our results suggest that S. repens extracts, in addition to other reported effects on BPH development and prostatitis, inhibits EGF...

  13. Biomasa aérea, cantidad y calidad de semilla de Melinis repens (Willd.) Zizka, en Aguascalientes, México

    OpenAIRE

    Abraham Díaz Romo; Ernesto Flores Ancira; Alfonso De Luna Jiménez; José de Jesús Luna Ruiz; Juan Teodomiro Frías Hernández; Víctor Olalde Portugal

    2012-01-01

    En este estudio se evaluó la producción de biomasa aérea y la viabilidad, germinación, latencia y producción de semilla de Melinis repens en diferentes localidades de Aguascalientes, México. Se seleccionaron cuatro sitios: El Llano, Jesús María, San Francisco de los Romo y Calvillo, con alta población de pasto rosado y excluidos de pastoreo. En octubre de 2008 y 2009 se cosechó manualmente forraje y semilla. Se determinó la producción de forraje, producción de espiguillas y número de semil...

  14. Asteraceae visited by honeybees in Argentina: a record from entomopalynological studies Asteraceae visitadas por abejas melíferas en Argentina: un registro a partir de estudios entomopalinológicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María C. Telleria

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Entomopalynological studies of Asteraceae in Argentina revealed that 64 taxa occurred in food stored by honeybees. The most visited plant tribes were classified according to both the type of reward provided by the different taxa and the intensity that such reward is collected by honeybees. Exotic plant taxa were intensely visited inside the disturbed areas (e.g. Cardueae and Cichorieae tribes, whereas native taxa (e.g. Barnadesioideae, Mutisieae, Astereae and Eupatorieae were intensely visited in less disturbed areas. A large number of identified taxa of Asteraceae and the evaluation of its importance to honeybee nutrition were presented. The present study contributes to the knowledge of relationship between Asteraceae and honeybees.A partir de estudios entomopalinológicos se encontró que 64 taxa pertenecientes a la familia Asteraceae están presentes en los alimentos almacenados por las abejas melíferas. Los representantes exóticos fueron intensamente visitados en las áreas más alteradas (e.g. Cardueae and Cichorieae, mientras que algunos representantes nativos (e.g. Barnadesioideae, Mutisieae, Astereae y Eupatorieae fueron intensamente visitados en áreas menos alteradas. Se presenta un importante número de taxa de Asteraceae relevantes para la nutrición de las abejas melíferas. El presente trabajo contribuye a conocer la relación entre Asteraceae y abejas melíferas.

  15. Resolution of deep nodes yields an improved backbone phylogeny and a new basal lineage to study early evolution of Asteraceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panero, Jose L; Freire, Susana E; Ariza Espinar, Luis; Crozier, Bonnie S; Barboza, Gloria E; Cantero, Juan J

    2014-11-01

    A backbone phylogeny that fully resolves all subfamily and deeper nodes of Asteraceae was constructed using 14 chloroplast DNA loci. The recently named genus Famatinanthus was found to be sister to the Mutisioideae-Asteroideae clade that represents more than 99% of Asteraceae and was found to have the two chloroplast inversions present in all Asteraceae except the nine genera of Barnadesioideae. A monotypic subfamily Famatinanthoideae and tribe Famatinantheae are named herein as new. Relationships among the basal lineages of the family were resolved with strong support in the Bayesian analysis as (Barnadesioideae (Famatinanthoideae (Mutisioideae (Stifftioideae (Wunderlichioideae-Asteroideae))))). Ancestral state reconstruction of ten morphological characters at the root node of the Asteraceae showed that the ancestral sunflower would have had a woody habit, alternate leaves, solitary capitulescences, epaleate receptacles, smooth styles, smooth to microechinate pollen surface sculpturing, white to yellow corollas, and insect-mediated pollination. Herbaceous habit, echinate pollen surface, pubescent styles, and cymose capitulescences were reconstructed for backbone nodes of the phylogeny corresponding to clades that evolved shortly after Asteraceae dispersed out of South America. No support was found for discoid capitula, multiseriate involucres or bird pollination as the ancestral character condition for any node. Using this more resolved phylogenetic tree, the recently described Raiguenrayun cura+Mutisiapollis telleriae fossil should be associated to a more derived node than previously suggested when time calibrating phylogenies of Asteraceae. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Synergistic Cytotoxic Stress and DNA Damage in Clover (Trifolium repens) Exposed to Heavy Metal Soil from Automobile Refining Shops in Kashmir-Himalaya

    OpenAIRE

    Mohsin Bhat, Towseef; Ansari, M. Y. K.; Choudhary, Sana; Aslam, Rumana; Alka

    2011-01-01

    Coexposure to heavy metals occurs in many occupational settings, such as automobile refining shops, pigment, and batteries production. Heavy metals around automobile refining shops were tested for their ability to induce synergistic cytogenetic effects in Trifolium repens L. by using the chromosomal aberrasions (CAs), micronucleus (MN) and comet assay. A significant increase in micronucleus (MN), chromosomal abrations (CAs), percentage of nuclei with comet tails (NCTs), the relative comet tai...

  17. Gene Capture from Across the Grass Family in the Allohexaploid Elymus repens (L.) Gould (Poaceae, Triticeae) as Evidenced by ITS, GBSSI, and Molecular Cytogenetics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mahelka, Václav; Kopecký, David

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 27, č. 6 (2010), s. 1370-1390 ISSN 0737-4038 R&D Projects: GA ČR GP206/09/P312; GA ČR GA206/09/1126 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516; CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : Elymus repens * hybridization * Triticeae Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 5.510, year: 2010

  18. Genotypic and phenotypic diversity does not affect productivity and drought response in competitive stands of Trifolium repens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidrun eHuber

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Clonal plants can form dense canopies in which plants of different genetic origin are competing for the uptake of essential resources. The competitive relationships among these clones are likely to be affected by extreme environmental conditions, such as prolonged drought spells, which are predicted to occur more frequently due to global climate change. This, in turn, may alter characteristics of the ecological system and its associated functioning.We hypothesized that the relative success of individual clones will depend on the size of the ramets as ramets with larger leaves and longer petioles (large ramets were predicted to have a competitive advantage in terms of increased light interception over smaller-sized ramets. Under drier conditions the relative performances of genotypes were expected to change leading to a change in genotype ranking. We also hypothesized that increased genotypic and phenotypic diversity will increase stand performance and resistance to drought. These hypotheses and the mechanisms responsible for shifts in competitive relationships were investigated by subjecting genotypes of the important pasture legume Trifolium repens to competition with either genetically identical clones, genetically different but similarly sized clones, or genetically as well as morphologically different clones under well-watered and dry conditions.Competitive relationships were affected by ramet size with large genotypes outperforming small genotypes in diverse stands in terms of biomass production. However, large genotypes also produced relatively fewer ramets than small genotypes and could not benefit in terms of clonal reproduction from competing with smaller genotypes, indicating that evolutionary shifts in genotype composition will depend on whether ramet size or ramet number is under selection. In contrast to our hypotheses, diversity did not increase stand performance under different selection regimes and genotype ranking was hardly

  19. A new genus and species of Lasiopteridi (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae) on Haplopappus foliosus (Asteraceae) from Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Maia, Valéria Cid; Villagra, Cristian A.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT A new genus and species of gall midge, Haplopappusmyia gregaria, is described and illustrated (larva, pupa, male, and female). This species induces apical galls on Haplopappus foliosus (Asteraceae), an endemic shrub from central Chile. The specimens were collected at La Ligua Municipality, Petorca Province, Valparaiso region, Chile, during spring of 2011-2014. This area corresponds to one of the fifth Mediterranean Matorral biome, considered among Earth's biodiversity hotspots. The n...

  20. Morpho-anatomical features of underground systems in six Asteraceae species from the Brazilian Cerrado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appezzato-da-Glória, Beatriz; Cury, Graziela

    2011-09-01

    In the Brazilian Cerrado (neotropical savanna), the development of bud-bearing underground systems as adaptive structures to fire and dry periods can comprise an important source of buds for this ecosystem, as already demonstrated in the Brazilian Campos grasslands and North American prairies. Asteraceae species from both woody and herbaceous strata have subterranean organs that accumulate carbohydrates, reinforcing the adaptive strategy of these plants to different environmental conditions. This study aims to analyse the morpho-anatomy of underground systems of six species of Asteraceae (Mikania cordifolia L.f. Willd., Mikania sessilifolia DC, Trixis nobilis (Vell.) Katinas, Pterocaulon alopecuroides (Lam.) DC., Vernonia elegans Gardner and Vernonia megapotamica Spreng.), to describe these structures and to verify the occurrence and origin of shoot buds, and to analyse the presence of reserve substances. Individuals sampled in Cerrado areas in São Paulo State showed thick underground bud-bearing organs, with adventitious or lateral roots and presence of fructans. Xylopodium was found in all studied species, except for Trixis nobilis, which had stem tuber. The presence of fructans as reserve, and the capacity of structures in the formation of buds indicate the potential of herbaceous species of Asteraceae in forming a viable bud bank for vegetation regeneration in the Brazilian Cerrado.

  1. Aktivitas biologi enam jenis ekstrak tumbuhan famili Asteraceae terhadap larva Spodoptera litura Fabricius (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratna Sari Dewi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Biological Activity of Six Plan Extract from Asteraceae on Spodoptera litura Fabricius (lipedoptera : Noctuidae Larvae. Asteraceae is one of plant family that is known to have insecticidal activity to several insect pests, such as Parthenium argentatum, Crysanthemum cineariaefolium, and Agerantum houstoneanum. The aim of this study is to explore other asteraceae species in other to search for insecticidal activity to Spodoptera litura Fabricius (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae. Six species, Blumea balsamifera (leaf, Elephantopus scaber (leaf, Gynura procumbens (leaf Artemisia vulgaris (leaf Soncbus arvensis (leaf and Helianthus annus (seed were use in this study. Plant extract were obtained by meseration method using menthanol. The extract were bioassayed to the second instar larvae of S. litura to evaluate the mortality, antifeedant and growth regulation activity. Extract of B. balsamifera and E. scaber have high antifeedant activity at 5 % by reducing larval feeding 87.7% and 81.8% in no choice test, and 94.1% and 86.1% in choice test method, respectively Extract of H. annus, A. vulgaris, and E. scaber prolonged the development of larvae by 4.9, 4.1, 3.9 days, respectively. While extract of H. annus caused mortality of larvae by 86% at 5%.

  2. A Metabolomic Approach to Target Compounds from the Asteraceae Family for Dual COX and LOX Inhibition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela A. Chagas-Paula

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The application of metabolomics in phytochemical analysis is an innovative strategy for targeting active compounds from a complex plant extract. Species of the Asteraceae family are well-known to exhibit potent anti-inflammatory (AI activity. Dual inhibition of the enzymes COX-1 and 5-LOX is essential for the treatment of several inflammatory diseases, but there is not much investigation reported in the literature for natural products. In this study, 57 leaf extracts (EtOH-H2O 7:3, v/v from different genera and species of the Asteraceae family were tested against COX-1 and 5-LOX while HPLC-ESI-HRMS analysis of the extracts indicated high diversity in their chemical compositions. Using O2PLS-DA (R2 > 0.92; VIP > 1 and positive Y-correlation values, dual inhibition potential of low-abundance metabolites was determined. The O2PLS-DA results exhibited good validation values (cross-validation = Q2 > 0.7 and external validation = P2 > 0.6 with 0% of false positive predictions. The metabolomic approach determined biomarkers for the required biological activity and detected active compounds in the extracts displaying unique mechanisms of action. In addition, the PCA data also gave insights on the chemotaxonomy of the family Asteraceae across its diverse range of genera and tribes.

  3. Pollen–pistil interactions and self-incompatibility in the Asteraceae: new insights from studies of Senecio squalidus (Oxford ragwort)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Alexandra M.; Thorogood, Christopher J.; Hegarty, Matthew J.; Lexer, Christian; Hiscock, Simon J.

    2011-01-01

    Background Pollen–pistil interactions are an essential prelude to fertilization in angiosperms and determine compatibility/incompatibility. Pollen–pistil interactions have been studied at a molecular and cellular level in relatively few families. Self-incompatibility (SI) is the best understood pollen–pistil interaction at a molecular level where three different molecular mechanisms have been identified in just five families. Here we review studies of pollen–pistil interactions and SI in the Asteraceae, an important family that has been relatively understudied in these areas of reproductive biology. Scope We begin by describing the historical literature which first identified sporophytic SI (SSI) in species of Asteraceae, the SI system later identified and characterized at a molecular level in the Brassicaceae. Early structural and cytological studies in these two families suggested that pollen–pistil interactions and SSI were similar, if not the same. Recent cellular and molecular studies in Senecio squalidus (Oxford ragwort) have challenged this belief by revealing that despite sharing the same genetic system of SSI, the Brassicaceae and Asteraceae molecular mechanisms are different. Key cellular differences have also been highlighted in pollen–stigma interactions, which may arise as a consequence of the Asteraceae possessing a ‘semi-dry’ stigma, rather than the ‘dry’ stigma typical of the Brassicaceae. The review concludes with a summary of recent transcriptomic analyses aimed at identifying proteins regulating pollen–pistil interactions and SI in S. squalidus, and by implication the Asteraceae. The Senecio pistil transcriptome contains many novel pistil-specific genes, but also pistil-specific genes previously shown to play a role in pollen–pistil interactions in other species. Conclusions Studies in S. squalidus have shown that stigma structure and the molecular mechanism of SSI in the Asteraceae and Brassicaceae are different. The

  4. Efecto antibacteriano del extracto etanólico del botoncillo (ACMELLA REPENS sobre Porphyromona gingivalis: Estudio in Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Lizbeth Chamorro Benalcázar

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Determinar el efecto antibacteriano del extracto etanólico de Botoncillo (Acmella repens en diferentes concentraciones sobre la cepa de Porphyromona gingivalis. Materiales y metodos: En el presente estudio experimental, fueron utilizadas 24 cajas Petri con agar sangre, se inoculó P. gingivalis, y se colocaron discos con diferentes concentraciones del extracto etanólico de Botoncillo (25%, 50% y 100%, como sustancias control Clorhexidina al 0,12% y suero fisiológico. A los 7 días de incubación se midieron con una regla milimetrada los halos de inhibición formados alrededor de los respectivos discos. Resultados: el extracto de Botoncillo al 100% mostró diferencias significativas en comparación con la concentración del 25% y 50% (0 < 0.05. Al comparar el extracto de Botoncillo al 100% con la Clorhexidina 0,12% se observó valores de inhibición más altos para Clorhexidina 0,12%. Conclusión: El extracto etanólico de Botoncillo presentó un efecto antibacteriano sobre P. gingivalis.

  5. Aspartic protease from Aspergillus (Eurotium) repens strain MK82 is involved in the hydrolysis and decolourisation of dried bonito (Katsuobushi).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Kenji; Matsubara, Sayaka; Umeda, Mayo; Tachibanac, Shusaku; Doi, Mikiharu; Takenaka, Shinji

    2013-04-01

    Katsuobushi is a dried, smoked and fermented bonito used in Japanese cuisine. During the fermentation process with several Aspergillus species, the colour of Katsuobushi gradually changes from a dark reddish-brown derived from haem proteins to pale pink. The change in colour gives Katsuobushi a higher ranking and price. This study aimed to elucidate the mechanism of decolourisation of Katsuobushi. A decolourising factor from the culture supernatant of Aspergillus (Eurotium) repens strain MK82 was purified to homogeneity. The purification was monitored by measuring the decolourising activity using equine myoglobin and bovine haemoglobin as substrates. It was found that the decolourising factor had protease activity towards myoglobin and haemoglobin. Complete inhibition of the enzyme by the inhibitor pepstatin A and the internal amino acid sequence classified the protein as an aspartic protease. The enzyme limitedly hydrolysed myoglobin between 1-Met and 2-Gly, 43-Lys and 44-Phe, and 70-Leu and 71-Thr. The purified enzyme decolourised blood of Katsuwonus pelamis (bonito) and a slice of dried bonito. It is proposed that aspartic protease plays a role in the decolourisation of Katsuobushi by the hydrolysis of haem proteins that allows the released haem to aggregate in the dried bonito. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. Prevalence of Dirofilaria repens in dogs in central-eastern Poland and histopathological changes caused by this infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osińska Barbara

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of canine dirofilariosis in four provinces of central-eastern Poland and to describe pathological changes occurring during the course of this parasitosis. A total of 188 dogs aged from one and a half up to 16 years were examined for dirofilariosis. Blood samples were analysed for the presence of microfilariae using Knott method, as well as the method of Kingston and Morton. Pathomorphological examination of two dogs was also performed. Histological sections were stained with H&E, AB-PAS, van Gieson, and von Kossa methods. Microfilariae of Dirofilaria repens were found in blood samples of dogs that originated from the Mazowieckie, Lubelskie, and Podlaskie provinces. The mean prevalence of that species was 12.7%. Autopsy revealed the adult nematodes in the subcutaneous connective tissue. Microscopic examinations indicated the presence of microfilariae in the liver, kidneys, lungs, heart muscle, and intestines. Necrotic foci, thrombosis, and infiltrations of different intensity with eosinophils in internal organs were also observed. Significant lesions in different internal organs together with the presence of numerous microfilariae suggest their important role in the disease process.

  7. Invertebrate fauna associated with Torpedograss, Panicum repens (Cyperales: Poaceae), in Lake Okeechobee, Florida, and prospects for biological control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuda, J.P.; Dunford, J.C.; Leavengood, J.M. Jr.

    2007-01-01

    Torpedograss, Panicum repens L., is an adventive, rhizomatous grass species that has become an invasive weed of terrestrial, wetland, and aquatic environments in tropical and subtropical regions worldwide. Until recently, strategies for controlling torpedograss in the USA have focused almost exclusively on mechanical and chemical methods, either alone or in combination, with varied results. A survey of the arthropods and nematodes currently associated with the plant in Lake Okeechobee, Florida, was conducted as part of a feasibility study to determine whether torpedograss is an appropriate target for a classical biological control program. Overall, approximately 4,000 arthropods and 400 nematode specimens were collected. Sweep, clipped vegetation, and soil core samples were dominated by representatives of the arthropod orders Hemiptera, Hymenoptera, Diptera, and Acari. Lesion nematodes of the genus Pratylenchus were commonly associated with the roots of torpedograss. None of the organisms collected were torpedograss specialists. Although classical biological control of torpedograss is feasible based on the extent of the infestation, economic losses, resistance to conventional controls, and the report of a potentially host specific natural enemy in India, the botanical position of this grass weed will require a formal risk assessment before proceeding with a classical biological control program. (author) [es

  8. Potencial antioxidante e antimicrobiano de espécies da família Asteraceae Antioxidant and antimicrobial potential of Asteraceae species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.L Fabri

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Espécies da família Asteraceae são amplamente utilizadas na medicina popular para diversos fins terapêuticos. Neste contexto, este estudo teve por objetivo averiguar a atividade antimicrobiana e antioxidante in vitro de extratos metanólicos de plantas pertencentes a Asteraceae, a maioria comumente utilizada na medicina tradicional. A prospecção química dos extratos também foi realizada. A atividade antimicrobiana foi avaliada pelo método de susceptibilidade em microdiluição em caldo e a atividade antioxidante determinada pelo ensaio com o radical DPPH. O extrato da folha de Baccharis dracunculifolia apresentou significativa atividade antimicrobiana para Pseudomonas aeruginosa,Bacillus cereus e Cryptococcus neoformans (CIM = 0,005; 0,005 e 0,039 mg mL-1, respectivamente. Os extratos das folhas de Bidens segetum e Matricaria chamomilla foram seletivos para Shigella sonnei e P. aeruginosa (CIM = 0,005 e 0,078 mg mL-1, respectivamente. Já as folhas de Acanthospermun australe e Baccharis trimera apresentaram atividade significativa apenas para Candida albicans (CIM = 0,039 mg mL-1 enquanto as folhas de Taraxacum officinale foram ativos contra ambas leveduras com CIM 0,039 mg mL-1. Em relação à atividade antioxidante, os extratos das folhas de B. dracunculifolia, T. officinale e das inflorescências de B. segetum apresentaram significativa atividade com CI50 de 5, 5 e 4 µg mL-1, respectivamente. A prospecção química dos extratos identificou presença de compostos como flavonoides, terpenos e outros que podem ser responsáveis pelas atividades observadas.Asteraceae species have been largely used in folk medicine for several therapeutic purposes. Thus, the aim of this work was to investigate the in vitro antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of methanol extracts from plants belonging to the Asteraceae family, most of which are commonly used in traditional medicine. Chemical prospecting of extracts was also performed. The

  9. Isolation by distance and isolation by environment contribute to population differentiation in Protea repens (Proteaceae L.), a widespread South African species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prunier, Rachel; Akman, Melis; Kremer, Colin T; Aitken, Nicola; Chuah, Aaron; Borevitz, Justin; Holsinger, Kent E

    2017-05-01

    The Cape Floristic Region (CFR) of South Africa is renowned for its botanical diversity, but the evolutionary origins of this diversity remain controversial. Both neutral and adaptive processes have been implicated in driving diversification, but population-level studies of plants in the CFR are rare. Here, we investigate the limits to gene flow and potential environmental drivers of selection in Protea repens L. (Proteaceae L.), a widespread CFR species. We sampled 19 populations across the range of P. repens and used genotyping by sequencing to identify 2066 polymorphic loci in 663 individuals. We used a Bayesian F ST outlier analysis to identify single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) marking genomic regions that may be under selection; we used those SNPs to identify potential drivers of selection and excluded them from analyses of gene flow and genetic structure. A pattern of isolation by distance suggested limited gene flow between nearby populations. The populations of P. repens fell naturally into two or three groupings, which corresponded to an east-west split. Differences in rainfall seasonality contributed to diversification in highly divergent loci, as do barriers to gene flow that have been identified in other species. The strong pattern of isolation by distance is in contrast to the findings in the only other widespread species in the CFR that has been similarly studied, while the effects of rainfall seasonality are consistent with well-known patterns. Assessing the generality of these results will require investigations of other CFR species. © 2017 Prunier et al. Published by the Botanical Society of America. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License (CC-BY-NC).

  10. Nitric oxide contributes to minerals absorption, proton pumps and hormone equilibrium under cadmium excess in Trifolium repens L. plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shiliang; Yang, Rongjie; Pan, Yuanzhi; Ma, Mingdong; Pan, Jiang; Zhao, Yan; Cheng, Qingsu; Wu, Mengxi; Wang, Maohua; Zhang, Lin

    2015-09-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is a stress-signaling molecule in plants that mediates a wide range of physiological processes and responses to metal toxicity. In this work, various NO modulators (NO donor: SNP; NO scavenger: cPTIO; NO synthase inhibitor: l-NAME; and SNP analogs: sodium nitrite/nitrate and sodium ferrocyanide) were investigated to determine the role of NO in Trifolium repens L. plants exposed to Cd. Cd (100μM) markedly reduced biomass, NO production and chlorophyll (Chl a, Chl b and total Chl) concentration but stimulated reactive oxygen species (ROS) and Cd accumulation in plants. SNP (50μM) substantially attenuated growth inhibition, reduced hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and malonyldialdehyde (MDA) levels, stimulated ROS-scavenging enzymes/agents, and mitigated the H(+)-ATPase inhibition in proton pumps. Interestingly, SNP considerably up-regulated the levels of jasmonic acid (JA) and proline in plant tissues but down-regulated the levels of ethylene (ET) in both shoots and roots and the level of salicylic acid (SA) in roots only, which might be related to the elevated NO synthesis. Additionally, SNP (25-200μM) regulated mineral absorption and, particularly at 50μM, significantly enhanced the uptake of shoot magnesium (Mg) and copper (Cu) and of root calcium (Ca), Mg and iron (Fe). Nevertheless, the effects of SNP on plant growth were reversed by cPTIO and l-NAME, suggesting that the protective effect of SNP might be associated with NO synthesis in vivo. Moreover, SNP analogs did not display roles similar to that of SNP. These results indicated that NO depleted Cd toxicity by eliminating oxidative damage, enhancing minerals absorption, regulating proton pumps, and maintaining hormone equilibrium. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Morpho-anatomical features of underground systems in six Asteraceae species from the Brazilian Cerrado

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    Beatriz Appezzato-da-Glória

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In the Brazilian Cerrado (neotropical savanna, the development of bud-bearing underground systems as adaptive structures to fire and dry periods can comprise an important source of buds for this ecosystem, as already demonstrated in the Brazilian Campos grasslands and North American prairies. Asteraceae species from both woody and herbaceous strata have subterranean organs that accumulate carbohydrates, reinforcing the adaptive strategy of these plants to different environmental conditions. This study aims to analyse the morpho-anatomy of underground systems of six species of Asteraceae (Mikania cordifolia L.f. Willd., Mikania sessilifolia DC, Trixis nobilis (Vell. Katinas, Pterocaulon alopecuroides (Lam. DC., Vernonia elegans Gardner and Vernonia megapotamica Spreng., to describe these structures and to verify the occurrence and origin of shoot buds, and to analyse the presence of reserve substances. Individuals sampled in Cerrado areas in São Paulo State showed thick underground bud-bearing organs, with adventitious or lateral roots and presence of fructans. Xylopodium was found in all studied species, except for Trixis nobilis, which had stem tuber. The presence of fructans as reserve, and the capacity of structures in the formation of buds indicate the potential of herbaceous species of Asteraceae in forming a viable bud bank for vegetation regeneration in the Brazilian Cerrado.No Cerrado brasileiro (savana neotropical, o desenvolvimento de sistemas subterrâneos que produzem gemas, como estruturas adaptativas contra o fogo e períodos de seca, pode compreender um importante suprimento de gemas para esse ecossistema, como já demonstrado nos campos brasileiros e nas pradarias norte-americanas. Espécies de Asteraceae tanto do estrato lenhoso, quanto do herbáceo têm órgãos que acumulam carboidratos, reforçando a estratégia adaptativa dessas plantas a diferentes condições ambientais. Este estudo tem o objetivo de analisar a morfo

  12. Comparison of tamsulosin plus serenoa repens with tamsulosin in the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia in Korean men: 1-year randomized open label study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Young Woo; Lim, Song Won; Kim, Jung Hoon; Ahn, Seung Hyun; Choi, Jae Duck

    2015-01-01

    In Korea, increasing attention has recently been given to the use of phytotherapeutic agents to alleviate the symptoms of BPH. Serenoa repens has been shown to have an equivalent efficacy to Finasteride or Tamsulosin in the treatment of BPH in previous studies. The present study was designed to compare the efficacy and safety of Serenoa repens plus tamsulosin with tamsulosin only over 12 months in men with LUTS secondary to BPH. One hundred forty men with symptomatic BPH (IPSS≥10) were recruited in our hospital for a 12-month, open-label, randomized trial. Patients were randomly assigned to either tamsulosin 0.2 mg/day plus Serenoa repens 320 mg/day (n=60) or tamsulosin 0.2 mg/day only (n=60). Prostate volume and PSA were measured at baseline and at end-point, whereas total IPSS, and its storage and voiding subscores, LUTS-related QoL, Qmax, and PVR were evaluated at baseline and later every 6 months. Total 103 patients were finally available: 50 in the TAM+SR group and 53 in the TAM group. At 12 months, total IPSS decreased by 5.8 with TAM+SR and 5.5 with TAM (p=0.693); the storage symptoms improved significantly more with TAM+SR (-1.7 vs. -0.8 with TAM, p=0.024). This benefit with regard to storage symptom in the TAM+SR group lasts at 12 months (-1.9 vs. -0.9, p=0.024). The changes of voiding subscore, LUTS-related QoL, Qmax, PVR, PSA, and prostate volume showed no significant differences between the TAM+SR and TAM groups. During the treatment period, 8 patients (16.9%) with TAM and 10 (20%) with TAM+SR had drug-related adverse reactions, which included ejaculatory disorders, postural hypotension, dizziness, headache, gastro-intestinal disorders, rhinitis, fatigue and asthenia. The combination treatment of Serenoa repens and tamsulosin was shown to be more effective than tamsulosin monotherapy in reducing storage symptoms in BPH patients after 6 months and up to 12 months of treatment. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Heat treatment and false-positive heartworm antigen testing in ex vivo parasites and dogs naturally infected by Dirofilaria repens and Angiostrongylus vasorum

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    Luigi Venco

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Heartworm antigen testing is considered sensitive and specific. Currently available tests are reported as detecting a glycoprotein found predominantly in the reproductive tract of the female worm and can reach specificity close to 100%. Main concerns regard sensitivity in the case of light infections, the presence of immature females or cases of all-male infections. Research and development have been aimed at increasing sensitivity. Recently, heat treatment of serum prior to antigen testing has been shown to result in an increase in positive antigen test results, presumably due to disruption of natural antigen–antibody complexes. Cross-reactions in dogs with both natural and experimental infections with Angiostrongylus vasorum and Spirocerca lupi have been reported, but cross-reactions with other helminths have not been extensively studied. In order to evaluate potential cross-reactivity with other canine and feline parasites, two studies were performed. Study 1: Live adults of Dirofilaria immitis, Dirofilaria repens, Toxocara canis, Toxocara cati, Dipylidium caninum, Taenia taeniaeformis and Mesocestoides spp. larvae were washed and incubated in tubes with saline solution. All worms were alive at the time of removal from the saline. Saline solutions containing excretory/secretory antigens were then tested for heartworm with six different, commercially available antigen tests. All results were evaluated blind by three of the authors. Study 2: Sera from dogs with natural infections by A. vasorum or D. repens, living in areas free of heartworm disease, were tested with the same tests before and after heat treatment (103 °C for 10 min. Results Results suggest that antigens detected by currently available tests are not specific for D. immitis. They may give positive results through detection of different parasites’ antigens that are normally not released into the bloodstream or released in a low amount and/or bound to

  14. Heat treatment and false-positive heartworm antigen testing in ex vivo parasites and dogs naturally infected by Dirofilaria repens and Angiostrongylus vasorum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venco, Luigi; Manzocchi, Simone; Genchi, Marco; Kramer, Laura H

    2017-11-09

    Heartworm antigen testing is considered sensitive and specific. Currently available tests are reported as detecting a glycoprotein found predominantly in the reproductive tract of the female worm and can reach specificity close to 100%. Main concerns regard sensitivity in the case of light infections, the presence of immature females or cases of all-male infections. Research and development have been aimed at increasing sensitivity. Recently, heat treatment of serum prior to antigen testing has been shown to result in an increase in positive antigen test results, presumably due to disruption of natural antigen-antibody complexes. Cross-reactions in dogs with both natural and experimental infections with Angiostrongylus vasorum and Spirocerca lupi have been reported, but cross-reactions with other helminths have not been extensively studied. In order to evaluate potential cross-reactivity with other canine and feline parasites, two studies were performed. Study 1: Live adults of Dirofilaria immitis, Dirofilaria repens, Toxocara canis, Toxocara cati, Dipylidium caninum, Taenia taeniaeformis and Mesocestoides spp. larvae were washed and incubated in tubes with saline solution. All worms were alive at the time of removal from the saline. Saline solutions containing excretory/secretory antigens were then tested for heartworm with six different, commercially available antigen tests. All results were evaluated blind by three of the authors. Study 2: Sera from dogs with natural infections by A. vasorum or D. repens, living in areas free of heartworm disease, were tested with the same tests before and after heat treatment (103 °C for 10 min). Results suggest that antigens detected by currently available tests are not specific for D. immitis. They may give positive results through detection of different parasites' antigens that are normally not released into the bloodstream or released in a low amount and/or bound to antibodies. Tests may even detect antigens released by

  15. Effet d'un deficit hydrique sur le trefle blanc (Trifolium repens L.). I. Role d'un apport de potassium

    OpenAIRE

    Shamsun-Noor, L.; Robin, Christophe; Guckert, Armand

    1990-01-01

    Le comportement du trèfle blanc (Trifolium repens L cv Crau) est étudié en situation de contrainte hydrique et après réhydratation en liaison avec la fertilisation potassique. Le déficit en eau occasionne une décroissance progressive importante du potentiel hydrique des feuilles et une fermeture rapide des stomates. Ces manifestations sont accompagnées d’une chute de l’activité photosynthétique et de la fixation symbiotique de l’azote. En présence de potassium, la diminution de l’activité...

  16. Etude ethnobotanique des Asteraceae médicinales vendues sur les ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Une enquête ethnobotanique menée auprès de 110 herboristes des marchés du district autonome d'Abidjan (Côte d'Ivoire) a permis de répertorier 27 espèces végétales appartenant à la famille des Asteraceae. Ces espèces sont regroupées en 20 genres et 7 tribus. Le genre Vernonia (22,22%) est le plus représenté.

  17. Taxonomical studies on endemic scorzonera pygmaea var. pygmaea and var. nutans stat. nov. (asteraceae) from turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koyuncu, O.; Kus, G.

    2014-01-01

    The taxonomic status of Scorzonera pygmaea var. pygmaea and var. nutans belonging to the tribe. cichoreae (Asteraceae). S. pygmaea samples were collected from Arayit mountain. We suggest that these two subspecies should be classified as varietes because of their morphological and anatomical characteristics, ecological and geographical similarities. Moreover being together in the same localities of these under species taxa supports our opinion, i.e. S. pygmaea Sibth. and Sm. var. pygmaea stat. nov. and S. pygmaea Sibth. and Sm. var. nutans (Czeczott) O. Koyuncu and Yaylac, stat. nov. (author)

  18. Hypothesis onSerenoa repens(Bartram) small extract inhibition of prostatic 5α-reductase through anin silicoapproach on 5β-reductase x-ray structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Governa, Paolo; Giachetti, Daniela; Biagi, Marco; Manetti, Fabrizio; De Vico, Luca

    2016-01-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia is a common disease in men aged over 50 years old, with an incidence increasing to more than 80% over the age of 70, that is increasingly going to attract pharmaceutical interest. Within conventional therapies, such as α -adrenoreceptor antagonists and 5 α -reductase inhibitor, there is a large requirement for treatments with less adverse events on, e.g., blood pressure and sexual function: phytotherapy may be the right way to fill this need. Serenoa repens standardized extract has been widely studied and its ability to reduce lower urinary tract symptoms related to benign prostatic hyperplasia is comprehensively described in literature. An innovative investigation on the mechanism of inhibition of 5 α -reductase by Serenoa repens extract active principles is proposed in this work through computational methods, performing molecular docking simulations on the crystal structure of human liver 5 β -reductase. The results confirm that both sterols and fatty acids can play a role in the inhibition of the enzyme, thus, suggesting a competitive mechanism of inhibition. This work proposes a further confirmation for the rational use of herbal products in the management of benign prostatic hyperplasia, and suggests computational methods as an innovative, low cost, and non-invasive process for the study of phytocomplex activity toward proteic targets.

  19. Early evolution of the angiosperm clade Asteraceae in the Cretaceous of Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreda, Viviana D; Palazzesi, Luis; Tellería, Maria C; Olivero, Eduardo B; Raine, J Ian; Forest, Félix

    2015-09-01

    The Asteraceae (sunflowers and daisies) are the most diverse family of flowering plants. Despite their prominent role in extant terrestrial ecosystems, the early evolutionary history of this family remains poorly understood. Here we report the discovery of a number of fossil pollen grains preserved in dinosaur-bearing deposits from the Late Cretaceous of Antarctica that drastically pushes back the timing of assumed origin of the family. Reliably dated to ∼76-66 Mya, these specimens are about 20 million years older than previously known records for the Asteraceae. Using a phylogenetic approach, we interpreted these fossil specimens as members of an extinct early diverging clade of the family, associated with subfamily Barnadesioideae. Based on a molecular phylogenetic tree calibrated using fossils, including the ones reported here, we estimated that the most recent common ancestor of the family lived at least 80 Mya in Gondwana, well before the thermal and biogeographical isolation of Antarctica. Most of the early diverging lineages of the family originated in a narrow time interval after the K/P boundary, 60-50 Mya, coinciding with a pronounced climatic warming during the Late Paleocene and Early Eocene, and the scene of a dramatic rise in flowering plant diversity. Our age estimates reduce earlier discrepancies between the age of the fossil record and previous molecular estimates for the origin of the family, bearing important implications in the evolution of flowering plants in general.

  20. COROTIPOS PRELIMINARES DE PERÚ BASADOS EN LA DISTRIBUCIÓN DE LA FAMILIA ASTERACEAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berni Britto

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente estudio se basa en el concepto de categorías corológicas o corotipos para formular una nueva hipótesis de clasificación biogeográfica del Perú basado en la distribución de la familia Astera - ceae. La información recabada dio como resultado que existen 1669 especies de Asteraceae registradas en Perú (hasta el año 2008, distribuidas en 255 géneros. El territorio peruano se dividió en 218 Distritos de Reporte que representan a los 24 departamentos divididos en franjas de 500 m de altitud. La base de datos biogeográficos de Asteraceae se obtuvo cruzando los registros de distribución actualizados con los Distritos de Reporte, expresándose en una matriz de presencia-ausencia. El análisis de datos dio como resultado un total de 14 corotipos preliminares para el Perú: Abiseo, Amotape, Andino, Apurímac-Huan - cavelica, Chachapoyas-Huánuco, Huancabamba, Huascarán, Ica, Lima-Piura, Loreto-Ucayali, Manu, Pasco, Sandia y Tacna.

  1. Roles of mucilage in Emilia fosbergii, a myxocarpic Asteraceae: Efficient seed imbibition and diaspore adhesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De-Paula, Orlando C; Marzinek, Juliana; Oliveira, Denise M T; Paiva, Élder A S

    2015-09-01

    Several angiosperm families have myxodiaspory, such as the Asteraceae in which cypselae are frequently wind-dispersed. The roles of mucilage in cypselae remain misunderstood, and the route of water uptake from substrate to embryo remains unknown. In this work, we analyze the fruits of Emilia fosbergii aiming to clarify how the water is absorbed and how the structure of the pericarp can be related to the processes of diaspore adhesion and seed imbibition. The anatomy and ultrastructure of the cypselae of Emilia fosbergii were analyzed with histochemical tests and light, scanning and transmission electron microscopy. We assessed the roles of mucilage in seed imbibition using apoplasmic tracing with Lucifer yellow and epifluorescence microscopy and in adhesion with a sand assay. We describe structural and ultrastructural aspects of the exocarpic cells, especially the mucilaginous twin hairs. Lucifer yellow was absorbed only by the twin hairs, the cells where water primarily enters the seed during seed imbibition. In the sand assay, the mucilage was adhesive. The twin hairs on the surface of the cypselae can play a dual role in the establishment of new plants of this species. First, these trichomes constitute the main passage for water intake, which is essential for seed imbibition and germination, and after imbibition, they release mucilage that can adhere the diaspore. Therefore, the presence of myxocarpy in Asteraceae could be important in anemochoric species to avoid secondary dispersal. © 2015 Botanical Society of America.

  2. Polyacetylenes from the leaves of Vernonia scorpioides (Asteraceae) and their antiproliferative and antiherpetic activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollo, Luiz A E; Bosi, Cristiane F; Leite, Andrea S; Rigotto, Caroline; Kratz, Jadel; Simões, Claudia M O; Fonseca, David E P; Coimbra, Daniel; Caramori, Giovanni; Nepel, Angelita; Campos, Francinete R; Barison, Andersson; Biavatti, Maique W

    2013-11-01

    Polyacetylenes constitute an underexplored and unstable class of compounds that are found mainly in the Apiaceae, Araliaceae and Asteraceae families. Vernonia scorpioides (Lam.) Pers., Asteraceae is a lianous neotropical herb that usually grows in soils that have been deforested and are of poor quality. It is used in folk medicine for the treatment of several skin conditions. This study addresses the characterisation of eight polyacetylenes isolated from the leaves of V. scorpioides. Their structures were established on the basis of 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy and MS analysis. Ab initio calculations including solvent effects were employed to aid the elucidation of the absolute configurations of the compounds. The in vitro antiproliferative and anti-herpetic activities of the polyacetylenes were determined. The isolated compounds presented no inhibitory effect against a human cell line of non-small cell lung cancer, but presented a mild non-selective in vitro antiviral activity, although their corresponding glycosides were inactive. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. ALTITUDINAL DISTRIBUTION OF ASTERACEAE INVADERS, AUSTROEUPATORIUM INULIFOLIUM AND AGERATINA RIPARIA, IN THE DISTURBED FOREST OF BATUKAHU NATURE RESERVE, BALI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laily Mukaromah

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Biological invasions are a major threat to biodiversity worldwide. Here, we aim to assess the occurrence of two invasive Asteraceae, Austroeupatorium inulifolium and Ageratina riparia, and the extent of their distributional range along altitudinal gradients in Mt Pohen, Batukahu Nature Reserve, Bedugul, Bali. The cover abundance of Austroeupatorium inulifolium and Ageratina riparia were measured by establishing 92 plot samples in four different forest conditions encompassed elevational ranges from the lowest (forest borders to the highest elevation of Mt Pohen. Results showed that the abundance of both Asteraceae invaders were strongly correlated with disturbed habitats located at lower elevation. The forest borders at these forest sites were characterized by dense thicket of Austroeupatorium inulifolium and high abundance of Ageratina riparia. Both Asteraceae invaders reach their maximum altitudinal range up to the highest peak of the Mt Pohen. Results highlight that high abundance of these Asteraceae invaders which forms dense cover may lead to major forces of change in plant communities and forest ecosystem.

  4. The initiation of a biological control programme against pompom weed Campuloclinium macrocephalum (LESS.)DC (Asteraceae)in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pompom weed, Campuloclinium macrocephalum (Less.) DC. (Asteraceae), is a South American invasive that was first recorded in South Africa in the early 1960s. In the 1980s, C. macrocephalum started slowly extending its range and in the 1990s and 2000s it entered a dramatic expansion phase. It invade...

  5. Podospermic acid, 1,3,5-tri-O-(7,8-dihydrocaffeoyl) quinic acid from Podospermum laciniatum (Asteraceae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zidorn, Christian; Petersen, Bent O.; Udovicic ́, Vedrana

    2005-01-01

    A phytochemical investigation of Podospermum laciniatum (L.) DC. (Asteraceae) yielded the new quinic acid derivative podospermic acid (1,3,5-tridihydrocaffeoylquinic acid), which was named after the genus it was isolated from. The structure was established by HR mass spectrometry and extensive 1D...

  6. The first description of the leaf-mining Nepticulidae (Lepidoptera) feeding on the South American plant genus Liabum, Asteraceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stonis, Jonas R; Diškus, Arūnas; Remeikis, Andrius

    2015-11-13

    First Liabum Adans. (Asteraceae) feeding Nepticulidae are reported. Two new new species from the Andes (Ecuador) are described: Stigmella serpantina Diškus & Stonis, sp. nov. and S. pangorica Diškus & Stonis, sp. nov. The male genitalia of both species and the female genitalia, as well the leaf-mines of S. serpantina sp. nov. are illustrated.

  7. The application of multiplex fluorimetric sensor for the analysis of flavonoids content in the medicinal herbs family Asteraceae, Lamiaceae, Rosaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oksana Sytar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The aim of our research work was to quantify total flavonoid contents in the leaves of 13 plant species family Asteraceae, 8 representatives of family Lamiaceae and 9 plant species belonging to familyRosaceae, using the multiplex fluorimetric sensor. Fluorescence was measured using optical fluorescence apparatus Multiplex(R 3 (Force-A, France for non-destructive flavonoids estimation. The content of total flavonoids was estimated by FLAV index (expressed in relative units, that is deduced from flavonoids UV absorbing properties. RESULTS: Among observed plant species, the highest amount of total flavonoids has been found in leaves ofHelianthus multiflorus (1.65 RU and Echinops ritro (1.27 RU, Rudbeckia fulgida (1.13 RU belonging to the family Asteraceae. Lowest flavonoid content has been observed in the leaves of marigold (Calendula officinalis (0.14 RU also belonging to family Asteraceae. The highest content of flavonoids among experimental plants of family Rosaceae has been estimated in the leaves of Rosa canina (1.18 RU and among plant species of family Lamiaceae in the leaves of Coleus blumei (0.90 RU. CONCLUSIONS: This research work was done as pre-screening of flavonoids content in the leaves of plant species belonging to family Asteraceae, Lamiaceae and Rosaceae. Results indicated that statistically significant differences (P > 0.05 in flavonoids content were observed not only between families, but also among individual plant species within one family.

  8. Pollen morphology of the genus Eremanthus Less. (Vernonieae, Asteraceae Morfologia polínica de espécies do gênero Eremanthus Less. (Vernonieae, Asteraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BenoÎt Loeuille

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the significance of the pollen morphology for generic and infrageneric taxonomy of the genus Eremanthus (Vernonieae, Asteraceae, and to provide additional data for its phylogenetic reconstruction, the pollen of 20 of the 23 species of the genus was examined using light and scanning electron microscopy. Acetolysed pollen grains were measured, described, and illustrated using light microscopy, while non-acetolysed pollen grains were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy. Pollen grains of these species are isopolar, oblate-spheroidal in most of the species, more rarely prolate spheroidal or suboblate, subtriangular amb, tricolporate and subechinolophate. The variation among quantitative characters does not correlate with the macromorphological subdivision of the genus or with the generic or specific limits.Com a finalidade de avaliar a importância da morfologia polínica para a taxonomia de Eremanthus (Vernonieae, Asteraceae em nível genérico e infragenérico e fornecer dados adicionais para a sua reconstrução filogenética, os grãos de pólen de 20 das 23 espécies do gênero foram examinados usando a microscopia de luz e eletrônica de varredura. Os grãos de pólen foram acetolisados, medidos, descritos e ilustrados sob microscópio de luz. Para a análise em microscópio eletrônico de varredura foram utilizados grãos de pólen com e/ou sem tratamento químico. As espécies apresentaram grãos de pólen isopolares, oblato-esferoidais, na maioria dos táxons, mais raramente prolato-esferoidais ou suboblatos, âmbito subtriangular, tricolporados e subechinolofados. A variação entre os caracteres quantitativos não se correlacionam com a subdivisão macromorfológica do gênero nem com os limites genéricos ou específicos.

  9. The Tr-cp 14 cysteine protease in white clover (Trifolium repens) is localized to the endoplasmic reticulum and is associated with programmed cell death during development of tracheary elements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mulisch, Maria; Asp, Torben; Krupinska, Karin

    2013-01-01

    Cysteine proteases are known to be associated with programmed cell death, developmental senescence and some types of pathogen and stress-induced responses. In the present study, we have characterized the cysteine protease Tr-cp 14 in white clover (Trifolium repens). Tr-cp 14 belongs to the C1A...

  10. Vector-borne parasitic infections in dogs in the Baltic and Nordic countries: A questionnaire study to veterinarians on canine babesiosis and infections with Dirofilaria immitis and Dirofilaria repens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiškina, Valentina; Jokelainen, Pikka

    2017-09-15

    Canine vector-borne diseases have been spreading northwards in Europe, and canine babesiosis and infections with Dirofilaria immitis (heartworm) and Dirofilaria repens have been diagnosed also in the Baltic and the Nordic countries. We used an online questionnaire to survey how large a proportion of veterinarians in the Baltic (Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania) and the Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden) saw canine babesiosis cases and dogs infected with D. immitis and D. repens in 2016. In addition, questions regarding transmission, zoonotic potential, clinical signs, and treatment of the infections were asked. The questionnaire was completed by 122 veterinarians. In 2016, 23% of them had seen at least one case of canine babesiosis, 15% at least one dog with D. immitis infection, and 9% at least one dog with D. repens infection. A veterinarian working in the Baltic countries had 12.2 times higher odds to have seen a canine babesiosis case and 9.3 times higher odds to have seen a dog with D. repens infection than a veterinarian working in the Nordic countries did. While 48% of the veterinarians knew that canine babesiosis is not considered a zoonosis, 26% knew that D. immitis is zoonotic and 34% knew that D. repens is zoonotic. The results suggested that autochthonous cases of the three vector-borne parasitic infections were seen by veterinarians in the Baltic countries, whereas most cases seen by veterinarians in the Nordic countries appeared to be imported. A substantial proportion of the veterinarians did not know whether the parasites are zoonotic. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. A Comparison of the First Two Sequenced Chloroplast Genomes in Asteraceae: Lettuce and Sunflower

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Timme, Ruth E.; Kuehl, Jennifer V.; Boore, Jeffrey L.; Jansen, Robert K.

    2006-01-20

    Asteraceae is the second largest family of plants, with over 20,000 species. For the past few decades, numerous phylogenetic studies have contributed to our understanding of the evolutionary relationships within this family, including comparisons of the fast evolving chloroplast gene, ndhF, rbcL, as well as non-coding DNA from the trnL intron plus the trnLtrnF intergenic spacer, matK, and, with lesser resolution, psbA-trnH. This culminated in a study by Panero and Funk in 2002 that used over 13,000 bp per taxon for the largest taxonomic revision of Asteraceae in over a hundred years. Still, some uncertainties remain, and it would be very useful to have more information on the relative rates of sequence evolution among various genes and on genome structure as a potential set of phylogenetic characters to help guide future phylogenetic structures. By way of contributing to this, we report the first two complete chloroplast genome sequences from members of the Asteraceae, those of Helianthus annuus and Lactuca sativa. These plants belong to two distantly related subfamilies, Asteroideae and Cichorioideae, respectively. In addition to these, there is only one other published chloroplast genome sequence for any plant within the larger group called Eusterids II, that of Panax ginseng (Araliaceae, 156,318 bps, AY582139). Early chloroplast genome mapping studies demonstrated that H. annuus and L. sativa share a 22 kb inversion relative to members of the subfamily Barnadesioideae. By comparison to outgroups, this inversion was shown to be derived, indicating that the Asteroideae and Cichorioideae are more closely related than either is to the Barnadesioideae. Later sequencing study found that taxa that share this 22 kb inversion also contain within this region a second, smaller, 3.3 kb inversion. These sequences also enable an analysis of patterns of shared repeats in the genomes at fine level and of RNA editing by comparison to available EST sequences. In addition, since

  12. Assessment of In vitro Sun Protection Factor of Calendula Officinalis L. (Asteraceae) Essential Oil Formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Ak; Mishra, A; Chattopadhyay, P

    2012-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to study the sunscreen activity of herbal formulation. There is no evidence of the sun protection factor (SPF) studies on essential oil of Calendula flowers (Calendula officinalis L., Asteraceae). The study investigates the in vitro SPF by ultraviolet specrtophotometry method of Calendula flower oil in a cream formulation. Calendula oil was isolated by Clavenger's apparatus, compositions were identified by GC-MS and the cream of calendula flower oil was prepared by homogenization method followed by evaluation for physical parameters. The sun protection factor of cream was evaluated by in vitro method employing UV-visible spectrophotometer (Shimazdu-1600). The SPF of Calendula oil in cream formulation exhibited good activity (SPF = 14.84 ± 0.16). Finding of this study suggested that calendula oil cream can be used to protect the skin from UV radiations in form of sunscreen cream and to maintain the natural pigmentation of the skin.

  13. LA IDENTIDAD DE VERNONIA SETOSOSQUAMOSA (ASTERACEAE, VERNONIEAE: EVIDENCIAS CROMOSÓMICAS Y PALINOLÓGICAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Betiana Angulo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Vernonia setososquamosa (Asteraceae, Vernonieae has been considered by several authors as a synonym of V. remotiflora, as a variety of this taxon or a quite different, independent species. We analyzed chromosome and pollen morphology of both entities looking for information to clarify the status of V. setososquamosa. The latter taxon showed a somatic chromosome number of 2n=2x=30 with the karyotype composed of 22m + 6sm + 2st, while on the other hand V. remotiflora presented 2n=2x=28 and a karyotype formula having 22m + 4sm + 2st. The pollen of both entities was tricolporate, echinolophate, with lacunae disposed in a regular pattern; however, V. setososquamosa presented polar lacunae, whereas V. remotiflora did not. The results support the treatment of V. setososquamosa and V. remotiflora as different species.

  14. Synopsis of Plazia Ruiz & Pav. (Onoserideae, Asteraceae), including a new species from northern Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillon, Michael O; Luebert, Federico

    2014-01-01

    A synopsis of Plazia Ruiz & Pav. (Onoserideae, Asteraceae) is presented, including the description of a new species, Plazia robinsonii M.O.Dillon & Sagást., from a locality c. 20 kms west of Huamachuco, Department of La Libertad in northern Peru. It most closely resembles Plazia conferta Ruiz & Pav., a narrow endemic from central Peru some 450 km to the south; however, the latter species has larger leaves and smaller capitula. Plazia is a small genus of four species confined to the Andean Cordillera of Peru, Bolivia, Chile, and Argentina. A distribution map of the four species, an illustration of the new species, a photograph of the holotype, and a key to species are provided.

  15. VOLATILE COMPONENTS FROM GALLS INDUCED BY Baccharopelma dracunculifoliae (Hemiptera: Psyllidae ON LEAVES OF Baccharis dracunculifolia (Asteraceae

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    Michele Aparecida Besten

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The volatile components of the galls induced by the insect Baccharopelma dracunculifoliae (Hemiptera: Psyllidae on leaves of Baccharis dracunculifolia (Asteraceae were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS and gas chromatographyflame- ionisation detection (GC-FID, and then comparison with volatile oil samples from healthy leaves collected in the vicinity. The galls produced around 3.5% of the total organic volatiles whereas healthy leaves rendered an average yield of 0.6%. The observed higher proportions of germacrene D, bicyclogermacrene, limonene, and β-pinene in the galls suggest that all these compounds are important targets in the search for natural enemies of this Psyllid. Moreover, higher relative percentages of (E-nerolidol and spathulenol were found in healthy leaves.

  16. A taxonomic revision of the genus lactuca L. (cicihorieae- asteraceae) from Pakistan and Kashmir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qaiser, M.; Bano, R.

    2011-01-01

    The genus Lactuca L. of the tribe Cichorieae-Asteraceae is taxonomically revised from Pakistan and Kashmir. The revision is based on study of large number of herbarium specimens. In few cases plants have also been studied in their natural habitat. A total of 13 species are recognized from Pakistan and Kashmir including 1 new species i.e. Lactuca erostrata Roohi Bano and Qaiser. A new combination Lactuca orientalis subsp. nuristanica (Podlech) Roohi Bano and Qaiser is also proposed. All the taxa valid or synonyms have been typified with the help of type specimens and literature. Key to the species along with detailed morphological description and ecological notes of each taxon are also given. (author)

  17. A new genus and species of Lasiopteridi (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae on Haplopappus foliosus (Asteraceae from Chile

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    Valéria Cid Maia

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT A new genus and species of gall midge, Haplopappusmyia gregaria, is described and illustrated (larva, pupa, male, and female. This species induces apical galls on Haplopappus foliosus (Asteraceae, an endemic shrub from central Chile. The specimens were collected at La Ligua Municipality, Petorca Province, Valparaiso region, Chile, during spring of 2011-2014. This area corresponds to one of the fifth Mediterranean Matorral biome, considered among Earth's biodiversity hotspots. The new genus is characterized by presenting lateral margin of antennal scape with a mesal reentrance; four-segmented palpus, one-toothed tarsal claws, R5 straight, reaching C anterior to wing apex; male seventh and eighth tergites lacking sclerotization mesally, beyond proximal margin; presence of trichoid sensilla on the abdominal terga and sterna of both sexes, protrusible ovipositor with elongate fused cerci, and larva with 4 pairs of setose terminal papillae.

  18. Seed set in guayule (Parthenium argentatum, Asteraceae) in relation to insect pollination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mamood, A.N.; Waller, G.D. (U.S. Department of Agriculture, Tucson, AZ (USA)); Ray, D.T. (Univ. of Arizona, Tucson (USA))

    Guayule (Parthenium argentatum, Asteraceae) is one of two major plant species grown for natural rubber. Studies were conducted to determine the effect of honey bee (Apis mellifera) pollination and season on seed set and total seed yield/ha. The experiments involved four pollination treatments: plants caged with bees; plants caged without bees; plants open pollinated (uncovered); and plants individually covered. Seeds were harvested monthly July-September 1984, and May-September 1985. Plots with bees produced at least 150% more seeds than plots without bees, and there were no qualitative differences in the seed weights among treatments. Highest seed yield was in May and September. Results indicate that (1) insect pollination in guayule increases seed yield and (2) fewer seeds are produced in the warmest months.

  19. Clave interactiva para los géneros de la familia Asteraceae (Compositae presentes en la reserva municipal de Cogua (Cundinamarca, Colombia

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    Juan Carlos Gómez

    2005-01-01

    Asteraceae presentes en la reserva, utilizando solamente los caracteres de tipo vegetativo, con escaso uso de los caracteres de inflorescencia, y nulo requerimiento de caracteres florales. Esto es un resultado asombroso y no esperado para la familia Asteraceae, cuyas claves tradicionales requieren, desde el comienzo caracteres reproductivos. Es posible apreciar así la alta efectividad de la clave y la gran utilidad del programa DELTA.

  20. Heavy metal tolerance in Agropyron repens (L. P. Bauv. populations from the Legnica copper smelter area, Lower Silesia

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    Teresa Brej

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The copper smelter "Legnica" is one of the oldest plants in Lower Silesia. Among the few weed species spontaneously migrating to the area around the emitter there is couch grass (Agropyron repens (L. P. Bauv.. The purpose of this study was to analyse whether the local couch grass populations, growing at various distances from the smelter, differ in tolerance to heavy metals occurring in this area. The populations were tested for tolerance to five metals (Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd, Ni using the root elongation method. The highest tolerance to Pb developed in two populations localized nearest the smelter. Similarly, all populations of couch grass from the vicinity of the smelter show a high tolerance to copper, particularly the plants from the most contaminated site. The IT for the latter population is almost 1509r, even at the highest dose of Cu. For Zn a nearing IT as for Cu was obtained. Comparing the shape of IT curves for Cd, special emphasis is put on the fact that a fixed tolerance to cadmium occurs only in the population localized closest to the emitter. The analysis of Ni-tolerance curves, of which the content in local soil is minimal, does not confirm the thesis on possibility of development of co-tolerance in the surveyed populations. It appeared that stress conditions existing near the smelter do not inhibit seed production in couch grass, but prevent a successful course of their germination on polluted soil. The improvement of soil even by 50% (addition of unpolluted soil does not improve the poor process of germination in couch grass growing nearest to the smelter. Of importance is the fact that the highest number of seeds germinated on their own, polluted soil. The need of metals' content for plant germination in populations most distant from the smelter is evidenced by an almost 30% reduction of germination ability of local seeds after addition of unpolluted soil. Another significant observation was the fact that, in spite of a poor

  1. Arbuscular mycorrhiza enhanced arsenic resistance of both white clover (Trifolium repens Linn.) and ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) plants in an arsenic-contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yan; Zhu, Yong-Guan; Smith, F Andrew; Wang, Youshan; Chen, Baodong

    2008-09-01

    In a compartmented cultivation system, white clover (Trifolium repens Linn.) and ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.), with their roots freely intermingled, or separated by 37 microm nylon mesh or plastic board, were grown together in an arsenic (As) contaminated soil. The influence of AM inoculation on plant growth, As uptake, phosphorus (P) nutrition, and plant competitions were investigated. Results showed that both plant species highly depended on mycorrhizas for surviving the As contamination. Mycorrhizal inoculation substantially improved plant P nutrition, and in contrast markedly decreased root to shoot As translocation and shoot As concentrations. It also showed that mycorrhizas affected the competition between the two co-existing plant species, preferentially benefiting the clover plants in term of nutrient acquisition and biomass production. Based on the present study, the role of AM fungi in plant adaptation to As contamination, and their potential use for ecological restoration of As contaminated soils are discussed.

  2. Influence of fly ash aided phytostabilisation of Pb, Cd and Zn highly contaminated soils on Lolium perenne and Trifolium repens metal transfer and physiological stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopareva-Pohu, A.; Verdin, A.; Garcon, G.; Sahraoui, A.L.H.; Pourrut, B.; Debiane, D.; Waterlot, C.; Laruelle, F.; Bidar, G.; Douay, F.; Shirali, P. [University of Lille Nord France, Lille (France)

    2011-06-15

    Due to anthropogenic activities, large extends of soils are highly contaminated by Metal Trace Element (MTE). Aided phytostabilisation aims to establish a vegetation cover in order to promote in situ immobilisation of trace elements by combining the use of metal-tolerant plants and inexpensive mineral or organic soil amendments. Eight years after Coal Fly Ash (CFA) soil amendment, MTE bioavailability and uptake by two plants, Lolium perenne and Trifolium repens, were evaluated, as some biological markers reflecting physiological stress. Results showed that the two plant species under study were suitable to reduce the mobility and the availability of these elements. Moreover, the plant growth was better on CFA amended MTE-contaminated soils, and the plant sensitivity to MTE-induced physiological stress, as studied through photosynthetic pigment contents and oxidative damage was lower or similar. In conclusion, these results supported the usefulness of aided phytostabilisation of MTE-highly contaminated soils.

  3. Seasonal and annual variations of metal uptake, bioaccumulation, and toxicity in Trifolium repens and Lolium perenne growing in a heavy metal-contaminated field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidar, Géraldine; Pruvot, Christelle; Garçon, Guillaume; Verdin, Anthony; Shirali, Pirouz; Douay, Francis

    2009-01-01

    The reclamation of nonferrous metal-polluted soil by phytoremediation requires an overall and permanent plant cover. To select the most suitable plant species, it is necessary to study metal effects on plants over the time, thereby checking that metals remain stored in root systems and not transferred to aerial parts. In this purpose, the seasonal and annual variations of metal bioaccumulation, transfer, and phytotoxicity in Trifolium repens and Lolium perenne grown in a Cd-, Pb-, and Zn-contaminated soil were also studied. The experimental site was located near a closed smelter. In spring 2004, two areas were sown with T. repens and L. perenne, respectively. Thereafter, the samplings of plant roots and shoots and surrounding soils were realized in autumn 2004 and spring and autumn 2005. The soil agronomic characteristics, the Cd, Pb, and Zn concentrations in the surrounded soils and plant organs, as well as the oxidative alterations (superoxide dismutase [SOD], malondialdehyde [MDA], and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine [8-OHdG]) in plant organs were carried out. Whatever the sampling period, metal concentrations in soils and plants were higher than background values. Contrary to the soils, the fluctuations of metal concentrations were observed in plant organs over the time. Bioaccumulation and transfer factors confirmed that metals were preferentially accumulated in the roots as follows: Cd>Zn>Pb, and their transfer to shoots was limited. Foliar metal deposition was also observed. The results showed that there were seasonal and annual variations of metal accumulation in the two studied plant species. These variations differed according to the organs and followed nearly the same pattern for the two species. Oxidative alterations were observed in plant organs with regard to SOD antioxidant activities, MDA, and 8-OHdG concentrations. These alterations vary according to the temporal variations of metal concentrations. Metal concentrations in surrounded soils and plant

  4. Chemical Composition, Antibacterial Activity, and Synergistic Effects with Conventional Antibiotics and Nitric Oxide Production Inhibitory Activity of Essential Oil from Geophila repens (L. I.M. Johnst

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    Huijuanzi Rao

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Geophila repens (L. I.M. Johnst, a perennial herb, belongs to the Rubiaceae family. In this study, we identified the chemical composition of the Geophila repens essential oil (GR-EO for the first time. Totally, seventy-seven compounds were identified according to GC and GC-MS, which represent 98.0% of the oil. And the major components of GR-EO were β-caryophyllene (23.3%, β-elemene (8.0%, farnesyl butanoate (7.4%, myrcene (3.5%, and trans-nerolidol (3.3%. Then we evaluated the antibacterial activities of GR-EO and the synergistic effects of GR-EO in combination with commercial antibiotics using the microdilution and Checkerboard method. The results demonstrated that GR-EO possessed an excellent broad spectrum antibacterial activity, especially against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Bacillus subtilis. It also showed that the combined application of GR-EO with antibiotics led to synergistic effects in most cases. And the most prominent synergistic effect was noticed when GR-EO was in combination with Streptomycin and tested against Escherichia coli (fractional inhibitory concentration indices (FICI of 0.13. Additionally, the results of a Griess assay revealed that GR-EO exhibited a potent inhibitory effect on NO production in lipopolysaccharide (LPS-activated RAW 264.7 (murine macrophage cells. In conclusion, the combination of GR-EO and the commercial antibiotics has significant potential for the development of new antimicrobial treatment and reduction of drug resistance.

  5. WOOD ANATOMY OF TWO SPECIES OF THE GENUS Heterothalamus Lessing (ASTERACEAE FROM RIO GRANDE DO SUL (BRAZIL

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    Anabela Silveira de Oliveira

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The present work describes the wood anatomy of Heterothalamus alienus and Heterothalamus rupestris (Astereae - Asteraceae, as part of the secondary xylem study in the named genus. For the two species it was recorded some features usually mentioned in the literature for the Asteraceae, as typically small vessels, grouped in a dendritic pattern, the presence of only simple perforation plates and of paratracheal parenchyma. Heterothalamus alienus shows spiral thickenings in the wood vessels and storied vasicentric axial parenchyma. Heterothalamus rupestris differs itself by the absence of spiral thickenings in wood vessels and by no storied axial parenchyma, in paratracheal vasicentric to unilateral patterns. Photomicrographs, quantitative data of anatomical features and a comparison between the two  species of wood are also provided.

  6. Development of novel low-copy nuclear markers for Hieraciinae (Asteraceae) and their perspective for other tribes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krak, Karol; Álvarez, I.; Caklová, Petra; Costa, A.; Chrtek, Jindřich; Fehrer, Judith

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 99, č. 2 (2012), s. 74-77 ISSN 0002-9122 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP506/10/1363; GA ČR GA206/05/0657 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : Asteraceae * Hieraciinae * low-copy nuclear markers Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 2.586, year: 2012

  7. Rapid Identification of Asteraceae Plants with Improved RBF-ANN Classification Models Based on MOS Sensor E-Nose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Hui-Qin; Li, Shuo; Huang, Ying-Hua; Liu, Yong; Bauer, Rudolf; Peng, Lian; Tao, Ou; Yan, Su-Rong; Yan, Yong-Hong

    2014-01-01

    Plants from Asteraceae family are widely used as herbal medicines and food ingredients, especially in Asian area. Therefore, authentication and quality control of these different Asteraceae plants are important for ensuring consumers' safety and efficacy. In recent decades, electronic nose (E-nose) has been studied as an alternative approach. In this paper, we aim to develop a novel discriminative model by improving radial basis function artificial neural network (RBF-ANN) classification model. Feature selection algorithms, including principal component analysis (PCA) and BestFirst + CfsSubsetEval (BC), were applied in the improvement of RBF-ANN models. Results illustrate that in the improved RBF-ANN models with lower dimension data classification accuracies (100%) remained the same as in the original model with higher-dimension data. It is the first time to introduce feature selection methods to get valuable information on how to attribute more relevant MOS sensors; namely, in this case, S1, S3, S4, S6, and S7 show better capability to distinguish these Asteraceae plants. This paper also gives insights to further research in this area, for instance, sensor array optimization and performance improvement of classification model.

  8. Biological Activities of Asteraceae (Achillea millefolium and Calendula officinalis) and Lamiaceae (Melissa officinalis and Origanum majorana) Plant Extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Risco, Mónica R; Mouhid, Lamia; Salas-Pérez, Lilia; López-Padilla, Alexis; Santoyo, Susana; Jaime, Laura; Ramírez de Molina, Ana; Reglero, Guillermo; Fornari, Tiziana

    2017-03-01

    Asteraceae (Achillea millefolium and Calendula officinalis) and Lamiaceae (Melissa officinalis and Origanum majorana) extracts were obtained by applying two sequential extraction processes: supercritical fluid extraction with carbon dioxide, followed by ultrasonic assisted extraction using green solvents (ethanol and ethanol:water 50:50). The extracts were analyzed in terms of the total content of phenolic compounds and the content of flavonoids; the volatile oil composition of supercritical extracts was analyzed by gas chromatography and the antioxidant capacity and cell toxicity was determined. Lamiaceae plant extracts presented higher content of phenolics (and flavonoids) than Asteraceae extracts. Regardless of the species studied, the supercritical extracts presented the lowest antioxidant activity and the ethanol:water extracts offered the largest, following the order Origanum majorana > Melissa officinalis ≈ Achillea millefolium > Calendula officinalis. However, concerning the effect on cell toxicity, Asteraceae (especially Achillea millefolium) supercritical extracts were significantly more efficient despite being the less active as an antioxidant agent. These results indicate that the effect on cell viability is not related to the antioxidant activity of the extracts.

  9. Parasitoid Wasps in Flower Heads of Asteraceae in the Brazilian Cerrado: Taxonomical Composition and Determinants of Diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, A R; Almeida-Neto, M; Almeida, A M; Fonseca, C R; Lewinsohn, T M; Penteado-Dias, A M

    2014-08-01

    This study provides the first survey of the parasitoid fauna reared in flower heads of Asteraceae in the Brazilian cerrado. We investigated the relative importance of herbivore richness and plant species commonness to differences in parasitoid species richness among the plant species. A total of 15,372 specimens from 192 morphospecies belonging to 103 genera of Hymenoptera were reared from the flower heads of 74 Asteraceae species. Chalcidoidea and Ichneumonoidea were the most common superfamilies, with Eulophidae and Braconidae as the main families of parasitoid wasps. Singletons and doubletons accounted for 45% of total parasitoid species richness. The number of parasitoid species per plant species ranged from 1 to 67, and the variation in parasitoid species richness among plants was mainly explained by the number of sites in which the plants were recorded. This study shows that there is a highly diversified fauna of Hymenoptera parasitoids associated with flower heads of Asteraceae in the Brazilian cerrado. Our findings suggest that the accumulation of parasitoid species on plants is mainly determined by the regional commonness of plant species rather than the number of herbivore species associated with the plants.

  10. Cheirolophus intybaceus (Asteraceae, Centaureinae or the constancy of 2C value

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    Sánchez-Jiménez, I.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Cheirolophus intybaceus (Asteraceae, Centaureinae or the constancy of 2C value.- Cheirolophus intybaceus is a heliophyte growing in thermal Mediterranean scrublands along a coastal belt of 50 km large, stretching from Toulon (France to the Southern part of the Iberian Peninsula, occurring also in the Balearic Islands (with the exception of Minorca. Moreover, this species is also growing in high and sunny lands in the Mediterranean river basins, constituting a complex of taxa closely related among them. The objectives of this work are: i to provide new genome size data for some Asteraceae species; ii to study the variation of DNA amount along a species distribution area; iii to evaluate the discrimination capability of this parameter at low taxonomic levels. A signicantly positive correlation between the DNA amount and the latitude has been found, that is, in drier and warmer habitats genome size tends to decrease in this species. The variation in the whole distribution area of Ch. intybaceus is 1.15-fold. This low variability supports the constancy of 2C-value.

    Cheirolophus intybaceus es una especie heliófila propia de los matorrales mediterráneos termófilos que crece en una franja litoral de unos 50 km de anchura que va desde Tolón (Var, Francia hasta el sur de la península Ibérica, estando también presente en las islas Baleares (excepto en Menorca. Se encuentra también en las zonas elevadas y soleadas de las cuencas fluviales mediterráneas, formando un complejo de táxones estrechamente relacionados entre sí. Los objetivos de este trabajo son: i contribuir a la aportación de datos de tamaño del genoma para diversas especies de Asteraceae; ii estudiar la variación de la cantidad de ADN a lo largo del área de distribución de una especie; iii evaluar la capacidad de discriminación de este parámetro a niveles taxonómicos bajos. Se ha encontrado una correlación positiva y significativa entre la

  11. Patterns of MADS-box gene expression mark flower-type development in Gerbera hybrida (Asteraceae

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    Teeri Teemu H

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The inflorescence of the cut-flower crop Gerbera hybrida (Asteraceae consists of two principal flower types, ray and disc, which form a tightly packed head, or capitulum. Despite great interest in plant morphological evolution and the tractability of the gerbera system, very little is known regarding genetic mechanisms involved in flower type specification. Here, we provide comparative staging of ray and disc flower development and microarray screening for differentially expressed genes, accomplished via microdissection of hundreds of coordinately developing flower primordia. Results Using a 9K gerbera cDNA microarray we identified a number of genes with putative specificity to individual flower types. Intrestingly, several of these encode homologs of MADS-box transcription factors otherwise known to regulate flower organ development. From these and previously obtained data, we hypothesize the functions and protein-protein interactions of several gerbera MADS-box factors. Conclusion Our RNA expression results suggest that flower-type specific MADS protein complexes may play a central role in differential development of ray and disc flowers across the gerbera capitulum, and that some commonality is shared with known protein functions in floral organ determination. These findings support the intriguing conjecture that the gerbera flowering head is more than a mere floral analog at the level of gene regulation.

  12. Microsculpture of cypselae surface of Baccharis sect. Caulopterae (Asteraceae from Brazil

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    Boldrini, Ilsi Iob

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to characterize the microsculpture of the cypselae surface of the Brazilian species of Baccharis L. sect. Caulopterae DC. (Asteraceae, and to compare this data it with the taxonomy of the group. Scanning electron microscopy was used to examine the cypsela surface of 25 taxa of Baccharis sect. Caulopterae from Brazil. According to the micromorphology of the cypsela surface, the species can be classified into five distinct groups. The cypselae of the species of the Baccharis trimera species complex (B. crispa, B. cylindrica, B. jocheniana, B. myriocephala, and B. trimera share the same micromorphological features.Para examinar la superficie de cipselas de 25 táxones de Baccharis L. sect. Caulopterae DC. de Brasil se ha utilizado la microscopía electrónica de barrido. El objetivo del estudio fue caracterizar la microescultura de la superficie de cipselas de la sección y colaborar con la delimitación taxonómica a nivel específico. Las especies fueron clasificadas en cinco grupos distintos según la micromorfología y asignados a la terminología existente. El complejo Baccharis trimera (B. crispa, B. cylindrica, B. jocheniana, B. myriocephala y B. trimera mostró afinidades micromorfológicas de las cipselas.

  13. Anti-inflammatory intestinal activity of Arctium lappa L. (Asteraceae) in TNBS colitis model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida, Ana Beatriz Albino; Sánchez-Hidalgo, Marina; Martín, Antonio Ramón; Luiz-Ferreira, Anderson; Trigo, José Roberto; Vilegas, Wagner; dos Santos, Lourdes Campaner; Souza-Brito, Alba Regina Monteiro; de la Lastra, Catalina Alarcón

    2013-03-07

    In Brazilian traditional medicine, Arctium lappa (Asteraceae), has been reported to relieve gastrointestinal symptoms. In the present study, we investigated the effects of the lactone sesquiterpene onopordopicrin enriched fraction (ONP fraction) from Arctium lappa in an experimental colitis model induced by 2,4,6 trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid and performed experiments to elucidate the underlying action mechanisms involved in that effect. ONP fraction (25 and 50 mg/kg/day) was orally administered 48, 24 and 1 h prior to the induction of colitis and 24 h after. The inflammatory response was assessed by gross appearance, myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) levels and a histological study of the lesions. We determined cyclooxygenase (COX)-1 and -2 protein expressions by western blotting and immunohistochemistry assays. TNBS group was characterized by increased colonic wall thickness, edema, diffuse inflammatory cell infiltration, increased MPO activity and TNF-α levels. On the contrary, ONP fraction (25 and 50 mg/kg) treatment significantly reduced the macroscopic inflammation scores (pArctium lappa exert marked protective effects in acute experimental colitis, confirming and justifying, at least in part, the popular use of this plant to treat gastrointestinal diseases. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Phytochemical and Cytogenetic Characterization of Centaurea solstitialis L. (Asteraceae) from Croatia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carev, Ivana; Ruščić, Mirko; Skočibušić, Mirjana; Maravić, Ana; Siljak-Yakovlev, Sonja; Politeo, Olivera

    2017-02-01

    The cytogenetic characterization of Centaurea solstitialis L. (Asteraceae) showed a chromosome number of 2n = 16. Karyotype is composed by four pairs of metacentric, two pairs of submetacentric and two pairs of subtelocentric chromosomes. Physical mapping of two rDNA probes revealed two loci of 35S and one locus of 5S rRNA genes. Chromomycin fluorochrome banding revealed that all rDNA loci were GC rich. The genome size (2C-value) of 1.95 pg classes this species in the group of very small genomes. Chemical composition of C. solstitialis volatile oil (VO) from Croatia, studied with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry showed dominant components as it follows: hexadecanoic acid, α-linolenic acid, germacrene D and heptacosane. Antioxidant capacity, measured by ferric reducing power assay and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl methods, as well as inhibition of acetyl- and butyrylcholinesterase of VO was lower comparing to a standard solutions. Volatile oil tested with disc diffusion method showed good inhibitory potential against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli and all tested fungi: Candida albicans, Penicillium funiculosum and Aspergillus fumigatus. The microdilution method showed best activity against Chronobacter sakazakii and A. fumigatus. © 2017 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zurich, Switzerland.

  15. Home at Last II: Gerbera hieracioides (Kunth Zardini (Mutisieae, Asteraceae is really a Chaptalia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaodan Xu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Gerbera hieracioides (Kunth Zardini of the Gerbera-complex (Mutisieae, Asteraceae/Compositae is distributed in Ecuador and Peru. This perennial herb was first named as Onoseris hieracioides Kunth and was later recognised as Trichocline hieracioides (Kunth Ferreyra. Now it is generally treated as Gerbera hieracioides (Kunth Zardini but it has never been included in any section of Gerbera. In this study, the position of Gerbera hieracioides is assessed based on morphology and a molecular phylogeny that includes G. hieracioides and 28 other species from the Gerbera-complex. Morphologically, G. hieracioides bears leaves with the adaxial epidermal surface without stomates but with soft thin trichomes, bracteate scapes, trimorphic capitula and inner ray florets with the corolla shorter than the style. These characters suggest that the species is most closely related to Chaptalia rather than to Gerbera or Trichocline. Furthermore, the phylogenetic results based on two nuclear (ITS and ETS and two chloroplast (trnL–trnF and trnL–rpl32 sequences strongly support the placement of G. hieracioides nested within Chaptalia. As both morphological characters and the molecular phylogenetic results support the transfer of G. hieracioides to Chaptalia, this enigmatic taxon is recognised as Chaptalia hieracioides (Kunth X.-D. Xu & W. Zheng.

  16. Anatomy and ultrastructure of floral nectary of lnula helenium L (Asteraceae

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    Aneta Sulborska

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Floral nectaries of Inula helenium L. only occurred in disc florets and were situated above the inferior ovary. The shape of the investigated glands (five-armed star with rounded tips and deep incisions - observed from above clearly differed from the shape of the nectaries of other Asteraceae, also the height of nectary was much lower (129 µm. The glandular tissue of the nectaries of elecampane was composed of a single-layered epidermis and 5--9 layers of secretory cells. Nectar was released through modified stomata, mainly arranged in the top part of the gland. The secretory cells were characterised by granular cytoplasm and the presence of a large, often lobate, cell nucleus. In the cytosol, numerous amoeboid plastids, mitochondria, Golgi bodies and ribosomes were present. In small vacuoles, myelin-like structures, fibrous material and vesicles with the content of substances which can be secretion, were observed. The plastid stroma showed different electron density and the presence of internal tubules and plastoglobules. Vesicular extensions forming bright zones were visible between the membranes of the nuclear envelope. Adjacent to the plasmalemma, as well as between the plasmalemma and the cell wall, secretory vesicles occurred, indicating the granulocrine mechanism of nectar secretion.

  17. The effects of extraction method on recovery rutin from Calendula officinalis L. (Asteraceae).

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    Martins, Frederico Severino; da Conceição, Edemilson Cardoso; Bandeira, Elane Sousa; Silva, José Otávio Carréra; Costa, Roseane Maria Ribeiro

    2014-08-01

    Calendula officinalis L. (Asteraceae) is a Mediterranean specie, but in Europe and America it is cultivated for ornamental or medicinal purposes. This species is widely used for presenting activities, antiinflammatory antibacterial and antioxidant. However the therapeutic action is linked to the amount of assets of the extracted raw material. The extraction method of bioactive compounds is an important step in the manufacturing of herbal medicines, because secondary metabolites with therapeutic potential are usually found in small quantities in plant materials. Due the medical and commercial importance of C. officinalis, this study aimed to evaluate the impact of the extraction method on the quality of herbal extract and optimize the extraction of rutin from C. officinalis. The extraction of rutin was performed by ultrasound and shaker and the optimized conditions were determined by response surface methodology. The results of ultrasound extraction assisted (UEA) and maceration dynamic (MD) showed that rutin yield ranged from 0.218 to 2.28% (w/w) when extract by ultrasound and 0.1-1.44% by MD. The optimal extraction condition for rutin (2.48% to UEA or 1.46% to MD) from C. officinalis by UEA or MD were a 19-22 min extraction, ethanol: water ratio of 35-40% and 0.05-0.056 mg/mL to raw material: solvent ratio. The UEA is more efficient to extraction rutin.

  18. Insecticide Activity of Ageratina jahnii and Ageratina pichinchensis (Asteraceae) against Lutzomyia migonei (Diptera: Psychodidae).

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    Torres, Lizzeth; Rojas, Janne; Rondón, Maritza; Morales, Antonio; Nieves, Elsa

    2017-01-01

    Insects are mostly pathogens transmitters, thus the necessity of finding effective bioinsecticides to combat them. In the present investigation, the insecticide activity of Ageratina jahnii and Ageratina pichinchensis (Asteraceae) essential oils, methanol, and aqueous extracts was evaluated against Lutzomyia migonei (Diptera: Psychodidae) females, Leishmania transmitters, a wide distributed parasitosis in Latin America. All extracts were prepared by maceration at room temperature, and essential oils were obtained by hydrodistillation process. Females of L. migonei were used in the bioassays using the adulticide test in pots. Essential oils from both assayed plant species showed 100% of L. migonei mortality at 48 h of exposure at the concentration of 10 mg/ml. A. jahnii essential oil exhibited the following values, LD 50 = 0.39 mg/ml, LD 90 = 1.57 mg/ml, LD 95 = 2.31 mg/ml, and LD 99 = 4.80 mg/ml while for A. pichinchensis essential oil values were LD 50 = 0.31 mg/ml, LD 90 = 0.99 mg/ml, LD 95 = 1.38 mg/ml, and LD 99 = 2.55 mg/ml. Higher toxicity was observed with A. pichinchensis essential oil against L. migonei , comparing to A. jahnii oil. Two new plant species are being reported, showing bioactive properties against common tropical disease vectors such as L. migonei , hence, opening possibilities to a more environmental friendly control.

  19. Anatomy and fructan distribution in vegetative organs of Dimerostemma vestitum (Asteraceae from the campos rupestres

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    Taiza M. Silva

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Among the compounds stored by plants, several functions are assigned to fructans, such as source of energy and protection against drought and extreme temperatures. In the present study we analyzed the anatomy and distribution of fructans in vegetative organs of Dimerostemma vestitum (Asteraceae, an endemic species from the Brazilian campos rupestres. D. vestitum has amphistomatic and pubescent leaves, with both glandular and non-glandular trichomes. In the basal aerial stem the medulla has two types of parenchyma, which differ from the apical portion. The xylopodium has mixed anatomical origin. Interestingly, although inulin-type fructans with high degree of polymerization were found in all analyzed organs except the leaves, the highest amount and maximum degree of polymerization were detected in the xylopodium. Inulin sphero-crystals were visualized under polarized light in the medulla and in the vascular tissues mainly in the central region of the xylopodium, which has abundant xylem parenchyma. Secretory structures accumulating several compounds but not inulin were identified within all the vegetative organs. The presence of these compounds, in addition to inulin, might be related to the strategies of plants to survive adverse conditions in a semi-arid region, affected seasonally by water restriction and frequently by fire.

  20. Embryology of Ageratum conyzoides L. and A. fastigiatum R.M. King & H. Rob. (Asteraceae

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    Rafael de Oliveira Franca

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Ageratum has a complex circumscription, and recent studies have indicated its polyphyletism. The genus has been placed in the tribe Eupatorieae whose embryology is not fully known. Embryological data are conservative and important indicators of phylogenetic relationships and can improve family relationships. This study presents, for the first time in Eupatorieae, embryological data for Ageratum conyzoides and A. fastigiatum. Both species have common features of the family such as a unitegmic anatropous ovule, basal placentation, secretory tapetum, Polygonum megagametophyte, and Asterad embryogenesis. The data obtained reinforce the heterogeneity of the family embryology and show, for the first time, the anther wall development of the monocotyledonous type for Asteraceae. The species studied show also differences between themselves. A. conyzoides has bisporangiated and introrse anthers, conspicuous pappus, and cypselae with trichomes on the ribs, whereas A. fastigiatum has tetrasporangiate and latrorse anthers, pappus absent at maturity, and glabrous cypselae. The data presented support recent phylogenetic molecular studies, suggesting the replacement of A. fastigiatum to another genus along with Gyptidinae.

  1. Preliminary Results on the Phytophagous Insect Fauna on Onopordum acanthium (Asteraceae in Bulgaria

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    Vili Harizanova

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The Scotch thistle, Onopordum acanthium (Asteraceae has the Eurasian origin and represents an invasive weed in the USA and Australia. It is a serious problem in pastures,along roadsides, rangeland, etc. The weed is very common in Bulgaria and in 2009-2010several sites with large populations of O. acanthium have been located. The weekly surveys of some of the sites, mainly in the region of Plovdiv, revealed a significant diversity of phytophagous insect species, some of which had very high population density.More than 30 species have already been identified and observations on the phenology and biology of some of them have been conducted. For some of the species, such as endophagous Larinus latus, Lixus cardui, Eublemma amoena, Trichosirocalus briesei, or ectophagous Cassida rubiginosa etc. found during our surveys, there are reports in the literature describing them as having been already introduced as successful biocontrol agents in Australia. Endophagous species like lepidopteran Myelois circumvoluta and Pyroderces argyrogrammos which feed on the stems and the head, and the tephritid flies ephritis postica and Chaetostomella cylindrica which feed on the capitula, seem quite destructive for the weed, but need to be further studied regarding host specificity. Species like Vanessacardui and Brachycaudus cardui were found regularly, but in low population density, mainly due to the high rate of parasitism.

  2. Antimicrobial and antioxidative activity of various leaf extracts of Amphoricarpos vis. (Asteraceae taxa

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    Gavrilović Milan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The antimicrobial and antioxidative activities of diethyl ether, 80% methanol and 50% acetone extracts of the leaves of three Amphoricarpos taxa (Asteraceae; A. neumayerianus, A. autariatus ssp. autariatus and A. autariatus ssp. bertisceus from the Balkan Peninsula were investigated. The antimicrobial activity was determined by the broth microdilution assay against eight bacterial and eight fungal species. The in vitro antioxidative activity was assessed by the DPPH assay. The total phenolic and flavonoid contents were also determined. The most sensitive bacterial species were Bacillus cereus and Staphylococcus aureus. The best antibacterial potential was obtained for the methanol extract of A. neumayerianus, while the diethyl ether extract of this species showed the lowest effect. In general, the tested extracts showed higher activity than the commercial antibiotics streptomycin and ampicillin. Also, all micromycetes were sensitive to the tested extracts. The most sensitive was Trichoderma viride. The highest and lowest antifungal effect was determined in A. a. ssp. autariatus for the diethyl ether and acetone extracts, respectively. The highest total phenolic and flavonoid contents were determined in the methanol extract of A. a. autariatus. The best antioxidative activity was demonstrated by the methanol extract of A. a. ssp. autariatus as comparing to matching extracts from the other two taxa.

  3. Insecticide Activity of Ageratina jahnii and Ageratina pichinchensis (Asteraceae against Lutzomyia migonei (Diptera: Psychodidae

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    Lizzeth Torres

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Insects are mostly pathogens transmitters, thus the necessity of finding effective bioinsecticides to combat them. In the present investigation, the insecticide activity of Ageratina jahnii and Ageratina pichinchensis (Asteraceae essential oils, methanol, and aqueous extracts was evaluated against Lutzomyia migonei (Diptera: Psychodidae females, Leishmania transmitters, a wide distributed parasitosis in Latin America. Materials and Methods: All extracts were prepared by maceration at room temperature, and essential oils were obtained by hydrodistillation process. Females of L. migonei were used in the bioassays using the adulticide test in pots. Results: Essential oils from both assayed plant species showed 100% of L. migonei mortality at 48 h of exposure at the concentration of 10 mg/ml. A. jahnii essential oil exhibited the following values, LD50 = 0.39 mg/ml, LD90 = 1.57 mg/ml, LD95 = 2.31 mg/ml, and LD99 = 4.80 mg/ml while for A. pichinchensis essential oil values were LD50 = 0.31 mg/ml, LD90 = 0.99 mg/ml, LD95 = 1.38 mg/ml, and LD99 = 2.55 mg/ml. Conclusion: Higher toxicity was observed with A. pichinchensis essential oil against L. migonei, comparing to A. jahnii oil. Two new plant species are being reported, showing bioactive properties against common tropical disease vectors such as L. migonei, hence, opening possibilities to a more environmental friendly control.

  4. In vitro effect of Acanthospermum australe (Asteraceae extracts on Acanthamoeba polyphaga trophozoites

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    LC Castro

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Acanthamoeba is a free-living protozoan widely distributed in the environment, occurring in vegetative trophozoite and resistance cyst stages during its life cycle. It constitutes an etiological agent of Acanthamoeba keratitis, a disease that may cause severe ocular inflammation and blindness. New drugs can be developed from molecules found in plants and thus help in its difficult treatment. Acanthospermum australe (Asteraceae, a plant used in folk medicine, had its effect tested on Acanthamoeba polyphaga. Aqueous and ethanolic extracts of A. austral were obtained from aerial parts for infusion and static maceration, respectively. Concentrations of 10, 5, 2.5, 1.25 and 0.625 mg/ml of the extract were tested against Acanthamoeba polyphaga trophozoites. The cytotoxic effect of the extracts was tested in mammalian cells using the 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT assay. RESULTS: The 10 mg/ml concentration of ethanolic extract was lethal to 100% of the A. polyphaga trophozoites in 24 h and both extracts presented cytotoxic effect against mammalian cells. These findings suggest that the A. austral ethanolic extract may have compounds with relevance to the development of new amoebicidal drugs.

  5. Control of Three Stored−Product Beetles with Artemisia haussknechtii (Boiss (Asteraceae Essential Oil

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    Seyed Mehdi Hashemi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Fumigant toxicity of the essential oil of aerial parts from Artemisia haussknechtii (Boiss (Asteraceae was investigated against the cowpea weevil Callosobruchus maculatus (Fab., the rice weevil Sitophilus oryzae (L., and the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum (Herbst. Dry ground plants were subjected to hydro−distillation using a Clevenger−type apparatus and the chemical composition of the volatile oil was studied by gas chromatography−mass spectrometry (GC−MS. The major components of the oil were camphor (29.24%, 1, 8−cineol (27.62%, yomogi alcohol (5.23%, and camphene (4.80%. The essential oil in same concentrations was assayed against (1−7 days old adults of insect species and percentage mortality was recorded after 24, 48, and 72 h exposure times. LC50 values were varied between 19.84 and 103.59 μL L-1 air, depending on insect species and exposure time. Callosobruchus maculatus was more susceptible than other species. These results suggested that A. haussknechtii oil might have potential as a control agent against C. maculatus, S. oryzae and T. castaneum.

  6. Concomitant chemopreventive and antibacterial effects of some Iranian plants from the genus Cousinia (Asteraceae

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    Ahmad Reza Shahverdi

    Full Text Available During the past several years, various species of Cousinia (Asteraceae have been authenticated in Iran. However, data concerning their biological activities remain limited. The main purpose of this research was to assess potential cytotoxicity and matrix metalloproteinases (MMP inhibitory effects of seven ethanol extracts of Cousinia using a cell line model (Fibrosarcoma-WEHI 164. We further investigated the antibacterial activity of these Cousinia ethanol extracts, using disk diffusion method. Among the ethanol extracts, the total extract of C. sulabadensis elicited significant inhibition of MMP activity in a dose-response fashion (49.2 ± 0.51, p < 0.05. However, this extract exhibited the lowest cytotoxicity effect at all tested concentrations. The concentration necessary to produce a 50% cell death rate (IC50 with C. shulabadensis was 304.5 ± 0.61 µg/mL. The calculated IC50 for cytotoxicity of the other Cousinia species extracts ranged between 18.4 ± 0.59 to 87.9 ± 0.58 µg/mL. The highest antibacterial activity was observed for the total extract of Cousinia phyllocephala. In conclusion, this study supports that Cousinia species display a remarkable inhibition of matrix metalloproteinases activity. The concomitant MMP-inhibitory and low cytotoxicity effects observed in C. sulabadensis might coin this extract for future potential anti-invasive herbal medicine studies.

  7. Isolation and structural elucidation of secondary metabolites of plants of the families asteraceae and urticaceae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villagra Quesada, E.

    2002-01-01

    A phytochemistry study of plant's species of the Asteraceae and Urticaceae family is proposed in order to isolate and to elucidate the structure of active principles; due to the fact that several studies have found that some of these families have compounds with anti-inflammatory activity, mainly lactonas sesquiterpenicas . The phytochemistry study was carried out through the application of chromatography techniques, for the separation and purification of the compounds. Includes chromatography of column, fine and liquid layer of high resolution. On the other hand, spectroscopic techniques were used for the elucidation, mainly of nuclear magnetic resonance (RMN) as much of one as of two dimensions. In this way, it was possible to isolate 14 compounds in Decachaeta thieleana and 10 in Phenax mexicanus, from which 6 correspond compounds of innovative structure. The comparison of the results obtained in Decachaeta thieleana (with previous studies) evidences that specimens, orphologically identical (the same species, but different locations), possess totally different compounds. This suggests that the studied specimens do not correspond to the same species. However, the determination of such a cause not only evade the objectives of this work but also the area of study of Chemistry [es

  8. Molecular phylogeny of Subtribe Artemisiinae (Asteraceae, including Artemisia and its allied and segregate genera

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    Unwin Matthew M

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Subtribe Artemisiinae of Tribe Anthemideae (Asteraceae is composed of 18 largely Asian genera that include the sagebrushes and mugworts. The subtribe includes the large cosmopolitan, wind-pollinated genus Artemisia, as well as several smaller genera and Seriphidium, that altogether comprise the Artemisia-group. Circumscription and taxonomic boundaries of Artemisia and the placements of these small segregate genera is currently unresolved. Results We constructed a molecular phylogeny for the subtribe using the internal transcribed spacers (ITS of nuclear ribosomal DNA analyzed with parsimony, likelihood, and Bayesian criteria. The resulting tree is comprised of three major clades that correspond to the radiate genera (e.g., Arctanthemum and Dendranthema, and two clades of Artemisia species. All three clades have allied and segregate genera embedded within each. Conclusions The data support a broad concept of Artemisia s.l. that includes Neopallasia, Crossostephium, Filifolium, Seriphidium, and Sphaeromeria. However, the phylogeny excludes Elachanthemum, Kaschgaria, and Stilnolepis from the Artemisia-group. Additionally, the monophyly of the four subgenera of Artemisia is also not supported, with the exception of subg. Dracunculus. Homogamous, discoid capitula appear to have arisen in parallel four to seven times, with the loss of ray florets. Thus capitular morphology is not a reliable taxonomic character, which traditionally has been one of the defining characters.

  9. Antioxidant activities of extracts from Barkleyanthus salicifolius (Asteraceae) and Penstemon gentianoides (Scrophulariaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez, Mariana; Nieto, Antonio; Marin, Juan C; Keck, Anna-Sigrid; Jeffery, Elizabeth; Céspedes, Carlos L

    2005-07-27

    Various extracts of the aerial parts of Barkleyanthus salicifolius (Asteraceae) and Penstemon gentianoides (Scrophulariaceae) have been used in folk medicine to treat many ailments, particularly inflammation and migraine. Neither the bioactive components responsible nor the mechanisms involved have been evaluated. Here are reported antioxidant activities of their methanol, dichloromethane, and ethyl acetate extracts. Samples were evaluated for oxygen radical absorption capacity (ORAC), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging, and inhibition of the formation of thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS), a measure of lipid peroxidation. Antioxidant activities were strongly correlated with total polyphenol content. The most active extracts from P. gentianoides in scavenging DPPH radicals and inhibiting TBARS formation were the methanol extract (A) and a further ethyl acetate extract of this (E). Partition E was further divided into eight fractions, and both E and the fractions were compared for activity against butylated hydroxytoluene, quercetin, and tocopherol. Partition E and the most active fractions, 5 and 6, were found to have I(50) values of 14.1, 38.6, and 41.8 ppm, respectively, against DPPH and 18.5, 26.0, and 12.7 ppm, respectively, against TBARS formation. Consistent with this finding, partition E and fractions 4-6 had the greatest ORAC and FRAP values. These results show that these plants could be useful antioxidant sources.

  10. Aspectos de la biología reproductiva de Stevia rebaudiana (Asteraceae

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    Irene Caponio

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available El género SteviaCav. (Asteraceae presenta alrededor de 200 especies en el continente americano. Stevia rebaudiana (Bertoni Bertoni, originaria de Paraguay, es la única especie cultivada. Ha sido ampliamente estudiada desde el punto de vista químico, por los principios activos que poseen sus hojas. Sin embargo existe controversia respecto a su sistema reproductivo, ya que es considerada apomíctica obligada por algunos autores, mientras otros la consideran de reproducción sexual. A los efectos de clarificar esta cuestión se realizaron estudios de: megasporogénesis, megagametogénesis, fenología de la floración, viabilidad de polen y receptividad estigmática en tres ecotipos en condiciones de autopolinización y polinización cruzada. De acuerdo a los resultados obtenidos, las plantas analizadas se reproducen sexualmente y poseen un sistema de autoincompatibilidad que impide la autofertilización.

  11. Serenoa repens associated with selenium and lycopene extract and bromelain and methylsulfonylmethane extract are able to improve the efficacy of levofloxacin in chronic bacterial prostatitis patients

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    Tommaso Cai

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To date, the management of patients with chronic bacterial prostatitis (CBP is not satisfactory, especially in terms of symptoms relief. Here, we evaluated the efficacy and the safety of a combination of serenoa repens, selenium and lycopene extract + bromelain and methylsulfonylmethane extract associated with levofloxacin in patients with CBP. Materials and methods: All patients with clinical and instrumental diagnosis of CBP, admitted to a single Urological Institution from March to June 2015 were enrolled in this phase III study. All enrolled patients were randomized into two groups: Group A received levofloxacin 500 mg o.d. for 14 days associated with lycopene and methylsulfonylmethane; Group B received levofloxacin (500 mg o.d. for 14 days only. Clinical and microbiological analyses were carried out at the time of admission (T0 and during the followups at 1 month (T1 and 6 months (T2 from the end of the treatment. NIH Chronic Prostatitis Symptom Index (CPSI, International Prostatic Symptom Score (IPSS and Quality of Well-Being (QoL questionnaires were used. The main outcome measures were the rate of microbiological cure and the improvement in questionnaire results from baseline at the end of the follow-ups period. Results: Forty patients were enrolled in Group A and 39 in Group B. During the follow-up (T1, we recorded a significant changes in terms of NIH-CPSI and IPSS in Group A (mean difference: 17.6 ± 2.65; 12.2 ± 2.33; p < 0.01; p < 0.05, respectively and versus Group B at the intergroup analysis (mean difference: -9 ± 1.82; -8.33 ± 1.71; p < 0.05; p < 0.05, respectively. No differences were reported in terms of microbiological findings between the two groups. At the second follow-up visit (T2, questionnaire results demonstrated statistically significant differences between groups (p < 0.001. One patient in Group A (2.5% and 7 patients (17.9% in Group B showed a symptomatic and microbiological recurrence (p = 0

  12. Analysis of Mycosporine-Like Amino Acids in Selected Algae and Cyanobacteria by Hydrophilic Interaction Liquid Chromatography and a Novel MAA from the Red Alga Catenella repens

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    Anja Hartmann

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs, a group of small secondary metabolites found in algae, cyanobacteria, lichens and fungi, have become ecologically and pharmacologically relevant because of their pronounced UV-absorbing and photo-protective potential. Their analytical characterization is generally achieved by reversed phase HPLC and the compounds are often quantified based on molar extinction coefficients. As an alternative approach, in our study a fully validated hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC method is presented. It enables the precise quantification of several analytes with adequate retention times in a single run, and can be coupled directly to MS. Excellent linear correlation coefficients (R2 > 0.9991 were obtained, with limit of detection (LOD values ranging from 0.16 to 0.43 µg/mL. Furthermore, the assay was found to be accurate (recovery rates from 89.8% to 104.1% and precise (intra-day precision: 5.6%, inter-day precision ≤6.6%. Several algae were assayed for their content of known MAAs like porphyra-334, shinorine, and palythine. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS data indicated a novel compound in some of them, which could be isolated from the marine species Catenella repens and structurally elucidated by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR as (E-3-hydroxy-2-((5-hydroxy-5-(hydroxymethyl-2-methoxy-3-((2-sulfoethylaminocyclohex-2-en-1-ylideneamino propanoic acid, a novel MAA called catenelline.

  13. Arbuscular mycorrhiza enhanced arsenic resistance of both white clover (Trifolium repens Linn.) and ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) plants in an arsenic-contaminated soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong Yan; Zhu Yongguan; Smith, F. Andrew; Wang Youshan; Chen Baodong

    2008-01-01

    In a compartmented cultivation system, white clover (Trifolium repens Linn.) and ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.), with their roots freely intermingled, or separated by 37 μm nylon mesh or plastic board, were grown together in an arsenic (As) contaminated soil. The influence of AM inoculation on plant growth, As uptake, phosphorus (P) nutrition, and plant competitions were investigated. Results showed that both plant species highly depended on mycorrhizas for surviving the As contamination. Mycorrhizal inoculation substantially improved plant P nutrition, and in contrast markedly decreased root to shoot As translocation and shoot As concentrations. It also showed that mycorrhizas affected the competition between the two co-existing plant species, preferentially benefiting the clover plants in term of nutrient acquisition and biomass production. Based on the present study, the role of AM fungi in plant adaptation to As contamination, and their potential use for ecological restoration of As contaminated soils are discussed. - Both white clover and ryegrass highly depend on the mycorrhizal associations for surviving heavy arsenic contamination

  14. Arbuscular mycorrhiza enhanced arsenic resistance of both white clover (Trifolium repens Linn.) and ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) plants in an arsenic-contaminated soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong Yan; Zhu Yongguan [Department of Soil Environmental Science, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 18 Shuangqing Road, Beijing 100085 (China); Smith, F. Andrew [Soil and Land Systems, School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Waite Campus, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA 5005 (Australia); Wang Youshan [Institute of Plant Nutrition and Resources, Beijing Academy of Agriculture and Forestry, Beijing 100089 (China); Chen Baodong [Department of Soil Environmental Science, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 18 Shuangqing Road, Beijing 100085 (China)], E-mail: bdchen@rcees.ac.cn

    2008-09-15

    In a compartmented cultivation system, white clover (Trifolium repens Linn.) and ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.), with their roots freely intermingled, or separated by 37 {mu}m nylon mesh or plastic board, were grown together in an arsenic (As) contaminated soil. The influence of AM inoculation on plant growth, As uptake, phosphorus (P) nutrition, and plant competitions were investigated. Results showed that both plant species highly depended on mycorrhizas for surviving the As contamination. Mycorrhizal inoculation substantially improved plant P nutrition, and in contrast markedly decreased root to shoot As translocation and shoot As concentrations. It also showed that mycorrhizas affected the competition between the two co-existing plant species, preferentially benefiting the clover plants in term of nutrient acquisition and biomass production. Based on the present study, the role of AM fungi in plant adaptation to As contamination, and their potential use for ecological restoration of As contaminated soils are discussed. - Both white clover and ryegrass highly depend on the mycorrhizal associations for surviving heavy arsenic contamination.

  15. Transcriptome sequencing reveals population differentiation in gene expression linked to functional traits and environmental gradients in the South African shrub Protea repens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akman, Melis; Carlson, Jane E; Holsinger, Kent E; Latimer, Andrew M

    2016-04-01

    Understanding the environmental and genetic mechanisms underlying locally adaptive trait variation across the ranges of species is a major focus of evolutionary biology. Combining transcriptome sequencing with common garden experiments on populations spanning geographical and environmental gradients holds promise for identifying such mechanisms. The South African shrub Protea repens displays diverse phenotypes in the wild along drought and temperature gradients. We grew plants from seeds collected at 19 populations spanning this species' range, and sequenced the transcriptomes of these plants to reveal gene pathways associated with adaptive trait variation. We related expression in co-expressed gene networks to trait phenotypes measured in the common garden and to source population climate. We found that expression in gene networks correlated with source-population environment and with plant traits. In particular, the activity of gene networks enriched for growth related pathways correlated strongly with source site minimum winter temperature and with leaf size, stem diameter and height in the garden. Other gene networks with enrichments for photosynthesis related genes showed associations with precipitation. Our results strongly suggest that this species displays population-level differences in gene expression that have been shaped by source population site climate, and that are reflected in trait variation along environmental gradients. © 2015 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  16. Beneficial effects of lipidic extracts of saladette tomato pomace and Serenoa repens on prostate and bladder health in obese male Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa-Juárez, Josué V; Colado-Velázquez, Juventino Iii; Mailloux-Salinas, Patrick; Medina-Contreras, Jml; Correa-López, P Valentín; Gómez-Viquez, Norma L; Meza-Cuenca, Fabián; Huang, Fengyang; Bravo, Guadalupe

    2017-10-01

    Obesity is associated with increased risk of a number of serious medical conditions, including urological disorders. This study investigated the effect of lipidic extracts of saladette tomato pomace (STP) and Serenoa repens (SR) on the prostate and bladder in a rat obese model induced by high-carbohydrate diet. High-sucrose-fed rats showed higher prostate weight as well as increased contractility and stromal and epithelial hyperplasia in the prostate. Treatment with STP and SR improved contractility and diminished hyperplasia and hypertrophy in the prostate. Obese animals also showed impaired bladder contractility, but neither extract reversed this deterioration. In the histological study, a disarray in the process of smooth muscle cell proliferation with non-parallel fibers was observed; interestingly, treatment with STP and SR led to improvement in this derangement. These findings indicated impaired contractility and hyperplasia in the prostate and bladder of obese rats induced by high sucrose. STP and SR could enhance prostate function by reducing contractility and hyperplasia and improve smooth muscle fiber structure and decrease cell proliferation in the bladder, suggesting their possible health-beneficial effects on lower urinary tract symptoms. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. Influence of fly ash aided phytostabilisation of Pb, Cd and Zn highly contaminated soils on Lolium perenne and Trifolium repens metal transfer and physiological stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopareva-Pohu, Alena; Verdin, Anthony; Garcon, Guillaume; Lounes-Hadj Sahraoui, Anissa; Pourrut, Bertrand; Debiane, Djouher; Waterlot, Christophe; Laruelle, Frederic

    2011-01-01

    Due to anthropogenic activities, large extends of soils are highly contaminated by Metal Trace Element (MTE). Aided phytostabilisation aims to establish a vegetation cover in order to promote in situ immobilisation of trace elements by combining the use of metal-tolerant plants and inexpensive mineral or organic soil amendments. Eight years after Coal Fly Ash (CFA) soil amendment, MTE bioavailability and uptake by two plants, Lolium perenne and Trifolium repens, were evaluated, as some biological markers reflecting physiological stress. Results showed that the two plant species under study were suitable to reduce the mobility and the availability of these elements. Moreover, the plant growth was better on CFA amended MTE-contaminated soils, and the plant sensitivity to MTE-induced physiological stress, as studied through photosynthetic pigment contents and oxidative damage was lower or similar. In conclusion, these results supported the usefulness of aided phytostabilisation of MTE-highly contaminated soils. - Highlights: → Aided phytostabilisation aims to establish a vegetation cover in order to promote immobilisation of MTE. → 8 years after the soil amendments, a pot culture study was carried out in greenhouse conditions. → MTE bioavailability and uptake by the two plants was drastically decreased with amendments. → Our results support the usefulness of aided phytostabilisation of MTE-highly contaminated soils. → CFA addition contributed to the reduction of the MTE mobility and availability for the plants. - Efficiency of Coal Fly Ash amendment for phytostabilisation of Pb, Cd and Zn in MTE-highly contaminated soils.

  18. Effect of Water Extract Originated from Different Part of Russian Knapweed (Acroptilon repens L. on Growth of Purslane (Portulaca oleracea L.

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    Alireza PIRZAD

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate probable allelopathic effect of water extract originated from different parts of russian knapweed (Acroptilon repens L. on growth of purslane (Portulaca oleracea L., a factorial experiment was conducted based on randomized complete block design with three replications at greenhouse condition in 2011. Treatments were water extract concentrations (0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 percent obtained from different part of russian knapweed (aerial part, flower and root. Results showed the significant effect of extract type on seedling length, and extract concentration on shoot length, root length and seedling length. Interaction effect between extract type and concentration on the ratio of root/shoot length, seedling fresh weight, seedling dry weight and germination percentage was significant, too. Means comparison indicated that the longest root (3.55 cm, shoot (4.65 cm and seedling (8.20 cm were obtained from control treatment, reducing with higher concentration of extract. The longest shoot (6.95 cm belonged to extract originated from russian knapweed flowers. The highest ratio of root/shoot length (0.73, seedling fresh weight (0.61g and seedling dry weight (0.044 g belonged to control treatment. In general, increasing of extract concentration caused in reduction of germination and seedling traits. Meanwhile, extracts of aerial part had more sever reducing effect than root and flower extracts.

  19. Self-organizing maps of molecular descriptors for sesquiterpene lactones and their application to the chemotaxonomy of the Asteraceae family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scotti, Marcus T; Emerenciano, Vicente; Ferreira, Marcelo J P; Scotti, Luciana; Stefani, Ricardo; da Silva, Marcelo S; Mendonça Junior, Francisco Jaime B

    2012-04-20

    The Asteraceae, one of the largest families among angiosperms, is chemically characterised by the production of sesquiterpene lactones (SLs). A total of 1,111 SLs, which were extracted from 658 species, 161 genera, 63 subtribes and 15 tribes of Asteraceae, were represented and registered in two dimensions in the SISTEMATX, an in-house software system, and were associated with their botanical sources. The respective 11 block of descriptors: Constitutional, Functional groups, BCUT, Atom-centred, 2D autocorrelations, Topological, Geometrical, RDF, 3D-MoRSE, GETAWAY and WHIM were used as input data to separate the botanical occurrences through self-organising maps. Maps that were generated with each descriptor divided the Asteraceae tribes, with total index values between 66.7% and 83.6%. The analysis of the results shows evident similarities among the Heliantheae, Helenieae and Eupatorieae tribes as well as between the Anthemideae and Inuleae tribes. Those observations are in agreement with systematic classifications that were proposed by Bremer, which use mainly morphological and molecular data, therefore chemical markers partially corroborate with these classifications. The results demonstrate that the atom-centred and RDF descriptors can be used as a tool for taxonomic classification in low hierarchical levels, such as tribes. Descriptors obtained through fragments or by the two-dimensional representation of the SL structures were sufficient to obtain significant results, and better results were not achieved by using descriptors derived from three-dimensional representations of SLs. Such models based on physico-chemical properties can project new design SLs, similar structures from literature or even unreported structures in two-dimensional chemical space. Therefore, the generated SOMs can predict the most probable tribe where a biologically active molecule can be found according Bremer classification.

  20. Novel anthraquinone derivatives produced by Phoma sorghina, an endophyte found in association with the medicinal plant Tithonia diversifolia (Asteraceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borges, Warley de Souza; Pupo, Monica Tallarico [Sao Paulo Univ., Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas]. E-mail: mtpupo@fcfrp.usp.br

    2006-09-15

    Three known anthraquinones (1,7-dihydroxy-3-methyl-9,10-anthraquinone, 1,6-dihydroxy- 3-methyl-9,10-anthraquinone and 1-hydroxy-3-methyl-9,10-anthraquinone), one new anthraquinone (1,7-dihydroxy-3-hydroxymethyl-9,10-anthraquinone), and two new hexahydro anthraquinone derivatives, dendryols E and F, were isolated from the culture of the endophytic fungus Phoma sorghina, found in association with Tithonia diversifolia (Asteraceae). Their structures were identified on the basis of spectroscopic data, mainly 1D and 2D NMR. (author)

  1. Novel anthraquinone derivatives produced by Phoma sorghina, an endophyte found in association with the medicinal plant Tithonia diversifolia (Asteraceae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borges, Warley de Souza; Pupo, Monica Tallarico

    2006-01-01

    Three known anthraquinones (1,7-dihydroxy-3-methyl-9,10-anthraquinone, 1,6-dihydroxy- 3-methyl-9,10-anthraquinone and 1-hydroxy-3-methyl-9,10-anthraquinone), one new anthraquinone (1,7-dihydroxy-3-hydroxymethyl-9,10-anthraquinone), and two new hexahydro anthraquinone derivatives, dendryols E and F, were isolated from the culture of the endophytic fungus Phoma sorghina, found in association with Tithonia diversifolia (Asteraceae). Their structures were identified on the basis of spectroscopic data, mainly 1D and 2D NMR. (author)

  2. Biosynthesis of the irregular monoterpene artemisia ketone, the sesquiterpene germacrene D and other isoprenoids in Tanacetum vulgare L. (Asteraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umlauf, Dirk; Zapp, Josef; Becker, Hans; Adam, Klaus Peter

    2004-09-01

    The incorporation of [1-13C]-labeled glucose into the irregular monoterpene artemisia ketone, the regular monoterpenes camphor and beta-thujone, the sesquiterpene germacrene D, the diterpene trans-phytol and beta-sitosterol and isofucosterol has been studied in axenic cultures of Tanacetum vulgare L. (Asteraceae). Quantitative 13C NMR spectroscopic analysis of the resulting labeling patterns showed that the isoprene units of the monoterpenes and the diterpene are formed via the methylerythritol phosphate (MEP) pathway, whereas the isoprene building blocks of the sesquiterpene and the sterols originate from the mevalonic acid (MVA) pathway. Copyright 2004 Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Phenolic Profiling of the South American “Baylahuen” Tea (Haplopappus spp., Asteraceae) by HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS

    OpenAIRE

    Schmeda-Hirschmann, Guillermo; Quispe, Cristina; González, Benita

    2015-01-01

    The aerial parts of several Haplopappus species (Asteraceae), known under the common name “baylahuen”, are used as herbal teas in Chile and Argentina. In Chile, “baylahuen” comprises H. multifolius, H. taeda, H. baylahuen and H. rigidus. Little is known about the chemical identity of the infusion constituents in spite of widespread consumption. The aim of the present work was the characterization of phenolics occurring in the infusions and methanol extracts of “baylahuen” by HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS. ...

  4. Adulticide effect of Monticalia greenmaniana (Asteraceae) against Lutzomyia migonei (Diptera: Psychodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cárdenas, José; Rojas, Janne; Rondón, Maritza; Nieves, Elsa

    2012-08-01

    Leishmaniasis is a public health problem that has been increasing year by year, with the further difficulty that an efficient control system is not available. Therefore, it is necessary to search for less contaminating and dangerous alternatives for controlling Leishmania transmitting sandflies. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the activity of Monticalia greenmaniana (Asteraceae) extracts and essential oil as an adulticide against Lutzomyia migonei (Diptera: Psychodidae) females, from a laboratory colony, in experimental conditions. Dry aerial parts of M. greenmaniana (Hieron) Jeffrey were used. Methanolic and aqueous extracts were prepared, and essential oil was obtained by hydrodistillation. Adulticide tests in pots, adulticide tests in cages, and knocked-down effects were determined. The results obtained demonstrated that methanolic and aqueous extracts produced adulticide activity. The essential oil from M. greenmaniana was proved to be the most toxic against L. migonei, with a 95 % death rate at a concentration of 0.01 mg/ml during a 1-h exposure. The essential oil showed a DL50 = 0.0050 and DL98 = 0.0066 mg/ml. The methanolic extract was DL50 = 0.130 and DL98 = 1.016 mg/ml, and the aqueous extract, DL50 = 0.487 and DL98 10.924 mg/ml. The knocked-down effect for the M. greenmaniana oil showed a KDTL50 = 48.6 and KDTL98 = 90.1 min. It was concluded that the essential oil from M. greenmaniana showed a strong insecticide effect against L. migonei females, which encourages us to continue these studies in search for control alternatives against sandflies.

  5. Conservation genetics of the rare Pyreneo-Cantabrian endemic Aster pyrenaeus (Asteraceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escaravage, Nathalie; Cambecèdes, Jocelyne; Largier, Gérard; Pornon, André

    2011-01-01

    Background and aims Aster pyrenaeus (Asteraceae) is an endangered species, endemic to the Pyrenees and Cantabrian Mountain ranges (Spain). For its long-term persistence, this taxon needs an appropriate conservation strategy to be implemented. In this context, we studied the genetic structure over the entire geographical range of the species and then inferred the genetic relationships between populations. Methodology Molecular diversity was analysed for 290 individuals from 12 populations in the Pyrenees and the Cantabrian Mountains using inter simple sequence repeats (ISSRs). Bayesian-based analysis was applied to examine population structure. Principal results Analysis of genetic similarity and diversity, based on 87 polymorphic ISSR markers, suggests that despite being small and isolated, populations have an intermediate genetic diversity level (P % = 52.8 %, HE = 0.21 ± 0.01, genetic similarity between individuals = 49.6 %). Genetic variation was mainly found within populations (80–84 %), independently of mountain ranges, whereas 16–18 % was found between populations and <5 % between mountain ranges. Analyses of molecular variance indicated that population differentiation was highly significant. However, no significant correlation was found between the genetic and geographical distances among populations (Rs = 0.359, P = 0.140). Geographical structure based on assignment tests identified five different gene pools that were independent of any particular structure in the landscape. Conclusions The results suggest that population isolation is probably relatively recent, and that the outbreeding behaviour of the species maintains a high within-population genetic diversity. We assume that some long-distance dispersal, even among topographically remote populations, may be determinant for the pattern of genetic variation found in populations. Based on these findings, strategies are proposed for genetic conservation and management of the species. PMID:22476499

  6. Atividades antiúlcera e antioxidante Baccharis trimera (Less DC (Asteraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa Funabashi de Toledo Dias

    Full Text Available A "carqueja", Baccharis trimera (Less DC (Asteraceae, é uma espécie vegetal característica de regiões tropicais, muito utilizada na medicina popular como antiinflamatória, hipoglicemiante e em tratamento de problemas digestivos. A avaliação da atividade antiúlcera do extrato bruto liofilizado e do extrato liofilizado da "resina" (porção que durante a concentração dos extratos ficava depositada no fundo do recipiente com aspecto viscoso e pegajoso foi realizada através de indução aguda por etanol acidificado. O extrato bruto liofilizado, na dose de 400 mg/ kg, reduziu a área de lesão em 90%, 200 mg/kg, 87%, 100 mg/kg, 66% e o fármaco controle (lansoprazol, 66%. O extrato liofilizado da "resina", administrado na dose de 400 mg/kg, reduziu a área de lesão em 82%, 200 mg/kg, 82%, 100 mg/kg, 53% e o fármaco controle (lansoprazol, 70%. A atividade antioxidante foi ensaiada com extrato bruto liofilizado, extrato liofilizado da "resina", pó da droga e frações clorofórmica, acetato de etila, etanol e etanol 50% através do método que reduz o radical 2,2'-difenil-1-picril-hidrazil (DPPH, permitindo após o equilíbrio da reação, calcular a quantidade de antioxidante gasta para reduzir 50% do DPPH, apresentando resultado evidente, comparado à vitamina E. Não foram verificados sinais de alteração aparente no ensaio de toxicidade na dose única de 5g/kg, em camundongos.

  7. The intriguing complexity of parthenogenesis inheritance in Pilosella rubra (Asteraceae, Lactuceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbaumová, Radka; Krahulcová, Anna; Krahulec, František

    2012-09-01

    Neither the genetic basis nor the inheritance of apomixis is fully understood in plants. The present study is focused on the inheritance of parthenogenesis, one of the basic elements of apomixis, in Pilosella (Asteraceae). A complex pattern of inheritance was recorded in the segregating F(1) progeny recovered from reciprocal crosses between the facultatively apomictic hexaploid P. rubra and the sexual tetraploid P. officinarum. Although both female and male reduced gametes of P. rubra transmitted parthenogenesis at the same rate in the reciprocal crosses, the resulting segregating F(1) progeny inherited parthenogenesis at different rates. The actual transmission rates of parthenogenesis were significantly correlated with the mode of origin of the respective F(1) progeny class. The inheritance of parthenogenesis was significantly reduced in F(1) n + n hybrid progeny from the cross where parthenogenesis was transmitted by female gametes. In F(1) n + 0 polyhaploid progeny from the same cross, however, the transmission rate of parthenogenesis was high; all fertile polyhaploids were parthenogenetic. It appeared that reduced female gametes transmitting parthenogenesis preferentially developed parthenogenetically and only rarely were fertilized in P. rubra. The fact that the determinant for parthenogenesis acts gametophytically in Pilosella and the precocious embryogenesis in parthenogenesis-transmitting megagametophytes was suggested as the most probable explanations for this observation. Furthermore, we observed the different expression of complete apomixis in the non-segregating F(1) 2n + n hybrids as compared to their apomictic maternal parent P. rubra. We suggest that this difference is a result of unspecified interactions between the parental genomes.

  8. Sesquiterpene lactones from the Yugoslavian wild growing plant families Asteraceae and Apiaceae (REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MILUTIN STEFANOVIC

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available 1. Introduction 2. Results 3. Asteraceae 3.1. Genus Artemisia L. 3.1.1. Artemisia annua L. 3.1.2. Artemisia vulgaris L. 3.1.3. Artemisia absinthium L. (warmwood 3.1.4. Artemisia scoparia W. et K. 3.1.5. Artemisia camprestris L. 3.2. Genus Ambrosia L. 3.2.1. Ambrosia artemisiifolia L. (the common rag weed 3.3. Genus Tanacetum L. (syn. Chrysanthemum L. 3.3.1. Tanacetum parthenium L. (feverfew 3.3.2. Tanacetum serotinum L. 3.3.3. Tanacetum vulgare L. (tansy 3.3.4. Tanacetum macrophyllum Willd. 3.3.5. Tanacetum corymbosum L. 3.4. Genus Telekia Baumg. 3.4.1. Telekia speciosa (Schreb. Baumg. 3.5. Genus Inula L. 3.5.1. Inula helenium L. 3.5.2. Inula spiraeifolia L. 3.6. Genus Eupatorium L. 3.6.1. Eupatorium cannabinum L. 3.7. Genus Achillea L. 3.7.1. Achillea abrotanoides Vis. 3.7.2. Achillea millefolium subsp. pannonica 3.7.3. Achillea crithmifolia W. et K. 3.7.4. Achillea clypeolata Sibth. et Sm. 3.7.5. Achillea serbica Nyman 3.7.6. Achillea depressa Janka 3.8. Genus Anthemis L. 3.8.1. Anthemis carpatica Willd. 3.8.2. Anthemis cretica L. subsp. cretica 3.9. Genus Centaurea L. 3.9.1. Centaurea derventana Vis. et Panc. 3.9.2. Centaurea kosaninii Hayek 3.9.3. Centaurea solstitialis L. 4. Apiaceae 4.1. Genus Laserpitium L. 4.1.1. Laserpitium siler L. 4.1.2. Laserpitium marginatum L. 4.1.3. Laserpitium latifolium L. 4.1.4. Laserpitium alpinum W. K. 4.2. Genus Angelica L. 4.2.1. Angelica silvestris L. 4.3. Genus Peucedanum L. 4.3.1. Peucedanum austriacum (Jacq. Koch

  9. Comparative Analysis of the Genomic DNA Isolation Methods on Inula sp. (Asteraceae

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    Emre SEVİNDİK

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Simple, fast, low-cost and high throughput protocols are required for DNA isolation of plant species. In this study, phenol chloroform isoamyl alcohol and commercial (Sigma DNA isolation kit methods were applied on some Inula species that belong to Asteraceae family. Genomic DNA amounts, A260, A280, A260/A230 and purity degrees (A260/A280 that were obtained through both methods were measured through electrophoresis and spectrophotometer. Additionally, PCR amplification was realized by primer pairs specific to nrDNA ITS, cpDNA ndhF (972F-1603R and trnL-F regions. Results showed that maximum genomic DNA in nanograms obtained by phenol chloroform isoamyl alcohol method. The study also revealed that I. macrocephala had the maximum DNA and I. heterolepis had the minimum DNA amount. A260/A280 purity degrees showed that the highest and lowest purity in gDNAs obtained through phenol-choloform isoamyl alcohol method were in I.aucheriana and I. salicina, respectively. The highest and lowest purity degrees of gDNAs obtained through commercial kit was observed in I. fragilis and I. macrocephala samples, respectively. PCR amplification results showed that while band profiles of each three regions (ITS, trnL-F and ndhF did not yield positive results in PCR amplifications using phenol-choloform isoamyl alcohol method; PCR band profiles obtained through commercial kit yielded positive results. As a result, it is fair to say that the relation of genomic DNA with PCR was found to be more efficient although the maximum amount of genomic DNA was obtained through phenol chloroform isoamyl alcohol method.

  10. Effects of origin, seasons and storage under different temperatures on germination of Senecio vulgaris (Asteraceae) seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndihokubwayo, Noel; Nguyen, Viet-Thang; Cheng, Dandan

    2016-01-01

    Invasive plants colonize new environments, become pests and cause biodiversity loss, economic loss and health damage. Senecio vulgaris L. (Common groundsel, Asteraceae), a widely distributing cosmopolitan weed in the temperate area, is reported with large populations in the north-eastern and south-western part, but not in southern, central, or north-western parts of China. We studied the germination behavior of S. vulgaris to explain the distribution and the biological invasion of this species in China. We used seeds originating from six native and six invasive populations to conduct germination experiments in a climate chamber and under outdoor condition. When incubated in a climate chamber (15 °C), seeds from the majority of the populations showed >90% germination percentage (GP) and the GP was equal for seeds with a native and invasive origin. The mean germination time (MGT) was significantly different among the populations. Under outdoor conditions, significant effects of origin, storage conditions (stored at 4 °C or ambient room temperature, ca. 27 °C) and seasons (in summer or autumn) were observed on the GP while the MGT was only affected by the season. In autumn, the GP (38.6%) was higher and the MGT was slightly longer than that in summer. In autumn, seeds stored at 4 °C showed higher GP than those stored at ambient room temperature (ca.27 °C), and seeds from invasive populations revealed higher GP than those from native populations. The results implied that the high temperature in summer has a negative impact on the germination and might cause viability loss or secondary dormancy to S. vulgaris seeds. Our study offers a clue to exploring what factor limits the distribution of S. vulgaris in China by explaining why, in the cities in South-East China and central China such as Wuhan, S. vulgaris cannot establish natural and viable populations.

  11. Evaluation of Selected Ornamental Asteraceae as a Pollen Source for Urban Bees

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    Wróblewska Anna

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Offering more floral resources for urban bees can be achieved by growing ornamental bee plants. The aim of the present study was to evaluate selected Asteraceae (Calendula officinalis ‘Persimmon Beauty’ and ‘Santana’, Centaurea macrocephala, Cosmos sulphureus, Dahlia pinnata, Tagetes patula, Tithonia rotundifolia, and Zinnia elegans as pollen sources for pollinators. Under urban conditions in Lublin, SE Poland, the investigated plants flowered from late June to the end of October. The mass of pollen produced in florets and capitula was found to be species-related. The highest pollen amounts per 10 florets (10.1 mg as well as per capitulum (249.7 mg were found for C. macrocephala. The mass of pollen yielded by a single plant depended on both the pollen mass delivered per disk florets and the proportion of disk florets in capitulum, and the flowering abundance of the plants. A single plant of D. pinnata and a single plant of T. rotundifolia each produced the largest pollen mass. Mean pollen yield per 1m2 of a plot ranged from 6.2 g (Z. elegans to 60.7 g (D. pinnata. Pollen grains are tricolporate, with echinate exine, medium or small in size. They can be categorised as oblatespherical, spherical, and prolatespherical. The principal visitors to C. macrocephala, C. sulphureus, and C. officinalis were honey bees, whereas bumble bees dominated on T. rotundifolia and D. pinnata. A magnet plant for butterflies was Z. elegans. Among the investigated species, D. pinnata, C. macrocephala, and T. rotundifolia were found to be the most valuable sources of pollen flow for managed and wild bees.

  12. Origins and recent radiation of Brazilian Eupatorieae (Asteraceae) in the eastern Cerrado and Atlantic Forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Vanessa Lopes; Panero, Jose L; Schilling, Edward E; Crozier, Bonnie S; Moraes, Marta Dias

    2016-04-01

    The remarkable diversity of Eupatorieae in the Brazilian flora has received little study, despite the tribe's very high levels of endemism and importance in the threatened Cerrado and the Atlantic Forest biodiversity hotspots. Eupatorieae are one of the largest tribes in Asteraceae with 14 of 19 recognized subtribes occurring in Brazil. We constructed the largest phylogeny of Brazilian Eupatorieae to date that sampled the nrITS and ETS, chloroplast ndhI and ndhF genes, and the ndhI-ndhG intergenic spacer for 183 species representing 77 of the 85 Brazilian genera of the tribe. Maximum likelihood and Bayesian phylogenetic analyses showed that these species are not collectively monophyletic, so their distribution reflects multiple introductions into Brazil. A novel clade was found that includes 75% of the genera endemic to Brazil (Cerrado-Atlantic Forest Eupatorieae, "CAFE" clade). This radiation of at least 247 species concentrated in the Cerrado and Atlantic Forest biomes of central eastern Brazil is <7 my old and exhibits several ecologically diverse life forms. Eight subtribes of Brazilian Eupatorieae (Ageratinae, Alomiinae, Ayapaninae, Critoniinae, Disynaphiinae, Eupatoriinae, Gyptidinae and Hebecliniinae) and 16 genera (Ageratum, Agrianthus, Austroeupatorium, Bejaranoa, Chromolaena, Critonia, Disynaphia, Grazielia, Hatschbachiella, Heterocondylus, Koanophyllon, Lasiolaena, Neocabreria, Praxelis, Stylotrichium, and Symphyopappus) were found to be polyphyletic. We attribute incongruities between the molecular phylogenetic results and the current classification of the tribe mostly to convergent evolution of morphological characters traditionally used in the classification of the tribe. We used these phylogenetic results to suggest changes to the classification of some subtribes and genera of Eupatorieae that occur in Brazil. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. ent-Pimarane and ent-Kaurane Diterpenes from Aldama discolor (Asteraceae and Their Antiprotozoal Activity

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    Mauro S. Nogueira

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Aldama discolor (syn.Viguiera discolor is an endemic Asteraceae from the Brazilian “Cerrado”, which has not previously been investigated for its chemical constituents and biological activity. Diterpenes are common secondary metabolites found in Aldama species, some of which have been reported to present potential antiprotozoal and antimicrobial activities. In this study, the known ent-3-α-hydroxy-kaur-16-en-18-ol (1, as well as three new diterpenes, namely, ent-7-oxo-pimara-8,15-diene-18-ol (2, ent-2S,4S-2-19-epoxy-pimara-8(3,15-diene-7β-ol (3 and ent-7-oxo-pimara-8,15-diene-3β-ol (4, were isolated from the dichloromethane extract of A. discolor leaves and identified by means of MS and NMR. The compounds were assayed in vitro against Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense, T. cruzi and Leishmania donovani, Plasmodium falciparum and also tested for cytotoxicity against mammalian cells (L6 cell line. The ent-kaurane 1 showed significant in vitro activity against both P. falciparum (IC 50 = 3.5 μ M and L. donovani (IC 50 = 2.5 μ M and ent-pimarane 2 against P. falciparum (IC 50 = 3.8 μ M. Both compounds returned high selectivity indices (SI >10 in comparison with L6 cells, which makes them interesting candidates for in vivo tests. In addition to the diterpenes, the sesquiterpene lactone budlein A (5, which has been reported to possess a strong anti-T. b. rhodesiense activity, was identified as major compound in the A. discolor extract and explains its high activity against this parasite (100% growth inhibition at 2 μ g/mL.

  14. Diversity of pyrrolizidine alkaloids in native and invasive Senecio pterophorus (Asteraceae): implications for toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castells, Eva; Mulder, Patrick P J; Pérez-Trujillo, Míriam

    2014-12-01

    Changes in plant chemical defenses after invasion could have consequences on the invaded ecosystems by modifying the interactions between plants and herbivores and facilitating invasion success. However, no comprehensive biogeographical studies have yet determined the phenotypic levels of plant chemical defenses, as consumed by local herbivores, covering large distributional areas of a species. Senecio pterophorus is a perennial shrub native to Eastern South Africa, expanded into Western South Africa and introduced into Australia and Europe. As other Asteraceae, S. pterophorus contains pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) toxic to vertebrate and invertebrate herbivores. Here we analyzed S. pterophorus PAs by LC-MS/MS on foliage sampled across its entire distributional range, including the native and all non-native areas. PA concentrations and diversity was very high: we found 57 compounds belonging to 6 distinct necine base-types, including the highly toxic 1,2-unsaturated PAs (retronecine and otonecines) and the less toxic 1,2-saturated PAs (platynecine and rosmarinecines). Plants from different origins diverged in their PA absolute and relative concentrations. Rosmarinine was the most abundant compound in Australia and South Africa, but it was nearly absent in Europe. We characterized three plant chemotypes: retrorsine-senkirkine chemotype in Eastern South Africa, rosmarinine chemotype in Australia and Western South Africa, and acetylseneciphylline chemotype in Europe. PA absolute concentrations were highest in Australia. The increased absolute and relative concentrations of retronecine PAs from Australia and Europe, respectively, indicate that S. pterophorus is potentially more toxic in the invasive range than in the native range. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The potential medicinal value of plants from Asteraceae family with antioxidant defense enzymes as biological targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koc, Suheda; Isgor, Belgin S; Isgor, Yasemin G; Shomali Moghaddam, Naznoosh; Yildirim, Ozlem

    2015-05-01

    Plants and most of the plant-derived compounds have long been known for their potential pharmaceutical effects. They are well known to play an important role in the treatment of several diseases from diabetes to various types of cancers. Today most of the clinically effective pharmaceuticals are developed from plant-derived ancestors in the history of medicine. The aim of this study was to evaluate the free radical scavenging activity and total phenolic and flavonoid contents of methanol, ethanol, and acetone extracts from flowers and leaves of Onopordum acanthium L., Carduus acanthoides L., Cirsium arvense (L.) Scop., and Centaurea solstitialis L., all from the Asteraceae family, for investigating their potential medicinal values of biological targets that are participating in the antioxidant defense system such as catalase (CAT), glutathione S-transferase (GST), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx). In this study, free radical scavenging activity and total phenolic and flavonoid contents of the plant samples were assayed by DPPH, Folin-Ciocalteu, and aluminum chloride colorimetric methods. Also, the effects of extracts on CAT, GST, and GPx enzyme activities were investigated. The highest phenolic and flavonoid contents were detected in the acetone extract of C. acanthoides flowers, with 90.305 mg GAE/L and 185.43 mg Q/L values, respectively. The highest DPPH radical scavenging was observed with the methanol leaf extracts of C. arvense with an IC50 value of 366 ng/mL. The maximum GPx and GST enzyme inhibition activities were observed with acetone extracts from the flower of C. solstitialis with IC50 values of 79 and 232 ng/mL, respectively.

  16. Morphogenesis of galls induced by Baccharopelma dracunculifoliae (Hemiptera: Psyllidae on Baccharis dracunculifolia (Asteraceae leaves

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    M. Arduin

    Full Text Available The commonest insect gall on Baccharis dracunculifolia (Asteraceae leaves is induced by Baccharopelma dracunculifoliae (Hemiptera, Psyllidae. The gall-inducing insect attacks young leaves in both the unfolded and the fully expanded stages. Four developmental phases were observed in this type of gall: 1 A folding phase, during which the leaf lamina folded upward alongside the midrib and the edges of the upper portion of the leaf approached each other, forming a longitudinal slit. A single chamber was formed on the adaxial surface of the leaf; 2 A swelling phase, in which the folded leaf tissues thickened and the edges of the leaf drew closer together, narrowing the slit. In this phase the gall matured, turning succulent, fusiform and pale green. The single nymphal chamber was lined with white wax and was able to house from one to several nymphs; 3 A dehiscence phase, characterized by the opening of the slit to release inducers; and 4 A senescence phase, when the gall turned dark and dry. The dermal system of the mature gall was composed of a single-layered epidermis. The mesophyll was swollen, and the swelling was due mainly to hyperplasia of the parenchyma. The vascular tissues along the midrib vein were conspicuous and the perivascular fibers resembled parenchymal cells. The hypertrophied secretory cavities contained low lipophylic content. This gall does not form nutritive tissue, but salivary sheaths left by the inducers were observed near the parenchyma, vascular bundles and secretory cavities. This study complements our current knowledge of gall biology and sheds further light on the plasticity of plant tissues stimulated by biotic factors.

  17. Intoxicação experimental pelos frutos de Xanthium cavanillesii (Asteraceae em ovinos Experimental poisoning by the burs of Xanthium cavanillesii (Asteraceae in sheep

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    Alexandre Paulino Loretti

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available Os frutos moídos de Xanthium cavanillesii foram administrados por via oral, em doses únicas ou fracionadas, a 15 ovinos adultos. Nove ovinos morreram. Doses a partir de 2 g/kg em uma única administração foram letais para os ovinos. Doses únicas de 1,25 g/kg e doses de 2,5 g/kg subdivididas em duas administrações diárias (1,25 g/kg em dois dias consecutivos não causaram a intoxicação. Sinais clínicos foram observados apenas nos animais que morreram. Iniciavam entre 5 horas e 20 horas após o início da administração dos frutos. A evolução do quadro clínico foi superaguda (90 minutos a 3 horas ou aguda (9 a 13 horas. Sinais clínicos incluíam apatia, anorexia, hipomotilidade ruminal, tremores musculares generalizados, incoordenação motora, andar rígido, relutância em caminhar, instabilidade, quedas e decúbito. Muitos animais apresentavam corrimento nasal seromucoso que dificultava a respiração. Nas fases terminais havia tiques, sialorréia, convulsões, nistagmo, movimentos de pedalagem e períodos de apnéia seguidos de morte. Os principais achados de necropsia incluíam acentuação do padrão lobular do fígado acompanhada de petéquias distribuídas aleatoriamente na superfície capsular e de corte, distensão da vesícula biliar associada a edema e hemorragias na parede, ascite, hidrotórax, edema gelatinoso e translúcido da região perirrenal, conteúdo do ceco e alça proximal do cólon ascendente ressequido, compactado, recoberto por muco e estrias de sangue coagulado. Havia petéquias e sufusões disseminadas. A principal lesão microscópica consistia em acentuada necrose coagulativa hepatocelular centrolobular ou massiva acompanhada de congestão e hemorragia e vacuolização ou tumefação dos hepatócitos remanescentes.The ground burs of Xanthium cavanillesii (Asteraceae were force fed to 15 adult sheep in single doses or divided in two doses. Nine sheep died. Doses of 2 g/kg and above were lethal for the

  18. Hieracium caespitosum and Hieracium piloselloides (Asteraceae) in the Black Hills National Forest: New state records for South Dakota, U.S.A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian E. Dickerson; Cheryl Mayer; Justin Ramsey; Zach Mergen; Mark Gabel

    2016-01-01

    Hieracium spp. (Asteraceae) are noted for their taxonomic complexity, frequent incidence of apomixis and polyploidy, and invasive tendencies. Here we report the Eurasian taxa, Hieracium caespitosum Dumort. and Hieracium piloselloides Vill., as recent additions to the flora of South Dakota. Plants were collected at three locations in the Black Hills during 2014 and 2015...

  19. The Impact of Reconstruction Methods, Phylogenetic Uncertainty and Branch Lengths on Inference of Chromosome Number Evolution in American Daisies (Melampodium, Asteraceae)

    OpenAIRE

    McCann, Jamie; Schneeweiss, Gerald M.; Stuessy, Tod F.; Villase?or, Jose L.; Weiss-Schneeweiss, Hanna

    2016-01-01

    Chromosome number change (polyploidy and dysploidy) plays an important role in plant diversification and speciation. Investigating chromosome number evolution commonly entails ancestral state reconstruction performed within a phylogenetic framework, which is, however, prone to uncertainty, whose effects on evolutionary inferences are insufficiently understood. Using the chromosomally diverse plant genus Melampodium (Asteraceae) as model group, we assess the impact of reconstruction method (ma...

  20. Type specimens of taxa of Artemisia L. (Asteraceae from Siberia and the Far East kept in the Herbarium of V.L. Komarov Botanical Insitute

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    A. A. Korobkov

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Typification of 97 Artemisia (Asteraceae taxa from Siberia and the Far East kept in the Herbarium of V.L. Komarov Botanical Institute was carried out. Holotypes for 39 taxa, lectotypes for 48 taxa, 28 syntypes and 4 isotypes are given.

  1. Repeated reunions and splits feature the highly dynamic evolution of 5S and 35S ribosomal RNA genes (rDNA) in the Asteraceae family

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Garcia, S.; Panero, J.L.; Široký, Jiří; Kovařík, Aleš

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 176 (2010), s. 1-18 ISSN 1471-2229 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040507; CEZ:AV0Z50040702 Keywords : organization of rDNA unit * intergenic spacer * Asteraceae Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 4.085, year: 2010

  2. (Un)targeted metabolomics in Asteraceae: probing the applicability of essential-oil profiles of senecio L. (Senecioneae) taxa in chemotaxonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radulović, Niko S; Mladenović, Marko Z; Blagojević, Polina D

    2014-09-01

    The possible applicability of (un)targeted metabolomics (volatile metabolites) for revealing taxonomic/evolutionary relationships among Senecio L. species (Asteraceae; tribe Senecioneae) was explored. Essential-oil compositional data of selected Senecio/Senecioneae/Asteraceae taxa (93 samples in total) were mutually compared by means of multivariate statistical analysis (MVA), i.e., agglomerative hierarchical clustering and principal component analysis. The MVA input data set included the very first compositional data on the essential oil extracted from the aerial parts of S. viscosus L. as well as on four different Serbian populations of S. vernalis Waldst. & Kit. (oils from aerial parts and roots; eight samples in total). This metabolomic screening of Senecio/Senecioneae/Asteraceae species (herein presented results and data from the literature) pointed to short-chain alk-1-enes (e.g., oct-1-ene, non-1-ene, and undec-1-ene), with up to now restricted general occurrence in Plantae, as characteristic chemotaxonomic markers/targets for future metabolomic studies of Senecio/Senecioneae taxa. The MVA additionally showed that the evolution of the terpene metabolism (volatile mono- and sesquiterpenoids) within the Asteraceae tribe Senecioneae was not genera specific. However, the MVA did confirm plant-organ specific production/accumulation of volatiles within S. vernalis and suggested the existence of at least two volatile chemotypes for this species. Copyright © 2014 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  3. Air quality biomonitoring: assessment of air pollution genotoxicity in the Province of Novara (North Italy) by using Trifolium repens L. and molecular markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piraino, F; Aina, R; Palin, L; Prato, N; Sgorbati, S; Santagostino, A; Citterio, S

    2006-12-15

    Mixed air pollutants are considered a major cause of DNA damage in living species. In this study Trifolium repens L. cv Regal was used as a bioindicator to assess the genotoxicity of air stressors in the Italian province of Novara. Two on-site biomonitoring experiments were performed during the spring and autumn of 2004. Test plants were exposed at 19 monitoring sites distributed homogeneously throughout the province, and each experiment lasted for a period of 6 weeks. Genotoxicity was evaluated with Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP) molecular markers. The results show the predominantly rural central-west region of the Novara Province to have the worst air quality with regard to genotoxicity. Analyses of geomorphology, land use and climatic factors suggest that the compromised air quality in the region could be attributed to wind strength and direction, transporting pollution from vehicular traffic on the A4 highway and from the urban/industrialized centres of Novara and Vercelli. Plant growth, changes in plant photochemical efficiency and the presence of ozone related leaf injuries were also measured to better interpret the results of genotoxicity. Statistical analyses show that although climatic factors such as light intensity and temperature influence plant growth, they do not contribute to atmospheric stressor-induced DNA damage. Further analyses indicated that, as expected, a mixture of genotoxic and non-genotoxic pollutants coexist in the Novara Province troposphere, and that the elevated ozone concentrations experienced during the study may have contributed to the DNA damage in the tested plants by enhancing genotoxicity via interaction with other air stressors.

  4. Mercury and flooding cycles in the Tapajos river basin, Brazilian Amazon: The role of periphyton of a floating macrophyte (Paspalum repens)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coelho-Souza, Sergio A.; Guimaraes, Jean R.D.; Miranda, Marcio R.; Poirier, Hugo; Mauro, Jane B.N.; Lucotte, Marc; Mergler, Donna

    2011-01-01

    Methylmercury (MeHg) increases mercury (Hg) toxicity and is biomagnified in the trophic chain contaminating riverine Amazon populations. Freshwater macrophyte roots are a main site of Hg methylation in different Brazilian environments. Paspalum repens periphyton was sampled in four floodplain lakes during the dry, rainy and wet seasons for measurement of total Hg (THg), MeHg, Hg methylation potentials, %C, %N, δ 13 C, δ 15 N and bacterial heterotrophic production as 3 H-leucine incorporation rate. THg concentration varied from 67 to 198 ng/g and the potential of Me 203 Hg formation was expressive (1-23%) showing that periphyton is an important matrix both in the accumulation of Hg and in MeHg production. The concentration of MeHg varied from 1 to 6 ng/g DW and was positively correlated with Me 203 Hg formation. Though methylmercury formation is mainly a bacterial process, no significant correlation was observed between the methylation potentials and bacterial production. The multiple regressions analyses suggested a negative correlation between THg and %C and %N and between methylation potential and δ 13 C. The discriminant analysis showed a significant difference in periphyton δ 15 N, δ 13 C and THg between seasons, where the rainy season presented higher δ 15 N and the wet period lighter δ 13 C, lower THg values and higher Me 203 Hg formation. This exploratory study indicates that the flooding cycle could influence the periphyton composition, mercury accumulation and methylmercury production. - Research highlights: → During rainy season mercury (Hg 2+ ) is carried out from terrestrial to aquatic systems by runoff. → Macrophyte roots accumulates Hg 2+ from suspended particulate matter (SPM). → Hg methylation increases during the wet season. → Flooded forest is a source of labile organic carbon and bioavailable Hg. → Macrophytes decompose during the dry season and made up terrestrial soil.

  5. Floral Nectar Production and Nectary Anatomy and Ultrastructure of Echinacea purpurea (Asteraceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    WIST, TYLER J.; DAVIS, ARTHUR R.

    2006-01-01

    • Background and Aims In spite of the impressive species diversity in the Asteraceae and their widespread appeal to many generalist pollinators, floral-nectary ultrastructure in the family has rarely been investigated. To redress this, a study using Echinacea purpurea, a plant of horticultural and nutraceutical value, was undertaken. Nectar secretion of disc florets was compared with floral nectary ultrastructure taking into account nectar's potential impact upon the reproductive success of this outcrossing species. • Methods Micropipette collections of nectar in conjunction with refractometry were used to determine the volume and nectar-sugar quantities of disc florets throughout their phenology, from commencement of its production to cessation of secretion. Light, scanning-electron and transmission-electron microscopy were utilized to examine morphology, anatomy and ultrastructure of nectaries of the disc florets. • Key Results Florets were protandrous with nectar being secreted from anthesis until the third day of the pistillate phase. Nectar production per floret peaked on the first day of stigma receptivity, making the two innermost whorls of open florets most attractive to foraging visitors. Modified stomata were situated along the apical rim of the collar-like nectary, which surrounds the style base and sits on top of the inferior ovary. The floral nectary was supplied by phloem only, and both sieve elements and companion cells were found adjacent to the epidermis; the latter participated in the origin of some of the precursor cells that yielded these specialized cells of phloem. Companion cells possessed wall ingrowths (transfer cells). Lobed nuclei were a key feature of secretory parenchyma cells. • Conclusions The abundance of mitochondria suggests an eccrine mechanism of secretion, although dictyosomal vesicles may contribute to a granulocrine process. Phloem sap evidently is the main contributor of nectar carbohydrates. From the sieve elements

  6. Mexican Arnica (Heterotheca inuloides Cass. Asteraceae: Astereae): Ethnomedical uses, chemical constituents and biological properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Chávez, José Luis; Egas, Verónica; Linares, Edelmira; Bye, Robert; Hernández, Tzasna; Espinosa-García, Francisco J; Delgado, Guillermo

    2017-01-04

    Heterotheca inuloides Cass. (Asteraceae) has been traditionally used to treat a wide range of diseases in Mexico in the treatment of rheumatism, topical skin inflammation, muscular pain colic, and other painful conditions associated with inflammatory processes, additionally has been used to treat dental diseases, and gastrointestinal disorders. This species has also been used for the treatment of cancer and diabetes. This review provides up-to-date information on the botanical characterization, traditional uses, chemical constituents, as well as the biolological activities of H. inuloides. A literature search was conducted by analyzing the published scientific material. Information related to H. inuloides was collected from various primary information sources, including books, published articles in peer-reviewed journals, monographs, theses and government survey reports. The electronic search of bibliographic information was gathered from accepted scientific databases such as Scienfinder, ISI Web of Science, Scielo, LILACS, Redalyc, Pubmed, SCOPUS and Google Scholar. To date, more than 140 compounds have been identified from H. inuloides, including cadinane sesquiterpenes, flavonoids, phytosterols, triterpenes, benzoic acid derivatives, and other types of compounds. Many biological properties associated with H. inuloides. Many studies have shown that the extracts and some compounds isolated from this plant exhibit a broad spectrum of biological activities such as antioxidant, antitumor, anti-inflammatory, cytotoxic, and chelating activities, as well as insecticidal and phytotoxic activity. To date, reports on the toxicity of H. inuloides are limited. A comprehensive analysis of the literature obtained through the above-mentioned sources confirmed that ethnomedical uses of H. inuloides have been recorded in Mexico to treat rheumatism, pain, and conditions associated with inflammatory processes. Pharmacological studies have demonstrated the activity of certain

  7. Field clinical study evaluating the efficacy and safety of an oral formulation containing milbemycin oxime/praziquantel (Milbemax®, Novartis Animal Health) in the chemoprevention of the zoonotic canine infection by Dirofilaria repens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Cesare, Angela; Braun, Gabriele; Di Giulio, Emanuela; Paoletti, Barbara; Aquilino, Vincenzo; Bartolini, Roberto; La Torre, Francesco; Meloni, Silvana; Drake, Jason; Pandolfi, Federico; Avolio, Stefania; Traversa, Donato

    2014-07-29

    Dirofilaria repens is the causative agent of subcutaneous dirofilariosis of dogs, other animals and humans. This nematode is transmitted by mosquitoes of Aedes, Anopheles and Culex genera. In dogs, the parasite may cause subclinical infection or cutaneous signs. Recently, D. repens has emerged and spread in different geographical areas, with an increase of cases in dogs and humans. Chemoprevention in dogs in endemic areas is the most reliable approach for controlling this infection. This paper describes a randomized, blocked and multicentric clinical field study investigating the efficacy of an oral, chewable formulation containing milbemycin oxime/praziquantel (Milbemax®, Novartis Animal Health) in the chemoprevention of subcutaneous dirofilariosis in dogs. This study was conducted in endemic areas of Italy. A total of 249 dogs, at two sites, negative for D. repens, were allocated into two groups (i.e. Treated -T1 vs Untreated-T2) with a ratio of 1:1, and subjected to clinical visits and blood sampling once monthly until the end of the study. All blood samples were microscopically and genetically examined. Animals belonging to T1 group received a minimum target dose of 0.5 mg/kg bodyweight of milbemycin oxime and 5 mg/kg of praziquantel in commercial tablets (Milbemax®) according body weight once every 4 weeks. Animals of group T2 were not treated with Milbemax® but received, when necessary, specific parasiticide treatments. The study duration was 336 ± 2 days for each dog. A total of 219 dogs completed the study (i.e. 111 in T1 and 108 in T2), while 30 dogs (i.e. 13 in T1, 17 in T2) were withdrawn for a variety of reasons unrelated to administration of Milbemax®. The percentages of animals not showing microfilariae of D. repens were 100% (111 animals) in T1 and 94.7% (108 animals out of 114) in group T2. Milbemax® was shown to be safe in treated dogs. The results of this study confirm that the monthly use of Milbemax® in dogs is effective and safe for the

  8. Efeito de diferentes sistemas de pastejo sobre o desempenho de suínos mantidos em pastagem de trevo-branco (Trifolium repens L. Effect of different grazing systems on the performance of pigs, in growing and finishing phases, kept on white clover (Trifolium repens L. pasture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denyse Maria Galvão Leite

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo foi conduzido com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito dos sistemas de pastejo contínuo, alternado e rotativo sobre as características de desempenho de suínos (consumo de ração, ganho de peso, conversão alimentar e espessura de toucinho nas fases de crescimento e terminação mantidos em pastagem de trevo-branco (Trifolium repens L.. Foram realizadas também avaliações da disponibilidade e composição química da pastagem. Trinta e seis suínos machos foram distribuídos em um delineamento de blocos casualizados, com três tratamentos e três repetições, e doze foram mantidos em sistema de confinamento. Não foi observada influência significativa dos sistemas de pastejo sobre as características de desempenho dos animais e a disponibilidade de forragem. Entretanto, houve diferença significativa na composição química da pastagem entre os sistemas de pastejo estudados. Os suínos em sistemas de pastejo contínuo, alternado e rotativo consumiram de 13,41 a 15,92% a menos de ração e apresentaram menores ganhos de peso e espessura de toucinho que aqueles criados em confinamento. Não foram registradas diferenças significativas na conversão alimentar entre os suínos mantidos em confinamento e em pastagem.This trial was carried out to determine the effect of continuous, alternated or rotational grazing systems on the performance of pigs (feed intake, weight gain, feed conversion and backfat thickness, in the growing and finishing phases, as well as the forage availability and chemical composition of a white clover pasture (Trifolium repens L.. Thirty-six castrated pigs were allotted to a randomized complete-block experimental design with three treatments and three replications. Twelve feedlot pigs were kept on a rearing system. No significant differences were found between grazing systems on parameters of animal performance and forage on offer. However, significant differences were observed on the pasture chemical composition

  9. Evaluation of antimalarial, free-radical-scavenging and insecticidal activities of Artemisia scoparia and A. Spicigera, Asteraceae

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    Fariba H. Afshar

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Artemisia species (Asteraceae, widespread throughout the world, are a group of important medicinal plants. The extracts of two medicinal plants of this genus, Artemisia scoparia Waldst. & Kit. and A. spicigera C. Koch, were evaluated for potential antimalarial, free-radical-scavenging and insecticidal properties, using the heme biocrystallisation and inhibition assay, the DPPH assay and the contact toxicity bioassay using the pest Tribolium castaneum, respectively. The methanol extracts of both species showed strong free-radical-scavenging activity and the RC50 values were 0.0317 and 0.0458 mg/mL, respectively, for A. scoparia and A. spicigera. The dichloromethane extracts of both species displayed a moderate level of potential antimalarial activity providing IC50 at 0.778 and 0.999 mg/mL for A. scoparia and A. spicigera, respectively. Both species of Artemisia showed insecticidal properties. However, A. spicigera was more effective than A. scoparia.

  10. Isolation and Characterization of 11 New Microsatellite Loci in Erigeron breviscapus (Asteraceae, an Important Chinese Traditional Herb

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    Junbo Yang

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Erigeron breviscapus (Vant. Hand.-Mazz. (Asteraceae is a species endemic to southwestern China and an important traditional Chinese herb for cardiovascular and cerebral vessel diseases. Applying a modified biotin-streptavidin capture method, 11 microsatellite loci were discovered. Polymorphism of each locus was assessed in 24 individuals collected from five wild populations. The number of alleles per locus ranged from 2 to 7, with an average of 4.273. The observed (HO and expected (HE heterozygosities varied from 0.250 to 0.958 and from 0.337 to 0.786, respectively. Over half of these loci were successfully amplified in two congeneric species. The developed microsatellite markers will be useful for future population genetics and conservation studies, as well as accurate identification of different varieties.

  11. Isolation and characterization of 11 new microsatellite loci in Erigeron breviscapus (Asteraceae), an important Chinese traditional herb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiang; Song, Kexian; Yang, Junbo; Yi, Tingshuang

    2011-01-01

    Erigeron breviscapus (Vant.) Hand.-Mazz. (Asteraceae) is a species endemic to southwestern China and an important traditional Chinese herb for cardiovascular and cerebral vessel diseases. Applying a modified biotin-streptavidin capture method, 11 microsatellite loci were discovered. Polymorphism of each locus was assessed in 24 individuals collected from five wild populations. The number of alleles per locus ranged from 2 to 7, with an average of 4.273. The observed (HO) and expected (HE) heterozygosities varied from 0.250 to 0.958 and from 0.337 to 0.786, respectively. Over half of these loci were successfully amplified in two congeneric species. The developed microsatellite markers will be useful for future population genetics and conservation studies, as well as accurate identification of different varieties.

  12. Antifungal activity against Botrytis cinerea of labdane-type diterpenoids isolated from the resinous exudate of Haplopappus velutinus Remy (Asteraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echeverría, Javier; González-Teuber, Marcia; Urzúa, Alejandro

    2018-02-25

    Two labdane diterpenoids were isolated, from the resinous exudate of Haplopappus velutinus Remy (Asteraceae); the main compound was identified as 7,13-(E)-labdadien-15,18-dioic-acid-18-methyl ester (1) and the minor compound identified as 7-labden-15,18-dioic-acid-18-methyl ester (2). Their structures were obtained using FTIR, MS, HRMS and NMR data: 1D NMR ( 1 H, 13 C and DEPT-135), 2D homonuclear NMR (COSY and NOESY) and heteronuclear NMR (HSQC and HMBC). The trans stereochemistry of the decalin moiety of compounds 1 and 2 was established through NOESY experiments of the reduction product of 1; 7-labden-15,18-diol (1a). Diterpenoids 1 and 1a are described for the first time and showed antifungal activity, inhibiting approximately 40% mycelial growth of Botrytis cinerea.

  13. Productividad de asociaciones de pasto ovillo (Dactylis glomerata L., ballico perenne (Lolium perenne L. y trébol blanco (Trifolium repens L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ever del J. Flores Santiago

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del estudio fue evaluar el rendimiento de forraje de los pastos, ovillo (Dactylis glomerata L. y ballicoperenne (Lolium perenne L. en monocultivo y asociados con trébol blanco (Trifolium repens L., en su segundo añode crecimiento. Los tratamientos evaluados fueron: 20:40:40; 00:50:50; 40:20:40; 50:00:50; 20:70:10; 70:20:10,40:40:20, 100:00:00 y 00:100:00 de pasto ovillo, ballico perenne y trébol blanco, respectivamente. El diseño experimentalfue bloques al azar con tres repeticiones. Se midió rendimiento de forraje, altura de planta, radiación interceptada(RI, % y composición botánica del forraje cosechado (%. Los tratamientos se defoliaron por ovinos (Suffolk xDorset de acuerdo con la estación del año (cada cinco, seis y cuatro semanas en otoño, invierno y primavera-verano,respectivamente. Las asociaciones 00:50:50, 20:40:40, y 40:20:20 tuvieron una diferenciación mayor enrendimiento anual produciendo más del 22 % que los monocultivos de pastos y la asociación 40:40:20 quepresentaron los menores rendimientos (en promedio 15,027 kg MS ha-1. La producción estacional tuvo diferente(P<0.05 aportación durante el año; en otoño-invierno se produjo el 40 % y en primavera-verano 60 %. El trébolblanco fue la especie con mayor porcentaje del forraje cosechado (44 % seguida por pasto ovillo (39 % yballico perenne (17 %. En conclusión, algunas asociaciones superaron el rendimiento de los pastos en monocultivo,existiendo diferencias también en la distribución estacional de la producción de forraje. La intercepción deradiación y altura de la planta son indicativos del rendimiento, y por tanto del momento de cosecha.

  14. Evaluation of biological control of Russian knapweed (Acroptilon repens L. by applying flower-eater mite (Aceria acroptiloni Shevchenko & Kacalev (Acari: Eriophyidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.A. Asadi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Russian knapweed (Acroptilon repens L. is a perennial weed of Aceraceae that is becoming a dominant weed in suitable conditions. In order to find an ecological non-chemical approach for controlling Russian knapweed and studying the possibility of using flower-eater mite (Aceria acroptiloni Shevchenko & Kacalev (Acari: Eriophyidae, a series of studies including field survey and field experiments were conducted in North Khorasan province, Agricultural Research Station of Shirvan College during spring 2010. Preliminary studies included collecting, identifying and screening of insects as biocontrol agents for Russian knapweed were carried out. In field survey studies, contaminated natural regions by flower-eater mite were recognized. At the end of growing season, 20 health and infested plants were selected and their height, flower number, shoot fresh weight and shoot dry weight were measured afterwards. In the field experiment, 40 similar plants with about one meter away from each other were selected. In addition, 40 plants (20 infected and 20 healthy plants were transplanted to the pots, and then planted in a land with a distance of about 100 cm. After establishment, control plants were sprayed with an acaricide 20 shoots each that used as ‘control’ and 20 shoots that infested with the mite were randomly selected. Russian knapweed shoots infested with the mite Aceria acroptiloni in a natural infestation were collected and observed under the binocular for the presence of the mite. The infested shoots were put in small vials filled with water, and transfer one shoot beside each of the 20 shoots that were selected for mite infestation. Mite infestation of the test shoots after two weeks was checked and in case the test shoots did not show signs of mite attack after four weeks, plants were infested again. As soon as the Russian knapweed leaves start wilting (when the green colour disappears, all 40 shoots were cut at the ground level. Each shoot

  15. Mercury and flooding cycles in the Tapajos river basin, Brazilian Amazon: The role of periphyton of a floating macrophyte (Paspalum repens)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coelho-Souza, Sergio A., E-mail: sacs@biof.ufrj.br [Lab. Tracadores Wolfgang C. Pfeiffer, SL 049, Instituto de Biofisica Carlos Chagas Filho/UFRJ, Bloco G, Centro de Ciencias e Saude, Ilha do Fundao, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, CEP 21949-902 (Brazil); Guimaraes, Jean R.D.; Miranda, Marcio R. [Lab. Tracadores Wolfgang C. Pfeiffer, SL 049, Instituto de Biofisica Carlos Chagas Filho/UFRJ, Bloco G, Centro de Ciencias e Saude, Ilha do Fundao, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, CEP 21949-902 (Brazil); Poirier, Hugo [Chaire de Reserche en Environment, Universite du Quebec a Montreal (UQaM), CP 8888, Montreal, H3C 3P8 (Canada); Mauro, Jane B.N. [Lab. Tracadores Wolfgang C. Pfeiffer, SL 049, Instituto de Biofisica Carlos Chagas Filho/UFRJ, Bloco G, Centro de Ciencias e Saude, Ilha do Fundao, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, CEP 21949-902 (Brazil); Lucotte, Marc [Chaire de Reserche en Environment, Universite du Quebec a Montreal (UQaM), CP 8888, Montreal, H3C 3P8 (Canada); Mergler, Donna [CINBIOSE, UQaM, CP 8888, succ. Centre-ville, Montreal, H3C 3P8 (Canada)

    2011-06-15

    Methylmercury (MeHg) increases mercury (Hg) toxicity and is biomagnified in the trophic chain contaminating riverine Amazon populations. Freshwater macrophyte roots are a main site of Hg methylation in different Brazilian environments. Paspalum repens periphyton was sampled in four floodplain lakes during the dry, rainy and wet seasons for measurement of total Hg (THg), MeHg, Hg methylation potentials, %C, %N, {delta}{sup 13}C, {delta}{sup 15}N and bacterial heterotrophic production as {sup 3}H-leucine incorporation rate. THg concentration varied from 67 to 198 ng/g and the potential of Me{sup 203}Hg formation was expressive (1-23%) showing that periphyton is an important matrix both in the accumulation of Hg and in MeHg production. The concentration of MeHg varied from 1 to 6 ng/g DW and was positively correlated with Me{sup 203}Hg formation. Though methylmercury formation is mainly a bacterial process, no significant correlation was observed between the methylation potentials and bacterial production. The multiple regressions analyses suggested a negative correlation between THg and %C and %N and between methylation potential and {delta}{sup 13}C. The discriminant analysis showed a significant difference in periphyton {delta}{sup 15}N, {delta}{sup 13}C and THg between seasons, where the rainy season presented higher {delta}{sup 15}N and the wet period lighter {delta}{sup 13}C, lower THg values and higher Me{sup 203}Hg formation. This exploratory study indicates that the flooding cycle could influence the periphyton composition, mercury accumulation and methylmercury production. - Research highlights: {yields} During rainy season mercury (Hg{sup 2+}) is carried out from terrestrial to aquatic systems by runoff. {yields} Macrophyte roots accumulates Hg{sup 2+} from suspended particulate matter (SPM). {yields} Hg methylation increases during the wet season. {yields} Flooded forest is a source of labile organic carbon and bioavailable Hg. {yields} Macrophytes

  16. Observational study: daily treatment with a new compound “tradamixina” plus serenoa repens for two months improved the lower urinary tract symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) are associated with great emotional costs to individuals and substantial economic costs to society. This study seeks to evaluate the effect of a new natural compound “Tradamixina plus Serenoa Repens” in order to improve lower urinary tract symptoms. Methods 100 patients (≥45years) who had had LUTS/BPH for >6 mo at screening and with IPSS -The international Prostate symptom scores- ≥13 and maximum urinary flow rate (Qmax) ≥4 to ≤15 ml/s. were recruited. The compound “Tradamixina plus Serenoa Repens” (80 mg of Alga Ecklonia Bicyclis, 100 mg of Tribulus Terrestris and 100 mg of D-Glucosamine and N-Acetyl-D-Glucosamine plus 320 mg of Serenoa Repens) was administered daily for 2 months. At visit and after 60 days of treatment patients were evaluated by means of detailed medical urological history, clinical examination, laboratory investigations (total PSA), and instrumental examination like urolfowmetry. Efficacy measures included IPSS-International Prostate Sympto, BPH Impact Index (BII), Quality-of-Life (QoL) Index. Measures were assessed at baseline and end point (12 wk or end of therapy) and also at screening, 1 and 4 wk for IPSS, and 4 wk for BII. Statistical significance was interpreted only if the results of the preceding analysis were significant at the 0.05 level. Results After 2 months of treatment the change from baseline to week 12 relative to “Tradamixina plus Seronea Repens” in total IPSS and Qol was statistically significant. Differences from baseline in BII were statistically significant for “Tradamixina plus Seronea Repens” above all differences in BII were also significant at 4 wk (LSmean ± SE: -0.8 ± 0.2). In the distribution of subjects over the PGI-I and CGI-I response categories were significant for”Tradamixina plus Seronea Repens” (PGI-I: p = 0.001; CGI-I). We also observed a decrease of total PSA. Conclusion The daily treatment with a new compound “Tradamixina plus

  17. Taxonomic review of the genus Chamaemelum Miller (Asteraceae) in the Iberian peninsula and the Balearic lslands

    OpenAIRE

    Benedí i González, Carles

    1988-01-01

    A taxonomic review of the genus Chamaemelum Miller (Asteraceae) in the Iberian peninsula and the Balearic Islands is carried out. Two changes in nomenclature are proposed: Chamaemelum nobile ( L.) All. forma discoideum (Willk.) comb. & stat. nov. and C. fuscatum (Brot.) Vasc. forma minor (Hoffmanns. & Link) comb. & stat. nov. For each taxon the correct name as well as ...

  18. ?-Cell protection and antidiabetic activities of Crassocephalum crepidioides (Asteraceae) Benth. S. Moore extract against alloxan-induced oxidative stress via regulation of apoptosis and reactive oxygen species (ROS)

    OpenAIRE

    Bahar, Entaz; Akter, Kazi-Marjahan; Lee, Geum-Hwa; Lee, Hwa-Young; Rashid, Harun-Or; Choi, Min-Kyung; Bhattarai, Kashi Raj; Hossain, Mir Mohammad Monir; Ara, Joushan; Mazumder, Kishor; Raihan, Obayed; Chae, Han-Jung; Yoon, Hyonok

    2017-01-01

    Background Medicinal plants are becoming more popular in the treatment of various diseases because of the adverse effects of the current therapy, especially antioxidant plant components such as phenols and flavonoids have a protective role against oxidative stress-induced degenerative diseases like diabetes. Thus, the purpose of this study was to investigate ?-cell protection and antidiabetic activities of Crassocephalum crepidioides (Asteraceae) Benth. S. Moore. Method The in-vitro study was...

  19. Produção e composição químico-bromatológica do capim-furachão (Panicum repens L. sob adubação e diferentes idades de corte Production and chemical composition of furachão grass (Panicum repens L. under fertilization and different cutting ages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério da Silva Aguiar

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a produção de matéria seca (MS e a composição químico-bromatológica do capim-furachão (Panicum repens L. em diferentes idades de corte (15, 30, 45, 60 e 75 dias, na presença e ausência de adubação. Para as análises de produção e composição química, utilizou-se delineamento em blocos casualizados, em um fatorial 5 x 2 (cinco idades de corte e dois níveis de adubação, com três repetições. A adubação proporcionou aumento na produção e redução nos teores de MS. Os teores de proteína bruta (PB foram reduzidos com o avanço da idade da gramínea. Aos 60 dias, encontraram-se produções de 541,87 kg/ha de PB e 5343,92 kg/ha de MS e teores médios de FDN e FDA de 69,70 e 34,25% na MS, respectivamente. As idades de corte influíram nos teores de FDN e FDA, mas a adubação não influenciou os teores de FDN. Os teores de Ca não diferiram na presença ou ausência de adubação, com média de 0,13% na MS, e aumentaram com a idade de corte. Os teores de P diminuíram com o avanço da idade da gramínea, sendo o maior valor 0,22% na MS, na condição sem adubo.The objective of this work was to evaluate the dry matter (DM yield and chemical composition of furachão grass (Panicum repens L. at different cutting ages (15, 30, 45, 60 and 75 days, with and without fertilization. For the yield analysis and chemical aanalysis composition, a completely randomized block design in a 5 x 2 factorial arrangement (cutting ages and fertilization levels, with three replicates, was used. Fertilization increased DM produced and reduction in the DM contents. The crude protein (CP contents decreased as the cutting ages increased. At 60 days, productions of 541,87 kg/ha CP and 5343.92 kg/ha DM and average neutral detergent fiber (NDF and acid detergent fiber (ADF contents of 69.7 and basis 34.25% in DM respectively were observed. The cutting ages affected the NDF and ADF average contents, but fertilization

  20. QUALITATIVE COMPOSITION AND ORGANI C ACIDS CONTENT IN THE ABOVEGROUN D PART OF PLANTS FRO M FAMILIES LAMIACEAE, ASTERACEAE, APIACEAE AND CHENOPODIACEAE

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    S. M. Marchyshyn

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background. Organic acids are the compounds of aliphatic or aromatic orders, which are widespread in flora and have a wide range of biological activity. We studied the qualitative composition and quantitative contents of organic acids in the aboveground part of some unofficial medicinal plants from families Lamiaceae, Asteraceae, Apiaceae and Chenopodiaceae is relevant. Objective. The objects of the research are the aboveground part of unofficial medicinal plants from families Lamiaceae, Asteraceae, Apiaceae and Chenopodiaceae. Methods. Identification of organic acids was performed by means of thin-layer and paper chromatography, their content was determined by means of gas chromatography, the quantitative amount of organic acids was defined by titrimetric analysis. Results. In the studied raw plants the quality of organic acids and their total contents were determined (in terms of malic acid. It is established that the maximum content of organic acids is accumulated in the grass Hyssopus officinalis L. (Lamiaceae, and the minimal is in the leaves of Chrysánthemum xhortorum L. variety Apro (Asteraceae. In all studied raw plants the dominance of aliphatic acids (citric, malic, oxalic and malonic was determined by means of gas chromatography. Benzoic is predominant among the aromatic acids. Conclusions. In the studied raw plants the quality of organic acids and their total content were determined. The following results can be used in developing the methods of quality control of the studied raw plants and during the study of new bioactive substances.

  1. Antibacterial and antioxidant activities of the essential oil of Artemisia echegarayi Hieron. (Asteraceae Actividad antibacteriana y antioxidante del aceite esencial extraído de Artemisia echegarayi Hieron. (Asteraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Laciar

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Artemisia echegarayi Hieron. (Asteraceae is commonly known in Argentina as “ajenjo”. Many studies report high efficacy of essential oils against food-borne pathogenic bacteria. The antimicrobial activity and minimal inhibitory concentration of A. echegarayi essential oil were evaluated against seven bacterial species of significant importance in food hygiene, by using the disc diffusion assay and the micro-well dilution method, respectively. Volatile components of the extract were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and major components were determined. Furthermore, the essential oil was tested for its antioxidant activity. The essential oil inhibited the growth of gram-positive and gram-negative tested bacteria, with the exception of Proteus mirabilis. A. echegarayi essential oil presented the lowest minimal inhibitory concentration against Listeria monocytogenes and Bacillus cereus. Two terpenes, thujone and camphor, were identified from this essential oil as the principal constituents responsible for antibacterial activity. The oil showed a free radical scavenging activity equivalent to 50% of the reference compound. These preliminary studies showed promising results since this essential oil may provide an alternative to promote its use as a natural food additive.Artemisia echegarayi Hieron. (Asteraceae, conocida como “ajenjo”, es una planta típica de la región de Cuyo (Argentina. En este trabajo se evaluó la actividad antimicrobiana in vitro y la concentración inhibitoria mínima del aceite esencial extraído de sus partes aéreas frente a especies bacterianas que con frecuencia contaminan los alimentos. Se utilizaron las técnicas de difusión con discos en agar y microdilución en placa respectivamente. Además, se determinó la actividad antioxidante de este aceite esencial in vitro por espectrofotometría. En general, tanto las bacterias gram-positivas como las gram-negativas fueron inhibidas por este aceite, con

  2. Meiotic analysis of the germoplasm of three medicinal species from Asteraceae family Análise meiótica do germoplasma de três espécies medicinais da família Asteraceae

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    Denise Olkoski

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Cytogenetic characterization was carried out on 12 accessions from Aster squamatus (Spreng. Hieron., Pterocaulon polystachyum DC, and Solidago microglossa DC by studying their meiotic behavior and pollen viability. These species are from the Asteraceae family, native to Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil, and are important for medicinal use. Young inflorescences with four accessions of each species were collected, fixed in ethanol-acetic acid (3:1, and conserved in ethanol 70% until use. The method used was that of squashing the anthers and coloring with acetic orcein 2%. Meiosis was regular in all accessions, presenting chromosomal associations preferentially bivalent, where n=10 was found for Aster squamatus and n=9 for Pterocaulon polystachyum, and Solidago microglossa. The studied accessions presented a Meiotic Index (MI that varied from 65% to 87% in Aster squamatus, 85% to 92% in Pterocaulon polystachyum, and 64% to 92% in Solidago microglossa, indicating meiotic stability, although irregularities appeared during the cellular division. The pollen viability estimative was high in all studied accessions. These results indicate that the studied species can be included in future studies of genetic breeding.Foi realizada a caracterização citogenética de doze acessos de Aster squamatus, Pterocaulon polystachyum e Solidago microglossa, espécies da família Asteraceae, nativas do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil, por meio do estudo do comportamento meiótico e da viabilidade polínica, que possuem grande importância para uso medicinal. Inflorescências jovens de quatro acessos de cada espécie foram fixadas em álcool-ácido acético (3:1 e conservadas em álcool 70% até o uso. O método utilizado foi o de esmagamento de anteras e a coloração com orceína acética 2%. A meiose foi regular em todos os acessos, apresentando associações cromossômicas preferencialmente em bivalentes, encontrando-se n=10 para Aster squamatus e n=9 para Pterocaulon

  3. Volatile constituents from Baccharis spp. L. (Asteraceae): Chemical support for the conservation of threatened species in Uruguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minteguiaga, Manuel; Andrés González, H; Cassel, Eduardo; Umpierrez, Noelia; Fariña, Laura; Dellacassa, Eduardo

    2018-03-14

    Chemical bioprospecting is an important tool for generating knowledge regarding local human-threatened floras and for conservation management. For Baccharis L. (Asteraceae), several volatile components have been reported for Brazil, Argentina, Bolivia, and Chile as a result of bioprospection, but not for Uruguayan flora, which is composed of more than 50 native species. In this work, through collection of aerial parts of different species and volatile simultaneous-distillation extraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses, 12 native species of Baccharis were studied (B. articulata, B. cultrata, B. genistifolia, B. gibertii, B. gnaphalioides, B. ochracea, B. phyteumoides, B. punctulata, B. crispa, B. dracunculifolia, B. linearifolia subsp. linearifolia, and B. spicata). A detailed analysis of the male and female volatile composition was conducted for the last four species. The profiles of B. cultrata, B. genistifolia, B. gibertii, and B. gnaphalioides are reported for the first time. Because half of the species analysed in this work are in Uruguay and are threatened or potentially threatened by human economic activities, the importance of their conservation as natural, sustainable resources is highlighted. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  4. Next-generation sequencing of the Chrysanthemum nankingense (Asteraceae transcriptome permits large-scale unigene assembly and SSR marker discovery.

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    Haibin Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Simple sequence repeats (SSRs are ubiquitous in eukaryotic genomes. Chrysanthemum is one of the largest genera in the Asteraceae family. Only few Chrysanthemum expressed sequence tag (EST sequences have been acquired to date, so the number of available EST-SSR markers is very low. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Illumina paired-end sequencing technology produced over 53 million sequencing reads from C. nankingense mRNA. The subsequent de novo assembly yielded 70,895 unigenes, of which 45,789 (64.59% unigenes showed similarity to the sequences in NCBI database. Out of 45,789 sequences, 107 have hits to the Chrysanthemum Nr protein database; 679 and 277 sequences have hits to the database of Helianthus and Lactuca species, respectively. MISA software identified a large number of putative EST-SSRs, allowing 1,788 primer pairs to be designed from the de novo transcriptome sequence and a further 363 from archival EST sequence. Among 100 primer pairs randomly chosen, 81 markers have amplicons and 20 are polymorphic for genotypes analysis in Chrysanthemum. The results showed that most (but not all of the assays were transferable across species and that they exposed a significant amount of allelic diversity. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: SSR markers acquired by transcriptome sequencing are potentially useful for marker-assisted breeding and genetic analysis in the genus Chrysanthemum and its related genera.

  5. Effects of Hydroalcoholic Extract of Tanacetum Sonbolii (Asteraceae on Pain-related Behaviors during Formalin Test in Mice

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    Mohammad Sofiabadi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Tanacetum sonbolii (Asteraceae is an endemic species in Iran. In the present study, we examined the effects of Tanacetum sonbolii hydroalcoholic extract on the formalin test in mice. Methods: 126 Swiss albino mice weighing 230-280g were used as subjects. The formalin test was performed on two control groups (marked as intact and saline groups n = 6 in each group and an experimental group. In all groups, the formalin test was recorded for 60 min after administration of extract and drugs in mice. Results: The results showed that Tanacetum sonbolii (150 and 300 mg/kg produced significant antinociception in phase 2. In addition, different doses of Tanacetum sonbolii extract (600, 900 and 1200 mg/kg also induced antinociceptive effects in phase1 and phase 2. On the other hand, morphine could induce antinociception in a dose-dependent manner. Diclofenac (10 mg/kg failed to affect the pain scores compared to Tanacetum sonbolii (300 mg/kg group. Discussion: It seems that administration of hydroalcoholic extract of Tanacetum sonbolii has the potential to relieve pain through both central and peripheral mechanisms in persistent inflammatory nociception.

  6. Dispersal, dormancy and life-history tradeoffs at the individual, population and species levels in southern African Asteraceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Waal, Caroli; Anderson, Bruce; Ellis, Allan G

    2016-04-01

    Dispersal and dormancy are important risk-reducing strategies in unpredictable environments. Negative covariation between these strategies is theoretically expected, but empirical evidence is limited and inconsistent. Moreover, covariation may be affected by other life-history traits and may vary across levels of biological organization. We assessed dispersal (vertical fall time of fruits, a proxy for wind dispersal ability) and dormancy (germination fractions measured during germination trials) in populations of 15 annual and 12 perennial wind-dispersed species in six Asteraceae genera from South Africa. Dormancy was higher in annuals than in perennials, whereas fall time was largely determined by evolutionary history. Controlling for phylogeny, dispersal and dormancy was negatively associated across species and life-history categories. Negative covariation between dispersal and dormancy was not evident at either the individual level (except for seed heteromorphic species) or the population level. Our study provides rare empirical support for the theoretical expectation of tradeoffs between dormancy and the alternative risk-reducing strategies, perenniality and dispersal, but refutes the expectation of increased dispersability in perennials. Although negative covariation between dispersal and dormancy at the species level appears not to be a simple consequence of upscaling individual-level mechanistic tradeoffs, our findings suggest that selection for one strategy may constrain evolution of the other. © 2015 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  7. Physiological response and differential leaf proteome pattern in the European invasive Asteraceae Solidago canadensis colonizing a former cokery soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Immel, Françoise; Renaut, Jenny; Masfaraud, Jean-François

    2012-02-02

    Derelict contaminated sites are often colonized spontaneously by plant species leading to a vegetal cover thought to limit particle dispersal and polluted water infiltration. Those plants must cope with soil pollutants through tolerance mechanisms that are not yet fully understood. Here, we focused our attention on a particular Asteraceae plant, Solidago canadensis, considered as invasive in Europe. S. canadensis spontaneously growing on either polluted (NM soil) or control soils dumped on experimental plots were studied for their physiological status, oxidative stress and 2D-DIGE of leaf extracts. S. canadensis tolerance to soil pollutants was demonstrated since growth rates, allocation to reproduction ratios and Fv/Fm ratios were similar in plants from control and NM soil. At the cell level, the catalase activity level was increased in plants collected on NM soil while lipoperoxidation was unaffected. Also, the leaf proteomic study revealed thirty down-regulated and sixty-six up-regulated proteins. Abundances of proteins related to oxidative stress, carbohydrate metabolism, ion transport were mainly up-regulated while those of proteins involved in cell cycle and transcription/translation were mostly down-regulated. Proteins associated to protein metabolism were either down- or up-regulated. Considered altogether, we highlighted that S. canadensis exhibited a complex proteome response when experiencing a multicontaminated soil. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Prosexual Effect of Chrysactinia mexicana A. Gray (Asteraceae), False Damiana, in a Model of Male Sexual Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada-Reyes, R.; Ferreyra-Cruz, O. A.

    2016-01-01

    Chrysactinia mexicana A. Gray (Asteraceae) and Turnera diffusa Willd (Turneraceae) are employed in traditional medicine as aphrodisiacs; however, there is no scientific evidence supporting the prosexual properties of C. mexicana. The aim of this study was to determine whether an aqueous extract of C. mexicana (Cm) stimulates rat male sexual behavior in the sexual exhaustion paradigm. Sexually exhausted (SExh) male rats were treated with Cm (80, 160, and 320 mg/kg), an aqueous extract of T. diffusa (Td), or yohimbine. The sexual exhaustion state in the control group was characterized by a low percentage of males exhibiting mounts, intromissions, and ejaculations and no males demonstrating mating behavior after ejaculation. Cm (320 mg/kg), Td, or yohimbine significantly increased the proportion of SExh rats that ejaculated and resumed copulation after ejaculation. In males that exhibited reversal of sexual exhaustion, Cm (320 mg/kg) improved sexual performance by reducing the number of intromissions and shrinking ejaculation latency. The effects of treatments on sexual behavior were not related with alterations in general locomotion. In conclusion, the prosexual effects of Cm, as well as those of Td, are established at a central level, which supports the traditional use of C. mexicana for stimulating sexual activity. PMID:27656650

  9. Next-generation sampling: Pairing genomics with herbarium specimens provides species-level signal in Solidago (Asteraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, James B; Semple, John C

    2015-06-01

    The ability to conduct species delimitation and phylogeny reconstruction with genomic data sets obtained exclusively from herbarium specimens would rapidly enhance our knowledge of large, taxonomically contentious plant genera. In this study, the utility of genotyping by sequencing is assessed in the notoriously difficult genus Solidago (Asteraceae) by attempting to obtain an informative single-nucleotide polymorphism data set from a set of specimens collected between 1970 and 2010. Reduced representation libraries were prepared and Illumina-sequenced from 95 Solidago herbarium specimen DNAs, and resulting reads were processed with the nonreference Universal Network-Enabled Analysis Kit (UNEAK) pipeline. Multidimensional clustering was used to assess the correspondence between genetic groups and morphologically defined species. Library construction and sequencing were successful in 93 of 95 samples. The UNEAK pipeline identified 8470 single-nucleotide polymorphisms, and a filtered data set was analyzed for each of three Solidago subsections. Although results varied, clustering identified genomic groups that often corresponded to currently recognized species or groups of closely related species. These results suggest that genotyping by sequencing is broadly applicable to DNAs obtained from herbarium specimens. The data obtained and their biological signal suggest that pairing genomics with large-scale herbarium sampling is a promising strategy in species-rich plant groups.

  10. Combined treatment with caffeic and ferulic acid from Baccharis uncinella C. DC. (Asteraceae) protects against metabolic syndrome in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocco, B M; Fernandes, G W; Lorena, F B; Cysneiros, R M; Christoffolete, M A; Grecco, S S; Lancellotti, C L; Romoff, P; Lago, J H G; Bianco, A C; Ribeiro, M O

    2016-03-01

    Fractionation of the EtOH extract from aerial parts of Baccharis uncinella C. DC. (Asteraceae) led to isolation of caffeic and ferulic acids, which were identified from spectroscopic and spectrometric evidence. These compounds exhibit antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties and have been shown to be effective in the prevention/treatment of metabolic syndrome. This study investigated whether the combined treatment of caffeic and ferulic acids exhibits a more significant beneficial effect in a mouse model with metabolic syndrome. The combination treatment with caffeic and ferulic acids was tested for 60 days in C57 mice kept on a high-fat (40%) diet. The data obtained indicated that treatment with caffeic and ferulic acids prevented gain in body weight induced by the high-fat diet and improved hyperglycemia, hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia. The expression of a number of metabolically relevant genes was affected in the liver of these animals, showing that caffeic and ferulic acid treatment results in increased cholesterol uptake and reduced hepatic triglyceride synthesis in the liver, which is a likely explanation for the prevention of hepatic steatosis. In conclusion, the combined treatment of caffeic and ferulic acids displayed major positive effects towards prevention of multiple aspects of the metabolic syndrome and liver steatosis in an obese mouse model.

  11. Prosexual Effect of Chrysactinia mexicana A. Gray (Asteraceae, False Damiana, in a Model of Male Sexual Behavior

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    R. Estrada-Reyes

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Chrysactinia mexicana A. Gray (Asteraceae and Turnera diffusa Willd (Turneraceae are employed in traditional medicine as aphrodisiacs; however, there is no scientific evidence supporting the prosexual properties of C. mexicana. The aim of this study was to determine whether an aqueous extract of C. mexicana (Cm stimulates rat male sexual behavior in the sexual exhaustion paradigm. Sexually exhausted (SExh male rats were treated with Cm (80, 160, and 320 mg/kg, an aqueous extract of T. diffusa (Td, or yohimbine. The sexual exhaustion state in the control group was characterized by a low percentage of males exhibiting mounts, intromissions, and ejaculations and no males demonstrating mating behavior after ejaculation. Cm (320 mg/kg, Td, or yohimbine significantly increased the proportion of SExh rats that ejaculated and resumed copulation after ejaculation. In males that exhibited reversal of sexual exhaustion, Cm (320 mg/kg improved sexual performance by reducing the number of intromissions and shrinking ejaculation latency. The effects of treatments on sexual behavior were not related with alterations in general locomotion. In conclusion, the prosexual effects of Cm, as well as those of Td, are established at a central level, which supports the traditional use of C. mexicana for stimulating sexual activity.

  12. Leaf blade structure of Verbesina macrophylla (Cass.) F. S. Blake (Asteraceae): ontogeny, duct secretion mechanism and essential oil composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezerra, L D A; Mangabeira, P A O; de Oliveira, R A; Costa, L C D B; Da Cunha, M

    2018-05-01

    Secretory structures are common in Asteraceae, where they exhibit a high degree of morphological diversity. The species Verbesina macrophylla, popularly known as assa-peixe, is native to Brazil where it is widely used for medicinal purposes. Despite its potential medical importance, there have been no studies of the anatomy of this species, especially its secretory structures and secreted compounds. This study examined leaves of V. macrophylla with emphasis on secretory structures and secreted secondary metabolites. Development of secretory ducts and the mechanism of secretion production are described for V. macrophylla using ultrastructure, yield and chemical composition of its essential oils. Verbesina macrophylla has a hypostomatic leaf blade with dorsiventral mesophyll and secretory ducts associated with vascular bundles of schizogenous origin. Histochemistry identified the presence of lipids, terpenes, alkaloids and mucopolysaccharides. Ultrastructure suggests that the secretion released into the duct lumen is produced in plastids of transfer cells, parenchymal sheath cells and stored in vacuoles in these cells and duct epithelial cells. The essential oil content was 0.8%, and its major components were germacrene D, germacrene D-4-ol, β-caryophyllene, bicyclogermacrene and α-cadinol. Secretory ducts of V. macrophylla are squizogenous. Substances identified in tissues suggest that both secretions stored in the ducts and in adjacent parenchyma cells are involved in chemical defence. The essential oil is rich in sesquiterpenes, with germacrene D and its derivatives being notable components. © 2018 German Society for Plant Sciences and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  13. Anthelmintic Activity of Crude Extract and Essential Oil of Tanacetum vulgare (Asteraceae against Adult Worms of Schistosoma mansoni

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    Loyana Silva Godinho

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Schistosomiasis, a parasitic disease caused by trematode flatworms of the genus Schistosoma, affects more than 200 million people worldwide, and its control is dependent on a single drug, praziquantel. Tanacetum vulgare (Asteraceae is used in folk medicine as a vermifuge. This study aimed to investigate the in vitro schistosomicidal activity of the crude extract (TV and the essential oil (TV-EO from the aerial parts of T. vulgare. TV-EO was obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC/MS, which allowed the identification of β-thujone (84.13% as the major constituent. TV and TV-EO, at 200 μg/mL, decreased motor activity and caused 100% mortality of all adult worms. At 100 and 50 μg/mL, only TV caused death of all adult worms, while TV-EO was inactive. TV (200 μg/mL was also able to reduce viability and decrease production of developed eggs. Confocal laser scanning microscopy showed morphological alterations in the tegument of the S. mansoni surface after incubation with TV (50 and 100 μg/mL. Quantitative analysis on the schistosomes tegument showed that TV caused changes in the numbers of tubercles of S. mansoni male worms in a dose-dependent manner. The findings suggest that T. vulgare is a potential source of schistosomicidal compounds.

  14. Phenolic profiling of the South American "Baylahuen" tea (Haplopappus spp., Asteraceae) by HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmeda-Hirschmann, Guillermo; Quispe, Cristina; González, Benita

    2015-01-08

    The aerial parts of several Haplopappus species (Asteraceae), known under the common name "baylahuen", are used as herbal teas in Chile and Argentina. In Chile, "baylahuen" comprises H. multifolius, H. taeda, H. baylahuen and H. rigidus. Little is known about the chemical identity of the infusion constituents in spite of widespread consumption. The aim of the present work was the characterization of phenolics occurring in the infusions and methanol extracts of "baylahuen" by HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS. A simple HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS method was developed for the fast identification and differentiation of Haplopappus spp. used as a tea source, based on the phenolics from the tea and methanol extracts. Some 27 phenolics were tentatively identified in the infusions and methanol extract, including 10 caffeoyl quinic and feruloyl quinic acid derivatives and 17 flavonoids. The HPLC patterns of the Haplopappus tea and methanol extract allow a clear differentiation at the species level. The occurrence of hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives and flavonoids can explain the reputed nutraceutical and health beneficial properties of this herbal tea.

  15. Biochemical characterization of Helichrysum italicum (Roth) G.Don subsp. italicum (Asteraceae) from Montenegro: phytochemical screening, chemotaxonomy, and antioxidant properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kladar, Nebojša V; Anačkov, Goran T; Rat, Milica M; Srđenović, Branislava U; Grujić, Nevena N; Šefer, Emilia I; Božin, Biljana N

    2015-03-01

    The chemical composition and antioxidant properties of the essential oil and EtOH extract of immortelle (Helichrysum italicum (Roth) G.Don subsp. italicum, Asteraceae) collected in Montenegro were evaluated. The essential oil was characterized by GC/MS analysis, and the content of total phenolics and flavonoids in the EtOH extract was determined using the FolinCiocalteu reagent. The free-radical-scavenging capacity (RSC) of both the essential oil and the EtOH extract was assessed with the 2,2-diphenyl-1-pycrylhydrazyl (DPPH) method. Moreover, the inhibition of hydroxyl radical ((.) OH) generation by the EtOH extract of immortelle was evaluated for the first time here. Neryl acetate (28.2%) and γ-curcumene (18.8%) were the main compounds in the essential oil, followed by neryl propionate (9.1%) and ar-curcumene (8.3%). The chemical composition of the oils of the examined and additional 16 selected Helichrysum italicum taxa described in literature were compared using principal component (PCA) and cluster (CA) analyses. The results of the statistical analyses implied the occurrence of at least four different main and three subchemotypes of essential oils. Considering the antioxidant properties, the EtOH extract of immortelle exhibited similar potential as propyl gallate and quercetin, while the essential oil exhibited relatively weak DPPH(.) -scavenging capacity. Copyright © 2015 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  16. Phenolic Profiling of the South American “Baylahuen” Tea (Haplopappus spp., Asteraceae by HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS

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    Guillermo Schmeda-Hirschmann

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aerial parts of several Haplopappus species (Asteraceae, known under the common name “baylahuen”, are used as herbal teas in Chile and Argentina. In Chile, “baylahuen” comprises H. multifolius, H. taeda, H. baylahuen and H. rigidus. Little is known about the chemical identity of the infusion constituents in spite of widespread consumption. The aim of the present work was the characterization of phenolics occurring in the infusions and methanol extracts of “baylahuen” by HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS. A simple HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS method was developed for the fast identification and differentiation of Haplopappus spp. used as a tea source, based on the phenolics from the tea and methanol extracts. Some 27 phenolics were tentatively identified in the infusions and methanol extract, including 10 caffeoyl quinic and feruloyl quinic acid derivatives and 17 flavonoids. The HPLC patterns of the Haplopappus tea and methanol extract allow a clear differentiation at the species level. The occurrence of hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives and flavonoids can explain the reputed nutraceutical and health beneficial properties of this herbal tea.

  17. Chemical characterization of two morphologically related Espeletia (Asteraceae species and chemometric analysis based on essential oil components

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    Guillermo F. Padilla-González

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In this study, a comprehensive phytochemical characterization of two morphologically related species from the genus Espeletia Mutis ex Bonpl., namely, Espeletia grandiflora Humb. & Bonpl. and Espeletia killipii Cuatrec., Asteraceae, has been performed by gas chromatography coupled to flame ionization detection, gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry and ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled to ultraviolet and high-resolution mass spectrometry. Analysis of ethanol extracts (70%, v/v from leaves and concomitant compound dereplication allowed the identification of major peaks, most of them new reports for the genus Espeletia or the subtribe Espeletiinae. Chemical characterization of resins essential oils indicated several similarities and differences between both species and from other members of the subtribe. Chemometric analysis (hierarchical clustering analysis and orthogonal partial least-squares discriminant analysis applied to the essential oil composition of 31 species from Espeletiinae furthermore allowed the identification of three primary clusters correlated with the taxonomy. Hence, this study underscored qualitative and semiquantitative differences between the chemical composition of leaves and resins of E. grandiflora and E. killipii, provided information on chemotaxonomy and described the presence of different trends in the essential oil composition from species of Espeletiinae.

  18. Antinociceptive activity and toxicological study of aqueous extract of Egletes viscosa Less (Asteraceae Atividade antinociceptiva e estudo toxicológico de extrato aquoso de Egletes viscosa Lessa (Asteraceae

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    Adriano Antunes S. Araújo

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Egletes viscosa Less (Asteraceae, popularly known as "macela" or "macela-da-terra", is a plant widely used in popular medicine due to its anti-inflammatory, bactericidal, antidiarrhoea, mio-relaxant, antispasmodic, antinociceptive, digestive, and anti-viral properties. Phytochemical screening of aqueous extract of Egletes viscosa (AEEV revealed the high presence of flavonoids. This study examined the oral antinociceptive potential of AEEV in rodents using different concentrations (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg, p.o.. The results showed significant antinociceptive action when tested in writhing (200 and 400 mg/kg-pEgletes viscosa Less (Asteraceae, popularmente conhecida como "macela" ou "macela-da-terra", é uma planta largamente usada na medicina popular devido as suas propriedades: anti-inflamatória, bactericida, antidiarréica, mio-relaxante, anti-espasmódica, antinociceptiva, digestiva e anti-viral. Análise fitoquímica do extrato aquoso da Egletes viscosa (AEEV mostrou elevada presença de flavonóides. Este estudo examinou o potencial antinociceptivo do AEEV em roedores usando diferentes concentrações (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg, p.o.. Os resultados mostraram significante efeito antinociceptivo quando testadas as doses (200 mg/kg-p<0.01; 400 mg/kg-p<0.05 e na segunda fase dos testes com formalina (200 and 400 mg/kg-p<0.001. Este efeito antinociceptivo foi similar ao ácido acetilsalicílico (300 mg/kg nas doses de 200 e 400 mg/kg. Adicionalmente, estas observações sugerem que o AEEV é efetivo contra dores inflamatórias contínuas. AEEV foi bem tolerada. No teste de toxicidade aguda, utilizando uma administração oral de 5 g/kg de AEEV, não foi observado casos de mortalidade. Da mesma maneira, no estudo subcrônico nenhuma mortalidade foi observada após 30 dias de administração oral diária de 100 mg/kg do AEEV. Não houve diferença significativa entre os pesos corporal e dos órgãos isolados quando comparados grupo controle e teste

  19. Caracterização morfoanatômica das folhas de Eremanthus erythropappus (DC. MacLeisch, Asteraceae Leaf morpho-anatomical characterization of Eremanthus erythropappus (DC. MacLeisch, Asteraceae

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    Rafael C. Dutra

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Eremanthus erythropappus (DC. MacLeisch (Asteraceae, popularmente conhecida como "candeia-da-serra", é uma espécie utilizada na medicina tradicional como cicatrizante e antimicrobiano. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi comparar o número de tricomas glandulares nas folhas jovens e adultas de E. erythropappus, assim como realizar a caracterização morfoanatômica destas folhas. Secções transversais e paradérmicas das folhas foram submetidas às microtécnicas fotônicas e à microscopia eletrônica de varredura. A quantificação dos tricomas glandulares foi realizada em folhas jovens e adultas com auxílio de câmara clara. As folhas são alternas ou fasciculadas e a lâmina foliar possui epiderme uniestratificada, revestida por cutícula delgada e lisa e mesofilo dorsiventral. Em ambas as faces da epiderme, ocorrem estômatos predominantemente anomocíticos e tricomas glandulares inseridos em depressões. Na face abaxial observam-se numerosos tricomas tectores. O parênquima paliçádico é uniestratificado e o parênquima voltado para a face abaxial é formado por três a cinco camadas de células com disposição compacta. As folhas jovens e adultas apresentam respectivamente 21,78±5,83 e 17,80±6,69 tricomas glandulares na face adaxial. A análise morfoanatômica das folhas de E. erythropappus mostra-se um método rápido e prático para a identificação e controle de qualidade de espécies vegetais utilizadas na terapêutica.Eremanthus erythropappus (DC. MacLeisch (Asteraceae, commonly known as 'candeia-da-serra', is a plant used in folk medicine as wound healing and antimicrobial. The aim of this study was to compare the number of glandular trichomes between the young and the mature leaves, as well as to perform the morpho-anatomical characterization of E. erythropappus leaves. Transverse and paradermal sections of the leaves were prepared according to light and scanning microtechniques for the morpho-anatomical characterization

  20. pH foliar e deposição de gotas de pulverização em plantas daninhas aquáticas: Brachiaria mutica, Brachiaria subquadripara e Panicum repens Leaf pH and spray droplet deposition in aquatic weeds: Brachiaria mutica, Brachiaria subquadripara and Panicum repens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.V. Costa

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available A diversidade morfológica da superfície foliar existente entre as espécies de plantas e a presença de estruturas foliares, como tricomas, estômatos, cutícula e ceras, podem exercer grande influência na aderência e deposição das gotas de pulverização, assim como na absorção do herbicida. Dessa forma, o objetivo do presente trabalho foi estudar, em plantas daninhas aquáticas emersas (Brachiaria mutica, Brachiaria subquadripara e Panicum repens, o pH foliar, bem como a área de molhamento de gotas de pulverização na superfície foliar adaxial e abaxial. O experimento foi conduzido no Núcleo de Pesquisas Avançadas em Matologia - NUPAM, pertencente à Faculdade de Ciências Agronômicas de Botucatu/SP - UNESP. As plantas foram cultivadas em caixas d'água no campo, quando elas atingiram seu pleno desenvolvimento (antes do florescimento, foram feitas as avaliações de pH foliar e da área de molhamento de gotas de pulverização. As tensões superficiais das gotas depositadas (0,5 µL, apresentadas pelas soluções de glyphosate aplicado isoladamente (5,0% v v-1, Rodeo 480g L-1 e.a. - produto comercial, glyphosate + Aterbane BR (5,0% + 0,5% v v-1, glyphosate + Silwet L-77 (5,0% + 0,05% v v-1, além das soluções com os adjuvantes isolados, Aterbane BR (0,5% v v-1 e Silwet L-77 (0,05% v v-1, foram respectivamente de 72,1; 28,7; 23,3; 37,3; e 22,1 mN m-1. As médias obtidas de pH foliar variaram entre 5,71 e 6,03, destacando-se a espécie B. mutica, com valores de 5,72 e 6,03 para as faces adaxial e abaxial, respectivamente. Contudo, mais estudos devem ser realizados para verificar a influência do pH foliar na absorção de herbicidas por espécies daninhas aquáticas. Das plantas daninhas aquáticas avaliadas, B. subquadripara foi a espécie que obteve as maiores médias de área de molhamento nas faces adaxial e abaxial da folha, proporcionadas pelas soluções de glyphosate + Aterbane BR, glyphosate + Silwet L-77 e Silwet L-77

  1. Assessment of plant development, morphology and flavonoid content in different cultivation treatments of Calendula officinalis L: , Asteraceae

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    Luis Fernando Nunes Alves Paim

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to examine the influence of cultivation treatments on plant development, morphology and flavonoid content in Calendula officinalis L., Asteraceae. The cultivation treatments were liming (LIM, liming + organic fertilizer (LORG and liming + NPK chemical fertilizer (LCHEM. The experiment was completely randomized with sixty repetitions and the means were compared by ANOVA and Duncan's test (significance of 95%. The results show that LORG and LCHEM produced greater plant development compared with LIM treatment. The LORG treatment also produced plants with greater homogeneity, fresh mass, and higher numbers of flowers per plant, but lower biomass of flower produced by each individual. Morphoanatomical variations were also observed with tubular flowers with yellow centres (TCA and tubular flowers with brown centres (TAC that produced a higher content of flavonoids (1.41 and 1.44% respectively, compared with ligulate flowers with yellow centres (LCA and ligulate flowers with brown centres (LAC (0.89 and 0.95% respectively. The chemical compounds in the flowers of calendula viewed by thin-layer chromatography showed that the treatments did not have any influence on the qualitative chemical profile of the plant. However, cultivars of calendula that underwent treatment LCHEM produced a greater quantity of total flavonoids (1.14% against 1.04% for LORG and 1.03% for LIM.O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a influência dos tratos culturais no desenvolvimento vegetal, morfologia e teor de flavonóides para Calendula officinalis L., Asteraceae. Os tratos culturais foram: calagem (CA, calagem + adubação orgânica (CAO e calagem + adubação química NPK (CAQ. O experimento foi inteiramente casualizado com sessenta repetições e a comparação das médias realizada por ANOVA e teste de Duncan (significância de 95%. Os resultados apontam que CAO e CAQ apresentaram maior desenvolvimento vegetal comparados com tratamento CA. O

  2. Morphometric, AFLP and plastid microsatellite variation in populations of Scalesia divisa and S. incisa (Asteraceae) from the Galápagos Islands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    NIELSEN, LENE ROSTGAARD; Cowan, Robyn S.; SIEGISMUND, HANS R.

    2003-01-01

    Scalesia divisa and S. incisa (Asteraceae), both endemic to the Galápagos Islands, are found only on San Cristóbal, where S. divisa grows in the north-west of the island while S. incisa occurs in the north-east. At localities in between, populations with deviating individuals occur. Here we analyse...... the population structure of S. divisa, S. incisa and two deviating populations based on morphology, AFLP markers and two plastid microsatellite loci. The deviating populations were collected from either side of the island. In a principal components analysis based on morphological characters they appeared...

  3. Catálogo ilustrado de las compuestas (=Asteraceae) de la provincia de Buenos Aires, Argentina: Sistemática, Ecología y Usos.

    OpenAIRE

    Cabrera, Angel L.; Crisci, J.orge V.; Delucchi, Gustavo; Freire, Susana E.; Giuliano, Daniel A.; Iharlegui, Laura; Katinas, Liliana; Sáenz, Alcides A.; Sancho, G.isela; Urtubey, Estrella

    2000-01-01

    La familia de la Compuestas (=Asteraceae) es la más numerosa de todas las fanerógamas con aproximadamente 23000 especies y más de 1500 géneros ampliamente distribuidos en todos los continentes excepto en la Antártida. En la República Argentina es la familia más abundante con 222 géneros nativos y 1490 especies, en tanto que en la provincia de Buenos Aires, las compuestas representan la sexta parte de la flora de plantas vasculares con 113 géneros y 356 especies, de las cuales 55 son adventici...

  4. Interaction between Tephritidae (Insecta, Diptera and plants of the family Asteraceae: new host and distribution records for the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

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    Marcoandre Savaris

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Twenty species of Tephritidae (Diptera are recorded in association with capitula of plants in the family Asteraceae. The Tephritidae genus Tetreuaresta is registered for Rio Grande do Sul for the first time. Five species of Tephritidae are newly recorded for Rio Grande do Sul, and new hosts are recorded for the following fly species: Dioxyna chilensis (Macquart, Plaumannimyia dolores (Hering, Plaumannimyia imitatrix (Hering, Plaumannimyia miseta (Hering, Plaumannimyia pallens Hering, Tomoplagia incompleta (Williston, Tomoplagia matzenbacheri Prado, Norrbom & Lewinsohn, Tomoplagia reimoseri Hendel, Xanthaciura biocellata (Thomson and Xanthaciura chrysura (Thomson.

  5. Influência dos processos de secagem sobre o teor de flavonoides e na atividade antioxidante dos extratos de Baccharis articulata (Lam. Pers., Asteraceae

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    Jackson Borgo

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar o teor de quercetina obtido dos extratos de partes aéreas de Baccharis articulata (Lam. Pers., Asteraceae, submetidas a diferentes técnicas de secagem, bem como a avaliação de sua atividade antioxidante in vitro. Foi verificada maior concentração deste flavonoide nas amostras secas em estufa, porém não houve diferença significativa na atividade farmacológica das amostras analisadas.

  6. Chemical Characterization, Antileishmanial Activity, and Cytotoxicity Effects of the Essential Oil from Leaves of Pluchea carolinensis (Jacq.) G. Don. (Asteraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Marley; Scull, Ramón; Satyal, Prabodh; Setzer, William N; Monzote, Lianet

    2017-09-01

    Current strategies to control leishmaniasis are mainly based on chemotherapy. However, none of the available drugs can be considered to be ideal to treat this disease. Because of the hydrophobic nature and bioactivities of their components, essential oils (EOs) can be considered as important sources for developing agents against intracellular pathogens, such as Leishmania parasites. In this study, we report the chemical characterization, antileishmanial activities, and cytotoxicity effect of the EO from Pluchea carolinensis (Jacq.) G. Don. (Asteraceae). Chemical analysis revealed that EO from aerial part from P. carolinensis is composed of 44 compounds. The main component was selin-11-en-4α-ol, which made up 51.0%. In vitro antileishmanial studies showed that P. carolinensis EO inhibited the growth of promastigotes (IC 50  = 24.7 ± 7.1 μg/mL) and amastigotes (IC 50  = 6.2 ± 0.1 μg/mL) of Leishmania amazonensis, while cytotoxicity evaluation revealed fivefold higher values than those for the parasites. In a model of experimental cutaneous leishmaniasis in BALB/c mice, five doses of EO at 30 mg/kg by intralesional route demonstrated smaller lesion size and parasite burden (p < 0.05) compared with animals treated with Glucantime® and untreated mice. In conclusion, in vitro and in vivo results showed the potentialities of EO from P. carolinensis with the future possibility of a new alternative in the treatment for leishmaniasis. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Insect herbivores associated with Baccharis dracunculifolia (Asteraceae): responses of gall-forming and free-feeding insects to latitudinal variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagundes, Marcílio; Fernandes, G Wilson

    2011-09-01

    The spatial heterogeneity hypothesis has been invoked to explain the increase in species diversity from the poles to the tropics: the tropics may be more diverse because they contain more habitats and micro-habitats. In this paper, the spatial heterogeneity hypothesis prediction was tested by evaluating the variation in richness of two guilds of insect herbivores (gall-formers and free-feeders) associated with Baccharis dracunculifolia (Asteraceae) along a latitudinal variation in Brazil. The seventeen populations of B. dracunculifolia selected for insect herbivores sampling were within structurally similar habitats, along the N-S distributional limit of the host plant, near the Brazilian sea coast. Thirty shrubs were surveyed in each host plant population. A total of 8 201 galls and 864 free-feeding insect herbivores belonging to 28 families and 88 species were sampled. The majority of the insects found on B. dracunculifolia were restricted to a specific site rather than having a geographic distribution mirroring that of the host plant. Species richness of free-feeding insects was not affected by latitudinal variation corroborating the spatial heterogeneity hypothesis. Species richness of gall-forming insects was positively correlated with latitude, probably because galling insect associated with Baccharris genus radiated in Southern Brazil. Other diversity indices and evenness estimated for both gall-forming and free feeding insect herbivores, did not change with latitude, suggesting a general structure for different assemblages of herbivores associated with the host plant B. dracunculifolia. Thus it is probable that, insect fauna sample in each site resulted of large scale events, as speciation, migration and coevolution, while at local level, the population of these insects is regulated by ecological forces which operate in the system.

  8. Antitrypanosomal activity and evaluation of the mechanism of action of diterpenes from aerial parts of Baccharis retusa (Asteraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueno, Anderson K; Barcellos, Aline F; Costa-Silva, Thais A; Mesquita, Juliana T; Ferreira, Daiane D; Tempone, Andre G; Romoff, Paulete; Antar, Guilherme M; Lago, João Henrique G

    2018-03-01

    Baccharis retusa, a medicinal Brazilian plant from Asteraceae, has been used in Brazilian folk medicine to treatment of several illnesses, including parasitic diseases. Bioactivity-guided fractionation of the n-hexane extract from the aerial parts of B. retusa resulted in the isolation and characterization of three active related diterpenes: ent-15β-senecioyl-oxy-kaur-16-en-19-oic acid (1), ent-kaur-16-en-19-oic (2) and ent-16-oxo-17-nor-kauran-19-oic (3) acids. The structures of isolated compounds were defined by spectroscopic analysis, including NMR and HRESIMS. Antitrypanosomal activity of 1-3 was performed against cell-derived trypomastigotes using the colorimetric resazurin assay. The obtained results demonstrated that isolated compounds displayed a reduced toxicity against NCTC cells and were effective against the trypomastigote forms of T. cruzi with IC 50 values of 3.8μM (1), 75.3μM (2) and 44.2μM (3). Additionally, compound 3 displayed activity against amastigote forms of T. cruzi with IC 50 of 83.2μM. Compound 1 displayed the highest selectivity index (SI) when considered the trypomastigote forms, and its effect in the plasma membrane of parasite was evaluated using the fluorescent probe SYTOX Green. A considerable permeabilization (57%) in the membrane of the parasite was observed when compared to the untreated trypomastigotes. These data demonstrate, for the first time, the antitrypanosomal activity and mechanism of action of 1 and related compounds 2 and 3, obtained from aerial parts of B. retusa. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Mucoadhesive formulation of Bidens pilosa L. (Asteraceae reduces intestinal injury from 5-fluorouracil-induced mucositis in mice

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    Paulo Henrique Marcelino de Ávila

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal mucositis induced during cancer treatment is considered a serious dose-limiting side effect of chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy. Frequently, interruption of the cancer treatment due to this pathology leads to a reduction in cure rates, increase of treatment costs and decrease life quality of the patient. Natural products such as Bidens pilosa L. (Asteraceae, represent a potential alternative for the treatment of mucositis given its anti-inflammatory properties. In this study, B. pilosa glycolic extract was formulated (BPF with poloxamer, a mucoadhesive copolymer, was used for treatment of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU-induced mucositis in mice. As expected, animals only treated with 5-FU (200 mg/kg presented marked weight loss, reduction of intestinal villi, crypts and muscular layer, which was associated with severe disruption of crypts, edema, inflammatory infiltrate and vacuolization in the intestinal tissue, as compared to the control group and healthy animals only treated with BPF. On the other hand, the treatment of intestinal mucositis-bearing mice with BPF (75, 100 or 125 mg/kg managed to mitigate clinical and pathologic changes, noticeably at 100 mg/kg. This dose led to the restoration of intestinal proliferative activity through increasing Ki-67 levels; modulated the expression of Bax, Bcl2 and p53 apoptotic markers protecting intestinal cells from cell death. Moreover, this treatment regulated lipid peroxidation and inflammatory infiltration. No acute toxic effects were observed with this formulation. This work demonstrated that BPF was safe and effective against 5-FU-induced intestinal mucositis in mice. Additional studies are already in progress to further characterize the mechanisms involved in the protective effects of this technological formulation toward the development of a new medicine for the prevention and treatment of intestinal injury in patients undergoing chemotherapy/radiotherapy.

  10. Estudo farmacobotânico de partes vegetativas aéreas de Baccharis anomala DC., Asteraceae

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    Jane M. Budel

    Full Text Available O gênero Baccharis pertence à família Asteraceae e se destaca por incluir espécies medicinais. Baccharis anomala DC., conhecida como "uva-do-mato" e "cambará-de-cipó", é utilizada popularmente como diurético e estudos fitoquímicos constataram a presença de taninos e saponinas. Este trabalho objetivou realizar estudo farmacobotânico de folha e caule dessa espécie. O material foi submetido a microtécnicas fotônica e eletrônica de varredura usuais. A lâmina foliar possui epiderme uniestratificada revestida por cutícula delgada e estriada. Estômatos anomocíticos ocorrem somente na face abaxial. Em ambas as faces aparecem dois tipos de tricomas tectores pluricelulares unisseriados, um com ápice agudo e outro com célula apical flageliforme. O mesofilo é isobilateral e a nervura central é plano-convexa, sendo percorrida por um feixe vascular colateral. O pecíolo mostra três feixes vasculares que se dispõem em arco aberto. O caule tem secção circular e epiderme unisseriada, com tricomas similares aos da folha. Colênquima angular e clorênquima alternam-se no córtex e fibras perivasculares apõem-se ao floema. Evidencia-se uma zona cambial, cujas células formam xilema no sentido centrípeto e floema, centrifugamente, e a medula compõe-se de células parenquimáticas. Dutos secretores acompanham o sistema vascular na folha e no caule.

  11. Spines vs. microspines: an overview of the sculpture exine in selected basal and derived Asteraceae with focus on Asteroideae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tellería, María C

    2017-11-01

    This study presents a detailed examination of the echinate and microechinate sculpturing in relation to the size of pollen grains in 31 selected species of Asteraceae belonging to the subfamilies Barnadesioideae, Mutisioideae, Carduoideae and Asteroideae. The aims were to recognize sculpturing patterns, under LM and SEM, within large and small pollen of both basal and derived species and to explore the features that could have taxonomic value to apply in palynological disciplines. The detailed examination of the exine surface showed both the relevance and limits of sculptural patterns for taxonomy. Under LM, the microechinate sculpture gave little taxonomic information, whereas in the echinate sculpture, three exine types and two subtypes were recognized. Type I included microechinate exine, which is commonly present in large pollen grains of the basal lineages. Types II (subtypes IIa and IIb) and III included echinate and smaller pollen grains. In these types, spines were always regularly arranged and, were characterized by the length, shape, tip, perforations and distribution. Type IIa included more or less conical spines usually with a distended base, less than 4 µm in length, present in species of different tribes like Astereae, Eupatorieae, Helenieae, Gnaphalieae, Senecioideae and Heliantheae to a lesser extent. Type IIb includes slender spines with narrower bases, longer than 4 µm, present in species of Coreopsideae, Heliantheae, Tageteae and Eupatorieae to a lesser extent. Type III included spines with swollen base, blunt tip and perforations over their entire surface. This type was present in only one of the basal species-Carduus thoermeri-and in one species of the derived tribe Helenieae, Gaillardia megapotamica. Probably, this is due to evolutionary convergence.

  12. In and out of Madagascar: dispersal to peripheral islands, insular speciation and diversification of Indian Ocean daisy trees (Psiadia, Asteraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strijk, Joeri S; Noyes, Richard D; Strasberg, Dominique; Cruaud, Corinne; Gavory, Fredéric; Chase, Mark W; Abbott, Richard J; Thébaud, Christophe

    2012-01-01

    Madagascar is surrounded by archipelagos varying widely in origin, age and structure. Although small and geologically young, these archipelagos have accumulated disproportionate numbers of unique lineages in comparison to Madagascar, highlighting the role of waif-dispersal and rapid in situ diversification processes in generating endemic biodiversity. We reconstruct the evolutionary and biogeographical history of the genus Psiadia (Asteraceae), a plant genus with near equal numbers of species in Madagascar and surrounding islands. Analyzing patterns and processes of diversification, we explain species accumulation on peripheral islands and aim to offer new insights on the origin and potential causes for diversification in the Madagascar and Indian Ocean Islands biodiversity hotspot. Our results provide support for an African origin of the group, with strong support for non-monophyly. Colonization of the Mascarenes took place by two evolutionary distinct lineages from Madagascar, via two independent dispersal events, each unique for their spatial and temporal properties. Significant shifts in diversification rate followed regional expansion, resulting in co-occurring and phenotypically convergent species on high-elevation volcanic slopes. Like other endemic island lineages, Psiadia have been highly successful in dispersing to and radiating on isolated oceanic islands, typified by high habitat diversity and dynamic ecosystems fuelled by continued geological activity. Results stress the important biogeographical role for Rodrigues in serving as an outlying stepping stone from which regional colonization took place. We discuss how isolated volcanic islands contribute to regional diversity by generating substantial numbers of endemic species on short temporal scales. Factors pertaining to the mode and tempo of archipelago formation and its geographical isolation strongly govern evolutionary pathways available for species diversification, and the potential for successful

  13. Bioactivity of the extracts and isolation of lignans and a sesquiterpene from the aerial parts of Centaurea pamphylica (Asteraceae

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    Shoeb M.

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Centaurea pamphylica Boiss. & Heldr. (Family: Asteraceae, commonly known as ‘pamphylia daisy', is a Turkish endemic species of the genus Centaurea that comprises ca. 500 species, many of which have been used as traditional medicines.  The n-hexane, dichloromethane (DCM and methanol (MeOH extracts of the aerial parts of C. pamphylica were assessed for antioxidant activity and general toxicity using, respectively, the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH, and the brine shrimp lethality assays. The reversed-phase preparative HPLC and PTLC were used to isolate compounds from the extracts.  The structures of these compounds [1-4] were elucidated by spectroscopic means, and also by direct comparison with the respective published data.  Both the DCM and the MeOH extract showed significant levels of antioxidant activities with the RC50 values of 72.6 x 10-2 and 47.3 ´ 10-2 mg/mL, respectively. The MeOH extract exhibited low levels of toxicity towards brine shrimps (LD50 = 125.0 ´ 10-2 mg/mL. Three major bioactive components of the MeOH extract were matairesinoside [1], arctiin [2] and matairesinol [3]. An eudesmane-type sesquiterpene, pterodontriol [4], was also isolated from the DCM extract.  Since reactive oxygen species are important contributors to various ailments, the antioxidant properties of the extracts as well as the isolated compounds may be of medicinal significance. This is the first report on the occurrence of 1-4 in C. pamphylica, and 4 in the genus Centaurea.  

  14. Molecular phylogeny and habitat diversification of the genus Farfugium (Asteraceae) based on nuclear rDNA and plastid DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, Naofumi; Takaso, Tokushiro; Peng, Ching-I; Kono, Yoshiko; Oginuma, Kazuo; Mitsui, Yuki; Setoguchi, Hiroaki

    2010-09-01

    Farfugium (Asteraceae) is a small genus that contains the two species F. japonicum and F. hiberniflorum and is distributed along a long archipelago in east Asia. The common taxon, F. japonicum, includes three varieties associated with a wide range of habitats, including forest understorey (sciophytes), coastal crag (heliophytes) and riverbed (rheophytes). Leaf shape is an important taxonomic character within this genus and is associated with the habitat. Twenty populations that included all Farfugium taxa were collected throughout its range. Leaf morphology was measured to determine differences amongst the taxa. Phylogenetic analyses based on sequences of the internal transcribed spacer of nuclear rDNA and four plastid DNA regions (matK, trnL-trnF, trnH-psbA and rpl20-rps12) were conducted separately. Leaf morphology was significantly different amongst taxa, but morphological variations were partly explained by adaptation to certain environmental conditions that each population inhabited. Molecular phylogenies for the nDNA internal transcribed spacer and cpDNA were consistent in classifying F. hiberniflorum and the Taiwanese var. formosanum, whilst suggesting polyphyletic origins for the rheophyte, sciophyte and heliophyte taxa. All samples from the southern Ryukyus (Japan) and Taiwan clustered into a monophyletic group, which corroborates the land configuration theory involving Quaternary land-bridge formation and subsequent fragmentation into islands. The incongruence between the two DNA datasets may imply traces of introgressive hybridization and/or incomplete lineage sorting. The occurrence of rheophyte, sciophyte and heliophyte plants within Farfugium may be attributable to their isolation on islands and subsequent adaptation to the riparian, coastal crag and forest understorey environments, following their migration over the Quaternary land-bridge formation along their distribution range. Nearly identical DNA sequences coupled with highly divergent

  15. In and out of Madagascar: dispersal to peripheral islands, insular speciation and diversification of Indian Ocean daisy trees (Psiadia, Asteraceae.

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    Joeri S Strijk

    Full Text Available Madagascar is surrounded by archipelagos varying widely in origin, age and structure. Although small and geologically young, these archipelagos have accumulated disproportionate numbers of unique lineages in comparison to Madagascar, highlighting the role of waif-dispersal and rapid in situ diversification processes in generating endemic biodiversity. We reconstruct the evolutionary and biogeographical history of the genus Psiadia (Asteraceae, a plant genus with near equal numbers of species in Madagascar and surrounding islands. Analyzing patterns and processes of diversification, we explain species accumulation on peripheral islands and aim to offer new insights on the origin and potential causes for diversification in the Madagascar and Indian Ocean Islands biodiversity hotspot. Our results provide support for an African origin of the group, with strong support for non-monophyly. Colonization of the Mascarenes took place by two evolutionary distinct lineages from Madagascar, via two independent dispersal events, each unique for their spatial and temporal properties. Significant shifts in diversification rate followed regional expansion, resulting in co-occurring and phenotypically convergent species on high-elevation volcanic slopes. Like other endemic island lineages, Psiadia have been highly successful in dispersing to and radiating on isolated oceanic islands, typified by high habitat diversity and dynamic ecosystems fuelled by continued geological activity. Results stress the important biogeographical role for Rodrigues in serving as an outlying stepping stone from which regional colonization took place. We discuss how isolated volcanic islands contribute to regional diversity by generating substantial numbers of endemic species on short temporal scales. Factors pertaining to the mode and tempo of archipelago formation and its geographical isolation strongly govern evolutionary pathways available for species diversification, and the

  16. Actividad fagodisuasiva de las plantas Tithonia diversifolia y Montanoa hibiscifolia (Asteraceae sobre adultos del insecto plaga Bemisia tabaci (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae

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    Gina Bagnarello

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae es una plaga polífaga, cosmopolita y de gran relevancia mundial, sobre todo como vector de virus en numerosos cultivos, por lo que sería deseable un enfoque preventivo para su manejo. En tal sentido, podría recurrirse a la utilización de sustancias repelentes o disuasivas, algunas de ellas presentes en plantas tropicales, lo cual contribuiría al aprovechamiento de la rica biodiversidad mesoamericana. Por tanto, se evaluó la posible actividad fagodisuasiva sobre los adultos de B. tabaci de dos especies silvestres de la familia Asteraceae: titonia (Tithonia diversifolia (Hemsl. A. Gray y tora (Montanoa hibiscifolia Benth.. Para ello, en condiciones de invernadero se evaluaron los extractos crudos y cuatro fracciones (hexano, diclorometano, acetato de etilo y metanol de ambas especies, a los cuales se les hizo un análisis fitoquímico (tamizaje el cual permitió determinar cuáles metabolitos presentes en T. diversifolia y M. hibiscifolia podrían causar fagodisuasión en B. tabaci. Se realizaron dos tipos de experimentos: de escogencia restringida y de escogencia irrestricta. En los primeros, cada fracción se evaluó a cuatro dosis (0.1, 0.5, 1.0 y 1.5% v/v, y se comparó con cuatro tratamientos testigo: aceite agrícola, endosulfán, un emulsificante (Citowett y un testigo absoluto (agua. Se asperjaron plantas de tomate colocadas dentro de jaulas de manga, donde se liberaron 50 adultos de B. tabaci. Para determinar si existía fagodisuasión se utilizó como criterio el número de adultos posados a las 48h. Para el experimento de escogencia irrestricta se utilizaron las dos concentraciones más altas (1.0 y 1.5% del extracto crudo de cada especie y se compararon con el aceite agrícola y agua. Los extractos crudos de titonia y tora causaron fagodisuasión, y para ambas especies la fracción de metanol fue la que más sobresalió. En conclusión, los resultados obtenidos en los bioensayos

  17. Aplicação de extratos de folhas e tubérbulos de Cyperus rotundus L. e de auxinas sintéticas na estaquia caulinar de Duranta repens L.

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    F.P.F. Rezende

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available É de conhecimento popular que extratos de tiririca aumentam o enraizamento adventício de várias espécies, sendo esse procedimento utilizado na propagação vegetativa caseira. Uma vez que nesses extratos concentram grandes quantidades de auxinas e compostos fenólicos, o objetivo deste estudo pioneiro foi avaliar o efeito da aplicação de extratos de folhas e de tubérculos de Cyperus rotundus L. na estaquia caulinar de Duranta repens L., espécie considerada de fácil enraizamento, comparando sua ação à de auxinas sintéticas. As estacas foram coletadas em abril, junho, agosto, outubro e dezembro/2006 e fevereiro/2007 e confeccionadas com 8 cm de comprimento, com base cortada em bisel e corte reto acima da última gema, mantendo-se 4 folhas apicais. Os tratamentos foram: água e solução alcoólica 50% como controles; extrato de folhas e de tubérculos de C. rotundus (25%, 50% e 100%; solução de ANA e AIB (500 e 1000 mg L-1, com imersão da base das estacas durante 10 segundos. As estacas foram mantidas sob nebulização, em tubetes contendo vermiculita, por 45 dias. Foram avaliadas a porcentagem de estacas enraizadas, número de raízes por estaca, comprimento das três maiores raízes por estaca (cm e a porcentagem de estacas vivas. Estacas coletadas nos meses de outubro e dezembro/2006 apresentaram as maiores porcentagens de enraizamento (87,3% e 86,7%, respectivamente e maior número de raízes por estacas (9,5 e 10,4 raízes, respectivamente. O comprimento máximo das 3 maiores raízes (10,2 cm foi obtido em estacas coletadas em dezembro/2006 e a maior taxa de sobrevivência (60% foi registrada na coleta de junho/2006 em estacas tratadas com 500 e 1000 mg L-1 de AIB. A aplicação dos extratos de folhas e de tubérculos de C. rotundus não apresentou diferença entre os resultados obtidos com a aplicação de ANA e AIB, os quais, por sua vez, também não influenciaram o enraizamento de estacas de D. repens em nenhuma das

  18. Taxonomic review of the genus Chamaemelum Miller (Asteraceae in the Iberian peninsula and the Balearic lslands

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    Benedí i González, Carles

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available A taxonomic review of the genus Chamaemelum Miller (Asteraceae in the Iberian peninsula and the Balearic Islands is carried out. Two changes in nomenclature are proposed: Chamaemelum nobile ( L. All. forma discoideum (Willk. comb. & stat. nov. and C. fuscatum (Brot. Vasc. forma minor (Hoffmanns. & Link comb. & stat. nov. For each taxon the correct name as well as the corresponding synonyms are given. A dichotomic key of the recognized taxa and a list of the herharium sheets studied are provided.

    Se realiza una revisión taxonómica del género Chamaemelum Miller (Asteraceae en la Península Ibérica e Islas Baleares. Se proponen dos cambios nomenclaturles: Chamaemelum nobile (L. All. forma discoideum (Willk. comb. & stat. nov. y C. fuscatum (Brot. Vasc. forma minor (Hoffmanns. & Link comb. & stat. nov. Para cada taxon se da el nombre correcto, así como las correspondientes sinonimias. Se adjunta una clave dicotómica de los táxones reconocidos y una relación de los testimonios de herbario estudiados.

  19. Serenoa repens, lycopene and selenium versus tamsulosin for the treatment of LUTS/BPH. An Italian multicenter double-blinded randomized study between single or combination therapy (PROCOMB trial).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgia, Giuseppe; Russo, Giorgio I; Voce, Salvatore; Palmieri, Fabiano; Gentile, Marcello; Giannantoni, Antonella; Blefari, Franco; Carini, Marco; Minervini, Andrea; Ginepri, Andrea; Salvia, Giuseppe; Vespasiani, Giuseppe; Santelli, Giorgio; Cimino, Sebastiano; Allegro, Rosalinda; Collura, Zaira; Fragalà, Eugenia; Arnone, Salvatore; Pareo, Rosaria M

    2014-11-01

    Phytotherapy has been used to treat patients with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). We evaluated the efficacy and tolerability of combination therapy between Serenoa Repens (SeR), Lycopene (Ly), and Selenium (Se) + tamsulosin versus single therapies. PROCOMB trial (ISRCTN78639965) was a randomized double-blinded, double-dummy multicenter study of 225 patients between 55 and 80 years old, PSA ≤ 4 ng/ml, IPSS ≥12, prostate volume ≤60 cc, Qmax ≤15 ml/sec, postvoid residual urine (PVR) tamsulosin 0.4 mg), group C (SeR-Se-Ly + tamsulosin 0.4 mg). The primary endpoints of the study were the reduction of IPSS, PVR, and increase of Qmax in group C versus monotherapy groups. The decrease for combination therapy was significantly greater versus group A (P tamsulosin therapy is more effective than single therapies in improving IPSS and increasing Qmax in patients with LUTS. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Traditionally used medicinal plants against uncomplicated urinary tract infections: Hexadecyl coumaric acid ester from the rhizomes of Agropyron repens (L.) P. Beauv. with antiadhesive activity against uropathogenic E. coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beydokthi, Shabnam Sarshar; Sendker, Jandirk; Brandt, Simone; Hensel, Andreas

    2017-03-01

    The rhizomes from Agropyron repens are traditionally used for the treatment of uncomplicated urinary tract infections. Extracts prepared with solvents of different polarity did not show any cytotoxic effects against different strains of uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC) and human T24 bladder cells under in vitro conditions. Significant antiadhesive activity against the bacterial attachment to human T24 bladder cells was found for an acetone extract (AAE) at concentrations >250μg/mL. More hydrophilic extracts did not influence the bacterial attachment to the eukaryotic host cells. Bioassay guided fractionation of AAE led to the identification of (E)-hexadecyl-3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-acrylate (hexadecyl-coumaric acid ester) 1 as the compound responsible for inhibiting the UPEC adhesion to T24 bladder cells. 1 reduced the bacterial invasion into the bladder cells as shown by a specific invasion assay. Additionally, 1 was obtained by chemical synthesis, and also the synthetic structural analogs 2 and 3 were tested for their potential antiadhesive activity, indicating that a shorter alkyl chain at the ester function as well as the lack of hydroxylation of the phenyl moiety will abolish the antiadhesive activity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. In vitro schistosomicidal and antiviral activities of Arctium lappa L. (Asteraceae) against Schistosoma mansoni and Herpes simplex virus-1.

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    Dias, Mirna Meana; Zuza, Ohana; Riani, Lorena R; de Faria Pinto, Priscila; Pinto, Pedro Luiz Silva; Silva, Marcos P; de Moraes, Josué; Ataíde, Ana Caroline Z; de Oliveira Silva, Fernanda; Cecílio, Alzira Batista; Da Silva Filho, Ademar A

    2017-10-01

    Schistosomiasis and herpes diseases represent serious issues to the healthcare systems, infecting a large number of people worldwide, mainly in developing countries. Arctium lappa L. (Asteraceae), known as "bardana" and "burdock", is a medicinal plant popularly used for several purposes, including as antiseptic. In this study, we evaluated the in vitro schistosomicidal and antiherpes activities of the crude extract of A. lappa, which have not yet been described. Fruits of A. lappa L. were extracted by maceration with ethanol: H 2 O (96:4 v/v) in order to obtain the hydroalcoholic extract of A. lappa (AL). In vitro schistosomicidal assays were assessed against adult worms of Schistosoma mansoni, while the in vitro antiviral activity of AL was evaluated on replication of Herpes simplex virus type-1 (HSV-1). Cell viability was measured by MTT assay, using Vero cells and chemical composition of AL was determined by qualitative UPLC-ESI-QTOF-MS analysis. UPLC-ESI-QTOF-MS analysis of AL revealed the presence of dibenzylbutyrolactone lignans, such as arctiin and arctigenin. Results showed that AL was not cytotoxic to Vero cells even when tested at 400μg/mL. qPCR results indicated a significant viral load decreased for all tested concentrations of AL (400, 50, and 3.125μg/mL), which showed similar antiviral effect to acyclovir (50μg/mL) when tested at 400μg/mL. Also, AL (400, 200, and 100μg/mL) caused 100% mortality and significantly reduction on motor activity of all adult worms of S. mansoni. Confocal laser scanning microscopy showed tegumental morphological alterations and changes on the numbers of tubercles of S. mansoni worms in a dose-dependent manner after treatment with AL. This report provides the first evidence for the in vitro schistosomicidal and antiherpes activities of AL, opening the route to further schistosomicidal and antiviral studies with AL and their compounds, especially lignans. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Antipsychotic and sedative effects of the leaf extract of Crassocephalum bauchiense (Hutch.) Milne-Redh (Asteraceae) in rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotoing Taïwe, Germain; Ngo Bum, Elisabeth; Talla, Emmanuel; Dawe, Amadou; Okomolo Moto, Fleur Clarisse; Temkou Ngoupaye, Gwladys; Sidiki, Neteydji; Dabole, Bernard; Djomeni Dzeufiet, Paul Désiré; Dimo, Théophile; De Waard, Michel

    2012-08-30

    Crassocephalum bauchiense (Hutch.) Milne-Redh (Asteraceae) has been used as a medicine for the treatment of epilepsy, insomnia, dementia and psychotic disorders in Cameroonian traditional medicine. This study was designed to examine whether the aqueous extract and the alkaloid fraction prepared from the leaves of Crassocephalum bauchiense possess antipsychotic and sedative properties in rodents. The rectal temperature of mice was recorded with a probe thermometer at a constant depth. Novelty-induced rearing behavior is used to evaluate a central excitatory locomotor behavior in mice. The antipsychotic effects of the extracts were assessed using the apomorphine animal model of psychosis. The catalepsy test was tested based on the ability of the leaves extracts of Crassocephalum bauchiense to alter the duration of akinesia by placing the naive mice with both forelegs over a horizontal bar. The extracts of Crassocephalum bauchiense effects were evaluated on sodium pentobarbital-induced sleeping time. In addition, gamma-aminobutyric acid concentrations in the brain treated mice were also estimated. The aqueous extract and the alkaloid fraction from Crassocephalum bauchiense caused dose-dependent inhibition of novelty-induced rearing behavior, decreased the apomorphine-induced stereotypy and fighting, and had significant fall of the body temperature. The aqueous extract prolonged the sodium pentobarbital sleeping time. This prolongation was not reversed by bicuculline, a light-sensitive competitive antagonist of GABA(A) receptors complex. However, the effect of the aqueous extract on sodium pentobarbital-induced sleeping time was blocked by N-methyl-β-carboline-3-carboxamide, a partial inverse agonist of the benzodiazepine site in the GABA(A) receptor complex and flumazenil, a specific antagonist of the benzodiazepine site in the GABAA receptor complex. In biochemical experiments, the concentration of the inhibitory amino acid, gamma-aminobutyric acid, was

  3. Cytoprotective and Antioxidant Effects of an Edible Herb, Enhydra fluctuans Lour. (Asteraceae, against Experimentally Induced Lead Acetate Intoxication.

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    Tarun K Dua

    Full Text Available Enhydra fluctuans Lour. (Asteraceae, an edible aquatic herb, is traditionally employed against toxic effects of heavy metals in India. The present study was planned to discover the protective effect of edible extract of E. fluctuans (AEEF against Pb toxicity.The cytoprotective role of AEEF was determined on murine hepatocytes employing MTT assay and Hoechst staining. The effects on lipid peroxidation, protein carbonylation, endogenous redox systems and the transcription levels of apoptotic proteins were studied after incubating the hepatocytes with AEEF (400 μg/ml + Pb-acetate (6.8 μM. The defensive role of AEEF (100 mg/kg against Pb-acetate (5 mg/kg intoxication was measured in mice by in vivo assays. Biochemical, haematological and histological parameters, intracellular Pb burden and redox status were measured.AEEF exhibited a concentration dependent cytoprotective effect against Pb-induced cytotoxicity in vitro. Pb-acetate incubation significantly (p < 0.01 altered the extents of ROS production ↑, protein carbonylation ↑, lipid peroxidation ↑, endogenous antioxidant enzymes ↓ and GSH ↓ in vitro. Besides, Pb-acetate significantly (p < 0.01 induced apoptosis in the hepatocytes apparent from the altered expressions of apoptotic proteins viz. Apaf-1 ↑, Bad ↑, Bcl-2 ↓, Cyt C ↑, cleaved caspases↑, Bid ↑ and Fas ↑. However, AEEF (400 μg/ml could significantly (p < 0.05-0.01 attenuate the Pb-acetate mediated toxic manifestation in vitro. In in vivo assay, Pb-acetate (5 mg/kg treated mice exhibited significantly (p < 0.01 high intracellular Pb content. A high Pb-burden within the tissues caused significant (p < 0.05-0.01 patho-physiological alterations viz. ROS production ↑, protein carbonylation↑, lipid peroxidation ↑, DNA fragmentation ↑, ATP formation ↑, mitochondrial co-enzymes Q ↓, endogenous antioxidant enzymes ↓ and GSH ↓ within the selected tissues. The haematological and serum biochemical parameters

  4. Effects of Salicylic Acid on Some Morphophysiological Characteristics of Border Flowers from Asteraceae Family under Water Deficit

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    majid zargarian

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In order to improve physical and mental human healthy, development of the urban area landscape is necessary. Water deficit is one of the most important problems in arid and semi- arid regions. Water deficit causes to reduce growth of different plants parts, including roots, aerial parts, leaf area, height, dry weight, proteins, amino acids and chlorophyll. Using drought tolerance plantsisone solution. Moreover, one physiological method to decrease the hazardous effects of environmental stresses on plants is to applyplant growth regulators such as salicylic acid (SA. SA is one of the plant phenolic compounds in low amounts (mg/g wet weight or lower. This hormone can perform an important role in resistance to stresses. Asteraceae is one of the biggest plant families with over 20,000 species which is distributed worldwide in moderate and tropical regions. A lot of border flowers of this family are widely used in landscaping. Toselect drought tolerance flowers and application of materials that reducing stress effects, this experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of salicylic acid on some morphological and physiological characteristics of five border flowers of this family. Materials and Methods: The field experiment was conducted as split plot on randomized complete blocks design with four replications in which factors included two levels of water deficit (50, 100% FC as main plot and two levels of SA (0, 1mmol/L-1 as sub plot in the horticulturedepartment of faculty of Agriculture atFerdowsi University of Mashhad. In this investigation five border flowers (Ageratum houstonianum‘Blue Danube’, Tagetserecta ‘Discovery Yellow’, Tagetspatula‘Hero Harmony’, Zinnia elegans ‘Lilliput rose’andCallistephuschinensis ‘Milady Mix’ of Asteraceae family were chosen for study. The soil mixture was analyzed before starting the test. According to the result of physicochemical analysis of the soil, it had loamy texture

  5. Insect herbivores associated with Baccharis dracunculifolia (Asteraceae: responses of gall-forming and free-feeding insects to latitudinal variation

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    Marcílio Fagundes

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The spatial heterogeneity hypothesis has been invoked to explain the increase in species diversity from the poles to the tropics: the tropics may be more diverse because they contain more habitats and microhabitats. In this paper, the spatial heterogeneity hypothesis prediction was tested by evaluating the variation in richness of two guilds of insect herbivores (gall-formers and free-feeders associated with Baccharis dracunculifolia (Asteraceae along a latitudinal variation in Brazil. The seventeen populations of B. dracunculifolia selected for insect herbivores sampling were within structurally similar habitats, along the N-S distributional limit of the host plant, near the Brazilian sea coast. Thirty shrubs were surveyed in each host plant population. A total of 8 201 galls and 864 free-feeding insect herbivores belonging to 28 families and 88 species were sampled. The majority of the insects found on B. dracunculifolia were restricted to a specific site rather than having ageographic distribution mirroring that of the host plant. Species richness of free-feeding insects was not affected by latitudinal variation corroborating the spatial heterogeneity hypothesis. Species richness of gall-forming insects was positively correlated with latitude, probably because galling insect associated with Baccharris genus radiated in Southern Brazil. Other diversity indices and evenness estimated for both gall-forming and free feeding insect herbivores, did not change with latitude, suggesting a general structure for different assemblages of herbivores associated with the host plant B. dracunculifolia. Thus it is probable that, insect fauna sample in each site resulted of large scale events, as speciation, migration and coevolution, while at local level, the population of these insects is regulated by ecological forces which operate in the system. Rev. Biol. Trop. 59 (3: 1419-1432. Epub 2011 September 01.La hipótesis de heterogeneidad espacial se ha

  6. Regionalización biogeográfica de Zacatecas, México, con base en los patrones de distribución de la familia Asteraceae The biogeographical regions of the state of Zacatecas, Mexico, based on distribution patterns of the family Asteraceae

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    José de Jesús Balleza

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Se analizaron los patrones de distribución de 456 especies de Asteraceae (Magnoliophyta nativas de Zacatecas, con el fin de proponer una regionalización biogeográfica estatal. Para ello su territorio se dividió en 28 unidades geográficas operativas (UGOs y se determinó el número de especies y el número de ejemplares recolectados en cada UGO, así como los tipos de vegetación y el intervalo altitudinal. Utilizando el coeficiente de Jaccard, se determinaron las similitudes florísticas entre las UGOs. La distribución del total de especies de Asteraceae varió desde 190 en la UGO más diversa (UGO 28 hasta 32 en la menos diversa (UGO 5; por su parte, la distribución de las especies endémicas de México también varió, desde 98 (UGO 28 hasta ocho (UGOs 5 y 6. Las UGOs con más tipos de vegetación y con intervalo altitudinal más amplio son también las que registran el número mayor de especies. El 34% de las especies se consideraron como raras, pues se registran en sólo una UGO. Los resultados indican que las Asteraceae se pueden dividir en dos grupos de especies: i aquellas que prosperan preferentemente en las condiciones de aridez que se presentan en la Altiplanicie y ii aquellas que se distribuyen básicamente en hábitats con climas templados y cálidos de la Sierra Madre Occidental. El análisis permite identificar dos «distritos» biogeográficos, subordinados a las provincias florísticas propuestas por Rzedowski (1978.The geographic distribution patterns of 456 species of Asteraceae (Magnoliophyta native to Zacatecas were analysed. The aim was to propose a state's biogeographic zonation. The state was divided in 28 operational geographic units (OGUs and for each one the number of species, the number of specimens collected, the vegetation types and the altitudinal range were determined. Floristic similarities among OGUs were obtained by using a classificatory procedure and the Jaccard's similarity coefficient. The richest OGU

  7. Comparative genome scan detects host-related divergent selection in the grasshopper Hesperotettix viridis.

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    Apple, Jennifer L; Grace, Tony; Joern, Anthony; St Amand, Paul; Wisely, Samantha M

    2010-09-01

    In this study, we used a comparative genome scan to examine patterns of population differentiation with respect to host plant use in Hesperotettix viridis, a Nearctic oligophagous grasshopper locally specialized on various Asteraceae including Solidago, Gutierrezia, and Ericameria. We identified amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) loci with significantly elevated F(ST) (outlier loci) in multiple different-host and same-host comparisons of populations while controlling for geographic distance. By comparing the number and identities of outlier loci in different-host vs. same-host comparisons, we found evidence of host plant-related divergent selection for some population comparisons (Solidago- vs. Gutierrezia-feeders), while other comparisons (Ericameria- vs. Gutierrezia-feeders) failed to demonstrate a strong role for host association in population differentiation. In comparisons of Solidago- vs. Gutierrezia-feeding populations, a relatively high number of outlier loci observed repeatedly in different-host comparisons (35% of all outliers and 2.7% of all 625 AFLP loci) indicated a significant role for host-related selection in contributing to overall genomic differentiation in this grasshopper. Mitochondrial DNA sequence data revealed a star-shaped phylogeny with no host- or geography-related structure, low nucleotide diversity, and high haplotype diversity, suggesting a recent population expansion. mtDNA data do not suggest a long period of isolation in separate glacial refugia but are instead more compatible with a single glacial refugium and more recent divergence in host use. Our study adds to research documenting heterogeneity in differentiation across the genome as a consequence of divergent natural selection, a phenomenon that may occur as part of the process of ecological speciation. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  8. Atividade antibacteriana e a preditividade do condimento Artemisia dracunculus Linn. (Asteraceae, variedade inodora - estragão -, frente à Salmonella sp Antimicrobial activity and preditivity of Artemisia acunculus (Asteraceae, var. inodora - tarragon -, as condiment, against Salmonella sp

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    Heloisa Helena Carvalho

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a atividade antibacteriana de extrato aquoso do condimento estragão - Artemisia dracunculus linn. (Asteraceae, variedade inodora -, frente à Salmonella enteritidis (ATCC 11076, por meio do sistema de tubos múltiplos e pelo emprego de desinibidores bacterianos, determinando-se a Intensidade de Inibição/Inativação (IINIB/IINAB, observando-se expressiva inibição, bem como ausência de inativação sobre esta salmonela. Na presença do fator matéria orgânica/sujeira representada pelo leite, estes atributos repetiram-se, embora com menor intensidade de inibição. Posteriormente, avaliou-se a preditividade de uma técnica oficial de isolamento desta bactéria, utilizando uma solução experimental de leite e caldo BHI (Brain Heart Infusion, contaminada com 10(4 UFC/mL da salmonela em estudo. Verificou-se a ausência de isolamento desta bactéria em alíquotas de 25 mL, após períodos de 24, 48 e 72 h de incubação a 36ºC, comprometendo a Validade Preditiva dos Resultados Negativos (VPR- do teste. Sugere-se que, nas investigações epidemiológicas de surtos toxiinfectivos alimentares, devem-se ser acrescidas informações sobre condimentação vegetal, entre outras, pertinentes à complexidade crescente do sistema de alimentação e nutrição.It was evaluated antibacterial activity of watery extract of the condiment tarragon - Artemisia dracunculus linn., var. inodora -, against the Salmonella enteritidis (ATCC 11076, through the system of multiple pipes and the job of bacterial inhibitors, it was determined Intensity of inhibition/inativation (IINIB/IINAB, observing expressive inhibition, as well as absence of inativation on this salmonela. In presence of the organic substance, represented by skimmed barren milk, these attributes if had repeated, even so with lesser intensity of inhnibition. Later, it was evaluated preditividade of one official technique of isolation of this bacterium, using an experimental solution of milk

  9. A proposal for chemical characterization and quality evaluation of botanical raw materials using glandular trichome microsampling of yacón (Polymnia sonchifolia, Asteraceae, an Andean medicinal plant

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    K. Schorr

    Full Text Available A proposal for chemical characterisation and quality evaluation of botanical raw materials by analysing the glandular trichomes from the leaves of two different populations of yacón (Polymnia sonchifolia Poeppig & Endlicher, Asteraceae is described. This species is an Andean medicinal plant and the tea prepared with their leaves displays hypoglycemic property. The method was based on the glandular trichome microsampling using LC/DAD. Qualitative chromatographic fingerprints of the glands were obtained by isocratic runs and then compared between the two populations, showing the same qualitative profile. The two main metabolites detected in the glands were later isolated from a leaf rinse extract by preparative separation and identified as the melampolides enhydrin and uvedalin. These compounds, subtypes of sesquiterpene lactones, were used as chemical markers. This technique is applicable to other medicinal plants and can be used for the evaluation of the quality of dried material or leaf rinse extracts.

  10. Toxicological screening of Mikania glomerata Spreng., Asteraceae, extract in male Wistar rats reproductive system, sperm production and testosterone level after chronic treatment

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    Rita de Cássia da Silveira e Sá

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Some compounds present in therapeutic plants may be responsible for the occurrence of adverse side effects. Coumarin and flavonoids are substances found in many plant species that showed antifertility activity in female rats and dogs, respectively. Mikania glomerata Spreng., Asteraceae, known as guaco in Brazil, is a plant largely used in folk medicine and its leaves are reported to have coumarin and flavonoids. This work analyzes the effect of chronic administration of M. glomerata on the reproductive system of male rats. Thirty-day-old Wistar rats were treated with M. glomerata hydroalcoholic extract at a dose of 3.3 g/kg of body weight for ninety days. Body and organ weights, gamete concentration on the epididymis cauda, serum testosterone level and food consumption were evaluated. No significant alteration was observed in any of the variables analyzed, suggesting the absence of toxic action or antifertility activity of the M. glomerata hydroalcoholic extract.

  11. Nova espécie de Dasineura Rondani, 1840 (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae em capítulos de Hypochaeris chillensis (Kunth Britton (Asteraceae para o Brasil

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    Alessandre Pereira-Colavite

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Uma nova espécie de Dasineura Rondani, 1840 (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae para o Brasil, Dasineura occulta sp. nov., é descrita associada a Hypochaeris chillensis (Kunth Britton (Asteraceae, uma espécie invasora e característica de ambientes antropizadas. Esta nova espécie foi encontrada ocupando capítulos e não há formação de galhas ou alterações no tecido das inflorescências que possam ser reconhecidas externamente. São apresentados desenhos de caracteres morfológicos de adultos (macho e fêmea, larva e pupa. Pranchas da ocupação do hospedeiro também são incluídas.

  12. The effect of polyphenolic-polysaccharide conjugates from selected medicinal plants of Asteraceae family on the peroxynitrite-induced changes in blood platelet proteins.

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    Saluk-Juszczak, Joanna; Pawlaczyk, Izabela; Olas, Beata; Kołodziejczyk, Joanna; Ponczek, Michal; Nowak, Pawel; Tsirigotis-Wołoszczak, Marta; Wachowicz, Barbara; Gancarz, Roman

    2010-12-01

    Lots of plants belonging to Asteraceae family are very popular in folk medicine in Poland. These plants are also known as being rich in acidic polysaccharides, due to the presence of hexuronic acids or its derivatives. Our preliminary experiments have shown that the extract from Conyza canadensis L. possesses various biological activity, including antiplatelet, antiocoagulant and antioxidant properties. The aim of our study was to assess if macromolecular glycoconjugates from selected herbal plants of Asteraceae family: Achillea millefolium L., Arnica montana L., Echinacea purpurea L., Solidago virgaurea L., Chamomilla recutita (L.) Rauschert., and Conyza canadensis L. protect platelet proteins against nitrative and oxidative damage induced by peroxynitrite, which is responsible for oxidative/nitrative modifications of platelet proteins: the formation of 3-nitrotyrosine and carbonyl groups. These modifications may lead to changes of blood platelet functions and can have pathological consequences. The role of these different medicinal plants in the defence against oxidative/nitrative stress in human platelets is still unknown, therefore the oxidative damage to platelet proteins induced by peroxynitrite and protectory effects of tested conjugates by the estimation of carbonyl group level and nitrotyrosine formation (a marker of protein nitration) were studied in vitro. The antioxidative properties of the polyphenolic-polysaccharide conjugates from selected tested medicinal plants were also compared with the action of a well characterized antioxidative commercial polyphenol - resveratrol (3,4',5-trihydroxystilbene). The obtained results demonstrate that the compounds from herbal plants: A. millefolium, A. montana, E. purpurea, C. recutita, S. virgaurea, possess antioxidative properties and protect platelet proteins against peroxynitrite toxicity in vitro, similar to the glycoconjugates from C. canadensis. However, in the comparative studies, the polyphenolic

  13. Purificação do flavonóide trans-tilirosídeo do extrato metanólico das folhas de Gochnatia barrosii Cabrera (asteraceae e avaliação da sua atividade nematicida Purification of the flavonoid trans-tiliroside from the methanolic extract of Gochnatia barrosii Cabrera (Asteraceae leaves and evaluation of the nematicidal activity

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    Helvécio Martins dos Santos Júnior

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available O fracionamento do extrato metanólico das folhas de Gochnatia barrosii Cabrera (Asteraceae resultou no isolamento do flavonol glicosídico trans-tilirosídeo [kaempferol 3-O- -D-(6''-O-E-p-cumaroil-glicopiranosídeo], que nunca tinha sido identificado na referida espécie vegetal. Em teste realizado in vitro, observou-se que tal substância a 500 μg/mL, não tem efeito sobre a mortalidade de juvenis do segundo estágio do nematóide Meloidogyne exigua Goeldi.Fractionation of the methanolic extract from Gochnatia barrosii Cabrera (Asteraceae leaves resulted in the isolation of the flavonol glycoside trans-tiliroside [kaempferol 3-O- -D-(6''-O-E-p-coumaroyl-glucopyranoside], which had never been found in such plant species. Such substance at 500 μg/mL caused no in vitro effect on the mortality of second-stage juveniles of the nematode Meloidogyne exigua Goeldi.

  14. Use of Bidens pilosa L. (Asteraceae and Curcuma longa L. (Zingiberaceae to treat intestinal mucositis in mice: Toxico-pharmacological evaluations

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    Carla Caroline Cunha Bastos

    Full Text Available Introduction: Several studies towards the development of an effective treatment for intestinal mucositis have been reported, since this condition represents a major problem in clinical oncology practice due to cytotoxic effects of chemotherapy. However standardized protocols and universally accepted treatment options are yet to be established. Objectives: Given above, this study evaluated the protective effects of a mucoadhesive formulation containing both Bidens pilosa L. (Asteraceae (BP and curcuminoids from Curcuma longa L. (Zingiberaceae (CL on intestinal mucositis induced by 5-fluoruoacil (5-FU in mice. Results: As expected, animals only treated with 5-FU (200 mg/kg showed a significant reduction of 60.3 and 42.4% in villi and crypts size, respectively, when compared to control. On the other hand, the proposed therapeutic/prophylactic treatment with mucoadhesive formulations managed to reduce histopathologic changes in mice bearing mucositis, especially at 125 mg/kg BP + 15 mg/kg CL dose. The formulation promoted an increase of 275.5% and 148.7% for villi and crypts size, respectively. Moreover, chemotherapy-related weight loss was reduced by 7.4% following the treatment. In addition, an increase of 10 and 30.5% in red and white blood cells was observed when compared to 5-FU group. Furthermore, treatments with the mucoadhesive formulation containing BP/CL up modulated Ki-67 and Bcl-2 expression while reduced pro-apoptotic regulator Bax. The formulation also modulated inflammatory response triggered by 5-FU through reduction of 68% of myeloperoxidase activity and a 4-fold increase in anti-inflammatory IL-10 levels. In parallel, the oxidative stress via lipid peroxidation was reduced as indicated by decrease of 63% of malondialdehyde concentrations. Additionally, the new formulation presented low acute oral systemic toxicity, being classified in the category 5 (2000 mg/kg < LD50 < 5000 mg/kg of the Globally Harmonized

  15. Palinologia de espécies de Asteraceae de utilidade medicinal para a comunidade da Vila Dois Rios, Ilha Grande, Angra dos Reis, RJ, Brasil Pollen morpology of species of Asteraceae with medicinal utility for the community from Vila Dois Rios, Ilha Grande, Angra dos Reis, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil

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    Marcelo Neto Galvão

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho trata da morfologia polínica e de descrições taxonômicas de 12 espécies de Asteraceae correspondentes em 12 diferentes gêneros, distribuídos em nove tribos. Todas as espécies estudadas são utilizadas como medicamentos pelos moradores da Vila Dois Rios, Ilha Grande, Angra dos Reis, Rio de Janeiro. Neste estudo objetivou-se caracterizar os tipos polínicos das espécies usadas por esta comunidade e fornecer chaves diagnósticas de caracteres macromorfológicos e micromorfológicos que auxiliem a identificação das mesmas. A identificação taxonômica e palinológica correta é pré-requisito para estudos que validem a eficácia e segurança terapêutica dessas espécies. Deve-se considerar, ainda, que a utilização desses conhecimentos é importante para a comunidade, como por exemplo, na melissopalinologia. Os grãos de pólen foram acetolisados, medidos, descritos e ilustrados sob microscopia de luz. Para observar detalhes da superfície e abertura, grãos de pólen não acetolisados foram analisados em microscópio eletrônico de varredura. Foram estudadas as características dos grãos de pólen como forma, tamanho, constituição da sexina e abertura. Os resultados mostraram que a morfologia polínica é bem definida entre as espécies estudadas, podendo ser usada para sua identificação e sustenta o caráter euripalinológico de Asteraceae.This study is a palynologycal characterization and taxonomic description of 12 species within 12 genera, distributed in nine tribes from Asteracaeae. All studied species are used as medicines by people from Vila Dois Rios and they occur in Ilha Grande. This work aimed to characterize the pollen grains of medicinal species of Asteraceae from Vila Dois Rios and provide diagnostic keys based on macromorphological and pollen characters to help their identification, since the correct taxonomic and palynological recognition of these species is necessary for further studies on therapeutic

  16. Fumigant toxicity and acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity of 4 Asteraceae plant essential oils and their constituents against Japanese termite (Reticulitermes speratus Kolbe).

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    Seo, Seon-Mi; Kim, Junheon; Kang, Jaesoon; Koh, Sang-Hyun; Ahn, Young-Joon; Kang, Kyu-Suk; Park, Il-Kwon

    2014-07-01

    This study investigated the fumigant toxicity of 4 Asteraceae plant essential oils and their constituents against the Japanese termite Reticulitermes speratus Kolbe. Fumigant toxicity varied with plant essential oils or constituents, exposure time, and concentration. Among the tested essential oils, those from Chamaemelum nobile exhibited the strongest fumigant toxicity, followed by those from Santolina chamaecyparissus, Ormenis multicaulis, and Eriocephalus punctulatus at 2 days after treatment. In all, 15, 24, 19, and 9 compounds were identified in the essential oils from C. nobile, E. punctulatus, O. multicaulis, and S. chamaecyparissus, respectively, by using gas chromatography, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, or open-column chromatography. The identified compounds were tested individually for their fumigant toxicity against Japanese termites. Among the test compounds, trans-pinocarveol, caryophyllene oxide, sabinene hydrate, and santolina alcohol showed strong fumigant toxicity against Japanese termites. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition activity of the identified compounds from C. nobile, E. punctulatus, O. multicaulis, and S. chamaecyparissus essential oils were tested to determine the mode of their action. The IC50 values of (+)-α-pinene, (-)-limonene, (-)-α-pinene, β-pinene, and β-phellandrene against Japanese termite AChE were 0.03, 0.13, 0.41, 0.42, and 0.67mg/mL, respectively. Further studies are warranted to determine the potential of these essential oils and their constituents as fumigants for termite control. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Short-term effects of dimethoate on metabolic responses in Chrysolina pardalina (Chrysomelidae) feeding on Berkheya coddii (Asteraceae), a hyper-accumulator of nickel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Augustyniak, M.; Migula, P.; Mesjasz-Przybylowicz, J.; Tarnawska, M.; Nakonieczny, M.; Babczynska, A.; Przybylowicz, W.; Augustyniak, M.G.

    2007-01-01

    Berkheya coddii Roessler (Asteraceae) is a hyper-accumulator of nickel, which can be used in phytomining and phytoremediation. Chrysolina pardalina Fabricius (Chrysomelidae) is a phytophagous leaf beetle, which may be useful in controlling population levels of B. coddii after it has been introduced into a new habitat. The aim of this study was to investigate the response of C. pardalina to topical application of dimethoate. Data recorded included the activity of acetylcholinesterase (AChE), the concentration of glutathione (GSH), and the activity of selected enzymes connected with GSH metabolism. Assays were carried out several times during the first 24 h after exposure to dimethoate. At the dosages used in this study, dimethoate was not as toxic as expected. AChE activity was significantly decreased 14 and 24 h after application. GST activity was significantly decreased 24 h after application. GSTPx activity was significantly decreased 2, 14 and 24 h after application. GR activity was significantly increased 4 h after application. GSH concentration was significantly increased 24 h after application. Long-term exposure to high levels of nickel may have caused adaptive changes in the enzymes that enable C. pardalina to deal with other stressors, including organophosphate pesticides. - Long-term exposure to high levels of nickel may have caused adaptive changes in the enzymes that enable Chrysolina pardalina to deal with other stressors, including organophosphate pesticides

  18. The Effect of the Acetone Extract of Arctotis arctotoides (Asteraceae on the Growth and Ultrastructure of Some Opportunistic Fungi Associated with HIV/AIDS

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    Wilfred M. Otang

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the effect of the acetone extract of Arctotis arctotoides (L.f. O. Hoffm. (Asteraceae on the growth and ultrastructure of some opportunistic fungi associated with HIV/AIDS was analyzed by means of scanning electron microscope (SEM. Remarkable morphological alterations in the fungal mycelia which were attributed to the loss of cell wall strength ranged from loss of turgidity and uniformity, collapse of entire hyphae to evident destruction of the hyphae. The elements responsible for giving the fungi their characteristic virulence were detected and quantified by energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis techniques. X-ray microanalysis showed the specific spectra of sodium, potassium and sulfur as the principal intersection of the four pathogenic fungi studied. Since these ions have the potential of fostering fungal invasion by altering the permeability of hosts’ membranes, their presence was considered inherent to the pathogenicity of the opportunistic fungi. Hence, these findings indicate the potential of the crude extract of A. arctotoides in preventing fungal invasion and subsequent infection of host’s membranes.

  19. Insecticidal and acetylcholine esterase inhibition activity of Asteraceae plant essential oils and their constituents against adults of the German cockroach (Blattella germanica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeom, Hwa-Jeong; Jung, Chan-Sik; Kang, Jaesoon; Kim, Junheon; Lee, Jae-Hyeon; Kim, Dong-Soo; Kim, Hyun-Seok; Park, Pil-Sun; Kang, Kyu-Suk; Park, Il-Kwon

    2015-03-04

    The fumigant and contact toxicities of 16 Asteraceae plant essential oils and their constituents against adult male and female Blattella germanica were examined. In a fumigant toxicity test, tarragon oil exhibited 100% and 90% fumigant toxicity against adult male German cockroaches at 5 and 2.5 mg/filter paper, respectively. Fumigant toxicities of Artemisia arborescens and santolina oils against adult male German cockroaches were 100% at 20 mg/filter paper, but were reduced to 60% and 22.5% at 10 mg/filter paper, respectively. In contact toxicity tests, tarragon and santolina oils showed potent insecticidal activity against adult male German cockroaches. Components of active oils were analyzed using gas chromatography, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, or nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometer. Among the identified compounds from active essential oils, estragole demonstrated potent fumigant and contact toxicity against adult German cockroaches. β-Phellandrene exhibited inhibition of male and female German cockroach acetylcholinesterase activity with IC50 values of 0.30 and 0.28 mg/mL, respectively.

  20. Suitability of Root and Rhizome Anatomy for Taxonomic Classification and Reconstruction of Phylogenetic Relationships in the Tribes Cardueae and Cichorieae (Asteraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginko, Elisabeth; Dobeš, Christoph; Saukel, Johannes

    2016-05-27

    The value of root and rhizome anatomy for the taxonomic characterisation of 59 species classified into 34 genera and 12 subtribes from the Asteraceae tribes Cardueae and Cichorieae was assessed. In addition, the evolutionary history of anatomical characters was reconstructed using a nuclear ribosomal DNA sequence-based phylogeny of the Cichorieae. Taxa were selected with a focus on pharmaceutically relevant species. A binary decision tree was constructed and discriminant function analyses were performed to extract taxonomically relevant anatomical characters and to infer the separability of infratribal taxa, respectively. The binary decision tree distinguished 33 species and two subspecies, but only five of the genera (sampled for at least two species) by a unique combination of hierarchically arranged characters. Accessions were discriminated-except for one sample worthy of discussion-according to their subtribal affiliation in the discriminant function analyses (DFA). However, constantly expressed subtribe-specific characters were almost missing and even in combination, did not discriminate the subtribes. Most anatomical characters showed at least some degree of homoplasious evolution limiting their suitability as phylogenetically informative characters.

  1. The Impact of Reconstruction Methods, Phylogenetic Uncertainty and Branch Lengths on Inference of Chromosome Number Evolution in American Daisies (Melampodium, Asteraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCann, Jamie; Schneeweiss, Gerald M; Stuessy, Tod F; Villaseñor, Jose L; Weiss-Schneeweiss, Hanna

    2016-01-01

    Chromosome number change (polyploidy and dysploidy) plays an important role in plant diversification and speciation. Investigating chromosome number evolution commonly entails ancestral state reconstruction performed within a phylogenetic framework, which is, however, prone to uncertainty, whose effects on evolutionary inferences are insufficiently understood. Using the chromosomally diverse plant genus Melampodium (Asteraceae) as model group, we assess the impact of reconstruction method (maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood, Bayesian methods), branch length model (phylograms versus chronograms) and phylogenetic uncertainty (topological and branch length uncertainty) on the inference of chromosome number evolution. We also address the suitability of the maximum clade credibility (MCC) tree as single representative topology for chromosome number reconstruction. Each of the listed factors causes considerable incongruence among chromosome number reconstructions. Discrepancies between inferences on the MCC tree from those made by integrating over a set of trees are moderate for ancestral chromosome numbers, but severe for the difference of chromosome gains and losses, a measure of the directionality of dysploidy. Therefore, reliance on single trees, such as the MCC tree, is strongly discouraged and model averaging, taking both phylogenetic and model uncertainty into account, is recommended. For studying chromosome number evolution, dedicated models implemented in the program ChromEvol and ordered maximum parsimony may be most appropriate. Chromosome number evolution in Melampodium follows a pattern of bidirectional dysploidy (starting from x = 11 to x = 9 and x = 14, respectively) with no prevailing direction.

  2. Effect of Ageratum houstonianum Mill. (Asteraceae) leaf extracts on the oviposition activity of Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tennyson, Samuel; Ravindran, K John; Eapen, Alex; William, S John

    2012-12-01

    Plant extracts have been studied extensively for their insecticidal activity against immature stages and adult mosquitoes. They have also been reported to influence the habitat preference of ovipositing mosquitoes. Ageratum houstonianum, a medicinal plant belonging to the family Asteraceae, has been reported to possess insecticidal activity, and in the present study, the ovipositional attractant/deterrent activity was studied. The effect of Ageratum houstonianum crude leaf extracts on the oviposition of Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus was studied at 0.1 % concentration in laboratory. Among hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol crude leaf extracts, methanol showed an effective deterrent activity against all the three vector species with an oviposition active index of -0.8, -0.8 and -0.9, respectively. Field trials carried out to study the effect of 0.1 % methanol extract on oviposition of Aedes species indicated effective deterrence ranging from 79.0 to 100.0 % in indoor and 74.6 to 100.0 % in outdoor ovitraps. The potential oviposition deterrent property of Ageratum houstonianum crude leaf extracts observed in both laboratory and field studies indicates the presence of phytocompounds that act as effective contact deterrent. Further, isolation, identification and preparation of suitable formulation of the effective phytocompounds of Ageratum houstonianum that act as a contact deterrent are required.

  3. The Impact of Reconstruction Methods, Phylogenetic Uncertainty and Branch Lengths on Inference of Chromosome Number Evolution in American Daisies (Melampodium, Asteraceae.

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    Jamie McCann

    Full Text Available Chromosome number change (polyploidy and dysploidy plays an important role in plant diversification and speciation. Investigating chromosome number evolution commonly entails ancestral state reconstruction performed within a phylogenetic framework, which is, however, prone to uncertainty, whose effects on evolutionary inferences are insufficiently understood. Using the chromosomally diverse plant genus Melampodium (Asteraceae as model group, we assess the impact of reconstruction method (maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood, Bayesian methods, branch length model (phylograms versus chronograms and phylogenetic uncertainty (topological and branch length uncertainty on the inference of chromosome number evolution. We also address the suitability of the maximum clade credibility (MCC tree as single representative topology for chromosome number reconstruction. Each of the listed factors causes considerable incongruence among chromosome number reconstructions. Discrepancies between inferences on the MCC tree from those made by integrating over a set of trees are moderate for ancestral chromosome numbers, but severe for the difference of chromosome gains and losses, a measure of the directionality of dysploidy. Therefore, reliance on single trees, such as the MCC tree, is strongly discouraged and model averaging, taking both phylogenetic and model uncertainty into account, is recommended. For studying chromosome number evolution, dedicated models implemented in the program ChromEvol and ordered maximum parsimony may be most appropriate. Chromosome number evolution in Melampodium follows a pattern of bidirectional dysploidy (starting from x = 11 to x = 9 and x = 14, respectively with no prevailing direction.

  4. Revisió taxonòmica del gènere Chamaemelum Miller (Asteraceae) a la Península Ibèrica i les Illes Balears

    OpenAIRE

    Benedí, Carles

    1987-01-01

    Se realiza una revisión taxonómica del género Chamaemelum Miller (Asteraceae) en la Península Ibérica e Islas Baleares. Se proponen dos cambios nomenclaturales: Chamaemelum nobile(L.) All. forma discoideum (Willk.) comb. i stat. nov. y C. fuscatum (Brot.) Vasc. forma minor (Hoffmanns. i Link) comb. i stat. nov. Para cada taxon se da el nombre correcto, así como las correspondientes sinonimias. Se adjunta una clave dicotómica de los táxones reconocidos y una relación de los testimonios de herb...

  5. A new cecidogenous species of Eugnosta Hübner (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) associated with Baccharis salicifolia (Asteraceae) in the northern Chilean Atacama Desert: Life-history description and phylogenetic inferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Héctor A; Pollo, Pietro; Basilio, Daniel S; Gonçalves, Gislene L; Moreira, Gilson R P

    2015-02-20

    Eugnosta Hübner, 1825 (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae, Tortricinae, Cochylini, Cochylina) is reported for the first time in Chile. Male and female adults, the pupa, the last-instar larva, and galls of Eugnosta azapaensis Vargas & Moreira, sp. n., are described and illustrated from the Azapa Valley in the northern Atacama Desert. The larvae induce fusiform galls on shoots of the shrub Baccharis salicifolia (Ruiz & Pav.) Pers. (Asteraceae). An assessment of phylogenetic relationships of E. azapaensis with two congeneric species based on mitochondrial DNA is provided.

  6. Assessing the Chemical Composition and Antimicrobial Activity of Essential Oils from Brazilian Plants-Eremanthus erythropappus (Asteraceae), Plectrantuns barbatus, and P. amboinicus (Lamiaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Nara O Dos; Mariane, Bruna; Lago, João Henrique G; Sartorelli, Patricia; Rosa, Welton; Soares, Marisi G; da Silva, Adalberto M; Lorenzi, Harri; Vallim, Marcelo A; Pascon, Renata C

    2015-05-11

    The chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of essential oils obtained from three Brazilian plant species-leaves and branches of Eremanthus erythropappus (Asteraceae), leaves of Plectranthus barbatus, and leaves of P. amboinicus (Lamiaceae)-were determined. Analysis by GC/MS and determination of Kovats indexes both indicated δ-elemene (leaves-42.61% and branches-23.41%) as well as (-)-α-bisabolol (leaves-24.80% and stem bark-66.16%) as major constituents of E. erythropappus essential oils. The main components of leaves of P. barbatus were identified as (Z)-caryophyllene (17.98%), germacrene D (17.35%), and viridiflorol (14.13%); whereas those of leaves of P. amboinicus were characterized as p-cymene (12.01%), γ-terpinene (14.74%), carvacrol (37.70%), and (Z)-caryophyllene (14.07%). The antimicrobial activity against yeasts and bacteria was assessed in broth microdilution assays to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) necessary to inhibit microbial growth. In addition, the crude oil of branches of E. erythropappus was subjected to chromatographic separation procedures to afford purified (-)-α-bisabolol. This compound displayed biological activity against pathogenic yeasts, thus suggesting that the antimicrobial effect observed with crude oils of E. erythropappus leaves and branches may be related to the occurrence of (-)-α-bisabolol as their main component. Our results showed that crude oils of Brazilian plants, specifically E. erythropappus, P. barbatus, and P. amboinicus and its components, could be used as a tool for the developing novel and more efficacious antimicrobial agents.

  7. Elemental distribution in reproductive and neural organs of the Epilachna nylanderi (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), a phytophage of nickel hyperaccumulator Berkheya coddii (Asterales: Asteraceae) by micro-PIXE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesjasz-Przybyłowicz, Jolanta; Orłowska, Elżbieta; Augustyniak, Maria; Nakonieczny, Mirosław; Tarnawska, Monika; Przybyłowicz, Wojciech; Migula, Paweł

    2014-01-01

    The phenomenon of metal hyperaccumulation by plants is often explained by a pathogen or herbivore defense hypothesis. However, some insects feeding on metal hyperaccumulating plants are adapted to the high level of metals in plant tissues. Former studies on species that feed on the leaves of Berkheya coddii Roessler 1958 (Asteraceae), a nickel-hyperaccumulating plant, demonstrated several protective mechanisms involved in internal distribution, immobilization, and elimination of Ni from the midgut and Malpighian tubules. These species are mainly coleopterans, including the lady beetle, Epilachna nylanderi (Mulsant 1850) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), collected from the ultramafic ecosystem near Barberton in South Africa. By performing particle-induced X-ray emission microanalysis elemental microanalysis (PIXE), this study examined whether Ni may be harmful to internal body systems that decide on insect reactivity (central nervous system [CNS]), their reproduction, and the relationships between Ni and other micronutrients. Data on elemental distribution of nine selected elements in target organs of E. nylanderi were compared with the existing data for other insect species adapted to the excess of metals. Micro-PIXE maps of seven regions of the CNS showed Ni mainly in the neural connectives, while cerebral ganglia were better protected. Concentrations of other bivalent metals were lower than those of Ni. Testis, compared with other reproductive organs, showed low amounts of Ni. Zn was effectively regulated at physiological dietary levels. In insects exposed to excess dietary Zn, it was also accumulated in the reproductive organs. Comparison of E. nylanderii with other insects that ingest hyperaccumulating plants, especially chrysomelid Chrysolina clathrata (Clark) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), showed lower protection of the CNS and reproductive organs. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.

  8. [Phagodeterrent activity of the plants Tithonia diversifolia and Montanoa hibiscifolia (Asteraceae) on adults of the pest insect Bemisia tabaci (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagnarello, Gina; Hilje, Luko; Bagnarello, Vanessa; Cartín, Victor; Calvo, Marco

    2009-12-01

    Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) is a polyphagous, cosmopolitan and worldwide relevant pest, mainly acting as a virus vector on many crops. A sound preventive approach to deal with it would be the application of repellent or deterrent substances hopefully present in tropical plants, which in turn may contribute to take advantage of the remarkable rich Mesoamerican biodiversity. Therefore, extracts of two wild plants belonging to family Asteraceae, titonia (Tithonia diversifolia) and "tora" (Montanoa hibiscifolia), were tested for phagodeterrence to B. tabaci adults. The crude leaf extract of each one, as well as four fractions thereof (hexane, dichlorometane, ethyl acetate, and methanol) were tested under greenhouse conditions; in addition, the extracts were submitted to a phytochemical screening to determine possible metabolites causing phagodeterrence. Both restricted-choice and unrestricted-choice experiments were conducted. In the former ones, each fraction was tested at four doses (0.1, 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5% v/v), which were compared with four control treatments: distilled water, endosulfan, an agricultural oil (Aceite Agricola 81 SC), and the emulsifier Citowett. Tomato plants were sprayed and placed inside sleeve cages, where 50 B. tabaci adults were released. The criterion to appraise phagodeterrence was the number of landed adults on plants at 48h. For the unrestricted-choice experiments, only the two highest doses (1.0 and 1.5%) of the crude extracts of each species were tested, and compared to distilled water and the agricultural oil. The titonia and "tora" crude extracts caused phagodeterrence, and for both plant species the methanol fraction stood out. Results suggest that metabolites causing phagodeterrence are several sesquiterpenic lactones, polyphenolic compounds (flavonoids and tannins) and saponins.

  9. Avaliação do efeito de polietilenoglicóis no perfil de extratos de Mikania glomerata Spreng., Asteraceae, e Passiflora edulis Sims, Passifloraceae

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    Jorge de Medeiros

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Os polietilenoglicóis (PEG são polímeros hidrossolúveis capazes de reduzir a constante dielétrica de solventes como a água, e assim são utilizados como cossolventes para solubilização de diferentes fármacos. Atualmente, o PEG tem sido empregado satisfatoriamente na obtenção de extratos de matérias-primas vegetais por favorecer a extração de substâncias com polaridades semelhantes às extraídas pelos solventes hidroetanólicos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da concentração e da massa molar de PEG (400 e 4000 g/mol sobre a extração de flavonoides totais a partir de Passiflora edulis Sims, Passifloraceae, (maracujá e de cumarina a partir da Mikania glomerata Spreng., Asteraceae, (guaco. Este estudo revelou que o aumento da concentração de PEG promoveu um aumento na capacidade extrativa de flavonoides totais e cumarina a partir da Passiflora edulis e Mikania glomerata respectivamente, comportamento atribuído a alterações da constante dielétrica. Apesar de elevar a capacidade extrativa, os líquidos extratores contendo PEG exigiram elevada relação planta:solvente para alcançar teores extrativos semelhante ao solvente hidroetanólico utilizado, com exceção da extração de flavonoides totais com PEG 4000 g/mol a partir da Passilfora edulis.

  10. Topically applied diterpenoids from Egletes viscosa (Asteraceae) attenuate the dermal inflammation in mouse ear induced by tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate- and oxazolone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calou, Iana Bantim Felício; Sousa, Daniel Italo Maia; Cunha, Geanne Matos de Andrade; Brito, Gerly Anne de Castro; Silveira, Edilberto Rocha; Rao, Vietla Satyanarayana; Santos, Flávia Almeida

    2008-08-01

    The diterpene compounds, centipedic acid (CA) and 12-acetoxyhawtriwaic acid lactone (AHAL, tanabalin) isolated from the flower buds of Egletes viscosa LESS. (Asteraceae) were evaluated on acute and chronic models of mouse ear dermatitis. A single topical application of CA (0.125; 0.25 and 0.5 mg/ear) or AHAL (0.125, 0.25, 0.5 mg/ear) immediately before 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA, 2.5 mug/ear) caused a dose-related significant inhibition of ear inflammatory edema and influx of polymorphonuclear cells, as evidenced by a decrease in ear thickness and reduced myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) in ear tissue homogenates. The maximal obtained inhibition for both ear edema and neutrophil influx were almost similar to that of topically applied dexamethasone (0.05 mg/ear). The extent of inhibitions for the respective treatments of CA (0.5 mg/ear), AHAL (0.5 mg/ear), or dexamethasone (0.05 mg/ear) were in the order of 63%, 61% and 81% for the ear edema, and 90%, 95% and 95% for the neutrophil influx. Also, at similar doses, both diterpenes and dexamethasone effectively inhibited the delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction induced by repeated topical application of 1% oxazolone (OXA, 20 microl/ear), as evidenced by significant decreases in ear thickness and interferon-gamma (INF-gamma) levels in ear tissue. Histopathological analysis revealed a marked decrease in epidermal hyperplasia and neutrophil infiltration in animals pretreated with CA or AHAL, in a manner similar to dexamethasone. These data provide evidence for the anti-dermatitis effect of Egletes viscosa diterpenes, by mechanisms that involve a reduced neutrophil influx and decreased production of inflammatory cytokines, TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma.

  11. Composição química volátil e não-volátil de Eupatorium ballotifolium Kunth, Asteraceae

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    Maria Rose Jane R. Albuquerque

    Full Text Available Este trabalho descreve a composição química dos óleos essenciais e o isolamento de onze substâncias de Eupatorium ballotifolium Kunth, Asteraceae. Os óleos essenciais foram obtidos por hidrodestilação, analisados por CG-EM e avaliados quanto às suas atividades frente à enzima acetilcolinesterase. O rendimento dos óleos foi de 0,11% para as folhas e 0,03% para os talos. Os principais constituintes dos óleos foram os sesquiterpenos β-cariofileno (24,9 e 22,2%, espatulenol (17,7 e 12,4% e epóxi-allo-aromadendreno (23,0 e 23,6%. Do extrato hexânico da parte aérea foi isolada a mistura de β-sitosterol e estigmasterol, incluindo suas formas glicosiladas, e os triterpenos acetato de taraxasterila e taraxasterol, enquanto, do extrato etanólico foram isolados os flavonóides nepetina and 3-O-glicosil-quercetina. Do extrato hexânico das raízes foram isolados os triterpenos epi-friedelanol e damara-20,24-dien-3β-ol e do extrato etanólico a cumarina 11-hidroxi-11,12-di-hidroobliquina. As estruturas de todos os compostos foram determinadas usando técnicas espectroscópica tais como IV, EM e RMN ¹H e 13C.

  12. Assessing the Chemical Composition and Antimicrobial Activity of Essential Oils from Brazilian Plants—Eremanthus erythropappus (Asteraceae, Plectrantuns barbatus, and P. amboinicus (Lamiaceae

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    Nara O. dos Santos

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of essential oils obtained from three Brazilian plant species—leaves and branches of Eremanthus erythropappus (Asteraceae, leaves of Plectranthus barbatus, and leaves of P. amboinicus (Lamiaceae—were determined. Analysis by GC/MS and determination of Kovats indexes both indicated δ-elemene (leaves—42.61% and branches—23.41% as well as (−-α-bisabolol (leaves—24.80% and stem bark—66.16% as major constituents of E. erythropappus essential oils. The main components of leaves of P. barbatus were identified as (Z-caryophyllene (17.98%, germacrene D (17.35%, and viridiflorol (14.13%; whereas those of leaves of P. amboinicus were characterized as p-cymene (12.01%, γ-terpinene (14.74%, carvacrol (37.70%, and (Z-caryophyllene (14.07%. The antimicrobial activity against yeasts and bacteria was assessed in broth microdilution assays to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC necessary to inhibit microbial growth. In addition, the crude oil of branches of E. erythropappus was subjected to chromatographic separation procedures to afford purified (−-α-bisabolol. This compound displayed biological activity against pathogenic yeasts, thus suggesting that the antimicrobial effect observed with crude oils of E. erythropappus leaves and branches may be related to the occurrence of (−-α-bisabolol as their main component. Our results showed that crude oils of Brazilian plants, specifically E. erythropappus, P. barbatus, and P. amboinicus and its components, could be used as a tool for the developing novel and more efficacious antimicrobial agents.

  13. Identificação de espécies da família Asteraceae, revisão sobre usos e triagem fitoquímica do gênero Eremanthus da Reserva Boqueirão, Ingaí-MG Asteraceae species identification, use revision and phytochemical screening of Eremanthus genus in Boqueirão Ecological Reserve, Ingaí - Minas Gerais State, Brazil

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    A.O. Ribeiro

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de identificar espécies da família Asteraceae, revisar seus usos e realizar triagem fitoquímica preliminar do gênero Eremanthus procederam-se coletas botânicas semanais de espécimes na Reserva Boqueirão, localizada em Ingaí, Minas Gerais. As amostras foram herborizadas e identificadas utilizando-se bibliografia especializada e comparação com espécimes disponíveis no Herbário ESAL, da Universidade Federal de Lavras. A revisão dos usos foi feita através de consulta a obras clássicas e artigos científicos contendo relatos sobre levantamentos etnobotânicos realizados na área de estudo. Para triagem fitoquímica empregaram-se reagentes específicos para cada grupo de metabólito. Foram levantadas 102 espécies da família Asteraceae, sendo 32 delas úteis para o homem. A triagem fitoquímica dos extratos hidroalcoólicos indicaram a presença de açúcares redutores, carboidratos, aminoácidos, taninos, flavonóides, glicosídeos cardiotônicos, carotenóides, esteróides e triterpenóides, depsídeos e depsidonas, derivados de cumarina, saponinas espumídicas, alcalóides, purinas, polissacarídeos e antraquinonas. Não foram detectados ácidos orgânicos, catequinas, lactonas sesquiterpênicas e azulenos.To identify Asteraceae species, review the utilization and perform a preliminary phytochemical screening of some species of Eremanthus genus, plants were weekly collected in Boqueirão Ecological Reserve, located in Ingaí, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. The samples were herborized and identified by using a specialized bibliography and comparison with the species available in the Herbarium ESAL of the Federal University of Lavras. The utilization review was carried out by means of bibliographical research and ethnobotanical surveys in the sampling area. Specific reagents for each group of compounds were used for phytochemical screening. From the 102 Asteraceae species investigated, 32 were reported to be of use to

  14. Avaliação do efeito de polietilenoglicóis no perfil de extratos de Mikania glomerata Spreng., Asteraceae, e Passiflora edulis Sims, Passifloraceae Evaluation of PEG effects on the extracts obtaining from Passiflora edulis Sims, Passifloraceae, and Mikania glomerata Spreng., Asteraceae

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    Jorge de Medeiros

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Os polietilenoglicóis (PEG são polímeros hidrossolúveis capazes de reduzir a constante dielétrica de solventes como a água, e assim são utilizados como cossolventes para solubilização de diferentes fármacos. Atualmente, o PEG tem sido empregado satisfatoriamente na obtenção de extratos de matérias-primas vegetais por favorecer a extração de substâncias com polaridades semelhantes às extraídas pelos solventes hidroetanólicos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da concentração e da massa molar de PEG (400 e 4000 g/mol sobre a extração de flavonoides totais a partir de Passiflora edulis Sims, Passifloraceae, (maracujá e de cumarina a partir da Mikania glomerata Spreng., Asteraceae, (guaco. Este estudo revelou que o aumento da concentração de PEG promoveu um aumento na capacidade extrativa de flavonoides totais e cumarina a partir da Passiflora edulis e Mikania glomerata respectivamente, comportamento atribuído a alterações da constante dielétrica. Apesar de elevar a capacidade extrativa, os líquidos extratores contendo PEG exigiram elevada relação planta:solvente para alcançar teores extrativos semelhante ao solvente hidroetanólico utilizado, com exceção da extração de flavonoides totais com PEG 4000 g/mol a partir da Passilfora edulis.Polyethylene glycols (PEG are hydrosoluble polymers able to reducing dielectric constant of solvents like water and thus are used as cosolvents to enhance the aqueous solubility of several drugs. Actually, the PEG have been successful applied to obtain extracts of plant raw material once can facilitate the extraction of substances with polarities similar to those extracted by hydroethanol solvents. In this study, the objective was to evaluate the effect of PEG concentration and molecular weight (400 and 4000 g/mol on the extraction of total flavonoids from Passiflora edulis Sims, Passifloraceae, and coumarin from Mikania glomerata Spreng., Asteraceae. The results

  15. Anatomia de raiz, caule e folha e identificação de estruturas secretoras de Achillea millefolium L. (Asteraceae - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.163 Anatomy of root, stem and leaf and identification of secretory structures of Achillea millefolium L. (Asteraceae- DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.163

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    Ismar Sebastião Moscheta

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Realizou-se o estudo anatômico dos órgãos vegetativos raiz, caule e folha, e extraíram-se os óleos essenciais das diferentes partes da planta, identificando-se as possíveis estruturas secretoras desses óleos. Utilizou-se material fresco para a realização dos testes histoquímicos e para a confecção de lâminas semipermanentes, as quais se coraram com Safrablau. Para a confecção de lâminas permanentes, utilizou-se material fixado em FAA 50%, incluído em historesina. Observaram-se pêlos tectores no escapo e na folha, enquanto que pêlos glandulares foram encontrados no escapo e na flor. Canais secretores de origem esquizógena acompanham os feixes vasculares no rizoma, no escapo, na folha e na bráctea da flor. Na raiz, esses canais estão ausentes. Na folha e na inflorescência fechada, observouse maior quantidade de óleos essenciais. A folha é anfistomática e os estômatos, do tipo anomocítico, estão presentes também no escapo. A estrutura geral de Achillea millefolium é semelhante à de outras espécies da família Asteraceae.An anatomic study of the vegetative organs: root, stem and leaf was made. The essential oils were extracted from the plant identifying the possible secretory structures. Fresh material was used in order to perform histochemical tests and to prepare semi-permanent slides, which were colored with Safrabau. For the preparation of the semi-permanent slides, material fixed in FAA 50% was used including historesina. Tector hairs can be observed in the scape and flower. Secretory channels of schizogeneous origin follow the vascular bundles in the rhizome, scape, leaf and bract of the flower. In the root, these channels are absent. In the leaf and in the unopened inflorescence there is a greater quantity of the essential oils. The leaf is amphistomatic and the stomata of anomocytic type are present in the scape as well. The general structure of the Achillea millefolium is similar to the structures of the

  16. Chromolaena odorata (L.) R.M. King & H. Rob. (Asteraceae) in sub-Saharan Africa: A synthesis and review of its medicinal potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omokhua, Aitebiremen G; McGaw, Lyndy J; Finnie, Jeffrey F; Van Staden, Johannes

    2016-05-13

    Chromolaena odorata (L.) R.M. King & H. Rob. (Asteraceae) is a scrambling perennial shrub that originated in the Americas, but is now common in sub-Saharan Africa, Asia and Oceania, where it has become a serious weed. The species, particularly the biotype found in Asia and West Africa, has many ethnopharmacological uses, including treatment of malaria, wounds, diarrhoea, skin infection, toothache, dysentery, stomach ache, sore throat, convulsions, piles, coughs and colds. Furthermore, no attempt has been made to synthesise and review the available literature on the usefulness of the plant in the sub-Saharan African region, hence this paper examines the beneficial attributes of C. odorata in sub-Saharan Africa. Published information on the species was gathered by the use of different database platforms, including Google Scholar, ScienceDirect, SciFinder and Scopus. Records indicate that two biotypes of C. odorata are present in sub-Saharan Africa viz. the more widespread Asian/West African C. odorata biotype (AWAB) and the southern African biotype (SAB). While the usefulness of the former is well elucidated in the literature, such information on the latter is still scarce. Although the importance of AWAB C. odorata as a fallow species and as a soil fertility improvement plant in the slash and burn rotation system of agriculture in West Africa is increasingly being recognised, its usage in traditional medicinal practice is far more appreciated. The species has a wide range of ethnopharmacological uses, possibly because of the presence of flavonoids, essential oils, phenolics, tannins and saponins. The plant is reported to have antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anthelminthic, antifungal, cytotoxic, anticonvulsant, antiprotozoal, antispasmodic, antipyretic and analgesic properties. While the results of this review suggest that the AWAB plant can be exploited as an alternative to other threatened plant species known to possess similar medicinal potential

  17. Anti-plasmodial activity of Dicoma tomentosa (Asteraceae and identification of urospermal A-15-O-acetate as the main active compound

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    Jansen Olivia

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Natural products could play an important role in the challenge to discover new anti-malarial drugs. In a previous study, Dicoma tomentosa (Asteraceae was selected for its promising anti-plasmodial activity after a preliminary screening of several plants traditionally used in Burkina Faso to treat malaria. The aim of the present study was to further investigate the anti-plasmodial properties of this plant and to isolate the active anti-plasmodial compounds. Methods Eight crude extracts obtained from D. tomentosa whole plant were tested in vitro against two Plasmodium falciparum strains (3D7 and W2 using the p-LDH assay (colorimetric method. The Peters’ four-days suppressive test model (Plasmodium berghei-infected mice was used to evaluate the in vivo anti-plasmodial activity. An in vitro bioguided fractionation was undertaken on a dichloromethane extract, using preparative HPLC and TLC techniques. The identity of the pure compound was assessed using UV, MS and NMR spectroscopic analysis. In vitro cytotoxicity against WI38 human fibroblasts (WST-1 assay and haemolytic activity were also evaluated for extracts and pure compounds in order to check selectivity. Results The best in vitro anti-plasmodial results were obtained with the dichloromethane, diethylether, ethylacetate and methanol extracts, which exhibited a high activity (IC50 ≤ 5 μg/ml. Hot water and hydroethanolic extracts also showed a good activity (IC50 ≤ 15 μg/ml, which confirmed the traditional use and the promising anti-malarial potential of the plant. The activity was also confirmed in vivo for all tested extracts. However, most of the active extracts also exhibited cytotoxic activity, but no extract was found to display any haemolytic activity. The bioguided fractionation process allowed to isolate and identify a sesquiterpene lactone (urospermal A-15-O-acetate as the major anti-plasmodial compound of the plant (IC50 Conclusions The present study

  18. Reubicación de plantas de Espeletia grandiflora (Asteraceae como estrategia para el enriquecimiento de áreas de páramo alteradas (PNN Chingaza, Colombia

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    Oscar Rojas-Zamora

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available El trasplante o reubicación de individuos ha sido ampliamente usado para la adición de especies en procesos de restauración. En este trabajo se estudió la respuesta de individuos de Espeletia grandiflora a la reubicación como estrategia de restauración ecológica; así mismo, se evaluó el efecto del tamaño de los individuos reubicados sobre la supervivencia y desarrollo. Se reubicaron individuos de tres diferentes tamaños, 5, 10 y 15cm de altura. Se registraron las variables supervivencia, altura de la planta, número de hojas vivas y diámetro del tallo de cada uno de los individuos, se evaluaron las posibles diferencias en cuanto a supervivencia y desarrollo. La categoría de tamaño más eficaz corresponde a la de 15cm de altura, que presentó una supervivencia del 85% luego de dos años. Se sugiere el uso del diámetro del tallo como criterio de selección de los individuos a reubicar, ya que es la variable que mejor predice la supervivencia dos años luego de la reubicación. Las tasas de crecimiento relativo en altura y diámetro del tallo disminuyen conforme aumenta el tamaño de los individuos; sin embargo, el incremento absoluto en altura no presenta diferencias entre los tres tamaños evaluados. A partir de los resultados se verifica el éxito de la reubicación de plantas de E. grandiflora como estrategia de enriquecimiento en pastizales de páramos alterados.Relocation of Espeletia grandiflora (Asteraceae plants as a strategy for enrichment of disturbed paramo areas (PNN Chingaza, Colombia. Ecological restoration of the Andean paramos faces several ecological barriers mainly at the phase of dispersal and establishment of native species. With the aim to contribute to the enrichment of degraded areas, different strategies have to be developed to overcome those barriers. In this work we studied the response of individuals of Espeletia grandiflora (Asteraceae to the relocation as a strategy for ecological restoration programs

  19. Eficiência nutricional do Nitrogênio e produção de biomassa em Calendula officinalis L. (Asteraceae em condições de casa de vegetação Nitrogen nutritional efficiency and biomass production in Calendula officinalis L. (Asteraceae under greenhouse conditions

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    A.P. Serra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da aplicação de diferentes doses de nitrogênio no solo e de épocas de coleta sobre a eficiência nutricional do nitrogênio e a produção de biomassa em Calendula officinalis L. (Asteraceae em condições de casa de vegetação. O substrato utilizado foi a camada de 0 - 20 cm de Latossolo Vermelho Distroférrico. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições. Os tratamentos foram constituídos de quatro doses de N (0, 21, 42 e 84mg dm-3 e cinco épocas de colheita (15, 30, 45, 60 e 90 dias após o transplante. O teor de N na inflorescência de calêndula reduziu com as épocas de coleta, redução essa que ocorreu possivelmente devido à menor eficiência da absorção desse elemento pela planta e menor translocação do N para as inflorescências. Pode se concluir que as épocas de avaliação influenciaram na resposta da planta à eficiência de absorção (EFA, sendo a máxima EFA de N aos 51 dias após o transplante das mudas. Observou-se aumento na translocação de N da parte aérea (folhas e caules para as inflorescências, tendo como consequência a redução do N na parte aérea. Houve incremento na produção de biomassa de calêndula em função das épocas de coleta , e do aumento das doses de N aplicadas no solo. A eficiência nutricional do N foi influenciada pelas épocas de avaliação e pelo teor de N presente no solo.The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of both the application of different nitrogen levels on the soil and the harvest periods on nitrogen nutritional efficiency and biomass production in Calendula officinalis L. (Asteraceae under greenhouse conditions. The employed substrate was 0-20cm layer of Oxisol. Experimental design was completely randomized, with four replicates. Treatments consisted of four N levels (0, 21, 42 and 84 mg dm-3 and five harvest periods (15, 30, 45, 60 and 90 days after transplanting. N levels in

  20. Utilização de espécies de Asteraceae por comunidades rurais do nordeste do Brasil: relatos em Camocim de São Félix, Pernambuco

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    Aryecha Arruda Silva

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2013v26n2p93   Asteraceae, com aproximadamente 2.000 espécies registradas no Brasil, destaca-se nos estudos etnobotânicos, posicionando-se quase sempre entre as quatro famílias com maior número de espécies na flora útil, principalmente para fins medicinais. Neste estudo investigou-se a importância dessa família em quatro comunidades rurais do município de Camocim de São Félix, em um brejo de altitude, no agreste de Pernambuco. Os trabalhos de campo foram realizados no período de dezembro de 2010 a maio de 2011. Para a coleta dos dados etnobotânicos, foram realizadas entrevistas semiestruturadas com 50 moradores, de ambos os sexos, na maioria agricultores, com renda familiar inferior a um salário-mínimo, sendo coletadas as espécies por eles citadas. Os entrevistados mostraram um diversificado conhecimento sobre as Asteraceae, citando 19 espécies, nas seguintes categorias: medicinal (12, ornamental (6, tecnológica (3 e alimentícia (2, algumas delas incluídas em mais de uma categoria. Acanthospermum hispidum DC., espécie ruderal conhecida como espinho-de-cigano, foi a planta mais citada como medicinal, indicada para o tratamento de problemas respiratórios, infecções, doenças renais e odontalgias. As espécies Dahlia pinnata Cav., Tagetes erecta L. e Zinnia elegans Jacq. são utilizadas como ornamentais. Lactuca sativa L. (cultivada e Emilia sonchifolia (L. DC. (daninha foram as únicas citadas como alimentícias e Conyza bonariensis (L. Cronquist, Egletes viscosa Less. e Parthenium hysterophorus L. foram citadas para fins tecnológicos.

  1. Typification of Chrysanthemum zawadzkii (Asteraceae

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    Szeląg Zbigniew

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The name Chrysanthemum zawadzkii Herbich is typified by the illustration published in the protologue, and epitypified by the specimen collected in 1832 by F. Herbich in the Pieniny Mts, Western Carpathians, and stored at the herbarium of the Ivan Franko National University of Lviv (LW. The original spelling of the species epithet is clarified.

  2. Note on Arrhenechthites haplogyna (Asteraceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Royen, van P.

    1977-01-01

    Arrhenechthites haplogyna (F. Mueller) Mattfeld was originally described as Senecio haplogynus F. Mueller (Trans. Roy. Soc. Victoria 1, 1899: 14), based on rather poor material collected by Sir William MacGregor from Mount Knutsford. Von Mueller remarks that the species could be placed both in

  3. Anatomia dos órgãos vegetativos e histolocalização de compostos fenólicos e lipídicos em Porophyllum ruderale (Asteraceae Vegetative organ anatomy and histolocalization of lipids and phenolics compounds in Porophyllum ruderale (Asteraceae

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    M.C.M. Fonseca

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Porophyllum ruderale (Asteraceae é uma erva ruderal e aromática conhecida popularmente como couve-cravinho. Na medicina popular, é utilizada como cicatrizante e antiinflamatória, antifúngica, antibacteriana, calmante, no combate à hipertensão arterial, no tratamento de leishmaniose, no tratamento de edemas e traumatismos, no tratamento de picada de cobra, doenças reumáticas e dores em geral. A atividade cicatrizante tem sido relacionada à presença de teores variáveis de compostos fenólicos do tipo taninos. Os objetivos do trabalho foram caracterizar as estruturas secretoras quanto à histolocalização dos compostos fenólicos e lipídicos e descrever a anatomia da raiz, do caule e da folha de couve-cravinho. De cinco plantas cultivadas, em fase de prefloração, foram coletadas a raiz, o caule e a folha, os quais foram fixados em FAA 50 ou em sulfato ferroso em formalina neutra tamponada (para observação de compostos fenólicos e submetidos ao teste com Sudan III, visando a observação de compostos lipídicos. O laminário foi obtido utilizando-se metodologia tradicional. As raízes são tetrarcas, desenvolvem estrutura secundária e apresentam ductos secretores, os quais estavam presentes no córtex. O caule possui epiderme unisseriada recoberta por cutícula relativamente espessa; o parênquima cortical é intercalado com o colênquima subepidérmico; a medula é parenquimática; e os feixes são colaterais. Nos caules, os ductos também estavam presentes, porém somente nos jovens a reação para compostos fenólicos foi positiva. Nas folhas, o contorno das células epidérmicas é sinuoso e a epiderme é unisseriada e recoberta por cutícula delgada. São evidentes duas a três camadas de colênquima subepidérmico, e imerso no parênquima fundamental está o feixe colateral. No limbo foliar, foram observados ductos delimitados por várias camadas de células epiteliais, cujo conteúdo reagiu positivamente, indicando a

  4. Lactonas sesquiterpénicas de las plantas Viguiera sylvatica y Decachaeta thieleana (Asteraceae modulan la producción de óxido nítrico y la fagocitosis de macrófagos RAW

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    Omar A Dupuy L

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Las plantas de la familia Asteraceae son una fuente potencial de lactonas sesquiterpénicas con propiedades antiinflamatorias. Los macrófagos son células que desempeñan una función central en la regulación de la respuesta inmune. Este estudio evaluó el efecto in vitro de dos lactonas sesquiterpénicas, un millerenólido y thieleanina, sobre la producción de óxido nítrico (NO en una línea celular de macrófagos de ratón (RAW, utilizando el reactivo de Griess. Además, se estudió el efecto sobre la capacidad fagocítica de RAW, evaluando al microscopio la fagocitosis de partículas inertes de látex y la reducción de nitroazul de tetrazolio (NBT. Se observó que los macrófagos tratados con lactona sesquiterpénica (>2.5 µg/ml disminuyeron la producción de NO. Además, se observó una disminución de la cantidad de macrófagos capaces de reducir NBT, después que fueron tratados con millerenólido (3 µg/ml o thieleanina (7.5 µg/ ml. Por otro lado, la exposición a 4 µg/ml de millerenólido ó 7.5 µg/ml de thieleanina redujo la cantidad promedio de partículas de látex fagocitadas. No se observaron diferencias entre tratamientos y control en cuanto al porcentaje de células fagocíticas. Sólo se observaron efectos citotóxicos sobre los macrófagos, cuando la concentración de millerenólido se incrementó a 8 µg/ml o la de thieleanina se aumentó a 25 µg/ml. Estos resultados sugieren que el millerenólido y la thieleanina podrían ser compuestos útiles en la elaboración de drogas antiinflamatorias.Sesquiterpene lactones of the plants Viguiera sylvatica and Decachaeta thieleana (Asteraceae modulate nitric oxide production and phagocytosis of macrophages cell line RAW. Different species of the Asteraceae family are a potential source of sesquiterpene lactones with anti-inflammatory properties. Macrophages play a central role in the regulation of immune responses. In the present study, the in vitro effect of two sesquiterpene

  5. Estabelecimento de metodologia para alimentação de Aedes aegypti (Diptera-Culicidae em camundongos swiss e avaliação da toxicidade e do efeito residual do óleo essencial de Tagetes minuta L (Asteraceae em populações de Aedes aegypti Establishment of the feeding methodology of Aedes aegypti (Diptera-Culicidae in Swiss mice and evaluation of the toxicity and residual effect of essential oil from Tagetes minuta L (Asteraceae, in populations of Aedes aegypti

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    Waldemir Pereira Lima

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se desenvolver um procedimento de alimentação de fêmeas de Aedes aegypti que não cause estresse em camundongo swiss e avaliar a toxicidade e o efeito residual do óleo essencial de Tagetes minuta L (Asteraceae em populações de Aedes aegypti. Camundongos anestesiados: um observado tempo de sedação e outro colocado em gaiola para alimentação de fêmeas. Óleo essencial, diluído em acetona, foi utilizado em bioensaios para avaliação das concentrações letais em larvas de Bauru, SP e São José do Rio Preto, SP, respectivamente, sensíveis e resistentes ao temephos. Os dados obtidos foram comparados com a cepa Rockefeller-EUA. O procedimento com camundongos foi aprovado. Não houve diferença entre as populações quanto à susceptibilidade a Tagetes minuta e os ensaios demonstraram CL50 de 0,24, 0,25 e 0,21mL L-1 e CL99,9 em 0,35, 0,39 e 0,42mL L-1, respectivamente, para Rockfeller, Bauru e São José do Rio Preto. Não foi observado efeito residual da solução.The objectives here were to develop a procedure for feeding females of Aedes aegypti that does not cause stress in Swiss mice and to evaluate the toxicity and residual effect of essential oil from Tagetes minuta L. (Asteraceae in Aedes aegypti populations. Two mice were anesthetized: one was used to observe the duration of sedation and the other was placed in a cage to feed the female mosquitoes. Essential oil was diluted in acetone and used in bioassays to assess the lethal concentrations in larvae from the Cities of Bauru (SP and São José do Rio Preto (SP that were sensitive and resistant to temephos, respectively. The data obtained were compared with the American Rockefeller strain. The procedure with mice was approved. There was no difference between the populations regarding susceptibility to Tagetes minuta, and the assays showed LC50 of 0.24, 0.25 and 0.21 ml/l and LC99.9 of 0.35, 0.39 and 0.42 ml/l, for Rockefeller, Bauru and São José do Rio Preto

  6. Toxicological screening of Mikania glomerata Spreng., Asteraceae, extract in male Wistar rats reproductive system, sperm production and testosterone level after chronic treatment Triagem toxocológica do extrato de Mikania glomerata Spreng., Asteraceae, no sistema reprodutor, produção espermática e nível de testosterona em machos de ratos Wistar após tratamento crônico

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    Rita de Cássia da Silveira e Sá

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Some compounds present in therapeutic plants may be responsible for the occurrence of adverse side effects. Coumarin and flavonoids are substances found in many plant species that showed antifertility activity in female rats and dogs, respectively. Mikania glomerata Spreng., Asteraceae, known as guaco in Brazil, is a plant largely used in folk medicine and its leaves are reported to have coumarin and flavonoids. This work analyzes the effect of chronic administration of M. glomerata on the reproductive system of male rats. Thirty-day-old Wistar rats were treated with M. glomerata hydroalcoholic extract at a dose of 3.3 g/kg of body weight for ninety days. Body and organ weights, gamete concentration on the epididymis cauda, serum testosterone level and food consumption were evaluated. No significant alteration was observed in any of the variables analyzed, suggesting the absence of toxic action or antifertility activity of the M. glomerata hydroalcoholic extract.As plantas medicinais podem apresentar na sua constituição compostos capazes de causar efeitos adversos no organismo. Cumarina e flavonoides são substâncias encontradas em muitas espécies vegetais, cuja interferência na fertilidade de ratas e cadelas, respectivamente, foi evidenciada em estudos prévios. Mikania glomerata Spreng., Asteraceae, (guaco é uma planta usada no tratamento de doenças respiratórias e em suas folhas foi detectada a presença de cumarina e flavonoides. Neste estudo, avaliou-se o efeito do extrato hidroalcoólico, preparado com partes aéreas de guaco, no sistema reprodutor de ratos submetidos a tratamento crônico. Ratos Wistar (trinta dias de idade foram tratados com extrato hidroalcoólico de guaco na dose de 3,3 g/kg de peso corporal durante noventa dias. O peso corporal e de órgãos, a produção de espermatozoides, a concentração de testosterona plasmática e o consumo de ração foram avaliados. Não foi observada nenhuma alteração significativa

  7. Relationships and genetic consequences of contrasting modes of speciation among endemic species of Robinsonia (Asteraceae, Senecioneae) of the Juan Fernández Archipelago, Chile, based on AFLPs and SSRs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takayama, Koji; López-Sepúlveda, Patricio; Greimler, Josef; Crawford, Daniel J; Peñailillo, Patricio; Baeza, Marcelo; Ruiz, Eduardo; Kohl, Gudrun; Tremetsberger, Karin; Gatica, Alejandro; Letelier, Luis; Novoa, Patricio; Novak, Johannes; Stuessy, Tod F

    2015-01-01

    This study analyses and compares the genetic signatures of anagenetic and cladogenetic speciation in six species of the genus Robinsonia (Asteraceae, Senecioneae), endemic to the Juan Fernández Islands, Chile. Population genetic structure was analyzed by amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) and microsatellite (simple sequence repeat, SSR) markers from 286 and 320 individuals, respectively, in 28 populations. Each species is genetically distinct. Previous hypotheses of classification among these species into subgenera and sections, via morphological, phytochemical, isozymic and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) data, have been confirmed, except that R. saxatilis appears to be related to R. gayana rather than R. evenia. Analysis of phylogenetic results and biogeographic context suggests that five of these species have originated by cladogenesis and adaptive radiation on the older Robinson Crusoe Island. The sixth species, R. masafuerae, restricted to the younger Alejandro Selkirk Island, is closely related to and an anagenetic derivative of R. evenia from Robinson Crusoe. Microsatellite and AFLP data reveal considerable genetic variation among the cladogenetically derived species of Robinsonia, but within each the genetic variation is lower, highlighting presumptive genetic isolation and rapid radiation. The anagenetically derived R. masafuerae harbors a level of genetic variation similar to that of its progenitor, R. evenia. This is the first direct comparison of the genetic consequences of anagenetic and cladogenetic speciation in plants of an oceanic archipelago. © 2014 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2014 New Phytologist Trust.

  8. Chemical Composition and Antimicrobial Activity of Essential Oils from the Aerial Parts of Asteriscus graveolens (Forssk.) Less. and Pulicaria incisa (Lam.) DC.: Two Asteraceae Herbs Growing Wild in the Hoggar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaib, Faiza; Allali, Hocine; Bennaceur, Malika; Flamini, Guido

    2017-08-01

    In recent years, antimicrobial activities of essential oils have been intensively explored, mainly in researching and developing new antimicrobial agents to overcome microbial resistance. The present study investigates the chemical composition and antimicrobial activities of essential oils obtained from two Asteraceae: Asteriscus graveolens (Forssk.) Less. and Pulicaria incisa (Lam.) DC. Chemical analysis was performed using a combination of capillary GC-FID and GC/MS analytical techniques. The major component of Asteriscus graveolens were cis-chrysanthenyl acetate (31.1%), myrtenyl acetate (15.1%), and kessane (11.5%), while for Pulicaria incisa the main components were chrysanthenone (45.3%) and 2,6-dimethylphenol (12.6%). The oils obtained from the aerial parts were tested against sixteen microbial strains by agar well diffusion technique and dilution methods and showed minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) in the range of 19 - 1250 μg/ml. A good antibacterial activity against a common nosocomial pathogen, Acinetobacter baumanniiATCC 19606 was observed, especially from Pulicaria incisa essential oil, with a MIC value up to 19 μg/ml. These results give significant information about the pharmacological activity of these essential oils, which suggest their benefits to human health, having the potential to be used for medical purposes. © 2017 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zurich, Switzerland.

  9. Desenvolvimento de forma farmacêutica líquida de uso oral, isenta de substâncias glicogênicas, com extrato fluido de Mikania glomerata Sprengel - Asteraceae (guaco

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    N.C. Lubi

    Full Text Available Mikania glomerata Sprengel, Asteraceae (guaco é tradicionalmente empregado como expectorante na forma de infusão, extrato fluido, tintura e xarope. Este trabalho teve como objetivo o desenvolvimento de uma forma farmacêutica líquida, isenta de substâncias glicogênicas, veiculando o extrato fluido desta, como substituto do xarope de guaco para pessoas, que por alguma restrição não possam ingerir sacarose ou açúcar invertido, componente dos xaropes em geral. Desenvolveu-se uma formulação líquida, definindo-se as concentrações de conservantes, agentes umectantes, edulcorantes e flavorizantes, testaram-se polímeros, espessantes usuais em processos tecnológicos, para reproduzir a viscosidade fornecida pelos xaropes. Analisou-se o comportamento reológico e uma avaliação preliminar das características físicas do produto. Dos polímeros testados, o alginato de sódio (1% foi o que apresentou melhores resultados frente aos parâmetros analisados, com comportamento reológico semelhante ao dos fluidos Newtonianos, e pH adequado ao uso oral, além da compatibilidade frente ao extrato fluido de guaco.

  10. LAS PRÁCTICAS DE CAMPO UNA ESTRATEGIA DIDÁCTICA PARA CONSERVAR EL ECOSISTEMA DE PÁRAMO DESDE ELESTUDIO ECOFISIOLÓGICO DEL FRAILEJÓN (ASTERACEAE: ESPELETIA.

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    Maryury Fernanda Gómez Barrera

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Esta investigación destaca la importancia del maestro de ciencias como promotor de actitudes, conocimientos y prácticas hacia la conservación del ecosistema páramo a través de las prácticas de campo, en estudiantes de secundaria del Colegio Siervas de San José, como un acercamiento a la conservación de los ecosistemas Colombianos. Recurriendo para ello al estudio ecofisiológico de una planta concreta, endémica y de gran significado ecológico y social para el ecosistema páramo, el  frailejón (Asteraceae: Espeletia. La investigación presenta un enfoque  mixto o multimodal, recurriendo a la IEP (Investigación como Estrategia Pedagógica como metodología  central y fundamental para el desarrollo de esta investigación, se logran describir las nociones de las estudiantes en cuanto a la conservación, la ecofisiología, el páramo y el frailejón; y se caracterizaron algunas  actitudes, prácticas y conocimientos conservacionistas de las estudiantes en cuanto al páramo evidenciando las transformaciones durante el proceso.

  11. β-Cell protection and antidiabetic activities of Crassocephalum crepidioides (Asteraceae) Benth. S. Moore extract against alloxan-induced oxidative stress via regulation of apoptosis and reactive oxygen species (ROS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahar, Entaz; Akter, Kazi-Marjahan; Lee, Geum-Hwa; Lee, Hwa-Young; Rashid, Harun-Or; Choi, Min-Kyung; Bhattarai, Kashi Raj; Hossain, Mir Mohammad Monir; Ara, Joushan; Mazumder, Kishor; Raihan, Obayed; Chae, Han-Jung; Yoon, Hyonok

    2017-03-29

    Medicinal plants are becoming more popular in the treatment of various diseases because of the adverse effects of the current therapy, especially antioxidant plant components such as phenols and flavonoids have a protective role against oxidative stress-induced degenerative diseases like diabetes. Thus, the purpose of this study was to investigate β-cell protection and antidiabetic activities of Crassocephalum crepidioides (Asteraceae) Benth. S. Moore. The in-vitro study was conducted by the pancreatic β-cell culture and α-amylase inhibition technique which includes two methods, namely starch-iodine method and 3,5-dinitrosalicylic acid (DNSA) method. On the other hand, the in-vivo study was performed by oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) method and alloxan-induced diabetes method by using Wistar albino rat. At the end pancreatic specimens were removed and processed for histopathological study. The plant extract showed significant (*p < 0.05, **p < 0.01) effect on hyperglycemia as compared to standard (Gliclazide) in OGTT. The plant extract showed efficient protection activity of pancreatic β-cell from cell death in INS-1 cell line by significantly reduced (*p < 0.05, **p < 0.01) the levels alloxan-induced apoptosis and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation. In addition, the plant extract showed a significant (*p < 0.05, **p < 0.01) effect on hyperglycemia by increases in percent of β-cells present in each islet (45% - 60%) compared to the diabetic group. The result showed that C. crepidioides had β-cell protection and antidiabetic activities in pancreatic β-cell culture and Wistar albino rat.

  12. Propriedades físicoquímicas e avaliação da toxicidade aguda do extrato etanólico padronizado a 70% das folhas de Mikania glomerata (Asteraceae

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    L.C.L.R. Santana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Mikania glomerata (Asteraceae é bastante utilizada na medicina popular devido às suas ações broncodilatadora, antiasmática, expectorante e antitussígena. O objetivo do presente estudo foi determinar propriedades físicoquímicas do pó obtido a partir das folhas de M. glomerata, bem como avaliar a toxicidade em camundongos após tratamento agudo com doses repetidas do extrato etanólico padronizado a 70% preparado durante 30 dias consecutivos. No estudo das propriedades físicoquímicas fez-se a determinação da densidade bruta e de compactação, do teor de cinzas totais, do teor de umidade e da granulometria. De acordo com os resultados obtidos o pó pode ser usado na formulação de uma forma farmacêutica sólida, uma vez que suas propriedades físico-químicas são compatíveis com o desenvolvimento desse tipo de formulação. Na segunda parte do estudo foi determinada a dose letal 50% (DL50 em camundongos, e na análise morfológica macroscópica dos principais órgãos e avaliada a toxicidade aguda com doses repetidas em parâmetros bioquímicos e hematológicos de camundongos. Os resultados sugerem que o extrato etanólico padronizado a 70% pode ser usado de forma segura, uma vez que apresentou um valor para a DL50 (~3000 mg kg-1 que pode ser classificado na categoria nociva, e não produziu nenhuma alteração morfológica nos principais órgãos e em parâmetros bioquímicos e hematológicos de camundongos.

  13. Isolamento químico e validação analítica por cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência de quercitrina em Solidago chilensis Meyen (Asteraceae

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    C.A.D. VECHIA

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO A espécie Solidago chilensis Meyen, Asteraceae é conhecida como erva-lanceta ou arnica-brasileira, sendo utilizada popularmente como antimicrobiana e para o tratamento de inflamações tópicas. No entanto, estudos fitoquímicos e farmacológicos para as partes aéreas são escassos. Neste trabalho, realizou-se a determinação de flavonoides por espectrofotometria de UV/Vis, prospecção fitoquímica da fração acetato de etila visando o isolamento do constituinte químico majoritário e validação analítica por cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência (CLAE. O teor de flavonoides totais foi de 5,42%, representados como hiperosídeo. O fracionamento químico utilizando métodos cromatográficos (cromatografia líquida em coluna gel de sílica; CHCl3:EtOH; 8:2 v/v e espectroscópicos (1H RMN,13C RMN e ESI-MS revelou o isolamento de quercetina-3-O-α-L-ramnosídeo(quercitrina. A sensibilidade e a linearidade (r = 0,999 da validação analítica, utilizando a quercitrina isolada do extrato hidroalcoólico da planta, revelaram um rendimento de 5,29% do analito em relação à droga vegetal. Precisão, recuperação e robustez, além dos valores estabelecidos para os limites de detecção (LOD e de quantificação (LOQ, poderão ser utilizados como parâmetros de qualidade para extratos à base de S. chilensis.

  14. Gochnatia polymorpha (Less. Cabrera (Asteraceae changes in leaf structure due to differences in light and edaphic conditions Gochnatia polymorpha (Less. Cabrera modifica sua estrutura foliar devido a diferenças na luminosidade e condições edáficas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davi Rodrigo Rossatto

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Gochnatia polymorpha (Less. Cabrera is a widespread Asteraceae species found in different physiognomies of cerrado (Neotropical savanna and in forest formations of southeast Brazil. This study describes some leaf anatomy characteristics of this species and quantitatively evaluates them in relation to different environments, as well as under different light conditions. We found quantitative differences in all anatomical parameters analyzed. The results demonstrate that high leaf anatomy plasticity is an adaptive advantage that allows this species to occur in diverse cerrado conditions.Gochnatia polymorpha (Less. Cabrera é uma espécie de Asteraceae com ampla distribuição no bioma cerrado, sendo encontrada em diversas fisionomias florestais da região sudeste do Brasil. O presente estudo descreve alguns caracteres anatômicos foliares dessa espécie e os analisa quantitativamente em função de sua ocorrência nas formações florestais e também das diferenças de luminosidade. Foram encontradas diferenças quantitativas em todos os parâmetros anatômicos analisados. Os resultados demonstram que a alta plasticidade anatômica foliar nesta espécie pode ser considerada como uma vantagem adaptativa que a permite ocorrer em diversos ambientes do cerrado.

  15. Dirofilaria repens microfilariae in Aedes vexans mosquitoes in Slovakia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bocková, E.; Rudolf, Ivo; Kočišová, A.; Betášová, Lenka; Venclíková, Kristýna; Mendel, Jan; Hubálek, Zdeněk

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 112, č. 10 (2013), s. 3465-3470 ISSN 0932-0113 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Dirofilaria * mosquitoes * Aedes vexans Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 2.327, year: 2013

  16. Genetic variation of white clover (Trifolium repens L.) collections ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-05-24

    May 24, 2010 ... Morphological data analysis of white clover populations was coupled with molecular markers of random amplified polymorphic DNA ... relationships among white clover germplasms of China, and four commercial cultivars were included ... and agronomic traits, such as root growth (Ennos, 1985), herbage ...

  17. Genetic variation of white clover ( Trifolium repens L.) collections ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and simple sequence repeat (SSR) to investigate the genetic relationships among white clover germplasms of China, and four commercial cultivars were included for a comparison. The results revealed that the populations showed diverse morphological traits, RAPD and SSR patterns.

  18. Subconjunctival Infection due to Dirofilaria Repens ‐Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Božinović Marija Trenkić

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the survey was to present the clinical course and surgical treatment of the first case of human ocular dirofilariosis on the territory of the city of Niš, in the southeast Serbia.

  19. Pharmacological evaluation of Vernonia elaeagnifolia (Asteraceae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To evaluate the antihyperlipidemic efficacy and phytochemical constituents of Vernonia elaeagnifolia aqueous leaf extract. Method: Qualitative phytochemical analysis of V. elaeagnifolia leaves was performed. Thirty healthy albino rabbits were divided into six groups (n = 6). Cholesterol powder (0.5 g/kg) in 10 mL ...

  20. Pharmacological evaluation of Vernonia elaeagnifolia (Asteraceae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Method: Qualitative phytochemical analysis of V. elaeagnifolia leaves was performed. Thirty healthy albino rabbits were divided into six ... was administered at 250 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg per oral. Lipid profile, hepatic enzymes and oxidative ... from local market of Faisalabad, Pakistan. The rabbits were kept in iron cages at ...

  1. Sesquiterpenoids of Senecio bonariensis Hook. & Arn., Asteraceae

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Chana de Medeiros da; Bolzan, Aline Abati; Mallmann, Carlos Augusto; Pozzatti, Patrícia; Alves, Sydney Hartz; Heinzmann, Berta Maria

    2010-01-01

    From the leaves of Senecio bonariensis Hook. & Arn. three sesquiterpenoids were isolated. β-caryophyllene (1), β-caryophyllene oxide (2) and germacrene D (3) were characterized by GC-EI-MS, IR, ¹H and 13C-NMR data. Their ecological and chemotaxonomical significance for the genus Senecio are discussed, as well as the biosynthetic correlation between the isolated substances. The antimicrobial activity of substances 1 and 2 were evaluated by the microdilution method against bacterial and fungal ...

  2. ( Asteraceae ) methanol extracts against Helicobacter pylori

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methanol vehicle did not affect H. pylori growth. Conclusion: The observed antibacterial effect of G. glutinosum extracts may be of benefit as an adjuvant treatment of diseases caused by H. pylori. Key words: Gymnosperma glutinosum, Helicobacter pylori, methanol extract, minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC).

  3. Hieracium glabrescens (Asteraceae Rediscovered in the Carpathians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szeląg Zbigniew

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of Hieracium glabrescens (F. W. Schultz Murr in the Carpathians is confirmed after over a century by a new locality from the Apuseni Mountains in Romania. This locality, very significant from the phytogeographical point of view, is disjoined ca 500 km from the nearest Balkan localities of the species. The origin of H. glabrescens in the Apuseni Mountains is briefly discussed.

  4. Sesquiterpenoids of Senecio bonariensis Hook. & Arn., Asteraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chana de Medeiros da Silva

    Full Text Available From the leaves of Senecio bonariensis Hook. & Arn. three sesquiterpenoids were isolated. β-caryophyllene (1, β-caryophyllene oxide (2 and germacrene D (3 were characterized by GC-EI-MS, IR, ¹H and 13C-NMR data. Their ecological and chemotaxonomical significance for the genus Senecio are discussed, as well as the biosynthetic correlation between the isolated substances. The antimicrobial activity of substances 1 and 2 were evaluated by the microdilution method against bacterial and fungal strains. Both compounds did not inhibit the microorganism growth at the tested concentrations.

  5. (Asteraceae) Fraction against Human Cancer Cell Lines

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the anti-proliferative and apoptotic activity of crude and dichloromethane fraction of A. sieberi against seven cancer cell lines (Colo20, HCT116, DLD, MCF7, Jurkat, HepG2 and L929). Methods: A. sieberi was extracted with methanol and further purification was carried out using liquidliquid extraction ...

  6. IAPT/IOPB chromosome data 25 - Asteraceae

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krahulcová, Anna

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 66, č. 5 (2017), s. 1249-1249 ISSN 0040-0262 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : chromosome numbers * DNA ploidy level * anginosperms Subject RIV: EF - Botanics OBOR OECD: Plant sciences, botany Impact factor: 2.447, year: 2016

  7. Morphometric study of Euchiton (Gnaphalieae: Asteraceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flann, C.M.

    2010-01-01

    A morphometric study was undertaken to survey taxa in the genus Euchiton Cass., distributed across Australia, New Zealand and South-east Asia. Phenetic analyses of herbarium specimens showed several taxa to be well delimited, including E. brassii (Mattf.) Anderb., E. breviscapus (Mattf.) Anderb., E.

  8. Chemical constituents of Vernonia scorpioides (Lam) Pers. (Asteraceae); Constituintes quimicos de Vernonia scorpioides (Lam) Pers. (Asteraceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machado, Adalva Lopes; Aragao, Fabiana Martins; Bandeira, Paulo N.; Santos, Helcio Silva dos; Albuquerque, Maria Rose Jane R., E-mail: rjane_7@hotmail.com [Universidade Estadual Vale do Acarau, Sobral, CE (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Exatas e Tecnologia. Coordenaco de Quimica; Pessoa, Otilia Deusdenia L.; Silveira, Edilberto R. [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFCE), Fortaleza (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias. Departamento de Quimica Organica e Inorganica; Nunes, Edson Paula [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFCE), Fortaleza (Brazil). Departamento de Biologia; Braz-Filho, Raimundo [Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro (UFRRJ), Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ (Brazil). Departamento de Quimica

    2013-09-01

    The chemical investigation of hexane and ethanol extracts from the aerial parts of Vernonia scorpioides resulted in the isolation and characterization of a new polyacetylene lactone, rel-4-dihydro-4{beta}-hydroxy-5{alpha}-octa-2,4,6-triynyl-furan-2-(5H)-one, along with the new ethyl 3,4-dihydroxy-6,8,10-triynyldodecanoate, and seven known compounds: taraxasteryl acetate, lupeyl acetate, lupeol, lupenone, {beta}-sitosterol, stigmasterol and luteolin. The structure of all compounds was determined by spectrometric techniques (HR-ESI-MS, {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C NMR and IV) and comparison with published spectral data. (author)

  9. Mikania glomerata Spreng. e M. laevigata Sch. Bip. ex Baker, Asteraceae: estudos agronômicos, genéticos, morfoanatômicos, químicos, farmacológicos, toxicológicos e uso nos programas de fitoterapia do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João C. Gasparetto

    Full Text Available No Brasil as espécies de Mikania glomerata Spreng. e M. laevigata Sch. Bip. ex Baker, Asteraceae, popularmente conhecidas como guaco, são amplamente utilizadas com evidências pré-clínicas para o tratamento de doenças onde estejam envolvidas suas ações broncodilatadoras, antialérgicas, antiasmáticas, anti-inflamatórias, antiulcerogênicas e relaxantes da musculatura lisa. Em virtude das propriedades terapêuticas atribuídas as essas espécies, ambas foram oficializadas na farmacopéia brasileira, e por serem bastante semelhantes, dificilmente são diferenciadas. Com o objetivo de contribuir com novas pesquisas, a presente revisão descreve, de forma sistematizada, sobre os aspectos farmacológicos, toxicológicos, químicos, agronômicos, morfoanatômicos, genéticos e o uso nos programas de fitoterapia do Brasil destas espécies. As principais diferenças e semelhanças entre as duas espécies são evidenciadas através da comparação das informações baseadas na literatura específica.

  10. Fate in Soil of Flavonoids Released from White Clover (Trifolium repens L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, Sandra C. K.; Pedersen, Hans A.; Spliid, Niels H.

    2012-01-01

    flavonoid aglycones were formononetin, medicarpin, and kaempferol. Soil-incorporated white clover plants generated high concentrations of the glycosides kaempferol-Rha-Xyl-Gal and quercetin-Xyl-Gal. Substantial amounts of kaempferol persisted in the soil for days while the other compounds were degraded...

  11. Nieuwe vindplaatsen van Lycopodium annotinum, L. selago en Goodyera repens en hun standplaats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barkman, J.J.

    1958-01-01

    In de 1400 ha. grote Staatsbossen ten O. van Dwingeloo was reeds geruime tijd een vindplaats van Lycopodium annotinum bekend en wel in het meest oostelijke deel, vlak bij Spier. Onlangs deelde de boswachter Fickweiler mij mee, dat er een tweede groeiplaats in deze bossen zou zijn en wel ten Z.O. van

  12. Isolation and Identification of Vesicular-Arbuscular Mycorrhiza-Stimulatory Compounds from Clover (Trifolium repens) Roots

    OpenAIRE

    Nair, Muraleedharan G.; Safir, Gene R.; Siqueira, Jose O.

    1991-01-01

    Two isoflavonoids isolated from clover roots grown under phosphate stress were characterized as formononetin (7-hydroxy,4′-methoxy isoflavone) and biochanin A (5,7-dihydroxy,4′-methoxy isoflavone). At 5 ppm, these compounds stimulated hyphal growth in vitro and root colonization of an undescribed vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhiza, a Glomus sp. (INVAM-112). The permethylated products of the two compounds were inactive. These findings suggest that the isoflavonoids studied may act as signal molec...

  13. Stress-induced memory alters growth of clonal offspring of white clover (Trifolium repens)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    González, Alejandra Pilar Rendina; Chrtek, Jindřich; Dobrev, Petre; Dumalasová, Veronika; Fehrer, Judith; Mráz, Patrik; Latzel, Vít

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 103, č. 9 (2016), s. 1567-1574 ISSN 0002-9122 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-06802S Institutional support: RVO:67985939 ; RVO:61389030 Keywords : asexual reproduction * DNA methylation * epigenetic variation Subject RIV: EF - Botanics; EF - Botanics (UEB-Q) Impact factor: 3.050, year: 2016

  14. Rapid evolution of an adaptive cyanogenesis cline in introduced North American white clover (Trifolium repens L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kooyers, Nicholas J; Olsen, Kenneth M

    2012-05-01

    White clover is polymorphic for cyanogenesis (HCN production after tissue damage), and this herbivore defence polymorphism has served as a classic model for studying adaptive variation. The cyanogenic phenotype requires two interacting biochemical components; the presence/absence of each component is controlled by a simple Mendelian gene (Ac/ac and Li/li). Climate-associated cyanogenesis clines occur in both native (Eurasian) and introduced populations worldwide, with cyanogenic plants predominating in warmer locations. Moreover, previous studies have suggested that epistatic selection may act within populations to maintain cyanogenic (AcLi) plants and acyanogenic plants that lack both components (acli plants) at the expense of plants possessing a single component (Acli and acLi plants). Here, we examine the roles of selection, gene flow and demography in the evolution of a latitudinal cyanogenesis cline in introduced North American populations. Using 1145 plants sampled across a 1650 km transect, we determine the distribution of cyanogenesis variation across the central United States and investigate whether clinal variation is adaptive or an artefact of population introduction history. We also test for the evidence of epistatic selection. We detect a clear latitudinal cline, with cyanogenesis frequencies increasing from 11% to 86% across the transect. Population structure analysis using nine microsatellite loci indicates that the cline is adaptive and not a by-product of demographic history. However, we find no evidence for epistatic selection within populations. Our results provide strong evidence for rapid adaptive evolution in these introduced populations, and they further suggest that the mechanisms maintaining adaptive variation may vary among populations of a species. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  15. Elytrigia repens population dynamics under different management schemes in organic cropping systems on coarse sand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Ilse A.; Melander, Bo; Askegaard, Margrethe

    2014-01-01

    -year crop rotations including various cash crops and grass-clover leys; two rotations running during the first two courses with the one replaced with another rotation during the last course. The rotations were combined with four combinations of the treatments; with and without animal manure (‘without...

  16. Air-propelled abrasive grit can damage the perennial weed, quackgrass, Elytrigia repens (L.) Nevski

    Science.gov (United States)

    New techniques are needed to control quackgrass in organic crops. With greater than or equal to 2 applications of abrasive air-propelled (800 kPa) corncob grit to 15 cm tall quackgrass tillers, regrowth was minimal at 5 weeks after treatment. Abrasive grits may be effective tools to help manage pere...

  17. Response to flooding intensity in Elytrigia repens, E. intermedia (Poaceae: Triticeae) and their hybrid

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mahelka, Václav

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 46, - (2006), s. 82-90 ISSN 0043-1737 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/05/0778; GA ČR GD206/03/H137; GA MZe QC1362 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : phenotypic plasticity * flooding * weed Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.705, year: 2006

  18. Rapid chromosome evolution in recently formed polyploids in Tragopogon (Asteraceae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Yoong Lim

    Full Text Available Polyploidy, frequently termed "whole genome duplication", is a major force in the evolution of many eukaryotes. Indeed, most angiosperm species have undergone at least one round of polyploidy in their evolutionary history. Despite enormous progress in our understanding of many aspects of polyploidy, we essentially have no information about the role of chromosome divergence in the establishment of young polyploid populations. Here we investigate synthetic lines and natural populations of two recently and recurrently formed allotetraploids Tragopogon mirus and T. miscellus (formed within the past 80 years to assess the role of aberrant meiosis in generating chromosomal/genomic diversity. That diversity is likely important in the formation, establishment and survival of polyploid populations and species.Applications of fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH to natural populations of T. mirus and T. miscellus suggest that chromosomal rearrangements and other chromosomal changes are common in both allotetraploids. We detected extensive chromosomal polymorphism between individuals and populations, including (i plants monosomic and trisomic for particular chromosomes (perhaps indicating compensatory trisomy, (ii intergenomic translocations and (iii variable sizes and expression patterns of individual ribosomal DNA (rDNA loci. We even observed karyotypic variation among sibling plants. Significantly, translocations, chromosome loss, and meiotic irregularities, including quadrivalent formation, were observed in synthetic (S(0 and S(1 generations polyploid lines. Our results not only provide a mechanism for chromosomal variation in natural populations, but also indicate that chromosomal changes occur rapidly following polyploidisation.These data shed new light on previous analyses of genome and transcriptome structures in de novo and establishing polyploid species. Crucially our results highlight the necessity of studying karyotypes in young (<150 years old polyploid species and synthetic polyploids that resemble natural species. The data also provide insight into the mechanisms that perturb inheritance patterns of genetic markers in synthetic polyploids and populations of young natural polyploid species.

  19. Chemical characterization of Brickellia cavanillesii (Asteraceae) using gas chromatographic methods

    OpenAIRE

    Eshiet, Etetor R; Zhu, Jinqiu; Anderson, Todd A; Smith, Ernest E

    2013-01-01

    A methanol extract of lyophilized Brickellia cavanillesii was quantitatively analyzed using gas chromatographic (GC) techniques. The chromatographic methods employed were (i) GC-flame ionization detector (GC-FID), (ii) GC-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and (iii) purge and trap GC-MS (P&T GC-MS). Thirteen compounds were identified with a quality match of 90% and above using GC-MS. The compounds were (1) Cyclohexene, 6-ethenyl-6-methyl-1-(1-methylethyl)-3-(1-methylethylidene)-, (S)-; (2) Bicylo (2....

  20. Efectos embriotóxicos de Picrosia longifolia Don (Asteraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Benavides

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Se ha evaluado los probables efectos tóxicos del extracto acuoso de Picrosia longifolia Don “Achicoria” sobre el desarrollo de embriones preimplantacionales de ratón. Extracto acuoso de P. longifolia al 20%, 10% y 0% fue suministrado a ratonas preñadas hasta las 86 horas postcópula (hpc. Al evaluar el estadio embrionario se encontró que el extracto acuoso de P. longifolia al 10% y 20% causó retraso en el desarrollo embrionario. También se observó una disminución en la viabilidad embrionaria en los grupos tratados. Tanto la disminución de viabilidad como el retraso en el desarrollo se produjo en una forma dosis dependiente.

  1. Cytotype distribution and phylogeography of Hieracium intybaceum (Asteraceae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zahradníček, Jaroslav; Chrtek, Jindřich

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 179, č. 3 (2015), s. 487-498 ISSN 0024-4074 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP506/10/1363 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : AFLP * glacial refugia * geographical parthenogenesis Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 2.523, year: 2015

  2. Flavonoids and coumarins from Hieracium pilosella L. (Asteraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadeusz Krzaczek

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Typical chromatographic methods were successfully applied to isolate nine flavonoid compounds and two coumarin glycosides from the inflorescences and the herb of Hieracium pilosella L. Repeated column chromatography, occasionally paper chromatography and recrystallization made the separation of three flavonoid aglycones and six glycosides - possible. Coumarin glycosides were isolated by preparative thin layer chromatography. Subsequent UV, NMR and MS analyses have led to identification of the following flavonoid derivatives: known for the species - apigenin, luteolin, luteolin 7-O- ß-glucopyranoside, luteolin 4’-O-ß-glucopyranoside, isoetin 7-O-ß- -glucopyranoside, isoetin 4’-O-ß-glucuronide and new for the species – kaempferol 3-methyl ether and apigenin 7-O-ß-glucopyranoside. Third isoetin glycoside contained two different sugar moieties: xylose and glucose, probably attached to the hydroxyl groups at C-4’ or C-4’ and C-2’(or 5’ of an aglycone. Umbelliferone 7-O-ß-glucopyranoside (skimmin and new for the genus Hieracium esculetin 7-O-ß-glucopyranoside (cichoriin were determined by NMR and MS methods.

  3. An updated distribution of Solidago × niederederi (Asteraceae in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pliszko Artur

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an updated map of the distribution of Solidago ×niederederi, a natural hybrid between S. canadensis and S. virgaurea, in Poland is presented using the ATPOL cartogram method. A compiled list of 55 localities of the hybrid within 40 cartogram units (10-km squares is provided and its negative impact on S. virgaurea is highlighted.

  4. Phylogenetic analysis of Artemisia L. (Asteraceae) based on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2009-12-01

    Dec 1, 2009 ... It seems that the pollen mor- phology of Artemisia has remained unchanged through- out its documented history, as indicated by morphological comparisons between fossils and modern pollen grains. (Wang, 2004). Wang (2004) also demonstrate that. Artemisia type pollen with short spinules evolved from.

  5. EPIDERMAL CHARACTERS OF BACCHARIS (ASTERACEAE SPECIES USED IN TRADITIONAL MEDICINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FREIRE SUSANA E.

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available A morphological study of 38 species of Baccharis used in traditional medicinewas carried out to provide some epidermal characters that will contribute to theknowledge of the genus. The present study revealed: 1 seven different types oftrichomes: conical, aseptate fl agellate, fi liform fl agellate, 1-armed, 2-4-armed,bulbiferous fl agellate, and glandular biseriate; 2 that 28 of the total of 38 specieshave trichomes in tufts; 3 six different types of stomata: anomocytic, anisocytic,cyclocytic, actinocytic, tetracytic, and staurocytic; 4 that some trichome types,such as 2-4-armed (B. dracunculifolia and aseptate fl agellate branched (B. trinervis,show a high diagnostic value; 5 that the stomata types can be used to differentiatespecies with similar trichomes type (e.g. B. trimera and B. articulata.Illustrations of the studied characters are provided.

  6. Mycorrhizal colonization of Palafoxia feayi (Asteraceae) in a pyrogenic ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, Anna O; Segraves, Kari A

    2013-04-01

    Although a number of factors have predictable effects on mycorrhizal colonization, determining generalized patterns for some variables have remained elusive. In particular, fire has been identified as a major event that may influence plant-mycorrhiza interactions, yet efforts to date have yielded contradictory results. Here, we assess the impact of fire on mycorrhizal colonization in Palafoxia feayi, a plant commonly found in the fireswept, nutrient-poor scrub community of central Florida. We determined soil nutrient conditions and percent colonization patterns for plants growing in replicate plots that were burned 1 to 15 years previously. The results showed a negative relationship between mycorrhizal colonization and time since fire, but there was no effect of fire return interval (lapsed time between successive fires). Soil nutrient analyses corroborated previous studies and showed no change in soil nutrients following fire. In contrast to previous studies of mycorrhizal colonization in Florida scrub, we conclude that fire can affect arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi colonization and we speculate that this is mediated by light availability.

  7. nature of ergastic substances in some nigerian asteraceae 160

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    morphological characters e.g. capitula, highly reduced and modified florets, replacement of calyx by pappus, five epipetalous syngenecious anthers; bicarpellary condition; syncarpous inferior and unilocular ovary with single basal anatropus ovule, fruits as a rule are achenes (seeds). Seeds are the primary storage organs ...

  8. Genetic diversity and evolution in Lactuca L. (Asteraceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wei, Z.

    2016-01-01

    Cultivated lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) is an important leafy vegetable worldwide. However, the phylogenetic relationships between domesticated lettuce and its wild relatives are still not clear. In this thesis, I focus on the phylogenetic relationships within Lactuca L., including an analysis of the

  9. A new species of Camchaya (Asteraceae, Vernonieae from Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukhonthip Bunwong

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Camchaya thailandica Bunwong, Chantar. & S.C.Keeley, sp. nov. from Phu Phrabat Historical Park, Udon Thani, Thailand is described as a new species. Plant of this new species are similar to C. gracilis (Gagnep. Bunwong & H.Rob. but differ inovate phyllaries without margin spines, 10-ribbed achenes, and broadly ovate leaves. This species is a rare endemic known only from the type collection and probably confined to open areas of sandstone hills in Udon Thani province.

  10. Genetic diversity and evolution in Lactuca L. (Asteraceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wei, Z.

    2016-01-01

    Cultivated lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) is an important leafy vegetable worldwide. However, the phylogenetic relationships between domesticated lettuce and its wild relatives are still not clear. In this thesis, I focus on the phylogenetic relationships within Lactuca L.,

  11. Biological flora of Central Europe: Aster amellus L. (Asteraceae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Münzbergová, Zuzana; Raabová, J.; Castro, S.; Pánková, H.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 2 (2011), s. 151-162 ISSN 1433-8319 R&D Projects: GA ČR GPP506/10/P188; GA ČR GA526/09/0549 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : genetics * polyploids * species biology Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 3.208, year: 2011

  12. Karyotypic analysis of different populations of Carthamus tinctorius Linnaeus (Asteraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjali Malik

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Somatic chromosomes of Carthamus tinctorius L. were analysed. A karyotype formula for each studied population was formulated. Although all samples have 2n = 24, they could be differentiated by their karyotype formula and quantitative parameters of the karyotypes. The chromosomes were assorted into different categories on the basis of arms ratio following Levan et al. (1964. These were further subdivided into different types, on the basis of total length of the chromosomes. Based on an evolutionary point of view, variation in total chromosome length without major changes in the karyotype formula suggests that changes in the amounts of genomic DNA are proportional to the relative length of an each chromosome arm. All samples possessed symmetrical or slightly asymmetrical karyotype. The samples belonging to the same species were showing intra-specific or inter-specific chromosome polymorphism. This finding may provide useful information for Carthamus evolutionary, genetic, and breeding studies.

  13. Antioxidant properties of Dichrocephala integrifolia (Asteraceae) in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The animals received daily; distilled water (p.o) for the distilled water and the negative control groups, one of the four doses of the decoction of the plant (35, 87.5, 175 or ... Monosodium glutamate (2.5 g/kg ip) was injected daily to animals except those of the normal control group all the seven days of the experimentation.

  14. The Rare Perennial Balduina atropurpurea (Asteraceae) at Fort Stewart, Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-06-01

    among individuals within a population. The results of the Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis indicated that the five B. atropurpurea...also observed by beetles, caterpillars, and grasshoppers . A possible fungus was also observed occasionally on the disk flowers of some individuals...Level 2 Candidate Species DA U.S. Department of the Army DDA Descriptive Discriminant Analysis DNA Deoxyribonucleic Acid DoD U.S. Department of

  15. Wood anatomy of Argyroxiphium (Asteraceae): adaptive radiation and ecological correlations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlquist, S.

    1997-01-01

    Wood anatomy shows close correlation with ecology: A. kauense, A. sandwicense (stem), and A. virescens, which occur in dry localities, show xeromorphic wood patterns. The most mesomorphic woods are those of the bog species A. grayanum and root wood of A. sandwicense. The wood of A. caliginis is xeromorphic, despite the bog habitat of the species, a fact explainable if A. caliginis is a recent entrant into the bog habitat Libriform wall thickness appears correlated with habit. Quantitative features of stem woods of Argyroxiphium are comparable to woods ranging from desert to moist montane forest areas in California. The similarities to woods from each Californian habitat are correlative to the relative moisture availability of the respective Hawaiian habitats of the Argyroxiphium species. (author)

  16. 8 A Bioactive Triterpene from Laggera pterodonta (Asteraceae) (DC ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    computer

    The eluents were mixtures of n-hexane and ethyl acetate, followed by methanol in increasing polarity. Eluates were collected in volumes of 150-200 ml and a total of 36 fractions were collected. The fractions were labelled LPE1 to LPE36. The fraction LPE7 was re-fractionated using mixtures of hexane and ethyl acetate on a.

  17. Tithonia (Asteraceae) in Nigeria | Olorode | Ife Journal of Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    T. rotundifolia is propagated by seeds while T. diversifolia reproduces exclusively vegetatively. The two taxa are morphologically distinct as they differ with respect to longevity, the size of their capitula and ray florets, the structures of their peduncles, and the shape of their phyllaries; the outermost series of phyllaries are also ...

  18. Burial increases seed longevity of two Artemisia tridentata (Asteraceae) subspecies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijayratne, Upekala C; Pyke, David A

    2012-03-01

    Seed longevity and persistence in soil seed banks may be especially important for population persistence in ecosystems where opportunities for seedling establishment and disturbance are unpredictable. The fire regime, an important driver of population dynamics in sagebrush steppe ecosystems, has been altered by exotic annual grass invasion. Soil seed banks may play an active role in postfire recovery of the foundation shrub Artemisia tridentata, yet conditions under which seeds persist are largely unknown. We investigated seed longevity of two Artemisia tridentata subspecies in situ by retrieving seed bags that were placed at varying depths over a 2 yr period. We also sampled naturally dispersed seeds in litter and soil immediately after seed dispersal and before flowering in subsequent seasons to estimate seed persistence. After 24 mo, seeds buried at least 3 cm below the soil surface retained 30-40% viability whereas viability of seeds on the surface and under litter declined to 0 and seeds in the seed bank was highly heterogeneous both spatially and temporally, and attrition varied significantly by region. Our study suggests that Artemisia tridentata has the potential to form a short-term soil seed bank that persists longer than has been commonly assumed, and that burial is necessary for seed longevity. Use of seeding techniques that promote burial of some seeds to aid in formation of a soil seed bank may increase restoration potential.

  19. Acanthospermum hispidum DC (Asteraceae: perspectives for a phytotherapeutic product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evani de L. Araújo

    Full Text Available The "Espinho-de-cigano" plant (Acanthospermum hispidum DC is used throughout northeastern (NE Brazil as a folk medicine for asthma. Although little is actually known about the effectiveness and safety of this plant extract product, it is possible to find numerous medicines prepared from it in public health services or in stores selling natural products. This study aimed to undertake a literature review relative to Acanthospermum hispidum covering the period between 1926-2006 within the areas of ethnobotany, phytochemistry and pharmacology. The objective was to contribute to a better knowledge of this species and its uses, as well as to aid in improving its performance as a natural medicine. The species is easily identifiable and grows abundantly during the rainy seasons in NE Brazil; is amenable to cultivation without lose of its phytochemical profile, and toxicological studies have showed its safety as a medicine (although more studies will be required in that direction. As such, the compilation of the accumulated knowledge concerning this species will aid in evaluating its pharmacological value, guaranteeing quality control of the final product, and in preparing recommendations for usages and dosages that offer both safety and efficiency to the user.

  20. Ethnobotany, chemistry, and biological activities of the genus Tithonia (Asteraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chagas-Paula, Daniela A; Oliveira, Rejane B; Rocha, Bruno A; Da Costa, Fernando B

    2012-02-01

    The genus Tithonia is an important source of diverse natural products, particularly sesquiterpene lactones, diterpenes, and flavonoids. The collected information in this review attempts to summarize the recent developments in the ethnobotany, biological activities, and secondary metabolite chemistry of this genus. More than 100 structures of natural products from Tithonia are reported in this review. The species that has been most investigated in this genus is T. diversifolia, from which ca. 150 compounds were isolated. Biological studies are described to evaluate the anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antimalarial, antiviral, antidiabetic, antidiarrhoeal, antimicrobial, antispasmodic, vasorelaxant, cancer-chemopreventive, cytotoxic, toxicological, bioinsecticide, and repellent activities. A few of these studies have been carried out with isolated compounds from Tithonia species, but the majority has been conducted with different extracts. The relationship between the biological activity and the toxicity of compounds isolated from the plants of this genus as well as T. diversifolia extracts still remains unclear, and mechanisms of action remain to be determined. Copyright © 2012 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  1. TWO NEWS SPECIES OF BACCHARIS (ASTERACEAE: ASTEREAE FROM BAHIA, BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Paz Deble

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available En la revisión del género Baccharis para Brasil, fueron reconocidas dos especies nuevas:Baccharis alleluia y Baccharis orbiculata. Estas especies son descriptas, ilustradas y diferenciadasde los taxones afines

  2. nature of ergastic substances in some nigerian asteraceae 160

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    Bayero Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences, 5(2): 160 – 167. Received: ... Department of Plant Biology and Biotechnology, University of Benin, PMB 1154, Benin City ... Test for Starch. Thin hard sections of the seeds were cut with sharp razor blades and placed on a slide. Few drops of. Lugol's iodine solution were added.

  3. Larvicidal and ovicidal properties of some plants from asteraceae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The hatch rates were assessed at 48 hours post-treatment while the percentage mortality of 2nd instar larvae was determined 24 hours post treatment. Spilanthes filicaulis exerted 100% mortality at 1000, 500 and 250 mg/L while Bidens pilosa and Acanthospermum hispidum exerted 100% mortality at 1000 and 500mg/L.

  4. Substantial Genome Size Variation in Taraxacum stenocephalum (Asteraceae, Lactuceae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Trávníček, Pavel; Kirschner, Jan; Chudáčková, H.; Rooks, Frederick; Štěpánek, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 48, č. 2 (2013), s. 271-284 ISSN 1211-9520 R&D Projects: GA ČR GD206/08/H049; GA ČR GA206/05/0970 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : flow cytometry * genome size * Taraxacum stenocephalum Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.612, year: 2013

  5. MICROMORPHOLOGY OF ACHENES OF THE ARTEMISIA SPECIES (ANTHEMIDEAE – ASTERACEAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Boyko

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The achene surface structures (SEM of 58 species of Artemisia and the species: Neopallasia pectinata, Ajania pallasiana, Filifolium sibiricum, Leucanthemum vulgare, Matricaria recutita, M. matricarioides, as well as two species of Chrysanthemum (C. chanetii, C. coronarium are provided. The achene surface sculpture in Artemisia is determined by the complexes of mucilage containing cells located in the exocarp. Significant variation of pericarp surface sculpture was revealed in the species with wide distribution area – A. arctica and A. furcata. It is determined that Artemisia is rather uniform in its achene surface structure. None of the distinguished types of the achene surface structure is characteristic to any particular section or subgenus. Mucilage containing cell complexes are not a character of the genus, since similar cell complexes are typical for some other taxa of the tribe Anthemideae as well. However, the details of the sculpture discovered by means of SEM are good additional characters for identification of some species or particular groups of species.

  6. Rapid chromosome evolution in recently formed polyploids in Tragopogon (Asteraceae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lim, K.Y.; Soltis, D.E.; Soltis, P.S.; Tate, J.; Matyášek, Roman; Šrubařová, Hana; Kovařík, Aleš; Pires, J.Ch.; Xiong, Z.; Leitch, A.R.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 3, č. 10 (2008), s. 1-13 E-ISSN 1932-6203 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA521/07/0116 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040507; CEZ:AV0Z50040702 Keywords : allopolyploidy * chromosomes * evolution Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics

  7. Trichomes in the tribe Lactuceae (Asteraceae) - taxonomic implications

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krak, Karol; Mráz, P.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 63, č. 5 (2008), s. 616-630 ISSN 0006-3088 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : Compositae * micromorphological characters * systematics Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 0.406, year: 2008

  8. Intoxicação por Baccharidastrum triplinervium (Asteraceae em bovinos Poisoning in cattle by Baccharidastrum triplinervium (Asteraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingeborg Maria Langohr

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available É descrito um surto de intoxicação por Baccharidastrum triplinervium em bovinos do Paraná, Brasil. A doença ocorreu no início do verão, durante um período de forte estiagem. Os sinais clínicos iniciaram dois dias após a introdução de 50 vacas e 8 novilhas em uma pastagem com alta densidade de B. triplinervium, que apresentava sinais de ter sido consumido pelos animais. Adoeceram 15 bovinos (9 vacas e 6 novilhas. Desses, morreram duas vacas e quatro novilhas após um curso clínico de 12 a 60 horas. O quadro clínico incluía prostração, atonia ruminal, timpanismo moderado, desidratação acentuada, diarréia e anorexia. Os animais ficavam inquietos, se deitavam e se levantavam constantemente, permanecendo cada vez mais tempo deitados em decúbito esternal. Uma vez nessa posição, manifestavam gemidos e mantinham a cabeça estendida ou voltada para o flanco. Adicionalmente, observou-se nas vacas queda abrupta da produção de leite. Os demais bovinos afetados apresentaram sinais clínicos mais leves, voltando a ingerir um pouco de alimento já no dia seguinte ao aparecimento dos sinais clínicos; a produção de leite voltou aos níveis normais uma semana após. As principais lesões macroscópicas, em dois animais necropsiados, foram observadas principalmente nos compartimentos gástricos. Consistiam de edema da parede do rúmen, e de avermelhamento difuso da mucosa do rúmen, do retículo, do abomaso e de algumas folhas do omaso. Histologicamente, as lesões mais importantes incluíam degeneração balonosa e necrose multifocal com infiltrado neutrofílico discreto no epitélio de revestimento do rúmen. O diagnóstico foi baseado em dados epidemiológicos e na reprodução experimental com as partes aéreas superiores (20 e 30g/kg de B. triplinervium em três bovinos. A análise química de material seco de B. triplinervium, colhido no local do surto, foi negativa para tricotecenos macrocíclicos.An outbreak of poisoning by Baccharidastrum triplinervium in cattle from Paraná, Brazil, is described. The disease occurred during a severe drought in early summer. The onset of clinical signs was two days after 50 cows and 8 heifers had been introduced into a pasture with high density of B. triplinervium that showed signs of having been consumed by the animals. Fifteen animals (9 cows and 6 heifers got sick. Of these 15, two cows and four heifers died after a clinical course of 12-60 hours. Clinical signs included depression, ruminal atony, moderate bloat, marked dehydration, mild diarrhea and anorexia. The animals were restless, laying down and getting up constantly, remaining progressively longer periods in sternal recumbency. Once in that position, the animals had an extended head or the head turned to one of the sides of the body, and were groaning. Additionally, the cows had an abrupt fall in milk yield. The remaining affected cattle presented milder clinical signs and were partially back to their feed on the day following the onset of the clinical signs. The milk production was back to normal values within one week. The main gross lesions observed in two necropsied cows were in the forestomachs and abomasum, consisting of edema of the ruminal wall, as well as of diffuse reddening of the mucosae of the rumen, reticulum, abomasum and of some of the omasal folds. The main histological lesions included multifocal ballooning degeneration and necrosis of the lining epithelium of the rumen, associated with neutrophilic infiltrate. The diagnosis was based on the epidemiological data and on the experimental reproduction of the disease by force-feeding 3 bovine with the aeral fresh parts (20 and 30g/kg of B. triplinervium. Chemical analysis of dried material from B. triplinervium harvested at the site of the outbreak was negative for macrocyclic trichothecenes.

  9. Notas Taxonómicas en Senecioneae (Asteraceae de Argentina Taxonomic notes on Senecioneae (Asteraceae from Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Ariza Espinar

    Full Text Available Durante el estudio de la tribu Senecioneae para el centro de Argentina, surgieron algunas novedades debidas al análisis de diversos «tipos nomenclaturales». Ellas son: 1.- Senecio pinnatus var. tenuisectus Griseb.: fue basado en 4 ejemplares, que pertenecen, respectivamente, uno a Senecio pinnatus Poir., dos a S. pampeanus Cabrera y el restante a S. pampeanus fo. serratus Cabrera; 2 a .- Senecio gilliesianus Hieron. fue nominado a la vista de un ejemplar de Senecio pampeanus Cabrera; 2b.- Senecio gilliesianus var. glaberrima Hieron. pertenece a Senecio pinnatus Poir.; 3.- Senecio pampeanus fo. serratus Cabrera, es relegado a la sinonimia de S. pampeanus fo . pampeanus ; 4.- Se acepta a Werneria denticulata Blake, sinónimo de W. pygmaea Gill. ex Hook. et Arn. como fuera sugerido, en su momento, por Rockhausen (1939, y se considera que el material argentino determinado bajo aquel nombre pertenece, en realidad, a W. cochlearis Griseb.Some novelties have arisen through the analysis of the nomenclatural types during the study of tribe Senecioneae from Central Argentina. They are: 1.- Senecio pinnatus var. tenuisectus Griseb.: it was based upon 4 specimens which belong respectively, one to Senecio pinnatus Poir., two to S. pampeanus Cabrera, and the remaining to S. pampeanus fo. serratus Cabrera; 2 a .- Senecio gilliesianus Hieron. was based upon a specimen belonging to Senecio pampeanus Cabrera; 2b.- Senecio gilliesianus var. glaberrima Hieron. is a synonym of Senecio pinnatus Poir.; 3.- Senecio pampeanus fo. serratus Cabrera, is a synonym of S. pampeanus fo . pampeanus ; 4.- Werneria denticulata Blake is accepted as a synonym of W. pygmaea Gill. ex Hook. et Arn. as it was suggested by Rockhausen (1939, while the argentinean material identified under W. denticulata belongs to W. cochlearis Griseb.

  10. Reproductive biology in species of Bidens L. (Asteraceae Biologia reprodutiva em espécies de Bidens L. (Asteraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Tereza Grombone-Guaratini

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Studies about reproductive biology of weed species can have implications on the establishment of controlling practices that minimize the effects of these weed populations on agricultural fields. The pollination biology of Bidens alba (L. DC., B. pilosa L., and Bidens subalternans DC., was studied at different sites and climatic seasons. Bidens pilosa and B. subalternans are widely distributed in agricultural areas, in disturbed habitats, and along road sides. Bidens alba occur only along the coast. The three species are self-compatible and non agamospermous. The composition of the pollinator community changes during the year and between sites. Hymenopterans and lepidopterans are the most frequent visitors to Bidens species in both areas studied. Although the species are self-compatible, the presence of pollinators may affect the levels of inbreeding. The attraction of insects by Bidens species may be benefical to agricultural crop and may also have important implications for conservation biology.Estudos de biologia reprodutiva de espécies invasoras podem ter implicações sobre o estabelecimento de práticas de controle que minimizem o efeito das populações destas espécies em áreas agrícolas. A biologia da polinização de Bidens alba (L. DC., B. pilosa L. e Bidens subalternans DC. foi estudada em diferentes locais e estações climáticas. Bidens pilosa e B. subalternans são espécies amplamente distribuídas em áreas agrícolas, em habitats perturbados e em margens de estradas. Bidens alba ocorre somente em regiões litorâneas. As três espécies são auto-compatíveis e não são agamospérmicas. A composição da comunidade de polinizadores apresenta diferenças durante o ano e entre locais. Himenópteros e lepidópteros são os visitantes mais freqüentes nas espécies de Bidens. Embora as espécies sejam auto compatíveis, a presença de polinizadores pode afetar os níveis de endocruzamento. A atração de insetos por espécies de Bidens pode beneficiar as culturas agrícolas e apresentar importantes implicações para a biologia da conservação.

  11. Palynotaxonomy of Brazilian Viguiera (Asteraceae Species Palinotaxonomia de espécies brasileiras de Viguiera (Asteraceae-Heliantheae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mara Angelina Galvão Magenta

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available With the aim of improving inter-specific delimitation of the genus Viguiera Kunth in Brazil, a palynological analysis was undertaken with 27 taxa, representing around 77% of all occurring species. Samples were obtained from herbarium specimens and the pollen grains were analyzed through light and scanning electron microscopy. Characteristics, including the shape of the pollen grains, polar and equatorial diameter, aperture measurements, surface ornamentation and exine thickness, were registered and compared. The pollen grains were medium-sized (25 - 50 mm, isopolar and oblate spheroidal (prolate spheroidal in V. aspilioides Baker. The observed values corroborated the synonymity of some species and also highlighted certain micro-morphological differences, such as polar diameter and the dimensions of the colpus and endoaperture, thus confirming the groups of species delimitation obtained by morphologic and phylogenetic analyses.Com a finalidade de obter subsídios para a delimitação interespecífica do gênero Viguiera Kunth no Brasil, foi efetuado um estudo palinológico com 27 táxons, representando cerca de 77% das espécies ocorrentes. As amostras foram obtidas de material herborizado e o grão de pólen foi analisado sob microscopias óptica e eletrônica de varredura. Os grãos de pólen foram caracterizados quanto à forma, às dimensões e tipo da abertura, à ornamentação da superfície e à espessura da exina. Os grãos de pólen são médios (25 - 50mm, isopolares, oblato-esferoidais (prolato-esferoidais em V. aspilioides Baker, tricolporados, endoabertura lalongada, sexina espinhosa. Os valores obtidos corroboraram a sinonimização de algumas espécies e diferenças micro-morfológicas, tais como os valores do diâmetro polar, as dimensões do colpo e da endoabertura confirmaram algumas delimitações de grupos de espécies obtidas em análises filogenéticas de morfologia.

  12. An assessment of the cultural capabilities of Trifolium repens L. (white clover) and Onobrychis viciifolia Scop. (sainfoin) mesophyll protoplasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahuja, P S; Lu, D Y; Cocking, E C; Davey, M R

    1983-10-01

    Mesophyll protoplasts isolated from white clover and sainfoin divided to form callus under similar cultural conditions. White clover protoplasts showed varietal differences in their plating efficiency. Sainfoin tissues regenerated readily by forming shoots, but induction of morphogenesis in white clover was only achieved after testing several media and culture sequences. Many of the white clover shoots were abnormal in being fused together to form green plate-like structures, but the latter still developed into plantlets while attached to the parent callus. The ability to isolate, culture, and regenerate mesophyll protoplasts of these two forage legumes is discussed in relation to future attempts to produce somatic hybrids between high tannin containing bloat-safe sainfoin and other major forage legumes such as alfalfa, white clover, and red clover.

  13. Combining mechanical rhizome removal and cover crops for Elytrigia repens control in organic barley systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melander, B; Nørremark, M; Kristensen, E F

    2013-01-01

    Mechanical weed control of perennial weeds in organic crop production over long post-harvest periods is incompatible with the establishment of cover crops for improving soil quality and preventing nutrient leaching. We suggest a new concept that comprises uprooting and immediate removal of vegeta...

  14. Biomasa aérea, cantidad y calidad de semilla de Melinis repens (Willd. Zizka, en Aguascalientes, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abraham Díaz Romo

    2012-01-01

    manualmente forraje y semilla. Se determinó la producción de forraje, producción de espiguillas y número de semillas por metro cuadrado. Se valoró la viabilidad, germinación y latencia de la semilla a diferentes tiempos después de la cosecha. La producción de biomasa aérea difirió (P<0.05 con promedios de 2913 a 1736 kg MS ha-1 en 2008 y de 1488 a 707 kg MS ha-1 en 2009 (menos lluvioso, con mayor producción en Calvillo. La producción de semillas varió (P<0.05 de 1,239 a 2,401 semillas m2 en 2008 y de 1,452 a 3,906 semillas m2 en 2009. La viabilidad en la semilla fue de 32 a 54 %, sin diferencias significativas. Calvillo presentó mayor germinación (25 %, la cual fue aumentando y a los 18 meses casi toda la semilla viable germinó (43 %. En El Llano la germinación fue menor (2 % debido a la latencia, con poco aumento aún después de 24 meses, llegando a 15 %. Este pasto presentó niveles altos de producción de biomasa aérea y semilla, lo que puede favorecer su capacidad invasora, aunque también puede ser una ventaja para la conservación de suelos. La semilla presentó mayor producción y latencia en condiciones de escasez de agua.

  15. Saprobic microfungi under Lolium perenne and Trifolium repens at different fertilization intensities and elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Řezáčová, Veronika; Blum, H.; Hršelová, Hana; Gamper, H.; Gryndler, Milan

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 11, - (2005), s. 224-230 ISSN 1354-1013 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA526/00/1276; GA ČR GA526/03/0188; GA ČR GD206/03/H137 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5020903 Keywords : carbon cycle * elevated CO2 * concentration Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 4.075, year: 2005

  16. Deep Sequencing of Suppression Subtractive Hybridisation Drought and Recovery Libraries of the Non-model Crop Trifolium repens L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisaga, Maciej; Lowe, Matthew; Hegarty, Matthew; Abberton, Michael; Ravagnani, Adriana

    2017-01-01

    White clover is a short-lived perennial whose persistence is greatly affected by abiotic stresses, particularly drought. The aim of this work was to characterize its molecular response to water deficit and recovery following re-hydration to identify targets for the breeding of tolerant varieties. We created a white clover reference transcriptome of 16,193 contigs by deep sequencing (mean base coverage 387x) four Suppression Subtractive Hybridization (SSH) libraries (a forward and a reverse library for each treatment) constructed from young leaf tissue of white clover at the onset of the response to drought and recovery. Reads from individual libraries were then mapped to the reference transcriptome and processed comparing expression level data. The pipeline generated four robust sets of transcripts induced and repressed in the leaves of plants subjected to water deficit stress (6,937 and 3,142, respectively) and following re-hydration (6,695 and 4,897, respectively). Semi-quantitative polymerase chain reaction was used to verify the expression pattern of 16 genes. The differentially expressed transcripts were functionally annotated and mapped to biological processes and pathways. In agreement with similar studies in other crops, the majority of transcripts up-regulated in response to drought belonged to metabolic processes, such as amino acid, carbohydrate, and lipid metabolism, while transcripts involved in photosynthesis, such as components of the photosystem and the biosynthesis of photosynthetic pigments, were up-regulated during recovery. The data also highlighted the role of raffinose family oligosaccharides (RFOs) and the possible delayed response of the flavonoid pathways in the initial response of white clover to water withdrawal. The work presented in this paper is to our knowledge the first large scale molecular analysis of the white clover response to drought stress and re-hydration. The data generated provide a valuable genomic resource for marker discovery and ultimately for the improvement of white clover. PMID:28280499

  17. YIELD POTENTIAL AND MINERAL COMPOSITION OF WHITE CLOVER (TRIFOLIUM REPENS L.-TALL FESCUE (FESTUCA ARUNDINACEA SCHREB. MIXTURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A TEKELI

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available White clover was sown with tall fescue as tall fescue 25 %+white clover 75 %, tall fescue 50 %+white clover 50 %, tall fescue 75 %+white clover 25 %, 100% tall fescue and white clover. Plots were 2.5 x 5.0 m, arranged in a randomized block design with three replicates. Row distance 25 cm and sowing rates 10 kg ha-1 (white clover and 20 kg ha-1 (tall fescue were used. Plots were mowed about 5 cm (stubble height and then allowed to re-grow to 25-30 cm (plant height. The green fodder yield, dry matter, crude protein, crude cellulose, K/P, Ca/P, Ca/Mg, K/Mg and Ca/K ratios were determined.

  18. Genotypic and phenotypic diversity does not affect productivity and drought response in competitive stands of trifolium repens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huber, Heidrun; During, Heinjo J.; Bruin, de Fabienne Bruine; Vermeulen, Peter; Anten, Niels P.R.

    2016-01-01

    Clonal plants can form dense canopies in which plants of different genetic origin are competing for the uptake of essential resources. The competitive relationships among these clones are likely to be affected by extreme environmental conditions, such as prolonged drought spells, which are

  19. Genome size discriminates between closely related taxa Elytrigia repens and E. intermedia (Poaceae: Triticeae) and their hybrid

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mahelka, Václav; Suda, Jan; Jarolímová, Vlasta; Trávníček, Pavel; Krahulec, František

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 40, - (2005), s. 367-384 ISSN 1211-9520 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA206/05/0778; GA ČR(CZ) GD206/03/H137 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : C-value * chromosome number * hybridisation Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.033, year: 2005

  20. The role of transgenerational effects in adaptation of clonal offspring of white clover (Trifolium repens) to drought and herbivory

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    González, Alejandra Pilar Rendina; Dumalasová, Veronika; Rosenthal, J.; Skuhrovec, J.; Latzel, Vít

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 31, č. 3 (2017), s. 345-361 ISSN 0269-7653 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-06802S Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : jasmonic acid * epigenetics * plant behaviour Subject RIV: EF - Botanics OBOR OECD: Plant sciences, botany Impact factor: 1.818, year: 2016

  1. Ethnoveterinary medicines used to treat endoparasites and stomach problems in pigs and pets in British Columbia, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lans, Cheryl; Turner, Nancy; Khan, Tonya; Brauer, Gerhard

    2007-09-30

    This paper documents the medicinal plants used to treat endoparasites and stomach problems in dogs, cats and pigs in British Columbia, Canada. Ethnoveterinary data was collected over a 6-month period in 2003. The majority of the information on pets came from 2 naturopaths, 10 herbalists, 5 dog trainers, breeders and pet shop owners, 9 holistic veterinarians and 6 of 27 organic farmers. Two pig farmers joined the study in the final stages. The following plants were used as anthelmintics: Artemisia cina O. Berg and C.F. Schmidt, Artemisia vulgaris L., Artemisia annua, Calendula officinalis L., Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench (all Asteraceae), Mentha piperita L. and Salvia officinalis L. (Lamiaceae) (Allium sativum L. (Alliaceae), Cucurbita pepo L. (Cucurbitaceae), Eugenia caryophyllata Thunb (Myrtaceae), Gentiana lutea L. (Gentianaceae), Hydrastis canadensis L. (Ranunculaceae), Juglans nigra L. (Juglandaceae), Olea europaea L. (Oleaceae) and Ruta graveolens L. (Rutaceae)). Stomach problems were treated with: Achillea millefolium L. (Asteraceae), Aloe vera (L.) Burm. f. (Asphodelaceae), Elytrigia repens (L.) Desv. ex Nevski (Poaceae), Frangula purshiana (DC.) Cooper (Rhamnaceae), Juniperus communis L. (Cupressaceae), Melissa officinalis L. and M. piperita L. (Lamiaceae), Petroselinum crispum L. (Apiaceae), Plantago major L. and Plantago ovata Forssk. (Plantaginaceae) Rumex crispus L. and Rumex obtusifolius L. (Polygonaceae), Ulmus fulva Michx. (Ulmaceae) and Zingiber officinalis Roscoe (Zingiberaceae). There is insufficient information available to assess the anthelmintic efficacies of C. officinalis, Salvia officinalis, Eugenia caryophyllata and O. europaea; the other plants have mid- to high-level validity for their ethnoveterinary uses.

  2. Visitantes florales nocturnos del girasol (Helianthus annuus, Asterales: Asteraceae en la Argentina Nocturnal floral visitors of sunflower (Helianthus annuus, Asterales: Asteraceae in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan P Torretta

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available El girasol (Helianthus annuus es un cultivo oleaginoso, polinizado por Apis mellifera L. y otras abejas en distintas regiones del mundo. Sin embargo, sus flores también son visitadas por insectos de actividad nocturna. Durante tres campañas agrícolas, se determinó la diversidad de los visitantes nocturnos de capítulos de girasol, en cinco sitios de Argentina. También se estudió el comportamiento de forrajeo de los principales visitantes y la variación de la receptividad estigmática a lo largo del día, con el fin de establecer si estos visitantes contribuyen a la polinización. Al menos 67 especies o morfoespecies pertenecientes a cuatro órdenes de visitantes nocturnos fueron colectadas. El orden más rico y abundante fue Lepidoptera (44 especies o morfoespecies, cinco familias, seguido por Coleoptera (18 especies o morfoespecies, nueve familias, Orthoptera (tres morfoespecies, una familia y Blattaria (dos especies, una familia. Los lepidópteros forrajearon exclusivamente por néctar, mientras que los individuos de los demás órdenes consumieron polen y/o partes florales. El estigma se encontró receptivo durante las horas de luz, con una receptividad máxima al mediodía (12:00 - 14:00. Llamativamente, las flores del girasol son visitadas por mayor número de polillas que de abejas. Debido a que las polillas consumen néctar y potencialmente transportan polen entre flores, en un momento del día en que los estigmas se encuentran menos receptivos, es improbable que polinicen efectivamente el cultivo.Sunflower (Helianthus annuus is an oilseed crop pollinated by Apis mellifera L. and other diurnal bees in different regions of the world. However, their flowers are also visited by insects active at night. During three agricultural years, the diversity of nocturnal visitors to sunflower heads was assessed in five different sites in Argentina. The foraging behavior of the main visitors as well as the stigmatic receptivity variations along the day were also studied in order to determine whether or not these visitors contribute to pollination. At least 67 species or morpho-species belonging to four nocturnal visitor orders were recorded. The richest and most abundant order was Lepidoptera (44 species or morpho-species, five families, followed by Coleoptera (18 species or morpho-species, nine families, Orthoptera (three morpho-species, one family and Blattaria (two species, one family. Lepidopterans foraged exclusively for nectar while species in other orders consumed pollen and/or floral parts. However, stigma receptivity was greater during the day, peaking at midday (12:00 - 14:00. Unexpectedly, moth species widely outnumbered bee species as sunflower visitors. Since moths potentially transfer pollen at a time of the day when stigmas are least receptive, it is unlikely that they do effectively pollinate sunflowers.

  3. Visitantes florales diurnos del girasol (Helianthus annuus, Asterales: Asteraceae en la Argentina Diurnal floral visitors of sunflower (Helianthus annuus, Asterales: Asteraceae in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan P. Torretta

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available El girasol (Helianthus annuus L. es un importante cultivo oleaginoso en la Argentina. Durante tres campañas agrícolas, se determinaron la diversidad y la abundancia del elenco de los visitantes florales diurnos de capítulos de girasol, en ocho sitios que cubren gran parte del área cultivada en Argentina. Setenta y seis morfo-especies de visitantes florales, pertenecientes a ocho órdenes, fueron capturados sobre capítulos de este cultivo. El principal orden fue Hymenoptera, con 37 especies o morfoespecies, de las cuales 32 fueron abejas (Apoidea. Las familias de abejas más representadas fueron Apidae (13, Megachilidae (11 y Halictidae (7. La abeja doméstica (Apis mellifera L. realizó el 93% de las visitas. La composición del elenco de visitantes no mostró un patrón de variación identificable a lo largo del día, ni con respecto a la distancia al borde del cultivo, pero varió entre sitios de muestreo. Se concluye que la abeja doméstica es el principal polinizador del girasol en la Argentina, aunque varias especies nativas de abejas (Melissodes tintinnans (Holmberg, M. rufithorax Brèthes, Melissoptila tandilensis Holmberg, y Megachile spp. podrían ser consideradas como potenciales polinizadores del cultivo.Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. is an important oilseed crop in Argentina. During three agricultural years, the diversity and abundance of diurnal floral visitors of sunflower heads were determined in eight sites spanning much of this crop's cultivation area in Argentina. Seventysix morpho-species of floral visitors, belonging to eight orders, were captured on sunflower. The principal order was Hymenoptera, with 37 species or morpho-species, of which 32 were bees (Apoidea. The most represented bee families were Apidae (13, Megachilidae (11 and Halictidae (7. The domestic bee (Apis mellifera L. accounted for 93% of the visits. Floral visitor composition did not show an identifiable variation pattern either throughout the day or with respect to the distance to the edge of the crop, but varied among sites. It is concluded that the domestic bee is the main sunflower pollinator in Argentina, although several native bee species (Melissodes tintinnans (Holmberg, M. rufithorax Brèthes, Melissoptila tandilensis Holmberg, and Megachile spp. could be considered as potential crop pollinators.

  4. Bidens pilosa L. (Asteraceae: traditional use in a community of southern Brazil Bidens pilosa Linn (Asteraceae: uso tradicional em uma comunidade do Sul do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.C. Borges

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The correct use of plants for therapeutic purposes requires selection of those showing efficacy and safety based on the popular tradition and/or scientific validation. Bidens pilosa L. is a species that widely occurs in tropical regions and is known in Brazil as "picão-preto". Four agents from the Health Pastoral Service were identified in the region of Criciuma, Santa Catarina State, for their popular knowledge of Bidens pilosa. The study was conducted by means of interview which provided data concerning the knowledge of "picão preto", handling, used plant part, plant/solvent proportion, preparation methods, administration route/dosage, indication and restrictions. The pharmaceutical form, as well as the posology, was significantly variable. Analysis of the collected data showed anti-inflammatory action as the main therapeutic indication.O emprego correto de plantas para fins terapêuticos pela população requer o uso daquelas selecionadas por sua eficácia e segurança, com base na tradição popular e/ou cientificamente validadas como medicinais. Bidens pilosa L. é uma espécie que ocorre amplamente em regiões tropicais sendo conhecida no Brasil pelo nome popular "picão-preto". Quatro agentes da pastoral da Saúde foram identificadas na região de Criciúma/SC por possuírem maiores informações de cunho popular sobre Bidens pilosa. A pesquisa ocorreu por meio de entrevista, onde foram compiladas informações sobre o conhecimento do "picão-preto", manuseio, farmacógeno, proporção farmacógeno/ solvente, técnica de preparo, formas de uso/posologia, indicações e restrições de uso. A forma farmacêutica utilizada variou significativamente, assim como a posologia. A análise de informações coletadas mostra a ação antiinflamatória como principal indicação terapêutica.

  5. Biosystematic and chemosystematic studies in five South American species of Conyza (Asteraceae Estudios biosistemáticos en cinco especies sudamericanas de Conyza (Asteraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan D. Urdampilleta

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available The composition of the essentials oils of five species of Conyza Less from Argentina was determined by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometer. This composition is associated to morphological and cytogenetic characters. The monoterpenes constitute more than 60% of the essential oils in C. blakei, C glandulitecta, C. sumatrensis var. sumatrensis and C. sumatrensis var. floribunda, in which limonene is the predominant compound. In C. bonariensis and C. primulaefolia the monoterpene content constitute less than the 40%. C. bonariensis presents only 13% limonene, while in C. primulaefolia it is absent. The similarity analysis of monoterpenes showed a relationship between the morphological and cytogenetic analysis, and the monoterpene content character seems to be important in biosystematic studies of the group studied. In general, C. sumatrensis var. sumatrensis is the species with more ancestral characters, while C. bonariensis and C. primulaefolia show more derived ones.Fueron determinados mediante Cromatografía Gaseosa - Espectrómetro de Masa los componentes de los aceites esenciales de seis especies de Conyza Less. de Argentina. Esta composición es asociada a caracteres morfológicos y citogenéticos. Los monoterpenos constituyen mas de 60% de aceites esenciales en C. blakei, C glandulitecta, C. sumatrensis var. sumatrensis, C. sumatrensis var. floribunda, en las cuales limoneno es el componente predominante. En C. bonariensis y C. primulaefolia el contenido de monoterpenos constituye menos de 40%. C. bonariensis presenta solo 13% limoneno, mientras que en C. primulaefolia este compuesto esta ausente. El análisis de similitud utilizando monoterpenos muestra relación con el análisis dado por caracteres morfológicos y citogenéticos, por lo que el carácter contenido de monoterpeno resulta importante en estudios biosistemáticos en el grupo estudiado. En general, C. sumatrensis var. sumatrensis es la especie que presenta un mayor numero de caracteres ancestrales, mientras que C. bonariensis y C. primulaefolia revelarían caracteres derivados.

  6. Intoxicação experimental por Senecio brasiliensis (Asteraceae em eqüinos Experimental poisoning by Senecio brasiliensis (Asteraceae in horses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Célso Pilati

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available As partes aéreas dessecadas de Senecio brasiliensis (Spreng. colhidas em estágio de brotação foram administradas a 14 eqüinos de raça mista, com idades de 4-22 anos e pesos de 230-475 kg. Um eqüino de 15 anos, que não recebeu a planta, serviu de controle. Pequenas quantidades da planta eram misturadas à ração oferecida aos eqüinos; quantidades maiores eram moídas, misturadas em água e administradas por sonda nasogástrica. Biópsias hepáticas foram periodicamente realizadas em 11 eqüinos. Nove eqüinos morreram com sinais ou lesões da intoxicação após receberem quantidades da planta correspondente a 0,87%, 1,5% (administrações únicas, 1,74% (duas administrações semanais, 3.0% (três administrações diárias, 7.42% (17 administrações semanais, 8.9% (284 administrações diárias, 9.66% (82 administrações diárias e 9,30% (43 administrações semanais de seus pesos corporais. Dois eqüinos que receberam quantidades da planta correspondentes a 15,0% (30 e 60 administrações diárias de seus pesos corporais morreram durante o experimento por causas não relacionadas à intoxicação. Três eqüinos que receberam quantidades da planta correspondentes a 0,5% e 1.0% (administrações únicas, 15.0% (240 administrações diárias de seus pesos corporais e o eqüino controle sobreviveram sem apresentar sinais clínicos. A doença clínica induzida pela planta teve uma evolução de 1-30 dias e foi caracterizada por anorexia, icterícia, e sinais neurológicos de encefalopatia hepática. Perda de peso foi observada nos casos de evolução clínica mais longa. Os achados de necropsia incluíam acentuação do padrão lobular na superfície natural e de corte dos fígados ou eram firmes e vermelho-escuros. Hemorragias disseminadas eram freqüentes, mas mais conspícuas no tecido subcutâneo, superfícies serosa e mucosa do trato gastrintestinal. Edema era observado na submucosa do trato gastrintestinal e nas cavidades orgânicas. Microscopicamente, o fígado dos eqüinos que ingeriram quantidades maiores da planta por períodos relativamente curtos mostrava necrose coagulativa e hemorragia com cuja distribuição variava de centrolobular a massiva. Hepatomegalocitose moderada ou acentuada e fibrose discreta a moderada foi observada em 4 eqüinos que ingeriram pequenas quantidades da planta por períodos mais prolongados. Colestase e hemossiderose foram observadas no fígado de 8 eqüinos, agregados de neutrófilos no de 6, e pseudo-inclusões acidofílicas intranucleares ocorreram nos hepatócitos do fígado de 3 eqüinos. Alterações sugestivas de encefalopatia hepática foram observadas no encéfalo de 6 eqüinos. A lesão mais precoce observada nas biópsias hepáticas foi vacuolização dos núcleos de hepatócitos seguida por perda de hepatócitos por apoptose, hepatomegalocitose, infiltração por neutrófilos e necrose centrolobular. Ocasionalmente, observavam-se pseudo-inclusões acidofílicas intranu-cleares nos hepatócitos e, em casos mais crônicos, leve fibrose. Não foram observadas alterações nas biópsias hepáticas dos 4 eqüinos que receberam a planta e que sobreviveram, nem nas biópsias hepáticas dos 2 eqüinos que morreram de causas não relacionas à intoxicação. O eqüino controle não apresentou sinais clínicos.Fourteen 4 to 22-year-old mixed breed horses weighing 230-475 kg were experimentally fed the dried aerial parts of Senecio brasiliensis (Spreng. collected in its sprouting stage. A 15-year-old horse served as non-plant-fed control. Small amounts of the dried plant material were admixed in the ration given to the horses; larger amounts were grounded, admixed with water and force fed through nasogastric intubation. Liver biopsies were periodically performed in 11 horses. Nine horses died with signs or lesions of the poisoning after having received amounts of the plant corresponding to 0.87%, 1.5% (single administrations, 1.74% (two weekly administrations, 3.0% (three daily administrations, 7.42% (17 weekly administrations, 8.9% (284 daily administrations, 9.66% (82 daily administrations and 9.30% (43 weekly administrations of their body weight. Two horses which received amounts of the plant corresponding to 15.0% (30 and 60 daily administrations of their body weight died during the experiments due to unrelated causes. Three horses which received amounts of the plant corresponding to 0.5% and 1.0% (single administrations, and 15.0% (240 daily administrations of their body weight, and the control horse survived without any clinical signs. The disease induced by the plant had a clinical course of 1-30 days and was characterized by anorexia, jaundice and neurological signs of hepatic encephalopathy. Weight loss was observed in the more protracted cases. Necropsy findings included marked enhancement of the lobular pattern of the livers or those were firm and dark-red. Hemorrhages were frequent and more conspicuous on the subcutis, serosal surfaces and in the gastrointestinal mucosa. Edema occurred in the submucosa of the gastrointestinal tract and in body cavities. Histologically, the livers of horses that ingested relatively larger amounts of the plant for short periods of time had zonal coagulative necrosis and centrilobular to massive hemorrhages. Moderate to marked hepatomegalocytosis and mild to moderate fibrosis were seen in 4 horses which ingested small amounts of the plant for longer periods. Cholestasis and hemosiderosis were observed in the liver of 8 horses, neutrophilic aggregates in 6 and acidophilic intranuclear pseudo-inclusion bodies in hepatocytes of 3 horses. Changes suggestive of hepatic encephalopathy were observed in the brain of 6 horses. The earliest detected change in the liver biopsies was vacuolization of hepatocyte nuclei followed by apoptotic loss of hepatocytes, hepatomegalocytosis, infiltration of neutrophils and centrolobular necrosis. Occasionally hepatocellular acidophilic intranuclear pseudo-inclusion bodies and, in more protracted cases, slight fibrosis were seen. No changes were observed in the liver biopsies of the 3 plant-fed horses that survived, nor on the 2 horses that died of unrelated causes. The control horse had no clinical signs.

  7. Gênero Baccharis (Asteraceae: aspectos químicos, econômicos e biológicos The Baccharis genus (Asteraceae: chemical, economic and biological aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Gonzaga Verdi

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available The Baccharis genus is represented by more than 500 species distributed mainly in the tropical areas of South America. Many of them are extensively used in folk medicine in the treatment or prevention of anemias, inflammations, diabetes and stomach, liver and prostate diseases. Phytochemical and biological investigations in about 120 species resulted mainly in the isolation of clerodane and labdane diterpenes and flavonoid aglicones with the flavone unit being the most frequent.

  8. Genome size variation and species relationships in Hieracium subgen. Pilosella (Asteraceae) as inferred by flow cytometry

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Suda, Jan; Krahulcová, Anna; Trávníček, Pavel; Rosenbaumová, Radka; Peckert, T.; Krahulec, František

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 100, č. 6 (2007), s. 1323-1335 ISSN 0305-7364 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA206/07/0059 Grant - others:-(CZ) 149/2002/B-BIO/PřF, Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : Hieracium subgenus Pilosella * flow cytometry * polyploidy Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 2.939, year: 2007

  9. In Vitro Antileishmanial Activity of Essential Oil of Vanillosmopsis arborea (Asteraceae Baker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aracélio Viana Colares

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The search for new immunopharmacological chemical agents to treat various diseases caused by bacteria, fungi, and protozoa, such as leishmaniasis, for example, has led to the exploration of potential products from plant species and their main active ingredients. Antimonial drugs are the current treatment for leishmaniasis. These drugs cause major side effects and frequent discontinuation of treatment. In this study, we evaluated the in vitro leishmanicidal activity of essential oil of Vanillosmopsis arborea (VAEO and its major compound α-bisabolol against Leishmania amazonensis. The essential oil and α-bisabolol showed activity against promastigotes (IC50 7.35 and 4.95 μg/mL resp. and intracellular amastigotes (IC50 12.58 and 10.70 μg/mL, resp.. Neither product showed any cytotoxicity on treated macrophages. The ultrastructural analysis of promastigotes incubated with VAEO or α-bisabolol at 30 μg/mL, showed morphological changes with the accumulation of vesicles electrodense lipid inclusions. The results give evidence that both VAEO and α-bisabolol have potential as new therapeutic agents against leishmaniasis.

  10. Composition and leishmanicidal activity of the essential oil of Vernonia polyanthes Less (Asteraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Raquel Regina Duarte; Martins, Gilmarcio Zimmermann; Varandas, Raquel; Cogo, Juliana; Perego, Caio Humberto; Roncoli, Giovana; Sousa, Maria do Céu; Nakamura, Celso Vataru; Salgueiro, Lígia; Cavaleiro, Carlos

    2017-12-01

    The composition of the essential oil (EO) from leaves of Vernonia polyanthes and the evaluation of its leishmanicidal potential are reported here for the first time. The oil obtained by hydrodistillation was analysed by combination of GC and GC/MS. Thirty-five compounds were identified, representing 91.8% of the oil composition. The oil consists primarily of monoterpenes (37.1%), sesquiterpenes (26.3%) and oxygenated sesquiterpenes (23.9%), myrcene (34.3%), zerumbone (15.8%), bicyclogermacrene (8.9%), α-humulene (4.8%) and germacrene D (4.3%) being the major constituents. Activity against Leishmania infantum was determined using the tetrazolium dye (MTT) colorimetric method. The oil, as well as zerumbone, one of its major constituents, showed significant leishmanicidal activity, with IC 50 values of 19.4 and 9.0 μg/ml, respectively. Cytotoxicity in macrophages cells was evaluated using the MTT colorimetric assay. The EO showed the CC 50  < 10 μg/ml to macrophages cells.

  11. In Vitro Antileishmanial Activity of Essential Oil of Vanillosmopsis arborea (Asteraceae) Baker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colares, Aracélio Viana; Almeida-Souza, Fernando; Taniwaki, Noemi Nosomi; Souza, Celeste da Silva Freitas; da Costa, José Galberto Martins; Calabrese, Kátia da Silva; Abreu-Silva, Ana Lúcia

    2013-01-01

    The search for new immunopharmacological chemical agents to treat various diseases caused by bacteria, fungi, and protozoa, such as leishmaniasis, for example, has led to the exploration of potential products from plant species and their main active ingredients. Antimonial drugs are the current treatment for leishmaniasis. These drugs cause major side effects and frequent discontinuation of treatment. In this study, we evaluated the in vitro leishmanicidal activity of essential oil of Vanillosmopsis arborea (VAEO) and its major compound α -bisabolol against Leishmania amazonensis. The essential oil and α -bisabolol showed activity against promastigotes (IC50 7.35 and 4.95  μ g/mL resp.) and intracellular amastigotes (IC50 12.58 and 10.70  μ g/mL, resp.). Neither product showed any cytotoxicity on treated macrophages. The ultrastructural analysis of promastigotes incubated with VAEO or α -bisabolol at 30  μ g/mL, showed morphological changes with the accumulation of vesicles electrodense lipid inclusions. The results give evidence that both VAEO and α -bisabolol have potential as new therapeutic agents against leishmaniasis.

  12. Morphometric analysis and bioclimatic distribution of Glebionis coronaria s.l. (Asteraceae in the Mediterranean area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eusebio Cano

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available We present a revision of Glebionis coronaria in the Mediterranean area based on: a micro-morphology of the disc floret cypselas observed with a high-resolution confocal microscopy; b measurements of the disc cypsela with a stereoscopic microscope – duly scaled; c its distribution in several bioclimatic belts; d field observations; e comparisons of herbarium samples. Because of this study, we propose the elevation of Glebionis coronaria var. discolor to the rank of species, as Glebionis discolor comb. & stat. nov., based on morphological and ecological characteristics such as the disposition of the intercostal glands, the size of the disc cypsela wings and its distribution according to the bioclimatic belts. Glebionis coronaria, with totally yellow ray florets and intercostal glands aligned, is exclusive to the thermo-Mediterranean bioclimatic belt, while Glebionis discolor, with white ray florets on a yellow base and intercostal glands arranged randomly, is found in the thermo- and meso-Mediterranean belt. Illustrations of micromorphological characteristics of the cypselas, an identification key, a taxonomic synopsis including information on nomenclatural types, synonyms, descriptions of the taxa, and, as supplementary information, a list of the specimens examined and bioclimatic classification of samples localities are also presented.

  13. Chemical composition of essential oil and antimicrobial properties of Chrysantemum coronarium (Asteraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Ivashchenko

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Garland chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum coronarium L., or edible chrysanthemum, is a valuable food, medicinal, decorative plant, containing a considerable amount of biologically active substances. The herb is widely used as a dietary food in South-East Asia, whereas in spite of being spread throughout Ukraine, it is known there rather as a decorative than a vegetable plant. Introductory studies of C. coronarium were conducted on experimental plots at the Botanical Gardens of Zhytomyr National Agroecological University, which is located in Ukrainian Polesia. Chromatographic analysis of the essential oil composition was performed on the gas-liquid chromatographer Agilent Technologies 6890 with mass spectrometric detector 5973. The material for chromatographic studies was represented by C. coronarium inflorescences. The antimicrobial properties of the ethanolic extract from the areal parts of C. coronarium were studied on test-cultures, collected from the Ukrainian Collection of Microorganisms (UCM, Institute of Microbiology and Virology of NAS Ukraine, the test-cultures being: Escherichia coli UCM B-906 (ATCC 25922, Staphilococcus aureus UCM B-904 (ATCC 25923, Pseudomonas aeruginosa UCM B-900 (ATCC 9027, Candida albicans UCM Y-1918 (ATCC 885-653. The antimicrobial effect of the investigated substances was studied by the method of serial successive dilutions which determined minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC. This article shows the results of chromatographic analysis of essential oil obtained from C. coronarium inflorescences and focuses on antimicrobial activity of the herb against the test cultures of the following microorganisms: E. coli, S. aureus, P. aeruginosa, C. albicans. In the essential oil 26 compounds have been determined, 23 of which have been identified, the major components being: chrysanthemyl acetate (24.4%, chrysanthemol (21.8%, chrysanthenyl acetate (7.6%, camphor (7.3%, β-farnesene (5.9%, α-bisabolol (5.6%. C. coronarium ethanolic extract showed antimicrobial activity against gram-positive strains of S. aureus. In comparison with the solvent, the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC and the minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC increased 4 and 2 times, respectively. We have observed only fungistatic activity against the fungus C. albicans – MBC values showed a twofold increase compared with the solvent. Inhibitory, bactericidal/fungicidal properties of the extract against gram-negative strains of E. coli and P. aeruginosa have not been detected. The experimental data prove that there is a good perspective for further study and application of C. coronarium in pharmacy and the food industry.

  14. Chromosome numbers and DNA ploidy levels of selected species of Hieracium s.str. (Asteraceae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chrtek, Jindřich; Mráz, P.; Zahradníček, J.; Mateo, G.; Szelag, Z.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 42, č. 4 (2007), s. 411-430 ISSN 1211-9520 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA206/05/0657 Grant - others:Slovak Research and Development Agency(SK) APVT-51-026404 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : Hieracium * chromosome number * DNA ploidy level Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.133, year: 2007

  15. Inhibition of cyclooxygenase activity by standardized hydroalcoholic extracts of four Asteraceae species from the Argentine Puna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R. Alberto

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available We determined the anti-inflammatory activity of standardized extracts of four medicinal plant species (Baccharis incarum, B. boliviensis, Chuquiraga atacamensis, Parastrephia lucida that grow in the Argentine Puna (3800 m above sea level and that are used to reduce oxidative stress and alleviate gout and arthritic pain. The extracts of plant aerial parts were standardized in terms of total phenolic compounds and flavone/flavanone content and free radical scavenging activity. All extracts showed high phenolic compound concentration (0.5-1.6 mg/mL, mainly flavones and flavonols (0.1-0.8 mg/mL. The extracts showed hydrogen donating ability (DPPH and ABTS and reactive oxygen species scavenging activity (O2●-, OH-, H2O2. The ability of the extracts to inhibit cyclooxygenase enzymes (COX-1 and COX-2 was determined by calculating percent inhibition of PGE2 production measured by enzyme immunoassay. All extracts inhibited both enzymes with IC50 values of 2.0 to 16.7 µg/mL. The anti-inflammatory activity of B. incarum and C. atacamensis extracts was higher than that of B. boliviensis and P. lucida. The IC50 values obtained for indomethacin were 0.11 and 0.78 µM for COX-1 and COX-2, respectively. The present results are consistent with the anecdotal use of these species in phytotherapic preparations.

  16. Antioxidant Status and DNA Damage Induced by Heavy Metals in Matricaria recutita L. (Asteraceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Gjorgieva Ackova, Darinka; Kadifkova-Panovska, Tatjana; Ruskovska, Tatjana

    2011-01-01

    In summary, this study has shown that heavy metals can induce antioxidant stress and DNA damage. Antioxidative system of M. recutita seems to be inducible by environmentally encountered heavy metals concentrations. Balance of different levels of plant metabolism is essential for eliminating toxic effects of metals and maintaining of structural and metabolic integrity. Thus, oxidative stress characterized by increased production of ROS could be an important mechanism of metal toxicity, though ...

  17. Centaurea tchihatcheffii Fischer & C.A. Meyer (Asteraceae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Kit; Vural, Mecit

    2007-01-01

    Abstract   Centaurea tchihatcheffii is a steppic annual possessing some unique features absent in other Centaureas. The chromosome number is 2n = 20, differing from all other annual species of Centaurea sect. Cyanus. The type locality as published is erroneous and the correct provenance is provided....

  18. Estudo fitoquímico e biológico de Vernonia tweediana Baker (Asteraceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Díaz, Gaspar; Nogueira, Marisa A.; Olguín, Conceição F. A.; Somensi, Andressa; Vidotti, Gentil J.

    2008-01-01

    A mistura de α-amirina, β-amirina e lupeol e o ácido palmítico puro foram os principais constituintes químicos isolados do extrato clorofórmio da parte aérea de V. tweediana. Lupenil palmitato puro e a mistura de α-amiril palmitato e β-amiril palmitato foram isolados a partir do extrato clorofórmio das raízes. As estruturas foram caracterizadas por métodos químicos e espectroscópicos. Também foram investigadas as atividades biológicas dos extratos hexano, clorofórmio, acet...

  19. A genetic linkage map of the diplosporous chromosomal region in Taraxacum officinale (common dandelion; Asteraceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vijverberg, Kitty; van der Hulst, R.G.M.; Lindhout, P.; Van Dijk, P.J.

    2004-01-01

    In this study, we mapped the diplosporous chromosomal region in Taraxacum officinale, by using amplified fragment length polymorphism technology (AFLP) in 73 plants from a segregating population. Taraxacum serves as a model system to investigate the genetics, ecology, and evolution of apomixis. The

  20. Development and characterization of nine new microsatellite markers in Taraxacum (Asteraceae).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vasut, R.; Dijk, P.J.; Falque, M.; Trávnicek, B.; Jong, de J.H.S.G.M.

    2004-01-01

    This study aims at developing and characterizing new microsatellite primer pairs in Taraxacum officinale auct. to produce polymorphic markers for genetical and evolutionary studies on apomixis in this sexual-apomictic complex. A total of 24 diploid plants were tested for allelic polymorphism and

  1. A genetic linkage map of the diplosporous chromosomal region in Taraxacum officinale (common dandelion; Asteraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijverberg, K; Van Der Hulst, R G M; Lindhout, P; Van Dijk, P J

    2004-02-01

    In this study, we mapped the diplosporous chromosomal region in Taraxacum officinale, by using amplified fragment length polymorphism technology (AFLP) in 73 plants from a segregating population. Taraxacum serves as a model system to investigate the genetics, ecology, and evolution of apomixis. The genus includes sexual diploid as well as apomictic polyploid, mostly triploid, plants. Apomictic Taraxacum is diplosporous, parthenogenetic, and has autonomous endosperm formation. Previous studies have indicated that these three apomixis elements are controlled by more than one locus in Taraxacum and that diplospory inherits as a dominant, monogenic trait ( Ddd; DIP). A bulked segregant analysis provided 34 AFLP markers that were linked to DIP and were, together with two microsatellite markers, used for mapping the trait. The map length was 18.6 cM and markers were found on both sides of DIP, corresponding to 5.9 and 12.7 cM, respectively. None of the markers completely co-segregated with DIP. Eight markers were selected for PCR-based marker development, of which two were successfully converted. In contrast to all other mapping studies of apomeiosis to date, our results showed no evidence for suppression of recombination around the DIP locus in Taraxacum. No obvious evidence for sequence divergence between the DIP and non- DIP homologous loci was found, and no hemizygosity at the DIP locus was detected. These results may indicate that apomixis is relatively recent in Taraxacum.

  2. Mating between Echinacea angustifolia (Asteraceae) individuals increases with their flowering synchrony and spatial proximity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ison, Jennifer L; Wagenius, Stuart; Reitz, Diedre; Ashley, Mary V

    2014-01-01

    Although spatial distance is considered the primary factor in determining plant mating patterns, flowering time and synchrony are also likely to be important. We quantified the relationships of both distance and flowering phenology to the probability of mating between individual plants. In an experimental plot, we followed daily flowering phenology in Echinacea angustifolia, a self-incompatible perennial pollinated by solitary bees. We assigned paternity to 832 of 927 seedlings from 37 maternal plants using 11 microsatellite loci. Potential pollen donors included the experiment plot's 202 flowering plants and a nearby plot's 19 flowering plants. For each maternal plant sampled, we examined the pollen pool by quantifying correlated paternity and the effective number of pollen donors. Significantly more pollinations occurred between neighboring and synchronous plants than expected under random mating, with distance being more important than flowering synchrony. The distance pollen moved varied over the course of the season, with late flowering plants mating with more distant plants compared to early or peak flowering plants. All maternal plants had a diverse set of mates (mean number of effective pollen donors = 23.7), and the composition of the pollen pools overlapped little between maternal plants. Both distance and flowering synchrony influenced pollination patterns in E. angustifolia. Our results suggest that pollen movement between incompatible mates and flowering asynchrony could be contributing to the reduced seed set observed in small E. angustifolia remnants. However, we also found that individual plants receive pollen from a diverse group of pollen donors.

  3. Floral biology of Senecio macrophyllus M. BIEB. (Asteraceae, a rare Central European steppe plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bożenna Czarnecka

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of the flowering phase and plant pollination ecology is very important for understanding the life history of long-lived perennials. In the case of rare species, the information may have implications for conservation practices. Our studies on flower morphology and blooming biology of the vulnerable plant Senecio macrophyllus M. BIEB. were conducted in situ (flowering, activity of insect visitors in the largest population in SE Poland and in laboratory (light and scanning electron microscopy. The disc florets open diurnally with most intensive anthesis in the early afternoon and attract insect visitors with nectar and pollen. In highly protandrous disc florets, pollen viability decreases in time, whereas stigma receptivity increases. The upper part of the pistil forms a brush-like pollen presenter, covered with unicellular trichomes with chromoplasts. Pollen presentation lasts 4–11 hours per floret, and 8 days in a single head, the main function of which is to extend the availability of male gamets for reproduction. The number of florets per head, the head size, and the number of pollen grains produced per anther, and the pollen grain viability differed significantly between microsites. The finding indicates that, apart from the biotic factors, abiotic conditions may considerably influence generative reproduction of the species. In the study area, the principal visitors of S. macrophyllus flowers were Hymenoptera, with predominance of Apis mellifera (53.4% of visits. The remarkable share of butterflies (13.9% recognized as the long-distance moving insects may improve the genetic variability of individuals within a fragmented population. A more detailed study is necessary to explain the role of insect visitors in effective pollination and in gene transfer between patches. The assessment of optimal conditions for the generative reproduction is fundamental for the in situ conservation of this rare species.

  4. Development and Evaluation of Microsatellite Markers for a Native Prairie Perennial, Echinacea angustifolia (Asteraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer L. Ison

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Premise of the study: Microsatellite loci for the native prairie perennial Echinacea angustifolia were developed and evaluated for future use in population structure and paternity studies. Methods and Results: A total of 50 trinucleotide microsatellite regions were identified though an enrichment protocol that prescreens for microsatellite repeats before ligating into a vector. Of these, 11 loci were polymorphic and in Hardy—Weinberg equilibrium in three populations with varying numbers of plants. The loci had between three and 14 alleles and collectively provided high paternity exclusion probabilities. Conclusions: These sets of microsatellite primers will provide researchers and land managers with valuable information on the population genetic structure and gene flow between fragmented prairie populations.

  5. Phenolic Profile and Antioxidant Activity of Methanolic Extract of Carduus acicularis Bertol. (Asteraceae

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    Iliya Zh. Slavov

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Phenolic acid and flavonoid profiles of Carduus acicularis were investigated for the first time. Eleven phenolic acids and eight flavonoids were identified and quantified in the inflorescences, by high performance liquid chromatography. The main phenolic compounds were found to be: sinapic acid (930.41 ± 21.72 µg/g dw, chlorogenic acid (582.66 ± 13.60 µg/g dw, rutin (545.65 ± 12.82 µg/g dw, apigenin (478.75 ± 11.38 µg/g dw, luteolin (288.46 ± 6.86 µg/g dw and myricetin (276.32 ± 5.21 µg/g dw. The antioxidant activity of methanolic extract of inflorescences has been investigated, employing four different established testing systems: scavenging activity on 2,2-diphenil-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH, 2,2’-azinobis-(3-ethyl-benzothiazoline-6-sulfonate (ABTS radical cation decolorization assay, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP and copper reduction antioxidant assays (FRAP. The highest antioxidant activity values were measured by the ABTS assay, among all performed methods.

  6. Visitantes florales diurnos del girasol (Helianthus annuus, Asterales: Asteraceae en la Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan P. TORRETTA

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available El girasol ( Helianthus annuus L. es un importante cultivo oleaginoso en la Argentina. Durante tres campañas agrícolas, se determinaron la diversidad y la abundancia del elenco de los visitantes florales diurnos de capítulos de girasol, en ocho sitios que cubren gran parte del área cultivada en Argentina. Setenta y seis morfo-especies de visitantes florales, pertenecientes a ocho órdenes, fueron capturados sobre capítulos de este cultivo. El principal orden fue Hymenoptera, con 37 especies o morfo- especies, de las cuales 32 fueron abejas (Apoidea. Las familias de abejas más representadas fueron Apidae (13, Megachilidae (11 y Halictidae (7. La abeja doméstica ( Apis mellifera L. realizó el 93% de las visitas. La composición del elenco de visitantes no mostró un patrón de variación identificable a lo largo del día, ni con respecto a la distancia al borde del cultivo, pero varió entre sitios de muestreo. Se concluye que la abeja doméstica es el principal polinizador del girasol en la Argentina, aunque varias especies nativas de abejas ( Melissodes tintinnans (Holmberg, M. rufithorax Brèthes, Melissoptila tandilensis Holmberg, y Megachile spp. podrían ser consideradas como potenciales polinizadores del cultivo.

  7. A new invasive hawkweed, Hieracium glomeratum (Lactuceae, Asteraceae), in the Pacific Northwest

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Wilson, L. M.; Fehrer, Judith; Bräutigam, S.; Grosskopf, G.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 84, - (2006), s. 133-142 ISSN 0008-4026 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : Hieracium * invasives * DNA fingerprinting Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.193, year: 2006

  8. Mating interactions between coexisting diploid, triploid and tetraploid cytotypes of Hieracium echioides (Asteraceae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Peckert, Tomáš; Chrtek, Jindřich

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 41, - (2006), s. 323-334 ISSN 1211-9520 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GD206/03/H137 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : Hieracium subgen. Pilosella * pollen competition * reproductive barriers Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.196, year: 2006

  9. Intra- and interspecific chromosome polymorphisms in cultivated Cichorium L. species (Asteraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardes, Ebenézer C S; Benko-Iseppon, Ana M; Vasconcelos, Santelmo; Carvalho, Reginaldo; Brasileiro-Vidal, Ana C

    2013-09-01

    Endive (Cichorium endivia L.) and chicory (C. intybus L.) both have 2n = 18, but until now, there has been no detailed karyomorphological characterization. The present work evaluated five accessions of each species using FISH with rDNA probes and fluorochrome staining with CMA and DAPI. Both species presented distinct banding patterns after fluorochrome staining: while endive had proximal CMA(++)/DAPI(-) bands in the short arms of pairs 1, 2 and 3, chicory had proximal CMA-positive bands in chromosomes 1 and 3 and interstitial in the short arm of chromosome 8. Among endive accessions, FISH procedures revealed conserved position and number of 5S and 45S rDNA sites (two and three pairs, respectively), associated with the CMA-positive bands. Notwithstanding, polymorphisms were detected within chicory accessions regarding the number and the distribution of rDNA sites in relation to the most frequent karyotype (two pairs with 45S and one with 5S rDNA). The karyological markers developed allowed karyotypic differentiation between both species, uncovering peculiarities in the number and position of rDNA sites, which suggest chromosome rearrangements, such as translocations in chicory cultivars. The interspecific and intraspecific polymorphisms observed emphasize the potential of karyomorphological evaluations, helping our understanding of the relationships and evolution of the group.

  10. Intra- and interspecific chromosome polymorphisms in cultivated Cichorium L. species (Asteraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebenézer C.S. Bernardes

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Endive (Cichorium endivia L. and chicory (C. intybus L. both have 2n = 18, but until now, there has been no detailed karyomorphological characterization. The present work evaluated five accessions of each species using FISH with rDNA probes and fluorochrome staining with CMA and DAPI. Both species presented distinct banding patterns after fluorochrome staining: while endive had proximal CMA++/DAPI- bands in the short arms of pairs 1, 2 and 3, chicory had proximal CMA-positive bands in chromosomes 1 and 3 and interstitial in the short arm of chromosome 8. Among endive accessions, FISH procedures revealed conserved position and number of 5S and 45S rDNA sites (two and three pairs, respectively, associated with the CMA-positive bands. Notwithstanding, polymorphisms were detected within chicory accessions regarding the number and the distribution of rDNA sites in relation to the most frequent karyotype (two pairs with 45S and one with 5S rDNA. The karyological markers developed allowed karyotypic differentiation between both species, uncovering peculiarities in the number and position of rDNA sites, which suggest chromosome rearrangements, such as translocations in chicory cultivars. The interspecific and intraspecific polymorphisms observed emphasize the potential of karyomorphological evaluations, helping our understanding of the relationships and evolution of the group.

  11. Composition of essential oil and allelopathic activity of aromatic water of Aster lanceolatus Willd: (Asteraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josiane de Fátima Gaspari Dias

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The essential oil obtained from flowers of Aster lanceolatus was submitted the CG-MS and presented as result thirteen substances with largest concentration; among them, the caryophyllene oxide with the larger one. The aromatic water obtained during the extraction process of this essential oil was forwarded to allelopathic test, and demonstrated to be capable to inhibit the germination and growth of Lactuca sativa.O óleo essencial obtido das flores de Aster lanceolatus foi submetido a CG-EM e apresentou como resultado treze substâncias, entre elas o óxido de cariofileno com a maior concentração. A água aromática obtida durante o processo de extração do óleo essencial foi encaminhada para teste alelopático, a qual demonstrou ser capaz de inibir a germinação e crescimento de Lactuca sativa.

  12. Screening for drought tolerance in cultivars of the ornamental genus Tagetes (Asteraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raluca Cicevan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Drought tolerance was evaluated in twelve cultivars of three ornamental Tagetes species (T. patula, T. tenuifolia and T. erecta. A stress treatment was performed by completely stopping watering of plants maintained in controlled greenhouse conditions. After three weeks, several plant growth parameters (stem length (SL, fresh weight (FW and water content (WC, photosynthetic pigments (chlorophylls and carotenoids (Car, osmolytes (proline (Pro, glycine betaine (GB and total soluble sugars (TSS, an oxidative stress maker (malondialdehyde (MDA and antioxidants (total phenolic compounds (TPC and total flavonoids (TF were measured. Considerable differences in the evaluated traits were found among the control and drought-stressed plants. Drought stress generally caused a marked reduction in plant growth and carotenoid pigments, and an increase in soluble solutes and oxidative stress. For most cultivars, proline levels in stressed plants increased between 30 and 70-fold compared to the corresponding controls. According to the different measured parameters, on average T. erecta proved to be more tolerant to drought than T. patula and T. tenuifolia. However, a considerable variation in the tolerance to drought was found within each species. The traits with greater association to drought tolerance as well as the most tolerant cultivars could be clearly identified in a principal components analysis (PCA. Overall, our results indicate that drought tolerant cultivars of Tagetes can be identified at early stages using a combination of plant growth and biochemical markers.

  13. Isolation and characterization of polymorphic microsatellite loci from the invasive plant Solidago canadensis (Asteraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, S-Y; Sun, S-G; Guo, Y-H; Chen, J-M; Wang, Q-F

    2012-02-17

    Solidago canadensis, a clonal herb originally from North America (common name: Canada goldenrod), is an invasive species in many countries. We developed microsatellite primers for this species. Eleven polymorphic loci were generated and primers were designed. Polymorphism of these 11 loci was assessed in 35 plants from two populations (Wuhan and Shanghai) in China. The number of alleles per locus ranged from 3 to 14. The observed and expected heterozygosities varied from 0.0732 to 0.7391 and from 0.1177 to 0.8687, respectively. These microsatellite markers will be useful tools for studies of population genetics in the native and invasive range of this species.

  14. Antifungal activity of Erigeron floribundus (Asteraceae) from Côte d ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: Erigeron floribundus is a reputed medicinal plant used in Côte d'Ivoire, West Africa for the treatment of skin disorders. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antifungal activity of this plant against fungi from human origin. Method: Dichloromethane, methanol 80% and aqueous extracts from the leaves with stem ...

  15. Reproductive ecology of Scalesia cordata (Asteraceae), an endangered species from the Galápagos Islands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Philipp, Marianne; Nielsen, Lene Rostgaard

    2010-01-01

    The genus Scalesia is endemic to the Galápagos Islands. Scalesia cordata is a tree occurring only in the southern part of Isabela as small, remnant populations of larger forests. We studied the reproductive ecology of a population protected in an enclosure in order to reveal the extent to which...

  16. Phenolic acids profile, antioxidant and antibacterial activity of chamomile, common yarrow and immortelle (Asteraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekinić, Ivana Generalić; Skroza, Danijela; Ljubenkov, Ivica; Krstulović, Luka; Možina, Sonja Smole; Katalinić, Višnja

    2014-12-01

    Chamomile, common yarrow and immortelle ethanolic extracts were chemically analysed with respect to phenolics. Twelve phenolic acids were separated and identified by HPLC-DAD and the presence of rosmarinic acid was additionally confirmed by LC-MS. Five methods were applied for the evaluation of extracts' antioxidant properties (FRAP, DPPH, ABTS, chelating activity, Briggs-Rauscher reaction), while the antibacterial activity was tested against some of the major food-borne pathogens (Campylobacter coli, Escherichia coli, Salmonella Infantis, Bacillus cereus, Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus). Immortelle extract was the richest in phenolics with a dominant flavonoid fraction, while the other two extracts contained higher amount of non-flavonoids. The phenolic acid profile also varied; high concentration of rosmarinic acid was found in chamomile and common yarrow, while caffeic acid was dominant in immortelle. The best antioxidant properties were obtained for chamomile extract, while good antimicrobial activity, especially against Gram-positive bacterial species, was detected for immortelle. The obtained results could be used as a tool for chemotaxonomic classification of the investigated plants or for their potential application as natural antioxidants/antimicrobials.

  17. Antioxidant Effect of Nanoemulsions Containing Extract of Achyrocline satureioides (Lam) D.C.-Asteraceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorzi, Giovanni Konat; Caregnato, Fernanda; Moreira, José Cláudio Fonseca; Teixeira, Helder Ferreira; Carvalho, Edison Luis Santana

    2016-08-01

    Ethanolic extracts of Achyrocline satureioides have pronounced antioxidant activity mainly due to the presence of the flavonoid quercetin. However, direct topical application of the extract is not possible due to the presence of high amounts of ethanol. In this sense, nanoemulsions arise as an alternative for topical formulation associating molecules with limited aqueous solubility. This article describes the development of topical nanoemulsions containing either A. satureioides extract or one of its most abundant flavonoid, quercetin. Nanoemulsions composed of octyldodecanol, egg lecithin, water and extract (NEE), or quercetin (NEQ) were prepared by spontaneous emulsification. This process led to monodisperse nanoemulsions presenting a mean droplet size of approximately 200-300 nm, negative zeta potential, and high association efficiency. A study of quercetin skin retention using porcine skin which was performed using a Franz diffusion cell revealed a higher accumulation of quercetin in skin for NEE when compared to NEQ. Finally, the antioxidant activity of formulations was measured by thiobarbituric acid-reactive species and the APPH model. A lower lipoperoxidation for the extract in respect to quercetin solution was observed. However, no difference between NEQ and NEE lipoperoxidation could be seen. The protection against lipoperoxidation by the formulations was also measured in the skin, where lower formation of reactive species was observed after treatment with NEE. In conclusion, this study shows the formulation effect on the physicochemical properties of nanoemulsions as well as on the skin retention and antioxidant activity of quercetin.

  18. Schistosomicidal Activity of the Essential Oil of Ageratum conyzoides L. (Asteraceae against Adult Schistosoma mansoni Worms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson R. Cunha

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The in vitro schistosomicidal effects of the essential oil of Ageratum conyzoides L. (Ac-EO against adult worms of Schistosoma mansoni is reported in this paper. Concerning this activity, Ac-EO was considered to be active, but less effective than the positive control (praziquantel, PZQ in terms of separation of coupled pairs, mortality, decrease in motor activity, and tegumental alterations. However, Ac-EO caused an interesting dose-dependent reduction in the number of eggs of S. mansoni. Precocene I (74.30% and (E-caryophyllene (14.23% were identified as the two major constituents of Ac-EO. These compounds were tested individually and were found to be much less effective than Ac-EO and PZQ. A mixture of the two major compounds in a ratio similar to that found in the Ac-EO was also less effective than Ac-EO, thus revealing that there are no synergistic effects between these components. These results suggest that the essential oil of A. conyzoides is very promising for the development of new schistosomicidal agents.

  19. Distribution and structure of internal secretory reservoirs on the vegetative organs of Inula helenium L. (Asteraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aneta Sulborska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to investigate the structure and topography of endogenous secretory tissues of Inula helenium L. By using light and electron microscopy, morphological and anatomical observations of stems, leaves and rhizomes were made. It was shown that in the stems secretory cavities were situated in the vicinity of phloem and xylem bundles. The number of the reservoirs reached its maximum value (34 at shoot flowerig termination, whereas the cavities with the largest diameter were observed at full flowering stage (44.6 µm. In the leaf petioles and midribs, the reservoirs also accompanied the vascular bundles, and their number and size increased along with the growth of the assimilation organs. Observations of the cross sections of the rhizomes revealed the presence of several rings of secretory reservoirs. The measurements of the cavities showed that as a rule the reservoirs with a larger dimension were located in the phelloderm, whereas the smallest ones in the xylem area. The secretory cavities located in the stems and leaves developed by schizogenesis, whereas the rhizome reservoirs were probably formed schizolisygenously. The cells lining the reservoirs formed a one - four-layered epithelium. Observed in TEM, the secretory cells of the mature cavities located in the rhizomes were characterised by the presence of a large central vacuole, whereas the protoplast was largely degraded. Fibrous elements of osmophilic secretion and numerous different coloured vesicles could be distinguished in it. The cell walls formed, from the side of the reservoir lumen, ingrowths into the interior of the epithelial cells. Between the cell wall and the plasmalemma of the glandular cells, a brighter periplasmatic zone with secretory vesicles was observed.

  20. Floral phenology, secondary pollen presentation and pollination mechanism in Inula racemosa (Angiosperms: Asteraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.A. Shabir

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Inula racemosa Hook. f. is protandrous, discharges pollen grains inside the anther tube and presents pollen secondarily onto the sweeping hairs of the style. The style and stigmatic branches present the yellow clumped pollen grains for pollination. This study describes floral functional morphology and phenology, anther dehiscence and pollen presentation, growth and behaviour of style during anthesis and pollination mechanism of I. racemosa. The species is entomophilous and is characterized by a highly asynchronous sexual phase. A large degree of asynchrony from floret to floret in a capitulum, and capitulum to capitulum in a plant, keeps the pollen dispersed for a longer duration. Two insect families were represented in the pollinator survey: Hymenoptera and Diptera. A significant correlation was observed between the number of capitula visited per bout and foraging time. We discuss morphological features of the ?owers which may enhance the pollen removal rate per bee visit and consequently cause a high visitation and pollination rate.

  1. Anatomy and Micromorphology of Inula helenium subsp. orgyalis and I. ensifolia (Asteraceae from Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tulay AYTAS AKCIN

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Inula helenium L. subsp. orgyalis (Boiss. Grierson and Inula ensifolia L. were investigated anatomically and micromorphologically. The secretory cavities in the leaves and stem of both investigated taxa were located in the neighbourhood of the vascular bundles and in the rhizomes in the secondary cortex. The leaf mesophylls of investigated Inula taxa were homogeneous. Stomata were anomocytic in two species. The distribution and density of the eglandular and glandular trichomes provide information of taxonomical significance. Moreover, the cypselas of I. helenium L. subsp. orgyalis were homomorphic, whereas in I. ensifolia cypselas were heteromorphic. Additionally, the number of ribs, the shape of carpopodium and stylopodium were diagnostic taxonomic characters between the two taxa.

  2. Toxicity of Thiophenes from Echinops transiliensis (Asteraceae) against Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) Larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    with a collection of information if it does not display a currently valid OMB control number. 1. REPORT DATE 2014 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED...Kazakhstan. A voucher specimen No. 9442/25-1972 was deposited with the Institute of Botany and Phytointroduction herbarium , Almaty, Republic of

  3. Othonna sonchifolia L. is an earlier name for Senecio cymbalarifolius L. (Asteraceae: Senecioneae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luvo Magoswana

    2017-07-01

    Conclusions: Othonna sonchifolia L. is recognised as the earliest name for Senecio cymbalarifolius (L. Less. and the new combination Senecio sonchifolius (L. J.C. Manning & Magoswana is provided for the species. Othonna cymbalarifolia is lectotypified and Senecio hastifolius (L. Less. is reinstated from synonymy as a species distinct from S. sonchifolius.

  4. Fatty acid composition of the cypselae of two endemic Centaurea species (Asteraceae

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    Janaćković Peđa

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The fatty acid composition of cypselae of two endemic species from Macedonia, Centaurea galicicae and C. tomorosii, is analysed for the first time, using GC/MS (gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. In the cypselae of C. galicicae, 11 fatty acids were identified, palmitic (hexadecanoic acid (32.5% being the most dominant. Other fatty acids were elaidic [(E-octadec-9-enoic] acid (13.9%, stearic (octadecanoic acid (12.8% and linoleic [(9Z,12Z-9,12-octadecadienoic] acid (10.6%. Of the 11 identified fatty acids, seven were saturated fatty acids, which represented 41.5% of total fatty acids, while unsaturated fatty acids altogether constituted 58.5%. In the cypselae of C. tomorosii, five fatty acids were identified. The major fatty acid was linolelaidic [(9E,12E-octadeca- 9,12-dienoic] acid (48.8%. The second most dominant fatty acid was oleic [(9Z-octadec-9-enoic] acid (34.2%. Thus, unsaturated fatty acids were present with 83%. The other three fatty acids identified were saturated fatty acids, which represented 17% of total fatty acids. As a minor fatty acid, levulinic (4-oxopentanoic acid was determined in both C. galicicae and C. tomorosii (0.3% and 3.2%, respectively. The obtained results differ from published data on dominant fatty acids in the cypselae of other species belonging to the same section as the species investigated in the present paper (section Arenariae, subgenus Acrolophus, genus Centaurea. They also, differ from published data referable to other genera belonging to the same tribe (Cardueae. The general chemotaxonomic significance of fatty acids is discussed.

  5. Breeding biology and bee guild of Douglas' dustymaiden, Chaenactis douglasii (Asteraceae, Helenieae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    James H. Cane; Byron Love; Katharine Swoboda

    2012-01-01

    Douglas' dustymaiden, Chaenactis douglasii (Hook.) Hook. & Arn., is a widespread, inconspicuous, short-lived perennial wildflower that blooms in early summer and is found in basin sagesteppe to upper montane areas throughout the U.S. Intermountain West. The species is proving practical to grow for seed and is expected to be used for western rangeland...

  6. Antifungal activity of the essential oil from Calendula officinalis L. (asteraceae) growing in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazim, Zilda Cristiane; Rezende, Claudia Moraes; Fraga, Sandra Regina; Svidzinski, Terezinha Inez Estivaleti; Cortez, Diógenes Aparicio Garcia

    2008-01-01

    This study tested in vitro activity of the essential oil from flowers of Calendula officinalis using disk-diffusion techniques. The antifungal assay results showed for the first time that the essential oil has good potential antifungal activity: it was effective against all 23 clinical fungi strains tested. PMID:24031180

  7. Visitantes florales nocturnos del girasol (Helianthus annuus, Asterales: Asteraceae en la Argentina

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    Juan P TORRETTA

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available El girasol (Helianthus annuus es un cultivo oleaginoso, polinizado por Apis mellifera L. y otras abejas en distintas regiones del mundo. Sin embargo, sus flores también son visitadas por insectos de actividad nocturna. Durante tres campañas agrícolas, se determinó la diversidad de los visitantes nocturnos de capítulos de girasol, en cinco sitios de Argentina. También se estudió el comportamiento de forrajeo de los principales visitantes y la variación de la receptividad estigmática a lo largo del día, con el fin de establecer si estos visitantes contribuyen a la polinización. Al menos 67 especies o morfoespecies pertenecientes a cuatro órdenes de visitantes nocturnos fueron colectadas. El orden más rico y abundante fue Lepidoptera (44 especies o morfoespecies, cinco familias, seguido por Coleoptera (18 especies o morfoespecies, nueve familias, Orthoptera (tres morfoespecies, una familia y Blattaria (dos especies, una familia. Los lepidópteros forrajearon exclusivamente por néctar, mientras que los individuos de los demás órdenes consumieron polen y/o partes florales. El estigma se encontró receptivo durante las horas de luz, con una receptividad máxima al mediodía (12:00 - 14:00. Llamativamente, las flores del girasol son visitadas por mayor número de polillas que de abejas. Debido a que las polillas consumen néctar y potencialmente transportan polen entre flores, en un momento del día en que los estigmas se encuentran menos receptivos, es improbable que polinicen efectivamente el cultivo.

  8. Anti-inflammatory sesquiterpene lactones from Onopordum illyricum L. (Asteraceae), an Italian medicinal plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Formisano, Carmen; Sanna, Cinzia; Ballero, Mauro; Chianese, Giuseppina; Sirignano, Carmina; Rigano, Daniela; Millán, Estrella; Muñoz, Eduardo; Taglialatela-Scafati, Orazio

    2017-01-01

    Onopordum illyricum L. is a medicinal plant used in the Mediterranean area as antipyretic for the treatment of respiratory and urinary inflammations and to treat skin ulcers. Repeated chromatographic purification of O. illyricum aerial parts led to the isolation of six known sesquiterpenes, which were evaluated for the inhibition of the pro-inflammatory transcription factors NF-κB and STAT3 and for the activation of the transcription factor Nrf2, which regulates the cellular antioxidant response. Structure-activity relationships were interpreted by the NMR-based cysteamine assay. The sesquiterpene lactone vernomelitensin significantly inhibited NF-κB and STAT3, showing also a significant Nrf2 activation. Accordingly, the cysteamine assay selected vernomelitensin as the most reactive of the isolated sesquiterpenes, identifying the α,β-unsaturated aldehyde moiety as responsible for the higher (re)activity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Artificial asymmetric warming reduces nectar yield in a Tibetan alpine species of Asteraceae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Junpeng; Peng, Youhong; Xi, Xinqiang; Wu, Xinwei; Li, Guoyong; Niklas, Karl J.; Sun, Shucun

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Asymmetric warming is one of the distinguishing features of global climate change, in which winter and night-time temperatures are predicted to increase more than summer and diurnal temperatures. Winter warming weakens vernalization and hence decreases the potential to flower for some perennial herbs, and night warming can reduce carbohydrate concentrations in storage organs. This study therefore hypothesized that asymmetric warming should act to reduce flower number and nectar production per flower in a perennial herb, Saussurea nigrescens, a key nectar plant for pollinators in Tibetan alpine meadows. Methods A long-term (6 years) warming experiment was conducted using open-top chambers placed in a natural meadow and manipulated to achieve asymmetric increases in temperature, as follows: a mean annual increase of 0·7 and 2·7 °C during the growing and non-growing seasons, respectively, combined with an increase of 1·6 and 2·8 °C in the daytime and night-time, respectively, from June to August. Measurements were taken of nectar volume and concentration (sucrose content), and also of leaf non-structural carbohydrate content and plant morphology. Key Results Six years of experimental warming resulted in reductions in nectar volume per floret (64·7 % of control), floret number per capitulum (8·7 %) and capitulum number per plant (32·5 %), whereas nectar concentration remained unchanged. Depletion of leaf non-structural carbohydrates was significantly higher in the warmed than in the ambient condition. Overall plant density was also reduced by warming, which, when combined with reductions in flower development and nectar volumes, led to a reduction of ∼90 % in nectar production per unit area. Conclusions The negative effect of asymmetric warming on nectar yields in S. nigrescens may be explained by a concomitant depletion of leaf non-structural carbohydrates. The results thus highlight a novel aspect of how climate change might affect plant–pollinator interactions and plant reproduction via induction of allocation shifts for plants growing in communities subject to asymmetric warming. PMID:25921787

  10. The Red Queen hypothesis and geographical parthenogenesis in the alpine hawkweed Hieracium alpinum (Asteraceae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hartmann, M.; Štefánek, M.; Zdvořák, P.; Heřman, P.; Chrtek, Jindřich; Mráz, P.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 122, č. 4 (2017), s. 681-696 ISSN 0024-4066 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : apomixis * polyploidy * Red Queen hypothesis Subject RIV: EF - Botanics OBOR OECD: Plant sciences, botany Impact factor: 2.288, year: 2016

  11. A pharmacognostic study of Vernonia guineensis Benth. (Asteraceae) : bioactivity, safety, and phytochemical analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toyang, Ngeh Joseph

    2014-01-01

    The world continues to be plagued by numerous diseases and health complications. Unfortunately, current drug discovery efforts are lagging behind compared to the pace of emergence of new diseases or the development of resistance to current therapies. Medicinal plants especially for people in

  12. Ovicidal efficacy of Ageratina adenophora (Family: Asteraceae) against Anopheles stephensi (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosquitoes are blood-feeding insects and serve as the most important vectors for spreading human diseases such as malaria, yellow fever, dengue fever, and filariasis. The continued use of synthetic insecticides has resulted in resistance in mosquitoes. Synthetic insecticides are toxic and affect the...

  13. Ovicidal activity of Ageratina adenophora (Family: Asteraceae) against dengue vector, Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    To determine the ovicidal efficacy of different solvent leaf extracts of Ageratina adenophora against dengue vector Aedes aegypti . Methods: The ovicidal efficacy of the crude leaf extracts of A. adenophora with five different solvents (hexane, benzene, chloroform, ethyl acetate, methanol) and was ...

  14. Toxicity of thiophenes from echinops transiliensis (Asteraceae) against aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Six known thiophenes, 5-(3,4-diacetoxybut-1-ynyl)-2,2'-bithiophene (3), 2-(penta-1,3-diynyl)-5-(3,4-diacetoxybut-1-ynyl)thiophene (4), 5-(4-acetoxy-3-hydroxybut-1-ynyl)-2,2'-bithiophene (5), 2-(penta-1,3-diynyl)-5-(4-acetoxy-3-hydroxybut-1-ynyl)thiophene (6), 2-(penta-1,3-diynyl)-5-(3-acetoxy-4-hydr...

  15. Mosquito ovicidal properties of Ageratina adenophora (Family: Asteraceae) against filariasis vector, Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosquito-borne diseases with an economic impact create loss in commercial and labor outputs, particularly in countries with tropical and subtropical climates. Mosquito control is facing a threat because of the emergence of resistance to synthetic insecticides. Extracts from plants may be alternativ...

  16. Chemical identification of Tagetes minuta Linnaeus (Asteraceae) essential oil and its acaricidal effect on ticks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Marcos Valério; Matias, Jaqueline; Barros, Jacqueline Cavalcante; de Lima, Dênis Pires; Lopes, Rosângela da Silva; Andreotti, Renato

    2012-01-01

    The control of tick species that affect animal production is vital for the economic welfare of the cattle industry. This study focused on testing the acaricidal activity of the essential oil from the leaves and stems of Tagetes minuta against several Brazilian tick species, including Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, Rhipicephalus sanguineus, Amblyomma cajennense and Argas miniatus. The chemical composition of the essential oil was determined by chromatography and spectroscopy analyses, which revealed the presence of monoterpenes. The adult immersion test (AIT) and the larval packet test (LPT) were used to evaluate the efficacy of T. minuta essential oil in tick management at concentrations of 2.5, 5, 10, 20 and 40%. The results demonstrated that the T. minuta essential oil had over 95% efficacy against four species of ticks at a concentration of 20%. These results suggest that the essential oil of T. minuta could be used as an environmentally friendly acaricide.

  17. Seasonal variation of the essential oil from two Brazilian native Aldama La Llave (Asteraceae) species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Tuane S DE; Bombo, Aline B; Oliveira, Adriana S S DE; Garcia, Vera L; Appezzato-DA-Glória, Beatriz

    2016-01-01

    Aldama arenaria and A. robusta are morphologically similar aromatic species that have seasonal development. The yield and chemical composition of essential oils from aerial and underground vegetative organs of these species were compared to verify the production of volatile metabolites in flowering and dormant phases of development and to identify if there are unique compounds for either species. The major compound in the essential oils from A. arenaria leaves was palustrol (16.22%) and for aerial stems was limonene (15.3%), whereas limonene (11.16%) and α-pinene (19.64%) were the major compounds for leaves and aerial stems from A. robusta, respectively. The major compound for the underground organs was α-pinene, in both species and phenological stages. High amounts of diterpenes were found especially for A. arenaria essential oils. Each analyzed species presented unique compounds, which can provide a characteristic chemical profile for both species helping to solve their taxonomic problems. This study characterized for the first time the yield and essential oil composition of A. arenaria and A. robusta, which have medicinal potential, and some of the compounds in their essential oils are unique to each one and may be useful in helping the correct identification of them.

  18. Antidiarrhoeal effects of Mikania glomerata Spreng. (Asteraceae leaf extract in mice

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    Hérida R.N. Salgado

    Full Text Available Mikania glomerata Spreng. (Asteracae is a plant widely used to treat gastrointestinal disorders in Brazilian traditional medicine. In the present work, an aqueous extract of the leaves of Mikania glomerata has shown a decrease in the propulsive movements of the intestinal contents in mice. Oral administration produced an inhibition of gastrointestinal transit as effective as that produced by loperamide. These findings suggested that the aqueous extract of the leaves of Mikania glomerata might elicit an antidiarrhoeal effect by inhibiting intestinal motility.

  19. Synthesis of fructans by fructosyltransferase from the tuberous roots of Viguiera discolor (Asteraceae

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    Itaya N.M.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Sucrose:sucrose fructosyltransferase (SST and fructan:fructan fructosyl-transferase (FFT activities from crude extracts of tuberous roots of Viguiera discolor growing in a preserved area of cerrado were analyzed in 1995-1996. SST activity was characterized by the synthesis of 1-kestose from sucrose and FFT activity by the production of nystose from 1-kestose. The highest fructan-synthesizing activity was observed during early dormancy (autumn, when both (SST and FFT activities were high. The increase in synthetic activity seemed to start during the fruiting phase in the summer, when SST activity was higher than in spring. During winter and at the beginning of sprouting, both activities declined. The in vitro synthesis of high molecular mass fructans from sucrose by enzymatic preparations from tuberous roots collected in summer showed that long incubations of up to 288 h produced consistently longer polymers which resembled those found in vivo with respect to chromatographic profiles.

  20. Species relationships in Lactuca S.L. (Lactuceae, Asteraceae) inferred from AFLP fingerprints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopman, W.J.M.; Zevenbergen, M.J.; Berg, van den R.G.

    2001-01-01

    An AFLP data set comprising 95 accessions from 20 species of Lactuca s.l. (sensu lato) and related genera was generated using the primer combinations E35/M48 and E35/M49. In phenetic analyses of a data subset, clustering with UPGMA based on Jaccard's similarity coefficient resulted in the highest

  1. Species delimitation and conservation genetics of the Canarian endemic Bethencourtia (Asteraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Priscila; Pérez de Paz, Pedro Luis; Sosa, Pedro A

    2018-04-01

    Bethencourtia Choisy ex Link is an endemic genus of the Canary Islands and comprises three species. Bethencourtia hermosae and Bethencourtia rupicola are restricted to La Gomera, while Bethencourtia palmensis is present in Tenerife and La Palma. Despite the morphological differences previously found between the species, there are still taxonomic incongruities in the group, with evident consequences for its monitoring and conservation. The objectives of this study were to define the species differentiation, perform population genetic analysis and propose conservation strategies for Bethencourtia. To achieve these objectives, we characterized 10 polymorphic SSR markers. Eleven natural populations (276 individuals) were analyzed (three for B. hermosae, five for B. rupicola and three for B. palmensis). The results obtained by AMOVA, PCoA and Bayesian analysis on STRUCTURE confirmed the evidence of well-structured groups corresponding to the three species. At the intra-specific level, B. hermosae and B. rupicola did not show a clear population structure, while B. palmensis was aggregated according to island of origin. This is consistent with self-incompatibility in the group and high gene flow within species. Overall, the genetic diversity of the three species was low, with expected heterozygosity values of 0.302 (B. hermosae), 0.382 (B. rupicola) and 0.454 (B. palmensis). Recent bottleneck events and a low number of individuals per population are probably the causes of the low genetic diversity. We consider that they are naturally rare species associated with specific habitats. The results given in this article will provide useful information to assist in conservation genetics programs for this endemic genus.

  2. Intoxicação experimental pelos frutos de Xanthium cavanillesii (Asteraceae em bovinos

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    Colodel Edson M.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Os frutos moídos de Xanthium cavanillesii Schouw, foram administrados por via oral, em doses única ou repetidas, com intervalo semanal, a onze bovinos. Desses, quatro morreram. Doses únicas a partir de 5 g/kg foram letais para bovinos. Dose de 3 g/kg produziu sinais clínicos e recuperação em um bovino. Repetições de 4 doses de 3 g/kg para um bovino e 2 doses de 5 g/kg para outro bovino não foram tóxicas. Foram constatadas hipoglicemia e elevação dos níveis séricos de aspartato aminotransferase (AST nos bovinos que apresentaram sinais clínicos da intoxicação. Os primeiros sinais clínicos nos animais que morreram foram observados entre 6 e 12 horas após a administração dos frutos. A evolução do quadro clínico variou entre 5h30min e 8 horas. O quadro clínico foi semelhante nestes animais sendo que os principais sinais clínicos foram anorexia, apatia, salivação profusa e tremores musculares. Ocorreram também hipomotilidade e atonia ruminal, cólicas abdominais, gemidos freqüentes, ranger de dentes, sudorese generalizada e endoftalmia. As alterações de locomoção observadas foram incoordenação motora, instabilidade do trem posterior, decúbito permanente com movimentos de pedalagem, espasmos musculares e opistótono. As alterações respiratórias foram aumento da freqüência respiratória, respiração laboriosa com ruídos e momentos de apnéia. Finalmente ocorria perda do reflexo palpebral, ausência de reflexo pupilar e morte. No bovino que se recuperou, os primeiros sinais clínicos foram observados 18 horas após a administração e evoluíram num período de aproximadamente 72 horas. Neste bovino, através de biópsias hepáticas, observou-se necrose hepática coagulativa centrolobular associada a congestão e hemorragias. Necrose hepática coagulativa massiva foi observado por biópsias hepáticas em um bovino que morreu, a partir de 12 horas após a administração dos frutos, associada com alterações nos níveis séricos de glicose e AST. As principais lesões encontradas na necropsia foram no fígado e consistiam de aumento do padrão lobular na superfície capsular e de corte, distensão da vesícula biliar e edema moderado da parede da vesícula biliar. A principal alteração microscópica era caracterizada por necrose coagulativa centrolobular ou massiva associada a congestão e hemorragia e alterações degenerativas nos hepatócitos circunjacentes.

  3. Genetic analysis of a Microseris douglasii (Asteraceae) population polymorphic for an alien chloroplast type

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelofs, Dick; Bachmann, Konrad

    1997-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests chloroplast introgression from Microseris bigelovii into M. douglasii. We have examined 23 plants from a population of M. douglasii polymorphic for M. douglasii and M. bigelovii chloroplast types. All 23 plants were completely homozygous for morphological and RAPD markers,

  4. Genotypic diversity and clonal structure of Erigeron annuus (Asteraceae in Lithuania

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    Tunaitienė, Virginija

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to assess the clonal structure and genetic diversity of alien herbaceous plant species Erigeron annuus. The global warming and changes in agriculture practice in the past few decades were favourable for the expansion of this species in Lithuania. We used RAPD and ISSR assays to assess genetic variation within and among 29 populations of E. annuus. A total of 278 molecular markers were revealed. Our study detected reduced level of genetic diversity of invasive populations of E. annuus. Significant differences in DNA polymorphism among populations of E. annuus were also found. Some populations of this species are composed of genetically identical plants, while others were polymorphic. Clonal diversity of study populations ranged from 0.083 to 0.4 for both DNA marker systems. The Simpsons diversity index values ranged from 0.0 to 0.636. The average number of genotypes per population established using both assays was about 1.7. Out of 328 E. annuus individuals only 16 showed unique RAPD and 14 unique ISSR banding patterns. The remaining plants were clones of different size. The most common genotype of E. annuus identified in our study was represented by predominate in nine populations.

  5. Felicia filifolia (Asteraceae, a South African alien plant introduced in S Catalonia

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    Pyke, S.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The presence of Felicia filifolia, introduced plant of South African origin, is reported for the first time in the mountains of north Falset (Priorat. It is a chorological novelty in the register of alien plants for the Flora of Catalonia and the Iberian Peninsula.

    [es] Se indica por primera vez la presencia de Felicia filifolia, especie introducida de origen sudafricano, en las montañas del norte de Falset (Priorat. En el registro de plantas alóctonas constituye una novedad corológica para la flora de Cataluña y de la Península Ibérica. [ct] S’assenyala per primera vegada la presència de Felicia filifolia, espècie introduïda d’origen sud-africà, a les muntanyes del nord de Falset (Priorat. En el registre de plantes al·lòctones constitueix una novetat corològica per a la flora de Catalunya i de la Península Ibèrica.

  6. The detection, rate and manifestation of residual sexuality in apomictic populations of Pilosella (Asteraceae, Lactuceae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krahulcová, Anna; Rotreklová, O.; Krahulec, František

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 49, č. 2 (2014), s. 239-258 ISSN 1211-9520 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP506/10/1363 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : facultative apomixis * haploid parthenogenesis * interspecific hybridization * Pilosella * residual sexuality Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.778, year: 2014

  7. Methyl jasmonate increases reported alkamides and ketoalkene/ynes in Echinacea pallida (Asteraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binns, S E; Inparajah, I; Baum, B R; Arnason, J T

    2001-06-01

    Methyl jasmonate (MJ), a naturally-occurring plant cellular signal molecule, was found to induce production of lipophilic secondary metabolites in Echinacea pallida seedlings. Seedling aerial parts were sprayed with 100 ppm MJ, and roots were harvested and extracted 24 h later. Lipophilic root extracts, separated by HPLC, revealed significant increases (P< 0.05) in six alkamides or related ketoalkene/ynes produced by 34 day-old plants and in seven compounds produced by 58 day-old plants.

  8. Chemical composition and antibacterial activity of the essential oil of Monticalia andicola (Asteraceae) collected in Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldovino, Shirley; Rojas, Janne; Rojas, Luis B; Lucena, María; Buitrago, Alexis; Morales, Antonio

    2009-11-01

    The essential oil from the leaves of Monticalia andicola Turcz., collected in November 2008, was analyzed by GC/MS. A yield of 0.15% oil was obtained by hydrodistillation. Thirty-six components were identified by comparison of their mass spectra with those in the Wiley GC-MS Library data base. The major components were alpha-pinene (19.6%), beta-pinene (10.5%), alpha-longipinene (6.5%), delta-3-carene (6.2%), cyperene (5.4%) and beta-phellandrene (5.2%). The antibacterial activity of the essential oil was evaluated against Gram- positive (Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212) and Gram-negative (Escherichia coli ATCC 25992, Klebsiella pneumoniae ATCC 23357, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853) bacteria, using the disc diffusion agar method. The results showed a broad spectrum of activity with minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) values ranging from 10 to 150 microg/mL.

  9. Invasive behaviour of Lactuca serriola (Asteraceae) in the Netherlands: Spatial distribution and ecological amplitude

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooftman, D.A.P.; Oostermeijer, J.G.B.; den Nijs, J.C.M.

    2006-01-01

    Species invasions have been a central theme in ecology over the past decades, with a focus on invasions of non-indigenous European species in the New World. However, within Europe, native species may also become invasive. Such species rapidly increase their geographic range and may at the same time

  10. ANATOMY OF GYNURA AURANTIACA (BLUME SCH.BIP. EX DC. (ASTERACEAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodica BERCU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a detailed histoanatomical description, of the vegetative organs (root, stem and leaf and photographs as well of Gynura aurantiaca (Blume Sch.Bip. ex DC. It was observed that the root have typical primary dictos structure. The stem has a differentiated in two regions cortex and the stele comprise one ring of open collateral vascular bundles with secondary xylem due to the cambium activity. The petiole anatomy is quite similar in its basic structure with the stem. The blade presents a heterogenous and hypostomatic mesophyll and a number of vascular bundles in the midrib zone. Remarkable is the presence of the filamentous, uniseriate non-glandular hairs in the stem, petiole and leaf blade. The mechanical tissue is present in the stem, petiole and blade as well.

  11. Population Structure, Genetic Diversity, and Evolutionary History of Kleinia neriifolia (Asteraceae) on the Canary Islands

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Ye; Vargas-Mendoza, Carlos F.

    2017-01-01

    Kleinia neriifolia Haw. is an endemic species on the Canarian archipelago, this species is widespread in the coastal thicket of all the Canarian islands. In the present study, genetic diversity and population structure of K. neriifolia were investigated using chloroplast gene sequences and nuclear SSR (simple sequence repeat). The differentiation among island populations, the historical demography, and the underlying evolutionary scenarios of this species are further tested based on the genet...

  12. Population Structure, Genetic Diversity, and Evolutionary History of Kleinia neriifolia (Asteraceae on the Canary Islands

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    Ye Sun

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Kleinia neriifolia Haw. is an endemic species on the Canarian archipelago, this species is widespread in the coastal thicket of all the Canarian islands. In the present study, genetic diversity and population structure of K. neriifolia were investigated using chloroplast gene sequences and nuclear SSR (simple sequence repeat. The differentiation among island populations, the historical demography, and the underlying evolutionary scenarios of this species are further tested based on the genetic data. Chloroplast diversity reveals a strong genetic divergence between eastern islands (Gran Canaria, Fuerteventura, and Lanzarote and western islands (EI Hierro, La Palma, La Gomera, Tenerife, this west–east genetic divergence may reflect a very beginning of speciation. The evolutionary scenario with highest posterior probabilities suggests Gran Canaria as oldest population with a westward colonization path to Tenerife, La Gomera, La Palma, and EI Hierro, and eastward dispersal path to Lanzarote through Fuerteventura. In the western islands, there is a slight decrease in the effective population size toward areas of recent colonization. However, in the eastern islands, the effective population size increase in Lanzarote relative to Gran Canaria and Fuerteventura. These results further our understanding of the evolution of widespread endemic plants within Canarian archipelago.

  13. The intriguing complexity of parthenogenesis inheritance in Pilosella rubra (Asteraceae, Lactuceae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rosenbaumová, R.; Krahulcová, Anna; Krahulec, František

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 25, č. 3 (2012), s. 185-196 ISSN 0934-0882 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/08/0890 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : apomixis * inheritance of parthenogenesis * haploid parthenogenesis Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 2.070, year: 2012

  14. Four new species of Taraxacum sect. Ruderalia (Asteraceae_cichorieae) from Central Europe and Scandinavia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Uhlemann, I.; Kirschner, Jan; Ollgaard, H.; Štěpánek, Jan

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 47, 1-2 (2007), s. 103-121 ISSN 0079-2047 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA206/05/0970; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06073 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : Taraxacum * Central Europe * Scandinavia Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 0.282, year: 2007

  15. Antioxidant and antidiabetic profiles of two African medicinal plants: Picralima nitida (Apocynaceae) and Sonchus oleraceus (Asteraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teugwa, Clautilde Mofor; Mejiato, Pascaline Chouadeu; Zofou, Denis; Tchinda, Bruno Tugnoua; Boyom, Fabrice Fekam

    2013-07-15

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a metabolic disease characterized by chronic hyperglycaemia generally associated with oxidative stress. The present study aims at evaluating the antioxidant and antidiabetic potential of methanol and hydroethanol extracts of the stem bark and leaves of Pricralima nitida and the Sonchus oleraceus whole plant respectively. The in vitro antioxidant activity was assessed using 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picrilhydrazyl (DPPH) for free radical-scavenging properties of the extracts, and the Folin-Ciocalteu method in determining their phenol contents. The antidiabetic activity was tested in mice following streptozotocin diabetes induction, and selected oxidative stress markers (Malondialdehyde, Hydrogen peroxides and Catalase) were measured in order to evaluate the level of oxidative stress in treated animals. The in vitro antioxidant activity using DPPH showed IC50 ranging from 0.19 ± 0.08 to 1.00 ± 0.06 mg/mL. The highest activity was obtained with the hydroethanol extracts of S. oleraceus (0.19 mg/mL and P. nitida (0.24 mg/mL). Polyphenol contents ranged from 182.25 ± 16.76 to 684.62 ± 46.66 μg Eq Cat/g. The methanol extract of P. nitida showed the highest activity, followed by the hydroethanol extract of S. oleraceus (616.89 ± 19.20 μEq Cat/g). The hydroethanol extract of whole plants (150 mg/Kg) and methanol leave extract of P. nitida (300 mg/Kg) exhibited significant antidiabetic activities with 39.40% and 38.48% glycaemia reduction, respectively. The measurement of stress markers in plasma, liver and kidney after administration of both extracts showed significant reduction in MDA and hydrogen peroxide levels, coupled with a substantial increase in catalase activity. These findings suggest that S. oleraceus whole plant and P. nitida leaves possess both antidiabetic and antioxidant properties, and therefore could be used as starting point for the development of herbal medicines and/or source of new drug molecules against diabetes.

  16. Essential oil composition and antibacterial activity of Anthemis mixta and A. tomentosa (Asteraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Formisano, Carmen; Rigano, Daniela; Senatore, Felice; Raimondo, Francesco Maria; Maggio, Antonella; Bruno, Maurizio

    2012-10-01

    In the present study the chemical composition of the essential oils from aerial parts and roots of Anthemis mixta L. and A. tomentosa L. was evaluated by GC and GC-MS, and their antibacterial activity tested against ten bacterial species. Hexadecanoic acid (15.2%) was recognized as the main constituent ofA. mixta, together with tau-cadinol (6.7%), while in both aerial parts and roots of A. tomentosa nonacosane (21.9% and 20.7%), heptacosane (8.1% and 6.0%), hexadecanoic acid (8.1% and 27.1%) and hexahydrofarnesylacetone (6.8% and 5.5%) prevailed. The oils from aerial parts of both species showed a good activity against Gram-positive bacteria. These results suggest that the plants could be potentially used in food manufacture and cosmetology as preservative agents or in medicine as new antibiotics.

  17. Heterothalamus rupestris, espécie nova de Asteraceae do Rio Grande do Sul.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Paz Deble

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Na revisão botânica do gênero Heterothalamus Less., foi descoberta uma nova espécie, endêmica da Serra do Sudeste do Rio Grande do Sul (Brasil que, a seguir, é descrita, ilustrada e comparada com sua espécie afim.

  18. Physicochemical characteristics of the essential oils of Baccharis dracunculifolia and Baccharis uncinella D.C. (Asteraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kely Cristina Fabiane

    Full Text Available The essential oils of Baccharis dracunculifolia and Baccharis uncinella, which were obtained by hydrodistillation, were physically and chemically characterized for their yield, relative density (d20(20, refraction index, solubility in ethanol and chemical composition through gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrophotometry (GC/MS. The results showed a yield of 1.5 and 1.65 mL/100g-1, relative density (d20(20 of 0.9151 and 0.9147, refraction index of 1.4593 and 1.4602, rotatory power of +1.99 and +2.18. Solubility in 70% ethanol was 3.0, in 80% ethanol was 1.0 and in 96.5% ethanol was 1.0, for the oils of B. dracunculifolia and B. uncinella respectively. The evaluations in gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrophotometry showed that the oils studied are similar, presenting 26 constituents among which β-pinene, ε-nerolidol, limonene and spathulenol are highlighted.

  19. Seasonal variation in pyrrolizidine alkaloid concentration and plant development in Senecio madagascariensis poir. (Asteraceae) in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    This chapter presents the results of studies conducted in the municipality of Eldorado do Sul, State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, in July and October 2007 and January and May 2008 to measure the pyrrolizidine alkaloid (PA) concentrations of S. madagascariensis plant material (including leaves, flow...

  20. Recognition of pyrrolizidine alkaloid esters in the invasive aquatic plant Gymnocoronis spilanthoides (Asteraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boppré, Michael; Colegate, Steven M

    2015-01-01

    The freshwater aquatic plant Gymnocoronis spilanthoides (Senegal tea plant, jazmín del bañado, Falscher Wasserfreund) is an invasive plant in many countries. Behavioural observations of pyrrolizidine alkaloid-pharmacophagous butterflies suggested the presence of pyrrolizidine alkaloids in the plant. To determine whether the attraction of the butterflies to the plant is an accurate indicator of pyrrolizidine alkaloids in G. spilanthoides. The alkaloid fraction of a methanolic extract of G. spilanthoides was analysed using HPLC with electrospray ionisation MS and MS/MS. Two HPLC approaches were used, that is, a C18 reversed-phase column with an acidic mobile phase, and a porous graphitic carbon column with a basic mobile phase. Pyrrolizidine alkaloids were confirmed, with the free base forms more prevalent than the N-oxides. The major alkaloids detected were lycopsamine and intermedine. The porous graphitic carbon HPLC column, with basic mobile phase conditions, resulted in better resolution of more pyrrolizidine alkaloids including rinderine, the heliotridine-based epimer of intermedine. Based on the MS/MS and high-resolution MS data, gymnocoronine was tentatively identified as an unusual C9 retronecine ester with 2,3-dihydroxy-2-propenylbutanoic acid. Among several minor-abundance monoester pyrrolizidines recognised, spilanthine was tentatively identified as an ester of isoretronecanol with the unusual 2-acetoxymethylbutanoic acid. The butterflies proved to be reliable indicators for the presence of pro-toxic 1,2-dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloids in G. spilanthoides, the first aquatic plant shown to produce these alkaloids. The presence of the anti-herbivory alkaloids may contribute to the plant's invasive capabilities and would certainly be a consideration in any risk assessment of deliberate utilisation of the plant. The prolific growth of the plant and the structural diversity of its pyrrolizidine alkaloids may make it ideal for investigating biosynthetic pathways or for large-scale production of specific alkaloids. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.