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Sample records for gujarat india impact

  1. Communal violence in Gujarat, India: impact of sexual violence and responsibilities of the health care system.

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    Khanna, Renu

    2008-05-01

    Situations of chronic conflict across the globe make it imperative to draw attention to its gendered health consequences, particularly the violation of women's reproductive and sexual rights. Since early 2002 in Gujarat, western India, the worst kind of state-sponsored violence against Muslims has been perpetrated, which continues to this day. This paper describes the history of that violence and highlights the mental and physical consequences of sexual and gender-based violence and the issues that need to be addressed by the police, the health care system and civil society. It draws upon several reports, including from the International Initiative for Justice and the Medico Friend Circle, which documented the reproductive, sexual and mental health consequences of the violence in Gujarat, and the lacunae in the responses of the health system. The paper calls for non-discrimination to be demonstrated by health personnel in the context of conflict and social unrest. Their training should include conflict as a public health problem, their roles and responsibilities in prevention, treatment and documentation of this "disease", and focus on relevant medico-legal methodology and principles, the psychological impact of sexual assault on victims, and the legal significance of medical evidence in these cases.

  2. Has introduction of rapid drug susceptibility testing at diagnosis impacted treatment outcomes among previously treated tuberculosis patients in Gujarat, India?

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    Paresh Dave

    Full Text Available Revised National TB Control Programme (RNTCP in India recommends that all previously-treated TB (PT patients are offered drug susceptibility testing (DST at diagnosis, using rapid diagnostics and screened out for rifampicin resistance before being treated with standardized, eight-month, retreatment regimen. This is intended to improve the early diagnosis of rifampicin resistance and its appropriate management and improve the treatment outcomes among the rest of the patients. In this state-wide study from Gujarat, India, we assess proportion of PT patients underwent rapid DST at diagnosis and the impact of this intervention on their treatment outcomes.This is a retrospective cohort study involving review of electronic patient-records maintained routinely under RNTCP. All PT patients registered for treatment in Gujarat during January-June 2013 were included. Information on DST and treatment outcomes were extracted from 'presumptive DR-TB patient register' and TB treatment register respectively. We performed a multivariate analysis to assess if getting tested is independently associated with unfavourable outcomes (death, loss-to-follow-up, failure, transfer out.Of 5,829 PT patients, 5306(91% were tested for drug susceptibility with rapid diagnostics. Overall, 71% (4,113 TB patients were successfully treated - 72% among tested versus 60% among non-tested. Patients who did not get tested at diagnosis had a 34% higher risk of unsuccessful outcomes as compared to those who got tested (aRR - 1.34; 95% CI 1.20-1.50 after adjusting for age, sex, HIV status and type of TB. Unfavourable outcomes (particularly failure and switched to category IV were higher among INH-resistant patients (39% as compared to INH-sensitive (29%.Offering DST at diagnosis improved the treatment outcomes among PT patients. However, even among tested, treatment outcomes remained suboptimal and were related to INH resistance and high loss-to-follow-up. These need to be addressed

  3. Wind Resource Assessment of Gujarat (India)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Draxl, C.; Purkayastha, A.; Parker, Z.

    2014-07-01

    India is one of the largest wind energy markets in the world. In 1986 Gujarat was the first Indian state to install a wind power project. In February 2013, the installed wind capacity in Gujarat was 3,093 MW. Due to the uncertainty around existing wind energy assessments in India, this analysis uses the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model to simulate the wind at current hub heights for one year to provide more precise estimates of wind resources in Gujarat. The WRF model allows for accurate simulations of winds near the surface and at heights important for wind energy purposes. While previous resource assessments published wind power density, we focus on average wind speeds, which can be converted to wind power densities by the user with methods of their choice. The wind resource estimates in this study show regions with average annual wind speeds of more than 8 m/s.

  4. Impact of different irrigation systems on water quality in peri-urban areas of Gujarat, India

    OpenAIRE

    Vangani, Ruchi; Saxena, Deepak; Gerber, Nikolaus; Mavalankar, Dileep; von Braun, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    The ever-growing population of India, along with the increasing competition for water for productive uses in different sectors - especially irrigated agriculture and related local water systems and drainage - poses a challenge in an effort to improve water quality and sanitation. In rural and peri-urban settings, where agriculture is one of the main sources of livelihood, the type of water use in irrigated agriculture has complex interactions with drinking water and sanitation. In particular,...

  5. Impact assessment of climate change on wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and mustard (Brassica spp.) production and its adaptation strategies in different districts of Gujarat, India

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    Pandey, V.; Patel, H. R.; Yadav, S. B.; Patil, D. D.

    2015-12-01

    Gujarat is the western-most state of India with a long (1600 km) sea coast on the Arabian Sea. Average annual rainfall ranges from as high as 1900 mm in the sub-humid southeast to as low as 250 mm in the arid north. There are three distinct crop seasons- rainy (June to September), winter (Oct.-Nov. through Feb.-March) and summer (Feb-March through May-June). Wheat and mustard are grown during winter seasons. The past climatic records suggested increasing trends in rainfall( 2 to 5 mm per year), maximum (0.03 to 0.05 0C per year) and minimum temperatures (0.02 to 0.05 0C per year) at most of places in Gujarat. But the minimum temperature is fould to be increasing significantly at all the locations. This affects the winter season crops viz. wheat and mustard adversely. Simulation results with DSSAT CERES-wheat model revealed that with increase in temperature by 2 0C in different months (November to February) the decrease in wheat yield is observed between 7 to 29 per cent. The impact of increase in maximum temperature during early (November) and late (February) is less (24.8 %). The climate change projections during 2071-2100 using PRECIS output suggested that there would be increase in maximum temperature by 3.2 to 5.2 0C in different districts of Gujarat over baseline period of 1961-1990 while minimum temperature is project to increase by 2.8 to 5.8 0C. Rainfall is also projected to increase by 28 to 70 per cent in different districts. The impact of climate change on wheat would be reduction in its duration by 14-20 days and the grain yield would be reduced by 20-55 per cent in different districts. In case of mustard crops the duration of crop would be reduced by 11 to 16 days and seed yield would be reduced by 32-50 per cent. In order to mitigate the ill effect of climate change, various adaptation strategies vis change in dates of sowing, change in variety, additional irrigation and fertilizer applications were simulated. Shifting of sowing dates of wheat by 15

  6. An Assessment Of Physicochemical Properties, Heavy Metal Enrichment And Fungal Characterization Of Refined Kerosene Impacted Soil In Anand, Gujarat, India

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    Shamiyan R Khan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to assess the physico-chemical properties, heavy metal enrichment and fungal isolation and characterization of the top soil samples collected in-situ from aged refined kerosene contaminated as well as uncontaminated garden soil sites in Anand, Gujarat, India. The total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH concentrations were 17,510 mg/kg in kerosene contaminated soil against 142.65 mg/kg for uncontaminated soils. The contamination increased the soil organic carbon, nitrogen and clay to 2.95 %, 0.612 %, 36.22 % as compared to 1.5%, 0.153%, 32.4% respectively in the uncontaminated soil. Increased concentration of heavy metals like Cobalt, Copper, Iron, Zinc and Lead against the uncontaminated soil was encountered. Ten native fungal speciesbelonging to a total of five genera include Aspergillus (A. terreus, A. versicolor, A. niger; Fusarium oxysporum; Penicilliumjanthinellum from the uncontaminated garden soil, whereas the contaminated soil included Aspergillus (A. terreus, A. versicolor , A. niger Candida tropicalis,Cladosporiumbruhnei and Fusarium oxysporum, identified based on 18S rRNA and the nucleotide sequences were submitted to the NCBI, GenBank database. The changes created by kerosene contamination resulted in variation in individual concentrations of physicochemical properties, soil conductivity, pH and soil fertility indices probably dwindle the growth of fungal strains causing a reduction in the fungal population in the kerosene contaminated soil. International Journal of Environment, Volume-2, Issue-1, Sep-Nov 2013, Pages 164-174 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v2i1.9219

  7. Impact of anti-tobacco warning labels on behaviour of tobacco users in one of the cities of Gujarat, India.

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    Shah, V R; Dave, V R; Sonaliya, K N

    2013-06-01

    Tobacco use continues to be the leading global cause of preventable deaths, killing nearly 6 million people worldwide each year. Tobacco control must be given the high priority by scaling up tobacco control measures. In India under Control of Tobacco Product Act, it is mandatory to keep the warning labels over all kind of tobacco products in order to minimise the use of tobacco. Review of the knowledge regarding warning labels printed on tobacco products among its users and to evaluate the impact of them on addicting behaviour. A Cross Sectional study was carried out among the group of people using tobacco in any form. Total 776 tobacco users were enrolled in the study. Mean age of tobacco user was 41.4 years. Out of total 776 tobacco users, 561 (72.3%) had ever noticed warning signals over the tobacco products. Among those who have noticed warning labels, 64.4 % became aware about health effects and 66% have thought to quit tobacco. Tobacco users of young age group (15-45) were more aware regarding warning labels. Females were less aware. As level of education increases number of tobacco users who tried to quit or reduced the daily quantity of tobacco intake were also increases. Positive impact of warning labels has been seen among the tobacco users who have noticed them. Not all the tobacco users were aware regarding the presence of warning labels as per the findings of present study.

  8. Birds of Mahi River estuary, Gujarat, India

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    P.J. Pandya

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The Mahi river estuary is one of the major estuaries of Gujarat. This paper presents a comprehensive list of birds of the Mahi river estuary (nearly 50 km stretch and the adjacent banks/ravines and defines the avian diversity at three major estuarine gradations with a brief check of similarity and diversity within the three. The present observation is the outcome of a 3 year period from August 2006 to July 2009. A sum total of 118 species belonging to 42 families were reported and listed as on Upstream, Midstream, and Downstream of estuary. No significant difference was seen in the species richness at the three zones; a change in avian composition at upstream and downstream was notable.

  9. Hematological profile of sickle cell disease from South Gujarat, India

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    Sanjeev Shyam Rao

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine hematological profile of sickle cell disease (SCD from Surat, South Gujarat, India. This prospective cross-sectional study was conducted in the Department of Pediatrics and Sickle Cell Anemia Laboratory, Faculty of Pathology, Government Medical College, Surat, India, between July 2009 and December 2010. Patients included in this study were in their steady state for a long period of time without any symptoms related to SCD or other diseases which could affect the hematological parameters. Venous blood of all patients was collected in ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid and hematological indices were measured. Thirty-three subjects homozygous in all were studied for their hematological parameters for sickle cell anemia. Moderate to severe anemia, low mean cell volume and high foetal hemoglobin dominate the hematological profile of SCD children.

  10. A survey of plants in Gujarat, India, for alkaloids, saponins, and tannins

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    Basalingappa L. Hungund; Chandravadan H. Pathak; Chandravadan H. Pathak

    1971-01-01

    A floristic and phytochemical survey of forests in Gujarat State, India, is being undertaken to identify sources of alkaloids, saponins, and tannins. This note is a report on the results of screening 105 plant species collected from that region.

  11. Institutional barriers to commercialisation of wind power in India. The case of Gujarat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amin, Amal-Lee

    1999-10-01

    India is the world`s fourth largest investor in wind power, with 992 MW of installed wind power capacity in September 1998. This report concentrates on wind power development in Gujarat, which has the second highest installed capacity of the Indian states. Policy-makers in India should take the wind energy development in this state as a case study. Institutional support for encouraging renewable energy technologies in India is strong at the state, the national and international levels. Within Gujarat private investment in wind power has been encouraged. Because the Gujarat Electricity Board is financially and operationally weak, an increasing number of industries are investing in self-generation, including wind power. But the results obtained from wind power projects in Gujarat so far have been disappointing. Many factors delay the commercialisation of the wind power industry in India and the report argues that these factors are mainly institutional (bureaucratic, political etc.) in character. 35 refs., 3 figs.

  12. Wind energy centre at Mithapur, Gujarat, India. Technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Hulle, F.; Van der Borg, N.; Prasad, N.S.; Suresh, R.; Rajsekhar, B.

    1997-07-01

    The report describes the design and set-up of a Wind Energy Centre in Gujarat. This Wind Energy Centre has to provide a reliable delivery of a range of development and technical quality assurance services to the wind energy industry in northern India. Infrastructural and organizational requirements of the centre have been defined as per the demands expressed by the industry. This include, site and land, building, equipment - hardware/software, manpower, etc. A suitable site has been identified on the western coast of Gujarat (in the vicinity of Mithapur). Based on the feedback from the industry and keeping in mind the possibilities and state-of-the-art followed in intemationally accepted centres, a range of activities including research and development, support to indigenisation, testing and certification, as well as training have been addressed. Facilities include the following: (1) Test site: test pads, building, roads, power collection system, meteo-towers etc; (2) Mobile test equipment: basic measurement sets, transportable meteo-towers, auxiliary equipment; and (3) Blade test facility: building, foundation, loading and measuring facilities. At full capacity the centre will employ approximately 20 people. 3 figs., 4 tabs

  13. Maternal health in Gujarat, India: a case study.

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    Mavalankar, Dileep V; Vora, Kranti S; Ramani, K V; Raman, Parvathy; Sharma, Bharati; Upadhyaya, Mudita

    2009-04-01

    Gujarat state of India has come a long way in improving the health indicators since independence, but progress in reducing maternal mortality has been slow and largely unmeasured or documented. This case study identified several challenges for reducing the maternal mortality ratio, including lack of the managerial capacity, shortage of skilled human resources, non-availability of blood in rural areas, and infrastructural and supply bottlenecks. The Gujarat Government has taken several initiatives to improve maternal health services, such as partnership with private obstetricians to provide delivery care to poor women, a relatively-short training of medical officers and nurses to provide emergency obstetric care (EmOC), and an improved emergency transport system. However, several challenges still remain. Recommendations are made for expanding the management capacity for maternal health, operationalization of health facilities, and ensuring EmOC on 24/7 (24 hours a day, seven days a week) basis by posting nurse-midwives and trained medical officers for skilled care, ensuring availability of blood, and improving the registration and auditing of all maternal deaths. However, all these interventions can only take place if there are substantially-increased political will and social awareness.

  14. Indian social safety net programs as platforms for introducing wheat flour fortification: a case study of Gujarat, India.

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    Fiedler, John L; Babu, Sunil; Smitz, Marc-Francois; Lividini, Keith; Bermudez, Odilia

    2012-03-01

    Micronutrient deficiencies exact an enormous health burden on India. The release of the National Family Health Survey results--showing the relatively wealthy state of Gujarat having deficiency levels exceeding national averages--prompted Gujarat officials to introduce fortified wheat flour in their social safety net programs (SSNPs). To provide a case study of the introduction of fortified wheat flour in Gujarat's Public Distribution System (PDS), Integrated Child Development Scheme (ICDS), and Mid-Day Meal (MDM) Programme to assess the coverage, costs, impact, and cost-effectiveness of the initiative. India's 2004/05 National Sample Survey data were used to identify beneficiaries of each of Gujarat's three SSNPs and to estimate usual intake levels of vitamin A, iron, and zinc. Comparing age- and sex-specific usual intakes to Estimated Average Requirements, the proportion of the population with inadequate intakes was estimated. Postfortification intake levels and reductions in inadequate intake were estimated. The incremental cost of fortifying wheat flour and the cost-effectiveness of each program were estimated. When each program was assessed independently, the proportion of the population with inadequate vitamin A intakes was reduced by 34% and 74% among MDM and ICDS beneficiaries, respectively. Both programs effectively eliminated inadequate intakes of both iron and zinc. Among PDS beneficiaries, the proportion with inadequate iron intakes was reduced by 94%. CONCLUSIONS. Gujarat's substitution of fortified wheat flour for wheat grain is dramatically increasing the intake of micronutrients among its SSNP beneficiaries. The incremental cost of introducing fortification in each of the programs is low, and, according to World Health Organization criteria, each program is "highly cost-effective." The introduction of similar reforms throughout India would largely eliminate the inadequate iron intake among persons participating in any of the three SSNPs and would

  15. Bat mortality due to collision with wind turbines in Kutch District, Gujarat, India

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    S.R. Kumar

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Globally, India is at fifth position in wind power generation with an installed capacity of 14550 MW. Based onrecent reports from certain parts of the world there is also a growing concern on the environmental impact of wind turbines on bats and birds in other places too. In the Indian context the impact of wind farms on birds and bats are less studied with very little scientific literature available on the subject. Since September 2011, we have been conducting research on birds and bats mortality in wind farms of Kutch District, Gujarat, India. During the study period two carcasses of the Greater Mouse-tailed Bat Rhinopoma microphyllum were recorded due to collision with wind turbines.

  16. Is Institutional Delivery Protective Against Neonatal Mortality Among Poor or Tribal Women? A Cohort Study From Gujarat, India.

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    Altman, Rebecca; Sidney, Kristi; De Costa, Ayesha; Vora, Kranti; Salazar, Mariano

    2017-05-01

    Objectives In low-income settings, neonatal mortality rates (NMR) are higher among socioeconomically disadvantaged groups. Institutional deliveries have been shown to be protective against neonatal mortality. In Gujarat, India, the access of disadvantaged women to institutional deliveries has increased. However, the impact of increased institutional delivery on NMR has not been studied here. This paper examined if institutional childbirth is associated with lower NMR among disadvantaged women in Gujarat, India. Methods A community-based prospective cohort of pregnant women was followed in three districts in Gujarat, India (July 2013-November 2014). Two thousand nine hundred and nineteen live births to disadvantaged women (tribal or below poverty line) were included in the study. Data was analyzed using multivariable logistic regression. Results The overall NMR was 25 deaths per 1000 live births. Multivariable analysis showed that institutional childbirth was protective against neonatal mortality only among disadvantaged women with obstetric complications during delivery. Among mothers with obstetric complications during delivery, those who gave birth in a private or public facility had significantly lower odds of having a neonatal death than women delivering at home (AOR 0.07 95% CI 0.01-0.45 and AOR 0.03, 95% CI 0.00-0.33 respectively). Conclusions for Practice Our findings highlight the crucial role of institutional delivery to prevent neonatal deaths among those born to disadvantaged women with complications during delivery in this setting. Efforts to improve disadvantaged women's access to good quality obstetric care must continue in order to further reduce the NMR in Gujarat, India.

  17. Wind energy centre at Gujarat State, India. Business plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Hulle, F.; Jansen, J.C.; Prasad, N.S.; Suresh, R.

    1997-07-01

    The report describes the business plan for the establishment of a Wind Energy Centre in Gujarat. This Wind Energy Center has to provide a reliable delivery of a range of development and technical quality assurance services to the wind energy industry in northern India on the basis of sustained operations and recovery of all operating costs and - contingent on the way the Centre is financed - at least part of the initial investment costs. Core activities of the Wind Energy Centre are: Research and development supporting activities for the wind energy sector; Testing and certification of wind energy equipment; Consultancy, monitoring and information services; and Training courses on wind energy technology and implementation. The wind energy centre aims with its services at a number of customers: the manufacturing industry, wind farm developers and governmental authorities. An exploration of the market for the services of the envisaged wind energy centre shows that the concept is financially viable. A set of assumptions has been made about the growth rate of the installed wind power capacity in Northern India and about the number of wind turbine manufacturing companies in the target area of the centre. From these assumptions the total number of new wind turbine types coming on the Indian market annually is derived for a period of ten years. These figures have served as a basis for the determination of the required manpower and facilities of the centre for design and development support activities, feasibility and siting studies, testing and certification. Furthermore a projection has been made for providing expert manpower capacity for carrying out R and D, consultancy and other services. 14 tabs., 1 ref

  18. Role stress among auxiliary nurses midwives in Gujarat, India.

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    Purohit, Bhaskar; Vasava, Paul

    2017-01-23

    Understanding Role Stress is important as health service providers, especially nurses experience high levels of Role Stress which is linked to burnout, poor quality of care and high turnover. The current study explicates the concept of Role Stress and assesses the Role Stress experienced by the Auxiliary Nurse Midwives (ANMs) working with rural government health centres from Gujarat, India. The study included 84 ANMs working with government health centres from one district in India. A structured instrument with established reliability and validity was used to measure 10 dimensions of Role Stress namely: Inter-role distance, role stagnation, role expectation conflict, role erosion: role overload, role isolation, personal inadequacy, self-role distance, role ambiguity and resource inadequacy. The study instrument was based on 5 point Likert rating scale that contained 50 unidirectional negative statements, 5 for each dimension. Kolmogorov-Smirnov and Shapiro-Wilk test were carried out to assess if the data were normally distributed. Cronbach's alpha test was carried out to assess reliability of the instrument. The study data was analyzed using descriptive statistics mainly using mean scores with higher scores indicating higher Role Stress and vice versa. The data was analyzed using SPSS version 19. Kolmogorov-Smirnov and Shapiro-Wilk test indicated that the data were normally distributed. Cronbach's alpha test indicated values of 0.852 suggesting high reliability of the tool. The highest Role Stress among ANMs was experienced for resource inadequacy. Role overload, role stagnation and inter-role distance were among the other important role stressors for ANMs. The study results suggests that ANMs frequently feel that: they do not have adequate amount of resources, facilities and financial support from the high levels authorities; people have too many expectations from their roles and as result they are overloaded with work and have very limited opportunities for

  19. Seroepidemiological pattern of leptospirosis in bovine of South Gujarat, India

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    J. M. Patel

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Seroepidemiological study of leptospirosis in cattle of various South Gujarat district (Navsari, Tapi, Surat, Valsad. Materials and Methods: Whole blood samples were collected randomly from different age groups, and breeds of cattle of either sex reared in different districts (Navsari, Surat, Tapi, Valsad of South Gujarat. To obtain serum, whole blood was kept in slanting position in 9.0 ml plain vacutainers until serum extracted out of the whole blood. Then these 9.0 ml plain vacutainers were centrifuged at 7000 rpm for 10 min. The straw colored serum was then collected in 1.5 ml sterile cryo vials and aliquoted and stored at −20°C for microscopic agglutination test. Results: In the present study, overall 12.81% (51/398 seroprevalence were recorded with highest seroprevalence (47.06%, 24/51 from Valsad followed by Navsari (9.14%, 18/197, Surat (6.90%, 2/29 and Tapi (5.79%, 7/121 among cattle. The seroprevalence rate of breed and sex wise did not differ significantly (p≤0.05. Maximum incidence of seropositivity was found above 4 years (16.32%, 39/239 of age group followed by animals between 1 and 4 years (9.68%, 12/124. Thus, the age was significantly influencing the seropositivity (p≤0.05. In cattle out of 398 sera screened, 51 were positive with one or more serovars. The highest seropositivity was recorded against serovar Pomona (28.89%. Conclusions: Overall 12.81% seroprevalence of leptospirosis in apparently healthy and clinically ailing bovine of South Gujarat indicating potential zoonotic risk to farmers, labor, and animal owners.

  20. Magnetotelluric Investigations in Tuwa-Godhra Region, Gujarat (India)

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    Mohan, Kapil; Chaudhary, Peush; Kumar, G. Pavan; Kothyari, Girish Ch.; Choudhary, Virender; Nagar, Mehul; Patel, Pruthul; Gandhi, Drasti; Kushwaha, Dilip; Rastogi, B. K.

    2018-05-01

    Magnetotelluric (MT) data have been acquired at 40 locations in Tuwa and its surrounding region (200 km east of Ahmedabad and 15 km north-northwest of Godhra) in the Mainland Gujarat with an average station spacing of 1.5 km. MT impedance tensors have been estimated in the period range of 0.001-100 s. The data have been modeled using non-linear conjugate gradient scheme taking both apparent resistivity and phase into account. From the 2D models of the MT data, the weathered granite with Quaternary sediments (with resistivity of area (having resistivity value ranging from 103 to 104 Ω m) separated from the Godhra granite by a contact zone. The comparatively very low-resistivity rocks (contact zone of Lunavada and Champaner groups has been suggested. The presence of hot water springs in 10 km SW from the center of the study area (at the contact zone of Godhra granite and basalt) might be due to the western trending lithostratigraphic slope, hydrostatic pressure generated due to heat produced from interaction of water with the carbonate rocks at deeper depth and high subsurface temperature due to high geothermal gradient. The segmented nature of Himmatnagar Fault (HnF) is identified in the central portion of the study area.

  1. Status of avifauna at Taranga Hill-forest, Gujarat, India

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    C.D. Patel

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Taranga is one of the famous pilgrim places of northern Gujarat. It is located (240 00’N & 72046’E at starting point of Aravalli ranges. Climate of this area is semi-arid with irregular rainfall. Variable width line transect method was adapted to study the avifaunal diversity. Taranga Hill-forest has atleast 90 species of birds belonging to 11 orders, 33 families and 68 genera. Passeriformes being the largest family. All common residents appear to be adapted to the prevailing conditions. Red-vented Bulbul and Rock Pigeon were most abundant while Asian Paradise-flycatcher, Crested Bunting and European Roller were rare. White-naped Tit a globally threatened and endemic resident has been found as local migrant, scarce in number, common in occurrence and breeder in the tropical thorn-scrub habitat of THf. Plum-headed Parakeet may be a breeding possible species. In comparison to other places, the avian diversity is observed poor, because Aravallis are not on the migratory route or landing site of migratory birds. In addition, anthropogenic factors, presence of predators and loss of vegetation may be having a telling effect.

  2. Usage of EMBRACETM in Gujarat, India: Survey of Paediatricians

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    Somashekhar Nimbalkar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. EMBRACETM is an innovative, low cost infant warmer for use in neonates. It contains phase change material, which stays at constant temperature for 6 hours. We surveyed paediatricians using EMBRACETM regarding benefits, risks, and setup in which it was used in Gujarat. Methods. Questionnaire was administered telephonically to 52 out of 53 paediatricians. Results. EMBRACETM was used for an average of 8.27 (range of 3–18, SD = 3.84 months by paediatricians. All used it for thermoregulation during transfers, for average (SD duration of 42 (0.64 m per transfer, 62.7% used it at mother’s side for average (SD 11.06 (7.89 h per day, and 3.9% prescribed it at home. It was used in low birth weight neonates only by 56.9% while 43.1% used it for all neonates. While hyperthermia was not reported, 5.9% felt that EMBRACETM did not prevent hypothermia. About 54.9% felt that they could not monitor the newborn during EMBRACETM use. Of paediatricians who practiced kangaroo mother care (KMC, 7.7% have limited/stopped/decreased the practice of KMC and substituted it with EMBRACETM. Conclusions. EMBRACETM was acceptable to most but concerns related to monitoring neonates and disinfection remained. Most paediatricians felt that it did not hamper KMC practice.

  3. Infection control in delivery care units, Gujarat state, India: A needs assessment

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    Ramani KV

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increasingly, women in India attend health facilities for childbirth, partly due to incentives paid under government programs. Increased use of health facilities can alleviate the risks of infections contracted in unhygienic home deliveries, but poor infection control practices in labour and delivery units also cause puerperal sepsis and other infections of childbirth. A needs assessment was conducted to provide information on procedures and practices related to infection control in labour and delivery units in Gujarat state, India. Methods Twenty health care facilities, including private and public primary health centres and referral hospitals, were sampled from two districts in Gujarat state, India. Three pre-tested tools for interviewing and for observation were used. Data collection was based on existing infection control guidelines for clean practices, clean equipment, clean environment and availability of diagnostics and treatment. The study was carried out from April to May 2009. Results Seventy percent of respondents said that standard infection control procedures were followed, but a written procedure was only available in 5% of facilities. Alcohol rubs were not used for hand cleaning and surgical gloves were reused in over 70% of facilities, especially for vaginal examinations in the labour room. Most types of equipment and supplies were available but a third of facilities did not have wash basins with "hands-free" taps. Only 15% of facilities reported that wiping of surfaces was done immediately after each delivery in labour rooms. Blood culture services were available in 25% of facilities and antibiotics are widely given to women after normal delivery. A few facilities had data on infections and reported rates of 3% to 5%. Conclusions This study of current infection control procedures and practices during labour and delivery in health facilities in Gujarat revealed a need for improved information systems

  4. Barriers to Real-Time Medical Direction via Cellular Communication for Prehospital Emergency Care Providers in Gujarat, India.

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    Lindquist, Benjamin; Strehlow, Matthew C; Rao, G V Ramana; Newberry, Jennifer A

    2016-07-08

    Many low- and middle-income countries depend on emergency medical technicians (EMTs), nurses, midwives, and layperson community health workers with limited training to provide a majority of emergency medical, trauma, and obstetric care in the prehospital setting. To improve timely patient care and expand provider scope of practice, nations leverage cellular phones and call centers for real-time online medical direction. However, there exist several barriers to adequate communication that impact the provision of emergency care. We sought to identify obstacles in the cellular communication process among GVK Emergency Management and Research Institute (GVK EMRI) EMTs in Gujarat, India. A convenience sample of practicing EMTs in Gujarat, India were surveyed regarding the barriers to call initiation and completion. 108 EMTs completed the survey. Overall, ninety-seven (89.8%) EMTs responded that the most common reason they did not initiate a call with the call center physician was insufficient time. Forty-six (42%) EMTs reported that they were unable to call the physician one or more times during a typical workweek (approximately 5-6 twelve-hour shifts/week) due to their hands being occupied performing direct patient care. Fifty-eight (54%) EMTs reported that they were unable to reach the call center physician, despite attempts, at least once a week. This study identified multiple barriers to communication, including insufficient time to call for advice and inability to reach call center physicians. Identification of simple interventions and best practices may improve communication and ensure timely and appropriate prehospital care.

  5. Procedural (in)justice in the implementation of solar energy: The case of Charanaka solar park, Gujarat, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yenneti, Komali; Day, Rosie

    2015-01-01

    Solar PV is being rolled out on a large scale in India and other emerging economies, but in the enthusiasm for solar’s promise of plentiful, low carbon energy, the social and environmental justice concerns accompanying such infrastructure development are in danger of being overlooked. In this context, this paper, using the case study of ‘Charanaka Solar Park’ in Gujarat state, qualitatively analyses the degree of provision for procedural justice in solar energy implementation in India using a framework drawn from social environmental and energy justice literatures. The case study illustrates how the failure of various aspects of procedural justice can result in unnecessarily large impacts on the livelihoods of rural communities and the further marginalisation of those of lowest status. We conclude with discussion of the aspects of procedural justice that need attention in low carbon energy developments in developing countries alongside some policy and governance suggestions for the achievement of this in India and elsewhere. - Highlights: • Procedural justice issues in Charanaka solar park implementation are examined • New insights into participation, enfranchisement, and recognition are provided • Lack of information sharing and acknowledgement of local knowledge • Lack of adequate participation and enfranchisement of the affected communities • Consideration of procedural justice important for success of National Solar Mission

  6. Spiders (Arachnida: Araneae of Gujarat University Campus, Ahmedabad, India with additional description of Eilica tikaderi (Platnick, 1976

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    Dhruv A. Prajapati

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We report a checklist of spiders based on a survey made from August 2013 to July 2014 in Gujarat University Campus, an urban area located in the middle of Ahmadabad City, Gujarat State. A total of 77 species of spiders belonging to 53 genera and 20 families of spiders were recorded from the study area represented by 31.74% of the total 63 families reported from India. Salticidae was found to be the most dominant family with 18 species from 14 genera. Guild structure analysis revealed six feeding guilds, namely stalkers, orb-web builders, space-web builders, ambushers, foliage hunters and ground runners. Stalkers and orb-web builders were the most dominant feeding guilds representing 28.58% and 20.78% respectively among all studied guilds. Species Eilica tikaderi (Platnick, 1976 is reported for the first time from Gujarat with additional description and detailed genitalic illustrations.

  7. Predictors of Availing Maternal Health Schemes: A community based study in Gujarat, India

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    Kranti Suresh Vora

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: India continues to face challenges in improving key maternal health indicators with about 1/3rd of global maternal deaths happening in India. Utilization of health care services is an important issue in India with significant proportion of home deliveries and majority of mothers not receiving adequate antenatal care. Mortality among poor rural women is the highest with lowest utilization. To make maternal healthcare more equitable, numerous schemes such as Janani Suraksha Yojana, Chiranjeevi Yojana, Kasturba Poshan Sahay Yojana have been introduced. Studies suggest that utilization of such schemes by target population is low and there is a need to understand factors affecting maternal health care utilization in the context of these schemes. Current community based study was done in rural Gujarat to understand characteristics of women who utilize such schemes and predictors of utilization. Methodology: Data collection was done in two districts of Gujarat from June to August, 2013 as a pilot phase of MATIND project. Community based cross-sectional study included 827 households and socio-demographic details of 1454 women of 15-49 years age groups were collected. 265 mothers, who had delivered after 1st January, 2013 are included in the regression analyses. The data analysis carried out with R version 3.0.1 software.  Results: The analysis indicates socioeconomic variables such as caste, maternal variables such as education and health system variables such as use of government facility are important predictors of maternal health scheme utilization. Results suggest that socioeconomic and health system factors are the best predictors for availing scheme. Conclusion: Health system variables along with individual level variables are important predictors for availing maternal health schemes. The study indicates the need to examine all levels of predictors for utilizing government health schemes to maximize the benefit for underserved

  8. Knowledge, attitudes, and practices of private sector immunization service providers in Gujarat, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagan, José E; Gaonkar, Narayan; Doshi, Vikas; Patni, Anas; Vyas, Shailee; Mazumdar, Vihang; Kosambiya, J K; Gupta, Satish; Watkins, Margaret

    2018-01-02

    India is responsible for 30% of the annual global cohort of unvaccinated children worldwide. Private practitioners provide an estimated 21% of vaccinations in urban centers of India, and are important partners in achieving high vaccination coverage. We used an in-person questionnaire and on-site observation to assess knowledge, attitudes, and practices of private immunization service providers regarding delivery of immunization services in the urban settings of Surat and Baroda, in Gujarat, India. We constructed a comprehensive sampling frame of all private physician providers of immunization services in Surat and Baroda cities, by consulting vaccine distributors, local branches of physician associations, and published lists of private medical practitioners. All providers were contacted and asked to participate in the study if they provided immunization services. Data were collected using an in-person structured questionnaire and directly observing practices; one provider in each practice setting was interviewed. The response rate was 82% (121/147) in Surat, and 91% (137/151) in Baroda. Of 258 participants 195 (76%) were pediatricians, and 63 (24%) were general practitioners. Practices that were potential missed opportunities for vaccination (MOV) included not strictly following vaccination schedules if there were concerns about ability to pay (45% of practitioners), and not administering more than two injections in the same visit (60%). Only 22% of respondents used a vaccination register to record vaccine doses, and 31% reported vaccine doses administered to the government. Of 237 randomly selected vaccine vials, 18% had expired vaccine vial monitors. Quality of immunization services in Gujarat can be strengthened by providing training and support to private immunization service providers to reduce MOVs and improve quality and safety; other more context specific strategies that should be evaluated may involve giving feedback to providers on quality of services

  9. Assisting community management of groundwater: Irrigator attitudes in two watersheds in Rajasthan and Gujarat, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varua, M. E.; Ward, J.; Maheshwari, B.; Oza, S.; Purohit, R.; Hakimuddin; Chinnasamy, P.

    2016-06-01

    The absence of either state regulations or markets to coordinate the operation of individual wells has focussed attention on community level institutions as the primary loci for sustainable groundwater management in Rajasthan and Gujarat, India. The reported research relied on theoretical propositions that livelihood strategies, groundwater management and the propensity to cooperate are associated with the attitudinal orientations of well owners in the Meghraj and Dharta watersheds, located in Gujarat and Rajasthan respectively. The research tested the hypothesis that attitudes to groundwater management and farming practices, household income and trust levels of assisting agencies were not consistent across the watersheds, implying that a targeted approach, in contrast to default uniform programs, would assist communities craft rules to manage groundwater across multiple hydro-geological settings. Hierarchical cluster analysis of attitudes held by survey respondents revealed four statistically significant discrete clusters, supporting acceptance of the hypothesis. Further analyses revealed significant differences in farming practices, household wealth and willingness to adapt across the four groundwater management clusters. In conclusion, the need to account for attitudinal diversity is highlighted and a framework to guide the specific design of processes to assist communities craft coordinating instruments to sustainably manage local aquifers described.

  10. Lower Oligocene bivalves of Ramanian Stage from Kachchh, Gujarat, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachhara, R. P.; Jodhawat, R. L.; Devi, K. Bigyapati

    2012-04-01

    Marine Oligocene sequences in India outcrop only in western part of Kachchh. Earlier researchers have recognized the Oligocene strata under the Nari Series (Nagappa 1959; Chatterji and Mathur 1966). The Nari Series has a type area in Pakistan. It has two subdivisions - the Lower Nari (Lower Oligocene) and the Upper Nari (Upper Oligocene). It seems that there is no valid proof about the age of the Lower Nari due to lack of proper fauna (Eames 1975), and according to Pascoe (1962), the Upper Nari slightly transgress into Aquitanian (Lower Miocene), therefore, one has to be very cautious. Biswas and Raju (1971) reclassified the Oligocene strata of Kachchh and lithostratigraphically clubbed them as the Maniyara Fort Formation with type section along the Bermoti stream. This Formation has four members. The lower three members correspond to the Ramanian Stage (Lower Oligocene, Biswas 1971, 1973) while the uppermost to the Waiorian Stage (Upper Oligocene, Biswas 1965, 1971, 1973). The Ramanian Stage is characterized by large forams especially Nummulites fichteli, Nummulites fichteli intermedius, Lepidocyclina ( Eulepidina) dialata and Operculina sp. Several ostracods are also known to occur. Megafauna include bivalves, gastropods, echinoids, corals, mammals and reptiles. Concerning bivalves earlier researchers have recorded a few taxa namely Trisidos semitorta (Lamarck), Cubitostrea angulata (J de C Sowerby), Pecten ( Amussiopecten) labadyei d'Archiac and Haime, Periglypta puerpera (Linne') var. aglaurae Brongniart, Ostrea fraasi Mayer Eymer and listed Pecten laevicostatus J de C Sowerby, Callista pseudoumbonella Vredenburg and Clementia papyracea (Gray) from Kachchh as against overall 42 forms from the Nari Series as a whole (Vredenburg 1928). This tempted us to make an attempt to collect bivalve fauna systematically which are occurring prolifically in the Ramanian Stage. In the present work, for this purpose, sections are worked out around Lakhpat (23°50'N; 68°47'E

  11. Current status of Marsh Crocodiles Crocodylus palustris (Reptilia: Crocodylidae in Vishwamitri River, Vadodara City, Gujarat, India

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    R. Vyas

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Data presented here is based on a three year study (2008-2010 on a population of Mugger Crocodylus palustris inhabiting Vishwamitri River near Vadodara City, Gujarat State, India. In total, 155 Muggers were counted in the 25km river stretch during 2010. In all, 40 burrows were observed along the river bank, and the same were clumped in certain sections of the river. Muggers fed eight species of birds, and domestic livestock in addition to scavenging. Eight instances of human-crocodile conflicts were observed including four human causalities. A total 90 Muggers were rescued from the urban areas and the same were relocated elsewhere in the river system. Various types of threats to Mugger were also noticed including habitat loss, alteration and soil erosion and mortality due to rail traffic. The present study suggests further research to propose strategies to conserve this population.

  12. Metagenomic sequence of saline desert microbiota from wild ass sanctuary, Little Rann of Kutch, Gujarat, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Rajesh; Mevada, Vishal; Prajapati, Dhaval; Dudhagara, Pravin; Koringa, Prakash; Joshi, C G

    2015-03-01

    We report Metagenome from the saline desert soil sample of Little Rann of Kutch, Gujarat State, India. Metagenome consisted of 633,760 sequences with size 141,307,202 bp and 56% G + C content. Metagenome sequence data are available at EBI under EBI Metagenomics database with accession no. ERP005612. Community metagenomics revealed total 1802 species belonged to 43 different phyla with dominating Marinobacter (48.7%) and Halobacterium (4.6%) genus in bacterial and archaeal domain respectively. Remarkably, 18.2% sequences in a poorly characterized group and 4% gene for various stress responses along with versatile presence of commercial enzyme were evident in a functional metagenome analysis.

  13. An investigation of an outbreak of viral hepatitis B in Modasa town, Gujarat, India

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    Disha A Patel

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Most outbreaks of viral hepatitis in India are caused by hepatitis E. Recently in the year 2009, Modasa town of Sabarkantha district in Gujarat witnessed the outbreak of hepatitis B. Purpose: An attempt was made to study the outbreak clinically and serologically, to estimate the seropositivity of hepatitis B Virus among the cases and their contacts and to know the seroprevalence of hepatitis B envelope antigen (HBeAg and IgM antibody against hepatitis B core antigen (IgM HBcAb out of all the Hepatitis B surface Antigen (HBsAg positive ones. Materials and Methods: Eight hundred and fifty-six (856 cases and 1145 contacts were evaluated for hepatitis B markers namely HBsAg, HBeAg and IgM HBcAb by enzyme-linked immuno Sorbent Assay (ELISA test. Results: This outbreak of viral hepatitis B in Modasa, Gujarat was most likely due to unsafe injection practices. Evidence in support of this was collected by Government authorities. Most of the patients and approximately 40% of the surveyed population gave history of injections in last 1.5-6 months. Total 664/856 (77.57% cases and 20/1145 (1.75% contacts were found to be positive for HBsAg. 53.41% of the positive cases and 52.93% of the positive contacts were HBeAg-positive and thus in a highly infectious stage. Conclusions: Inadequately sterilized needles and syringes are an important cause of transmission of hepatitis B in India. Our data reflects the high positivity rate of a hepatitis B outbreak due to such unethical practices. There is a need to strengthen the routine surveillance system, and to organise a health education campaign targeting all health care workers including private practitioners, especially those working in rural areas, as well as the public at large, to take all possible measures to prevent this often fatal infection.

  14. Knowledge of and attitudes toward clinical depression among health providers in Gujarat, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almanzar, Santiago; Shah, Nirsarg; Vithalani, Suril; Shah, Sandip; Squires, James; Appasani, Raghu; Katz, Craig L

    2014-01-01

    Clinical depression is a major leading cause of morbidity and mortality but it is oftentimes overlooked and undertreated. The negative perception and lack of understanding of this condition prevents millions of people from seeking appropriate and on-time medical help, leading to distress and increased burden for affected people and their families. The implementation of public education campaigns and training of non-psychiatric health professionals on mental health and clinical depression has been neglected in several countries, including India, which is the second most populous country in the world with a population of more than 1.2 billion people, almost one-fifth of the world's population. This study sought to explore the knowledge and attitudes toward the diagnosis and treatment of clinical depression in nonpsychiatric health care providers in Vadodara, Gujarat, India. A cross-sectional survey was conducted over a 4-week period In Gujarat, India among resident physicians and community health workers about their knowledge and views on clinical depression. We found considerable stigma and misinformation about depression especially among health care workers in India. Most of the community health workers had a great deal of difficulty when defining clinical depression, and a large majority said that they never heard about depression or its definition and although the overwhelming majority of respondents did not believe that clinical depression results from a punishment from God (82% disagreed or strongly disagreed with this belief) or evil spirits (77.5%), a much smaller proportion disagreed with the assertions that depression was either solely due to difficult circumstances (38.2%) or that sufferers only had themselves to blame (47.2%). Meanwhile, only 32.6% disagreed with the position that clinical depression is a sign of weakness and 39.4% disagreed with the statement that suicide was a sign of weakness. Our findings underscore the considerable public health

  15. Evaluation of water quality index for River Sabarmati, Gujarat, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Kosha A.; Joshi, Geeta S.

    2017-06-01

    An attempt has been made to develop water quality index (WQI), using six water quality parameters pH, dissolved oxygen, biochemical oxygen demand, electrical conductivity, nitrate nitrogen and total coliform measured at three different stations along the Sabarmati river basin from the year 2005 to 2008. Rating scale is developed based on the tolerance limits of inland waters and health point of view. Weighted arithmetic water quality index method was used to find WQI along the stretch of the river basin. It was observed from this study that the impact of human activity and sewage disposal in the river was severe on most of the parameters. The station located in highly urban area showed the worst water quality followed by the station located in moderately urban area and lastly station located in a moderately rural area. It was observed that the main cause of deterioration in water quality was due to the high anthropogenic activities, illegal discharge of sewage and industrial effluent, lack of proper sanitation, unprotected river sites and urban runoff.

  16. Hydrological and Farming System Impacts of Agricultural Water Management Interventions in North Gujarat

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, O.P.

    2013-01-01

    Groundwater over-exploitation is a common phenomenon in many arid and semi arid regions of the world. Within India, north Gujarat is one of such intensively exploited regions. Groundwater supports irrigated crop production and intensive dairy farming in the region. Well irrigation is critical to the region’s rural economy and livelihoods. The overall objective of the study was to examine the water demand management interventions on farming system, livelihood patterns, food and nutritional s...

  17. Healthcare sector efficiency in Gujarat (India: an exploratory study using data envelopment analysis

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    Brijesh C. Purohit

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The importance of efficiency in resource utilization in healthcare sector has been recognized globally. In this paper we focus on efficiency of healthcare system at sub-state level (i.e., district level in India using Gujarat state and its district level data for 2012-13. In spite of being an economically advanced state, in terms of infant mortality rate (IMR the state is not the lowest. We explore the reasons for relative performance of different districts with data envelopment analysis (DEA. We used IMR as output variables. Using principal component analysis we tried a sub-set of variables, which had low correlations. Thus, four factor scores relating to medical officer, lady medical officer, Ayurveda, Yoga and Naturopathy, Unani, Siddha and Homoeopathy doctor, pharmacist, were used for DEA. We have focused on Charnes, Cooper, and Rhodes scores (or constant returns to scale technical efficiency score, and discussed efficiency rankings based on these. Thus, our results pertaining to district level health system efficiency in Gujarat State indicate that some of the districts have low efficiency in utilization of inputs like doctors, beds and workload per health institutions. There are also other districts, which need more of these inputs, which may enhance their output and efficiency. Thus, it is suggested that the efficiency in Valsad needs an improvement much more than other districts, whereas districts like Ahmadabad and Surat need more of both medical manpower and facilities. Even in case of Vadodara and Rajkot, the ranking in terms of most of medical manpower and facilities is low and thus these districts may also be benefitted by additional inputs. Hence, there is a mix of both inefficiency and inadequacy of inputs, which is reflected in our results.

  18. Development and Implementation of South Asia’s First Heat-Health Action Plan in Ahmedabad (Gujarat, India

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    Kim Knowlton

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Recurrent heat waves, already a concern in rapidly growing and urbanizing South Asia, will very likely worsen in a warming world. Coordinated adaptation efforts can reduce heat’s adverse health impacts, however. To address this concern in Ahmedabad (Gujarat, India, a coalition has been formed to develop an evidence-based heat preparedness plan and early warning system. This paper describes the group and initial steps in the plan’s development and implementation. Evidence accumulation included extensive literature review, analysis of local temperature and mortality data, surveys with heat-vulnerable populations, focus groups with health care professionals, and expert consultation. The findings and recommendations were encapsulated in policy briefs for key government agencies, health care professionals, outdoor workers, and slum communities, and synthesized in the heat preparedness plan. A 7-day probabilistic weather forecast was also developed and is used to trigger the plan in advance of dangerous heat waves. The pilot plan was implemented in 2013, and public outreach was done through training workshops, hoardings/billboards, pamphlets, and print advertisements. Evaluation activities and continuous improvement efforts are ongoing, along with plans to explore the program’s scalability to other Indian cities, as Ahmedabad is the first South Asian city to address heat-health threats comprehensively.

  19. Towards a Managed Aquifer Recharge strategy for Gujarat, India: An economist’s dialogue with hydro-geologists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Tushaar

    2014-10-01

    Gujarat state in Western India exemplifies all challenges of an agrarian economy founded on groundwater overexploitation sustained over decades by perverse energy subsidies. Major consequences are: secular decline in groundwater levels, deterioration of groundwater quality, rising energy cost of pumping, soaring carbon footprint of agriculture and growing financial burden of energy subsidies. In 2009, Government of Gujarat asked the present author, an economist, to chair a Taskforce of senior hydro-geologists and civil engineers to develop and recommend a Managed Aquifer Recharge (MAR) strategy for the state. This paper summarizes the recommended strategy and its underlying logic. It also describes the imperfect fusion of socio-economic and hydro-geologic perspectives that occurred in course of the working of the Taskforce and highlights the need for trans-disciplinary perspectives on groundwater governance.

  20. Addressing semen loss concerns: towards culturally appropriate HIV/AIDS interventions in Gujarat, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakhani, A; Gandhi, K; Collumbien, M

    2001-11-01

    A situation analysis of sexual networking and sexual health in an industrial area of Gujarat, India, identified anxiety about masturbation and other semen loss concerns as major preoccupations among young men. This paper describes how the Deepak Charitable Trust addressed these concerns in their HIV prevention programme for young men aged 15 to 30. Flowcharts were used as participatory learning tools and to obtain data on the perceived consequences of masturbation, both before and after intervention activities. Research was also done on the relation between semen-related anxieties and sexual risk behaviour by DCT and two other NGOs among young men engaging in unsafe sexual behaviour. DCT advocates addressing masturbation and other semen loss concerns in all sexual health campaigns in South Asia, based on the magnitude of these concerns, their potential to confound syndromic management of STIs and their significance as an idiom of psychosocial distress. Masturbation and associated anxieties about sexual performance are seen as health issues and discussed as such by the programme. There is immediate identification among young men, whether or not they are already sexually active, and it provides an excellent entry point for sexual health and safer sex education. The community response to these efforts has been entirely positive.

  1. New euprimate postcrania from the early Eocene of Gujarat, India, and the strepsirrhine-haplorhine divergence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Rachel H; Rose, Kenneth D; Rana, Rajendra S; Kumar, Kishor; Sahni, Ashok; Smith, Thierry

    2016-10-01

    The oldest primates of modern aspect (euprimates) appear abruptly on the Holarctic continents during a brief episode of global warming known as the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum, at the beginning of the Eocene (∼56 Ma). When they first appear in the fossil record, they are already divided into two distinct clades, Adapoidea (basal members of Strepsirrhini, which includes extant lemurs, lorises, and bushbabies) and Omomyidae (basal Haplorhini, which comprises living tarsiers, monkeys, and apes). Both groups have recently been discovered in the early Eocene Cambay Shale Formation of Vastan lignite mine, Gujarat, India, where they are known mainly from teeth and jaws. The Vastan fossils are dated at ∼54.5 Myr based on associated dinoflagellates and isotope stratigraphy. Here, we describe new, exquisitely preserved limb bones of these Indian primates that reveal more primitive postcranial characteristics than have been previously documented for either clade, and differences between them are so minor that in many cases we cannot be certain to which group they belong. Nevertheless, the small distinctions observed in some elements foreshadow postcranial traits that distinguish the groups by the middle Eocene, suggesting that the Vastan primates-though slightly younger than the oldest known euprimates-may represent the most primitive known remnants of the divergence between the two great primate clades. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. A diverse snake fauna from the early Eocene of Vastan Lignite Mine, Gujarat, India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rage, J.C.; Folie, A.; Rana, R.S.; Singh, H.; Rose, K.D.; Smith, T. [Museum National Historical Nature, Paris (France)

    2008-09-15

    The early Eocene (Ypresian) Cambay Formation of Vastan Lignite Mine in Gujarat, western India, has produced a diverse assemblage of snakes including at least ten species that belong to the Madtsoiidae, Palaeophiidae (Palaeophis and Pterosphenus), Boidae, and several Caenophidia. Within the latter taxon, the Colubroidea are represented by Russellophis crassus sp. nov. (Russellophiidae) and by Procerophis sahnii gen. et sp. nov. Thaumastophis missiaeni gen. et sp. nov. is a caenophidian of uncertain family assignment. At least two other forms probably represent new genera and species, but they are not named; both appear to be related to the Caenophidia. The number of taxa that represent the Colubroidea or at least the Caenophidia, i.e., advanced snakes, is astonishing for the Eocene. This is consistent with the view that Asia played an important part in the early history of these taxa. The fossils come from marine and continental levels; however, no significant difference is evident between faunas from these levels. The fauna from Vastan Mine includes highly aquatic, amphibious, and terrestrial snakes. All are found in the continental levels, including the aquatic palaeophiids, whereas the marine beds yielded only two taxa. Vastan Mine is only the second locality in which the palaeophiids Palaeophis and Pterosphenus co-occur. The composition of the fauna from Vastan is on the whole similar to that of the early Eocene of Europe; however, comparisons with early Eocene faunas of other continents are not possible because they are poorly known or unknown.

  3. Duchenne/Becker muscular dystrophy: A report on clinical, biochemical, and genetic study in Gujarat population, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Mandava V; Sindhav, Gaurang M; Mehta, Jitendra J

    2014-07-01

    In India, various groups have studied different regions to find out deletion pattern of dystrophin gene. We have investigated its deletion pattern among Duchenne/Becker muscular dystrophy (D/BMD) patients across Gujarat. Moreover, in this study we also correlate the same with reading frame rule. However, we too consider various clinicopathological features to establish as adjunct indices when deletion detection fails. In this pilot study, a total of 88 D/BMD patients consulting at our centers in Gujarat, India were included. All patients were reviewed on basis of their clinical characteristics, tested by three primer sets of 10-plex, 9-plex, and 7-plex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for genetic analysis; whereas, biochemical indices were measured using automated biochemical analyzers. The diagnosis of D/BMD was confirmed by multiplex-PCR (M-PCR) in D/BMD patients. A number of 65 (73.86%) out of 88 patients showed deletion in dystrophin gene. The exon 50 (58.46%) was the most frequent deletion found in our study. The mean age of onset of DMD and BMD was 4.09 ± 0.15 and 7.14 ± 0.55 years, respectively. In patients, mean creatine phosphokinase (CPK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and myoglobin levels were elevated significantly (P < 0.05) in comparison to controls. Addition to CPK, LDH and myoglobin are good adjunct when deletion detection failed. These data are further in accordance with world literature when correlated with frame rule. The analysis has been carried out for the first time for a total of 88 D/BMD patients particularly from Gujarat, India. More research is essential to elucidate specific mutation pattern in association with management and therapies of proband.

  4. Duchenne/Becker muscular dystrophy: A report on clinical, biochemical, and genetic study in Gujarat population, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandava V Rao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In India, various groups have studied different regions to find out deletion pattern of dystrophin gene. We have investigated its deletion pattern among Duchenne/Becker muscular dystrophy (D/BMD patients across Gujarat. Moreover, in this study we also correlate the same with reading frame rule. However, we too consider various clinicopathological features to establish as adjunct indices when deletion detection fails. Materials and Methods: In this pilot study, a total of 88 D/BMD patients consulting at our centers in Gujarat, India were included. All patients were reviewed on basis of their clinical characteristics, tested by three primer sets of 10-plex, 9-plex, and 7-plex polymerase chain reaction (PCR for genetic analysis; whereas, biochemical indices were measured using automated biochemical analyzers. Results: The diagnosis of D/BMD was confirmed by multiplex-PCR (M-PCR in D/BMD patients. A number of 65 (73.86% out of 88 patients showed deletion in dystrophin gene. The exon 50 (58.46% was the most frequent deletion found in our study. The mean age of onset of DMD and BMD was 4.09 ΁ 0.15 and 7.14 ΁ 0.55 years, respectively. In patients, mean creatine phosphokinase (CPK, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, and myoglobin levels were elevated significantly (P < 0.05 in comparison to controls. Addition to CPK, LDH and myoglobin are good adjunct when deletion detection failed. These data are further in accordance with world literature when correlated with frame rule. Conclusion: The analysis has been carried out for the first time for a total of 88 D/BMD patients particularly from Gujarat, India. More research is essential to elucidate specific mutation pattern in association with management and therapies of proband.

  5. Stone anchors from Bet Dwarka Island, Gujarat, Coast, India: Significance to historical period maritime activities

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sundaresh; Gaur, A.S.; Tripati, S.; Gudigar, P.; Bandodkar, S.N.

    Bet Dwarka Island is situated on the extreme west of Indian territory in Jamnagar district of Gujarat. Underwater, the most preserved remains of ancient maritime activity could be the stone anchors of different types, as every boat requires...

  6. Dominance of cyanobacterial and cryptophytic assemblage correlated to CDOM at heavy metal contamination sites of Gujarat, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patidar, Shailesh Kumar; Chokshi, Kaumeel; George, Basil; Bhattacharya, Sourish; Mishra, Sandhya

    2015-01-01

    Industrial clusters of Gujarat, India, generate high quantity of effluents which are received by aquatic bodies such as estuary and coastal water. In the present study, microalgal assemblage, heavy metals, and physico-chemical variables were studied from different habitats. Principal component analysis revealed that biovolume of cyanobacterial and cryptophytic community positively correlated with the heavy metal concentration (Hg, As, Zn, Fe, Mo, Ni, and Co) and chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) under hypoxic environment. Green algae and diatoms dominated at comparatively lower nitrate concentration which was positively associated with Pb and Mn.

  7. Ancient shorelines of Gujarat, India, during the Indus civilization (Late Mid-Holocene): A study based on archaeological evidences

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gaur, A.S.; Vora, K.H.

    or production of salt, etc. as indicators of palaeo-shorelines. As of today, these sites are located away from the present shoreline. Lothal, believed to be the oldest dockyard in the world, is located at the head of the Gulf of Khambhat, now situated about... shorelines of Gujarat, India, during the Indus civilization (Late Mid-Holocene): A study ... 16-Nov-06http://www.ias.ac.in/currsci/jul10/articles29.htm centre for acquiring and processing raw materials for manufacturing articles for export. Discovery of two...

  8. Perceived Stress and Professional Quality of Life in Neonatal Intensive Care Unit Nurses in Gujarat, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Amee A; Vankar, Jagdish R; Nimbalkar, Somashekhar M; Phatak, Ajay G

    2015-11-01

    To study the levels of perceived stress in Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) nurses and its association with professional quality of life domains viz. compassion satisfaction, burnout and secondary trauma. In this multicenter, cross sectional study, data was collected by surveying 129 nurses from nine NICUs across six cities of Gujarat, India using demographic questionnaire, Perceived Stress Scale (PSS14) and Professional Quality of Life Scale (ProQOL5) during July to September 2013. Descriptive statistics, correlation coefficient and multiple regression were used for analysis. The mean (SD) age of participants was 28.37 (8.20) y. Most were single, satisfied with salary benefits and reported 'good' to 'excellent' relationships at work. The mean (SD) duration of duty hours was 8.12 (0.76) h and 43.6% were attending to more than 4 patients/shift. The mean (SD) perceived stress level was 22.19 (7.17) [Range: 3 to 39]. High compassion satisfaction, high burnout, and high secondary traumatic stress were reported by 25 (19.4%), 30 (23.3%) and 30 (23.3%) nurses respectively. PSS14 was negatively correlated with compassion satisfaction (r = -0.28) and positively correlated with burnout (r = 0.43) and secondary traumatic stress (r = 0.24). Most of the nurses (91, 70.5%) were identified as perceiving moderate to high stress. Professional quality of life domains correlated with perceived stress. There is further need to study domains influencing NICU nurses' professional QOL. Identifying stress and QOL issues in NICU nurses can help formulate relevant policies.

  9. A Clinical Microbiological Study of Corneal Ulcer Patients at Western Gujarat, India

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    Nilesh Dhanjibhai Patel

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Corneal ulcer is a major cause of blindness throughout the world. When the cornea is injured by foreign particles, there are chances of infection by the organism and development of ulcer. Bacterial infection in the cornea is invariably an alteration of the defense mechanism of the outer eye. It is essential to determine the local etiology within a given region when planning a corneal ulcer management strategy. Laboratory evaluation is necessary to establish the diagnosis and to guide the antibiotic therapy. One hundred corneal ulcer patients were studied by collecting their corneal scraping samples and processing at Clinical Microbiology department of Shree Meghaji Petharaj Shah Medical College, Jamnagar, Gujarat, India during a period of 17 months. All clinical microbiology laboratory procedures followed standard protocols described in the literature. 40 (40% patients from the age group of 20-70 years had been confirmed as - any organism culture positive - within the corneal ulcer patient population. Fungi were isolated from 26 (26% corneal ulcer patients. The bacterial etiology was confirmed in 14 (14% corneal ulcer patients. The major risk factors for mycotic keratitis were vegetative injury (16, (62%, followed by conjunctivitis (4, (15%, and blunt trauma (3, (11%. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was the most commonly isolated bacterium (6, (43%, followed by Proteus spp. (4, (29%. Corneal Infections due to bacteria and filamentous fungi are a frequent cause of corneal damage. Microbiological investigation is an essential tool in the diagnosis of these infections. The frequency of fungal keratitis has risen over the past 20 to 30 years. Prognosis of bacterial corneal infection has improved since the introduction of specific antibacterial therapy.

  10. A clinical microbiological study of corneal ulcer patients at western Gujarat, India.

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    Rajesh Somabhai Katara

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Corneal ulcer is a major cause of blindness throughout the world. When the cornea is injured by foreign particles, there are chances of infection by the organism and development of ulcer. Bacterial infection in the cornea is invariably an alteration of the defense mechanism of the outer eye. It is essential to determine the local etiology within a given region when planning a corneal ulcer management strategy. Laboratory evaluation is necessary to establish the diagnosis and to guide the antibiotic therapy. One hundred corneal ulcer patients were studied by collecting their corneal scraping samples and processing at Clinical Microbiology department of Shree Meghaji Petharaj Shah Medical College, Jamnagar, Gujarat, India during a period of 17 months. All clinical microbiology laboratory procedures followed standard protocols described in the literature. 40 (40% patients from the age group of 20-70 years had been confirmed as - any organism culture positive - within the corneal ulcer patient population. Fungi were isolated from 26 (26% corneal ulcer patients. The bacterial etiology was confirmed in 14 (14% corneal ulcer patients. The major risk factors for mycotic keratitis were vegetative injury (16, (62%, followed by conjunctivitis (4, (15%, and blunt trauma (3, (11%. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was the most commonly isolated bacterium (6, (43%, followed by Proteus spp. (4, (29%. Corneal Infections due to bacteria and filamentous fungi are a frequent cause of corneal damage. Microbiological investigation is an essential tool in the diagnosis of these infections. The frequency of fungal keratitis has risen over the past 20 to 30 years. Prognosis of bacterial corneal infection has improved since the introduction of specific antibacterial therapy.

  11. Bottleneck analysis and strategic planning using Tanahashi model for childhood diarrhea management in Gujarat, Western India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupani, Mihir Prafulbhai; Gaonkar, Narayan T; Bhatt, Gneyaa S

    2016-10-01

    In spite of continued efforts, India is still lagging behind in achieving its MDG goals. The objectives of this study were to identify stake-holders who have a role to play in childhood diarrhea management, to identify gaps in childhood diarrhea management and to propose strategic options for relieving these gaps. Bottleneck analysis exercise was carried out based on the Tanahashi model in six High Priority Districts (HPDs) of Gujarat in period between July-November 2013. The major bottlenecks identified for Childhood Diarrhea management were poor demand generation, unsafe drinking water, poor access to improved sanitation facility and lack of equitable distribution and replenishment mechanisms for Oral Rehydration Solution (ORS) packets and Zinc tablets till the front-line worker level. The main strategic options that were suggested for relieving these bottlenecks were Zinc-ORS roll out in scale-up districts, develop Information Education Communication/Behaviour Change Communication (IEC/BCC) plan for childhood diarrhea management at state/district level, use of Drug Logistics Information Management System (DLIMS) software for supply chain management of Zinc-ORS, strengthening of chlorination activity at household level, monitoring implementation of Nirmal Bharat Abhiyaan (NBA) for constructing improved sanitation facilities at household level and to develop an IEC/BCC plan for hygiene promotion and usage of sanitary latrines. Use of Zinc tablets need to be intensified through an effective scale-up. Adequate demand generation activity is needed. There is need to address safe drinking water and improved sanitation measures at household levels. Multi-sectoral engagements and ownership of Zinc-ORS program is the need of the hour. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Promoting universal financial protection: evidence from the Rashtriya Swasthya Bima Yojana (RSBY) in Gujarat, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devadasan, Narayanan; Seshadri, Tanya; Trivedi, Mayur; Criel, Bart

    2013-08-20

    India's health expenditure is met mostly by households through out-of-pocket (OOP) payments at the time of illness. To protect poor families, the Indian government launched a national health insurance scheme (RSBY). Those below the national poverty line (BPL) are eligible to join the RSBY. The premium is heavily subsidised by the government. The enrolled members receive a card and can avail of free hospitalisation care up to a maximum of US$ 600 per family per year. The hospitals are reimbursed by the insurance companies. The objective of our study was to analyse the extent to which RSBY contributes to universal health coverage by protecting families from making OOP payments. A two-stage stratified sampling technique was used to identify eligible BPL families in Patan district of Gujarat, India. Initially, all 517 villages were listed and 78 were selected randomly. From each of these villages, 40 BPL households were randomly selected and a structured questionnaire was administered. Interviews and discussions were also conducted among key stakeholders. Our sample contained 2,920 households who had enrolled in the RSBY; most were from the poorer sections of society. The average hospital admission rate for the period 2010-2011 was 40/1,000 enrolled. Women, elderly and those belonging to the lowest caste had a higher hospitalisation rate. Forty four per cent of patients who had enrolled in RSBY and had used the RSBY card still faced OOP payments at the time of hospitalisation. The median OOP payment for the above patients was US$ 80 (interquartile range, $16-$200) and was similar in both government and private hospitals. Patients incurred OOP payments mainly because they were asked to purchase medicines and diagnostics, though the same were included in the benefit package. While the RSBY has managed to include the poor under its umbrella, it has provided only partial financial coverage. Nearly 60% of insured and admitted patients made OOP payments. We plea for better

  13. Incidence and determinants of hysterectomy in a low-income setting in Gujarat, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Sapna; Campbell, Oona Mr; Sinha, Tara; Mahal, Ajay; Cousens, Simon

    2017-02-01

    Hysterectomy is a leading reason for use of health insurance amongst low-income women in India, but there are limited population-level data available to inform policy. This paper reports on the findings of a mixed-methods study to estimate incidence and identify predictors of hysterectomy in a low-income setting in Gujarat, India. The estimated incidence of hysterectomy, 20.7/1000 woman- years (95% CI: 14.0, 30.8), was considerably higher than reported from other countries, at a relatively low mean age of 36 years. There was strong evidence that among women of reproductive age, those with lower income and at least two children underwent hysterectomy at higher rates. Nearly two-thirds of women undergoing hysterectomy utilized private hospitals, while the remainder used government or other non-profit facilities. Qualitative research suggested that weak sexual and reproductive health services, a widespread perception that the post-reproductive uterus is dispensable and lack of knowledge of side effects have resulted in the normalization of hysterectomy. Hysterectomy appears to be promoted as a first or second-line treatment for menstrual and gynaecological disorders that are actually amenable to less invasive procedures. Most women sought at least two medical opinions prior to hysterectomy, but both public and private providers lacked equipment, skills and motivation to offer alternatives. Profit and training benefits also appeared to play a role in some providers' behaviour. Although women with insecure employment underwent the procedure knowing the financial and physical implications of undergoing a major surgery, the future health and work security afforded by hysterectomy appeared to them to outweigh risks. Findings suggest that sterilization may be associated with an increased risk of hysterectomy, potentially through biological or attitudinal links. Health policy interventions require improved access to sexual and reproductive health services and health

  14. Oral health status of fishermen and non-fishermen community of Kutch district, Gujarat, India: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asawa, Kailash; Pujara, Piyush; Tak, Mridula; Nagarajappa, Ramesh; Aapaliya, Pankaj; Bhanushali, Nikhil; Mishra, Prashant; Sharma, Abhishek

    2014-01-01

    Fishing is one such hazardous occupation, which involves irregular diet, stress, alcoholism, tobacco and pernicious habits. Fishermen have lower socio-economic status and their illiteracy adds to their poor oral hygiene, which may influence general and oral health. The aim of the study was to assess and compare the oral health status of fishermen and non-fishermen population of Kutch District, Gujarat, India. A descriptive cross-sectional survey was conducted to assess and compare the oral health status of the fishermen and non-fishermen community of Mundra taluka of Kutch district, Gujarat, India, from January 2013 to June 2013. Fishermen had significantly higher periodontal disease and dental caries than non-fishermen group (p = 0.001). Malocclusion was significantly higher in non-fishermen group (p = 0.001). Extraction was the most prevalent treatment need among both groups. Occupation and educational status were respectively identified as the best predictors for dental caries and periodontal disease. Findings of the present study suggest that oral health status of the fishermen population was relatively poor, with high caries prevalence and poor periodontal health when compared to the non-fishermen population. In the light of high treatment needs of the study population, health policy that emphasises oral health promotion and prevention would seem more advantageous in addition to traditional curative care.

  15. Iodine nutritional status and goiter prevalence in primary school children aged 6-12 of Panchmahal district, Gujarat, India

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    Vihang Mazumdar

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Iodine deficiency disorders (IDD create major public health problems in India, including Gujarat. Panchmahal district is known for endemic iodine deficiency. The present study was conducted to (1 estimate the prevalence of goiter in primary school children, (2 determine median urinary iodine concentration, (3 assess the level of iodine in salt samples at the household and retail shop level, and (4 profile of salt sold at retail shops in Panchmahal district, Gujarat. Methods: A total of 70 students including five boys and five girls from 1st to 7th standard who were present on the day of the first visit were selected randomly for goiter examination from each village. Urine samples were collected from one boy and one girl from each standard in each cluster. From the community, at least 28 students, including two boys and two girls from each standard in the same age group, were examined, and salt samples were tested from their households. A total of 2100 students were examined in schools and 928 students were examined in the selected villages. From each village, one retail shop was visited, and salts purchased from those shops were immediately tested for iodine with spot kits.Results: Among young primary school children, goiter prevalence was 23.35% (grade 1—18.35%, grade 2—5.0%. As the ages increase, goiter prevalence also increases except for 9-year-olds. The median urinary iodine excretion level was 110 µg/L. An iodine level >15 ppm was found in 78.3% of the salt samples tested at household level. Conclusion: The present study showed considerable goiter prevalence in primary school children in Panchmahal district of Gujarat and an inadequate iodine content of salt at the household level.

  16. Establishing the reference value for “timed up-and-go” test in healthy adults of Gujarat, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khant, Nency; Dani, Vyoma Bharat; Patel, Purvi; Rathod, Rachana

    2018-01-01

    CONTEXT: Timed up-and-go (TUG) test is a valid, reliable, and an objective test for quantifying functional mobility and assessing the fall risk in all age groups. The analysis of patient scores on TUG test is limited by lack of data, having a wide range of performance scores among people without disabilities. AIM: The objective of the study was to provide the reference value for TUG test in healthy individuals of Gujarat, India. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: It was a cross-sectional observational study. Five hundred and twenty healthy individuals, aged 40–70 years, were recruited from various regions of Gujarat based on convenient sampling. All the participants were made to perform TUG test in a controlled environment in community. Three readings of the actual test were obtained and averaged. RESULTS: Data were analyzed with mean, standard deviation, confidence intervals (CIs 95%) and Pearson's correlation coefficient (r) with α = 0.05 by age groups (40–50, 51–60, and 61–70 years) and gender. The mean (CI 95%) TUG time for healthy adults of Gujarat was 8.46 (8.35–8.57) s and demonstrated age-related decline for both male and female participants. TUG time also demonstrated strong correlation with the height of individuals. CONCLUSION: This preliminary data can be used as a reference only for specific population with specific age groups due to variability in test results among the different population due to age, gender, anthropometric measures such as height, weight, and body mass index, geographical variation, nutritional support, and cognitive status.

  17. Condoms: mis-use = non-use. The condom equation in Gujarat, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, V; Dave, S; Sharma, A; Chauhan, P

    1997-12-01

    Condoms are a common denominator for three prestigious national prevention programmes in India, none of which has been a real success. The present study was undertaken to investigate prevalence of condom use and to assess knowledge about correct use of condoms among married, sexually active men, who had not adopted any permanent method of contraception. The study was conducted by a house-to-house survey in eight randomly selected villages of Anand, Gujarat (a 10% sample). All married men (ages: 18-55 years) were interviewed with the help of a pre-tested, structured questionnaire, comprising questions on: (a) their sexual practices; (b) knowledge about the correct use of condoms; and (c) reasons for their use/non-use. Respondents were evaluated for knowledge about correct use of condoms by scoring on a scale of 10. The sample consisted of 1,478 men whose mean age was 29.8 (± 6.75) years and mean duration of married life was 8.4 (± 6.25) years. Almost 52% (n = 771) were either illiterate or had been educated up to primary level; while 131 (8.8%) had university qualifications. More than 74% (n = 1,092) had never used condoms; 24.4% had used them irregularly and only 1.8% (n = 26) were using them regularly. The mean knowledge score for the correct use of condoms was 1.44 ± 2.29 on a scale of 10 and it was positively related to regularity of use and educational status of respondents (p condoms offer protection against STDs and/or AIDS. The most common mistakes related to incorrect use of condoms were use of oil-based lubricants with condoms, ignorance about the technique of putting on a condom, re-use of condoms, etc. The commonly cited reasons for non-use of condoms were interference with sexual activity; lack of privacy; fear of losing it inside the woman's body, and lack of confidence in its effectiveness as a contraceptive. To be effective as a contraceptive and to offer protection against sexually transmitted diseases and AIDS, condoms need to be used regularly

  18. The transition of childbirth practices among tribal women in Gujarat, India - a grounded theory approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Under the National Rural Health Mission, the current emphasis is on achieving universal institutional births through incentive schemes as part of reforms related to childbirth in India. There has been rapid progress in achieving this goal. To understand the choices made as well as practices and perceptions related to childbirth amongst tribal women in Gujarat and how these have been influenced by modernity in general and modernity brought in through maternal health policies. Method A model depicting the transition in childbirth practices amongst tribal women was constructed using the grounded theory approach with; 8 focus groups of women, 5 in depth interviews with traditional birth attendants, women, and service providers and field notes on informal discussions and observations. Results A transition in childbirth practices across generations was noted, i.e. a shift from home births attended by Traditional Birth Attendants (TBAs) to hospital births. The women and their families both adapted to and shaped this transition through a constant ’trade-off between desirable and essential’- the desirable being a traditional homebirth in secure surroundings and the essential being the survival of mother and baby by going to hospital. This transition was shaped by complex multiple factors: 1) Overall economic growth and access to modern medical care influencing women’s choices, 2) External context in terms of the international maternal health discourses and national policies, especially incentive schemes for promoting institutional deliveries, 3) Socialisation into medical childbirth practices, through exposure to many years of free outreach services for maternal and child health, 4) Loss of self reliance in the community as a consequence of role redefinition and deskilling of the TBAs and 5) Cultural belief that intervention is necessary during childbirth aiding easy acceptance of medical interventions. Conclusion In resource poor settings where choices are

  19. Knowledge and opinion about smoke-free laws and second-hand smoke among hospitality venue managers in Gujarat and Andhra Pradesh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Vinay K; Arora, Monika; Sharma, Indrani; Nazar, Gaurang P; Modi, Bhavesh; Singh, Deepti; Millett, Christopher; Reddy, K Srinath

    2013-01-01

    India's Smoke-Free Law (SFL) was implemented in 2004 and reinforced on 2nd October 2008. This research attempts to understand the knowledge and opinion of hospitality venue (HV) managers about second-hand smoke (SHS) and SFL as well as self-reported compliance with SFL in two Indian states. A survey was conducted among 804 randomly sampled HVs from project STEPS (Strengthening of tobacco control efforts through innovative partnerships and strategies) in Gujarat and Andhra Pradesh, India. Four hundred and three HVs from two districts in Gujarat and 401 HVs from six districts in Andhra Pradesh were selected. The owner, manager or supervisor of each HV was interviewed using a pre-tested structured interview schedule. Association of opinion scales with respondents' background characteristics was assessed through the analysis of variance (ANOVA) method. Out of the 403 respondents in Gujarat and 401 in Andhra Pradesh, 56.1% and 84.3% had knowledge about SFL respectively. Compliance of HVs with SFL was 21.8% in Gujarat and 31.2% in Andhra Pradesh as reported by the managers. Knowledge about SHS was noted among 39.7% of respondents in Gujarat and 25.4% in Andhra Pradesh. Bivariate results indicated that more educated HV managers showed higher support for smoke-free public places (P < 0.001) and were more concerned about the health effects of SHS exposure (P = 0.002). Complete self-reported compliance with, and knowledge of SFL as well as SHS was not found in Gujarat and Andhra Pradesh. The education level of HV managers is an important determinant to ensure compliance with SFL in public places.

  20. Radioactive dinosaur fossil bones of Balasinor area, Kheda district, Gujarat, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maithani, P.B.; Rathaiah, Y.V.; Dwivedy, K.K.

    1993-01-01

    High-thorium (upto 0.4% ThO 2 ) bearing Dinosaur fossil remains are reported from the Infratrappeans of Balasinor area, Kheda district, Gujarat. The thorium enrichment in these fossils is confined to the osseous matter which could be attributed to either isomorphic substitution for Ca 2+ or adsorption and colloidal precipitation on the bone surfaces. (author). 5 refs., 1 fig

  1. Faculty perceptions of the strengths, weaknesses and future prospects of the current medical undergraduate experimental physiology curriculum in Gujarat, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paralikar, Swapnil; Shah, Chinmay

    2015-01-01

    Over the past several years, an opinion has emerged in India that the current practical curricula in medical schools fail to meet many of the objectives for which they were instituted. Hence, this study has assessed the perception of physiology faculty members regarding the current experimental physiology curriculum in one Indian state, Gujarat. The faculty were of the opinion that many of the topics currently taught in experimental physiology (amphibian nerve-muscle and heart muscle experiments) were outdated and clinically irrelevant: Therefore, the faculty advocated that duration of teaching time devoted to some of these topics should be reduced and topics with clinical relevance should be introduced at the undergraduate level. The faculty also felt that more emphasis should be laid on highlighting the clinical aspect related to each concept taught in experimental physiology . Moreover, a majority of faculty members were in favour of replacing the current practice in Gujarat of teaching experimental physiology only by explanation of graphs obtained from experiments conducted in the previous years, with computer assisted learning in small groups.

  2. Knowledge of hepatitis B among healthy population: A community-based survey from two districts of Gujarat, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasobant, Sandul; Trivedi, Poonam; Saxena, Deepak; Puwar, Tapasvi; Vora, Kranti; Patel, Mayur

    2017-01-01

    Hepatitis B is the world's most common blood-borne viral infection, accounting for 2 billion infections, 350 million carriers, and 6 lakh deaths annually. Country like India still harbors approximately 30-60 million hepatitis B virus (HBV) carriers. A modest estimate would put the number of deaths occurring due to HBV infection per year in India to around 100,000. To prevent transmission and progression of the disease, proper community awareness including prevention is necessary. Therefore, this study aims to study the knowledge awareness among the healthy population about hepatitis B including knowledge regarding vaccine. A community-based cross-sectional study was undertaken in two districts of Gujarat. Cluster sampling (30 clusters) was used, and pretested questionnaire was administered to 600 (with a prevalence rate of 5% in Gujarat having design effect of 2 within 95% confidence interval and 10% nonrespondent) healthy individuals, who heard about hepatitis B. Data handled and analyzed in EpiData Analysis V2.2.2.183. Majority of the participants knew about symptoms whereas only 41% knew about prevention methods and few 34% knew about the mode of transmission. Although 40% sample has knowledge about the availability of vaccination, only 20% were self-vaccinated. The common reason for nonvaccination was lack of awareness. Only one-third of the populations in study districts are aware about hepatitis B and its vaccine. Less than one-fifth of the populations are vaccinated for hepatitis B. Important knowledge deficits about the routes of hepatitis B transmission/prevention were identified. Continued efforts should be made to develop and implement hepatitis B educational campaigns/health promotion for these communities.

  3. Knowledge of hepatitis B among healthy population: A community-based survey from two districts of Gujarat, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandul Yasobant

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hepatitis B is the world's most common blood-borne viral infection, accounting for 2 billion infections, 350 million carriers, and 6 lakh deaths annually. Country like India still harbors approximately 30–60 million hepatitis B virus (HBV carriers. A modest estimate would put the number of deaths occurring due to HBV infection per year in India to around 100,000. To prevent transmission and progression of the disease, proper community awareness including prevention is necessary. Therefore, this study aims to study the knowledge awareness among the healthy population about hepatitis B including knowledge regarding vaccine. Methodology: A community-based cross-sectional study was undertaken in two districts of Gujarat. Cluster sampling (30 clusters was used, and pretested questionnaire was administered to 600 (with a prevalence rate of 5% in Gujarat having design effect of 2 within 95% confidence interval and 10% nonrespondent healthy individuals, who heard about hepatitis B. Data handled and analyzed in EpiData Analysis V2.2.2.183. Results: Majority of the participants knew about symptoms whereas only 41% knew about prevention methods and few 34% knew about the mode of transmission. Although 40% sample has knowledge about the availability of vaccination, only 20% were self-vaccinated. The common reason for nonvaccination was lack of awareness. Conclusions: Only one-third of the populations in study districts are aware about hepatitis B and its vaccine. Less than one-fifth of the populations are vaccinated for hepatitis B. Important knowledge deficits about the routes of hepatitis B transmission/prevention were identified. Continued efforts should be made to develop and implement hepatitis B educational campaigns/health promotion for these communities.

  4. Electricity tariffs in India: an assessment of consumers' ability and willingness to pay in Gujarat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ranjan Kumar Bose; Megha Shukla

    2001-01-01

    A sample of electricity consumers covering agricultural, residential and industrial consumers, in the Indian State of Gujarat was surveyed in 1997 to investigate the consumers' ability and willingness to pay for electricity supplied from the grid. The ability to pay was estimated using the weight of the cost of electricity to meet at least the basic household needs in relation to the overall income or expenditure. The willingness to pay was estimated using the costs of meeting the needs by alternative sources of energy, namely diesel in the case of farmers to pump water for irrigation and captive power generation using diesel generators in the case of industrial users. Survey results reveal the proportion of consumers in different categories, which do not have the ability to pay more or are even not willing to pay more for electricity. The survey findings have been used as a guideline in the proposed adjustment of tariffs charged by the Gujarat Electricity Board. (author)

  5. Health system capacity: maternal health policy implementation in the state of Gujarat, India

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    Linda Sanneving

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The Government of Gujarat has for the past couple of decades continuously initiated several interventions to improve access to care for pregnant and delivering women within the state. Data from the last District Family Heath survey in Gujarat in 2007–2008 show that 56.4% of women had institutional deliveries and 71.5% had at least one antenatal check-up, indicating that challenges remain in increasing use of and access to maternal health care services. Objective: To explore the perceptions of high-level stakeholders on the process of implementing maternal health interventions in Gujarat. Method: Using the policy triangle framework developed by Walt and Gilson, the process of implementation was approached using in-depth interviews and qualitative content analysis. Result: Based on the analysis, three themes were developed: lack of continuity; the complexity of coordination; and lack of confidence and underutilization of the monitoring system. The findings suggest that decisions made and actions advocated and taken are more dependent on individual actors than on sustainable structures. The findings also indicate that the context in which interventions are implemented is challenged in terms of weak coordination and monitoring systems that are not used to evaluate and develop interventions on maternal health. Conclusions: The implementation of interventions on maternal health is dependent on the capacity of the health system to implement evidence-based policies. The capacity of the health system in Gujarat to facilitate implementation of maternal health interventions needs to be improved, both in terms of the role of actors and in terms of structures and processes.

  6. Heterogeneity in the background and earnings of nurses in India: evidence from a cross-sectional study in Gujarat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seth, Katyayni

    2017-11-01

    It is important to understand the service conditions of nurses because these influence nurses' motivations and ability to provide care. Although nurses are estimated to constitute 30% of India's health workforce, limited empirical information is available about them. This paper attempts to address this gap in research. A cross-sectional survey of 266 nurses in the state of Gujarat was conducted to understand the demographic characteristics, qualifications and employment features of nurses working in India's private and public health sectors. Descriptive and univariate analyses were performed using the collected information. A multivariate regression model was also estimated with monthly earnings as the dependent variable, and workplace, type of employment contract, caste background and years in the nursing workforce as independent variables. The three main findings presented in this article highlight considerable heterogeneity in the background and employment of nurses in India. First, 49% of nurses working in private hospitals and as temporary employees in public facilities belonged to historically disadvantaged social groups (deemed Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes) and were estimated to earn 9% less than similarly qualified and practiced nurses from general caste categories (P = 0.02). Second, 18% of nurses working in private hospitals did not have formal nursing qualifications. Third, nurses working in private hospitals and as temporary employees in public facilities earned less than the minimum wage stipulated by the Government of India. Permanent public sector nurses were estimated to earn 105% more than private sector nurses with the same qualifications, years of work and caste background (P nursing workforce, coupled with the failure of governmental agencies to regulate the health sector, might help explain the low wages and lack of job security that most nurses in India contend with. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press in

  7. Physico-chemical quality of drinking water in villages of Primary Health Centre, Waghodia, Gujarat (India).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Gaurav; Vasisth, Smriti; Patel, Maharshi; Mehta, Vaibhav; Bhavsar, Bharat

    2012-07-01

    16 water samples were collected to study the physical and chemical quality of water of main source of drinking water in the villages of Primary Health Centre, Waghodia of Vadodara district of Gujarat. The values recommended by Indian Standard for Drinking Water (IS 10500:1991) were used for comparison of observed values. The study indicates that the contamination problem in these villages is not alarming at present, but Waghodia being industrial town, ground water quality may deteriorate with passage of time, which needs periodical monitoring. The study provides the local area baseline data which may be useful for the comparison of future study.

  8. The Role of Transdisciplinary Approach and Community Participation in Village Scale Groundwater Management: Insights from Gujarat and Rajasthan, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basant Maheshwari

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable use of groundwater is becoming critical in India and requires effective participation from local communities along with technical, social, economic, policy and political inputs. Access to groundwater for farming communities is also an emotional and complex issue as their livelihood and survival depends on it. In this article, we report on transdisciplinary approaches to understanding the issues, challenges and options for improving sustainability of groundwater use in States of Gujarat and Rajasthan, India. In this project, called Managed Aquifer Recharge through Village level Intervention (MARVI, the research is focused on developing a suitable participatory approach and methodology with associated tools that will assist in improving supply and demand management of groundwater. The study was conducted in the Meghraj watershed in Aravalli district, Gujarat, and the Dharta watershed in Udaipur district, Rajasthan, India. The study involved the collection of hydrologic, agronomic and socio-economic data and engagement of local village and school communities through their role in groundwater monitoring, field trials, photovoice activities and education campaigns. The study revealed that availability of relevant and reliable data related to the various aspects of groundwater and developing trust and support between local communities, NGOs and government agencies are the key to moving towards a dialogue to decide on what to do to achieve sustainable use of groundwater. The analysis of long-term water table data indicated considerable fluctuation in groundwater levels from year to year or a net lowering of the water table, but the levels tend to recover during wet years. This provides hope that by improving management of recharge structures and groundwater pumping, we can assist in stabilizing the local water table. Our interventions through Bhujal Jankaars (BJs, (a Hindi word meaning “groundwater informed” volunteers, schools

  9. Status of Isoetes coromandeliana L.f. and Equisetum debile Roxb. ex Voucher in Gujarat State, Western India

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    Suresh K. PATEL

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Occurrence of Isoetes coromandeliana L.f. in natural ponds of Harni, Savali and Tuwa (India is known since 1956 by earlier workers. Equisetum debile Roxb. ex Voucher was also reported in 1962 growing as wild at Savali. Available literature indicates that I. coromandeliana falls under the category of ‘near threatened’ in Asian continents and as an ‘endangered species’ at national (India level. In the current field work study, the authors could not locate the investigated species from the locations earlier documented by researchers. Few saplings of I. coromandeliana were observed at Talod and Vaktapur near Gandhinagar, a new location for the species. In contrast, E. debile appeared to be lost in wild from Gujarat. Their extinction from earlier reported locations is associated with anthropogenic pressure and thus legal action for their protection is needed. The present paper suggests further survey and habitat based studies and recommends conservation and management action plans based upon the ecology of the habitat.

  10. Are partners of HIV-infected people being tested for HIV? A mixed-methods research from Gujarat, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvaraj, K; Kumar, A M V; Chawla, S; Shringarpure, K S; Thekkur, P; Palanivel, C; Verma, P B; Shah, A N; Pandya, K N; Roy, G; Singh, Z; Rewari, B B; Dongre, A R

    2017-03-21

    Setting: Four selected antiretroviral therapy (ART) centres of Gujarat State, India, which accounts for 8% of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) burden in India. Objectives: 1) To assess the proportion of people living with HIV (PLHIV) whose partners were not tested for HIV; 2) to assess sociodemographic and clinical characteristics of index cases associated with partner testing; and 3) to understand perceived facilitators and barriers to partner testing and make suggestions on how to improve testing from the perspective of the health-care provider. Design: A mixed-method design with a quantitative phase that involved reviewing the programme records of married PLHIV enrolled during 2011-2015, followed by a qualitative phase of key informant interviews. Results: Of 3884 married PLHIV, 1279 (33%) did not have their partners tested for HIV. Factors including index cases being male, illiterate, aged >25 years, belonging to key populations, substance use and being in advanced clinical stages were more likely to be associated with partner non-testing. Non-disclosure of HIV status (due to fear of marital discord) and lack of awareness and risk perception were the key barriers to testing. Conclusion: One third of PLHIV did not have their partners tested for HIV. Several factors were identified as being associated with the non-testing of partners, and solutions were explored that need to be implemented urgently if we are to achieve the 90-90-90 targets and end HIV.

  11. Phytochemical analysis and antifungal activity of selected seaweeds from Okha coast, Gujarat, India

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    Isaiah Nirmal Kumar

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To deal with the assessment of the chemical composition of carbohydrate, protein, phenol, flavanoid, chlorophyll, and carotenoid and antifungal activity of various marine seaweeds collected from Okha coast, Gujarat during September, 2013. Methods: Biochemical compounds of selected seaweeds were quantified and antifungal activity of these species belonging to red, green, and brown seaweeds was explored and the seaweeds were extracted in acetone, ethanol and chloroform. Results: The carbohydrate content was highest in Cystoseira indica Mairh, protein was highest in Gracilaria corticata J. Agardh and phenol content was highest in Padina boergesenii; flavanoid content was found greater in Cystoseira indica, chlorophyll content was found greater in Monostroma latissimum Wittrock and carotenoid content was more in Dictyopteris acrostichoides Bornet. The highest inhibiting effect was noted for Sargassum tenerrimum J. Agardh and Turbinaria ornata J. Agardh belonging to brown algae, against Aspergillus niger and Penicillium janthinellum in chloroform extracts and ethanolic extracts, which caused opportunistic infection of HIV-infected person, lung disease, aspergillosis, and otomycosis (fungal ear infections. Conclusions: The study reveals that the seaweeds contain high amount of biochemical constituents. Besides, the crude extracts of the seaweeds showed promising activity against the tested fungal pathogens. Therefore, seaweeds collected from Okha coast, Gujarat region are biochemical compounds with potential capacity which make them useful for screening natural products for pharmaceutical industry.

  12. Has Chiranjeevi Yojana changed the geographic availability of free comprehensive emergency obstetric care services in Gujarat, India?

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    Kranti Suresh Vora

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The high rate of maternal mortality in India is of grave concern. Poor rural Indian women are most vulnerable to preventable maternal deaths primarily because they have limited availability of affordable emergency obstetric care (EmOC within reasonable geographic proximity. Scarcity of obstetricians in the public sector combined with financial barriers to accessing private sector obstetrician services preclude this underserved population from availing lifesaving functions of comprehensive EmOC such as C-section. In order to overcome this limitation, Government of Gujarat initiated a unique public–private partnership program called Chiranjeevi Yojana (CY in 2005. The program envisaged leveraging private sector providers to increase availability and thereby accessibility of EmOC care for vulnerable sections of society. Under CY, private sector providers render obstetric care services to poor women at no cost to patients. This paper examines the CY's effectiveness in improving availability of CEmOC services between 2006 and 2012 in three districts of Gujarat, India. Methods: Primary data on facility locations, EmOC functionality, and obstetric bed availability were collected in the years 2012 and 2013 in three study districts. Secondary data from Census 2001 and 2011 were used along with required geographic information from Topo sheets and Google Earth maps. ArcGIS version 10 was used to analyze the availability of services using two-step floating catchment area (2SFCA method. Results: Our analysis suggests that the availability of CEmOC services within reasonable travel distance has greatly improved in all three study districts as a result of CY. We also show that the declining participation of the private sector did not result in an increase in distance to the nearest facility, but the extent of availability of providers for several villages was reduced. Spatial and temporal analyses in this paper provide a comprehensive

  13. HIV serostatus disclosure: Experiences and perceptions of people living with HIV/AIDS and their service providers in Gujarat, India

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    Sangita V Patel

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV disclosure offers important benefits to people living with HIV/AIDS. However, fear of discrimination, blame, and disruption of family relationships can make disclosure a difficult decision. Barriers to HIV disclosure are influenced by the particular culture within which the individuals live. Although many studies have assessed such barriers in the U.S., very few studies have explored the factors that facilitate or prevent HIV disclosure in India. Understanding these factors is critical to the refinement, development, and implementation of a counseling intervention to facilitate disclosure. Materials and Methods: To explore these factors, we conducted 30 in-depth interviews in the local language with HIV- positive individuals from the Integrated Counselling and Testing Centre in Gujarat, India, assessing the experiences, perceived barriers, and facilitators to disclosure. To triangulate the findings, we conducted two focus group discussions with HIV medical and non-medical service providers, respectively. Results: Perceived HIV-associated stigma, fear of discrimination, and fear of family breakdown acted as barriers to HIV disclosure. Most people living with HIV/AIDS came to know of their HIV status due to poor physical health, spousal HIV-positive status, or a positive HIV test during pregnancy. Some wives only learned of their husbands′ HIV positive status after their husbands died. The focus group participants confirmed similar findings. Disclosure had serious implications for individuals living with HIV, such as divorce, maltreatment, ostracism, and decisions regarding child bearing. Interpretation and Conclusion: The identified barriers and facilitators in the present study can be used to augment training of HIV service providers working in voluntary counseling and testing centers in India.

  14. Geophysical exploration for uranium in Champaner group of rocks, Panchmahals district, Gujarat, India: a case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narasimha Rao, R.L.; Sethuram, S.; Markandeyulu, A.; Chakraborty, K.; Tiku, K.L.

    1997-01-01

    Geophysical investigations comprising gravity, magnetic, resistivity and induced polarization methods were carried out at Garumal, Panchmahals district, Gujarat, where uranium mineralisation occurs in Champaner group of rocks as fracture controlled veins along the axial zone of a WNW-ESE plunging fold. The distinct break in the Bouguer gravity contour map signifies a lineament within the Champaner group of rocks and this probably represents a mega-fracture. Sharp magnetic anomalies forming a ring and the associated high resistivity characterize an acidic intrusive body, the probable source for the uranium mineralisation occurring in this area. Resistivity contour map delineates the lithic boundaries distinctly. The linear magnetic feature observed over a strike length of 2.5 km represents a small scale skarn-type iron ore deposit. (author)

  15. Epidemiological survey of mental health in adolescent school children of Gujarat, India.

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    Nair, Sandhya; Ganjiwale, Jaishree; Kharod, Nikhil; Varma, Jagdish; Nimbalkar, Somashekhar Marutirao

    2017-01-01

    Mental health problems in adolescents are inadequately researched in low-resource settings. We aimed in this study to assess the prevalence of mental health problems and correlates in school children aged 13-17 years and compare differences between urban and rural schools in Anand District, Gujarat. A cross-sectional study was conducted in five Gujarati medium higher secondary schools in Anand, Gujarat. Six hundred and ninety-three students with equal distribution of boys and girls belonging to 9th to 12th grades were included in the study. Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) was used to assess the mental health status of the students, and total difficulties scoring was used to categorise participants into normal (0-15) and high (borderline (16-19) and abnormal (20-40)). Socio-demographic data and Teenage Screening Questionnaire-Trivandrum (TSQ) were used to assess associated medical and psychosocial factors. Clearance was obtained from the institutional ethics committee before conducting the study. 15% participants had a high SDQ score. Girls had more emotional problems, while the rest of the mental health problems were more prevalent in boys. Rural children were found to have more mental health issues. Having an eye problem, scoring parents increased odds of high SDQ score, while having friends and after-school entertainment like watching movies decreased odds of high SDQ score. At least one in eight adolescents in this study was at risk of mental health problems. SDQ self-report questionnaire and TSQ survey may be used as a screening modality to identify at-risk students.

  16. Spectral pathways for exploration of secondary uranium: An investigation in the desertic tracts of Rajasthan and Gujarat, India

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    Bharti, Rishikesh; Kalimuthu, R.; Ramakrishnan, D.

    2015-10-01

    This study aims at identifying potential zones of secondary uranium enrichment using hyperspectral remote sensing, γ-ray spectrometry, fluorimetry and geochemical techniques in the western Rajasthan and northern Gujarat, India. The investigated area has suitable source rocks, conducive past-, and present-climate that can facilitate such enrichment. This enrichment process involves extensive weathering of uranium bearing source rocks, leaching of uranyl compounds in groundwater, and their precipitation in chemical deltas along with duricrusts like calcretes and gypcretes. Spatial distribution of groundwater calcretes (that are rich in Mg-calcite) and gypcretes (that are rich in gypsum) along palaeochannels and chemical deltas were mapped using hyperspectral remote sensing data based on spectral absorptions in 1.70 μm, 2.16 μm, 2.21 μm, 2.33 μm, 2.44 μm wavelength regions. Subsequently based on field radiometric survey, zones of U anomalies were identified and samples of duricrusts and groundwater were collected for geochemical analyses. Anomalous concentration of U (2345.7 Bq/kg) and Th (142.3 Bq/kg) are observed in both duricrusts and groundwater (U-1791 μg/l, Th-34 μg/l) within the palaeo-delta and river confluence. The estimated carnotite Solubility Index also indicates the secondary enrichment of U and the likelihood of occurrence of an unconventional deposit.

  17. An assessment of household electricity load curves and corresponding CO2 marginal abatement cost curves for Gujarat state, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garg, Amit; Shukla, P.R.; Maheshwari, Jyoti; Upadhyay, Jigeesha

    2014-01-01

    Gujarat, a large industrialized state in India, consumed 67 TWh of electricity in 2009–10, besides experiencing a 4.5% demand–supply short-fall. Residential sector accounted for 15% of the total electricity consumption. We conducted load research survey across 21 cities and towns of the state to estimate residential electricity load curves, share of appliances by type and usage patterns for all types of household appliances at utility, geographic, appliance, income and end-use levels. The results indicate that a large scope exists for penetration of energy efficient devices in residential sector. Marginal Abatement Cost (MAC) curves for electricity and CO 2 were generated to analyze relative attractiveness of energy efficient appliance options. Results indicate that up to 7.9 TWh of electricity can be saved per year with 6.7 Mt-CO 2 emissions mitigation at negative or very low CO 2 prices of US$ 10/t-CO 2 . Despite such options existing, their penetration is not realized due to myriad barriers such as financial, institutional or awareness and therefore cannot be taken as baseline options for CO 2 emission mitigation regimes. - Highlights: • Residential sector provides focused mitigation opportunities. • Energy efficient space cooling is the main technology transition required. • Almost 26% residential load could be reduced by DSM measures. • Myriad barriers limit penetration of negative marginal cost efficient options

  18. The palaeodelta of the ``Proto'' Vatrak and ``Proto'' Mahi rivers of northeastern Gujarat, India: A remote sensing interpretation

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    Agarwal, R. P.; Dotiwala, Sucheta; Mitra, D. S.; Bhoj, R.

    1996-02-01

    Detailed remote sensing studies carried out in northeastern Gujarat, India, suggest that there has been a major change in the drainage system as evidenced by the presence of a large palaeo-delta system. The area is drained by two major rivers, the Mahi and Vatrak originating from the Aravalli Hills to the east, which discharge into the Gulf of Cambay, in the Indian Ocean. Major lineaments, palaeodrainage patterns and palaeodeltas of the Vatrak and Mahi rivers were delineated. These were large rivers in the past with a high discharge and floodplains which were 5-10 km wide. Most of the palaeodrainage follows the NE-SW Precambrian lineaments/ faults indicating their structural control. Reactivation of these lineaments and differential uplift of the Aravalli Hills resulted in increased transportation of the eroded sediments and deposition of more than 5 km thick sediments into the Tarapur block of the Cambay Basin. The Gulf of Cambay extended up to the Limbasi-Sojitra-Petlad area during the Quaternary. There are implications for petroleum exploration in the sense that the results when integrated with subsurface geological and geophysical data help to delineate the reservoir facies suitable for petroleum exploration along the eastern margin of the Tarapur block.

  19. Decadal changes in the land use/land cover and shoreline along the coastal districts of southern Gujarat, India.

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    Misra, A; Balaji, R

    2015-07-01

    The coastal zone along the districts of Surat, Navsari, and Valsad in southern Gujarat, India, is reported to be facing serious environmental challenges in the form of shoreline erosion, wetland loss, and man-made encroachments. This study assesses the decadal land use/ land cover (LULC) changes in these three districts for the years 1990, 2001, and 2014 using satellite datasets of Landsat TM, ETM, and OLI. The LULC changes are identified by using band ratios as a pre-classification step, followed by implementation of hybrid classification (a combination of supervised and unsupervised classification). An accuracy assessment is carried out for each dataset, and the overall accuracy ranges from 90 to 95%. It is observed that the spatial extents of aquaculture, urban built-up, and barren classes have appreciated over time, whereas the coverage of mudflats has depreciated due to rapid urbanization. The changes in the shoreline of these districts have also been analyzed for the same years, and significant changes are found in the form of shoreline erosion. The LULC maps prepared as well as the shoreline change analysis done for this study area will enable the local decision makers to adopt better land-use planning and shoreline protection measures, which will further aid in sustainable future developments in this region.

  20. Isolation and Characterization of Three and Four Ring Pahs Degrading Bacteria from Contaminated Sites, Ankleshwar, Gujarat, India

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    Jignasha G. Patel

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH-degrading bacteria were isolated from prolong contaminated Amalakhadi sediment and crude oil polluted soil Telva, near Ankleshwar Gujarat India. Organisms were treated with two-model PAHs compound Anthracene (ANT, and Pyrene (PYR as the sole source of carbon and energy. Identification of the isolates was carried out based on their morphological and partial 16S rRNA gene sequences, which revealed that the isolates belong to two main bacterial groups: gram-negative pseudomonas indoxyladons and gram-positive, spore-forming group, Bacillus benzoevorans. GC-MS based degradation study demonstrated that P. indoxyladons efficiently degrade 98% of ANT and PYR by 93.2 % when treated with 250 mg L-1. However, B. benzoevorans could tolerate to 200 mg L-1of PYR. Thus, the findings of the study provide novel bacterial sp. having different capacity to degrade model PAHs compounds and further could be utilized for the standardization of bioremediation protocols for ex situ and in situ studies in aquatic as well as terrestrial ecosystem.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v4i1.12184International Journal of Environment Volume-4, Issue-1, Dec-Feb 2014/15, Page: 130-140  

  1. Comigrants and friends: informal networks and the transmission of traditional ecological knowledge among seminomadic pastoralists of Gujarat, India

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    Matthieu Salpeteur

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Previous research has shown that social organization may affect the distribution of traditional ecological knowledge (TEK within local communities of natural resource users in multiple ways. However, in this line of research the potential role of informal relationships has mostly been overlooked. In this article, we contribute toward filling this research gap by studying how two types of informal relationships, namely migration partnership and friendship, affect the distribution of TEK within a community of seminomadic pastoralists from the Kutch area, Gujarat, India. Using social network analysis, we map three networks, migration, men friendship, and women friendship, and compare with similarity-based quantitative approaches the clusters extracted from these networks in relation to four domains of TEK: knowledge about soils, about ethnoveterinary practices, about sheep breeds, and in ethnobotany. Our results show that (1 migration clusters are associated to significant variations in three TEK domains, while (2 friendship clusters are associated to minor variations. We relate these results to the importance of common practical experiences involved by joint migration. Moreover, kin relations are shown to strongly underlie friendship and migration relations, and as such appear as a potential driver of the dynamics of the local TEK system. We conclude by advocating for a better inclusion of such informal relationships in future research on local TEK dynamics, following recent developments in studies on natural resource governance.

  2. Why are HIV-infected people not started on antiretroviral therapy? A mixed-methods study from Gujarat, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shringarpure, K.; Modi, B.; Sharma, R.; Rewari, B. B.; Shah, A. N.; Verma, P. B.; Dongre, A. R.; Kumar, A. M. V.

    2017-01-01

    Setting: Five purposively selected antiretroviral therapy (ART) centres in Gujarat, India. Objectives: To assess the proportion of ART-eligible people living with the human immunodeficiency virus (PLHIV) who were not initiated on ART within 2 months of being recorded as eligible, to identify factors associated with non-initiation and to explore reasons from the provider's perspective. Design: We used a mixed-methods design (triangulation) of 1) a quantitative phase involving record reviews and cohort analysis (Poisson regression) of PLHIV registered during April 2014–March 2015, and 2) a qualitative phase involving one-to-one interviews with 25 providers. Results: Of 2079 ART-eligible PLHIV, 339 (16%) were not started on ART within 2 months. PLHIV with CD4 counts of bedridden or registered with certain ART centres were more likely not to be initiated on ART. Qualitative results were categorised into two broad themes: government health system- and patient-related challenges, which validated and complemented the quantitative findings. Conclusion: Several patient subgroups at greater risk of ART non-initiation were identified, along with reasons for risk; this has important programme implications for achieving the UNAIDS 90–90–90 goal, and particularly the second 90 component of having 90% of diagnosed PLHIV start ART. PMID:29201653

  3. Fluid Inclusion Study of Quartz Xenocrysts in Mafic Dykes from Kawant Area, Chhota Udaipur District, Gujarat, India

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    Randive Kirtikumar

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Unusual mafic dykes occur in the proximity of the Ambadongar Carbonatite Complex, Lower Narmada Valley, Gujarat, India. The dykes contain dense population of quartz xenocrysts within the basaltic matrix metasomatised by carbonate-rich fluids. Plagioclase feldspars, relict pyroxenes, chlorite, barite, rutile, magnetite, Fe-Ti oxides and glass were identified in the basaltic matrix. Quartz xenocrysts occur in various shapes and sizes and form an intricate growth pattern with carbonates. The xenocrysts are fractured and contain several types of primary and secondary, single phase and two-phase fluid inclusions. The two-phase inclusions are dominated by aqueous liquid, whereas the monophase inclusions are composed of carbonic gas and the aqueous inclusions homogenize to liquid between 226°C and 361°C. Majority of the inclusions are secondary in origin and are therefore unrelated to the crystallization of quartz. Moreover, the inclusions have mixed carbonic-aqueous compositions that inhibit their direct correlation with the crustal or mantle fluids. The composition of dilute CO2-rich fluids observed in the quartz xenocrysts appear similar to those exsolved during the final stages of evolution of the Amba Dongar carbonatites. However, the carbonates are devoid of fluid inclusions and therefore their genetic relation with the quartz xenocrysts cannot be established.

  4. Naphthalene degradation by bacterial consortium (DV-AL) developed from Alang-Sosiya ship breaking yard, Gujarat, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Vilas; Jain, Siddharth; Madamwar, Datta

    2012-03-01

    Naphthalene degrading bacterial consortium (DV-AL) was developed by enrichment culture technique from sediment collected from the Alang-Sosiya ship breaking yard, Gujarat, India. The 16S rRNA gene based molecular analyzes revealed that the bacterial consortium (DV-AL) consisted of four strains namely, Achromobacter sp. BAB239, Pseudomonas sp. DV-AL2, Enterobacter sp. BAB240 and Pseudomonas sp. BAB241. Consortium DV-AL was able to degrade 1000 ppm of naphthalene in Bushnell Haas medium (BHM) containing peptone (0.1%) as co-substrate with an initial pH of 8.0 at 37°C under shaking conditions (150 rpm) within 24h. Maximum growth rate and naphthalene degradation rate were found to be 0.0389 h(-1) and 80 mg h(-1), respectively. Consortium DV-AL was able to utilize other aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons such as benzene, phenol, carbazole, petroleum oil, diesel fuel, and phenanthrene and 2-methyl naphthalene as sole carbon source. Consortium DV-AL was also efficient to degrade naphthalene in the presence of other pollutants such as petroleum hydrocarbons and heavy metals. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Prevalence Of Traditional Medications Through Native Floral Elements Among Tribal Communities Of Kachchh Arid Ecosystem, Gujarat, India

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    Ekta B Joshi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This communication deals with the documentation of 38 medicinal plant species used for indigenous medications by local villagers such as pastoralists (Maldharis and farmers of Tapkeshwari Hill Range (THR, Bhuj Taluka, Kachchh District, Gujarat, India. Traditional knowledge on medicinally important plant species has been recorded from tribal communities through semi-questionnaire survey using an open-ended questionnaire datasheets. The response from the people interviewed clearly indicated that most of the villagers were fully or partially dependent on the forest produce for their primary healthcare requirements as well as for curing chronic or acute disorders and ailments. Plant parts such as bark, flowers, fruits, gum, latex, leaves, roots, seeds, and spadix, were found to be used for the cure of bronchitis, cold, cough, diabetes, diarrhea, dropsy, dysentery, earache, fever, fistula, gastric troubles, hypothermia, indigestion, piles, skin diseases, snake-bites, toothache, and ulcer. The most predominantly used 10 plant species in the area are Asparagus racemosus, Balanites aegyptiaca, Capparis cartilaginea, Cassia auriculata, Commiphora wightii, Enicostema axillare, Fagonia schweienfurthii, Maytenus emerginata, Tinospora cordifolia, and Tribulus terrestris. An enumeration of these 38 medicinal plant species is presented; each species is cited with correct scientific names, vernacular names, ailments treated for, mode of preparation and dosages. International Journal of Environment, Volume-2, Issue-1, Sep-Nov 2013, Pages 184-201 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v2i1.9221

  6. Food preferences of the Golden Jackal Canis aureus in the Gir National Park and Sanctuary, Gujarat, India

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    M. Shamshad Alam

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The feeding habits of the Golden Jackal Canis aureus were investigated by analysis of its scat contents (n=81, collected between October 2007 and June 2008 in Gir National Park and Sanctuary, Gujarat, India. Jackal dietary habits reflected the availability of a wide variety of food items and the differential vulnerability of prey. Potential animal and plant foods available to jackal varied because of their seasonal variability. About 32.69% scats were found to have only one prey item, whereas 48.08% of scats represented two prey items. Overall, it was found that the large mammalian prey was the most important food item which was significantly supplemented by vegetative material particularly Zizyphus spp. Amongst mammalian prey, the percentage frequency of occurrence (percentage±SE of Chital Axis axis was 25.93±2.84, Buffalo Bubalus arnee bubalis was 27.16±2.98 followed by Indian Hare Rufus nigricollis 19.75±2.15 and Sambar Rusa unicolor 11.11±1.19 while the least was found for Langur Semnopithecus entellus 2.47±0.21 and Bluebull Boselaphus tragocamelus 2.47±0.21. Although, there is substantial availability of wild prey kills, the results suggest the presence of domestic mammals and human waste matter in the scats which could be assumed as a fortification of the Jackal’s dietary spectrum, substantiating the scavenging tendency of the jackal to forage near human settlements.

  7. Prevalence and characteristics of Molar Incisor Hypomineralisation (MIH) in the child population residing in Gandhinagar, Gujarat, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parikh, D R; Ganesh, M; Bhaskar, V

    2012-02-01

    Most prevalence studies on Molar Incisor Hypomineralisation (MIH) have been carried out in European countries and data from Asia especially south Asian populations are lacking. To investigate the prevalence and clinical characteristics of MIH in children residing in a western region of India. A cross-sectional survey including 1,366 children from 5 age cohorts, 8-12 years, studying in primary schools or attending the University Department, was carried out in the area of Gandhinagar, Gujarat, India. The dental examination was performed by a single well-trained and calibrated examiner in day light conditions. Full mouth inspection of wet teeth was conducted using the EAPD 2003 criteria for diagnosis of MIH. Results were recorded and statistically analysed using Chi-square test, independent sample t-test and Pearson correlations. Prevalence of MIH was 9.2% in the examined population. Males and females were equally affected. Among 12 index teeth involved in the examination, the most commonly affected were in descending order 46, 36, 16, 11 [FDI] and the least 42, 32, and 22. 17.4% of the cases revealed only molars involved, the remaining 72.6% having both molars and incisors affected; all four first permanent molars showed in 23% of the cases while no cases of only affected incisors were found. Of the MIH teeth 77.3% revealed mild defects and 22.7% severe defects. All incisors were mildly affected, as compared with only 67.1% of the molars, the remaining 32.9% being severely affected. As age increased, a statistically significant larger total number and severity level of affected teeth were recorded. Prevalence of MIH using EAPD 2003 criteria was found to be similar to other studies evaluating children in different geographic locations such as Europe, South America etc. Using the EAPD standardised criteria, more studies should be conducted in other Indian regions, in order to further evaluate prevalence, characteristics and treatment needs for this clinically demanding

  8. The dominance of the private sector in the provision of emergency obstetric care: studies from Gujarat, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar, Mariano; Vora, Kranti; De Costa, Ayesha

    2016-07-07

    India has experienced a steep rise in institutional childbirth. The relative contributions of public and private sector facilities to emergency obstetric care (EmOC) has not been studied in this setting. This paper aims to study in three districts of Gujarat state, India:(a) the availability of EmOC facilities in the public and private sectors; (b) the availability and distribution of human resources for birth attendance in the two sectors; and (c) to benchmark the above against 2005 World Health Report benchmarks (WHR2005). A cross-sectional survey of obstetric care facilities reporting 30 or more births in the last three months was conducted (n = 159). Performance of EmOC signal functions and availability of human resources were assessed. EmOC provision was dominated by private facilities (112/159) which were located mainly in district headquarters or small urban towns. The number of basic and comprehensive EmOC facilities was below WHR2005 benchmarks. A high number of private facilities performed C-sections but not all basic signal functions (72/159). Public facilities were the main EmOC providers in rural areas and 40/47 functioned at less than basic EmOC level. The rate of obstetricians per 1000 births was higher in the private sector. The private sector is the dominant EmOC provider in the state. Given the highly skewed distribution of facilities and resources in the private sector, state led partnerships with the private sector so that all women in the state receive care is important alongside strengthening the public sector.

  9. Nutrient Dynamics in an Avicennia marina (Forsk. Vierh., Mangrove Forest in Vamleshwar, Gujarat, India

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    Isaiah Nirmal KUMAR

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out to determine the nutrient budget of plants, sediments and nutrient dynamics in an Avicennia marina (Forsk. Vierh., dominated forest in Vamleshwar near Narmada estuary, West Coast of Gujarat for a period of one year from November 2008 to October 2009. The average tree height of the mangrove is 1.5 to 2 m without much vertical stratification. Allometric methodology was used to measure the biomass, and yield a figure of 86.47 t ha-1 and the litter fall rate amounted to 2.9 t ha-1. Nutrient stocks of N, P and K in this mangrove were 137.05, 14.38 and 241.29 kg ha-1, with an annual accumulation of 55.74, 12.38 and 83.94 kg ha-1, and an annual return of 51.30, 10.83 and 13.52 kg ha-1, respectively, in the form of litter. The annual uptake for N, P and K were 61.04, 14.28 and 97.46 kg ha-1, and turnover rates of N, P and K were estimated at 3, 6 and 14 years, respectively, for the study period. Flow coefficients, which reveal the dynamic processes of nutrients between mangrove plants and sediments, are also explained. The present study concluded that the A. marina dominated mangrove plantation is more efficient in nutrient use and conservation.

  10. Managing hospital supplies: process reengineering at Gujarat Cancer Research Institute, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramani, K V

    2006-01-01

    Aims to give an overview of the re-engineering of processes and structures at Gujarat Cancer Research Institute (GCRI), Ahmedabad. A general review of the design, development and implementation of reengineered systems in order to address concerns about the existing systems. Findings GCRI is a comprehensive cancer care center with 550 beds and well equipped with modern diagnostic and treatment facilities. It serves about 200,000 outpatients and 16,000 inpatients annually. The approach to a better management of hospital supplies led to the design, development, and implementation of an IT-based reengineered and integrated purchase and inventory management system. The new system has given GCRI a saving of about 8 percent of its annual costs of purchases, and improved the availability of materials to the user departments. Shows that the savings obtained are used not only for buying more hospital supplies, but also to buy better quality of hospital supplies, and thereby satisfactorily address the GCRI responsibility towards meeting its social obligations for cancer care.

  11. Time series analysis of soil Radon-222 recorded at Kutch region, Gujarat, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madhusudan Rao, K.; Rastogi, B.K.; Barman, Chiranjib; Chaudhuri, Hirok

    2013-01-01

    Kutch region in Gujarat lies in a seismic vulnerable zone (seismic zone-v). After the devastating Bhuj earthquake (7.7M) of January 26, 2001 in the Kutch region several researcher focused their attention to monitor geophysical and geochemical precursors for earthquakes in the region. In order to find out the possible geochemical precursory signals for earthquake events, we monitored radioactive gas radon-222 in sub surface soil gas at Kutch region. We have analysed the recorded soil radon-222 time series by means of nonlinear techniques such as FFT power spectral analysis, empirical mode decomposition, multi-fractal analysis along with other linear statistical methods. Some fascinating and fruitful results originated out the nonlinear analysis of the said time series have been discussed in the present paper. The entire analytical method aided us to recognize the nature and pattern of soil radon-222 emanation process. Moreover the recording and statistical and non-linear analysis of soil radon data at Kutch region will assist us to understand the preparation phase of an imminent seismic event in the region. (author)

  12. Diaspora philanthropy from a homeland perspective: reciprocity and contestation over donations in Central Gujarat, India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekkers, N.; Rutten, M.

    2011-01-01

    Financial flows are an important aspect of transnational ties between migrants and their respective home countries. Worldwide, the amount of remittances has increased substantially, India being the largest recipient of overseas remittances in the developing world today. Although household level

  13. On two abnormal sharks from Gujarat

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gopalan, U.K.

    The description of the two abnormal sharks, Carchariaswalbeehmi and Eulamia dussumieri collected from Gujarat, India, is given Of these C walbeehmi was double-headed The other shark E dussumieri had thumb snouted albino...

  14. Determinants of Overweight and Obesity in Affluent Adolescent in Surat City, South Gujarat region, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Jagdish P; Kumar, Nagendra; Parmar, Indira; Shah, Vijay B; Patel, Bharat

    2011-10-01

    Obesity is a major global burden. Low levels of physical activity, TV watching, and dietary pattern are modifiable risk factors for overweight and obesity in adolescent. The objective of this study was to determine risk factors for overweight and obesity among affluent adolescent, in Surat city in south Gujarat. Cross sectional from July 2009 to April 2010. Two private schools with tuition fees more than Rs. 2000 per month, were selected randomly using a random table. The participants were adolescents, 12 to 15 years of age. Pre-designed and pre-tested questionnaire was used to elicit the information about dietary history and physical activity. Height and weight was measured and BMI was calculated. Overweight and obesity were assessed by BMI for age. Student who had BMI for age <85(th) and <95(th) percentile of reference population were classified as overweight and BMI for age <95(th) percentile of reference population were classified as obese (IAP Growth Monitoring Guidelines for Children from Birth to 18 Year). The overall prevalence of obesity and overweight was 6.55% and 13.9% (boys: 6.7% and 15.1%; girls 6.4% and 13.35%). Final model of multiple logistic regression analysis showed that important determinants of overweight and obesity were low levels of physical activity, watching television or playing computer games, and consuming junk foods, snacks and carbonated drinks. The magnitude of obesity and overweight among affluent adolescent of Surat city was found to be 6.55% and 13.9%, respectively. Low level of physical activity, watching TV or playing computer games, and dietary pattern predisposed the adolescent to overweight/obesity.

  15. Determinants of overweight and obesity in affluent adolescent in Surat city, South Gujarat region, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jagdish P Goyal

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Obesity is a major global burden. Low levels of physical activity, TV watching, and dietary pattern are modifiable risk factors for overweight and obesity in adolescent. Objective : The objective of this study was to determine risk factors for overweight and obesity among affluent adolescent, in Surat city in south Gujarat. Design : Cross sectional from July 2009 to April 2010. Setting : Two private schools with tuition fees more than Rs. 2000 per month, were selected randomly using a random table. Participants : The participants were adolescents, 12 to 15 years of age. Data collection : Pre-designed and pre-tested questionnaire was used to elicit the information about dietary history and physical activity. Measurement : Height and weight was measured and BMI was calculated. Overweight and obesity were assessed by BMI for age. Student who had BMI for age >85 th and 95 th percentile of reference population were classified as obese (IAP Growth Monitoring Guidelines for Children from Birth to 18 Year. Result : The overall prevalence of obesity and overweight was 6.55% and 13.9% (boys: 6.7% and 15.1%; girls 6.4% and 13.35%. Final model of multiple logistic regression analysis showed that important determinants of overweight and obesity were low levels of physical activity, watching television or playing computer games, and consuming junk foods, snacks and carbonated drinks. Conclusion : The magnitude of obesity and overweight among affluent adolescent of Surat city was found to be 6.55% and 13.9%, respectively. Low level of physical activity, watching TV or playing computer games, and dietary pattern predisposed the adolescent to overweight/obesity.

  16. Detection and treatment of hyperthyroidism in sea coastal areas and chemically polluted areas in Gujarat, (western part) India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Om Prakash; Mayank, M.; Rachh, S.; Patel, N.; Patel, K.M.; Soni, M.K.; Bhatt, V.

    2010-01-01

    Full text: Thyrotoxicosis results from a high level of thyroid hormone in blood. 131 I therapy for this is very safe treatment. Surgery is not acceptable in youngsters because of cosmetic point of view. Objective: In India most of thyrotoxicosis occurs in sea coastal region and hypothyroidism in Himalayan region. The main objective of this study to evaluate, the effect of geographical distribution and chemical pollution on thyroid. To calculate exact dose based on gland size. Materials and Methods: 160 patients of primary hyperthyroidism were selected. Age group range between 15-65 yrs. All patients from Gujarat (India) it is located in western part of India. It's sea coast is approx. 1600 km long. Here Asia's largest chemical zone is situated. Method: 5ml of blood collected from each patient. T3,T4 and TSH test done by RIA and IRMA techniques. After that 99m TcO 4 - Scintigraphy done by gamma camera (GE infinia) 15 days before administration of 131 I all iodine containing food and drugs had been stopped, even iodized salts also. 20 patients got fixed dose of 131 I 10 mci per patient. 140 patients got 120 micro curie per gram of thyroid tissues weight. Follow up study done after 6 months of 131 I administration. Thyroid function test and scintigraphy done to evaluate pre and post therapy changes. Result: 60% of treated patients from sea coastal area, 25% from chemical and 15% from planes. The patients who got fixed dose 10 mci 131 I, of them 35% became hypothyroid and 3% got 2nd dose (13-15 mci) other group who got 120 micro curie 131 I per gram of thyroid tissue of them only 10% became hypothyroid but 5.4% had been treated with 20% more 131 I than primary dose. In the age group of 50-65 yrs on ECG cardiac arrhythmia detected. Conclusion: In treatment of thyrotoxic patients 120 micro curie/gram group shows better result than fixed dose 10 mCi. 60% of treated patients were from sea coastal range, but 25% patients were from chemically polluted zone is guiding us to

  17. Responses of nocturnal rodents to shrub encroachment in Banni grasslands, Gujarat, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayadevan, A.

    2016-12-01

    Shrub encroachment is one of the greatest threats to grasslands globally. These woodlands can strongly influence the behaviour of small mammals adapted to more open habitats, which rely on high visibility for early detection of predators. In semi-arid grasslands, rodents are considered keystone species. Although shrub encroachment is known to negatively affect rodent assemblages, its impact on the foraging behaviour of rodents, which is known to vary in response to risky situations, is unknown. Understanding whether shrub encroachment alters such antipredator behaviour is important as antipredator behaviour can alter the distribution, abundance and ultimately, survival of prey species. In this study, I explored the effects of shrub encroachment on the foraging behaviour of nocturnal rodent communities in the Banni grasslands, India. I examined foraging behaviour, quantified using the giving-up density (GUD) framework and the number of rodent crossings around food patches, in two habitats that differed in the extent of shrub encroachment. Under the GUD framework, the amount of food left behind by a forager in a food patch reflects the costs of feeding at the patch. Higher GUDs imply higher foraging costs. I also investigated how removal of an invasive woody plant, Prosopis juliflora would affect foraging behaviour of nocturnal rodents. High shrub encroachment was associated with higher foraging costs (higher GUDs) and lower activity than the sparsely wooded habitat, likely due to low visibility in the densely wooded habitat. The dense habitat also supported a higher richness and relative abundance of generalist rodents than the sparse habitat, likely due to the increased heterogeneity of the habitat. The tree removal experiment revealed that rodents had lower GUDs (i.e., low foraging costs) after the event of tree cutting. This may be due to the reduction of cover in the habitat, leading to higher visibility and lower predation risk. My results suggest that shrub

  18. No K/T boundary at Anjar, Gujarat, India: Evidence from magnetic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan, Krishtel eMaging Solutions

    1996, Courtillot et al 2000) does not contradict a placement of the sediments in ..... et al 1995b; Courtillot et al 2000), while flows V– .... tive work involving Geological Survey of India and .... the eastern Tethys (eds) W C Sweet, Zunyi Yang, J. M..

  19. Rates, indications, and outcomes of caesarean section deliveries: A comparison of tribal and non-tribal women in Gujarat, India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gayatri Desai

    Full Text Available Even though the caesarean section is an essential component of comprehensive obstetric and newborn care for reducing maternal and neonatal mortality, there is a lack of data regarding caesarean section rates, its determinants and health outcomes among tribal communities in India.The aim of this study is to estimate and compare rates, determinants, indications and outcomes of caesarean section. The article provides an assessment on how the inequitable utilization can be addressed in a community-based hospital in tribal areas of Gujarat, India.Prospectively collected data of deliveries (N = 19923 from April 2010 to March 2016 in Kasturba Maternity Hospital was used. The odds ratio of caesarean section was estimated for tribal and non-tribal women. Decomposition analysis was done to decompose the differences in the caesarean section rates between tribal and non-tribal women.The caesarean section rate was significantly lower among tribal compared to the non-tribal women (9.4% vs 15.6%, p-value < 0.01 respectively. The 60% of the differences in the rates of caesarean section between tribal and non-tribal women were unexplained. Within the explained variation, the previous caesarean accounted for 96% (p-value < 0.01 of the variation. Age of the mother, parity, previous caesarean and distance from the hospital were some of the important determinants of caesarean section rates. The most common indications of caesarean section were foetal distress (31.2%, previous caesarean section (23.9%, breech (16% and prolonged labour (11.2%. There was no difference in case fatality rate (1.3% vs 1.4%, p-value = 0.90 and incidence of birth asphyxia (0.3% vs 0.6%, p-value = 0.26 comparing the tribal and non-tribal women.Similar to the prior evidences, we found higher caesarean rates among non-tribal compare to tribal women. However, the adverse outcomes were similar between tribal and non-tribal women for caesarean section deliveries.

  20. Brachyuran crab diversity of lower estuarine mud flats of Mahi River with new record of two species from Gujarat, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. J. Pandya

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A systematic study of brachyuran crab diversity and distribution was carried out for two years on the lower estuarine mud flats of the Mahi River, the upper Gulf of Khambhat, Gujarat. A total of 10 brachyuran crab species belonging to eight genera and eight families were identified. Study documented the distribution and habitat preference of the reported species on the intertidal area. The study records the occurance of two species Dotilla intermedia and Macrophthalmus brevis, for the first time from Gujarat. Moreover the study briefed on the habitat preference, general ethology and morphometry of new recorded species.

  1. Bioaccumulation of heavy metals by freshwater algal species of Bhavnagar, Gujarat, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaiswar, Santial; Kazi, Mudassar Anisoddin; Mehta, Shailesh

    2015-11-01

    The present study investigated copper, cadmium, lead and zinc accumulation in algal species Oedogonium, Cladophora, Oscillatoria and Spirogyra from freshwater habitats of Bhavnagar, India. Eight different locations were periodically sampled during August 2009 to March 2011. The general trend of heavy metal concentrations in all the algal species in present study (except at few stations), were found to be in the following order: Zn > Cu > Pb > Cd. Highest accumulation of Cu was recorded in Oedogonium, while Cladophora showed highest accumulation of Pb signifying a good bioaccumulator. Oscillatoria and Oedogonium were highest Zn accumulating algae which showed significant difference between the means at P Cu > Pb > Cd. The present study showed that Oedogonium, Cladophora, Oscillatoria and Spirogyra were excellent bioaccumulator and could be utilized as biomonitoring agents in water bodies receiving waste contaminated by metals.

  2. Morphometric study of the Habo dome, Kachchh, Gujarat, India: implications on neotectonic activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharjee, N.; Mohanty, S. P.

    2017-12-01

    The Kachchh Basin of western India was developed during the separation of the Indian plate from the Gondwanaland in Mesozoic. Series of E-W striking master faults were generated during this extensional phase. The collision of the Indian and Eurasian plates in Eocene time resulted in the change of stress regime to a compressional setting when the built-up stress developed NNW-SSE to NNE-SSW striking transverse faults and reactivated the earlier E-W master faults. The present work was carried out in the Habo dome, located in the central part of the Kachchh Basin, to analyse the morphometric features such as the bifurcation ratio, circulation ratio, drainage texture, asymmetric factor, hypsometric indices and mountain front sinuosity of selected sub-watersheds of the area to understand the effects of fault reactivation and neotectonic activities on the geometry of the dome. Shuttle Radar Topographic Mission (SRTM) Digital Elevation Model (DEM) data were used to extract drainage network for morphometric analysis of the Kaswati, Khari, and Pur river basins. The study area is elliptical in outline with the long axis trending approximately E-W. The evolution of this domal structure is interpreted to be the result of fault-bound nature of the block. The northern slope of the dome is bound by the Kachchh Mainland Fault and the eastern and western boundaries are marked by transverse faults. The undulating topography was developed by differential movements along several transverse faults striking NW-SE, N-S, and NE-SW. The earlier interpretation of laccolith intrusion into the sedimentary rocks is not supported by the data analysis and field mapping. Stress propagations from the Himalayan range in the northeast and Sulaiman range in the northwest are identified to be the causative factor for historical seismicity and drainage anomalies in the area. Keywords: Basin morphometry, Geographical Information System, Lineament patterns, Kachchh basin, Neotectonics, Fault reactivation

  3. Subsurface profiling of granite pluton using microtremor method: southern Aravalli, Gujarat, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Aditya U.; Sant, Dhananjay A.; Parvez, Imtiyaz A.; Rangarajan, Govindan; Limaye, Manoj A.; Mukherjee, Soumyajit; Charola, Mitesh J.; Bhatt, Meghnath N.; Mistry, Sagar P.

    2018-01-01

    We report, using the microtremor method, a subsurface granitic pluton underneath the Narukot Dome and in its western extension along a WNW profile, in proximity of eastern fringe of Cambay Rift, India. The dome and its extension is a part of the Champaner Group of rocks belonging to the Mesoproterozoic Aravalli Supergroup. The present finding elucidates development of an asymmetric double plunge along Narukot Dome. Microtremor measurements at 32 sites were carried out along the axial trace (N95°) of the dome. Fourier amplitude spectral studies were applied to obtain the ratio between the horizontal and vertical components of persisting Rayleigh waves as local ambient noise. Fundamental resonant frequencies with amplitude ≥1-sigma for each site are considered to distinguish rheological boundary. Two distinct rheological boundaries are identified based on frequency ranges determined in the terrain: (1) 0.2219-10.364 Hz recorded at 31 stations identified as the Champaner metasediment and granite boundary, and (2) 10.902-27.1119 Hz recorded at 22 stations identified as the phyllite and quartzite boundary. The proposed equation describing frequency-depth relationship between granite and overlaying regolith matches with those already published in the literature. The morphology of granite pluton highlights the rootless character of Champaner Group showing sharp discordance with granitic pluton. The findings of manifestation of pluton at a shallower depth imply a steep easterly plunge within the Champaner metasediments, whereas signature of pluton at a deeper level implies a gentle westerly plunge. The present method enables to assess how granite emplacement influences the surface structure.

  4. Foraminiferal study from Kharo Creek, Kachchh (Gujarat), north west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nigam, R.; Chaturvedi, S.K.

    any creek of Kachchh area will also serve as a baseline data to assess the future impact of industrial pollution (if any) as a jetty for offoading cement is being constructed in Kharo creek for proposed cement plant which is coming up in this area....

  5. Assessment of Ambient Air Quality and Air Quality Index in Golden Corridor of Gujarat, India: A Case Study of Dahej Port

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiren B. Soni

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Clean air is the basic requirement of all living organisms. In recent times, due to population growth, urban sprawl, industrial development, and vehicular boom, the quality of air is deteriorating and being polluted. Pollutants of major public health concerns include particulate matter, carbon monoxide, ozone, nitrogen dioxide, and sulfur dioxide, which pose serious threats to human health and hygiene. In the present study, prime particulate pollutants (PM10, PM2.5, and gaseous pollutants (SO2, and NO2 were estimated at seven stations in and around Dahej Port, Gujarat, India. The obtained values of PM10, PM2.5, SO2, and NO2 in all the studied stations (seven ranged from 67.39 to 98.75, 29.57 to 45.79, 17.76 to 22.29 and 28.29 to 32.42 mg/m3, respectively. The level of PM10 at all sampling locations, and that of PM2.5 at Station A3 (Lakhigam were found little higher than prescribed permissible limits of CPCB standards, while SO2 and NO2levels were within the acceptable range. The Air Quality Index (AQI score was found to be ranged from 76.50 to 97.75, which is at satisfactory level as per CPCB standards. Further, precautionary measures and management strategies to minimize the effect of particulate as well as gaseous pollutants have also been suggested for achieving its ambient levels in and around Dahej Port, Gujarat, India.International Journal of EnvironmentVolume-6, Issue-4, Sep-Nov 2017, page: 28-41

  6. Prevalence and risk factor's analysis of bovine brucellosis in peri-urban areas under intensive system of production in Gujarat, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. D. Patel

    2014-07-01

    , type of animal, type of breed and knowledge/awareness of dairyman, unrestricted animal market, replacement without prior testing, reproductive disorders with absence of their testing are the important risk factors under the intensive production system of peri-urban areas of Gujarat, India.

  7. Prevalence of goiter and urinary iodine status in six-twelve-year-old rural primary school children of Bharuch district, Gujarat, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haresh Rameshkumar Chandwani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Iodine deficiency disorder (IDD creates major public health problems in India, including Gujarat. The Bharuch district is a known iodine deficiency endemic area. This study was conducted to estimate the prevalence of goiter in primary school children; to determine the median urinary iodine concentration; to assess the level of iodine in salt samples at the household and retail shop levels; and to study the profile of salt sold at retail shops. Methods: This study was carried out by using the 30-cluster survey method in the primary schools of the rural areas in Bharuch district. A total of 70 students, including five boys and five girls from the first to seventh classes, who were present in class on the day of the visit were selected randomly for goiter examination from each village. Urine samples were collected from one boy and one girl from each class in each cluster. From each community, a maximum of two boys and two girls from each standard in the same age group were examined and also salt samples were tested from their households. From each village, one retail shop was visited and the salt purchased from those shops was immediately tested for iodine with spot kits. Results: We found a goiter prevalence of 23.2% (grade 1 - 17.4% and grade 2 - 5.8%. As the age increased, the goiter prevalence decreased except in nine-year-olds. The median urinary iodine excretion level was 110 μg/L. An Iodine level > 15 ppm was found in 93% of the salt samples tested at the household level. Conclusion: The present study showed moderate goiter prevalence in primary school children in the Bharuch district of Gujarat and an inadequate iodine content of salt at some household levels.

  8. Status of Isoetes coromandeliana L.f. and Equisetum debile Roxb. ex Voucher in Gujarat State, Western India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh K. PATEL

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Occurrence of Isoetes coromandeliana L.f. in natural ponds of Harni, Savali and Tuwa (India is known since 1956 by earlier workers. Equisetum debile Roxb. ex Voucher was also reported in 1962 growing as wild at Savali. Available literature indicates that I. coromandeliana falls under the category of ‘near threatened’ in Asian continents and as an ‘endangered species’ at national (India level. In the current field work study, the authors could not locate the investigated species from the locations earlier documented by researchers. Few saplings of I. coromandeliana were observed at Talod and Vaktapur near Gandhinagar, a new location for the species. In contrast, E. debile appeared to be lost in wild from Gujarat. Their extinction from earlier reported locations is associated with anthropogenic pressure and thus legal action for their protection is needed. The present paper suggests further survey and habitat based studies and recommends conservation and management action plans based upon the ecology of the habitat.

  9. Seasonal incidence of Haemoprotozoal diseases in crossbred cattle and buffalo in Kaira and Anand districts of Gujarat, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S P Vahora

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Seasonal incidence of haemoprotozoal diseases in crossbred cattle and buffalo was studied by examining 3152 and 1129 blood smears respectively, received from various veterinary sub centres located in Anand and Kaira districts of Gujarat during period from April 2009 to March 2010. The present study has recorded higher incidence of haemoprotozoal diseases in crossbred cattle and buffalo from June to September and June to August, respectively. In crossbred cattle, 1172 (37% out of 3152 blood smears were positive for haemoprotozoal infection while in buffalo, 191 (17% out of 1129 blood smears were positive for haemoprotozoal infection. In both the species, higher incidence of Theileriosis was recorded during monsoon season as compared to other protozoan diseases. [Vet. World 2012; 5(4.000: 223-225

  10. Utilization of the state led public private partnership program "Chiranjeevi Yojana" to promote facility births in Gujarat, India: a cross sectional community based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasobant, Sandul; Vora, Kranti Suresh; Shewade, Hemant Deepak; Annerstedt, Kristi Sidney; Isaakidis, Petros; Mavalankar, Dileep V; Dholakia, Nishith B; De Costa, Ayesha

    2016-07-15

    "Chiranjeevi Yojana (CY)", a state-led large-scale demand-side financing scheme (DSF) under public-private partnership to increase institutional delivery, has been implemented across Gujarat state, India since 2005. The scheme aims to provide free institutional childbirth services in accredited private health facilities to women from socially disadvantaged groups (eligible women). These services are paid for by the state to the private facility with the intention of service being free to the user. This community-based study estimates CY uptake among eligible women and explores factors associated with non-utilization of the CY program. This was a community-based cross sectional survey of eligible women who gave birth between January and July 2013 in 142 selected villages of three districts in Gujarat. A structured questionnaire was administered by trained research assistant to collect information on socio-demographic details, pregnancy details, details of childbirth and out-of-pocket (OOP) expenses incurred. A multivariable inferential analysis was done to explore the factors associated with non-utilization of the CY program. Out of 2,143 eligible women, 559 (26 %) gave birth under the CY program. A further 436(20 %) delivered at free public facilities, 713(33 %) at private facilities (OOP payment) and 435(20 %) at home. Eligible women who belonged to either scheduled tribe or poor [aOR = 3.1, 95 % CI:2.4 - 3.8] or having no formal education [aOR = 1.6, 95 % CI:1.1, 2.2] and who delivered by C-section [aOR = 2.1,95 % CI: 1.2, 3.8] had higher odds of not utilizing CY program. Of births at CY accredited facilities (n = 924), non-utilization was 40 % (n = 365) mostly because of lack of required official documentation that proved eligibility (72 % of eligible non-users). Women who utilized the CY program overall paid more than women who delivered in the free public facilities. Uptake of the CY among eligible women was low after almost a decade

  11. SEROPREVALENCE OF HEPATITIS B, HEPATITIS C, SYPHILIS AND HIV IN PREGNANT WOMEN IN A TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL, GUJARAT, INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swati Dhirajlal Jethava

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND This study was conducted to assess the extent of seropositivity of hepatitis B, hepatitis C, syphilis and HIV in pregnant women at tertiary care hospitals in Gujarat from December 2015 to June 2016 and to re-evaluate the need for routine antenatal care screening for these infections among obstetric patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS Patients were enrolled for study after taking informed consent. All samples were tested to detect HbsAg by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA, anti-HCV by ELISA, samples were also tested for antibodies to Treponema pallidum by Rapid Plasma Regain (RPR, samples were tested for antibodies to HIV by three different methods as per strategy III of the National AIDS Control Organisation by using different systems of testing to establish a diagnosis of HIV. RESULTS Total 1000 samples were tested. Out of this, seropositivity of hepatitis B was (0.6%, hepatitis C was (0.2%, syphilis was (0.0% and HIV was 0.1%. Out of the 1000 samples, no coinfection was found between hepatitis B, hepatitis C, syphilis or HIV. CONCLUSION This study can help the health professionals to efficiently treat antenatal patients. Early diagnosis of disease in antenatal period is helpful for proper management and initiation of treatment to prevent transmission to newborn.

  12. Analysis of isotope element by electrolytic enrichment method for ground water and surface water in Saurashtra region, Gujarat, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sajal Singh

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study has been aimed for the assessment of isotope element Tritium (3H. It is a great threat to human health and environment for lengthy duration. The tritium exists in earth in diverse forms such as (1 small amounts of natural tritium are produced by alpha decay of lithium-7, (2 natural atmospheric tritium is also generated by secondary neutron cosmic ray bombardment of nitrogen, (3 atmospheric nuclear bomb testing in the 1950s, although the contribution from nuclear power plants is small. Tritium or 3H is a radioactive isotope of hydrogen with a half-life of 12.32 ± 0.02 years. Water samples from ground water, surface water, and precipitation were collected from different locations in Gujarat area and were analyzed for the same. Distillation of samples was done to reduce the conductivity. Deuterium and Hydrogen were removed by the process of physico-chemical fractionation in the tritium enrichment unit. The basis of physico-chemical fractionation is the difference in the strength of bonds formed by the light vs. the heavier isotope of a given element. A total of 10 cycles (runs were executed using Quintals process. Tritium concentration files were created with help of WinQ and Quick start software in Quintals process (Liquid Scintillation Spectrometer. The concentration of tritium in terms of tritium units (TU of various samples has been determined. The TU values of the samples vary in the range of 0.90–6.62 TU.

  13. Reduction of catastrophic health care expenditures by a community-based health insurance scheme in Gujarat, India: current experiences and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranson, Michael Kent

    2002-01-01

    To assess the Self Employed Women's Association's Medical Insurance Fund in Gujarat in terms of insurance coverage according to income groups, protection of claimants from costs of hospitalization, time between discharge and reimbursement, and frequency of use. One thousand nine hundred and thirty claims submitted over six years were analysed. Two hundred and fifteen (11%) of 1927 claims were rejected. The mean household income of claimants was significantly lower than that of the general population. The percentage of households below the poverty line was similar for claimants and the general population. One thousand seven hundred and twelve (1712) claims were reimbursed: 805 (47%) fully and 907 (53%) at a mean reimbursement rate of 55.6%. Reimbursement more than halved the percentage of catastrophic hospitalizations (>10% of annual household income) and hospitalizations resulting in impoverishment. The average time between discharge and reimbursement was four months. The frequency of submission of claims was low (18.0/1000 members per year: 22-37% of the estimated frequency of hospitalization). The findings have implications for community-based health insurance schemes in India and elsewhere. Such schemes can protect poor households against the uncertain risk of medical expenses. They can be implemented in areas where institutional capacity is too weak to organize nationwide risk-pooling. Such schemes can cover poor people, including people and households below the poverty line. A trade off exists between maintaining the scheme's financial viability and protecting members against catastrophic expenditures. To facilitate reimbursement, administration, particularly processing of claims, should happen near claimants. Fine-tuning the design of a scheme is an ongoing process - a system of monitoring and evaluation is vital.

  14. Satellite image based quantification of invasion and patch dynamics of mesquite ( Prosopis juliflora) in Great Rann of Kachchh, Kachchh Biosphere Reserve, Gujarat, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasha, S. Vazeed; Satish, K. V.; Reddy, C. Sudhakar; Prasada Rao, P. V. V.; Jha, C. S.

    2014-10-01

    The invasion of alien species is a significant threat to global biodiversity and the top driver of climate change. The present study was conducted in the Great Rann of Kachchh, part of Kachchh Biosphere Reserve, Gujarat, India, which has been severely affected by invasion of Prosopis juliflora. The invasive weed infestation has been identified using multi-temporal remote sensing datasets of 1977, 1990, 1999, 2005 and 2011. Spatial analyses of the transition matrix, extent of invasive colonies, patchiness, coalescence and rate of spread were carried out. During the study period of three and half decades, almost 295 km2 of the natural land cover was converted into Prosopis cover. This study has shown an increment of 42.9% of area under Prosopis cover in the Great Rann of Kachchh, part of the Kachchh Biosphere Reserve during 1977 to 2011. Spatial analysis indicates high occupancy of Prosopis cover with most of the invasion (95.9%) occurring in the grasslands and only 4.1% in other land cover types. The process of Prosopis invasion shows high patch initiation, followed by coalescence, indicating aggressive colonization of species. The number of patches within an area of Prosopis habitats by replacing the grasslands. The largest patch of Prosopis cover increased from 144 km2 in 1977 to 430 km2 in 2011. The estimated mean patch size was 7.8 km2 in 1977. The mean patch size was largest during 2011, i.e., 9 km2. The annual spread rate for Prosopis has been estimated as 2.1% during 2005-2011. The present work has investigated the long term changes in Prosopis cover in the Great Rann of Kachchh, part of Kachchh Biosphere Reserve. The spatial database generated will be useful in preparing strategies for the management of Prosopis juliflora.

  15. Biomonitoring of selected freshwater macrophytes to assess lake trace element contamination: a case study of Nal Sarovar Bird Sanctuary, Gujarat, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita N. KUMAR

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available A biomonitoring study was carried out at Nal Sarovar Bird Sanctuary, a proposed Ramsar site, Gujarat State, India, to ascertain the degree of trace element contamination. The study focused on assessment of trace element contamination in certain aquatic macrophytes to be used as biomonitors, in comparison with the sediments (abiotic monitor for heavy metal pollution. Good information was provided by analyzing roots, stems and leaves of native aquatic plants (biomonitors represented by eight species: Bergia odorata, Hydrilla verticillata, Ipomoea aquatica, Najas graminea, Nelumbo nucifera, Phragmites karka, Typha angustata and Vellisnaria spiralis, alongwith surface sediments and water, were analyzed for Cd, Co, Cu, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn contamination. The highest concentrations of the trace elements were measured in Ipomoea aquatica and the lowest in Bergia odorata. Based on the concentration and toxicity status observed in the lake's vegetation, the six metals are arranged in the following decreasing order: Zn > Cu > Ni > Co > Pb > Cd. Compared with the standard, normal and critical toxicity range in plants, the detected values of Cd and Pb falls within normal range, while that of Co, Ni and Cu were within the critical range. However, Zn showed the highest concentration and alarming toxicity levels, which is considered as one of the most hazardous pollutants in Nal Sarovar Bird Sanctuary. Certain aquatic macrophytes species are also proposed as biomonitors for the investigated heavy metal pollutants. Such result was significant in the plant species such as Ipomoea aquatica and Phragmites karka, which are the two most useful species in biomonitoring studies due to their ability to accumulate elements in high concentration in the roots and their availability throughout the year. The results showed the significant difference in accumulation rate of some metals like Zn, Cu and Ni in different plant organs, which showed more accumulation in root than

  16. Biogas energy in India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moulik, T K

    1982-01-01

    A socio-economic study of India's biogas energy program, a response to the oil crisis of the 1970's, reviews the impact of promoting large-scale community biogas plants as a way to reach the lowest income groups. A case study draws on the experiences of the community plant in Gujarat village, and explores the program's secondary benefits and impacts on life styles. 15 references, 5 figures, 37 tables. (DCK)

  17. Molluscan fauna from the Miocene sediments of Kachchh, Gujarat ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    geological mapping of Kachchh was assigned to. Fedden and Wynne in the late ... Figure 1. Geological map of parts of Kachchh Region, Gujarat State, India; slightly modified after Biswas and Deshpande. Formational boundaries ...... division and correlation of Oligo–Miocene petroleum bearing strata in India and future ...

  18. How Do Age and Tooth Loss Affect Oral Health Impacts and Quality of Life?A Study Comparing Two State Samples of Gujarat and Rajasthan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mathur

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Age and tooth loss are expected to have a complex relationship with oral health-related quality of life. So the purpose of this study was to explain the impact of age and tooth loss on oral health-related quality of life using the short form 14-item oral health impact profile (OHIP-14 among two population samples of Gujarat and Rajasthan.Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional questionnaire-based survey was conducted among 1441 subjects collected from two major cities of Gujarat and Rajasthan. Both questionnaire approaches using OHIP-14 scale and clinical examination were conducted in accordance with WHO criteria using type III procedure on the same day. Chi square test, ANOVA and stepwise multiple regression analysis were applied using SPSS software version 15.0.Results: With the increase of age, OHIP mean score in both states increased, but that among Rajasthan state was higher, depicting poor oral health. Whereas, in the remaining 23-27 number of teeth both states showed higher OHIP mean, however again the score was much higher among Rajasthan subjects showing worse oral hygiene. Hence, overall all mean OHIP score for Gujarat was lower indicating good oral health; whereas, that among Rajasthan was higher indicating poor oral health-related quality of life.Conclusion: Both age and tooth loss are associated with each other, but they have an independent effect on the oral health-related quality of life. Thus, all studied populations with complete natural dentition showed good oral health-related quality of life.

  19. An Assessment of the Accumulation Potential of Pb, Zn and Cd by Avicennia marina (Forssk. Vierh. in Vamleshwar Mangroves, Gujarat, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaiah Nirmal KUMAR

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The study deals with the accumulation of Pb, Zn and Cd in an important mangrove species, Avicennia marina (Forssk. Vierh., in the Vamleshwar mangrove ecosystem, near Narmada estuary, West coast of Gujarat, India with height differences of 0.5, 1.5, 2.5 meters and carried out under field conditions during October, 2009. The site was located on 21�30�11.55�� N latitude and 72�43�53.68�� E longitude. Mangrove receives heavy metal pollution from upstream areas of Narmada estuary and highly populated settlements. However, little is known about the capacity of mangrove plants to take up and store heavy metals in them. Water, sediment and plant parts such as roots, stems and leaves were analyzed for finding the trace metal accumulation of different height groups by Inductive Coupled Plasma Analyser (ICPA. Amount of the content of metals found in the water, sediment and plant parts were in the order of Pb>Zn>Cd. The average contents of heavy metals in the waters were 57.83 mg l-1 for Pb, 3.89 83 mg l-1 for Zn and 0.42 mg l-1 for Cd. It was observed that the average contents of Pb (73.6 mg l-1, Zn (8.1 mg l-1 and Cd (0.73 mg l-1 in the sediments were below the critical soil concentrations. The concentrations of heavy metals in different parts of Avicennia marina were in the order Roots>stem>leaf except for Cd, but Cd found higher in leaf. The ranges of the content of heavy metals in plants were 18.5-102.2 mg l-1 for Pb, 3.5-19.5 mg l-1 for Zn and 0.2-4.1 mg l-1 for Cd. The concentrations of all heavy metals in Avicennia marina except Pb were falling within the normal range and were much more in the plants have the highest height. The present study has shown the potential of Avicennia marina as a phytoremediation species for selected heavy metals in many mangrove ecosystems.

  20. An Assessment of the Accumulation Potential of Pb, Zn and Cd by Avicennia marina (Forssk. Vierh. in Vamleshwar Mangroves, Gujarat, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaiah Nirmal KUMAR

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The study deals with the accumulation of Pb, Zn and Cd in an important mangrove species, Avicennia marina (Forssk. Vierh., in the Vamleshwar mangrove ecosystem, near Narmada estuary, West coast of Gujarat, India with height differences of 0.5, 1.5, 2.5 meters and carried out under field conditions during October, 2009. The site was located on 213011.55 N latitude and 724353.68 E longitude. Mangrove receives heavy metal pollution from upstream areas of Narmada estuary and highly populated settlements. However, little is known about the capacity of mangrove plants to take up and store heavy metals in them. Water, sediment and plant parts such as roots, stems and leaves were analyzed for finding the trace metal accumulation of different height groups by Inductive Coupled Plasma Analyser (ICPA. Amount of the content of metals found in the water, sediment and plant parts were in the order of Pb>Zn>Cd. The average contents of heavy metals in the waters were 57.83 mg l-1 for Pb, 3.89 83 mg l-1 for Zn and 0.42 mg l-1 for Cd. It was observed that the average contents of Pb (73.6 mg l-1, Zn (8.1 mg l-1 and Cd (0.73 mg l-1 in the sediments were below the critical soil concentrations. The concentrations of heavy metals in different parts of Avicennia marina were in the order Roots>stem>leaf except for Cd, but Cd found higher in leaf. The ranges of the content of heavy metals in plants were 18.5-102.2 mg l-1 for Pb, 3.5-19.5 mg l-1 for Zn and 0.2-4.1 mg l-1 for Cd. The concentrations of all heavy metals in Avicennia marina except Pb were falling within the normal range and were much more in the plants have the highest height. The present study has shown the potential of Avicennia marina as a phytoremediation species for selected heavy metals in many mangrove ecosystems.

  1. Characterizing rainfall of hot arid region by using time-series modeling and sustainability approaches: a case study from Gujarat, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machiwal, Deepesh; Kumar, Sanjay; Dayal, Devi

    2016-05-01

    This study aimed at characterization of rainfall dynamics in a hot arid region of Gujarat, India by employing time-series modeling techniques and sustainability approach. Five characteristics, i.e., normality, stationarity, homogeneity, presence/absence of trend, and persistence of 34-year (1980-2013) period annual rainfall time series of ten stations were identified/detected by applying multiple parametric and non-parametric statistical tests. Furthermore, the study involves novelty of proposing sustainability concept for evaluating rainfall time series and demonstrated the concept, for the first time, by identifying the most sustainable rainfall series following reliability ( R y), resilience ( R e), and vulnerability ( V y) approach. Box-whisker plots, normal probability plots, and histograms indicated that the annual rainfall of Mandvi and Dayapar stations is relatively more positively skewed and non-normal compared with that of other stations, which is due to the presence of severe outlier and extreme. Results of Shapiro-Wilk test and Lilliefors test revealed that annual rainfall series of all stations significantly deviated from normal distribution. Two parametric t tests and the non-parametric Mann-Whitney test indicated significant non-stationarity in annual rainfall of Rapar station, where the rainfall was also found to be non-homogeneous based on the results of four parametric homogeneity tests. Four trend tests indicated significantly increasing rainfall trends at Rapar and Gandhidham stations. The autocorrelation analysis suggested the presence of persistence of statistically significant nature in rainfall series of Bhachau (3-year time lag), Mundra (1- and 9-year time lag), Nakhatrana (9-year time lag), and Rapar (3- and 4-year time lag). Results of sustainability approach indicated that annual rainfall of Mundra and Naliya stations ( R y = 0.50 and 0.44; R e = 0.47 and 0.47; V y = 0.49 and 0.46, respectively) are the most sustainable and dependable

  2. The State-Led Large Scale Public Private Partnership ‘Chiranjeevi Program’ to Increase Access to Institutional Delivery among Poor Women in Gujarat, India: How Has It Done? What Can We Learn?

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Costa, Ayesha; Vora, Kranti S.; Ryan, Kayleigh; Sankara Raman, Parvathy; Santacatterina, Michele; Mavalankar, Dileep

    2014-01-01

    Background Many low-middle income countries have focused on improving access to and quality of obstetric care, as part of promoting a facility based intra-partum care strategy to reduce maternal mortality. The state of Gujarat in India, implements a facility based intra-partum care program through its large for-profit private obstetric sector, under a state-led public-private-partnership, the Chiranjeevi Yojana (CY), under which the state pays accredited private obstetricians to perform deliveries for poor/tribal women. We examine CY performance, its contribution to overall trends in institutional deliveries in Gujarat over the last decade and its effect on private and public sector deliveries there. Methods District level institutional delivery data (public, private, CY), national surveys, poverty estimates, census data were used. Institutional delivery trends in Gujarat 2000–2010 are presented; including contributions of different sectors and CY. Piece-wise regression was used to study the influence of the CY program on public and private sector institutional delivery. Results Institutional delivery rose from 40.7% (2001) to 89.3% (2010), driven by sharp increases in private sector deliveries. Public sector and CY contributed 25–29% and 13–16% respectively of all deliveries each year. In 2007, 860 of 2000 private obstetricians participated in CY. Since 2007, >600,000 CY deliveries occurred i.e. one-third of births in the target population. Caesareans under CY were 6%, higher than the 2% reported among poor women by the DLHS survey just before CY. CY did not influence the already rising proportion of private sector deliveries in Gujarat. Conclusion This paper reports a state-led, fully state-funded, large-scale public-private partnership to improve poor women’s access to institutional delivery - there have been >600,000 beneficiaries. While caesarean proportions are higher under CY than before, it is uncertain if all beneficiaries who require sections

  3. The state-led large scale public private partnership 'Chiranjeevi Program' to increase access to institutional delivery among poor women in Gujarat, India: How has it done? What can we learn?

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Costa, Ayesha; Vora, Kranti S; Ryan, Kayleigh; Sankara Raman, Parvathy; Santacatterina, Michele; Mavalankar, Dileep

    2014-01-01

    Many low-middle income countries have focused on improving access to and quality of obstetric care, as part of promoting a facility based intra-partum care strategy to reduce maternal mortality. The state of Gujarat in India, implements a facility based intra-partum care program through its large for-profit private obstetric sector, under a state-led public-private-partnership, the Chiranjeevi Yojana (CY), under which the state pays accredited private obstetricians to perform deliveries for poor/tribal women. We examine CY performance, its contribution to overall trends in institutional deliveries in Gujarat over the last decade and its effect on private and public sector deliveries there. District level institutional delivery data (public, private, CY), national surveys, poverty estimates, census data were used. Institutional delivery trends in Gujarat 2000-2010 are presented; including contributions of different sectors and CY. Piece-wise regression was used to study the influence of the CY program on public and private sector institutional delivery. Institutional delivery rose from 40.7% (2001) to 89.3% (2010), driven by sharp increases in private sector deliveries. Public sector and CY contributed 25-29% and 13-16% respectively of all deliveries each year. In 2007, 860 of 2000 private obstetricians participated in CY. Since 2007, >600,000 CY deliveries occurred i.e. one-third of births in the target population. Caesareans under CY were 6%, higher than the 2% reported among poor women by the DLHS survey just before CY. CY did not influence the already rising proportion of private sector deliveries in Gujarat. This paper reports a state-led, fully state-funded, large-scale public-private partnership to improve poor women's access to institutional delivery - there have been >600,000 beneficiaries. While caesarean proportions are higher under CY than before, it is uncertain if all beneficiaries who require sections receive these. Other issues to explore include

  4. The state-led large scale public private partnership 'Chiranjeevi Program' to increase access to institutional delivery among poor women in Gujarat, India: How has it done? What can we learn?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayesha De Costa

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Many low-middle income countries have focused on improving access to and quality of obstetric care, as part of promoting a facility based intra-partum care strategy to reduce maternal mortality. The state of Gujarat in India, implements a facility based intra-partum care program through its large for-profit private obstetric sector, under a state-led public-private-partnership, the Chiranjeevi Yojana (CY, under which the state pays accredited private obstetricians to perform deliveries for poor/tribal women. We examine CY performance, its contribution to overall trends in institutional deliveries in Gujarat over the last decade and its effect on private and public sector deliveries there. METHODS: District level institutional delivery data (public, private, CY, national surveys, poverty estimates, census data were used. Institutional delivery trends in Gujarat 2000-2010 are presented; including contributions of different sectors and CY. Piece-wise regression was used to study the influence of the CY program on public and private sector institutional delivery. RESULTS: Institutional delivery rose from 40.7% (2001 to 89.3% (2010, driven by sharp increases in private sector deliveries. Public sector and CY contributed 25-29% and 13-16% respectively of all deliveries each year. In 2007, 860 of 2000 private obstetricians participated in CY. Since 2007, >600,000 CY deliveries occurred i.e. one-third of births in the target population. Caesareans under CY were 6%, higher than the 2% reported among poor women by the DLHS survey just before CY. CY did not influence the already rising proportion of private sector deliveries in Gujarat. CONCLUSION: This paper reports a state-led, fully state-funded, large-scale public-private partnership to improve poor women's access to institutional delivery - there have been >600,000 beneficiaries. While caesarean proportions are higher under CY than before, it is uncertain if all beneficiaries who require

  5. Ecological response of foraminiferal component in the sediments of Kharo Creek, Kachchh (Gujarat), west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chaturvedi, S.K.; Nigam, R.; Khare, N.

    emphasize on the possibility of the detailed foraminiferal study in the creek on seasonal basis as such study will form the base line data to asses the future impact of industrial pollution (if any) as a jetty for offloading cement is being constructed...

  6. Altered cropping pattern and cultural continuation with declined prosperity following abrupt and extreme arid event at ~4,200 yrs BP: Evidence from an Indus archaeological site Khirsara, Gujarat, western India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anil K Pokharia

    Full Text Available Archaeological sites hold important clues to complex climate-human relationships of the past. Human settlements in the peripheral zone of Indus culture (Gujarat, western India are of considerable importance in the assessment of past monsoon-human-subsistence-culture relationships and their survival thresholds against climatic stress exerted by abrupt changes. During the mature phase of Harappan culture between ~4,600-3,900yrsBP, the ~4,100±100yrsBP time slice is widely recognized as one of the major, abrupt arid-events imprinted innumerous well-dated palaeo records. However, the veracity of this dry event has not been established from any archaeological site representing the Indus (Harappan culture, and issues concerning timing, changes in subsistence pattern, and the likely causes of eventual abandonment (collapse continue to be debated. Here we show a significant change in crop-pattern (from barley-wheat based agriculture to 'drought-resistant' millet-based crops at ~4,200 yrs BP, based on abundant macrobotanical remains and C isotopes of soil organic matter (δ13CSOM in an archaeological site at Khirsara, in the Gujarat state of western India. The crop-change appears to be intentional and was likely used as an adaptation measure in response to deteriorated monsoonal conditions. The ceramic and architectural remains of the site indicate that habitation survived and continued after the ~4,200yrsBP dry climatic phase, but with declined economic prosperity. Switching to millet-based crops initially helped inhabitants to avoid immediate collapse due to climatic stresses, but continued aridity and altered cropping pattern led to a decline in prosperity levels of inhabitants and eventual abandonment of the site at the end of the mature Harappan phase.

  7. Prevalence and risk factor's analysis of bovine brucellosis in peri-urban areas under intensive system of production in Gujarat, India

    OpenAIRE

    M. D. Patel; P. R. Patel; M. G. Prajapati; A. N. Kanani; K. K. Tyagi; A. B. Fulsoundar

    2014-01-01

    Aim: A study on surveillance of bovine brucellosis in dairy herds of peri-urban areas under intensive system of production was carried out by milk-ELISA. Various risk factors were identified having significant association with occurrence of bovine brucellosis in dairy herds of peri-urban areas. Materials and Methods: Five randomly selected peri-uban areas of six cities of Gujarat were included in the present study. Five randomly selected dairy herds under intensive system of production fro...

  8. A unique late bronze age copper fish-hook from Bet Dwarka Island, Gujarat, west coast of India: Evidence on the advance fishing technology in ancient India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gaur, A.S.; Sundaresh

    role in phosphate transport. A fall in s e rum phosphate level has been reported 9 in patients of meta - static pro s tate cancer treated with high dose of diethyl sti l bo esterol, a synthetic estrogen. Testoste r one seems to enhance calciu m.... Exp . Biol. , 2002, 40 , 780 ? 784. Received 30 October 2003; accepted 3 D e cem - ber 2003 M ARY V INCENT C HIRAYATH J. P RAKASA R AO * Department of Physiology, Christian Medical College, Vellore 632 002, India *For...

  9. 'You're disabled, why did you have sex in the first place?' An intersectional analysis of experiences of disabled women with regard to their sexual and reproductive health and rights in Gujarat State, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Laura; Tolhurst, Rachel; Khanna, Renu; Jehan, Kate

    Globally, disabled people have significant unmet needs in relation to sexual and reproductive health (SRH). Disabled women in India face multiple discrimination: social exclusion, lack of autonomy with regard to their SRH, vulnerability to violence, and lack of access to SRH care. While they may face shared challenges, an intersectional perspective suggests that considering disabled women as a uniform and 'vulnerable' group is likely to mask multiple differences in their lived experiences. To explore commonality and heterogeneity in the experiences of disabled women in relation to their SRH needs and rights in Gujarat State, India. We conducted 22 in-depth qualitative interviews with women between the ages of 18 and 49 with any form of self-identified disability. Intersectionality was used as a lens for analysis and in sampling. Findings explore the experiences of disabled women in a number of different spheres related to decision making and SRH service use. Recognising heterogeneity is critical to inform rights-based approaches to promote SRH and rights for all disabled women. This suggests a need to encourage strategic alliances between social movements for gender equity and SRH and disability rights, in which common interests and agendas can be pursued whilst recognising and respecting differences.

  10. ‘You’re disabled, why did you have sex in the first place?’ An intersectional analysis of experiences of disabled women with regard to their sexual and reproductive health and rights in Gujarat State, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Laura; Tolhurst, Rachel; Khanna, Renu; Jehan, Kate

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT ​Background: Globally, disabled people have significant unmet needs in relation to sexual and reproductive health (SRH). Disabled women in India face multiple discrimination: social exclusion, lack of autonomy with regard to their SRH, vulnerability to violence, and lack of access to SRH care. While they may face shared challenges, an intersectional perspective suggests that considering disabled women as a uniform and ‘vulnerable’ group is likely to mask multiple differences in their lived experiences. Objective: To explore commonality and heterogeneity in the experiences of disabled women in relation to their SRH needs and rights in Gujarat State, India. Methods: We conducted 22 in-depth qualitative interviews with women between the ages of 18 and 49 with any form of self-identified disability. Intersectionality was used as a lens for analysis and in sampling. Results: Findings explore the experiences of disabled women in a number of different spheres related to decision making and SRH service use. Conclusions: Recognising heterogeneity is critical to inform rights-based approaches to promote SRH and rights for all disabled women. This suggests a need to encourage strategic alliances between social movements for gender equity and SRH and disability rights, in which common interests and agendas can be pursued whilst recognising and respecting differences. PMID:28460595

  11. Emergency preparedness in the case of Makran tsunami: a case study on tsunami risk visualization for the western parts of Gujarat, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Patel

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The west coast of India is affected by tsunamigenic earthquake along the Makran subduction zone. On 28 November 1945 at 21:56 coordinated universal time (UTC, a massive Makran earthquake (M8.0 generated a destructive tsunami that propagated across the Northern Arabian Sea and the Indian Ocean. This tsunamigenic earthquake was responsible for the loss of life and great destruction along the coasts of India, Pakistan, Iran and Oman. Modelling of tsunami stages has been made for the coasts of Pakistan, Iran, India and Oman using NAMI-DANCE computer code. The fault parameters of the earthquakes for the generation of tsunami are epicentre (25.15° N, 63.48° E, fault area (200 km length and 100 km width, angle of strike, dip and rake (246°, 7° and 90°, focal depth (15 km, slip magnitude (7 m. The bathymetry data are taken from General Bathymetric Chart of the Oceans (GEBCO and land topography data were collected using Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM. The present simulation is carried out for a duration of 360 min. It is observed that the maximum calculated tsunami run-ups were about 0.7–1.1 m along the coast of Oman, 0.5 m near Muscat, 0.1 m near Sur, 0.7–1.35 m along the western coast of India, 0.5–2.3 m along the southern coast of Iran and 1.2–5.8 m along the southern coast of Pakistan. After the tsunamigenic earthquake, the tsunami wave reached the Gulf of Kachchh in about 240 min, Okha in about 185 min, Dwarka in about 150 min, Porbandar in about 155 min, Mumbai in about 300 min and Goa in about 210 min. The calculated 2-hr tsunami travel time to the Indian coast is in good agreement with the available reports and published data. If the tsunami strikes during high tide, we should expect more serious hazards which would impact local coastal communities. The results obtained in this study are converted to be compatible with the geographic information system based applications for display and spatial analysis of

  12. Sub-surface lithology, distribution of uranium and other trace elements and sulphur isotope studies of Bhuj formation in the Bharasar area, Kachchh district, Gujarat, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thangavel, S.; Maithani, P.B.; Banerjee, Rahul

    1998-01-01

    Lower Cretaceous Bhuj Formation as recorded in the drilled core in the Bharasar area, Kachchh district, Gujarat comprises marginal marine to fluvio-deltaic sediments of sandstone, siltstone, clay and carbonaceous shales with pyrite and coalified matter. Drill-core samples of sandstone chemically analysed 3 O 8 whereas basic rock/dolerite up to 16 ppm eU 3 O 8 indicating contamination of overlying sediments. 34 S values of euhedral pyrite from the sandstone with admixed patches of mud stone and siltstone have a wide range of +0.71 per mil to +43.20 per mil with an average of 16.04 per mil, which indicate a sedimentary source for sulphur, probably either marine sulphate, sea water or geosynclinal sediments

  13. Cost-effectiveness analysis of the diarrhea alleviation through zinc and oral rehydration therapy (DAZT) program in rural Gujarat India: an application of the net-benefit regression framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shillcutt, Samuel D; LeFevre, Amnesty E; Fischer-Walker, Christa L; Taneja, Sunita; Black, Robert E; Mazumder, Sarmila

    2017-01-01

    This study evaluates the cost-effectiveness of the DAZT program for scaling up treatment of acute child diarrhea in Gujarat India using a net-benefit regression framework. Costs were calculated from societal and caregivers' perspectives and effectiveness was assessed in terms of coverage of zinc and both zinc and Oral Rehydration Salt. Regression models were tested in simple linear regression, with a specified set of covariates, and with a specified set of covariates and interaction terms using linear regression with endogenous treatment effects was used as the reference case. The DAZT program was cost-effective with over 95% certainty above $5.50 and $7.50 per appropriately treated child in the unadjusted and adjusted models respectively, with specifications including interaction terms being cost-effective with 85-97% certainty. Findings from this study should be combined with other evidence when considering decisions to scale up programs such as the DAZT program to promote the use of ORS and zinc to treat child diarrhea.

  14. The Association between Provider Practice and Knowledge of ORS and Zinc Supplementation for the Treatment of Childhood Diarrhea in Bihar, Gujarat and Uttar Pradesh, India: A Multi-Site Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamberti, Laura M; Fischer Walker, Christa L; Taneja, Sunita; Mazumder, Sarmila; Black, Robert E

    2015-01-01

    Programs aimed at reducing the burden of diarrhea among children under-five in low-resource settings typically allocate resources to training community-level health workers, but studies have suggested that provider knowledge does not necessarily translate into adequate practice. A diarrhea management program implemented in Bihar, Gujarat and Uttar Pradesh, India trained private sector rural medical practitioners (RMPs) and public sector Accredited Social Health Activists (ASHAs) and Anganwadi workers (AWWs) in adequate treatment of childhood diarrhea with oral rehydration salts (ORS) and zinc. We used cross-sectional program evaluation data to determine the association between observed diarrhea treatment practices and reported knowledge of ORS and zinc among each provider cadre. We conducted principal components analysis on providers' responses to diarrhea treatment questions in order to generate a novel scale assessing ORS/zinc knowledge. We subsequently regressed a binary indicator of whether ORS/zinc was prescribed during direct observation onto the resulting knowledge scores, controlling for other relevant knowledge predictors. There was a positive association between ORS/zinc knowledge score and prescribing ORS and zinc to young children with diarrhea among private sector RMPs (aOR: 2.32; 95% CI: 1.29-4.17) and public sector ASHAs and AWWs (aOR 2.48; 95% CI: 1.90-3.24). Controlling for knowledge score, receipt of training in the preceding 6 months was a good predictor of adequate prescribing in the public but not the private sector. In the public sector, direct access to ORS and zinc supplies was also highly associated with prescribing. To enhance the management of childhood diarrhea in India, programmatic activities should center on increasing knowledge of ORS and zinc among public and private sector providers through biannual trainings but should also focus on ensuring sustained access to an adequate supply chain.

  15. The Association between Provider Practice and Knowledge of ORS and Zinc Supplementation for the Treatment of Childhood Diarrhea in Bihar, Gujarat and Uttar Pradesh, India: A Multi-Site Cross-Sectional Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura M Lamberti

    Full Text Available Programs aimed at reducing the burden of diarrhea among children under-five in low-resource settings typically allocate resources to training community-level health workers, but studies have suggested that provider knowledge does not necessarily translate into adequate practice. A diarrhea management program implemented in Bihar, Gujarat and Uttar Pradesh, India trained private sector rural medical practitioners (RMPs and public sector Accredited Social Health Activists (ASHAs and Anganwadi workers (AWWs in adequate treatment of childhood diarrhea with oral rehydration salts (ORS and zinc. We used cross-sectional program evaluation data to determine the association between observed diarrhea treatment practices and reported knowledge of ORS and zinc among each provider cadre.We conducted principal components analysis on providers' responses to diarrhea treatment questions in order to generate a novel scale assessing ORS/zinc knowledge. We subsequently regressed a binary indicator of whether ORS/zinc was prescribed during direct observation onto the resulting knowledge scores, controlling for other relevant knowledge predictors.There was a positive association between ORS/zinc knowledge score and prescribing ORS and zinc to young children with diarrhea among private sector RMPs (aOR: 2.32; 95% CI: 1.29-4.17 and public sector ASHAs and AWWs (aOR 2.48; 95% CI: 1.90-3.24. Controlling for knowledge score, receipt of training in the preceding 6 months was a good predictor of adequate prescribing in the public but not the private sector. In the public sector, direct access to ORS and zinc supplies was also highly associated with prescribing.To enhance the management of childhood diarrhea in India, programmatic activities should center on increasing knowledge of ORS and zinc among public and private sector providers through biannual trainings but should also focus on ensuring sustained access to an adequate supply chain.

  16. A recent record of the Indo-Pacific Humpback Dolphin Sousa chinensis (Osbeck, 1765, (Mammalia: Cetartiodactyla: Delphinidae from the western shores of Kachchh, Gujarat, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devanshi Kukadia

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A total of six individuals of S.chinensis were observed near the Jakhau creek, which is the western part of Gulf of Kachchh. The GPS location of the sighting is 23°14’28.5” N and 68°35’54.0" E. The dolphins were spotted in the mid-high tide time on 03 December 2014 at 9.53 hrs (IST. These dolphins were found less than 10 m away from the shore at a depth of 1-10 m. The dolphins were observed for a time period of 20 minutes. The dolphins while leaping continuously, kept following the boat for sometime and approaching as close as five meters during certain occasions. These dolphins were also observed at the same time on the same location on the following day. A questionnaire survey with nearby fishermen had confirmed that these dolphins were seen in this part of Gujarat during winter. Therefore, it is assumed that weather condition and prey availability is favorable for this species during this period. This is the first record of S. chinensis in western shore of Kachchh district detailed study regarding the distribution of this species is required across the creek system of Western Kachchh.

  17. Spectrum of Radiological Findings in Leptospirosis on Chest Radiograph and Ultrasonography-Study during Epidemics in South Gujarat Region of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona Shastri

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Leptospirosis is an acute generalised infectious disease caused by any of the group of spirochetes of the genus Leptospira. The disease can involve many organs mainly liver, central nervous system, kidneys, skeletal muscle, and lungs. Diagnosis can be done on the basis of epidemiological, clinical and laboratory features. As the disease has varied manifestations, it is frequently misdiagnosed even in areas of high prevalence. A delay in diagnosis can leads to severe form of disease and development of its complications. Aim: To find out involvement of thoracic and abdominal organs in each and every patient with the help of chest radiographs and Ultrasonography (USG of abdomen and thorax. Also, to put together the radiological spectrum of pulmonary manifestations, and other system involvement in leptospirosis during epidemics in south Gujarat region and their role in early diagnosis and follow up of patients. Materials and Methods: Study was carried out for 3 years. Total 380 patients of suspected leptospirosis were referred during epidemic during months of July to October in year 2008, 2009 and 2010 for confirmation of diagnosis and management. Total 275 patients were confirmed for leptospirosis by serological test (ELISA during first and second week of illness which was included in our study. All 275 patients were evaluated with chest radiographs and ultrasound of chest and abdomen. Those patients which are clinically suspected for leptospirosis but were serologically negative were excluded. Results: Out of 275 confirmed patients of leptospirosis, 54 patients had signs of pulmonary haemorrhage on chest radiograph (19.65%. Out of these 54 patients 50 (which accounts 92% of pulmonary hemorrhage patients and 18% of total 275 patients died due to severe pulmonary haemorrhage and respiratory distress. Pleural effusion was diagnosed on X-ray chest in 10 patients but it was found in 68 patients on USG. Signs of acute renal disease were

  18. Probing the phylogenetic relationships of a few newly recorded intertidal zoanthids of Gujarat coast (India) with mtDNA COI sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Sneha; Poriya, Paresh; Kundu, Rahul

    2016-11-01

    The present study reports the phylogenetic relationship of six zoanthid species belonging to three genera, Isaurus, Palythoa, and Zoanthus identified using systematic computational analysis of mtDNA gene sequences. All six species are first recorded from the coasts of Kathiawar Peninsula, India. Genus: Isaurus is represented by Isaurus tuberculatus, genus Zoanthus is represented by Zoanthus kuroshio and Zoanthus sansibaricus, while genus Palythoa is represented by Palythoa tuberculosa, P. sp. JVK-2006 and Palythoa heliodiscus. Results of the present study revealed that among the various species observed along the coastline, a minimum of 99% sequence divergence and a maximum of 96% sequence divergence were seen. An interspecific divergence of 1-4% and negligible intraspecific divergence was observed. These results not only highlighted the efficiency of the COI gene region in species identification but also demonstrated the genetic variability of zoanthids along the Saurashtra coastline of the west coast of India.

  19. Validity of the construct of post-traumatic stress disorder in a low-income country: interview study of women in Gujarat, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Khyati; Vankar, Ganpat; Patel, Vikram

    2005-12-01

    The validity of the clinical construct of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has been questioned in non-Western cultures. This report describes in-depth interviews exploring the experiences of women who were traumatised by the communal riots in Ahmedabad, India, in March 2002. Three specific narratives are presented which describe experiences that closely resemble re-experiencing, avoidance and hyperarousal. Thus, symptoms described as characteristic features of PTSD in biomedical classifications are clearly expressed by the women in our study, and are attributed by them to trauma and grief. We conclude that PTSD may be a relevant clinical construct in the Indian context.

  20. How can mental health and faith-based practitioners work together? A case study of collaborative mental health in Gujarat, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, Laura; Chauhan, Ajay; Bakre, Ravindra; Hamlai, Milesh; Lynch, Durwin; Bunders, Joske

    2016-06-01

    Despite the knowledge that people with mental illness often seek care from multiple healing systems, there is limited collaboration between these systems. Greater collaboration with existing community resources could narrow the treatment gap and reduce fragmentation by encouraging more integrated care. This paper explores the origins, use, and outcomes of a collaborative programme between faith-based and allopathic mental health practitioners in India. We conducted 16 interviews with key stakeholders and examined demographic and clinical characteristics of the user population. Consistent with previous research, we found that collaboration is challenging and requires trust, rapport-building, and open dialogue. The collaboration reached a sizeable population, was reviewed favourably by key stakeholders-particularly on health improvement and livelihood restoration-and perhaps most importantly, views the client holistically, allowing for both belief systems to play a shared role in care and recovery. Results support the idea that, despite differing practices, collaboration between faith-based and allopathic mental health practitioners can be achieved and can benefit clients with otherwise limited access to mental health care. © The Author(s) 2016.

  1. All projects related to india | Page 15 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The city of Hyderabad, Gujarat, India, has a long history of communal conflict. Start Date: ... Project. Urbanization, housing and poverty are very much interrelated in sub-Saharan Africa. ... Dalit Women's Rights and Citizenship in India - Phase I.

  2. Prevalence of premenstrual syndrome and premenstrual dysphoric disorder among college students of Bhavnagar, Gujarat

    OpenAIRE

    Raval, Chintan Madhusudan; Panchal, Bharat Navinchandra; Tiwari, Deepak Sachidanand; Vala, Ashok Ukabhai; Bhatt, Renish Bhupendrabhai

    2016-01-01

    Background: Premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) is a severe form of premenstrual syndrome (PMS) characterized by mood changes, anxiety, and somatic symptoms experienced during the specific time of menstrual cycle. Prevalence data of PMS and PMDD is sparse among college girls in India. Aims: The aim of this study is to study the prevalence of PMS and PMDD among college students of Bhavnagar (Gujarat), its associated demographic and menstrual factors, to rank common symptoms and compare prem...

  3. Benthic studies in south Gujarat estuaries

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Govindan, K.; Varshney, P.K.; Desai, B.N.

    Benthic biomass and faunal composition in relation to various environmental conditions of the four South Gujarat estuaries namely the Auranga, Ambika, Purna and Mindola were studied and compared. Mean population density of benthos in Auranga, Ambika...

  4. Inequity in maternal health care service utilization in Gujarat: analyses of district-level health survey data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Deepak; Vangani, Ruchi; Mavalankar, Dileep V; Thomsen, Sarah

    2013-03-06

    Two decades after the launch of the Safe Motherhood campaign, India still accounts for at least a quarter of maternal death globally. Gujarat is one of the most economically developed states of India, but progress in the social sector has not been commensurate with economic growth. The purpose of this study was to use district-level data to gain a better understanding of equity in access to maternal health care and to draw the attention of the policy planers to monitor equity in maternal care. Secondary data analyses were performed among 7,534 ever-married women who delivered since January 2004 in the District Level Household and Facility Survey (DLHS-3) carried out during 2007-2008 in Gujarat, India. Based on the conceptual framework designed by the Commission on the Social Determinants of Health, associations were assessed between three outcomes - Institutional delivery, antenatal care (ANC), and use of modern contraception - and selected intermediary and structural determinants of health using multiple logistic regression. Inequities in maternal health care utilization persist in Gujarat. Structural determinants like caste group, wealth, and education were all significantly associated with access to the minimum three antenatal care visits, institutional deliveries, and use of any modern method of contraceptive. There is a significant relationship between being poor and access to less utilization of ANC services independent of caste category or residence. Poverty is the most important determinant of non-use of maternal health services in Gujarat. In addition, social position (i.e. caste) has a strong independent effect on maternal health service use. More focused and targeted efforts towards these disadvantaged groups needs to be taken at policy level in order to achieve targets and goals laid out as per the MDGs. In particular, the Government of Gujarat should invest more in basic education and infrastructural development to begin to remove the structural causes

  5. Inequity in maternal health care service utilization in Gujarat: analyses of district-level health survey data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dileep V. Mavalankar

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Two decades after the launch of the Safe Motherhood campaign, India still accounts for at least a quarter of maternal death globally. Gujarat is one of the most economically developed states of India, but progress in the social sector has not been commensurate with economic growth. The purpose of this study was to use district-level data to gain a better understanding of equity in access to maternal health care and to draw the attention of the policy planers to monitor equity in maternal care. Methods: Secondary data analyses were performed among 7,534 ever-married women who delivered since January 2004 in the District Level Household and Facility Survey (DLHS-3 carried out during 2007–2008 in Gujarat, India. Based on the conceptual framework designed by the Commission on the Social Determinants of Health, associations were assessed between three outcomes – Institutional delivery, antenatal care (ANC, and use of modern contraception – and selected intermediary and structural determinants of health using multiple logistic regression. Results: Inequities in maternal health care utilization persist in Gujarat. Structural determinants like caste group, wealth, and education were all significantly associated with access to the minimum three antenatal care visits, institutional deliveries, and use of any modern method of contraceptive. There is a significant relationship between being poor and access to less utilization of ANC services independent of caste category or residence. Discussion and conclusions: Poverty is the most important determinant of non-use of maternal health services in Gujarat. In addition, social position (i.e. caste has a strong independent effect on maternal health service use. More focused and targeted efforts towards these disadvantaged groups needs to be taken at policy level in order to achieve targets and goals laid out as per the MDGs. In particular, the Government of Gujarat should invest more in basic

  6. The economic impact of peste des petits ruminants in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardhan, D; Kumar, S; Anandsekaran, G; Chaudhury, J K; Meraj, M; Singh, R K; Verma, M R; Kumar, D; Kumar P T, N; Ahmed Lone, S; Mishra, V; Mohanty, B S; Korade, N; De, U K

    2017-04-01

    Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is an economically important livestock disease which affects a vast section of the small ruminant population in India. However, data on the incidence of PPR are limited and scant literature is available on the economic losses caused by the disease. In the present study, a structured sampling design was adopted, which covered the major agro-climatic regions of the country, to ascertain the morbidity and mortality rates of PPR. Available estimates of the economic losses in India due to various livestock diseases are based on single values of various epidemiological and economic parameters. Stochastic modelling was used to estimate the economic impact of PPR. Overall annual morbidity and mortality rates of PPR for small ruminants in India have been estimated from the sample as being 8%and 3.45%, respectively. The authors have analysed variations in these rates across species, age group, sex, season and region. The expected annual economic loss due to PPR in India ranges from as little as US $2 million to $18 million and may go up to US $1.5 billion; the most likely range of expected economic losses is between US $653 million and $669 million. This study thus reveals significant losses due to the incidence of PPR in small ruminants in India.

  7. Variability of Power from Large-Scale Solar Photovoltaic Scenarios in the State of Gujarat: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parsons, B.; Hummon, M.; Cochran, J.; Stoltenberg, B.; Batra, P.; Mehta, B.; Patel, D.

    2014-04-01

    India has ambitious goals for high utilization of variable renewable power from wind and solar, and deployment has been proceeding at a rapid pace. The western state of Gujarat currently has the largest amount of solar generation of any Indian state, with over 855 Megawatts direct current (MWDC). Combined with over 3,240 MW of wind, variable generation renewables comprise nearly 18% of the electric-generating capacity in the state. A new historic 10-kilometer (km) gridded solar radiation data set capturing hourly insolation values for 2002-2011 is available for India. We apply an established method for downscaling hourly irradiance data to one-minute irradiance data at potential PV power production locations for one year, 2006. The objective of this report is to characterize the intra-hour variability of existing and planned photovoltaic solar power generation in the state of Gujarat (a total of 1.9 gigawatts direct current (GWDC)), and of five possible expansion scenarios of solar generation that reflect a range of geographic diversity (each scenario totals 500-1,000 MW of additional solar capacity). The report statistically analyzes one year's worth of power variability data, applied to both the baseline and expansion scenarios, to evaluate diurnal and seasonal power fluctuations, different timescales of variability (e.g., from one to 15 minutes), the magnitude of variability (both total megawatts and relative to installed solar capacity), and the extent to which the variability can be anticipated in advance. The paper also examines how Gujarat Energy Transmission Corporation (GETCO) and the Gujarat State Load Dispatch Centre (SLDC) could make use of the solar variability profiles in grid operations and planning.

  8. Variability of Photovoltaic Power in the State of Gujarat Using High Resolution Solar Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hummon, M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Cochran, J. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Weekley, A. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Lopez, A. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Zhang, J. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Stoltenberg, B. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Parsons, B. [Evergreen Renewable Consulting, CO (United States); Batra, P. [Central Electricity Authority, New Delhi (India); Mehta, B. [Gujarat Energy Transmission Corporation Ltd., Vadodara (India); Patel, D. [Gujarat Energy Transmission Corporation Ltd., Vadodara (India)

    2014-03-01

    India has ambitious goals for high utilization of variable renewable power from wind and solar, and deployment has been proceeding at a rapid pace. The western state of Gujarat currently has the largest amount of solar generation of any Indian state, with over 855 Megawatts direct current (MWDC). Combined with over 3,240 MW of wind, variable generation renewables comprise nearly 18% of the electric-generating capacity in the state. A new historic 10-kilometer (km) gridded solar radiation data set capturing hourly insolation values for 2002-2011 is available for India. We apply an established method for downscaling hourly irradiance data to one-minute irradiance data at potential PV power production locations for one year, 2006. The objective of this report is to characterize the intra-hour variability of existing and planned photovoltaic solar power generation in the state of Gujarat (a total of 1.9 gigawatts direct current (GWDC)), and of five possible expansion scenarios of solar generation that reflect a range of geographic diversity (each scenario totals 500-1,000 MW of additional solar capacity). The report statistically analyzes one year's worth of power variability data, applied to both the baseline and expansion scenarios, to evaluate diurnal and seasonal power fluctuations, different timescales of variability (e.g., from one to 15 minutes), the magnitude of variability (both total megawatts and relative to installed solar capacity), and the extent to which the variability can be anticipated in advance. The paper also examines how Gujarat Energy Transmission Corporation (GETCO) and the Gujarat State Load Dispatch Centre (SLDC) could make use of the solar variability profiles in grid operations and planning.

  9. Perceptions of traditional healing for mental illness in rural Gujarat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoonover, Julie; Lipkin, Samuel; Javid, Munazza; Rosen, Anna; Solanki, Mehul; Shah, Sandip; Katz, Craig L

    2014-01-01

    Despite the significant toll of mental illness on the Indian population, resources for patients often are scarce, especially in rural areas. Traditional healing has a long history in India and is still widely used, including for mental illnesses. However, its use has rarely been studied systematically. The aim of this study was to determine the perspective of patients, their families, and healthy community members toward faith healing for mental illness, including the type of interventions received, perceptions of its efficacy, and overall satisfaction with the process. We also sought to explore the range of care received in the community and investigate possibilities for enhancing mental health treatment in rural Gujarat. We interviewed 49 individuals in July 2013 at Dhiraj General Hospital and in 8 villages surrounding Vadodara. A structured qualitative interview elicited attitudes toward faith healing for mental illnesses and other diseases. Qualitative analysis was performed on the completed data set using grounded theory methodology. Subjects treated by both a doctor and a healer reported they overwhelmingly would recommend a doctor over a healer. Almost all who were treated with medication recognized an improvement in their condition. Many subjects felt that traditional healing can be beneficial and believed that patients should initially go to a healer for their problems. Many also felt that healers are not effective for mental illness or are dishonest and should not be used. Subjects were largely dissatisfied with their experiences with traditional healers, but healing is still an incredibly common first-line practice in Gujarat. Because healers are such integral parts of their communities and so commonly sought out, collaboration between faith healers and medical practitioners would hold significant promise as a means to benefit patients. This partnership could improve access to care and decrease the burden of mental illness experienced by patients and

  10. Sedimentology, geochemistry and OSL dating of the alluvial succession in the northern Gujarat alluvial plain (western India) - A record to evaluate the sensitivity of a semiarid fluvial system to the climatic and tectonic forcing since the late Marine Isotopic Stage 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Falguni; Shukla, Anil D.; Patel, R. C.; Rastogi, B. K.; Juyal, Navin

    2017-11-01

    The alluvial successions in the northern Gujarat alluvial plain (western India) have been investigated for reconstructing the climatic fluctuations during the last 40 ka. Alluvial architecture and geochemical proxies indicate prevalence of a strengthened Indian Summer Monsoon (ISM) with fluctuations between the late Marine Isotopic Stage 3 (MIS 3; 37 ka) to the early MIS 2 (27 ka). A gradual onset of aridity (declining ISM) after 27 ka with peak aridity at 22 ka is observed. A gradual strengthening of ISM at around 18 and > 12 ka followed by a short reversal in ISM intensity between 12 and 11 ka, is attributed to the Younger-Dryas (YD) cooling event. The aeolian sand sheet dated to 6 and 3.5 ka represents the onset of regional aridity. Following this, a short-lived humid phase was observed after 2 ka, which includes the Medieval Warm Period (MWP). The study suggests that the variability in the ISM to the latitudinal migration of the Inter Tropical Convergence Zone was caused by insolation-driven cooling and warming events in the North Atlantic. The incision of the valley fill alluvium occurred in two distinct phases. The older incision phase occurred after 11 ka and before 6 ka, whereas the younger incision phase that led to the development of present day topography is bracketed between 3.5 ka and before 1 ka. The older incision phase is ascribed to the early to mid-Holocene enhanced ISM (climatically driven), whereas the younger incision seems to be modulated by the activation of basement faults (tectonically driven).

  11. Alleviating Energy Poverty through innovation: The case of Jyotigram Yojana (rural lighting scheme) of Gujarat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishra, Pramod Kumar

    2010-09-15

    Access to electricity is important for alleviation energy poverty in rural areas of developing countries. In spite of rural electrification schemes people in numerous villages do not have access to electricity because of inadequate and erratic power supply. The Jyotigram Yojana (Rural Lighting Scheme) of Gujarat in India transformed the rural electricity distribution scenario creating immense opportunities for socio-economic development. It shows how vision and political will can transcend the boundaries of technical and financial expertise and systemic rigidities, and facilitate successful adoption of simple but innovative approaches for alleviation of energy poverty and bringing about socio-economic development.

  12. IMPACT OF COMPUTER BASED ONLINE ENTREPRENEURSHIP DISTANCE EDUCATION IN INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhagwan SHREE RAM

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The success of Indian enterprises and professionals in the computer and information technology (CIT domain during the twenty year has been spectacular. Entrepreneurs, bureaucrats and technocrats are now advancing views about how India can ride CIT bandwagon and leapfrog into a knowledge-based economy in the area of entrepreneurship distance education on-line. Isolated instances of remotely located villagers sending and receiving email messages, effective application of mobile communications and surfing the Internet are being promoted as examples of how the nation can achieve this transformation, while vanquishing socio-economic challenges such as illiteracy, high growth of population, poverty, and the digital divide along the way. Likewise, even while a small fraction of the urban population in India has access to computers and the Internet, e-governance is being projected as the way of the future. There is no dearth of fascinating stories about CIT enabled changes, yet there is little discussion about whether such changes are effective and sustainable in the absence of the basic infrastructure that is accessible to the citizens of more advanced economies. When used appropriately, different CITs are said to help expand access to entrepreneurship distance education, strengthen the relevance of education to the increasingly digital workplace, and raise technical and managerial educational quality by, among others, helping make teaching and learning into an engaging, active process connected to real life. This research paper investigates on the impact of computer based online entrepreneurship distance education in India.

  13. Improving building energy efficiency in India: State-level analysis of building energy efficiency policies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Sha; Tan, Qing; Evans, Meredydd; Kyle, Page; Vu, Linh; Patel, Pralit L.

    2017-11-01

    India is expected to add 40 billion m2 of new buildings till 2050. Buildings are responsible for one third of India’s total energy consumption today and building energy use is expected to continue growing driven by rapid income and population growth. The implementation of the Energy Conservation Building Code (ECBC) is one of the measures to improve building energy efficiency. Using the Global Change Assessment Model, this study assesses growth in the buildings sector and impacts of building energy policies in Gujarat, which would help the state adopt ECBC and expand building energy efficiency programs. Without building energy policies, building energy use in Gujarat would grow by 15 times in commercial buildings and 4 times in urban residential buildings between 2010 and 2050. ECBC improves energy efficiency in commercial buildings and could reduce building electricity use in Gujarat by 20% in 2050, compared to the no policy scenario. Having energy codes for both commercial and residential buildings could result in additional 10% savings in electricity use. To achieve these intended savings, it is critical to build capacity and institution for robust code implementation.

  14. Atomic power project, Kakrapar, Gujarat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varadarajan, G.

    1992-01-01

    The atomic power project at Kakrapar, comprising of two units of 235 MW each, went critical very recently in September 1992. The work consisted of construction of reactor and turbine buildings, outer and inner containment walls, calandria vault, natural draught cooling tower, etc. Nearly 152,000m 3 of normal aggregate concrete and 3,500m 3 of heavy aggregate concrete were produced and poured. The paper describes salient innovative construction features of the project. Incidentally, the project received a Certificate of Merit in the Excellence in Concrete competition held by the Maharashtra India Chapter of the American Concrete Institute. (author). 7 figs

  15. Monetary Policy: Its Impact On The Profitability Of Banks In India

    OpenAIRE

    Punita Rao

    2011-01-01

    This purpose of this study is to investigate the impact of monetary policy on the profitability of banks in the context of financial sector reforms in India. We discuss the financial sector reforms and the implication of the banks, the various instruments of monetary policy in India, and the impact of monetary policy on the profitability of banks.

  16. Doha Round Impacts on India: A Study in a Sequential Dynamic CGE Framework

    OpenAIRE

    Raihan, Selim; Khondker, Bazlul Haque

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this research has been to examine the impact of Doha round negotiations on the economy of India. This research looked into the impact of agricultural trade liberalisation and the impact of NAMA negations under the Doha negotiations, the combined effects of agricultural and NAMA negotiations, and the impact of liberalisation of the domestic services sectors. With a view to addressing these important issues, this study has examined the effects of the Doha agreement for India in...

  17. An Assessment of the Impact of Climate Change in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, K. S.

    2009-09-01

    National economy and life of millions of poor largely related to climate sensitive natural resource base and a densely populated 7500 Km long low-lying coastline make India highly vulnerable to the impacts of climate change. Significant changes in the amount, intensity and seasonality of rainfall and extremes in temperature observed in different states are serious challenges to the securities in food, water and energy. Vagaries in monsoons and associated setbacks in agriculture that represents 35% GDP affect economy and rural life, leading to social issues like migration and spread of terrorism. Impact on forest affects the biodiversity, economy and life of tribals. Water availability in certain states has been falling sharply due to the changes in the amount as well as the seasonality of rainfall. Increase in rainfall intensity erodes topsoil in the Western Ghats Mountain and reduces the streamflow and reservoir capacity. Retreat of the Himalayan glaciers may add to the severity of hydrological extremes in the entire north India in the coming years. Irregular onset of monsoon and change in seasonality have already affected the plant biodiversity in the southern state of Kerala. Some seasonal plants became extinct because of the prolonged dry season. Almost all parts of India are increasingly becoming prone to floods or droughts. Drylands are potentially threatened by desertification. Changes in the frequency, intensity and track of cyclones and rising sea level are of serious concern in the coastal zones. Decreasing trend in fish catch in the southern coasts is linked to the changes in coastal circulation, SST and upwelling patterns. Coral environments also suffer from this. Cold waves and heat waves are becoming severe, extending to new regions and resulting in casualties. New viruses and vectors spread fatal deceases, expanding geographical extent. Climate change is likely to retard the present economic growth, because of the massive investment required for

  18. Environmental impacts of Jatropha curcas biodiesel in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gmünder, Simon; Singh, Reena; Pfister, Stephan; Adheloya, Alok; Zah, Rainer

    2012-01-01

    In the context of energy security, rural development and climate change, India actively promotes the cultivation of Jatropha curcas, a biodiesel feedstock which has been identified as suitable for achieving the Indian target of 20% biofuel blending by 2017. In this paper, we present results concerning the range of environmental impacts of different Jatropha curcas cultivation systems. Moreover, nine agronomic trials in Andhra Pradesh are analysed, in which the yield was measured as a function of different inputs such as water, fertilizer, pesticides, and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Further, the environmental impact of the whole Jatropha curcas biodiesel value chain is benchmarked with fossil diesel, following the ISO 14040/44 life cycle assessment procedure. Overall, this study shows that the use of Jatropha curcas biodiesel generally reduces the global warming potential and the nonrenewable energy demand as compared to fossil diesel. On the other hand, the environmental impacts on acidification, ecotoxicity, eutrophication, and water depletion all showed increases. Key for reducing the environmental impact of Jatropha curcas biodiesel is the resource efficiency during crop cultivation (especially mineral fertilizer application) and the optimal site selection of the Jatropha curcas plantations.

  19. India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-05-01

    In this discussion of India attention is directed to the following: the people; geography; history; government; political conditions; the economy; foreign relations (Pakistan and Bangladesh, China, and the Soviet Union); defense; and the relations between the US and India. In 1983 India's population was estimated at 746 million with an annual growth rate of 2.24%. The infant mortality rate was estimated at 116/1000 in 1984 with a life expectancy of 54.9 years. Although India occupies only 2.4% of the world's land area, it supports nearly 15% of the world's population. 2 major ethnic strains predominate in India: the Aryan in the north and the Dravidian in the south, although the lines between them are blurred. India dominates the South Asian subcontinent geographically. The people of India have had a continuous civilization since about 2500 B.C., when the inhabitants of the Indus River Valley developed an urban culture based on commerce, trade, and, to a lesser degree, agriculture. This civilization declined about 1500 B.C. and Aryan tribes originating in central Asia absorbed parts of its culture as they spread out over the South Asian subcontinent. During the next few centuries, India flourished under several successive empires. The 1st British outpost in South Asia was established in 1619 at Surat on the northwestern coast of India. The British gradually expanded their influence until, by the 1850s, they controlled almost the entire area of present-day India. Independence was attained on August 15, 1947, and India became a dominion within the Commonwealth of Nations with Jawaharlal Nehru as prime minister. According to its constitution, India is a "sovereign socialist secular democratic republic." Like the US, India has a federal form of government, but the central government in India has greater power in relation to its states, and government is patterned after the British parliamentary system. The Congress Party has ruled India since independence with the

  20. Physical characteristics of the coastal waters between Navapur and Umbharat, West coast of India. Part 2. Vertical homogeneity of temperature and salinity

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Swamy, G.N.; Sarma, R.V.

    Vertical distribution of temperature and salinity at five stations in the coastal waters off Navapur-Umbharat (Maharashtra-Gujarat coast, India) was studied over different seasons during 1978. The results showed that inspite of large tidal...

  1. Publication Trends and Citation Impact of Tribology Research in India: A Scientometric Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajendran, P.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes India's contribution to world tribology research during the period 2001-2012 based on SCOPUS records. India's global publication share, annual output, and its citation impact of Indian contribution, partner countries, leading contributors, leading institutes, and highly cited papers were analyzed. Additionally, a cloud technique is used to map frequently used single words in titles. It is observed that India ranks in the $7^{th}$ position with a global publication share of 3.83% and an annual average growth rate of 25.58% during the period 2001-2012. The citation impact of India's contribution is 6.05 which decreased from 12.74 during 2001-2006 to 4.62 during 2007-2012. 17.4% of India's total research output was published with international collaboration.

  2. Impact of bottom trawling on sediment characteristics - A study along inshore waters off Veraval coast, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Bhagirathan, U.; Meenakumari, B.; Jayalakshmy, K.V.; Panda, S.K.; Madhu, V.R.; Vaghela, D.T.

    The present communication is a study on the impact of bottom trawling on the sediment characteristics along Veraval coast, which is the largest trawler port of India. Experimental bottom trawling was conducted from MFV Sagarkripa at five transects...

  3. The Impact of Information Technology Outsourcing on Productivity and Output: New Evidence from India

    OpenAIRE

    Grace Kite

    2012-01-01

    Neither the literature on outsourcing nor the literature on the impact of information technology (IT) have previously quantified the effects of IT outsourcing. This is a particularly important omission in India, which has an IT outsourcing industry that is well placed to bring world-class applications of the technology to domestic customers. This paper provides econometric evidence which shows that there is a strong positive impact of IT outsourcing on output and productivity in India. It als...

  4. India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, R.W.

    1990-01-01

    Interest has grown recently in the issues of third tier or emerging nuclear suppliers. These are states that could export nuclear equipment, services, or technology but are outside the export control framework of the London Nuclear Supplier Group (NSG). The concern is that they may conduct nuclear trade without adequate safeguards, thus weakening the nonproliferation regime or even contributing to nuclear proliferation. The volume of nuclear sales by emerging suppliers is still minuscule, and it is unclear how far their export practices will diverge from the NSG framework. This case study of Indian nuclear supplier capability and practice is an effort to discern the type of path India is likely to adopt. This paper examines four aspects of India's nuclear activity for clues to India's potential role as an emerging nuclear supplier: foreign transactions; nuclear decision making; policy norms; and nuclear industrial capabilities

  5. Investigations at Antroli: A late Harappan site and maritime archaeological exploration on the coast of Navibandar, Saurashtra, Gujarat

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gaur, A.S.; Sundaresh; Tripati, S.

    Survey of India (participated during the field work) for constructive discussion in the field. References Gaur, A.S. and Sundaresh. 2003. Onshore excavation at Bet Dwarka Island, in the Gulf of Kachchh, Gujarat. Man and Environment XXVIII(1... stream_size 23488 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Man_Environ_37_41a.pdf.txt stream_source_info Man_Environ_37_41a.pdf.txt Content-Encoding UTF-8 Content-Type text/plain; charset=UTF-8 1 Author version: Man...

  6. Exposure to firearm: impact on psychological health in central India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Saxena

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The issue of firearm exposure is one of the widespread prevailing problems in today’s world but at the same time it is least talked about. Its psychological effects vary from person to person and the degree of consequences has many variables to measure. The firearm exposure not only implies to an individual but also the whole gambit of social structures around him. Methods: A cross-section study on 505 subjects of the age group 20-45 years from central India was done, where routine social order depends upon massive armament of the citizen. We studied the relationship between socio-demographic variables and firearm exposure with variables of psychological domain of the WHOQOL-BREF. Multivariate logistic regression model was constructed to find the correlates among them. The objectives of the study were to study the attributes of socio demographic variables, which affects psychological health and exposure to firearms in the study population and to see the impact of exposure to firearms on psychological health. Results: Higher education is associated positively with psychological health. The desire to have a gun (OR=1.988, CI 1.306-3.024, p-value <.005 is showing a significant association with low psychological domain score of QOL. Being married (OR=.556, CI .344-.901, p-value <.005 and not Living in a joint family (OR=.581, CI .379-.891, p-value <.005 is associated with poor psychological health. Conclusions: Higher education is the best predictor for good psychological health. Semiskilled workers (farmers and laborers should be prioritized as high risk groups for adverse life situations. Firearm exposures have a significant impact on psychological health. So, policies directed at rural population should target at specific needs of community. 

  7. Economic impacts of avian influenza outbreaks in Kerala, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindaraj, G; Sridevi, R; Nandakumar, S N; Vineet, R; Rajeev, P; Binu, M K; Balamurugan, V; Rahman, H

    2018-04-01

    This study assessed the short-run impact to poultry farmers, duck hatcheries, control costs, compensation paid to stakeholders (transfer payments) and market reactions on own and substitute product prices and backwater tourism (boat operators) due to avian influenza (AI) outbreaks in Kuttanad region of Kerala, India, during 2014. The primary data from 91 poultry farms (duck farms, broiler chicken and backyard poultry), four hatcheries and 90 backwater boat owners were collected through pre-tested schedules. The secondary data on transfer payments and expenditure incurred to control AI were collected from developmental departments and were analysed. The estimated loss (culling live birds, eggs and feed destruction) per duck farm was USD 9,181, USD 3,889 and USD 156 in case of commercial farms reared for meat, dual-purpose and backyard farms, respectively. The loss incurred by small-scale broiler and backyard poultry farms was USD 453 and USD 40, respectively. The loss incurred by large and small duck hatcheries was USD 11,963 and USD 5,790, respectively, due to culling of hatchlings, young birds and destroying eggs. The government invested USD 744,890 to contain the disease spread through massive culling, surveillance and monitoring of poultry and humans due to zoonotic nature of the disease. A sharp market reaction on own and substitute product prices and eight weeks' time lag in price recovery was observed. The consequential impact on tourism especially for the backwater boat operators amounted to a loss of USD 2,280/boat due to fall in tourist inflow. Since, control measures are post-incidence, it is necessary to adopt appropriate preventive bio-security measures at the farm level besides periodical screening of domestic birds in migratory birds' flyway locations like Kuttanad to reduce the AI burden on various stakeholders including government. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  8. Exposure to firearm: impact on psychological health in central India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Saxena

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The issue of firearm exposure is one of the widespread prevailing problems in today’s world but at the same time it is least talked about. Its psychological effects vary from person to person and the degree of consequences has many variables to measure. The firearm exposure not only implies to an individual but also the whole gambit of social structures around him. Methods: A cross-section study on 505 subjects of the age group 20-45 years from central India was done, where routine social order depends upon massive armament of the citizen. We studied the relationship between socio-demographic variables and firearm exposure with variables of psychological domain of the WHOQOL-BREF. Multivariate logistic regression model was constructed to find the correlates among them. The objectives of the study were to study the attributes of socio demographic variables, which affects psychological health and exposure to firearms in the study population and to see the impact of exposure to firearms on psychological health. Results: Higher education is associated positively with psychological health. The desire to have a gun (OR=1.988, CI 1.306-3.024, p-value <.005 is showing a significant association with low psychological domain score of QOL. Being married (OR=.556, CI .344-.901, p-value <.005 and not Living in a joint family (OR=.581, CI .379-.891, p-value <.005 is associated with poor psychological health. Conclusions: Higher education is the best predictor for good psychological health. Semiskilled workers (farmers and laborers should be prioritized as high risk groups for adverse life situations. Firearm exposures have a significant impact on psychological health. So, policies directed at rural population should target at specific needs of community.  

  9. Impact investigations of access channel modifications of Cochin harbour, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    DineshKumar, P.K.

    Though the modernization projects over the decades for harbour development also brought about several severe environmental modifications in Cochin harbour, along the west coast of India, so far, the physical processes involved are seldom...

  10. Maritime archaeology of Gujarat: Northwest coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gaur, A; Sundaresh

    dominated the Indian Ocean for over a millennia. Underwater investigations have been carried out at various places along the Saurashtra coast and a large number of stone anchors were found. The effect of tide when using jetties and anchoring points along...

  11. Microbial keratitis in Gujarat, Western India: findings from 200 cases ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: Of the 200 ulcers 55% were culture positive, 26.5% were bacterial ulcers of which 47% were due to Staphylococcus spp. Pure fungal growth was seen in 22% while 6% were mixed ulcers. Fusarium spp. (30%) was the most common fungus followed by Aspergillus spp. (21%). Only one case of Acanthamoeba ...

  12. Stone anchors from the Okhamandal region, Gujarat Coast, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sundaresh; Gaur, A.S.; Gudigar, P.; Tripati, S.; Vora, K.H.; Bandodkar, S.N.

    During marine archaeological explorations since 1983, off Dwarka, a large number of stone anchors were discovered and dated to 1400 BC, comparing with anchors found in Mediterranean waters. In recent archaeological explorations off Dwarka, Bet...

  13. Geological significance of stone anchors from Dwarka waters, Gujarat, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Iyer, S.D.; Vora, K.H.; Gaur, A.S.

    as to the type of materials used, the way the structures were constructed etc. The asso- ciated findings from Bet Dwarka, which is about 30 km to the north, are also very pertinent, especially a seal with an animal motif and inscribed potsherd of the late... helped to establish an age of about 3500 years BP for the habita- tion at Bet Dwarka Island. The submerged structures of Dwarka, on their own, have not been dated by any means i.e. direct, indirect or inferred. However, associated...

  14. Ringstone anchors from Gujarat, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gaur, A.S.; Sundaresh; Tripati, S.; Bandodkar, S.N.

    of Dwarka and Somanath have yielded several ringstone anchors along with other stone anchors such as triangular and grapnel types. The raw material used for these ring stones comprises basalt, sandstone and limestone. Earlier, these anchors were identified...

  15. Impact of efficient refuge policies for Bt cotton in India on world cotton trade

    OpenAIRE

    Singla, Rohit; Johnson, Phillip N.; Misra, Sukant K.

    2010-01-01

    India is a major cotton producing country in the world along with the U.S. and China. A change in the supply of and demand for cotton in the Indian market has the potential to have an impact on world cotton trade. This study evaluates the implications of efficient Bt cotton refuge policies in India on world and U.S. cotton markets. It can be hypothesized that increased refuge requirements for Bt cotton varieties in India could decrease the world supply of cotton because of the lower yield pot...

  16. Impact of family capital & social capital on youth entrepreneurship – a study of Uttarakhand state, India

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, Lalit

    2014-01-01

    The research paper intends to interpret how the three forms of family capital viz. family's financial capital, family's man power capital and family's human capital influences the career choice intention of students of HEI's of Uttarakhand, India. Additionally the study also evaluates the impact of student's individual social capital on his career intent. This is a quantitative study conducted at Uttarakhand state of India on a large sample of students studying in various professional courses...

  17. ANALYSIS ON IMPACT OF INDRADHANUSH PROJECT IN BANKING SECTOR IN INDIA

    OpenAIRE

    Keshava; Pavithra Kumari

    2016-01-01

    It was on the period of time immediately before the occasion of India`s Independence day 2015 that government announced Indradhanush for Indian Public Sector Banks. The mission aimed to improving the functioning of Public Sector Banks. Modi impressed with the word Indradhanush and loved to give new slogans which can have some impact on the memory of the listeners/ leaders. By using the Indradhanush the bureaucrats in finance minister have tried to appraise Modi as this indicates 7colours (ste...

  18. No land in sight : impact of caste on slum communities' access to land in Bangalore, India

    OpenAIRE

    Narayana, Rakesh

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the impact of caste on slum communities’ access to urban land in Bangalore, India. Historically, pattern of land ownership in India was inextricably melded together with caste wherein the dominant castes owned land and excluded Dalits from land access. Slums can be seen as primarily an urban land access issue. A majority of slum residents in Bangalore are Dalits though they form a minority in the overall population. The study adopts a Social Exclusion paradigm to understan...

  19. Inflows and their Macroeconomic Impact in India a VAR Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narayan Sethi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study attempts to examine the effects of private foreign capital inflows (FINV on macroeconomic variables in India. The study also examines the trends and composition of capital inflows into India. Using the Vector Autoregression (VAR method, this paper specifically examines effects of private foreign capital inflows (FINV on macroeconomic variables in India. This study is based on the monthly data from 1995:04 to 2011:07 and incorporating the macroeconomic variables such as exchange rate (EXR, inflation, money supply (M3, export (EXPO, import (IMP, foreign exchange reserve (FOREX and economic growth (IIP as proxy of GDP. The important observations emerge from the VAR analysis which shows there is dynamic short and long equilibrium relationship between few macroeconomic variables like exchange rate (EXR, foreign exchange reserve (FOREX, index of industrial production (IIP and money supply (M3 with private foreign capital inflows (FINV during the study period from 1995:04 to 2011:07

  20. Impact of sea breeze on wind-seas off Goa, west coast of India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    during November–May, winds in the coastal regions of India are dominated by sea breeze. It has an impact on the daily cycle of the sea state near the coast. The impact is quite significant when large scale winds are weak. During one such event, 1–15 April 1997, a Datawell directional waverider buoy was deployed in 23m ...

  1. India’s British Army: the Honorable East India Company’s Lasting Military Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-09

    Canfield, all helped to characterize the public liabilities King George and British Parliament accepted in order directly control British interests in...EIC employees indigenous languages such as Arabic, Persian , Hindi, Tamil, and Telugu (Crowell 1982, 108) and cultural practices of the subcontinent...Already conversant in the Arabic and Persian languages, Jones learned Sanskrit while in India because it is the ancient language that articulates

  2. Impact of Climate Change on India's Monsoonal Climate: Present ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Expected Future Changes in Rainfall and Temperature over India under IPCC SRES A1B GHG Scenarios · Expected Future Change in Monsoon Rainfall and Annual Surface Temp for 2020's, 2050's and 2080's · Likely Future Paradox of Monsoon-ENSO Links · High-Resolution Regional Climate Change Scenarios.

  3. IMPACT OF CURRENCY DEVALUATION ON THE EXPORTS: A COMPARATIVE STUDY ON PAKISTAN, BANGLADESH AND INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imran Shahzad

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we analyze the impact of currency devaluation on exports of three major economies of South Asian (i.e., Pakistan, Bangladesh and India over the period 1980 to 2012, by implementing the multiple regression models. Results reveales that currency devaluation encourages exports of Pakistan and Bangladesh. Lending interest rate significant negative effect in Pakistan and Bangladesh but insignificant in India. Government expenditure encouraged the export of Pakistan while not significaant in Bangladesh while depress in India. Money supply also enhanced the export of Pakistan, Bangladesh and India. Result suggest that concerned authorities should manage and use the resources properly in such a way which may assist to develop the economies.

  4. Impact of roles of women on health in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckshee, K

    1997-07-01

    India's population has more than doubled since 1961. Although India has been a leader in developing health and population policies, there have been major implementation problems due to poverty, gender discrimination, and illiteracy. Yet, three-quarters of the food produced annually in India is because of women. In 1991, only 39.3% of Indian women were literate. The literacy level of women can affect reproductive behavior, use of contraceptives, health and upbringing of children, proper hygienic practises, access to jobs and the overall status of women in the society. Early marriage and childbirth was a major determinant of women's health and was also responsible for the prevailing socioeconomic underdevelopment in India. The overall maternal mortality for India is 572.3 per 100,000 births, ranging from 14.9% in Bihar to 1.3% in Kerala. Anemia is an indirect factor in 64.4% of the maternal deaths. Trained birth attendants currently assist in about 60-80% of all births in women at the time of delivery. Socioeconomic factors are responsible for maternal deaths to a large extent - money in 18.3%, transport in 13.7%. When the mother dies it doubles the chances of death of her surviving sons and quadruples that of her daughters. Among the avoidable factors in maternal deaths, lack of antenatal care is the most important. Women, if educated and aware, can improve the health of their children by simple measures like good hygiene, exercise and dietary habits. Because of poverty, many of the young children, especially girls living on streets are easy prey for criminal prostitution rings, drug trafficking and consequences of HIV infection, and severe emotional and mental disturbances. Women are responsible for 70-80% of all the healthcare provided in India. Female healthcare providers can play an important role in educating society to recognize their health and nutrition needs. Women professionals and empowerment of women at all levels are required for improvement of the

  5. India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-10-01

    This discussion of India focuses on the following: the history of the country's demographic situation; the government's overall approach to population problems; population data systems and development planning; institutional arrangements for the integration of population with development planning; the government's view of the importance of population policy in achieving development objectives; population size, growth and natural increase; morbidity and mortality; fertility; international migration; and spatial distribution. India's government views the population problem in the country as extremely serious particularly in relation to the alleviation of poverty. It was the 1st country to introduce a family planning program at the national level. Development plans have consistently treated the population situation as a priority issue. A relatively comprehensive system of data collection for demographic purposes has existed in India for a long time. The 1st census was conducted in 1872. The government has continually worked to maintain the integration of population concerns within overall development planning. The government regards population growth as an impediment to development and views the slow growth in per capita income as being due largely to the rapid population increase which continues to outpace the increases in the gross national product. The government perceives the current rate of population growth as unsatisfactory because it is too high. Mortality levels have dropped considerably, but the government still considers the situation with regard to mortality as unacceptable. In 1980 the UN estimated the infant mortality rate was 128.9 infant deaths/1000 live births for the 1975-80 period. The total fertility rate, as estimated by the UN, is reported to have dropped from 6.3 births per woman in 1960 to 6.0 in 1970 and 5.0 in 1980. The government has continuously indicated concern with fertility levels, perceiving the situation as unsatisfactory because its

  6. India Emerging

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Traditionally, India has had an extremely poor collection of direct taxes, not least due to ...... Economic Impact of Mobile in Bangladesh, Malaysia, Pakistan, Serbia, ...... in India owes its origin to Gandhian principles, philosophy and practices.

  7. GIS-based approach for the evaluation of offshore wind power potential for Gujarat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Dhrumin; Nagababu, Garlapati; Radadia, Nishil; Parsana, Sohil; Sheth, Mohak; Sheth, Nisarg

    2018-05-01

    In the current global scenario, India is increasing its focus towards the methods to enrich the benefits of non-renewable energy sources as much as possible due to their key advantage of having low carbon footprint. India has already emerged as a key global player in on-shore wind energy and to achieve its annual wind energy production demand of 50 GWh, avenues other than current options have been researched on. Offshore wind energy has experienced remarkable growth worldwide but has not yet been harnessed sufficiently in India, despite addressing many of environmental and economic concerns. The present study focuses on offshore wind resource assessment on Indian exclusive economic zone (EEZ) around Gujarat region. The geographical information system (GIS) methodology has been used to develop maps of wind speed, power density and capacity factor maps. Further, careful consideration has been accorded for expulsion of marine protected areas, shipping transportation lines, fishing zones, and migratory bird movements. The resultant available area has been considered for annual energy production considering data from Siemens Wind Turbine 3.6. The results obtained shows that offshore wind energy can offset twice the annual energy demand of entire country with a potential energy production of more than 2580 TWh.

  8. IRON STATUS OF WOMEN OF REPRODUCTIVE AGE LIVING IN PEARL MILLET CONSUMING AREAS OF BANASKANTHA, GUJARAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanisha S Nambiar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Anemia is a major health problem in India, especially among women and children (NFHS III, 2006.  The Indian Council of medical Research study reported the prevalence of anemia among pregnant women was 84.9% and in adolescent girls was 90.1% based on their study from 16 districts of India (Food and Nutrition Bulletin, 2006.   Pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum (Bajra, grown extensively in the arid and semi-arid tropical regions of the world, is one of the most important cereals for food security and consumed as a staple food for rural and tribal population dwelling in this area. Pearl millet has high amounts of iron (8mg/100g, NIN 2010 along with several other factors such as phytates, oxalates and polyphones, which may decrease the bio available iron. IFPRI (Pray and Nagarjan, 2009 has identified Banaskantha, district in Gujarat as one of the important pearl millet producing belts of India. The present study aimed to assess the background information, morbidity profile and dietary intake focusing on the pearl millet consumption of women residing in the pearl millet producing belts of Banaskantha and to assess the status and immunity profile from a subsample of this population.

  9. IRON STATUS OF WOMEN OF REPRODUCTIVE AGE LIVING IN PEARL MILLET CONSUMING AREAS OF BANASKANTHA, GUJARAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanisha S Nambiar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Anemia is a major health problem in India, especially among women and children (NFHS III, 2006.  The Indian Council of medical Research study reported the prevalence of anemia among pregnant women was 84.9% and in adolescent girls was 90.1% based on their study from 16 districts of India (Food and Nutrition Bulletin, 2006. Pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum (Bajra, grown extensively in the arid and semi-arid tropical regions of the world, is one of the most important cereals for food security and consumed as a staple food for rural and tribal population dwelling in this area. Pearl millet has high amounts of iron (8mg/100g, NIN 2010 along with several other factors such as phytates, oxalates and polyphones, which may decrease the bio available iron. IFPRI (Pray and Nagarjan, 2009 has identified Banaskantha, district in Gujarat as one of the important pearl millet producing belts of India. The present study aimed to assess the background information, morbidity profile and dietary intake focusing on the pearl millet consumption of women residing in the pearl millet producing belts of Banaskantha and to assess the status and immunity profile from a subsample of this population.

  10. Beach rocks of the central west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Wagle, B.G.

    rocks of the central west coast of India. Vol. 10, No.2, 1990 bonate and Miliolite Problems of Gujarat, PRL Ahmedabad:41 42 Kale VS, RajagllIU SN (1985) Neogene and Quaternary transgres sional and regressional history of the west coast of India... (1990) 10: 111-115 Geo-Marine Letters ~1990 Springtr-Vtrlng Ntw Yolldnc. Beach Rocks of the Central West Coast of India B. G. Wagle National Institute of Oceanography, Dona Paula, Goa, India, 403004 Abstract Along the central west coast of India several...

  11. Impact of Physical, Psychological, and Sexual Violence on Social Adjustment of School Children in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deb, Sibnath; Walsh, Kerryann

    2012-01-01

    This study sought to understand the pervasiveness and impact of physical, psychological, and sexual violence on the social adjustment of Grade 8 and 9 school children in the state of Tripura, India. The study participants, 160 boys and 160 girls, were randomly selected from classes in eight English and Bengali medium schools in Agartala city,…

  12. Impact of sea breeze of the sea off Goa, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Neetu, S.; Shetye, S.R.; Chandramohan, P.

    After withdrawal of the Indian Summer Monsoon and until onset of the next monsoon, i.e. roughly during November-May, winds in the coastal region of India are dominated by sea breeze. Impact of daily cycle of the breeze on the sea near the coast can...

  13. Impact of Internet Search Engines on OPAC Users: A Study of Punjabi University, Patiala (India)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Shiv

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this paper is to study the impact of internet search engine usage with special reference to OPAC searches in the Punjabi University Library, Patiala, Punjab (India). Design/methodology/approach: The primary data were collected from 352 users comprising faculty, research scholars and postgraduate students of the university. A…

  14. Third Angle of RSBY: Service Providers' Perspective to RSBY-operational Issues in Gujarat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trivedi, Mayur; Saxena, Deepak B

    2013-04-01

    Government of India in 2008, launched its flagship health insurance scheme for the poor. The Rashtriya Swasthya Bima Yojana (RSBY) combines cutting edge technology with an unusual reliance on incentives to provide inpatient insurance coverage. The scheme allows for cashless hospitalization services at any of the empaneled hospitals. Stakeholders in RSBY include members of the community, Insurance Company and the service provider. The study manuscript is an attempt to get an insight to understand the bottle necks in faced by the service providers with an overall goal to understand issues in complete roll out of RSBY and its successful implementation across country. It was conducted to undertake the stakeholder analysis and understand the service providers' perspective to RSBY. The present study was conducted in the Patan district of Gujarat state. Qualitative tool mainly in-depth interview of service providers of RSBY in Patan district of Gujarat state was utilized for the data collection. Service providers opined an ineffective IEC around the utility of the RSBY service in the community. In spite of the claim that scheme relies heavily on technology to ensure paperless cashless services, on field, it was observed in the present study that the claim settlements are done through physical documents. The service providers had a perceived threat of being suspended from the list/de-empanelment of the provider by the insurance company. There is an urgent need for improved and effective IEC for the service and possibilities of an arrangement for to settle the case of grievances around suspensions ao that genuine hospitals can have fair deal as well. There definitely remains a greater and more serious role of government, which ranges from ownership to larger issue of governance.

  15. Third angle of RSBY: Service providers′ perspective to RSBY-operational issues in Gujarat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayur Trivedi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Government of India in 2008, launched its flagship health insurance scheme for the poor. The Rashtriya Swasthya Bima Yojana (RSBY combines cutting edge technology with an unusual reliance on incentives to provide inpatient insurance coverage. The scheme allows for cashless hospitalization services at any of the empaneled hospitals. Stakeholders in RSBY include members of the community, Insurance Company and the service provider. Aim: The study manuscript is an attempt to get an insight to understand the bottle necks in faced by the service providers with an overall goal to understand issues in complete roll out of RSBY and its successful implementation across country. It was conducted to undertake the stakeholder analysis and understand the service providers′ perspective to RSBY. Setting and Design: The present study was conducted in the Patan district of Gujarat state. Qualitative tool mainly in-depth interview of service providers of RSBY in Patan district of Gujarat state was utilized for the data collection. Results and Conclusion: Service providers opined an ineffective IEC around the utility of the RSBY service in the community. In spite of the claim that scheme relies heavily on technology to ensure paperless cashless services, on field, it was observed in the present study that the claim settlements are done through physical documents. The service providers had a perceived threat of being suspended from the list/de-empanelment of the provider by the insurance company. There is an urgent need for improved and effective IEC for the service and possibilities of an arrangement for to settle the case of grievances around suspensions ao that genuine hospitals can have fair deal as well. There definitely remains a greater and more serious role of government, which ranges from ownership to larger issue of governance.

  16. Improving access to medicines via the Health Impact Fund in India: a stakeholder analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMullan, Patrick; Ajay, Vamadevan S; Srinivas, Ravi; Bhalla, Sandeep; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj; Banerjee, Amitava

    2018-01-01

    In India, 50-65% of the population face difficulties in accessing medicines. The Health Impact Fund (HIF) is a novel proposal whereby pharmaceutical companies would be paid based on the measured global health impact of their drugs. We conducted a key stakeholder analysis to explore access to medicines in India, acceptability of the HIF and potential barriers and facilitators at policy level. To conduct a stakeholder analysis of the HIF in India: to determine key stakeholder views regarding access to medicines in India; to evaluate acceptability of the HIF; and to assess potential barriers and facilitators to the HIF as a policy. In New Delhi, we conducted semi-structured interviews. There was purposive recruitment of participants with snowball sampling. Transcribed data were analysed using stakeholder analysis frameworks and directed content analysis. Participation rate was 29% (14/49). 14 semi-structured interviews were conducted among stakeholders in New Delhi. All participants highlighted access to medicines as a problem in India. There were mixed views about the HIF in terms of relevance and scaleability. Stakeholders felt it should focus on diseases with limited or no market and potentially incorporate direct investment in research. First, access to medicines is perceived to be a major problem in India by all stakeholders, but affordability is just one factor. Second, stakeholders despite considerable support for the idea of the HIF, there are major concerns about scaleability, generalisability and impact on access to medicines. Third, the HIF and other novel drug-related health policies can afford to be more radical, e.g. working outside the existing intellectual property rights regime, targeting generic as well as branded drugs, or extending to research and development. Further innovations in access to medicines must involve country-specific key stakeholders in order to increase the likelihood of their success.

  17. Impact assessment of on-farm research in canal command of Eastern India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, S.S.; Sharma, R.B.; Khan, A.R.

    2001-05-01

    The Gandak irrigation project initiated in 1964 is one of India's biggest irrigation projects with a culturable command area of 0.96 and 0.44 million ha, respectively in Bihar and Uttar Pradesh states of India and 44100 ha in neighbouring Nepal. The impact assessment of on-farm research/demonstration projects made two to four years after their initiation at three different irrigation minors have shown considerable changes in the cropping patterns in these areas. The lands that were left fallow before the initiation of these projects have now been brought under cultivation resulting in enhanced productivity of major crops

  18. Tsunami impacts on morphology of beaches along south Kerala coast, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rasheed, K.A.A.; Das, V.K.; Revichandran, C.; Vijayan, P.R.; Thottam, T.J.

    TSUNAMI IMPACTS ON MORPHOLOGY OF BEACHES ALONG SOUTH KERALA COAST, WEST COAST OF INDIA K. A. Abdul Rasheed *, V. Kesava Das, C. Revichandran, P. R. Vijayan and Tony. J. Thottam National Institute of Oceanography (NIO), Regional Centre (RC... large waves of height 11 to 11.5m in Kutch region (Pendse 1945). Most of the tsunamis are generated by the earthquake-initiated seabed displacements. Landslides (including underwater landslides), volcanic eruptions, impact of large objects (such...

  19. A clinical study of vitiligo in a rural set up of Gujarat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita V Vora

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Vitiligo is an acquired depigmentary condition caused by inactivation or destruction of melanocytes in epidermis and hair follicle. Worldwide incidence of 1% has been reported; similar to various dermatological clinics in India. Widespread prejudice, ignorance, taboos, lack of scientific appraisal, and confusion of vitiligo with leprosy makes it an immense psychological stress. Aim: To know the clinical profile of vitiligo patient with associated cofactors. Materials and Methods: Total 1,010 patients of vitiligo attended in outpatient department at Shree Krishna Hospital (SKH and Matar camp, Gujarat over 1 year period from August 2011 to July 2012 were included in this study. Detail history and clinical examination of patients were done. Results: Out of 1,010 patients 57.3% were females and 42.7 % were males. Most cases developed vitiligo by 2 nd decade of life. Progressive course was found in 60.9 % of patients. Vitiligo vulgaris (57.8% was most common morphological type. Most common site of onset (41.5% and involvement (75.7% was lower limb. Family history was present in 20.4%. Conclusions: Vitiligo constitutes important dermatological disease especially in India. The data suggest that local epidemiological behavior of vitiligo need not be the same across different regions. Vitiligo differs substantially in various clinical aspects.

  20. Energy efficiency in India: Assessing the policy regimes and their impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balachandra, P.; Ravindranath, Darshini; Ravindranath, N.H.

    2010-01-01

    In the recent years, India has emerged as one of the fast growing economies of the world necessitating equally rapid increase in modern energy consumption. With an imminent global climate change threat, India will have difficulties in continuing with this rising energy use levels towards achieving high economic growth. It will have to follow an energy-efficient pathway in attaining this goal. In this context, an attempt is made to present India's achievements on the energy efficiency front by tracing the evolution of policies and their impacts. The results indicate that India has made substantial progress in improving energy efficiency which is evident from the reductions achieved in energy intensities of GDP to the tune of 88% during 1980-2007. Similar reductions have been observed both with respect to overall Indian economy and the major sectors of the economy. In terms of energy intensity of GDP, India occupies a relatively high position of nine among the top 30 energy consuming countries of the world.

  1. Predictors of maternal health services utilization by poor, rural women: a comparative study in Indian States of Gujarat and Tamil Nadu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vora, Kranti Suresh; Koblinsky, Sally A; Koblinsky, Marge A

    2015-07-31

    India leads all nations in numbers of maternal deaths, with poor, rural women contributing disproportionately to the high maternal mortality ratio. In 2005, India launched the world's largest conditional cash transfer scheme, Janani Suraksha Yojana (JSY), to increase poor women's access to institutional delivery, anticipating that facility-based birthing would decrease deaths. Indian states have taken different approaches to implementing JSY. Tamil Nadu adopted JSY with a reorganization of its public health system, and Gujarat augmented JSY with the state-funded Chiranjeevi Yojana (CY) scheme, contracting with private physicians for delivery services. Given scarce evidence of the outcomes of these approaches, especially in states with more optimal health indicators, this cross-sectional study examined the role of JSY/CY and other healthcare system and social factors in predicting poor, rural women's use of maternal health services in Gujarat and Tamil Nadu. Using the District Level Household Survey (DLHS)-3, the sample included 1584 Gujarati and 601 Tamil rural women in the lowest two wealth quintiles. Multivariate logistic regression analyses examined associations between JSY/CY and other salient health system, socio-demographic, and obstetric factors with three outcomes: adequate antenatal care, institutional delivery, and Cesarean-section. Tamil women reported greater use of maternal healthcare services than Gujarati women. JSY/CY participation predicted institutional delivery in Gujarat (AOR = 3.9), but JSY assistance failed to predict institutional delivery in Tamil Nadu, where mothers received some cash for home births under another scheme. JSY/CY assistance failed to predict adequate antenatal care, which was not incentivized. All-weather road access predicted institutional delivery in both Tamil Nadu (AOR = 3.4) and Gujarat (AOR = 1.4). Women's education predicted institutional delivery and Cesarean-section in Tamil Nadu, while husbands

  2. Climate Change Impact Assessment for Wheat and Rice Productivity, Haryana, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rana, M.; Singh, K. K.; Kumari, N.

    2017-12-01

    Agriculture presents a core of the India Economy and provides food and livelihood activities to much of the Indian population. However, the changing climate is putting challenges to agriculture. The mean temperature in India is increased by 0.1-0.3 degC in Kharif and 0.3-0.7 degC during rabi by 2010, and projected to further increase by 0.4-0.2 degC during Kharif and to 1.1-4.5degC in rabi by 2070. Similarly mean rainfall is projected to increase up to 10% during kharif and rabi by 2070.At same time, there is an increased possibility of climate extremes, such as the timing of onset of monsoon, intensities and frequency of floods and droughts (S.A. Khan et al.,2009).In addition, the rapid population growth at a rate of 1.2% per annum, expected to reach 1.53 billion by the end of 2030; is also a critical issue of this century. Keeping in mind the above facts, this study is carried out in one of major agriculture state in India. The related field data collected from the ongoing experiments in agriculture universities/institutes in the respective state and observed weather data from India Meteorological Dept.(IMD), New Delhi and future climate scenarios data from India Institute of Tropical Meteorology(IITM). Validated CERES Wheat and Rice model embedded in DSSATv4.6 used for simulating the climate change impacts. The yield simulations of crop models were obtained separately for baseline and future data The simulation result indicates significant impact of climate change on both wheat and rice yield. The reason for same attributed to increase in temperature that majorly impact rabi wheat and extreme weather events for Kharif rice. Keywords: Climate Change, CERES Rice-Wheat, Yield, Validation

  3. Impact of India's watershed development programs on biomass productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhalla, R. S.; Devi Prasad, K. V.; Pelkey, Neil W.

    2013-03-01

    Watershed development (WSD) is an important and expensive rural development initiative in India. Proponents of the approach contend that treating watersheds will increase agricultural and overall biomass productivity, which in turn will reduce rural poverty. We used satellite-measured normalized differenced vegetation index as a proxy for land productivity to test this crucial contention. We compared microwatersheds that had received funding and completed watershed restoration with adjacent untreated microwatersheds in the same region. As the criteria used can influence results, we analyzed microwatersheds grouped by catchment, state, ecological region, and biogeographical zones for analysis. We also analyzed pre treatment and posttreatment changes for the same watersheds in those schemes. Our findings show that WSD has not resulted in a significant increase in productivity in treated microwatersheds at any grouping, when compared to adjacent untreated microwatershed or the same microwatershed prior to treatment. We conclude that the well-intentioned people-centric WSD efforts may be inhibited by failing to adequately address the basic geomorphology and hydraulic condition of the catchment areas at all scales.

  4. Impacts of Energy Sector Emissions on PM2.5 Air Quality in Northern India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karambelas, A. N.; Kiesewetter, G.; Heyes, C.; Holloway, T.

    2015-12-01

    India experiences high concentrations of fine particulate matter (PM2.5), and several Indian cities currently rank among the world's most polluted cities. With ongoing urbanization and a growing economy, emissions from different energy sectors remain major contributors to air pollution in India. Emission sectors impact ambient air quality differently due to spatial distribution (typical urban vs. typical rural sources) as well as source height characteristics (low-level vs. high stack sources). This study aims to assess the impacts of emissions from three distinct energy sectors—transportation, domestic, and electricity—on ambient PM2.5­­ in northern India using an advanced air quality analysis framework based on the U.S. EPA Community Multi-Scale Air Quality (CMAQ) model. Present air quality conditions are simulated using 2010 emissions from the Greenhouse Gas-Air Pollution Interaction and Synergies (GAINS) model. Modeled PM2.5 concentrations are compared with satellite observations of aerosol optical depth (AOD) from the Moderate Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) for 2010. Energy sector emissions impacts on future (2030) PM2.5 are evaluated with three sensitivity simulations, assuming maximum feasible reduction technologies for either transportation, domestic, or electricity sectors. These simulations are compared with a business as usual 2030 simulation to assess relative sectoral impacts spatially and temporally. CMAQ is modeled at 12km by 12km and include biogenic emissions from the Community Land Model coupled with the Model of Emissions of Gases and Aerosols in Nature (CLM-MEGAN), biomass burning emissions from the Global Fires Emissions Database (GFED), and ERA-Interim meteorology generated with the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model for 2010 to quantify the impact of modified anthropogenic emissions on ambient PM2.5 concentrations. Energy sector emissions analysis supports decision-making to improve future air quality and public health in

  5. Environmental Impact Assessment: Uri hydroelectric power project on River Jhelum in Kashmir, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyman, L.

    1995-09-01

    This report is an Initial Aquatic Environmental Impact Assessment of the Uri Hydroelectric Power Project on River Jhelum in Kashmir, India. It includes the Terms of Reference of the assessment, a discussion on biodiversity and threats to it, the environmental indicators used to monitor and predict the impacts, a description of the physical, chemical and biological prerequisites of the River Jhelum ecosystem, a description of the survey sites chosen, and an overview of the present fish and bottom fauna. Finally, there are sections on the potential impacts on biota of the Uri Project and a list of proposals for how mitigating and enhancing measures could be enforced

  6. Initial results of India's environmental impact assessment of nodule mining

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Desa, E.

    The Indian Deepsea Experiment (INDEX) was intiated in 1995, with the objective of predicting the environmental impact of nodule mining, in the Central Indian Basin. More than 20 scientists and technical staff of the National Institute...

  7. The impact of nutrition on child development at 3 years in a rural community of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Sadat Ali

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: Breast feeding has a positive effect on the overall development of the child and should be promoted in the present generation. In India, child malnutrition is responsible for a higher percentage of the country′s burden of disease. Undernutrition also affects cognitive and motor development and undermines educational attainment; and ultimately impacts on productivity at work and at home, with adverse implications for income and economic growth.

  8. Destination India: Investigating the impact of Goa's attributes on families' leisure travel experience

    OpenAIRE

    Ekiz, Erdogan H.; Khoo-Lattimore, Catheryn

    2014-01-01

    The recent discourse of tourism development among officials within the Government of India has included the state of Goa, mainly because it has consistently witnessed positive economic impacts from tourism. However, in view of competition from other destinations, Goan tourism planners will need to identify important attributes of Goa that will positively affect tourists' destination loyalty. This study examines the correlation between five attributes of Goa and tourists' loyalty to Goa. Famil...

  9. Epilepsy in India II: Impact, burden, and need for a multisectoral public health response

    OpenAIRE

    Amudhan, Senthil; Gururaj, Gopalkrishna; Satishchandra, Parthasarathy

    2015-01-01

    Epilepsy is a common neurological disorder whose consequences are influenced socially and culturally, especially in India. This review (second of the two part series) was carried out to understand the social impact and economic burden to develop comprehensive program for control and prevention of epilepsy. Epilepsy is known to have adverse effect on education, employment, marriage, and other essential social opportunities. Economic burden associated with epilepsy is very high with treatment a...

  10. (Un)common suffering: distributional impact of recent inflation in India

    OpenAIRE

    Majumder, Rajarshi

    2010-01-01

    The recent inflation in India is special both because of its peaks as also for its persistence. While couple of years back the rising inflation was blamed on global factors, this time around there is no denying the fact that it is due to structural problems of our economy, especially those related to the agricultural, specifically the foodgrains sector. Impact of the recent inflation is also not shared equally, with the bottom strata facing uncommon difficulties, as their purchasing power see...

  11. A Study On Neonatal Mortality In Jamnagar District Of Gujarat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yadav Sudha

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Research question: Which are the maternal, socio-demographic and neonatal attributes responsible for neonatal mortality in rural areas of Gujarat? Objectives: (i To know various maternal, socio-demographic and neonatal factors responsible for neonatal mortality in rural areas of Gujarat (ii To estimate neonatal mortality rate in the area. Setting: Rural areas of six Primary Health Centers of Jamnagar district of Gujarat State. Study design: Community based cohort study. Sample size: Population of 40512 Participants: Members of the family in which neonatal deaths occurred. Outcome variable: Neonatal mortality Analysis: Sample proportions. Results: Neonatal mortality rate on the basis of follow-up of births during one year was found to be 47.27 per thousand live births. The major maternal and socio-demographic factors responsible for neonatal mortality were; maternal age, illiteracy, lack of antenatal care, closely spaced pregnancies, delivery conducted at home, delivery conducted untrained personnel and delayed initiation of breast feeding. The major neonatal factors responsible for mortality in neonates were; low birth weight, prematurity, first order of birth, early phase of neonatal period, male gender of the child. The leading causes of neonatal mortality were found to be prematurity, birth asphyxia, neonatal infections and congenital anomalies.

  12. Predictors and consequences of "Phubbing" among adolescents and youth in India: An impact evaluation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davey, Sanjeev; Davey, Anuradha; Raghav, Santosh K; Singh, Jai V; Singh, Nirankar; Blachnio, Agata; Przepiórkaa, Aneta

    2018-01-01

    "Phubbing" phenomenon, in the frequent use of a smartphone, describes the habit of snubbing someone in favor of a mobile phone. Its predictors and consequences are few in developed countries, but the literature lacks information on its actual occurrence and impact on adolescents and youth in a developing country such as India. This impact evaluation study was carried out as part of the Phubbing Project of the University of Poland for 6 months (November 15, 2016-May 15, 2017) on a sample of 400 adolescents and youth selected randomly from the five colleges in the district of Muzaffarnagar of Uttar Pradesh state in India. Data were collected through the Internet using e-questionnaires sent to all students. The phubbing predictors' and consequences' scales available in literature were used and data were analyzed by a mixed method to get the study findings. The prevalence of phubbing was 49.3%. The most important predictors associated with phubbers were Internet addiction ( p Phubbing also had significant consequences on their social health, relationship health, and self-flourishing, and was significantly related to depression and distress. Logistic regression analysis showed significant impact of phubbing predictors on phubbing consequences in phubbers, especially in depressed and distress status. Adolescents and youth of India need special guidance from government adolescent clinics or colleges or even families to control this habit in order to promote better physical, mental, and social health.

  13. Environmental impact of energy use in Bangladesh, India, Pakistan and Thailand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, J.W.; Kuntsi, E. [Turku School of Economics (Finland). Finland Futures Research Center

    2004-07-01

    The environmental impact of energy use in this study is evaluated from two aspects: the level of the utilization of natural sources as measured by energy intensity; the level of environmental stress as measured by CO{sub 2} emission intensity. This study analyzes the environmental impact of energy use in Bangladesh, India, Pakistan and Thailand from 1973 to 2000 based on the International Energy Agency's 2002 database. The findings differ from some previous conclusions, because they conclude that the above four countries are in a process of dematerialization with regard to energy use and are thus heading toward decreasing environmental stress. (author)

  14. Heat-Related Mortality in India: Excess All-Cause Mortality Associated with the 2010 Ahmedabad Heat Wave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azhar, Gulrez Shah; Mavalankar, Dileep; Nori-Sarma, Amruta; Rajiva, Ajit; Dutta, Priya; Jaiswal, Anjali; Sheffield, Perry; Knowlton, Kim; Hess, Jeremy J.; Azhar, Gulrez Shah; Deol, Bhaskar; Bhaskar, Priya Shekhar; Hess, Jeremy; Jaiswal, Anjali; Khosla, Radhika; Knowlton, Kim; Mavalankar, Mavalankar; Rajiva, Ajit; Sarma, Amruta; Sheffield, Perry

    2014-01-01

    Introduction In the recent past, spells of extreme heat associated with appreciable mortality have been documented in developed countries, including North America and Europe. However, far fewer research reports are available from developing countries or specific cities in South Asia. In May 2010, Ahmedabad, India, faced a heat wave where the temperatures reached a high of 46.8°C with an apparent increase in mortality. The purpose of this study is to characterize the heat wave impact and assess the associated excess mortality. Methods We conducted an analysis of all-cause mortality associated with a May 2010 heat wave in Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India, to determine whether extreme heat leads to excess mortality. Counts of all-cause deaths from May 1–31, 2010 were compared with the mean of counts from temporally matched periods in May 2009 and 2011 to calculate excess mortality. Other analyses included a 7-day moving average, mortality rate ratio analysis, and relationship between daily maximum temperature and daily all-cause death counts over the entire year of 2010, using month-wise correlations. Results The May 2010 heat wave was associated with significant excess all-cause mortality. 4,462 all-cause deaths occurred, comprising an excess of 1,344 all-cause deaths, an estimated 43.1% increase when compared to the reference period (3,118 deaths). In monthly pair-wise comparisons for 2010, we found high correlations between mortality and daily maximum temperature during the locally hottest “summer” months of April (r = 0.69, pheat (May 19–25, 2010), mortality rate ratios were 1.76 [95% CI 1.67–1.83, pheat wave in Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India had a substantial effect on all-cause excess mortality, even in this city where hot temperatures prevail through much of April-June. PMID:24633076

  15. Beyond the Education Silo? Tackling Adolescent Secondary Education in Rural India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Orla; Bhabha, Jacqueline

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we examine the factors contributing to gender inequality in secondary schooling in India by critically reviewing the government's secondary education policy. Drawing on the findings of a study in rural Gujarat, we couple this analysis with an examination of the gendered dynamics that restrict girls' ability to fully benefit from the…

  16. Girls' Education and Discursive Spaces for Empowerment: Perspectives from Rural India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Payal P.

    2011-01-01

    This article examines a national girls' education program and its role in addressing gender inequality in the Indian state of Gujarat. In 2004, the Ministry of Education, Government of India, enacted the Kasturba Gandhi Balika Vidyala (KGBV) program. As a national program designed to increase educational access for the most marginalized girls, the…

  17. The impact of development and population policies on fertility in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, A K

    1985-01-01

    This article examines the impact of development and population policies on fertility decline and regional variations in India during the 1970s. Indicators of development at the household level include female literacy and education, infant mortality, and poverty; at the village level they include availability of such social services as schools, medical facilities, and transportation and communication facilities. Multiple regression analysis of data aggregated at the state level demonstrates that conditions conducive to fertility decline include high adult female literacy and low infant mortality as indicators of social development, and high contraceptive use and, to a lesser extent, high female age at marriage as proximate determinants of fertility. There are reasons to believe that India's national family planning program contributed to the decline in fertility observed since the 1960s. The pace of fertility decline in the future will depend upon the pace of infant mortality decline, enhancement in female education, and improvements in family planning programs.

  18. Impact of Renewed Solar Dimming on Hydrology of River Basins in Peninsular India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, R.; Soni, P.; Tripathi, S.

    2017-12-01

    A significant decrease in surface solar radiation (SSR) for the period 1970-2000 has been reported by observational studies over India. This trend has also been observed globally and is termed as solar dimming. A recent study reported a reversal in the SSR trends over India for the period 2001-2010. However, using SSR observations at 12 stations located across India, we found that a much stronger dimming has reappeared during the last decade (2006-2015). To analyse the hydrological impact of this renewed dimming, 28 river basins in peninsular India are studied using a semi-distributed hydrological model, Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT). The area of these basins ranges from 1,260 km2 to 40,000 km2. The model was calibrated for the period 2003-2009 and validated for the period 2010-2014 using the daily discharge data. Experiments were performed, based on observed SSR trends and their uncertainties, to quantify their impacts on the water balance of each basin. The results suggest that a 5-10% decrease in SSR over the 9-year period, 2006-2014, resulted in a decrease of about 8% in annual evapotranspiration (ET). Seasonally, ET decreased during wet seasons (monsoon and post-monsoon) leading to increased ground water recharge, but increased during dry seasons (winter and pre-monsoon) resulting in reduced soil moisture. Changes in ET were also affected by the basin characteristics. Forested basins with clay loam soils were found to have higher ET changes than other basins. Annual discharge from the basins increased due to the decrease in annual ET caused by the decrease in SSR. The results suggest that effects of SSR trends on annual runoff are significant over peninsular Indian and should not to be neglected as they can affect river flow projections and freshwater availability.

  19. Impact of India-ASEAN Free Trade Agreement: A cross-country analysis using applied general equilibrium modelling

    OpenAIRE

    Chandrima Sikdar; Biswajit Nag

    2011-01-01

    The India-ASEAN Free Trade Agreement (AIFTA) came into effect on 1 January 2010 with regard to Malaysia, Singapore and Thailand. For the remaining ASEAN members it will come into force after they have completed their internal requirements. With this background, the present study analyses the impact of this free trade agreement (FTA) on India and the ASEAN members. The study also attempted to analyse the long-term effects of the FTA on India. It is argued that after full trade liberalization, ...

  20. Commitment among state health officials & its implications for health sector reform: lessons from Gujarat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maheshwari, Sunil; Bhat, Ramesh; Saha, Somen

    2008-02-01

    Commitment, competencies and skills of people working in the health sector can significantly impact the performance and its reform process. In this study we attempted to analyse the commitment of state health officials and its implications for human resource practices in Gujarat. A self-administered questionnaire was used to measure commitment and its relationship with human resource (HR) variables. Employee's organizational commitment (OC) and professional commitment (PC) were measured using OC and PC scale. Fifty five medical officers from Gujarat participated in the study. Professional commitment of doctors (3.21 to 4.01) was found to be higher than their commitment to the organization (3.01 to 3.61). Doctors did not perceive greater fairness in the system on promotion (on the scale of 5, score: 2.55) and were of the view that the system still followed seniority based promotion (score: 3.42). Medical officers were upset about low autonomy in the department with regard to reward and recognition, accounting procedure, prioritization and synchronization of health programme and other administrative activities. Our study provided some support for positive effects of progressive HR practices on OC, specifically on affective and normative OC. Following initiatives were identified to foster a development climate among the health officials: providing opportunities for training, professional competency development, developing healthy relationship between superiors and subordinates, providing useful performance feedback, and recognising and rewarding performance. For reform process in the health sector to succeed, there is a need to promote high involvement of medical officers. There is a need to invest in developing leadership quality, supervision skills and developing autonomy in its public health institutions.

  1. Hydrogeologic and environmental impact of amjhore pyrite mines, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choubey, Vishnu D.; Rawat, Rajendra K.

    1991-01-01

    Drainage from active and inactive pyrite mines has produced chemical and physical pollution of both ground- and surface water in Amjhore region. In the present case, chemical pollution is caused by exposing pyrite minerals to oxidation or leaching, resulting in undesirable concentrations of dissolved materials. Pyrite mining suddenly exposed large quantities of sulfides to direct contact with oxygen, and oxidation proceeds rapidly, resulting in acidity and release of metal (Fe) and sulfates to the water system, eventually resulting in water pollution in the region. The magnitude and impact of the problem is just being recognized and, as the present and the future projected demand for clean water is of top priority, the present studies were undertaken. Mine drainage includes water flowing from the surface and underground mines and runoff or seepage from the pyrite mines. This article describes the various hydrologic factors that control acid water formation and its transport. The mine drainage is obviously a continuing source of pollution and, therefore, remedial measures mainly consisting of a double-stage limestone-lime treatment technique have been suggested. The present results will be used to develop an alternative and more effective abatement technology to mitigate acid production at the source, namely, the technique of revegetation of the soil cover applied to the waste mine dump material. Water quality change is discussed in detail, with emphasis on acidity formed from exposed pyrite material and on increase in dissolved solids. Preventive and treatment measures are recommended.

  2. Improved heavy-duty vehicle fuel efficiency in India, benefits, costs and environmental impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gopal, Anand R. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Karali, Nihan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Sharpe, Ben [International Council on Clean Transportation (United States); Delgado, Oscar [International Council on Clean Transportation (United States); Bandivadekar, Anup [International Council on Clean Transportation (United States); Garg, Mehul [International Council on Clean Transportation (United States)

    2017-06-14

    The main objectives of this analysis are to examine the benefits and costs of fuel-saving technologies for new heavy-duty vehicles (HDVs) in India over the next 10 years and, to explore how various scenarios for the deployment of vehicles with these technologies will impact petroleum consumption and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions over the next three decades. The study team developed simulation models for three representative HDV types—a 40-tonne tractor-trailer, 25-tonne rigid truck, and 16-tonne transit bus—based on top-selling vehicle models in the Indian market. The baseline technology profiles for all three vehicles were developed using India-specific engine data and vehicle specification information from manufacturer literature and input from industry experts. For each of the three vehicles we developed a comprehensive set of seven efficiency technology packages drawing from five major areas: engine, transmission and driveline, tires, aerodynamics, and weight reduction. Our analysis finds that India has substantial opportunity to improve HDV fuel efficiency levels using cost-effective technologies. Results from our simulation modeling of three representative HDV types—a tractor-trailer, rigid truck, and transit bus—reveal that per-vehicle fuel consumption reductions between roughly 20% and 35% are possible with technologies that provide a return on the initial capital investment within 1 to 2 years. Though most of these technologies are currently unavailable in India, experiences in other more advanced markets such as the US and EU suggest that with sufficient incentives and robust regulatory design, significant progress can be made in developing and deploying efficiency technologies that can provide real-world fuel savings for new commercial vehicles in India over the next 10 years. Bringing HDVs in India up to world-class technology levels will yield substantial petroleum and GHG reductions. By 2030, the fuel and CO2 reductions of the

  3. Effect of Climate Change on Invasion Risk of Giant African Snail (Achatina fulica Férussac, 1821: Achatinidae in India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roshmi Rekha Sarma

    Full Text Available The Giant African Snail (Achatina fulica is considered to be one the world's 100 worst invasive alien species. The snail has an impact on native biodiversity, and on agricultural and horticultural crops. In India, it is known to feed on more than fifty species of native plants and agricultural crops and also outcompetes the native snails. It was introduced into India in 1847 and since then it has spread all across the country. In this paper, we use ecological niche modeling (ENM to assess the distribution pattern of Giant African Snail (GAS under different climate change scenarios. The niche modeling results indicate that under the current climate scenario, Eastern India, peninsular India and the Andaman and Nicobar Islands are at high risk of invasion. The three different future climate scenarios show that there is no significant change in the geographical distribution of invasion prone areas. However, certain currently invaded areas will be more prone to invasion in the future. These regions include parts of Bihar, Southern Karnataka, parts of Gujarat and Assam. The Andaman and Nicobar and Lakshadweep Islands are highly vulnerable to invasion under changed climate. The Central Indian region is at low risk due to high temperature and low rainfall. An understanding of the invasion pattern can help in better management of this invasive species and also in formulating policies for its control.

  4. Effect of Climate Change on Invasion Risk of Giant African Snail (Achatina fulica Férussac, 1821: Achatinidae) in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarma, Roshmi Rekha; Munsi, Madhushree; Ananthram, Aravind Neelavara

    2015-01-01

    The Giant African Snail (Achatina fulica) is considered to be one the world's 100 worst invasive alien species. The snail has an impact on native biodiversity, and on agricultural and horticultural crops. In India, it is known to feed on more than fifty species of native plants and agricultural crops and also outcompetes the native snails. It was introduced into India in 1847 and since then it has spread all across the country. In this paper, we use ecological niche modeling (ENM) to assess the distribution pattern of Giant African Snail (GAS) under different climate change scenarios. The niche modeling results indicate that under the current climate scenario, Eastern India, peninsular India and the Andaman and Nicobar Islands are at high risk of invasion. The three different future climate scenarios show that there is no significant change in the geographical distribution of invasion prone areas. However, certain currently invaded areas will be more prone to invasion in the future. These regions include parts of Bihar, Southern Karnataka, parts of Gujarat and Assam. The Andaman and Nicobar and Lakshadweep Islands are highly vulnerable to invasion under changed climate. The Central Indian region is at low risk due to high temperature and low rainfall. An understanding of the invasion pattern can help in better management of this invasive species and also in formulating policies for its control.

  5. Prevalence of chronic pain, impact on daily life, and treatment practices in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dureja, Gur Prasad; Jain, Paramanand N; Shetty, Naresh; Mandal, Shyama Prasad; Prabhoo, Ram; Joshi, Muralidhar; Goswami, Subrata; Natarajan, Karthic Babu; Iyer, Rajagopalan; Tanna, D D; Ghosh, Pahari; Saxena, Ashok; Kadhe, Ganesh; Phansalkar, Abhay A

    2014-02-01

    Chronic pain is of concern to health professionals, patients, society, and negatively impacts quality of life (QoL). The present epidemiologic study identified point prevalence of chronic pain in India, impact on individual's QoL, unveiling current pain treatment practices, and levels of satisfaction with treatment. This epidemiological telephonic survey consisted of two questionnaires: screening questionnaire that assessed prevalence of pain, its frequency during the past week, intensity during last episode, sites of pain, and main causes, and in-depth questionnaire that evaluated demography, frequency, duration, and intensity of pain; impact of pain on QoL; respondent's perception regarding the attitude of their family, friends, and doctors toward their pain. A total of 5004 respondents were included from eight cities across India. The overall point prevalence of chronic pain was 13%, and the mean intensity of pain on NRS scale was 6.93. Respondents with chronic moderate and chronic severe pain were 37% and 63%, respectively. Pain in knees (32%), legs (28%), and joints (22%) was most prevalent. Respondents with chronic pain were no longer able to exercise, sleep, maintain relationships with friends and family, and maintain an independent lifestyle. About 32% of patients lost ≥4 hours of work in the past 3 months. Majority (68%) of respondents were treated for pain with over the counter (OTC) drugs, and most were taking NSAIDs (95%). A significant population of India suffers from chronic pain, and their QoL is affected leading to disability. A proportion of respondents receiving pain treatment were taking nonprescription medications with a majority of respondents on NSAIDs. A very few were consulting pain management specialists. © 2013 World Institute of Pain.

  6. Impact of freshwater influx on microzooplankton mediated food web in a tropical estuary (Cochin backwaters - India)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Jyothibabu, R; Madhu, N.V.; Jayalakshmi, K.V.; Balachandran, K.K.; Shiyas, C.C.; Martin, G.D.; Nair, K.K.C.

    -1 Impact of fresh water influx on microzooplankton mediated food web in a tropical estuary (Cochin backwaters - India) R. Jyothibabu A, B, N.V. Madhu A, K.V. Jayalakshmi A, K. K. Balachandran A, C. A. Shiyas A, G. D. Martin A and K. K. C. Nair A A... in the northeastern Atlantic Ocean. Deep Sea Research 40, 479 ? 493. Burkill, P. H., Leaky, R. J. G., Owens, N. J. P., and Mantoura, R. F. C., 1993b. Synechococcus and its importance to the microbial food web of the northwestern Indian Ocean, In: Biogeochemical...

  7. Snakebite and its socio-economic impact on the rural population of Tamil Nadu, India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakthivel Vaiyapuri

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Snakebite represents a significant health issue worldwide, affecting several million people each year with as many as 95,000 deaths. India is considered to be the country most affected, but much remains unknown about snakebite incidence in this country, its socio-economic impact and how snakebite management could be improved. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We conducted a study within rural villages in Tamil Nadu, India, which combines a household survey (28,494 people of snakebite incidence with a more detailed survey of victims in order to understand the health and socio-economic effects of the bite, the treatments obtained and their views about future improvements. Our survey suggests that snakebite incidence is higher than previously reported. 3.9% of those surveyed had suffered from snakebite and the number of deaths corresponds to 0.45% of the population. The socio-economic impact of this is very considerable in terms of the treatment costs and the long-term effects on the health and ability of survivors to work. To reduce this, the victims recommended improvements to the accessibility and affordability of antivenom treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Snakebite has a considerable and disproportionate impact on rural populations, particularly in South Asia. This study provides an incentive for researchers and the public to work together to reduce the incidence and improve the outcomes for snake bite victims and their families.

  8. The Impact of General Strike on Government Healthcare Delivery in Kerala State in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aasems Jacob

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available General strike (also known as hartal is used as a mode of protest by organizations and political parties in India. It is generally thought that hartals negatively impact the healthcare delivery in a society. We used the Right to Information Act to obtain data from government health centers in Kerala state in India for four hartal days (H-day and two control days (A-day and B-day for each H-day, from sixteen health centers including 6 Community Health Center (CHC, 6 Secondary Health Center (SHC, and 4 Tertiary Health Center (THC. Data on emergency room visits was available for six HCs. 15 HCs had a statistically significant decrease in the number of outpatient visits on H-day. There was no difference in the number of outpatient visits between the two control days (A and B in 15 HCs, suggesting the lack of a posthartal surge in visits. Median decrease in outpatient visits in CHCs, SHCs, and THCs was 50.4%, 59.5%, and 47.4%, respectively. Hartal did not impact the number of emergency room visits in 6 out of 7 health centers assessed. Our study identified a significant harmful impact on government healthcare delivery due to hartals in Kerala. These findings have major public health implications.

  9. Impact of Flexibility of Manufacturing System Components on Competitiveness of SMEs in Northern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shakun Preet Kaur

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The present manufacturing environment is characterized by a number of changes which poses challenges to a typical manufacturing unit. Time demands a shift from the traditional manufacturing strategies as they do not fit to present market competition. A flexible systems strategy has to be designed for remaining competitive in the market and perform well. For designing strategies and policies it is important to know the factors that influence performance of the system. The aim of this paper is to assess the impact of the flexibility of manufacturing system components on competitiveness of SMEs in northern India. A questionnaire based survey was conducted in the SMEs across northern India analysing three sectors namely automotive, machine tool and light engineering (mechanical components and equipment. The study contributes to the existing literature by empirically investigating the impact of machine, material handling and worker flexibility on competitiveness of manufacturing firms. This paper presents a Structural Equation Model displaying the impact of flexibility of manufacturing system components on competitiveness of SMEs.

  10. Snakebite and Its Socio-Economic Impact on the Rural Population of Tamil Nadu, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaiyapuri, Sakthivel; Vaiyapuri, Rajendran; Ashokan, Rajesh; Ramasamy, Karthikeyan; Nattamaisundar, Kameshwaran; Jeyaraj, Anburaj; Chandran, Viswanathan; Gajjeraman, Prabu; Baksh, M. Fazil; Gibbins, Jonathan M.; Hutchinson, E. Gail

    2013-01-01

    Background Snakebite represents a significant health issue worldwide, affecting several million people each year with as many as 95,000 deaths. India is considered to be the country most affected, but much remains unknown about snakebite incidence in this country, its socio-economic impact and how snakebite management could be improved. Methods/Principal Findings We conducted a study within rural villages in Tamil Nadu, India, which combines a household survey (28,494 people) of snakebite incidence with a more detailed survey of victims in order to understand the health and socio-economic effects of the bite, the treatments obtained and their views about future improvements. Our survey suggests that snakebite incidence is higher than previously reported. 3.9% of those surveyed had suffered from snakebite and the number of deaths corresponds to 0.45% of the population. The socio-economic impact of this is very considerable in terms of the treatment costs and the long-term effects on the health and ability of survivors to work. To reduce this, the victims recommended improvements to the accessibility and affordability of antivenom treatment. Conclusions Snakebite has a considerable and disproportionate impact on rural populations, particularly in South Asia. This study provides an incentive for researchers and the public to work together to reduce the incidence and improve the outcomes for snake bite victims and their families. PMID:24278244

  11. Does supplier evaluation impact process improvement?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiva Prasad h c

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The research explores and examines factors for supplier evaluation and its impact on process improvement particularly aiming on a steel pipe manufacturing firm in Gujarat, India. Design/Methodology/approach: The conceptual research framework was developed and hypotheses were stated considering the analysis of literature and discussions with the managers and engineers of a steel pipe manufacturing company in Gujarat, India. Data was collected using in-depth interview. The questionnaire primarily involves the perception of evaluation of supplier. Factors influencing supplier evaluation and its influence on process improvement is also examined in this study. The model testing and validation was done using partial least square method. Outcomes signified that the factors that influence evaluation of the supplier are quality, cost, delivery and supplier relationship management. Findings: The study depicted that quality and cost factors for supplier evaluation are insignificant. The delivery and supplier relationship management have significant influence on evaluation of the supplier. The research also depicted that supplier evaluation has significant influence on process improvement. Research limitations/implications: The study has been made specifically for ABC steel pipe manufacturing industry in Gujarat, India and may not be appropriate to the other industries or any parts of the world. There is a possibility of response bias as the conclusions of this research was interpreted on survey responses taken from the employees of case study company, so it is suggested that future research can overcome this problem by employing various methodologies in addition to surveys like carrying out focus group and in-depth interviews, brainstorming sessions with the experts etc. Originality/value: Many researchers have considered quality, cost and delivery as the factors for evaluating the suppliers. But for a company it is quintessential to have good

  12. Assessing the Impacts of Decadal Socio-Agro-Hydro Climatic Variations on Agricultural Vulnerability over India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanty, M. P.; Sharma, T.; Ghosh, S.; Karmakar, S.

    2017-12-01

    Among both rice and wheat producing countries, India holds one of the major global shares in terms of production. However, with rising population, economic variability, and increasing food demand, it has become indispensable to strategically assess the food security of the nation, particularly under changing climatic conditions. This can be achieved by improving knowledge on the impacts of climate change on crop growth and yield through understanding the current status of agricultural vulnerability and quantifying its decadal changes. The present research focuses on assessing the observed decadal changes in agricultural vulnerability over India, at a district-scale. In the study, the deliberation of multiple climatic, hydrologic, agricultural indicators will majorly facilitate evaluating their direct/indirect influence on the crop production. In addition, a set of socio-economic indicators will also be considered to understand the attribution of these factors on the change in agricultural vulnerability. Here, these indicators will be integrated into a multivariate data envelopment analysis (DEA) framework to derive relative efficiency of each unit or district in crop production, which will be further transformed into a well-grounded agricultural vulnerability map. It has become essential to understand the influence of these indicators on agriculture, given that the extended periods of excessive/no rainfall or high/low temperature can alter the water cycle and hence cause stress on the agroecosystem. Likewise, change in the population density, main and marginal cultivators, main and marginal agriculture labours, improvement in management practices, or increase in power supply for agricultural use, can directly affect the food security of the region. Hence, this study will undoubtedly assist the decision-makers/strategists by highlighting the agriculturally vulnerable regions over India. Consequently, it will reassure the farmers to define bottom-up approaches in

  13. Impact of fire on the macrofungal diversity in scrub jungles of south-west India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ammatanda A. Greeshma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Fortnightly survey in control and fire-impacted regions of scrub jungle of south-west coast of India during south-west monsoon (50 m2 quadrats up to 10 weeks yielded 34 and 25 species of macrofungi, respectively. The species as well as sporocarp richness were the highest during the fourth week, while the diversity attained the highest during the second week in control region. In fire-impacted region, the species and sporocarp richness and diversity peaked at sixth week. Seven species common to both regions were Chlorophyllum molybdites, Lepiota sp., Leucocoprinus birnbaumii, Marasmius sp. 3, Polyporus sp., Schizophyllum commune and Tetrapyrgos nigripes. The overall sporocarp richness was higher in fire-impacted than in control region. The Jaccard’s similarity between regions was 13.5%, while fortnights of regions ranged from 0% (10th week to 11.7% (eighth week. Control region showed single-species dominance by Xylaria hypoxylon, while multispecies dominance by Cyathus striatus and Lentinus squarrosulus in fire-impacted region. Except for air temperature, nine abiotic factors significantly differed between control and fire-impacted regions. The Pearson correlation was positive between species richness and phosphorus content in fire-impacted region (r = 0.696, while sporocarp richness was negatively correlated with pH in control region (r = −0.640. Economically viable species were 12 and 10 without overlap in control and fire-impacted regions, respectively.

  14. Environmental impact of coal industry and thermal power plants in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, U C

    2004-01-01

    Coal is the only natural resource and fossil fuel available in abundance in India. Consequently, it is used widely as a thermal energy source and also as fuel for thermal power plants producing electricity. India has about 90,000 MW installed capacity for electricity generation, of which more than 70% is produced by coal-based thermal power plants. Hydro-electricity contributes about 25%, and the remaining is mostly from nuclear power plants (NPPs). The problems associated with the use of coal are low calorific value and very high ash content. The ash content is as high as 55-60%, with an average value of about 35-40%. Further, most of the coal is located in the eastern parts of the country and requires transportation over long distances, mostly by trains, which run on diesel. About 70% oil is imported and is a big drain on India's hard currency. In the foreseeable future, there is no other option likely to be available, as the nuclear power programme envisages installing 20,000 MWe by the year 2020, when it will still be around 5% of the installed capacity. Hence, attempts are being made to reduce the adverse environmental and ecological impact of coal-fired power plants. The installed electricity generating capacity has to increase very rapidly (at present around 8-10% per annum), as India has one of the lowest per capita electricity consumptions. Therefore, the problems for the future are formidable from ecological, radio-ecological and pollution viewpoints. A similar situation exists in many developing countries of the region, including the People's Republic of China, where coal is used extensively. The paper highlights some of these problems with the data generated in the author's laboratory and gives a brief description of the solutions being attempted. The extent of global warming in this century will be determined by how developing countries like India manage their energy generation plans. Some of the recommendations have been implemented for new plants

  15. Scaling–up public sector childhood diarrhea management program: Lessons from Indian states of Gujarat, Uttar Pradesh and Bihar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sanjeev; Roy, Rajashree; Dutta, Sucharita

    2015-01-01

    Background Diarrhea remains a leading cause of death among children under five in India. Public health sector is an important source for diarrhea treatment with oral rehydration salts (ORS) and zinc. In 2010, Micronutrient Initiative started a project to improve service delivery for childhood diarrhea management through public health sector in Gujarat, Uttar Pradesh (UP) and Bihar. This paper aims to highlight feasible strategies, experiences and lessons learned from scaling–up zinc and ORS for childhood diarrhea management in the public sector in three Indian states. Methods The project was implemented in six districts of Gujarat, 12 districts of UP and 15 districts of Bihar, which includes 10.5 million children. Program strategies included capacity building of health care providers, expanding service delivery through community health workers (CHWs), providing supportive supervision to CHWs, ensuring supplies and conducting monitoring and evaluation. The lessons described in this paper are based on program data, government documents and studies that were used to generate evidence and inform program scale–up. Results 140 000 health personnel, including CHWs, were trained in childhood diarrhea management. During three years, CHWs had sustained knowledge and have treated and reported more than three million children aged 2–59 months having diarrhea, of which 84% were treated with both zinc and ORS. The successful strategies were scaled–up. Conclusion It is feasible and viable to introduce and scale–up zinc and ORS for childhood diarrhea treatment through public sector. Community–based service delivery, timely and adequate supplies, trained staff and pro–active engagement with government were essential for program success. PMID:26682047

  16. Scaling-up public sector childhood diarrhea management program: Lessons from Indian states of Gujarat, Uttar Pradesh and Bihar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sanjeev; Roy, Rajashree; Dutta, Sucharita

    2015-12-01

    Diarrhea remains a leading cause of death among children under five in India. Public health sector is an important source for diarrhea treatment with oral rehydration salts (ORS) and zinc. In 2010, Micronutrient Initiative started a project to improve service delivery for childhood diarrhea management through public health sector in Gujarat, Uttar Pradesh (UP) and Bihar. This paper aims to highlight feasible strategies, experiences and lessons learned from scaling-up zinc and ORS for childhood diarrhea management in the public sector in three Indian states. The project was implemented in six districts of Gujarat, 12 districts of UP and 15 districts of Bihar, which includes 10.5 million children. Program strategies included capacity building of health care providers, expanding service delivery through community health workers (CHWs), providing supportive supervision to CHWs, ensuring supplies and conducting monitoring and evaluation. The lessons described in this paper are based on program data, government documents and studies that were used to generate evidence and inform program scale-up. 140 000 health personnel, including CHWs, were trained in childhood diarrhea management. During three years, CHWs had sustained knowledge and have treated and reported more than three million children aged 2-59 months having diarrhea, of which 84% were treated with both zinc and ORS. The successful strategies were scaled-up. It is feasible and viable to introduce and scale-up zinc and ORS for childhood diarrhea treatment through public sector. Community-based service delivery, timely and adequate supplies, trained staff and pro-active engagement with government were essential for program success.

  17. Using Bayesian methods to predict climate impacts on groundwater availability and agricultural production in Punjab, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, T. A.; Devineni, N.; Lall, U.

    2015-12-01

    Lasting success of the Green Revolution in Punjab, India relies on continued availability of local water resources. Supplying primarily rice and wheat for the rest of India, Punjab supports crop irrigation with a canal system and groundwater, which is vastly over-exploited. The detailed data required to physically model future impacts on water supplies agricultural production is not readily available for this region, therefore we use Bayesian methods to estimate hydrologic properties and irrigation requirements for an under-constrained mass balance model. Using measured values of historical precipitation, total canal water delivery, crop yield, and water table elevation, we present a method using a Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) algorithm to solve for a distribution of values for each unknown parameter in a conceptual mass balance model. Due to heterogeneity across the state, and the resolution of input data, we estimate model parameters at the district-scale using spatial pooling. The resulting model is used to predict the impact of precipitation change scenarios on groundwater availability under multiple cropping options. Predicted groundwater declines vary across the state, suggesting that crop selection and water management strategies should be determined at a local scale. This computational method can be applied in data-scarce regions across the world, where water resource management is required to resolve competition between food security and available resources in a changing climate.

  18. What Does "Literate in English" Mean?: Divergent Literacy Practices for Vernacular- vs. English-Medium Students in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramanathan, Vai

    2002-01-01

    Offers a close analysis of how English is presented and taught in state-mandated vernacular- and English-medium textbooks used in Grades K-12 in Gujarat, India. Argues that the divergent English instruction as presented in the textbooks contribute to producing two different cultural models regarding being "literate in English."…

  19. The impact of monsoon intraseasonal variability on renewable power generation in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunning, C M; Turner, A G; Brayshaw, D J

    2015-01-01

    India is increasingly investing in renewable technology to meet rising energy demands, with hydropower and other renewables comprising one-third of current installed capacity. Installed wind-power is projected to increase 5-fold by 2035 (to nearly 100GW) under the International Energy Agency's New Policies scenario. However, renewable electricity generation is dependent upon the prevailing meteorology, which is strongly influenced by monsoon variability. Prosperity and widespread electrification are increasing the demand for air conditioning, especially during the warm summer. This study uses multi-decadal observations and meteorological reanalysis data to assess the impact of intraseasonal monsoon variability on the balance of electricity supply from wind-power and temperature-related demand in India. Active monsoon phases are characterized by vigorous convection and heavy rainfall over central India. This results in lower temperatures giving lower cooling energy demand, while strong westerly winds yield high wind-power output. In contrast, monsoon breaks are characterized by suppressed precipitation, with higher temperatures and hence greater demand for cooling, and lower wind-power output across much of India. The opposing relationship between wind-power supply and cooling demand during active phases (low demand, high supply) and breaks (high demand, low supply) suggests that monsoon variability will tend to exacerbate fluctuations in the so-called demand-net-wind (i.e., electrical demand that must be supplied from non-wind sources). This study may have important implications for the design of power systems and for investment decisions in conventional schedulable generation facilities (such as coal and gas) that are used to maintain the supply/demand balance. In particular, if it is assumed (as is common) that the generated wind-power operates as a price-taker (i.e., wind farm operators always wish to sell their power, irrespective of price) then investors

  20. The impact of monsoon intraseasonal variability on renewable power generation in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunning, C. M.; Turner, A. G.; Brayshaw, D. J.

    2015-06-01

    India is increasingly investing in renewable technology to meet rising energy demands, with hydropower and other renewables comprising one-third of current installed capacity. Installed wind-power is projected to increase 5-fold by 2035 (to nearly 100GW) under the International Energy Agency's New Policies scenario. However, renewable electricity generation is dependent upon the prevailing meteorology, which is strongly influenced by monsoon variability. Prosperity and widespread electrification are increasing the demand for air conditioning, especially during the warm summer. This study uses multi-decadal observations and meteorological reanalysis data to assess the impact of intraseasonal monsoon variability on the balance of electricity supply from wind-power and temperature-related demand in India. Active monsoon phases are characterized by vigorous convection and heavy rainfall over central India. This results in lower temperatures giving lower cooling energy demand, while strong westerly winds yield high wind-power output. In contrast, monsoon breaks are characterized by suppressed precipitation, with higher temperatures and hence greater demand for cooling, and lower wind-power output across much of India. The opposing relationship between wind-power supply and cooling demand during active phases (low demand, high supply) and breaks (high demand, low supply) suggests that monsoon variability will tend to exacerbate fluctuations in the so-called demand-net-wind (i.e., electrical demand that must be supplied from non-wind sources). This study may have important implications for the design of power systems and for investment decisions in conventional schedulable generation facilities (such as coal and gas) that are used to maintain the supply/demand balance. In particular, if it is assumed (as is common) that the generated wind-power operates as a price-taker (i.e., wind farm operators always wish to sell their power, irrespective of price) then investors in

  1. Identification of Variables and Factors Impacting Consumer Behavior in On-line Shopping in India: An Empirical Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhikara, Sudesh

    On-line shopping is a recent phenomenon in the field of E-Business and is definitely going to be the future of shopping in the world. Most of the companies are running their on-line portals to sell their products/services. Though online shopping is very common outside India, its growth in Indian Market, which is a large and strategic consumer market, is still not in line with the global market. The potential growth of on-line shopping has triggered the idea of conducting a study on on-line shopping in India. The present research paper has used exploratory study to depict and highlight the various categories of factors and variables impacting the behavior of consumers towards on-line shopping in India. The data was collected through in-depth interviews on a sample of 41 respondents from Delhi, Mumbai, Chennai and Bangalore. The results of the study show that on-line shopping in India is basically impacted by five categories of factors like demographics factor, Psychographics factor, Online shopping feature and policies, Technological factor, Security factor. The results of the study are used to present a comprehensive model of on-line shopping which could be further used by the researchers and practitioners for conducting future studies in the similar area. A brief operational definition of all the factors and variables impacting on-line shopping in India is also described. And finally practical implications of the study are also elucidated.

  2. Assessing the Impact of Population Growth, Climate Change, and Land Use Change on Water Resources in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, N.; Cherkauer, K. A.

    2014-12-01

    India is poised to become the most populous country in the world by 2019 and reach a population of over 2 billion by 2050 based on current growth rates. It is also a region which will be under severe socio-economic and environmental stress if mitigation efforts are not adapted. In the past 10 years the population of India has grown by an average rate of 17 million people per year. In addition to unprecedented population growth, rapid urbanization and industrialization are straining the overburdened environmental system. This rapid growth in population, urbanization and industrialized will result in increased demand for food, requiring expansion of agricultural resources. Since total agricultural land in India has been relatively constant over the past 10 years the demand for additional food has to be partly met by enhanced production on existing land. Arable land in India has declined by around 3% according to FAOSTAT while the total agricultural area under irrigation has increased by about 9% thus further straining its water resources. In addition projections for future climate indicate that India is one of the regions where water resources are expected to be negatively impacted. Total agriculture water withdrawal in India increased by approximately 18 % from 2000-2010 while the total per capita water withdrawal increased by over 9% from 2000-2010. Total freshwater withdrawal as percentage of renewable water resources was around 40% in 2010. In addition, recent mandates of biofuel policies in India are also expected to impact its water resources. The combined impact of these various factors on future water availability in India could be one of the most severe globally due its unprecedented increase in population, food production and industrialization. In this study we assess the impact of land use and climate change on water resources over southern India in the face of a growing population and interest in development of national biofuel supplies. We use

  3. IMPACT OF SEX COMPOSITION OF LIVING CHILDREN AND COUPLES' AGREEMENT ON SUBSEQUENT FERTILITY IN INDIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kastor, Anshul; Chatterjee, Sayantani

    2017-11-23

    The desire for children could be considered a reliable predictor of subsequent fertility. At the same time, the sex composition of surviving children, along with other demographic and socioeconomic factors, may affect a couple's fertility desire and, therefore, their subsequent fertility. This study examined the impact of the sex composition of living children and a couple's agreement on fertility desire on their subsequent fertility in India using data came from two rounds of nationally representative surveys: the India Human Development Survey (IHDS)-I (2004-05) and IHDS-II (2011-12). To understand which factors affect the chances of an additional pregnancy or childbirth, a random effects logistic regression model was applied to the panel data. It was found that the fertility desires of both marital partners were important in determining the chances of subsequent fertility. About 35% of the couples wanting to limit children had undergone pregnancy or childbirth, while 76% of the couples wanting more children had conceived or given birth to children. In the case of discordance between the spouses, subsequent fertility was found to remain intermediate between those agreeing to continue childbirth and those wanting to limit it. The findings also affirmed that child sex preference, specifically son preference, still persists in Indian society. More than 80% of the couples with only daughters in IHDS-I mutually wanted to have additional children, whereas in families that only had sons, the chance of a subsequent pregnancy was inversely associated with the number of sons. Strong patriarchal settings, combined with cultural and socioeconomic factors, affect the persistence of sex preference in India. Programmes aimed at increasing family planning use need to address son preference and should include components that promote the value of girl children.

  4. Dominance of sterilization and alternative choices of contraception in India: an appraisal of the socioeconomic impact.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Tiago de Oliveira

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The recent decline in fertility in India has been unprecedented especially in southern India, where fertility is almost exclusively controlled by means of permanent contraceptive methods, mainly female sterilization, which constitutes about two-thirds of overall contraceptive use. Many Indian women undergo sterilization at relatively young ages as a consequence of early marriage and childbearing in short birth intervals. This research aims to investigate the socioeconomic factors determining the choices for alternative contraceptive choices against the dominant preference for sterilization among married women in India. METHODS: Data for this study are drawn from the 2005-06 National Family Health Surveys focusing on a sample of married women who reported having used a method of contraception in the five years preceding the survey. A multilevel multinomial logit regression is used to estimate the impact of socioeconomic factors on contraceptive choices, differentiating temporary modern or traditional methods versus sterilization. FINDINGS: Religious affiliation, women's education and occupation had overarching influence on method choices amongst recent users. Muslim women were at higher odds of choosing a traditional or modern temporary method than sterilization. Higher level of women's education increased the odds of modern temporary method choices but the education effect on traditional method choices was only marginally significant. Recent users belonging to wealthier households had higher odds of choosing modern methods over sterilization. Exposure to family planning messages through radio had a positive effect on modern and traditional method choices. Community variations in method choices were highly significant. CONCLUSION: The persistent dominance of sterilization in the Indian family planning programme is largely determined by socioeconomic conditions. Reproductive health programmes should address the socioeconomic barriers

  5. Dominance of sterilization and alternative choices of contraception in India: an appraisal of the socioeconomic impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Isabel Tiago; Dias, José G; Padmadas, Sabu S

    2014-01-01

    The recent decline in fertility in India has been unprecedented especially in southern India, where fertility is almost exclusively controlled by means of permanent contraceptive methods, mainly female sterilization, which constitutes about two-thirds of overall contraceptive use. Many Indian women undergo sterilization at relatively young ages as a consequence of early marriage and childbearing in short birth intervals. This research aims to investigate the socioeconomic factors determining the choices for alternative contraceptive choices against the dominant preference for sterilization among married women in India. Data for this study are drawn from the 2005-06 National Family Health Surveys focusing on a sample of married women who reported having used a method of contraception in the five years preceding the survey. A multilevel multinomial logit regression is used to estimate the impact of socioeconomic factors on contraceptive choices, differentiating temporary modern or traditional methods versus sterilization. Religious affiliation, women's education and occupation had overarching influence on method choices amongst recent users. Muslim women were at higher odds of choosing a traditional or modern temporary method than sterilization. Higher level of women's education increased the odds of modern temporary method choices but the education effect on traditional method choices was only marginally significant. Recent users belonging to wealthier households had higher odds of choosing modern methods over sterilization. Exposure to family planning messages through radio had a positive effect on modern and traditional method choices. Community variations in method choices were highly significant. The persistent dominance of sterilization in the Indian family planning programme is largely determined by socioeconomic conditions. Reproductive health programmes should address the socioeconomic barriers and consider multiple cost-effective strategies such as mass

  6. Impact of integrated child development scheme on child malnutrition in West Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Arijita; Ghosh, Smritikana

    2017-10-01

    With child malnutrition detected as a persistent problem in most of the developing countries, public policy has been directed towards offering community-based supplementary feeding provision and nutritional information to caregivers. India, being no exception, has initiated these programs as early as 1970s under integrated child development scheme. Using propensity score matching technique on primary data of 390 households in two districts of West Bengal, an Eastern state in India, the study finds that impact of being included in the program and receiving supplementary feeding is insignificant on child stunting measures, though the program can break the intractable barriers of child stunting only when the child successfully receives not only just the supplementary feeding but also his caregiver collects crucial information on nutritional awareness and growth trajectory of the child. Availability of regular eggs in the feeding diet too can reduce protein-related undernutrition. Focusing on just feeding means low depth of other services offered under integrated child development scheme, including pre-school education, nutritional awareness, and hygiene behavior; thus repealing a part of the apparent food-secure population who puts far more importance on the latter services. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. HAEMATOLOGICAL IMPACT OF NATURALLY OCCURING TICK BORNE HAEMOPARASITIC INFECTIONS IN CATTLE OF WEST BENGAL, INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apurba Debbarma

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Haemoparasites reduces productivity and may lead to high mortality among animals. The present study was carried out to evaluate the heamotological change in cattle of different districts in West Bengal, India affected with naturally occurring tick- borne haemoparasitic diseases (TBHD. A total of 310 cattle blood samples were screened for the presence of haemoparasites from July, 2015 to June, 2016. The blood samples were examined for haemoparasites by making thin blood smear and staining with Giemsa’s stain. The result showed that108 (34.84% cattle were found positive with TBHD, out of which 22.9% were Theileria sp, 5.8% were Babesia sp., 11.93% Anaplasma sp., and 5.8% were having mixed infection, respectively. The positive samples were subjected to estimations of haematological parameters i. e. Haemoglobin concentration (Hb, packed cell volume (PCV, total erythrocyte count (TEC and Total leucocytes count (TLC using standard protocol. The haematological analysis showed statistically a significant (p<0.01 decreased levels of Hb, PCV, TEC and TLC in infected groups of cattle compared to infection free group cattle. This is probably the first systematic report in West Bengal, India. The result showed the haemoparasites have a negative impact on haematological parameters. This study may be useful in disease epidemiological map preparation, parasitic control policy preparation of the study areas.

  8. Impact of school based oral health education programmes in India: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambhir, Ramandeep Singh; Sohi, Ramandeep Kaur; Nanda, Tarun; Sawhney, Gurjashan Singh; Setia, Saniya

    2013-12-01

    The teaching of Oral Health Education aims at preventing the dental disease and promoting dental health at early stages. Schools are powerful places to shape the health, education and well-being of our children. The objective of this study was to determine the impact of school dental health education programmes conducted in various parts of India. A systematic review from available literature was carried out. The study examined papers relating to oral health interventions which were published between 1992 and 2012. Ten articles were selected and included in the review. All the studies were found to contain the required information on the outcomes of school dental health programmes in India. Different methods were used to deliver oral health education. All the studies reported significant improvement in oral hygiene of school children after imparting dental health education. In some studies, school teachers were also trained to impart oral health education. Decreased level of awareness was found in children coming from low income families. Longer duration studies are needed to improve the results. School dental education programmes should be more focused on north-eastern Indian population.

  9. Asia energy outlook to 2030: Impacts of energy outlook in China and India on the world

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komiyama, R.

    2007-07-01

    This paper presents an international energy outlook, focusing on an analysis of energy impacts of Asia, particularly China and India, on the world energy markets to 2030. Based on vigorous economic growth, soaring electricity demand and progressive motorisation in China and India, Asia's primary energy demand is expected to double, eventually positioning Asia as the largest energy-consuming region with largest CO{sub 2} emissions in the world. This paper also discusses energy security challenges for Asia, in particular East Asian region, where steady oil demand growth will lead to increasing dependency on imported oil from Middle East and sea lane security in the Malacca Strait. Furthermore, this paper explores various future scenarios for Asia including 'Technological Advanced Scenario' to highlight the differences in possible energy futures in Asia and its implication to the global energy market. In Technological Advanced Scenario, which assumes the stepped-up implementation of energy and environmental policies in Asian countries, Asia's primary energy demand in 2030 is expected to be 15%, or 943 Mtoe, lower than the Reference Scenario. The paper concludes that successful implementation of such an energy strategy will decrease the energy demand and greatly mitigate the growth of CO{sub 2} emissions from the energy sector. (auth)

  10. Understanding The Individual Impacts Of Human Interventions And Climate Change On Hydrologic Variables In India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, T.; Chhabra, S., Jr.; Karmakar, S.; Ghosh, S.

    2015-12-01

    We have quantified the historical climate change and Land Use Land Cover (LULC) change impacts on the hydrologic variables of Indian subcontinent by using Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) mesoscale model at 0.5° spatial resolution and daily temporal resolution. The results indicate that the climate change in India has predominating effects on the basic water balance components such as water yield, evapotranspiration and soil moisture. This analysis is with the assumption of naturalised hydrologic cycle, i.e., the impacts of human interventions like construction of controlled (primarily dams, diversions and reservoirs) and water withdrawals structures are not taken into account. The assumption is unrealistic since there are numerous anthropogenic disturbances which result in large changes on vegetation composition and distribution patterns. These activities can directly or indirectly influence the dynamics of water cycle; subsequently affecting the hydrologic processes like plant transpiration, infiltration, evaporation, runoff and sublimation. Here, we have quantified the human interventions by using the reservoir and irrigation module of VIC model which incorporates the irrigation schemes, reservoir characteristics and water withdrawals. The impact of human interventions on hydrologic variables in many grids are found more predominant than climate change and might be detrimental to water resources at regional level. This spatial pattern of impacts will facilitate water manager and planners to design and station hydrologic structures for a sustainable water resources management.

  11. Prevalence of premenstrual syndrome and premenstrual dysphoric disorder among college students of Bhavnagar, Gujarat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raval, Chintan Madhusudan; Panchal, Bharat Navinchandra; Tiwari, Deepak Sachidanand; Vala, Ashok Ukabhai; Bhatt, Renish Bhupendrabhai

    2016-01-01

    Premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) is a severe form of premenstrual syndrome (PMS) characterized by mood changes, anxiety, and somatic symptoms experienced during the specific time of menstrual cycle. Prevalence data of PMS and PMDD is sparse among college girls in India. The aim of this study is to study the prevalence of PMS and PMDD among college students of Bhavnagar (Gujarat), its associated demographic and menstrual factors, to rank common symptoms and compare premenstrual symptom screening tool (PSST) with Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV-TR defined PMDD (SCID-PMDD) for sensitivity and specificity. A cross-sectional survey was done in five colleges of Bhavnagar. Of 529 subjects approached, 489 college girls were finally analyzed for sociodemographic data, menstrual history, and PSST. SCID-PMDD was applied among those who were positive on PSST and 20% of those who were negative. The data were analyzed using OpenEpi Version 2. Chi-square test was done for qualitative variables and analysis of variance for quantitative variables. Sensitivity, specificity, and predictive values were calculated for PSST. The prevalence of PMS was 18.4%. Moderate to severe PMS was 14.7% and PMDD was 3.7% according to DSM IV-TR and 91% according to International Classification of Diseases, 10(th) edition criteria. The symptoms commonly reported were "fatigue/lack of energy," "decrease interest in work," and "anger/irritability." The most common functional impairment item was "school/work efficiency and productivity." PSST has 90.9% sensitivity, 57.01% specificity, and 97.01% predictive value of negative test. Prevalence of PMS among college students is similar to other studies from Asia. PSST is a useful screening tool for PMS, and it should be confirmed by more specific tool as by SCID-PMDD. Routine screening with PSST can identify college girls who can improve with treatment.

  12. Health impact and noise exposure assessment in the cricket bat industry of Kashmir, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzoor, Javid; Mamta; Jaganadha Rao, Rayavarapu; Wani, Khursheed Ahmad

    2016-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to identify and evaluate predominant noise sources in the cricket bat industry of Kashmir, India. Sound levels were measured at operator's ear level in the working zone of the workers of seven cricket bat factories. The impact assessment was made through personal interviews with each worker separately during their period of rest. On average, 62.5% of the workers reported difficulty in hearing and 24.1% of the workers have become patients for hypertension. Only 58.1% of the workers complained of headache due to high noise level. The workers engaged in the cricket bat industry of Kashmir are exposed to high noise levels. It is suggested that personal protective equipment like ear plugs and ear muffs be used by these workers as a protection against this hazard.

  13. Three new species of tube-dwelling spider genus Ariadna Audouin, 1826 (Araneae: Segestriidae) from India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siliwal, Manju; Yadav, Archana; Kumar, Dolly

    2017-12-05

    The tube-dwelling spider family Segestriidae is represented in India by only two species, Ariadna nebulosa Simon, 1906 and Segestria inda Simon, 1906. Both species are known only from their type localities. For about 96 years, there has been no report of these spiders from the Indian subcontinent. Here, we describe three new species based on female specimens from India. Ariadna vansda sp. nov. from Gujarat; A. molur sp. nov., and A. chhotae sp. nov. from Karnataka.

  14. Financial Impact of Complex Cancer Surgery in India: A Study of Pancreatic Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guruchanna Basavaiah

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The rapidly increasing burden of cancer in India has profound impacts on health care costs for patients and their families. High out-of-pocket (OOP expenditure, lack of insurance, and low government expenditure create a vicious cycle, leading to household impoverishment. Complex cancer surgery is now increasingly important for emerging countries; however, little is understood about the macro- and microeconomics of these procedures. After the Lancet Oncology Commission on Global Cancer Surgery, we evaluated the OOP expenditure for patients undergoing pancreatico-duodenectomy (PD at a government tertiary cancer center in India. Methods: Prospective data from 98 patients who underwent PD between January 2014 and June 2015 were collected and analyzed. The time frame for consideration of expenses, including all preoperative investigations, was from the first hospital visit to the day of discharge. Catastrophic expenditure was calculated by assessing the percentage of households in which OOP health payments exceeded 10% of the total household income. Results: The mean expenditure for PD by patients was Rs.295,679.57 (US$74,420, purchasing power parity corrected. This amount was significantly higher among those admitted to a private ward and those with complications. Only 29.6% of the patients had insurance coverage. A total of 76.5% of the sample incurred catastrophic expenditure, and 38% of those with insurance underwent financial catastrophe compared with 93% of those without insurance. The percentage of patients facing catastrophic impact was highest among those in semiprivate wards, at 86.7%, followed by those in public and private wards. Conclusion: The cost of PD is high and is often unaffordable for a majority of India’s population. A review of insurance coverage policies for better coverage must be considered.

  15. Impact of large-scale energy efficiency programs on utility finances and consumer tariffs in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abhyankar, Nikit; Phadke, Amol

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to analyze the effect on utility finances and consumer tariffs of implementing utility-funded demand-side energy efficiency (EE) programs in India. We use the state of Delhi as a case study. We estimate that by 2015, the electric utilities in Delhi can potentially save nearly 14% of total sales. We examine the impacts on utility finances and consumer tariffs by developing scenarios that account for variations in the following factors: (a) incentive mechanisms for mitigating the financial risk of utilities, (b) whether utilities fund the EE programs only partially, (c) whether utilities sell the conserved electricity into spot markets and (d) the level of power shortages utilities are facing. We find that average consumer tariff would increase by 2.2% although consumers participating in EE programs benefit from reduction in their electricity consumption. While utility incentive mechanisms can mitigate utilities’ risk of losing long-run returns, they cannot address the risk of consistently negative cash flow. In case of power shortages, the cash flow risk is amplified (reaching up to 57% of utilities annual returns) and is very sensitive to marginal tariffs of consumers facing power shortages. We conclude by proposing solutions to mitigate utility risks. - Highlights: ► We model implementation of energy efficiency (EE) programs in Delhi, India. ► We examine the impact on utility finances and consumer tariffs from 2012 to 2015. ► We find that average consumer tariffs increase but participating consumers benefit. ► Existing regulatory mechanisms cannot address utilities’ risk of negative cash flow. ► Frequent true-ups or ex-ante revenue adjustment is required to address such risk.

  16. Radiological impact assessment of coal and nuclear base power plants in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramachandran, T.V.

    2007-01-01

    Environmental problems concerned with the use of coal as a fuel in thermal power plants (TPS) is due to the production of fly ash. Coal contains tracers of primordial radionuclide and its burning is one of the sources of technologically enhanced exposure from natural radionuclides. When it is burnt in TPSs, the fly ash, emitted through the stack is enriched in radionuclide and so combustion of coal on a large scale for thermal power generation assumes importance. Many of these TPSs are located in thickly populated areas. Radioactivity content of the coal from the coalfields of eastern parts of the country is found to be higher than that of other coalfields. In India coal combustion accounts nearly 73% of the total installed capacity for power generation. A sample study was carried out by this center on coal and fly ash samples collected from more than 35 TPS spread all over the country with a total installed capacity of 10000 MW(e), for their-radioactivity content. Radiation doses to the population residing within 90 km radius of each TPS have been computed. Besides another set of 15 TPSs were studied for thermal pollution emission and trace element concentration. Operation of these TPSs has resulted in effective dose commitments from doses to bones, lungs and thyroid of 200 man-Sv.y -1 and from doses to the whole body, of 70 man-Sv.y -1 . Dose commitments to the population living within 90 km radius of the TPSs and NPPs in India have been computed and have been compared. Attempt is made to assess the inhalation dose from the radioactivity released from a typical 500 MW(e) TPS and its impact related to chemical pollutants. Impact in terms of Environmental Quality Index (EQI) due to conventional pollutions have been computed and compared with those due to the nuclear power plants (NPPs). Paper gives the summary of the study. (author)

  17. Health impacts of mercury cycling in contaminated environments of central India studied by NAA and ICP-MS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patel, K.S.

    2001-01-01

    The heavy metal pollution in the Indian continent is increasing due to rapid industrialisation. Among heavy metals, the element: mercury is considered as global pollutant. In central India it is considered as global pollutant. Central India has been chosen for the investigation of the mercury pollution and their health impacts in the proposed project. The concentration and flux levels of the organic, inorganic and total mercury and their variations, sources and co-relation are investigated in various atmospheric and environmental compartments air, dry deposit, wet deposits, water, soil, sediment, etc. of central India lying between 18-23 deg. N latitude and 80-84 deg. longitude. The techniques CVAAS, NAA, XFS, ICP-MS, etc. would be used for monitoring the various chemical species of mercury employing established methodologies. (author)

  18. An exploratory study on occurrence and impact of climate change on agriculture in Tamil Nadu, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varadan, R. Jayakumara; Kumar, Pramod; Jha, Girish Kumar; Pal, Suresh; Singh, Rashmi

    2017-02-01

    This study has been undertaken to examine the occurrence of climate change in Tamil Nadu, the southernmost state of India and its impact on rainfall pattern which is a primary constraint for agricultural production. Among the five sample stations examined across the state, the minimum temperature has increased significantly in Coimbatore while the same has decreased significantly in Vellore whereas both minimum and maximum temperatures have increased significantly in Madurai since 1969 with climate change occurring between late 1980s and early 1990s. As a result, the south-west monsoon has been disturbed with August rainfall increasing with more dispersion while September rainfall decreasing with less dispersion. Thus, September, the peak rainfall month of south-west monsoon before climate change, has become the monsoon receding month after climate change. Though there has been no change in the trend of the north-east monsoon, the quantity of October and November rainfall has considerably increased with increased dispersion after climate change. On the whole, south-west monsoon has decreased with decreased dispersion while north-east monsoon has increased with increased dispersion. Consequently, the season window for south-west monsoon crops has shortened while the north-east monsoon crops are left to fend against flood risk during their initial stages. Further, the incoherence in warming, climate change and rainfall impact seen across the state necessitates devising different indigenous and institutional adaptation strategies for different regions to overcome the adverse impacts of climate change on agriculture.

  19. Ecosystem Service Changes and Livelihood Impacts in the Maguri-Motapung Wetlands of Assam, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laxmi D. Bhatta

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Wetlands provide a diverse range of ecosystem services supporting livelihoods of many people. Despite their value, wetlands are continuously being degraded. There is scant information on individual wetlands, people’s dependency and their exploitation at a local scale. We therefore assessed wetland ecosystem services, the drivers of change and impacts of those drivers on ecosystem services and people’s dependency through a case study of the Maguri-Motapung Beel wetlands of Assam, India. Both qualitative and quantitative data were collected through household surveys, focus group discussions, key informant interviews and community workshops. The analyses showed a total of 29 ecosystem services, and high dependency on these with five out of seven livelihood strategies sourced from ecosystem services. Over-exploitation of wetland resources and siltation were reported as the major direct drivers of change with impacts on both ecosystem services and people’s livelihoods. Drastic decreases in availability of thatch, fish stocks, fodder and tourism were observed. This suggests that there is an urgent need for a comprehensive participatory management plan. Actions are needed to maintain the Maguri-Motapung Beel wetlands and the flow of services in order to sustain people’s livelihoods in the area. With an estimated 50% global loss of wetlands in the last century and the loss of 5,000 square kilometers a year in Asia alone, the loss of ecosystem services and livelihood impacts shown in our study may be typical of what is occurring in the region and perhaps globally.

  20. Assessment of climate change impact on yield of major crops in the Banas River Basin, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, Swatantra Kumar; Sharma, Devesh

    2018-09-01

    Crop growth models like AquaCrop are useful in understanding the impact of climate change on crop production considering the various projections from global circulation models and regional climate models. The present study aims to assess the climate change impact on yield of major crops in the Banas River Basin i.e., wheat, barley and maize. Banas basin is part of the semi-arid region of Rajasthan state in India. AquaCrop model is used to calculate the yield of all the three crops for a historical period of 30years (1981-2010) and then compared with observed yield data. Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) values are calculated to assess the model accuracy in prediction of yield. Further, the calibrated model is used to predict the possible impacts of climate change and CO 2 concentration on crop yield using CORDEX-SA climate projections of three driving climate models (CNRM-CM5, CCSM4 and MPI-ESM-LR) for two different scenarios (RCP4.5 and RCP8.5) for the future period 2021-2050. RMSE values of simulated yield with respect to observed yield of wheat, barley and maize are 11.99, 16.15 and 19.13, respectively. It is predicted that crop yield of all three crops will increase under the climate change conditions for future period (2021-2050). Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Impact of Two Intense Dust Storms on Aerosol Characteristics and Radiative Forcing over Patiala, Northwestern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepti Sharma

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Impact of dust storms on the aerosol characteristics and radiative forcing over Patiala, northwestern India has been studied during April-June of 2010 using satellite observations and ground-based measurements. Six dust events (DE have been identified during the study period with average values of Aqua-MODIS AOD550 and Microtops-II AOD500 over Patiala as 1.00±0.51 and 0.84±0.41, respectively while Aura-OMI AI exhibits high values ranging from 2.01 to 6.74. The Ångström coefficients α380–870 and β range from 0.12 to 0.31 and 0.95 to 1.40, respectively. The measured spectral AODs, the OPAC-derived aerosol properties and the surface albedo obtained from MODIS were used as main inputs in SBDART model for the calculation of aerosol radiative forcing (ARF over Patiala. The ARF at surface (SRF and top of atmosphere (TOA ranges from ∼−50 to −100 Wm−2 and from ∼−10 to −25 Wm−2, respectively during the maximum of dust storms. The radiative forcing efficiency was found to be −66 Wm−2AOD−1 at SRF and −14 Wm−2AOD−1 at TOA. High values of ARF in the atmosphere (ATM, ranging between ∼+40 Wm−2 and +80.0 Wm−2 during the DE days, might have significant effect on the warming of the lower and middle atmosphere and, hence, on climate over northwestern India.

  2. Impact of deforestation on known malaria vectors in Sonitpur district of Assam, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Rekha; Nagpal, B N; Singh, V P; Srivastava, Aruna; Dev, Vas; Sharma, M C; Gupta, H P; Tomar, Arvind Singh; Sharma, Shashi; Gupta, Sanjeev Kumar

    2014-09-01

    An alarming rate of deforestation has been reported from Sonitpur district of Assam, India therefore, a study was initiated during 2009 using remote sensing (RS) to assess deforested areas in the district and to study the impact on malaria vectors in order to formulate appropriate control strategy. RS imageries of 2000 and 2009 were used to assess deforested areas in the selected district. Entomological data were collected in four surveys during 2009-2011. The data were analyzed statistically using test of single proportions (χ 2 ) and pair-wise comparison. Vector incrimination was done using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and entomological inoculation rate (EIR) was calculated to estimate transmission intensity. The deforested areas were identified in north-western parts of Sonitpur district falling in Dhekiajuli Primary Health Centre (PHC). The forest cover of the PHC decreased >50% during 2000-2009. Five species of anopheline vectors were collected. Anopheles minimus sensu lato (s.l.) was collected least abundantly while An. culicifacies s.l. prevailed most abundantly and significant difference was observed between proportions of the collected vector species. Pair-wise comparison between An. culicifacies s.l. and An. minimus s.l. was also found statistically significant indicating that An. culicifacies s.l. is establishing its population in deforested areas. An. culicifacies s.l. was found ELISA positive and EIR was measured as 4.8 during transmission season. An. culicifacies s.l. replaced An. minimus s.l., the vector of malaria in northeast India and was found ELISA positive, therefore could have possible role in malaria transmission in the deforested areas of the district.

  3. Geospatial assessment of tourism impact on land environment of Dehradun, Uttarakhand, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Jaydip; Sakhre, Saurabh; Gupta, Vikash; Vijay, Ritesh; Pathak, Sunil; Biniwale, Rajesh; Kumar, Rakesh

    2018-03-01

    India's tourism industry has emerged as a leading industry with a potential to grow further in the next few decades. Dehradun, one of the famous tourist places in India located in the state of Uttarakhand, attracts tourist from all over the country and abroad. The surge in tourist number paved the way for new infrastructure projects like roads, buildings, and hotels, which in turn affects the topography of the mountainous region. In this study, remote sensing and GIS techniques have been used to assess the impact of tourism on the land environment of Dehradun. Satellite images of the years 1972, 2000, and 2016 were analyzed using object-based image analysis (OBIA) to derive land use and land cover (LULC) and ASTER-DEM (Digital Elevation Model) was used to determine the topography of the study area. LULC classification includes built-up, vegetation, forest, scrub, agriculture, plantation, and water body. The slope of the region was categorized as gentle, moderate, strong, extreme, steep, and very steep. To assess the sprawl of built-up on high terrain land, built-up class of LULC was overlaid on slope classes. The overlay analysis reveals that due to increase in tourism, the land use in terms of the built-up area has been extended from gentle slope to very steep slope. The haphazard construction on the extreme, steep, and very steep slope is prone to landslide and other natural disasters. For this, landslide susceptibility maps have also been generated using multicriteria evaluation (MCE) techniques to prevent haphazard construction and to assist in further planning of Dehradun City. This study suggests that a proper developmental plan of the city is essential which follows the principles of optimum use of land and sustainable tourism.

  4. The impact of TRIPS on innovation and exports: a case study of the pharmaceutical industry in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhotra, Prabodh

    2008-01-01

    Currently, there is a debate on what impact the implementation of the Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) in India would have on its pharmaceutical industry and health care. The debate hinges primarily on two major questions. First, will the new patent regime provide an impetus for innovation in the pharmaceutical industry? Second, how far will India's pharmaceutical exports of copied versions of patented drugs to developing countries be restricted under the new regime? The first question seeks to find out if TRIPS will increase India's innovative capabilities to fill the current vacuum to develop drugs for tropical diseases. The large multinational companies (MNCs) that dominate the global pharmaceutical industry have no interest in commercial ventures that have little potential for great returns on investment. The second question attempts to find a solution to the lack of access to medicine in most developing countries. Indian manufacturers' supply of reverse-engineered drugs, which cost only a fraction of the prices charged by MNCs, may be coming to an end under the new regime. Against this backdrop, this article attempts to analyse the impact of strengthening intellectual property rights in India.

  5. Laser Raman Spectroscopic Characterization of Shocked Plagioclase from the Lonar Impact Crater, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakrabarti, R.; Basu, A. R.; Peterson, J.; Misra, S.

    2004-12-01

    We report Raman spectra of shocked plagioclase grains from the Lonar impact Crater of India. The Lonar Crater, located in the Buldana district of Maharashtra, India (19° 58'N, 76° 31'E), is an almost circular depression in the 65Ma old basalt flows of the Deccan Traps. Age estimates of this impact crater range from 10-50ka. Tektite and basalt samples were collected for this study from the rim of the crater, which is raised about 20 meters above the surrounding plains. For comparison, a Manicouagan maskelynite and an unaltered mid-oceanic ridge basalt with plagioclase laths were also analyzed. Polished thin sections of all these samples were first petrographically studied. The MORB plagioglase as well as the plagioclase from Lonar host-basalts show first order interference colors and distinct multiple lamellar twinning. The Manicouagan maskelynite is isotropic under crossed-polars. The Lonar tektite samples characteristically demonstrate spherules which are identified by their perfectly circular cross-section and isotropic nature. The spherules also contain fragments of the host basalt with plagioclase laths showing lamellar twinning. The groundmass within the spherules shows lath shaped plagioclase grains, most of which show varying degrees of isotropism due to maskelynitization. Raman scattering measurements were performed using the 514.5 nm line of an argon ion laser at an intensity of 40 kW/cm2. An inverted microscope (Nikon TE3000) with 50x objective (NA 0.55) was used for confocal imaging. A holographic notch filter removed residual laser scatter and the Raman scattering was detected by a silicon CCD at -90° C (Princeton Instruments Spec10-400R). Raman spectra were collected from ~250 cm-1 through 2000 cm-1. Raman spectra of crystalline unshocked plagioclase feldspars from the MORB and the Lonar host basalt show strongest peaks at 265 cm-1, 410 cm-1, 510 cm-1 and 1110 cm-1. The results remain the same for different points in a single grain but vary slightly

  6. The Potential Impact of Up-Front Drug Sensitivity Testing on India's Epidemic of Multi-Drug Resistant Tuberculosis.

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    Kuldeep Singh Sachdeva

    Full Text Available In India as elsewhere, multi-drug resistance (MDR poses a serious challenge in the control of tuberculosis (TB. The End TB strategy, recently approved by the world health assembly, aims to reduce TB deaths by 95% and new cases by 90% between 2015 and 2035. A key pillar of this approach is early diagnosis of tuberculosis, including use of higher-sensitivity diagnostic testing and universal rapid drug susceptibility testing (DST. Despite limitations of current laboratory assays, universal access to rapid DST could become more feasible with the advent of new and emerging technologies. Here we use a mathematical model of TB transmission, calibrated to the TB epidemic in India, to explore the potential impact of a major national scale-up of rapid DST. To inform key parameters in a clinical setting, we take GeneXpert as an example of a technology that could enable such scale-up. We draw from a recent multi-centric demonstration study conducted in India that involved upfront Xpert MTB/RIF testing of all TB suspects.We find that widespread, public-sector deployment of high-sensitivity diagnostic testing and universal DST appropriately linked with treatment could substantially impact MDR-TB in India. Achieving 75% access over 3 years amongst all cases being diagnosed for TB in the public sector alone could avert over 180,000 cases of MDR-TB (95% CI 44187 - 317077 cases between 2015 and 2025. Sufficiently wide deployment of Xpert could, moreover, turn an increasing MDR epidemic into a diminishing one. Synergistic effects were observed with assumptions of simultaneously improving MDR-TB treatment outcomes. Our results illustrate the potential impact of new and emerging technologies that enable widespread, timely DST, and the important effect that universal rapid DST in the public sector can have on the MDR-TB epidemic in India.

  7. Regional hydrological impacts of climate change: implications for water management in India

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    A. Mondal

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Climate change is most likely to introduce an additional stress to already stressed water systems in developing countries. Climate change is inherently linked with the hydrological cycle and is expected to cause significant alterations in regional water resources systems necessitating measures for adaptation and mitigation. Increasing temperatures, for example, are likely to change precipitation patterns resulting in alterations of regional water availability, evapotranspirative water demand of crops and vegetation, extremes of floods and droughts, and water quality. A comprehensive assessment of regional hydrological impacts of climate change is thus necessary. Global climate model simulations provide future projections of the climate system taking into consideration changes in external forcings, such as atmospheric carbon-dioxide and aerosols, especially those resulting from anthropogenic emissions. However, such simulations are typically run at a coarse scale, and are not equipped to reproduce regional hydrological processes. This paper summarizes recent research on the assessment of climate change impacts on regional hydrology, addressing the scale and physical processes mismatch issues. Particular attention is given to changes in water availability, irrigation demands and water quality. This paper also includes description of the methodologies developed to address uncertainties in the projections resulting from incomplete knowledge about future evolution of the human-induced emissions and from using multiple climate models. Approaches for investigating possible causes of historically observed changes in regional hydrological variables are also discussed. Illustrations of all the above-mentioned methods are provided for Indian regions with a view to specifically aiding water management in India.

  8. Process and impact evaluation of a community gender equality intervention with young men in Rajasthan, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freudberg, Halima; Contractor, Sana; Das, Abhijit; Kemp, Christopher G; Nevin, Paul E; Phadiyal, Ashima; Lal, Jagdish; Rao, Deepa

    2018-02-01

    This paper reports on the results of a process and impact evaluation to assess the effects of a project aiming to engage men in changing gender stereotypes and improving health outcomes for women in villages in Rajasthan, India. We conducted seven focus group discussions with participants in the programme and six in-depth interviews with intervention group leaders. We also conducted 137 pre- and 70 post-intervention surveys to assess participant and community knowledge, attitudes and behaviours surrounding gender, violence and sexuality. We used thematic analysis to identify process and impact themes, and hierarchical mixed linear regression for the primary outcome analysis of survey responses. Post-intervention, significant changes in knowledge and attitudes regarding gender, sexuality and violence were made on the individual level by participants, as well as in the community. Moderate behavioural changes were seen in individuals and in the community. Study findings offer a strong model for prevention programmes working with young men to create a community effect in encouraging gender equality in social norms.

  9. Epilepsy in India II: Impact, burden, and need for a multisectoral public health response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amudhan, Senthil; Gururaj, Gopalkrishna; Satishchandra, Parthasarathy

    2015-01-01

    Epilepsy is a common neurological disorder whose consequences are influenced socially and culturally, especially in India. This review (second of the two part series) was carried out to understand the social impact and economic burden to develop comprehensive program for control and prevention of epilepsy. Epilepsy is known to have adverse effect on education, employment, marriage, and other essential social opportunities. Economic burden associated with epilepsy is very high with treatment and travel costs emerging as an important contributing factor. A vicious cycle between economic burden and poor disease outcome is clear. There is no significant change in the perception, stigma, and discrimination of epilepsy across the country despite improvement in educational and social parameters over the time. The huge treatment gap and poor quality of life is further worsened by the associated comorbidities and conditions. Thus, a multidisciplinary response is needed to address the burden and impact of epilepsy which calls for an integrated and multipronged approach for epilepsy care, prevention, and rehabilitation. Service delivery, capacity building, integration into the existing program, mobilizing public support, and increasing public awareness will be the hallmarks of such an integrated approach in a public health model.

  10. Epilepsy in India II: Impact, burden, and need for a multisectoral public health response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senthil Amudhan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Epilepsy is a common neurological disorder whose consequences are influenced socially and culturally, especially in India. This review (second of the two part series was carried out to understand the social impact and economic burden to develop comprehensive program for control and prevention of epilepsy. Epilepsy is known to have adverse effect on education, employment, marriage, and other essential social opportunities. Economic burden associated with epilepsy is very high with treatment and travel costs emerging as an important contributing factor. A vicious cycle between economic burden and poor disease outcome is clear. There is no significant change in the perception, stigma, and discrimination of epilepsy across the country despite improvement in educational and social parameters over the time. The huge treatment gap and poor quality of life is further worsened by the associated comorbidities and conditions. Thus, a multidisciplinary response is needed to address the burden and impact of epilepsy which calls for an integrated and multipronged approach for epilepsy care, prevention, and rehabilitation. Service delivery, capacity building, integration into the existing program, mobilizing public support, and increasing public awareness will be the hallmarks of such an integrated approach in a public health model.

  11. An assessment of the impact of energy insecurity on state stability in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varigonda, Kesava Chandra

    2013-01-01

    This paper studies the relation between energy insecurity and state stability in India. Primarily it looks at the ways in which specific aspects of energy insecurity impact the stability of the Indian state. The paper contends that energy insecurity in the form of fuel supply and electricity supply insecurities gives rise to social and political instability, which in extreme forms could lead to state destabilisation. A combination of inadequate and unreasonably priced fuel supply gives rise to instability in the social and political spheres; if the fuel supply is also unreliable, it could lead to chronic socio-political instability. Likewise, a combination of inadequate and unreliable electricity supply could, in certain instances, cause limited social instability; if this is also accompanied by an electricity price hike, it could lead to chronic socio-political instability. Chronic socio-political instability in an already weakened state could facilitate state destabilisation. - Highlights: • Studies the impact of energy insecurity on the stability of the Indian state. • Secondary sources from press releases of the last three decades are examined. • Fuel supply and electricity supply insecurities cause socio-political instability. • Chronic socio-political instability may lead to destabilisation of a week state

  12. Pseudotachylitic breccia from the Dhala impact structure, north-central India: Texture, mineralogy and geochemical characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pati, J. K.; Reimold, W. U.; Greshake, A.; Schmitt, R. T.; Koeberl, C.; Pati, P.; Prakash, K.

    2015-05-01

    Pseudotachylitic breccia (PTB) occurs in a drill core from the crater floor of the 11 km diameter, Proterozoic Dhala impact structure, India. PTBs were intersected in late Archean granitoids between 348.15 m and 502.55 m depth in the MCB-10 drill core from the center of the Dhala structure. The breccias comprise both cataclastic-matrix as well as melt breccias. The presence of microlites and vesicles in the groundmass and a widely observed flow fabric in the PTB support the presence of melt in the groundmass of some samples. Clasts in PTB are derived from the Archean granitoid basement. PTB matrix, the matrix of impact melt breccia also occurring between 256.50 m and 502.55 m depth, and the target granitoids vary in terms of silica, total alkali, magnesium and iron oxide contents. Chondrite-normalized REE patterns of PTB and target granitoids are similar, but the elemental abundances in the PTB are lower. The restricted size of PTB as veins and pods of up to 2.5 cm width, their occurrence at varied depths over a core length of 150 m, the clast population, and the chemical relationships between PTB and their host rocks all suggest the derivation of these breccias locally from the fractured basement granitoids involving in-situ melting. We favor that this took place due to rapid decompression during the collapse and modification stage of impact cratering, with, locally, additional energy input from frictional heating. Locally, amphibolite and dioritic mylonite occur in the host granitoids and their admixture could have contributed to the comparatively more mafic composition of PTB. Alteration of these crater floor rocks could have involved preferential reduction of silica and alkali element abundances, possibly due to impact-induced hydrothermal activity at crater floor level. This process, too, could have resulted in more mafic compositions.

  13. Big concerns with small projects: Evaluating the socio-ecological impacts of small hydropower projects in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jumani, Suman; Rao, Shishir; Machado, Siddarth; Prakash, Anup

    2017-05-01

    Although Small Hydropower Projects (SHPs) are encouraged as sources of clean and green energy, there is a paucity of research examining their socio-ecological impacts. We assessed the perceived socio-ecological impacts of 4 SHPs within the Western Ghats in India by conducting semi-structured interviews with local respondents. Primary interview data were sequentially validated with secondary data, and respondent perceptions were subsequently compared against the expected baseline of assured impacts. We evaluated the level of awareness about SHPs, their perceived socio-economic impacts, influence on resource access and impacts on human-elephant interactions. The general level of awareness about SHPs was low, and assurances of local electricity and employment generation remained largely unfulfilled. Additionally most respondents faced numerous unanticipated adverse impacts. We found a strong relationship between SHP construction and increasing levels of human-elephant conflict. Based on the disparity between assured and actual social impacts, we suggest that policies regarding SHPs be suitably revised.

  14. Partial phenotyping in voluntary blood donors of Gujarat State

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    Maitrey Gajjar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Partial phenotyping of voluntary blood donors has vital role in transfusion practice, population genetic study and in resolving legal issues.The Rh blood group is one of the most complex and highly immunogenic blood group known in humans. The Kell system, discovered in 1946, is the third most potent system at triggering hemolytic transfusion reactions and consists of 25 highly immunogenic antigens. Knowledge of Rh & Kell phenotypes in given population is relevant for better planning and management of blood bank; the main goal is to find compatible blood for patients needing multiple blood transfusions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency of Rh & Kell phenotype of voluntary donors in Gujarat state. Materials and Methods: The present study was conducted by taking 5670 samples from random voluntary blood donors coming in blood donation camp. Written consent was taken for donor phenotyping. The antigen typing of donors was performed by Qwalys-3(manufacturer: Diagast by using electromagnetic technology on Duolys plates. Results: Out of 5670 donors, the most common Rh antigen observed in the study population was e (99.07% followed by D (95.40%, C (88.77%, c (55.89% and E (17.88%. The frequency of the Kell antigen (K was 1.78 %. Discussion: The antigen frequencies among blood donors from Gujarat were compared with those published for other Indian populations. The frequency of D antigen in our study (95.4% and north Indian donors (93.6 was significantly higher than in the Caucasians (85% and lower than in the Chinese (99%. The frequencies of C, c and E antigens were dissimilar to other ethnic groups while the ′e′ antigen was present in high frequency in our study as also in the other ethnic groups. Kell antigen (K was found in only 101 (1.78 % donors out of 5670. Frequency of Kell antigen in Caucasian and Black populations is 9% & 2% respectively. The most common Kell phenotype was K-k+, not just in Indians (96.5% but

  15. Impact of climate variability on various Rabi crops over Northwest India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nageswararao, M. M.; Dhekale, B. S.; Mohanty, U. C.

    2018-01-01

    The Indian agriculture with its two prominent cropping seasons [summer ( Kharif) and winter ( Rabi)] is the mainstay of the rural economy. Northwest India (NWI) is an important region for the cultivation of Rabi crops grown during the period from October to April. In the present study, state wise impact analysis is carried out to ascertain the influence of climate indices Nino3.4 region Sea Surface Temperature (SST), Southern Oscillation Index (SOI), Arctic Oscillation (AO), North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and local precipitation, soil moisture, minimum ( T min), maximum ( T max) and mean ( T mean) temperatures on different Rabi crops (wheat, gram, rapeseed-mustard, oilseeds, and total Rabi food grains) over NWI during the years 1966-2011. To study the impact of climate variability on different Rabi crops, firstly, the influence of technology on the productivity of these crops has been removed by using linear function, as linear trend has noticed in all the time series. Correlation analysis provides an indication of the influence of local precipitation, soil moisture, T min, T max and T mean and some of its potential predictors (Nino3.4 region SST, SOI, AO, and NAO) on the productivity of different Rabi crops. Overall impact analysis indicates that the productivity of different Rabi crops in most of the places of NWI is most likely influenced by variability in local temperatures. Moreover, Nino3.4 region SST (SOI) positively (negatively) affects the productivity of gram, rapeseed-mustard, and total Rabi oilseeds in most of the states. The results of this study are useful in determining the strategies for increasing sustainable production through better agronomic practices.

  16. The impact of recurrent disasters on mental health: a study on seasonal floods in northern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wind, Tim R; Joshi, Pooran C; Kleber, Rolf J; Komproe, Ivan H

    2013-06-01

    Very little is known on the impact of recurrent disasters on mental health. Aim The present study examines the immediate impact of a recurrent flood on mental health and functioning among an affected population in the rural district of Bahraich, Uttar Pradesh, India, compared with a population in the same region that is not affected by floods. The study compared 318 affected respondents with 308 individuals who were not affected by floods. Symptoms of anxiety and depression were assessed by the Hopkins Symptom Checklist-25 (HSCL-25). Psychological and physical functioning was assessed by using the Short Form-12 (SF-12). The affected group showed large to very large differences with the comparison group on symptoms of anxiety (D = .92) and depression (D = 1.22). The affected group scored significantly lower on psychological and physical functioning than the comparison group (respectively D = .33 and D = .80). However, hierarchical linear regressions showed no significant relationship between mental health and the domains of functioning in the affected group, whereas mental health and the domains of functioning were significantly related in the comparison group. This study found a large negative impact of the recurrent floods on mental health outcomes and psychological and physical functioning. However, in a context with recurrent floods, disaster mental health status is not a relevant predictor of functioning. The findings suggest that the observed mental health status and impaired functioning in this context are also outcomes of another mechanism: Both outcomes are likely to be related to the erosion of the social and environmental and material context. As such, the findings refer to a need to implement psychosocial context-oriented interventions to address the erosion of the context rather than specific mental health interventions.

  17. Air quality mapping using GIS and economic evaluation of health impact for Mumbai City, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Awkash; Gupta, Indrani; Brandt, Jørgen; Kumar, Rakesh; Dikshit, Anil Kumar; Patil, Rashmi S

    2016-05-01

    Mumbai, a highly populated city in India, has been selected for air quality mapping and assessment of health impact using monitored air quality data. Air quality monitoring networks in Mumbai are operated by National Environment Engineering Research Institute (NEERI), Maharashtra Pollution Control Board (MPCB), and Brihanmumbai Municipal Corporation (BMC). A monitoring station represents air quality at a particular location, while we need spatial variation for air quality management. Here, air quality monitored data of NEERI and BMC were spatially interpolated using various inbuilt interpolation techniques of ArcGIS. Inverse distance weighting (IDW), Kriging (spherical and Gaussian), and spline techniques have been applied for spatial interpolation for this study. The interpolated results of air pollutants sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and suspended particulate matter (SPM) were compared with air quality data of MPCB in the same region. Comparison of results showed good agreement for predicted values using IDW and Kriging with observed data. Subsequently, health impact assessment of a ward was carried out based on total population of the ward and air quality monitored data within the ward. Finally, health cost within a ward was estimated on the basis of exposed population. This study helps to estimate the valuation of health damage due to air pollution. Operating more air quality monitoring stations for measurement of air quality is highly resource intensive in terms of time and cost. The appropriate spatial interpolation techniques can be used to estimate concentration where air quality monitoring stations are not available. Further, health impact assessment for the population of the city and estimation of economic cost of health damage due to ambient air quality can help to make rational control strategies for environmental management. The total health cost for Mumbai city for the year 2012, with a population of 12.4 million, was estimated as USD

  18. Muffled voices. Making way for impact statements in criminal justice system in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dipa Dube

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Victim Impact Statement (VIS is a crucial aspect in the process of dispensation of justice. It reinforces the participatory model of criminal justice system, wherein both the accused and the victim are significant and interwined in justice delivery mechanism. VIS has received little support from pro-accused activists who assert that the acceptance of such statements would make way for emotional blackmail and consequent enhancement of quantum of sentence. The claim has, however, been assailed by victimologists the world over, who have hailed the same as a positive assertion of the rights of the victim in the sentencing process. Simply speaking, a victim impact statement is a written or verbal statement made as part of the judicial legal process, which allows a victim of crime the opportunity to speak during the sentencing of the accused. It offers an opportunity to the victim or his/her family members to elaborate the trauma and hardships faced as a result of the crime committed. The present status of the victim or family, including the inconveniences faced, also become clear to the judge and allows him to make a decision. While VIS has been considered as significant and included as part of the criminal justice process in several nations across the world, India has remained rather unmoved and untouched. Several victimological approaches have been included in recent years in the criminal procedure of the land, yet impact statements seem to have eluded the legislators. This is particularly of significance in light of Indian judgments where the courts have reiterated that punishment must respond to the “society’s cry for justice”.

  19. Pollution impact on chaetognaths of the Visakhapatnam Harbour and neritic waters, east coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rathod, V; Bhat, K.L.; Sudhakar, U.; Sarma; Parulekar, A.H.

    stream_size 6 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name J_Mar_Biol_Assoc_India_37_185.pdf.txt stream_source_info J_Mar_Biol_Assoc_India_37_185.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 ...

  20. Isolation and identification of a Candida digboiensis strain from an extreme acid mine drainage of the Lignite Mine, Gujarat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Mitesh J; Tipre, Devayani R; Dave, Shailesh R

    2009-12-01

    An extremely acidic mine drainage (AMD) water sample was collected in 1998 and 2008 from Panandhro lignite mine, Gujarat, India. The yeast isolated from this sample was identified using mini API identification system, as a member of genus Candida. The major cellular fatty acids detected by FAME from the isolate are C(16:0) and C(18:2) (cis 9,12)/C(18:0alpha) as 25.23 and 19.5%, respectively. The isolate was identified as Candida digboiensis by 18S rRNA gene sequence analysis and designated as Candida digboiensis SRDyeast1. Phylogenetic analysis using D1/D2 variable domains showed that the closest relative of this strain is Candida blankii with 3% divergence. This organism has been reported for the first time from the lignite mine AMD sample, and for cellular fatty acid analysis. This yeast is able to survive in the AMD sample preserved at 10-42 degrees C temperature since last 10 years along with iron oxidizing microorganisms. It can grow in the presence of 40% glucose, 10% NaCl and in the pH range of 1 to 10. The isolate is capable of producing enzymes like protease and lipase. This isolate differs from the type strain Candida digboiensis in as many as six physiological and metabolic characteristics.

  1. Ranking of Metro Corridors Basing on Environmental and Occupational Health Impacts in a Construction Organization in India, Using Madm Approach

    OpenAIRE

    SUNKU VENKATA-SIVA-RAJA-PRASAD; PASUPULATI VENKATA-CHALAPATHI

    2015-01-01

     Infrastructure development being the major construction activity undertaken with the support of the Government to eradicate poor transport infrastructure, to cater to ever-increasing population, to reduce the usage of own vehicle and environmental impact thereof, the concept of mass rapid transit system came into existence. Among the various mass rapid transit system modes, Metro rail construction was picked up in several cities in India. The execution of metro rail involves many painstaking...

  2. Predictors and consequences of “Phubbing” among adolescents and youth in India: An impact evaluation study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davey, Sanjeev; Davey, Anuradha; Raghav, Santosh K.; Singh, Jai V.; Singh, Nirankar; Blachnio, Agata; Przepiórkaa, Aneta

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: “Phubbing” phenomenon, in the frequent use of a smartphone, describes the habit of snubbing someone in favor of a mobile phone. Its predictors and consequences are few in developed countries, but the literature lacks information on its actual occurrence and impact on adolescents and youth in a developing country such as India. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This impact evaluation study was carried out as part of the Phubbing Project of the University of Poland for 6 months (November 15, 2016–May 15, 2017) on a sample of 400 adolescents and youth selected randomly from the five colleges in the district of Muzaffarnagar of Uttar Pradesh state in India. Data were collected through the Internet using e-questionnaires sent to all students. The phubbing predictors’ and consequences’ scales available in literature were used and data were analyzed by a mixed method to get the study findings. RESULTS: The prevalence of phubbing was 49.3%. The most important predictors associated with phubbers were Internet addiction (p Phubbing also had significant consequences on their social health, relationship health, and self-flourishing, and was significantly related to depression and distress. Logistic regression analysis showed significant impact of phubbing predictors on phubbing consequences in phubbers, especially in depressed and distress status. CONCLUSION: Adolescents and youth of India need special guidance from government adolescent clinics or colleges or even families to control this habit in order to promote better physical, mental, and social health. PMID:29386960

  3. TL studies of calcareous rocks of Danta area, North Gujarat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Limaye, M.A.; Desai, S.J.; Murthy, K.V.R.; Joshi, T.R.

    1992-01-01

    The lithounits exposed around Danta in Banaskantha district of North Gujarat belong to Ajabgarh Group, the upper division of the Delhi super group. These rocks are intruded by syn to late kinematic basic rocks and by Erinpura granites of post Delhi age. The Ajabgarh group consists of pelitic and calcareous components. Mineralogically the pelitic rocks comprise cordierite, almandine garnet, k-feldspar, sillimanite, quartz and mica in variable proportions. The calcareous rocks are seen to contain dominantly calcite, scapolite, forsterite, sphene, k-feldspar. These mineral assemblages correspond to upper Amphibolite to lower Granulite facies of regional metamorphism. The chemistry of the calcareous rocks show predominance of CaO over MgO. The glow curves obtained from virgin samples (NTL) as well as artificial beta irradiated indicate glow peaks at 140 o C, 290 o C, 310 o C and 390 o C. The TL glow peak temperatures are in general agreement with those reported by Borsi and Rinaldi and Medlin. The pronounced peak at 390 o C and 290 o C are suggestive of their high irradiation sensitivity and also probably reflect variation in the Mn content of the rocks. (author). 9 refs., 16 tabs., 2 figs

  4. Financing, performance analysis and impact assessment of bio-methanation projects in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naidu, B.S.K.

    1997-01-01

    The conversion of wastes into energy and the protection of the environment are major concerns today. With mounting environmental pressures, it has become mandatory for almost all industrial sectors to comply with environmental regulations and treat the effluents, if any. There are about 285 distilleries in India generating effluents, of which nearly 177 have either implemented or are on the verge of completing effluent treatment plants. The effluents from distillery units are treated with a dual purpose of pollution abatement and recovery of energy. Indian Renewable Energy Development Agency Ltd. (IREDA) has so far funded 59 process industries, mostly distillery units, for the generation of biogas from effluents. IREDA's contribution towards the generation of biogas by financing these units amounts to about 0.86 million cubic meters of biogas per day which is equivalent to saving 965 tonnes of coal per day, in turn leading to carbon dioxide avoidance of about 1,330 tonnes per day. IREDA conducted a sample study on performance of these biogas plants and their impact on environment

  5. The Impact of Body Mass Index on Oral Hygiene Practices of Adolescents in Bhopal City, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santha, Binu; Sudheer, Hongal; Saxena, Vrinda; Jain, Manish; Tiwari, Vidhatri

    2016-02-01

    To assess the impact of Body Mass Index (BMI) on oral hygiene practices of adolescents in Bhopal City, India. Cross-sectional study. Arts College, Bhopal, from February to March 2014. Aconvenience sample of 17 - 23 years college-going adolescents from Arts College, Bhopal city was selected for the study. Self-reported questionnaire for adolescents to assess BMI and oral hygiene attitude, knowledge and practices was used. Descriptive statistics and chi-square test were applied. Out of the total study population, 53.54% (n=166) were males and 46.45% (n=144) were females. Two hundred and six (66.45%) were of optimal weight, 27.74% (n=86) were underweight and only 4.52% (n=14) were overweight. There was a significant association between BMI and oral hygiene practice of toothbrushing (p oral hygiene practices of adolescent population. There is growing interest in the relationship between BMI and oral health because both are significant public health concerns. These public health problems are related to common lifestyle factors such as unhealthy eating habits and smoking among children. These maladapted habits track into later life as predictors of increased BMI and oral health problems. Hence, it is required that the dentists are aware of the influence of body mass Index and lifestyle on oral health practices among children and adolescents.

  6. Domestic burns prevention and first aid awareness in and around Jamshedpur, India: strategies and impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, A; Bharat, R

    2000-11-01

    This article highlights the strategy for awareness creation regarding burns prevention and first aid and its impact in and around the steel-producing city of Jamshedpur, India. This is a joint venture of the Burns Centre and the Medico Social Welfare Unit of the Tata Main Hospital, Jamshedpur in collaboration with the Social Service Division of Tata Steel and city schools. The first phase of 5 years has been devoted to general awareness building in the population through two main programmes, namely "Community Awareness Programmes" for the target group of ladies and teenage girls and "School Education Programmes" for the target group of school children of Standard 8 in the steel-producing city. These programmes include audio-visual presentations as well as face to face interactions regarding structure and arrangements in the kitchen, floor level cooking, clothing while cooking, careful use of electrical appliances, pressure stoves, etc. The discussions also include suicidal and homicidal burns prevention strategies. Various competitions for the target group provide feedback on programmes. The growing awareness about burns prevention among school children and community members, and steady increase in the number of patients who use water as first aid, speak about the success of the strategies.

  7. Impact of caregiver incentives on child health: Evidence from an experiment with Anganwadi workers in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Prakarsh; Masters, William A

    2017-09-01

    This paper tests the effectiveness of performance pay and bonuses among government childcare workers in India. In a controlled study of 160 ICDS centers serving over 4000 children, we randomly assign workers to either fixed bonuses or payments based on the nutritional status of children in their care, and also collect data from a control group receiving only standard salaries. In all three study arms mothers receive nutrition information. We find that performance pay reduces underweight prevalence by about 5 percentage points over 3 months, and height improves by about one centimeter. Impacts on weight continue when incentives are renewed and return to parallel trends thereafter. Fixed bonuses are less expensive but lead to smaller and less precisely estimated effects than performance pay, especially for children near malnutrition thresholds. Both treatments improve worker effort and communication with mothers, who in turn feed a more calorific diet to children at home. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Differential impact of lytic viruses on prokaryotic morphopopulations in a tropical estuarine system (Cochin estuary, India).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasna, Vijayan; Pradeep Ram, Angia Sriram; Parvathi, Ammini; Sime-Ngando, Telesphore

    2018-01-01

    Our understanding on the importance of viral lysis in the functioning of tropical estuarine ecosystem is limited. This study examines viral infection of prokaryotes and subsequent lysis of cells belonging to different morphotypes across a salinity gradient in monsoon driven estuarine ecosystem (Cochin estuary, India). High standing stock of viruses and prokaryotes accompanied by lytic infection rates in the euryhaline/mesohaline region of the estuary suggests salinity to have an influential role in driving interactions between prokaryotes and viruses. High prokaryotic mortality rates, up to 42% of prokaryote population in the pre-monsoon season is further substantiated by a high virus to prokaryote ratio (VPR), suggesting that maintenance of a high number of viruses is dependent on the most active fraction of bacterioplankton. Although myoviruses were the dominant viral morphotype (mean = 43%) throughout the study period, there was significant variation among prokaryotic morphotypes susceptible to viral infection. Among them, the viral infected short rod prokaryote morphotype with lower burst estimates (mean = 18 viruses prokaryote-1) was dominant (35%) in the dry seasons whereas a substantial increase in cocci forms (30%) infected by viruses with high burst size (mean = 31 viruses prokaryote-1) was evident during the monsoon season. Such preferential infections of prokaryotic morphopopulations with respect to seasons can have a strong and variable impact on the carbon and energy flow in this tropical ecosystem.

  9. Climate change impact on soil erosion in the Mandakini River Basin, North India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khare, Deepak; Mondal, Arun; Kundu, Sananda; Mishra, Prabhash Kumar

    2017-09-01

    Correct estimation of soil loss at catchment level helps the land and water resources planners to identify priority areas for soil conservation measures. Soil erosion is one of the major hazards affected by the climate change, particularly the increasing intensity of rainfall resulted in increasing erosion, apart from other factors like landuse change. Changes in climate have an adverse effect with increasing rainfall. It has caused increasing concern for modeling the future rainfall and projecting future soil erosion. In the present study, future rainfall has been generated with the downscaling of GCM (Global Circulation Model) data of Mandakini river basin, a hilly catchment in the state of Uttarakhand, India, to obtain future impact on soil erosion within the basin. The USLE is an erosion prediction model designed to predict the long-term average annual soil loss from specific field slopes in specified landuse and management systems (i.e., crops, rangeland, and recreational areas) using remote sensing and GIS technologies. Future soil erosion has shown increasing trend due to increasing rainfall which has been generated from the statistical-based downscaling method.

  10. Mineral shock signatures in rocks from Dhala (Mohar) impact structure, Shivpuri district, Madhya Pradesh, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Madhuparna; Pandey, Pradeep; Kumar, Shailendra; Parihar, P. S.

    2017-12-01

    A concrete study combining optical microscopy, Raman spectroscopy and X-ray diffractometry, was carried out on subsurface samples of basement granite and melt breccia from Mohar (Dhala) impact structure, Shivpuri district, Madhya Pradesh, India. Optical microscopy reveals aberrations in the optical properties of quartz and feldspar in the form of planar deformation feature-like structures, lowered birefringence and mosaics in quartz, toasting, planar fractures and ladder texture in alkali feldspar and near-isotropism in bytownite. It also brings to light incidence of parisite, a radioactive rare mineral in shocked granite. Raman spectral pattern, peak positions, peak widths and multiplicity of peak groups of all minerals, suggest subtle structural/crystallographic deviations. XRD data further reveals minute deviations of unit cell parameters of quartz, alkali feldspar and plagioclase, with respect to standard α-quartz, high- and low albite and microcline. Reduced cell volumes in these minerals indicate compression due to pressure. The c0/a0 values indicate an inter-tetrahedral angle roughly between 120o and 144o, further pointing to a possible pressure maxima of around 12 GPa. The observed unit cell aberration of minerals may indicate an intermediate stage between crystalline and amorphous stages, thereby, signifying possible overprinting of decompression signatures over shock compression effects, from a shock recovery process.

  11. Assessing impact of climate change on Mundra mangrove forest ecosystem, Gulf of Kutch, western coast of India: a synergistic evaluation using remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Prashant K.; Mehta, Abhinav; Gupta, Manika; Singh, Sudhir Kumar; Islam, Tanvir

    2015-05-01

    Mangrove cover changes have globally raised the apprehensions as the changes influence the coastal climate as well as the marine ecosystem services. The main goals of this research are focused on the monitoring of land cover and mangrove spatial changes particularly for the Mundra forest in the western coast of Gujarat state, India, which is famous for its unique mangrove bio-diversity. The multi-temporal Indian Remote Sensing (IRS) Linear Imaging Self Scanning (LISS)-II (IRS-1B) and III (IRS P6/RESOURCESAT-1) images captured in the year 1994 and 2010 were utilized for the spatio-temporal analysis of the area. The land cover and mangrove density was estimated by a unique hybrid classification which consists of K means unsupervised following maximum likelihood classification (MLC) supervised classification-based approach. The vegetation and non-vegetation layers has been extracted and separated by unsupervised classification technique while the training-based MLC was applied on the separated vegetation and non-vegetation classes to classify them into 11 land use/land cover classes. The climatic variables of the area involves wind, temperature, dew point, precipitation, and mean sea level investigated for the period of 17 years over the site. To understand the driving factors, the anthropogenic variables were also taken into account such as historical population datasets. The overall analysis indicates a significant change in the frequency and magnitude of sea-level rise from 1994 to 2010. The analysis of the meteorological variables indicates a high pressure and changes in mangrove density during the 17 years of time, which reveals that if appropriate actions are not initiated soon, the Mundra mangroves might become the victims of climate change-induced habitat loss. After analyzing all the factors, some recommendations and suggestions are provided for effective mangrove conservation and resilience, which could be used by forest official to protect this precious

  12. Land use impact on soil quality in eastern Himalayan region of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, A K; Bordoloi, L J; Kumar, Manoj; Hazarika, S; Parmar, Brajendra

    2014-04-01

    Quantitative assessment of soil quality is required to determine the sustainability of land uses in terms of environmental quality and plant productivity. Our objective was to identify the most appropriate soil quality indicators and to evaluate the impact of six most prevalent land use types (natural forestland, cultivated lowland, cultivated upland terrace, shifting cultivation, plantation land, and grassland) on soil quality in eastern Himalayan region of India. We collected 120 soil samples (20 cm depth) and analyzed them for 29 physical, chemical, and biological soil attributes. For selection of soil quality indicators, principal component analysis (PCA) was performed on the measured attributes, which provided four principal components (PC) with eigenvalues >1 and explaining at least 5% of the variance in dataset. The four PCs together explained 92.6% of the total variance. Based on rotated factor loadings of soil attributes, selected indicators were: soil organic carbon (SOC) from PC-1, exchangeable Al from PC-2, silt content from PC-3, and available P and Mn from PC-4. Indicators were transformed into scores (linear scoring method) and soil quality index (SQI) was determined, on a scale of 0-1, using the weighting factors obtained from PCA. SQI rating was the highest for the least-disturbed sites, i.e., natural forestland (0.93) and grassland (0.87), and the lowest for the most intensively cultivated site, i.e., cultivated upland terrace (0.44). Ratings for the other land uses were shifting cultivation (0.60) > cultivated low land (0.57) > plantation land (0.54). Overall contribution (in percent) of the indicators in determination of SQI was in the order: SOC (58%) > exch. Al (17.1%) > available P (8.9%) > available Mn (8.2%) > silt content (7.8%). Results of this study suggest SOC and exch. Al as the two most powerful indicators of soil quality in study area. Thus, organic C and soil acidity management holds the key to improve soil

  13. Impact of community-based mitanin programme on undernutrition in rural Chhattisgarh State, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vir, Sheila C; Kalita, Anuska; Mondal, Shinjini; Malik, Richa

    2014-03-01

    Community health workers known as mitanins undertook family-level counseling and mobilized the community to improve coverage of maternal and child health services in the state of Chhattisgarh, India. The Nutrition Security Innovation (NSI) project was launched in selected blocks with additional inputs for promoting appropriate complementary feeding practices and disseminating information on Public Distribution System (PDS) entitlement. Within 3 years of project implementation, all NSI inputs in the project group (PG) were scaled up in the entire state. To study the impact of interventions on nutritional status in PG and non-NSI comparison group (CG) blocks. Quasi-experimental mixed methods were used. The sample consisted of 3,626 households with children under 3 years of age and 268 mitanins. A ratio of 1 mitanin per 250 to 500 population was effective. The coverage of exclusive breastfeeding, timely introduction of complementary feeding, DPT immunization, and antenatal care services was more than 70%. The PDS reached almost 90% of beneficiaries. In both the PG and the CG, one-third of children were undernourished, with one-quarter of children undernourished by 6 months of age. The prevalence of low birthweight was over 40%, and half of all women were undernourished. The estimated annual average reduction rate (AARR) for the entire state was estimated to be 4.22% for underweight and 5.64% for stunting. The strategy of Mitanin Programme in the Indian state of Chhattisgarh was unique with the implementation of direct nutrition actions being spearheaded by the health sector and community health volunteers in coordination with the Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS) and the Public Distribution System (PDS). The highest priority was given to interventions in the first 92 weeks of life. This implied ensuring frequent counseling and delivery of services through the entire pregnancy period and continued follow up till the children were at least one year of age. An

  14. Impact of multispecies diatom bloom on plankton community structure in Sundarban mangrove wetland, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biswas, Sejuti Naha; Rakshit, Dibyendu; Sarkar, Santosh Kumar; Sarangi, Ranjit Kumar; Satpathy, Kamala Kanta

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A multispecies algal bloom was studied in coastal regions of Sundarban wetland. • Sharp changes in plankton community structure and hydrological parameters observed. • Chlorophyll a showed highest cell density (11.4 × 10 5 cells l −1 ) during bloom phase. • MODIS Aqua derived chlorophyll maps have been interpreted. - Abstract: A multispecies bloom caused by the centric diatoms, viz. Coscinodiscus radiatus, Chaetoceros lorenzianus and the pennate diatom Thalassiothrix frauenfeldii was investigated in the context of its impact on phytoplankton and microzooplankton (the loricate ciliate tintinnids) in the coastal regions of Sagar Island, the western part of Sundarban mangrove wetland, India. Both number (15–18 species) and cell densities (12.3 × 10 3 cells l −1 to 11.4 × 10 5 cells l −1 ) of phytoplankton species increased during peak bloom phase, exhibiting moderately high species diversity (H′ = 2.86), richness (R′ = 6.38) and evenness (E′ = 0.80). The diatom bloom, which existed for a week, had a negative impact on the tintinnid community in terms of drastic changes in species diversity index (1.09–0.004) and population density (582.5 × 10 3 to 50 × 10 3 ind m −3 ). The bloom is suggested to have been driven by the aquaculture activities and river effluents resulting high nutrient concentrations in this region. An attempt has been made to correlate the satellite remote sensing-derived information to the bloom conditions. MODIS-Aqua derived chlorophyll maps have been interpreted

  15. Prediction of heavy rainfall over Chennai Metropolitan City, Tamil Nadu, India: Impact of microphysical parameterization schemes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, K. S.; Bonthu, Subbareddy; Purvaja, R.; Robin, R. S.; Kannan, B. A. M.; Ramesh, R.

    2018-04-01

    This study attempts to investigate the real-time prediction of a heavy rainfall event over the Chennai Metropolitan City, Tamil Nadu, India that occurred on 01 December 2015 using Advanced Research Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF-ARW) model. The study evaluates the impact of six microphysical (Lin, WSM6, Goddard, Thompson, Morrison and WDM6) parameterization schemes of the model on prediction of heavy rainfall event. In addition, model sensitivity has also been evaluated with six Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL) and two Land Surface Model (LSM) schemes. Model forecast was carried out using nested domain and the impact of model horizontal grid resolutions were assessed at 9 km, 6 km and 3 km. Analysis of the synoptic features using National Center for Environmental Prediction Global Forecast System (NCEP-GFS) analysis data revealed strong upper-level divergence and high moisture content at lower level were favorable for the occurrence of heavy rainfall event over the northeast coast of Tamil Nadu. The study signified that forecasted rainfall was more sensitive to the microphysics and PBL schemes compared to the LSM schemes. The model provided better forecast of the heavy rainfall event using the logical combination of Goddard microphysics, YSU PBL and Noah LSM schemes, and it was mostly attributed to timely initiation and development of the convective system. The forecast with different horizontal resolutions using cumulus parameterization indicated that the rainfall prediction was not well represented at 9 km and 6 km. The forecast with 3 km horizontal resolution provided better prediction in terms of timely initiation and development of the event. The study highlights that forecast of heavy rainfall events using a high-resolution mesoscale model with suitable representations of physical parameterization schemes are useful for disaster management and planning to minimize the potential loss of life and property.

  16. Quantifying the impact of land use change on hydrological responses in the Upper Ganga Basin, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsarouchi, Georgia-Marina; Mijic, Ana; Moulds, Simon; Chawla, Ila; Mujumdar, Pradeep; Buytaert, Wouter

    2013-04-01

    Quantifying how changes in land use affect the hydrological response at the river basin scale is a challenge in hydrological science and especially in the tropics where many regions are considered data sparse. Earlier work by the authors developed and used high-resolution, reconstructed land cover maps for northern India, based on satellite imagery and historic land-use maps for the years 1984, 1998 and 2010. Large-scale land use changes and their effects on landscape patterns can impact water supply in a watershed by altering hydrological processes such as evaporation, infiltration, surface runoff, groundwater discharge and stream flow. Three land use scenarios were tested to explore the sensitivity of the catchment's response to land use changes: (a) historic land use of 1984 with integrated evolution to 2010; (b) land use of 2010 remaining stable; and (c) hypothetical future projection of land use for 2030. The future scenario was produced with Markov chain analysis and generation of transition probability matrices, indicating transition potentials from one land use class to another. The study used socio-economic (population density), geographic (distances to roads and rivers, and location of protected areas) and biophysical drivers (suitability of soil for agricultural production, slope, aspect, and elevation). The distributed version of the land surface model JULES was integrated at a resolution of 0.01° for the years 1984 to 2030. Based on a sensitivity analysis, the most sensitive parameters were identified. Then, the model was calibrated against measured daily stream flow data. The impact of land use changes was investigated by calculating annual variations in hydrological components, differences in annual stream flow and surface runoff during the simulation period. The land use changes correspond to significant differences on the long-term hydrologic fluxes for each scenario. Once analysed from a future water resources perspective, the results will be

  17. Understanding the Impact of Extreme Temperature on Crop Production in Karnataka in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahato, S.; Murari, K. K.; Jayaraman, T.

    2017-12-01

    The impact of extreme temperature on crop yield is seldom explored in work around climate change impact on agriculture. Further, these studies are restricted mainly to crops such as wheat and maize. Since different agro-climatic zones bear different crops and cropping patterns, it is important to explore the nature of the impact of changes in climate variables in agricultural systems under differential conditions. The study explores the effects of temperature rise on the major crops paddy, jowar, ragi and tur in the state of Karnataka of southern India. The choice of the unit of study to understand impact of climate variability on crop yields is largely restricted to availability of data for the unit. While, previous studies have dealt with this issue by replacing yield with NDVI at finer resolution, the use of an index in place of yield data has its limitations and may not reflect the true estimates. For this study, the unit considered is taluk, i.e. sub-district level. The crop yield for taluk is obtained between the year the 1995 to 2011 by aggregating point yield data from crop cutting experiments for each year across the taluks. The long term temperature data shows significantly increasing trend that ranges between 0.6 to 0.75 C across Karnataka. Further, the analysis suggests a warming trend in seasonal average temperature for Kharif and Rabi seasons across districts. The study also found that many districts exhibit the tendency of occurrence of extreme temperature days, which is of particular concern in terms of crop yield, since exposure of crops to extreme temperature has negative consequences for crop production and productivity. Using growing degree days GDD, extreme degree days EDD and total season rainfall as predictor variables, the fixed effect model shows that EDD is a more influential parameter as compared to GDD and rainfall. Also it has a statistically significant negative effect in most cases. Further, quantile regression was used to evaluate

  18. Geo - hydrological investigations and impact of water harvesting structures on groundwater potential in Anantapur District, Andhra Pradesh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suryanarayana, K V; Krishnaiah, S; Khokalay, Murthy Rao V

    2010-10-01

    In this paper, the data pertaining to the rainfall, its departure from normal, moving mean rainfall, depth of water levels in pre-monsoon and post-monsoon seasons, groundwater availability, groundwater utilization and impact of storage of water in large water bodies are analyzed graphically. The results indicate that the groundwater is over exploited in many places in Anantapur District (India). The groundwater levels found fluctuating, when compared the observations in pre-monsoon and post-monsoon seasons. Hence, it is concluded that the construction of water harvesting structures at suitable locations will have a definite impact on the groundwater potential in Anantapur District.

  19. Climate change impact of livestock CH4 emission in India: Global temperature change potential (GTP) and surface temperature response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Shilpi; Hiloidhari, Moonmoon; Kumari, Nisha; Naik, S N; Dahiya, R P

    2018-01-01

    Two climate metrics, Global surface Temperature Change Potential (GTP) and the Absolute GTP (AGTP) are used for studying the global surface temperature impact of CH 4 emission from livestock in India. The impact on global surface temperature is estimated for 20 and 100 year time frames due to CH 4 emission. The results show that the CH 4 emission from livestock, worked out to 15.3 Tg in 2012. In terms of climate metrics GTP of livestock-related CH 4 emission in India in 2012 were 1030 Tg CO 2 e (GTP 20 ) and 62 Tg CO 2 e (GTP 100 ) at the 20 and 100 year time horizon, respectively. The study also illustrates that livestock-related CH 4 emissions in India can cause a surface temperature increase of up to 0.7mK and 0.036mK over the 20 and 100 year time periods, respectively. The surface temperature response to a year of Indian livestock emission peaks at 0.9mK in the year 2021 (9 years after the time of emission). The AGTP gives important information in terms of temperature change due to annual CH 4 emissions, which is useful when comparing policies that address multiple gases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Impact of extension interventions in improving livelihood of dairy farmers of Nadia district of West Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garai, Suman; Garai, Sanchita; Maiti, Sanjit; Meena, B S; Ghosh, M K; Bhakat, Champak; Dutta, T K

    2017-03-01

    Livestock is a one of the major sources of livelihood for most of the small and marginal farmers in India, particularly for rural households who live in below poverty line. Extension interventions have long been seen as a key element for enabling farmers to obtain information and technologies that can improve their livelihoods. It is also recognized that extension is an important factor in promoting dairy development. Ex-post-facto cause to effect research design was applied in this study to trace out the impact of extension interventions in improving knowledge, attitude, adoption towards scientific dairy farming practices and improvement in milk production of dairy animal and income from dairying which will be resulted into improved livelihood of rural poor in Nadia district of West Bengal, India. Therefore, 60 dairy farmers of experimental villages who were considered as beneficiaries and 60 dairy farmers of control villages who were considered as non-beneficiaries were selected as sample for the study. It was found that beneficiaries had significantly higher score in all the five components of livelihood improvement with its all sub components, i.e., knowledge, attitude, adoption of scientific dairy farming practices, milk production per household per day and monthly income from dairying except disease control, and marketing component of adoption. Hence, it may be concluded that extension interventions had a significant impact on improving livelihood of rural dairy farmers in Nadia district of West Bengal, India.

  1. Discriminating the biophysical impacts of coastal upwelling and mud banks along the southwest coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Karnan, C.; Jyothibabu, R.; Arunpandi, N.; Jagadeesan, L.; Muraleedharan, K.R.; Pratihary, A.K.; Balachandran, K.K.; Naqvi, S.W.A.

    Coastal upwelling and mud banks are two oceanographic processes concurrently operating along certain stretches of the southwest (Kerala) coast of India during the Southwest Monsoon period (June-September), facilitating significant enhancement...

  2. Antibacterial and Antioxidant Activities of Novel Actinobacteria Strain Isolated from Gulf of Khambhat, Gujarat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dholakiya, Riddhi N; Kumar, Raghawendra; Mishra, Avinash; Mody, Kalpana H; Jha, Bhavanath

    2017-01-01

    Bacterial secondary metabolites possess a wide range of biologically active compounds including antibacterial and antioxidants. In this study, a Gram-positive novel marine Actinobacteria was isolated from sea sediment which showed 84% 16S rRNA gene sequence (KT588655) similarity with Streptomyces variabilis (EU841661) and designated as Streptomyces variabilis RD-5. The genus Streptomyces is considered as a promising source of bioactive secondary metabolites. The isolated novel bacterial strain was characterized by antibacterial characteristics and antioxidant activities. The BIOLOG based analysis suggested that S. variabilis RD-5 utilized a wide range of substrates compared to the reference strain. The result is further supported by statistical analysis such as AWCD (average well color development), heat-map and PCA (principal component analysis). The whole cell fatty acid profiling showed the dominance of iso/anteiso branched C15-C17 long chain fatty acids. The identified strain S. variabilis RD-5 exhibited a broad spectrum of antibacterial activities for the Gram-negative bacteria ( Escherichia coli NCIM 2065, Shigella boydii NCIM, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterobacter cloacae, Pseudomonas sp. NCIM 2200 and Salmonella enteritidis NCIM), and Gram-positive bacteria ( Bacillus subtilis NCIM 2920 and Staphylococcus aureus MTCC 96). Extract of S. variabilis strain RD-5 showed 82.86 and 89% of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging and metal chelating activity, respectively, at 5.0 mg/mL. While H 2 O 2 scavenging activity was 74.5% at 0.05 mg/mL concentration. Furthermore, polyketide synthases (PKSs types I and II), an enzyme complex that produces polyketides, the encoding gene(s) detected in the strain RD-5 which may probably involve for the synthesis of antibacterial compound(s). In conclusion, a novel bacterial strain of Actinobacteria , isolated from the unexplored sea sediment of Alang, Gulf of Khambhat (Gujarat), India showed promising

  3. Antibacterial and Antioxidant Activities of Novel Actinobacteria Strain Isolated from Gulf of Khambhat, Gujarat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riddhi N. Dholakiya

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial secondary metabolites possess a wide range of biologically active compounds including antibacterial and antioxidants. In this study, a Gram-positive novel marine Actinobacteria was isolated from sea sediment which showed 84% 16S rRNA gene sequence (KT588655 similarity with Streptomyces variabilis (EU841661 and designated as Streptomyces variabilis RD-5. The genus Streptomyces is considered as a promising source of bioactive secondary metabolites. The isolated novel bacterial strain was characterized by antibacterial characteristics and antioxidant activities. The BIOLOG based analysis suggested that S. variabilis RD-5 utilized a wide range of substrates compared to the reference strain. The result is further supported by statistical analysis such as AWCD (average well color development, heat-map and PCA (principal component analysis. The whole cell fatty acid profiling showed the dominance of iso/anteiso branched C15–C17 long chain fatty acids. The identified strain S. variabilis RD-5 exhibited a broad spectrum of antibacterial activities for the Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli NCIM 2065, Shigella boydii NCIM, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterobacter cloacae, Pseudomonas sp. NCIM 2200 and Salmonella enteritidis NCIM, and Gram-positive bacteria (Bacillus subtilis NCIM 2920 and Staphylococcus aureus MTCC 96. Extract of S. variabilis strain RD-5 showed 82.86 and 89% of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH free radical scavenging and metal chelating activity, respectively, at 5.0 mg/mL. While H2O2 scavenging activity was 74.5% at 0.05 mg/mL concentration. Furthermore, polyketide synthases (PKSs types I and II, an enzyme complex that produces polyketides, the encoding gene(s detected in the strain RD-5 which may probably involve for the synthesis of antibacterial compound(s. In conclusion, a novel bacterial strain of Actinobacteria, isolated from the unexplored sea sediment of Alang, Gulf of Khambhat (Gujarat, India showed promising

  4. Antibacterial and Antioxidant Activities of Novel Actinobacteria Strain Isolated from Gulf of Khambhat, Gujarat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dholakiya, Riddhi N.; Kumar, Raghawendra; Mishra, Avinash; Mody, Kalpana H.; Jha, Bhavanath

    2017-01-01

    Bacterial secondary metabolites possess a wide range of biologically active compounds including antibacterial and antioxidants. In this study, a Gram-positive novel marine Actinobacteria was isolated from sea sediment which showed 84% 16S rRNA gene sequence (KT588655) similarity with Streptomyces variabilis (EU841661) and designated as Streptomyces variabilis RD-5. The genus Streptomyces is considered as a promising source of bioactive secondary metabolites. The isolated novel bacterial strain was characterized by antibacterial characteristics and antioxidant activities. The BIOLOG based analysis suggested that S. variabilis RD-5 utilized a wide range of substrates compared to the reference strain. The result is further supported by statistical analysis such as AWCD (average well color development), heat-map and PCA (principal component analysis). The whole cell fatty acid profiling showed the dominance of iso/anteiso branched C15–C17 long chain fatty acids. The identified strain S. variabilis RD-5 exhibited a broad spectrum of antibacterial activities for the Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli NCIM 2065, Shigella boydii NCIM, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterobacter cloacae, Pseudomonas sp. NCIM 2200 and Salmonella enteritidis NCIM), and Gram-positive bacteria (Bacillus subtilis NCIM 2920 and Staphylococcus aureus MTCC 96). Extract of S. variabilis strain RD-5 showed 82.86 and 89% of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging and metal chelating activity, respectively, at 5.0 mg/mL. While H2O2 scavenging activity was 74.5% at 0.05 mg/mL concentration. Furthermore, polyketide synthases (PKSs types I and II), an enzyme complex that produces polyketides, the encoding gene(s) detected in the strain RD-5 which may probably involve for the synthesis of antibacterial compound(s). In conclusion, a novel bacterial strain of Actinobacteria, isolated from the unexplored sea sediment of Alang, Gulf of Khambhat (Gujarat), India showed promising

  5. Dominance of sterilization and alternative choices of contraception in India: An appraisal of the socioeconomic impact

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, I.; Dias, J. G.; Padmadas, S. S.

    2014-01-01

    WOS:000330510000069 (Nº de Acesso Web of Science) Background: The recent decline in fertility in India has been unprecedented especially in southern India, where fertility is almost exclusively controlled by means of permanent contraceptive methods, mainly female sterilization, which constitutes about two-thirds of overall contraceptive use. Many Indian women undergo sterilization at relatively young ages as a consequence of early marriage and childbearing in short birth intervals. This re...

  6. Options for Optimal Coverage of Free C-Section Services for Poor Mothers in Indian State of Gujarat: Location Allocation Analysis Using GIS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kranti Suresh Vora

    Full Text Available Gujarat, a western state of India, has seen a steep rise in the proportion of institutional deliveries over the last decade. However, there has been a limited access to cesarean section (C-Section deliveries for complicated obstetric cases especially for poor rural women. C-section is a lifesaving intervention that can prevent both maternal and perinatal mortality. Poor women bear a disproportionate burden of maternal mortality, and lack of access to C-section, especially for these women, is an important contributor for high maternal and perinatal mortality in resource limited settings. To improve access for this underserved population in the context of inadequate public provision of emergency obstetric services, the state government of Gujarat initiated a public private partnership program called "Chiranjeevi Yojana" (CY in 2005 to increase the number of facilities providing free C-section services. This study aimed to analyze the current availability of these services in three districts of Gujarat and to identify the best locations for additional service centres to optimize access to free C-section services using Geographic Information System technology.Supply and demand for obstetric care were calculated using secondary data from sources such as Census and primary data from cross-sectional facility survey. The study is unique in using primary data from facilities, which was collected in 2012-13. Information on obstetric beds and functionality of facilities to calculate supply was collected using pretested questionnaire by trained researchers after obtaining written consent from the participating facilities. Census data of population and birth rates for the study districts was used for demand calculations. Location-allocation model of ArcGIS 10 was used for analyses.Currently, about 50 to 84% of populations in all three study districts have access to free C-section facilities within a 20km radius. The model suggests that about 80-96% of the

  7. Options for Optimal Coverage of Free C-Section Services for Poor Mothers in Indian State of Gujarat: Location Allocation Analysis Using GIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vora, Kranti Suresh; Yasobant, Sandul; Sengupta, Raja; De Costa, Ayesha; Upadhyay, Ashish; Mavalankar, Dileep V

    2015-01-01

    Gujarat, a western state of India, has seen a steep rise in the proportion of institutional deliveries over the last decade. However, there has been a limited access to cesarean section (C-Section) deliveries for complicated obstetric cases especially for poor rural women. C-section is a lifesaving intervention that can prevent both maternal and perinatal mortality. Poor women bear a disproportionate burden of maternal mortality, and lack of access to C-section, especially for these women, is an important contributor for high maternal and perinatal mortality in resource limited settings. To improve access for this underserved population in the context of inadequate public provision of emergency obstetric services, the state government of Gujarat initiated a public private partnership program called "Chiranjeevi Yojana" (CY) in 2005 to increase the number of facilities providing free C-section services. This study aimed to analyze the current availability of these services in three districts of Gujarat and to identify the best locations for additional service centres to optimize access to free C-section services using Geographic Information System technology. Supply and demand for obstetric care were calculated using secondary data from sources such as Census and primary data from cross-sectional facility survey. The study is unique in using primary data from facilities, which was collected in 2012-13. Information on obstetric beds and functionality of facilities to calculate supply was collected using pretested questionnaire by trained researchers after obtaining written consent from the participating facilities. Census data of population and birth rates for the study districts was used for demand calculations. Location-allocation model of ArcGIS 10 was used for analyses. Currently, about 50 to 84% of populations in all three study districts have access to free C-section facilities within a 20km radius. The model suggests that about 80-96% of the population can be

  8. The Impact of Body Mass Index on Oral Hygiene Practices of Adolescents in Bhopal City, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santha, B.; Sudheer, H.; Saxena, V.; Jain, M.; Tiwari, V.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To assess the impact of Body Mass Index (BMI) on oral hygiene practices of adolescents in Bhopal City, India. Study Design: Cross-sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: Arts College, Bhopal, from February to March 2014. Methodology: A convenience sample of 17 - 23 years college-going adolescents from Arts College, Bhopal city was selected for the study. Self-reported questionnaire for adolescents to assess BMI and oral hygiene attitude, knowledge and practices was used. Descriptive statistics and chi-square test were applied. Results: Out of the total study population, 53.54 percent (n=166) were males and 46.45 percent (n=144) were females. Two hundred and six (66.45 percent) were of optimal weight, 27.74 percent (n=86) were underweight and only 4.52 percent (n=14) were overweight. There was a significant association between BMI and oral hygiene practice of tooth brushing (p < 0.001) and mouth rinsing (p=0.001) among both male and female subjects. Conclusion: Hence, BMI is significantly associated with the oral hygiene practices of adolescent population. There is growing interest in the relationship between BMI and oral health because both are significant public health concerns. These public health problems are related to common lifestyle factors such as unhealthy eating habits and smoking among children. These maladapted habits track into later life as predictors of increased BMI and oral health problems. Hence, it is required that the dentists are aware of the influence of body mass index and lifestyle on oral health practices among children and adolescents. (author)

  9. Impact of maternal risk factors on the incidence of low birth weight neonates in southern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    : U.N.Reddy, VamshiPriya, SwathiChacham, SanaSalimKhan, J Narsing Rao, Mohd Nasir mohiuddin

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Birth weight is recommended as one of the twelve global indicators for monitoring the health of the community and is an important determinant of adverse perinatal and neonatal events. LBW infant carries five times higher risk of dying in the neonatal period and three times more in infancy. Aims and Objectives: To estimate the incidence of LBW and impact of various maternal and biosocial factors on the incidence of LBW neonates in the study population. Material and methods: This prospective observational study was carried out in Princess Esra hospital, a tertiary care hospital in south India, over a period of six months. All consecutive LBW (single ton neonates admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit were enrolled, while those born of multiple gestation and those with major congenital malformations were excluded. Results: A total of 300 neonates were included in the present study out of which 150 were LBW and 150 weighed ≥2500 gm. Higher maternal weight (>60kgs had low incidence of LBW neonates (p value-0.03. Illiterate women had a remarkably higher incidence of LBW babies (p value-0.001. In primigravida incidence of LBW was 61.2%. Higher incidence of LBW was seen in mothers with oligo hydramnio’s. Conclusions: This study showed that maternal age, weight, literacy level and parity have a significant influence on the incidence of LBW. Incidence of LBW neonate in the study was 50%. Risk of having LBW neonates was higher in primigravida. There was a significant association between LBW with oligo hydramnio’s and female gender.

  10. Distribution of phytoplankton pigments in Auranga, Ambika, Purna and Mindola estuaries of Gujarat

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Desai, B.N.; JiyalalRam, M.J.; Abidi, S.A.H.; Nair, V.R.

    Estimation of phytoplankton pigments in four estuaries of South Gujarat indicates that all are fairly productive systems. Mean surface values of pooled chlorophyll fractions for Auranga, Ambika, Purna and Mindola were 12.98, 11.7, 13.98 and 33.46 mg...

  11. Impact of active and break wind spells on the demand-supply balance in wind energy in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Sumeet; Deo, M. C.; Ghosh, Subimal

    2018-02-01

    With an installed capacity of over 19,000 MW, the wind power currently accounts for almost 70% of the total installed capacity among the renewable energy sector in India. The extraction of wind power mainly depends on prevailing meteorology which is strongly influenced by monsoon variability. The monsoon season is characterized by significant fluctuations in between periods of wet and dry spells. During the dry spells, the demand for power from agriculture and cooling equipment increases, whereas during the wet periods, such demand reduces, although, at the same time, the power supply increases because of strong westerly winds contributing to an enhanced production of wind energy. At this backdrop, we aim to assess the impact of intra-seasonal wind variability on the balance of energy supply and demand during monsoon seasons in India. Further, we explore the probable cause of wind variability by relating it to El Nino events. It is observed that the active and break phases in wind significantly impact the overall wind potential output. Although the dry spells are generally found to reduce the overall wind potential, their impact on the potential seems to have declined after the year 2000. The impact of meteorological changes on variations in wind power studied in this work should find applications typically in taking investment decisions on conventional generation facilities, like thermal, which are currently used to maintain the balance of power supply and demand.

  12. Knowledge and attitude in regards to physical child abuse amongst medical and dental residents of central Gujarat: A cross-sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anshula Deshpande

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Child abuse is a state of emotional, physical, economic, and sexual maltreatment met out to a person below the age of 18 and is a globally prevalent phenomenon. However, in India, there has been no understanding of the extent, magnitude, and trends of the problem. Aims: The aim of this study was to determine the level of knowledge and attitudes of medical and dental residents with regards to physical child abuse of central Gujarat. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted among the medical and dental residents of central Gujarat. Data were collected from a self-administered questionnaire for a total of 130 residents, in which 89 medical and 41 dental residents responded. Results: Knowledge regarding the social indicator of child abuse was found to be poor in 27.7% (n = 36, average in 68.5% (n = 89, and good in 3.8% (n = 5; and for physical indicator it was found to be poor in 10.8% (n = 14, average 66.9% (n = 87, and good 22.3% (n = 29. Forty-nine percent (n = 64 of the respondents reported having formal training in recognizing child abuse, and 32% (n = 42 had read literature on the topic. Fifty-five percent (n = 72 stated that education regarding child abuse is extremely important. Conclusions: Result of the present study found that medical and dental residents are not sufficiently prepared to endure their role in protection of child from abuse. A significant gap existed between recognizing signs of physical child abuse and responding effectively. Improvements in child abuse education and continuing education courses are advised to provide adequate knowledge.

  13. Climatic Droughts and the Impacts on Crop Yields in Northern India during the Past Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Y.; Cai, X.; Zhu, T.

    2014-12-01

    Drought has become an increasingly severe threat to water and food security recently. This study presents a novel method to calculate the return period of drought, considering drought as event characterized by expected drought inter-arrival time, duration, severity and peak intensity. Recently, Copula distribution, a multivariable probability distribution, is used to deal with strongly correlated variables in analyzing complex hydrologic phenomenon. This study assesses drought conditions in Northern India, including 8 sites, in the past century using Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) from two latest datasets, Dai (2011, 2013) and Sheffield et al. (2012), which concluded conflicting results about global average drought trend. Our results include the change of the severity, intensity and duration of drought events during the past century and the impact of the drought condition on crop yields in the region. It is found that drought variables are highly correlated, thus copulas joint distribution enables the estimation of multi-variate return period. Based on Dai's dataset from 1900 to 2012, for a fixed drought return period the severity and duration is lower for the period before1955 in sites close to the Indus basin (site 1) or off the coast of the Indian Ocean (Bay of Bengal) (site 8), while they are higher for the period after 1955 in other inland sites (sites 3-7), (e.g., severity in Fig.1). Projections based on two models (IPCC AR4 and AR5) in Dai (2011, 2013) suggested less severity and shorter duration in longer-year drought (e.g., 100-year drought), but larger in shorter-year drought (e.g., 2-year drought). Drought could bring nonlinear responses and unexpected losses in agriculture system, thus prediction and management are essential. Therefore, in the years with extreme drought conditions, impact assessment of drought on crop yield of corn, barley, wheat and sorghum will be also conducted through correlating crop yields with drought conditions during

  14. Shift work--problems and its impact on female nurses in Udaipur, Rajasthan India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathore, H; Shukla, K; Singh, S; Tiwari, G

    2012-01-01

    Abstract : There is good evidence that shift work has negative effects on workers health, safety and performance. It is quite appropriate that attention is paid to this very important feature of socio-technical systems, which may adversely affect mental and physical health, social life and safety of shift workers. Research into the impact of shift work on professionals has consistently identified a range of negative outcomes in physical, psychological, and social domains (Akerstedt, 1988; Costa, Lievore, Casaletti, Gaffuri, & Folkard, 1989; Kogi, 2005; Paley & Tepas, 1994). Hospitals, the biggest employer in the health care field, employ more night shift workers than any other industry. It can therefore be inferred that in medical domain high percentage of workforce may be affected by problems related to shift work. Thus the present study will provide knowledge base for the problems faced by the female nurses. The present study was undertaken with an objective of getting an insight into the problems faced by female nurses in shift work. . It was found that the female nurses in India worked on roaster pattern of change in shift every seven days. They did not have a say in the change of duties, it could only be done on mutual grounds. Partners of younger group did not much adjust to their shift pattern this created stress among the nurses.The results showed that the female nurses in both the age groups i.e. 30-45 years and 45-60 years faced many problems related to health and well being, fatigue, social and domestic situations. They could not give much time to their children in particular. Travelling in nights was risky for them. Common problem was the insufficient sleep during night shifts. The nurses had to cater to the needs of the family, children in particular along with the adjustments to be made due to shift work. They had to sometimes do the night duties and attend social functions as a part of their duty. Children and husband in some cases did not cooperate

  15. Evidence of Human Health Impacts from Uncontrolled Coal Fires in Jharia, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhar, U.; Balogun, A. H.; Finkelman, R.; Chakraborty, S.; Olanipekun, O.; Shaikh, W. A.

    2017-12-01

    Uncontrolled coal fires and burning coal waste piles have been reported from dozens of countries. These fires can be caused by spontaneous combustion, sparks from machinery, lightning strikes, grass or forest fires, or intentionally. Both underground and surface coal fires mobilize potentially toxic elements such as sulfur, arsenic, selenium, fluorine, lead, and mercury as well as dangerous organic compounds such as benzene, toluene, xylene, ethylbenzene and deadly gases such as CO2 and CO. Despite the serious health problems that can be caused by uncontrolled coal fires it is rather surprising that there has been so little research and documentation of their health impacts. Underground coal fires in the Jharia region of India where more than a million people reside, have been burning for 100 years. Numerous villages exist above the underground fires exposing the residents daily to dangerous emissions. Local residents near the fire affected areas do their daily chores without concern about the intensity of nearby fires. During winter children enjoy the heat of the coal fires oblivious to the potentially harmful emissions. To determine if these uncontrolled coal fires have caused health problems we developed a brief questionnaire on general health indices and administered it to residents of the Jharia region. Sixty responses were obtained from residents of two villages, one proximal to the coal fires and one about 5 miles away from the fires. The responses were statistically analyzed using SAS 9.4. It was observed that at a significance level of 5%, villagers who lived more than 5 miles away from the fires had a 98.3% decreased odds of having undesirable health outcomes. This brief survey indicates the risk posed by underground coal fires and how it contributes to the undesirable health impacts. What remains is to determine the specific health issues, what components of the emissions cause the health problems, and what can be done to minimize these problems

  16. Heat-related mortality in India: excess all-cause mortality associated with the 2010 Ahmedabad heat wave.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulrez Shah Azhar

    Full Text Available In the recent past, spells of extreme heat associated with appreciable mortality have been documented in developed countries, including North America and Europe. However, far fewer research reports are available from developing countries or specific cities in South Asia. In May 2010, Ahmedabad, India, faced a heat wave where the temperatures reached a high of 46.8 °C with an apparent increase in mortality. The purpose of this study is to characterize the heat wave impact and assess the associated excess mortality.We conducted an analysis of all-cause mortality associated with a May 2010 heat wave in Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India, to determine whether extreme heat leads to excess mortality. Counts of all-cause deaths from May 1-31, 2010 were compared with the mean of counts from temporally matched periods in May 2009 and 2011 to calculate excess mortality. Other analyses included a 7-day moving average, mortality rate ratio analysis, and relationship between daily maximum temperature and daily all-cause death counts over the entire year of 2010, using month-wise correlations.The May 2010 heat wave was associated with significant excess all-cause mortality. 4,462 all-cause deaths occurred, comprising an excess of 1,344 all-cause deaths, an estimated 43.1% increase when compared to the reference period (3,118 deaths. In monthly pair-wise comparisons for 2010, we found high correlations between mortality and daily maximum temperature during the locally hottest "summer" months of April (r = 0.69, p<0.001, May (r = 0.77, p<0.001, and June (r = 0.39, p<0.05. During a period of more intense heat (May 19-25, 2010, mortality rate ratios were 1.76 [95% CI 1.67-1.83, p<0.001] and 2.12 [95% CI 2.03-2.21] applying reference periods (May 12-18, 2010 from various years.The May 2010 heat wave in Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India had a substantial effect on all-cause excess mortality, even in this city where hot temperatures prevail through much of April-June.

  17. Impacts of Aerosol-Monsoon Interaction on Rainfall and Circulation over Northern India and the Himalaya Foothills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, William K. M.; Kim, Kyu-Myong; Shi, Jainn-Jong; Matsui, T.; Chin, M.; Tan, Qian; Peters-Lidard, C.; Tao, W. K.

    2016-01-01

    The boreal summer of 2008 was unusual for the Indian monsoon, featuring exceptional heavy loading of dust aerosols over the Arabian Sea and northern-central India, near normal all- India rainfall, but excessive heavy rain, causing disastrous flooding in the Northern Indian Himalaya Foothills (NIHF) regions, accompanied by persistent drought conditions in central and southern India. Using NASA Unified-physics Weather Research Forecast (NUWRF) model with fully interactive aerosol physics and dynamics, we carried out three sets of 7-day ensemble model forecast experiments: 1) control with no aerosol, 2) aerosol radiative effect only and 3) aerosol radiative and aerosol-cloud-microphysics effects, to study the impacts of aerosol monsoon interactions on monsoon variability over the NIHF during the summer of 2008. Results show that aerosol-radiation interaction (ARI), i.e., dust aerosol transport, and dynamical feedback processes induced by aerosol-radiative heating, plays a key role in altering the large scale monsoon circulation system, reflected by an increased north-south tropospheric temperature gradient, a northward shift of heavy monsoon rainfall, advancing the monsoon onset by 1-5 days over the HF, consistent with the EHP hypothesis (Lau et al. 2006). Additionally, we found that dust aerosols, via the semi-direct effect, increase atmospheric stability, and cause the dissipation of a developing monsoon onset cyclone over northeastern India northern Bay of Bengal. Eventually, in a matter of several days, ARI transforms the developing monsoon cyclone into mesoscale convective cells along the HF slopes. Aerosol-Cloud-microphysics Interaction (ACI) further enhances the ARI effect in invigorating the deep convection cells and speeding up the transformation processes. Results indicate that even in short-term (up to weekly) numerical forecasting of monsoon circulation and rainfall, effects of aerosol-monsoon interaction can be substantial and cannot be ignored.

  18. Impact of climate change and anthropogenic pressure on the water resources of India: challenges in management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Shadananan Nair

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Freshwater resources of India are getting fast degraded and depleted from the changing climate and pressure of fast rising population. Changing intensity and seasonality of rainfall affect quantity and quality of water. Most of the rivers are polluted far above safety limits from the untreated domestic, industrial and agricultural effluents. Changes in the intensity, frequency and tracks of storms salinate coastal aquifers. Aquifers are also under the threat from rising sea level. Groundwater in urban limits and industrial zones are far beyond safety limits. Large-scale destruction of wetlands for industries and residential complexes has affected the quality of surface and groundwater resources in most parts of India. Measures to maintain food security and the new developments schemes such as river linking will further deteriorate the water resources. Falling water availability leads to serious health issues and various socio-economic issues. India needs urgent and appropriate adaptation strategies in the water sector.

  19. Impact of climate change and anthropogenic pressure on the water resources of India: challenges in management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shadananan Nair, K.

    2016-10-01

    Freshwater resources of India are getting fast degraded and depleted from the changing climate and pressure of fast rising population. Changing intensity and seasonality of rainfall affect quantity and quality of water. Most of the rivers are polluted far above safety limits from the untreated domestic, industrial and agricultural effluents. Changes in the intensity, frequency and tracks of storms salinate coastal aquifers. Aquifers are also under the threat from rising sea level. Groundwater in urban limits and industrial zones are far beyond safety limits. Large-scale destruction of wetlands for industries and residential complexes has affected the quality of surface and groundwater resources in most parts of India. Measures to maintain food security and the new developments schemes such as river linking will further deteriorate the water resources. Falling water availability leads to serious health issues and various socio-economic issues. India needs urgent and appropriate adaptation strategies in the water sector.

  20. The Impact of Affiliate Stigma on the Psychological Well-Being of Mothers of Children with Specific Learning Disabilities in India: The Mediating Role of Subjective Burden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banga, Gazal; Ghosh, Subharati

    2017-01-01

    Background: Knowledge of the impact of affiliate stigma on the wellbeing of caregivers to children with specific learning disability (SLD) in India is limited. To fill in this gap in knowledge a cross-sectional quantitative study was undertaken to assess the impact of affiliate stigma on the psychological well-being of mothers with children with…

  1. Impact of the trade-related aspects of intellectual property rights (TRIPS) agreement on India as a supplier of generic antiretrovirals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babovic, Sonja; Wasan, Kishor M

    2011-03-01

    This is a commentary on how the trade-related aspects of intellectual property rights (TRIPS) agreement has impacted India as a supplier of generic antiretrovirals (ARVs). We provide a systematic review of the issues related to the TRIPS agreement that affects India. This includes discussion around (a) the legal landscape underpinning India as a supplier of generic ARVs; (b) supply of second-line ARVs; and (c) the future of generic drug production in India. The proclamation into force of TRIPS-compliant intellectual property law in India is likely to affect its position as a supplier of affordable ARVs, especially drugs brought to market after 2005. Currently, mechanisms exist for the generic production of almost all ARVs in India, including second-line drugs; however, the manufacture of these drugs by generic pharmaceutical companies may require additional market incentives. Compulsory licensing may emerge as an additional mechanism by which India can provide affordable versions of patented drugs to Least Developed Countries (LDCs). Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  2. IMPACT OF LEATHER PROCESSING INDUSTRIES ON CHROMIUM CONCENTRATION IN GROUNDWATER SOUTH OF CHENNAI CITY, INDIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elango, L.; Brindha, K.; G. Rajesh, V.

    2009-12-01

    The groundwater quality is under threat due to disposal of effluents from a number of industries. Poor practice of treatment of wastes from tanning industries or leather processing industries lead to pollution of groundwater. This study was carried out with the objective of assessing the impact of tanneries on groundwater quality in Chromepet area which is a part of the metropolitan area of Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India. This area serves as the home town for a number of small and large scale tanning industries. People in certain parts of this area depend on the groundwater for their domestic needs as there is no piped drinking water supply system. Topographically this region is generally flat with gentle slope towards east and north east. The charnockite rocks occur as basement at the depth of about 15m from the surface of this area. Weathered charnockite rock occurs at the depth from 7m to 15m from the ground surface. The upper layer consists of loamy soil. Groundwater occurs in the unconfined condition at a depth from 0.5m to 5m. Thirty six groundwater samples were collected during March 2008 and the groundwater samples were analysed for their heavy metal (chromium) content using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) recommended the maximum permissible limit of chromium in drinking water as 0.05 mg/l. Considering this, it was found that 86% of the groundwater samples possessed concentration of chromium above the maximum permissible limit recommended by BIS. The tanneries use chrome sulphate to strengthen the leather and make it water repellent. The excess of chromium gets washed off and remains in the wastewater. This wastewater is disposed into open uncovered drains either untreated or after partial treatment. Thus the chromium leaches through the soil and reaches the groundwater table. Apart from this, there is also huge quantity of solid waste resulting from the hides and skins which are dumped off without suitable treatment. The

  3. Climate change impacts on rainfall and temperature in sugarcane growing Upper Gangetic Plains of India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Ram Ratan; Srivastava, Tapendra Kumar; Singh, Pushpa

    2018-01-01

    Assessment of variability in climate extremes is crucial for managing their aftermath on crops. Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.), a major C4 crop, dominates the Upper Gangetic Plain (UGP) in India and is vulnerable to both direct and indirect effects of changes in temperature and rainfall. The present study was taken up to assess the weekly, monthly, seasonal, and annual trends of rainfall and temperature variability during the period 1956-2015 (60 years) for envisaging the probabilities of different levels of rainfall suitable for sugarcane in UGP in the present climate scenario. The analysis revealed that 87% of total annual rainfall was received during southwest monsoon months (June-September) while post-monsoon (October to February) and pre-monsoon months (March-May) accounted for only 9.4 and 3.6%, respectively. There was a decline in both monthly and annual normal rainfall during the period 1986-2015 as compared to 1956-1985, and an annual rainfall deficiency of 205.3 mm was recorded. Maximum monthly normal rainfall deficiencies of 52.8, 84.2, and 54.0 mm were recorded during the months of July, August, and September, respectively, while a minimum rainfall deficiency of 2.2 mm was observed in November. There was a decline by 196.3 mm in seasonal normal rainfall during June-September (kharif). The initial probability of a week going dry was higher (> 70%) from the 1st to the 25th week; however, standard meteorological weeks (SMW) 26 to 37 had more than 50% probability of going wet. The normal annual maximum temperature (Tmax) decreased by 0.4 °C while normal annual minimum temperatures (Tmin) increased by 0.21 °C. Analysis showed that there was an increase in frequency of drought from 1986 onwards in the zone and a monsoon rainfall deficit by about 21.25% during June-September which coincided with tillering and grand growth stage of sugarcane. The imposed drought during the growth and elongation phase is emerging as a major constraint in realizing high

  4. The impact of monetary policy on output and inflation in India: A frequency domain analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salunkhe Bhavesh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the recent past, several attempts by the RBI to control inflation through tight monetary policy have ended up slowing the growth process, thereby provoking prolonged discussion among academics and policymakers about the efficacy of monetary policy in India. Against this backdrop, the present study attempts to estimate the causal relationship between monetary policy and its final objectives; i.e., growth, and controlling inflation in India. The methodological tool used is testing for Granger Causality in the frequency domain as developed by Lemmens et al. (2008, and monetary policy has been proxied by the weighted average call money rate. In view of the fact that output gap is one of the determinants of future inflation, an attempt has also been made to study the causal relationship between output gap and inflation. The results of empirical estimation show a bi-directional causality between policy rate and inflation and between policy rate and output, which implies that the monetary authorities in India were equally concerned about inflation and output growth when determining policy. Furthermore, any attempt to control inflation affects output with the same or even greater magnitude than inflation, thereby damaging the growth process. The relationship between output gap and inflation was found to be positive, as reported in earlier studies for India. Furthermore, the output gap causes inflation only in the short-tomediumrun.

  5. Impact of the changing ecology on intertidal polychaetes in an anthropogenically stressed tropical creek, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Quadros, G.; Sukumaran, S.; Athalye, R.P.

    of Bombay, India. Part I: quantification of heavy metal pollution of aquatic sediments and recogni- tion of environmental discriminants. Chem Geol 90:263– 283. doi:10.1016/0009-2541(91)90104-Y Sanders HL, Grassle JF, Hampson GR, Morse LS, Garner Price S...

  6. Impact of monsoon rainfall on the total foodgrain yield over India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Agriculture Cooperation (DES 2010) which is a mirror of progress in the agriculture sector at all-India level as well as across the states. The foodgrain yield exhibits an increasing trend since early 70's, mainly due to expanded use of high- yielding varieties of crops, changing cropping pat- terns and agricultural practices as ...

  7. The Tactics of Persuasion: Environmental negotiations over a corporate coal project in coastal India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohli, Kanchi; Menon, Manju

    2016-01-01

    Following the earthquake of 2001 in the Kutch district of Gujarat (India), the state government and corporate investors have focussed on the coastal areas of Kutch, India's largest district, for economic and infrastructure development. Within a decade of industrialisation of this landscape, these projects have had profound impacts on the environment, livelihoods and futures of its Kutchi inhabitants. Today, the coastline between the old Kandla and Mundra ports is drawn into a three-way battle between International Financial Institutions (IFIs) investing in coal projects, technical experts of sustainable development and international anti-coal campaigners. These three groups have selectively engaged the project affected Kutchis on the importance of economic development, environmental management and climate change. But the affected local people comprising artisanal fisherfolk who belong to a minority community, economically powerful salt and agricultural farmers and a traditional pastoral community of camel herders, frame, debate and act upon the impacts of the project in pragmatic ways. The range of remedies sought by them can be located between the practical expediency of everyday life and ethical questions about correct action. These remedies offer a glimpse of what regulatory bodies should be paying attention to rather than abstract or procedural justice. - Highlights: • The Bhuj earthquake of 2001 lead to the economic reshaping of Kutch. • Coal based imports, transportation and power generation has undermined local livelihood and ecology. • Without remedies, affected people are drawn into corporate patronage relations. • Impacts need to be addressed soon, close to the site, and with local involvement. • If embedded in the locality, energy regulation can become mutually beneficial.

  8. Subtidal marine algae of the Dwaraka Coast (Gujarat)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Dhargalkar, V.K.; Deshmukhe, G.V.

    A total of 35 marine algal species were recorded during a survey of the subtidal flora of Dwaraka, Gujrat, India. Maximum number of species were found at 5-8 m depth. Red algal species were dominant (20), followed by green (8) and brwon (7...

  9. Ethics in occupational health and safety: case studies from Gujarat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Jagdish; David, Siddarth

    2016-01-01

    Rapid industrialisation in India is giving employment to millions of people in the formal sector, and many more in the unorganised sector. However, the absence of clear policies, poorly enforced regulations, lack of systematic reporting of occupational diseases, lamentable socioeconomic conditions of the workers and their limited access to healthcare make occupational health and safety (OHS) a critical area.

  10. Women Entrepreneurship and Innovations in India: An Exploratory Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemantkumar P. Bulsara

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Increased female entrepreneurial activity heralds a progress for women’s rights and optimization of their economic and social living index. Women entrepreneurship is synonymous with women empowerment. Parallel to the male counterparts, female entrepreneurs are catalytic in job creation, innovation and more than tangible contribution to the GNP of the country. An economy thrives when women get a level playing field as men. Innovation works as a catalyst or an instrument for Entrepreneurship. Indian Women, despite all the social hurdles stand tall from the rest of the crowd and are applauded for their achievements in their respective field. The transformation of social fabric of the Indian society, in terms of increased educational status of women and varied aspirations for better living, necessitated a change in the life style of Indian women. This paper endeavors to explore studies related to Women Entrepreneurship and Innovation in India. Few examples from Gujarat, India have been taken to understand the study in a better way. Keywords: Women Entrepreneurship; Innovation; Entrepreneurship; India; Economy; Gujarat.

  11. Epidemiological impact of achieving UNAIDS 90-90-90 targets for HIV care in India: a modelling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddali, Manoj V; Gupta, Amita; Shah, Maunank

    2016-07-07

    Recent UNAIDS '90-90-90' targets propose that to end the HIV epidemic by 2030, 90% of persons living with HIV (PLWH) worldwide should know their diagnosis, 90% of diagnosed PLWH should be on antiretroviral therapy (ART) and 90% of PLWH on ART should be virally suppressed by 2020. We sought to quantify the epidemiological impact of achieving these targets in India. We constructed a dynamic-transmission model of the Indian HIV epidemic to project HIV infections and AIDS-related deaths that would occur in India over 15 years. We considered several scenarios: continuation of current care engagement (with early ART initiation), achieving 90-90-90 targets on time and delaying achievement by 5 or 10 years. In the base case, assuming continuation of current care engagement, we project 794 000 (95% uncertainty range (UR) 571 000-1 104 000) HIV infections and 689 000 (95% UR 468 000-976 000) AIDS-related deaths in India over 15 years. In this scenario, nearly half of PLWH diagnosed would fail to achieve viral suppression by 2030. With achievement of 90-90-90 targets, India could avert 392 000 (95% UR 248 000-559 000) transmissions (48% reduction) and 414 000 (95% UR 260 000-598 000) AIDS-related deaths (59% reduction) compared to the base-case scenario. Furthermore, fewer than 20 000 (95% UR 12 000-30 000) HIV infections would occur in 2030. Delaying achievement of targets resulted in a similar reduction in HIV incidence by 2030 but at the cost of excess overall infections and mortality. India can halve the epidemiological burden of HIV over 15 years with achievement of the UNAIDS 90-90-90 targets. Reaching the targets on time will require comprehensive healthcare strengthening, especially in early diagnosis and treatment, expanded access to second-line and third-line ART and long-term retention in care. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  12. Where is the bride? Progressively declining sex ratio in India: an alarming signal for imbalanced society

    OpenAIRE

    Nirmala Sharma; Kana Ram; Anand Sharma; Shashi Sharma

    2014-01-01

    Female feticide is an extreme form of violence against women, the most active part is being played by the women themselves just for the mere want of a boy, mothers dont feel bad in strangulating their own daughters in their wombs. From decades of sex determination and female feticide is creating a statistical imbalance regarding the commonly expected and lsquo;male: female' birth ratio in India. This offense have been spreaded to the states in India like Punjab, Haryana, Delhi, Gujarat and R...

  13. Impact of Publicly Financed Health Insurance Schemes on Healthcare Utilization and Financial Risk Protection in India: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prinja, Shankar; Chauhan, Akashdeep Singh; Karan, Anup; Kaur, Gunjeet; Kumar, Rajesh

    2017-01-01

    Several publicly financed health insurance schemes have been launched in India with the aim of providing universalizing health coverage (UHC). In this paper, we report the impact of publicly financed health insurance schemes on health service utilization, out-of-pocket (OOP) expenditure, financial risk protection and health status. Empirical research studies focussing on the impact or evaluation of publicly financed health insurance schemes in India were searched on PubMed, Google scholar, Ovid, Scopus, Embase and relevant websites. The studies were selected based on two stage screening PRISMA guidelines in which two researchers independently assessed the suitability and quality of the studies. The studies included in the review were divided into two groups i.e., with and without a comparison group. To assess the impact on utilization, OOP expenditure and health indicators, only the studies with a comparison group were reviewed. Out of 1265 articles screened after initial search, 43 studies were found eligible and reviewed in full text, finally yielding 14 studies which had a comparator group in their evaluation design. All the studies (n-7) focussing on utilization showed a positive effect in terms of increase in the consumption of health services with introduction of health insurance. About 70% studies (n-5) studies with a strong design and assessing financial risk protection showed no impact in reduction of OOP expenditures, while remaining 30% of evaluations (n-2), which particularly evaluated state sponsored health insurance schemes, reported a decline in OOP expenditure among the enrolled households. One study which evaluated impact on health outcome showed reduction in mortality among enrolled as compared to non-enrolled households, from conditions covered by the insurance scheme. While utilization of healthcare did improve among those enrolled in the scheme, there is no clear evidence yet to suggest that these have resulted in reduced OOP expenditures or

  14. Simulating climate change and socio-economic change impacts on flows and water quality in the Mahanadi River system, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Li; Whitehead, Paul G; Rodda, Harvey; Macadam, Ian; Sarkar, Sananda

    2018-05-12

    Delta systems formed by the deposition of sediments at the mouths of large catchments are vulnerable to sea level rise and other climate change impacts. Deltas often have some of the highest population densities in the world and the Mahanadi Delta in India is one of these, with a population of 39 million. The Mahanadi River is a major river in East Central India and flows through Chattisgarh and Orissa states before discharging into the Bay of Bengal. This study uses an Integrated Catchment Model (INCA) to simulate flow dynamics and water quality (nitrogen and phosphorus) and to analyze the impacts of climate change and socio-economic drivers in the Mahanadi River system. Future flows affected by large population growth, effluent discharge increases and changes in irrigation water demand from changing land uses are assessed under shared socio-economic pathways (SSPs). Model results indicate a significant increase in monsoon flows under the future climates at 2050s (2041-2060) and 2090s (2079-2098) which greatly enhances flood potential. The water availability under low flow conditions will be worsened because of increased water demand from population growth and increased irrigation in the future. Decreased concentrations of nitrogen and phosphorus are expected due to increased flow hence dilution. Socio-economic scenarios have a significant impact on water quality but less impact on the river flow. For example, higher population growth, increased sewage treatment discharges, land use change and enhanced atmospheric deposition would result in the deterioration of water quality, while the upgrade of the sewage treatment works lead to improved water quality. In summary, socio-economic scenarios would change future water quality of the Mahanadi River and alter nutrient fluxes transported into the delta region. This study has serious implications for people's livelihoods in the deltaic area and could impact coastal and Bay of Bengal water ecology. Copyright © 2018

  15. A group of 20 stone anchors from the waters of Dwarka, on the Gujarat Coast, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gaur, A.S; Sundaresh; Tripati, S.; Gudigar, P.; Vora, K.H.; Bandodkar, S.N.

    A large number of stone anchors were discovered in a water depth of 10-14 m off Dwarka during the 1998-99 season. The seabed near the anchors consists of a ledge with an average height of 1 m. Several anchors were found trapped between the rocks...

  16. Multifractal analysis of 2001 Mw 7 . 7 Bhuj earthquake sequence in Gujarat, Western India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Sandeep Kumar; Pastén, Denisse; Khan, Prosanta Kumar

    2017-12-01

    The 2001 Mw 7 . 7 Bhuj mainshock seismic sequence in the Kachchh area, occurring during 2001 to 2012, has been analyzed using mono-fractal and multi-fractal dimension spectrum analysis technique. This region was characterized by frequent moderate shocks of Mw ≥ 5 . 0 for more than a decade since the occurrence of 2001 Bhuj earthquake. The present study is therefore important for precursory analysis using this sequence. The selected long-sequence has been investigated first time for completeness magnitude Mc 3.0 using the maximum curvature method. Multi-fractal Dq spectrum (Dq ∼ q) analysis was carried out using effective window-length of 200 earthquakes with a moving window of 20 events overlapped by 180 events. The robustness of the analysis has been tested by considering the magnitude completeness correction term of 0.2 to Mc 3.0 as Mc 3.2 and we have tested the error in the calculus of Dq for each magnitude threshold. On the other hand, the stability of the analysis has been investigated down to the minimum magnitude of Mw ≥ 2 . 6 in the sequence. The analysis shows the multi-fractal dimension spectrum Dq decreases with increasing of clustering of events with time before a moderate magnitude earthquake in the sequence, which alternatively accounts for non-randomness in the spatial distribution of epicenters and its self-organized criticality. Similar behavior is ubiquitous elsewhere around the globe, and warns for proximity of a damaging seismic event in an area. OS: Please confirm math roman or italics in abs.

  17. Mudskipper fishing in the coast of Bhavnagar, Gulf of Khambhat, Gujarat, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jignesh Kanejiya

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Coastal areas of Bhavnagar district harbors wide range of ichthyofaunal diversity and diverse fisheries resources. The fishermen in this area use wide range of fishing methods and gears, which evolved traditionally and being adept extensively in Bhavnagar coastline. Livelihood of these fishermen is almost entirely depends on mudskipper fishing and they employ three types of fishing methods to catch them i.e. direct catch through digging the burrow, stick traps around mudskipper holes, and by nylon net. Fishing by using nylon net is the most commonly used method compared to others.

  18. Ancient anchorage systems in India with reference to the Gujarat coast

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gaur, A; Sundaresh; Tripati, S.

    The Indian coast, with a long history of maritime activities, has been dotted with several ancient ports. The evidence for this exists in port-related structures on the shore and in relics lying in the sea adjacent. Marine archaeological...

  19. Biodegradation of crude oil using marine Bacillus species from Vadinar coast, Gujarat, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mulani, N.; Fulke, A.B.; DeSouza, E.; Ram, A.; Maloo, A.; Sayed, F.; Gajbhiye, S.N.

    spills produce enormous public anxiety and highlight the need for costeffective, indigenous and environmentally acceptable bioremediation technologies. In recent times, advanced remedial techniques have been opted, such as solidifying, skimming...

  20. Luminescence chronology of a second millenium BCE settlement near Porbandar on the Gujarat coast, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gaur, A.S.; Thomas, P.J; Vora, K.H.; Sundaresh

    and grey ware. Varieties of bowls of different sizes are the major attraction of the excavation besides a large numberofshards ofjars, lids, basins and other pots (Table 1, Fig. 4).Th~shape, size and paintings are very similar to the pottery reported from... 1. Number of identified shapes ofpottery from Bokhira Type ofvesse' Tar Bowl Lid Dish Miniature pot BKR-I 39 41 3 7 BKR-IlI 32 37 3 5 BKR-IV 44 38 3 8 Tota' 115 116 9 20 80 I JOURNAl OF INDIAN OCF.AN ARCHI\\EOIOG' No.4. 2007 2 2 l (\\~~ l ( J ~;f~ I...

  1. Elemental oxides analysis of the medieval period glazed ware from Gogha, Gulf of Khambhat, Gujarat, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gaur, A.S.; Khedekar, V.; Rao, B.R.

    for elemental oxides using scanning electron microscope and energy dispersive spectrum. The results indicate that silicon oxide content of the glazed sherds varies between approx. 73 and 77%, forming three-fourths of the total composition, while it ranges from...

  2. Study of computerized spirometric parameters of traffic police personnel of Saurashtra region, Gujarat, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makwana, Amit H; Solanki, Jayesh D; Gokhale, Pradnya A; Mehta, Hemant B; Shah, Chinmay J; Gadhavi, Bhakti P

    2015-01-01

    Air pollution due to road traffic is a serious health hazard and air quality crisis in cities is mainly due to vehicular emission. Thus the persons who are continuously exposed are at an increased risk. The study was carried out to evaluate the extent of impairment in lung function in traffic police personnel compared to matched unexposed control group. A cross-sectional study was conducted to measure the spirometric parameters of 100 traffic police personnel, aged 20-55 years, working in Saurashtra region, as compared to matched control group, consisting of 100 unexposed males. Measurement of lung volumes and capacities was done with SPIROEXCEL. The statistical analysis was carried out with Graph pad instat 3. Traffic police personnel had significantly declined forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV 1), slow vital capacity (SVC) and maximum voluntary ventilation (MVV) when compared with predictive normal values, which is probably due to exposure to vehicular exhaust. Comparison of test values between groups showed significantly reduced FVC, MVV and increased FEV1/FVC ratio and insignificantly declined FEV1 and SVC in cases as compared to controls. Traffic personnel with longer duration of exposure showed significantly reduced lung functions than those with shorter duration. Smokers showed lower test values as compared to non-smokers with significance only in unexposed group. The effect of pollution by vehicular exhausts may be responsible for these pulmonary function impairments and traffic police personnel should be offered personal protective or preventive measures.

  3. Study of computerized spirometric parameters of traffic police personnel of Saurashtra region, Gujarat, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit H Makwana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Air pollution due to road traffic is a serious health hazard and air quality crisis in cities is mainly due to vehicular emission. Thus the persons who are continuously exposed are at an increased risk. The study was carried out to evaluate the extent of impairment in lung function in traffic police personnel compared to matched unexposed control group. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted to measure the spirometric parameters of 100 traffic police personnel, aged 20-55 years, working in Saurashtra region, as compared to matched control group, consisting of 100 unexposed males. Measurement of lung volumes and capacities was done with SPIROEXCEL. The statistical analysis was carried out with Graph pad instat 3. Results: Traffic police personnel had significantly declined forced vital capacity (FVC, forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV 1, slow vital capacity (SVC and maximum voluntary ventilation (MVV when compared with predictive normal values, which is probably due to exposure to vehicular exhaust. Comparison of test values between groups showed significantly reduced FVC, MVV and increased FEV1/FVC ratio and insignificantly declined FEV1 and SVC in cases as compared to controls. Traffic personnel with longer duration of exposure showed significantly reduced lung functions than those with shorter duration. Smokers showed lower test values as compared to non-smokers with significance only in unexposed group. Conclusion: The effect of pollution by vehicular exhausts may be responsible for these pulmonary function impairments and traffic police personnel should be offered personal protective or preventive measures.

  4. Zoolankton distribution in neuston and water column along west coast of India from Goa to Gujarat

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Padmavati, G.; Goswami, S.C.

    ) . Zooplankton biomass (ml.m sup(-3)) and population density (no.m sup(-3)) were higher in the water column (av = 0.5,592) than in the upper neustonic layer (av = 0.3,245). Copepods were dominant (51.8 to 71.6%). The other important groups were ostracods...

  5. Discharge against Medical Advice at Neonatal Intensive Care Unit in Gujarat, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devpura, Bhanu; Bhadesia, Pranav; Nimbalkar, Somashekhar; Desai, Sandeep; Phatak, Ajay

    2016-01-01

    Objective . We explored reasons for discharged against medical advice (DAMA) of neonates from a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) through in-depth interviews of the parents/guardians. Methods . Of 456 babies admitted to NICU during April 2014 to March 2015, 116 babies were DAMA. Parents of randomly selected 50 babies of these 116, residing within 50 kilometers, were approached for in-depth interviews at their homes. Audio recordings were done and manually transcribed, analyzed in detail to explore common threads leading to DAMA. Basic demographic information of the newborns was retrieved from hospital records. Results . The prevalence of DAMA was 25.4%. Of 50 parents approached, 41 in-depth interviews were completed. Nonaffordability (38.6%), no improvement (14.6%), poor prognosis (12%), and inappropriate behavior of the patient relation office personnel (10.6%) were major factors contributing to DAMA. Parents of 6.6% neonates wanted guarantee of survival and 5.3% parents reported poor behavior of nurses. No gender bias was observed related to DAMA. One-third of neonates (34.1%) were DAMA on first day of admission. Conclusions . The issue of DAMA needs attention. Besides nonaffordability and clinical characteristics of the baby, communication (breaking bad news, counseling, etc.) and lack of adequate infrastructure for relatives emerged as modifiable factors leading to DAMA.

  6. Discharge against Medical Advice at Neonatal Intensive Care Unit in Gujarat, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhanu Devpura

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. We explored reasons for discharged against medical advice (DAMA of neonates from a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU through in-depth interviews of the parents/guardians. Methods. Of 456 babies admitted to NICU during April 2014 to March 2015, 116 babies were DAMA. Parents of randomly selected 50 babies of these 116, residing within 50 kilometers, were approached for in-depth interviews at their homes. Audio recordings were done and manually transcribed, analyzed in detail to explore common threads leading to DAMA. Basic demographic information of the newborns was retrieved from hospital records. Results. The prevalence of DAMA was 25.4%. Of 50 parents approached, 41 in-depth interviews were completed. Nonaffordability (38.6%, no improvement (14.6%, poor prognosis (12%, and inappropriate behavior of the patient relation office personnel (10.6% were major factors contributing to DAMA. Parents of 6.6% neonates wanted guarantee of survival and 5.3% parents reported poor behavior of nurses. No gender bias was observed related to DAMA. One-third of neonates (34.1% were DAMA on first day of admission. Conclusions. The issue of DAMA needs attention. Besides nonaffordability and clinical characteristics of the baby, communication (breaking bad news, counseling, etc. and lack of adequate infrastructure for relatives emerged as modifiable factors leading to DAMA.

  7. New evidence of marine archaeology around Mul Dwarka (Kodinar), Gujarat coast, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gaur, A.S.; Sundaresh; Tripati, S.

    potential sites for ports or trade centres. A few amphorae sherds were found at Kaj, which suggests that the site had trade contacts with the Roman world around the Christian era. A number of stone anchors were found from Mul Dwarka, Chhara and Kanjetar...

  8. Study on prevalence of ancylostomosis in dogs at Anand district, Gujarat, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilima N. Brahmbhatt

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study was undertaken to derive the prevalence rate of ancylostomosis in dogs by a collection of fecal samples from Anand district. Materials and Methods: The fecal samples were collected from the dogs brought to the Hospital of Veterinary College (Teaching Veterinary Clinical Service Complex and the surrounding areas of Anand district. On the day of collection, fecal samples were collected and brought to the Department of Veterinary Parasitology and processed for standard qualitative examination. The sedimentation technique was used to detect the presence of Ancylostoma spp. eggs in the samples. Result: The highest prevalence rate was observed in the month of May (36.66% fecal samples and the lowest in the month of December (13.79% fecal samples at Anand district. Conclusion: It can be concluded that heavy infection is present in Anand district especially in the season of summer followed by monsoon and the least in winter.

  9. Study on prevalence of Fasciolosis in buffaloes at Anand and Ahmedabad districts, Gujarat, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suchit S. Pandya

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study was undertaken to derive the prevalence rate of Fasciolosis in buffaloes by a collection of fecal and liver samples from Anand and Ahmedabad districts’ local slaughter houses. Materials and Methods: Fecal and liver samples were collected during ante- and post-mortem examination, respectively, and brought to the department laboratory preserved in 10% formalin for further processing. Fecal samples were processed with qualitative examination viz.; sedimentation technique for identification of the ova. Liver samples were also examined for the presence of gross parasites. Results: The highest prevalence rate was observed in the month of December (25.97% fecal and 33.33% liver samples and lowest in the month of May (10.71% fecal and 11.76% liver samples at Anand district. In the area of Ahmedabad district, the highest prevalence rate was recorded in the month of October and February (26.98% and lowest in the month of May (10.34% for the fecal and highest prevalence was observed in the month of February (26.98% and lowest in May (11.11% for the liver samples. Conclusion: It can be concluded that the heavy infection is present in Anand and Ahmedabad districts, especially in the month of winter followed by monsoon and the least in summer.

  10. Environmental correlates of undernutrition among children of 3–6 years of age, Rajkot, Gujarat, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zalak Rameshbhai Matariya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: There are lots of studies focusing on the role of reproductive and child health factors and dietary factors on the nutrition status of the child. The present study is an attempt to highlight the role of macro- and micro-environmental factors in predicting the occurrence of undernutrition in children. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study conducted in field practice area of Community Medicine Department, PDU Medical College, Rajkot. The nutrition status of children was assessed using the weight for age WHO reference standards, 2006. Children below two standard deviation of the reference median (weight for age were considered as malnourished. Data were collected for sociodemographic factors, sanitation, hygiene, and attitude of mother toward her child, etc., Data were entered in MS excel, and logistic regression was used. Results: Analysis of 495 selected children showed 24% prevalence of undernutrition. Employment status of mothers (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 1.65, drinking water quality (AOR 1.53, and cleanliness of mother's hands and clothes (AOR 1.91 significantly affected the nutrition status of the child. Children classified in fair or poor category for Briscoe's sanitation scale had 1.34 and1.92 times higher odds of being undernourished (P > 0.05, respectively. Children classified in fair or poor category for Elizabeth's microenvironment scale had 2.05 and 2.41 times higher odds of being undernourished (P < 0.05, respectively. Conclusions: Water, sanitation, and hygiene-related factors, as well as microenvironmental factors, significantly affected the nutrition status of the children.

  11. CORRELATION STUDY AMONG WATER QUALITY PARAMETERS OF GROUNDWATER OF VALSAD DISTRICT OF SOUTH GUJARAT(INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. T. Vashi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Groundwater samples were collected from five talukas of Valsad district for one year (from August 2008 to July 2009 and were analyzed for their physicochemical characteristics.  The present investigation is focused on  determination of parameters like pH, Colour, Electrical Conductivity (EC, Total Hardness (TH, Calcium (Ca, Magnesium (Mg, Total Alkalinity (TA, Total Dissolved Solids (TDS, Silica, Chloride, Sulphate, Fluoride, Sodium, Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD and metals like Copper (Cu and Manganese (Mn.  Correlation coefficients were determined to identify the highly correlated parameters and interrelated water quality parameters. Correlation matrix of Valsad district suggests that EC of groundwater is found to be significantly correlated with eight out of seventeen water quality parameters studied.  It may be suggested that the quality of Valsad district can be checked very effectively by controlling EC of water.

  12. Ecology and conservation of threatened plants in Tapkeshwari Hill ranges in the Kachchh Island, Gujarat, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.N. Joshi

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The survey was conducted in Tapkeshwari Hill Range (THR areas, wherever threatened plant species were said to exist, based on secondary information in literature. Thirteen plant species categorized as ‘Threatened’ by the World Conservation Monitoring centre (WCMC 1994 and also listed under various threat categories in the Red Data Book of Indian Plants (Nayar & Sastry 1988 were surveyed in the THR. All the RET plants reported from the study area occupied eight major habitat types. Thorn mixed forests harbored the highest number of individuals (560 of all RET plants, followed by open scrubs (345 individuals, Acacia senegal forests (328 and thorn mixed scrubs (293. Field observations showed that except Helichrysum cutchicum, all the other RET plant species were reported with very low seedlings and regeneration ratio. This paper discusses the status, distribution and threats faced and the conservation implications at border regions of some of the threatened plants of the arid Kachchh district.

  13. Behaviour of boron, calcium and magnesium in Purna and Auranga estuaries (Gujarat), west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Narvekar, P.V.; Zingde, M.D.

    percentage of removal of B at low chlorinities indicated its rapid removal in the initial encounter of river water with seawater. On the contrary, Ca was preferentially added at low chlorinities. Addition decreased as the chlorinity increased and removal...

  14. Dynamics of livestock development in Gujarat, India: experiences of an Indian NGO

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Patil, B.R.

    2006-01-01

    Keywords:    Agricultural R&D, field experimentation, crossbreeding, dairy, feeding technologies, mixed farming, farming systems research, modelling.Smallholder mixed crop

  15. Maternal Socialization of Children's Anger, Sadness, and Physical Pain in Two Communities in Gujarat, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raval, Vaishali Vidhatri; Martini, Tanya Susan

    2009-01-01

    Despite the recognition of cultural influences in child socialization, little is known about socialization of emotion in children from different cultures. This study examined (a) Gujarati Indian mothers' reports concerning their beliefs, affective and behavioral responses to their children's displays of anger, sadness, and physical pain, and (b)…

  16. ASSESSMENT OF AWARENESS AND BELIEFS REGARDING INTRA UTERINE DEVICE AMONGST ITS FORMER USERS ATTENDING TERTIARY CARE CENTRE IN GUJARAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jogiya Priyanka D, Lodhiya Kaushik K, Chavada Paras

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Only 1.8% of married women of reproductive age in India use IUDs despite its advantages over Hormonal pills or permanent methods. The present study was done to study the awareness of the mothers about IUD which affects its utilisation. Method: This was a descriptive cross sectional analytical study was carried out at obstetrics and gynecology department of PDU Government medical college and civil hospital, Rajkot, Gujarat, from January 2014 to June 2014. Post natal mothers who had delivered in the hospital, who had previously used intrauterine contraceptive device (IUCD for a period of more than one month & who agreed to be a part of the study were included in the study. Results: A total of 110 women who agreed to be a part of the study, were interviewed. The mean age of study participants was 29.2±3.3 years & over half of them resided in urban areas (56.36% & were housewives (74.54%. Over 90% of the participants were aware of barrier or hormonal methods of contraception & 25 to 50 % of them had also used them in the past. Mean duration of IUD use amongst the study participants was 36.9 ± 18.9 months. While over three fourth of the participants reported to have been provided some sort of counselling before IUD insertion only 64% of them agreed that their pelvic examination was done simultaneously. Awareness about IUD was significantly higher among graduate & working women while there was no significant association of knowledge with other independent variables. Conclusion: There was lack of knowledge amongst participants regarding IUDs as well as many myths which needs to be addressed in order to improve its utilisation by the community.

  17. Household fuels, low birth weight, and neonatal death in India: the separate impacts of biomass, kerosene, and coal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, M B; Bates, M N; Arora, N K; Balakrishnan, K; Jack, D W; Smith, K R

    2013-08-01

    We examined the impact of maternal use of different household cooking fuels in India on low birth weight (LBWfuels for cooking - biomass, coal, and kerosene - using low-pollution fuels (gas and biogas) as the comparison "control" group. Taking socioeconomic and child-specific factors into account, we employed logistic regression to examine the impact of fuel use on fetal and infant health. The results indicate that household use of high-pollution fuels is significantly associated with increased odds of LBW and neonatal death. Compared to households using cleaner fuels (in which the mean birth weight is 2901g), the primary use of coal, kerosene, and biomass fuels is associated with significant decreases in mean birth weight (of -110g for coal, -107g for kerosene, and -78g for biomass). Kerosene and biomass fuel use are also associated with increased risk of LBW (pfuels. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  18. Development of dynamic wheat crop model in ISAM and estimation of impacts of environmental factors on wheat production in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gahlot, S.; Lin, T. S.; Jain, A. K.; Baidya Roy, S.; Sehgal, V. K.; Dhakar, R.

    2017-12-01

    With changing environmental conditions, such as climate and elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations, questions about food security can be answered by modeling crops based on our understanding of the dynamic crop growth processes and interactions between the crops and their environment in the form of carbon, water and energy fluxes. These interactions and their effect on cropland ecosystems are non-linear because of the feedback mechanisms. Hence, process-based modelling approach can be used to conduct numerical experiments to derive insights into these processes and interactive feedbacks. In this study we have implemented dynamic crop growth processes for wheat into a data-modeling framework, Integrated Science Assessment Model (ISAM), to estimate the impacts of different factors like CO2 fertilization, irrigation, nitrogen limitation and climate change on wheat in India. In specific, we have implemented wheat-specific phenology, C3 photosynthesis mechanism and phenology-specific carbon allocation schemes for assimilated carbon to leaf, stem, root and grain pools. Crop growth limiting stress factors like nutrients, temperature and light have been included. The impact of high temperatures on leaf senescence, anthesis and grain filling has been modeled and found to be causing significant reduction in yield in the recent years. Field data from an experimental wheat site located at the Indian Agricultural Research Institute (IARI), New Delhi, India has been collected for aboveground biomass and leaf area index (LAI) for two growing seasons 2014-15 and 2015-16. This data has been used to study the phenology, growing season length, thermal requirements and growth stages of wheat. Using the field data, the dynamic model for wheat has been evaluated for the site level seasonal variability in leaf area index (LAI) and aboveground biomass. The variations in carbon, water and energy fluxes, plant height and rooting depth have been analyzed on the site level. Model experiments

  19. Impact of regional climate change and future emission scenarios on surface O3 and PM2.5 over India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pommier, Matthieu; Fagerli, Hilde; Gauss, Michael; Simpson, David; Sharma, Sumit; Sinha, Vinay; Ghude, Sachin D.; Landgren, Oskar; Nyiri, Agnes; Wind, Peter

    2018-01-01

    is driven by increases in dust, particulate organic matter (OM) and secondary inorganic aerosols (SIAs), which are mainly affected by the change in precipitation, biogenic emissions and wind speed.The large increase in anthropogenic emissions has a larger impact than climate change, causing O3 and PM2.5 levels to increase by 13 and 67 % on average in the 2050s over the main part of India, respectively. By the 2030s, secondary inorganic aerosol is predicted to become the second largest contributor to PM2.5 in India, and the largest in the 2050s, exceeding OM and dust.

  20. Impact of regional climate change and future emission scenarios on surface O3 and PM2.5 over India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Pommier

    2018-01-01

    -Gangetic Plain by the 2050s. The increase over India is driven by increases in dust, particulate organic matter (OM and secondary inorganic aerosols (SIAs, which are mainly affected by the change in precipitation, biogenic emissions and wind speed.The large increase in anthropogenic emissions has a larger impact than climate change, causing O3 and PM2.5 levels to increase by 13 and 67 % on average in the 2050s over the main part of India, respectively. By the 2030s, secondary inorganic aerosol is predicted to become the second largest contributor to PM2.5 in India, and the largest in the 2050s, exceeding OM and dust.

  1. Impact of convection over the equatorial trough on the summer monsoon activity over India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    RameshKumar, M.R.; Shenoi, S.S.C.; Schulz, J.

    . There have been studies (Cadet and Olory Togbe, 1981; Sadhuram and Sastry, 1987) on the role of Equatorial Trough (ET) as well as Southern Hemispheric Equatorial Trough (SHET) on the rainfall over central India. Most of these studies are related... the ET, WET and EET behave in a similar fashion during different monsoon and El Nino conditions ? c) What role do the synoptic systems play during the BM over the Indian subcontinent? 2. Data and Methodology The pentad precipitation data used...

  2. The impact of dredging on residence time in the Amba estuary, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Velamala, S.N.; Thomas, J.; Bari, S.; Kachave, S.

    for the Musa estuary (Persian Gulf), Payandeh, Zaker and Niksokhan (2014) showed that the persistency of currents was a useful indicator for identifying areas of pollutant load accumulation. The RTs have also been studied by several authors (e.g. Luff....W.A Naqvi, Director, National Institute of Oceanography, India, for their constant encouragement and support during the work. Authors would also like to express their gratitude to Lisa V. Lucas, Geological Survey, US for her comments on this manuscript...

  3. Energy efficient policy impact in India: case study of investment in industrial energy efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, M.

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to identify the effectiveness of energy policy and capital investment in energy efficiency technologies in the industrial sector in India. Indian energy policies relating to industrial energy efficiency over the past 25 years are briefly reviewed, and a comparison study of these energy efficiency policies and strategies in India and China has been carried out. Interviews were conducted with a number of government policy-making institutions and a national industrial development bank. The accounts of 26 industrial enterprises which applied and used a loan of the Asian Development Bank were audited for data collection. Field-visits to seven industrial entrepreneurs were undertaken in a case study. Methodologies used in this study include documentation, cross-country reviews on energy policies, questionnaire design and distribution in the industrial sector, and on-site auditing of energy efficiency technologies. This paper concludes that current energy policies and strategies in India need further improvement to promote energy efficiency investment and energy efficiency technology development in the industrial sector. This paper will interest those policy makers and industrial entrepreneurs who are willing to finance energy efficiency projects and improve energy efficiency in the industrial sector. (author)

  4. Energy efficiency policy impact in India: case study of investment in industrial energy efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Ming

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to identify the effectiveness of energy policy and capital investment in energy efficiency technologies in the industrial sector in India. Indian energy policies relating to industrial energy efficiency over the past 25 years are briefly reviewed, and a comparison study of these energy efficiency policies and strategies in India and China has been carried out. Interviews were conducted with a number of government policy-making institutions and a national industrial development bank. The accounts of 26 industrial enterprises which applied and used a loan of the Asian Development Bank were audited for data collection. Field-visits to seven industrial entrepreneurs were undertaken in a case study. Methodologies used in this study include documentation, cross-country reviews on energy policies, questionnaire design and distribution in the industrial sector, and on-site auditing of energy efficiency technologies. This paper concludes that current energy policies and strategies in India need further improvement to promote energy efficiency investment and energy efficiency technology development in the industrial sector. This paper will interest those policy makers and industrial entrepreneurs who are willing to finance energy efficiency projects and improve energy efficiency in the industrial sector

  5. Impact of Equatorial Waves on the Variability of Upwelling Process Along West Coast of India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, K. R.; Nigam, T.; Pant, V.

    2017-12-01

    Coastal upwelling is a seasonal phenomenon along the south eastern Arabian Sea (SEAS) due to favourable wind setup during Indian Summer Monsoon Season (June-September). This upwelling brings subsurface cold and nutrient rich water to the surface layers. The cold water transported northward by the altered along shore current of west coast of India in the post-monsoon season. The different climatological forcing of positive Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) and normal years were utilised to simulate the upwelling off the west coast of India using a three dimensional Regional Ocean Modelling System (ROMS). Strength of upwelling and the northward transport were found to be weaken for positive IOD simulations as compared to normal years. Analysis suggests that the meridional wind stress weakening resulted into a decrease in strength of West India Coastal Current (WICC) and, therefore, reduced magnitude of offshore Ekman transport. The mixed layer heat budget calculation also supports the findings by showing dominated vertical process in comparison to net heat flux effect. The post-monsoon northward transport of cold water was found to be correlated with the coastally trapped downwelling Kelvin waves. These waves are the only remote forcing from the Bay of Bengal that reaches to the south-eastern Arabian Sea during the months of October-December. The composite of sea surface height anomalies for the positive IOD and normal years shows that the downwelling Kelwin wave was absent during October-December.

  6. Latur earthquake and its impact on the aseismic design of structures in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basu, P.C.

    1995-01-01

    The Latur earthquake occurred on September 30, 1995. The epicentre was located near the Killari village of Latur District which is situated in the stable continental region of Southern Peninsular India. The earthquake caused a wide range of damage though its magnitude (MS) was 6.4. Intensive damage survey was carried out and a number of geophysical and seismological studies had been undertaken. It has been concluded from the results, available so far from these studies, that the hypocentre of the earthquake was on the lineament dipping NW-SE. The rock matrix in the hypocentral region was weakened due to the presence of fluid and rupture of this weak region caused the event. The ground motion produced by the earthquake was of complex nature comprising of horizontal and vertical component. The ground acceleration in the epicentral region was estimated as 0.2 g. Latur earthquake raised several issues with respect to aseismic design of structures in India which need further deliberation. These issues are related to seismic zoning of India, determination of design basis ground motion, design/detailing of structures, etc. (author)

  7. The leadership crisis of medical profession in India: ongoing impact on the health system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raman Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available By 2030 India will have one million additional MBBS doctors; currently being produced @50,000 per year. Contrary to perception of scarcity of medical doctors, a large section of newly qualified physicians are spending considerable years in dysfunctional status due to mismanagement in human resource in health in India. There are very few employment opportunities for qualified doctors in public sector; at the same time the average salary of MBBS doctors in urban private hospitals is very low. Paradoxically, in a country of 1.3 billion populations there is no actual demand for medical professionals. While the popular perception is that young doctors are not willing for community service, a reality check is required on the count of intent and capacity of public sector as well as industry towards engagement of medical doctors in the process of service delivery. The visible leaders of medical profession are unable to reflect the ground reality. There is a leadership crisis among medical doctors in India.

  8. Latur earthquake and its impact on the aseismic design of structures in India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basu, P C [Atomic Energy Regulatory Board (India)

    1995-07-01

    The Latur earthquake occurred on September 30, 1995. The epicentre was located near the Killari village of Latur District which is situated in the stable continental region of Southern Peninsular India. The earthquake caused a wide range of damage though its magnitude (MS) was 6.4. Intensive damage survey was carried out and a number of geophysical and seismological studies had been undertaken. It has been concluded from the results, available so far from these studies, that the hypocentre of the earthquake was on the lineament dipping NW-SE. The rock matrix in the hypocentral region was weakened due to the presence of fluid and rupture of this weak region caused the event. The ground motion produced by the earthquake was of complex nature comprising of horizontal and vertical component. The ground acceleration in the epicentral region was estimated as 0.2 g. Latur earthquake raised several issues with respect to aseismic design of structures in India which need further deliberation. These issues are related to seismic zoning of India, determination of design basis ground motion, design/detailing of structures, etc. (author)

  9. Satellite detection of carbon monoxide emission prior to the Gujarat earthquake of 26 January 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Ramesh P., E-mail: rsingh@chapman.edu [Department of Physics, Computational Science and Engineering, Schmid College of Science, Chapman University, One University Drive, Orange CA 92866 (United States); Senthil Kumar, J.; Zlotnicki, Jacques [Observatoire de Physique du Globe de Clermont-Ferrand, OPGC-CNRS, Campus des Cuzeaux, 24, av. des Landais, 63177 Aubiere Cedex (France); Kafatos, Menas [Department of Physics, Computational Science and Engineering, Schmid College of Science, Chapman University, One University Drive, Orange CA 92866 (United States)

    2010-04-15

    NOAA AVHRR images have clearly shown anomalous changes in land surface temperature associated with earthquakes in the past two decades. Soon after the Gujarat earthquake of January 26, 2001, an anomalous increase in land surface temperature was inferred from MODIS satellite data a few days prior to the main earthquake event. The cause of such an anomalous change in surface temperature prior to the earthquake is attributed to many probable phenomena, but no definite cause has been identified. In the present study, changes of a complementary nature were found of land surface temperature associated with the emission of CO from the epicentral region. The observed changes on land and atmosphere associated with the Gujarat earthquake of 26 January, 2001, show the existence of strong coupling between land, atmosphere and ionosphere.

  10. Contrasting pattern of hydrological changes during the past two millennia from central and northern India: Regional climate difference or anthropogenic impact?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Praveen K.; Prasad, Sushma; Marwan, Norbert; Anoop, A.; Krishnan, R.; Gaye, Birgit; Basavaiah, N.; Stebich, Martina; Menzel, Philip; Riedel, Nils

    2018-02-01

    High resolution reconstructions of the India Summer Monsoon (ISM) are essential to identify regionally different patterns of climate change and refine predictive models. We find opposing trends of hydrological proxies between northern (Sahiya cave stalagmite) and central India (Lonar Lake) between 100 and 1300 CE with the strongest anti-correlation between 810 and 1300 CE. The apparently contradictory data raise the question if these are related to widely different regional precipitation patterns or reflect human influence in/around the Lonar Lake. By comparing multiproxy data with historical records, we demonstrate that only the organic proxies in the Lonar Lake show evidence of anthropogenic impact. However, evaporite data (mineralogy and δ18O) are indicative of precipitation/evaporation (P/E) into the Lonar Lake. Back-trajectories of air-mass circulation over northern and central India show that the relative contribution of the Bay of Bengal (BoB) branch of the ISM is crucial for determining the δ18O of carbonate proxies only in north India, whereas central India is affected significantly by the Arabian Sea (AS) branch of the ISM. We conclude that the δ18O of evaporative carbonates in the Lonar Lake reflects P/E and, in the interval under consideration, is not influenced by source water changes. The opposing trend between central and northern India can be explained by (i) persistent multidecadal droughts over central India between 810 and 1300 CE that provided an effective mechanism for strengthening sub-tropical westerly winds resulting in enhancement of wintertime (non-monsoonal) rainfall over northern parts of the Indian subcontinent, and/or (ii) increased moisture influx to northern India from the depleted BoB source waters.

  11. Land use and second-generation biofuel feedstocks: The unconsidered impacts of Jatropha biodiesel in Rajasthan, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Findlater, K.M.; Kandlikar, M.

    2011-01-01

    Governments around the world see biofuels as a common solution to the multiple policy challenges posed by energy insecurity, climate change and falling farmer incomes. The Indian government has enthusiastically adopted a second-generation feedstock - the oilseed-bearing shrub, Jatropha curcas - for an ambitious national biodiesel program. Studies estimating the production capacity and potential land use implications of this program have typically assumed that the 'waste land' slated for Jatropha production has no economic value and that no activities of note will be displaced by plantation development. Here we examine the specific local impacts of rapid Jatropha plantation development on rural livelihoods and land use in Rajasthan, India. We find that in Jhadol Tehsil, Jatropha is planted on both government and private land, and has typically displaced grazing and forage collection. For those at the socioeconomic margins, these unconsidered impacts counteract the very benefits that the biofuel programs aim to create. The Rajasthan case demonstrates that local land-use impacts need to be integrated into decision-making for national targets and global biofuel promotion efforts. - Highlights: → Hardy biofuel crops like Jatropha replace edible feedstocks that use arable land. → In Rajasthan, Jatropha displaces grazing and forage on both public and private land. → As Jatropha plantations mature, the loss of grass becomes more pronounced. → Unconsidered impacts negate the benefits that the biodiesel program aims to create. → Local land-use impacts need to be integrated into decision-making.

  12. Land use and second-generation biofuel feedstocks: The unconsidered impacts of Jatropha biodiesel in Rajasthan, India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Findlater, K.M. [Institute for Resources Environment and Sustainability, University of British Columbia, 429-2202 Main Mall, Vancouver, BC, V6T1Z4 (Canada); Kandlikar, M., E-mail: milind.k@ubc.ca [Liu Institute for Global Studies, University of British Columbia, 6476 NW Marine Drive, Vancouver, BC, V6T1Z2 (Canada)

    2011-06-15

    Governments around the world see biofuels as a common solution to the multiple policy challenges posed by energy insecurity, climate change and falling farmer incomes. The Indian government has enthusiastically adopted a second-generation feedstock - the oilseed-bearing shrub, Jatropha curcas - for an ambitious national biodiesel program. Studies estimating the production capacity and potential land use implications of this program have typically assumed that the 'waste land' slated for Jatropha production has no economic value and that no activities of note will be displaced by plantation development. Here we examine the specific local impacts of rapid Jatropha plantation development on rural livelihoods and land use in Rajasthan, India. We find that in Jhadol Tehsil, Jatropha is planted on both government and private land, and has typically displaced grazing and forage collection. For those at the socioeconomic margins, these unconsidered impacts counteract the very benefits that the biofuel programs aim to create. The Rajasthan case demonstrates that local land-use impacts need to be integrated into decision-making for national targets and global biofuel promotion efforts. - Highlights: > Hardy biofuel crops like Jatropha replace edible feedstocks that use arable land. > In Rajasthan, Jatropha displaces grazing and forage on both public and private land. > As Jatropha plantations mature, the loss of grass becomes more pronounced. > Unconsidered impacts negate the benefits that the biodiesel program aims to create. > Local land-use impacts need to be integrated into decision-making.

  13. Environmental Impact Assessment of Sand Mining from the Small Catchment Rivers in the Southwestern Coast of India: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreebha, Sreedharan; Padmalal, Damodaran

    2011-01-01

    In the past few decades, the demand for construction grade sand is increasing in many parts of the world due to rapid economic development and subsequent growth of building activities. This, in many of the occasions, has resulted in indiscriminate mining of sand from instream and floodplain areas leading to severe damages to the river basin environment. The case is rather alarming in the small catchment rivers like those draining the southwestern coast of India due to limited sand resources in their alluvial reaches. Moreover, lack of adequate information on the environmental impact of river sand mining is a major lacuna challenging regulatory efforts in many developing countries. Therefore, a scientific assessment is a pre-requisite in formulating management strategies in the sand mining-hit areas. In this context, a study has been made as a case to address the environmental impact of sand mining from the instream and floodplain areas of three important rivers in the southwestern coast of India namely the Chalakudy, Periyar and Muvattupuzha rivers, whose lowlands host one of the fast developing urban-cum-industrial centre, the Kochi city. The study reveals that an amount of 11.527 million ty-1 of sand (8.764 million ty-1 of instream sand and 2.763 million ty-1 of floodplain sand) is being mined from the midland and lowland reaches of these rivers for construction of buildings and other infrastructural facilities in Kochi city and its satellite townships. Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) carried out as a part of this investigation shows that the activities associated with mining and processing of sands have not only affected the health of the river ecosystems but also degraded its overbank areas to a large extent. Considering the degree of degradation caused by sand mining from these rivers, no mining scenario may be opted in the deeper zones of the river channels. Also, a set of suggestions are made for the overall improvement of the rivers and its

  14. Impact of community-based health insurance in rural India on self-medication & financial protection of the insured

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M Dror

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: The evidence-base of the impact of community-based health insurance (CBHI on access to healthcare and financial protection in India is weak. We investigated the impact of CBHI in rural Uttar Pradesh and Bihar s0 tates of India on insured households′ self-medication and financial position. Methods: Data originated from (i household surveys, and (ii the Management Information System of each CBHI. Study design was "staggered implementation" cluster randomized controlled trial with enrollment of one-third of the treatment group in each of the years 2011, 2012 and 2013. Around 40-50 per cent of the households that were offered to enroll joined. The benefits-packages covered outpatient care in all three locations and in-patient care in two locations. To overcome self-selection enrollment bias, we constructed comparable control and treatment groups using Kernel Propensity Score Matching (K-PSM. To quantify impact, both difference-in-difference (DiD, and conditional-DiD (combined K-PSM with DiD were used to assess robustness of results. Results: Post-intervention (2013, self-medication was less practiced by insured HHs. Fewer insured households than uninsured households reported borrowing to finance care for non-hospitalization events. Being insured for two years also improved the HH′s location along the income distribution, namely insured HHs were more likely to experience income quintile-upgrade in one location, and less likely to experience a quintile-downgrade in two locations. Interpretation & conclusions: The realized benefits of insurance included better access to healthcare, reduced financial risks and improved economic mobility, suggesting that in our context health insurance creates welfare gains. These findings have implications for theoretical, ethical, policy and practice considerations.

  15. Impact assessment of El Nino and La Nina episodes on local/regional monsoon rainfall in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Sureuder; Rao, V.U.M.; Shigh, Diwan

    2002-08-01

    Large scale atmospheric circulation's and climatic anomalies have been shown to have a significant impact on seasonal weather over many parts of the world. In the present paper an attempt has been made to examine regional monsoon dynamics in relation with El Nino and La Nina episodes. The investigation was earned out for the meteorological sub- division's comprising the areas of Haryana, Delhi and Chandigarh in India. The monthly monsoon rainfall data of different locations in the region and corresponding data on El Nino and La Nina episodes for the period of 30 years (1970-99) were used for this investigation. During the El Nino episodes, various locations experienced excess rainfall in monsoon ranged between 11 and 22 percent. Under the influence of La Nina episodes, the probability of excess monsoon rainfall at different locations in the sub-division ranged between 13 and 25 percent. However, many locations viz., Hisar, Bhiwani, Gurgaon, Delhi and Chandigarh received deficient monsoon rainfall which was contrary to the global belief of the association between SST anomalies and rainfall distribution. No significant association was observed between El Nino and La Nina and monsoon rainfall at different locations in the entire sub-division. However, there was a strong relationship between these SST anomalies and all India monsoon rainfall over the period under study (1970-99). (author)

  16. Impact of Rainfall, Land-Cover and Population Growth on Groundwater - A Case Study From Karnataka State, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastav, R. K.; Chinnapa Reddy, A. R.

    2015-12-01

    Recent trends in climate, land-use pattern and population has affected almost every portable water resources in the world. Due to depleting surface water and untimely distribution of precipitation, the demand to use groundwater has increased considerably. Further recent studies have shown that the groundwater stress is more in developing countries like India. This study focuses on understanding the impacts of three major factors (i.e., rainfall, land-cover and population growth) effecting the groundwater levels. For this purpose, the correlation between the trends in groundwater time series is compared with trends in rainfall, land-cover and population growth. To detect the trends in time series, two statistical methods namely, least square method and Mann-Kendall method, are adopted. The results were analyzed based on the measurements from 1800 observation wells in the Karnataka state, India. The data is obtained for a total of 9 year time period ranging from 2005 to 2013. A gridded precipitation data of 0.5o× 0.5o over the entire region is used. The change in land-cover and population data was approximately obtained from the local governing bodies. The early results show significant correlation between rainfall and groundwater time series trends. The outcomes will assess the vulnerability of groundwater levels under changing physical and hydroclimatic conditions, especially under climate change.

  17. Impact of electricity prices and volumetric water allocation on energy and groundwater demand management: analysis from Western India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, M.D.

    2005-01-01

    In recent years, power tariff policy has been increasingly advocated as a mean to influence groundwater use and withdrawal decisions of farmers in view of the failure of existing direct and indirect regulations on groundwater withdrawal in India. Many researchers argue that pro rata electricity tariff, with built in positive marginal cost of pumping could bring about efficient use of the resource, though some argue that the levels of tariff in which demand becomes elastic to pricing are too high to be viable from political and socio-economic points of view. The paper presents a theoretical model to analyze farmers' response to changes in power tariff and water allocation regimes vis a vis energy and groundwater use. It validates the model by analyzing water productivity in groundwater irrigation under different electricity pricing structures and water allocation regimes. Water productivity was estimated using primary data of gross crop inputs, cost of all inputs, and volumetric water inputs. The analysis shows that unit pricing of electricity influences groundwater use efficiency and productivity positively. It also shows that the levels of pricing at which demand for electricity and groundwater becomes elastic to tariff are socio-economically viable. Further, water productivity impacts of pricing would be highest when water is volumetrically allocated with rationing. Therefore, an effective power tariff policy followed by enforcement of volumetric water allocation could address the issue of efficiency, sustainability and equity in groundwater use in India

  18. Assessing the Ecological and Socio-Economic Impacts of Extensive Small Hydropower Development in the Western Ghats of Karnataka, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jumani, S.

    2016-12-01

    The growth of small hydro-power projects (SHPs) is being widely encouraged as they are believed to be environmentally sustainable and socially equitable sources of energy. Easy policies, carbon credits and government sponsored monetary incentives have led to the mushrooming of SHPs along most tropical rivers, especially in developing countries. Our field study conducted between December, 2013 and September, 2014 assessed the social and ecological impacts of a cluster of SHPs in the biodiversity hotspot of the Western Ghats in India. Ecological impacts were studied with respect to freshwater fish assemblages, river water parameters, forest fragmentation and spread of invasive species. Social surveys were conducted to understand impacts on SHPs on socio-economic activities, resource access and human-animal conflict. Ecological impacts were found to be substantial. Freshwater fish species richness was significantly higher in un-dammed sites, and this variation in richness was explained by dam-related variables. Within dammed streams, spatial sections that were particularly damaging were identified. Fish species and guilds that were particularly susceptible to be adversely impacted were identified as indicator species. Four SHPs having a cumulative capacity of 45MW led to a direct loss of 14.5ha of forest land. Resultant loss in canopy cover and spread of invasive plant species was quantified. More than 10% of the river stretch was left de-watered due to the dams. Socially, SHPs were not as beneficial as they are believed to be. Respondents claimed that human-elephant conflict began only after SHP construction began. This relationship was examined with secondary data, and found to be true. In light of our findings, we suggest that the policy regarding SHPs be revised. Given that 6474 sites have been identified for SHP development in India, all without any individual or cumulative impact assessments or public consultations, studies to understand their impacts at the

  19. Impact of improving vehicle front design on the burden of pedestrian injuries in Germany, the United States, and India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Dane; Bose, Dipan; Bhalla, Kavi

    2017-11-17

    European car design regulations and New Car Assessment Program (NCAP) ratings have led to reductions in pedestrian injuries. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of improving vehicle front design on mortality and morbidity due to pedestrian injuries in a European country (Germany) and 2 countries (the United States and India) that do not have pedestrian-focused NCAP testing or design regulations. We used data from the International Road Traffic and Accident Database and the Global Burden of Disease project to estimate baseline pedestrian deaths and nonfatal injuries in each country in 2013. The effect of improved passenger car star ratings on probability of pedestrian injury was based on recent evaluations of pedestrian crash data from Germany. The effect of improved heavy motor vehicle (HMV) front end design on pedestrian injuries was based on estimates reported by simulation studies. We used burden of disease methods to estimate population health loss by combining the burden of morbidity and mortality in disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) lost. Extrapolating from evaluations in Germany suggests that improving front end design of cars can potentially reduce the burden of pedestrian injuries due to cars by up to 24% in the United States and 41% in India. In Germany, where cars comply with the United Nations regulation on pedestrian safety, additional improvements would have led to a 1% reduction. Similarly, improved HMV design would reduce DALYs lost by pedestrian victims hit by HMVs by 20% in each country. Overall, improved vehicle design would reduce DALYs lost to road traffic injuries (RTIs) by 0.8% in Germany, 4.1% in the United States, and 6.7% in India. Recent evaluations show a strong correlation between Euro NCAP pedestrian scores and real-life pedestrian injuries, suggesting that improved car front end design in Europe has led to substantial reductions in pedestrian injuries. Although the United States has fewer pedestrian crashes, it would

  20. The Global Mental Health movement and its impact on traditional healing in India: A case study of the Balaji temple in Rajasthan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sood, Anubha

    2016-12-01

    This article considers the impact of the global mental health discourse on India's traditional healing systems. Folk mental health traditions, based in religious lifeways and etiologies of supernatural affliction, are overwhelmingly sought by Indians in times of mental ill-health. This is despite the fact that the postcolonial Indian state has historically considered the popularity of these indigenous treatments regressive, and claimed Western psychiatry as the only mental health system befitting the country's aspirations as a modern nation-state. In the last decade however, as global mental health concerns for scaling up psychiatric interventions and instituting bioethical practices in mental health services begin to shape India's mental health policy formulations, the state's disapproving stance towards traditional healing has turned to vehement condemnation. In present-day India, traditional treatments are denounced for being antithetical to global mental health tenets and harmful for the population, while biomedical psychiatry is espoused as the only legitimate form of mental health care. Based on ethnographic research in the Hindu healing temple of Balaji, Rajasthan, and analysis of India's mental health policy environment, I demonstrate how the tenor of the global mental health agenda is negatively impacting the functioning of the country's traditional healing sites. I argue that crucial changes in the therapeutic culture of the Balaji temple, including the disappearance of a number of key healing rituals, are consequences of global mental health-inspired policy in India which is reducing the plural mental health landscape.

  1. Economic Liberalization in 1991 and Its Impact on Elementary Education in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Venkatanarayanan

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The basic foundation of policy making had undergone profound shifts over the past two decades as the policy makers are inclined to rely heavily on the exercise of power in their pursuit of development and prosperity. Government interventionism was subject to a strong intellectual and political backlash, and a new ideological movement seeking to redefine the role of government rose to take its place. This new political–economic liberalism insisted on the removal of governments’ grip over the economy and the introduction of open competition into economic life. Thus, the market emerged as the central actor governing economic activity during the 1990s, and the ethos of neoliberalism progressively entrenched itself into law and public institutions in India. This change in “policy paradigms” implies a substantial reorganization of domestic political economies for an efficient governance of political and economic institutions in a longer run. This article attempts to look at the changes in “policy paradigms” that happened after 1990 in the domain of educational governance in India. Along with the policy changes, there happened a watershed in constitutional rights, making right to education a fundamental right of every citizen. This article further inquires how far the state has endeavored to fulfill its objective of providing quality education for all children within these economic and political changes. Indian states’ financial obligation toward elementary education and the policy directions during the period after 1990 were thoroughly analyzed to find out the commitment of state in providing universal elementary education of good quality in India.

  2. Clinical impact and cost-effectiveness of expanded voluntary HIV testing in India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kartik K Venkatesh

    Full Text Available Despite expanding access to antiretroviral therapy (ART, most of the estimated 2.3 to 2.5 million HIV-infected individuals in India remain undiagnosed. The questions of whom to test for HIV and at what frequency remain unclear.We used a simulation model of HIV testing and treatment to examine alternative HIV screening strategies: 1 current practice, 2 one-time, 3 every five years, and 4 annually; and we applied these strategies to three population scenarios: 1 the general Indian population ("national population", i.e. base case (HIV prevalence 0.29%; incidence 0.032/100 person-years [PY]; 2 high-prevalence districts (HIV prevalence 0.8%; incidence 0.088/100 PY, and 3 high-risk groups (HIV prevalence 5.0%; incidence 0.552/100 PY. Cohort characteristics reflected Indians reporting for HIV testing, with a median age of 35 years, 66% men, and a mean CD4 count of 305 cells/µl. The cost of a rapid HIV test was $3.33. Outcomes included life expectancy, HIV-related direct medical costs, incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs, and secondary transmission benefits. The threshold for "cost-effective" was defined as 3x the annual per capita GDP of India ($3,900/year of life saved [YLS], or for "very cost-effective" was <1x the annual per capita GDP ($1,300/YLS.Compared to current practice, one-time screening was very cost-effective in the national population (ICER: $1,100/YLS, high-prevalence districts (ICER: $800/YLS, and high-risk groups (ICER: $800/YLS. Screening every five years in the national population (ICER: $1,900/YLS and annual screening in high-prevalence districts (ICER: $1,900/YLS and high-risk groups (ICER: $1,800/YLS were also cost-effective. Results were most sensitive to costs of care and linkage-to-care.In India, voluntary HIV screening of the national population every five years offers substantial clinical benefit and is cost-effective. Annual screening is cost-effective among high-risk groups and in high-prevalence districts

  3. Impact of Urban Growth and Urbanization on the Environmental Degradation of Lakes in Hyderabad City, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandan, M. J.; Sen, M. K.; Harini, P.; Sekhar, B. M.; Balaji, T.

    2013-12-01

    Lakes are a vital part of urban ecosystems which perform important ecological and environmental functions to safeguard local climate, groundwater and habitat. The incessant population growth coupled with low urban planning is causing severe damage to urban ecosystems throughout the world. Hyderabad is one of the largest growing metropolitan cities of India covering an area of 65000 ha situated on the banks of Musi River in the northern part of the Deccan Plateau. The city had a population of 1.25 million in 1961 which increased to 6.8 million in 2011 with a metropolitan population of 7.75 million, making it India's fourth most populous city and sixth most populous urban agglomeration. Hyderabad is popularly known as 'City of Lakes' which occupies the top position in India in terms of Urban Lakes. In 20th century, the number of lakes were around 925 which are now reduced to 521 and most of these lakes are facing extinction. The water spread area of these lakes has been considerably reduced due to steady urban growth and the carrying capacity and ecological status of these urban lakes are in real danger. Many of these lakes have shrunk in size while the waters of several lakes got polluted with the discharge of untreated domestic and industrial effluents. Taking into consideration the environmental degradation of urban lakes, an attempt was made to study the current status, loss of water bodies and water spread using remote sensing and GIS techniques. Time-series satellite images of MSS, IRS and RESOURCESAT and Survey of India maps of 1:50,000 and 1:25,000 were used for this study. Analysis of these together with other data sets was accomplished through integrated use of ERDAS Imagine Arc view and ArcGIS software packages. It is estimated that there were 925 lakes in 1982 in erstwhile Hyderabad Urban Development Authority (HUDA) area which came down to 521 in 2012. A total number of 404 lakes disappeared during the last 30 years period. Consequently the water spread

  4. Impact of reform and privatisation on employees a case study of power sector reform in Orissa, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kundu, Goutam Kumar; Mishra, Bidhu Bhusan

    2012-01-01

    Orissa is the first state in India to have undergone reform in the power sector with the Government withdrawing its control. The state government owned integrated Electricity Board which was responsible for generation, transmission and distribution of electricity was unbundled into separate generating, transmitting, distributing and trading companies. The structure and ownership changed. The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of the reform and privatization on employees. The impact of reform on employees was measured with the help of multiple regression models. The variables represent the parameters that employees are most interested in, and the regression coefficients represent the weights of the corresponding variables. The data were collected using a survey methodology. The impact of reform was observed to be mixed one. Some employees felt benefits while others mentioned negative impact. The study revealed beneficial aspects of reform and areas with no benefits. - Highlights: ► Employee benefit is a linear function of 11 variables. ► Eleven variables predict 95.8% of employees benefit. ► Money received by the employees increased after reform. ► Employees benefit due to reform is a mixed one.

  5. India's nuclear spin-off

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaul, Ravi.

    1974-01-01

    After examining world-wide reactions of the foreign governments and news media to the India's peaceful nuclear experiment (PNE) in the Rajasthan Desert on 18 May 1974, development of nuclear technology in India is assessed and its economic advantages are described. Implications of the Non-Proliferation Treaty are explained. Psychological impact of India's PNE on India's neighbours and superpowers and associated political problems in context of proliferation of nuclear weapons are discussed in detail. (M.G.B.)

  6. Impact of agriculture crop residue burning on atmospheric aerosol loading – a study over Punjab State, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darshan Singh

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study deals with the impact of agriculture crop residue burning on aerosol properties during October 2006 and 2007 over Punjab State, India using ground based measurements and multi-satellite data. Spectral aerosol optical depth (AOD and Ångström exponent (α values exhibited larger day to day variation during crop residue burning period. The monthly mean Ångström exponent "α" and turbidity parameter "β" values during October 2007 were 1.31±0.31 and 0.36±0.21, respectively. The higher values of "α" and "β" suggest turbid atmospheric conditions with increase in fine mode aerosols over the region during crop residue burning period. AURA-OMI derived Aerosol Index (AI and Nitrogen dioxide (NO2 showed higher values over the study region during October 2007 compared to October 2006 suggesting enhanced atmospheric pollution associated with agriculture crop residue burning.

  7. Which is the best solar thermal collection technology for electricity generation in north-west India? Evaluation of options using the analytical hierarchy process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nixon, J.D.; Davies, P.A. [Sustainable Environment Research Group, School of Engineering and Applied Science, Aston University, Aston Triangle, Birmingham, B4 7ET (United Kingdom); Dey, P.K. [Aston Business School, Aston University, Aston Triangle, Birmingham, B4 7ET (United Kingdom)

    2010-12-15

    This study of concentrating solar thermal power generation sets out to evaluate the main existing collection technologies using the framework of the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP). It encompasses parabolic troughs, heliostat fields, linear Fresnel reflectors, parabolic dishes, compound parabolic concentrators and linear Fresnel lenses. These technologies are compared based on technical, economic and environmental criteria. Within these three categories, numerous sub-criteria are identified; similarly sub-alternatives are considered for each technology. A literature review, thermodynamic calculations and an expert workshop have been used to arrive at quantitative and qualitative assessments. The methodology is applied principally to a case study in Gujarat in north-west India, though case studies based on the Sahara Desert, Southern Spain and California are included for comparison. A sensitivity analysis is carried out for Gujarat. The study concludes that the linear Fresnel lens with a secondary compound parabolic collector, or the parabolic dish reflector, is the preferred technology for north-west India. (author)

  8. Which is the best solar thermal collection technology for electricity generation in north-west India? Evaluation of options using the analytical hierarchy process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nixon, J.D.; Dey, P.K.; Davies, P.A.

    2010-01-01

    This study of concentrating solar thermal power generation sets out to evaluate the main existing collection technologies using the framework of the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP). It encompasses parabolic troughs, heliostat fields, linear Fresnel reflectors, parabolic dishes, compound parabolic concentrators and linear Fresnel lenses. These technologies are compared based on technical, economic and environmental criteria. Within these three categories, numerous sub-criteria are identified; similarly sub-alternatives are considered for each technology. A literature review, thermodynamic calculations and an expert workshop have been used to arrive at quantitative and qualitative assessments. The methodology is applied principally to a case study in Gujarat in north-west India, though case studies based on the Sahara Desert, Southern Spain and California are included for comparison. A sensitivity analysis is carried out for Gujarat. The study concludes that the linear Fresnel lens with a secondary compound parabolic collector, or the parabolic dish reflector, is the preferred technology for north-west India.

  9. Evaluation of Workload and its Impact on Satisfaction Among Pharmacy Academicians in Southern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Akram; Khan, Muhammad Umair; Srikanth, Akshaya B; Patel, Isha; Nagappa, Anantha Naik; Jamshed, Shazia Qasim

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the level of workload among pharmacy academicians working in public and private sector universities in India. The study also aimed to assess the satisfaction of academicians towards their workload. A cross-sectional study was conducted for a period of 2 months among pharmacy academicians in Karnataka state of Southern India. Convenience sampling was used to select a sample and was contacted via email and/or social networking sites. Questionnaire designed by thorough review literature was used as a tool to collect data on workload (teaching, research, extracurricular services) and satisfaction. Of 214 participants, 95 returned the filled questionnaire giving the response rate of 44.39%. Private sector academicians had more load of teaching (p=0.046) and they appeared to be less involved in research activities (p=0.046) as compared to public sector academicians. More than half of the respondents (57.9%) were satisfied with their workload with Assistant Professors were least satisfied as compared to Professors (p=0.01). Overall, private sector academicians are more burdened by teaching load and also are less satisfied of their workload. Revision of private universities policies may aid in addressing this issue.

  10. Cultural context and impact of alcohol use in the Sundarban Delta, West Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Arabinda N; Ramakrishna, Jayashree; Chakraborty, Ajoy K; Weiss, Mitchell G

    2006-08-01

    Hazardous alcohol consumption is a worldwide problem with many locally distinctive features across cultures, but studies to guide policy in developing countries are notably lacking. This community study aimed to clarify local patterns of alcohol use in six villages of West Bengal, India. It considered the variety of local alcoholic preparations, who consumed them, when, and where. It sought to determine how social changes in the region influence changing patterns of acceptable and problem use of alcohol. Ethnographic methods included participant observation and focus group discussions. The qualitative data analysis of field notes and transcripts included a review of full texts and a computer-assisted analysis of thematically coded segments with reference to a structured agenda. We found that drinking is an integral feature of the cultural landscape. Locally brewed rice beer (handia), palm wine (tadi), distilled country liquor (chullu), and so-called Indian-made foreign liquor (IMFL) are consumed in these villages. Each is identified with particular segments of society and settings in these communities. Reported effects of problem drinking included social disturbances, family discord, and domestic violence. Increasing problem alcohol use was attributed by villagers to social changes resulting from development, which were otherwise valued, such as improved transportation and communications. In a field dominated by Western and urban studies, this research clarifies features of alcohol availability, use, and acceptance in a neglected rural area of India. It illustrates the limitations of western clinical models of dependence and the importance of clarifying sociocultural conditions that define locally acceptable and problem use.

  11. Impact of water management interventions on hydrology and ecosystem services in Garhkundar-Dabar watershed of Bundelkhand region, Central India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ramesh; Garg, Kaushal K.; Wani, Suhas P.; Tewari, R. K.; Dhyani, S. K.

    2014-02-01

    Bundelkhand region of Central India is a hot spot of water scarcity, land degradation, poverty and poor socio-economic status. Impacts of integrated watershed development (IWD) interventions on water balance and different ecosystem services are analyzed in one of the selected watershed of 850 ha in Bundelkhand region. Improved soil, water and crop management interventions in Garhkundar-Dabar (GKD) watershed of Bundelkhand region in India enhanced ET to 64% as compared to 58% in untreated (control) watershed receiving 815 mm annual average rainfall. Reduced storm flow (21% vs. 34%) along with increased base flow (4.5% vs. 1.2%) and groundwater recharge (11% vs. 7%) of total rainfall received were recorded in treated watershed as compared to untreated control watershed. Economic Water productivity and total income increased from 2.5 to 5.0 INR m-3 and 11,500 to 27,500 INR ha-1 yr-1 after implementing integrated watershed development interventions in GKD watershed, respectively. Moreover IWD interventions helped in reducing soil loss more than 50% compared to control watershed. The results demonstrated that integrated watershed management practices addressed issues of poverty in GKD watershed. Benefit to cost ratio of project interventions was found three and pay back period within four years suggest economic feasibility to scale-up IWD interventions in Bundelkhend region. Scaling-up of integrated watershed management in drought prone rainfed areas with enabling policy and institutional support is expected to promote equity and livelihood along with strengthening various ecosystem services, however, region-specific analysis is needed to assess trade-offs for downstream areas along with onsite impact.

  12. Submergence analysis of the proposed Ken Betwa Dam (Madhya Pradesh India, using geospatial technology in Environmental Impact Assessments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goparaju Laxmi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study has analysed the Landsat 8 OLI data (December 2016 to delineate the various land use/land cover classes of the area which will be submerged by the proposed Daudhan/Greater Gangau Dam, which is part of the proposed Ken Betwa River Link Project (in the Madhya Pradesh state of India and also the area likely to be submerged in the Panna Tiger Reserve (PTR. The proposed area of submergence was computed at various full reservoir lengths (FRL, 278 m, 283 m, 288 m, 289 m and 293 m. Similarly the area of submergence for the Panna Tiger Reserve was computed at the mentioned FRLs. It was concluded that a large part of the Panna Tiger Reserve would be submerged and habitat of various animals and plants would be under threat. In comparison with the figures given in the Environmental Impact Assessment certain serious discrepancies and weaknesses were detected and it was felt that they should have been addressed. The results were compared with the EIA – EMP report of the Ken-Betwa link project, Phase 1, prepared by Agricultural Finance Corporation Limited for the National Water Development Agency (Ministry of Water Resources, River Development and Ganga Rejuvenation, Government of India. A proper evaluation of the negative impacts would help when making relevant decisions and appropriate steps to ensure that the loss is kept to a minimum. Safeguarding the biodiversity of forests and wildlife habitats should be the priority as their loss is irreplaceable. Geospatial technology helps in studying the overall spatial view of the proposed submergence area and the visualization gives a clear picture of the likely scenario in the future. It would assist in decision making and mitigation measures.

  13. Social Metabolism and Environmental Conflicts in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan Martinez-Alier

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper explains the methods for counting the energy and material flows in the economy, and gives the main results of the Material Flows for the economy of India between 1961 and 2008 as researched by Simron Singh et al (2012. Drawing on work done in the EJOLT project, some illustrations are given of the links between the changing social metabolism and ecological distribution conflicts, looking at responses in Odisha to bauxite mining, at conflicts on sand mining, at disputes on waste management options in Delhi and at ship dismantling in Alang, Gujarat. The aim is to show how a history of social metabolism, of socio-environmental conflicts, and of the changing valuation languages deployed by various social actors in such conflicts, could be written in a common framework.

  14. Geological and Rock Mechanics Perspectives for Underground Coal Gasification in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ajay K.; Singh, Rajendra

    2017-07-01

    The geological resources of coal in India are more than 308 billion tonnes upto a depth of 1200 m, out of which proved reserve has been reported at around 130 billion tonnes. There is an increasing requirement to increase the energy extraction efficiency from coal as the developmental prospects of India increase. Underground coal gasification (UCG) is a potential mechanism which may be utilized for extraction of deep-seated coal reserves. Some previous studies suggest that lignites from Gujarat and Rajasthan, along with tertiary coals from northeastern India can be useful from the point of view of UCG. We discuss some geological literature available for these areas. Coming to the rock mechanics perspectives, during UCG the rock temperature is considerable high. At this temperature, most empirical models of rock mechanics may not be applied. In this situation, the challenges for numerical modelling of UCG sites increases manifold. We discuss some of the important modelling geomechanical issues related to UCG in India.

  15. Design and Baseline Findings of a Multi-site Non-randomized Evaluation of the Effect of a Health Programme on Microfinance Clients in India

    OpenAIRE

    Saha, Somen

    2013-01-01

    Microfinance is the provision of financial services for the poor. Health program through microfinance has the potential to address several access barriers to health. We report the design and baseline findings of a multi-site non-randomized evaluation of the effect of a health program on the members of two microfinance organizations from Karnataka and Gujarat states of India. Villages identified for roll-out of health services with microfinance were pair-matched with microfinance only villages...

  16. Rare metal and rare earth pegmatites of Western India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maithani, P.B.; Nagar, R.K.

    1999-01-01

    Rajasthan Mica Belt in western India is one of the three major mica-producing Proterozoic pegmatite belts of India, the others being in Bihar and Andhra Pradesh. The pegmatites of these mica belts, in general, are associated with the rare metal (RM) and rare earth element (REE)-bearing minerals like columbite-tantalite, beryl, lepidolite and other multiple oxides. RM-REE pegmatites of Gujarat are devoid of commercially workable mica. These pegmatites are geologically characterised in this paper, based on their association with granite plutons geochemistry, and RM and REE potential. In addition to RM and RE-bearing pegmatites, granites of the Umedpur area, Gujarat also show anomalous concentration (0.97 wt%) of rare metals (6431 ppm Nb, 1266 ppm Ta, 454 ppm Sn, 173 ppm W), (1098 ppm Ce 1.36% Y 2 O 3 ) rare earths, and uranium (0.40% eU 3 O 8 ). Eluvial concentrations in the soil and panned concentrate (0.04-0.28 wt%) analysed up to 7.4%Nb 2 O 5 , 836 ppm Ta, and 1.31% Y. Discrete columbite-tantalite and betafite have been identified in these concentrates in addition to other minerals like zircon, rutile, sphene and xenotime. This area with discrete RM R EE mineral phases could be significant as a non-pegmatite source for rare metal and rare earths. (author)

  17. Impact of the tsunami (December, 2004 on the long tailed macaque of Nicobar Islands, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuppusamy Sivakumar

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract
    We carried out a standard survey to assess the distribution and abundance of Macaca fascicularis umbrosa of Nicobar Islands (India after the tsunami which washed the whole region in 2004 and compared them with those reported for 2000. A total of 40 groups, comprising 814 monkeys, was sighted, group size varying from 7 to 98 animals (mean ± SD = 20.35 ± 1.82. There was no significant change in the number of groups sighted in the interior parts of the islands before and after the tsunami, whilst the number of groups sighted in coastal areas was significantly lower after the tsunami. Also, the adults/juveniles ratio in the group varied from ca. 1:1 to 1:0.4. A fairly low ratio of immatures to adult females suggests that the tsunami also affected the population structure of the monkeys. The destruction of major coastal fruit-trees exploited by monkeys might be the reason for their lower presence in coastal areas. Future restoring of fruit plantations could enhance the human-wildlife conflict.

    Riassunto
    Impatto dello tsunami (Dicembre 2004 sul macaco delle Isole Nicobar, India
    La distribuzione e l’abbondanza di Macaca fascicularis umbrosa sulle Isole Nicobar (India sono state stimate tramite campionamenti standardizzati dopo lo tsunami che ha colpito l’intera regione nel 2004 e comparate a quelle ottenute nel 2000. Sono stati avvistati 40 gruppi, formati da 7 a 98 animali (media ± DS = 20.35 ± 1.82, per un totale di 814 macachi. Non sono state rilevate variazioni significative del numero di gruppi presenti nelle parti interne delle isole, mentre sono diminuiti i gruppi osservati nelle foreste costiere. Il rapporto tra adulti e giovani è variato da circa 1:1 a 1:0.4. In particolare, il basso numero di giovani per femmina adulta suggerisce che lo tsunami possa aver influito negativamente sulla struttura della popolazione. La distruzione

  18. Impact of reform and privatization on consumers: A case study of power sector reform in Orissa, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kundu, Goutam Kumar; Mishra, Bidhu Bhusan

    2011-01-01

    Orissa is the first state in India to have undergone reform in the power sector, with the government withdrawing its control. The model of this reform is known as the WB-Orissa model. The goal of this paper is to examine the impact of this reform on consumers of electricity, which has been measured using multiple regression models. The variables represent the parameters that consumers are most interested in, and the regression coefficients represent the weights of the corresponding variables. The data were collected using a survey methodology. The impact of reform was found to be mixed. Some groups of consumers saw benefits, while others felt a negative impact. A focus group study was conducted to identify the variables of interest to consumers of electricity. The model was used to estimate consumer benefit and was validated using primary data and structural equation modeling. The study revealed beneficial aspects of reform and areas with no benefits. - Highlights: → Linear regression model with seven variables explains consumer benefit. → Governance issue exists after power sector reform of Orissa. → Reform benefited most consumers with a few exceptions. → Reform affected agricultural consumers.

  19. Perceived aesthetic impact of malocclusion in 16-24 year-old adults in the rural areas of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charu M Marya

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The purpose of this study was to assess the self-perception of patients toward their dental appearance using the aesthetic component (AC of index of orthodontic treatment need (IOTN index and whether age and gender had any influence on it. Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out to assess the perceived esthetic impact of malocclusion in 16-24 year-old subjects selected from the rural population of Faridabad, Haryana, India. The sample was divided into two groups, older adolescents and younger adults, and the AC of the IOTN index was applied. Results: The results showed that most subjects scored themselves as having an attractive dentition with no need for orthodontic treatment (60.91%. Gender-wise differences were not found to be statistically significant in relation to the perceived needs (P = 0.095, whereas age-wise differences were found to be statistically significant in relation to the perceived needs (P < 0.001. Conclusion: While the age seemed to have an impact on the perceived esthetic impact of malocclusion, the gender did not seemingly influence this self-perception.

  20. Modelling the impact of sanitation, population growth and urbanization on human emissions of Cryptosporidium to surface waters—a case study for Bangladesh and India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeulen, Lucie C.; de Kraker, Jelske; Hofstra, Nynke; Kroeze, Carolien; Medema, Gertjan

    2015-09-01

    Cryptosporidium is a protozoan parasite that can cause diarrhoea. Human faeces are an important source of Cryptosporidium in surface waters. We present a model to study the impact of sanitation, urbanization and population growth on human emissions of Cryptosporidium to surface waters. We build on a global model by Hofstra et al (2013 Sci. Total Environ. 442 10-9) and zoom into Bangladesh and India as illustrative case studies. The model is most sensitive to changes in oocyst excretion and infection rate, and to assumptions on the share of faeces reaching the surface water for different sanitation types. We find urban centres to be hotspots of human Cryptosporidium emissions. We estimate that 53% (Bangladesh) and 91% (India) of total emissions come from urban areas. 50% of oocysts come from only 8% (Bangladesh) and 3% (India) of the country area. In the future, population growth and urbanization may further deteriorate water quality in Bangladesh and India, despite improved sanitation. Under our ‘business as usual’ (‘sanitation improvements’) scenario, oocyst emissions will increase by a factor 2.0 (1.2) for India and 2.9 (1.1) for Bangladesh between 2010 and 2050. Population growth, urbanization and sanitation development are important processes to consider for large scale water quality modelling.

  1. Y-chromosomal insights into the genetic impact of the caste system in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerjal, Tatiana; Pandya, Arpita; Thangaraj, Kumarasamy; Ling, Edmund Y S; Kearley, Jennifer; Bertoneri, Stefania; Paracchini, Silvia; Singh, Lalji; Tyler-Smith, Chris

    2007-03-01

    The caste system has persisted in Indian Hindu society for around 3,500 years. Like the Y chromosome, caste is defined at birth, and males cannot change their caste. In order to investigate the genetic consequences of this system, we have analysed male-lineage variation in a sample of 227 Indian men of known caste, 141 from the Jaunpur district of Uttar Pradesh and 86 from the rest of India. We typed 131 Y-chromosomal binary markers and 16 microsatellites. We find striking evidence for male substructure: in particular, Brahmins and Kshatriyas (but not other castes) from Jaunpur each show low diversity and the predominance of a single distinct cluster of haplotypes. These findings confirm the genetic isolation and drift within the Jaunpur upper castes, which are likely to result from founder effects and social factors. In the other castes, there may be either larger effective population sizes, or less strict isolation, or both.

  2. Stakeholders' participatory diagnosis of climate change impacts on subsistence agriculture in Sikkim, India, for identifying adaptation strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azhoni, A.; Goyal, M. K.

    2017-12-01

    Narrowing the gap between research, policy making and implementing adaptation remains a challenge in many parts of the world where climate change is likely to severely impact subsistence agriculture. This research aims to narrow this gap by matching the adaptation strategies being framed by policy makers and perspectives of consultants and researchers which are expected to be implemented by development agencies farmers in the state of Sikkim in India. Our case study examined the framing and implementation of State Action Plan on Climate Change through semi-structured interviews carried out with decision makers in the State Government, Scientific Organisations, consultants, local academia, implementing and development agencies, and farmers for whom the adaptation strategies are targeted. Using Social Network and Stakeholder Analysis approach, this research unravels the complexities of perceiving climate change impacts, identifying adaptation strategies, and implementing climate change adaptation strategies. While farmers are less aware about the global phenomenon of climate change impacts for their subsistence livelihood, their knowledge of the local conditions and their close interaction with the State Government Agriculture Department provides them an access to new and high value crops. Although important steps are initiated through the Sikkim State Action Plan on Climate Change it is yet to deliver effective means of adaptation implementation and identifying the networks of close coordination between the various implementing agencies will likely to pay rich dividends. While Sikkim being a small and hilly state with specific contextual challenges of climate change impacts, the results from this study highlights how the internal and external networks between various types of stakeholders informs decision makers in identifying local impacts of climate change and plan adaptation strategies.

  3. Impact of tsunami on texture and mineralogy of a major placer deposit in southwest coast of India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babu, N.; Babu, D. S. Suresh; Das, P. N. Mohan

    2007-03-01

    The great Indonesian earth quake (26 December 2004) triggered a tsunami wave across the Bay of Bengal and Indian Ocean basins and has brought a major havoc in several countries including India. The coastal segment between Thotapalli and Valiazhikal in Kerala state of southwest India, where considerably rich beach placer deposit with ilmenite percentage of more than 70% is concentrated, has been investigated to understand the impact of tsunami on coastal sediments. The grain size analysis flashes out the significant differences between the pre- and post-tsunami littoral environments. While the mineral grains collected during pre-tsunami period show well-sorted nature, the post-tsunami samples represent moderately to poorly sorted nature. Similarly, unimodal and bimodal distributions of the sediments have been recorded for pre- and post-tsunami sediments, respectively. Further, mineral assemblages corresponding to before and after this major wave activity clearly indicate the large-scale redistribution of sediments. The post-tsunami sediments register increasing trends of garnet, sillimanite and rutile. The total heavy mineral percentage of the post-tsunami sediment also shows an improved concentration, perhaps due to the large-scale transport of lighter fraction. Magnetite percentage of post-tsunami samples reflects higher concentration compared to the pre-tsunami samples, indicating the intensity of reworking process. X-ray diffraction patterns of ilmenite grains have confirmed the increased presence of pseduorutile, and pseudobrookite in post-tsunami samples, which could be due to the mixing of more altered grains. SEM examination of grains also confirms the significant alteration patterns on the ubiquitous mineral of placer body, the ilmenite. The reason for these textural, mineralogical and micromorphological changes in heavy minerals particularly in ilmenite, could be due to the churning action on the deeper sediments of onshore region or on the sediments

  4. Environmental impact assessment of sand mining from the small catchment rivers in the southwestern coast of India: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreebha, Sreedharan; Padmalal, Damodaran

    2011-01-01

    In the past few decades, the demand for construction grade sand is increasing in many parts of the world due to rapid economic development and subsequent growth of building activities. This, in many of the occasions, has resulted in indiscriminate mining of sand from in-stream and floodplain areas leading to severe damages to the river basin environment. The case is rather alarming in the small catchment rivers like those draining the southwestern coast of India due to limited sand resources in their alluvial reaches. Moreover, lack of adequate information on the environmental impact of river sand mining is a major lacuna challenging regulatory efforts in many developing countries. Therefore, a scientific assessment is a pre-requisite in formulating management strategies in the sand mining-hit areas. In this context, a study has been made as a case to address the environmental impact of sand mining from the in-stream and floodplain areas of three important rivers in the southwestern coast of India namely the Chalakudy, Periyar and Muvattupuzha rivers, whose lowlands host one of the fast developing urban-cum-industrial centre, the Kochi city. The study reveals that an amount of 11.527 million ty(-1) of sand (8.764 million ty(-1) of in-stream sand and 2.763 million ty(-1) of floodplain sand) is being mined from the midland and lowland reaches of these rivers for construction of buildings and other infrastructural facilities in Kochi city and its satellite townships. Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) carried out as a part of this investigation shows that the activities associated with mining and processing of sands have not only affected the health of the river ecosystems but also degraded its overbank areas to a large extent. Considering the degree of degradation caused by sand mining from these rivers, no mining scenario may be opted in the deeper zones of the river channels. Also, a set of suggestions are made for the overall improvement of the rivers and its

  5. Indian Ocean: Zone of Peace or Conflict? The Impact of India’s Military Capability on Regional Stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-05-20

    East." Ghandi , 1921 CHAPTER I Introduction As early as 1964, Sri Lanka (Ceylon), with the support of India and other members of the non-aligned states...34of vital strategic interest to India," Prime Minister Indira Ghandi increasingly looked beyond the borders of India when defining national interests...not escape anyone. 36 Placing significant emphasis on "attaining self reliance for defence ... ," Indira Ghandi saw an ever increasing need for an

  6. Factors Impacting Mortality in the Pre-Hospital Period After Road Traffic Accidents in Urban India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasekharan, Ananthnarayan; Nanavati, Aditya J; Prabhakar, Sandhya; Prabhakar, Subramaniam

    2016-07-01

    India currently has the dubious distinction of experiencing the highest number of road traffic accidents in the world. We believe that this study on road traffic accidents may help to identify factors in the pre-hospital setting that may influence mortality rates. A prospective observational study was carried out in a metro area in India over a period of one year. The study included consecutive patients admitted to the trauma service after road traffic accidents. Demographic information, time and place of accident, and details regarding the vehicle and the events leading up to the hospital admission were recorded. Injury severity, management in the hospital, and final outcomes in terms of mortality were noted. The data were analyzed with SPSS software. A total of 773 patients were enrolled. Of these, there were 197 deaths and 576 survivors. The majority of patients were aged 15 - 40 years (67%) and were male (87.84%). More accidents occurred at night (58.2%) than during the day (41.8%). Mortality was not significantly associated with age, sex, or time of accident. City roads (38.9%) saw more accidents than highways (26.13%), but highway accidents were more likely to be fatal. Two-wheeler riders (37.65%) and pedestrians (35.75%) formed the majority of our study population. Mortality was significantly associated with crossing the road on foot (P = 0.004). Pillion riders on two-wheeler vehicles were more likely to experience poor outcomes (relative risk [RR] = 1.9, P = 0.001). Front-seat occupants in four-wheeler vehicles were at an increased risk of not surviving the accident (61.98%; RR=2.56, P = 0.01). Lack of safety gear, such as helmets, seat belts, and airbags, was significantly associated with mortality (P = 0.05). Delays in transfers of patients to the hospital and a lack of pre-hospital emergency services was significantly associated with increased mortality (P = 0.000). A lack of respect for the law, weak legislation and law enforcement, disregard for

  7. Impact and ecosystem service of forest and sacred grove as saviour of water quantity and quality in Garhwal Himalaya, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jana, Purna; Dasgupta, Sabyasachi; Todaria, Nagendra P

    2017-08-29

    The present study was conducted in environs of the sacred grove of Garhwal Himalaya, India, with a view to assess the impacts of sacred groves and forests on the quality and quantity of water and also to assess the effect of seasonality on perennial stream quality. Water samples were collected from three randomly selected stream spots of both the sacred grove dominated by deodar (Cedrus deodara) and the non-sacred patch dominated by oak (Quercus leucotrichophora). Water samples from both patches were within the World Health Organization (WHO) standard limits. Based on an already established water quality index, water quality of both patches was safe for domestic and irrigation purposes but needs treatment for drinking purposes. Results of the present study also showed a very prominent impact of forest type as well as management condition on water quality and quantity. The water discharge from an oak forest shows more consistency than the discharge from a deodar forest. Due to the presence of the sacred grove, the area has become the source of good quality water supply during lean season for the surrounding villages. Water quality and quantity differed along with the change in season. The sacred grove and the existing forest leave a great impression on local dwellers, as due to its presence, local dwellers never run out of water supply during the dry season. As a result, the villagers sincerely want to protect the area for the sake of their own well-being.

  8. Variations in pollinator density and impacts on large cardamom (Amomum subulatum Roxb. crop yield in Sikkim Himalaya, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kailash S. Gaira

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Large cardamom (Amomum subulatum Roxb., a perennial cash crop, cultivated under an agroforestry system in the eastern Himalaya of India, is well recognized as a pollination-dependent crop. Observations on pollinator abundance in Mamlay watershed of Sikkim Himalaya were collected during the blooming season to evaluate the pollinator abundance across sites and time frames, and impact of pollinator abundance on crop yield from 2010 to 2012. The results revealed that the bumblebees and honeybees are most frequent visitors of large cardamom flowers. The abundance of honeybees, however, varied between sites for the years 2010–2012, while that of bumblebees varied for the years 2011 and 2012. The abundance of honeybees resulted in a variation within time frames for 2010 and 2011, while that of bumblebees varied for 2010 and 2012 (p<0.01. The density of pollinators correlated positively with the number of flowers of the target crop. The impact of pollinator abundance revealed that the increasing bumblebee visitation resulted in a higher yield of the crop (i.e. 17–41 g/plant and the increasing abundance of all bees (21–41 g/plant was significant (p<0.03. Therefore, the study concluded that the large cardamom yield is sensitive to pollinator abundance and there is a need for adopting the best pollinator conservation and management practices toward sustaining the yield of large cardamom.

  9. Vulnerability and Tradeoffs of Dairy Farmers to the Impacts of Climate Variability and Change in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radhakrishnan, A.; Gupta, J.; R, D.

    2016-12-01

    In recent years climate variability has threatened the sustainability of dairy animals and dairy farming in India. The study aims at assessing the vulnerability and tradeoffs of Dairy Based Livelihoods to Climate Variability and Change in the Western Ghat ecosystem and for this purpose; data were aggregated to an overall Livelihood Vulnerability Index (LVI) to Climate Change underlying the principles of IPCC, using 28 indicators and trade-off between vulnerability and milk production was calculated. Data were collected through Participatory Rural Appraisal and personal interviews from 360 randomly selected dairy farmers of three states of Western Ghat region, complemented by thirty years of gridded weather data and livestock data. The index score of dairy based livelihoods of many regions were negative. Lanja taluka of Maharashtra has highest level of vulnerability with overall LVI value -4.17 with 48% farmers falling in highly vulnerable category. There is also significant tradeoff between milk production and components of LVI. Thus our research will provide an important basis for policy makers to develop appropriate adaptation strategies for alarming situation and decision making for farmers to minimize the risk of dairy sector to climate variability.

  10. ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ON PHYSIOLOGICAL RESPONSES OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINERS IN THE EASTERN PART OF INDIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Netai Chandra; Nath, Suva; Sharma, Gourab Dhara; Mallik, Avijit

    2014-12-01

    Coal in India is extracted generally by semi-mechanized and mechanized underground mining methods. The Bord and Pillar (B & P) mining method still continues to be popular where deployment of manual miners is more than that of other mining methods. The study is conducted at haulage based mine of Eastern Coalfields of West Bengal. Underground miners confront with a lot of hazards like extreme hostile environment, awkward working posture, dust, noise as well as low luminosity. It is difficult to delay the onset of fatigue. In order to study the physiological responses of trammers, various parameters like working heart rates, net cardiac cost and relative cardiac cost including recovery heart rate patterns are recorded during their work at site. Workload classification of trammers has been done following various scales of heaviness. The effect of environment on the physiological responses has been observed and suitable recommendations are made. The work tasks are bound to induce musculoskeletal problems and those problems could be better managed through rationalizing the work-rest scheduling.

  11. Impact of work engagement on turnover intention: moderation by psychological capital in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manish Gupta

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available With increased number of employment opportunities in India, employers are increasingly finding it difficult to control employee turnover. Nonetheless, positive psychologists argue that one of the ways to face this challenge is by understanding the positive factors such as, work engagement and personal resources that negatively affect employees’ turnover intention. Therefore, the objective of this study is to examine the moderating role of psychological capital in the work engagement – employee turnover intention relationship. Hierarchical regression was used to analyze a sample of 228 employees working in diverse industries. The findings indicate that psychological capital moderates the relationship between work engagement and intention to turnover. The findings augment the theory of self and role by identifying moderating role of personal resources in strengthening the negative relationship between work engagement and turnover intention. Managers may take steps to enhance the employee-co-worker and employee-supervisor relationship either by promoting team related activities or by enabling their employees to work independently. Also, in order to save the cost of hiring a new candidate and losing an experienced employee, managers may create mechanisms for measuring work engagement of at least their key employees or a regular basis. This paper fulfils an identified need to study how psychological capital plays a key role in affecting the work engagement–employee turnover intention relationship in Indian context.

  12. The impact of caste on the growth of male Sikhs in Punjab, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, L P; Harrison, G A

    1997-01-01

    This study is based on a cross-sectional sample of 442 Sikh boys and young male adults who were born in and around the town of Phagwara, in the state of Punjab, India, and stayed there all their lives. The sample comprised Sikh boys at three crucial phases of growth, at 5-6, 10-11 and 15-16 years, and young adults around 18 years of age. The sample comprised three distinct caste groups, viz. Jats, Ramgarhias and Ravidassias, belonging respectively to upper, middle and lower socioeconomic strata of the Sikh community. Differences in stature and body weight are particularly marked around early adolescence, and there is some indication of caste differences reappearing in young adults. In the case of body mass index, however, the differences seem most marked in late adolescence. There is no clear directional pattern to the way skinfolds change, but inter-caste differences become more marked with age. There is a suggestion of continuing growth beyond 16 years of age, and indications that the well-off groups grow more, as compared to the poor groups, during this period. Comparisons of young adults with older groups of the same caste indicate an increase in body weight with age, but smaller stature in the older groups. There is thus evidence for a secular stature increase among present-day Punjabi Sikhs.

  13. Impact of different parameterization schemes on simulation of mesoscale convective system over south-east India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madhulatha, A.; Rajeevan, M.

    2018-02-01

    Main objective of the present paper is to examine the role of various parameterization schemes in simulating the evolution of mesoscale convective system (MCS) occurred over south-east India. Using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model, numerical experiments are conducted by considering various planetary boundary layer, microphysics, and cumulus parameterization schemes. Performances of different schemes are evaluated by examining boundary layer, reflectivity, and precipitation features of MCS using ground-based and satellite observations. Among various physical parameterization schemes, Mellor-Yamada-Janjic (MYJ) boundary layer scheme is able to produce deep boundary layer height by simulating warm temperatures necessary for storm initiation; Thompson (THM) microphysics scheme is capable to simulate the reflectivity by reasonable distribution of different hydrometeors during various stages of system; Betts-Miller-Janjic (BMJ) cumulus scheme is able to capture the precipitation by proper representation of convective instability associated with MCS. Present analysis suggests that MYJ, a local turbulent kinetic energy boundary layer scheme, which accounts strong vertical mixing; THM, a six-class hybrid moment microphysics scheme, which considers number concentration along with mixing ratio of rain hydrometeors; and BMJ, a closure cumulus scheme, which adjusts thermodynamic profiles based on climatological profiles might have contributed for better performance of respective model simulations. Numerical simulation carried out using the above combination of schemes is able to capture storm initiation, propagation, surface variations, thermodynamic structure, and precipitation features reasonably well. This study clearly demonstrates that the simulation of MCS characteristics is highly sensitive to the choice of parameterization schemes.

  14. Controls on water vapor isotopes over Roorkee, India: Impact of convective activities and depression systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saranya, P.; Krishan, Gopal; Rao, M. S.; Kumar, Sudhir; Kumar, Bhishm

    2018-02-01

    The study evaluates the water vapor isotopic compositions and its controls with special reference to Indian Summer Monsoon (ISM) season at Roorkee, India. Precipitation is usually a discrete event spatially and temporally in this part of the country, therefore, the information provided is limited, while, the vapors have all time availability and have a significant contribution in the hydrological cycle locally or over a regional scale. Hence for understanding the processes altering the various sources, its isotopic signatures were studied. The Isotope Water Vapour Line (Iso Val) was drawn together with the Global Meteoric Water Line (GMWL) and the best fit line was δD = 5.42 * δ18O + 27.86. The precipitation samples were also collected during the study period and were best fitted with δD = 8.20(±0.18) * δ18O + 9.04(±1.16) in the Local Meteoric Water Line (LMWL). From the back trajectory analysis of respective vapor samples, it is unambiguous that three major sources viz; local vapor, western disturbance and monsoon vapor are controlling the fate of moisture over Roorkee. The d-excess in ground-level vapor (GLV) reveals the supply of recycled moisture from continental water bodies and evapo-transpiration as additional moisture sources to the study area. The intensive depletion in isotopic ratios was associated with the large-scale convective activity and low-pressure/cyclonic/depression systems formed over Bay of Bengal.

  15. Impact of biogas interventions on forest biomass and regeneration in southern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Agarwala

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Programs to provide alternative energy sources such as biogas improve indoor air quality and potentially reduce pressure on forests from fuelwood collection. This study tests whether biogas intervention is associated with higher forest biomass and forest regeneration in degraded forests in Chikkaballapur district in Southern India. Using propensity score matching, we find that forest plots in proximity to villages with biogas interventions (treatment had greater forest biomass than comparable plots around villages without biogas (control. We also found significantly higher sapling abundance and diversity in treatment than control plots despite no significant difference in seedling abundances and diversity in treatment forests, suggesting that plants have a higher probability of reaching sapling stage. These results indicate the potential for alternative energy sources that reduce dependence on fuelwood to promote regeneration of degraded forests. However, forest regrowth is not uniform across treatments and is limited by soil nutrients and biased towards species that are light demanding, fire-resistant and can thrive in poor soil conditions.

  16. Occupational Heat Stress Impacts on Health and Productivity in a Steel Industry in Southern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnamurthy, Manikandan; Ramalingam, Paramesh; Perumal, Kumaravel; Kamalakannan, Latha Perumal; Chinnadurai, Jeremiah; Shanmugam, Rekha; Srinivasan, Krishnan; Venugopal, Vidhya

    2017-03-01

    Workers laboring in steel industries in tropical settings with high ambient temperatures are subjected to thermally stressful environments that can create well-known risks of heat-related illnesses and limit workers' productivity. A cross-sectional study undertaken in a steel industry in a city nicknamed "Steel City" in Southern India assessed thermal stress by wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT) and level of dehydration from urine color and urine specific gravity. A structured questionnaire captured self-reported heat-related health symptoms of workers. Some 90% WBGT measurements were higher than recommended threshold limit values (27.2-41.7°C) for heavy and moderate workloads and radiational heat from processes were very high in blooming-mill/coke-oven (67.6°C globe temperature). Widespread heat-related health concerns were prevalent among workers, including excessive sweating, fatigue, and tiredness reported by 50% workers. Productivity loss was significantly reported high in workers with direct heat exposures compared to those with indirect heat exposures (χ 2  = 26.1258, degrees of freedom = 1, p  industries enhancing welfare facilities and designing control interventions, further physiological studies with a seasonal approach and interventional studies are needed to strengthen evidence for developing comprehensive policies to protect workers employed in high heat industries.

  17. ECOLOGICAL STATUS AND IMPACT OF DISTURBANCE IN AN ALPINE PASTURE OF GARHWAL HIMALAYA, INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MANOJ DHAULAKHANDI

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The alpine area in Garhwal Himalaya is highly fragile and is known for its beautiful flora and fauna. The study area was located just below the Gangotri glacier which is the origin of Bhagirathi, a holy river of India. Pilgrimage, tourism, adventure activities and mules are the factors responsible for causing disturbance in this area. There is a remarkable variation in the values of diversity, species richness, dominance, density IVI and biomass production at Bhojbasa Protected (BP and Bhojbasa Disturbed (BD sites. The value of liveshoot biomass was highest in August (444 g m-2 on BP and 80 g m-2 on BD sites. Belowground biomass was also recorded highest for BP site and lowest for BD site. The ANP value at BP site was 363 g m-2 y-1 and 26 g m-2 y-1 at BD site.This area has shown decrease in diversity and productivity, and heavy soil erosion that indicate the consequence of increasing human activities due to pilgrimage, tourism and camping and frequent movement of mules carrying goods. Therefore, this area requires strict measures for biodiversity conservation and disaster mitigation.

  18. Potential impact of sand mining on macrobenthic community at Kalbadevi Beach, Ratnagiri, West coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sivadas, S.; Sautye, S.; Nanajkar, M.; Ingole, B.S.

    removal of sediment. However, the macro faunal parameters returned to the pre-disturbances values within a period of two months after disturbances, suggesting short-term impact of physical disturbances....

  19. People's perception on impacts of hydro-power projects in Bhagirathi river valley, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negi, G C S; Punetha, Disha

    2017-04-01

    The people's perception on environmental and socio-economic impacts due to three hydro-electric projects (HEPs; commissioned and under construction) were studied in the north-west Indian Himalaya. Surveys among 140 project-affected people (PAPs) using a checklist of impacts indicate that among the negative impacts, decrease in flora/fauna, agriculture, flow of river, aesthetic beauty; and increase in water pollution, river bed quarrying for sand/stone, human settlement on river banks and social evils; and among the positive impacts, increase in standard of living, road connectivity, means of transport, public amenities, tourism and environmental awareness were related with HEPs. The PAPs tend to forget the negative impacts with the age of the HEPs after it becomes functional, and the positive impacts seem to outweigh the negative impacts. Study concludes that it is difficult to separate the compounding impacts due to HEP construction and other anthropogenic and natural factors, and in the absence of cause-and-effect analyses, it is hard to dispel the prevailing notion that HEPs are undesirable in the study area that led to agitations by the environmentalists and stopped construction of one of these HEPs. To overcome the situation, multi-disciplinary scientific studies involving the PAPs need to be carried out in planning and decision-making to make HEPs environment friendly and sustainable in this region. There is also a need to adopt low carbon electric power technologies and promote a decentralized energy strategy through joint ventures between public and private companies utilizing locally available renewable energy resources.

  20. Discriminating the biophysical impacts of coastal upwelling and mud banks along the southwest coast of India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karnan, C.; Jyothibabu, R.; Arunpandi, N.; Jagadeesan, L.; Muraleedharan, K. R.; Pratihari, A. K.; Balachandran, K. K.; Naqvi, S. W. A.

    2017-08-01

    Coastal upwelling and mud banks are two oceanographic processes concurrently operating along certain stretches of the southwest (Kerala) coast of India during the Southwest Monsoon period (June-September), facilitating significant enhancement in plankton biomass. Mud banks have scientific and societal attention from time immemorial, predominantly due to the large fisheries associated with them. In this paper, for the first time, the specific biophysical roles of these oceanographic processes have been discriminated, based on a focused 18 weekly/fortnightly time-series study (April to September 2014) in a mud bank-upwelling area (off Alappuzha, southwest coast of India). In conjunction with standard hydrographical and satellite remote sensing data, we utilised a FlowCAM to track the biophysical linkage in terms of plankton composition abundance and size structure at three locations (M1, M2 and M3) in the study area. During the Pre-Southwest Monsoon (April-May), the entire study area was warmer with low nitrate concentration in the surface waters, which caused lower biomass of autotrophs compared to the Southwest Monsoon (June-September). By the onset of the Southwest Monsoon (June), drastic hydrographical transformations took place in the study domain due to the Coastal upwelling, reflected as the surfacing of significantly cool, high nutrient and hypoxic waters. Concurrently, mud bank formed at location M2 due to the presence of relatively high-suspended sediments in the region, creating a localised calm environment conducive for fishing activities. In response to the hydrographical transformations in the entire study area during the Southwest Monsoon, the autotrophic plankton biomass and size structure experienced significant change. The micro-autotrophs biomass that was low during the Pre-Southwest Monsoon (av. 0.33 ± 0.2 mgC L- 1 at surface and av. 0.07 ± 0.04 mgC L- 1 at subsurface) noticeably increased during the Southwest Monsoon (av. 1.6 ± 0.4 mgC L- 1 at

  1. The Danish East India Company

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Karsten Engsig

    2005-01-01

    The article analysis the first Danish East India Company incorporated in 1616, which was the first Danish Stock Company and which has impacts even on modern Danish company la......The article analysis the first Danish East India Company incorporated in 1616, which was the first Danish Stock Company and which has impacts even on modern Danish company la...

  2. IMPACT OF TSUNAMI 2004 IN COASTAL VILLAGES OF NAGAPATTINAM DISTRICT, INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Kumaraperumal

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTA quake-triggered tsunami lashed the Nagapattinam coast of southern India on December 26, 2004 at around 9.00 am (IST. The tsunami caused heavy damage to houses, tourist resorts, fishing boats, prawn culture ponds, soil and crops, and consequently affected the livelihood of large numbers of the coastal communities. The study was carried out in the Tsunami affected villages in the coastal Nagapattinam with the help of remote sensing and geographical information science tools. Through the use of the IRS 1D PAN and LISS 3 merged data and quick bird images, it was found that 1,320 ha of agricultural and non-agricultural lands were affected by the tsunami. The lands were affected by soil erosion, salt deposition, water logging and other deposited sediments and debris. The maximum run-up height of 6.1 m and the maximum seawater inundation distance of 2.2 km were observed at Vadakkupoyyur village in coastal Nagapattinam.Pre and Post Tsunami survey on soil quality showed an increase in pH and EC values, irrespectiveof distance from the sea. The water reaction was found to be in alkaline range (> 8.00 in most of the -1wells. Salinity levels are greater than 4 dS m in all the wells except the ring well. The effect of summer rainfall on soil and water quality showed the dilution of soluble salts. Pumping of water has reduced the salinity levels in the well water samples and as well as in the open ponds. Following the 2004 event, it has become apparent to know the relative tsunami hazard for this coastal Nagapattinam. So, the Tsunami hazard maps are generated using a geographical information systems (GIS approach and the results showed 20.6 per cent, 63.7 per cent and 15.2 per cent of the study area fall under high hazard, medium hazard and low hazard category respectively.

  3. Mid-IR Reflectance (DRIFT) Spectral Variations in Basaltic Mineralogy with Direction of Impact at Lonar Crater, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basavaiah, N.; Chavan, R. S.; Arif, M.

    2012-12-01

    Identification of spectral changes with the direction of impact has important implications for understanding the impact cratering phenomenon occurring on both terrestrial and extraterrestrial planets and also for geology of the crater. Fortuitously, Lonar Impact Crater (India) is the only well-preserved terrestrial simple crater excavated on Deccan basalts and serves as an excellent analogue to craters on Mars and Moon. An ~570 ka old Lonar crater was suggested to be formed by an oblique impact of a chondritic impactor that struck the pre-impact target from the east into a sequence of six basaltic Deccan flows and created a 1.88 km diameter crater with two layers of ejecta blanket. Here we report preliminary laboratory studies of spectral results on fine-grained rock powers (IR (4000-400 cm-1) Diffuse Reflectance Infrared Fourier Transform (DRIFT) spectroscopy. The basalts were collected from two profiles in the east and south sections of the crater wall and the upper most crater rim, which later subdivided into sector-wise samples to carry out a systematic study of spectral properties of Lonar basalts, together with impact related samples of breccias and impact melts. For the first time, data of the shock metamorphism of Lonar basalt is examined using DRIFT spectroscopy. Infrared spectra of rock powders of relatively unshocked and shocked basalts are obtained to document the mineralogical variations and the distribution of primary (e.g. Plagioclase Feldspar, Pyroxene), and secondary Phyllosilicate minerals (e.g. Illite, Smectite, Montmorillonite, Saponite, Serpentine) with direction of impact. The spectral data between pre-impact unshocked and post-impact shocked basalts are interpreted to reflect the effect of shock pressure and alteration that rock have undergone. On western crater rim sector, typical silicate spectral features in 900-1200 cm-1 which attributed to Si-O stretching, are observed to change slightly in the width and shift in position as a result of

  4. Impact of Cancer Awareness Drive on Generating Understanding and Improving Screening Practices for Breast Cancer: a Study on College Teachers in India

    OpenAIRE

    Shankar, Abhishek; Roy, Shubham; Rath, Goura Kishor; Chakraborty, Abhijit; Kamal, Vineet Kumar; Biswas, Aalekhya Sarma

    2017-01-01

    Background: Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women in India and most present at advanced stage. Although early detection is the only way to reduce morbidity and mortality, people have a very low awareness about breast cancer signs and symptoms and screening practices. The purpose of this study was to assess the level of awareness and impact of awareness programs in adoption of safe practices in prevention and early detection. Methods: This assessment was part of a pink chain camp...

  5. Monetary burden of health impacts of air pollution in Mumbai, India: implications for public health policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patankar, A M; Trivedi, P L

    2011-03-01

    Mumbai, a mega city with a population of more than 12 million, is experiencing acute air pollution due to commercial activity, a boom in construction and vehicular traffic. This study was undertaken to investigate the link between air pollution and health impacts for Mumbai, and estimate the monetary burden of these impacts. Cross-sectional data were subjected to logistic regression to analyse the link between air pollution and health impacts, and the cost of illness approach was used to measure the monetary burden of these impacts. Data collected by the Environmental Pollution Research Centre at King Edward Memorial Hospital in Mumbai were analysed using logistic regression to investigate the link between air pollution and morbidity impacts. The monetary burden of morbidity was estimated through the cost of illness approach. For this purpose, information on treatment costs and foregone earnings due to illness was obtained through the household survey and interviews with medical practitioners. Particulate matter (PM(10)) and nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)) emerged as the critical pollutants for a range of health impacts, including symptoms such as cough, breathlessness, wheezing and cold, and illnesses such as allergic rhinitis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). This study developed the concentration-response coefficients for these health impacts. The total monetary burden of these impacts, including personal burden, government expenditure and societal cost, is estimated at 4522.96 million Indian Rupees (INR) or US$ 113.08 million for a 50-μg/m(3) increase in PM(10), and INR 8723.59 million or US$ 218.10 million for a similar increase in NO(2). The estimated monetary burden of health impacts associated with air pollution in Mumbai mainly comprises out-of-pocket expenses of city residents. These expenses form a sizable proportion of the annual income of individuals, particularly those belonging to poor households. These findings have implications for public

  6. Prevalence and pathology of oviduct impaction in commercial white leghorn layer chicken in Namakkal region of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Srinivasan

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The avian oviduct is a tubular organ responsible for fertilization, secretion of the components surrounding the yolk and transport of egg in the reproductive tract. Disorders of oviduct may have a great bearing on production potential and incur a heavy loss. A study was undertaken to assess the prevalence and pathological changes of impacted oviduct in commercial white leghorn layer chicken in Namakkal region of India for a period of four years from 2006 to 2009. Materials and Methods: A total of 5145 carcasses of white leghorn layers, above 20 weeks age from 255 flocks were examined for various oviduct abnormalities. Heart blood, liver and oviduct swabs collected upon necropsy from 45 layer chicken from six flocks with oviduct impaction were screened for bacterial agents. Pooled tissue (trachea, lung, spleen, caecal tonsil, kidney and oviduct samples from impacted oviduct cases were screened for viral agents. Serum samples collected from affected flocks were screened for Newcastle disease virus (NDV, infectious bronchitis virus (IBV and egg drop syndrome – 76 (EDS-76 virus by haemagglutination inhibition (HI and Mycoplasma gallisepticum (Mg and Mycoplasma synoviae (Ms by ELISA. Flock details and pathological changes were recorded in affected flocks to assess the prevalence and impact of oviduct impaction on commercial layer chicken. Results: The results of the present investigation indicated that the oviduct impaction was responsible for 0.87 % cent of the reproductive tract abnormalities in commercial layers between 21 and 80 wk of age. Egg production drop, morbidity and mortality recorded in the affected flocks were varied from 3 to 8, 0.4 to 1.2 and 0.2 to 0.5 % respectively. The oviduct impaction was commonly noticed above 40 wk old layers and predominantly during colder months. Serum samples collected from three flocks with oviduct impaction were found positive for Mg and Ms infection in ELISA test. Escherichia coli was isolated as

  7. Catch per unit efforts and impacts of gears on fish abundance in an oxbow lake ecosystem in Eastern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dipankar Ghosh

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oxbow lakes are abundant in indigenous fishes, but they are subject to unsustainable fishing practices, potential overexploitation, and indiscriminate use of fine-meshed fishing gear. To quantify the catch per unit effort (CPUE and impact of fishing gears on fish abundance, a survey was carried out in an oxbow lake in eastern India. Methods: The gear-wise CPUE for fish caught in per unit hour of operation was calculated by dividing the total sampling gear catch in biomass, which is the observed value of fish caught by a particular gear, by the total sampling effort hours. A value of P 71%. Cone-framed cast net hauled the maximum catch in biomass (31.51%, and gill nets contributed the maximum number of fish (64.92%. The lower CPUE values of line and hook, gill net, cone-framed cast net and long lines identified them as the most harmful among all gears. Conclusion: Indiscriminate use of gear, particularly line and hook, gill nets, cone-framed cast nets, and long lines, demands regulations and preventions concerning such gear to obtain higher fish abundance.

  8. Impact of nutrition education on knowledge and haemoglobin status of hill women in Uttarakhand State of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhyay, S; Kumar, A R; Raghuvanshi, R S; Singh, B B

    2011-12-01

    This study aimed to examine the impact of the use of single vs. combination of media on nutritional knowledge and haemoglobin status of women in a rural hill area in Uttarakhand State, India. Women from three villages were selected randomly and divided into three groups namely, print media group (n = 59), multimedia group (n = 53) and control group (n = 111). The print media group was exposed to nutrition education through the use of calendars on anaemia for 60 days; the multimedia group was given nutrition education through a combination of media including calendars, video films, and group discussions for 60 days. At pre-exposure stage, 62.7% of the women in the print media group, 67.9% of the multimedia group, and 66.7% of the control group had a low nutrition knowledge level. After exposure, the print media group and the multimedia group showed a significant rise in nutrition knowledge, with the multimedia group scoring significantly higher than the print media group. Overall, 69.1% of the women were anaemic with mean haemoglobin concentration of 10.74 +/- 0.86 g/dl. A non-significant rise in mean haemoglobin concentrations in the experimental groups was found at post-exposure stage. Calendars and video films are effective in increasing nutrition knowledge of illiterate hill women. Use of mass media programmes of longer duration should be encouraged to combat the nutritional problems of rural communities.

  9. Impact of domestic air pollution from cooking fuel on respiratory allergies in children in India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, R.; Nagar, J.K.; Raj, N.; Kumar, P.; Kushwah, A.S.; Meena, M.; Gaur, S.N. [University of Delhi, Delhi (India)

    2008-12-15

    This study undertaken in India was aimed at identifying the effects of the indoor air pollutants SO{sub 2}, NO{sub 2} and total suspended particulate matter (SPM) generated from fuel used for cooking on respiratory allergy in children in Delhi. A total of 3,456 children were examined (59.2% male and 40.8% female). Among these, 31.2% of the children's families were using biomass fuels for cooking and 68.8% were using liquefied petroleum gas. Levels of indoor SO{sub 2}, NO{sub 2} and SPM, measured using a Handy Air Sampler (Low Volume Sampler), were 4.60 {+-} 5.66 {mu}g/m{sup 3}, 30.70 {+-} 23.95 {mu}g/m{sup 3} and 705 {+-} 441.6 {mu}g/m{sup 3}, respectively. The mean level of indoor SO{sub 2} was significantly higher (p = 0.016) for families using biomass fuels (coal, wood, cow dung cakes and kerosene) for cooking as compared to families using LP gas. The mean level of indoor NO{sub 2} for families using biomass fuels for cooking was significantly higher in I.T.O. (p = 0.003) and Janakpuri (p = 0.007), while indoor SPM was significantly higher in Ashok Vihar (p = 0.039) and I.T.O. (p = 0.001), when compared to families using LP gas. Diagnoses of asthma, rhinitis and upper respiratory tract infection (URTI) were made in 7.7%, 26.1% and 22.1% of children, respectively. Respiratory allergies in children, which included asthma, rhinitis and URTI, could be associated with both types of fuels (liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) and biomass) used for cooking in the different study areas. This study suggests that biomass fuels increased the concentrations of indoor air pollutants that cause asthma, rhinitis and URTI in children. LP gas smoke was also associated with respiratory allergy.

  10. Realities of weather extremes on daily life in urban India - How quantified impacts infer sensible adaptation options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reckien, D.

    2012-12-01

    Emerging and developing economies are currently undergoing one of the profoundest socio-spatial transitions in their history, with strong urbanization and weather extremes bringing about changes in the economy, forms of living and living conditions, but also increasing risks and altered social divides. The impacts of heat waves and strong rain events are therefore differently perceived among urban residents. Addressing the social differences of climate change impacts1 and expanding targeted adaptation options have emerged as urgent policy priorities, particularly for developing and emerging economies2. This paper discusses the perceived impacts of weather-related extreme events on different social groups in New Delhi and Hyderabad, India. Using network statistics and scenario analysis on Fuzzy Cognitive Maps (FCMs) as part of a vulnerability analysis, the investigation provides quantitative and qualitative measures to compare impacts and adaptation strategies for different social groups. Impacts of rain events are stronger than those of heat in both cities and affect the lower income classes particularly. Interestingly, the scenario analysis (comparing altered networks in which the alteration represents a possible adaptation measure) shows that investments in the water infrastructure would be most meaningful and more effective than investments in, e.g., the traffic infrastructure, despite the stronger burden from traffic disruptions and the resulting concentration of planning and policy on traffic ease and investments. The method of Fuzzy Cognitive Mapping offers a link between perception and modeling, and the possibility to aggregate and analyze the views of a large number of stakeholders. Our research has shown that planners and politicians often know about many of the problems, but are often overwhelmed by the problems in their respective cities and look for a prioritization of adaptation options. FCM provides this need and identifies priority adaptation options

  11. Climate change and waterborne diarrhoea in Northern India: Impact and adaptation strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moors, E.J.; Singh, T.; Siderius, C.; Balakrishnan, S.; Mishra, A.

    2013-01-01

    Although several studies show the vulnerability of human health to climate change, a clear comprehensive quantification of the increased health risks attributable to climate change is lacking. Even more complicated are assessments of adaptation measures for this sector. We discuss the impact of

  12. The impact of policy on firms' performance: the case of CNC machine tool industry in India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kumar, A.

    2003-01-01

    This study is about understanding how the government policy actually works at firm level in the context of developing countries' industrialization. In the literature, the discussions on impact of government policy on corporate performance primarily stress on macroeconomic aspects of industrial

  13. Wind energy potential in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rangarajan, S.

    1995-01-01

    Though located in the tropics, India is endowed with substantial wind resources because of its unique geographical location which gets fully exposed to both the south-west and north-east monsoon winds. The westerly winds of the south-west monsoons provide bulk of the wind potential. Areas with mean annual wind speed exceeding 18 k mph and areas with mean annual power density greater than 140 W/m 2 have been identified using the wind data collected by the wind monitoring project funded by the Ministry of Non-conventional Energy Sources (MNES). Seasonal variations in wind speed at selected locations are discussed as also the frequency distribution of hourly wind speed. Annual capacity factors for 250 kW wind electric generators have been calculated for several typical locations. A good linear correlation has been found between mean annual wind speed and mean annual capacity factor. A method is described for assessing wind potential over an extended region where adequate data is available. It is shown that the combined wind energy potential over five selected areas of limited extent in Gujarat, Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu alone amounts to 22,000 MW under the assumption of 20 per cent land availability for installing wind farms. For a higher percentage of land availability, the potential will be correspondingly higher. (author). 12 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs

  14. Status, Distribution, and Diversity of Birds in Mining Environment of Kachchh, Gujarat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikunj B. Gajera

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Opencast mining is one of the major reasons for the destruction of natural habitats for many wildlife including birds. The Kachchh region belongs to the arid part of India and is one of the rich areas of mineral resources in the country. In the recent time and after the 2001 earthquake, mining and other developmental activities are increased, and as a result, the natural habitats of birds are disturbed and fragmented. So, this study was conducted to assess the impact of mining and associated activities on the diversity and distribution of birds. Birds were studied by surveying 180 transects along 9 zones around three selected major mines, and each zone is made in every 2 km radius from the mine. Based on the record, it was found that the density and diversity of birds are highest in zone 5 and lowest in zone 1 and zone 2, respectively. The result indicates that the diversity and abundance of birds were less in zones which are located close to the mines in comparison to the zones far from the mines. In conclusion, mining and its associated activities have some impacts on the diversity and distribution of birds in Kachchh region in India.

  15. Shoreline change and potential sea level rise impacts in a climate hazardous location in southeast coast of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayanthi, Marappan; Thirumurthy, Selvasekar; Samynathan, Muthusamy; Duraisamy, Muthusamy; Muralidhar, Moturi; Ashokkumar, Jangam; Vijayan, Koyadan Kizhakkedath

    2017-12-28

    Climate change impact on the environment makes the coastal areas vulnerable and demands the evaluation of such susceptibility. Historical changes in the shoreline positions and inundation based on projected sea-level scenarios of 0.5 and 1 m were assessed for Nagapattinam District, a low-lying coastal area in the southeast coast of India, using high-resolution Shuttle Radar Topography Mission data; multi-dated Landsat satellite images of 1978, 1991, 2003, and 2015; and census data of 2011. Image processing, geographical information system, and digital shoreline analysis system methods were used in the study. The shoreline variation indicated that erosion rate varied at different time scales. The end point rate indicated the highest mean erosion of - 3.12 m/year, occurred in 73% of coast between 1978 and 1991. Weighted linear regression analysis revealed that the coast length of 83% was under erosion at a mean rate of - 2.11 m/year from 1978 to 2015. Sea level rise (SLR) impact indicated that the coastal area of about 14,122 ha from 225 villages and 31,318 ha from 272 villages would be permanently inundated for the SLR of 0.5 and 1 m, respectively, which includes agriculture, mangroves, wetlands, aquaculture, and forest lands. The loss of coastal wetlands and its associated productivity will severely threaten more than half the coastal population. Adaptation measures in people participatory mode, integrated into coastal zone management with a focus on sub-regional coastal activities, are needed to respond to the consequences of climate change.

  16. LONG-TERM CULTURAL IMPACTS OF DISASTER DECISION-MAKING: The Case of Post Earthquake Reconstruction in Marathwada, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohit Jigyasu

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Emergency situations are special since they present decision makers with a context that is characterized by extraordinary constraints on resources, need for urgency of actions and a critical psychosocial state that is markedly different than the normal situation. However, actions taken under these extraordinary situations can have a profound bearing on the longterm recovery of the community and its heritage. This paper considers the critical aspects of decision-making in emergency situations that need to be considered for sustainable longterm recovery of cultural heritage. It is difficult however to judge these essential considerations beforehand without evaluating the impacts of these decisions in hindsight. These considerations will be illustrated through case study of post-earthquake reconstruction in Marathwada in India by assessing the long-term impact of rehabilitation policies formulated in the immediate aftermath of the earthquake. Patterns of adaptation and change in these areas demonstrate how small decisions taken during emergency can have wider socio-economic and physical implications. These cases will also show the importance of understanding the local context, especially with respect to local vulnerabilities as well as capacities, skills and resources while making decisions. These would also emphasize the necessity and ways of engaging various stakeholders, especially the local community, not as passive recipients but as important actors in the decision-making process. These considerations are significant for conservation professionals making decisions during emergencies, especially with regards to immediate protection, repairs and long-term recovery of cultural heritage, while we largely remain at the periphery of the reconstruction process.

  17. Hardships and health impacts on women due to traditional cooking fuels: A case study of Himachal Pradesh, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parikh, Jyoti

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the inter-linkages of gender, energy use, health and hardships in the Himalayan State of Himachal Pradesh in India. It brings out a gender-differentiated and age-differentiated picture of hardships and health impact on the use of traditional biofuels. The study is based on survey with questionnaires covering 4296 individuals, 729 households, 84 villages and 9 districts where biomass fuels meet 70% of household fuel needs. On an average, women walk 30 km each month taking 2.7 h per trip for fuel wood collection over hilly terrain, often at high altitudes and undergo stress like stiff-neck, backache, headache and loss of work days. Girls below 5 and females in 30–60 age-groups have higher proportion of respiratory symptoms than males of similar age-groups. While many studies are done on the health impact of cooking fuels, very little quantitative work is done on the other aspects of the fuel chain viz. collection, transportation and processing of fuels. Such studies would guide energy policy and health policy to improve the lives of women. - Highlights: ► Inter-linkages of gender, energy and health due to wood in Himachal Pradesh. ► Survey of 4296 individuals, 729 households, 84 villages and 9 districts. ► Women walk 30 km per month for fuel wood collection that supply 70% of energy needs. ► Women gather inferior fuels—dung, wood and waste, and men purchase LPG and kerosene. ► More than 50% suffer from neck ache, backache, headache or bruises from gathering fuels.

  18. Impact of indoor air pollution from the use of solid fuels on the incidence of life threatening respiratory illnesses in children in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhyay, Ashish Kumar; Singh, Abhishek; Kumar, Kaushalendra; Singh, Ashish

    2015-03-28

    India contributes 24% of the global annual child deaths due to acute respiratory infections (ARIs). According to WHO, nearly 50% of the deaths among children due to ARIs is because of indoor air pollution (IAP). There is insufficient evidence on the relationship between IAP from the use of solid fuels and incidence of life threatening respiratory illnesses (LTRI) in children in India. Panel data of children born during 2001-02, from the Young Lives Study (YLS) conducted in India during 2002 and 2006-07 was used to estimate the impact of household use of solid fuels for cooking on LTRI in children. Multivariable two-stage random effects logistic regression model was used to estimate the odds of suffering from LTRI among children from households using solid fuels relative to children from households using other fuels (Gas/Electricity/Kerosene). Bivariate results indicate that the probability of an episode of LTRI was considerably higher among children from households using solid fuels for cooking (18%) than among children from households using other fuels (10%). Moreover, children from households using solid fuels in both the rounds of YLS were more likely to suffer from one or more than one episode of LTRI compared to children from households using solid fuels in only one round. Two-stage random effects logistic regression result shows that children from households using solid fuels were 1.78 (95% CI: 1.05-2.99) times as likely to suffer from LTRI as those from households using other fuels. The findings of this paper provide conclusive evidence on the harmful effects of the use of solid fuels for cooking on LTRI in India. The Government of India must make people aware about the health risks associated with the use of solid fuels for cooking and strive to promote the use of cleaner fuels.

  19. Impact of Recent Discoveries on Petroleum and Natural Gas Exploration: Emphasis on India

    OpenAIRE

    Herndon, J. Marvin

    2010-01-01

    Two discoveries have greatly impacted understanding relevant to the origination and emplacement of petroleum and natural gas deposits. One discovery, pertaining to hydrocarbon formation from methane broadens significantly potential regions where abiotic petroleum and natural gas deposits might be found. The other, discovery of the physical impossibility of Earth-mantle convection, restricts the range and domain of geodynamic behavior, and leads to new insights on the formation of petroleum an...

  20. Economic viability and Future Impact of Internet of Things in India: An Inevitable wave

    OpenAIRE

    Agrawal, Sharul; Mazumdar, Himanshu S

    2015-01-01

    The Internet of things , sometimes referred as Internet of objects can be stated as an environment in which any physical things or objects are assiThis paper studies the evolution of internet usage and classifies the impact areas where internet will go beyond personal communication or knowledge interface but it will provide communication and knowledge base support to numerous gadgets and systems around us

  1. IMPACTS OF DOHA ROUND ON THE AGRIBUSINESS OF BRAZIL, CHINA AND INDIA

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, Matheus Wemerson Gomes; Teixeira, Erly Cardoso; Razap-Skorbiansky, Sharon

    2008-01-01

    The central themes to be addressed during the Doha Round of world trade negotiations are the reduction of the agricultural production and export subsidies, and improved market access for agricultural and non-agricultural goods. The G-20 group wields enough power to press negotiations at the Doha Round toward lower agricultural trade barriers and production and exports subsidies. The objective of this study is to determine the impacts of four possible Doha Round scenarios on the economies of B...

  2. Budget impact of polio immunization strategy for India: introduction of one dose of inactivated poliomyelitis vaccine and reductions in supplemental polio immunization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, M M; Sharma, S; Tripathi, B; Alvarez, F P

    2017-01-01

    To conduct a budget impact analysis (BIA) of introducing the immunization recommendations of India Expert Advisory Group (IEAG) for the years 2015-2017. The recommendations include introduction of one inactivated poliomyelitis vaccine (IPV) dose in the regular child immunization programme along with reductions in oral polio vaccine (OPV) doses in supplemental programmes. This is a national level analysis of budget impact of new polio immunization recommendations. Since the states of India vary widely in terms of size, vaccine coverage and supplemental vaccine needs, the study estimated the budget impact for each of the states of India separately to derive the national level budget impact. Based on the recommendations of IEAG, the BIA assumes that all children in India will get an IPV dose at 14 weeks of age in addition to the OPV and DPT (or Pentavalent-3) doses. Cost of introducing the IPV dose was estimated by considering vaccine price and vaccine delivery and administration costs. The cost savings associated with the reduction in number of doses of OPV in supplemental immunization were also estimated. The analysis used India-specific or international cost parameters to estimate the budget impact. Introduction of one IPV dose will increase the cost of vaccines in the regular immunization programme from $20 million to $47 million. Since IEAG recommends lower intensity of supplemental OPV vaccination, polio vaccine cost of supplemental programme is expected to decline from $72 million to $53 million. Cost of administering polio vaccines will also decline from $124 million to $105 million mainly due to the significantly lower intensity of supplemental polio vaccination. The net effect of adopting IEAG's recommendations on polio immunization turns out to be cost saving for India, reducing total polio immunization cost by $6 million. Additional savings could be achieved if India adopts the new policy regarding the handling of multi-dose vials after opening

  3. Impact of Dams on Riparian Frog Communities in the Southern Western Ghats, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohit Naniwadekar

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The Western Ghats is a global biodiversity hotspot and home to diverse and unique assemblages of amphibians. Several rivers originate from these mountains and hydropower is being tapped from them. The impacts of hydrological regulation of riparian ecosystems to wildlife and its habitat are poorly documented, and in particular the fate of frog populations is unknown. We examined the effects of dams on riparian frog communities in the Thamirabarani catchment in southern Western Ghats. We used nocturnal visual encounter surveys constrained for time, to document the species richness of frogs below and above the dam, and also at control sites in the same catchment. While we did not find differences in species richness below and above the dams, the frog community composition was significantly altered as a likely consequence of altered flow regime. The frog species compositions in control sites were similar to above-dam sites. Below-dam sites had a distinctly different species composition. Select endemic frog species appeared to be adversely impacted due to the dams. Below-dam sites had a greater proportion of generalist and widely distributed species. Dams in the Western Ghats appeared to adversely impact population of endemic species, particularly those belonging to the genus Nyctibatrachus that shows specialization for intact streams.

  4. Impact of oral diseases on quality of life in subjects attending out-patient department of a dental hospital, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Saimadhavi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Currently there is a growing interest in oral health outcomes in how oral health affects quality of life. When oral health related quality of life measures are used alongside traditional clinical methods of measuring oral health status, a more comprehensive assessment of the impact of oral diseases on the several dimensions of subjective wellbeing becomes possible. In this context, we attempted to study the impact of oral diseases on quality of life, so as to address the patient′s needs in an appropriate way and thereby improving one′s quality of life. Aims: To evaluate the impact of different oral diseases on quality of life using a modified OHIP-14 questionnaire, so as to address the patient′s needs in an appropriate way and thereby improving one′s quality of life. Settings and Design: The study was carried out among 302 subjects, attending the outpatient department a dental hospital, India, for check up and treatment of their oral condition. Subjects aged above 20 years, who gave their consent for the study were included. Materials and Methods: The study sample was categorized in to two groups based upon the duration of the affecting disease - group 1 consisted of subjects suffering with chronic diseases and group 2 of subjects suffering with acute diseases. All the subjects were asked to fill up their responses in the given OHIP-14 questionnaires. The completed questionnaires were then collected and statistically analyzed. Statistical Analysis Used: To evaluate the role of age on QOL, age was divided in to 2 groups using median split procedure. For inter and intragroup comparisions, independent sample t test, anova followed by post hoc test and Chi-square tests were employed. Results: Chi square test revealed a moderately impaired quality of life among all the diseases investigated. On comparing the mean domain and total OHIP score between the two groups, the domain of psychological discomfort and disability and the total

  5. Institutional and Regulatory Economics of Electricity Market Reforms: the Evidence from India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Nepal, and Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Bipulendu

    Five South Asian countries-- India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Nepal and Sri Lanka -- embarked on electricity market reforms in the 1990's. The dissertation uses the framework of New Institutional Economics to assess the effects on electricity sector performance of both observables elements of reform (i.e. privatization, unbundling, establishment of independent regulatory agencies etc.) as well as the unobservable elements (informal beliefs, habit, norms and culture of the actors involved in reforms). The first part of the dissertation -- econometric analysis of the relationship between observable electricity market reform measures and performance indicators -- finds that for the most part electricity market reforms in South Asia are having a positive impact on the performance of the sector. This is particularly the case for reforms that have increased private sector participation in generation and distribution and have vertically unbundled utilities into generation, transmission and distribution entities. Many of the reforms are positively correlated with higher tariffs, indicating a cost to the consumers from the reforms. The relationship between independent regulation and performance indicators , however, is not established. The second part of the dissertation - analytical narrative of the reform experiences of Gujarat and Nepal -- examines the informal elements (such as beliefs, norms, culture) that motivate behavior and explains how and why reform outcomes differed in these two places. The dissertation finds that the strength of formal institutions rules and the nature of social norms and customs have a significant influence on the outcome of reforms. Aided by the strength of its formal institutional framework and more evolved social norms and customs that encouraged people to follow formal rules, reforms in the Indian state of Gujarat were a success. The weakness of the formal institutional framework and the predominance of relation-based norms and customs in

  6. The events associated with the great tsunami of 26 December, 2004 sea level variation and impact on coastal region of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Shetye, S.R.

    -Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 Satish R. Shetye National Institute of Oceanography, Goa The events associated with the Great Tsunami of 26 December 2004 Sea Level Variation and Impact on Coastal Region of India Tsunamis are shallow... in the region. The Great Tsunami, though an event with a low probability of occurrence, was a high-impact event. One cannot but compare this event with what happened in 1755 along the east coast of the North Atlantic, another low-probability location...

  7. Uncertainties in emission estimates of greenhouse gases and air pollutants in China and India and their impacts on regional air quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saikawa, E.; Trail, M.; Young, C. L.; Zhong, M.; Avramov, A.; Kim, H.; Wu, Q.; Janssens-Maenhout, G. G. A.; Kurokawa, J. I.; Klimont, Z.; Wagner, F.; Naik, V.; Horowitz, L. W.; Zhao, Y.; Nagpure, A.; Gurjar, B.; Zhang, Q.

    2017-12-01

    Greenhouse gas and air pollutant precursor emissions have been increasing rapidly in both China and India, resulting in local to regional scale effects on air quality. Modelers use emission inventories to represent the temporal and spatial distribution of impacts of air pollutant emissions on regional and global air quality. However, large uncertainties exist in emission inventories. Quantification of uncertainties in emission estimates is essential to better understand the linkages among emissions, air quality, climate, and health. We use Monte Carlo methods to assess the uncertainties of the existing carbon dioxide (CO2), carbon monoxide (CO), sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx), and particulate matter (PM) emission estimates for both China and India. We focus on the period between 2000 and 2008. In addition to national totals, we also analyze emissions from four source sectors, including industry, transport, power, and residential. We also assess differences in the existing emission estimates within each of the subnational regions. We find large disagreements among the existing inventories at disaggregated levels. We further assess the impact of these differences in emissions on air quality using a chemical transport model. More efforts are needed to constrain emissions, especially in the Indo-Gangetic Plains and in the East and Central regions of China, where large differences across emission inventories result in concomitant large differences in the simulated concentrations of PM and ozone. Our study also highlights the importance of constraining SO2, NOx, and NH3 emissions for secondary PM concentrations over China and India.

  8. Evolution of Swarna estuary and its impact on braided islands and estuarine banks, Southwest coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    AvinashKumar; Jayappa, K.S.; Vethamony, P.

    Qualitative and quantitative evolution of the Swarna estuary, Karnataka, India during the past 38 years (1967–2005), has been analysed by integrating the results of field surveys, satellite images, hydrodynamic modelling and topographic data in GIS...

  9. Predictors and consequences of “Phubbing” among adolescents and youth in India: An impact evaluation study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjeev Davey

    2018-01-01

    CONCLUSION: Adolescents and youth of India need special guidance from government adolescent clinics or colleges or even families to control this habit in order to promote better physical, mental, and social health.

  10. Climate change and forests: Impacts and adaption. A regional assessment for the Western Ghats, India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ravindranath, N H; Sukumar, R [Indian Inst. of Science, Bangalore (India). Centre for Ecological Sciences; Deshingkar, P [Stockholm Environment Inst. (Sweden)

    1998-12-31

    Potential climate change over the next 50 to 100 years could have major impacts on tropical forests. Forests, particularly in the tropics, are subjected to anthropogenic pressures leading to degradation and loss of forest ecosystems. Given the significant dependence of local people and economies on forests in tropical and temperate countries, there is a need to assess the possible impacts of climate change and to develop adaption measures. The diversity of forest types in the Western Ghats ranges from wet evergreen and deciduous forest to dry thorn and montane forests with a wide range of annual rainfall regimes (from less than 65 cm to over 300 cm). The study was conducted in two regions of the Western Ghats; the Uttara Kannada district and the Nilgiris. Climate change projections for 2020 and 2050 were used in assessing the possible impacts on forests. In general, the `most likely` projections of climate change were an increase in mean temperature in the range of 0.3-1.0 deg C and an increase in precipitation of 3-8% over the study regions by the year 2050. The `worst case` scenario was an increase in temperature of 1 deg C and a decrease in precipitation by 8% by 2050. To assess the vegetational responses to climate change, a simple model based on present-day correlations between climatic (mean annual temperature and precipitation) and vegetation types for these regions was developed. Likely changes in the areas under different forest types were assessed for `moderate climate` sensitivity and central scaling factor (referred to as the `most likely scenario`) for the years 2020 and 2050, and `high climate` sensitivity and a lower scaling factor (the `worst case scenario`) for 2050 90 refs, 15 figs, 15 tabs

  11. Climate change and forests: Impacts and adaption. A regional assessment for the Western Ghats, India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ravindranath, N.H.; Sukumar, R. [Indian Inst. of Science, Bangalore (India). Centre for Ecological Sciences; Deshingkar, P. [Stockholm Environment Inst. (Sweden)

    1997-12-31

    Potential climate change over the next 50 to 100 years could have major impacts on tropical forests. Forests, particularly in the tropics, are subjected to anthropogenic pressures leading to degradation and loss of forest ecosystems. Given the significant dependence of local people and economies on forests in tropical and temperate countries, there is a need to assess the possible impacts of climate change and to develop adaption measures. The diversity of forest types in the Western Ghats ranges from wet evergreen and deciduous forest to dry thorn and montane forests with a wide range of annual rainfall regimes (from less than 65 cm to over 300 cm). The study was conducted in two regions of the Western Ghats; the Uttara Kannada district and the Nilgiris. Climate change projections for 2020 and 2050 were used in assessing the possible impacts on forests. In general, the `most likely` projections of climate change were an increase in mean temperature in the range of 0.3-1.0 deg C and an increase in precipitation of 3-8% over the study regions by the year 2050. The `worst case` scenario was an increase in temperature of 1 deg C and a decrease in precipitation by 8% by 2050. To assess the vegetational responses to climate change, a simple model based on present-day correlations between climatic (mean annual temperature and precipitation) and vegetation types for these regions was developed. Likely changes in the areas under different forest types were assessed for `moderate climate` sensitivity and central scaling factor (referred to as the `most likely scenario`) for the years 2020 and 2050, and `high climate` sensitivity and a lower scaling factor (the `worst case scenario`) for 2050 90 refs, 15 figs, 15 tabs

  12. The Impacts of Outsourcing on the Organisation & Economy : A Critical Look on Ericsson Transmission Planning Outsourced to India

    OpenAIRE

    Mirza, Afzal

    2012-01-01

    Globalisation is a phenomenon that has made the world shrink and business has crossed borders. To add over the advancement in technology has made this much easier. Companies are now indulging in outsourcing for many reasons. Recently, an increasing number of British firms have outsourced the IT and IS to India and other countries. Specifically, this study evaluates the Ericsson outsourcing its transmission planning to India and why are they doing so and how are they managing them. It also eva...

  13. The impact of natural disasters on child health and investments in rural India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datar, Ashlesha; Liu, Jenny; Linnemayr, Sebastian; Stecher, Chad

    2013-01-01

    There is growing concern that climate change will lead to more frequent natural disasters that may adversely affect short- and long-term health outcomes in developing countries. Prior research has primarily focused on the impact of single, large disaster events but very little is known about how small and moderate disasters, which are more typical, affect population health. In this paper, we present one of the first investigations of the impact of small and moderate disasters on childhood morbidity, physical growth, and immunizations by combining household data on over 80,000 children from three waves of the Indian National Family and Health Survey with an international database of natural disasters (EM-DAT). We find that exposure to a natural disaster in the past month increases the likelihood of acute illnesses such as diarrhea, fever, and acute respiratory illness in children under 5 year by 9-18%. Exposure to a disaster in the past year reduces height-for-age and weight-for-age z-scores by 0.12-0.15 units, increases the likelihood of stunting and underweight by 7%, and reduces the likelihood of having full age-appropriate immunization coverage by nearly 18%. We also find that disasters' effects vary significantly by gender, age, and socioeconomic characteristics. Most notably, the adverse effects on growth outcomes are much smaller among boys, infants, and families with more socioeconomic resources. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Literacy Rates and its Impact on Birth Rates in Nadia District, West Bengal, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahadeb Ghosh

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Equality in socio-economic component is essential for human development and social change. Educational inequality reduces economic growth and women's empowerment on the one hand and increases birth rate on the other. In population studies, it has been established that educational level is collinearly related with demographic behaviour. This study aims to investigate inequalities in literacy rates and its impact on birth rates in Nowpara-I Gram Panchayat (GP located in the Krishnagar II C.D. Block, Nadia District of West Bengal using a household survey conducted in 356 households among women aged 49 and above in triangulation with secondary data. The aim of this study is to explore the causes of the spatial inequalities in education and its effect on spatial variations in birth rates. The key finding suggest that in Nowpara-I, negative relationships exist between female education and birth rate because education has a positive impact on empowerment, late marriage, use of contraceptives and family size.

  15. Biological impact assessment of thermal discharges in the vicinity of Madras Atomic Power Station, Kalpakkam, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahul Hameed, P.; Syed Mohamed, H.E.; Krishnamoorthy, R.

    2007-01-01

    Madras Atomic Power Station (MAPS), Kalpakkam uses seawater as tertiary coolant at the rate of 35m 3 /sec employing a once through type of circuit. The discharged water travels as a canal and mixes with seawater at the mixing zone. The present study investigated the impact of the discharged thermal effluent on the physical chemical and biological quality of the receiving seawater body. The thermal plume is shore attached and extended up to 300 m from the shore and registered a ΔT of 3-4 degC. The shore attached thermal plume adversely affected the density and distribution of macro benthic animals. The benthos are absent in the mixing zone and their density decreased about 500 m on either side of the mixing zone. The natural shift in the mixing zone provides opportunities for the recolonization of macro benthos. The thermal tolerance study revealed that the experimental fish species Mugil cephalus and Alepeus djidapa did not show any mortality or loss of equilibrium at ΔT 5 degC (33 degC) and ΔT 7 degC (35 degC) and the maximum ΔT recorded at the impact area is 6 degC. The gradual increase in temperature as found in the plume favors the fishes to escape the acute thermal exposures. (author)

  16. Simulating Changes in Land-Atmosphere Interactions From Expanding Agriculture and Irrigation in India and the Potential Impacts on the Indian Monsoon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, E. M.; Beltran-Przekurat, A.; Niyogi, D.; Pielke, R. A.

    2006-05-01

    With over 57 million hectares under irrigation in 2002, India has the largest irrigated agricultural area on the planet. Between 80 and 90% of India's water use goes to support irrigated agriculture. The Indian monsoon belt is a home to a large part of the world's population and agriculture is the major land-use activity in the region. Previous results showed that annual vapor fluxes in India have increased by 17% (340 km3) over that which would be expected from a natural (non-agricultural) land cover. Two-thirds of this increase was attributed to irrigated agriculture. The largest increases in vapor and latent heat fluxes occurred where both cropland and irrigated lands were the predominant contemporary land cover classes (particularly northwest and north-central India). Our current study builds upon this work by evaluating possible changes in near-surface energy fluxes and regional atmospheric circulation patterns resulting from the expansion of irrigated agriculture on the Indian sub-continent using a regional atmospheric model RAMS. We investigate three separate land- use scenarios: Scenario 1, with a potential (pre-agricultural) land cover, Scenario 2: the potential land-cover overlain by cropland and Scenario 3: potential land-cover overlain by cropland and irrigated area. We will assess the impact of agricultural land-cover conversion and intensive irrigation on water and energy fluxes between the land and the atmosphere and how these flux changes may affect regional weather patterns. The simulation period covers July 16-20, 2002 which allow us to assess potential impacts of land-cover changes on the onset of the Indian Monsoon.

  17. Strategic structure matrix: A framework for explaining the impact of superstructure organizations on the diffusion of wind energy infrastructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, Amy; Taylor, John E.; Mahalingam, Ashwin

    2013-01-01

    Increasing the use of renewables in the global energy mix has become a top priority for policy makers. In this paper, we use a diffusion theory based approach to analyze the impact of government initiatives on the development of wind energy infrastructure focusing on the specific case of wind energy diffusion in India. We propose a new framework—the strategic structure matrix—as a way to characterize the strategic focus and analyze the effectiveness of different initiatives to increase wind power diffusion. We apply the matrix to explain the different pace and paths of wind energy growth observed in five Indian states: Tamil Nadu, Gujarat, Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, and Karnataka. Our findings suggest the importance of a comprehensive approach that includes multiple strategies across initiatives, local regulatory measures, and supply-side incentives. - Highlights: • A new framework—the Strategic Structure Matrix—is proposed. • It characterizes strategic initiatives designed to promote innovation diffusion. • The matrix was validated using case study data on wind power diffusion in India. • The matrix can help shape government policies to improve RET diffusion

  18. IMPACT OF GLOBAL WARMING AND CLIMATE CHANGE ON POVERTY AND WOMEN IN INDIA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durgadas Mukhopadhyay [Delhi University, Delhi (India)

    2008-09-30

    The Inter-governmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) says the world can expect more heat waves and droughts, heavier rains, stronger storms and rising sea levels due to global warming caused by emissions of greenhouse gases. Africa, Latin America and parts of Asia- where the climate is already more extreme and arid regions are common-are likely to be most affected. Large numbers of people could be forced to find new homes as their living environments are submerged, or food and water become scarce. Up to 250 million people could be displaced by climate-related disasters by the middle of the century. Recent World Bank researcher has found that the impacts of a one-meter rise in sea level will be profound in the developing world, potentially turning 56 million people in 84 developing countries into environmental refugees. In Vietnam, an estimated 10.8 per cent of the nation's population will be displaced with onemeter sea level rise, with very high impacts in the Mekong and Red River deltas. Egypt's Nile Delta will be similarly affected with 10.5 per cent of the population at risk and 25 percent of the delta inundated. In South Asia, Bangladesh will have the largest share of land affected. A 2007 cross-country study in Latin America has found strong evidence that agriculture in the region will be vulnerable to the effects of higher temperatures, though these effects are likely to vary from place to place. Deforestation at five percent a decade is steadily depleting a valuable resource base for millions of people who depend on forest for survival. It also contributes to about 20 per cent of annual global CO2 emissions and seriously threatens biodiversity. A world-wide average 3 centigrade increase (compared to pre-industrial temperatures) over the coming decades would results in a range of localized increases that could reach twice as high in some locations. The effect that increase droughts, extreme weather events, tropical storms and sea level rises will

  19. India's nuclear security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, Raju G.C.; Gupta, Amit

    2000-01-01

    The nuclear weapons and ballistic missile tests conducted by India and Pakistan in the late 1990s substantially altered the security environment, both in the region and globally. Examining the complexities, and dynamics of this new strategic context, this timely and significant book examines the claim of many Indian strategists that stability in the region is better served under conditions of declared-rather than covertly developed-nuclear weapons. Bringing together original essays by a diverse group of scholars, this volume discusses a number of important issues such as: the political considerations that caused India and Pakistan to go nuclear; the type of nuclear doctrine that is likely to emerge and its implications for the safety of nuclear weapons, the potential for an arms race in the region, and the likelihood of war; the political and economic consequences for India after Pokhran-II and the impact of economic sanctions; the technological ramifications of the nuclear program on India's defence science scenario; the impact of these tests on the future of India's relationship with the United States, the main bulwark against nuclear weapons proliferation, also, the changed role that India sees for itself in international fora; the possible arms control measures that might succeed in stabilizing the South Asian nuclear rivalry. This insightful, comprehensive and topical volume is a must-read for all those in the fields of political science, international relations, strategic affairs, conflict/peace studies, economics, and policy studies

  20. Impact of cleaner fuel use and improved stoves on acute respiratory infections: evidence from India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamichhane, Prabhat; Sharma, Anurag; Mahal, Ajay

    2017-11-01

    The use of cleaner fuel and improved stoves has been promoted as a means to lower harmful emissions from solid fuels. However, little is known about how exclusive use of cleaner fuels, mixed fuel use and improved stoves influences children's health. We compared the impact of using liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) exclusively with mixed fuel use (LPG plus polluting fuels) and with exclusive use of polluting fuels on acute respiratory infections (ARI) among 16 157 children 0-4 years of age from households in the 2012 Indian Human Development Survey. Inverse probability weighting (IPW) procedures for multiple treatments were used for this evaluation. Children from households using LPG had a 5.0% lower probability of reporting ARI relative to exclusive users of polluting fuels, with larger effects (10.7%) in rural households. The probability of ARI in households using improved stoves and mixed fuel use was also lower in rural households, by 2.9% and 2.8%, respectively. The magnitude of effect varied across population subgroups, with the highest effects for children living in households living in kachha (low quality material) houses households identified as poor. Use of LPG and improved stoves lowered the probability of ARI among children younger than 5 years. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Environmental impact of municipal dumpsite leachate on ground-water quality in Jawaharnagar, Rangareddy, Telangana, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soujanya Kamble, B.; Saxena, Praveen Raj

    2017-10-01

    The aim of the present work was to study the impact of dumpsite leachate on ground-water quality of Jawaharnagar village. Leachate and ground-water samples were investigated for various physico-chemical parameters viz., pH, total dissolved solids (TDS), total hardness (TH), calcium (Ca2+), magnesium (Mg2+), sodium (Na+), potassium (K+), chloride (Cl-), carbonates (CO3 2-), bicarbonates (HCO3 -), nitrates (NO3 -), and sulphates (SO4 2-) during dry and wet seasons in 2015 and were reported. The groundwater was hard to very hard in nature, and the concentrations of total dissolved solids, chlorides, and nitrates were found to be exceeding the permissible levels of WHO drinking water quality standards. Piper plots revealed that the dominant hydrochemical facies of the groundwater were of calcium chloride (CaCl2) type and alkaline earths (Ca2+ and Mg2+) exceed the alkali (Na+ and SO4 2-), while the strong acids (Cl- and SO4 2-) exceed the weak acids (CO3 2- and HCO3 -). According to USSL diagram, all the ground-water samples belong to high salinity and low-sodium type (C3S1). Overall, the ground-water samples collected around the dumpsite were found to be polluted and are unfit for human consumption but can be used for irrigation purpose with heavy drainage and irrigation patterns to control the salinity.

  2. Impact of climate change on water resources of upper Kharun catchment in Chhattisgarh, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navneet Kumar

    2017-10-01

    New hydrological insights for the region: The station-level bias-corrected PRECIS (Providing REgional Climates for Impact Studies projections generally show increasing trends for annual rainfall and temperature. Hydrological simulations, performed by SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool, indicate over-proportional runoff-rainfall and under-proportional percolation-rainfall relationships. Simulated annual discharge for 2020s will decrease by 2.9% on average (with a decrease of 25.9% for q1 to an increase by 23.6% for q14; for 2050s an average increase by 12.4% (17.6% decrease for q1 to 39.4% increase for q0; for 2080s an average increase of 39.5% (16.3% increase for q1 to an increase of 63.7% for q0. Respective ranges on percolation: for 2020s an average decrease by 0.8% (12.8% decrease for q1 to an increase of 8.7% for q14; for 2050s an average increase by 2.5% (10.3% decrease for q1 to 15.4% increase for q0; for 2080s an average increase by 7.5% (0.3% decrease for q1 to 13.7% increase for q0. These over- and under-proportional relationships indicate future enhancement of floods and question sufficiency of groundwater recharge.

  3. Do the pre-service education programmes for midwives in India prepare confident ‘registered midwives’? A survey from India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bharati Sharma

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The graduates of the diploma and degree programmes of nursing and midwifery in India are considered skilled birth attendants (SBAs. This paper aimed to assess the confidence of final-year students from pre-service education programmes (diploma and bachelor's in selected midwifery skills from the list of midwifery competencies of the International Confederation of Midwives (ICM. Design: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in Gujarat, India, involving 633 final-year students from 25 educational institutions (private or government, randomly selected, stratified by the type of programme (diploma and bachelor's. Students assessed their confidence on a four-point scale, in four midwifery competency domains – antepartum, intrapartum, postpartum, and newborn care. Explorative factor analysis was used to reduce skill statements into separate subscales for each domain. Results: Overall, 25–40% of students scored above the 75th percentile and 38–50% below the 50th percentile of confidence in all subscales for antepartum, intrapartum, postpartum, and newborn care. The majority had not attended the required number of births prescribed by the Indian Nursing Council. Conclusions: The pre-service education offered in the diploma and bachelor's programmes in Gujarat does not prepare confident SBAs, as measured on selected midwifery competencies of the ICM. One of the underlying reasons was less clinical experience during their education. The duration, content, and pedagogy of midwifery education within the integrated programmes need to be reviewed.

  4. Socioeconomic impact of alcohol in patients with alcoholic liver disease in eastern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Shivaram Prasad; Padhi, Pradeep Kumar; Narayan, Jimmy; Singh, Ayaskanta; Pati, Girish Kumar; Nath, Preetam; Parida, Prasant Kumar; Mishra, Sunil

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study is to estimate the socioeconomic impact of alcohol use on patients with alcoholic liver disease (ALD) and their families. The demographic and socioeconomic data were collected from hospitalized ALD patients and attendants using a self designed non validated questionnaire and analyzed. Study subjects included 100 consecutive ALD patients (all males). Sixty percent were between 30 and 50 years. Most were married (96 %), literate (63 %), either businessmen (37 %) or employed (30 %) and belonged to middle socioeconomic class. Ninety percent started alcohol use before age 30 years and half during teenage. Mean alcohol intake was 190 mL/day (mean duration 23 years); 60 % consumed alcohol daily. Concomitant tobacco abuse was noted in 79 %. Average expenditure on alcohol was Rs 3800/month. Average hospitalizations for ALD related problems was 2.6 times/year with average expenditure of INR 30,000 (~440 US$) during each hospitalization. For treatment expenses, 86 % of patients borrowed money from friends/relatives, 36 % used saving deposits, and 4 % sold personal belongings. Eleven percent lost their job, and 7 % sold immovable property. In 43 % of cases, children were deprived of education. Besides, 52 % had disturbed social and family life, 34 % abused their spouse, 20 % suffered accidents, and 37 % indulged in physical violence. Majority of ALD patients and their families had disturbed social and family life and incurred severe financial loss arising of alcohol use.

  5. Transfer coefficient of 137Cs and 40K from feed to milk in Kakrapar Gujarat site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagh, S.S.; Patra, A.K.; John, Jaison T.; Ravi, P.M.; Tripathi, R.M.

    2018-01-01

    117 Cs is one of the most important contaminant from nuclear fall out because of its long physical half-life, affinity for biological systems and its uptake to man through diet. Cesium behaves like Potassium because of its similar physical and chemical properties. One of the important ingestion pathways of 137 Cs is grass to cow, cow to milk and exposed to man due to consumption of milk. Therefore it is necessary to measure the concentration of 137 Cs in grass and milk samples and to calculate the dose to human being due to the consumption of milk. This paper presents 137 Cs and 40 K concentration in feed and milk samples and the respective site-specific transfer coefficients from feed to milk for Kakrapar Gujarat Site

  6. The impact of kidney foundations in alleviating the burden of CKD in India - an example, Tamilnad Kidney Research Foundation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Georgi; Vijayan, Madhusudan; Ravi, Rajalakshmi; Kumaraswami, Latha; Venkatesan, Malathy

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a major public health problem in India. The CKD registry of India has been formed to understand the epidemiology of CKD in India. Due to health economics in India, the majority of CKD-affected patients cannot afford renal replacement therapy (RRT) services. There is an unmet need to improve the awareness of kidney disease in India, and the focus should be on prevention and early detection of CKD by screening high risk populations. The Tamilnad Kidney Research (TANKER) Foundation is a charitable trust established in 1993 with the aim to improve awareness and provide quality affordable treatment to underprivileged patients. TANKER is supported by contributions from well-wishers. It has three arms: i) treatment arm, ii) research arm, and iii) awareness and screening arm. TANKER Foundation offers free and subsidized dialysis twice weekly to 227 underprivileged patients. TANKER dialysis has been supported by state government funding schemes. TANKER actively supports and conducts research in nephrology. More than 100,000 people have benefitted from TANKER's kidney awareness programs. The screening programs have provided for early detection of CKD in both urban and rural areas. TANKER award functions are held annually to recognize research and exemplary service to society. The TANKER Foundation can be used as a model for developing countries to address the unmet needs in CKD management.

  7. Impact of Large Scale Energy Efficiency Programs On Consumer Tariffs and Utility Finances in India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abhyankar, Nikit; Phadke, Amol

    2011-01-20

    Large-scale EE programs would modestly increase tariffs but reduce consumers' electricity bills significantly. However, the primary benefit of EE programs is a significant reduction in power shortages, which might make these programs politically acceptable even if tariffs increase. To increase political support, utilities could pursue programs that would result in minimal tariff increases. This can be achieved in four ways: (a) focus only on low-cost programs (such as replacing electric water heaters with gas water heaters); (b) sell power conserved through the EE program to the market at a price higher than the cost of peak power purchase; (c) focus on programs where a partial utility subsidy of incremental capital cost might work and (d) increase the number of participant consumers by offering a basket of EE programs to fit all consumer subcategories and tariff tiers. Large scale EE programs can result in consistently negative cash flows and significantly erode the utility's overall profitability. In case the utility is facing shortages, the cash flow is very sensitive to the marginal tariff of the unmet demand. This will have an important bearing on the choice of EE programs in Indian states where low-paying rural and agricultural consumers form the majority of the unmet demand. These findings clearly call for a flexible, sustainable solution to the cash-flow management issue. One option is to include a mechanism like FAC in the utility incentive mechanism. Another sustainable solution might be to have the net program cost and revenue loss built into utility's revenue requirement and thus into consumer tariffs up front. However, the latter approach requires institutionalization of EE as a resource. The utility incentive mechanisms would be able to address the utility disincentive of forgone long-run return but have a minor impact on consumer benefits. Fundamentally, providing incentives for EE programs to make them comparable to supply

  8. A case–control study of epidemiological factors associated with leptospirosis in South Gujarat region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K T Desai

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The current study was planned to identify the epidemiological factors associated with leptospirosis in South Gujarat region using neighborhood controls. Methods: A total of 100 cases of leptospirosis occurred in South Gujarat region during the year 2012 were selected using simple random sampling. Three neighbors of the selected cases formed the controls (n = 300. A pretested structured questionnaire was used for data collection and data were analyzed using Epi Info 2007. Results: There was significant association of illiteracy (odds ratio [OR] =1.82, 95% confidence interval [CI] =1.14–2.89, working in waterlogged fields during the reference season (OR = 4.6, 95% CI = 1.6–17.9, swimming/bathing in canals, open air defecation practices, storage of cow dung in or surrounding house, residence in the house made up of cow dung walls, households with access of food to rodents, injuries over hands/foot during the endemic season (OR = 3, 95% CI = 1.8–4.8, and history of skin disease during the endemic season (OR = 4.2, 95% CI = 2–8.5, with leptospirosis. Only 10% of individuals had gumboots for protection. A total of 83 (83% cases and 240 (80% controls had taken oral doxycycline chemoprophylaxis (P > 0.05. Cases had taken chemoprophylaxis for a median 4 weeks (range: 1–8 while controls had taken the same for median 8 weeks (range = 1–8 (P < 0.002. Conclusions: Although the commonly established factors appear to be associated with leptospirosis, the role of host factors seems to play a more important role in determining susceptibility to leptospirosis in exposed individuals.

  9. Transmission dynamics of the 2009 influenza A (H1N1) pandemic in India: the impact of holiday-related school closure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Sheikh Taslim; Kadi, A S; Ferguson, Neil M

    2013-12-01

    The role of social-distancing measures, such as school closures, is a controversial aspect of pandemic mitigation planning. However, the timing of 2009 pandemic provides a natural experiment for evaluating the impact of school closure during holidays on influenza transmission. To quantify the transmission intensity of the influenza A (H1N1) pdm'09 in India, by estimating the time varying reproduction number (Rt) and correlating the temporal changes in the estimates of Rt for different regions of India with the timing of school holidays. We used daily lab-confirmed case reports of influenza A (H1N1) pdm'09 in India (during 17 May'09 to 17 May'10), stratified by regions. We estimated the transmissibility of the pandemic for different regions from these time-series, using Bayesian methods applied to a branching process model of disease spread and correlated the resulting estimates with the timing of school holidays in each region. The North-west region experienced two notable waves, with the peak of the first wave coinciding with the start of a 4 week school holiday (September-October'09). In the southern region the two waves were less clear cut, though again the first peak of the first wave coincided with the start of school holidays--albeit of less than 2 weeks duration (August'09). Our analysis suggests that the school holidays had a significant influence on the epidemiology of the 2009 pandemic in India. We estimate that school holidays reduced the reproduction number by 14-27% in different regions of India, relative to levels seen outside holiday periods. The estimates of the reproduction number obtained (with peak R values below 1.5) are compatible with those reported from other regions of the world. This work reinforces past studies showing the significant impact of school holidays on spread of 2009 pandemic virus, and by inference the role of contact patterns in children on transmission. Copyright © 2013 Sheikh Taslim Ali Elsevier B.V. Published by Elsevier B

  10. Potential impact of a 9-valent HPV vaccine in HPV-related cervical disease in 4 emerging countries (Brazil, Mexico, India and China).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano, Beatriz; Alemany, Laia; Ruiz, Patricia Alonso de; Tous, Sara; Lima, Marcus Aurelho; Bruni, Laia; Jain, Asha; Clifford, Gary M; Qiao, You Lin; Weiss, Thomas; Bosch, F Xavier; de Sanjosé, Silvia

    2014-12-01

    We estimated the potential impact of an investigational 9-valent human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine (HPVs 6/11/16/18/31/33/45/52/58) in HPV-related cervical disease in Brazil, Mexico, India and China, to help to formulate recommendations on cervical cancer prevention and control. Estimations for invasive cervical cancer (ICC) were based on an international study including 1356 HPV-positive cases for the four countries altogether, and estimations for precancerous cervical lesions were extracted from a published meta-analysis including 6 025 HPV-positive women from the four mentioned countries. Globocan 2012 and 2012 World Population Prospects were used to estimate current and future projections of new ICC cases. Combined proportions of the 9 HPV types in ICC were 88.6% (95%CI: 85.2-91.3) in Brazil, 85.7% (82.3-88.8) in Mexico, 92.2% (87.9-95.3) in India and 97.3% (93.9-99.1) in China. The additional HPV 31/33/45/52/58 proportions were 18.8% (15.3-22.7) in Brazil, 17.6% (14.2-21.2) in Mexico, 11.3% (7.5-16.1) in India and 11.9% (7.5-17.2) in China. HPV6 and 11 single types were not identified in any of the samples. Proportion of the individual 7 high risk HPV types included in the vaccine varied by cytological and histological grades of HPV-positive precancerous cervical lesions. HPV 16 was the dominant type in all lesions, with contributions in low grade lesions ranging from 16.6%(14.3-19.2) in Mexico to 39.8% (30.0-50.2) in India, and contributions in high grade lesions ranging from 43.8% (36.3-51.4) in Mexico to 64.1% (60.6-67.5) in Brazil. After HPV 16, variations in other majors HPV types were observed by country, with an under representation of HPV 18 and 45 compared to ICC. The addition of HPVs 31/33/45/52/58 to HPV types included in current vaccines could increase the ICC preventable fraction in a range of 12 to 19% across the four countries, accounting the 9-types altogether 90% of ICC cases. Assuming the same degree of efficacy of current vaccines, the

  11. Sickle cell disease in tribal populations in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colah, Roshan B; Mukherjee, Malay B; Martin, Snehal; Ghosh, Kanjaksha

    2015-05-01

    The sickle gene is widespread among many tribal population groups in India with prevalence of heterozygotes varying from 1-40 per cent. Co-inheritance of the sickle gene with β-thalassaemia, HbD Punjab and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency has also been reported. Most of the screening programmes in India now use high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis although the solubility test is also sensitive and cheap. Sickle cell disease (SCD) among tribal populations is generally milder than among non-tribal groups with fewer episodes of painful crises, infections, acute chest syndrome and need for hospitalization. This has partly been attributed to the very high prevalence of α-thalassaemia among these tribes as well as higher foetal haemoglobin levels. However, the clinical presentation is variable with many cases having a severe presentation. There is not much information available on maternal and perinatal outcome in tribal women with sickle cell disease. Newborn screening programmes for SCD have recently been initiated in Maharashtra, Gujarat, Orissa and Chattisgarh and monitoring these birth cohorts will help to understand the natural history of SCD in India. Prenatal diagnosis is acceptable by tribal families in India. The Indian Council of Medical Research and the National Rural Health Mission in different States are undertaking outreach programmes for better management and control of the disease.

  12. Textile and Garment Industry in India - Challenges of realising human rights and the impact of the Ruggie Framework

    OpenAIRE

    Torkelsen, Frida Hestad

    2017-01-01

    Master i International Social Welfare and Health Policy Many textile and garment (T&G) workers are facing human rights abuses on a regular basis, especially women since they make up a majority of the workers. Most T&G factories are located in less-developed countries (LDCs), and India represents one of the top T&G exporting countries. The industry provides India with economic benefits and have been an important factor to their rising GDP. Over the years, the media attention on ...

  13. Impact of Globalization on Production and Export of Turmeric in India – An Economic Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Angles, S.; Sundar, A.; Chinnadurai, M.

    2011-01-01

    India is a major supplier of turmeric to the world with more than 60 per cent share in turmeric trade. The production and export performance of turmeric in India have been examined using secondary data for the period from 1974-75 to 2007-08 and exponential form of growth function has been used for the analysis. The growth in production and export of turmeric has been reported significant, because of the high demand coupled with inflation. Instability index has been worked for the production a...

  14. The impact of successful cataract surgery on quality of life, household income and social status in South India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert P Finger

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To explore the hypothesis that sight restoring cataract surgery provided to impoverished rural communities will improve not only visual acuity and vision-related quality of life (VRQoL but also poverty and social status. METHODS: Participants were recruited at outreach camps in Tamil Nadu, South India, and underwent free routine manual small incision cataract surgery (SICS with intra-ocular lens (IOL implantation, and were followed up one year later. Poverty was measured as monthly household income, being engaged in income generating activities and number of working household members. Social status was measured as rates of re-marriage amongst widowed participants. VRQoL was measured using the IND-VFQ-33. Associations were explored using logistic regression (SPSS 19. RESULTS: Of the 294 participants, mean age ± standard deviation (SD 60 ± 8 years, 54% men, only 11% remained vision impaired at follow up (67% at baseline; p<0.001. At one year, more participants were engaged in income generating activities (44.7% to 77.7%; p<0.001 and the proportion of households with a monthly income <1000 Rps. decreased from 50.5% to 20.5% (p<0.05. Overall VRQoL improved (p<0.001. Participants who had successful cataract surgery were less likely to remain in the lower categories of monthly household income (OR 0.05-0.22; p<0.02 and more likely to be engaged in income earning activities one year after surgery (OR 3.28; p = 0.006. Participants widowed at baseline who had successful cataract surgery were less likely to remain widowed at one year (OR 0.02; p = 0.008. CONCLUSION: These findings indicate the broad positive impact of sight restoring cataract surgery on the recipients' as well as their families' lives. Providing free high quality cataract surgery to marginalized rural communities will not only alleviate avoidable blindness but also - to some extent - poverty in the long run.

  15. A Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of India’s 2008 Prohibition of Smoking in Public Places in Gujarat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhavesh Modi

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Tobacco smoking and exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke are associated with disability and premature mortality in low and middle-income countries. The aim of this study was to assess the cost-effectiveness of implementing India’s Prohibition of Smoking in Public Places Rules in the state of Gujarat, compared to implementation of a complete smoking ban. Using standard cost-effectiveness analysis methods, the cost of implementing the alternatives was evaluated against the years of life saved and cases of acute myocardial infarction averted by reductions in smoking prevalence and secondhand smoke exposure. After one year, it is estimated that a complete smoking ban in Gujarat would avert 17,000 additional heart attacks and gain 438,000 life years (LY. A complete ban is highly cost-effective when key variables including legislation effectiveness were varied in the sensitivity analyses. Without including medical treatment costs averted, the cost-effectiveness ratio ranges from $2 to $112 per LY gained and $37 to $386 per acute myocardial infarction averted. Implementing a complete smoking ban would be a cost saving alternative to the current partial legislation in terms of reducing tobacco-attributable disease in Gujarat.

  16. Distributed ecohydrological modelling to evaluate irrigation system performance in Sirsa district, India II: Impact of viable water management scenarios

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Singh, R.; Jhorar, R.K.; Dam, van J.C.; Feddes, R.A.

    2006-01-01

    This study focuses on the identification of appropriate strategies to improve water management and productivity in an irrigated area of 4270 km2 in India (Sirsa district). The field scale ecohydrological model SWAP in combination with field experiments, remote sensing and GIS has been applied in a

  17. Co-digestion of rice straw and cow dung to supply cooking fuel and fertilizers in rural India: Impact on human health, resource flows and climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sfez, Sophie; De Meester, Steven; Dewulf, Jo

    2017-12-31

    Anaerobic digestion of cow dung with new feedstock such as crop residues to increase the biogas potential is an option to help overcoming several issues faced by India. Anaerobic digestion provides biogas that can replace biomass cooking fuels and reduce indoor air pollution. It also provides digestate, a fertilizer that can contribute to compensate nutrient shortage on agricultural land. Moreover, it avoids the burning of rice straw in the fields which contributes to air pollution in India and climate change globally. Not only the technical and economical feasibility but also the environmental sustainability of such systems needs to be assessed. The potential effects of implementing community digesters co-digesting cow dung and rice straw on carbon and nutrients flows, human health, resource efficiency and climate change are analyzed by conducting a Substance Flow Analysis and a Life Cycle Assessment. The implementation of the technology is considered at the level of the state of Chhattisgarh. Implementing this scenario reduces the dependency of the rural community to nitrogen and phosphorus from synthetic fertilizers only by 0.1 and 1.6%, respectively, but the dependency of farmers to potassium from synthetic fertilizers by 31%. The prospective scenario returns more organic carbon to agricultural land and thus has a potential positive effect on soil quality. The implementation of the prospective scenario can reduce the health impact of the local population by 48%, increase the resource efficiency of the system by 60% and lower the impact on climate change by 13%. This study highlights the large potential of anaerobic digestion to overcome the aforementioned issues faced by India. It demonstrates the need to couple local and global assessments and to conduct analyses at the substance level to assess the sustainability of such systems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Why and How the Dairy Farmers of India are Vulnerable to the Impacts of Climate Variability and Change?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radhakrishnan, A.; Gupta, J.

    2017-12-01

    Climate change and variability has added many atrociousness to India's food security challenges and the relationship between the asset components of farmers and climate change is always complex. In India, dairy farming substantially contributes towards the food security and always plays a supportive role to agriculture from the adversities. This study provides an overview of the socio economic and livelihood vulnerability of small holder dairy farmers of India to climate change and variability in three dimensions — sensitivity, exposure and adaptive capacity by combining 70 indicators and 12 major components. The livelihood and socio economic vulnerability of dairy farmers to climate change and variability is assessed at taluka level in India through detailed house hold level data of livelihoods of Western Ghats region of India collected by several levels of survey and through Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) techniques from selected farmers complemented by thirty years of gridded weather data and other secondary data sources. The index score of dairy based livelihoods of Maharashtra was highly negative compared to other states with about 50 percent of farmers having high level of vulnerability with significant tradeoff between milk productivity and health, food, natural disasters-climate variability components. It finds that ensuring food security in the scenario of climate change will be a dreadful challenge and recommends identification of different potential options depending on local contexts at grass root level, the adoption of sustainable agricultural practices, focusing on improving the adaptive capacity component, provision of livelihood security, preparing the extensionists of Krishi Vigyan Kendras (KVKs)- universities to deal with the risks through extensive training programmes, long-term relief measures in the event of natural disasters, workshops on climate science and communication and promoting farmer centric extension system.

  19. An evaluation of two large scale demand side financing programs for maternal health in India: the MATIND study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidney Kristi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High maternal mortality in India is a serious public health challenge. Demand side financing interventions have emerged as a strategy to promote access to emergency obstetric care. Two such state run programs, Janani Suraksha Yojana (JSYand Chiranjeevi Yojana (CY, were designed and implemented to reduce financial access barriers that preclude women from obtaining emergency obstetric care. JSY, a conditional cash transfer, awards money directly to a woman who delivers in a public health facility. This will be studied in Madhya Pradesh province. CY, a voucher based program, empanels private obstetricians in