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Sample records for guinea-pig gastric corpus

  1. Mechanosensitive enteric neurons in the guinea pig gastric corpus

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    Gemma eMazzuoli-Weber

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available For long it was believed that a particular population of enteric neurons, referred to as intrinsic primary afferent neuron (IPANs, encodes mechanical stimulation. We recently proposed a new concept suggesting that there are in addition mechanosensitive enteric neurons (MEN that are multifunctional. Based on firing pattern MEN behaved as rapidly, slowly or ultra-slowly adapting RAMEN, SAMEN or USAMEN, respectively. We aimed to validate this concept in the myenteric plexus of the gastric corpus, a region where IPANs were not identified and existence of enteric sensory neurons was even questioned. The gastric corpus is characterized by a particularly dense extrinsic sensory innervation. Neuronal activity was recorded with voltage sensitive dye imaging after deformation of ganglia by compression (intraganglionic volume injection or von Fry hair or tension (ganglionic stretch. We demonstrated that 27% of the gastric neurons were MEN and responded to intraganglionic volume injection. Of these 73% were RAMEN, 25% SAMEN and 2% USAMEN with a firing frequency of 1.7 (1.1/ 2.2 Hz, 5.1 (2.2/7.7 Hz and of 5.4 (5.0/15.5 Hz, respectively. The responses were reproducible and stronger with increased stimulus strength. Even after adaptation another deformation evoked spike discharge again suggesting a resetting mode of the mechanoreceptors. All MEN received fast synaptic input. 55% of all MEN were cholinergic and 45% nitrergic. Responses in some MEN significantly decreased after perfusion of TTX, low Ca++/high Mg++ Krebs solution, capsaicin induced nerve defunctionalization and capsazepine indicating the involvement of TRPV1 expressing extrinsic mechanosensitive nerves. Half of gastric MEN responded to intraganglionic volume injection as well as to ganglionic stretch and 23% responded to stretch only. Tension-sensitive MEN were to a large proportion USAMEN (44%. In summary, we demonstrated for the first time compression and tension-sensitive MEN in the stomach

  2. Gastric volvulus in guinea pigs: comparison with other species.

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    Dudley, Emily S; Boivin, Gregory P

    2011-07-01

    Gastric volvulus has been documented in several species of animals and is associated with high morbidity and mortality. We report 2 cases of gastric volvulus in guinea pigs that died without detection of prior clinical signs. Both guinea pigs were adult female guinea pigs in a breeding colony and had given birth to multiple litters; one was pregnant at the time of death. Gastric rotations of 540° and 360° were identified at necropsy examination. These cases include the first known report of gastric rotation greater than 360° in any species. Although gastric volvulus has been reported to occur in guinea pigs, little is known about its risk factors, etiology, and pathogenesis. We conducted a literature review to compare gastric volvulus between guinea pigs and other species. Copyright 2011 by the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science

  3. Gastric Volvulus in Guinea Pigs: Comparison with Other Species

    OpenAIRE

    Dudley, Emily S; Boivin, Gregory P

    2011-01-01

    Gastric volvulus has been documented in several species of animals and is associated with high morbidity and mortality. We report 2 cases of gastric volvulus in guinea pigs that died without detection of prior clinical signs. Both guinea pigs were adult female guinea pigs in a breeding colony and had given birth to multiple litters; one was pregnant at the time of death. Gastric rotations of 540° and 360° were identified at necropsy examination. These cases include the first known report of g...

  4. Review of gastric torsion in eight guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nógrádi, Anna Linda; Cope, Iain; Balogh, Márton; Gál, János

    2017-12-01

    The authors present eight cases of gastric dilatation and volvulus (GDV) in guinea pigs from the Department and Clinic of Exotic Animal and Wildlife Medicine, University of Veterinary Medicine, Budapest, Hungary between 2012 and 2016. Seven animals were operated on and two survived. Gastric torsion has been noted in many mammalian species. Gastric volvulus has a high morbidity and high mortality rate with a guarded to poor prognosis in all of these species. How GDV develops is still not widely understood. Postmortem examinations, in both our cases and previously reported cases, have failed to reveal the exact causes of the gastric torsions. The aetiology of gastric torsion in guinea pigs is probably multifactorial. Feeding fewer meals per day, eating rapidly, decreased food particle size, exercise, stress after a meal, competition, age, and an aggressive or fearful temperament, are all likely and potential risk factors for GDV development in a similar fashion to dogs. Sex, breeding, dental diseases, anatomical abnormalities, pain and pregnancy may also be contributing factors.

  5. Inhibition of gastric secretion in guinea pig by relatively low dose ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batzri, S.; Catravas, G.

    1988-01-01

    We evaluated the effect of a single dose of ionizing radiation on gastric secretion in awake guinea pigs equipped with a permanent gastric cannula. Changes in gastric secretion were measured using a dye dilution technique. Infusion of histamine increased acid and fluid output and there was a positive correlation (r = 0.93) between the two. Total body irradiation with 400 cGy, like cimetidine, suppressed acid and fluid secretion under basal conditions and during histamine stimulation by 50-90%. Recovery from the radiation damage was only partial after one week. Irradiation inhibited the rise in gastric juice volume during histamine stimulation and also reduced the normal gain in body weight of the guinea pig. These results demonstrate that ionizing radiations have an immediate and long lasting effects on the gastric mucosal function of the guinea pig

  6. Endogenous histamine and promethazine-induced gastric ulcers in the guinea pig

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    Djahanguiri, B.; Hemmati, M.

    1978-01-01

    Experiments performed with an inhibitor of diaminoxydase, aminoguanidine and an inhibitor of histidine decarboxylase, NSD 1055, showed that the frequency of gastric ulcers induced by promethazine was increased with the first inhibitor and decreased with the second. It is suggested that ulcers induced by promethazine in guinea pigs might be due to histamino-liberator effect of the antihistaminio compound.

  7. Effects of sucralfate on gastric irritant-induced necrosis and apoptosis in cultured guinea pig gastric mucosal cells.

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    Hoshino, Tatsuya; Takano, Tatsunori; Tomisato, Wataru; Tsutsumi, Shinji; Hwang, Hyun-Jung; Koura, Yuko; Nishimoto, Kiyo; Tsuchiya, Tomofusa; Mizushima, Tohru

    2003-01-01

    We previously reported that several gastric irritants, including ethanol, hydrogen peroxide, and hydrochloric acid, induced both necrosis and apoptosis in cultured gastric mucosal cells. In the present study, we examined the effects of sucralfate, a unique gastroprotective drug, on gastric irritant-induced necrosis and apoptosis produced in vitro. Sucralfate strongly inhibited ethanol-induced necrosis in primary cultures of guinea pig gastric mucosal cells. The preincubation of cells with sucralfate was not necessary for its cytoprotective effect to be observed, thus making its mechanism of action different from that of other gastroprotective drugs. Necrosis of gastric mucosal cells induced by hydrogen peroxide or indomethacin was also suppressed by sucralfate. On the other hand, sucralfate only weakly inhibited ethanol-induced apoptosis. These results suggest that the cytoprotective effect of sucralfate on gastric mucosa in vivo can be explained, at least in part, by its inhibitory effect on gastric irritant-induced necrosis.

  8. The Effect of Peripheral CRF Peptide and Water Avoidance Stress on Colonic and Gastric Transit in Guinea Pigs.

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    Hussain, Zahid; Kim, Hae Won; Huh, Cheal Wung; Lee, Young Ju; Park, Hyojin

    2017-07-01

    Functional dyspepsia (FD) and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) are common gastrointestinal (GI) diseases; however, there is frequent overlap between FD and IBS patients. Emerging evidence links the activation of corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) receptors with stress-related alterations of gastric and colonic motor function. Therefore, we investigated the effect of peripheral CRF peptide and water avoidance stress (WAS) on upper and lower GI transit in guinea pigs. Dosages 1, 3, and 10 μg/kg of CRF were injected intraperitoneally (IP) in fasted guinea pigs 30 minutes prior to the intragastric administration of charcoal mix to measure upper GI transit. Colonic transits in non-fasted guinea pigs were assessed by fecal pellet output assay after above IP CRF doses. Blockade of CRF receptors by Astressin, and its effect on GI transit was also analyzed. Guinea pigs were subjected to WAS to measure gastrocolonic transit in different sets of experiments. Dose 10 μg/kg of CRF significantly inhibited upper GI transit. In contrast, there was dose dependent acceleration of the colonic transit. Remarkably, pretreatment of astressin significantly reverses the effect of CRF peptide on GI transit. WAS significantly increase colonic transit, but failed to accelerate upper GI transit. Peripheral CRF peptide significantly suppressed upper GI transit and accelerated colon transit, while central CRF involved WAS stimulated only colonic transit. Therefore, peripheral CRF could be utilized to establish the animal model of overlap syndrome. © Copyright: Yonsei University College of Medicine 2017.

  9. Characterization of cholecystokinin receptors on guinea pig gastric chief cell membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matozaki, T.; Sakamoto, C.; Nagao, M.; Nishisaki, H.; Konda, Y.; Nakano, O.; Matsuda, K.; Wada, K.; Suzuki, T.; Kasuga, M.

    1991-01-01

    The binding of cholecystokinin (CCK) to its receptors on guinea pig gastric chief cell membranes were characterized by the use of 125 I-CCK-octapeptide (CCK8). At 30 degrees C optimal binding was obtained at acidic pH in the presence of Mg2+, while Na+ reduced the binding. In contrast to reports on pancreatic and brain CCK receptors, scatchard analysis of CCK binding to chief cell membranes revealed two classes of binding sites. Whereas, in the presence of a non-hydrolyzable GTP analog, GTP gamma S, only a low affinity site of CCK binding was observed. Chief cell receptors recognized CCK analogs, with an order of potency of: CCK8 greater than gastrin-I greater than CCK4. Although all CCK receptor antagonists tested (dibutyryl cyclic GMP, L-364718 and CR1409) inhibited labeled CCK binding to chief cell membranes, the relative potencies of these antagonists in terms of inhibiting labeled CCK binding were different from those observed in either pancreatic membranes or brain membranes. The results indicate, therefore, that on gastric chief cell membranes there exist specific CCK receptors, which are coupled to G protein. Furthermore, chief cell CCK receptors may be distinct from pancreatic or brain type CCK receptors

  10. The effect of O-acetylsalicylic acid on lipid synthesis by guinea pig gastric mucosa in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spohn, M.; McColl, I.

    1987-01-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the involvement of lipids as possible components of the gastric mucosal barrier by studying the synthesis and secretion of lipids by the epithelial cell lining of gastric mucosa and the effect of salicylate on these processes. O-Acetylsalicylic acid reversibly reduced in vitro incorporation of (U- 14 C) and of DL-(2- 14 C) mevalonic acid into lipids by isolated epithelial cells and by intact mucosa of guinea pig stomach, indicating reversible inhibition of lipid synthesis by the tissue in the presence of the drug. Inhibition of incorporation of both precursors into total lipids, into their fatty acid components, and into cholesterol is demonstrated

  11. Opposite effects of flurbiprofen and the nitroxybutyl ester of flurbiprofen on apoptosis in cultured guinea-pig gastric mucous cells

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    Johal, Kamaljit; Hanson, Peter J

    2000-01-01

    The nitric oxide (NO)-donating nitroxybutyl ester of flurbiprofen (NO-flurbiprofen), shows reduced gastro-intestinal toxicity relative to flurbiprofen. NO may exert either pro- or anti-apoptotic effects, while non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs may induce apoptosis. The aim of the present work was therefore to compare the effects of flurbiprofen and NO-flurbiprofen on apoptosis in guinea-pig gastric mucous cells.Apoptotic activity was assessed by assay of caspase activity and from the frag...

  12. Opposite effects of flurbiprofen and the nitroxybutyl ester of flurbiprofen on apoptosis in cultured guinea-pig gastric mucous cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johal, Kamaljit; Hanson, Peter J

    2000-01-01

    The nitric oxide (NO)-donating nitroxybutyl ester of flurbiprofen (NO-flurbiprofen), shows reduced gastro-intestinal toxicity relative to flurbiprofen. NO may exert either pro- or anti-apoptotic effects, while non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs may induce apoptosis. The aim of the present work was therefore to compare the effects of flurbiprofen and NO-flurbiprofen on apoptosis in guinea-pig gastric mucous cells. Apoptotic activity was assessed by assay of caspase activity and from the fragmentation and condensation of nuclei. Incubation with flurbiprofen for 24 h produced a concentration-dependent induction of apoptosis in cells attached to the culture plate (caspase 3-like activity increased by 257% at 500 μM), while NO-flurbiprofen inhibited basal apoptosis (caspase 3-like activity decreased by 71% at 500 μM). Caspase activity and nuclear fragmentation were substantially increased in cells that had spontaneously detached from the culture plate. NO-flurbiprofen inhibited caspase activity (55% at 500 μM) but not nuclear fragmentation in these detached cells. NO flurbiprofen inhibited the activation of apoptosis by 25 μM C6-ceramide in cells attached to the culture plate. Inhibition of caspase activity by NO-flurbiprofen was detectable after 6 h of incubation with intact cells, but by contrast with the NO-donor S-nitrosyl-N-acetyl-penicillamine, was not demonstrable with cell homogenates. Activation of caspase 3-like activity by flurbiprofen was slow (>6 h incubation needed) and was inhibited by cycloheximide. The presence of a nitroxybutyl ester moiety on flurbiprofen prevents the pro-apoptotic activity of the parent compound and may contribute to the reduced gastro-intestinal toxicity of NO-flurbiprofen. PMID:10864887

  13. Disparate effects of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs on apoptosis in guinea-pig gastric mucous cells: inhibition of basal apoptosis by diclofenac

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    Ashton, Miranda; Hanson, Peter J

    2002-01-01

    Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) induce apoptosis in gastrointestinal cancer cell lines. Similar actions on normal gastric epithelial cells could contribute to NSAID gastropathy. The present work therefore compared the actions of diclofenac, ibuprofen, indomethacin, and the cyclo-oxygenase-2 selective inhibitor, NS-398, on a primary culture of guinea-pig gastric mucous epithelial cells. Cell number was assessed by staining with crystal violet. Apoptotic activity was determined by condensation and fragmentation of nuclei and by assay of caspase-3-like activity. Necrosis was evaluated from release of cellular enzymes. Ibuprofen (250 μM for 24 h) promoted cell loss, and apoptosis, under both basal conditions and when apoptosis was increased by 25 μM N-Hexanoyl-D-sphingosine (C6-ceramide). Diclofenac (250 μM for 24 h) reduced the proportion of apoptotic nuclei from 5.2 to 2.1%, and caused inhibition of caspase-3-like activity, without causing necrosis under basal conditions. No such reduction in apoptotic activity was evident in the presence of 25 μM C6-ceramide. The inhibitory effect of diclofenac on basal caspase-3-like activity was also exhibited by the structurally similar mefenamic and flufenamic acids (1–250 μM), but not by niflumic acid. Inhibition of superoxide production by the cells increased caspase-3-like activity, but the inhibitory action of diclofenac on caspase activity remained. Diclofenac did not affect superoxide production. Diclofenac inhibited caspase-3-like activity in cell homogenates and also inhibited human recombinant caspase-3. In conclusion, NSAIDs vary in their effect on apoptotic activity in a primary culture of guinea-pig gastric mucous epithelial cells, and the inhibitory effect of diclofenac on basal apoptosis could involve an action on caspase activity. PMID:11815376

  14. An analysis of the hypothalamic sites at which substituted benzamide drugs act to facilitate gastric emptying in the guinea-pig.

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    Costall, B; Gunning, S J; Naylor, R J

    1985-09-01

    An analysis of the hypothalamic sites at which the substituted benzamides, metoclopramide and clebopride, act to facilitate gastric emptying was undertaken in the guinea-pig. Standard stereotaxic techniques for intracerebral injection via chronically indwelling intracerebral guides were combined with measurement of gastric emptying by fluoroscopic following of the passage of barium sulphate spheroids from the stomach. Injections were made at 7 different locations within the hypothalamus at Ant. 8.0, 8.9 and 9.6, Lat. +/- 1.0, +/- 1.6, +/- 2.2 (relative to the stereotaxic frame) and at 7.0, 8.0 and 9.0 mm below guide tips in the cortex. The most sensitive sites for gastric facilitation by the substituted benzamides were located at Ant. 8.9, Lat. +/- 1.6, Vert. -8.0, -9.0, the "perifornical area". As the distance of the injection site from the area of the fornix increased, so the facilitatory gastric action diminished, with marked delays or loss in response occurring when injection sites were moved 1 mm above, 0.6 mm lateral, 0.4 mm medial, 0.9 mm posterior or 0.7 mm anterior. The facilitatory gastric actions of metoclopramide and clebopride in the perifornical area of the hypothalamus were not mimicked by haloperidol, domperidone or sulpiride. Atropine, injected into the hypothalamus, markedly reduced gastric emptying; hexamethonium was less effective, and phentolamine, propranolol and methysergide were inactive. Atropine (but not hexamethonium, phentolamine, propranolol or methysergide), injected into the hypothalamus, dose-dependently antagonised the facilitatory gastric action of metoclopramide injected at the same site. Carbachol (but not serotonin, noradrenaline, dopamine or apomorphine), injected into the perifornical area, caused marked facilitation of gastric emptying.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  15. Guinea pig maximization test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    1985-01-01

    Guinea pig maximization tests (GPMT) with chlorocresol were performed to ascertain whether the sensitization rate was affected by minor changes in the Freund's complete adjuvant (FCA) emulsion used. Three types of emulsion were evaluated: the oil phase was mixed with propylene glycol, saline...

  16. The guinea-pig

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Maibach, H I; Anjo, M D

    1980-01-01

    14C ring-labelled hydrocortisone, testosterone and benzoic acid dissolved in acetone were applied to the backs of guinea-pigs (4 microgram/cm2). Percutaneous absorption was quantified by following the excretion of tracer in urine and faeces for 5 days. Absorption of hydrocortisone and benzoic acid...... was 2.4% (s.d. = 0.5; n = 3) and 31.4% (s.d. = 9.1; n = 3) of the applied dose respectively, similar to published human absorption data. Testosterone was absorbed to a greater extent in guinea-pigs (34.9% +/- 5.4; n = 5) than man. A thioglycollate based depilatory cream significantly increased the skin...

  17. Jejuno-jejunal intussusception in a guinea pig (Cavia porcellus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tara J. Fetzer

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available An approximately four-year-old male castrated guinea pig (Cavia porcellus was presented for painful defecation with a 24-hour history of hyporexia and intermittent episodes of rolling behavior. Upon presentation the patient was quiet, alert, and responsive, and mildly hypothermic. Abdominal palpation revealed an approximately 2-cm long oblong mass within the caudal abdomen. Abdominal radiographs revealed gastric dilation without volvulus and a peritoneal mass effect. The patient was euthanized following gastric reflux of brown malodorous fluid from his nares and oral cavity. A necropsy was performed and revealed a jejuno-jejunal intussusception causing mechanical gastrointestinal ileus, and gastric dilatation without volvulus. While non-obstructive gastrointestinal stasis is common and obstructive ileus is uncommon in guinea pigs, this report shows that intestinal intussusception is a differential in guinea pigs with ileus and gastric dilatation.

  18. [Spontaneous neoplasms in guinea pigs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khar'kovskaia, N A; Khrustalev, S A; Vasil'eva, N N

    1977-01-01

    The authors present an analysis of the data of foreign literature and the results of their personal studies of spontaneous neoplasms in 40 guinea pigs of national breeding observed during observed during a 5-year period. In 4 of them malignant tumors were diagnosed-lympholeucosis (2 cases), dermoid ovarian cysts and also cancer and adenoma of the adrenal cortex (in one animal). The neoplasms described developed in guinea pigs, aged over 4 years, and they are referred to as mostly common tumors in this species of animals.

  19. Dermatophytes in pet Guinea pigs and rabbits.

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    Kraemer, A; Mueller, R S; Werckenthin, C; Straubinger, R K; Hein, J

    2012-05-25

    The frequency of dermatophytes in pet Guinea pigs and rabbits. To determine the frequency and types of dermatophytes in pet Guinea pigs and rabbits. First, 2153 samples collected from pet Guinea pigs (n=1132) and rabbits (n=1021) with suspected dermatophytosis and submitted to three different laboratories for fungal culture were analysed. Subsequently, healthy Guinea pigs and rabbits, animals with skin lesions and with noncutaneous diseases were examined prospectively for dermatophytes. Trichophyton (T.) mentagrophytes was the most common fungal species isolated (91.6% and 72.3% of positive cultures from Guinea pigs (n=431) and rabbits (n=83), respectively). Animals with positive fungal culture did not show any gender predisposition, but affected animals were younger than those with negative fungal culture (PGuinea pigs and 0/140 healthy rabbits. In addition, fungal cultures of Guinea pigs with skin lesions (n=26) and other diseases (n=25) were positive in 7.7% and 8.0% respectively. Samples collected from 17 rabbits with skin lesions and 32 rabbits with noncutaneous disease were all negative in culture. T. mentagrophytes is the most common dermatophyte in pet Guinea pigs and rabbits, asymptomatic carriers are regularly seen in Guinea pigs, but not in rabbits. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. The Vaginal Microbiota of Guinea Pigs

    OpenAIRE

    Hafner, L. M.; Rush, C. M.; Timms, P.

    2011-01-01

    The vaginae of four guinea pigs were swabbed and samples cultured aerobically on horse blood agar, in 5 per cent carbon dioxide on MRS agar or anaerobically on anaerobic horse blood agar. Vaginal microbiota consisted almost exclusively of gram-positive bacteria including Corynebacterium, Streptococcus, Enterococcus, Staphylococcus and Lactobacillus species.Keywords: guinea pigs, vaginal microbiota, vaginal vaccines.

  1. Guinea Pigs: Versatile Animals for the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barman, Charles R.

    1977-01-01

    Guinea pigs are presented as versatile classroom animals. Suggestions for animal behavior and genetics studies are given. Also included is information concerning sex determination and the breeding of guinea pigs, and hints on keeping these animals in the classroom. References and illustrations complete the article. (MA)

  2. Endocrine tumours in the guinea pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Künzel, Frank; Mayer, Jörg

    2015-12-01

    Functional endocrine tumours have long been thought to be rare in guinea pigs, although conditions such as hyperthyroidism and hyperadrenocorticism have been documented with increasing frequency so the prevalence of hormonal disorders may have been underestimated. Both the clinical signs and diagnosis of hyperthyroidism in guinea pigs appear to be very similar to those described in feline hyperthyroidism, and methimazole has been proven to be a practical therapy option. Hyperadrenocorticism has been confirmed in several guinea pigs with an adrenocorticotropic hormone stimulation test using saliva as a non-invasive sample matrix; trilostane has been successfully used to treat a guinea pig with hyperadrenocorticism. Insulinomas have only rarely been documented in guinea pigs and one animal was effectively treated with diazoxide. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Adenocarcinoma of the gallbladder in guinea pigs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoch-Ligeti, C.; Congdon, C.C.; Deringer, M.K.; Stewart, H.L.

    1979-01-01

    Adenocarcinoma of the gallbladder developed in 17 of 68 untreated and in 26 of 83 irradiated guinea pigs of inbred strains 2 and 13. The carcinomas spread widely by direct extension and through lymphatic and blood vessels to lymph nodes, mesenteries, omenta, abdominal wall, liver, lungs, bones, and spleen. Whole-body exposure to gamma or x radiation increased both the number of tumors and metastases in male inbred guinea pigs but not in females. Significantly fewer (9 of 98) noninbred than inbred guinea pigs developed gallbladder carcinomas after irradiation. In 9 untreated noninbred guinea pigs gallbladder carcinomas were not found. Inasmuch as the effect of irradiation was not dose-dependent, an indirect systemic effect of irradiation was postulated. This is the first report on the occurrence of spontaneous gallbladder adenocarcinomas in guinea pigs

  4. 9 CFR 113.38 - Guinea pig safety test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Guinea pig safety test. 113.38 Section... Standard Procedures § 113.38 Guinea pig safety test. The guinea pig safety test provided in this section... be injected either intramuscularly or subcutaneously into each of two guinea pigs and the animals...

  5. Experimental aerosolized guinea pig-adapted Zaire ebolavirus (variant: Mayinga) causes lethal pneumonia in guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twenhafel, N A; Shaia, C I; Bunton, T E; Shamblin, J D; Wollen, S E; Pitt, L M; Sizemore, D R; Ogg, M M; Johnston, S C

    2015-01-01

    Eight guinea pigs were aerosolized with guinea pig-adapted Zaire ebolavirus (variant: Mayinga) and developed lethal interstitial pneumonia that was distinct from lesions described in guinea pigs challenged subcutaneously, nonhuman primates challenged by the aerosol route, and natural infection in humans. Guinea pigs succumbed with significant pathologic changes primarily restricted to the lungs. Intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies were observed in many alveolar macrophages. Perivasculitis was noted within the lungs. These changes are unlike those of documented subcutaneously challenged guinea pigs and aerosolized filoviral infections in nonhuman primates and human cases. Similar to findings in subcutaneously challenged guinea pigs, there were only mild lesions in the liver and spleen. To our knowledge, this is the first report of aerosol challenge of guinea pigs with guinea pig-adapted Zaire ebolavirus (variant: Mayinga). Before choosing this model for use in aerosolized ebolavirus studies, scientists and pathologists should be aware that aerosolized guinea pig-adapted Zaire ebolavirus (variant: Mayinga) causes lethal pneumonia in guinea pigs. © The Author(s) 2014.

  6. Polysaccharide prodigiosan therapy of irradiated guinea pigs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chertkov, K.S.; Mosina, Z.M.; Khramchenkova, S.P.

    1976-01-01

    In the experiments with irradiated guinea-pigs, a therapeutic action of prodigiosan has been detected. A parenteral administration of the preparation (125 to 500 μg/kg) within the interval from 15 min to 6 hours after a short-term exposure increased the survival of animals to 50%. Prodigiosan administered to guinea-pigs given prolonged irradiation failed to affect the survival rate

  7. Potassium transport across guinea pig distal colon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rechkemmer, G.; Halm, D.R.; Frizzell, R.A.

    1986-01-01

    Active absorption and secretion of K was studied by measuring bidirectional 42 K fluxes across short-circuited guinea pig distal colon. Tissues were pretreated with mucosal (m) and serosal (s) indomethacin (1 μM) and amiloride (0.1 mM, m) to suppress spontaneous, electrogenic Cl secretion and Na absorption. Under these conditions, the short-circuit current (I/sub sc/) was 0.4 μeq/cm 2 h while electroneutral K absorption was 2.8 μeq/cm 2 h. Epinephrine (5 μM, s) stimulated electrogenic K secretion, reducing net K absorption to 1.3 μeq/cm 2 h. Bumetanide (0.1 mM, s) abolished this K secretion and restored K absorption to control values, suggesting mechanistic similarities between K and Cl secretion. K absorption was inhibited 40% by the gastric H/K ATPase inhibitor, omeprazole (0.1 mM, m), and was abolished by ouabain (0.1 mM, m). Neutral K absorption does not appear to be mediated by an apical membrane Na/K pump since: the effect of mucosal ouabain on K absorption does not require the presence of mucosal or serosal Na, unidirectional Na fluxes are not influenced by mucosal ouabain, and K absorption is not affected when Na absorption is abolished by amiloride. Net K transport is determined by the balance between electroneutral K absorption and electrogenic K secretion. The ouabain sensitivity of K absorption suggests that colonic H/K ATPase differs from its gastric counterpart

  8. Development of a Guinea Pig Lung Deposition Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Development of a Guinea Pig Lung Deposition Model Distribution Statement A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. January...4 Figure 2. Particle deposition in the lung of the guinea pig via endotracheal breathing...Particle deposition in the lungs of guinea pigs via nasal breathing. ......................................... 12 v PREFACE The research work

  9. Malignant transformation of guinea pig cells after exposure to ultraviolet-irradiated guinea pig cytomegalovirus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isom, H.C.; Mummaw, J.; Kreider, J.W.

    1983-01-01

    Guinea pig cells were malignantly transformed in vitro by ultraviolet (uv)-irradiated guinea pig cytomegalovirus (GPCMV). When guinea pig hepatocyte monolayers were infected with uv-irradiated GPCMV, three continuous epithelioid cell lines which grew in soft agarose were established. Two independently derived GPCMV-transformed liver cells and a cell line derived from a soft agarose clone of one of these lines induced invasive tumors when inoculated subcutaneously or intraperitoneally into nude mice. The tumors were sarcomas possibly derived from hepatic stroma or sinusoid. Transformed cell lines were also established after infection of guinea pig hepatocyte monolayers with human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) or simian virus 40 (SV40). These cell lines also formed colonies in soft agarose and induced sarcomas in nude mice. It is concluded that (i) GPCMV can malignantly transform guinea pig cells; (ii) cloning of GPCMV-transformed cells in soft agarose produced cells that induced tumors with a shorter latency period but with no alteration in growth rate or final tumor size; and (iii) the tumors produced by GPCMV-and HCMV-transformed guinea pig cells were more similar to each other in growth rate than to those induced by SV40-transformed guinea pig cells

  10. Mechanism of resveratrol-induced relaxation of the guinea pig fundus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Ching-Chung; Tey, Shu-Leei; Lee, Ming-Che; Liu, Ching-Wen; Su, Yu-Tsun; Huang, Shih-Che

    2018-04-01

    Resveratrol is a polyphenolic compound that can be isolated from plants and also is a constituent of red wine. Resveratrol induces relaxation of vascular smooth muscle and may prevent cardiovascular diseases. Impaired gastric accommodation plays an important role in functional dyspepsia and fundic relaxation and is a therapeutic target of functional dyspepsia. Although drugs for fundic relaxation have been developed, these types of drugs are still rare. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relaxant effects of resveratrol in the guinea pig fundus. We studied the relaxant effects of resveratrol in the guinea pig fundus. In addition, we investigated the mechanism of resveratrol-induced relaxation on the guinea pig fundus by using tetraethylammonium (a non-selective potassium channel blocker), apamine (a selective inhibitor of the small conductance calcium-activated potassium channel), iberiotoxin (an inhibitor of large conductance calcium-activated potassium channels), glibenclamide (an ATP-sensitive potassium channel blocker), KT 5720 (a cAMP-dependent protein kinase A inhibitor), KT 5823 (a cGMP-dependent protein kinase G inhibitor), NG-nitro-L-arginine (a competitive inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase), tetrodotoxin (a selective neuronal Na + channel blocker), ω-conotoxin GVIA (a selective neuronal Ca 2+ channel blocker) and G-15 (a G-protein coupled estrogen receptor antagonist). The results of this study showed that resveratrol has potent and dose-dependent relaxant effects on the guinea pig fundic muscle. In addition, the results showed that resveratrol-induced relaxation of the guinea pig fundus occurs through nitric oxide and ATP-sensitive potassium channels. This study provides the first evidence concerning the relaxant effects of resveratrol in the guinea pig fundic muscle strips. Furthermore, resveratrol may be a potential drug to relieve gastrointestinal dyspepsia. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  11. Vitamin C deficiency in weanling guinea pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lykkesfeldt, Jens; Trueba, Gilberto Perez; Poulsen, Henrik E.

    2007-01-01

    Neonates are particularly susceptible to malnutrition due to their limited reserves of micronutrients and their rapid growth. In the present study, we examined the effect of vitamin C deficiency on markers of oxidative stress in plasma, liver and brain of weanling guinea pigs. Vitamin C deficiency...... increased, while protein oxidation decreased (P¼0003). The results show that the selective preservation of brain ascorbate and induction of DNA repair in vitamin C-deficient weanling guinea pigs is not sufficient to prevent oxidative damage. Vitamin C deficiency may therefore be particularly adverse during...

  12. Prolactin family of the guinea pig, Cavia porcellus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, S M Khorshed; Konno, Toshihiro; Rumi, M A Karim; Dong, Yafeng; Weiner, Carl P; Soares, Michael J

    2010-08-01

    Prolactin (PRL) is a multifunctional hormone with prominent roles in regulating growth and reproduction. The guinea pig (Cavia porcellus) has been extensively used in endocrine and reproduction research. Thus far, the PRL cDNA and protein have not been isolated from the guinea pig. In the present study, we used information derived from the public guinea pig genome database as a tool for identifying guinea pig PRL and PRL-related proteins. Guinea pig PRL exhibits prominent nucleotide and amino acid sequence differences when compared with PRLs of other eutherian mammals. In contrast, guinea pig GH is highly conserved. Expression of PRL and GH in the guinea pig is prominent in the anterior pituitary, similar to known expression patterns of PRL and GH for other species. Two additional guinea pig cDNAs were identified and termed PRL-related proteins (PRLRP1, PRLRP2). They exhibited a more distant relationship to PRL and their expression was restricted to the placenta. Recombinant guinea pig PRL protein was generated and shown to be biologically active in the PRL-responsive Nb2 lymphoma cell bioassay. In contrast, recombinant guinea pig PRLRP1 protein did not exhibit PRL-like bioactivity. In summary, we have developed a new set of research tools for investigating the biology of the PRL family in an important animal model, the guinea pig.

  13. ECG telemetry in conscious guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruppert, Sabine; Vormberge, Thomas; Igl, Bernd-Wolfgang; Hoffmann, Michael

    2016-01-01

    During preclinical drug development, monitoring of the electrocardiogram (ECG) is an important part of cardiac safety assessment. To detect potential pro-arrhythmic liabilities of a drug candidate and for internal decision-making during early stage drug development an in vivo model in small animals with translatability to human cardiac function is required. Over the last years, modifications/improvements regarding animal housing, ECG electrode placement, and data evaluation have been introduced into an established model for ECG recordings using telemetry in conscious, freely moving guinea pigs. Pharmacological validation using selected reference compounds affecting different mechanisms relevant for cardiac electrophysiology (quinidine, flecainide, atenolol, dl-sotalol, dofetilide, nifedipine, moxifloxacin) was conducted and findings were compared with results obtained in telemetered Beagle dogs. Under standardized conditions, reliable ECG data with low variability allowing largely automated evaluation were obtained from the telemetered guinea pig model. The model is sensitive to compounds blocking cardiac sodium channels, hERG K(+) channels and calcium channels, and appears to be even more sensitive to β-blockers as observed in dogs at rest. QT interval correction according to Bazett and Sarma appears to be appropriate methods in conscious guinea pigs. Overall, the telemetered guinea pig is a suitable model for the conduct of early stage preclinical ECG assessment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Mesothelium of Reissner's membrane in guinea pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qvortrup, K; Rostgaard, Jørgen

    1990-01-01

    The mesothelial cells of Reissner's membrane in guinea pigs were found to be connected by junctional complexes. No cell discontinuities or gaps were observed by scanning or transmission electron microscopy. These results are not in accordance with previous studies. They were achieved by in vivo...

  15. Arrangement of Renal Arteries in Guinea Pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazensky, David; Flesarova, Slavka

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to describe origin, localization, and variations of renal arteries in guinea pig. The study was carried out on 26 adult guinea pigs. We prepared corrosion casts of the guinea pig arterial system. Batson's corrosion casting kit no. 17 was used as the casting medium. In 57.7% of specimens, a. renalis dextra was present as a single vessel with different level of its origin from aorta abdominalis. In 38.5% of specimens, two aa. renales dextrae were present with variable origin and arrangement. The presence of three aa. renales dextrae we found in one specimen. In 76.9% of specimens, a. renalis sinistra was present as a single vessel with different level of its origin from aorta abdominalis and variable arrangement. In 23.1% of specimens, we found two aa. renales sinistrae with variable origin and arrangement. The anatomical knowledge of the renal arteries, and its variations are of extreme importance for the surgeon that approaches the retroperitoneal region in several experiments, results of which are extrapolated in human. This is the first work dealing with the description of renal arteries arrangement in guinea pig. Anat Rec, 300:556-559, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Heterogeneity of Opioid Binding Sites in Guinea Pig Spinal Cord

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-11-30

    MEDICAL CENTER WILFORD HALL AIR FORCE MEDICAL CENTER Title of Thesis: "Heterogeneity of Opioid Binding Sites in Guinea Pig Spinal Cord" Name of...that the use of any copyrighted material in the dissertation manuscript entitled: "Heterogeneity of Opioid Binding Sites in Guinea Pig Spinal Cord...University of the Health Sciences 11 Abstract Title of Thesis: Heterogenity of Opioid Binding Sites In Guinea Pig Spinal Cord Gary Dean Zarr MAJ/ANC

  17. Spontaneous reproductive pathology in female guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veiga-Parga, Tamara; La Perle, Krista M D; Newman, Shelley J

    2016-11-01

    Reproductive pathology of domestic guinea pigs is underreported to date. To provide a comprehensive review of uterine disease in guinea pigs, we performed a retrospective study of the pathology archives of the University of Tennessee, College of Veterinary Medicine. By histology, 13 of 37 uterine lesions in 23 animals were neoplastic; the other 24 nonneoplastic lesions included cystic endometrial hyperplasia (16 of 24), endometrial hemorrhage (3 of 24), pyometra (2 of 24), polyp (2 of 24), and mucometra (1 of 24). The most common guinea pig uterine neoplasms were uterine leiomyomas (6 of 13), followed by adenomas (3 of 13) and leiomyosarcomas (1 of 13). Other neoplasms included anaplastic tumors of unknown origin (2 of 13) and choriocarcinoma (1 of 13). Both anaplastic tumors and the choriocarcinoma were positive for vimentin. The choriocarcinoma was positive for HSD83B1, indicating a trophoblastic origin and its final diagnosis. All were negative for cytokeratin and smooth muscle. In multiple animals, more than 1 tumor or lesion was reported. Estrogen receptor and progesterone receptor expression was nearly 100% in uterine neoplasms. Nearly all animals for which data were available had cystic rete ovarii (18 of 19); the animal with no cystic rete ovarii had paraovarian cysts. In our study, female pet guinea pigs had a tendency to develop cystic endometrial hyperplasia and uterine neoplasia. Factors for the development of these lesions could be cystic rete ovarii, hormone dysregulation, and/or age. Other factors could contribute to the development of uterine lesions. As in other species, early ovariohysterectomy could decrease the prevalence of uterine lesions. © 2016 The Author(s).

  18. [Experiences with cage combinations for guinea pigs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Zychlinski, J

    1989-01-01

    Special cage units described in 1982 for guinea pigs have been used either as cages for small groups of breeding animals or for caging of growing animals. By using these cages the following advantages have been noted; the cage size can be adapted to number, age and body weight of the animals; aggression and panic are avoided by corners, walls and tunnels; economic use of breeding males by mating with more females.

  19. Elastase-induced emphysema in guinea pigs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loscutoff, S.M.

    1979-01-01

    Pulmonary function changes measured in guinea pigs 4 to 5 wk following intratracheal instillation of crystalline porcine pancreatic elastase resembled comparable changes in humans with moderately severe pulmonary emphysema. Compared with saline-treated controls, elastase-treated animals had increased values for all divisions of lung volume, increased static compliance and prolonged time constants. Since humans with emphysema are especially sensitive to air pollutants, elastase-treated animals may be useful as sensitive animal models in inhalatio toxicology

  20. CHARACTERIZATION OF MUSCARINIC RECEPTORS IN GUINEA-PIG UTERUS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DOODS, HN; WILLIM, KD; BODDEKE, HWGM; ENTZEROTH, M

    1993-01-01

    To characterize the muscarinic receptor present in guinea-pig uterus smooth muscle the affinities of a series of 27 muscarinic receptor antagonists for M1 (rat cortex), M2 (rat heart), M3 (rat submandibular gland), m4 (transfected in CHO cells) and muscarinic binding sites in guinea-pig uterus

  1. Heterogeneous infectiousness in guinea pigs experimentally infected with Trypanosoma cruzi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo-Neyra, Ricardo; Borrini Mayorí, Katty; Salazar Sánchez, Renzo; Ancca Suarez, Jenny; Xie, Sherrie; Náquira Velarde, Cesar; Levy, Michael Z

    2016-02-01

    Guinea pigs are important reservoirs of Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative parasite of Chagas disease, and in the Southern Cone of South America, transmission is mediated mainly by the vector Triatoma infestans. Interestingly, colonies of Triatoma infestans captured from guinea pig corrals sporadically have infection prevalence rates above 80%. Such high values are not consistent with the relatively short 7-8 week parasitemic period that has been reported for guinea pigs in the literature. We experimentally measured the infectious periods of a group of T. cruzi-infected guinea pigs by performing xenodiagnosis and direct microscopy each week for one year. Another group of infected guinea pigs received only direct microscopy to control for the effect that inoculation by triatomine saliva may have on parasitemia in the host. We observed infectious periods longer than those previously reported in a number of guinea pigs from both the xenodiagnosis and control groups. While some guinea pigs were infectious for a short time, other "super-shedders" were parasitemic up to 22 weeks after infection, and/or positive by xenodiagnosis for a year after infection. This heterogeneity in infectiousness has strong implications for T. cruzi transmission dynamics and control, as super-shedder guinea pigs may play a disproportionate role in pathogen spread. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Epidemiological evidence of listeriosis in guinea pigs fed with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Listeria monocytogenes is a bacterium that infects livestock and humans. We report the first outbreak of invasive listeriosis caused by L. monocytogenes in a guinea pig breeding colony. Eighty to 100% mortality rate was recorded in the colony of 80 guinea pigs within four weeks outbreak. On epidemiologic investigation ...

  3. Transplacental absorption of 238Pu in rats and guinea pigs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sullivan, M.F.

    1980-01-01

    Pregnant rats and guinea pigs were injected intravenously with 238 Pu citrate to determine if the potential for in utero accumulation of 238 Pu by these two species is related to the stage of development at which immunity is gained. Although guinea pigs retained more 238 Pu after birth than rats, the difference was not significant

  4. A 2-D guinea pig lung proteome map

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guinea pigs represent an important model for a number of infectious and non-infectious pulmonary diseases. The guinea pig genome has recently been sequenced to full coverage, opening up new research avenues using genomics, transcriptomics and proteomics techniques in this species. In order to furth...

  5. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN BEHAVIORAL AND AUTONOMIC THERMOREGULATION IN THE GUINEA PIG

    Science.gov (United States)

    The study was conducted to correlate the preferred thermal environment of the unrestrained guinea pig with the activity of its thermoregulatory effectors when maintained under a wide range of ambient temperatures (Ta). Eight male guinea pigs were used in a series of experiments o...

  6. The Guinea Pigs of a Problem-Based Learning Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Sarasvathie; McKenna, Sioux

    2016-01-01

    Participants in a study on learning the clinical aspects of medicine in a problem-based learning (PBL) curriculum repeatedly referred to themselves as "Guinea pigs" at the mercy of a curriculum experiment. This article interrogates and problematises the "Guinea pig" identity ascribed to and assumed by the first cohort of…

  7. Unilateral flank ovariohysterectomy in guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozanska, D; Rozanski, P; Orzelski, M; Chlebicka, N; Putowska, K

    2016-11-01

    To describe a simple, minimally invasive method of ovariohysterectomy via a unilateral flank approach in guinea pigs, for use in routine desexing of healthy female guinea pigs or treatment of ovarian cysts. The subjects of this retrospective study were 41 client-owned guinea pigs submitted for routine desexing or treatment of ovarian cysts. They included 16 healthy female guinea pigs aged 8-12 months (Group 1), and 15 females aged from 9 months to 3 years (Group 2), and 10 females aged from 3 to 7 years (Group 3) with different-sized ovarian cysts. Prior to surgery, the animals received clinical examination, blood testing (complete blood count and serum biochemistry profile) and examination of the abdomen using ultrasonography, to assess the condition of the reproductive tract and ensure the guinea pigs were fit for surgery. Ovariohysterectomy was performed via a unilateral flank incision made close to the erector spinae muscle starting approximately 1 cm caudal to the last rib. Both ovaries, uterine horns, and the uterine cervix were localised, ligated, and dissected through this unilateral retroperitoneal incision. Ovariohysterectomy was successfully completed via a single flank incision in 38/41 (93%) guinea pigs. Three guinea pigs with ovarian cysts from Group 3, which were >6 years old died during surgery due to circulatory and respiratory failure under anaesthesia. In the remaining 38 cases, surgery proceeded without complications. A further two guinea pigs from Group 3 were reluctant to move or eat for the first 3 days after surgery but recovered after provision of supportive care. All 38 animals fully recovered and wound healing was normal. This is the first report of ovariohysterectomy via a unilateral flank incision in guinea pigs. This approach is a simple, minimally invasive and safe alternative to the midline or bilateral flank approaches currently used for surgery of the reproductive tract in guinea pigs.

  8. Murine Models of Gastric Corpus PreneoplasiaSummary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine P. Petersen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Intestinal-type gastric adenocarcinoma evolves in a field of pre-existing metaplasia. Over the past 20 years, a number of murine models have been developed to address aspects of the physiology and pathophysiology of metaplasia induction. Although none of these models has achieved true recapitulation of the induction of adenocarcinoma, they have led to important insights into the factors that influence the induction and progression of metaplasia. Here, we review the pathologic definitions relevant to alterations in gastric corpus lineages and classification of metaplasia by specific lineage markers. In addition, we review present murine models of the induction and progression of spasmolytic polypeptide (TFF2–expressing metaplasia, the predominant metaplastic lineage observed in murine models. These models provide a basis for the development of a broader understanding of the physiological and pathophysiological roles of metaplasia in the stomach. Keywords: SPEM, Intestinal Metaplasia, Gastric Cancer, TFF2, Chief Cell, Hyperplasia

  9. Comparison of Human and Guinea Pig Acetylcholinesterase Sequences and Rates of Oxime-Assisted Reactivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    of appropriate animal model systems. For OP poisoning, the guinea pig (Cavia porcellus) is a commonly used animal model because guinea pigs more...endogenous bioscavenger in vivo. Although guinea pigs historically have been used to test OP poisoning therapies, it has been found recently that guinea pig AChE...transcribed mRNA encoding guinea pig AChE, amplified the resulting cDNA, and sequenced this product. The nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences of

  10. Structural determination, distribution, and physiological actions of ghrelin in the guinea pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuhara, Yuji; Kaiya, Hiroyuki; Teraoka, Hiroki; Kitazawa, Takio

    2018-01-01

    We identified guinea pig ghrelin (gp-ghrelin), and examined its distribution and physiological actions in the guinea-pig. Gp-ghrelin is a 28-amino acid peptide (GASFR SPEHH SAQQR KESRK LPAKI QPR); seven amino acids are different from that of rat ghrelin at positions 2, 5, 10, 11, 19, 21, and 25, which include the conserved region known in mammals. The third serine residue is mainly modified by n-decanoyl acid. Both gp-ghrelin and rat ghrelin increased intracellular Ca 2+ concentration of HEK293 cells expressing guinea pig growth hormone secretagogue receptor 1a (GHS-R1a), and the affinity of gp-ghrelin was slightly higher than that of rat ghrelin. In addition, gp-ghrelin was also effective in CHO cells expressing rat GHS-R1a with similar affinity to that of rat ghrelin. Gp-ghrelin mRNA was predominantly expressed in the stomach, whereas the expression levels in other organs was low. High levels of GHS-R1a mRNA expression were observed in the pituitary, medulla oblongata, and kidney, while medium levels were noted in the thalamus, pons, olfactory bulb, and heart. Immunohistochemistry identified gp-ghrelin-immunopositive cells in the gastric mucosa and pancreas. Intraperitoneal injection of gp-ghrelin increased food intake in the guinea pig. Gp-ghrelin did not cause any mechanical responses in isolated gastrointestinal smooth muscles in vitro, similar to rat ghrelin. In conclusion, the N-terminal structures that are conserved in mammals were different in gp-ghrelin. Moreover, the functional characteristics of gp-ghrelin, other than its distribution, were dissimilar from those in other Rodentia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Biosynthesis of plasmenylcholine in guinea pig heart

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wientzek, M.; Choy, P.C.

    1986-01-01

    In some mammalian hearts, up to 40% of the choline phosphoglyceride (CPG) exists as plasmenylcholine (1-alkenyl-2-acyl-glycero-3-phosphocholine). Although the majority of diacylphosphatidylcholine (PC) in mammalian hearts is synthesized from choline via the CDP-choline pathway, the formation of plasmenylcholine from choline was not known. In this study, they investigated the biosynthesis of plasmenyl-choline in the isolated guinea pig heart by perfusion with [ 3 H]choline. Labelled choline containing metabolites and labelled plasmenylcholine were isolated and determined at different perfusion time points. Significant amounts of labelling were found only in choline, phosphocholine, CDP-choline, plasmenyl-choline and PC. In addition, a precursor-product relationship was observed between the labelling of CDP-choline and plasmenylcholine. Such a relationship was not observed between choline and plasmenylcholine. Hence, they postulate that the incorporation of choline into plasmenylcholine is via the CDP-choline pathway and not via base exchange. The ability to condense 1-alkenyl-2-acyl-glycerol with CDP-choline was also demonstrated in vitro with guinea pig heart microsomes

  12. Blood profiles in unanesthetized and anesthetized guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Wendy R; Johnston, Matthew S; Higgins, Sarah; Izzo, Angelo A; Kendall, Lon V

    2016-01-01

    The guinea pig is a common animal model that is used in biomedical research to study a variety of systems, including hormonal and immunological responses, pulmonary physiology, corticosteroid response and others. However, because guinea pigs are evolutionarily a prey species, they do not readily show behavioral signs of disease, which can make it difficult to detect illness in a laboratory setting. Minimally invasive blood tests, such as complete blood counts and plasma biochemistry assays, are useful in both human and veterinary medicine as an initial diagnostic technique to rule in or rule out systemic illness. In guinea pigs, phlebotomy for such tests often requires that the animals be anesthetized first. The authors evaluated hematological and plasma biochemical effects of two anesthetic agents that are commonly used with guinea pigs in a research setting: isoflurane and a combination of ketamine and xylazine. Hematological and plasma biochemical parameters were significantly different when guinea pigs were under either anesthetic, compared to when they were unanesthetized. Plasma proteins, liver enzymes, white blood cells and red blood cells appeared to be significantly altered by both anesthetics, and hematological and plasma biochemical differences were greater when guinea pigs were anesthetized with the combination of ketamine and xylazine than when they were anesthetized with isoflurane. Overall these results indicate that both anesthetics can significantly influence hematological and plasma biochemical parameters in guinea pigs.

  13. Functional analysis of guinea pig β1-adrenoceptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Yoshio; Takahashi, Hiromi; Shibata, Sayuri; Namiki, Kana; Kimura, Sadao; Koike, Katsuo; Kasuya, Yoshitoshi

    2011-12-01

    Although similarity of pharmacological responses to certain stimuli between guinea pigs and humans has been reported, this has been poorly defined by a molecular biological approach. In this study, we cloned the gene of guinea pig ?1-adrenoceptor (ADRB1). The deduced amino acid sequence of guinea pig ADRB1 (467-aa) showed 91% and 92% identity with the human and rat ADRB1 sequences, respectively. Using HEK293T cells expressing guinea pig, human and rat ADRB1s independently, we elucidated the functional characteristics of each ADRB1. The ligand-binding profiles and the concentration-response relationships for isoprenaline-induced cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) production were similar among the three ADRB1s. Isoprenaline also induced phosphorylation of extracellular-signal related kinases (ERK) through ADRB1s in a concentration-dependent manner. The minimum effective concentration of isoprenaline for phosphorylation of ERK, through guinea pig ADRB1 was the same as through human ADRB1, but markedly lower than that of through rat ADRB1. ERK phosphorylation through guinea pig ADRB1 was sensitive to pertussis toxin, a dominant-negative ras and PD98059, indicating that a G(i)-mediated pathway is involved in the ADRB1/ERK signaling loop. These results suggest that the G(i)-coupling efficacy of guinea pig and human ADRB1s may be higher than that of rat ADRB1.

  14. Absorption of cadmium in the newborn and juvenile guinea pig

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasser, L.B.; Jarboe, G.E.

    1978-01-01

    The accepted premise that absorption is enhanced in the newborn animal is based primarily on studies using the rat, which has a relatively immature gastrointestinal system at birth. This study was conducted to determine if enhanced absorption of cadmium also occurs in the guinea pig, a species that is more precocious at birth than the rat. Newborn guinea pigs were administered a single oral dose of 5 μCi of /sup 115m/Cd (0.25 mCi of /sup 115m/Cd per milligram of cadmium) between 8 and 24 hr of age and killed at intervals between 1 and 14 days after the dosing. Juvenile guinea pigs were similarly dosed with 20 μCi of /sup 115m/Cd and killed 1 to 5 days later. Guinea pigs dosed on the day of birth absorbed approximately 6% of the dose by 1 day after the dosing and nearly 25% of the dose by 11 days. This is a cumulative absorption five times that found in rats dosed at 24 hr and two times that of rats dosed at 2 hr. The residence time of cadmium in the gastrointestinal tract was longer in newborn guinea pigs than in juvenile guinea pigs but was still significantly less than that in the newborn rat. We concluded that the absorption of cadmium from the gastrointestinal tract was greater in newborn guinea pigs than in rats, even though the residence time of cadmium in the intestinal tract was less in guinea pigs than in rats and the maturity at birth of the guinea pig is greater than that of the rat. The bases of these differences were not readily apparent

  15. Salmonella arizonaeInfection In A Guinea Pig Breeding Unit

    OpenAIRE

    GÜREL, Aydın; AYYILDIZ, Gülbin

    1998-01-01

    Salmonella arizonae infection was detected in guinea pigs kept for breeding. Two months old 50 quinea pigs were died in the breedig unit. Three death and 2 live guinea pigs were brought to Veterinary Faculty of İstanbul. The live 2 were euthanasied and necropcy was performed on all guinea pigs. The fluid about 50 cc. in the abdomen, the necrosis and pseudomembranes in the liver and spleen were observed. On histopathology, the foci of various coagulative necrosis were seen in the liver. The...

  16. Analyzing Protein Changes in Guinea Pig Tissue Lysates Using Non-guinea Pig Specific Antibodies: Procedures for Western Blotting and Examples Using 16 Individual Antibodies for Common CNS Proteins

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Johnson, Erik A; Daugherty, Kelly S

    2006-01-01

    ... behavioral and protein changes due to the absence of guinea pig-specific antibodies. We have developed a procedure to determine the specificity of commercially available, non-guinea pig-specific antibodies in guinea pig lysates...

  17. Effects of ultraviolet irradiation on skin of guinea pig

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Wenwen; Chen Qiang; Li Peng; Ling Ling; Lin Xiaochen; Ren Shuping; Liu Yajuan; Li Yun

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To explore the adverse effects of ultraviolet B (UV-B) on the skin of guinea pig. Methods: Guinea pig skin was irradiated with UV-B, the skin changes in external appearance, pathology, and the contents of OH and O 2 - produced in the skin were determined to study the adverse effects of UV-B on the guinea pig skin. Results: UV-B caused red swelling and desquamation of skin, with the increasing of the UV-B irradiation, the cells in stratum spinosum began to proliferate vigorously, the MDA and ROS contents in UVB radiation group were significantly higher than those in control group (P<0.05). Conclusion: UV-B can cause injury to guinea pig skin and has the potential to produce skin cancer. (authors)

  18. Non-terminal blood sampling techniques in Guinea pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birck, Malene Muusfeldt; Tveden-Nyborg, Pernille; Lindblad, Maiken Marie

    2014-01-01

    Guinea pigs possess several biological similarities to humans and are validated experimental animal models(1-3). However, the use of guinea pigs currently represents a relatively narrow area of research and descriptive data on specific methodology is correspondingly scarce. The anatomical features...... of guinea pigs are slightly different from other rodent models, hence modulation of sampling techniques to accommodate for species-specific differences, e.g., compared to mice and rats, are necessary to obtain sufficient and high quality samples. As both long and short term in vivo studies often require...... repeated blood sampling the choice of technique should be well considered in order to reduce stress and discomfort in the animals but also to ensure survival as well as compliance with requirements of sample size and accessibility. Venous blood samples can be obtained at a number of sites in guinea pigs e...

  19. Prevalence of fur mites (Chirodiscoides caviae) in pet guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus) in southern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Ovidio, Dario; Santoro, Domenico

    2014-04-01

    Chirodiscoides caviae is the most common fur mite affecting guinea pigs; infestation is generally asymptomatic. No studies have been published on the prevalence of such mites in guinea pigs in southern Italy. We sought to evaluate the prevalence and the clinical signs of C. caviae infestation in guinea pigs in southern Italy. Clinical records of guinea pigs evaluated from August 2012 to July 2013 were retrospectively searched. In this retrospective matched case-control study, records of guinea pigs with evidence of C. caviae infestation were selected. The prevalence of C. caviae infestation was evaluated and exposure variables were assessed among guinea pigs with and without infestation using stepwise conditional logistic regression. Guinea pigs seen during the same time period, but without a diagnosis of C. caviae, were included as control animals. The prevalence of C. caviae was 32% (42 of 131); 66.6% of affected guinea pigs (28 of 42) originated from pet shops, whereas 28% (14 of 42) were privately owned. Thirty-one guinea pigs (73.8%) were asymptomatic, whereas 11 (26.1%) showed clinical signs (pruritus, alopecia, erythema and scaling). The most frequently affected area was the lumbosacral region (38 of 42). Guinea pigs in pet shops were more likely to be affected by C. caviae than owned guinea pigs (odds ratio, 5.12; 95% confidence interval, 2.32-11.29; P guinea pigs in southern Italy. Chirodiscoides mites should be sought in guinea pigs, particularly in animals coming from pet shops. © 2014 ESVD and ACVD.

  20. Radiation induced micrencephaly in guinea pigs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, L.K.; Johnston, D.A.; Felleman, D.J.

    1991-01-01

    A brain weight deficit of about 70 mg was induced at doses of approximately 75-mGy and a deficit of 60 mg was induced at 100 mGy. This confirms the effects projected and observed by Wanner and Edwards. Although the data do not demonstrate a clear dose-response relationship between the 75-mGy and 100-mGy groups, the data are statistically consistent with a dose-response effect because of the overlapping confidence intervals. The lack of a statistically significant observation is most likely related to the small difference in doses and the limited numbers of animals examined. There are several factors that can influence the brain weight of guinea pig pups, such as caging and housing conditions, the sex of the animal, and litter size. These should be taken into account for accurate analysis. Dam weight did not appear to have a significant effect. The confirmation of a micrencephalic effect induced x rays at doses of 75-mGy during this late embryonic stage of development is consistent with the findings of small head size induced in those exposed prior to the eight week of conception at Hiroshima. This implies a mechanism for micrencephaly different from those previously suggested and lends credence to a causal relation between radiation and small head size in humans at low doses as reported by Miller and Mulvihill. 16 refs., 13 tabs

  1. Hypervitaminosis D in Guinea Pigs with α-Mannosidosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, JanLee A; Brice, Angela K; Bagel, Jessica H; Mexas, Angela M; Yoon, Sea Young; Wolfe, John H

    2013-01-01

    A colony of guinea pigs (n = 9) with α-mannosidosis was fed a pelleted commercial laboratory guinea pig diet. Over 2 mo, all 9 guinea pigs unexpectedly showed anorexia and weight loss (11.7% to 30.0% of baseline weight), and 3 animals demonstrated transient polyuria and polydipsia. Blood chemistry panels in these 3 guinea pigs revealed high-normal total calcium, high-normal phosphate, and high ALP. Urine specific gravity was dilute (1.003, 1.009, 1.013) in the 3 animals tested. Postmortem examination of 7 animals that were euthanized after failing to respond to supportive care revealed renal interstitial fibrosis with tubular mineralization, soft tissue mineralization in multiple organs, hepatic lipidosis, and pneumonia. Analysis of the pelleted diet revealed that it had been formulated with a vitamin D3 content of more than 150 times the normal concentration. Ionized calcium and 25-hydroxyvitamin D values were both high in serum saved from 2 euthanized animals, confirming the diagnosis of hypervitaminosis D. This report discusses the clinical signs, blood chemistry results, and gross and histologic findings of hypervitaminosis D in a colony of guinea pigs. When unexpected signs occur colony-wide, dietary differentials should be investigated at an early time point. PMID:23582422

  2. Evaluation of Ebola Virus Countermeasures in Guinea Pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzi, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    Ebola virus (EBOV) pathology in humans remains incompletely understood; therefore, a number of rodent and nonhuman primate (NHP) models have been established to study the disease caused by this virus. While the macaque model most accurately recapitulates human disease, rodent models, which display only certain aspects of human disease but are more cost-effective, are widely used for initial screens during EBOV countermeasure development. In particular, mice and guinea pigs were among the first species used for the efficacy testing of EBOV vaccines and therapeutics. While mice have low predictive value, guinea pigs have proven to be a more reliable predictor for the evaluation of countermeasures in NHPs. In addition, guinea pigs are larger in size compared to mice, allowing for more frequent collection of blood samples at larger volumes. However, guinea pigs have the disadvantage that there is only a limited pool of immunological tools available to characterize host responses to vaccination, treatment and infection. In this chapter, the efficacy testing of an EBOV vaccine and a therapeutic in the guinea pig model are described.

  3. Non-terminal blood sampling techniques in guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birck, Malene M; Tveden-Nyborg, Pernille; Lindblad, Maiken M; Lykkesfeldt, Jens

    2014-10-11

    Guinea pigs possess several biological similarities to humans and are validated experimental animal models(1-3). However, the use of guinea pigs currently represents a relatively narrow area of research and descriptive data on specific methodology is correspondingly scarce. The anatomical features of guinea pigs are slightly different from other rodent models, hence modulation of sampling techniques to accommodate for species-specific differences, e.g., compared to mice and rats, are necessary to obtain sufficient and high quality samples. As both long and short term in vivo studies often require repeated blood sampling the choice of technique should be well considered in order to reduce stress and discomfort in the animals but also to ensure survival as well as compliance with requirements of sample size and accessibility. Venous blood samples can be obtained at a number of sites in guinea pigs e.g., the saphenous and jugular veins, each technique containing both advantages and disadvantages(4,5). Here, we present four different blood sampling techniques for either conscious or anaesthetized guinea pigs. The procedures are all non-terminal procedures provided that sample volumes and number of samples do not exceed guidelines for blood collection in laboratory animals(6). All the described methods have been thoroughly tested and applied for repeated in vivo blood sampling in studies within our research facility.

  4. A guinea pig model of Zika virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Mukesh; Krause, Keeton K; Azouz, Francine; Nakano, Eileen; Nerurkar, Vivek R

    2017-04-11

    Animal models are critical to understand disease and to develop countermeasures for the ongoing epidemic of Zika virus (ZIKV). Here we report that immunocompetent guinea pigs are susceptible to infection by a contemporary American strain of ZIKV. Dunkin-Hartley guinea pigs were inoculated with 10 6 plaque-forming units of ZIKV via subcutaneous route and clinical signs were observed. Viremia, viral load in the tissues, anti-ZIKV neutralizing antibody titer, and protein levels of multiple cytokine and chemokines were analyzed using qRT-PCR, plaque assay, plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT) and multiplex immunoassay. Upon subcutaneous inoculation with PRVABC59 strain of ZIKV, guinea pigs demonstrated clinical signs of infection characterized by fever, lethargy, hunched back, ruffled fur, and decrease in mobility. ZIKV was detected in the whole blood and serum using qRT-PCR and plaque assay. Anti-ZIKV neutralizing antibody was detected in the infected animals using PRNT. ZIKV infection resulted in a dramatic increase in protein levels of multiple cytokines, chemokines and growth factors in the serum. ZIKV replication was observed in spleen and brain, with the highest viral load in the brain. This data demonstrate that after subcutaneous inoculation, the contemporary ZIKV strain is neurotropic in guinea pigs. The guinea pig model described here recapitulates various clinical features and viral kinetics observed in ZIKV-infected patients, and therefore may serve as a model to study ZIKV pathogenesis, including pregnancy outcomes and for evaluation of vaccines and therapeutics.

  5. Inner ear test battery in guinea pig models - a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Yi-Ho

    2018-06-01

    This study reviewed the development of the inner ear test battery comprising auditory brainstem response (ABR), and caloric, ocular vestibular-evoked myogenic potential (oVEMP), and cervical vestibular-evoked myogenic potential (cVEMP) tests in guinea pig models at our laboratory over the last 20 years. Detailed description of the methodology for testing the small animals is also included. Inner ear disorders, i.e. ototoxicity, noise exposure, or perilymph fistula were established in guinea pig models first. One to four weeks after operation, each animal underwent ABR, oVEMP, cVEMP, and caloric tests. Then, animals were sacrificed for morphological study in the temporal bones. Inner ear endorgans can be comprehensively evaluated in guinea pig models via an inner ear test battery, which provides thorough information on the cochlea, saccule, utricle, and semicircular canal function of guinea pigs. Coupled with morphological study in the temporal bones of the animals may help elucidate the mechanism of inner ear disorders in humans. The inner ear test battery in guinea pig models may encourage young researchers to perform basic study in animals and stimulate the progress of experimental otology which is in evolution.

  6. Sex Genotyping of Archival Fixed and Immunolabeled Guinea Pig Cochleas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depreux, Frédéric F; Czech, Lyubov; Whitlon, Donna S

    2018-03-26

    For decades, outbred guinea pigs (GP) have been used as research models. Various past research studies using guinea pigs used measures that, unknown at the time, may be sex-dependent, but from which today, archival tissues may be all that remain. We aimed to provide a protocol for sex-typing archival guinea pig tissue, whereby past experiments could be re-evaluated for sex effects. No PCR sex-genotyping protocols existed for GP. We found that published sequence of the GP Sry gene differed from that in two separate GP stocks. We used sequences from other species to deduce PCR primers for Sry. After developing a genomic DNA extraction for archival, fixed, decalcified, immunolabeled, guinea pig cochlear half-turns, we used a multiplex assay (Y-specific Sry; X-specific Dystrophin) to assign sex to tissue as old as 3 years. This procedure should allow reevaluation of prior guinea pig studies in various research areas for the effects of sex on experimental outcomes.

  7. 9 CFR 3.36 - Primary enclosures used to transport live guinea pigs and hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... live guinea pigs and hamsters. 3.36 Section 3.36 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH..., Care, Treatment, and Transportation of Guinea Pigs and Hamsters Transportation Standards § 3.36 Primary enclosures used to transport live guinea pigs and hamsters. No person subject to the Animal Welfare...

  8. Use of a Guinea pig-specific transcriptome array for evaluation of protective immunity against genital chlamydial infection following intranasal vaccination in Guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wali, Shradha; Gupta, Rishein; Veselenak, Ronald L; Li, Yansong; Yu, Jieh-Juen; Murthy, Ashlesh K; Cap, Andrew P; Guentzel, M Neal; Chambers, James P; Zhong, Guangming; Rank, Roger G; Pyles, Richard B; Arulanandam, Bernard P

    2014-01-01

    Guinea pigs have been used as a second animal model to validate putative anti-chlamydial vaccine candidates tested in mice. However, the lack of guinea pig-specific reagents has limited the utility of this animal model in Chlamydia sp. vaccine studies. Using a novel guinea pig-specific transcriptome array, we determined correlates of protection in guinea pigs vaccinated with Chlamydia caviae (C. caviae) via the intranasal route, previously reported by us and others to provide robust antigen specific immunity against subsequent intravaginal challenge. C. caviae vaccinated guinea pigs resolved genital infection by day 3 post challenge. In contrast, mock vaccinated animals continued to shed viable Chlamydia up to day 18 post challenge. Importantly, at day 80 post challenge, vaccinated guinea pigs experienced significantly reduced genital pathology - a sequelae of genital chlamydial infections, in comparison to mock vaccinated guinea pigs. Sera from vaccinated guinea pigs displayed antigen specific IgG responses and increased IgG1 and IgG2 titers capable of neutralizing GPIC in vitro. Th1-cellular/inflammatory immune genes and Th2-humoral associated genes were also found to be elevated in vaccinated guinea pigs at day 3 post-challenge and correlated with early clearance of the bacterium. Overall, this study provides the first evidence of guinea pig-specific genes involved in anti-chlamydial vaccination and illustrates the enhancement of the utility of this animal model in chlamydial pathogenesis.

  9. Analyzing Protein Changes in Guinea Pig Tissue Lysates Using Non-guinea Pig Specific Antibodies: Procedures for Western Blotting and Examples Using 16 Individual Antibodies for Common CNS Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-05-01

    guinea pig model does present a significant problem...trying to correlate behavioral and protein changes due to the absence of guinea pig -specific antibodies. We...have developed a procedure to determine the specificity of commercially available, non- guinea pig -specific antibodies in guinea pig lysates.

  10. Helminths of the guinea pig, Cavia porcellus (Linnaeus, in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Magalhães Pinto

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Worm burdens were evaluated and compared in two groups of the guinea pig, Cavia poreellus (Linnaeus, 1758: animals of the first group were conventionally maintained in an institutional animal house and those of the second group were openly kept in pet shops in Brazil. Animals from both sources were infected only with the nematode Paraspidodera uncinata (Rudolphi, 1819 Travassos, 1914 (10% of prevalence in guinea pigs from lhe institutional facility and 40% in those animals from the pet shop. Other helminth samples recovered from Brazilian guinea pigs during 52 years and that are deposited in the Helminthological Collection of the Oswaldo Cruz Institute (CHIOC were also analyzed. Paraspidodera uncinata and the cestode Monoecocestus parcitesticulatus Rêgo, 1960 were identified in these samples.

  11. Developing guinea pig brain as a model for cortical folding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatakeyama, Jun; Sato, Haruka; Shimamura, Kenji

    2017-05-01

    The cerebral cortex in mammals, the neocortex specifically, is highly diverse among species with respect to its size and morphology, likely reflecting the immense adaptiveness of this lineage. In particular, the pattern and number of convoluted ridges and fissures, called gyri and sulci, respectively, on the surface of the cortex are variable among species and even individuals. However, little is known about the mechanism of cortical folding, although there have been several hypotheses proposed. Recent studies on embryonic neurogenesis revealed the differences in cortical progenitors as a critical factor of the process of gyrification. Here, we investigated the gyrification processes using developing guinea pig brains that form a simple but fundamental pattern of gyri. In addition, we established an electroporation-mediated gene transfer method for guinea pig embryos. We introduce the guinea pig brain as a useful model system to understand the mechanisms and basic principle of cortical folding. © 2017 Japanese Society of Developmental Biologists.

  12. Radiation-induced bone tumours in the guinea-pig

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knowles, J.F.

    1981-01-01

    A remarkably high proportion of guinea-pigs given localized irradiations of 20 Gy x-rays developed bone tumours, 46% of all irradiated with 20 Gy and 86% of those that survived at least a year. Untreated controls were not included in the present experiment, but the authors refer to an earlier experiment using guinea-pigs from the same colony where no bone tumour occurred in 69 unirradiated animals followed for their natural life span i.e. up to 87 months. It is concluded that the author's strain of guinea-pig (details given in a previous paper, Int. J. Radiol. Biol., 40, 265) is particularly prone to radiation-induced bone tumours. Their possible value for investigating processes associated with radiation induction of bone tumours is further enhanced by their relatively large size and long life span (up to 7 years). (U.K.)

  13. Guinea pig ID-like families of SINEs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kass, David H; Schaetz, Brian A; Beitler, Lindsey; Bonney, Kevin M; Jamison, Nicole; Wiesner, Cathy

    2009-05-01

    Previous studies have indicated a paucity of SINEs within the genomes of the guinea pig and nutria, representatives of the Hystricognathi suborder of rodents. More recent work has shown that the guinea pig genome contains a large number of B1 elements, expanding to various levels among different rodents. In this work we utilized A-B PCR and screened GenBank with sequences from isolated clones to identify potentially uncharacterized SINEs within the guinea pig genome, and identified numerous sequences with a high degree of similarity (>92%) specific to the guinea pig. The presence of A-tails and flanking direct repeats associated with these sequences supported the identification of a full-length SINE, with a consensus sequence notably distinct from other rodent SINEs. Although most similar to the ID SINE, it clearly was not derived from the known ID master gene (BC1), hence we refer to this element as guinea pig ID-like (GPIDL). Using the consensus to screen the guinea pig genomic database (Assembly CavPor2) with Ensembl BlastView, we estimated at least 100,000 copies, which contrasts markedly to just over 100 copies of ID elements. Additionally we provided evidence of recent integrations of GPIDL as two of seven analyzed conserved GPIDL-containing loci demonstrated presence/absence variants in Cavia porcellus and C. aperea. Using intra-IDL PCR and sequence analyses we also provide evidence that GPIDL is derived from a hystricognath-specific SINE family. These results demonstrate that this SINE family continues to contribute to the dynamics of genomes of hystricognath rodents.

  14. Guinea Pig Oxygen-Sensing and Carotid Body Functional Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Obeso, Elvira; Docio, Inmaculada; Olea, Elena; Cogolludo, Angel; Obeso, Ana; Rocher, Asuncion; Gomez-Niño, Angela

    2017-01-01

    Mammals have developed different mechanisms to maintain oxygen supply to cells in response to hypoxia. One of those mechanisms, the carotid body (CB) chemoreceptors, is able to detect physiological hypoxia and generate homeostatic reflex responses, mainly ventilatory and cardiovascular. It has been reported that guinea pigs, originally from the Andes, have a reduced ventilatory response to hypoxia compared to other mammals, implying that CB are not completely functional, which has been related to genetically/epigenetically determined poor hypoxia-driven CB reflex. This study was performed to check the guinea pig CB response to hypoxia compared to the well-known rat hypoxic response. These experiments have explored ventilatory parameters breathing different gases mixtures, cardiovascular responses to acute hypoxia, in vitro CB response to hypoxia and other stimuli and isolated guinea pig chemoreceptor cells properties. Our findings show that guinea pigs are hypotensive and have lower arterial pO2 than rats, probably related to a low sympathetic tone and high hemoglobin affinity. Those characteristics could represent a higher tolerance to hypoxic environment than other rodents. We also find that although CB are hypo-functional not showing chronic hypoxia sensitization, a small percentage of isolated carotid body chemoreceptor cells contain tyrosine hydroxylase enzyme and voltage-dependent K+ currents and therefore can be depolarized. However hypoxia does not modify intracellular Ca2+ levels or catecholamine secretion. Guinea pigs are able to hyperventilate only in response to intense acute hypoxic stimulus, but hypercapnic response is similar to rats. Whether other brain areas are also activated by hypoxia in guinea pigs remains to be studied. PMID:28533756

  15. Guinea Pig Oxygen-Sensing and Carotid Body Functional Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Obeso, Elvira; Docio, Inmaculada; Olea, Elena; Cogolludo, Angel; Obeso, Ana; Rocher, Asuncion; Gomez-Niño, Angela

    2017-01-01

    Mammals have developed different mechanisms to maintain oxygen supply to cells in response to hypoxia. One of those mechanisms, the carotid body (CB) chemoreceptors, is able to detect physiological hypoxia and generate homeostatic reflex responses, mainly ventilatory and cardiovascular. It has been reported that guinea pigs, originally from the Andes, have a reduced ventilatory response to hypoxia compared to other mammals, implying that CB are not completely functional, which has been related to genetically/epigenetically determined poor hypoxia-driven CB reflex. This study was performed to check the guinea pig CB response to hypoxia compared to the well-known rat hypoxic response. These experiments have explored ventilatory parameters breathing different gases mixtures, cardiovascular responses to acute hypoxia, in vitro CB response to hypoxia and other stimuli and isolated guinea pig chemoreceptor cells properties. Our findings show that guinea pigs are hypotensive and have lower arterial pO 2 than rats, probably related to a low sympathetic tone and high hemoglobin affinity. Those characteristics could represent a higher tolerance to hypoxic environment than other rodents. We also find that although CB are hypo-functional not showing chronic hypoxia sensitization, a small percentage of isolated carotid body chemoreceptor cells contain tyrosine hydroxylase enzyme and voltage-dependent K + currents and therefore can be depolarized. However hypoxia does not modify intracellular Ca 2+ levels or catecholamine secretion. Guinea pigs are able to hyperventilate only in response to intense acute hypoxic stimulus, but hypercapnic response is similar to rats. Whether other brain areas are also activated by hypoxia in guinea pigs remains to be studied.

  16. Assessment of gastrointestinal pH, fluid and lymphoid tissue in the guinea pig, rabbit and pig, and implications for their use in drug development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merchant, Hamid A; McConnell, Emma L; Liu, Fang; Ramaswamy, Chandrasekaran; Kulkarni, Rucha P; Basit, Abdul W; Murdan, Sudaxshina

    2011-01-18

    Laboratory animals are often used in drug delivery and research. However, basic information about their gastrointestinal pH, fluid volume, and lymphoid tissue is not completely known. We have investigated these post-mortem in healthy guinea pigs, rabbits and pigs, to assess their suitability for pre-clinical studies by comparing the results with reported human literature. The mean gastric pH (fed ad libitum) was 2.9 and 4.4 in guinea pig and pig, respectively. In contrast, a very low pH (1.6) was recorded in the rabbits. The small intestinal pH was found in the range of 6.4-7.4 in the guinea pigs and rabbits, whereas lower pH (6.1-6.7) was recorded in the pig, which may have consequences for ionisable or pH responsive systems when tested in pig. A relatively lower pH than in the small intestine was found in the caecum (6.0-6.4) and colon (6.1-6.6) of the guinea pig, rabbit and the pig. The water content in the gastrointestinal tract of guinea pig, rabbit and pig was 51g, 153g and 1546g, respectively. When normalized to the body weight, the guinea pig, had larger amounts of water compared to the rabbit and the pig (guinea pig>rabbit>pig); in contrast, a reverse order was found when normalized to per unit length of the gut (guinea pigpig). The lymphoid tissue distribution (lymphoid follicles, Peyer's patches and long strips) along the length of the gut in these animals is presented; in particular, an abundance of lymphoid tissue was found in pig's stomach, small intestine and caecum, and rabbit's appendix. Their ample presence indicated the potential utility of these animal species in oral and colonic vaccination. These differences in the gastrointestinal parameters of the guinea pig, rabbit and pig reiterates the crucial importance of correctly selecting animal models for pre-clinical studies. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Cartilage Degeneration, Subchondral Mineral and Meniscal Mineral Densities in Hartley and Strain 13 Guinea Pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yubo; Scannell, Brian P; Honeycutt, Patrick R; Mauerhan, David R; H, James Norton; Hanley Jr, Edward N

    2015-01-01

    Osteoarthritis is a joint disease involved in articular cartilage, subchondral bone, meniscus and synovial membrane. This study sought to examine cartilage degeneration, subchondral bone mineral density (BMD) and meniscal mineral density (MD) in male Hartley, female Hartley and female strain 13 guinea pigs to determine the association of cartilage degeneration with subchondral BMD and meniscal MD. Cartilage degeneration, subchondral BMD and meniscal MD in 12 months old guinea pigs were examined with histochemistry, X-ray densitometry and calcium analysis. We found that male Hartley guinea pigs had more severe cartilage degeneration, subchondral BMD and meniscal MD than female Hartley guinea pigs, but not female strain 13 guinea pigs. Female strain 13 guinea pigs had more severe cartilage degeneration and higher subchondral BMD, but not meniscal MD, than female Hartley guinea pigs. These findings indicate that higher subchondral BMD, not meniscal MD, is associated with more severe cartilage degeneration in the guinea pigs and suggest that abnormal subchondral BMD may be a therapeutic target for OA treatment. These findings also indicate that the pathogenesis of OA in the male guinea pigs and female guinea pigs are different. Female strain 13 guinea pig may be used to study female gender-specific pathogenesis of OA. PMID:26401159

  18. Guinea pig complement potently measures vibriocidal activity of human antibodies in response to cholera vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyoung Whun; Jeong, Soyoung; Ahn, Ki Bum; Yang, Jae Seung; Yun, Cheol-Heui; Han, Seung Hyun

    2017-12-01

    The vibriocidal assay using guinea pig complement is widely used for the evaluation of immune responses to cholera vaccines in human clinical trials. However, it is unclear why guinea pig complement has been used over human complement in the measurement of vibriocidal activity of human sera and there have not been comparison studies for the use of guinea pig complement over those from other species. Therefore, we comparatively investigated the effects of complements derived from human, guinea pig, rabbit, and sheep on vibriocidal activity. Complements from guinea pig, rabbit, and human showed concentration-dependent vibriocidal activity in the presence of quality control serum antibodies. Of these complements, guinea pig complement was the most sensitive and effective over a wide concentration range. When the vibriocidal activity of complements was measured in the absence of serum antibodies, human, sheep, and guinea pig complements showed vibriocidal activity up to 40-fold, 20-fold, and 1-fold dilution, respectively. For human pre- and post-vaccination sera, the most potent vibriocidal activity was observed when guinea pig complement was used. In addition, the highest fold-increases between pre- and post- vaccinated sera were obtained with guinea pig complement. Furthermore, human complement contained a higher amount of V. cholerae- and its lipopolysaccharide-specific antibodies than guinea pig complement. Collectively, these results suggest that guinea pig complements are suitable for vibriocidal assays due to their high sensitivity and effectiveness to human sera.

  19. Infection of guinea pigs with vesicular stomatitis New Jersey virus Transmitted by Culicoides sonorensis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez De León, Adalberto A; O'Toole, Donal; Tabachnick, Walter J

    2006-05-01

    Intrathoracically inoculated Culicoides sonorensis Wirth & Jones were capable of transmitting vesicular stomatitis New Jersey virus (family Rhabdoviridae, genus Vesiculovirus, VSNJV) during blood feeding on the abdomen of six guinea pigs. None of the guinea pigs infected in this manner developed clinical signs of vesicular stomatitis despite seroconversion for VSNJV. Guinea pigs infected by intradermal inoculations of VSNJV in the abdomen also failed to develop clinical signs of vesicular stomatitis. Three guinea pigs given intradermal inoculations of VSNJV in the foot pad developed lesions typical of vesicular stomatitis. Transmission by the bite of C. sonorensis may have facilitated guinea pig infection with VSNJV because a single infected C. sonorensis caused seroconversion and all guinea pigs infected by insect bite seroconverted compared with 50% of the guinea pigs infected by intradermal inoculation with a higher titer VSNJV inoculum. The role of C. sonorensis in the transmission of VSNJV is discussed.

  20. The interplay between NSAIDs and Candida albicans on the gastrointestinal tract of guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadăş, George C; Taulescu, Marian A; Ciobanu, Lidia; Fiţ, Nicodim I; Flore, Chirilă; Răpuntean, Sorin; Bouari, Cosmina M; Catoi, Cornel

    2013-04-01

    Recent studies suggest that Candida albicans colonization is associated with several gastrointestinal inflammatory disorders and is also responsible for the delay in ulcer healing. No data are reported about the effects of C. albicans on the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs)-induced necroinflammatory lesions. On the other hand, beneficial effects of NSAIDs regarding the colonization potential with C. albicans have been reported. Our aim was to investigate whether the association between NSAIDs and C. albicans could potentially induce necroinflammatory lesions in the guinea pigs gastric and enteral mucosa. Three interventional groups of 11 guinea pigs each were investigated after 5 days of receiving indomethacin, C. albicans or the association of both. C. albicans and necroinflammatory lesions were graded based on histological examinations. Statistical analysis used Mann-Whitney nonparametric test. NSAIDs did not significantly decrease C. albicans colonization grades on gastrointestinal mucosa. Administration of indomethacin subsequent to C. albicans determined significantly more severe necroinflammatory lesions compared to group that only received C. albicans. The association of NSAIDs and C. albicans did not cause significantly more severe degenerative or inflammatory lesions compared to the administration of only NSAIDs in this experimental model. Associations between NSAIDs and C. albicans caused significantly more severe necroinflammatory injuries than the lesions produced by C. albicans, without enhancing the mucosal injury or inflammation caused by NSAIDs.

  1. The effect of immobilization and 3 (beta-aminoethyl)-1, 2, 4 triazol on the calcium content in gastric tissues of guinea pigs during the formation of experimental ulcers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grechishkin, L. L.; Ritling, K.

    1980-01-01

    A sharp fall in the concentration of calcium in gastric tissues upon immobilization and after administration of the histamine analog was recorded. Similar shifts were seen to occur in the blood plasma as well. This implies that under the effect of different action, tissue dystrophy develops by following a common mechanism involving not only the adenyl cyclase system, but that of calcium ion metabolism as well. The calcium ion content in the blood plasma and gastric tissues were measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometry.

  2. Cytological Determination Of The Estrus Cycle In Guinea Pigs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A cytologic study was carried out to determine the Estrus cycle in 5 female guinea pigs of reproductive age, for a period of 28 days in the Animal House of the College of Medicine, University of Nigeria, Enugu Campus, Enugu. Vaginal smears were collected from the animals and made on clean grease-free slides, fixed in ...

  3. Survey of endoparasites in pet guinea pigs in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Ovidio, Dario; Noviello, Emilio; Ianniello, Davide; Cringoli, Giuseppe; Rinaldi, Laura

    2015-03-01

    Little information is available on the occurrence of endoparasites in pet guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of intestinal parasites in cavies kept as pets in southern Italy. Fresh fecal samples were randomly collected from 60 guinea pigs housed in pet shops or privately owned. All fecal samples were processed using the FLOTAC pellet technique to identify and count helminthic eggs/larvae and protozoan cysts/oocysts. In addition, the specimens were analyzed also by the Remel Xpect® Giardia/Cryptosporidium immunoassay. Intestinal parasites were detected in 19 out of 60 guinea pigs (31.7 %). Paraspidodera uncinata eggs were found in 13.3 % (8/60) of the rodents examined, Nippostrongylus-like eggs in 10 % (6/60), and finally Eimeria caviae oocysts were found in 10 % (6/60) of the animals. In one case, both E. caviae oocysts and P. uncinata eggs were found. None of the samples was positive for Cryptosporidium or Giardia. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first survey of endoparasites in pet guinea pigs in Italy.

  4. Composition and characteristics of urinary calculi from guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Michelle G; Ruby, Annette L; Drazenovich, Tracy L; Westropp, Jodi L

    2009-01-15

    To determine the mineral composition of calculi, anatomic locations of the calculi, and findings of urinalysis and bacteriologic culture of urine and calculi in guinea pigs with urolithiasis. Cross-sectional study. 127 guinea pigs. Records of urinary calculi that had been submitted to the University of California Stone Laboratory from 1985 through 2003 were reviewed. In addition, submissions of urinary calculi for evaluation by the laboratory were prospectively solicited from 2004 through 2007. Prospectively obtained calculi were accompanied by a urine sample for urinalysis and bacteriologic culture and a completed questionnaire. All calculi were analyzed by use of polarized light microscopy and infrared spectroscopy. A subset of calculi was examined by means of x-ray diffractometry (XRD). 83% (43/52) of calculi from the laboratory database and 93% (70/75) of calculi that were prospectively solicited were composed of 100% calcium carbonate. Analysis via XRD confirmed that 5 of 6 calculi from a subset that had the greatest gross morphologic variation were composed of 100% calcite. Although many guinea pigs had received anti-microbials before bacteriologic cultures of urine were performed, Corynebacterium renale was isolated from 5 urine samples. Contrary to findings of other studies, urinary calculi analyzed for the present study were most commonly composed of 100% calcium carbonate, and infrared spectroscopy or XRD was necessary to differentiate this mineral from others. Treatments, including diet and husbandry practices, should be developed to help prevent development of calcium carbonate calculi in guinea pigs.

  5. Plague in Guinea Pigs and Its Prevention by Subunit Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quenee, Lauriane E.; Ciletti, Nancy; Berube, Bryan; Krausz, Thomas; Elli, Derek; Hermanas, Timothy; Schneewind, Olaf

    2011-01-01

    Human pneumonic plague is a devastating and transmissible disease for which a Food and Drug Administration–approved vaccine is not available. Suitable animal models may be adopted as a surrogate for human plague to fulfill regulatory requirements for vaccine efficacy testing. To develop an alternative to pneumonic plague in nonhuman primates, we explored guinea pigs as a model system. On intranasal instillation of a fully virulent strain, Yersinia pestis CO92, guinea pigs developed lethal lung infections with hemorrhagic necrosis, massive bacterial replication in the respiratory system, and blood-borne dissemination to other organ systems. Expression of the Y. pestis F1 capsule was not required for the development of pulmonary infection; however, the capsule seemed to be important for the establishment of bubonic plague. The mean lethal dose (MLD) for pneumonic plague in guinea pigs was estimated to be 1000 colony-forming units. Immunization of guinea pigs with the recombinant forms of LcrV, a protein that resides at the tip of Yersinia type III secretion needles, or F1 capsule generated robust humoral immune responses. Whereas LcrV immunization resulted in partial protection against pneumonic plague challenge with 250 MLD Y. pestis CO92, immunization with recombinant F1 did not. rV10, a vaccine variant lacking LcrV residues 271-300, elicited protection against pneumonic plague, which seemed to be based on conformational antibodies directed against LcrV. PMID:21406168

  6. Reflections on the Fiftieth Reunion of the Guinea Pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loud, Oliver

    1988-01-01

    A member of the original faculty of the experimental Ohio State University Laboratory High School reflects at a fiftieth reunion of the first graduating class. Students were used as guinea pigs to determine the effects of providing teenagers with liberating, interesting, and customized education from university faculty. (SM)

  7. Effects of Perfluoroisobutene on Guinea Pig Isolated Lung Preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    guinea pigs showed increased sensitivity to 5-hydroxytryptamine, bradykinin, isoprenaline and a thromboxane A2 analogue, but not to carbachol, histamine, prostaglandin D2, adenosine or potassium. These changes were not detected in the TS. If PFIB-induced changes in lung pharmacology contribute to oedema, antagonists of identified mediators may be useful as pretreatments/therapies to pulmonary

  8. Guinea pig ductus arteriosus. II - Irreversible closure after birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fay, F. S.; Cooke, P. H.

    1972-01-01

    To investigate the mechanism underlying irreversibility of ductal closure after birth, studies were undertaken to determine the exact time course for the onset of irreversible closure of the guinea pig ductus arteriosus. Parallel studies of the reactivity of ductal smooth muscle to oxygen and studies of the postpartum cellular changes within the vessel were also carried out.

  9. Perilymphatic and endolymphatic pressure in the normal guinea pig

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Warmerdam, TJ; Schroder, FHH; Wit, HP; Albers, FWJ

    1999-01-01

    Perilymphatic and endolymphatic pressures were measured consecutively in the normal guinea pig using a WPI 900A micropressure system. The mean (n = 10) perilymphatic and endolymphatic pressures were 2.26 and 2.31 cm H2O, respectively. There was no statistically significant difference between the

  10. Absorption of transuranic nitrates by rats, guinea pigs, and dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sullivan, M.F.

    1978-01-01

    Absorption of 238 Pu and 241 Am from the gstrointestinal tract was found to be quite similar for rats, guinea pigs, and dogs. Different oxidation state mixtures of 238 Pu nitrate (95% versus 65% Pu IV) were absorbed to about the same extent

  11. Toluene-induced hearing loss in the guinea pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waniusiow, Delphine; Campo, Pierre; Venet, Thomas; Cossec, Benoît; Cosnier, Frédéric; Beydon, Dominique; Rieger, Benoît; Burgart, Manuella; Ferrari, Luc; Parietti-Winkler, Cécile

    2009-10-01

    Toluene is a high-production industrial solvent, which can disrupt the auditory system in rats. However, toluene-induced hearing loss is species dependent. For instance, despite long-lasting exposures to high concentrations of aromatic solvent, no study has yet succeeded in causing convincing hearing loss in the guinea pig. This latter species can be characterized by two metabolic particularities: a high amount of hepatic cytochrome P-450s (P-450s) and a high concentration of glutathione in the cochlea. It is therefore likely that the efficiency of both the hepatic and cochlear metabolisms plays a key role in the innocuousness of the hearing of guinea pigs to exposure to solvent. The present study was carried out to test the auditory resistance to toluene in glutathione-depleted guinea pigs whose the P-450 activity was partly inhibited. To this end, animals on a low-protein diet received a general P-450 inhibitor, namely SKF525-A. Meanwhile, they were exposed to 1750 ppm toluene for 4 weeks, 5 days/week, 6 h/day. Auditory function was tested by electrocochleography and completed by histological analyses. For the first time, a significant toluene-induced hearing loss was provoked in the P-450-inhibited guinea pigs. However, the ototoxic process caused by the solvent exposure was different from that observed in the rat. Only the stria vascularis and the spiral fibers were disrupted in the apical coil of the cochlea. The protective mechanisms developed by guinea pigs are discussed in the present publication.

  12. Immunoglobulin Genomics in the Guinea Pig (Cavia porcellus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yongchen; Bao, Yonghua; Meng, Qingwen; Hu, Xiaoxiang; Meng, Qingyong; Ren, Liming; Li, Ning; Zhao, Yaofeng

    2012-01-01

    In science, the guinea pig is known as one of the gold standards for modeling human disease. It is especially important as a molecular and cellular biology model for studying the human immune system, as its immunological genes are more similar to human genes than are those of mice. The utility of the guinea pig as a model organism can be further enhanced by further characterization of the genes encoding components of the immune system. Here, we report the genomic organization of the guinea pig immunoglobulin (Ig) heavy and light chain genes. The guinea pig IgH locus is located in genomic scaffolds 54 and 75, and spans approximately 6,480 kb. 507 VH segments (94 potentially functional genes and 413 pseudogenes), 41 DH segments, six JH segments, four constant region genes (μ, γ, ε, and α), and one reverse δ remnant fragment were identified within the two scaffolds. Many VH pseudogenes were found within the guinea pig, and likely constituted a potential donor pool for gene conversion during evolution. The Igκ locus mapped to a 4,029 kb region of scaffold 37 and 24 is composed of 349 Vκ (111 potentially functional genes and 238 pseudogenes), three Jκ and one Cκ genes. The Igλ locus spans 1,642 kb in scaffold 4 and consists of 142 Vλ (58 potentially functional genes and 84 pseudogenes) and 11 Jλ -Cλ clusters. Phylogenetic analysis suggested the guinea pig’s large germline VH gene segments appear to form limited gene families. Therefore, this species may generate antibody diversity via a gene conversion-like mechanism associated with its pseudogene reserves. PMID:22761756

  13. Subacute Low Dose Nerve Agent Exposure Causes DNA Fragmentation in Guinea Pig Leukocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-10-01

    1 SUBACUTE LOW DOSE NERVE AGENT EXPOSURE CAUSES DNA FRAGMENTATION IN GUINEA PIG LEUKOCYTES. Jitendra R. Dave1, John R. Moffett1, Sally M...DNA fragmentation in blood leukocytes from guinea pigs by ‘Comet’ assay after exposure to soman at doses ranging from 0.1LD50 to 0.4 LD50, once per...computer. Data obtained for exposure to soman demonstrated significant increases in DNA fragmentation in circulating leukocytes in CWNA treated guinea pigs as

  14. Immunohistopathology in the Guinea Pig Following Chronic Low-Level Exposure to Chemical Warfare Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-11-01

    U.S. Army Medical Research Institute of Chemical Defense USAMRICD-TR-05-09 Immunohistopathology in the Guinea Pig Following Chronic Low...2005 2. REPORT TYPE Technical Report 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) May 2003 to April 2005 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Immunohistopathology in the Guinea Pig Following...release; distribution unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Guinea pigs exposed repeatedly to low levels of chemical warfare nerve agents

  15. Efficacy of the Tertiary Oxime Monoisonitrosoacetone (MINA) Against Lethal Sarin Intoxication in the Guinea Pig

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-10-01

    Sarin 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Intoxication in the Guinea Pig 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Koplovitz, I and...efficacy of MINA as a treatment for lethal sarin (GB) intoxication in guinea pigs . Male animals were challenged subcutaneously (s.c.) with 2 LD50s...oximes that are readily able to enter the brain. 15. SUBJECT TERMS oximes, brain, sarin, reactivation, nerve agents, guinea pigs 16. SECURITY

  16. The Potential Neurotoxic Effects of Low-Dose Sarin Exposure in a Guinea Pig Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    1 THE POTENTIAL NEUROTOXIC EFFECTS OF LOW-DOSE SARIN EXPOSURE IN A GUINEA PIG MODEL Melinda R. Roberson, PhD, Michelle B. Schmidt...Proving Ground, MD 21010 USA ABSTRACT This study is assessing the effects in guinea pigs of repeated low-dose exposure to the nerve...COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE The Potential Neurotoxic Effects Of Low-Dose Sarin Exposure In A Guinea Pig Model 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b

  17. In Vitro Response of Guinea Pig Peritoneal Macrophages to Legionella pneumophila

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-03-01

    In Vitro Responlse of Guinea Pig Peritoneal Macrophages to Legionella pneumophila It. A. KISIIIMi~O~’ .1. Ii.,W11ITE, F. G. SIREY, V. (U.1 Mc(GANN, R...Tlhe inter- act ion between L. lincumnophila andl( peritoneal macrophages front normial guinea pigs or front animials that had survived infection was...roagglujtiniat titer) guinea pig serum to The purp~ose of this study "as to investigate contain approximately 108 organisms per ml. the phagocytic and

  18. Guinea pig Ia antigens are not derivatised on trinitrophenyl-modified cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clement, L T; Thomas, D W; Kask, A M; Shevach, E M [National Inst. of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Bethesda, MD (USA)

    1978-08-10

    In an effort to clarify the nature of the trinitrophenyl (TNP) specific immunogen recognised by hapten-reactive guinea pig T lymphocytes, the membrane proteins of TNP-modified guinea pig macrophages have been analysed by chemical methods using nitrobenzene sulphonic acid surface labelled with /sup 125/I. The experiments provided strong evidence that the TNP specific immunogen which T lymphocytes recognise on guinea pig macrophages does not consist of directly haptenated Ia antigens.

  19. Erythropoietin and erythropoietin receptor expression in the guinea pig inner ear

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cayé-Thomasen, Per; Wagner, Niels; Lidegaard Frederiksen, Birgitte

    2005-01-01

    , this study determines expression of EPO and EPOR in the inner ear of the guinea pig. Normal guinea pig inner ears were processed for immunohistochemistry, using poly-clonal antibodies against EPO and the EPO receptor. EPO expression was exclusively found in most, but not all spiral ganglion neurons...... expressed by several cell types within the guinea pig cochlea. We hypothesize on the existence of a local paracrine system and that EPO treatment may be feasible following inner ear damage....

  20. Aetiology of ''slobbers'' (chronic fluorosis) in the guinea-pig

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hard, G C; Atkinson, F F.V.

    1967-01-01

    A natural outbreak of ''slobbers'' with high morbidity and high mortality in guinea-pig breeding units in New South Wales and Canberra has been shown to be due to chronic fluoride poisoning. A survey of the dietary regiment employed in laboratories and units demonstrated the association of disease incidence with the feeding of proprietary pellets and usually low levels of green-food supplementation. Fluorine concentration in the pellets used in affected colonies ranged from 130 to 400 ppm. Inquiry produced some evidence that Christmas Island (Indian Ocean) rock-phosphate of high fluoride content had been incorporated in the pellets in place of bone flour. Experimental reproduction of the spontaneous disease was accomplished in exact detail by the extended administration of calcium fluoride in a concentration ranging from 300 to 450 ppm. The fluorine content of skull and teeth samples of experimentally poisoned guinea-pigs was comparable to that in natural cases of slobbers.

  1. The preparation of recombinant interleukin-6 and its protection for irradiated guinea-pigs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Junfu; Zhang Jie; Zhang Jianhua; Feng Jinbo; Xu Jie; Wang Baohong

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To purify recombinant human interleukin-6 from gene-engineered E. coli and study the effects of IL-6 on survival period and platelet count of irradiated guinea-pigs. Methods: Recombinant human IL-6 was expressed in gene-engineered E. coli and purified with reversed phase chromatography. Purified IL-6 was then administered to irradiated guinea-pig. Results: IL-6 could significantly prolong the survival period and increase the platelet count of irradiated guinea-pigs. Conclusion: IL-6 showed its effective protection for irradiated guinea-pigs

  2. Pharmacology of Bradykinin-Evoked Coughing in Guinea Pigs

    OpenAIRE

    Hewitt, Matthew M.; Adams, Gregory; Mazzone, Stuart B.; Mori, Nanako; Yu, Li; Canning, Brendan J.

    2016-01-01

    Bradykinin has been implicated as a mediator of the acute pathophysiological and inflammatory consequences of respiratory tract infections and in exacerbations of chronic diseases such as asthma. Bradykinin may also be a trigger for the coughing associated with these and other conditions. We have thus set out to evaluate the pharmacology of bradykinin-evoked coughing in guinea pigs. When inhaled, bradykinin induced paroxysmal coughing that was abolished by the bradykinin B2 receptor antagonis...

  3. Dermal Sensitization Potential of Diethyleneglycol Dinitrate (DEGDN) in Guinea Pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-10-01

    Woodard G, Calvery HO. Methods for the study of irritation and toxicity of substances applied topically to the skin and mucous membxanes. J Pharmacol...the attached data sheet, ARFPOM Forn 213R. The compound chromatographed as a single peak ( retention time 5.4 r!’n) by HPLC analysis under the...commonly encountered in guinea pigs. 3. The right eye of animal 85E0132 had a congenital dermoid cyst in the conjunctiva. The liver of animal 85E0112

  4. Transfer of radiobismuth to the fetus in guinea-pigs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richardson, R.B.

    1992-01-01

    A small animal study was carried out in guinea-pigs to measure uptake of radiobismuth ( 207 BiCl 3 ) in fetal organs after intravenous administration to the mother. In this study, little activity was found to cross the placental barrier with 214 Bi across the placenta, is considered to result in a negligible dose from radon short-lived daughters to fetal organs. (author)

  5. Beam-Beam Simulations with GUINEA-PIG

    CERN Document Server

    Schulte, Daniel

    1998-01-01

    While the bunches in a linear collider cross only once, due to their small size they experience a strong beam-beam effect. GUINEA-PIG is a code to simulate the impact of this effect on luminosity and back ground. A short overview of the program is given with examples of its application to the back ground strudies for TESLA, the top quark threshold scan and a possible luminosity monitor, as well as some results for CLIC.

  6. Studies of guinea pig immunoglobulin isotype, idiotype and antiidiotype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tirrell, S.M.

    1988-01-01

    Immunization of Guinea pigs with diphtheria toxoid generated antibodies of the IgG class that were capable of neutralizing native toxin in vivo. Sera from these animals were used to affinity purify idiotypic antibodies (AB1). AB1 vaccines derived from the IgG1 class and from F(ab') 2 of IgG1 + IgG2 (IgG1/2) classes were effective in inducing a syngeneic anti-idiotype (AB2) response. Animals immunized with AB1 consisting of both IgG1/2 did not elicit a detectable AB2 response. Binding of homologous 125 I-F(ab') 2 (AB1) to the antiidiotype was inhibited 90% in the presence of DT.F(ab') 2 derived from preimmune serum or had no inhibitory effects on the idiotype-antiidiotype interactions. Two groups of outbred guinea pigs were vaccinated with alum absorbed F(ab') 2 of anti-idiotype IgG1/2 (AB2). Of the ten animals inoculated with AB2, three tested positive by RIA against 125 I-DT. Two of the RIA positive sera contained antibodies that neutralized diphtheria toxin in a rabbit intracutaneous assay. Purification of guinea pig IgG by protein A-Sepharose affinity chromatography resulted in the separation of three distinct IgG populations

  7. Guinea pigs as an animal model for sciatic nerve injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malik Abu Rafee

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The overwhelming use of rat models in nerve regeneration studies is likely to induce skewness in treatment outcomes. To address the problem, this study was conducted in 8 adult guinea pigs of either sex to investigate the suitability of guinea pig as an alternative model for nerve regeneration studies. A crush injury was inflicted to the sciatic nerve of the left limb, which led to significant decrease in the pain perception and neurorecovery up to the 4th weak. Lengthening of foot print and shortening of toe spread were observed in the paw after nerve injury. A 3.49 ± 0.35 fold increase in expression of neuropilin 1 (NRP1 gene and 2.09 ± 0.51 fold increase in neuropilin 2 (NRP2 gene were recorded 1 week after nerve injury as compared to the normal nerve. Ratios of gastrocnemius muscle weight and volume of the experimental limb to control limb showed more than 50% decrease on the 30th day. Histopathologically, vacuolated appearance of the nerve was observed with presence of degenerated myelin debris in digestion chambers. Gastrocnemius muscle also showed degenerative changes. Scanning electron microscopy revealed loose and rough arrangement of connective tissue fibrils and presence of large spherical globules in crushed sciatic nerve. The findings suggest that guinea pigs could be used as an alternative animal model for nerve regeneration studies and might be preferred over rats due to their cooperative nature while recording different parameters.

  8. Vestibular morphology in the German Waltzing guinea pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaguchi, Sachie; Hultcrantz, Malou; Jin, Zhe; Ulfendahl, Mats; Suzuki, Mamoru

    2010-04-01

    The German waltzing guinea pig is a special strain of animal with a recessively inherited inner ear defect, resulting in deafness and a severe vestibular dysfunction. The hearing loss in the cochlea of the German strain is a result of a collapse of the Reissner membrane and the absence of scala media. The vestibular organ has not yet been described. German waltzing guinea pigs (homozygote and heterozygote) of different ages ranging from embryologic age 25 days to adulthood were investigated. The living animals were tested with four different vestibular tests, and the fetuses were controlled according to breeding. The morphology of the vestibular parts (ampulla, saccule, and utricle) was observed by using the light and transmission electron microscopy. Collapse of the membranous labyrinth was found already at embryologic age 50 days and progressed over time. Vestibular dysfunction was noted already from birth. Vestibular atelectasis has been shown to have the same morphology as the reported vestibular dysfunction in the German waltzing guinea pig. Owing to this similarity, this animal can be a good model for vestibular research.

  9. Genetic factors of Ebola virus virulence in guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subbotina, Ekaterina; Dadaeva, Alexandra; Kachko, Alla; Chepurnov, Alexander

    2010-10-01

    Zaire ebolavirus (ZEBOV) causes severe hemorrhagic fever in primates, whereas in guinea pigs it induces a nonlethal infection with a mild fever and subsequent recovery. We performed 7 selective passages in guinea pigs resulted in obtaining of guinea pig-adapted strain (GPA-P7) strain. By the 7th passage, the infection with EBOV induced a lethal disease in animals accompanied by the characteristic hematological changes: leukocytosis (primarily due to neutrophilia) as well as pronounced deficiencies in platelets, lymphocytes, monocytes and significant decrease of blood neutrophils phagocytic capacity. Increasing of virulence correlated with appearance of several nucleotide substitutions: in the genes NP, A2166G (N566S), VP24, U10784C (L147P), G10557A (M71I), G10805U (R154L), and L, G12286A (V236I). It has been theoretically calculated that the mutations associated with an increase in EBOV virulence can confer characteristic secondary structure on the proteins NP (C-terminal region) and full-sized VP24. (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Interstitial cells of Cajal and Auerbach's plexus. A scanning electron microscopical study of guinea-pig small intestine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jessen, Harry; Thuneberg, Lars

    1991-01-01

    Anatomy, interstitial cells of Cajal, myenteric plexus, small intestine, guinea-pig, scanning electron microscopy......Anatomy, interstitial cells of Cajal, myenteric plexus, small intestine, guinea-pig, scanning electron microscopy...

  11. Optimization of Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein Immunoreactivity in Formalin-fixed, Paraffin-Embedded Guinea Pig Brain Sections

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-09-01

    fixed, paraffin-embedded guinea pig brain sections using a variety of commercially available GFAP antibody clones. Of the 7 clones tested for cross...determining neuropathological consequences in the guinea pig following exposure to chemical warfare nerve agent.

  12. The Anticomplementary Activity of ’Fusobacterium polymorphum’ in Normal and C-4 Deficient Sources of Guinea Pig Complement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-12

    A complement consumption assay was used to show that the anticomplementary activity of a cell wall preparation from F. polymorphum in guinea pig complement...tests with C𔃾-deficient guinea pig sera confirmed that F. polymorphum cell walls were capable of generating alternate complement pathway activity in guinea pig sera.

  13. The innate immunity of guinea pigs against highly pathogenic avian influenza virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kun; Xu, Wei Wei; Zhang, Zhaowei; Liu, Jing; Li, Jing; Sun, Lijuan; Sun, Weiyang; Jiao, Peirong; Sang, Xiaoyu; Ren, Zhiguang; Yu, Zhijun; Li, Yuanguo; Feng, Na; Wang, Tiecheng; Wang, Hualei; Yang, Songtao; Zhao, Yongkun; Zhang, Xuemei; Wilker, Peter R; Liu, WenJun; Liao, Ming; Chen, Hualan; Gao, Yuwei; Xia, Xianzhu

    2017-05-02

    H5N1 avian influenza viruses are a major pandemic concern. In contrast to the highly virulent phenotype of H5N1 in humans and many animal models, guinea pigs do not typically display signs of severe disease in response to H5N1 virus infection. Here, proteomic and transcriptional profiling were applied to identify host factors that account for the observed attenuation of A/Tiger/Harbin/01/2002 (H5N1) virulence in guinea pigs. RIG-I and numerous interferon stimulated genes were among host proteins with altered expression in guinea pig lungs during H5N1 infection. Overexpression of RIG-I or the RIG-I adaptor protein MAVS in guinea pig cell lines inhibited H5N1 replication. Endogenous GBP-1 expression was required for RIG-I mediated inhibition of viral replication upstream of the activity of MAVS. Furthermore, we show that guinea pig complement is involved in viral clearance, the regulation of inflammation, and cellular apoptosis during influenza virus infection of guinea pigs. This work uncovers features of the guinea pig innate immune response to influenza that may render guinea pigs resistant to highly pathogenic influenza viruses.

  14. The guinea pig maximization test--with a multiple dose design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Vølund, A; Frankild, S

    1995-01-01

    The guinea pig maximization test (GPMT) is usually performed with one moderately irritant induction dose of the allergen and gives a qualitative assessment-hazard identification-of the allergenicity of the chemical. We refined the GPMT by applying a multiple dose design and used 30 guinea pigs in...

  15. Location of bladder and urethral sphincter motoneurons in the male guinea pig (Cavia porcellus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuipers, R; Izhar, Z; Gerrits, PO; Miner, W; Holstege, G; Gerrits, Peter O.

    2004-01-01

    Although the guinea pig is used widely in experimental medical research, including in studies on micturition control, the spinal origin of preganglionic parasympathetic bladder and somatic external urethral sphincter motoneurons is not known. In the male, guinea pig using wheat germ

  16. Epizootic guinea pig herpes-like virus infection in a breeding colony.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connelly, B L; Keller, G L; Myers, M G

    1987-01-01

    A breeding colony of strain-2 guinea pigs which had been relatively free of indigenous caviid herpesviruses experienced an explosive outbreak of guinea pig herpes-like virus apparently as a consequence of intermixing groups and contamination of the water supply. A new breeding colony has been established and has been maintained apparently free of recognized caviid herpesviruses.

  17. Behavioral responses of deafened guinea pigs to intracochlear electrical stimulation: a new rapid psychophysical procedure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agterberg, M.J.H.; Versnel, H.

    2014-01-01

    In auditory research the guinea pig is often preferred above rats and mice because of the easily accessible cochlea and because the frequency range of its hearing is more comparable to that of humans. Studies of the guinea-pig auditory system primarily apply histological and electrophysiological

  18. Anticonvulsant Effects of Memantine and MK-801 in Guinea Pig Hippocampal Neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    investigation we compared the anticonvulsant properties of Mem to those of MK-801 in guinea pig hippocampal slices. Extracellular recordings were...obtained from area CA1 of guinea pig hippocampal slices in a total submersion chamber at 32 deg C in normal oxygenated artificial cerebrospinal fluid (ACSF

  19. Evaluating of the Anticonvulsant Gabapentin against Nerve Agent-Induced Seizures in a Guinea Pig Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    treating neuropathic pain. This study evaluated whether gabapentin could terminate or moderate nerve agent-induced seizures using a validated guinea ... pig model. Male Hartley guinea pigs were surgically prepared to record electroencephalographic (EEG) activity. After a week recovery, animals were

  20. Nickel-sulphate-induced contact dermatitis in the guinea pig maximization test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rohold, A E; Nielsen, G D; Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    1991-01-01

    Nickel sulphate is a sensitizer in guinea pigs, but the frequency of sensitization varies from study to study. The dose-response relationship for NiSO4.6H2O was evaluated in the guinea pig maximization test in this study. 6 intradermal (0.01%-3.0% aq.) and 6 topical (0.25%-10.0% pet.) concentrati...

  1. Molecular cloning, expression, and in silico structural analysis of guinea pig IL-17.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirisala, Vijaya R; Jeevan, Amminikutty; Ramasamy, Suresh K; McMurray, David N

    2013-11-01

    Interleukin-17A (IL-17A) is a potent proinflammatory cytokine and the signature cytokine of Th17 cells, a subset which is involved in cytokine and chemokine production, neutrophil recruitment, promotion of T cell priming, and antibody production. IL-17 may play an important role in tuberculosis and other infectious diseases. In preparation for investigating its role in the highly relevant guinea pig model of pulmonary tuberculosis, we cloned guinea pig IL-17A for the first time. The complete coding sequence of the guinea pig IL-17A gene (477 nucleotides; 159 amino acids) was subcloned into a prokaryotic expression vector (pET-30a) resulting in the expression of a 17 kDa recombinant guinea pig IL-17A protein which was confirmed by mass spectrometry analysis. Homology modeling of guinea pig IL-17A revealed that the three-dimensional structure resembles that of human IL-17A. The secondary structure predicted for this protein showed the presence of one extra helix in the N-terminal region. The expression profile of IL-17A was analyzed quantitatively in spleen, lymph node, and lung cells from BCG-vaccinated guinea pigs by real-time PCR. The guinea pig IL-17A cDNA and its recombinant protein will serve as valuable tools for molecular and immunological studies in the guinea pig model of pulmonary TB and other human diseases.

  2. Molecular cloning and expression of the calmodulin gene from guinea pig hearts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Rui; Liu, Yan; Sun, Xuefei; Wang, Yan; Hu, Huiyuan; Guo, Feng; Zhao, Jinsheng; Hao, Liying

    2015-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to isolate and characterize a complementary DNA (cDNA) clone encoding the calmodulin (CaM; GenBank accession no. FJ012165) gene from guinea pig hearts. The CaM gene was amplified from cDNA collected from guinea pig hearts and inserted into a pGEM®-T Easy vector. Subsequently, CaM nucleotide and protein sequence similarity analysis was conducted between guinea pigs and other species. In addition, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was performed to investigate the CaM 3 expression patterns in different guinea pig tissues. Sequence analysis revealed that the CaM gene isolated from the guinea pig heart had ∼90% sequence identity with the CaM 3 genes in humans, mice and rats. Furthermore, the deduced peptide sequences of CaM 3 in the guinea pig showed 100% homology to the CaM proteins from other species. In addition, the RT-PCR results indicated that CaM 3 was widely and differentially expressed in guinea pigs. In conclusion, the current study provided valuable information with regard to the cloning and expression of CaM 3 in guinea pig hearts. These findings may be helpful for understanding the function of CaM3 and the possible role of CaM3 in cardiovascular diseases.

  3. Comparative analysis of detection methods for congenital cytomegalovirus infection in a Guinea pig model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Albert H; Mann, David; Error, Marc E; Miller, Matthew; Firpo, Matthew A; Wang, Yong; Alder, Stephen C; Schleiss, Mark R

    2013-01-01

    To assess the validity of the guinea pig as a model for congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection by comparing the effectiveness of detecting the virus by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in blood, urine, and saliva. Case-control study. Academic research. Eleven pregnant Hartley guinea pigs. Blood, urine, and saliva samples were collected from guinea pig pups delivered from pregnant dams inoculated with guinea pig CMV. These samples were then evaluated for the presence of guinea pig CMV by real-time PCR assuming 100% transmission. Thirty-one pups delivered from 9 inoculated pregnant dams and 8 uninfected control pups underwent testing for guinea pig CMV and for auditory brainstem response hearing loss. Repeated-measures analysis of variance demonstrated no statistically significantly lower weight for the infected pups compared with the noninfected control pups. Six infected pups demonstrated auditory brainstem response hearing loss. The sensitivity and specificity of the real-time PCR assay on saliva samples were 74.2% and 100.0%, respectively. The sensitivity of the real-time PCR on blood and urine samples was significantly lower than that on saliva samples. Real-time PCR assays of blood, urine, and saliva revealed that saliva samples show high sensitivity and specificity for detecting congenital CMV infection in guinea pigs. This finding is consistent with recent screening studies in human newborns. The guinea pig may be a good animal model in which to compare different diagnostic assays for congenital CMV infection.

  4. Generation and Characterization of Inhibitory Antibodies Specific to Guinea Pig CXCR1 and CXCR2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Kento; Yoshimura, Chigusa; Shiina, Tetsuo; Terauchi, Tomoko; Yoshitomi, Tomomi; Hirahara, Kazuki

    2017-04-01

    CXCR1 and CXCR2 are chemokine receptors that have different selectivity of chemokine ligands, but the distinct role of each receptor is not clearly understood. This is due to the absence of specific inhibitors in guinea pigs, which are the appropriate species for investigation of CXCR1 and CXCR2 because of their functional similarity to humans. In this study, we generated and evaluated monoclonal antibodies that specifically bound to guinea pig CXCR1 (gpCXCR1) and guinea pig CXCR2 (gpCXCR2) for acquisition of specific inhibitors. To assess the activity of antibodies, we established CHO-K1 cells stably expressing either gpCXCR1 or gpCXCR2 (CHO/gpCXCR1 or CHO/gpCXCR2). CHO/gpCXCR1 showed migration in response to guinea pig interleukin (IL)-8, and CHO/gpCXCR2 showed migration in response to both guinea pig IL-8 and guinea pig growth-regulated oncogene α. The receptor selectivities of the chemokines of guinea pigs were the same as the human orthologs. The inhibitory activities of the anti-gpCXCR1 and anti-gpCXCR2 monoclonal antibodies on cell migration were observed in a concentration-dependent manner. In conclusion, we successfully obtained inhibitory antibodies specific to gpCXCR1 and gpCXCR2. These inhibitory antibodies will be useful to clarify the physiological roles of CXCR1 and CXCR2 in guinea pigs.

  5. The guinea pig maximization test--with a multiple dose design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Vølund, A; Frankild, S

    1995-01-01

    The guinea pig maximization test (GPMT) is usually performed with one moderately irritant induction dose of the allergen and gives a qualitative assessment-hazard identification-of the allergenicity of the chemical. We refined the GPMT by applying a multiple dose design and used 30 guinea pigs...

  6. Cumulative irritancy in the guinea pig from low grade irritant vehicles and the angry skin syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Maibach, H I

    1980-01-01

    A 4-week open cumulative irritancy test in guinea pigs discriminated between two low grade irritant vehicles, nonionic base (anhydrous) and hydrophilic ointment. The procedure might be useful as a predictive test for low grade irritants. The angry skin syndrome was established in the guinea pigs...

  7. Vaccination with Trypanosoma rangeli induces resistance of guinea pigs to virulent Trypanosoma cruzi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basso, B; Moretti, E; Fretes, R

    2014-01-15

    Chagas' disease, endemic in Latin America, is spread in natural environments through animal reservoirs, including marsupials, mice and guinea pigs. Farms breeding guinea pigs for food are located in some Latin-American countries with consequent risk of digestive infection. The aim of this work was to study the effect of vaccination with Trypanosoma rangeli in guinea pigs challenged with Trypanosoma cruzi. Animals were vaccinated with fixated epimastigotes of T. rangeli, emulsified with saponin. Controls received only PBS. Before being challenged with T. cruzi, parasitemia, survival rates and histological studies were performed. The vaccinated guinea pigs revealed significantly lower parasitemia than controls (pguinea pigs and dogs. The development of vaccines for use in animals, like domestic dogs and guinea pigs in captivity, opens up new opportunities for preventive tools, and could reduce the risk of infection with T. cruzi in the community. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Decidual tissue growth and regression in the guinea pig: regulation by uterine blood flow and relation to circulating progesterone concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garris, D R

    1984-05-01

    The role of uterine blood flow (UBF) in the modulation of experimentally induced decidua formation was assessed in mature guinea pigs. The response to endometrial trauma, as indexed by uterine weight changes, was dependent upon the type of stimulus used, with deciduogenic effectiveness as follows: saline = oil = knife scratch less than scissor cut. Both the knife scratch and scissor cut techniques induced elevations in UBF compared with control values. Neither uterine weight nor UBF increased when trauma was applied to unresponsive uteri, indicating that inflammation was not the cause of uterine hyperemia. Uterine weight increased from basal levels on the day of trauma (i.e. day 5 of the estrous cycle) to a maximal weight between days 10 and 12 posttrauma. Maximal growth of the induced decidua occurred under conditions of elevated UBF. Subsequently, UBF declined between days 10 and 15 posttrauma, preceding the associate resorption of the induced decidua. During the period of decidua growth, serum progesterone levels were elevated compared with those in control animals. These data indicate that experimentally induced decidua formation in the guinea pig is associated with uterine hyperemia and increased corpus luteum activity, both of which are necessary for proper endometrial differentiation. It is hypothesized that these events mimic the uterine hyperemia associated with blastocyst implanplantation and early placentation in this species.

  9. Acotiamide Hydrochloride, a Therapeutic Agent for Functional Dyspepsia, Enhances Acetylcholine-induced Contraction via Inhibition of Acetylcholinesterase Activity in Circular Muscle Strips of Guinea Pig Stomach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, K; Kawachi, M; Matsunaga, Y; Hori, Y; Ozaki, T; Nagahama, K; Hirayama, M; Kawabata, Y; Shiraishi, Y; Takei, M; Tanaka, T

    2016-04-01

    Acotiamide is a first-in-class prokinetic drug approved in Japan for the treatment of functional dyspepsia. Given that acotiamide enhances gastric motility in conscious dogs and rats, we assessed the in vitro effects of this drug on the contraction of guinea pig stomach strips and on acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in stomach homogenate following fundus removal. We also investigated the serotonin 5-HT4 receptor agonist mosapride, dopamine D2 receptor and AChE inhibitor itopride, and representative AChE inhibitor neostigmine. Acotiamide (0.3 and 1 μM) and itopride (1 and 3 μM) significantly enhanced the contraction of gastric body strips induced by electrical field stimulation (EFS), but mosapride (1 and 10 μM) did not. Acotiamide and itopride significantly enhanced the contraction of gastric body and antrum strips induced by acetylcholine (ACh), but not that induced by carbachol (CCh). Neostigmine also significantly enhanced the contraction of gastric body strips induced by ACh, but not that by CCh. In contrast, mosapride failed to enhance contractions induced by either ACh or CCh in gastric antrum strips. Acotiamide exerted mixed inhibition of AChE, and the percentage inhibition of acotiamide (100 μM) against AChE activity was markedly reduced after the reaction mixture was dialyzed. In contrast, itopride exerted noncompetitive inhibition on AChE activity. These results indicate that acotiamide enhances ACh-dependent contraction in gastric strips of guinea pigs via the inhibition of AChE activity, and that it exerts mixed and reversible inhibition of AChE derived from guinea pig stomach. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  10. [Analysis of the main components of inner ear antigens inducing autoimmune Meniere's disease in guinea pigs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Ling; Tan, Chang-Qiang; Cui, Yu-Gui; Ding, Gui-Peng; Ju, Xiao-Bin; Li, Yu-Jin; Cai, Wen-Jun

    2008-08-01

    To investigate the main components of inner ear antigens inducing autoimmune Meniere's disease (AIMD) in guinea pigs. The guinea pigs were immunized with isologous crude inner ear antigens (ICIEAg). Then, the hearing function was measured with auditory brainstem response (ABR), the vestibular function was measured with electronystagmography (including spontaneous nystagmus and caloric test), and inner ear histopathological changes were observed by inner ear celloidin section with haematoxylin-eosin staining and observed under light microscope. According to these results, the AIMD-model animals from non-AIMD-model ones were distinguished. The special antibodies against ICIEAg in sera were measured with ELISA. The antigen-antibody reactions against different components of ICIEAg were detected by Western blotting with sera of AIMD and non-AIMD guinea pigs respectively. Then, we analysed the contrast between them and found the main components of the ICIEAg that were positive reaction in AIMD guinea pigs and negative reaction in non-AIMD guinea pigs. The result of ELISA demonstrated that the sera of both the AIMD and non-AIMD guniea pigs contained the special antibodies against ICIEAg after immunized with ICIEAg. The difference of the amount of antibody against ICIEAg between AIMD guinea pig group and non-AIMD guinea pig group was not significant. Western blotting assay showed only the sera of AIMD guinea pig contained the antibodies against the specific antigens with the molecular of 68 000, 58 000, 42 000 and 28 000. ICIEAg contain many different components, the AIMD might only happen in the guinea pigs in which the special immunization against the main components that could induce this kind of disorder appeared. The inner ear antigens with molecular of 68 000, 58 000, 42 000 and 28 000 might be the main components inducing AIMD in guinea pigs.

  11. A First Generation Comparative Chromosome Map between Guinea Pig (Cavia porcellus) and Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanenko, Svetlana A; Perelman, Polina L; Trifonov, Vladimir A; Serdyukova, Natalia A; Li, Tangliang; Fu, Beiyuan; O'Brien, Patricia C M; Ng, Bee L; Nie, Wenhui; Liehr, Thomas; Stanyon, Roscoe; Graphodatsky, Alexander S; Yang, Fengtang

    2015-01-01

    The domesticated guinea pig, Cavia porcellus (Hystricomorpha, Rodentia), is an important laboratory species and a model for a number of human diseases. Nevertheless, genomic tools for this species are lacking; even its karyotype is poorly characterized. The guinea pig belongs to Hystricomorpha, a widespread and important group of rodents; so far the chromosomes of guinea pigs have not been compared with that of other hystricomorph species or with any other mammals. We generated full sets of chromosome-specific painting probes for the guinea pig by flow sorting and microdissection, and for the first time, mapped the chromosomal homologies between guinea pig and human by reciprocal chromosome painting. Our data demonstrate that the guinea pig karyotype has undergone extensive rearrangements: 78 synteny-conserved human autosomal segments were delimited in the guinea pig genome. The high rate of genome evolution in the guinea pig may explain why the HSA7/16 and HSA16/19 associations presumed ancestral for eutherians and the three syntenic associations (HSA1/10, 3/19, and 9/11) considered ancestral for rodents were not found in C. porcellus. The comparative chromosome map presented here is a starting point for further development of physical and genetic maps of the guinea pig as well as an aid for genome assembly assignment to specific chromosomes. Furthermore, the comparative mapping will allow a transfer of gene map data from other species. The probes developed here provide a genomic toolkit, which will make the guinea pig a key species to unravel the evolutionary biology of the Hystricomorph rodents.

  12. Ozone-Induced Hypertussive Responses in Rabbits and Guinea Pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clay, Emlyn; Patacchini, Riccardo; Trevisani, Marcello; Preti, Delia; Branà, Maria Pia; Spina, Domenico

    2016-01-01

    Cough remains a major unmet clinical need, and preclinical animal models are not predictive for new antitussive agents. We have investigated the mechanisms and pharmacological sensitivity of ozone-induced hypertussive responses in rabbits and guinea pigs. Ozone induced a significant increase in cough frequency and a decrease in time to first cough to inhaled citric acid in both conscious guinea pigs and rabbits. This response was inhibited by the established antitussive drugs codeine and levodropropizine. In contrast to the guinea pig, hypertussive responses in the rabbit were not inhibited by bronchodilator drugs (β2 agonists or muscarinic receptor antagonists), suggesting that the observed hypertussive state was not secondary to bronchoconstriction in this species. The ozone-induced hypertussive response in the rabbit was inhibited by chronic pretreatment with capsaicin, suggestive of a sensitization of airway sensory nerve fibers. However, we could find no evidence for a role of TRPA1 in this response, suggesting that ozone was not sensitizing airway sensory nerves via activation of this receptor. Whereas the ozone-induced hypertussive response was accompanied by a significant influx of neutrophils into the airway, the hypertussive response was not inhibited by the anti-inflammatory phosphodiesterase 4 inhibitor roflumilast at a dose that clearly exhibited anti-inflammatory activity. In summary, our results suggest that ozone-induced hypertussive responses to citric acid may provide a useful model for the investigation of novel drugs for the treatment of cough, but some important differences were noted between the two species with respect to sensitivity to bronchodilator drugs. PMID:26837703

  13. Microbial flora of odontogenic abscesses in pet guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minarikova, A; Hauptman, K; Knotek, Z; Jekl, V

    2016-10-01

    Abscesses of odontogenic origin in guinea pigs pose a serious health problem and need to be treated with a combination of surgical and medical therapy. The aim of this prospective study was to describe the microbial flora of odontogenic abscesses associated with osteomyelitis in 24 pet guinea pigs, to perform antibiotic sensitivity testing, and to make recommendations for practitioners on the antibiotics of first choice. Inclusion criteria for the study included the animal being diagnosed with an odontogenic abscess which underwent surgery and was not pre-treated with an antibiotic. Inclusion criteria matched for 24 guinea pigs. Samples (pus, capsule and affected tooth/bone) for bacteriological examination were collected under sterile conditions during the surgical procedure. The most commonly isolated bacteria from abscesses of odontogenic origin were Bacteroides fragilis in 12.8 per cent (6/47) of cases, Pasteurella multocida in 10.6 per cent (5/47) and Peptostreptococcus anaerobius in 8.5 per cent (4/47). Aerobic bacterial species only were isolated in 29.2 per cent (7/24) of cases, anaerobic bacteria only were isolated in 33.3 per cent (8/24), and mixed infection with anaerobic and aerobic bacterial species was seen in 37.5 per cent (9/24). Aerobes (n=20) were sensitive to enrofloxacin and marbofloxacin in 100 per cent of samples, benzylpenicillin potassium (penicillin G, PNCG) in 90 per cent, cephalotin in 85 per cent, amoxicillin-clavulanate in 75 per cent, doxycycline in 70 per cent, gentamicin in 65 per cent and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole in 55 per cent. Anaerobes (n=27) were sensitive to amoxicillin-clavulanate in 100 per cent of cases, clindamycin in 96.3 per cent, metronidazole in 92.6 per cent, PNCG in 92.6 per cent and cephalotin in 74.1 per cent. As guinea pigs are strictly herbivorous animals, based on the results of this study the recommended antibiotic treatment for odontogenic abscesses is a combination of fluoroquinolones and metronidazole

  14. Antitussive and antibronchoconstriction actions of fenspiride in guinea-pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laude, E A; Bee, D; Crambes, O; Howard, P

    1995-10-01

    Fenspiride is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agent, which we have previously shown to have an in vivo antibronchoconstrictor action in guinea pigs. We have currently studied this action using the constrictors Substance P, neurokinin A, citric acid and capsaicin in anaesthetized guinea-pigs. Fenspiride has also been reported to produce a subjective improvement in cough in patients. We have used a conscious guinea-pig model of cough as a more definitive method to study the effect of fenspiride on capsaicin- and citric acid-induced cough. Aerosolized fenspiride (1 mg.mL-1) caused a 58% reversal of capsaicin-induced bronchoconstriction; and i.v. fenspiride (1mg.kg-1) a 45% reversal of citric acid induced bronchoconstriction. Substance P- and neurokinin A-induced bronchoconstriction were unaffected by 1 mg.kg-1 i.v. fenspiride. Aerosolized fenspiride (1, 3 and 10 mg.mL-1) administered for 4 min reduced citric acid (300 mM) induced cough, but 0.1 mg.mL-1 was without effect. Pretreatment with aerosolized fenspiride (10 mg.mL-1) caused a shift in the citric acid dose response curve to the right. For citric acid-induced cough, the duration of action of aerosolized fenspiride (10 mg.mL-1) was found to be 5 and 15 min post-treatment. Aerosolized capsaicin (30 microM) induced cough was also reduced by 3 and 10 mg.mL-1 aerosolized fenspiride, but no significant effect was found with 1 mg.mL-1. We conclude that aerosolized fenspiride reduces capsaicin- and citric acid-induced bronchoconstriction as well as induced cough in guinea-pigs in vivo. Whether a pathway common to both cough and bronchoconstriction is the site of action of fenspiride remains to be established. We postulate that fenspiride, acting as an antitussive and antibronchoconstrictor agent, would be beneficial in the clinical situation for those patients with hyperresponsive airways.

  15. Prostaglandin release from in vitro guinea-pig gallbladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booker, M L; LaMorte, W W

    1983-02-01

    In order to study prostaglandin release from guinea pig gallbladder, full thickness tissue sections were incubated for one hour in Krebs solution. Extraction and two dimensional chromatography of incubation media obtained in the presence of radio-labelled arachidonic acid demonstrated the presence of PGE2, PGF2 alpha, 6-keto-PGF1 alpha and thromboxane B2. These results were supported by radioimmunoassay of incubations conducted in the absence of exogenous arachidonate and in the presence of varying concentrations of unlabelled exogenous arachidonate. The previously reported predominance of PGE2 was only seen at high concentrations of exogenous arachidonate.

  16. Hyperthyroidism in four guinea pigs: clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Künzel, F; Hierlmeier, B; Christian, M; Reifinger, M

    2013-12-01

    Hyperthyroidism was diagnosed in four guinea pigs by demonstration of an increased serum total thyroxine concentration. The main clinical signs were comparable with those observed in feline hyperthyroidism and included weight loss despite maintenance of appetite and a palpable mass in the ventral cervical region. Three animals were treated successfully with methimazole for between 13 and 28 months. Clinical signs and regular measurement of circulating total thyroxine concentrations appear to be convenient parameters for monitoring response to medical therapy. © 2013 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

  17. Changes in guinea-pig dermal collagen during development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shuttleworth, C.A.; Forrest, L.

    1975-01-01

    Guinea-pig dermis was digested with pepsin and the solubilized collagen molecules separated by differential salt precipitation at pH 7.5. Differences in subunit composition and amino acid analysis were noted between type I and type III collagen. Incorporation of radioactive proline into the developing foetus enabled isolation of labelled type I and type III collagens. Comparison of the specific activity of the isolated collagen molecules showed that type III collagen had a high specific activity in the early stages of foetal development, which decreased dramatically during foetal development. The specific activity of pepsin-solubilized type I collagen remained fairly constant during foetal development. (orig.) [de

  18. Retigabine diminishes the effects of acetylcholine, adrenaline and adrenergic agonists on the spontaneous activity of guinea pig smooth muscle strips in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apostolova, Elisaveta; Zagorchev, Plamen; Kokova, Vesela; Peychev, Lyudmil

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of retigabine on the smooth muscle response to acetylcholine, adrenaline, α-and β-adrenoceptor agonists. We studied the change in the spontaneous smooth muscle contraction of guinea pig gastric corpus strips before and after 20-min treatment with 2μM retigabine. We also evaluated the effect of retigabine on the smooth muscle response to 10μM acetylcholine, 1 and 10μM adrenaline, 1μM methoxamine, 0.1μM p-iodoclonidine and 10μM isoproterenol. We observed a significant reduction in the effects of all studied mediators and agonists when they were added to organ baths in the presence of retigabine. Retigabine diminished the effect of acetylcholine on the spontaneous smooth muscle activity. The effect was fully antagonized by XE-991 (Kv7 channel blocker), which supports our hypothesis about the role of KCNQ channels in the registered changes. The increase in the contraction force after adding of 1μM adrenaline, methoxamine, and 0.1μM p-iodoclonidine was also significantly smaller in presence of retigabine. However, comparing the effect of 10μM adrenaline on the contractility before and after treatment with retigabine, we observed increased contractility when retigabine was present in the organ baths. A possible explanation for the observed diminished effects of mediators and receptor agonists is that the effect of retigabine on smooth muscle contractility is complex. The membrane hyperpolarization, the interaction between Kv7 channels and adrenoceptors, and the influence on signaling pathways may contribute to the summary smooth muscle response. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Molecular cloning and expression of the IL-10 gene from guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirisala, Vijaya R; Jeevan, Amminikutty; Bix, Gregory; Yoshimura, Teizo; McMurray, David N

    2012-04-25

    The Guinea pig (Cavia porcellus) is one of the most relevant small animals for modeling human tuberculosis (TB) in terms of susceptibility to low dose aerosol infection, the organization of granulomas, extrapulmonary dissemination and vaccine-induced protection. It is also considered to be a gold standard for a number of other infectious and non-infectious diseases; however, this animal model has a major disadvantage due to the lack of readily available immunological reagents. In the present study, we successfully cloned a cDNA for the critical Th2 cytokine, interleukin-10 (IL-10), from inbred Strain 2 guinea pigs using the DNA sequence information provided by the genome project. The complete open reading frame (ORF) consists of 537 base pairs which encodes a protein of 179 amino acids. This cDNA sequence exhibited 87% homology with human IL-10. Surprisingly, it showed only 84% homology with the previously published IL-10 sequence from the C4-deficient (C4D) guinea pig, leading us to clone IL-10 cDNA from the Hartley strain of guinea pig. The IL-10 gene from the Hartley strain showed 100% homology with the IL-10 sequence of Strain 2 guinea pigs. In order to validate the only published IL-10 sequence existing in Genbank reported from C4D guinea pigs, genomic DNA was isolated from tissues of C4D guinea pigs. Amplification with various sets of primers showed that the IL-10 sequence reported from C4D guinea pigs contained numerous errors. Hence the IL-10 sequence that is being reported by us replaces the earlier sequence making our IL-10 sequence to be the first one accurate from guinea pig. Recombinant guinea pig IL-10 proteins were subsequently expressed in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells, purified and were confirmed by N-terminal sequencing. Polyclonal anti-IL-10 antibodies were generated in rabbits using the recombinant IL-10 protein expressed in this study. Taken together, our results indicate that the DNA sequence information provided by the genome project

  20. Measurement of guinea pig eosinophil major basic protein by radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wassom, D.L.; Loegering, D.A.; Gleich, G.J.

    1979-01-01

    Guinea pig eosinophil major basic protein (MBP) was measured by radioimmunoassay (RIA) using 131 I-MBP. Two critical features of the assay were: (1) alkylation of the MBP with iodoacetamide prior to radioiodination and (2) inclusion of another basic protein, either protamine or histone, in the phosphate buffer. Freshly isolated non-alkylated MBP was immunologically deficient when compared to alkylated or reduced MBP, but its reactivity could be redtores by reduction with dithiothreitol and alkylation. Reduction and alkylation also restored the immunoreactivity of polymerized MBP. MBP levels were not elevated in sera from guinea pigs parasitized with Trichinella spiralis and having peripheral blood eosinophilia. Muscle extracts from Trichinella infected animals showed significantly higher levels of MBP activity than normal controls. MBP was measurable in extracts of untreated eosinophils, but reduction and alkylation of these extracts increased MBP activity several fold. The RIA permits detection of MBP in body fluids and tissues at levels as low as 2 ng./ml. The RIA is useful in assessing increased or decreased levels of MBP activity in samples from experimental animals when compared to samples from controls. (author)

  1. ACTION OF DIPHTHERIA TOXIN IN THE GUINEA PIG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baseman, Joel B.; Pappenheimer, A. M.; Gill, D. M.; Harper, Annabel A.

    1970-01-01

    The blood clearance and distribution in the tissues of 125I after intravenous injection of small doses (1.5–5 MLD or 0.08–0.25 µg) of 125I-labeled diphtheria toxin has been followed in guinea pigs and rabbits and compared with the fate of equivalent amounts of injected 125I-labeled toxoid and bovine serum albumin. Toxoid disappeared most rapidly from the blood stream and label accumulated and was retained in liver, spleen, and especially in kidney. Both toxin and BSA behaved differently. Label was found widely distributed among all the organs except the nervous system and its rate of disappearance from the tissues paralleled its disappearance from the circulation. There was no evidence for any particular affinity of toxin for muscle tissue or for a "target" organ. Previous reports by others that toxin causes specific and selective impairment of protein synthesis in muscle tissue were not confirmed. On the contrary, both in guinea pigs and rabbits, a reduced rate of protein synthesis was observed in all tissues that had taken up the toxin label. In tissues removed from intoxicated animals of both species there was an associated reduction in aminoacyl transferase 2 content. It is concluded that the primary action of diphtheria toxin in the living animal is to effect the inactivation of aminoacyl transferase 2. The resulting inhibition in rate of protein synthesis leads to morphologic damage in all tissues reached by the toxin and ultimately to death of the animal. PMID:5511567

  2. Bambuterol: uptake and metabolism in guinea pig isolated lungs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryrfeldt, A.; Nilsson, E.; Tunek, A.; Svensson, L.A.

    1988-01-01

    The lung uptake and biotransformation of 3 H-bambuterol, a prodrug to terbutaline, were studied using isolated perfused and ventilated guinea pig lungs. 14 C-Sucrose was used as an extracellular marker. The lung uptake of bambuterol was significantly (0.05 greater than or equal to P greater than or equal to 0.001) higher than that found for sucrose in single-pass perfusion experiments. High-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) analysis showed that 95.6 +/- 3.6% of the effluent 3 H radioactivity was attributable to bambuterol. In recirculating experiments (120 min) the lung biotransformation of 3 H-bambuterol (8.5 pmol/ml) was studied. Both oxidative and hydrolytic metabolism took place. The dominating metabolites were hydroxylated bambuterol and the monocarbamate derivative which is a product of hydrolysis of bambuterol. Traces of terbutaline were also formed. The results show that bambuterol has a certain affinity to lung tissue and that the drug is, to some extent, biotransformed in the guinea pig lung

  3. The measurement of milk intake in the neonatal guinea pig

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weaver, L.T.; Roberts, S.B.

    1990-01-01

    Study of the effects of enteral nutrition on neonatal growth and development has been hindered by lack of a suitable model. An isotope dilution method for the measurement of milk intake in suckling rodents was evaluated in 13 hand-fed neonatal guinea pigs, by comparing milk intakes determined using 3H20 with intakes determined by difference in weight before and after feeding. The effects of two experimental durations (1 or 2-3 days) on the accuracy and precision of the method was assessed. Weighted milk intakes were 18 -26 g/day, and body weight changes were -7% - +12% of initial weight. There was no significant difference between milk intakes determined using the two methods for both 1 and 2-3 day comparisons. However, the coefficients of variation for 1 and 2-3 day measurements were 24.4% and 5.5%, respectively. These values are equivalent to precisions of approximately 10% and 2% for estimates of total milk output in a rodent suckling 8 pups. It is concluded that the 3H20 method is no less accurate or precise than the weighing method for 2-3 day measurements of milk intake in individual pups and milk production of dams. These findings strengthen the use of the precocial guinea pig as a model for the study of the effects of early feeding on growth, development and aging

  4. Radiation effect on the middle ear of the guinea pig

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harada, Hirofumi; Nishizawa, Shinji; Hiraide, Fumihisa; Inoue, Tetsuzo

    1984-01-01

    It is known that radiation therapy of the head and neck causes otitis media with effusion. Otitis media with effusion was induced in guinea pigs by cobalt-60 irradiation. Twenty guinea pigs with intact drum and normal Preyer reflex were used. We conducted, two experiments as follows: 1) The animals were irradiated with doses of 2,000 rad, 4,000 rad, and 6,000 rad. They were sacrificed seven days after the irradiation. 2) The animals were irradiated with doses of 4,000 rad and sacrificed one day, three days, seven days, and fourteen days after the irradiation. Vascular permeability of the middle ear mucosa was observed by Majno's vascular labelling technique. Pathological change of the middle ear was examined under the light microscope. Vascular permeability increased in three days after 4,000 rad irradiation and small vessels were labelled with carbon particles. Seven days after irradiation, carbon labelling of small vessels was more extensive and extravascular blackening was present in the adjacent tissues. Edematous change of the middle ear mucosa and metaplasia of the epithelial cells were also observed. New bone formation of the tympanic bulla was increased by repeated irradiations. (author)

  5. Spasmolytic effect of traditional herbal formulation on guinea pig ileum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dushyant Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The herbal formulation consisting of Andrographis paniculata Nees., Cassia fistula L., Foeniculum vulgare Mill. and Cuminum cyminum L. is widely used by the local traditional practitioners in rural Northern Karnataka for spasmodic abdominal pain. Objective: The present study was undertaken to evaluate safety and spasmolytic effect of poly-herbal formulation. Materials and Methods: Acute toxicity studies were carried out in Swiss mice, as per the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD guidelines. The spasmolytic activity of the formulation was studied in isolated guinea pig ileum model using histamine and acetylcholine as agonists. The data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA, followed by Dunnetts post-hoc test and P ≤ 0.05 was considered as significant. Results: The formulation did not show any adverse toxic effects and found to be safe. It also showed significant (P < 0.05 relaxation in different agonist like histamine and acetylcholine-induced contractions in guinea pig ileum. Conclusions: Antispasmodic activity of the herbal formulation can be attributed to its atropine-like activity. The present findings, therefore, support its utility in spasmodic abdominal pain.

  6. Placental transfer of ruthenium in rat and guinea-pig

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levack, V.M.; Pottinger, H.; Harrison, J.D.

    1994-01-01

    Ruthenium-106 in citrate solution was administered intravenously to rat at different stages of pregnancy and to guinea-pig either before conception or in late pregnancy. The results for rat showed that retention in the embryo/foetus measured at 3-5 days after administration increased from about 0.0002% of injected activity per embryo/foetus on day 12 of gestation to about 0.05% at birth. The relative concentrations of 106 Ru in embryo/foetus and mother (C f /C m ratio) were about 0.1 in each case. Concentrations in the yolk sac on day 12 were about 1% g -1 compared with 0.01% g -1 kin the foetus/ Retention in the guinea-pig foetus in late gestation at 7 days after administration (days 50-57) was about 0.2% injected activity per foetus, corresponding to a C f /C m = 0.2. Retention in each foetoplacental unit was 2% of injected 106 Ru with 50% in the yolk sac, 35% in the placenta and 10% in the foetus. For administration 4 weeks prior to conception, the level of 106 Ru retained in the foetus on day 57 of gestation was two orders of magnitude lower than after short-term administration, with a C f /C m about 0.004. (author)

  7. Effects of radiation on nasal mucosa of guinea pig

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao Mang; Hu Sunhong; Liu Yuehui

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To study histopathological changes in nasal mucosa of guinea pigs following a series of irradiation. Methods: A total of 60 healthy guinea pigs were divided into two groups randomly: the irradiation group (n=30) and the control group (n=30). The animals of the irradiation group were exposed nasally to linear accelerator X-rays at 5.0 Gy once a week for three weeks. At 1 d, 1 w, 2 w, 4 w, 10 w and half year after X-irradiation five animals per one group were sacrificed randomly, at each time point. Their middle nasal turbinate mucosa was observed under optical microscope and electron microscope, and were analysed by image analysis for histopathological transformation. Results: In the irradiation group, the early histopathological transformation was acute inflammatory reaction, at the fourth week the mucosa began to repair, which ended at the sixth month. But after repaired, some parts of the repaired mucosa were lined with squamous epithelium instead of the normal nasal mucosa. The rate of the cilia-covered area was only 52.9% at the sixth month. Conclusion: The nasal mucosa injury and the squamous metaplasia could form a pathological basis of dysfunction after irradiation

  8. Actions of vasoactive intestinal peptide and secretin on chief cells prepared from guinea pig stomach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutliff, V.E.; Raufman, J.P.; Jensen, R.T.; Gardner, J.D.

    1986-01-01

    Vasoactive intestinal peptide and secretin increased cellular cAMP and pepsinogen secretion in dispersed chief cells from guinea pig gastric mucosa. With each peptide there was a close correlation between the dose-response curve for changes in cellular cAMP and that for changes in pepsinogen secretion. Vasoactive intestinal peptide- (10-28) and secretin- (5-27) had no agonist activity and antagonized the actions of vasoactive intestinal peptide and secretin on cellular cAMP and pepsinogen secretion. Studies of binding of 125 I-vasoactive intestinal peptide and of 125 -secretin indicated that gastric chief cells possess four classes of binding sites for vasoactive intestinal peptide and secretin and that occupation of two of these classes of binding sites correlates with the abilities of vasoactive intestinal peptide and secretin to increase cellular cAMP and pepsinogen secretion. What function, in any, is mediated by occupation by the other two classes of binding sites remains to be determined

  9. Clinical signs, therapy and zoonotic risk of pet guinea pigs with dermatophytosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraemer, A; Hein, J; Heusinger, A; Mueller, R S

    2013-03-01

    Systematic studies about pet guinea pigs with dermatophytosis are rare. The aim of this study was to evaluate clinical signs, therapy and zoonotic risk of pet guinea pigs with dermatophytosis. Questionnaires from both owners (n = 74) of pet guinea pigs with dermatophytosis and their veterinarians (n = 101) were analysed regarding clinical signs, therapy and data pertinent to zoonotic potential. Trichophyton (T.) mentagrophytes was found in 97% of cases. In the weeks preceding the onset of the clinical signs, a new guinea pig joined the household in 43% of cases. One third of the affected guinea pigs had lived in the household for less than 3 months. Predominant clinical signs were alopecia (83%), scaling (73%) and crusting (70%). The most commonly affected body site was the head (75%). In approximately one quarter of the cases humans showed clinical signs of dermatophytosis, in half the households, only children were affected. Skin lesions were seen most often on the face, the neck and the arms. Pet guinea pigs carrying dermatophytes must be considered a serious zoonotic risk for their owners, especially for children. A major risk factor for dermatophytosis seems to be a recent acquisition of a new guinea pig. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  10. Prevalence of dermatophytes and other superficial fungal organisms in asymptomatic guinea pigs in Southern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Ovidio, D; Grable, S L; Ferrara, M; Santoro, D

    2014-07-01

    Guinea pigs have been indicated as a potential source of zoophilic dermatophytes that cause human dermatomycosis. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of dermatophytes as well as saprophytic fungi in asymptomatic pet guinea pigs in Southern Italy. Two-hundred pet guinea pigs were enrolled from both private veterinary clinics and pet shops in the Campania region, Italy, from August 2012 to September 2013. Samples were collected using the MacKenzie's toothbrush technique. The plates were incubated for four weeks at 25°C and identification of the fungal colonies was based on both macroscopic and microscopic characteristics. Two pathogenic dermatophytes were isolated in 9 (4·5%) of 200 guinea pigs; Epidermophyton species in 2 (1%) and Scopulariopsis species in 7 (3·5%). Saprophytic dermatophytes were isolated from 151 (75·5%) animals enrolled. No fungal growth was observed in 40 (20%) guinea pigs. The results of this study indicate a low prevalence of pathogenic dermatophytes in pet guinea pigs in Southern Italy but the presence of Epidermophyton and Scopulariopsis species in asymptomatic pet guinea pigs. © 2014 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

  11. Temperature Preference in IAF Hairless and Hartley Guinea Pigs (Cavia porcellus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleven, Gale A; Joshi, Prianca

    2016-03-01

    The Hairless strain of guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus) is the result of a spontaneous recessive mutation first identified at the Institute Armand Frappier (IAF) in 1978. Despite the longstanding availability of this strain, little is known about its thermoregulatory behavior. The aim of this study was to determine temperature preference in Hartley and Hairless guinea pigs by observing each strain in a ring-shaped apparatus containing a nonlinear temperature gradient. Temperatures were maintained by separately controlled heating mats lining the apparatus. Set point temperatures ranged from 24 to 38 °C. Guinea pigs (Hartley female, Hairless female, and Hairless male guinea pigs; n = 8 each group) were placed either singly or in pairs at 1 of the 8 randomized starting points within the apparatus. Subjects were observed for 30 min and coded for location within the temperature gradient by both frequency and duration. When placed singly in the apparatus, all 3 groups spent more time in the 30 °C zones. However, when placed as pairs with a cagemate, Hartley female guinea pigs spent more time in the cooler range of temperatures from 24 to 30 °C, whereas Hairless guinea pigs preferred a range of 30 to 38 °C. These results confirm a temperature preference of 30 ± 2 °C for both Hartley and Hairless guinea pigs when singly housed. However, data from the paired housing condition suggest that context plays an important role in thermoregulatory behavior.

  12. Investigation Into the Humaneness of Slaughter Methods for Guinea Pigs (Cavia porcelus) in the Andean Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limon, Georgina; Gonzales-Gustavson, Eloy A; Gibson, Troy J

    2016-01-01

    Guinea pigs (Cavia porcelus) are an important source of nonhuman animal protein in the Andean region of South America. Specific guidelines regarding the welfare of guinea pigs before and during slaughter have yet to be developed. This study critically assessed the humaneness of 4 different stunning/slaughter methods for guinea pigs: cervical neck dislocation (n = 60), electrical head-only stunning (n = 83), carbon dioxide (CO2) stunning (n = 21), and penetrating captive bolt (n = 10). Following cervical neck dislocation, 97% of guinea pigs had at least 1 behavioral or cranial/spinal response. Six percent of guinea pigs were classified as mis-stunned after electrical stunning, and 1% were classified as mis-stunned after captive bolt. Increased respiratory effort was observed during CO2 stunning. Apart from this finding, there were no other obvious behavioral responses that could be associated with suffering. Of the methods assessed, captive bolt was deemed the most humane, effective, and practical method of stunning guinea pigs. Cervical neck dislocation should not be recommended as a slaughter method for guinea pigs.

  13. Guinea pig model for evaluating the potential public health risk of swine and avian influenza viruses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yipeng Sun

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The influenza viruses circulating in animals sporadically transmit to humans and pose pandemic threats. Animal models to evaluate the potential public health risk potential of these viruses are needed. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We investigated the guinea pig as a mammalian model for the study of the replication and transmission characteristics of selected swine H1N1, H1N2, H3N2 and avian H9N2 influenza viruses, compared to those of pandemic (H1N1 2009 and seasonal human H1N1, H3N2 influenza viruses. The swine and avian influenza viruses investigated were restricted to the respiratory system of guinea pigs and shed at high titers in nasal tracts without prior adaptation, similar to human strains. None of the swine and avian influenza viruses showed transmissibility among guinea pigs; in contrast, pandemic (H1N1 2009 virus transmitted from infected guinea pigs to all animals and seasonal human influenza viruses could also horizontally transmit in guinea pigs. The analysis of the receptor distribution in the guinea pig respiratory tissues by lectin histochemistry indicated that both SAα2,3-Gal and SAα2,6-Gal receptors widely presented in the nasal tract and the trachea, while SAα2,3-Gal receptor was the main receptor in the lung. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We propose that the guinea pig could serve as a useful mammalian model to evaluate the potential public health threat of swine and avian influenza viruses.

  14. Detection of antibodies against Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus GDVII strain in experimental guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häger, C; Glage, S; Held, N; Bleich, E M; Burghard, A; Mähler, M; Bleich, André

    2016-10-01

    A disease affecting guinea pigs called 'guinea pig lameness' characterized by clinical signs of depression, lameness of limbs, flaccid paralysis, weight loss and death within a few weeks was first described by Römer in 1911. After a research group in our facility kept laboratory guinea pigs from two different origins together in one room, lameness was observed in two animals. Further investigations revealed a serological immune response against Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV; GDVII strain) in these animals. Histopathology of the lumbar spinal cord of these animals showed mononuclear cell infiltration and necrotic neurons in the anterior horn. Therefore, all guinea pigs from this contaminated animal unit, from other units in our facility, as well as from different European institutions and breeding centres were screened for antibodies directed against GDVII. Our investigations showed that approximately 80% of all guinea pigs from the contaminated animal unit were seropositive for GDVII, whereas animals from other separate units were completely negative. In addition, 43% of tested sera from the different European institutions and breeding centres contained antibodies against GDVII. The present data confirm that an unknown viral infection causes an immune response in experimental guinea pigs leading to seroconversion against GDVII and that guinea pigs from a commercial breeder are the source of the infection. © The Author(s) 2015.

  15. Hairless pigmented guinea pigs: a new model for the study of mammalian pigmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolognia, J L; Murray, M S; Pawelek, J M

    1990-09-01

    A stock of hairless pigmented guinea pigs was developed to facilitate studies of mammalian pigmentation. This stock combines the convenience of a hairless animal with a pigmentary system that is similar to human skin. In both human and guinea pig skin, active melanocytes are located in the basal layer of the interfollicular epidermis. Hairless albino guinea pigs on an outbred Hartley background (CrI:IAF/HA(hr/hr)BR; designated hr/hr) were mated with red-haired guinea pigs (designated Hr/Hr). Red-haired heterozygotes from the F1 generation (Hr/hr) were then mated with each other or with hairless albino guinea pigs. The F2 generation included hairless pigmented guinea pigs that retained their interfollicular epidermal melanocytes and whose skin was red-brown in color. Following UV irradiation, there was an increase in cutaneous pigmentation as well as an increase in the number of active epidermal melanocytes. An additional strain of black hairless guinea pigs was developed using black Hr/Hr animals and a similar breeding scheme. These two strains should serve as useful models for studies of the mammalian pigment system.

  16. Guinea pig model for evaluating the potential public health risk of swine and avian influenza viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yipeng; Bi, Yuhai; Pu, Juan; Hu, Yanxin; Wang, Jingjing; Gao, Huijie; Liu, Linqing; Xu, Qi; Tan, Yuanyuan; Liu, Mengda; Guo, Xin; Yang, Hanchun; Liu, Jinhua

    2010-11-23

    The influenza viruses circulating in animals sporadically transmit to humans and pose pandemic threats. Animal models to evaluate the potential public health risk potential of these viruses are needed. We investigated the guinea pig as a mammalian model for the study of the replication and transmission characteristics of selected swine H1N1, H1N2, H3N2 and avian H9N2 influenza viruses, compared to those of pandemic (H1N1) 2009 and seasonal human H1N1, H3N2 influenza viruses. The swine and avian influenza viruses investigated were restricted to the respiratory system of guinea pigs and shed at high titers in nasal tracts without prior adaptation, similar to human strains. None of the swine and avian influenza viruses showed transmissibility among guinea pigs; in contrast, pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus transmitted from infected guinea pigs to all animals and seasonal human influenza viruses could also horizontally transmit in guinea pigs. The analysis of the receptor distribution in the guinea pig respiratory tissues by lectin histochemistry indicated that both SAα2,3-Gal and SAα2,6-Gal receptors widely presented in the nasal tract and the trachea, while SAα2,3-Gal receptor was the main receptor in the lung. We propose that the guinea pig could serve as a useful mammalian model to evaluate the potential public health threat of swine and avian influenza viruses.

  17. Tamsulosin modulates, but does not abolish the spontaneous activity in the guinea pig prostate gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakrabarty, Basu; Dey, Anupa; Lam, Michelle; Ventura, Sabatino; Exintaris, Betty

    2015-06-01

    To examine the effects of the α1A -adrenoceptor antagonist, tamsulosin, on spontaneous contractile and electrical activity in the guinea-pig prostate gland. The effects of tamsulosin (0.1 and 0.3 nM) were investigated in adult and ageing male guinea pig prostate glands using conventional tension recording and electrophysiological intracellular microelectrode recording techniques. Tamsulosin reduced spontaneous activity, and had different age-dependent effects on adult and ageing guinea pigs at different concentrations. 0.1 nM tamsulosin caused a significantly greater reduction of spontaneous contractile and electrical activity in ageing guinea pigs in comparison to adult guinea pigs. In contrast, 0.3 nM tamsulosin had a significantly greater reduction of spontaneous contractile and electrical activity in adult guinea pigs in comparison to ageing guinea pigs. This study demonstrates that tamsulosin can modulate spontaneous myogenic stromal contractility and the underlying spontaneous electrical activity; tamsulosin does not block spontaneous activity. This reduction in spontaneous activity suggests that downstream cellular mechanisms underlying smooth muscle tone are being targeted, and these may represent novel therapeutic targets to better treat benign prostatic hyperplasia. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Pathogenesis of a Chinese strain of bovine adenovirus type 3 infection in albino guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Hong-Fei; Zhu, Yuan-Mao; Yan, Hao; Ma, Lei; Wang, Xue-Zhi; Xue, Fei

    2014-12-01

    Bovine adenovirus type 3 (BAV-3) is considered one of the most important respiratory tract agents of cattle and is widespread among cattle around the world. A BAV-3 strain was isolated from a bovine nasal swab for the first time in China in 2009 and named HLJ0955. Subsequently, BAV-3 has frequently been isolated from calves with respiratory diseases in China. To date, only limited study on the pathogenesis of BAV-3 infection in cotton rats has been conducted, and the pathogenesis of BAV-3 infection in guinea pigs has not been reported. Therefore, sixteen albino guinea pigs were inoculated intranasally with HLJ0955. All of the infected guinea pigs had apparently elevated rectal temperatures (39.2 °C-39.9 °C) at 2-7 days post-inoculation (PI). Consolidation and petechial hemorrhage were also observed in guinea pigs experimentally infected with HLJ0955. Viral replication was detectable by virus isolation and titration and by immunohistochemistry in the lungs of guinea pigs as early as 24 h PI. Viral DNA was detectable in the lungs of infected guinea pigs during 11 days of observation by real-time PCR. Virus-neutralizing antibodies against BAV-3 were detectable from 11 days PI and reached a peak titer at 15 days PI. Histopathological changes mainly occurred in the lungs of infected guinea pigs and were characterized by thickening of alveolar septa, mononuclear cell infiltration, hemorrhage and alveolar epithelial necrosis. These results indicate that HLJ0955 can replicate in the lungs of guinea pigs and cause fever and gross and histological lesions. The guinea pig infection model of BAV-3 would serve as a useful system for monitoring the infection process and pathogenesis of the Chinese BAV-3 strain HLJ0955, as well as immune responses to BAV-3 vaccines.

  19. Natural infection of guinea pigs exposed to patients with highly drug-resistant tuberculosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dharmadhikari, Ashwin S.; Basaraba, Randall J.; Van Der Walt, Martie L.; Weyer, Karin; Mphahlele, Matsie; Venter, Kobus; Jensen, Paul A.; First, Melvin W.; Parsons, Sydney; McMurray, David N.; Orme, Ian M.; Nardell, Edward A.

    2012-01-01

    A natural TB infection model using guinea pigs may provide useful information for investigating differences in transmission efficiency and establishment of active disease by clinical TB strains in a highly susceptible host under controlled environmental conditions. We sought to examine the capacity of naturally transmitted multidrug-resistant M. tuberculosis to establish infection and produce active disease in guinea pigs. Guinea pigs were continuously exposed for 4 months to the exhaust air of a 6-bed multidrug-resistant tuberculosis inpatient hospital ward in South Africa. Serial tuberculin skin test reactions were measured to determine infection. All animals were subsequently evaluated for histologic disease progression at necropsy. Although 75% of the 362 exposed guinea pigs had positive skin test reactions [≥6mm], only 12% had histopathologic evidence of active disease. Reversions (≥ 6 mm change) in skin test reactivity were seen in 22% of animals, exclusively among those with reactions of 6 to 13 mm. Only two of 86 guinea pigs with reversion had histological evidence of disease compared to 47% (31/66) of guinea pigs with large, non-reverting reactions. Immunosuppression of half the guinea pigs across all skin test categories did not significantly accelerate disease progression. In guinea pigs that reverted a skin test, a second positive reaction in 27 (33%) of them strongly suggested re-infection due to ongoing exposure. These results show that a large majority of guinea pigs naturally exposed to human-source strains of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis became infected, but that many resolved their infection and a large majority failed to progress to detectable disease. PMID:21478054

  20. Treatment and control of Trixacarus caviae infestation in a conventional guinea pig (Cavia porcellus) breeding colony

    OpenAIRE

    Nath, Anjan Jyoti

    2015-01-01

    A case of sarcoptic mange caused by Trixacarus caviae in a conventional guinea pig breeding colony is reported. The infestation was reported in a large colony of guinea pigs during the month of July, 2013 affecting 30 breeder guinea pigs. Severely infested animals were treated individually with subcutaneous injection of ivermectin 1 % w/v (Neomec®) at the rate of 400 µg/kg body weight 10 days apart. Three doses of ivermectin were sufficient to eliminate the parasite which tested negative afte...

  1. Transmission pattern of parainfluenza 3 virus in guinea pig breeding herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blomqvist, Gunilla A M; Martin, Krister; Morein, Bror

    2002-07-01

    In searching for the cause of experimental variations in respiratory research data, serology revealed the prevalence of antibodies against parainfluenza virus type 3 (PIV 3) in guinea pigs. The aim of the present study was to explore the transmission rate, course, and kinetics of enzootic PIV 3 infection in guinea pig breeding units. In the first part of the study, blood samples to be analyzed for PIV 3 antibodies were collected from guinea pigs of a PIV 3-positive breeding colony at different times after birth. In the same breeding unit, 6 of 12 2-week-old guinea pigs were relocated and separately housed. The PIV 3 serum antibody titers of the two groups were compared at various times from birth to 13 weeks after birth. In the second part of the study, the spread of infectious virus and virus persistence were explored by housing seronegative sentinel animals together with 2- to 3-week-old guinea pigs from three different PIV 3-positive breeding units. The guinea pigs remaining in the breeding colony as well as those removed and housed separately showed declining serum antibody titers for about 1 month after birth, thereafter the titers were stable until about 8 weeks after birth. Five weeks later, the mean antibody titer of the guinea pigs remaining in the breeding colony had increased to a markedly higher level than that of the relocated, separately housed guinea pigs. Seroconversion was demonstrated in 7 of the 14 sentinels housed with the 2- to 3-week-old guinea pigs from PIV 3-positive breeding units. Sentinels housed together with PIV 3-positive guinea pigs 24 weeks after the start of the experiment did not seroconvert. We conclude that young guinea pigs born to PIV 3-positive mothers were protected by maternal immunity against infection with PIV 3 during their first 14 days of life. The guinea pig offspring became infected during the period from about 2 weeks until 8 weeks after birth, as demonstrated by seroconversion of sentinel animals and an increasing

  2. Acute Inhalation Toxicity of T-2 Mycotoxin in the Rat and Guinea Pig

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    2/kg body weight for the guinea pig . These data show that inhaled T-2 toxin is approximately 20 times more toxic to the rat (0.05 mg T-2/kg body wt...inhaled vs 1.0 mg T-2/kg body wt ip) and at least twice as toxic to the guinea pig (0.4 mg T-2/kg body wt inhaled vs 1-2 mg T-2/kg body wt ip) than ip...administered T-2 toxin. Histopathologic examination of major organs in both the rat and guinea pig after respiratory exposure to T-2 toxin indicated

  3. New Methods for Evaluating Skin Injury from Sulfur Mustard in the Hairless Guinea Pig

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-05-13

    MUSTARD IN THE HAIRLESS GUINEA PIG Ernest H. Braue, Jr., Catherine R. Bangledorf, and Robert G. Rieder "U.S. Army Medical Research Institute of Chemical...evaluating the skin hydration state. The skin of anesthetized hairless guinea pigs was exposed to saturated HD vapor (1.4mg/ml) at 4 sites for 3, 5, 7, or 9...assessment of skin damage following cutaneous exposure to HD vapor. EXPERIMENTAL METHODS Each hairless guinea pig (HGP) was exposed to saturated HD vapor

  4. Gamma Radiation (5-10 Gy) Impairs Neuronal Function in the Guinea Pig Hippocampus

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    Radiation (5-10 Gy) Impairs Neuronal Function in the Guinea Pig Hippocampus TERRY C. PELLMAR AND DENNIS L. LEPINSKI Ph.vsiology Department..Irmned Forces...L. Gamma Radiation ioral effects. Within hours of irradiation with 10 Gy and (5- 10 Gy) Impairs Neuronal Function in the Guinea Pig Hippo- less...acti v- Guinea pigs were exposed to 5 and 10 Gy ’y radiation. Hippo- ity (9) are evident. campal brain slices were isolated 30 min, I day, 3 days and 5

  5. Experimental Research Into High Barometric Oxygen Prevention of Guinea Pig Hearing Loss,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-08-28

    PREVENTION OF GUINEA PIG HEARING LOSS by Yin Jiacai, Sun Fang ren, et al. DTIC MLECTE •<• EP 2 9 1992 Approved for public release, Distribution unlimited...PREVENTION OF GUINEA PIG HEARING LOSS By: Yin Jiacai, Sun Fang ren, et al. English pages: 9 Source: Chung-Hua I Shueh Tsa Chih, Vol. 65, Nr. 11, Nov.eember...Distributionf._DL~~~t .•b • / or __ Dlist szeccat .lef ’ ~1 EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH INTO HIGH BAROMETRIC OXYGEN PREVENTION OF GUINEA PIG HEARING LOSS BY: Yin

  6. A reliable method for reconstituting thymectomized, lethally irradiated guinea pigs with bone marrow cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terata, N.; Tanio, Y.; Zbar, B.

    1984-01-01

    The authors developed a reliable method for reconstituting thymectomized, lethally irradiated guinea pigs. Injection of 2.5-10 x 10 7 syngeneic bone marrow cells into adult thymectomized, lethally irradiated guinea pigs produced survival of 46-100% of treated animals. Gentamycin sulfate (5 mg/kg of body weight) for 10 days was required for optimal results. Acidified drinking water (pH 2.5) appeared to be required for optimal results. Thymectomized, lethally irradiated, bone marrow reconstituted ('B') guinea pigs had impaired ability to develop delayed cutaneous hypersensitivity to mycobacterial antigens and cutaneous basophil hypersensitivity to keyhole limpet hemocyanin; proliferative responses to phytohemagglutinin were impaired. (Auth.)

  7. Leukotriene B4 receptors on guinea pig alveolar eosinophils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maghni, K.; de Brum-Fernandes, A.J.; Foeldes-Filep, E.G.; Gaudry, M.; Borgeat, P.; Sirois, P.

    1991-01-01

    The existence of receptors for LTB4 on highly purified guinea pig alveolar eosinophils was investigated. Massive infiltration of eosinophils in alveolar spaces was induced in guinea pigs by i.v. injections of Sephadex beads G50 (16 mg/kg). Alveolar eosinophils (50 x 10(6) cells) were purified to approximately 98% by Percoll continuous density gradient centrifugation. The binding studies indicated that alveolar eosinophils bind LTB4 in a saturable, reversible and specific manner. Scatchard analysis indicated the existence of high-affinity binding sites (Kd1 = 1.00 ± 0.22 nM; Bmax1 = 966 ± 266 sites/cell) and low-affinity binding sites (Kd2 = 62.5 ± 8.9 nM; Bmax2 = 5557 ± 757 sites/cell). The metabolism of LTB4 by alveolar eosinophils in binding conditions was assessed by RP-HPLC and no significant degradation of [3H]LTB4 was observed. LTB4 dose-dependently stimulated eosinophil migration in both chemokinesis and chemotaxis assays with an EC50 value of 1.30 ± 0.14 and 18.14 ± 1.57 nM, respectively. LTB4 caused a dose-dependent increase in the production of superoxide anion with an apparent EC50 value of 50 x 10(-9) M in the authors experimental conditions. LTB4 also induced a dose-dependent increase in the generation of TxA2 with an EC50 value of 46.2 x 10(-9) M. Taken together, their results demonstrated that guinea pig alveolar eosinophils express two classes of specific receptors for LTB4. The high-affinity binding sites seem associated to chemokinesis and chemotaxis whereas the low-affinity binding sites seem associated to superoxide anion production and generation of TxA2. The existence of LTB4 receptors in eosinophils could explain the presence of these cells in hypersensitivity reactions

  8. A comparative study on the effects of domperidone, metoclopramide, clebopride and trimebutine on the gastro-duodenal preparation of the guinea pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuurkes, J A; Helsen, L F; Van Nueten, J M

    1985-10-01

    Domperidone (dopamine antagonist), metoclopramide and clebopride (both dopamine antagonists and stimulators of the intramural cholinergic system), and trimebutine (spasmolytic) are used in the treatment of digestive disorders such as dyspepsia or gastritis. Our aim was to compare the effects of these compounds on the isolated intact gastroduodenal preparation of the guinea pig. Domperidone (IC50 = 10(-6) M), clebopride (10(-5) M) and metoclopramide (2 X 10(-5) M) antagonized gastric relaxations induced by dopamine. In contrast with clebopride, domperidone and metoclopramide enhanced the amplitude of gastric contractions, moderately reduced contractile frequency, and enhanced antroduodenal coordination in a dose-dependent manner (EC50 for domperidone 3 X 10(-7) M, for metoclopramide 2 X 10(-5) M). Trimebutine reduced gastric spontaneous activity and antroduodenal coordination. Trimebutine had a direct relaxatory effect on gastric tone (EC50 = 4 X 10(-6) M). The mechanism of this inhibitory effect remains unknown but our data indicate that it is not mediated via dopamine or opiate receptor subtypes. domperidone, clebopride, metoclopramide and trimebutine exert distinct and diverse effects on the motility parameters of the gastroduodenal preparation of the guinea pig. These diverging actions may help explain the differences in patients' responsiveness to the treatment of digestive disorders such as dyspepsia or gastritis.

  9. The effect of restraining on the heart rate in guinea pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikiskova, H.

    1980-01-01

    The emotional effect of different applications of electrodes and the fixation for cariographic examination was investigated using guinea pigs. The effect of the stress is discussed in terms of heart rhythm and behavior.

  10. A guinea pig model of acute and chronic asthma using permanently instrumented and unrestrained animals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meurs, Herman; Santing, Ruud E.; Remie, Rene; van der Mark, Thomas W.; Westerhof, Fiona J.; Zuidhof, Annet B.; Bos, I. Sophie T.; Zaagsma, Johan

    2006-01-01

    To investigate mechanisms underlying allergen-induced asthmatic reactions, airway hyperresponsiveness and remodeling, we have developed a guinea pig model of acute and chronic asthma using unanesthetized, unrestrained animals. To measure airway function, ovalbumin (IgE)-sensitized animals are

  11. Family Outbreaks of Nontyphoidal Salmonellosis following a Meal of Guinea Pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John B. Fournier

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella outbreaks have been linked to a wide variety of foods, including recent nationwide outbreaks. Guinea pig (Cavia porcellus, also known as cuy or cobayo, has long been a popular delicacy and ceremonial food in the Andean region in South America. This case report describes three family outbreaks of nontyphoidal salmonellosis, each occurring after a meal of guinea pigs. We believe this case report is the first to describe a probable association between the consumption of guinea pig meat and human salmonellosis. Physicians should be aware of the association of Salmonella and the consumption of guinea pigs, given the increasing immigration of people from the Andean region of South America and the increasing travel to this region.

  12. Family Outbreaks of Nontyphoidal Salmonellosis following a Meal of Guinea Pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournier, John B; Knox, Kimberly; Harris, Maureen; Newstein, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Salmonella outbreaks have been linked to a wide variety of foods, including recent nationwide outbreaks. Guinea pig (Cavia porcellus), also known as cuy or cobayo, has long been a popular delicacy and ceremonial food in the Andean region in South America. This case report describes three family outbreaks of nontyphoidal salmonellosis, each occurring after a meal of guinea pigs. We believe this case report is the first to describe a probable association between the consumption of guinea pig meat and human salmonellosis. Physicians should be aware of the association of Salmonella and the consumption of guinea pigs, given the increasing immigration of people from the Andean region of South America and the increasing travel to this region.

  13. SULFAMETHOXAZOLE-TRIMETHOPRIM TREATMENT OF GUINEA PIGS INFECTED WITH 'LEGIONELLA PNEUMPOPHILA'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legionnaires' disease is a bacterial pneumonia caused by Legionella pneumophila. Many antibiotics inhibit the growth of L. pneumophila in vitro, but only erythromycin and rifampin have been clinically effective. Parallel results have been observed in guinea pigs infected ip with ...

  14. COMPARATIVE GENOTOXIC RESPONSES TO ARSENITE IN GUINEA PIG, MOUSE, RAT AND HUMAN LYMPHOCYTES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comparative genotoxic responses to arsenite in guinea pig, mouse, rat and human lymphocytes.Inorganic arsenic is a known human carcinogen causing skin, lung, and bladder cancer following chronic exposures. Yet, long-term laboratory animal carcinogenicity studies have ...

  15. Pharmacokinetic Studies of Intramuscular Midazolam in Guinea Pigs Challenged With Soman

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Capacio, Benedict R; Byers, C. E; Merk, K. A; Smith, J. R; McDonough, J. H

    2004-01-01

    ...) activity following intramuscular (im) injection to soman-exposed guinea pigs (Crl:(HA)BR). Prior to experiments, the animals were surgically implanted with EEG leads to monitor seizure activity...

  16. In vivo effects of the IKr agonist NS3623 on cardiac electrophysiology of the guinea pig

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Rie Schultz; Olesen, Søren-Peter; Rønn, Lars Christian B

    2008-01-01

    to examining the in vivo effects of NS3623. Injection of 30 mg/kg NS3623 shortened the corrected QT interval by 25 +/- 4% in anaesthetized guinea pigs. Accordingly, 50 mg/kg of NS3623 shortened the QT interval by 30 +/- 6% in conscious guinea pigs. Finally, pharmacologically induced QT prolongation by a h......ERG channel antagonist (0.15 mg/kg E-4031) could be reverted by injection of NS3623 (50 mg/kg) in conscious guinea pigs. In conclusion, the present in vivo study demonstrates that injection of the hERG channel agonist NS3623 results in shortening of the QTc interval as well as reversal of a pharmacologically...... induced QT prolongation in both anaesthetized and conscious guinea pigs....

  17. Type I hair cell degeneration in the utricular macula of the waltzing guinea pig

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Severinsen, Stig A; Raarup, Merete Krog; Ulfendahl, Mats

    2008-01-01

    Waltzing guinea pigs are an inbred guinea pig strain with a congenital and progressive balance and hearing disorder. A unique rod-shaped structure is found in the type I vestibular hair cells, that traverses the cell in an axial direction, extending towards the basement membrane. The present study...... estimates the total number of utricular hair cells and supporting cells in waltzing guinea pigs and age-matched control animals using the optical fractionator method. Animals were divided into four age groups (1, 7, 49 and 343 day-old). The number of type I hair cells decreased by 20% in the 343 day......-old waltzing guinea pigs compared to age-matched controls and younger animals. Two-photon confocal laser scanning microscopy using antibodies against fimbrin and betaIII-tubulin showed that the rods were exclusive to type I hair cells. There was no significant change in the length of the filament rods with age...

  18. Resveratrol anti-ultraviolet-induced guinea pig skin injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Wenxing; Zhao Ying

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To Estimate on the protection effect of Stilbene on skin damage induced by ultraviolet radiation. Methods: After the normal skin in guinea pig under the intervene of Resveratrol was irradiated with over- dose of ultraviolet rays (UVB and UVA), the samples in every group were matched and compared. Results: The skin tissue in the Resveratrol intervene group irradiated by ultraviolet rays didn't change obviously as compared with that in the self-control group. But, the damage skin tissue in the control group irradiated by ultraviolet did change significantly as compared with that in the Stilbene intervene group. Conclusion: Resveratrol is a good material to protect the skin from damage effect by ultraviolet radiation. (authors)

  19. Prenatal effects of trichlorfon on the guinea pig brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berge, G.N.; Nafstad, I.; Fonnum, F.

    1986-01-01

    The organophosphorus compound trichlorfon, dimethyl (2,2,2-trichloro-1-hydroxyethyl) phosphonate, was administered by stomach tube (100 mg/kg) to pregnant guinea pigs at two different stages of gestation (days 36, 37, 38 and 51, 52, 53). The pups developed locomotory disturbances, and post mortem examination revealed significantly decreased weights of the total brain and the cerebellum, as compared to controls. There was also a significant weight reduction particularly of the medulla oblongata, but also of the hippocampus, the thalamus, and the colliculi. Histological examination of the cerebellum revealed reduction of the external granular layer and the molecular layer, and regional absence of Purkinje cells. The activities of the neutrotransmitter enzymes choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), and glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) in cerebellum were reduced as compared to the control values. (orig.)

  20. linear accelerator simulation framework with placet and guinea-pig

    CERN Document Server

    Snuverink, Jochem; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2016-01-01

    Many good tracking tools are available for simulations for linear accelerators. However, several simple tasks need to be performed repeatedly, like lattice definitions, beam setup, output storage, etc. In addition, complex simulations can become unmanageable quite easily. A high level layer would therefore be beneficial. We propose LinSim, a linear accelerator framework with the codes PLACET and GUINEA-PIG. It provides a documented well-debugged high level layer of functionality. Users only need to provide the input settings and essential code and / or use some of the many implemented imperfections and algorithms. It can be especially useful for first-time users. Currently the following accelerators are implemented: ATF2, ILC, CLIC and FACET. This note is the comprehensive manual, discusses the framework design and shows its strength in some condensed examples.

  1. Transmission of Influenza B Viruses in the Guinea Pig

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pica, Natalie; Chou, Yi-Ying; Bouvier, Nicole M.

    2012-01-01

    Epidemic influenza is typically caused by infection with viruses of the A and B types and can result in substantial morbidity and mortality during a given season. Here we demonstrate that influenza B viruses can replicate in the upper respiratory tract of the guinea pig and that viruses of the two main lineages can be transmitted with 100% efficiency between inoculated and naïve animals in both contact and noncontact models. Our results also indicate that, like in the case for influenza A virus, transmission of influenza B viruses is enhanced at colder temperatures, providing an explanation for the seasonality of influenza epidemics in temperate climates. We therefore present, for the first time, a small animal model with which to study the underlying mechanisms of influenza B virus transmission. PMID:22301149

  2. Pharmacology of Bradykinin-Evoked Coughing in Guinea Pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewitt, Matthew M; Adams, Gregory; Mazzone, Stuart B; Mori, Nanako; Yu, Li; Canning, Brendan J

    2016-06-01

    Bradykinin has been implicated as a mediator of the acute pathophysiological and inflammatory consequences of respiratory tract infections and in exacerbations of chronic diseases such as asthma. Bradykinin may also be a trigger for the coughing associated with these and other conditions. We have thus set out to evaluate the pharmacology of bradykinin-evoked coughing in guinea pigs. When inhaled, bradykinin induced paroxysmal coughing that was abolished by the bradykinin B2 receptor antagonist HOE 140. These cough responses rapidly desensitized, consistent with reports of B2 receptor desensitization. Bradykinin-evoked cough was potentiated by inhibition of both neutral endopeptidase and angiotensin-converting enzyme (with thiorphan and captopril, respectively), but was largely unaffected by muscarinic or thromboxane receptor blockade (atropine and ICI 192605), cyclooxygenase, or nitric oxide synthase inhibition (meclofenamic acid and N(G)-nitro-L-arginine). Calcium influx studies in bronchopulmonary vagal afferent neurons dissociated from vagal sensory ganglia indicated that the tachykinin-containing C-fibers arising from the jugular ganglia mediate bradykinin-evoked coughing. Also implicating the jugular C-fibers was the observation that simultaneous blockade of neurokinin2 (NK2; SR48968) and NK3 (SR142801 or SB223412) receptors nearly abolished the bradykinin-evoked cough responses. The data suggest that bradykinin induces coughing in guinea pigs by activating B2 receptors on bronchopulmonary C-fibers. We speculate that therapeutics targeting the actions of bradykinin may prove useful in the treatment of cough. Copyright © 2016 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  3. Microbial stasis of Leishmania enriettii in activated guinea pig macrophages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groocock, C.M.; Soulsby, E.J.L.

    1980-01-01

    Peritoneal exudate cells (PEC) from Leishmania-sensitized guinea pigs were cultured in vitro in the presence (activated) or absence (non-activated) of leishmanial antigen for 24 or 48 hours. These were then labelled with 51 Cr and challenged with 125 I-labelled promastigotes. The changing relationship between the macrophage and the parasite was monitored by observing changes in the ratio of the cell-associated isotopes. Highly significant differences in the ratio change developed during culture. These differences were a result of the activated cultures showing a higher release of 51 Cr and a lower release of 125 I when compared with the non-activated cells, at 12 hours the percentage release of 125 I from the parasite within the activated macrophage was fourfold less than that released by parasites within non-activated cells (9.2% versus 38.3%) and tenfold less than that released from glutaraldehyde-killed organisms phagocytosed by activated macrophages (91.6%). These studies indicate that stasis rather than killing of leishmaniae occurs in the activated macrophage in vitro. Parallel experiments evaluated by the visual counting of leishmaniae within the macrophages support these data. PEC from tuberculin-sensitized guinea pigs activated in vitro by purified protein derivative showed little or no activity against leishmaniae, indicating a specific requirement for this microbial stasis by activated macrophages. As a corollary of this, peritoneal exudate lymphocytes separated from the same preparations of PEC were shown to be specifically reactive to leishmanial antigen by transformation and incorporation of 3 H-thymidine. (author)

  4. Immunomodulation of afferent neurons in guinea-pig isolated airway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riccio, M M; Myers, A C; Undem, B J

    1996-03-01

    1. The trachea, larynx and main bronchi with the right vagus nerve and nodose ganglion were isolated from guinea-pigs passively immunized 24 h previously with serum containing anti-ovalbumin antibody. 2. The airways were placed in one compartment of a Perspex chamber for recording of isometric tension while the nodose ganglion and attached vagus nerve were pulled into another compartment. Action potentials arriving from single airway afferent nerve endings were monitored extracellularly using a glass microelectrode positioned near neuronal cell bodies in the ganglion. Mechanosensitivity of the nerve endings was quantified using calibrated von Frey filaments immediately before and after exposure to antigen (10 micrograms ml-1 ovalbumin). 3. Ten endings responded to the force exerted by the lowest filament (0.078 mN) and were not further investigated. In airways from thirteen immunized guinea-pigs, the mechanical sensitivity of A delta afferent fibres (conduction velocity = 4.3 +/- 0.6 m s-1) was enhanced 4.1 +/- 0.9-fold following airway exposure to antigen (P action potential generation except in one instance when the receptive field was located over the smooth muscle. This ending also responded to methacholine suggesting that spatial changes in the receptive field, induced by muscle contraction, were responsible for the activation. 5. The mediators responsible for these effects are unknown, although histamine, prostaglandins, leukotrienes and tachykinins do not appear to be essential. The increase in mechanical responsiveness was not associated with the smooth muscle contraction since leukotriene C4, histamine and tachykinins, which all caused a similar contraction to antigen, did not affect mechanical thresholds. Moreover, the antigen-induced increases in excitability persisted beyond the duration of the smooth muscle contraction. 6. These results demonstrate that antigen-antibody-mediated inflammatory processes may enhance the excitability of vagal afferent

  5. Blast cells transfer experimental hypersensitivity pneumonitis in guinea pigs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuyler, M.; Cook, C.; Listrom, M.; Fengolio-Preiser, C.

    1988-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that experimental hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP) can be transferred by lymph node cells (LNC) cultured in vitro with antigen. The purpose of this study was to identify the cells responsible for transfer and to determine if pulmonary cells can transfer HP. We cultured LNC from sensitized Strain 2 guinea pigs with a soluble extract of Micropolyspora faeni for 72 h, separated lymphoblasts from small lymphocytes, and transferred both subpopulations intravenously to syngeneic recipients. We also transferred irradiated lymphoblasts (1,500 rads), macrophage-depleted, lymphoblast-enriched populations, and pulmonary cells either without culture or after culture with M. faeni. Control animals received an equal volume of medium. All recipient animals were challenged intratracheally (i.t.) with M. faeni 48 h after the cell transfer, and they were killed 4 days after i.t. challenge. Randomly selected microscopic fields of the lung (250/animal) were judged to be normal or abnormal without knowledge of treatment. This measurement was reproducible (r = 0.95 for duplicate measurements, n = 55). All guinea pigs were maintained in HEPA-filtered air. There was a low level of pulmonary response to an i.t. challenge of M. faeni in animals that received medium. Animals that received pulmonary cells, either cultured or noncultured, did not differ from those in the control group. There was a substantial increase (p less than 0.01) in the extent of pulmonary abnormalities in the recipients of the lymphoblast population, with significant correlation (r = 0.87, p less than 0.01) between the number of lymphoblasts transferred and the extent of pulmonary abnormalities

  6. Pharmacokinetics of activated protein C in guinea pigs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, H. Jr.; Kirstein, C.G.; Orthner, C.L.

    1991-01-01

    Protein C is a vitamin K-dependent zymogen of the serine protease, activated protein C (APC), an important regulatory enzyme in hemostasis. In view of the potential of human APC as an anticoagulant and profibrinolytic agent, the pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution of APC were studied in guinea pigs. The plasma elimination of a trace dose of 125 I-APC was biphasic following an initial rapid elimination of approximately 15% of the injected dose within 1 to 2 minutes. This rapid removal of 125 I-APC from the circulation was found to be a result of an association with the liver regardless of the route of injection. Essentially identical results were obtained with active site-blocked forms of APC generated with either diisopropylfluorophosphate or D-phenylalanyl-L-prolyl-L-arginine chloromethyl ketone, which indicates that the active site was not essential for the liver association. Accumulation of all three forms of APC in the liver peaked at 30 minutes and then declined as increasing amounts of degraded radiolabeled material appeared in the gastrointestinal tract and urine. Removal of the gamma-carboxyglutamic acid (gla) domain of diisopropylphosphoryl-APC resulted in a 50% reduction in the association with liver and an accumulation in the kidneys. Protein C and protein S were cleared from the circulation at rates approximately one-half and one-fourth, respectively, that of APC. Both in vitro and in vivo, APC was found to form complexes with protease inhibitors present in guinea pig plasma. Complex formation resulted in a more rapid disappearance of the enzymatic activity of APC than elimination of the protein moiety. These findings indicate two distinct mechanisms for the elimination of APC. One mechanism involves reaction with plasma protease inhibitors and subsequent elimination by specific hepatic receptors. (Abstract Truncated)

  7. Wild genius - domestic fool? Spatial learning abilities of wild and domestic guinea pigs

    OpenAIRE

    Sachser Norbert; Pickel Thorsten; Lewejohann Lars; Kaiser Sylvia

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Domestic animals and their wild relatives differ in a wide variety of aspects. The process of domestication of the domestic guinea pig (Cavia aperea f. porcellus), starting at least 4500 years ago, led to changes in the anatomy, physiology, and behaviour compared with their wild relative, the wild cavy, Cavia aperea. Although domestic guinea pigs are widely used as a laboratory animal, learning and memory capabilities are often disregarded as being very scarce. Even less i...

  8. A Survey on the Gastrointestinal Parasites of Rabbit and Guinea Pig in a Laboratory Animal House

    OpenAIRE

    Motamedi, G.,; Moharami, M.,; Paykari, H.,; Eslampanah, M.,; Omraninava, A.

    2014-01-01

    There is documented evidence that infection in laboratory animals can often influence the outcome of experiments. All infections, apparent or inapparent, are likely to increase biological variability. As a research project concerning the diversity and distribution of parasites of rabbit and guinea pig in a conventional laboratory animal house, about 87 rabbits (from 700 ) and 105 guinea pigs (from 1500 ) were selected randomly from a Research, Production & Breeding of Laboratory Animals Depar...

  9. Molecular Cloning, Expression, and In Silico Structural Analysis of Guinea Pig IL-17

    OpenAIRE

    Dirisala, Vijaya R.; Jeevan, Amminikutty; Ramasamy, Suresh K.; McMurray, David N.

    2013-01-01

    Interleukin-17A (IL-17A) is a potent proinflammatory cytokine and the signature cytokine of Th17 cells, a subset which is involved in cytokine and chemokine production, neutrophil recruitment, promotion of T cell priming, and antibody production. IL-17 may play an important role in tuberculosis and other infectious diseases. In preparation for investigating its role in the highly relevant guinea pig model of pulmonary tuberculosis, we cloned guinea pig IL-17A for the first time. The complete ...

  10. A Pilot Study of Uterine Artery Embolization with Tris-Acryl Gelatin Microspheres in Guinea Pigs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhuang Wenquan; Tan Guosheng; Guo Wenbo; Yang Jianyong

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This study was designed to establish guinea pigs as an animal model for uterine artery embolization (UAE) with tris-acryl gelatin microspheres (TAGM). Methods: Twenty-five female adult guinea pigs were randomly divided into two groups, including a uterine artery casting mould group (n = 10) and a UAE group (n = 15). Pelvic angiography and vascular casting mould were performed in the first group. The anatomical characters of the pelvic cavity in guinea pigs were described. In the second group, the technical feasibility of performing UAE with TAGM in guinea pigs was investigated. The histopathological slides of the uterus of guinea pigs after UAE were examined to inspect the outcomes of UAE. Results: The uterine artery springs from the internal iliac artery, ascends tortuously along the cervix, and gives off vertically 8–10 branches to the cervix uteri and uterine horns. The diameters of the trunk of the uterine artery and its first branch were 0.32 ± 0.027 mm and 0.14 ± 0.01 mm, respectively. For UAE animals, the dosages of 40–120 and 100–300 μm TAGM were 0.033 ± 0.003 ml and 0.015 ± 0.002 ml, respectively. On histopathological slides, embosphere particles were found in the first branches of the uterine artery, the subserous arteries, and the intramural arteries. Inflammatory reactions in the uterus were common in guinea pigs after UAE. Local or dispersed areas of necrosis in uterus also were observed in a few guinea pigs. Conclusions: Guinea pigs are an appropriate and feasible model for UAE with TAGM.

  11. Chamber-specific effects of hypokalaemia on ventricular arrhythmogenicity in isolated, perfused guinea-pig heart

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osadchii, Oleg E; Bentzen, Bo Hjorth; Olesen, Søren-Peter

    2009-01-01

    of hypokalaemic perfusion (2.5 mm K(+) for 30 min) were assessed in isolated guinea-pig heart preparations using simultaneous recordings of volume-conducted electrocardiogram and monophasic action potentials from six ventricular epicardial sites. Effective refractory periods, ventricular fibrillation thresholds...... for re-entrant tachyarrhythmias. Taken together, these findings suggest that proarrhythmic effects of hypokalaemia are mostly attributed to increased LV arrhythmogenicity in the guinea-pig heart....

  12. Contributions to the Study of the Esophagus and Stomach Morphology in Guinea Pig

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Berghes

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study is to illuminate some data on gastric esophageal junction morphology in Guinea Pig brings explanations on mice unable to vomit. There are few literature data on the conformation and structure of the laboratory mouse esophagus and stomach. They try to explain why the mouse can not vomit. Deviating slightly to the left only in the cervical region the esophagus runs mainly in the cervical region the esophagus runs mainly mid sagittally along the dorsal aspect of the trachea. Its length is about 30 mm (3, 4. Through out its length the diameter is about 2 mm. Through out its length the diameter is about 2 mm. The epithelium of the esophagus is moderately to extensively cornfield. The submucosa is free of gland. Both layers of the muscular coat are made buddle of skeletal muscle. The esophagus enters the middle of the lesser curvature. The esophageal sphincter is a circular muscle that surrounds the base of the esophagus. At its lower edge, it has muscle fibers that insert into the limiting ridge. So when the sphincter contracts, it not only constricts the walls of the esophagus, it also pulls the sides of the limiting ridge's "U" together, thus hiding and tightly closing the esophageal opening. Muscle layer is formed on the entire length of skeletal muscle fiber.

  13. Anti-anaphylactic action of nordihydroguaiaretic acid in antigen sensitized guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergren, Dale R; Valentine, Jimmie L

    2016-12-01

    Therapeutic natural products and medicinal herbs has gained popularity. The anti-antigenic action of the plant alkaloid nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA) was studied in ovalbumin (OA)-sensitized guinea pigs. In one series of experiments conscious, non-sedated guinea pigs were challenged with OA aerosol. Specific airway resistance (SR AW ) was monitored using a two-chambered whole-body plethysmograph. OA aerosol increased SR AW above that produced by vehicle administration. Prior NDGA administration by a 1min 0.9% aerosol (w/vol) attenuated the increase in SR AW resulting from OA challenge. In the anesthetized guinea pig pretreated with indomethacin, pyrilamine and propranolol, intravenous OA injection increased intra-tracheal pressure above vehicle injection. Intravenous NDGA administration (5mg/kg) reduced the intra-tracheal pressure increases. In a third series of experiments plasma leukotriene C 4 was measured by radio-immunoassay in 3 groups challenged with OA aerosol: vehicle-treated OA-sensitized, OA-sensitized receiving NDGA and vehicle treated guinea pigs. NDGA pretreatment reduced plasma LTC 4 in response to OA challenge in OA sensitized guinea pigs. This study demonstrates that NDGA is an effective antigenic agent when given by aerosol or intravenous injection in either conscious or anesthetized guinea pigs, respectively. The mechanism of action of NDGA is presumed primarily be due to the blockage of 5-lipoxygenase and therefore the synthesis of leukotrienes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Increased Severity of Tuberculosis in Guinea Pigs with Type 2 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podell, Brendan K.; Ackart, David F.; Obregon-Henao, Andres; Eck, Sarah P.; Henao-Tamayo, Marcela; Richardson, Michael; Orme, Ian M.; Ordway, Diane J.; Basaraba, Randall J.

    2015-01-01

    Impaired glucose tolerance and type 2 diabetes were induced in guinea pigs to model the emerging comorbidity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in diabetic patients. Type 2 diabetes mellitus was induced by low-dose streptozotocin in guinea pigs rendered glucose intolerant by first feeding a high-fat, high-carbohydrate diet before M. tuberculosis exposure. M. tuberculosis infection of diabetic guinea pigs resulted in severe and rapidly progressive tuberculosis (TB) with a shortened survival interval, more severe pulmonary and extrapulmonary pathology, and a higher bacterial burden compared with glucose-intolerant and nondiabetic controls. Compared with nondiabetics, diabetic guinea pigs with TB had an exacerbated proinflammatory response with more severe granulocytic inflammation and higher gene expression for the cytokines/chemokines interferon-γ, IL-17A, IL-8, and IL-10 in the lung and for interferon-γ, tumor necrosis factor-α, IL-8, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 in the spleen. TB disease progression in guinea pigs with impaired glucose tolerance was similar to that of nondiabetic controls in the early stages of infection but was more severe by day 90. The guinea pig model of type 2 diabetes–TB comorbidity mimics important features of the naturally occurring disease in humans. This model will be beneficial in understanding the complex pathogenesis of TB in diabetic patients and to test new strategies to improve TB and diabetes control when the two diseases occur together. PMID:24492198

  15. Serial histopathological changes in irradiated guinea pig lung receiving conventional fractionated and hyperfractionated irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, Satoshi; Inomata, Taisuke; Ogawa, Yasuhiro; Yoshida, Shoji; Sonobe, Hiroshi; Ohtsuki, Yuji

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine serial histopathological differences in guinea pig lungs receiving the same total dose as clinically used between conventional fractionated and hyperfractionated irradiation. The guinea pigs received 80 Gy in 40 daily fractions of 2 Gy each (conventional fractionation), 80 Gy in 80 fractions of 1 Gy each twice a day (hyperfractionation), 81 Gy in 27 daily fractions of 3 Gy each (conventional fractionation), or 81 Gy in 54 fractions of 1.5 Gy each twice a day (hyperfractionation). We evaluated the histopathological changes of irradiated guinea pig lungs at 1, 2, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months after irradiation. The guinea pig lungs that received 81 Gy in 27 daily fractions showed histopathological changes of inflammation including formation of lymph follicles after 6 months. The lungs which received 81 Gy in 54 fractions showed similar but slightly less pronounced changes than those that received 81 Gy in 27 daily fractions. The guinea pig lungs of other groups showed no histopathological changes during the observation period. In hyperfractionated irradiation the damage to the guinea pig lung is quantitatively less than that occurring as a result of conventional fractionated irradiation of the same total dose. (author)

  16. Immunogenicity of guinea pig cells transformed in culture by chemical carcinogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohanian, S H; McCabe, R P; Evans, C H

    1981-12-01

    The immunogenicity of inbred strain 2/N guinea pig fibroblasts transformed to the malignant state in vitro by chemical carcinogens was evaluated with the use of a variety of in vivo and in vitro methods including delayed-type hypersensitivity skin and tumor transplantation tests and analysis of antibody production by immunofluorescence, complement fixation, and staphylococcal protein A binding tests. Neoplastic transformation was induced by direct treatment of cells in culture with benzo[a]pyrene, 3-methylcholanthrene, or N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) or by the host-mediated method by which fetuses were exposed to diethylnitrosamine or MNNG in vivo prior to cell culture. Rabbits and syngeneic guinea pigs were inoculated with unirradiated and X-irradiated clonally derived cells. Delayed hypersensitivity skin reactions to immunizing or other cells were equivalent in immunized or control guinea pigs, and no protection to tumor outgrowth from a challenge inoculum of immunizing cells was observed. Antibody activity induced in the sera of immunized guinea pigs was cross-reactive and removed by absorption with nontumorigenic cells. Rabbit antisera after absorption with fetal guinea pig cells were nonreactive with the specific immunizing or other culture cells. Chemical carcinogen-induced neoplastic transformation of guinea pig cells can, therefore, occur without formation of detectable, individually distinct cell surface tumor-specific neoantigens.

  17. Serial histopathological changes in irradiated guinea pig lung receiving conventional fractionated and hyperfractionated irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itoh, Satoshi; Inomata, Taisuke; Ogawa, Yasuhiro; Yoshida, Shoji; Sonobe, Hiroshi; Ohtsuki, Yuji [Kochi Medical School, Nankoku (Japan)

    1999-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine serial histopathological differences in guinea pig lungs receiving the same total dose as clinically used between conventional fractionated and hyperfractionated irradiation. The guinea pigs received 80 Gy in 40 daily fractions of 2 Gy each (conventional fractionation), 80 Gy in 80 fractions of 1 Gy each twice a day (hyperfractionation), 81 Gy in 27 daily fractions of 3 Gy each (conventional fractionation), or 81 Gy in 54 fractions of 1.5 Gy each twice a day (hyperfractionation). We evaluated the histopathological changes of irradiated guinea pig lungs at 1, 2, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months after irradiation. The guinea pig lungs that received 81 Gy in 27 daily fractions showed histopathological changes of inflammation including formation of lymph follicles after 6 months. The lungs which received 81 Gy in 54 fractions showed similar but slightly less pronounced changes than those that received 81 Gy in 27 daily fractions. The guinea pig lungs of other groups showed no histopathological changes during the observation period. In hyperfractionated irradiation the damage to the guinea pig lung is quantitatively less than that occurring as a result of conventional fractionated irradiation of the same total dose. (author)

  18. Immunogenicity of guinea pig cells transformed in culture by chemical carcinogens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohanian, S.H.; McCabe, R.P.; Evans, C.H.

    1981-01-01

    The immunogenicity of inbred strain 2/N guinea pig fibroblasts transformed to the malignant state in vitro by chemical carcinogens was evaluated with the use of a variety of in vivo and in vitro methods including delayed-type hypersensitivity skin and tumor transplantation tests and analysis of antibody production by immunofluorescence, complement fixation, and staphylococcal protein A binding tests. Neoplastic transformation was induced by direct treatment of cells in culture with benzo[a]pyrene, 3-methylcholanthrene, or N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) or by the host-mediated method by which fetuses were exposed to diethylnitrosamine or MNNG in vivo prior to cell culture. Rabbits and syngeneic guinea pigs were inoculated with unirradiated and X-irradiated clonally derived cells. Delayed hypersensitivity skin reactions to immunizing or other cells were equivalent in immunized or control guinea pigs, and no protection to tumor outgrowth from a challenge inoculum of immunizing cells was observed. Antibody activity induced in the sera of immunized guinea pigs was cross-reactive and removed by absorption with nontumorigenic cells. Rabbit anitsera after absorption with fetal guinea pig cells were nonreactive with the specific immunizing or other cultured cells. Chemical carcinogen-induced neoplastic transformation of guinea pig cells can, therefore, occur without formation of detectable, individually distinct cell surface tumor-specific neoantigens

  19. Characterization of fetal growth by repeated ultrasound measurements in the wild guinea pig (Cavia aperea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumann, K; Guenther, A; Göritz, F; Jewgenow, K

    2014-08-01

    Fetal growth during pregnancy has previously been studied in the domesticated guinea pig (Cavia aperea f. porcellus) after dissecting pregnant females, but there are no studies describing the fetal growth in their wild progenitor, the wild guinea pig (C aperea). In this study, 50 pregnancies of wild guinea pig sows were investigated using modern ultrasound technique. The two most common fetal growth parameters (biparietal diameter [BPD] and crown-rump-length [CRL]) and uterine position were measured. Data revealed similar fetal growth patterns in the wild guinea pig and domesticated guinea pig in the investigated gestation period, although they differ in reproductive milestones such as gestation length (average duration of pregnancy 68 days), average birth weight, and litter mass. In this study, pregnancy lasted on average 60.2 days with a variance of less than a day (0.96 days). The measured fetal growth parameters are strongly correlated with each (R = 0.91; P guinea pig. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Chlamydia caviae infection alters abundance but not composition of the guinea pig vaginal microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuendorf, Elizabeth; Gajer, Pawel; Bowlin, Anne K; Marques, Patricia X; Ma, Bing; Yang, Hongqiu; Fu, Li; Humphrys, Michael S; Forney, Larry J; Myers, Garry S A; Bavoil, Patrik M; Rank, Roger G; Ravel, Jacques

    2015-06-01

    In humans, the vaginal microbiota is thought to be the first line of defense again pathogens including Chlamydia trachomatis. The guinea pig has been extensively used as a model to study chlamydial infection because it shares anatomical and physiological similarities with humans, such as a squamous vaginal epithelium as well as some of the long-term outcomes caused by chlamydial infection. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the guinea pig-C. caviae model of genital infection as a surrogate for studying the role of the vaginal microbiota in the early steps of C. trachomatis infection in humans. We used culture-independent molecular methods to characterize the relative and absolute abundance of bacterial phylotypes in the guinea pig vaginal microbiota in animals non-infected, mock-infected or infected by C. caviae. We showed that the guinea pig and human vaginal microbiotas are of different bacterial composition and abundance. Chlamydia caviae infection had a profound effect on the absolute abundance of bacterial phylotypes but not on the composition of the guinea pig vaginal microbiota. Our findings compromise the validity of the guinea pig-C. caviae model to study the role of the vaginal microbiota during the early steps of sexually transmitted infection. © FEMS 2015.

  1. Protective effects of isorhynchophylline on cardiac arrhythmias in rats and guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Runtao; Dong, Guo; Yu, Jiangbo; Wang, Xu; Fu, Songbin; Yang, Shusen

    2011-09-01

    As one important constituent extracted from a traditional Chinese medicine, Uncaria Rhynchophylla Miq Jacks, isorhynchophylline has been used to treat hypertension, epilepsy, headache, and other illnesses. Whether isorhynchophylline protects hearts against cardiac arrhythmias is still incompletely investigated. This study was therefore aimed to examine the preventive effects of isorhynchophylline on heart arrhythmias in guinea pigs and rats and then explore their electrophysiological mechanisms. In vivo, ouabain and calcium chloride were used to establish experimental arrhythmic models in guinea pigs and rats. In vitro, the whole-cell patch-lamp technique was used to study the effect of isorhynchophylline on action potential duration and calcium channels in acutely isolated guinea pig and rat cardiomyocytes. The dose of ouabain required to induce cardiac arrhythmias was much larger in guinea pigs administered with isorhynchophylline. Additionally, the onset time of cardiac arrhythmias induced by calcium chloride was prolonged, and the duration was shortened in rats pretreated with isorhynchophylline. The further study showed that isorhynchophylline could significantly decrease action potential duration and inhibit calcium currents in isolated guinea pig and rat cardiomyocytes in a dose-dependent manner. In summary, isorhynchophylline played a remarkably preventive role in cardiac arrhythmias through the inhibition of calcium currents in rats and guinea pigs. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  2. In Vitro Activity of ABT-773 against Legionella pneumophila, Its Pharmacokinetics in Guinea Pigs, and Its Use to Treat Guinea Pigs with L. pneumophila Pneumonia

    OpenAIRE

    Edelstein, Paul H.; Higa, F.; Edelstein, Martha A. C.

    2001-01-01

    The activity of ABT-773 was studied against extracellular and intracellular Legionella pneumophila and for the treatment of guinea pigs with L. pneumophila pneumonia. The ABT-773 MIC at which 50% of isolates are inhibited (MIC50) for 20 different Legionella sp. strains was 0.016 μg/ml, whereas the MIC50s of clarithromycin and erythromycin were 0.032 and 0.125 μg/ml, respectively. ABT-773 (1 μg/ml) was bactericidal for two L. pneumophila strains grown in guinea pig alveolar macrophages. In con...

  3. Confocal Raman Microspectroscopy: The Measurement of VX Depth Profiles in Hairless Guinea Pig Skin and the Evaluation of RSDL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-01

    USAMRICD-TR-15-01 Confocal Raman Microspectroscopy: The Measurement of VX Depth Profiles in Hairless Guinea Pig Skin and the Evaluation...5a. CONTRACT NUMBER guinea pig skin and the evaluation of RSDL 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Braue, EH...upper skin layers of hairless guinea pigs and to determine the ability of Reactive Skin Decontamination Lotion (RSDL) to remove or degrade VX from

  4. Effects of Potassium Channel Blockers on the Negative Inotropic Responses Induced by Cromakalim and Pinacidil in Guinea Pig Atrium

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    RD-A2•4 875 EFFECTS OF POTASSIUM CHANNEL BLOCKERS ON THE NEGATIVE 1/1 INOTROPIC RESPONSES INDUCED BY CRONAKALIM RND PINACIDIL IN GUINEA PIG ATRIUM(U...INOTROPICTRSPONSES INDUCED BY CROMAKAUM AND PINACIDILIN GUINEA PIG ATRIUM a AUTHOR WAI-MAN LAU 7 FORMING ORG NAMES/ADDRESSES DEFENCE SCIENCE AND a...and Technology Organisaio Aot Val. Negative Inotropic Responses Victoria. Australia Induced by Cromakalim and Pinacidil in Guinea Pig Atrium Key

  5. Comparison of Four Skin Decontamination Procedures Using Reactive Skin Decontamination Lotion (RSDL) Following Cutaneous VX Exposure in Guinea Pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    DC) product following cutaneous exposure to VX was affected by the DC procedure. Fur-clipped, male, unanesthetized guinea pigs were used as subjects...RSDL) Following Cutaneous VX Exposure in Guinea Pigs Irwin Koplovitz Susan Schulz Julia Morgan Robert Reed Edward Clarkson C. Gary Hurst...Decontamination Procedures Using Reactive Skin 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Decontamination Lotion (RSDL) Following Cutaneous VX Exposure in Guinea Pigs 5b

  6. Median Lethal Doses Associated with Intravenous Exposure to the Optically Pure Enantiomers of VX in Guinea Pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    in Guinea Pigs 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Wright, Linnzi K. M.; Forster, Jeffry S...intravenous exposure of adult, male guinea pigs to the individual VX enantiomers, and we compared those potencies to that for a racemic mixture. The P...highly toxic based on the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s Acute Toxicity Categories for Pesticide Products. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Guinea pig

  7. Molecular cloning, sequence identification and expression profile of domestic guinea pig (Cavia porcellus UGT1A1 gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Deming

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Domestic guinea pig is a model animal for human disease research. Uridine diphosphate glucuronosyltransferase 1 family, polypeptide A1 (UGT1A1 is an important human disease-related gene. In this study, the complete coding sequence of domestic guinea pig gene UGT1A1 was amplified by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. The open reading frame of the domestic guinea pig UGT1A1 gene is 1602 bp in length and was found to encode a protein of 533 amino acids. Sequence analysis revealed that the UGT1A1 protein of domestic guinea pig shared high homology with the UGT1A1 proteins of degu (84%, damara mole-rat (84%, human (80%, northern white-cheeked gibbon (80%, Colobus angolensis palliatus (80% and golden snub-nosed monkey (79%. This gene contains five exons and four introns, as revealed by the computer-assisted analysis. The results also showed that the domestic guinea pig UGT1A1 gene had a close genetic relationship with the UGT1A1 gene of degu. The prediction of transmembrane helices showed that domestic guinea pig UGT1A1 might be a transmembrane protein. Expression profile analysis indicated that the domestic guinea pig UGT1A1 gene was differentially expressed in detected domestic guinea pig tissues. Our experiment laid a primary foundation for using the domestic guinea pig as a model animal to study the UGT1A1-related human diseases.

  8. Developmental disturbances of the fetal brain in guinea-pigs caused by methylmercury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inouye, Minoru; Kajiwara, Yuji

    1988-08-01

    Pregnant guinea-pigs of Hartley strain were orally administered methylmercuric chloride once at a dose of 7.5 mg Hg/animal (weighing 500-800 g) on one of days 21, 28, 35, 42 or 49 (3-7 weeks) of gestation. They were killed on day 63 (9 weeks) and their fetuses were removed. Both maternal and fetal blood, brain, liver and kidney, and fetal hair, urine, gastric content and amniotic fluid as well, were sampled for mercury analysis. The fetal brains were also examined pathologically. The maternal kidney contained mercury at a high concentration but the fetal kidney did not. The mercury concentration was strikingly high in the fetal hair, but fairly low in the urine, gastric contents and amniotic fluid. Mercury distributed unevenly in various brain regions of both dams and fetuses after treatment at 6 and 7 weeks of pregnancy (3 and 2 weeks before sampling). The concentration was high in the neopallium and archipallium, followed by the paleopallium, diencephalon and mesencephalon, but low in the rhombencephalon, including cerebellum. Mercury contents were relatively low and distributed almost evenly in various brain regions of both the dams and fetuses following treatment at 3, 4 and 5 weeks of pregnancy. Morphologically, the fetal brains were disturbed in the development following treatment at 3, 4 and 5 weeks of pregnancy. The cerebral cortex was thinned, the nucleus caudatus putamen and the hippocampal formation were reduced in size, and the lateral ventricles were dilated. However, the histological architecture of the cerebral cortex was not strikingly maldeveloped; only a slight disarrangement of the cellular alignment was noted. Following treatment at 6 and 7 weeks of pregnancy, focal degeneration of the neuronal cells was observed in the fetal neocortex; the severe cases showed spongy degeneration and dysgenetic hydrocephalus.

  9. Deterioration of epithelium mediated mechanisms in diabetic-antigen sensitized airways of guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bano, Saidullah; Swati, Omanwar; Kambadur, Muralidhar; Mohammad, Fahim

    2016-01-01

    The onset of diabetes causes disruption of respiratory epithelial mediators. The present study investigates whether diabetes modifies the epithelium mediated bronchial responses in hyper-reactive airway smooth muscle (ASM) primarily through nitric oxide (NO), cyclooxygenase (COX), and epithelium derived hyperpolarizing factor (EpDHF) pathways. Experimental model of guinea pigs having hyper-reactive airways with or without diabetes were developed. The responses of tracheal rings to cumulative concentrations of acetylcholine (ACh) and isoproterenol (IP) in the presence and absence of epithelium and before and after incubation with NO, K + ATP and COX inhibitors, N-(ω)-Nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME; 100 μM), glybenclamide (10 μM) and indomethacin (100 μM) were assessed. In diabetic guinea pigs with hyper-reactive airways, a decrease in ACh induced bronchoconstriction was observed after epithelium removal and after incubation with L-NAME/indomethacin, suggesting damage to NO/COX pathways. Hyper-reactivity did not alter the response of trachea to ACh but affected the response to IP which was further reduced in hyper-reactive animals with diabetes. The ASM response to IP after glybenclamide treatment did not alter in hyper-reactive guinea pigs and diabetic guinea pigs with hyper-reactive airways, suggesting damage to the EpDHF pathway. Treatment with indomethacin reduced IP response in the hyper-reactive model, and did not produce any change in diabetic model with hyper-reactive airways, indicating further disruption of the COX pathway. EpDHF pathway is damaged in hyper-reactive guinea pigs and in diabetic guinea pigs with hyper-reactive airways. Diabetes further aggravates the NO and COX mediated pathways in diabetic guinea pigs with hyper-reactive airways.

  10. [Effects of electroacupuncture on cochlea morphology and expression of aquaporins in guinea pigs with endolymphatic hydrops].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Liyuan; Wang, Canjun; Ni, Fangying; Chen, Huade

    2015-06-01

    To observe the effects of electroacupuncture (EA) on cochlea morphology and expression of aquaporin 1 (AQP1) in guinea pigs with endolymphatic hydrops, so as to explore the possible mechanism of EA on endolymphatic hydrops. Forty guinea pigs were randomly divided into a blank group, a model group, a medication group and an EA group, 10 guinea pigs in each one. Model of endolymphatic hydrops was established by using intraperitoneal injection of aldosterone. Guinea pigs in the blank group and model group were treated with identical immobilization as EA group but no treatment was given; guinea pigs in the medication group were treated with intragastric administration of hydrochlorothiazide at a dose of 5 mg/kg, once a day for consecutive 10 days; guinea pigs in the EA group were treated with' EA at "Baihui" (GV 20) and "Tinggong"(SI 19), once a day for consecutive 10 days. The serum ionic concentration in each group was tested by turbidimetric method; hematoxylin-eosin staining was used to measure the severity of cochlea hydrops; immunohistochemical method was used to observe the expression of AQP1 in the cochlea. (1) There was no endolymphatic hydrops in the blank group, moderate-severe endolymphatic hydrops in the model group and slight endolymphatic hydrops in the EA group and medication group. (2) The concentration of K+ and Ca2+ in the EA group was higher than that in the model group and medication group (all P0. 05). (3) The ratio of expression area of AQP1 in the model group was lower than that in the blank group (P0. 05). EA could relieve the endolymphatic hydrops in guinea pigs; the mechanism is likely to be related with up-regulating the expression of AQP1 in cochlea and ion concentration might be an important factor involved.

  11. Airway hyperresponsiveness induced by repeated esophageal infusion of HCl in guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yan-Mei; Cao, Ai-Li; Zheng, Jian-Pu; Wang, Hong-Wei; Sun, Yong-Shun; Liu, Chun-Fang; Zhang, Bei-Bei; Wang, Yi; Zhu, Sheng-Liang; Wu, Da-Zheng

    2014-11-01

    Gastroesophageal reflux is a common disorder closely related to chronic airway diseases, such as chronic cough, asthma, chronic bronchitis, and chronic obstructive disease. Indeed, gastroesophageal acid reflux into the respiratory tract causes bronchoconstriction, but the underlying mechanisms have still not been clarified. This study aimed to elucidate functional changes of bronchial smooth muscles (BSMs) isolated from guinea pigs in an animal model of gastroesophageal reflux. The marked airway inflammation, hyperresponsiveness and remodeling were observed after guinea pigs were exposed to intraesophageal HCl infusion for 14 days. In addition, contractile responses to acetylcholine (ACh), KCl, electrical field stimulation, and extracellular Ca(2+) were greater in guinea pigs infused with HCl compared with control groups. The L-type voltage-dependent Ca(2+) channels (L-VDCC) blocker, nicardipine, significantly inhibited ACh- and Ca(2+)-enhanced BSM contractions in guinea pigs infused with HCl. The Rho-kinase inhibitor, Y27632, attenuated ACh-enhanced BSM contractions in guinea pigs infused with HCl. Moreover, mRNA and protein expressions for muscarinic M2 and M3 receptors, RhoA, and L-VDCC in BSM were detected by real-time PCR and Western blot. Expressions of mRNA and protein for muscarinic M3 receptors, RhoA, and L-VDCC were greater than in BSM of HCl-infused guinea pigs, whereas levels of muscarinic M2 receptors were unchanged. We demonstrate that acid infusion to the lower esophagus and, subsequently, microaspiration into the respiratory tract in guinea pigs leads to airway hyperresponsiveness and overactive BSM. Functional and molecular results indicate that overactive BSM is the reason for enhancement of extracellular Ca(2+) influx via L-VDCC and Ca(2+) sensitization through Rho-kinase signaling.

  12. Expression Profile of the Integrin Receptor Subunits in the Guinea Pig Sclera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kevin K; Metlapally, Ravikanth; Wildsoet, Christine F

    2017-06-01

    The ocular dimensional changes in myopia reflect increased scleral remodeling, and in high myopia, loss of scleral integrity leads to biomechanical weakening and continued scleral creep. As integrins, a type of cell surface receptors, have been linked to scleral remodeling, they represent potential targets for myopia therapies. As a first step, this study aimed to characterize the integrin subunits at the messenger RNA level in the sclera of the guinea pig, a more recently added but increasingly used animal model for myopia research. Primers for α and β integrin subunits were designed using NCBI/UCSC Genome Browser and Primer3 software tools. Total RNA was extracted from normal scleral tissue and isolated cultured scleral fibroblasts, as well as liver and lung, as reference tissues, all from guinea pig. cDNA was produced by reverse transcription, PCR was used to amplify products of predetermined sizes, and products were sequenced using standard methods. Guinea pig scleral tissue expressed all known integrin alpha subunits except αD and αE. The latter integrin subunits were also not expressed by cultured guinea pig scleral fibroblasts; however, their expression was confirmed in guinea pig liver. In addition, isolated cultured fibroblasts did not express integrin subunits αL, αM, and αX. This difference between results for cultured cells and intact sclera presumably reflects the presence in the latter of additional cell types. Both guinea pig scleral tissue and isolated scleral fibroblasts expressed all known integrin beta subunits. All results were verified through sequencing. The possible contributions of integrins to scleral remodeling make them plausible targets for myopia prevention. Data from this study will help guide future ex vivo and in vitro studies directed at understanding the relationship between scleral integrins and ocular growth regulation in the guinea pig model for myopia.

  13. Adrenaline reveals the torsadogenic effect of combined blockade of potassium channels in anaesthetized guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, G; Kane, K A; Coker, S J

    2008-08-01

    Torsade de pointes (TdP) can be induced in several species by a reduction in cardiac repolarizing capacity. The aim of this study was to assess whether combined I(Kr) and I(Ks) blockade could induce TdP in anaesthetized guinea pigs and whether short-term variability (STV) or triangulation of action potentials could predict TdP. Experiments were performed in open-chest, pentobarbital-anaesthetized, adrenaline-stimulated male Dunkin Hartley guinea pigs, which received three consecutive i.v. infusions of either vehicle, the I(Kr) blocker E-4031 (3, 10 and 30 nmol kg(-1) min(-1)), the I(Ks) blocker HMR1556 (75, 250, 750 nmol kg(-1) min(-1)) or E-4031 and HMR1556 combined. Phenylephrine-stimulated guinea pigs were also treated with the K(+) channel blockers in combination. Arterial blood pressure, ECGs and epicardial monophasic action potential (MAP) were recorded. TdP was observed in 75% of adrenaline-stimulated guinea pigs given the K(+) channel blockers in combination, but was not observed in guinea pigs treated with either I(K) blocker alone, or in phenylephrine-stimulated guinea pigs. Salvos and ventricular tachycardia occurred with adrenaline but not with phenylephrine. No changes in STV or triangulation of the MAP signals were observed before TdP. Combined blockade of both I(Kr) and I(Ks) plus the addition of adrenaline were required to induce TdP in anaesthetized guinea pigs. This suggests that there must be sufficient depletion of repolarization reserve and an appropriate trigger for TdP to occur.

  14. Wild genius - domestic fool? Spatial learning abilities of wild and domestic guinea pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachser Norbert

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Domestic animals and their wild relatives differ in a wide variety of aspects. The process of domestication of the domestic guinea pig (Cavia aperea f. porcellus, starting at least 4500 years ago, led to changes in the anatomy, physiology, and behaviour compared with their wild relative, the wild cavy, Cavia aperea. Although domestic guinea pigs are widely used as a laboratory animal, learning and memory capabilities are often disregarded as being very scarce. Even less is known about learning and memory of wild cavies. In this regard, one striking domestic trait is a reduction in relative brain size, which in the domesticated form of the guinea pig amounts to 13%. However, the common belief, that such a reduction of brain size in the course of domestication of different species is accomplished by less learning capabilities is not at all very well established in the literature. Indeed, domestic animals might also even outperform their wild conspecifics taking advantage of their adaptation to a man-made environment. In our study we compared the spatial learning abilities of wild and domestic guinea pigs. We expected that the two forms are different regarding their learning performance possibly related to the process of domestication. Therefore wild cavies as well as domestic guinea pigs of both sexes, aged 35 to 45 days, were tested in the Morris water maze to investigate their ability of spatial learning. Results Both, wild cavies and domestic guinea pigs were able to learn the task, proving the water maze to be a suitable test also for wild cavies. Regarding the speed of learning, male as well as female domestic guinea pigs outperformed their wild conspecifics significantly. Interestingly, only domestic guinea pigs showed a significant spatial association of the platform position, while other effective search strategies were used by wild cavies. Conclusion The results demonstrate that domestic guinea pigs do not at all

  15. Wild genius - domestic fool? Spatial learning abilities of wild and domestic guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewejohann, Lars; Pickel, Thorsten; Sachser, Norbert; Kaiser, Sylvia

    2010-03-25

    Domestic animals and their wild relatives differ in a wide variety of aspects. The process of domestication of the domestic guinea pig (Cavia aperea f. porcellus), starting at least 4500 years ago, led to changes in the anatomy, physiology, and behaviour compared with their wild relative, the wild cavy, Cavia aperea. Although domestic guinea pigs are widely used as a laboratory animal, learning and memory capabilities are often disregarded as being very scarce. Even less is known about learning and memory of wild cavies. In this regard, one striking domestic trait is a reduction in relative brain size, which in the domesticated form of the guinea pig amounts to 13%. However, the common belief, that such a reduction of brain size in the course of domestication of different species is accomplished by less learning capabilities is not at all very well established in the literature. Indeed, domestic animals might also even outperform their wild conspecifics taking advantage of their adaptation to a man-made environment.In our study we compared the spatial learning abilities of wild and domestic guinea pigs. We expected that the two forms are different regarding their learning performance possibly related to the process of domestication. Therefore wild cavies as well as domestic guinea pigs of both sexes, aged 35 to 45 days, were tested in the Morris water maze to investigate their ability of spatial learning. Both, wild cavies and domestic guinea pigs were able to learn the task, proving the water maze to be a suitable test also for wild cavies. Regarding the speed of learning, male as well as female domestic guinea pigs outperformed their wild conspecifics significantly. Interestingly, only domestic guinea pigs showed a significant spatial association of the platform position, while other effective search strategies were used by wild cavies. The results demonstrate that domestic guinea pigs do not at all perform worse than their wild relatives in tests of spatial

  16. Effects of intranasal corticosteroids on radiated nasal mucosa of guinea pig

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Xinhua; Liu Yuehui

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To investigate a mechanism protected radiation-induce injure for radiated guinea pigs'nasal mucosa treated with intranasal corticosteroids(fluticasone nasal cavity spray). Methods: 50 health guinea pigs were divided into 2 groups randomly: the irradiated group (control group) with 25 guinea pigs and the administration group after irradiation (test group)with 25 guinea pigs. The nasal part of all guinea pigs were performed irradiation by the 6 MV X-ray with single 5 Gy, one time each week for three weeks. The guinea pigs of test group received intranasal corticosteroids with one time every day and one spray each side nasal cavity on the second day after three weeks irradiation. Five guinea pigs in each group were sacrificed randomly at 1 week, 1 month, 2 months, 3 months and 4 months after irradiation, and the histopathologic changes were observed under optical microscope and electron microscope. At the same time, blood were drawn from the heart and the concentration of IL-1, IL-6 and TNF-α in serum were measured by ELISA. Results: The early nasal mucosa inflammatory reaction of the test group was less than the control group. The coverage rate of cilia of the test group was much than that of the control group (72.9% vs 50.2%) at four months after irradiation. The atrophy of submucosal glandular organ was lessened and they displayed some extent secretory function. The concentration of IL-1 in serum was increased very much in the test group compared with the control group after irradiation and kept higher level in the first two months. After two months, it began to decrease; on four months, it still kept equivalency level with the control group. The concentration of IL-6 and TNF-α in serum were reduced all the while. Conclusions: The intranasal corticosteroids with fluticasone nasal cavity spray can reduce radiation- induced injury of guinea pigs' nasal mucosa. The concentration change of IL-1, IL-6 and TNF-α in serum may be one of mechanism protected

  17. Demonstration of a specific C3a receptor on guinea pig platelets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukuoka, Y.; Hugli, T.E.

    1988-01-01

    Guinea pig platelets reportedly contain receptors specific for the anaphylatoxin C3a based on both ligand-binding studies and functional responses. A portion of the human 125I-C3a that binds to guinea pig platelets is competitively displaced by excess unlabeled C3a; however, the majority of ligand uptake was nonspecific. Uptake of 125I-C3a by guinea pig platelets is maximal in 1 min, and stimulation of guinea pig platelets by thrombin, ADP, or the Ca2+ ionophore A23187 showed little influence on binding of the ligand. Scatchard analysis indicated that approximately 1200 binding sites for C3a exist per cell with an estimated Kd of 8 x 10(-10) M. Human C3a des Arg also binds to guinea pig platelets, but Scatchard analysis indicated that no specific binding occurred. Because the ligand-binding studies were complicated by high levels of nonspecific uptake, we attempted to chemically cross-link the C3a molecule to a specific component on the platelet surface. Cross-linkage of 125I-C3a to guinea pig platelets with bis(sulfosuccinimidyl)suberate revealed radioactive complexes at 105,000 and 115,000 m.w. on SDS-PAGE gels by autoradiographic analysis. In the presence of excess unlabeled C3a, complex formation was inhibited. No cross-linkage could be demonstrated between the inactive 125I-C3a des Arg and the putative C3a-R on guinea pig platelets. Human C3a, but not C3a des Arg induces serotonin release and aggregation of the guinea pig platelets. Human C3a was unable to induce either serotonin release or promote aggregation of human platelets. Uptake of human 125I-C3a by human platelets was not saturable, and Scatchard analysis was inconclusive. Attempts to cross-link 125I-C3a to components on the surface of human platelets also failed to reveal a ligand-receptor complex. Therefore, we conclude that guinea pig platelets have specific surface receptors to C3a and that human platelets appear devoid of receptors to the anaphylatoxin

  18. Isolation and characterization of plasma membranes from guinea pig ileum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1986-01-01

    A plasma membrane fraction from guinea pig ileum has been isolated by extraction of a crude microsomal fraction with a low ionic strength buffer containing ATP and Ca 2+ . The extracted microsomes were subjected to sucrose-density-gradient centrifugation in the presence of 0.6 M KCl. The plasma membranes were substantially free from contamination with contractile proteins, mitochondria and sarco-plasmic reticulum. The plasma membrane vesicles were enriched 30-to-40-fold in Na + -K + -ATPase and 5'-nucleotidase activities. The plasma membrane vesicles accumulated Ca 2+ in the presence of ATP. The addition of Ca 2+ ionophore A23187 to vesicles loaded with Ca 2+ in the presence of ATP removed Ca 2+ completely from the vesicles in one minute. The Km values for the Ca 2+ -dependent phosphorylated intermediates of Ca 2+ -Mg 2+ -ATPase and Ca 2+ uptake were approximately 0.8 μM indicating that the phosphorylated intermediates represent phosphorylation of Ca 2+ pump ATPase. The 3 H-nitrendipine binding to plasma membranes was characterized by high affinity with Kd of 185 pM and B/sub max/ 1280 fmol/mg protein. The plasma membrane vesicles prepared by these procedures can prove useful for the study of ion transport

  19. Expression of matrix metalloproteinases and ovarian morphological changes in androgenized cyclic female guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jun-rong; Shen, Ting; Wang, Yan-li; Wei, Quan-wei; Shi, Fang-xiong

    2016-02-01

    This study was conducted to investigate expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and ovarian morphological changes in androgenized cyclic female guinea pigs. Adult cyclic female guinea pigs were injected daily for 28 days with medium doses of testosterone propionate (TP; 1 mg/100g), high doses of TP (2 mg/100g), or saline (control). Serum concentrations of testosterone, estradiol (E2), and progesterone (P4) were measured. Histologic sections of ovaries were stained with hematoxylin-eosin and by immunohistochemistry. Expressions of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein, proliferating cell nuclear antigen, and MMP-2 and MMP-9 in the ovary were characterized by immunohistochemistry. After 28 days of TP injection, serum testosterone concentrations were increased dose-dependently. An appropriate dosage of TP could induce permanent anovulation in guinea pigs, making them a potential model for human polycystic ovary syndrome. MMP-2 and MMP-9 are jointly involved in the growth and atresia of ovarian follicles in cyclic guinea pigs. Increased numbers of atretic antral follicles in the ovary might be associated with the observed high expression of MMP-2 in androgenized cyclic guinea pigs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Effect of fructo-oligosaccharide on nitrogen utilization in guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawasaki, Kiyonori; Min, Xiao; Nishiyama, Ai; Sakaguchi, Ei

    2013-04-01

    The present study was conducted to determine the effects of fructo-oligosaccharide (FOS) on the nitrogen (N) utilization and digestibilities of dietary nutrients through cecotrophy in guinea pigs. Adult male guinea pigs that were housed or not housed in wooden frames to prevent cecotrophy were fed a commercial pellet diet (50 g/day) with 3% and 5% glucose or FOS for 8 days in individual metabolism cages. In the guinea pigs allowed cecotrophy, addition of FOS to the diet had no significant effects on body weight gain or apparent digestibility of N, but showed significantly lower value for the urinary N excretion and acid-detergent fiber digestibility (P guinea pigs prevented from cecotrophy, FOS had no effect on N retention, but showed tendencies toward a higher value for fecal N excretion and a lower value for urinary N excretion. These results suggest that FOS stimulates cecal microbial proliferation, thereby improving N utilization in guinea pigs. © 2012 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  1. Congenital malformations caused by Stryphnodendron fissuratum (Leg. Mimosoideae) in guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macedo, Josenaldo S; Rocha, Brena P; Colodel, Edson M; Freitas, Sílvio H; Dória, Renata G S; Riet-Correa, Franklin; Evêncio-Neto, Joaquim; Mendonça, Fábio S

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the toxicity of Stryphnodendron fissuratum pods in guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus) and test the hypothesis that this plant has teratogenic effects. Thus, sixteen guinea pigs were randomly divided into four groups of four animals each. Groups 10, 20 and 40 consisted of guinea pigs that received commercial food that contained crushed pods of S. fissuratum at concentrations of 10, 20 and 40 g/kg, respectively, during the period of organogenesis. Control group consisted of guinea pigs under the same management conditions that did not receive crushed pods of S. fissuratum in their food. In all experimental groups, the main clinical signs of poisoning consisted of anorexia, prostration, absence of vocalizations, alopecia, diarrhea, and abortions within the adult guinea pigs. Those that did not abort gave birth to weak, malnourished pups, some of which had fetal malformations. The main teratogenic changes consisted of eventration, arthrogryposis, amelia of the forelimbs, anophthalmia, microphthalmia, anotia and agnathia. The reductions in the number of offspring and the malformations observed in the experimental groups suggest that S. fissuratum affects fetal development and is teratogenic. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Effects of Changing to Individually Ventilated Caging on Guinea Pigs (Cavia porcellus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giral, Marta; Armengol, Clara; Sánchez-Gómez, Sonia; Gavaldà, Amadeu

    2015-05-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate the effect of changing to IVC housing on guinea pigs by recording several physiologic parameters in guinea pigs housed sequentially in open-top cages (OTC) and IVC. To register heart rate and locomotor activity, 10 male Dunkin-Hartley guinea pigs implanted with telemetric transmitters were moved from OTC to new, freshly prepared OTC or IVC and subsequently monitored by telemetry during the 4 d after the first cage change. Body weight and food consumption were measured twice during the study. Comparison of data from OTC- and IVC-housed guinea pigs showed no relevant differences in heart rate (mean ± 1 SD; 213 ± 10 bpm and 207 ± 9 bpm, respectively) at any time point. In contrast, locomotor activity varied: whereas activity during the first 4 h after the change of cage type was greater in IVC-housed animals, that during the following 24 h was greater in OTC but was similar between groups thereafter. Animals housed in OTC consumed more food than did those in IVC and, under both conditions, consumption was statistically related to body weight changes. Together, these results show that a change to IVC housing induced only transient increases in locomotor activity in guinea pigs without a marked increase in heart rate but with a decrease in food consumption. Because decreased food consumption was the only stress-associated sign during the 4-d observation, longer studies are needed to ascertain the importance of this finding.

  3. The guinea pig as an animal model for developmental and reproductive toxicology studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocca, Meredith S; Wehner, Nancy G

    2009-04-01

    Regulatory guidelines for developmental and reproductive toxicology (DART) studies require selection of "relevant" animal models as determined by kinetic, pharmacological, and toxicological data. Traditionally, rats, mice, and rabbits are the preferred animal models for these studies. However, for test articles that are pharmacologically inactive in the traditional animal models, the guinea pig may be a viable option. This choice should not be made lightly, as guinea pigs have many disadvantages compared to the traditional species, including limited historical control data, variability in pregnancy rates, small and variable litter size, long gestation, relative maturity at birth, and difficulty in dosing and breeding. This report describes methods for using guinea pigs in DART studies and provides results of positive and negative controls. Standard study designs and animal husbandry methods were modified to allow mating on the postpartum estrus in fertility studies and were used for producing cohorts of pregnant females for developmental studies. A positive control study with the pregnancy-disrupting agent mifepristone resulted in the anticipated failure of embryo implantation and supported the use of the guinea pig model. Control data for reproductive endpoints collected from 5 studies are presented. In cases where the traditional animal models are not relevant, the guinea pig can be used successfully for DART studies. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  4. Reduced noise susceptibility in littermate offspring from heterozygous animals of the German waltzing guinea pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skjönsberg, Åsa; Mannström, Paula

    2015-07-08

    The German waltzing guinea pig is a spontaneously mutated strain with severe auditory and vestibular impairment caused by a so far unknown genetic mutation. The animals are born deaf and show a circling behavior. The heterozygote animals of this guinea pig strain have functionally normal hearing and balance. However, these animals have, in earlier studies, shown an increased resistance to noise compared with normal wild-type guinea pigs. In the present study, we explored the functional hearing with auditory brainstem response thresholds before and at different time points after noise exposure. Symptom-free littermates from heterozygote couples of the German waltzing guinea pigs were exclusively used for the study, which, after the hearing test, were sent back for breeding to confirm their genotype (i.e. heterozygote or normal). The aim of this paper was to ascertain that the previously shown reduced susceptibility to noise trauma in the heterozygote animals of the German waltzing guinea pig was also evident when littermates were used as control animals. The findings are important for further analysis of the heterozygote animals of this strain and for future investigations of the underlying mechanisms behind the diverse susceptibility to exposures of loud sound.

  5. Spontaneous occurrence of a potentially night blinding disorder in guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racine, Julie; Behn, Darren; Simard, Eric; Lachapelle, Pierre

    2003-07-01

    Several hereditary retinal disorders such as retinitis pigmentosa and congenital stationary night blindness compromise, sometimes exclusively, the activity of the rod pathway. Unfortunately, there are few animal models of these disorders that could help us better understand the pathophysiological processes involved. The purpose of this report is to present a pedigree of guinea pigs where, as a result of a consanguineous mating and subsequent selective breeding, we developed a new and naturally occurring animal model of a rod disorder. Analysis of the retinal function with the electroretinogram reveals that the threshold for rod-mediated electroretinograms (ERGs) is significantly increased by more than 2 log-units compared to that of normal guinea pigs. Furthermore, in response to a suprathreshold stimulus, also delivered under scotopic condition, which yield a mixed cone-rod response in normal guinea pigs, the ERG waveform in our mutant guinea pigs is almost identical (amplitude and timing of a- and b-waves) to that evoked in photopic condition. The above would thus suggest either a structural (abnormal development or absence) or a functional deficiency of the rod photoreceptors. We believe that our pedigree possibly represents a new animal model of a night blinding disorder, and that this condition is inherited as anautosomal recessive trait in the guinea pig population.

  6. Trypanosoma cruzi: partial prevention of the natural infection of guinea pigs with a killed parasite vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basombrio, M A

    1990-07-01

    Guinea pigs are natural reservoirs of Chagas' disease. Domestic breeding and local trade of these animals are common practices among andean communities in South America. Infection by Trypanosoma cruzi occurs when the animals live in triatomine-infested houses or yards. The preventive effect of a vaccine consisting of cultured T. cruzi killed by freezing and thawing plus saponin was tested both in mice and in the guinea pig ecosystem. Resistance against T. cruzi challenge in mice was improved by increasing the trypomastigote/epimastigote ratio in live attenuated vaccines but not in killed parasite vaccines. Although the killing of attenuated parasites sharply reduced their immunogenicity for mice, a protective effect against natural T. cruzi infection was detected in guinea pigs. A total of 88 guinea pigs were vaccinated in four intradermal sites on three occasions. Eighty controls received similar inoculations of culture medium plus saponin. All animals were kept in a triatomine-infested yard. Parasitemia was studied with the capillary microhematocrit method. After an exposure time averaging 4 months, natural T. cruzi infection occurred in 55% (44/80) of the controls and in 33% (29/88) of the vaccinated group (P less than 0.01). The number of highly parasitemic guinea pigs was also significantly decreased (6/80 vs 0/88, P less than 0.01). Thus, immunizing protocols which are only partially protective against artificial callenge with T. cruzi may nevertheless constrain the exchange of parasites between natural hosts and vectors.

  7. Late effects of radiation on the lumbar spinal cord of guinea pigs: Re-treatment tolerance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mason, K.A.; Withers, H.R.; Chiang, Chi-Shiun

    1993-01-01

    Using a guinea pig model of lumbar myelopathy, various factors affecting the tolerance of spinal cord to irradiation were assessed: (a) extent of initial injury; (b) time interval between priming and test doses; and (c) animal age at the time of initial radiation treatment. A 3 cm section of lumbar spinal cord of guinea pigs was irradiated with fractionated doses of 4.5 Gy gamma rays given as 9 fractions per week. Guinea pigs were primed with 9 x 4.5 Gy in 7 days which is 60% of the ED 50 for a continuous course of treatment. After 28 or 40 weeks, animal were retreated with 6-14 fractions of 4.5 Gy. Animals were observed for 2 years following the priming dose and both the incidence and latency of myelopathy recorded. Young adult guinea pigs (8 wk old) showed both a decreased radiation tolerance and latency compared to old individuals (40 wk old). At 28 or 40 wk after 9 x 4.5 Gy, only about 8% of the initial injury was remembered in young adult guinea pigs. The amount of residual injury was dependent on the initial damage as a proportion of the tolerance dose. The spinal cord shows a greater capacity for long-term recovery than generally appreciated and re-treatment doses clinically prescribed may be lower than necessary. 8 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  8. Protein A Suppresses Immune Responses during Staphylococcus aureus Bloodstream Infection in Guinea Pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hwan Keun; Falugi, Fabiana; Thomer, Lena; Missiakas, Dominique M.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT   Staphylococcus aureus infection is not associated with the development of protective immunity, and disease relapses occur frequently. We hypothesize that protein A, a factor that binds immunoglobulin Fcγ and cross-links VH3 clan B cell receptors (IgM), is the staphylococcal determinant for host immune suppression. To test this, vertebrate IgM was examined for protein A cross-linking. High VH3 binding activity occurred with human and guinea immunoglobulin, whereas mouse and rabbit immunoglobulins displayed little and no binding, respectively. Establishing a guinea pig model of S. aureus bloodstream infection, we show that protein A functions as a virulence determinant and suppresses host B cell responses. Immunization with SpAKKAA, which cannot bind immunoglobulin, elicits neutralizing antibodies that enable guinea pigs to develop protective immunity. Importance  Staphylococcus aureus is the leading cause of soft tissue and bloodstream infections; however, a vaccine with clinical efficacy is not available. Using mice to model staphylococcal infection, earlier work identified protective antigens; however, corresponding human clinical trials did not reach their endpoints. We show that B cell receptor (IgM) cross-linking by protein A is an important immune evasion strategy of S. aureus that can be monitored in a guinea pig model of bloodstream infection. Further, immunization with nontoxigenic protein A enables infected guinea pigs to elicit antibody responses that are protective against S. aureus. Thus, the guinea pig model may support preclinical development of staphylococcal vaccines. PMID:25564466

  9. Cryptosporidium homai n. sp. (Apicomplexa: Cryptosporidiiae) from the guinea pig (Cavia porcellus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahedi, Alireza; Durmic, Zoey; Gofton, Alexander W; Kueh, Susan; Austen, Jill; Lawson, Malcolm; Callahan, Lauren; Jardine, John; Ryan, Una

    2017-10-15

    The morphological, biological, and molecular characterisation of a new Cryptosporidium species from the guinea pig (Cavia porcellus) are described, and the species name Cryptosporidium homai n. sp. is proposed. Histological analysis conducted on a post-mortem sample from a guinea pig euthanised due to respiratory distress, identified developmental stages of C. homai n. sp. (trophozoites and meronts) along the intestinal epithelium. Molecular analysis at 18S rRNA (18S), actin and hsp70 loci was then conducted on faeces from an additional 7 guinea pigs positive for C. homai n. sp. At the 18S, actin and hsp70 loci, C. homai n. sp. exhibited genetic distances ranging from 3.1% to 14.3%, 14.4% to 24.5%, and 6.6% to 20.9% from other Cryptosporidium spp., respectively. At the 18S locus, C. homai n. sp. shared 99.1% similarity with a previously described Cryptosporidium genotype in guinea pigs from Brazil and it is likely that they are the same species, however this cannot be confirmed as actin and hsp70 sequences from the Brazilian guinea pig genotype are not available. Phylogenetic analysis of concatenated 18S, actin and hsp70 sequences showed that C. homai n. sp. exhibited 9.1% to 17.3% genetic distance from all other Cryptosporidium spp. This clearly supports the validity of C. homai n. sp. as a separate species. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Modeling the Disease Course of Zaire ebolavirus Infection in the Outbred Guinea Pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Robert W; Fenton, Karla A; Geisbert, Joan B; Mire, Chad E; Geisbert, Thomas W

    2015-10-01

    Rodent models that accurately reflect human filovirus infection are needed as early screens for medical countermeasures. Prior work in rodents with the Zaire species of Ebola virus (ZEBOV) primarily used inbred mice and guinea pigs to model disease. However, these inbred species do not show some of the important features of primate ZEBOV infection, most notably, coagulation abnormalities. Thirty-six outbred guinea pigs were infected with guinea pig-adapted ZEBOV and examined sequentially over an 8-day period to investigate the pathologic events that lead to death. Features of disease in ZEBOV-infected outbred guinea pigs were largely consistent with disease in humans and nonhuman primates and included early infection of macrophages and dendritiform cells, apoptosis of bystander lymphocytes, and increases in levels of proinflammatory cytokines. Most importantly, dysregulation of circulating levels of fibrinogen, protein C activity, and antifibrinolytic proteins and deposition of fibrin in tissues demonstrated both biochemical and microscopic evidence of disseminated intravascular coagulation. These findings suggest that the outbred guinea pig model recapitulates ZEBOV infection of primates better than inbred rodent models, is useful for dissecting key events in the pathogenesis of ZEBOV, and is useful for evaluating candidate interventions prior to assessment in primates. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Phosphodiesterase 5 and effects of sildenafil on cerebral arteries of man and guinea pig

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruuse, Christina; Khurana, Tejvir S; Rybalkin, Sergei D

    2005-01-01

    and UK-114,542, and a PDE1 inhibitor UK-90,234 on cGMP hydrolysis were investigated in human and guinea pig cerebral arteries. The vasoactive responses of the compounds were evaluated in guinea pig basilar arteries in vitro, with concomitant measurements of cAMP and cGMP. PDE5 was found in human middle...... cerebral arteries. Sildenafil and UK-114,542 inhibited cGMP hydrolysis concentration-dependently in both species. In guinea pig arteries, sildenafil induced an endothelium-dependent vasodilatation only at concentrations above 10 nM, which was augmented by sodium nitroprusside and attenuated by reduction...... of cGMP, but was cGMP independent at high concentrations. UK-114,542 was more and UK-90,234 was less potent than sildenafil. In conclusion, PDE5 is present in human and guinea pig cerebral arteries, and is inhibited by sildenafil at micromolar levels. Sildenafil in vitro is a poor dilator of guinea pig...

  12. The gastrointestinal absorption and retention of niobium in adult and newborn guinea pigs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrison, J.D.; Haines, J.W.; Popplewell, D.S.

    1990-01-01

    The gastrointestinal absorption of 95 Nb ingested in milk by adult guinea pigs on a milk-supplemented diet was estimated as 0.8±0.2% (SEM; n=4) and a value of 1.4±0.2% obtained for guinea pigs fasted for 24 h before and 2 h after oral administration of 95 Nb in a citrate solution. The absorption in 2-day-old animals given the 95 Nb-citrate solution was estimated as 1.5±0.2% (SEM; n=3). These results support the values currently used for radiological protection purposes to calculate doses from the ingestion of niobium isotopes; these are 1% for adults and 2% for infants in the first year of life. Intestinal retention of niobium in newborn guinea pigs was low, unlike retention in other species, but consistent with observations of the retention of other elements in guinea pigs. It is considered that retention in human neonates is likely to be most similar to that in guinea pigs. (author)

  13. Prevalence and zoonotic risks of Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Cheyletiella spp. in guinea pigs and rabbits in Dutch pet shops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overgaauw, P A M; Avermaete, K H A van; Mertens, C A R M; Meijer, M; Schoemaker, N J

    2017-06-01

    Young rabbits and guinea pigs are often purchased as pets for children and may be infected with zoonotic skin infections. To assess the risk of acquiring such an infection from rabbits or guinea pigs, this study investigated the prevalence of the fungus Trichophyton mentagrophytes and the fur mite Cheyletiella parasitovorax in asymptomatic rabbits and guinea pigs in Dutch pet shops. In 91 pet shops a total of 213 rabbits and 179 guinea pigs were sampled using the Mackenzie technique and cultured. Clean cultures were examined microscopically and a PCR was performed on at least one sample from each pet shop. All animals were investigated for fur mite using a flea comb, a magnifying glass and white paper. From the fur of 3.8% (8/213) of the rabbits and 16.8% (30/179) of the guinea pigs, T. mentagrophytes was isolated. From 1 guinea pig (0,6%) Chrysosporium keratinophilum was isolated. Dermatophyte-positive rabbits and guinea pigs originated from 5.6% (5/90) and 27.3% (24/88) of the investigated pet shops, respectively. Fur mites were not found. Pet shops can play an important role in preventing transmission of zoonotic ringworm infections (dermatophytosis) and educating their customers. Specific preventive measures such as routine screening examinations and (prophylactic) treatment of rabbits and guinea pigs are recommended next to regular hygiene when handling animals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. The role of inhibition by phosphocitrate and its analogue in chondrocyte differentiation and subchondral bone advance in Hartley guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yubo; Kiraly, Alex J; Cox, Michael; Mauerhan, David R; Hanley, Edward N

    2018-04-01

    Phosphocitrate (PC) and its analogue, PC-β ethyl ester, inhibit articular cartilage degeneration in Hartley guinea pigs. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unclear. The present study aimed to investigate the hypothesis that PC exerted its disease-modifying effect on osteoarthritis (OA), in part, by inhibiting a molecular program similar to that in the endochondral pathway of ossification. The results demonstrated that severe proteoglycan loss occurred in the superficial and middle zones, as well as in the calcified zone of articular cartilage in the Hartley guinea pigs. Subchondral bone advance was greater in the control Hartley guinea pigs compared with PC- or PC analogue-treated guinea pigs. Resorption of cartilage bars or islands and vascular invasion in the growth plate were also greater in the control guinea pigs compared with the PC- or PC analogue-treated guinea pigs. The levels of matrix metalloproteinase-13 and type X collagen within the articular cartilage and growth plate were significantly increased in the control guinea pigs compared with PC-treated guinea pigs (Pguinea pigs exhibited a hypertrophic phenotype and recapitulated a developmental molecular program similar to the endochondral pathway of ossification. Activation of this molecular program resulted in resorption of calcified articular cartilage and subchondral bone advance. This suggests that PC and PC analogues exerted their OA disease-modifying activity, in part, by inhibiting this molecular program.

  15. Prevalence and zoonotic risks of Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Cheyletiella spp. in guinea pigs and rabbits in Dutch pet shops

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Overgaauw, P.A.M.; van Avermaete, K. H.A.; Mertens, C. A.R.M.; Meijer, M.; Schoemaker, N. J.

    2017-01-01

    Young rabbits and guinea pigs are often purchased as pets for children and may be infected with zoonotic skin infections. To assess the risk of acquiring such an infection from rabbits or guinea pigs, this study investigated the prevalence of the fungus Trichophyton mentagrophytes and the fur mite

  16. A comparative analysis of the intestinal metagenomes present in guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus) and humans (Homo sapiens)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hildebrand, Falk; Ebersbach, Tine; Nielsen, Henrik Bjørn

    2012-01-01

    Background: Guinea pig (Cavia porcellus) is an important model for human intestinal research. We have characterized the faecal microbiota of 60 guinea pigs using Illumina shotgun metagenomics, and used this data to compile a gene catalogue of its prevalent microbiota. Subsequently, we compared th...

  17. Gender Differences in the Anatomy of the Perineal Glands in Guinea Pigs and the Effect of Castration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iburg, T. M.; Arnbjerg, J.; Ruelokke, M. L.

    2013-01-01

    Perineal glands in guinea pigs are part of the sebaceous glandular complex. Their secretions are used for scent marking. This is important for social status and can be seen in both sexes and castrated males. Discrepancy exits about the existence of these glands in female guinea pigs and knowledge...

  18. THE BACTERICIDAL ACTIVITY OF NORMAL GUINEA PIG SERUM AGAINST LISTERIA MONOCYTOGENES AND ITS INHIBITION BY A LISTERIAL CELL EXTRACT,

    Science.gov (United States)

    Normal guinea pig serum contains bactericidins active against Listeria monocytogenes. The listeriocidal activity of the serum did not increase after...factor. Lysozyme was not implicated in the bactericidal system. It was suggested that the bactericidal activity of guinea pig serum might be due either to

  19. Spot-on Treatments of Diflubenzuron and Permethrin to Control a Guinea Pig Louse, Gliricola Porcelli (Phthiraptera: Gyropidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus (L.)) (Rodentia: Caviidae) are pets and laboratory animals. They can be infested by a chewing louse, Gliricola porcelli (Schrank) (Phthiraptera: Gyropidae), which is fairly common in some animal rearing facilities, pet stores, and on wild guinea pigs. Infestation with G....

  20. Comparison of the sensitivities of the Buehler test and the guinea pig maximization test for predictive testing of contact allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frankild, S; Vølund, A; Wahlberg, J E

    2001-01-01

    International test guidelines, such as the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) guideline #406, recommend 2 guinea pig methods for testing of the contact allergenic potential of chemicals: the Guinea Pig Maximization Test (GPMT) and the Buehler test. Previous comparisons...

  1. Isthmus Stem Cells Are the Origins of Metaplasia in the Gastric Corpus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoku Hayakawa MD,, PhD

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The acquisition of genetic/epigenetic mutations in long-lived gastrointestinal stem cells leads to the development of cancer, as well as precancerous lesions such as metaplasia and dysplasia. In the proximal stomach corpus, this model of progression from stem cells has been supported by studies in mice and human beings, showing abundant proliferation in the isthmus and clonal expansion of mutated cells from the stem cell region. An alternative theory proposes that gastric metaplasia arises from mature differentiated chief cells. Despite reports of low levels of proliferation in chief cells in acute injury models, there is little evidence for reprogramming of chief cells into long-lived stem cells that continuously supply progeny over time. Critical flaws in the chief cell transdifferentiation theory include the definition of acute SPEM, the chief cell-damaging effect of chemical reagents, and the specificity of chief cell lineage tracing. In contrast, there is now strong evidence regarding the stem cell origins of gastric metaplasia that refutes the transdifferentiation theory. Here, we briefly review the history and definition of gastric metaplasia, and outline in detail the evidence that supports the stem cell origin of metaplasia.

  2. L-dehydroascorbic acid can substitute L-ascorbic acid as dietary vitamin C source in guinea pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frikke-Schmidt, Henriette Rønne; Tveden-Nyborg, Pernille; Lykkesfeldt, Jens

    2016-01-01

    products prone to oxidation-was studied. Our aim was to compare tissue accumulation of vitamin C in guinea pigs receiving different oral doses of either ascorbate or DHA. In all tissues tested (plasma, liver, spleen, lung, adrenal glands, kidney, muscle, heart, and brain), only sporadic differences......, we continued to explore the ability to recycle DHA in blood, liver and intestine in guinea pigs, rats and mice. These investigations revealed that guinea pigs have similar recycling capacity in red blood cells as observed in humans, while rats and mice do not have near the same ability to reduce DHA...... in erythrocytes. In liver and intestinal homogenates, guinea pigs also showed a significantly higher ability to recycle DHA compared to rats and mice. These data demonstrate that DHA in guinea pigs-as in humans-is almost as effective as ascorbate as vitamin C source when it comes to taking up and storing vitamin...

  3. Guinea pig for meat production: A systematic review of factors affecting the production, carcass and meat quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Macías, Davinia; Barba-Maggi, Lida; Morales-delaNuez, Antonio; Palmay-Paredes, Julio

    2018-09-01

    In developing countries, interest in guinea pig farming is growing exponentially because it provides a regular source of high quality animal protein for domestic consumption. Guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus) are prolific animals, grow and are capable of reproduction on a flexible diet, and are adaptable to a wide range of climates. This article mainly reviews findings on guinea pig meat production, including factors affecting raising guinea pigs, carcass and meat quality. We also present some studies that describe biological and pathologic effects on carcass component composition. During the last decades no standard procedure has been established for guinea pig carcass evaluation, which makes very difficult any comparison of results with other studies around the world. Herein we highlight a variety of factors that significantly affect carcass and meat quality. Some of these factors are production systems, environmental and genetic factors, management systems, the diet and health status, age, sex and reproductive management. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. A SKIN TEST FOR DETECTING GROUP C HEMOLYTIC STREPTOCOCCAL INFECTION CAUSING EPIZOOTIC LYMPHADENITIS IN GUINEA PIGS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moen, Johannes K.

    1936-01-01

    1. A skin test with a crude bacterial extract prepared from group C (Lancefield) hemolytic streptococci was used as a means of detecting possible carriers of the streptococcus causing epizootic lymphadenitis in guinea pigs. A positive test similar to a positive tuberculin reaction was considered presumptive evidence of present or recent infection with this streptococcus. 2. 20 positive reactors were found in 330 supposedly normal guinea pigs. 3. 195 negatively reacting animals were used as a breeding stock which yielded 1,296 progeny over a period of 15 months. None of the breeding stock or their progeny showed evidence of spontaneous lymphadenitis. Skin tests of 100 of the progeny were all negative. 4. The use of this skin test as a means of obtaining guinea pig breeding stock free of the streptococcus causing spontaneous lymphadenitis is suggested. PMID:19870552

  5. Treatment and control of Trixacarus caviae infestation in a conventional guinea pig (Cavia porcellus) breeding colony.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nath, Anjan Jyoti

    2016-12-01

    A case of sarcoptic mange caused by Trixacarus caviae in a conventional guinea pig breeding colony is reported. The infestation was reported in a large colony of guinea pigs during the month of July, 2013 affecting 30 breeder guinea pigs. Severely infested animals were treated individually with subcutaneous injection of ivermectin 1 % w/v (Neomec ® ) at the rate of 400 µg/kg body weight 10 days apart. Three doses of ivermectin were sufficient to eliminate the parasite which tested negative after 30 days of the first treatment. The entire colony was given preventive dose of ivermectin spray (2 mg/ml solution) following the same schedule. Strict hygienic measures were followed. New hair growth in the severely affected animals was evidenced on 30th day of treatment.

  6. A Rare Case of Atypical Renal Arteries Arrangement with Ectopic Kidneys in a Guinea Pig

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maženský D.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available We recorded a very rare case of atypical renal arteries arrangement in a guinea pig using the corrosion technique in the study of the arterial system. The right renal artery originated from the ventral wall of the abdominal aorta at the level of the caudal aspect of the 5th lumbar vertebra. The left renal artery originated from the left common iliac artery approximately 12 mm caudally to the aortic bifurcation. The right kidney was located ventral to the aortic bifurcation and the left kidney inside the pelvic cavity between the common iliac arteries. According to the vascular pattern, we determined that the ectopic kidneys in this guinea pig were unusual. This is the first case describing bilateral ectopic kidneys in a guinea pig.

  7. A Survey on the Gastrointestinal Parasites of Rabbit and Guinea Pig in a Laboratory Animal House

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motamedi, G.,

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available There is documented evidence that infection in laboratory animals can often influence the outcome of experiments. All infections, apparent or inapparent, are likely to increase biological variability. As a research project concerning the diversity and distribution of parasites of rabbit and guinea pig in a conventional laboratory animal house, about 87 rabbits (from 700 and 105 guinea pigs (from 1500 were selected randomly from a Research, Production & Breeding of Laboratory Animals Department. Samples were collected between 19.02.2010 and 20.05.2011. The samples and animals were examined by dissection and flotation methods. In this study only one species of nematodes (Passalorus ambiguus: 6.9%; one species of protozoa (Eimeria spp.: 21.8% in rabbits and one species of nematodes (Paraspidodera Uncinata: 24.7%; one species of protozoa (Balantidium coli: 11.4% in guinea pigs were identified. However, there was not any cestodes or trematodes identified from this group of laboratory animals.

  8. Metabolism of 32P-phosphate in guinea pig cerebrum and cerebellum in experimental allergic encephalomyelitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mezes, V.; Bukovsky, V.; Drgova, A.; Mezesova, V.

    1984-01-01

    The metabolism of intraventricularly administered 32 P-phosphate in the cerebral and cerebellar tissue of guinea pigs was analyzed in the acute state of experimental allergic encephalomyelitis. One and six hours following administration of 32 P-phosphate into the right lateral ventricle of the brain no differences were found in the specific activity of phosphates of the acid-soluble fraction of the brain tissue in the compared series of guinea pigs. The cerebellar tissue in experimental allergic encephalomyelitis displayed the specific activity of the total phosphorus of the acid-soluble fraction reduced by 27% one hour after administration and by 37% after six hours, and the specific activity of inorganic phosphates was reduced by 40% and by 45%, respectively. Experimental allergic encephalomyelitis does not affect the content of total phosphorus in the acid-soluble fraction and in the fraction of inorganic phosphates in the cerebrum and cerebellum of guinea pigs. (author)

  9. Characterization of CGRP(1) receptors in the guinea pig basilar artery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jansen-Olesen, I; Kaarill, L; Edvinsson, L

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to characterise receptors mediating calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP)-induced relaxation of guinea pig basilar artery. This was done by investigating vasomotor responses in vitro and performing autoradiographic binding studies. We also intended to study...... the importance of an intact endothelium. Agonist studies showed that peptides of the CGRP family induced relaxation of the guinea pig basilar artery with the following order of potency: human beta-CGRP=human alpha-CGRP>adrenomedullin=[acetamidomethyl-Cys(2,7)]alpha-human CGRP ([Cys(ACM)(2,7)]CGRP...... in the absence of human CGRP-(8-37). The study shows the presence of a relaxant CGRP(1) receptor on the smooth muscle cells of guinea pig basilar artery. Various endothelial factors did not influence relaxant responses....

  10. Role of ascorbic acid on tyrosine hydroxylase activity in the adrenal gland of guinea pig

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakashima, Y; Sanada, H; Suzue, R; Kawada, S [National Inst. of Nutrition, Tokyo (Japan)

    1976-10-01

    The decrease of tyrosine hydroxylase activity in adrenal homogenate in scurvy was recovered after the administration of ascorbic acid. The causes of the increase in the enzyme activity after the administration of ascorbic acid have been studied. 1. No significant elevation in the enzyme activity was observed after the administration of reserpine to the scorbutic guinea pig. 2. A dose of metal chelating agent, ..cap alpha.., ..cap alpha..'-dipyridyl, prevented the ascorbic acid-induced or reserpine-induced increase in enzyme activity in the scorbutic and the nonscorbutic guinea pigs, respectively. 3. Tyrosine hydroxylase activity was partially recovered by the administration of FeSO/sub 4/ to the scorbutic guinea pig. From these results, it became clear that the induction of tyrosine hydroxylase which was not observed in scurvy was due to the deficiency of Fe/sup 2 +/. These results suggested that ascorbic acid affected the induction of this enzyme via Fe/sup 2 +/.

  11. Endogenous leukotriene D4 formation during anaphylactic shock in the guinea pig

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keppler, A.; Oerning, L.; Bernstroem, K.; Hammarstroem, S.

    1987-01-01

    Experiments on the metabolism and excretion of i.v. administered selectively labeled [ 3 H 8 ]leukotriene C 4 in bile duct-cannulated guinea pigs indicated predominantly biliary excretion of tritium. The major leukotriene metabolite in bile was identified as leukotriene D 4 . By monitoring leukotriene excretion radioimmunochromatographically, it was shown that guinea pigs suffering from anaphylactic shock produce leukotriene D 4 endogenously. Immunological challenge of animals sensitized to ovalbumin was accompanied by an increase of biliary leukotriene D 4 concentrations from 10 +/- 1 to 86 +/- 10 nM. When considering that bile flow was decreased to about half after challenge, the excretion rate of leukotriene D 4 in bile increased from 0.88 +/- 0.16 before 3.18 +/- 0.38 pmol x min -1 x kg -1 after challenge. It is concluded that systemic anaphylaxis in the guinea pig is associated with endogenous generation of leukotriene C 4

  12. Role of ascorbic acid on tyrosine hydroxylase activity in the adrenal gland of guinea pig

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakashima, Yoko; Sanada, Hiroo; Suzue, Ryokuero; Kawada, Shoji

    1976-01-01

    The decrease of tyrosine hydroxylase activity in adrenal homogenate in scurvy was recovered after the administration of ascorbic acid. The causes of the increase in the enzyme activity after the administration of ascorbic acid have been studied. 1. No significant elevation in the enzyme activity was observed after the administration of reserpine to the scorbutic guinea pig. 2. A dose of metal chelating agent, α, α'-dipyridyl, prevented the ascorbic acid-induced or reserpine-induced increase in enzyme activity in the scorbutic and the nonscorbutic guinea pigs, respectively. 3. Tyrosine hydroxylase activity was partially recovered by the administration of FeSO 4 to the scorbutic guinea pig. From these results, it became clear that the induction of tyrosine hydroxylase which was not observed in scurvy was due to the deficiency of Fe 2+ . These results suggested that ascorbic acid affected the induction of this enzyme via Fe 2+ . (auth.)

  13. Comparative study of 2 surgical techniques for castration of guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilmette, Josée; Langlois, Isabelle; Hélie, Pierre; El Warrak, Alexander de Oliveira

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this study was to compare 2 surgical approaches (scrotal or abdominal) for castration of guinea pigs and to investigate post-operative infection rates with either technique. Forty-eight guinea pigs were castrated by scrotal or abdominal technique after being randomly assigned to 1 of 2 groups (n = 24). Individuals were either castrated by an experienced exotic animal surgeon (n = 12) or by an experienced small animal surgeon (n = 12). Surgical wounds were evaluated daily before euthanasia for histological evaluation 2 wks after surgery. Post-operative infection rate was significantly higher in the scrotal group than in the abdominal group, with a higher rate for the experienced small animal surgeon. Castration of guinea pigs with the abdominal technique is significantly faster and has a significantly lower post-operative infection rate than the scrotal technique.

  14. MMP-2 participates in the sclera of guinea pig with form-deprivation myopia via IGF-1/STAT3 pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y-X; Sun, Y

    2018-05-01

    To investigate the expression changes of MMP-2 (matrix metalloproteinases-2) mediated by IGF-1 (insulin-like growth factors-1) STAT3 (signal transducer and activator of transcription 3) pathway in the sclera of the form-deprivation myopia guinea pigs. Twenty-four three-week-old guinea pigs were randomly divided into 4 groups: group A (Control), B, C and D. Guinea pigs in group A were sacrificed after 21 days without any special treatment. Guinea pigs in group B were sacrificed 7 days after receiving stitch in the right eye. Guinea pigs in group C were sacrificed 14 days after receiving stitch in the right eye. Guinea pigs in group D were sacrificed 21 days after receiving stitch in the right eye. Eyeball refraction and axial length of guinea pigs were measured before sacrifice. Eyeballs of guinea pigs were enucleated after sacrifice. The expressions of IGF-1, STAT3 and MMP-2 in scleral tissue were detected by Western blot. Axial length extension and myopia appeared in the right eye of guinea pigs in group B. The expressions of IGF-1, STAT3 and MMP-2 in the sclera significantly increased after 7 days of occlusion compared with that in control group A (pIGF-1, STAT3 and MMP-2 in sclera significantly increased compared with that in group A (pIGF-1, STAT3 and MMP-2 in scleral significantly upregulated 21 days after occlusion (pIGF-1 in sclera were positively correlated (r = 0.962, pIGF-1, STAT3 and MMP-2 in the sclera and myopia of guinea pigs. The expressions of IGF-1, STAT3 and MMP-2 increased progressively over the time of deprivation. Additionally, overexpression of MMP-2 mediated by IGF-1/STAT3 pathway in sclera might promote the formation of myopia.

  15. Temporal Progression of Lesions in Guinea Pigs Infected With Lassa Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, T M; Shaia, C I; Bearss, J J; Mattix, M E; Koistinen, K A; Honnold, S P; Zeng, X; Blancett, C D; Donnelly, G C; Shamblin, J D; Wilkinson, E R; Cashman, K A

    2017-05-01

    Lassa virus (LASV) infection causes an acute, multisystemic viral hemorrhagic fever that annually infects an estimated 100 000 to 300 000 persons in West Africa. This pathogenesis study evaluated the temporal progression of disease in guinea pigs following aerosol and subcutaneous inoculation of the Josiah strain of LASV as well as the usefulness of Strain 13 guinea pigs as an animal model for Lassa fever. After experimental infection, guinea pigs ( Cavia porcellus; n = 67) were serially sampled to evaluate the temporal progression of infection, gross and histologic lesions, and serum chemistry and hematologic changes. Guinea pigs developed viremia on day 5 to 6 postexposure (PE), with clinical signs appearing by day 7 to 8 PE. Complete blood counts revealed lymphopenia and thrombocytopenia. Gross pathologic findings included skin lesions and congested lungs. Histologic lesions consisted of cortical lymphoid depletion by day 6 to 7 PE with lymphohistiocytic interstitial pneumonia at 7 to 8 days PE. Scattered hepatocellular degeneration and cell death were also noted in the liver and, to a lesser extent, in other tissues including the haired skin, lung, heart, adrenal gland, lymph nodes, thymus, and spleen. The first cell types to demonstrate staining for viral antigen were fibroblastic reticular cells and macrophages/dendritic cells in the lymph nodes on day 5 to 6 PE. This study demonstrates similarities between Lassa viral disease in human infections and experimental guinea pig infection. These shared pathologic characteristics support the utility of guinea pigs as an additional animal model for vaccine and therapeutic development under the Food and Drug Administration's Animal Rule.

  16. Conjugated linoleic acid mitigates testosterone-related changes in body composition in male guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Susan Q; DeGuire, Jason R; Lavery, Paula; Mak, Ivy L; Weiler, Hope A; Santosa, Sylvia

    2016-05-01

    We hypothesize that conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) may be effective in preventing the changes in total and regional body composition and increases in interleukin (IL) 6 that occur as a result of hypogonadism. Male guinea pigs (n = 40, 70- to 72-week retired breeders) were block randomized by weight into 4 groups: (1) sham surgery (SHAM)/control (CTRL) diet, (2) SHAM/conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) diet (1%), (3) orchidectomy (ORX)/CTRL diet, and (4) ORX/CLA diet. Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry scans were performed at baseline and week 16 to assess body composition. Serum IL-6 was analyzed using an enzyme-linked immune sorbent assay. Fatty acids (FAs) from visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue were analyzed using gas chromatography. In ORX/CTRL guinea pigs, percent total body fat increased by 6.1%, and percent lean mass decreased by 6.7% over the 16-week treatment period, whereas no changes were observed for either parameter in ORX/CLA guinea pigs. Guinea pigs fed the CLA diet gained less percent total, upper, and lower body fat than those fed the CTRL diet regardless of surgical treatment. Regional adipose tissue FA composition was reflective of dietary FAs. Serum IL-6 concentrations were not different among groups. In this study, we observed that, in male guinea pigs, hypogonadism resulted in increased fat mass and decreased lean mass. In addition, CLA was effective in reducing gains in body fat and maintaining lean mass in both hypogonadal and intact guinea pigs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Species differences in the localization and number of CNS beta adrenergic receptors: Rat versus guinea pig

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Booze, R.M.; Crisostomo, E.A.; Davis, J.N.

    1989-01-01

    The localization and number of beta adrenergic receptors were directly compared in the brains of rats and guinea pigs. The time course of association and saturability of [125I]cyanopindolol (CYP) binding to slide-mounted tissue sections was similar in rats (Kd = 17 pM) and guinea pigs (Kd = 20 pM). The beta-1 and beta-2 receptor subtypes were examined through the use of highly selective unlabeled receptor antagonists, ICI 118,551 (50 nM) and ICI 89,406 (70 nM). Dramatic species differences between rats and guinea pigs were observed in the neuroanatomical regional localization of the beta adrenergic receptor subtypes. For example, in the thalamus prominent beta-1 and beta-2 receptor populations were identified in the rat; however, the entire thalamus of the guinea pig had few, if any, beta adrenergic receptors of either subtype. Hippocampal area CA1 had high levels of beta-2 adrenergic receptors in both rats and guinea pigs but was accompanied by a widespread distribution of beta-2 adrenergic receptors only in rats. Quantitative autoradiographic analyses of 25 selected neuroanatomical regions (1) confirmed the qualitative differences in CNS beta adrenergic receptor localization, (2) determined that guinea pigs had significantly lower levels of beta adrenergic receptors than rats and (3) indicated a differential pattern of receptor subtypes between the two species. Knowledge of species differences in receptor patterns may be useful in designing effective experiments as well as in exploring the relationships between receptor and innervation patterns. Collectively, these data suggest caution be used in extrapolation of the relationships of neurotransmitters and receptors from studies of a single species

  18. Pig and guinea pig skin as surrogates for human in vitro penetration studies: a quantitative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbero, Ana M; Frasch, H Frederick

    2009-02-01

    Both human and animal skin in vitro models are used to predict percutaneous penetration in humans. The objective of this review is a quantitative comparison of permeability and lag time measurements between human and animal skin, including an evaluation of the intra and inter species variability. We limit our focus to domestic pig and rodent guinea pig skin as surrogates for human skin, and consider only studies in which both animal and human penetration of a given chemical were measured jointly in the same lab. When the in vitro permeability of pig and human skin were compared, the Pearson product moment correlation coefficient (r) was 0.88 (Ppig and 35% for human, and an inter species average coefficient of variation of 37% for the set of studied compounds (n=41). The lag times of pig skin and human skin did not correlate (r=0.35, P=0.26). When the in vitro permeability of guinea pig and human skin were compared, r=0.96 (Pguinea pig and 24% for human, and an inter species coefficient of variation of permeability of 41% for the set of studied compounds (n=15). Lag times of guinea pig and human skin correlated (r=0.90, Ppig skin (n=50) and guinea pig skin (n=25). For pig skin, 80% of measurements fell within the range 0.3guinea pig skin, 65% fell within that range. Both pig and guinea pig are good models for human skin permeability and have less variability than the human skin model. The skin model of choice will depend on the final purpose of the study and the compound under investigation.

  19. Hemorrhages and hemostasis in guinea-pigs exposed to irradiation at high altitude

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tartakovskij, V.N.; Daniyarov, S.B.

    1988-01-01

    Hemorrhagic intensity, hemostasis and blood vessel wall resistance to mechanical effects were studied in guinea-pigs exposed to whole-body irradiation (3.0 Gy). The animals were irradiated at low altitude (760 m above sea level) and at high altitude (3200 m above sea level) after 1 and 31 days of adaptation. It was demonstrated that hemorrhagic intensity in both groups of guinea-pigs irradiated at high altitude was significantly reduced in comparison with that at low altitude. The decrease of radiation-induced hemorrhages at high altitude is associated with less severe changes in thrombopoiesis, blood vessel wall and blood coagulation

  20. Evidence for a non-opioid sigma binding site din the guinea-pig myenteric plexus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roman, F.; Pascaud, X.; Vauche, D.; Junien, J.

    1988-01-01

    The presence of a binding site to (+)-( 3 H)SKF 10,047 was demonstrated in a guinea-pig myenteric plexus (MYP) membrane preparation. Specific binding to this receptor was saturable, reversible, linear with protein concentration and consisted of two components, a high affinity site and a low affinity site. Morphine and naloxone 10 -4 M were unable to displace (+)-( 3 H)SKF 10,047 binding. Haloperidol, imipramine, ethylketocyclazocine and propranolol were among the most potent compounds to inhibit this specific binding. These results suggest the presence of a non-opioid haloperidol sensitive sigma receptor in the MYP of the guinea-pig

  1. Pre- and postynaptic effects of muscarinic antagonists in the isolated guinea pig ileum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kilbinger, H.; Weiler, W.; Wessler, I.

    1986-01-01

    The authors have studied in the guinea-pig ileum whether the presynaptic muscarinic receptors of he cholinergic nerves differ from the postsynaptic muscarinic receptors of tthe longitudinal muscle in their affinities for several muscarinic antagonists. The method of measuring the release of tritium-ACh from the myenteric plexus-longitudinal muscle preparation in tthe guinea-pig ileum in the absence of a chlinesterase inhibitor is described in which two longitudinal muscle strips were incubated in a 2 ml organ bath with tritium-choline are subsequently superfused with Tyrode solution

  2. Micro-endoscopic ear anatomy of guinea pig applied to experimental surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, Bruno Borges de Carvalho; Andrade, José Santos Cruz de; Garcia, Leandro Borborema; Pifaia, Gustavo Ribeiro; Cruz, Oswaldo Laércio Mendonça; Onishi, Ektor Tsuneo; Penido, Norma de Oliveira

    2014-01-01

    To describe topographic and endoscopic anatomy of guinea pig ear for development of surgical approaches in experimental studies. Experimental study. Eight adult guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus) were used in this study. Four animals were described through endoscopic view and four animals were used to describe topographic anatomy. The main structures of middle ear were well identified through endoscopy view: oval and round window, ossicles and vascular structures. Temporal bone position, landmarks and its relations to skull are perceived with topographic description. Topographic anatomic description allowed exposition of temporal bone relations for external surgical approaches. Alternatively, grooves and middle ear structures were identified and may be used to transcanal accesses.

  3. Tachykinins activate guinea-pig alveolar macrophages: involvement of NK2 and NK1 receptors.

    OpenAIRE

    Brunelleschi, S.; Vanni, L.; Ledda, F.; Giotti, A.; Maggi, C. A.; Fantozzi, R.

    1990-01-01

    1. The effects of substance P (SP), neurokinin A (NKA) and neurokinin B (NKB) were evaluated on superoxide anion (O2-.) production by guinea-pig alveolar macrophages (AM). 2. SP dose-dependently (ED50 = 0.7 nM) evoked O2-. production from guinea-pig AM; the N-terminal heptapeptide, SP(1-7), was ineffective. In the presence of thiorphan (10(-5) M), an enkephalinase inhibitor, the stimulating effects of SP were not significantly modified. NKA and NKB were both able to induce O2-. production fro...

  4. Replication and Transmission of the Novel Bovine Influenza D Virus in a Guinea Pig Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreenivasan, Chithra; Thomas, Milton; Sheng, Zizhang; Hause, Ben M; Collin, Emily A; Knudsen, David E B; Pillatzki, Angela; Nelson, Eric; Wang, Dan; Kaushik, Radhey S; Li, Feng

    2015-12-01

    Influenza D virus (FLUDV) is a novel influenza virus that infects cattle and swine. The goal of this study was to investigate the replication and transmission of bovine FLUDV in guinea pigs. Following direct intranasal inoculation of animals, the virus was detected in nasal washes of infected animals during the first 7 days postinfection. High viral titers were obtained from nasal turbinates and lung tissues of directly inoculated animals. Further, bovine FLUDV was able to transmit from the infected guinea pigs to sentinel animals by means of contact and not by aerosol dissemination under the experimental conditions tested in this study. Despite exhibiting no clinical signs, infected guinea pigs developed seroconversion and the viral antigen was detected in lungs of animals by immunohistochemistry. The observation that bovine FLUDV replicated in the respiratory tract of guinea pigs was similar to observations described previously in studies of gnotobiotic calves and pigs experimentally infected with bovine FLUDV but different from those described previously in experimental infections in ferrets and swine with a swine FLUDV, which supported virus replication only in the upper respiratory tract and not in the lower respiratory tract, including lung. Our study established that guinea pigs could be used as an animal model for studying this newly emerging influenza virus. Influenza D virus (FLUDV) is a novel emerging pathogen with bovine as its primary host. The epidemiology and pathogenicity of the virus are not yet known. FLUDV also spreads to swine, and the presence of FLUDV-specific antibodies in humans could indicate that there is a potential for zoonosis. Our results showed that bovine FLUDV replicated in the nasal turbinate and lungs of guinea pigs at high titers and was also able to transmit from an infected animal to sentinel animals by contact. The fact that bovine FLUDV replicated productively in both the upper and lower respiratory tracts of guinea pigs

  5. Induction methods and formation process of experimental myopia in guinea pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mi-Duo Chen

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Myopia, especially high myopia, is one of the most important eye diseases in the world. For many years the researchers established a variety of animal models and animal experiments to explore the mechanism of development of myopia. Guinea pig is one of the most commonly used myopia models in recent years. It has obvious advantages in many aspects, and it is a kind of experimental animals which is worth to be further applied to different kinds of myopic experiments and to be studied thoroughly. This article reviews the induction methods and the forming process of the guinea pig myopia model.

  6. Role of 11. beta. -hydroxyprogesterone in biosynthesis of corticosterone from progesterone in guinea pig adrenals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yudaev, N A; Afinogenova, S A [Institute of Experimental Endocrinology and Hormone Chemistry, Moscow (USSR)

    1975-06-01

    Slices of male guinea pig adrenals were incubated with a trace amount of /sup 3/H-7..cap alpha..-progesterone and the proportion of /sup 3/H incorporation various steroids at various intervals was measured. It was found that /sup 3/H accumulated predominantly in 11..beta..-hydroxyprogesterone as compared to DOC. This indicated that in guinea pig adrenals 11..beta..-hydroxyprogesterone plays a predominant role in the formation of corticosterone from progesterone. The observed sequence of changes in progesterone label accumulation in 17-hydroxycompounds indicated the pathway of cortisol synthesis through the intermediate formation of 17-hydroxyprogesterone and 11-deoxycortisol.

  7. Optic nerve head and intraocular pressure in the guinea pig eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrin, Lisa A; Wildsoet, Christine F

    2016-05-01

    The guinea pig is becoming an increasingly popular model for studying human myopia, which carries an increased risk of glaucoma. As a step towards understanding this association, this study sought to characterize the normal, developmental intraocular pressure (IOP) profiles, as well as the anatomy of the optic nerve head (ONH) and adjacent sclera of young guinea pigs. IOP was tracked in pigmented guinea pigs up to 3 months of age. One guinea pig was imaged in vivo with OCT and one with a fundus camera. The eyes of pigmented and albino guinea pigs (ages 2 months) were enucleated and sections from the posterior segment, including the ONH and surrounding sclera, processed for histological analyses - either hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining of paraffin embedded, sectioned tissue (n = 1), or cryostat sectioned tissue, processed for immunohistochemistry (n = 3), using primary antibodies against collagen types I-V, elastin, fibronectin and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP). Transmission and scanning electron microscopy (TEM, SEM) studies of ONHs were also undertaken (n = 2 & 5 respectively). Mean IOPs ranged from 17.33 to 22.7 mmHg, increasing slightly across the age range studied, and the IOPs of individual animals also exhibited diurnal variations, peaking in the early morning (mean of 25.8, mmHg, ∼9 am), and decreasing across the day. H&E-stained sections showed retinal ganglion cell axons organized into fascicles in the prelaminar and laminar region of the ONHs, with immunostained sections revealing collagen types I, III, IV and V, as well as elastin, GFAP and fibronectin in the ONHs. SEM revealed a well-defined lamina cribrosa (LC), with radially-oriented collagen beams. TEM revealed collagen fibrils surrounding non-myelinated nerve fiber bundles in the LC region, with myelination and decreased collagen posterior to the LC. The adjacent sclera comprised mainly crimped collagen fibers in a crisscross arrangement. Both the sclera and LC were

  8. Guinea pig maximization tests with formaldehyde releasers. Results from two laboratories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Boman, A; Hamann, K

    1984-01-01

    The guinea pig maximization test was used to evaluate the sensitizing potential of formaldehyde and 6 formaldehyde releasers (Forcide 78, Germall 115, Grotan BK, Grotan OX, KM 200 and Preventol D2). The tests were carried out in 2 laboratories (Copenhagen and Stockholm), and although we intended...... the procedures to be the same, discrepancies were observed, possibly due to the use of different animal strains, test concentrations and vehicles. The sensitizing potential was in general found to be stronger in Stockholm compared to Copenhagen: formaldehyde sensitized 50% of the guinea pigs in Copenhagen and 95...

  9. The sensitizing capacity of multifunctional acrylates in the guinea pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björkner, B

    1984-10-01

    The multifunctional acrylates used in ultraviolet (UV) curable resins act as cross-linkers and "diluents". They are usually based on di(meth)acrylate esters of dialcohols or tri- and tetra-acrylate esters of polyalcohols. In UV-curable coatings, the most commonly used are pentaerythritol triacrylate (PETA), trimethylolpropane triacrylate (TMPTA) and 1,6-hexanediol diacrylate (HDDA). In other uses, such as dental composite resin materials, the dimethacrylic monomers based on n-ethylene glycol are the most useful. The sensitizing capacity of various multifunctional acrylates and their cross-reactivity pattern have been investigated with the guinea pig maximization test. The tests show that BUDA (1,4-butanediol diacrylate) and HDDA are moderate to strong sensitizers and that they probably cross-react with each other. The n-ethylene glycol diacrylates and methacrylates tested are weak or non-sensitizers. Tripropylene glycol diacrylate (TPGDA) is a moderate and neopentyl glycol diacrylate (NPGDA) a strong sensitizer, whereas neopentyl glycol dimethacrylate is a non-sensitizer. The commercial PETA is a mixture of pentaerythritol tri- and tetra-acrylate (PETA-3 and PETA-4). PETA-3 is a much stronger sensitizer than PETA-4. Simultaneous reactions were seen between PETA-3, PETA-4 and TMPTA. The oligotriacrylate OTA 480 is a moderate sensitizer, but no concomitant reactions were seen with PETA-3, PETA-4 or TMPTA. Of the multifunctional acrylates tested, the di- and triacrylic compounds should be regarded as potent sensitizers. The methacrylated multifunctional acrylic compounds are weak or non-sensitizers.

  10. Milrinone relaxes pulmonary veins in guinea pigs and humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annette D Rieg

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The phosphodiesterase-III inhibitor milrinone improves ventricular contractility, relaxes pulmonary arteries and reduces right ventricular afterload. Thus, it is used to treat heart failure and pulmonary hypertension (PH. However, its action on pulmonary veins (PVs is not defined, although particularly PH due to left heart disease primarily affects the pulmonary venous bed. We examined milrinone-induced relaxation in PVs from guinea pigs (GPs and humans. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Precision-cut lung slices (PCLS were prepared from GPs or from patients undergoing lobectomy. Milrinone-induced relaxation was studied by videomicroscopy in naïve PVs and in PVs pre-constricted with the ETA-receptor agonist BP0104. Baseline luminal area was defined as 100%. Intracellular cAMP was measured by ELISA and milrinone-induced changes of segmental vascular resistances were studied in the GP isolated perfused lung (IPL. RESULTS: In the IPL (GP, milrinone (10 µM lowered the postcapillary resistance of pre-constricted vessels. In PCLS (GP, milrinone relaxed naïve and pre-constricted PVs (120% and this relaxation was attenuated by inhibition of protein kinase G (KT 5823, adenyl cyclase (SQ 22536 and protein kinase A (KT 5720, but not by inhibition of NO-synthesis (L-NAME. In addition, milrinone-induced relaxation was dependent on the activation of K ATP-, BK Ca (2+- and Kv-channels. Human PVs also relaxed to milrinone (121%, however only if pre-constricted. DISCUSSION: Milrinone relaxes PVs from GPs and humans. In GPs, milrinone-induced relaxation is based on K ATP-, BK Ca (2+- and Kv-channel-activation and on cAMP/PKA/PKG. The relaxant properties of milrinone on PVs lead to reduced postcapillary resistance and hydrostatic pressures. Hence they alleviate pulmonary edema and suggest beneficial effects of milrinone in PH due to left heart disease.

  11. Milrinone relaxes pulmonary veins in guinea pigs and humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieg, Annette D; Suleiman, Said; Perez-Bouza, Alberto; Braunschweig, Till; Spillner, Jan W; Schröder, Thomas; Verjans, Eva; Schälte, Gereon; Rossaint, Rolf; Uhlig, Stefan; Martin, Christian

    2014-01-01

    The phosphodiesterase-III inhibitor milrinone improves ventricular contractility, relaxes pulmonary arteries and reduces right ventricular afterload. Thus, it is used to treat heart failure and pulmonary hypertension (PH). However, its action on pulmonary veins (PVs) is not defined, although particularly PH due to left heart disease primarily affects the pulmonary venous bed. We examined milrinone-induced relaxation in PVs from guinea pigs (GPs) and humans. Precision-cut lung slices (PCLS) were prepared from GPs or from patients undergoing lobectomy. Milrinone-induced relaxation was studied by videomicroscopy in naïve PVs and in PVs pre-constricted with the ETA-receptor agonist BP0104. Baseline luminal area was defined as 100%. Intracellular cAMP was measured by ELISA and milrinone-induced changes of segmental vascular resistances were studied in the GP isolated perfused lung (IPL). In the IPL (GP), milrinone (10 µM) lowered the postcapillary resistance of pre-constricted vessels. In PCLS (GP), milrinone relaxed naïve and pre-constricted PVs (120%) and this relaxation was attenuated by inhibition of protein kinase G (KT 5823), adenyl cyclase (SQ 22536) and protein kinase A (KT 5720), but not by inhibition of NO-synthesis (L-NAME). In addition, milrinone-induced relaxation was dependent on the activation of K ATP-, BK Ca (2+)- and Kv-channels. Human PVs also relaxed to milrinone (121%), however only if pre-constricted. Milrinone relaxes PVs from GPs and humans. In GPs, milrinone-induced relaxation is based on K ATP-, BK Ca (2+)- and Kv-channel-activation and on cAMP/PKA/PKG. The relaxant properties of milrinone on PVs lead to reduced postcapillary resistance and hydrostatic pressures. Hence they alleviate pulmonary edema and suggest beneficial effects of milrinone in PH due to left heart disease.

  12. Pharmacometabolomic approach to predict QT prolongation in guinea pigs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeonghyeon Park

    Full Text Available Drug-induced torsades de pointes (TdP, a life-threatening arrhythmia associated with prolongation of the QT interval, has been a significant reason for withdrawal of several medicines from the market. Prolongation of the QT interval is considered as the best biomarker for predicting the torsadogenic risk of a new chemical entity. Because of the difficulty assessing the risk for TdP during drug development, we evaluated the metabolic phenotype for predicting QT prolongation induced by sparfloxacin, and elucidated the metabolic pathway related to the QT prolongation. We performed electrocardiography analysis and liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy-based metabolic profiling of plasma samples obtained from 15 guinea pigs after administration of sparfloxacin at doses of 33.3, 100, and 300 mg/kg. Principal component analysis and partial least squares modelling were conducted to select the metabolites that substantially contributed to the prediction of QT prolongation. QTc increased significantly with increasing dose (r = 0.93. From the PLS analysis, the key metabolites that showed the highest variable importance in the projection values (>1.5 were selected, identified, and used to determine the metabolic network. In particular, cytidine-5'-diphosphate (CDP, deoxycorticosterone, L-aspartic acid and stearic acid were found to be final metabolomic phenotypes for the prediction of QT prolongation. Metabolomic phenotypes for predicting drug-induced QT prolongation of sparfloxacin were developed and can be applied to cardiac toxicity screening of other drugs. In addition, this integrative pharmacometabolomic approach would serve as a good tool for predicting pharmacodynamic or toxicological effects caused by changes in dose.

  13. Doxycycline reduces nitric oxide production in guinea pig inner ears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helling, Kai; Wodarzcyk, Karl; Brieger, Jürgen; Schmidtmann, Irene; Li, Huige; Mann, Wolf J; Heinrich, Ulf-Rüdiger

    2011-12-01

    Gentamicin application is an important therapeutic option to control vertigo spells in Ménière's disease. However, even in the case of low-dose intratympanic application, gentamicin might contribute to a pathological NO-increase leading to cochlear damage and hearing impairment. The study was performed to evaluate the nitric oxide (NO) reducing capacity of doxycycline in the inner ear after NO-induction by gentamicin. In a prospective animal study, a single dose of gentamicin (10mg/kg body weight) was injected intratympanically into male guinea pigs (n=48). The auditory brainstem responses (ABRs) were recorded prior to application and 3, 5 and 7 days afterwards. The organ of Corti and the lateral wall of 42 animals were isolated after 7 days and incubated separately for 6h in cell culture medium. Doxycycline was adjusted to organ cultures of 5 animals. Two NOS inhibitors, N(G)-Nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME) and NG-monomethyl-l-arginine monoacetate (l-NMMA), were applied in three different concentrations to the organ cultures of 30 animals in total (5 animals per concentration). As controls, seven animals received no further substance except gentamicin. The NO-production was quantified by chemiluminescence. Additional six gentamicin-treated animals were used for immunohistochemical studies. The ABRs declined continuously from the first to the seventh day after gentamicin application. Doxycycline reduced NO-production in the lateral wall by 54% (p=.029) comparable to the effect of the applied nitric oxide inhibitors. In the organ of Corti, NO-production was reduced by about 41% showing no statistical significance in respect to great inter-animal variations. The application of doxycycline might offer a new therapeutic approach to prevent NO-induced cochlea damage through ototoxic substances. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Development of a novel, guinea pig-specific IFN-γ ELISPOT assay and characterization of guinea pig cytomegalovirus GP83-specific cellular immune responses following immunization with a modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA)-vectored GP83 vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillis, Peter A; Hernandez-Alvarado, Nelmary; Gnanandarajah, Josephine S; Wussow, Felix; Diamond, Don J; Schleiss, Mark R

    2014-06-30

    The guinea pig (Cavia porcellus) provides a useful animal model for studying the pathogenesis of many infectious diseases, and for preclinical evaluation of vaccines. However, guinea pig models are limited by the lack of immunological reagents required for characterization and quantification of antigen-specific T cell responses. To address this deficiency, an enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISPOT) assay for guinea pig interferon (IFN)-γ was developed to measure antigen/epitope-specific T cell responses to guinea pig cytomegalovirus (GPCMV) vaccines. Using splenocytes harvested from animals vaccinated with a modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) vector encoding the GPCMV GP83 (homolog of human CMV pp65 [gpUL83]) protein, we were able to enumerate and map antigen-specific responses, both in vaccinated as well as GPCMV-infected animals, using a panel of GP83-specific peptides. Several potential immunodominant GP83-specific peptides were identified, including one epitope, LGIVHFFDN, that was noted in all guinea pigs that had a detectable CD8+ response to GP83. Development of a guinea pig IFN-γ ELISPOT should be useful in characterization of additional T cell-specific responses to GPCMV, as well as other pathogens. This information in turn can help focus future experimental evaluation of immunization strategies, both for GPCMV as well as for other vaccine-preventable illnesses studied in the guinea pig model. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Use of a Guinea Pig-Specific Transcriptome Array for Evaluation of Protective Immunity against Genital Chlamydial Infection following Intranasal Vaccination in Guinea Pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-11

    modulation in several innate immunity markers particularly associated with NK cells and Th1/Th2 specific cytokines and chemokines in immunized guinea pigs...reduced antigen-specific activation (IL-12 and IFN-c production) of CD4+ T cells isolated from lymphoid tissues and genital tract, and an associated...CD4+ T cells [12, 13]. However, due to differences in immunological responses [23, 24, 25, 26], and chlamydial strain susceptibilities between mice

  16. Fluid mechanical consequences of pendular activity, segmentation and pyloric outflow in the proximal duodenum of the rat and the guinea pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Loubens, Clément; Lentle, Roger G; Love, Richard J; Hulls, Corrin; Janssen, Patrick W M

    2013-06-06

    We conducted numerical experiments to study the influence of non-propagating longitudinal and circular contractions, i.e. pendular activity and segmentation, respectively, on flow and mixing in the proximal duodenum. A lattice-Boltzmann numerical method was developed to simulate the fluid mechanical consequences for each of 22 randomly selected sequences of high-definition video of real longitudinal and radial contractile activity in the isolated proximal duodenum of the rat and guinea pig. During pendular activity in the rat duodenum, the flow was characterized by regions of high shear rate. Mixing was so governed by shearing deformation of the fluid that increased the interface between adjacent domains and accelerated their inter-diffusion (for diffusion coefficients approx. less than 10(-8) m² s(-1)). When pendular activity was associated with a slow gastric outflow characteristic of post-prandial period, the dispersion was also improved, especially near the walls. Mixing was not promoted by isolated segmentative contractions in the guinea pig duodenum and not notably influenced by pylorus outflow. We concluded that pendular activity generates mixing of viscous fluids 'in situ' and accelerates the diffusive mass transfer, whereas segmentation may be more important in mixing particulate suspensions with high solid volume ratios.

  17. Fluid mechanical consequences of pendular activity, segmentation and pyloric outflow in the proximal duodenum of the rat and the guinea pig

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Loubens, Clément; Lentle, Roger G.; Love, Richard J.; Hulls, Corrin; Janssen, Patrick W. M.

    2013-01-01

    We conducted numerical experiments to study the influence of non-propagating longitudinal and circular contractions, i.e. pendular activity and segmentation, respectively, on flow and mixing in the proximal duodenum. A lattice-Boltzmann numerical method was developed to simulate the fluid mechanical consequences for each of 22 randomly selected sequences of high-definition video of real longitudinal and radial contractile activity in the isolated proximal duodenum of the rat and guinea pig. During pendular activity in the rat duodenum, the flow was characterized by regions of high shear rate. Mixing was so governed by shearing deformation of the fluid that increased the interface between adjacent domains and accelerated their inter-diffusion (for diffusion coefficients approx. less than 10−8 m² s−1). When pendular activity was associated with a slow gastric outflow characteristic of post-prandial period, the dispersion was also improved, especially near the walls. Mixing was not promoted by isolated segmentative contractions in the guinea pig duodenum and not notably influenced by pylorus outflow. We concluded that pendular activity generates mixing of viscous fluids ‘in situ’ and accelerates the diffusive mass transfer, whereas segmentation may be more important in mixing particulate suspensions with high solid volume ratios. PMID:23536539

  18. Prokaryotic expression and in vitro functional analysis of IL-1β and MCP-1 from guinea pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirisala, Vijaya R; Jeevan, Amminikutty; Ly, Lan H; McMurray, David N

    2013-06-01

    The Guinea pig (Cavia porcellus) is an excellent animal model for studying human tuberculosis (TB) and also for a number of other infectious and non-infectious diseases. One of the major roadblocks in effective utilization of this animal model is the lack of readily available immunological reagents. In order to address this issue, guinea pig interleukin 1 beta (IL-1β) and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) were efficiently cloned and expressed in a prokaryotic expression vector, and the expressed proteins in soluble form from both the genes were confirmed by N-terminal sequencing. The biological activity of recombinant guinea pig IL-1β was demonstrated by its ability to drive proliferation in thymocytes, and the recombinant guinea pig MCP-1 exhibited chemotactic activity for guinea pig resident peritoneal macrophages. These biologically active recombinant guinea pig proteins will facilitate an in-depth understanding of the role they play in the immune responses of the guinea pig to TB and other diseases.

  19. Treatment efficacy in a soman-poisoned guinea pig model: added value of physostigmine?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joosen, M.J.A.; Smit, A.B.; van Helden, H.P.

    2011-01-01

    Current treatment of organophosphate poisoning is insufficient, and survivors may suffer from long-lasting adverse effects, such as cognitive deficits and sleep-wake disturbances. In the present study, we aimed at developing a guinea pig model to investigate the benefits of immediate and delayed

  20. Physiologic correlates of airspace size and airway remodeling in the smoke exposed guinea pig model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wright, J. L.; Postma, D. S.; Kerstjens, H. A. M.; Timens, W.; Whittaker, P.; Churg, A.

    2007-01-01

    Although small airway remodeling (SAR) leading to airflow obstruction is a common consequence of human cigarette smoking, the airways have been largely ignored in animal models of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease ( COPD). We examined lung structure in a guinea pig model of chronic cigarette

  1. Bronchoconstriction induced by citric acid inhalation in guinea pigs: role of tachykinins, bradykinin, and nitric oxide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ricciardolo, F. L.; Rado, V.; Fabbri, L. M.; Sterk, P. J.; Di Maria, G. U.; Geppetti, P.

    1999-01-01

    Gastroesophageal acid reflux into the airways can trigger asthma attacks. Indeed, citric acid inhalation causes bronchoconstriction in guinea pigs, but the mechanism of this effect has not been fully clarified. We investigated the role of tachykinins, bradykinin, and nitric oxide (NO) on the citric

  2. WW II "guinea pigs" played crucial role in refining plastic surgery in Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Wilton, P

    1998-01-01

    When WW II started, Canada had only 4 plastic surgeons. One of them, Dr. Ross Tilley, would treat hundreds of Allied airmen whose bodies needed massive reconstruction because of war injuries. These men became known as the guinea pigs, and Tilley would bring the lessons he learned on them back to Canada.

  3. Radiolabelled soman binding to sera from Rats, Guinea Pigs and Monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenz, David E; Cerasoli, Douglas; Maxwell, Donald M

    2018-02-01

    Soman is a highly toxic organophosphorus chemical warfare compound that binds rapidly and irreversibility to a variety of serine active enzymes, i.e., butyryl- and acetyl-cholinesterases and carboxylesterase. The in vivo toxicity of soman has been reported to vary significantly in different animal species, such as rats and guinea pigs or non-human primates. This species variation makes it difficult to identify appropriate animal models for therapeutic drug development under the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Animal Rule. Since species variation in soman toxicity has been correlated with species variation in serum carboxylesterase, we undertook to determine if serum from guinea pigs, rats and non-human primates bound different levels of soman in vitro in the presence of equimolar concentrations of soman. Our results demonstrated that the amount of soman bound in the serum of rats was 4 uM, but essentially null in guinea pigs or non-human primates. The results strongly correlate with the presence or absence of carboxylesterase in the serum of animals and the difference in the toxic dose of soman in various species. Our results support prior suggestions that guinea pigs and non-human primates may be better animal models for the development of antidotes under the FDA Animal Rule. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Hypervitaminosis D and Metastatic Calcification in a Colony of Inbred Strain 13 Guinea Pigs, Cavia porcellus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holcombe, H; Parry, N M; Rick, M; Brown, D E; Albers, T M; Refsal, K R; Morris, J; Kelly, R; Marko, S T

    2015-07-01

    A commercial diet fed to a colony of inbred strain 13 guinea pigs for approximately 6 weeks was subsequently recalled for excessive levels of vitamin D. Twenty-one of 62 animals exhibited clinical signs, including anorexia, lethargy, and poor body condition. Nine affected and 4 clinically normal animals were euthanized for further evaluation, including serum chemistry, urinalysis, and gross and/or histopathology. Macroscopic findings included white discoloration in multiple organs in 8 animals, and microscopic evaluation confirmed multiorgan mineralization in tissues from 7 animals. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels were elevated in 10 animals. Serum inorganic phosphorus and alkaline phosphatase levels were increased in all exposed animals; however, total calcium and ionized calcium levels were not significantly higher in exposed animals than in control strain 13 guinea pigs from a different institution. The data support a diagnosis of hypervitaminosis D with metastatic calcification. Following the diet recall, the remaining guinea pigs increased their food intake and regained body condition. Diagnostic testing of 8 animals euthanized approximately 3 months after returning to a normal diet demonstrated that serum parathyroid hormone remained significantly lower, and ionized calcium and ionized magnesium were significantly higher, in recovered animals compared to controls and exposed animals. These results indicate that diagnostic tests other than serum calcium are necessary for a diagnosis of hypervitaminosis D in guinea pigs. © The Author(s) 2014.

  5. Effect of systemic clarithromycin and prednisolone on histamine-induced otitis media in guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozan, Günay; Aktan, Bülent; Sakat, Muhammed Sedat; Kurt, Sezgin; Öner, Fatih; Kara, Adem

    2015-01-01

    The results of the study showed that clarithromycin has anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects and, when it is combined with prednisolone, those effects gain strength. The present study aims to investigate the effects that the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of clarithromycin and/or prednisolone have on experimental otitis media in effusion-induced guinea-pigs. In this study, 35-male guinea pigs were randomly divided into five-groups. For the experimental otitis media, intra-tympanic histamine (0.1 ml) was injected into the guinea pigs in all of the groups except the control group. Then, 24-h after the intra-tympanic injections, clarithromycin (15 mg/kg/day) and/or prednisolone (1 mg/kg/day) were applied intraperitoneally to the guinea-pigs for 7-days. The biochemical analysis showed an increase in antioxidant capacity and a decrease in oxidant status and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in the clarithromycin group and the prednisolone group and especially in the clarithromycin+prednisolone group, as compared to the experimental group (p < 0.05). In the cytokine analysis, lower levels of interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-17A and higher IL-10 were found in the clarithromycin, prednisolone, and clarithromycin+prednisolone groups than in the experimental group (p < 0.05). Furthermore, the histologic analyses showed histopathologic changes in the middle ear mucosa of the experimental group, but comparatively fewer-histopathologic changes were observed in the clarithromycin, prednisolone, and clarithromycin+prednisolone groups.

  6. THE IMPACT OF ULTRAVIOLET IRRADIATION ON MORPHO-FUNCTIONAL STATE OF SKIN IN GUINEA PIGS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myronchenko, S; Naumova, O; Zvyagintseva, T

    2016-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of ultraviolet irradiation (UV) on morphological and functional condition of the skin in guinea pigs. The study involved 30 albino guinea pigs weighing 400-500 g subjected to local exposure to UV irradiation. Control group consisted of intact guinea pigs. Histological studies of the skin were carried out at different stages of the trial (2 hours, 4 hours, 3 days, 8 days following the exposure). Microscopic examination showed morphological signs of acute inflammation in the skin of animals within the first three days following the exposure to UV irradiation. Within 2 hours following the exposure to UV irradiation these changes were minimal with signs of mild exudative changes. In 4 hours after the exposure histological changes increased. The specimens were also found to contain altered apoptotic keratinocytes (sunburn cells). Histopathological changes persisted and reached maximum severity by the 3rd day. Within post-erythema period (the 8th day) proliferative, hyperplastic, degenerative and dystrophic changes in the skin persisted. The prolonged nature of the changes in the skin is suggestive of the development of chronic inflammation in the skin of guinea pigs subjected to local exposure to UV irradiation.

  7. Short-term toxicity studies with triphenyltin compounds in rats and guinea-pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verschuuren, H.G.; Kroes, R.; Vink, H.H.; Esch, G.J. van

    1966-01-01

    Short-term toxicity studies have been carried out in rats and guinea-pigs fed diets containing triphenyltin acetate (TPTA), triphenyltin hydroxide (TPTH) or triethyltin hydroxide (TETH) for 90 days at levels ranging from 0 to 50 ppm. The lowest dietary levels found to retard growth in rats and

  8. Studies on vertical transmission of Trichinella spiralis in experimentally infected guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riva, Eliana; Fiel, Cesar; Bernat, Gisele; Muchiut, Sebastián; Steffan, Pedro

    2017-08-01

    An experimental study to enhance knowledge on the capability of Trichenella spiralis to pass from guinea pigs to progeny at different periods of pregnancy or lactation was performed. For this purpose, 18 female adult guinea pigs were inoculated with 100 or 1000 T. spiralis muscle larvae (ML) during early, late gestation and during lactation period. The presence of T. spiralis (ML) in mothers and newborns was studied through enzymatic digestion from muscle samples. ML were observed in 9 of 42 newborn guinea pigs and levels of infection were significantly higher when infections of mothers were done during late gestation (p = 0.0046) with the high infective dose (p = 0.0043). T. spiralis ML were not recovered from any of the newborns from mothers infected in the lactation period. Ten out of 18 infected mothers presented larvae 1 in their mammary glands. Muscle samples from the tongue and the masseter showed the highest larval burdens. These observations confirm previous reports on that ML of T. spiralis are capable to pass through placental tissues to reach and encyst in striated muscle groups of newborn guinea pigs. This study may also reinforce the importance of preventive programs to control trichinellosis in those endemic areas where pregnant women would have high risk of infection.

  9. Use of a Far-Infrared Active Warming Device in Guinea Pigs (Cavia porcellus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarndt, Bethany S; Buchta, Jessica N; Garver, Lindsey S; Davidson, Silas A; Rowton, Edgar D; Despain, Kenneth E

    2015-11-01

    Small mammals have difficulty maintaining body temperature under anesthesia. This hypothermia is a potential detriment not only to the health and comfort of the animal but also to the integrity of any treatment given or data gathered during the anesthetic period. Using an external warming device to assist with temperature regulation can mitigate these effects. In this study, we investigated the ability of an advanced warming device that uses far-infrared (FIR) heating and responds to real-time core temperature monitoring to maintain a normothermic core temperature in guinea pigs. Body temperatures were measured during 30 min of ketamine-xylazine general anesthesia with and without application of the heating device. The loss of core body heat from anesthetized guinea pigs under typical (unwarmed) conditions was significant, and this loss was almost completely mitigated by application of the FIR heating pad. The significant difference between the temperatures of the actively warmed guinea pigs as compared with the control group began as early as 14 min after anesthetic administration, leading to a 2.6 °C difference at 30 min. Loss of core body temperature was not correlated with animals' body weight; however, weight influences the efficiency of FIR warming slightly. These study results show that the FIR heating device accurately controls core body temperature in guinea pigs, therefore potentially alleviating the effects of body heat loss on animal physiology.

  10. Effects of muscarinic receptor modulators on ocular biometry of guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Fang; Huang, Furong; Xie, Ruozhong; Li, Cheng; Liu, Yin; Zhu, Ying; Qu, Jia; Zhou, Xiangtian

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated whether pilocarpine and cyclopentolate induce changes in ocular biometry of guinea pigs, in order to understand if guinea pigs have a similar response to these two agents as humans do. Under general anaesthesia, refraction, axial components and surface curvature in various optical interfaces of the eye were measured in 10 guinea pigs (age of 2 weeks) at baseline (0 min) and different time points (5, 10, 20, 30, 60, 90 min) after topical administration of pilocarpine or cyclopentolate. The interval between the two drug treatments for the same animals was at least 24 h. Eyes treated with pilocarpine developed approximately 6D myopia (p guinea pigs have an accommodative mechanism similar to that in humans. The minimal changes produced by cyclopentolate could be due to the use of general anaesthesia, which may have reduced the susceptibility of the eye to topical cyclopentolate in the induction of cycloplegia. © 2014 The Authors Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics © 2014 The College of Optometrists.

  11. The effect of ileotransversostomy on carrageenan-induced colitis in guinea pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Steen Seier

    1983-01-01

    By oral administration of degraded carrageenan a colitis-like disease can be induced in guinea pigs which almost exclusively affects the caecum. To study the effect of degraded carrageenan on the distal colon and rectum, an ileotransversostomy was performed. In the non-operated group of animals...

  12. Mitochondria-Targeted Antioxidant Mitoquinone Reduces Cisplatin-Induced Ototoxicity in Guinea Pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tate, Alan D; Antonelli, Patrick J; Hannabass, Kyle R; Dirain, Carolyn O

    2017-03-01

    Objective To determine if mitoquinone (MitoQ) attenuates cisplatin-induced hearing loss in guinea pigs. Study Design Prospective and controlled animal study. Setting Academic, tertiary medical center. Subjects and Methods Guinea pigs were injected subcutaneously with either 5 mg/kg MitoQ (n = 9) or normal saline (control, n = 9) for 7 days and 1 hour before receiving a single dose of 10 mg/kg cisplatin. Auditory brainstem response thresholds were measured before MitoQ or saline administration and 3 to 4 days after cisplatin administration. Results Auditory brainstem response threshold shifts after cisplatin treatment were smaller by 28 to 47 dB in guinea pigs injected with MitoQ compared with those in the control group at all tested frequencies (4, 8, 16, and 24 kHz, P = .0002 to .04). Scanning electron microscopy of cochlear hair cells showed less outer hair cell loss and damage in the MitoQ group. Conclusion MitoQ reduced cisplatin-induced hearing loss in guinea pigs. MitoQ appears worthy of further investigation as a means of preventing cisplatin ototoxicity in humans.

  13. Do young guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus) develop an attachment to inanimate objects?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janzen, MID; Timmermans, PJA; Kruijt, JP; Vossen, JMH

    1999-01-01

    Filial imprinting has been studied extensively in precocial birds. In these studies, inanimate objects were used as imprinting objects. Although attachment to the parents is common in mammals, experiments with inanimate objects are rare and mostly restricted to guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus). The

  14. Binding sites for 3H-LTC4 in membranes from guinea pig ileal longitudinal muscle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicosia, S.; Crowley, H.J.; Oliva, D.; Welton, A.F.

    1984-01-01

    Leutriene (LTC4) is one of the components of Slow Reacting Substance of Anaphylaxis (SRS-A) and is a potent constrictor of guinea pig ilea. The contraction is likely to be a receptor-mediated process. Here the authors report the existence of specific binding sites for 3 H-LTC4 in a crude membrane preparation from guinea pig ileal longitudinal muscle. At 4 degrees C in the presence of 20 mM Serine-borate, binding increases linearly with protein concentration, reaches equilibrium in 10 minutes, and is reversible upon addition of 3 x 10(-5) M unlabelled LTC4. The dissociation curve is consistent with the existence of more than one class of binding site. Ca++ and Mg++ greatly enhance the binding of 3 H-LTC4 at equilibrium. In the presence of 5 mM CaCl 2 and MgCl 2 not only LTC4 (IC50 10(-7)M), but also LTD4 and the SRS-A antagonist FPL 55712 can compete with 3 H-LTC4 for its binding sites. FPL 55712 only displaces 60-70% of the total amount bound, while LTC4 displaces 90-95%. These studies indicate that multiple classes of binding sites exist for 3 H-LTC4 in guinea pig ileal longitudinal muscle, and that at least part of these binding sites might be related to the ability of LTC4 to contract guinea pig ilea

  15. Gastrointestinal abosrption of radionuclides by the neonatal rat, guinea pig and swine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sullivan, M.F.

    1977-01-01

    Ruthenium-106 administered to newborn rats and swine was incorporated into the epithelium of the lower small intestine and retained there for a few weeks after gavage; the stomach and small bowel of guinea pigs incorporated 106 Ru but did not retain it

  16. The influence of starvation upon hepatic drug metabolism in rats, mice, and guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furner, R. L.; Feller, D. D.

    1971-01-01

    Male rats, mice, and guinea pigs were starved for 1, 2, or 3 days, and the metabolism of ethylmorphine, p-nitroanisole, and aniline was studied. Results suggest that the oxidative enzyme systems studied are not interdependent, and the pathways studied appear to be species dependent.

  17. Differential susceptibility of rats and guinea pigs to the ototoxic effects of ethyl benzene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cappaert, N.L.M.; Klis, S.F.L.; Muijser, H.; Kulig, B.M.; Ravensberg, L.C.; Smoorenburg, G.F.

    2002-01-01

    The present study was designed to compare the ototoxic effects of volatile ethyl benzene in guinea pigs and rats. Rats showed deteriorated auditory thresholds in the mid-frequency range, based on electrocochleography, after 550-ppm ethyl benzene (8 h/day, 5 days). Outer hair cell (OHC) loss was

  18. [Dermatophyte colonization on guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus) kept in pet stores. First report from Santiago, Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Pamela; Monsalves, Pamela; Maier, Liliana; Silva, Víctor

    2015-01-01

    Dermatophytes are pathogenic fungi that can be present in the flora of mammals, such as dogs, cats and rodents, which can be a source and transmission vehicle to other hosts, including humans. In Chile, there is a steady increase of acquiring guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus) as pets, with no local studies on their colonization by dermatophytes. To determine the presence of dermatophytes on clinically healthy guinea pigs, kept in pet stores in Santiago, Chile. A total of 52 clinically healthy animals were studied using the method by Mariat and Tapia (1966). The specimen culture and identification of the dermatophytes were performed using classical mycological procedures. Four guinea pigs (7.7%) out of 52 were colonized by dermatophytes, and were identified as Trichophyton mentagrophytes (3 cases) and Trichophyton verrucosum (one case). This study shows, for the first time in Chile, that guinea pigs can be colonized by dermatophytes, which should alert administrators of pet stores, veterinarians and physicians, to keep this in mind when purchasing or looking after this type of pet in a veterinary office. Copyright © 2013 Revista Iberoamericana de Micología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  19. Maternal vitamin C deficiency during pregnancy persistently impairs hippocampal neurogenesis in offspring of guinea pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tveden-Nyborg, Pernille; Vogt, Lucile; Schjoldager, Janne Gram

    2012-01-01

    While having the highest vitamin C (VitC) concentrations in the body, specific functions of VitC in the brain have only recently been acknowledged. We have shown that postnatal VitC deficiency in guinea pigs causes impairment of hippocampal memory function and leads to 30% less neurons. This study...

  20. Cross-sensitization patterns in guinea pigs between cinnamaldehyde, cinnamyl alcohol and cinnamic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weibel, H; Hansen, J; Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    1989-01-01

    Guinea pig maximization tests (GPMT) were performed with cinnamon substances. There was a certain degree of cross-reactivity between cinnamaldehyde, cinnamyl alcohol and cinnamic acid as animals sensitized to cinnamaldehyde reacted to the challenge with the three substances. Animals sensitized to...

  1. Treatment efficacy in a soman-poisoned guinea pig model: Added value of physostigmine?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joosen, M.J.A.; Smit, A.B.; Helden, H.P.M. van

    2011-01-01

    Current treatment of organophosphate poisoning is insufficient, and survivors may suffer from long-lasting adverse effects, such as cognitive deficits and sleep-wake disturbances. In the present study, we aimed at developing a guinea pig model to investigate the benefits of immediate and delayed

  2. Positive Streptobacillus moniliformis PCR in guinea pigs likely due to Leptotrichia spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boot, Ron; Van de Berg, Lia; Reubsaet, Frans A G; Vlemminx, Maurice J

    2008-04-30

    Streptobacillus moniliformis is a zoonotic bacterium. We obtained positive S. moniliformis PCR results in oral swab samples from guinea pigs from an experimental colony and the breeding colony of origin. Comparison of the DNA sequence of an amplicon with deposited 16S rDNA sequences revealed that Leptotrichia sp. can be the source of a false positive S. moniliformis PCR outcome.

  3. Dermal Sensitization Potential of DIGL-RP Solid Propellant in Guinea Pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-10-01

    y ’,c. ADM$$S (ft, SWOt , &Wd ZIP Cod 7b. ADDRESS (City, State, arid ZIP Code) Letterman Army Institute of Research Fort Detrick Presidio of San...for contact sensitization. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 1969; Suppl 3:90-102. 7. Buehler EV, Griffith JF. Experimental skin sensitization in the guinea pig

  4. [Mitochondrial DNA4568 deletions in guinea-pig associated with presbycusis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xue-mei; Yang, Yuan; Liang, Chuang-yu; Zheng, Zhong

    2006-12-01

    To determine weather or not the mtDNA(4568) deletions in guinea-pig contribute to the development of presbycusis. Forty-four guinea-pigs were divided into 2 groups: group A (young control group, normal hearing, 22 guineas) and group B (aged group). The group B was subdivided into group B(1) (old normal hearing, 6 guineas) and group B(2) (old hearing loss, 16 guineas). First the guineas were tested by auditory brainstem response (ABR), and then the Cortis's tissues, auditory nerve tissues, brain and blood were harvested and the total DNA was extracted. The mtDNA(4568) deletion was analyzed by PCR. Hearing loss was occurred with age. The mtDNA(4568) deletion incidence of aged group in all tissues was significant higher than that of young control group (Ppresbycusis (B(2) group) were significant higher than that of aged normal hearing group (B(1) group) (Ppresbycusis and aged normal hearing group (P> 0.05). mtDNA(4568) deletion of guinea-pig possibly contributes to aging and mtDNA(4568) deletion in Cortis's and auditory nerve tissues of guinea-pig may be associated with presbycusis. There is no enough evidence to prove that the mtDNA(4568) deletions in brain and blood are related with presbycusis.

  5. Sensitization of the Guinea Pig Myocardium through the Mucous Membrane of the Digestive Tract,

    Science.gov (United States)

    Under certain conditions, sessile antibodies can be bound by the guinea - pig myocardium that had been sensitized by direct introduction of the allergen into the stomach. This is confirmed by the positive anaphylactic reaction in the isolated heart of animals treated in this manner, which reaction manifests itself in a modified heart rate when the isolated heart is challenged by the sensitizing allergen.

  6. Fine structure of the ultimobranchial cysts in the thyroid of the adult guinea pig

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zelander, T; Kirkeby, S

    1977-01-01

    The ultimobranchial cysts in the thyroid of the adult guinea pig are identified by a cytochemical method. The ultimobranchial tissue has the shape of an irregular cyst, with non-specific esterase activity that is resistent to HgCl2 inhibition. The TEM reveals five different types of epithelial cell...

  7. Prooxidate - antioxidate homeostasis in guinea pigs after fractional low-dose irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baraboj, V.A.; Olyijnik, S.A.; Khmelevs'kij, Yi.V.

    1993-01-01

    We studied the influence of fractional total irradiation in the total dose of 1 Gy on the amount of lipids peroxide oxidation (LPO) products and ascorbic acid in the spleen, intestine and brain of guinea-pigs. The obtained date suggest that it is advisable to use ascorbic acid to correct postirradiation changes in the organism exposed to small doses of ionizing radiation

  8. Ocular disease in the guinea pig (Cavia porcellus): a survey of 1000 animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, David; Sullivan, Ann

    2010-09-01

    Anecdotal evidence has suggested that guinea pigs have a high prevalence of ocular lesions. Here we undertook a survey of 1000 guinea pigs from populations of animals kept as laboratory animals, breeding show cavies, animals kept as pets and those from rescue and rehoming centers. Each animal was examined to assess for ocular abnormalities. A full ophthalmic examination was performed on each animal with direct and indirect ophthalmoscopy and with slit lamp biomicroscopy. Measurement of tear production using the Schirmer tear test 1 and intraocular pressure using the Tonopen applanation tonometer after topical anesthesia was undertaken in selected animals. Forty-five percent of animals examined had some ocular abnormality. The majority were lens lesions including 17% with cataract and 21% with subclinical lens abnormalities such as nuclear sclerosis. Other abnormalities included conjunctivitis in 4.7% and keratitis in 3.6%. Lipid deposition in conjunctiva was observed in 2.3% of guinea pigs and ciliary body heterotopic bone formation in 0.8% of animals. This study shows a high proportion of eyes with some degree of abnormality in animals otherwise considered healthy. Information on diseases of the guinea pig eye is important given the use of the species as a laboratory rodent and also the number kept as pets and show animals.

  9. Two-phase endolymphatic hydrops : A new dynamic guinea pig model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dunnebier, EA; Segenhout, JM; Wit, HP; Albers, FWJ

    The classical guinea pig model for Meniere's disease, in which endolymphatic hydrops was achieved by destruction of the endolymphatic sac and obliteration of the endolymphatic duct, is a non-physiological profound model with shortcomings in relation to Meniere's disease as seen in patients. We

  10. Modeling production functions and economic weights in intensive meat production of guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascual, Mariam; Cruz, Danny Julio; Blasco, Agustín

    2017-10-01

    A profit function for a typical commercial farm of intensive guinea pig production was designed. The simulated farm contained 86 cages with a ratio of 7:1 females/males, with continuous mating. Kits were weaned at 15 days of age and slaughtered for meat production at 90 days of age. The absolute (EW) and relative economic weights of the main traits were calculated. The highest EW were kits produced per kindling (US$25), kits weaned per kindling (US$22), kits born alive per kindling (US$20), and the number of kindlings per female and year (US$12). Profit, returns, and costs per female and year were US$15, 68, and 53, respectively. Returns came from the production of young guinea pigs and discarded reproductive adults for meat production, 90 and 10% of the total returns. The highest costs were feeding and labor, 44 and 23% of the total cost. The EW and profit did not substantially change when simulating variations of ±20% in the prices of kilograms of fattening feed and kilograms of live weight of guinea pig, showing their robustness to future variations in market prices or to variations in prices between countries. The results obtained highlight the importance of the feeding costs in the guinea pig meat production.

  11. Expression, receptor binding, and biophysical characterization of guinea pig insulin desB30

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engholm, Ebbe; Hansen, Thomas Hesselhøj; Johansson, Eva

    2015-01-01

    Here we report, for the first time, the heterologous expression of desB30 guinea pig insulin (GI desB30) in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The affinities of GI desB30 for the insulin receptor A and the IGF-I receptor were also quantified for the first time. Small-angle X-ray scattering...

  12. The value and limitations of rechallenge in the guinea pig maximization test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frankild, S; Basketter, D A; Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    1996-01-01

    The guinea pig maximization test (GPMT) has played a primary rôle in the evaluation of potential skin contact sensitizers for 25 years. In the OECD Guideline 406 from 1993, it is specifically suggested that equivocal results from the initial challenge in the GPMT should be evaluated further...

  13. Certain dietary carbohydrates promote Listeria infection in a guinea pig model, while others prevent it

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ebersbach, Tine; Jørgensen, Julie Boeck; Heegaard, Peter M. H.

    2010-01-01

    of five non-digestible carbohydrates on the resistance of guinea pigs to Listeria monocytogenes infections. Animals were fed a diet supplemented with 10% xylooligosaccharides (XOS), galactooligosaccharides (GOS), inulin, apple pectin or polydextrose for three weeks before oral infection with a mixture...

  14. SELECTIVITY PROFILE OF SOME RECENT MUSCARINIC ANTAGONISTS IN BOVINE AND GUINEA-PIG TRACHEA AND HEART

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ROFFEL, AF; HAMSTRA, JJ; ELZINGA, CRS; ZAAGSMA, J

    1994-01-01

    The functional affinities of some recently developed subtype-selective muscarinic antagonists towards bovine tracheal smooth muscle muscarinic M(3) receptors were established and compared to binding affinities for bovine cardiac M(2) and functional affinities for guinea-pig tracheal smooth muscle

  15. Case Report of a Satin Guinea Pig with Fibrous Osteodystrophy That Resembles Human Pseudohypoparathyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Gallego

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A case report of a 2-year-old female satin guinea pig with a history of dental overgrowth and lameness and radiological lesions of fibrous osteodystrophy is presented. The most relevant clinical findings were bone demineralization, high level of parathyroid hormone (PTH, normophosphatemia, normal ionized calcium, and low total thyroxine (tT4 with a normal renal function. Long-term treatment was based on teeth coronal reduction and maintaining a balanced diet. PTH measurement was performed with a kit suitable for rats to test 4 different paired samples of guinea pigs and resulted in similar results for each pair of measurements. Two kits routinely employed in dogs and cats failed in measuring PTH in guinea pig serum samples. The ionized calcium, PTH, and tT4 values, not previously reported in similar cases, were obtained. The determination of tT4 could be useful in the diagnosis of fibrous osteodystrophy in guinea pigs. The observed findings show similarity with human pseudohypoparathyroidism type Ia, a disease caused by an inactivating heterozygous mutation of the stimulatory G protein α subunit from the maternal genome that induces multiple hormone resistance and that courses with a syndrome called Albright hereditary osteodystrophy. Naturally occurring pseudohypoparathyroidism in animals has been reported previously only in a ferret.

  16. Morphology and electrophysiology of the vestibular organ in the guinea pig

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oei, Markus Lee Yang Murti

    2003-01-01

    To obtain more information about the anatomy and function of the vestibular organ in normal and pathological conditions, evaluation methods are needed. For experimental purposes, the vestibular organ of the guinea pig is often used as a model for the human vestibular organ. The purpose of the

  17. PLACENTAL TRANSFER AND FETAL DEPOSITION OF HEXACHLOROBENZENE IN THE HAMSTER AND GUINEA PIG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hexachlorobenzene (HCB) was administered at dose levels of 0, 1.0, 10.0, or 50.0 mg HCB/kg body wt by gavage to pregnant hamsters and guinea pigs for 6 days up to the time of liver development in the fetus. Samples of maternal fat, thymus, skin, liver, lung, brain, spleen, urinar...

  18. Exploring the Pregnant Guinea Pig as a Model for Group B Streptococcus Intrauterine Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrell, Maria I; Burnside, Kellie; Whidbey, Christopher; Vornhagen, Jay; Adams Waldorf, Kristina M; Rajagopal, Lakshmi

    2017-09-01

    Infection of the amniotic cavity remains a major cause of preterm birth, stillbirth, fetal injury and early onset, fulminant infections in newborns. Currently, there are no effective therapies to prevent in utero infection and consequent co-morbidities. This is in part due to the lack of feasible and appropriate animal models to understand mechanisms that lead to in utero infections. Use of mouse and rat models do not fully recapitulate human pregnancy, while pregnant nonhuman primate models are limited by ethical considerations, technical constraints, and cost. Given these limitations, the guinea pig is an attractive animal model for studying pregnancy infections, particularly as the placental structure is quite similar to the human placenta. Here, we describe our studies that explored the pregnant guinea pig as a model to study in utero Group B Streptococci (GBS) infections. We observed that intrauterine inoculation of wild type GBS in pregnant guinea pigs resulted in bacterial invasion and dissemination to the placenta, amniotic fluid and fetal organs. Also, hyperhemolytic GBS such as those lacking the hemolysin repressor CovR/S showed increased dissemination into the amniotic fluid and fetal organs such as the fetal lung and brain. These results are similar to those observed in mouse and non-human primate models of in utero infection, and support use of the guinea pig as a model for studying GBS infections in pregnancy.

  19. Decreased delayed hypersensitivity to tuberculin demonstrated in experimental leptospirosis in guinea pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Colding, H; Johansen, K S; Bentzon, M W

    1976-01-01

    Skin reactivity to tuberculin has been studied during the course of experimental leptospirosis in guinea pigs. A depression of the delayed hypersensitivity to tuberculin was demonstrated in the infected animals. The depression was most pronounced when icterus had developed. The depression...

  20. Frequency response for electromotility of isolated outer hair cells of the guinea pig

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wit, HP; vanDijk, P; Segenhout, HM

    1996-01-01

    Frequency and impulse responses were determined for isolated guinea pig outer hair cells by electrically stimulating the cells between two wire electrodes with white noise. Cells were attached to the bottom of a small culture dish at one end while the other end was freely moving. Results have the

  1. Nickel contact sensitivity in the guinea pig. An efficient open application test method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, G D; Rohold, A E; Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    1992-01-01

    Nickel contact sensitivity was successfully induced in guinea pigs using an open epicutaneous application method. Immediately after pretreatment with 1% aqueous sodium lauryl sulfate, upper back skin was treated daily for 4 weeks with 0.3%-3% nickel sulfate in either a 1% lanolin cream (Vaseline, p...

  2. The in vitro isolated whole guinea pig brain as a model to study epileptiform activity patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Curtis, Marco; Librizzi, Laura; Uva, Laura

    2016-02-15

    Research on ictogenesis is based on the study of activity between seizures and during seizures in animal models of epilepsy (chronic condition) or in in vitro slices obtained from naïve non-epileptic brains after treatment with pro-convulsive drugs, manipulations of the extracellular medium and specific stimulation protocols. The in vitro isolated guinea pig brain retains the functional connectivity between brain structures and maintains interactions between neuronal, glial and vascular compartments. It is a close-to-in vivo preparation that offers experimental advantages not achieved with the use of other experimental models. Neurophysiological and imaging techniques can be utilized in this preparation to study brain activity during and between seizures induced by pharmacological or functional manipulations. Cellular and network determinants of interictal and ictal discharges that reproduce abnormal patterns observed in human focal epilepsies and the associated changes in extracellular ion and blood-brain permeability can be identified and analyzed in the isolated guinea pig brain. Ictal and interictal patterns recorded in in vitro slices may show substantial differences from seizure activity recorded in vivo due to slicing procedure itself. The isolated guinea pig brain maintained in vitro by arterial perfusion combines the typical facilitated access of in vitro preparations, that are difficult to approach during in vivo experiments, with the preservation of larger neuronal networks. The in vitro whole isolated guinea pig brain preparation offers an unique experimental model to study systemic and neurovascular changes during ictogenesis. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Development of a guinea pig cutaneous radiation injury model using low penetrating X-rays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, Kathleen E; Tan, Alick; Kim, Lila; Espinoza, Theresa; Meeks, Christopher; Johnston, William; Maulhardt, Holly; Donald, Melissa; Hill, Colin; diZerega, Gere S

    2016-08-01

    A guinea pig skin model was developed to determine the dose-dependent response to soft X-ray radiation into the dermis. X-ray exposure (50 kVp) was defined to a 4.0 × 4.0 cm area on the lateral surface of a guinea pig using lead shielding. Guinea pigs were exposed to a single fraction of X-ray irradiation ranging from 25-79 Gy via an XRAD320ix Biological Irradiator with the collimator removed. Gross skin changes were measured using clinical assessments defined by the Kumar scale. Skin contracture was assessed, as well as histological evaluations. Loss of dermal integrity was shown after a single dose of soft X-ray radiation at or above 32 Gy with the central 2.0 × 2.0 cm of the exposed site being the most affected. Hallmarks of the skin injury included moist desquamation, ulceration and wound contracture, as well as alterations in epithelium, dermis, muscle and adipose. Changes in the skin were time- and radiation dose-dependent. Full-thickness injury occurred without animal mortality or gross changes in the underlying organs. The guinea pig is an appropriate small animal model for the short-term screening of countermeasures for cutaneous radiation injury (CRI).

  4. Intravenous and inhalation toxicokinetics of sarin stereoisomers in atropinized guinea pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spruit, W.E.T.; Langenberg, J.P.; Trap, H.C.; Wiel, H.J. van der; Helmich, R.B.; Helden, H.P.M. van; Benschop, H.P.

    2000-01-01

    We report the first toxicokinetic studies of (±)-sarin. The toxicokinetics of the stereoisomers of this nerve agent were studied in anesthetized, atropinized, and restrained guinea pigs after intravenous bolus administration of a dose corresponding to 0.8 LD50 and after nose-only exposure to vapor

  5. Cough reflex sensitivity is increased in the guinea pig model of allergic rhinitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brozmanova, M; Plevkova, J; Tatar, M; Kollarik, M

    2008-12-01

    Increased cough reflex sensitivity is found in patients with allergic rhinitis and may contribute to cough caused by rhinitis. We have reported that cough to citric acid is enhanced in the guinea pig model of allergic rhinitis. Here we address the hypothesis that the cough reflex sensitivity is increased in this model. The data from our previous studies were analyzed for the cough reflex sensitivity. The allergic inflammation in the nose was induced by repeated intranasal instillations of ovalbumin in the ovalbumin-sensitized guinea pigs. Cough was induced by inhalation of doubling concentrations of citric acid (0.05-1.6 M). Cough threshold was defined as the lowest concentration of citric acid causing two coughs (C2, expressed as geometric mean [95% confidence interval]). We found that the cough threshold was reduced in animals with allergic rhinitis. C2 was 0.5 M [0.36-0.71 M] and 0.15 M [0.1-0.23 M] prior and after repeated intranasal instillations of ovalbumin, respectively, Preflex sensitivity. C2 was reduced in animals with allergic rhinitis treated orally with vehicle (0.57 M [0.28-1.1] vs. 0.09 M [0.04-0.2 M], Preflex sensitivity is increased in the guinea pig model of allergic rhinitis. Our results suggest that guinea pig is a suitable model for mechanistic studies of increased cough reflex sensitivity in rhinitis.

  6. Streptomycin action to the mammalian inner ear vestibular organs: comparison between pigmented guinea pigs and rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meza, Graciela; Aguilar-Maldonado, Beatriz

    2007-01-01

    Streptomycin is the antibiotic of choice to treat tuberculosis and other infectious diseases but it causes vestibular malfunction and hipoacusia. Rodents are usually employed as models of drug action to the inner ear and results are extrapolated to what happens in humans. In rats, streptomycin destroys macular sensory cells and does not affect cochlear ones, whereas in guinea pigs the contrary is true. Action on the vestibular cristae cells involved in vestibulo-ocular reflex integrity is less clear. Thus, we compared this response in both pigmented guinea pigs (Cavia cobaya) and rats (Rattus norvegicus) after parallel streptomycin chronic treatment. In guinea pigs, the reflex was obliterated along treatment time; in rats this behavior was not observed, suggesting that the end organ target was diverse. In recent studies, streptidine, a streptomycin derivative found in the blood of humans and rats treated with streptomycin, was the actual ototoxic agent. The putative streptomycin vestibular organ target observed in humans corresponds with the guinea pig observations. Results observed in rats are controversial: streptidine did not cause any damage either to vestibular cristae nor auditory cells. We hypothesize differential drug metabolism and distribution and conclude that results in laboratory animals may not always be applicable in the human situation.

  7. Effects of single dose X-irradiation on the guinea-pig spinal cord

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knowles, J F [Medical Research Council, Harwell (UK). Radiobiological Research Unit

    1981-09-01

    Lumbar or cervical regions of the guinea-pig spinal cord were irradiated with a single dose of 250 kV X-rays. The latency for paralysis, whether of hind- or fore-limbs, and the histopathology of the radiation-induced cord lesions depended critically on the radiation dose. There were definite but only minor differences between the reactions of lumbar and cervical cord to the same radiation dose. After 30 or 40 Gy there was white matter necrosis but after 20 Gy widespread demyelination associated with vacuolar spaces occurred. After irradiation of the lumbar cord with 30-40 Gy, the lesions in the guinea-pig differed from those reported in the rat. White-matter necrosis in the guinea-pig cord was only occasionally associated with spinal nerve root necrosis, whereas in the rat, nerve-root necrosis with sparing of the white matter was the main lesion. After 20 Gy to the cervical or lumbar cord the guinea-pig showed widespread demyelination and vacuolation whereas in rats vascular lesions were the main result.

  8. High-dose ascorbic acid decreases cholesterolemic factors of an atherogenic diet in guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filis, Konstantinos; Anastassopoulou, Aikaterini; Sigala, Fragiska; Theodorou, Dimitrios; Manouras, Andreas; Leandros, Emanouel; Sigalas, Panagiotis; Hepp, Wolfgang; Bramis, John

    2007-03-01

    The study evaluates the effect of a high supplemental dose of ascorbic acid (AA) on plasma concentrations of total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), total lipids (TL), and lipoprotein fractions high-density, very-low-density-, and low-density lipoprotein (HDL, VLDL, LDL) in guinea pigs fed with atherogenic diet. Group I consisted of 5 normally fed guinea pigs plus a low dose of AA (1 mg/100 g/day), group II consisted of 7 guinea pigs fed with food enriched with 2% cholesterol plus a low dose of AA (1 mg/100 g/day), and group III consisted of 7 guinea pigs fed with food enriched with 2% cholesterol plus a high dose of AA (30 mg/100 g/day). Cholesterolemic factors concentrations were determined after nine weeks. Concentrations of TC, TG, TL, LDL, and VLDL were increased in group II compared to group I (p < 0.01 for all differences). Supplementation with a high dose of AA resulted in decreased concentrations of TC (p < 0.01), TG (p < 0.01), TL (p < 0.01), and LDL (p < 0.01) in group III compared to group II. Additionally, concentration of HDL was increased in group III compared to group II (p < 0.01). High-dose AA supplementation to an atherogenic diet decreases concentrations of TC, TG, TL, and LDL and increases concentration of HDL compared to low-dose AA.

  9. Comparative Study of the Liver Anatomy in the Rat, Rabbit, Guinea Pig and Chinchilla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin Gheorghe STAN

    2018-05-01

    Based on detailed study of the macroscopic anatomy of rat, rabbit, guinea pig and chinchilla a proper experimental model in liver research, could be assessed. In this regard, the vascular anatomy of the liver in the mentioned species is of a great importance and it is subject of another report.

  10. Streptococcus caviae sp. nov., isolated from guinea pig faecal samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palakawong Na Ayudthaya, Susakul; Hilderink, Loes J; Oost, John van der; Vos, Willem M de; Plugge, Caroline M

    2017-05-01

    A novel cellobiose-degrading and lactate-producing bacterium, strain Cavy grass 6T, was isolated from faecal samples of guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus). Cells of the strain were ovalshaped, non-motile, non-spore-forming, Gram-stain-positive and facultatively anaerobic. The strain gr at 25-40 °C (optimum 37 °C) and pH 4.5-9.5 (optimum 8.0). Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain Cavy grass 6T belongs to the genus Streptococcus with its closest relative being Streptococcus devriesei CCUG 47155T with only 96.5 % similarity. Comparing strain Cavy grass 6T and Streptococcus devriesei CCUG 47155T, average nucleotide identity and level of digital DNA-DNA hybridization dDDH were only 86.9 and 33.3 %, respectively. Housekeeping genes groEL and gyrA were different between strain Cavy grass 6T and other streptococci. The G+C content of strain Cavy grass 6T was 42.6±0.3 mol%. The major (>10 %) cellular fatty acids of strain Cavy grass 6T were C16:0, C20 : 1ω9c and summed feature 8 (C18 : 1ω7c and/or C18 : 1ω6c). Strain Cavy grass 6T ferment a range of plant mono- and disaccharides as well as polymeric carbohydrates, including cellobiose, dulcitol, d-glucose, maltose, raffinose, sucrose, l-sorbose, trehalose, inulin and dried grass extract, to lactate, formate, acetate and ethanol. Based on phylogenetic and physiological characteristics, Cavy grass 6T can be distinguished from other members of the genus Streptococcus. Therefore, a novel species of the genus Streptococcus, family Streptococcaceae, order Lactobacillales is proposed, Streptococcuscaviae sp. nov. (type strain Cavy grass 6T=TISTR 2371T=DSM 102819T).

  11. Computed tomography analysis of guinea pig bone: architecture, bone thickness and dimensions throughout development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witkowska, Agata; Alibhai, Aziza; Hughes, Chloe; Price, Jennifer; Klisch, Karl; Sturrock, Craig J; Rutland, Catrin S

    2014-01-01

    The domestic guinea pig, Cavia aperea f. porcellus, belongs to the Caviidae family of rodents. It is an important species as a pet, a source of food and in medical research. Adult weight is achieved at 8-12 months and life expectancy is ∼5-6 years. Our aim was to map bone local thickness, structure and dimensions across developmental stages in the normal animal. Guinea pigs (n = 23) that had died of natural causes were collected and the bones manually extracted and cleaned. Institutional ethical permission was given under the UK Home Office guidelines and the Veterinary Surgeons Act. X-ray Micro Computed Tomography (microCT) was undertaken on the left and right scapula, humerus and femur from each animal to ascertain bone local thickness. Images were also used to undertake manual and automated bone measurements, volumes and surface areas, identify and describe nutrient, supratrochlear and supracondylar foramina. Statistical analysis between groups was carried out using ANOVA with post-hoc testing. Our data mapped a number of dimensions, and mean and maximum bone thickness of the scapula, humerus and femur in guinea pigs aged 0-1 month, 1-3 months, 3-6 months, 6 months-1 year and 1-4 years. Bone dimensions, growth rates and local bone thicknesses differed between ages and between the scapula, humerus and femur. The microCT and imaging software technology showed very distinct differences between the relative local bone thickness across the structure of the bones. Only one bone showed a singular nutrient foramen, every other bone had between 2 and 5, and every nutrient canal ran in an oblique direction. In contrast to other species, a supratrochlear foramen was observed in every humerus whereas the supracondylar foramen was always absent. Our data showed the bone local thickness, bone structure and measurements of guinea pig bones from birth to 4 years old. Importantly it showed that bone development continued after 1 year, the point at which most guinea pigs have

  12. Allogeneic guinea pig mesenchymal stem cells ameliorate neurological changes in experimental colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavely, Rhian; Robinson, Ainsley M; Miller, Sarah; Boyd, Richard; Sakkal, Samy; Nurgali, Kulmira

    2015-12-30

    The use of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) to treat inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is of great interest because of their immunomodulatory properties. Damage to the enteric nervous system (ENS) is implicated in IBD pathophysiology and disease progression. The most commonly used model to study inflammation-induced changes to the ENS is 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene-sulfonate acid (TNBS)-induced colitis in guinea pigs; however, no studies using guinea pig MSCs in colitis have been performed. This study aims to isolate and characterise guinea pig MSCs and then test their therapeutic potential for the treatment of enteric neuropathy associated with intestinal inflammation. MSCs from guinea pig bone marrow and adipose tissue were isolated and characterised in vitro. In in vivo experiments, guinea pigs received either TNBS for the induction of colitis or sham treatment by enema. MSCs were administered at a dose of 1 × 10(6) cells via enema 3 h after the induction of colitis. Colon tissues were collected 24 and 72 h after TNBS administration to assess the level of inflammation and damage to the ENS. The secretion of transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) was analysed in MSC conditioned medium by flow cytometry. Cells isolated from both sources were adherent to plastic, multipotent and expressed some human MSC surface markers. In vitro characterisation revealed distinct differences in growth kinetics, clonogenicity and cell morphology between MSC types. In an in vivo model of TNBS-induced colitis, guinea pig bone marrow MSCs were comparatively more efficacious than adipose tissue MSCs in attenuating weight loss, colonic tissue damage and leukocyte infiltration into the mucosa and myenteric plexus. MSCs from both sources were equally neuroprotective in the amelioration of enteric neuronal loss and changes to the neurochemical coding of neuronal subpopulations. MSCs from both sources secreted TGF-β1 which exerted neuroprotective effects in vitro. This study is the first

  13. A contrastive analysis of laser heating between the human and guinea pig cochlea by numerical simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kaiyin; Zhang, Yulong; Li, Ji; Wang, Qiuling

    2016-05-23

    The photo-thermal effect has been hypothesised to be one of the most possible biophysical mechanisms for laser-cochlea stimulation. However, there is a lack of studies to date for direct assessing laser heating in humans due to the large body of evidence required to demonstrate safety and efficacy. Instead, the majority focus on animals like the guinea pig, from which a number of valuable results have been gained. However, in light of the increasing need to improve laser safety, it has became necessary to find out whether studies on animals can shed light on safe laser parameters in the human cochlea. Hence, we conducted this contrastive analysis of laser heating between the human and guinea pig cochlea with the aim of assisting further investigations in this field. In this work, a 3D symmetrical model was adopted to simplify the spiraled cochlea. With attention focused on the effect of heat conduction, the time-dependent heat equation was solved using finite element method with the COMSOL Script. In the simulations, cochleae with different sizes and various boundary thermal conditions were utilized. Laser heating in both cochleae has a similar trend. In the first stage, or at the beginning of the laser heating, both cochleae increased their temperatures rapidly. In the second stage in which the laser heating reached a quasi-steady stage, the peak temperatures began to rise slowly as more laser pulses were applied. However, three differences of the laser heating were observed. The first is regarding the temperature rise. The results show that laser heating in guinea pig is higher than that in human under the same laser parameters. The second difference is the fluctuation of temperature rise at the center of the modiolus. There is a larger fluctuation of temperature rise in the guinea pig cochlea, compared with that in the human cochlea. The third one is the time for reaching a steady thermal state. The results show that the guinea pig cochlea takes longer time to

  14. Replication-defective lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus vectors expressing guinea pig cytomegalovirus gB and pp65 homologs are protective against congenital guinea pig cytomegalovirus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardin, Rhonda D; Bravo, Fernando J; Pullum, Derek A; Orlinger, Klaus; Watson, Elizabeth M; Aspoeck, Andreas; Fuhrmann, Gerhard; Guirakhoo, Farshad; Monath, Thomas; Bernstein, David I

    2016-04-12

    Congenital cytomegalovirus infection can be life-threatening and often results in significant developmental deficits and/or hearing loss. Thus, there is a critical need for an effective anti-CMV vaccine. To determine the efficacy of replication-defective lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (rLCMV) vectors expressing the guinea pig CMV (GPCMV) antigens, gB and pp65, in the guinea pig model of congenital CMV infection. Female Hartley strain guinea pigs were divided into three groups: Buffer control group (n = 9), rLCMV-gB group (n = 11), and rLCMV-pp65 (n = 11). The vaccines were administered three times IM at 1.54 × 10(6)FFU per dose at 21-day intervals. At two weeks after vaccination, the female guinea pigs underwent breeding. Pregnant guinea pigs were challenged SQ at ∼ 45-55 days of gestation with 1 × 10(5)PFU of GPCMV. Viremia in the dams, pup survival, weights of pups at delivery, and viral load in both dam and pup tissues were determined. Pup survival was significantly increased in the LCMV-gB vaccine group. There was 23% pup mortality in the gB vaccine group (p = 0.044) and 26% pup mortality in the pp65 vaccine group (p = 0.054) compared to 49% control pup mortality. The gB vaccine induced high levels of gB binding and detectable neutralizing antibodies, reduced dam viremia, and significantly reduced viral load in dam tissues compared to control dams (p < 0.03). Reduced viral load and transmission in pups born to gB-vaccinated dams was observed compared to pups from pp65-vaccinated or control dams. The rLCMV-gB vaccine significantly improved pup survival and also increased pup weights and gestation time. The gB vaccine was also more effective at decreasing viral load in dams and pups and limiting congenital transmission. Thus, rLCMV vectors that express CMV antigens may be an effective vaccine strategy for congenital CMV infection. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. GENETIC CONTROL IN GUINEA PIGS OF IMMUNE RESPONSE TO CONJUGATES OF HAPTENS AND POLY-L-LYSINE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LEVINE, B B; BENACERRAF, B

    1965-01-29

    Random-bred Hartley strain guinea pigs which do not respond immunologically to conjugates of hapten and poly-L-lysine mere mated with heterozygous guinea pigs which do. These responders were considered heterozygous for this trait since their mating resulted in at least one nonresponder offspring. Of 31 offspring from 10 breeding pairs (nonresponder x heterozygous responder) 14 were responders. There was no evidence that this trait is sex-linked. This finding confirms the view that, in guinea pigs, development of an immune response to the aforementioned conjugates is a genetically transmitted autosomal, unigenic Mendelian dominant trait.

  16. Determining Optimal Microwave Antigen Retrieval Conditions for Microtubule-Associated Protein 2 Immunohistochemistry in the Guinea Pig Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-12-01

    sections of formalin-fixed guinea pig brains using different MAP-2 monoclonal antibodies. Brain sections were boiled in sodium citrate, citric acid...citric acid solution at pH 6.0 is the optimal microwave-assisted AR method for immunolabeling MAP-2 in formalin-fixed, paraffin-processed guinea pig brain...studies on archival guinea pig brain paraffin blocks, ultimately relaxing the use of additional animals to evaluate changes in MAP-2 expression between chemical warfare nerve agent-treated and control samples.

  17. Hypochlorite Solution as a Decontaminant in Sulfur Mustard Contaminated Skin Defects in the Euthymic Hairless Guinea Pig

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-05-13

    AD-P008 792 Hyochlorte Solution as a Decossitamrsrl nan Sultur Mustard Contaminated Skin Defects in the Euthymesc Hailess Guinea Pig Mark B. Gol, OVM...euthymic hairles guinea pigs (EHGP) (n--6) were exposed tn 0 4 LD50 HO in a hA-thickntss 8 mm surgical bmop~sy skin deflect (ioe wound) Each animal was...in a animal model of an HO contaminated wound. The euthymic hairless guinea pig (EHGP) has been extensrvely studied and aicepted as the model of

  18. Electrophysiologic effects of the IK1 inhibitor PA-6 are modulated by extracellular potassium in isolated guinea pig hearts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoeker, Gregory S; Skarsfeldt, Mark A; Jespersen, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    in Langendorff-perfused guinea pig hearts. PA-6 (200 nm) or vehicle was perfused into ex-vivo guinea pig hearts for 60 min. Hearts were optically mapped with di-4-ANEPPS to quantify CV and APD at 90% repolarization (APD90). Ventricular APD90was significantly prolonged in hearts treated with PA-6 (115 ± 2...... APD90to a lesser degree, but profoundly increased CV Thus, in intact guinea pig hearts, the electrophysiologic effects of the IK1inhibitor, PA-6, are [K+]o-dependent....

  19. Metabolism and disposition of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin in guinea pigs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olson, J.R.

    1986-01-01

    Marked interspecies variability exists in the acute toxicity of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), with the guinea pig being the mammalian species most sensitive to the acute toxicity of TCDD. The metabolism and disposition of TCDD was investigated in guinea pigs for 45 days following a single exposure to purified [ 3 H]TCDD (0.56 microgram/kg, ip). Guinea pigs included in the toxicokinetic study gained body weight, maintained a normal relative body composition, and exhibited no gross signs of toxicity during the 45-day study. Approximately 36% of the dose of TCDD-derived 3 H remained in the adipose tissue at 45 days following exposure to [ 3 H]TCDD, while the liver, pelt, and skeletal muscle and carcass each contained about 7% of the administered dose. Although most of the TCDD-derived radioactivity in liver, kidney, perirenal adipose tissue, and skeletal muscle represented unchanged TCDD, from 4 to 28% of the 3 H was associated with metabolites of TCDD. This unexpected finding suggests that TCDD metabolites are not efficiently excreted from guinea pigs. The urinary and fecal excretion of TCDD-derived radioactivity followed apparent first-order kinetics, with an elimination half-life of 93.7 +/- 15.5 days (mean +/- SD). HPLC analysis of urine and bile from [ 3 H]TCDD-treated guinea pigs showed that all of the radioactivity represented metabolites of TCDD, indicating that these routes of elimination are dependent on prior metabolism of TCDD. However, 70 to 90% of the radioactivity in fecal samples was found to represent unmetabolized TCDD throughout the 45-day excretion study. The presence of TCDD in feces and its absence in bile suggest that the fecal excretion of unchanged TCDD resulted from the direct intestinal elimination of the lipophilic toxin

  20. Antagonist profile of ibodutant at the tachykinin NK2 receptor in guinea pig isolated bronchi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santicioli, Paolo; Meini, Stefania; Giuliani, Sandro; Lecci, Alessandro; Maggi, Carlo Alberto

    2013-10-24

    In this study we have characterized the pharmacological profile of the non-peptide tachykinin NK 2 receptor antagonist ibodutant (MEN15596) in guinea pig isolated main bronchi contractility. The antagonist potency of ibodutant was evaluated using the selective NK 2 receptor agonist [βAla 8 ]NKA(4-10)-mediated contractions of guinea pig isolated main bronchi. In this assay ibodutant (30, 100 and 300nM) induced a concentration-dependent rightward shift of the [βAla 8 ]NKA(4-10) concentration-response curves without affecting the maximal contractile effect. The analysis of the results yielded a Schild-plot linear regression with a slope not different from unity (0.95, 95% c.l. 0.65-1.25), thus indicating a surmountable behaviour. The calculated apparent antagonist potency as pK B value was 8.31±0.05. Ibodutant (0.3-100nM), produced a concentration-dependent inhibition of the nonadrenergic-noncholinergic (NANC) contractile response induced by electrical field stimulation (EFS) of intrinsic airway nerves in guinea pig isolated main bronchi. At the highest concentration tested (100nM) ibodutant almost abolished the EFS-induced bronchoconstriction (95±4% inhibition), the calculated IC 50 value was 2.98nM (95% c.l. 1.73-5.16nM). In bronchi from ovalbumin (OVA) sensitized guinea pigs ibodutant (100nM) did not affect the maximal contractile response to OVA, but completely prevented the slowing in the fading of the motor response induced by phosphoramidon pretreatment linked to the endogenous neurokinin A release. Altogether, the present study demonstrate that ibodutant is a potent NK 2 receptor antagonist in guinea pig airways. © 2013 Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Morphometrical Study of the Temporal Bone and Auditory Ossicles in Guinea Pig

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmadali Mohammadpour

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In this research, anatomical descriptions of the structure of the temporal bone and auditory ossicles have been performed based on dissection of ten guinea pigs. The results showed that, in guinea pig temporal bone was similar to other animals and had three parts; squamous, tympanic and petrous .The tympanic part was much better developed and consisted of oval shaped tympanic bulla with many recesses in tympanic cavity. The auditory ossicles of guinea pig concluded of three small bones; malleus, incus and stapes but the head of the malleus and the body of incus were fused and forming a malleoincudal complex. The average of morphometric parameters showed that the malleus was 3.53 ± 0.22 mm in total length. In addition to head and handle, the malleus had two distinct process; lateral and muscular. The incus had a total length 1.23 ± 0.02mm. It had long and short crus although the long crus was developed better than short crus. The lenticular bone was a round bone that articulated with the long crus of incus. The stapes had a total length 1.38 ± 0.04mm. The anterior crus(0.86 ± 0.08mm was larger than posterior crus (0.76 ± 0.08mm. It is concluded that, in the guinea pig, the malleus and the incus are fused, forming a junction called incus-malleus, while in the other animals these are separate bones. The stapes is larger and has a triangular shape and the anterior and posterior crus are thicker than other rodents. Therefore, for otological studies, the guinea pig is a good lab animal.

  2. Generation and characterization of induced pluripotent stem cells from guinea pig fetal fibroblasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yuehong; Li, Ouyang; He, Chengwen; Li, Yong; Li, Min; Liu, Xiaoming; Wang, Yujiong; He, Yulong

    2017-01-01

    Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS) represent an important tool to develop disease-modeling assays, drug testing assays and cell-based replacement therapies. The application of iPS in these fields requires the development of suitable animal models. Of the suitable species, guinea pigs are particularly important and offer significant advantages. Successful iPS generation has been accomplished in a number of species; however, it has not been reported in the guinea pig. The present study successfully generated iPS from guinea pigs (giPS) using single polycistronic virus transduction with mouse octamer-binding transcription factor 4 (Oct4), sex determining region Y-box 2 (Sox2), Kruppel-like factor 4 and c-Myc. The giPS cell lines were cultured in media containing leukemia inhibitory factor and guinea pig fibroblast cells were used as feeder cells. These cultures were expanded under feeder-free culture conditions using ESGRO Complete Plus Clonal Grade medium containing 15% fetal bovine serum on gelatin-coated dishes. The resultant cells had a normal karyotype, exhibited alkaline phosphatase activity and expressed the pluripotency markers Oct4, Sox2 and Nanog. The cells differentiated in vivo to form teratomas that contained all three germ layers of the tissue cells. The generation of giPS may facilitate future studies investigating the mechanisms underlying innate immunity, particularly for tuberculosis. These experiments provide proof of principle that iPS technology may be adapted to use the guinea pig as a model of human diseases. PMID:28393187

  3. [Preliminary pharmacodynamics study on antiasthmatic action of butylphthalide in guinea pig].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhi-Wang; Wang, Yong-Hui; Ren, Yuan; Wang, Rui-Qiong; Lin, Xing-Yao; Duan, Hai-Jing

    2017-02-08

    To study the anti-asthmatic effects of butylphthalide in guinea pig. This research included isolated tra-cheal smooth muscle and in vivo animal experiments. Antispasmodic effects of butylphthalide at the concentrations of 1, 10, 100 mg/L were observed through spasmodical tracheal smooth muscle of guinea pig induced by acetylcholine or histamine ( n =10). After screened, the guinea pigs were divided into control group, model group, dexamethasone(DXM) group, high and low dose butylphthalide groups. The effects of butylphthalide on nitric oxide (NO), endothelin-1 (ET-1) and asthmatic behaviors were observed on the asthmatic guinea pigs that were stimu-lated six times by the excitation fluid (1% ACh:0.05% Hist=1:1). Butylphthalide at the concentrations of 1、10、100 mg/L had an-ti-spasmodic effects on spasmodical tracheal smooth muscle of guinea pig (15.08 ±7.68、42.41 ±13.54、77.56 ±24.82 to acetylcholine, 19.40 ±7.60、56.84 ±11.72、76.35 ±19.40 to histamine), which showed a certain dose-effect relationship. Butylphthalide could prolong asth-matic incubation period (53.3 ±13.2、33.1 ±13.0), improve asthmatic behaviors, reduce NO in serum (78.71 ±19.40、84.75 ±20.97) and ET-1 in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (24.30 ±5.80、28.50 ±6.31) ( P < 0.05, 0.01). Butylphthalide has some effects of anti-asthma and one of the mechanisms is to relieve abnormal increase of NO and ET-1.

  4. Developmental expression of Toll‑like receptors in the guinea pig lung.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Lingjie; Yang, Jiali; Yang, Li; Shi, Juan; Xue, Jing; Li, Yong; Liu, Xiaoming

    2017-03-01

    The guinea pig is a useful model for investigating infectious and non‑infectious lung diseases due to the sensitivity of its respiratory system and susceptibility to infectious agents. Toll‑like receptors (TLRs) are important components of the innate immune response and are critical for lung immune function. In the present study, the differentiation of epithelial cells in the guinea pig lung was examined during gestation by studying anatomic morphology and the major epithelial cell types using cell type‑specific markers. The developmental expression of all 9 TLRs and the TLR signaling adaptors myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88) and tumor necrosis factor receptor associated factor 6 (TRAF‑6) were investigated by reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blotting analysis. The formation of lung lobes in guinea pigs was observed at 45 days of gestation (dGA), along with the expression of the basal cell marker keratin 14 and the alveolar type II cell marker pro‑surfactant protein. However, the cube cell marker secretoglobin family1A member 1 and ciliated cell marker b‑tubulin IV were only detected in the lungs from 52 dGA onward. The expression levels of all TLRs, MyD88 and TRAF‑6 were determined in lung tissues harvested from embryos, newborn, postnatal and adult animals. The expression levels of all TLR signaling components displayed similar dynamic expression patterns with gestation age and postnatal maturation time, except for TLR‑4 and TLR‑7. mRNA expression levels of TLR components were significantly increased in the lungs at 45 and 52 dGA, compared with later developmental stages. These results suggest that TLR expression in the guinea pig lung is developmentally regulated, enhancing the understanding of lung biology in guinea pig models.

  5. Generation and characterization of induced pluripotent stem cells from guinea pig fetal fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yuehong; Li, Ouyang; He, Chengwen; Li, Yong; Li, Min; Liu, Xiaoming Liu; Wang, Yujiong; He, Yulong

    2017-06-01

    Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS) represent an important tool to develop disease‑modeling assays, drug testing assays and cell‑based replacement therapies. The application of iPS in these fields requires the development of suitable animal models. Of the suitable species, guinea pigs are particularly important and offer significant advantages. Successful iPS generation has been accomplished in a number of species; however, it has not been reported in the guinea pig. The present study successfully generated iPS from guinea pigs (giPS) using single polycistronic virus transduction with mouse octamer‑binding transcription factor 4 (Oct4), sex determining region Y‑box 2 (Sox2), Kruppel‑like factor 4 and c‑Myc. The giPS cell lines were cultured in media containing leukemia inhibitory factor and guinea pig fibroblast cells were used as feeder cells. These cultures were expanded under feeder‑free culture conditions using ESGRO Complete Plus Clonal Grade medium containing 15% fetal bovine serum on gelatin‑coated dishes. The resultant cells had a normal karyotype, exhibited alkaline phosphatase activity and expressed the pluripotency markers Oct4, Sox2 and Nanog. The cells differentiated in vivo to form teratomas that contained all three germ layers of the tissue cells. The generation of giPS may facilitate future studies investigating the mechanisms underlying innate immunity, particularly for tuberculosis. These experiments provide proof of principle that iPS technology may be adapted to use the guinea pig as a model of human diseases.

  6. Clearance of 99mTc-labeled albumin from lungs in anesthetized guinea pigs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Connelly, J.C.; Peterson, B.T.

    1993-01-01

    Gamma imaging was used to measure the rate of clearance of aerosolized 99m Tc-human serum albumin (HSA) from the lungs of control guinea pigs and guinea pigs that received increased lung inflation or lung injury. Anesthetized guinea pigs were ventilated for 6 min with an aerosol of HSA and the radioactivity in the chest was monitored for 2 h with a gamma camera to determine whether the clearance rate would be a reliable assessment of lung epithelial permeability. Increased lung volumes were effected by application of 5 or 7 cm H 2 O positive end-expired pressure (5-PEEP and 7-PEEP, respectively). Lung injury was induced either by intravenous oleic acid (OA, 27-73 μl/kg) or inhalation of nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 , 80-100 ppm) for 2 h. Postmortem extravascular lung water volume (EVLW) provided an assessment of the degree of lung injury. Tracer clearance rates in animals receiving 5 or 7 cm H 2 O PEEP were not significantly different from controls (K = 0.15 ± 0.05 and 0.24 ± 0.10 vs 0.12 ± 0.03%/min, respectively, p > .05). Animals exposed to NO 2 had faster tracer clearance rates (K = 0.33 ± 0.21%/min, p 2 -exposed guinea pigs correlated well with injury as assessed by EVLW (r = .93, p 2 O PEEP (K = 0.58 ± 0.41%/min, EVLW = 8.1 ± 0.8 mL/g dry lung tissue, p < .05), but there was no correlation between these parameters in this injury model. It is concluded that imaging of the disappearance of radiolabeled HSA in the guinea pig can be a useful index of lung epithelial permeability, but this technique is limited to certain models of lung injury. 33 refs

  7. Comparison of the Protective Efficacy of DNA and Baculovirus-Derived Protein Vaccines for EBOLA Virus in Guinea Pigs

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mellquist-Riemenschneider, Jenny L; Garrison, Aura R; Geisbert, Joan B; Saikh, Kamal U; Heidebrink, Kelli D

    2003-01-01

    .... Previously, a priming dose of a DNA vaccine expressing the glycoprotein (GP) gene of MARV followed by boosting with recombinant baculovirus-derived GP protein was found to confer protective immunity to guinea pigs (Hevey et al., 2001...

  8. Pretreatment with P-Nitrophenyl Phosphoramides: Spontaneous Reactivation of Blood ChE after Oral Administration to Guinea Pigs

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Polhuijs, M

    1997-01-01

    ... and of the reference compounds pyridostigmine and physostigmine has been studied in the guinea pig, as determined by measuring spontaneous reactivation of blood ChE inhibited by these pretreatment compounds...

  9. Isolation and characterisation of a dinucleotide microsatellite set for a parentage and biodiversity study in domestic guinea pig (Cavia porcellus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Aviles

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The domestic guinea pig is a valuable genetic resource because it is part of local folklore and food tradition in many South American countries. The economic importance of the guinea pig is due to its high feed efficiency and the quality of animal protein produced. For these reasons, our study is aimed to design a complete dinucleotide microsatellite marker set following international recommendation to assess the genetic diversity and genealogy management of guinea pigs. We selected a total of 20 microsatellites, looking for laboratory efficiency and good statistical parameters. The set was tested in 100 unrelated individuals of guinea pigs from Ecuador, Peru, Colombia, Bolivia and Spain. Our results show a high degree of polymorphisms with a total of 216 alleles and a mean number of 10.80±3.49 for markers with a combined exclusion probability of 0.99.

  10. Monovalent Virus-Like Particle Vaccine Protects Guinea Pigs and Nonhuman Primates Against Infection with Multiple Marburg Viruses

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Swenson, Dana L; Warfield, Kelly L; Larsen, Tom; Alves, D. A; Coberley, Sadie S; Bavari, Sina

    2008-01-01

    .... Guinea pigs vaccinated with marburgvirus (m)VLPs or inactivated MARV (iMARV) develop homologous humoral and T cell responses and are completely protected from a lethal homologous MARV challenge...

  11. Injury Thresholds for Topical Cream-Coated Skin of Hairless Guinea Pigs (Cavia Procellus) in Near Infrared Region

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stolarski, David J; Zohner, Justin J; Imholte, Michelle L; Chavey, Lucas J; Pocock, Ginger M; Buchanan, Kelvin C; Jindra, Nichole M; Figueroa, Manuel A; Thomas, Robert J; Rockwell, Benjamin A

    2006-01-01

    .... Hairless guinea pigs (cavia porcellus) in vivo were used to evaluate how the minimum visible lesion threshold for single-pulse laser exposure is changed with a topical agent applied to the skin...

  12. Studies on the absorption of epoxy resin /sup 14/C-epidian 5 through the skin of guinea pigs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woyton, A; Wozniak, M; Dobryszycka, W [Akademia Medyczna, Wroclaw (Poland)

    1976-01-01

    The absorption and spread of epoxy resin labelled with /sup 14/C-epidian 5 was evaluated by measurements of radioactivity of the skin and individual organs in guinea pigs and of the ovum in pregnant guinea pigs. It has been demonstrated that the radioactive resin is slowly absorbed through the skin and reaches, by blood vessels, inner organs and the skin distant from the smeared site. The liver participates actively in the metabolism of epidian 5. The radioactivity of the nervous tissue and urine of the guinea pig bladder increased successively with the length of time, which indicates this way of excretion of the resin. In fetal membranes the level of radioactivity was considerably higher than in the placental tissue and fetal fluids. Worthy of note is also that livers of guinea pig fetuses showed an isotope mark and that radioactivity increased in the fetal pulmonary tissue.

  13. Studies on the absorption of epoxy resin 14C-epidian 5 through the skin of guinea pigs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woyton, A.; Wozniak, M.; Dobryszycka, W.

    1976-01-01

    The absorption and spread of epoxy resin labelled with 14 C-epidian 5, was evaluated by measurements of radioactivity of the skin and individual organs in guinea pigs and of the ovum in pregnant guinea pigs. It has been demonstrated that the radioactive resin is slowly absorbed through the skin and reaches, by blood vessels, inner organs and the skin distant from the smeared site. The liver participates actively in the metabolism of epidian 5. The radioactivity of the nervous tissue and urine of the guinea pig bladder increased successively with the length of time, which indicates this way of excretion of the resin. In fetal membranes the level of radioactivity was considerably higher than in the placental tissue and fetal fluids. Worthy of note is also that livers of guinea pig fetuses showed an isotope mark and that radioactivity increased in the fetal pulmonary tissue. (author)

  14. DNA vaccines elicit durable protective immunity against individual or simultaneous infections with Lassa and Ebola viruses in guinea pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cashman, Kathleen A.; Wilkinson, Eric R.; Wollen, Suzanne E.; Shamblin, Joshua D.; Zelko, Justine M.; Bearss, Jeremy J.; Zeng, Xiankun; Broderick, Kate E.; Schmaljohn, Connie S.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT We previously developed optimized DNA vaccines against both Lassa fever and Ebola hemorrhagic fever viruses and demonstrated that they were protective individually in guinea pig and nonhuman primate models. In this study, we vaccinated groups of strain 13 guinea pigs two times, four weeks apart with 50 µg of each DNA vaccine or a mock vaccine at discrete sites by intradermal electroporation. Five weeks following the second vaccinations, guinea pigs were exposed to lethal doses of Lassa virus, Ebola virus, or a combination of both viruses simultaneously. None of the vaccinated guinea pigs, regardless of challenge virus and including the coinfected group, displayed weight loss, fever or other disease signs, and all survived to the study endpoint. All of the mock-vaccinated guinea pigs that were infected with Lassa virus, and all but one of the EBOV-infected mock-vaccinated guinea pigs succumbed. In order to determine if the dual-agent vaccination strategy could protect against both viruses if exposures were temporally separated, we held the surviving vaccinates in BSL-4 for approximately 120 days to perform a cross-challenge experiment in which guinea pigs originally infected with Lassa virus received a lethal dose of Ebola virus and those originally infected with Ebola virus were infected with a lethal dose of Lassa virus. All guinea pigs remained healthy and survived to the study endpoint. This study clearly demonstrates that DNA vaccines against Lassa and Ebola viruses can elicit protective immunity against both individual virus exposures as well as in a mixed-infection environment. PMID:29135337

  15. Levels of protein hydroperoxides and carbonyl groups in guinea pigs native of high altitudes (Huancavelica, 3660 m)

    OpenAIRE

    Huayta, Roxana; Zúñiga, Haydée; Esquerre, Cynthia; Hernández, Luz; Carranza, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    The influence of hypobaric hypoxia on protein oxidation in lungs, heart, liver, kidneys and testicles of high altitude native guinea pigs (Huancavelica, 3660 m) in comparison to sea level (Lima, 150 m) native guinea pigs was evaluated. The concentration of protein hydroperoxides (POOH) and carbonyl groups (GC) as markers of protein oxidation, as well as total thiols (TT) concentration, powerful reducing agents that act as live antioxidants were determined. The results showed low concentration...

  16. Oxidative DNA damage in vitamin C-supplemented guinea pigs after intratracheal instillation of diesel exhaust particles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moller, P.; Daneshvar, B.; Loft, S.

    2003-01-01

    . The concentrations of ascorbate in liver, lung, and plasma were unaltered by the DEP exposure. The results indicate that in guinea pigs DEP causes oxidative DNA damage rather than bulky DNA adducts in the lung. Guinea pigs, which are similar to humans with respect to vitamin C metabolism, may serve as a new model...... for the study of oxidative damage induced by particulate matter. (C) 2003 Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved....

  17. A model of type 2 diabetes in the guinea pig using sequential diet-induced glucose intolerance and streptozotocin treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackart, David F.; Richardson, Michael A.; DiLisio, James E.; Pulford, Bruce; Basaraba, Randall J.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Type 2 diabetes is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality among noncommunicable diseases, and additional animal models that more closely replicate the pathogenesis of human type 2 diabetes are needed. The goal of this study was to develop a model of type 2 diabetes in guinea pigs, in which diet-induced glucose intolerance precedes β-cell cytotoxicity, two processes that are crucial to the development of human type 2 diabetes. Guinea pigs developed impaired glucose tolerance after 8 weeks of feeding on a high-fat, high-carbohydrate diet, as determined by oral glucose challenge. Diet-induced glucose intolerance was accompanied by β-cell hyperplasia, compensatory hyperinsulinemia, and dyslipidemia with hepatocellular steatosis. Streptozotocin (STZ) treatment alone was ineffective at inducing diabetic hyperglycemia in guinea pigs, which failed to develop sustained glucose intolerance or fasting hyperglycemia and returned to euglycemia within 21 days after treatment. However, when high-fat, high-carbohydrate diet-fed guinea pigs were treated with STZ, glucose intolerance and fasting hyperglycemia persisted beyond 21 days post-STZ treatment. Guinea pigs with diet-induced glucose intolerance subsequently treated with STZ demonstrated an insulin-secretory capacity consistent with insulin-independent diabetes. This insulin-independent state was confirmed by response to oral antihyperglycemic drugs, metformin and glipizide, which resolved glucose intolerance and extended survival compared with guinea pigs with uncontrolled diabetes. In this study, we have developed a model of sequential glucose intolerance and β-cell loss, through high-fat, high-carbohydrate diet and extensive optimization of STZ treatment in the guinea pig, which closely resembles human type 2 diabetes. This model will prove useful in the study of insulin-independent diabetes pathogenesis with or without comorbidities, where the guinea pig serves as a relevant model species. PMID:28093504

  18. Determination of stimulation effective dose of gamma ray on guinea pig to be used for antibody production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arifin, Muchson; Soewarsono, M.

    1983-01-01

    The experiment has been performed on guinea pigs which were irradiated by gamma rays with doses of 0, 150, 300 and 600 rad. Observations were carried out on peripheral blood in regard to red blood cell, white blood cell and haemoglobine, every week after irradiation. +he result obtained showed that 150 rad was the optimal stimulation effective dose for antibody production in guinea pigs. (author)

  19. Determination of stimulation effective dose of gamma ray on guinea pig to be used for antibody production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arifin, M; Soewarsono, M [National Atomic Energy Agency, Jakarta (Indonesia). Pasar Djumat Research Centre

    1983-04-01

    The experiment has been performed on guinea pigs which were irradiated by gamma rays with doses of 0, 150, 300 and 600 rad. Observations were carried out on peripheral blood in regard to red blood cell, white blood cell and haemoglobine, every week after irradiation. The result obtained showed that 150 rad was the optimal stimulation effective dose for antibody production in guinea pigs. 10 refs.

  20. A model of type 2 diabetes in the guinea pig using sequential diet-induced glucose intolerance and streptozotocin treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podell, Brendan K; Ackart, David F; Richardson, Michael A; DiLisio, James E; Pulford, Bruce; Basaraba, Randall J

    2017-02-01

    Type 2 diabetes is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality among noncommunicable diseases, and additional animal models that more closely replicate the pathogenesis of human type 2 diabetes are needed. The goal of this study was to develop a model of type 2 diabetes in guinea pigs, in which diet-induced glucose intolerance precedes β-cell cytotoxicity, two processes that are crucial to the development of human type 2 diabetes. Guinea pigs developed impaired glucose tolerance after 8 weeks of feeding on a high-fat, high-carbohydrate diet, as determined by oral glucose challenge. Diet-induced glucose intolerance was accompanied by β-cell hyperplasia, compensatory hyperinsulinemia, and dyslipidemia with hepatocellular steatosis. Streptozotocin (STZ) treatment alone was ineffective at inducing diabetic hyperglycemia in guinea pigs, which failed to develop sustained glucose intolerance or fasting hyperglycemia and returned to euglycemia within 21 days after treatment. However, when high-fat, high-carbohydrate diet-fed guinea pigs were treated with STZ, glucose intolerance and fasting hyperglycemia persisted beyond 21 days post-STZ treatment. Guinea pigs with diet-induced glucose intolerance subsequently treated with STZ demonstrated an insulin-secretory capacity consistent with insulin-independent diabetes. This insulin-independent state was confirmed by response to oral antihyperglycemic drugs, metformin and glipizide, which resolved glucose intolerance and extended survival compared with guinea pigs with uncontrolled diabetes. In this study, we have developed a model of sequential glucose intolerance and β-cell loss, through high-fat, high-carbohydrate diet and extensive optimization of STZ treatment in the guinea pig, which closely resembles human type 2 diabetes. This model will prove useful in the study of insulin-independent diabetes pathogenesis with or without comorbidities, where the guinea pig serves as a relevant model species. © 2017. Published by

  1. Opioid binding sites in the guinea pig and rat kidney: Radioligand homogenate binding and autoradiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dissanayake, V.U.; Hughes, J.; Hunter, J.C. (Parke-Davis Research Unit, Addenbrookes Hospital Site, Cambridge (England))

    1991-07-01

    The specific binding of the selective {mu}-, {delta}-, and {kappa}-opioid ligands (3H)(D-Ala2,MePhe4,Gly-ol5)enkephalin ((3H) DAGOL), (3H)(D-Pen2,D-Pen5)enkephalin ((3H)DPDPE), and (3H)U69593, respectively, to crude membranes of the guinea pig and rat whole kidney, kidney cortex, and kidney medulla was investigated. In addition, the distribution of specific 3H-opioid binding sites in the guinea pig and rat kidney was visualized by autoradiography. Homogenate binding and autoradiography demonstrated the absence of {mu}- and {kappa}-opioid binding sites in the guinea pig kidney. No opioid binding sites were demonstrable in the rat kidney. In the guinea pig whole kidney, cortex, and medulla, saturation studies demonstrated that (3H)DPDPE bound with high affinity (KD = 2.6-3.5 nM) to an apparently homogeneous population of binding sites (Bmax = 8.4-30 fmol/mg of protein). Competition studies using several opioid compounds confirmed the nature of the {delta}-opioid binding site. Autoradiography experiments demonstrated that specific (3H)DPDPE binding sites were distributed radially in regions of the inner and outer medulla and at the corticomedullary junction of the guinea pig kidney. Computer-assisted image analysis of saturation data yielded KD values (4.5-5.0 nM) that were in good agreement with those obtained from the homogenate binding studies. Further investigation of the {delta}-opioid binding site in medulla homogenates, using agonist ((3H)DPDPE) and antagonist ((3H)diprenorphine) binding in the presence of Na+, Mg2+, and nucleotides, suggested that the {delta}-opioid site is linked to a second messenger system via a GTP-binding protein. Further studies are required to establish the precise localization of the {delta} binding site in the guinea pig kidney and to determine the nature of the second messenger linked to the GTP-binding protein in the medulla.

  2. Guinea Pig as a Model to Study the Carotid Body Mediated Chronic Intermittent Hypoxia Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Docio, Inmaculada; Olea, Elena; Prieto-LLoret, Jesus; Gallego-Martin, Teresa; Obeso, Ana; Gomez-Niño, Angela; Rocher, Asuncion

    2018-01-01

    Clinical and experimental evidence indicates a positive correlation between chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH), increased carotid body (CB) chemosensitivity, enhanced sympatho-respiratory coupling and arterial hypertension and cardiovascular disease. Several groups have reported that both the afferent and efferent arms of the CB chemo-reflex are enhanced in CIH animal models through the oscillatory CB activation by recurrent hypoxia/reoxygenation episodes. Accordingly, CB ablation or denervation results in the reduction of these effects. To date, no studies have determined the effects of CIH treatment in chemo-reflex sensitization in guinea pig, a rodent with a hypofunctional CB and lacking ventilatory responses to hypoxia. We hypothesized that the lack of CB hypoxia response in guinea pig would suppress chemo-reflex sensitization and thereby would attenuate or eliminate respiratory, sympathetic and cardiovascular effects of CIH treatment. The main purpose of this study was to assess if guinea pig CB undergoes overactivation by CIH and to correlate CIH effects on CB chemoreceptors with cardiovascular and respiratory responses to hypoxia. We measured CB secretory activity, ventilatory parameters, systemic arterial pressure and sympathetic activity, basal and in response to acute hypoxia in two groups of animals: control and 30 days CIH exposed male guinea pigs. Our results indicated that CIH guinea pig CB lacks activity elicited by acute hypoxia measured as catecholamine (CA) secretory response or intracellular calcium transients. Plethysmography data showed that only severe hypoxia (7% O 2 ) and hypercapnia (5% CO 2 ) induced a significant increased ventilatory response in CIH animals, together with higher oxygen consumption. Therefore, CIH exposure blunted hyperventilation to hypoxia and hypercapnia normalized to oxygen consumption. Increase in plasma CA and superior cervical ganglion CA content was found, implying a CIH induced sympathetic hyperactivity. CIH

  3. Inhibition of partially purified K+/H+-ATPase from guinea-pig isolated and enriched parietal cells by substituted benzimidazoles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beil, W.; Sewing, K. F.

    1984-01-01

    The cellular and subcellular distributions of adenosinetriphosphatases (ATPases) were examined in guinea-pig gastric mucosal cells. All cell types displayed Mg2+-ATPase and bicarbonate (HCO3-)-stimulated ATPase activity. K+-ATPase was located only in fractions derived from parietal cells. Differential and density-gradient centrifugation of material prepared from parietal cells revealed that K+-ATPase activity was located in a tubulo-vesicular membrane fraction. Enzyme activity was ten fold greater in this fraction than in a crude parietal cell homogenate. The substituted benzimidazoles, omeprazole and picoprazole, inhibited K+-ATPase (IC50 1.8 +/- 0.5 mumol l-1 and 3.1 +/- 0.4 mumol l-1, respectively). Detailed kinetic analysis indicated that these compounds were non-competitive and reversible inhibitors of the enzyme. In contrast cimetidine and verapamil were without effect on the enzyme. The relevance of the inhibition of K+-ATPase to the antisecretory activity of the benzimidazoles, in experimental animals and man, is discussed. PMID:6146367

  4. Retinal and choroidal expression of BMP-2 in lens-induced myopia and recovery from myopia in guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Honghui; Wu, Juan; Cui, Dongmei; Zeng, Junwen

    2016-03-01

    The present study investigated the retinal and choroidal expression of bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) in myopia and in myopia recovery in a guinea pig model. For this investigation, two groups of guinea pigs, lens‑induced myopia and recovery from myopia, were used, and defocused myopia was induced the guinea pigs wearing ‑4.00 D lenses on the right eyes for 3 weeks, with the left eyes serving as the contralateral. In the following week, the lenses of the guinea pigs in the recovery group were removed, and the refractive power and axial length were measured. The expression of BMP‑2 in the eyeballs was observed using immunohistochemistry and analyzed using Western blot analysis. After 3 weeks, the eyes acquired relative myopia and longer axial lengths in the two groups of guinea pigs. After 1 week without lenses in the recovery group, the myopia and axial lengths regressed. Immunofluorescence staining showed that BMP‑2 was expressed in the posterior retina, RPE, choroid and sclera. The expression of BMP‑2 decreased in the myopic retina of the guinea pigs. Following the regression of myopia in the recovery group, no difference in the expression of BMP‑2 was observed between the recovered treated eyes and the contralateral eyes. The choroidal expression level of BMP‑2 in the treated eyes showed no significant changes in either group. Therefore, BMP‑2 may be involved in the development of myopia, however, it does not have a primary role in the retinal and choroidal signals regulating scleral remodeling.

  5. GCMS/MS Analyses of Biological Samples in Support of Evaluation of Toxicity Associated with Intravenous Exposure to VX Stereoisomers in Guinea Pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-01

    ASSOCIATED WITH INTRAVENOUS EXPOSURE TO VX STEREOISOMERS IN GUINEA PIGS ECBC-TR-1465 Disclaimer The findings in this report are not to be...VX Stereoisomers in Guinea Pigs 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) McGuire, Jeffrey M.; Wright...lung, liver, kidney, and brain) that were obtained from guinea pigs intravenously exposed to various concentrations of O-ethyl S-(2

  6. Male non-insulin users with type 2 diabetes mellitus are predisposed to gastric corpus-predominant inflammation after H. pylori infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yao-Jong; Wu, Chung-Tai; Ou, Horng-Yih; Lin, Chin-Han; Cheng, Hsiu-Chi; Chang, Wei-Lun; Chen, Wei-Ying; Yang, Hsiao-Bai; Lu, Cheng-Chan; Sheu, Bor-Shyang

    2017-10-30

    Both H. pylori infection and diabetes increase the risk of gastric cancer. This study investigated whether patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and H. pylori infection had more severe corpus gastric inflammation and higher prevalence of precancerous lesions than non-diabetic controls. A total of 797 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus were screened for H. pylori, of whom 264 had H. pylori infection. Of these patients, 129 received esophagogastroduodenoscopy to obtain topographic gastric specimens for gastric histology according to the modified Updated Sydney System, corpus-predominant gastritis index (CGI), Operative Link on Gastritis Assessment, and Operative Link on Gastric Intestinal Metaplasia Assessment. Non-diabetic dyspeptic patients who had H. pylori infection confirmed by esophagogastroduodenoscopy were enrolled as controls. The male as well as total T2DM patients had higher acute/chronic inflammatory and lymphoid follicle scores in the corpus than non-diabetic controls (p H. pylori-infected patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and H. pylori infection had more severe corpus gastric inflammation than non-diabetic controls. Moreover, male gender and non-insulin users of T2DM patients were predisposed to have corpus-predominant gastritis after H. pylori infection. ClinicalTrial: NCT02466919 , retrospectively registered may 17, 2015.

  7. Negative inotropism of terpenes on guinea pig left atrium: structure-activity relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasconcelos, Carla M L; Oliveira, Ingrid S N; Santos, José N A; Souza, Américo A; Menezes-Filho, José E R; Silva Neto, Júlio A; Lima, Tamires C; de Sousa, Damião P

    2018-06-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the pharmacological effect of seven structurally related terpenes on the contractility of cardiac muscle. The effect of terpenes was studied on isolated electrically driven guinea pig left atrium. From concentration-response curves for inotropic effect were determined the EC 50 and relative potency of such terpenes. Our results revealed that all terpenes, except phytol, showed ability to reduce the contractile response of guinea pig left atrium. Further, relative potency was directly related to the number of isoprene units and to the lipophilicity of the compounds. For example, sesquiterpenes farnesol and nerolidol showed higher relative potency when compared with the monoterpenes citronellol, geraniol and nerol. We can conclude that most of the evaluated terpenes showed a promising negative inotropism on the atrial muscle. Future studies are necessary to investigate their action mechanism.

  8. Maternal vitamin C deficiency during pregnancy persistently impairs hippocampal neurogenesis in offspring of guinea pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tveden-Nyborg, Pernille; Vogt, Lucile; Schjoldager, Janne G

    2012-01-01

    While having the highest vitamin C (VitC) concentrations in the body, specific functions of VitC in the brain have only recently been acknowledged. We have shown that postnatal VitC deficiency in guinea pigs causes impairment of hippocampal memory function and leads to 30% less neurons. This study...... investigates how prenatal VitC deficiency affects postnatal hippocampal development and if any such effect can be reversed by postnatal VitC repletion. Eighty pregnant Dunkin Hartley guinea pig dams were randomized into weight stratified groups receiving High (900 mg) or Low (100 mg) VitC per kg diet. Newborn...... by stereology. Prenatal VitC deficiency resulted in a significant reduction in postnatal hippocampal volume (P...

  9. Effect of venlafaxine hydrochloride in different preparations of isolated guinea-pig and rat organ tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasco, A; Arruza, A; Maroto, M; Carvajal, A; Fernández del Busto, E; García del Pozo, J

    1999-04-01

    A study was undertaken to know better the effects of venlafaxine hydrochloride on the responses of isolated rat vas deferens to noradrenaline and dopamine, those of isolated rat uterus to serotonin and histamine, and those of isolated guinea-pig ileum to acetylcholine and histamine. Venlafaxine hydrochloride increased the response of rat vas deferens to noradrenaline but not to dopamine. Venlafaxine did not alter the response of rat isolated uterus to serotonin. In rat uterus, venlafaxine did not modify the response to histamine but was able to increase it in guinea-pig ileum. An anticholinergic effect was observed with the lowest concentration tested. Although venlafaxine is a selective serotonine reuptake inhibitor in the central nervous system, serotonin uptake was not seen in the rat uterus. The anticholinergic effects observed in the present study might be consistent with some of the side-effects associated with venlafaxine.

  10. Schistosoma mansoni: migration potential of normal and radiation attenuated parasites in naive guinea pigs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamiya, H.; McLaren, D.J.

    1987-01-01

    Compressed tissue autoradiography using [75Se]selenomethionine labelled parasites has been used to investigate the migration potential of normal and radiation attenuated cercariae of Schistosoma mansoni in naive guinea pigs. By Day 14 after infection. 44% of normal parasites were detected as reduced silver foci in the liver; this value corresponded well with the number of liver parasites recovered by retrograde perfusion of the hepatic portal system on Day 42 (42% of the challenge). In contrast, cercariae subjected to 50 krad of gamma irradiation failed to migrate out of the skin. The migration capacity of 20 krad irradiated parasites was less severely affected in that about half of the challenge parasites reached the lungs, but virtually none moved to the liver. These data are discussed in relation to the kinetics of immunity induced in guinea pigs by infection or vaccination with normal or radiation attenuated parasites

  11. Social preferences of developing guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus) from the preweaning to the periadolescent periods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennessy, Michael B; Young, Travis L; O'Leary, Shonagh K; Maken, Deborah S

    2003-12-01

    Preference tests in a novel environment (Experiment 1) and unobtrusive observations in a specialized living environment (Experiment 2) examined the attractiveness of various classes of conspecifics for maturing guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus). It was found that (a). the young continued to remain near the mother well beyond weaning; (b). there was increased time spent with unrelated adult females, but not males, after weaning; (c). male and female offspring behaved similarly; and (d). littermates spent considerable time with each other. These results provide no evidence that guinea pigs approaching sexual maturity begin to associate preferentially with novel animals or potential breeding partners. Choices were largely predictable from earlier findings of the ability of various classes of conspecifics to reduce hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal activity of the young.

  12. [Breeding and management of mycobacteria-free guinea pigs (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazda, J

    1976-08-01

    A number of mycobacterial species are detectable under conventional holding condition of guinea pigs. These mycobacteria originating in drinking water and litter caused cross reactions in the Jones-Mote hypersensitivity test. Using suitable precautions it was possible to breed and hold the animals mycobacteria-free. The precautions depend mainly in alteration of the wire mesh floor in cages to avoide the contact of the animals with the litter, in cleaning and desinfection of water bottles, in using of heated water and food and in the prevention of mycobacterial contamination from the staff. The control examination on mycobacteria without treating is given in details. Cases are refered in which a oral rece ption of mycobacteria can alter the immune response. The modification of guinea pigs management to the mycobacteria-free ones is possible in a short time and with minimal cost.

  13. "Rickettsia amblyommii" induces cross protection against lethal Rocky Mountain spotted fever in a guinea pig model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanton, Lucas S; Mendell, Nicole L; Walker, David H; Bouyer, Donald H

    2014-08-01

    Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF) is a severe illness caused by Rickettsia rickettsii for which there is no available vaccine. We hypothesize that exposure to the highly prevalent, relatively nonpathogenic "Rickettsia amblyommii" protects against R. rickettsii challenge. To test this hypothesis, guinea pigs were inoculated with "R. amblyommii." After inoculation, the animals showed no signs of illness. When later challenged with lethal doses of R. rickettsii, those previously exposed to "R. amblyommii" remained well, whereas unimmunized controls developed severe illness and died. We conclude that "R. amblyommii" induces an immune response that protects from illness and death in the guinea pig model of RMSF. These results provide a basis for exploring the use of low-virulence rickettsiae as a platform to develop live attenuated vaccine candidates to prevent severe rickettsioses.

  14. Gastrointestinal absorption and retention of polonium in adult and newborn rats and guinea pigs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haines, J.W.; Naylor, G.P.L.; Pottinger, H.; Harrison, J.D.

    1993-01-01

    The gastrointestinal absorption of 210 Po was determined by comparing tissue retention after oral and systemic administration. The results indicate an increase in absorption in adult rats for 210 Po administered in liver compared with 210 Po nitrate with estimated absorption of 5 and 13%, respectively. For 210 Po citrate, values of about 7% were obtained in 1-day-old neonate and adult rats while absorption in guinea pigs was estimated to be about 23% in 1-day-old neonates, 17% in 5-day-old neonates, and 9% in adults. Gut retention of ingested 210 Po in neonates was high in rats but not guinea pigs. In adult animals, but not neonates, the liver accounted for a greater proportion of 210 Po reaching the bloodstream after ingestion than after systemic injection. The significance of these results is discussed in relation to current assumptions made in the calculation of doses from 210 Po. (author)

  15. Adapted Lethality: What We Can Learn from Guinea Pig-Adapted Ebola Virus Infection Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheresiz, S V; Semenova, E A; Chepurnov, A A

    2016-01-01

    Establishment of small animal models of Ebola virus (EBOV) infection is important both for the study of genetic determinants involved in the complex pathology of EBOV disease and for the preliminary screening of antivirals, production of therapeutic heterologic immunoglobulins, and experimental vaccine development. Since the wild-type EBOV is avirulent in rodents, the adaptation series of passages in these animals are required for the virulence/lethality to emerge in these models. Here, we provide an overview of our several adaptation series in guinea pigs, which resulted in the establishment of guinea pig-adapted EBOV (GPA-EBOV) variants different in their characteristics, while uniformly lethal for the infected animals, and compare the virologic, genetic, pathomorphologic, and immunologic findings with those obtained in the adaptation experiments of the other research groups.

  16. Adapted Lethality: What We Can Learn from Guinea Pig-Adapted Ebola Virus Infection Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Cheresiz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Establishment of small animal models of Ebola virus (EBOV infection is important both for the study of genetic determinants involved in the complex pathology of EBOV disease and for the preliminary screening of antivirals, production of therapeutic heterologic immunoglobulins, and experimental vaccine development. Since the wild-type EBOV is avirulent in rodents, the adaptation series of passages in these animals are required for the virulence/lethality to emerge in these models. Here, we provide an overview of our several adaptation series in guinea pigs, which resulted in the establishment of guinea pig-adapted EBOV (GPA-EBOV variants different in their characteristics, while uniformly lethal for the infected animals, and compare the virologic, genetic, pathomorphologic, and immunologic findings with those obtained in the adaptation experiments of the other research groups.

  17. Vitamin C deficiency reduces muscarinic receptor coronary artery vasoconstriction and plasma tetrahydrobiopterin concentration in guinea pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovsted, Gry Freja; Tveden-Nyborg, Pernille; Lindblad, Maiken Marie

    2017-01-01

    Vitamin C (vitC) deficiency is associated with increased cardiovascular disease risk, but its specific interplay with arteriolar function is unclear. This study investigates the effect of vitC deficiency in guinea pigs on plasma biopterin status and the vasomotor responses in coronary arteries...... exposed to vasoconstrictor/-dilator agents. Dunkin Hartley female guinea pigs (n = 32) were randomized to high (1500 mg/kg diet) or low (0 to 50 mg/kg diet) vitC for 10-12 weeks. At euthanasia, coronary artery segments were dissected and mounted in a wire-myograph. Vasomotor responses to potassium......-1 were unaffected by vitC status. The study shows that vitC deficiency decreases tetrahydrobiopterin concentrations and muscarinic receptor mediated contraction in coronary arteries. This attenuated vasoconstrictor response may be linked to altered production of vasoactive arachidonic acid...

  18. Ultrasonographic detection of adrenal gland tumor and ureterolithiasis in a guinea pig

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaschen, L.; Ketz, C.; Lang, J.; Weber, U.; Bacciarini, L.; Kohler, I.

    1998-01-01

    A 5-year-old guinea pig was presented to the University of Berne Small Animal Radiology Department for an ultrasound examination of the abdomen to confirm a suspected diagnosis of Cushing's syndrome. The patient had bilateral alopecia, was apathic and obese. Ultrasonographically, a tumor of the left adrenal gland, obstruction of the left ureter by an ureterolith, as well as hydronephrosis of the left kidney were detected. During surgery to relieve the ureteral obstruction the adrenal gland tumor was removed. The guinea pig died post-operatively due to blood loss. The left adrenal gland tumor was found histopathologically to be an adenoma and the right adrenal gland also had multiple small adenomas, but grossly appeared normal. The ureterolith was analyzed and found by x-ray diffraction to consist of calcium carbonate

  19. Carvacrol attenuates serum levels of total protein, phospholipase A2 and histamine in asthmatic guinea pig

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hossein Boskabady

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Pharmacological effects of carvacrol such as its anti-inflammatory activities have been shows. In this study the effects of carvacrol on serum levels of total protein (TP, phospholipase A2 (PLA2 and histamine in sensitized guinea pigs was evaluated. Materials and Methods: Sensitized guinea pigs were given drinking water alone (group S, drinking water containing three concentrations of carvacrol (40, 80 and 160 µg/ml or dexamethasone. Serum levels of TP, PLA2 and histamine were examined I all sensitized groups as well as a non-sensitized control group (n=6 for each group. Results: In sensitized animals, serum levels of TP, PLA2 and histamine were significantly increased compared to control animals (p

  20. Intestinal absorption and retention of cadmium in neonatal pigs compared to rats and guinea pigs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasser, L.B.; Jarboe, G.E.

    1980-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure intestinal absorption and retention of cadmium in the newborn pig and to compare data from the pig, rat and guinea pig, three species that differ greatly in their ability to absorb macromolecules at birth. Newborn pigs were administered a single oral dose of 50 μCi of /sup 115m/Cd 24 hours after birth and killed at intervals between 1 and 14 days after dosing. Cd absorption and gastrointestinal retention were then determined; these data were compared with similar data from the rat and guinea pig. Cd absorption in the neonate appears to be a two-step process; mucosal uptake of Cd from the lumen, probably by pinocytosis, followed by transfer of a portion of this Cd into the body. This transfer process is similar, but does not entirely coincide with changes associated with protein absorption in the neonate

  1. Prosopis juliflora pollen allergen induced hypersensitivity and anaphylaxis studies in guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, I S

    1986-11-01

    In vivo and in vitro allergenic activities of Prosopis juliflora pollen allergens were measured in guinea pigs. Intracutaneous skin test showed an early wheal flare response and a late erythema-redness, sensitized with various concentrations (100, 50, 25, 5 and 1.5 micrograms/ml) of Prosopis juliflora pollen extract after administration of a challenging dose. A 50 micrograms/ml sensitizing dose of Prosopis juliflora pollen allergen gave optimum skin response as both early and late effects. The nature of immunochemical reactivity between pollen allergens and reaginic antibodies were further characterized by histamine release test, gel diffusion test, radioallergosorbent test and passive cutaneous anaphylaxis test. These tests confirm allergenicity caused by Prosopis juliflora pollen allergens and showed the binding of allergens with reaginic antibody and its regulation in guinea pigs.

  2. Histopathological changes in the irradiated normal organs of guinea pigs with conventional fractionation and hyperfractionation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inomata, Taisuke; Itoh, Satoshi; Tsuboi, Nobuaki

    1998-01-01

    Guinea pigs were divided into groups according to four irradiation schedules : 2 Gy/3 Gy x 1/day, five fractions/week, total 80 Gy/81 Gy (A/C group) and 1.0 Gy/1.5 Gy x 2/day, ten fractions/week, total 80 Gy/81 Gy (B/D group). The A group and the C group pathologically caused severe damage in the kidney six and three months after irradiation, respectively. In the B group pathological analysis suggested that only slight-to-moderate changes were occurred in the Bowman's capsule. The D group caused slight damage in the kidney six months after irradiation. Hyperfractionation (B/D group) used in this protocol can clearly reduce radiation damage in the kidney of guinea pigs as compared with conventional fractionation (A/C group). (author)

  3. Diet-induced dyslipidemia leads to nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and oxidative stress in guinea pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tveden-Nyborg, Pernille; Birck, Malene Muusfeldt; Ipsen, David Højland

    2016-01-01

    Chronic dyslipidemia imposed by a high-fat and high-caloric dietary regime leads to debilitating disorders such as obesity, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), and insulin resistance. As disease rates surge, so does the need for high validity animal models to effectively study the causal...... and either 15% or 20% sucrose) compared with isocaloric standard chow in adult guinea pigs. Biochemical markers confirmed dyslipidemia in agreement with dietary regimens; however, both high-fat groups displayed a decreased tissue fat percentage compared with controls. Macroscopic appearance, histopathologic....... Evaluation of glucose tolerance showed no indication of insulin resistance. The 5% increase in sucrose between the 2 high-fat diets did not lead to significant differences between groups. In conclusion, we find the dyslipidemic guinea pig to be a valid model of diet imposed dyslipidemia, particularly...

  4. Magnetic resonance imaging findings and prognosis of gastric-type mucinous adenocarcinoma (minimal deviation adenocarcinoma or adenoma malignum) of the uterine corpus: Two case reports

    OpenAIRE

    HINO, MAYO; YAMAGUCHI, KEN; ABIKO, KAORU; YOSHIOKA, YUMIKO; HAMANISHI, JUNZO; KONDOH, EIJI; KOSHIYAMA, MASAFUMI; BABA, TSUKASA; MATSUMURA, NORIOMI; MINAMIGUCHI, SACHIKO; KIDO, AKI; KONISHI, IKUO

    2016-01-01

    Our group previously documented the first, very rare case of primary gastric-type mucinous adenocarcinoma of the uterine corpus. Although this type of endometrial cancer appears to be similar to the gastric-type adenocarcinoma of the uterine cervix, its main symptoms, appearance on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and prognosis have not been fully elucidated due to its rarity. We herein describe an additional case of gastric-type mucinous adenocarcinoma of the endometrium and review the relev...

  5. Characterization of the guinea pig 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/Delta5-Delta4-isomerase expressed in the adrenal gland and gonads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durocher, Francine; Sanchez, Rocio; Ricketts, Marie-Louise; Labrie, Yvan; Laudet, Vincent; Simard, Jacques

    2005-11-01

    The guinea pig adrenal gland, analogous to the human, possesses the capacity to synthesize C(19) steroids. In order to further understand the control of guinea pig adrenal steroidogenesis we undertook the characterization of the guinea pig 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/Delta(5)-Delta(4)-isomerase (3beta-HSD) expressed in the adrenal gland. A cDNA clone encoding guinea pig 3beta-HSD isolated from a guinea pig adrenal library is predicted to encode a protein of 373 amino acid residues and 41,475Da. Ribonuclease protection assay suggests that this cDNA corresponds to the predominant, if not the sole, mRNA species detectable in total RNA from the guinea pig adrenal gland, ovary and testis. The guinea pig 3beta-HSD shows a similar affinity for both pregnenolone and dehydroepiandrosterone, and in addition, a 17beta-HSD type II-like activity was also observed. A phylogenetical analysis of the 3beta-HSD gene family demonstrates that the guinea pig is in a parallel branch to the myomorpha group supporting the hypothesis that the guinea pig lineage has branched off after the divergence among primates, artiodactyls and rodents, suggesting the paraphyly of the order rodentia.

  6. C-Kit expression in the gallbladder of guinea pig with chronic calculous cholecystitis and the effect of Artemisia capillaris Thunb on interstitial cells of Cajal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Hua; Wang, Fang; Wang, Changmiao

    2016-07-01

    To study the c-Kit expression in the gallbladder of cholesterol lithogenic guinea pig model and the effect of Artemisia capillaris Thunb on interstitial cells of Cajal (ICCs). A total of 45 guinea pigs were randomly assigned into three groups: the control group (guinea pigs fed a standard diet, normal group); the model group (guinea pigs fed a cholesterol gallstone-inducing diet); and the Chinese medicine group (guinea pigs fed the cholesterol gallstone-inducing diet and treated with A. capillaris through intragastric administration, therapy group). Each group had 15 guinea pigs. The gallbladders of the guinea pigs were harvested after 8 weeks. C-Kit expression was detected using an immunohistochemistry staining, real-time PCR, and Western blot analyses. The effect of A. capillaris on ICCs was evaluated by muscle strip contraction experiments. C-Kit expression significantly decreased in the gallbladder of model group, but increased in the Chinese medicine group. The Contractility of guinea pig gallbladder muscle strip significantly improved in the Chinese medicine group. Our results indicated that A. capillaris improves gallbladder impairment by up-regulating c-Kit expression, and it also can improve the contractile response of in vitro guinea pig gallbladder muscle strips.

  7. Mystacial Whisker Layout and Musculature in the Guinea Pig (Cavia porcellus): A Social, Diurnal Mammal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Robyn A; Delaunay, Mariane G; Haidarliu, Sebastian

    2017-03-01

    All mammals (apart from apes and humans) have whiskers that make use of a similar muscle arrangement. Whisker specialists, such as rats and mice, tend to be nocturnal and arboreal, relying on their whisker sense of touch to guide exploration around tree canopies at night. As such, nocturnal arboreal rodents have many whiskers that are organised into a grid-like pattern, and moved using a complex array of muscles. Indeed, most arboreal, nocturnal mammals tend to have specialised whiskers that are longer and arranged in a dense, regular grid, compared with terrestrial, diurnal mammals. The guinea pig diverged early from murid rodents (around 75 million years ago), and are ground-dwelling, diurnal animals. It would be predicted that, as a terrestrial mammal, they may have less whiskers and a reduced muscle architecture compared to arboreal, nocturnal rodents. We examined the mystacial whisker layout, musculature and movement capacity of Guinea pig (Cavia porcellus) whiskers and found that they did indeed have a disorganized whisker layout, with a fortification around the eye area. In addition, there was a reduction in musculature, especially in the intrinsic muscles. Despite guinea pigs not cyclically moving their whiskers, the mystacial musculature was still very similar to that of murid rodents. We suggest that the conserved presence of whisker layout and musculature, even in visual mammals such as primates and guinea pigs, may indicate that whiskers still play an important role in these animals, including protecting the eyes and being involved in tactile social behaviors. Anat Rec, 300:527-536, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Validation of a Behavioral Ethogram for Assessing Postoperative Pain in Guinea Pigs (Cavia porcellus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunbar, Misha L; David, Emily M; Aline, Marian R; Lofgren, Jennifer L

    2016-01-01

    Although guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus) have been used in research for more than a century and remain the most prevalent USDA-covered species, little has been elucidated regarding the recognition of clinical pain or analgesic efficacy in this species. We sought to assess pain in guinea pigs by using newer, clinically relevant methods that have been validated in other rodent species: the behavioral ethogram and cageside proxy indicator. In this study, 10 male guinea pigs underwent electronic von Frey testing of nociception, remote videorecording of behavior, and cageside assessment by using time-to-consumption (TTC) of a preferred treat test. These assessments were performed across 2 conditions (anesthesia only and castration surgery under anesthesia) at 3 time points (2, 8, and 24 h after the event). The anesthesia only condition served to control for the nonpainful but potentially distressing components of the surgical experience. Compared with those after anesthesia only conditions, subtle body movements were increased and nociceptive thresholds were decreased at 2 and 8 h after surgery. At 24 h, neither subtle body movement behaviors nor nociceptive thresholds differed between the 2 conditions. In contrast, TTC scores did not differ between the anesthesia only and surgery conditions at any time point, underscoring the challenge of identifying pain in this species through cageside evaluation. By comparing ethogram scores with measures of nociception, we validated select behaviors as pain-specific. Therefore, our novel ethogram allowed us to assess postoperative pain and may further serve as a platform for future analgesia efficacy studies in guinea pigs.

  9. Recombinant IgA Is Sufficient To Prevent Influenza Virus Transmission in Guinea Pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seibert, Christopher W.; Rahmat, Saad; Krause, Jens C.; Eggink, Dirk; Albrecht, Randy A.; Goff, Peter H.; Krammer, Florian; Duty, J. Andrew; Bouvier, Nicole M.; García-Sastre, Adolfo

    2013-01-01

    A serum hemagglutination inhibition (HAI) titer of 40 or greater is thought to be associated with reduced influenza virus pathogenesis in humans and is often used as a correlate of protection in influenza vaccine studies. We have previously demonstrated that intramuscular vaccination of guinea pigs with inactivated influenza virus generates HAI titers greater than 300 but does not protect vaccinated animals from becoming infected with influenza virus by transmission from an infected cage mate. Only guinea pigs intranasally inoculated with a live influenza virus or a live attenuated virus vaccine, prior to challenge, were protected from transmission (A. C. Lowen et al., J. Virol. 83:2803–2818, 2009.). Because the serum HAI titer is mostly determined by IgG content, these results led us to speculate that prevention of viral transmission may require IgA antibodies or cellular immune responses. To evaluate this hypothesis, guinea pigs and ferrets were administered a potent, neutralizing mouse IgG monoclonal antibody, 30D1 (Ms 30D1 IgG), against the A/California/04/2009 (H1N1) virus hemagglutinin and exposed to respiratory droplets from animals infected with this virus. Even though HAI titers were greater than 160 1 day postadministration, Ms 30D1 IgG did not prevent airborne transmission to passively immunized recipient animals. In contrast, intramuscular administration of recombinant 30D1 IgA (Ms 30D1 IgA) prevented transmission to 88% of recipient guinea pigs, and Ms 30D1 IgA was detected in animal nasal washes. Ms 30D1 IgG administered intranasally also prevented transmission, suggesting the importance of mucosal immunity in preventing influenza virus transmission. Collectively, our data indicate that IgG antibodies may prevent pathogenesis associated with influenza virus infection but do not protect from virus infection by airborne transmission, while IgA antibodies are more important for preventing transmission of influenza viruses. PMID:23698296

  10. Transdermal delivery of isoniazid and rifampin in guinea pigs by electro-phonophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Suting; Han, Yi; Yu, Daping; Huo, Fengmin; Wang, Fen; Li, Yunxu; Dong, Lingling; Liu, Zhidong; Huang, Hairong

    2017-11-01

    Electro-phonophoresis (EP) has been used as a drug delivery approach in clinical fields. The objective of the present study is to evaluate the skin permeability of isoniazid and rifampin in guinea pigs by EP to provide reference basis for clinical applications of such transdermal delivery system in the treatment of patients with superficial tuberculosis. Isoniazid and rifampin solutions were delivered transdermally with or without EP in health guinea pigs for 0.5 h. Local skin and blood samples were collected serially at 0, 1/2, 1, 2, 4, 6 and 24 h after dosing. Drug concentrations in local skin and blood were evaluated by high-performance liquid chromatography. Isoniazid concentrations in local skin of guinea pigs receiving isoniazid through EP transdermal delivery were significantly higher than in animals receiving only isoniazid with transdermal patch. However, for rifampin, patches alone group presented almost uniform concentration versus time curve with that of EP group, and both groups had concentrations much higher than the therapeutic concentration of the drug over sustainable time. After EP transdermal delivery, the mean peak concentrations of isoniazid and rifampin in skin were 771.0 ± 163.4 μg/mL and 81.2 ± 17.3 μg/mL respectively. Neither isoniazid nor rifampin concentration in blood could be detected (below the lower detection limit of 1 μg/mL) at any time point. The present study showed that application of EP significantly enhanced INH penetration through skin in guinea pigs, while RIF patch alone obtained therapeutic concentration in local skin. Our work suggests several possible medication approaches for efficient treatment of superficial tuberculosis.

  11. Spatial learning impairment in prepubertal guinea pigs prenatally exposed to the organophosphorus pesticide chlorpyrifos: Toxicological implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamczarz, Jacek; Pescrille, Joseph D.; Gavrushenko, Lisa; Burke, Richard D.; Fawcett, William P.; DeTolla, Louis J.; Chen, Hegang; Pereira, Edna F.R.; Albuquerque, Edson X.

    2017-01-01

    Exposure of the developing brain to chlorpyrifos (CPF), an organophosphorus (OP) pesticide used extensively in agriculture worldwide, has been associated with increased prevalence of cognitive deficits in children, particularly boys. The present study was designed to test the hypothesis that cognitive deficits induced by prenatal exposure to sub-acute doses of CPF can be reproduced in precocial small species. To address this hypothesis, pregnant guinea pigs were injected daily with CPF (25 mg/kg, s.c.) or vehicle (peanut oil) for 10 days starting on presumed gestation day (GD) 53–55. Offspring were born around GD 65, weaned on postnatal day (PND) 20, and subjected to behavioral tests starting around PND 30. On the day of birth, butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE), an OP bioscavenger used as a biomarker of OP exposures, and acetylcholinesterase (AChE), a major molecular target of OP compounds, were significantly inhibited in the blood of CPF-exposed offspring. In their brains, BuChE, but not AChE, was significantly inhibited. Prenatal CPF exposure had no significant effect on locomotor activity or on locomotor habituation, a form of non-associative memory assessed in open fields. Spatial navigation in the Morris water maze (MWM) was found to be sexually dimorphic among guinea pigs, with males outperforming females. Prenatal CPF exposure impaired spatial learning more significantly among male than female guinea pigs and, consequently, reduced the sexual dimorphism of the task. The results presented here, which strongly support the test hypothesis, reveal that the guinea pig is a valuable animal model for preclinical assessment of the developmental neurotoxicity of OP pesticides. These findings are far reaching as they lay the groundwork for future studies aimed at identifying therapeutic interventions to treat and/or prevent the neurotoxic effects of CPF in the developing brain. PMID:27296654

  12. Autoradiographic visualization of muscarinic receptor subtypes in human and guinea pig lung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mak, J.C.; Barnes, P.J.

    1990-01-01

    Muscarinic receptor subtypes have been localized in human and guinea pig lung sections by an autoradiographic technique, using [3H](-)quinuclidinyl benzilate [( 3H]QNB) and selective muscarinic antagonists. [3H]QNB was incubated with tissue sections for 90 min at 25 degrees C, and nonspecific binding was determined by incubating adjacent serial sections in the presence of 1 microM atropine. Binding to lung sections had the characterization expected for muscarinic receptors. Autoradiography revealed that muscarinic receptors were widely distributed in human lung, with dense labeling over submucosal glands and airway ganglia, and moderate labeling over nerves in intrapulmonary bronchi and of airway smooth muscle of large and small airways. In addition, alveolar walls were uniformly labeled. In guinea pig lung, labeling of airway smooth muscle was similar, but in contrast to human airways, epithelium was labeled but alveolar walls were not. The muscarinic receptors of human airway smooth muscle from large to small airways were entirely of the M3-subtype, whereas in guinea pig airway smooth muscle, the majority were the M3-subtype with a very small population of the M2-subtype present. In human bronchial submucosal glands, M1- and M3-subtypes appeared to coexist in the proportions of 36 and 64%, respectively. In human alveolar walls the muscarinic receptors were entirely of the M1-subtype, which is absent from the guinea pig lung. No M2-receptors were demonstrated in human lung. The localization of M1-receptors was confirmed by direct labeling with [3H]pirenzepine. With the exception of the alveolar walls in human lung, the localization of muscarinic receptor subtypes on structures in the lung is consistent with known functional studies

  13. Pre- and postjunctional inhibitory effects of fenspiride on guinea-pig bronchi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girard, V; Naline, E; Crambes, O; Malbezin, M; Malmström, R E; Lundberg, J M; Advenier, C

    1997-05-01

    Fenspiride is a drug with potential benefits in the treatment of obstructive airways disease. It has antibronchoconstriction and anti-inflammatory properties. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of this drug on the contractions induced in the guinea-pig isolated main bronchus and perfused lung by electrical field stimulation (EFS) or exogenously added agents. Bronchi were stimulated transmurally in the presence of indomethacin 10(-6) M and propranolol 10(-6) M, and isometric tension was measured. In the perfused lung model calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) release was determined in the perfusate fractions as a measure of neuropeptide production. Two successive contractile responses were observed: a rapid cholinergic contraction, followed by a long-lasting contraction due to local release of neuropeptides from C-fibre endings. Fenspiride (10(-6) to 10(-4) M) inhibited the nonadrenergic, noncholinergic (NANC) component of the contraction of the guinea-pig isolated main bronchus induced by EFS. Fenspiride significantly affected contractions induced by exogenously added substance P or [Nle10]-NKA(4-10) only at concentrations higher than 10(-3) M. In the guinea-pig perfused lung, fenspiride inhibited low pH- but not capsaicin-evoked release of CGRP. At higher concentrations (10(-4) M to 3x10(-4) M) fenspiride exhibited a significant inhibitory effect both on the cholinergic component of contractile response induced by EFS in the guinea-pig isolated main bronchus and on exogenously added acetylcholine. In conclusion, the result of this study suggests that fenspiride, in moderate concentrations, reduces the release of neuropeptides, including tachykinins, from sensory nerve endings at a prejunctional level. At higher concentrations, postjunctional actions on bronchial smooth muscle are also present.

  14. Effects of bepridil on the electrophysiological properties of guinea-pig ventricular muscles.

    OpenAIRE

    Anno, T.; Furuta, T.; Itho, M.; Kodama, I.; Toyama, J.; Yamada, K.

    1984-01-01

    Effects of bepridil, a new antianginal and potential antiarrhythmic agent, on transmembrane action potentials of ventricular muscles were examined in isolated right ventricular papillary muscles of guinea-pig. Bepridil at concentrations above 5 X 10(-6)M caused a dose-dependent decrease in both the maximum upstroke velocity (Vmax) and the action potential duration from the upstroke to 30% repolarization ( APD30 ). On the other hand, the resting potential (RP), the amplitude of action potentia...

  15. Riboflavin and ultraviolet A irradiation for the prevention of progressive myopia in a guinea pig model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoxia; Wu, Miaoqin; Zhang, Luyi; Liu, Hui; Zhang, Lan; He, Jinjing

    2017-12-01

    In this study, we evaluated the effect of oral administration of riboflavin combined with whole-body ultraviolet A (UVA) irradiation on the biochemical and biomechanical properties of sclera in a guinea pig model to control the progression of myopia. Experimental groups were administered 0.1% riboflavin solution with or without vitamin C by gavage from 3 days before myopic modeling and during the modeling process. Guinea pigs underwent 30 min of whole-body UVA irradiation after each gavage for 2 weeks. For control groups, guinea pigs were administered vitamin C and underwent either whole-body UVA irradiation without 0.1% riboflavin solution or whole-body fluorescent lamp irradiation with or without 0.1% riboflavin solution. Resultantly, myopia models were established with an increased axial length and myopic diopter. Compared with myopic eyes in the control groups, the net increase in axial length, diopter and strain assessment decreased significantly, and the net decrease in sclera thickness, ultimate load, and stress assessment decreased significantly in experimental groups. MMP-2 expression showed a lower net increase, while TIMP-2 expression showed a lower net decrease. In addition, hyperplasia of scleral fibroblasts was more active in myopic eyes of experimental groups. Overall, our results showed that oral administration of riboflavin with whole-body UVA irradiation could increase the strength and stiffness of sclera by altering the biochemical and biomechanical properties, and decreases in axial elongation and myopic diopter are greater in the guinea pig myopic model. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. Effect of Itopride Hydrochloride on the Ileal and Colonic Motility in Guinea Pig In Vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Lim, Hyun Chul; Kim, Young Gyun; Lim, Jung Hyun; Kim, Hee Sun; Park, Hyojin

    2008-01-01

    Purpose Itopride hydrochloride (itopride) inhibits acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and antagonizes dopamine D2 receptor, and has been used as a gastroprokinetic agent. However, its prokinetic effect on the small bowel or colon has not yet been thoroughly investigated. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of itopride on motor functions of the ileum and colon in guinea pigs. Materials and Methods The distal ileum was excised and the activity of peristaltic contraction was determined...

  17. Influence of feeding hay on the alopecia of breeding guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerold, S; Huisinga, E; Iglauer, F; Kurzawa, A; Morankic, A; Reimers, S

    1997-08-01

    Animals with partial alopecia were seen frequently in a breeding colony of guinea pigs. No pathologic aetiology could be determined. An influence of nutrition on the density of the hair coat was considered. Breeding groups were fed one of the commercial guinea pig diets of differing composition, with or without the addition of hay. Observation occurred over a period of months and the quality of the hair coat was evaluated periodically using a semi-quantitative scoring system. More extensive and more frequent fur defects were found is guinea pigs receiving a breeding diet with a high content of crude protein (23%) and a low level of crude fibre (12%), offered hay only restrictively compared with animals receiving a diet with a lower content of crude protein (15.5%) and a higher level of crude fibre (19.5%), offered the same amount of hay. The amount of hay offered is of paramount importance. Animals fed only the diet with the higher level of crude fibre (19.5%), according to the manufacturer's instructions as a complete food, without the addition of hay, showed a less dense hair coat within 4 weeks. In our colony a group of five breeding animals and their young required 200 g of hay daily in order to improve their hair coat quality to normal. Conversely, animals receiving less hay had progressively deteriorating hair coat density. Not only the amount of hay offered, but also the accessibility for all animals plays a role in preventing alopecia in guinea pigs. In larger cages (twice the usual ground surface area) fur defects were seen when the same amount of hay (200 g) was offered in only one central area, rather than spread out evenly throughout the cage. Hair loss was observed to be the result of trichophagia between adult animals kept in the same cage. The need for crude fibre of breeding animals does not appear to be completely met by pellets rich in fibre segments.

  18. Fetal guinea pig brain 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase: Ontogeny and effect of ethanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Treissman, D.; Brien, J.F.

    1991-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the ontogeny of 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase (15-OH-PGDH) activity in the brain of the fetal guinea pig and to test the hypothesis that acute in vitro ethanol exposure produces concentration-dependent inhibition of fetal brain 15-OH-PGDH activity. Enzyme activity was determined in vitro by measuring the rate of oxidation of PGE2 to 15-keto-PGE2 using an optimized radiometric procedure. The study was conducted utilizing the whole brain of the fetal guinea pig at mean gestational ages of 34, 43 and 62 days (term, about 66 days) and the brain stem (pons and medulla) of the fetal guinea pig at mean gestational ages of 43 and 62 days. The direct effect of acute in vitro exposure to ethanol was assessed by incubating 15-OH-PGDH with ethanol in the concentration range of 10 to 80 mM. 15-OH-PGDH was measurable in the whole brain and brain stem, and the enzyme activity was similar for the gestational ages examined. There was no significant ethanol-induced inhibition of 15-OH-PGDH activity in the whole brain or brain stem. The data demonstrate that the whole brain and brain stem of the fetal guinea pig have the capacity to metabolize PGE2 to 15-keto-PGE2, an inactive metabolite, during the second half of gestation. The data apparently are not consistent with the hypothesis that acute in vitro exposure to ethanol directly inhibits 15-OH-PGDH activity in fetal brain

  19. Guinea pig (Cavia porcellus) drinking preferences: do nipple drinkers compensate for behaviourally deficient diets?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balsiger, A; Clauss, M; Liesegang, A; Dobenecker, B; Hatt, J-M

    2017-10-01

    When offered diets with hay ad libitum, rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) clearly prefer open dishes over nipple drinkers, but whether this preference also applies in guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus) is unsure. We tested the drinker preference of 10 guinea pigs when offered open dishes (OD) and nipple drinkers (ND) simultaneously and measured the amount of water consumed by each animal on four different diets (grass hay 100%, or as 10% of intake on diets of fresh parsley, seed mix or pelleted complete feed, respectively) on either of the drinking systems. All animals ingested the hay portion of the combined diets first. The amount of water consumed differed significantly between individual animals. Animals drank less water on parsley than on the other diets. Nine of 10 animals clearly preferred ND when having a choice, and eight of these drank more when on ND only. The difference between the drinking systems was not consistent across all diets: on hay, similar amounts of water were drunk when on OD or ND only. Differences in water intake were reflected in urine production. Because drinking from ND in guinea pigs involves jaw movements similar to those in chewing, the results could suggest that when motivation for oral processing behaviour is not satisfied by a diet, animals may respond in using ND beyond physiological water necessity. Whereas physiological water requirements are probably better investigated with other drinking systems due to a possible overestimation when using ND, offering ND to pet guinea pigs most likely offers a form of behavioural enrichment that at the same time may increase water intake and hence act as prophylaxis against urolithiasis. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  20. Expression and function of human hemokinin-1 in human and guinea pig airways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassin-Delyle, Stanislas; Naline, Emmanuel; Buenestado, Amparo; Risse, Paul-André; Sage, Edouard; Advenier, Charles; Devillier, Philippe

    2010-10-07

    Human hemokinin-1 (hHK-1) and endokinins are peptides of the tachykinin family encoded by the TAC4 gene. TAC4 and hHK-1 expression as well as effects of hHK-1 in the lung and airways remain however unknown and were explored in this study. RT-PCR analysis was performed on human bronchi to assess expression of tachykinin and tachykinin receptors genes. Enzyme immunoassay was used to quantify hHK-1, and effects of hHK-1 and endokinins on contraction of human and guinea pig airways were then evaluated, as well as the role of hHK-1 on cytokines production by human lung parenchyma or bronchi explants and by lung macrophages. In human bronchi, expression of the genes that encode for hHK-1, tachykinin NK1-and NK2-receptors was demonstrated. hHK-1 protein was found in supernatants from explants of human bronchi, lung parenchyma and lung macrophages. Exogenous hHK-1 caused a contractile response in human bronchi mainly through the activation of NK2-receptors, which blockade unmasked a NK1-receptor involvement, subject to a rapid desensitization. In the guinea pig trachea, hHK-1 caused a concentration-dependant contraction mainly mediated through the activation of NK1-receptors. Endokinin A/B exerted similar effects to hHK-1 on both human bronchi and guinea pig trachea, whereas endokinins C and D were inactive. hHK-1 had no impact on the production of cytokines by explants of human bronchi or lung parenchyma, or by human lung macrophages. We demonstrate endogenous expression of TAC4 in human bronchi, the encoded peptide hHK-1 being expressed and involved in contraction of human and guinea pig airways.

  1. Expression and function of human hemokinin-1 in human and guinea pig airways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sage Edouard

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human hemokinin-1 (hHK-1 and endokinins are peptides of the tachykinin family encoded by the TAC4 gene. TAC4 and hHK-1 expression as well as effects of hHK-1 in the lung and airways remain however unknown and were explored in this study. Methods RT-PCR analysis was performed on human bronchi to assess expression of tachykinin and tachykinin receptors genes. Enzyme immunoassay was used to quantify hHK-1, and effects of hHK-1 and endokinins on contraction of human and guinea pig airways were then evaluated, as well as the role of hHK-1 on cytokines production by human lung parenchyma or bronchi explants and by lung macrophages. Results In human bronchi, expression of the genes that encode for hHK-1, tachykinin NK1-and NK2-receptors was demonstrated. hHK-1 protein was found in supernatants from explants of human bronchi, lung parenchyma and lung macrophages. Exogenous hHK-1 caused a contractile response in human bronchi mainly through the activation of NK2-receptors, which blockade unmasked a NK1-receptor involvement, subject to a rapid desensitization. In the guinea pig trachea, hHK-1 caused a concentration-dependant contraction mainly mediated through the activation of NK1-receptors. Endokinin A/B exerted similar effects to hHK-1 on both human bronchi and guinea pig trachea, whereas endokinins C and D were inactive. hHK-1 had no impact on the production of cytokines by explants of human bronchi or lung parenchyma, or by human lung macrophages. Conclusions We demonstrate endogenous expression of TAC4 in human bronchi, the encoded peptide hHK-1 being expressed and involved in contraction of human and guinea pig airways.

  2. Production and characterization of guinea pig recombinant gamma interferon and its effect on macrophage activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeevan, A; McFarland, C T; Yoshimura, T; Skwor, T; Cho, H; Lasco, T; McMurray, D N

    2006-01-01

    Gamma interferon (IFN-gamma) plays a critical role in the protective immune responses against mycobacteria. We previously cloned a cDNA coding for guinea pig IFN-gamma (gpIFN-gamma) and reported that BCG vaccination induced a significant increase in the IFN-gamma mRNA expression in guinea pig cells in response to living mycobacteria and that the virulent H37Rv strain of Mycobacterium tuberculosis stimulated less IFN-gamma mRNA than did the attenuated H37Ra strain. In this study, we successfully expressed and characterized recombinant gpIFN-gamma with a histidine tag at the N terminus (His-tagged rgpIFN-gamma) in Escherichia coli. rgpIFN-gamma was identified as an 18-kDa band in the insoluble fraction; therefore, the protein was purified under denaturing conditions and renatured. N-terminal amino acid sequencing of the recombinant protein yielded the sequence corresponding to the N terminus of His-tagged gpIFN-gamma. The recombinant protein upregulated major histocompatibility complex class II expression in peritoneal macrophages. The antiviral activity of rgpIFN-gamma was demonstrated with a guinea pig fibroblast cell line (104C1) infected with encephalomyocarditis virus. Interestingly, peritoneal macrophages treated with rgpIFN-gamma did not produce any nitric oxide but did produce hydrogen peroxide and suppressed the intracellular growth of mycobacteria. Furthermore, rgpIFN-gamma induced morphological alterations in cultured macrophages. Thus, biologically active rgpIFN-gamma has been successfully produced and characterized in our laboratory. The study of rgpIFN-gamma will further increase our understanding of the cellular and molecular responses induced by BCG vaccination in the guinea pig model of pulmonary tuberculosis.

  3. Early microvascular changes in the preterm neonate: a comparative study of the human and guinea pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyson, Rebecca M; Palliser, Hannah K; Lakkundi, Anil; de Waal, Koert; Latter, Joanna L; Clifton, Vicki L; Wright, Ian M R

    2014-09-17

    Dysfunction of the transition from fetal to neonatal circulatory systems may be a major contributor to poor outcome following preterm birth. Evidence exists in the human for both a period of low flow between 5 and 11 h and a later period of increased flow, suggesting a hypoperfusion-reperfusion cycle over the first 24 h following birth. Little is known about the regulation of peripheral blood flow during this time. The aim of this study was to conduct a comparative study between the human and guinea pig to characterize peripheral microvascular behavior during circulatory transition. Very preterm (≤28 weeks GA), preterm (29-36 weeks GA), and term (≥37 weeks GA) human neonates underwent laser Doppler analysis of skin microvascular blood flow at 6 and 24 h from birth. Guinea pig neonates were delivered prematurely (62 day GA) or at term (68-71 day GA) and laser Doppler analysis of skin microvascular blood flow was assessed every 2 h from birth. In human preterm neonates, there is a period of high microvascular flow at 24 h after birth. No period of low flow was observed at 6 h. In preterm animals, microvascular flow increased after birth, reaching a peak at 10 h postnatal age. Blood flow then steadily decreased, returning to delivery levels by 24 h. Preterm birth was associated with higher baseline microvascular flow throughout the study period in both human and guinea pig neonates. The findings do not support a hypoperfusion-reperfusion cycle in the microcirculation during circulatory transition. The guinea pig model of preterm birth will allow further investigation of the mechanisms underlying microvascular function and dysfunction during the initial extrauterine period. © 2014 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American Physiological Society and The Physiological Society.

  4. Differential effects of R-isovaline and the GABAB agonist, baclofen, in the guinea pig ileum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, Timothy; Asseri, Khalid A; Asiri, Yahya I; Wall, Richard A; Schwarz, Stephan K W; Puil, Ernest; MacLeod, Bernard A

    2016-11-15

    R-isovaline is a non-proteinogenic amino acid which produces analgesia in a range of nociceptive assays. Mediation of this effect by metabotropic receptors for γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and glutamate, demonstrated by previous work, may depend on the type of tissue or receptor system. The objective of this study was to assess the activity of R-isovaline acting at GABA B and group II metabotropic glutamate receptors in guinea pig ileum, which is known to exhibit well-defined responses to GABA B agonists such as baclofen. The effects of bath-applied R-isovaline and RS-baclofen were examined on electrically evoked contractions of guinea pig ileum and during GABA B antagonism by CGP52432. In separate experiments, the group II metabotropic glutamate receptor agonist, LY354740 was applied to determine the functional presence of these receptors. R-isovaline (1-100mM) decreased the amplitude of ileal muscle contractions and increased tension. RS-baclofen reduced contraction amplitude, but decreased tension. CGP52432 did not prevent the effects of R-isovaline on contraction amplitude, but antagonized effects of RS-baclofen on contraction amplitude. The group II metabotropic glutamate receptor agonist, LY354740, produced no detectable effects on evoked contractions. R-isovaline differed significantly from RS-baclofen in its actions in the guinea pig ileum, indicated in particular by the finding that CGP52432 blocked only the effects of RS-baclofen. The ileal tissue did not respond to a group II metabotropic glutamate receptor agonist, previously shown to co-mediate R-isovaline analgesia. These findings raise the possibility of a novel therapeutic target at unknown receptors for R-isovaline-like compounds in the guinea pig ileum. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Action Mechanism of Iridoid Compounds on Guinea-pig Right Atrium Specimens

    OpenAIRE

    齊藤, 久美子; 酒井 淳一; 堀田 芳弘

    2016-01-01

     We examined the actions of iridoid compounds (aucubin (Auc), geniposidic acid (GA)) and a noniridoid compound (chlorogenic acid (CA)) contained in Eucommia leaves [1] [2], which show blood pressure-lowering effects, on the heart using right atrial specimens isolated from guinea pigs. These 3 compounds showed negative inotropic effects (NIE) and negative chronotropic effects (NCE) at a final concentration of 10 -5 or 10 -4 M in an experiment using right atrial specimens. Furthermore, pretreat...

  6. Transdermal delivery of naltrexol and skin permeability lifetime after microneedle treatment in hairless guinea pigs

    OpenAIRE

    Banks, Stan L.; Pinninti, Raghotham R.; Gill, Harvinder S.; Paudel, Kalpana S.; Crooks, Peter A.; Brogden, Nicole K.; Prausnitz, Mark R.; Stinchcomb, Audra L.

    2010-01-01

    Controlled-release delivery of 6-β-naltrexol (NTXOL), the major active metabolite of naltrexone, via a transdermal patch is desirable for treatment of alcoholism. Unfortunately, NTXOL does not diffuse across skin at a therapeutic rate. Therefore, the focus of this study was to evaluate microneedle (MN) skin permeation enhancement of NTXOL's hydrochloride salt in hairless guinea pigs. Specifically, these studies were designed to determine the lifetime of MN-created aqueous pore pathways. Micro...

  7. Newly divided eosinophils limit ozone-induced airway hyperreactivity in nonsensitized guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wicher, Sarah A; Jacoby, David B; Fryer, Allison D

    2017-06-01

    Ozone causes vagally mediated airway hyperreactivity and recruits inflammatory cells, including eosinophils, to lungs, where they mediate ozone-induced hyperreactivity 1 day after exposure but are paradoxically protective 3 days later. We aimed to test the role of newly divided eosinophils in ozone-induced airway hyperreactivity in sensitized and nonsensitized guinea pigs. Nonsensitized and sensitized guinea pigs were treated with 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU) to label newly divided cells and were exposed to air or ozone for 4 h. Later (1 or 3 days later), vagally induced bronchoconstriction was measured, and inflammatory cells were harvested from bone marrow, blood, and bronchoalveolar lavage. Ozone induced eosinophil hematopoiesis. One day after ozone, mature eosinophils dominate the inflammatory response and potentiate vagally induced bronchoconstriction. However, by 3 days, newly divided eosinophils have reached the lungs, where they inhibit ozone-induced airway hyperreactivity because depleting them with antibody to IL-5 or a TNF-α antagonist worsened vagally induced bronchoconstriction. In sensitized guinea pigs, both ozone-induced eosinophil hematopoiesis and subsequent recruitment of newly divided eosinophils to lungs 3 days later failed to occur. Thus mature eosinophils dominated the ozone-induced inflammatory response in sensitized guinea pigs. Depleting these mature eosinophils prevented ozone-induced airway hyperreactivity in sensitized animals. Ozone induces eosinophil hematopoiesis and recruitment to lungs, where 3 days later, newly divided eosinophils attenuate vagally mediated hyperreactivity. Ozone-induced hematopoiesis of beneficial eosinophils is blocked by a TNF-α antagonist or by prior sensitization. In these animals, mature eosinophils are associated with hyperreactivity. Thus interventions targeting eosinophils, although beneficial in atopic individuals, may delay resolution of airway hyperreactivity in nonatopic individuals. Copyright

  8. Analysis of anabolic steroids in hair: time courses in guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Min; Xiang, Ping; Yan, Hui; Shen, Baohua; Wang, Mengye

    2009-09-01

    Sensitive, specific, and reproducible methods for the quantitative determination of eight anabolic steroids in guinea pig hair have been developed using LC/MS/MS and GC/MS/MS. Methyltestosterone, stanozolol, methandienone, nandrolone, trenbolone, boldenone, methenolone and DHEA were administered intraperitoneally in guinea pigs. After the first injection, black hair segments were collected on shaved areas of skin. The analysis of these segments revealed the distribution of anabolic steroids in the guinea pig hair. The major components in hair are the parent anabolic steroids. The time courses of the concentrations of the steroids in hair (except methenolone, which does not deposit in hair) demonstrated that the peak concentrations were reached on days 2-4, except stanozolol, which peaked on day 10 after administration. The concentrations in hair appeared to be related to the physicochemical properties of the drug compound and to the dosage. These studies on the distribution of drugs in the hair shaft and on the time course of their concentration changes provide information relevant to the optimal time and method of collecting hair samples. Such studies also provide basic data that will be useful in the application of hair analysis in the control of doping and in the interpretation of results.

  9. Blocking Dopaminergic Signaling Soon after Learning Impairs Memory Consolidation in Guinea Pigs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiera-Nicole Lee

    Full Text Available Formation of episodic memories (i.e. remembered experiences requires a process called consolidation which involves communication between the neocortex and hippocampus. However, the neuromodulatory mechanisms underlying this neocortico-hippocampal communication are poorly understood. Here, we examined the involvement of dopamine D1 receptors (D1R and D2 receptors (D2R mediated signaling on memory consolidation using the Novel Object Recognition (NOR test. We conducted the tests in male Hartley guinea pigs and cognitive behaviors were assessed in customized Phenotyper home cages utilizing Ethovision XT software from Noldus enabled for the 3-point detection system (nose, center of the body, and rear. We found that acute intraperitoneal injections of either 0.25 mg/kg SCH23390 to block D1Rs or 1.0 mg/kg sulpiride to block D2Rs soon after acquisition (which involved familiarization to two similar objects attenuated subsequent discrimination for novel objects when tested after 5-hours in the NOR test. By contrast guinea pigs treated with saline showed robust discrimination for novel objects indicating normal operational processes undergirding memory consolidation. The data suggests that involvement of dopaminergic signaling is a key post-acquisition factor in modulating memory consolidation in guinea pigs.

  10. Auditory-somatosensory bimodal stimulation desynchronizes brain circuitry to reduce tinnitus in guinea pigs and humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, Kendra L; Martel, David T; Wu, Calvin; Basura, Gregory J; Roberts, Larry E; Schvartz-Leyzac, Kara C; Shore, Susan E

    2018-01-03

    The dorsal cochlear nucleus is the first site of multisensory convergence in mammalian auditory pathways. Principal output neurons, the fusiform cells, integrate auditory nerve inputs from the cochlea with somatosensory inputs from the head and neck. In previous work, we developed a guinea pig model of tinnitus induced by noise exposure and showed that the fusiform cells in these animals exhibited increased spontaneous activity and cross-unit synchrony, which are physiological correlates of tinnitus. We delivered repeated bimodal auditory-somatosensory stimulation to the dorsal cochlear nucleus of guinea pigs with tinnitus, choosing a stimulus interval known to induce long-term depression (LTD). Twenty minutes per day of LTD-inducing bimodal (but not unimodal) stimulation reduced physiological and behavioral evidence of tinnitus in the guinea pigs after 25 days. Next, we applied the same bimodal treatment to 20 human subjects with tinnitus using a double-blinded, sham-controlled, crossover study. Twenty-eight days of LTD-inducing bimodal stimulation reduced tinnitus loudness and intrusiveness. Unimodal auditory stimulation did not deliver either benefit. Bimodal auditory-somatosensory stimulation that induces LTD in the dorsal cochlear nucleus may hold promise for suppressing chronic tinnitus, which reduces quality of life for millions of tinnitus sufferers worldwide. Copyright © 2018 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.

  11. Systemic gene delivery transduces the enteric nervous system of guinea pigs and cynomolgus macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gombash, S E; Cowley, C J; Fitzgerald, J A; Lepak, C A; Neides, M G; Hook, K; Todd, L J; Wang, G-D; Mueller, C; Kaspar, B K; Bielefeld, E C; Fischer, A J; Wood, J D; Foust, K D

    2017-10-01

    Characterization of adeno-associated viral vector (AAV) mediated gene delivery to the enteric nervous system (ENS) was recently described in mice and rats. In these proof-of-concept experiments, we show that intravenous injections of clinically relevant AAVs can transduce the ENS in guinea pigs and non-human primates. Neonatal guinea pigs were given intravenous injections of either AAV8 or AAV9 vectors that contained a green fluorescent protein (GFP) expression cassette or phosphate-buffered saline. Piglets were euthanized three weeks post injection and tissues were harvested for immunofluorescent analysis. GFP expression was detected in myenteric and submucosal neurons along the length of the gastrointestinal tract in AAV8 injected guinea pigs. GFP-positive neurons were found in dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus and dorsal root ganglia. Less transduction occurred in AAV9-treated tissues. Gastrointestinal tissues were analyzed from young cynomolgus macaques that received systemic injection of AAV9 GFP. GFP expression was detected in myenteric neurons of the stomach, small and large intestine. These data demonstrate that ENS gene delivery translates to larger species. This work develops tools for the field of neurogastroenterology to explore gut physiology and anatomy using emerging technologies such as optogenetics and gene editing. It also provides a basis to develop novel therapies for chronic gut disorders.

  12. Twenty-four-Hour Measurement of Intraocular Pressure in Guinea Pigs (Cavia porcellus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari-Mood, Maneli; Mehdi-Rajaei, Seyed; Sadjadi, Reza; Selk-Ghaffari, Masoud; Williams, David L

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to measure intraocular pressure (IOP) in intact, healthy guinea pigs (15 male, 15 female) every 2 h for a 24-h period. First, IOP was measured by using rebound tonometry (RBT). After a 1-min rest period, 0.5% proparacaine ophthalmic solution, a topical anesthetic, was applied to both eyes; 4 min after anesthetic instillation, IOP was measured by using applanation tonometry (APT). The IOP was lower during the light period (0700 to 1900) than during the dark phase (2000 to 0600). The lowest IOP by both RBT and APT (3.68 and 13.37 mm Hg, respectively) occurred at 0700, whereas maximal IOP occurred at 2300 for RBT (8.12 mm Hg) but at 2100 for APT (20.62 mm Hg). No significant differences in IOP between the left and right eyes or between RBT and APT were noted. In addition, daily variations in the IOP of guinea pigs seem to be independent of sex and body weight. The results of this study may be beneficial in the diagnosis and observation of glaucoma in guinea pigs.

  13. Chlamydial Protease-Like Activity Factor Mediated Protection Against C. trachomatis In Guinea Pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wali, Shradha; Gupta, Rishein; Yu, Jieh-Juen; Koundinya Lanka, Gopala Krishna; Chambers, James P.; Guentzel, M. Neal; Zhong, Guangming; Murthy, Ashlesh K.; Arulanandam, Bernard P.

    2016-01-01

    We have comprehensively demonstrated using the mouse model that intranasal immunization with recombinant chlamydial protease-like activity factor (rCPAF) leads to a significant reduction in bacterial burden, genital tract pathology and preserves fertility following intravaginal genital chlamydial challenge. In the present report, we evaluated the protective efficacy of rCPAF immunization in guinea pigs, a second animal model for genital chlamydial infection. Using a vaccination strategy similar to the mouse model, we intranasally immunized female guinea pigs with rCPAF plus CpG deoxynucleotides (CpG; as an adjuvant), and challenged intravaginally with C. trachomatis serovar D (CT-D). Immunization with rCPAF/CpG significantly reduced vaginal CT-D shedding and induced resolution of infection by day 24, compared to day 33 in CpG alone treated and challenged animals. Immunization induced robust anti-rCPAF serum IgG 2 weeks following the last immunization, and was sustained at a high level 4 weeks post challenge. Upregulation of antigen specific IFN-γ gene expression was observed in rCPAF/CpG vaccinated splenocytes. Importantly, a significant reduction in inflammation in the genital tissue in rCPAF/CpG-immunized guinea pigs compared to CpG-immunized animals was observed. Taken together, this study provides evidence of the protective efficacy of rCPAF as a vaccine candidate in a second animal model of genital chlamydial infection. PMID:27990018

  14. Acute and latent infection by bovine herpesvirus type 2 in a guinea pig model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Fabrício Dias; Cargnelutti, Juliana Felipetto; Masuda, Eduardo Kenji; Weiblen, Rudi; Flores, Eduardo Furtado

    2010-02-01

    Bovine herpetic mammillits is a self-limiting cutaneous disease of the udder and teats of cows associated with bovine herpesvirus 2 (BoHV-2) whose pathogenesis is poorly understood. This article describes the use of guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus) to study the pathogenesis of BoHV-2 infection. Twelve weanling female guinea pigs inoculated subcutaneously with BoHV-2 in the genitalia and teats developed local hyperemia, edema, vesicles, ulcers and scabs. Infectious virus was recovered between days 3 and 7 post-infection (pi) from the genital area (9/12) and teats (1/12); and all inoculated animals seroconverted (virus-neutralizing titers of 16-128). Histological examination of lesions revealed lymphoplasmacytic perivascular infiltrates and intranuclear inclusion bodies in keratinocytes. PCR examination of tissues collected at day 35 pi detected latent viral DNA predominantly in lumbosacral spinal segments. In another experiment, eight females inoculated with BoHV-2 in the genitalia and treated with dexamethasone (Dx) at day 35 pi developed mild to moderate local signs, yet no virus could be recovered from lesions. PCR examination of spinal segments from these animals confirmed the presence of latent viral DNA. These results demonstrate that guinea pigs are susceptible to BoHV-2 infection and therefore may be used to study selected aspects of BoHV-2 biology.

  15. Certain biochemical specificities of alveolar macrophages from gamma-irradiated guinea pigs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Najdenski, H.M.; Velyanov, D.K.

    1991-01-01

    The changes in the metabolism of alveolar macrophages (aMas) from 0.5 Gy and 2 Gy gamma-irradiated guinea pigs have been studied. In view of predominantly aerobic metabolism of the aMas the investigations include oxygen uptake in the presence of substrate glucose as well as the activity of cytochrome oxidase and acid phosphatase. The results show that in the macrophages obtained from 2 Gy exposed guinea pigs there is simultaneous intensification of the oxygen uptake in the presence of glucose and of cytochrome oxidase activity by the 3rd day after irradiation. In the macrophages from the 0.5 Gy exposed guinea pigs there is also parallelism in the intensification of the respiration and cytochrome oxidase activity but on the 7th day of the investigation. In both doses applied the activity of the acid phosphatase of macrophages sharply increases to reach the maximum values between the 3rd and 7th days after irradiation. This discrepancy between the intracellular bactericidal effect and the respiration activity and the acid phosphatase of the aMas give grounds to support the view of Pavillard and Rowlei that the total metabolism of the aMas is not a limiting factor in relation to their intracellular killing effect on the absorbed bacteria. 3 figs., 6 refs

  16. Cardiac actions of phencyclidine in isolated guinea pig and rat heart: possible involvement of slow channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Temma, K.; Akera, T.; Ng, Y.C.

    1985-01-01

    The mechanisms responsible for the positive inotropic effect of phencyclidine were studied in isolated preparations of guinea pig and rat heart. In electrically paced left atrial muscle preparations, phencyclidine increased the force of contraction; rat heart muscle preparations were more sensitive than guinea pig heart muscle preparations. The positive inotropic effect of phencyclidine was not significantly reduced by a combination of phentolamine and nadolol; however, the effect was competitively blocked by verapamil in the presence of phentolamine and nadolol. Inhibition of the outward K+ current by tetraethylammonium chloride also produced a positive inotropic effect; however, the effect of tetraethylammonium was reduced by phentolamine and nadolol, and was almost insensitive to verapamil. The inotropic effect of phencyclidine was associated with a marked prolongation of the action potential duration and a decrease in maximal upstroke velocity of the action potential, with no change in the resting membrane potential. The specific [ 3 H]phencyclidine binding observed with membrane preparations from guinea pig ventricular muscle was saturable with a single class of high-affinity binding site. This binding was inhibited by verapamil, diltiazem, or nitrendipine, but not by ryanodine or tetrodotoxin. These results suggest that the positive inotropic effect of phencyclidine results from enhanced Ca 2+ influx via slow channels, either by stimulation of the channels or secondary to inhibition of outward K + currents

  17. [Effects of genistein on contractility of isolated right ventricular muscles in guinea pig].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jin-xia; Li, Hong-fang; Liu, Chong-bin; Tian, Zhi-feng

    2008-11-01

    To study the effect of genistein (GEN) on contractility of isolated right ventricular muscles in guinea pig and its mechanisms. Isolated guinea pig ventricular muscles were suspended in organ baths containing K-H solution.After an equilibration period, the effect of GEN on contraction of myocardium was observed. GEN and isoprenaline hydrochloride had the positive inotropic effects on contractity of myocardium. Meanwhile, the effect of GEN (1-100 micromol x L(-1)) was in dose-dependent manner. Propranolol (1 micromol x L(-1)) and verapamil hydrochloride (0.5 micromol x L(-1)) attenuated the positive inotropic effect of isoprenaline hydrochloride (1 micromol x L(-1)), but did not change the effect of GEN (50 micromol x L(-1)). Further more, the enhancement of the contraction induced by elevation of extracellular Ca2+ concentration in ventricular muscles had no change after pretreatment with GEN (1.10 micromol x L(-1)). In addition,the positive inotropic effect of GEN was inhibited partially by tamoxifen (1 micromol x L(-1)) and SQ22536 (1 micromol x L(-1)), also, could be attenuated by bpV (1 micromol x L(-1)). GEN has the positive inotropic effect on guinea pig ventricular muscles, which is not related to the activation of beta adrenoceptor, Ca2+ channel on cell membrane,but may involve in cAMP of intracellular signal transduction and tyrosine kinase pathway.

  18. Histochemical localization of cholinesterase activity in the dental epithelium of guinea pig teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayawardena, C K; Takano, Y

    2004-07-01

    Cholinesterase is known for its remarkable diversity in distribution and function. An association of this enzyme with proliferative and morpho-differentiating tissues has been reported in several species. Here we report on the first evidence of the presence of cholinesterase in the enamel organ of continuously erupting incisors and molars of the guinea pig. Frozen sections of the incisors and molars of the guinea pig were incubated for histochemical demonstration of cholinesterase activity by means of the thiocholine method as described by Karnovsky and Root. The cholinesterase activity was observed in several types of cells of the dental epithelium; cells forming the basal portion of the enamel organ, outer enamel epithelium and maturation stage ameloblasts of both the incisors and molars. In the crown analogue side, the outer enamel epithelial cells gained strong reactions for cholinesterase and maintained the reaction throughout the secretory and maturation stages of amelogenesis. In contrast, cholinesterase reactions were lacking in the inner enamel epithelium, pre-ameloblasts, and secretory ameloblasts. In the early stage of enamel maturation, ameloblasts began to show positive reactions for cholinesterase, which was upregulated in the incisal direction. Although both tooth types showed similar reactive patterns for cholinesterase at the growing ends, maturation ameloblasts depicted a different pattern of staining displaying the reactions only sporadically in molars. These data indicate the role of cholinesterase in the enamel organ in tooth morphogenesis and function of guinea pig teeth. Copyright 2004 Springer-Verlag

  19. Location of persisting mycobacteria in a Guinea pig model of tuberculosis revealed by r207910.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenaerts, Anne J; Hoff, Donald; Aly, Sahar; Ehlers, Stefan; Andries, Koen; Cantarero, Luis; Orme, Ian M; Basaraba, Randall J

    2007-09-01

    The lengthy chemotherapy of tuberculosis reflects the ability of a small subpopulation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacteria to persist in infected individuals. To date, the exact location of these persisting bacteria is not known. Lung lesions in guinea pigs infected with M. tuberculosis have striking similarities, such as necrosis, mineralization, and hypoxia, to natural infections in humans. Guinea pigs develop necrotic primary lesions after aerosol infection that differ in their morphology compared to secondary lesions resulting from hematogenous dissemination. In infected guinea pigs conventional therapy for tuberculosis during 6 weeks reduced the bacterial load by 1.7 logs in the lungs and, although this completely reversed lung inflammation associated with secondary lesions, the primary granulomas remained largely unaffected. Treatment of animals with the experimental drug R207910 (TMC207) for 6 weeks was highly effective with almost complete eradication of the bacteria throughout both the primary and the secondary lesions. Most importantly, the few remnants of acid-fast bacilli remaining after R207910 treatment were to be found extracellular, in a microenvironment of residual primary lesion necrosis with incomplete dystrophic calcification. This zone of the primary granuloma is hypoxic and is morphologically similar to what has been described for human lung lesions. These results show that this acellular rim may, therefore, be a primary location of persisting bacilli withstanding drug treatment.

  20. Location of Persisting Mycobacteria in a Guinea Pig Model of Tuberculosis Revealed by R207910▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenaerts, Anne J.; Hoff, Donald; Aly, Sahar; Ehlers, Stefan; Andries, Koen; Cantarero, Luis; Orme, Ian M.; Basaraba, Randall J.

    2007-01-01

    The lengthy chemotherapy of tuberculosis reflects the ability of a small subpopulation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacteria to persist in infected individuals. To date, the exact location of these persisting bacteria is not known. Lung lesions in guinea pigs infected with M. tuberculosis have striking similarities, such as necrosis, mineralization, and hypoxia, to natural infections in humans. Guinea pigs develop necrotic primary lesions after aerosol infection that differ in their morphology compared to secondary lesions resulting from hematogenous dissemination. In infected guinea pigs conventional therapy for tuberculosis during 6 weeks reduced the bacterial load by 1.7 logs in the lungs and, although this completely reversed lung inflammation associated with secondary lesions, the primary granulomas remained largely unaffected. Treatment of animals with the experimental drug R207910 (TMC207) for 6 weeks was highly effective with almost complete eradication of the bacteria throughout both the primary and the secondary lesions. Most importantly, the few remnants of acid-fast bacilli remaining after R207910 treatment were to be found extracellular, in a microenvironment of residual primary lesion necrosis with incomplete dystrophic calcification. This zone of the primary granuloma is hypoxic and is morphologically similar to what has been described for human lung lesions. These results show that this acellular rim may, therefore, be a primary location of persisting bacilli withstanding drug treatment. PMID:17517834

  1. Electrophysiological changes of Papillary Muscles in Guinea Pigs with iron deficiency anemia and heart failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Fan1

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the changes of left ventricular papillary muscle action potentials in guinea pigs with iron deficiency anemia and heart failure. Methods: A total of 20 cases of iron deficiency anemia with heart failure were treated with experimental group and 10 normal guinea pigs as control group. Blood samples were collected to determine hemoglobin content, red blood cell number and whole blood iron index, and the changes of cardiac function and hemodynamics were detected by 6 240 biological signal collection system to determine whether the model was successful or not, Intracellular microelectrode technique was used to determine the action potentials of the papillary muscles in the model group and the control group. the potential amplitudes (APA, overshoot values (APA, maximum depolarization rate (Vmax, 20 % of repolarization, 50 % and 90 % of repolarization (APD20, APD50 and APD90 and the average velocity of repolarization were measured. Compare statistical difference between the model group and the control group. Results: 14 cases of model group survived completely, compared with control group, APD50 and APD90 prolonged, and the average velocity decreased. Conclusions: the action potential repolarization duration in the guinea pig papillary muscle of iron deficiency anemia with heart failure is prolonged, and the average repolarization velocity is slow.

  2. Enriched open field facilitates exercise and social interaction in 2 strains of guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Jacob S; Bellinger, Seanceray A; Joshi, Prianca; Kleven, Gale A

    2014-07-01

    Current housing guidelines for laboratory rodents include recommendations for enrichment. Working with guinea pigs, we have developed an open-field enrichment paradigm that provides several aspects of this species' natural environment. These naturalistic aspects include access to increased space for exploration, access to western timothy (Phleum pratense L.) hay, and grouping as a herd to facilitate social interaction. To determine the immediate effect on behavior from access to the enriched environment, female guinea pigs from 2 strains, IAF Hairless and NIH Hartley, were observed in both standard home cages and an open-field enriched environment. Subjects were housed with cagemates in pairs for the home-cage observation and were grouped as a herd when in the open-field arena. Behaviors were videorecorded for 1 h and then scored. Salivary cortisol levels were measured both prior to and immediately after behavioral observations. Analyses revealed higher levels of activity and social interaction in the open-field arena compared with the home cage, with no significant change in salivary cortisol levels. These results suggest that exposure to the open-field environment provide increased opportunities for exercise and social enrichment. Although additional studies are needed to determine long-term effects on experimental outcomes, the open-field configuration holds promise as a laboratory enrichment paradigm for guinea pigs.

  3. Identification of 5HT2-receptors on longitudinal muscle of the guinea pig ileum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engel, G.; Hoyer, D.; Kalkman, H.O.; Wick, M.B.

    1984-01-01

    In binding experiments with the radioligands [ 3 H]Ketanserin (HKet) and [ 125 I]LSD (ILSD) 21 compounds were investigated using rat brain cortex membranes. The pK/sub D/-values of the compounds were virtually independent of the radioligand used and their rank order was consistent with classification of the binding sites as being of the 5-HT 2 -type. In contrast, in the longitudinal muscle of the guinea pig ileum in the presence of 0.3 microM cinanserin, ILSD labelled sites which were quite different to those in the cortex. In a functional test antagonism of the 5HT induced contraction of the guinea-pig ileum was measured in the presence of 1 microM atropine. The pharmacological inhibition constants (IC 50 -values) of 8 compounds correlated well with the dissociation constants for HKet binding in the cortex and did not correlate with the data from ILSD binding in the guinea pig ileum. It is concluded that the ileum contains postjunctional 5HT 2 -receptors which mediate contraction. The nature of the ILSD binding sites in the ileum remains to be elucidated

  4. Effects of thyroid state on respiration of perfused rat and guinea pig hearts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Read, L.C.; Wallace, P.G.; Berry, M.N.

    1987-01-01

    The effects of thyroid state on the respiration of the isolated heart were investigated using retrograde perfused rat and guinea pig hearts. In both species, hypothyroidism caused a marked depression in circulating thyroid hormone concentrations and in the respiration of the isolated, retrograde perfused heart. Hypothyroidism was caused by injecting animals with Na 131 I. The effects on myocardial respiration could be attributed to changes in the contraction frequency and in the oxygen consumption per beat, with little contribution from basal respiration. Treatment of animals with thyroxine elevated plasma thyroid hormones to a similar extent in rats and guinea pigs. In the latter, thyroxine treatment was associated with substantial increases in the contraction frequency and the oxygen consumption per beat of the isolated heart. In contrast, only small changes were apparent in the retrograde perfused rat heart, observations that were confirmed in rat hearts perfused at near physiological work loads. It was concluded that rat hearts isolated from normal animals function at near maximal thyroid state, in contrast to the guinea pig heart, which requires higher circulating concentrations of thyroid hormones to attain maximal responses

  5. Trichinella spiralis infection enhances protein kinase C phosphorylation in guinea pig alveolar macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzik, J M; Zieliński, Z; Cieśla, J; Wałajtys-Rode, E

    2010-03-01

    To learn more about the signalling pathways involved in superoxide anion production in guinea pig alveolar macrophages, triggered by Trichinella spiralis infection, protein level and phosphorylation of mitogen activated protein (MAP) kinases and protein kinase C (PKC) were investigated. Infection with T. spiralis, the nematode having 'lung phase' during colonization of the host, enhances PKC phosphorylation in guinea pig alveolar macrophages. Isoenzymes beta and delta of PKC have been found significantly phosphorylated, although their location was not changed as a consequence of T. spiralis infection. Neither in macrophages from T. spiralis-infected guinea pig nor in platelet-activating factor (PAF)-stimulated macrophages from uninfected animals, participation of MAP kinases in respiratory burst activation was statistically significant. The parasite antigens seem to act through macrophage PAF receptors, transducing a signal for enhanced NADPH oxidase activity, as stimulating effect of newborn larvae homogenate on respiratory burst was abolished by specific PAF receptor antagonist CV 6209. A suppressive action of T. spiralis larvae on host alveolar macrophage innate immunological response was reflected by diminished protein level of ERK2 kinase and suppressed superoxide anion production, in spite of high level of PKC phosphorylation.

  6. Characterization of the receptors for mycobacterial cord factor in Guinea pig.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenji Toyonaga

    Full Text Available Guinea pig is a widely used animal for research and development of tuberculosis vaccines, since its pathological disease process is similar to that present in humans. We have previously reported that two C-type lectin receptors, Mincle (macrophage inducible C-type lectin, also called Clec4e and MCL (macrophage C-type lectin, also called Clec4d, recognize the mycobacterial cord factor, trehalose-6,6'-dimycolate (TDM. Here, we characterized the function of the guinea pig homologue of Mincle (gpMincle and MCL (gpMCL. gpMincle directly bound to TDM and transduced an activating signal through ITAM-bearing adaptor molecule, FcRγ. Whereas, gpMCL lacked C-terminus and failed to bind to TDM. mRNA expression of gpMincle was detected in the spleen, lymph nodes and peritoneal macrophages and it was strongly up-regulated upon stimulation of zymosan and TDM. The surface expression of gpMincle was detected on activated macrophages by a newly established monoclonal antibody that also possesses a blocking activity. This antibody potently suppressed TNF production in BCG-infected macrophages. Collectively, gpMincle is the TDM receptor in the guinea pig and TDM-Mincle axis is involved in host immune responses against mycobacteria.

  7. Influence of body condition on reproductive output in the guinea pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, Catherine Louise; Bonnet, Xavier

    2012-01-01

    Reproduction is expensive. Substantial body reserves (i.e. high body condition) are usually required for females to undertake offspring production. In many vertebrates, maternal body condition positively influences reproductive output, and emaciated individuals skip reproduction. However, the impact of extremely high body condition, more specifically obesity, on animal reproductive performance remains poorly understood and research has generated contradictory results. For instance, obesity negatively affects fertility in women, but does not influence reproductive capacity or reproductive output in laboratory rodents. We examined the influence of high body condition on reproductive status and reproductive output in the guinea pig. In captivity, when fed ad libitum, guinea pigs store large amounts of fat tissues and exhibit a tendency for obesity. Our results show that obesity negatively affected reproduction in this species: both the proportion of fertile females and litter size were lower in the fattest females. Therefore, guinea pigs may represent suitable organisms to better understand the negative effect of obesity on reproduction. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc., A Wiley Company.

  8. Characterization of the receptors for mycobacterial cord factor in Guinea pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyonaga, Kenji; Miyake, Yasunobu; Yamasaki, Sho

    2014-01-01

    Guinea pig is a widely used animal for research and development of tuberculosis vaccines, since its pathological disease process is similar to that present in humans. We have previously reported that two C-type lectin receptors, Mincle (macrophage inducible C-type lectin, also called Clec4e) and MCL (macrophage C-type lectin, also called Clec4d), recognize the mycobacterial cord factor, trehalose-6,6'-dimycolate (TDM). Here, we characterized the function of the guinea pig homologue of Mincle (gpMincle) and MCL (gpMCL). gpMincle directly bound to TDM and transduced an activating signal through ITAM-bearing adaptor molecule, FcRγ. Whereas, gpMCL lacked C-terminus and failed to bind to TDM. mRNA expression of gpMincle was detected in the spleen, lymph nodes and peritoneal macrophages and it was strongly up-regulated upon stimulation of zymosan and TDM. The surface expression of gpMincle was detected on activated macrophages by a newly established monoclonal antibody that also possesses a blocking activity. This antibody potently suppressed TNF production in BCG-infected macrophages. Collectively, gpMincle is the TDM receptor in the guinea pig and TDM-Mincle axis is involved in host immune responses against mycobacteria.

  9. BIOCHEMICAL AND HISTOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF TETRACYCLINES ON SPONTANEOUS OSTEOARTHRITIS IN GUINEA PIGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edin De Bri

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs are mediators in connective tissue destruction in a variety of pathologic processes. Recently discovered chemically modified tetracyclines have been found to be effective inhibitors of MMP mediated connective tissue degradation in both rheumatoid arthritis (RA and osteoarthritis (OA. The Hartley guinea pig model has been described with a high incidence of spontaneous OA-like changes in the knee joint. Therefore we have studied the effect of two tetracyclines, doxycycline (Dox and chemically modified tetracycline-7 (CMT-7 which have both previously been shown as potent MMP inhibitors. We found that prophylactic orally given CMT-7 decreases OA changes in the knee joints both in vitro and in vivo in the guinea pig OA model. OA changes were most severe in the central compartment of the medial condyle in the control group. Cartilage fibrillation and destruction, in addition to subchondral bone sclerosis and cyst formation were all less in the CMT-7 treated group compared with controls. Collagen, hyaluronan and proteoglycan content in cartilage was higher in the CMT-7 treated group compared with controls. In contrast, OA changes were not decreased in the Dox group. These results show that tetracyclines, but not all tetracyclines, can reduce the severity of OA in the guinea pig model of spontaneous OA.

  10. Reduced Airway Hyperresponsiveness by Phosphodiesterase 3 and 4 Inhibitors in Guinea-Pigs

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    Nöella Germain

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of selective phosphodiesterase (PDE 3, 4 and 5 inhibitors on antigen-induced airway hyperresponsiveness in sensitized guinea-pigs. When the sensitized guinea-pigs were orally pre-treated with the selective PDE4 inhibitor, Ro 20-1724 (30 mg/kg, and studied 48 h after OA, a significant reduction (p<0.01 of the leftward shift of the dose-response curve to ACh was noted, whereas it was ineffective at the lower dose (10 mg/kg. Administration of the selective PDE3 inhibitor, milrinone (30 mg/kg also elicited a significant reduction (p<0.01 of the airway hyperresponsiveness, whereas the PDE5 inhibitor zaprinast (30 mg/kg was ineffective. These results show that both PDE3 and PDE4 inhibitors are able to inhibit the antigen-induced airway hyperresponsiveness in sensitized guinea-pigs and support the potential utility of selective PDE inhibitors in the treatment of asthma.

  11. Intimal permeability evaluated in a short-term organ culture of diabetic guinea pig aorta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlosser, M.J.; Verlangieri, A.J.

    1988-01-01

    A novel short-term organ culture system was used to evaluate intimal permeability changes by measuring aortic [ 14 C]methylated albumin accumulation. Aortic plugs were removed from the upper thoracic aorta of male guinea pigs and maintained in serum-free media. The accumulation of [ 14 C]albumin in the intimal-medial layer was determined after a 5 h incubation. In preliminary studies, albumin recovered from intimal-injured aortic plugs was significantly greater than those from non-injured plugs. Aortic plugs from streptozotocin-treated guinea pigs, diabetic for 3 weeks, also accumulated significantly more [ 14 C]albumin than plugs from nondiabetic controls. Histological changes were not observed in the aorta of either the diabetic or control group. A strong significant inverse correlation was found between plasma ascorbic acid levels and [ 14 C]-activity recovered from aortic plugs. This study demonstrates a simple and rapid method for assessing aortic permeability changes under a well-defined in vitro system, and suggests that vascular permeability changes in the streptozotocin-diabetic guinea pig may be associated with an ascorbic acid deficit

  12. Development and characterization of a guinea pig model for Marburg virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary Wong

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The Angolan strain of Marburg virus (MARV/Ang can cause lethal disease in humans with a case fatality rate of up to 90%, but infection of immunocompetent rodents do not result in any observable symptoms. Our previous work includes the development and characterization of a MARV/Ang variant that can cause lethal disease in mice (MARV/Ang-MA, with the aim of using this tool to screen for promising prophylactic and therapeutic candidates. An intermediate animal model is needed to confirm any findings from mice studies before testing in the gold-standard non-human primate (NHP model. In this study, we serially passaged the clinical isolate of MARV/Ang in the livers and spleens of guinea pigs until a variant emerged that causes 100% lethality in guinea pigs (MARV/Ang-GA. Animals infected with MARV/Ang-GA showed signs of filovirus infection including lymphocytopenia, thrombocytopenia, and high viremia leading to spread to major organs, including the liver, spleen, lungs, and kidneys. The MARV/Ang-GA guinea pigs died between 7–9 days after infection, and the LD50 was calculated to be 1.1×10–1 TCID50 (median tissue culture infective dose. Mutations in MARV/Ang-GA were identified and compared to sequences of known rodent-adapted MARV/Ang variants, which may benefit future studies characterizing important host adaptation sites in the MARV/Ang viral genome.

  13. Studies on immunization with irradiated larvae against dictyocaulus filaria in guinea-pigs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akyol, F.; Cerci, H.; Duzgun, A.

    1986-01-01

    In this study, 32 guinea-pigs were immunized orally with two doses of infective D. filaria attenuated by exposure to 40 krad (group I) and 50 krad (group II) of Cs-137 source at 15 days interval. The first dose was administrated as 1000 larvae and the second was 2000 larvae. After 15 days of the second infection they were challenged with 5000 non-irradiated infective larvae. Eight guinea-pigs were used as control (group III). The control group received the challenge only. The controls developed signs of lungworm disease and 3 animals died after 10 days of challenge. The vaccinated animals showed no clinical signs. All of the surviving animals were killed 12 days after challenge and their lungs were carefully examined for detailed parasitological and pathomorphological examinations. At autopsy, an average of 91 worms was recovered from the lungs of control groups. Four worms recovered from animals given larvae irradiated at 40 krad and the pathological changes were the lightest in this group. It was established that gamma rays at 50 krad attenuated infective larvae of D. filaria to such a degree that their administration did not cause any serious pathomorphological effect in the lungs of the animals. A higher degree of protection against challenge with infective D. filaria larvae was confered on the guinea-pigs by double dose of irradiated larvae. (auhtor)

  14. Estimation of guinea pig tracheobronchial transport rates using a compartmental model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velasquez, D.J.; Morrow, P.E.

    1984-01-01

    Mucociliary clearance in the tracheobronchial tree of guinea pigs was examined using monodisperse 7.9 μm MMAD polystyrene particles. Animals were exposed for approximately 1 h by inhalation via an intratracheal tube to aerosols tagged with gold-198 and fluorescent dyes. Following exposure, animals were radioactively monitored and sacrificed at predetermined times. The lungs were removed, freeze-dried, sectioned completely, and examined with a fluorescent microscope. Measurements were made of airway diameters where particles were found. An anatomic model for guinea pig lung morphology was used to assign ranges of airway diameters to five zones, which were incorporated into a compartmental model for lung clearance. Kinetic analysis of particle distributions in the zones led to development of first-order equations describing the compartmental clearance. Rate constants obtained from the kinetic analysis were used to estimate mucociliary transport rates in specific bronchial generations, which ranged from approximately 0.001 mm/min in the distal bronchioles to approximately 8 mm/min in the trachea, and resulted in a calculated 24-h clearance time for tracheobronchial clearance in the guinea pig. No evidence for either bronchial penetration by particles or relatively prolonged bronchial retention of particles was found in this study. 22 references, 3 figures, 3 tables

  15. Captain America, Tuskegee, Belmont, and Righteous Guinea Pigs: Considering Scientific Ethics through Official and Subaltern Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Matthew

    2008-09-01

    With an eye towards a potential scientific ethics curriculum, this paper examines four contrasting discourses regarding the ethics of using human subjects in science. The first two represent official statements regarding ethics. These include the U.S.’s National Science Education Standards, that identify ethics with a professional code, and the Belmont Report, that conceptualizes ethics in three principles to guide research oversight boards. Contrasting this view of ethics as decorum and practice in line with a priori principles is the conception of ethics from unofficial sources representing populations who have been human subjects. The first counter-discourse examined comes from Guinea Pig Zero, an underground magazine for professional human subjects. Here ethics emerges as a question of politics over principle. The good behavior of the doctors and researchers is an effect of the politics and agency of the communities that supply science with subjects. The second counter-discourse is a comic book called Truth, which tells the story of Black soldiers who were used as guinea pigs in World War II. Ethics is both more political and more uncertain in this narrative. Science is portrayed as complicit with the racism of NAZI Germany; at the same time, and in contrast to the professional guinea pigs, neither agency nor politics are presented as effective tools for forcing the ethical conduct of the scientific establishment. The conclusion examines the value of presenting all of these views of scientific ethics in science education.

  16. Changes of the kallikrein-kinin system in the course of the postirradiation syndrome in rats and guinea pigs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pouckova, P.; Pospisil, J.; Dienstbier, Z.

    1978-01-01

    Within the study of the postirradiation distortion of the hemocoagulation and hemostasis changes were investigated of the level of prekallikrein, kininogens, and kininases in the blood serum and plasma of the whole-body irradiated animals. The rats and guinea pigs were exposed to 800 R (206.4 mC.kg -1 ) and 300 R (77.4 mC.kg -1 ), respectively, of 60 Co gamma rays which represented the LD 50/30 for the two species. In the observed postirradiation time intervals i.e. 10, 30, 60, 120 min, 6, 12 and 24 hrs the changes of the level of prekallikrein were idential with those of the level of prekallikrein in the blood serum whole-body irradiated guinea pigs. At 2, 4, 7, 10, 12 and 14 days after irradiation the course of the level of the prekallikrein in the blood serum of the rats and guinea pigs showed mutual mirror symmetry. Changes were observed of the level of kininogens in the blood plasma of the rats and guinea pigs after the exposures to 800 and 300 R, respectively. In this case, the level of kininogens in the rats and guinea pigs had changed similarly, in the guinea pigs, however, the changes of the level of kininogens varied within the range of control values. The level of kininases in the blood plasma of irradiated rats reached its maximum value on the 4th day after total irradiation, and later decreased. In the blood plasma of irradiated guinea pigs the course of the level of kininases was characterized by mirror symmetry, always with maximum and minimum values on the 7th day after total exposure. (author)

  17. Catecholamine secretion by chemical hypoxia in guinea-pig, but not rat, adrenal medullary cells: differences in mitochondria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, K; Endo, Y; Warashina, A; Inoue, M

    2015-08-20

    The effects of mitochondrial inhibitors (CN(-), a complex IV inhibitor and CCCP, protonophore) on catecholamine (CA) secretion and mitochondrial function were explored functionally and biochemically in rat and guinea-pig adrenal chromaffin cells. Guinea-pig chromaffin cells conspicuously secreted CA in response to CN(-) or CCCP, but rat cells showed a little, if any, secretory response to either of them. The resting metabolic rates in rat adrenal medullae did not differ from those in guinea-pig adrenal medullae. On the other hand, the time course of depolarization of the mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) in guinea-pig chromaffin cells in response to CN(-) was slower than that in rat chromaffin cells, and this difference was abolished by oligomycin, an F1F0-ATPase inhibitor. The extent of CCCP-induced decrease in cellular ATP in guinea-pig chromaffin cells, which was indirectly measured using a Mg(2+) indicator, was smaller than that in rat chromaffin cells. Relative expression levels of F1F0-ATPase inhibitor factor in guinea-pig adrenal medullae were smaller than in rat adrenal medullae, and the opposite was true for F1F0-ATPase α subunit. The present results indicate that guinea-pig chromaffin cells secrete more CA in response to a mitochondrial inhibitor than rat chromaffin cells and this higher susceptibility in the former is accounted for by a larger extent of reversed operation of F1F0-ATPase with the consequent decrease in ATP under conditions where ΔΨm is depolarized. Copyright © 2015 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. External Genital Development, Urethra Formation, and Hypospadias Induction in Guinea Pig: A Double Zipper Model for Human Urethral Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shanshan; Shi, Mingxin; Zhu, Dongqing; Mathews, Ranjiv; Zheng, Zhengui

    2018-03-01

    To determine whether the guinea pig phallus would be an appropriate model of human penile development, we characterized the embryology and sexual differentiation of guinea pig external genitalia and attended to induce hypospadias in males and tubular urethra formation in females pharmacologically. The external genitalia of guinea pig were collected from genital swelling initiation to newborn stages, and scanning electronic microscopy and histology were performed to visualize the morphology and structure. Immunohistochemistry was used to determine the androgen receptor localization. Bicalutamide and methyltestosterone were given to pregnant dams to reveal the role and timing of androgen in guinea pig penile masculinization. Canalization and dorsal-to-ventral movement of the urethral canal develops the urethral groove in both sexes, and then the males perform distal-opening-proximal-closing to form tubular urethra. More nuclear-localized androgen receptor is found in proximal genital tubercles of males than in females at (E) 29. Antiandrogen treatment at E26-E30 can cause hypospadias, and methyltestosterone administration at E27-E31 can induce tubular urethra formation in females. Fetal development of the guinea pig phallus is homologous to that of humans. Although guinea pig has structures similar to mouse, the urethral groove and the tubular urethra formation are more similar to humans. Antiandrogen treatment causes hypospadias in males and additional androgen induces tubular urethra formation in females. Thus, guinea pig is an appropriate model for further study of cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in distal-opening-proximal-closing in tubular urethra formation and the evaluation of the pathophysiological processes of hypospadias. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Spontaneous, local diastolic subsarcolemmal calcium releases in single, isolated guinea-pig sinoatrial nodal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirenko, Syevda G; Yang, Dongmei; Maltseva, Larissa A; Kim, Mary S; Lakatta, Edward G; Maltsev, Victor A

    2017-01-01

    Uptake and release calcium from the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) (dubbed "calcium clock"), in the form of spontaneous, rhythmic, local diastolic calcium releases (LCRs), together with voltage-sensitive ion channels (membrane clock) form a coupled system that regulates the action potential (AP) firing rate. LCRs activate Sodium/Calcium exchanger (NCX) that accelerates diastolic depolarization and thus participating in regulation of the time at which the next AP will occur. Previous studies in rabbit SA node cells (SANC) demonstrated that the basal AP cycle length (APCL) is tightly coupled to the basal LCR period (time from the prior AP-induced Ca2+ transient to the diastolic LCR occurrence), and that this coupling is further modulated by autonomic receptor stimulation. Although spontaneous LCRs during diastolic depolarization have been reported in SANC of various species (rabbit, cat, mouse, toad), prior studies have failed to detect LCRs in spontaneously beating SANC of guinea-pig, a species that has been traditionally used in studies of cardiac pacemaker cell function. We performed a detailed investigation of whether guinea-pig SANC generate LCRs and whether they play a similar key role in regulation of the AP firing rate. We used two different approaches, 2D high-speed camera and classical line-scan confocal imaging. Positioning the scan-line beneath sarcolemma, parallel to the long axis of the cell, we found that rhythmically beating guinea-pig SANC do, indeed, generate spontaneous, diastolic LCRs beneath the surface membrane. The average key LCR characteristics measured in confocal images in guinea-pig SANC were comparable to rabbit SANC, both in the basal state and in the presence of β-adrenergic receptor stimulation. Moreover, the relationship between the LCR period and APCL was subtended by the same linear function. Thus, LCRs in guinea-pig SANC contribute to the diastolic depolarization and APCL regulation. Our findings indicate that coupled-clock system

  20. Inhibitory effects of inhaled complex traditional Chinese medicine on early and late asthmatic responses induced by ovalbumin in sensitized guinea pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gong Cheng-Chung

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many formulae of traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs have been used for antiasthma treatment dating back many centuries. There is evidence to suggest that TCMs are effective as a cure for this allergenic disease administered via gastric tubes in animal studies; however, their efficacy, safety and side effects as an asthmatic therapy are still unclear. Methods In this study, guinea pigs sensitized with ovalbumin (OVA were used as an animal model for asthma challenge, and the sensitization of animals by bronchial reactivity to methacholine (Mch and the IgE concentration in the serum after OVA challenge were estimated. Complex traditional Chinese herbs (CTCM were administered to the animals by nebulization, and the leukocytes were evaluated from bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF. Results The results showed that inhalation of CTCM could abolish the increased lung resistance (13-fold increase induced by challenge with OVA in the early asthmatic response (EAR, reducing to as low as baseline (1-fold. Moreover, our results indicated higher IgE levels (range, 78-83 ng/ml in the serum of sensitized guinea pigs than in the unsensitized controls (0.9 ± 0.256 ng/ml. In addition, increased total leukocytes and higher levels of eosinophils and neutrophils were seen 6 hours after challenge, and the increased inflammatory cells were reduced by treatment with CTCM inhalation. The interleukin-5 (IL-5 level in BALF was also reduced by CTCM. Conclusion Our findings indicate a novel method of administering traditional Chinese medicines for asthma treatment in an animal model that may be more effective than traditional methods.

  1. Pathogenesis of a genotype C strain of bovine parainfluenza virus type 3 infection in albino guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Hong-Fei; Zhu, Yuan-Mao; Dong, Xiu-Mei; Cai, Hong; Ma, Lei; Wang, Shu; Yan, Hao; Wang, Xue-Zhi; Xue, Fei

    2014-08-08

    Bovine parainfluenza virus type 3 (BPIV3) is one of the most important of the known viral respiratory tract agents of both young and adult cattle and widespread among cattle around the world. Up to present, three genotypes A, B and C of BPIV3 have been described on the basis of genetic and phylogenetic analysis and only limited studies on the pathogenesis of the genotype A of BPIV3 infection in calves and laboratory animals have been performed. The report about experimental infections of the genotypes B and C of BPIV3 in laboratory animals and calves was scant. Therefore, an experimental infection of guinea pigs with the Chinese BPIV3 strain SD0835 of the genotype C was performed. Sixteen guinea pigs were intranasally inoculated with the suspension of SD0835, while eight control guinea pigs were also intranasally inoculated with the same volume of supernatant from uninfected MDBK cells. The virus-inoculated guinea pigs displayed a few observable clinical signs that were related to the respiratory tract disease and two of the sixteen experimentally infected guinea pigs died at 2 and 3 days post inoculation (PI), respectively, and apparent gross pneumonic lesions were observed at necropsy. The gross pneumonic lesions in guinea pigs inoculated with SD0835 consisted of dark red, slightly depressed, irregular areas of consolidation in the lung lobes from the second to 9th day of infection at necropsy, and almost complete consolidation and atelectasis of the lung lobes were seen at 7 days PI. Histopathological changes including alveoli septa thickening and focal cellulose pneumonia were also observed in the lungs of guinea pigs experimentally infected with SD0835. Viral replication was detectable by virus isolation and titration, real-time RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry (IHC) staining in the respiratory tissues of guinea pigs as early as 24h after intranasal inoculation with SD0835. The results of virus isolation and titration showed that guinea pigs were permissive for

  2. Comparison of hepatotoxicity and metabolism of butyltin compounds in the liver of mice, rats and guinea pigs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueno, Shunji; Kashimoto, Takashige; Susa, Nobuyuki; Ishii, Masamitsu; Chiba, Toshikazu [Laboratory of Veterinary Public Health, School of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Sciences, Kitasato University, Higashi 23-35-1, 034-8628, Towada-shi, Aomori (Japan); Mutoh, Ken-ichiro [Laboratory of Veterinary Anatomy, School of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Sciences, Kitasato University, Higashi 23-35-1, 034-8628, Towada-shi, Aomori (Japan); School of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Sciences, Kitasato University, Higashi 23-35-1, 034-8628, Towada-shi, Aomori (Japan); Hoshi, Fumio [Laboratory of Veterinary Anatomy, School of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Sciences, Kitasato University, Higashi 23-35-1, 034-8628, Towada-shi, Aomori (Japan); Suzuki, Takashi [Laboratory of Environmental Health and Toxicology, Kyoto Prefectural University, Hangi-cho, Shimogamo, Sakyo-ku, 606-5822, Kyoto (Japan); Sugiyama, Masayasu [Sugiyama Pharmacy, 1335-1 Shimotama, Tamagawa-cho, 759-3112, Yamaguchi (Japan)

    2003-03-01

    The hepatotoxicity of tributyltin chloride (TBTC) and dibutyltin dichloride (DBTC) was compared among mice, rats and guinea pigs in vivo. Further, the metabolism of these butyltin compounds in the liver was also investigated in these species. The oral administration of TBTC and DBTC to mice induced obvious liver injury, as demonstrated by both serodiagnosis and histopathological diagnosis. The concentrations of TBTC and DBTC that induced hepatotoxicity in mice at 24 h after oral administration were 180 and 60 {mu}mol/kg, respectively. In the case of rats, the liver injury induced by TBTC and DBTC was detected at 24 h by the serodiagnosis, but not by histopathological diagnosis. On the other hand, in guinea pigs, TBTC and DBTC administration did not produce any clear liver injury at 24 h, as evaluated by these two diagnostic methods. Thus, the following ranking was obtained with regard to increasing order of sensitivity to liver injury caused by TBTC and DBTC: mice, rats and guinea pigs. The total butyltin contents in the liver of mice were equivalent at 3 h and 24 h after the administration of TBTC or DBTC; however, the contents in the liver of rats and guinea pigs were relatively lower at 3 h and higher at 24 h than those of mice, although there were no differences between rats and guinea pigs in the total liver butyltin content. Concerning the liver metabolism of these butyltin compounds, the main form of butyltin compounds in these animals treated with TBTC was DBTC within 3 h after oral administration, while the main metabolites at 24 h were different in each species, indicating that the liver metabolism of TBTC might vary by animal type. When the animals were treated with DBTC orally, DBTC was hardly metabolized in the livers of these animals even at 24 h, and the liver levels of DBTC were two times greater in mice and guinea pigs than in rats at 3 h and were lower in mice at 24 h than in rats and guinea pigs. The analysis of cellular distributions of DBTC in

  3. The induction by X-rays of chromosome aberrations in male guinea-pigs, rabbits and golden hamsters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyon, M.F.; Cox, B.D.

    1975-01-01

    The induction by X-rays of translocations in spermatogonia was studied by cytological means in spermatocytes derived from them. In the rabbit and guinea-pig, hump-shaped dose-response curves were obtained, with a linear relationship at the low doses. The shapes of the curves were similar to those reported for the mouse, except that the maximum occurred at 600-700 rad in the mouse as opposed to 300 rad in the guinea-pig and rabbit. Unlike the guinea-pig and rabbit, the golden hamster showed a hump dose-response curve without a definite peak value and with little decrease in yield at high radiation doses. Over the low dose range 100-300 rad, the slopes of the curves of translocation yield were in the order: mouse (highest), rabbit, guinea-pig and hamster. Data on sterile periods suggested that the amount of spermatogonial killing in the rabbit and guinea-pig was as great or greater than in the mouse, and that in the golden hamster it was most severe. It is suggested that the differing shapes of the dose-response curves can be explained by a lower sensitivity to translocation induction in the test species and, also especially in the golden hamster, a greater sensitivity to cell killing. The possibility of extrapolating from these data to other species is discussed

  4. ATP-ase activity in the human oral mucous membrane, the guinea pig and the rabbit epidermis. A light- and electronmicroscopical investigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zelander, T; Kirkeby, S

    1984-01-01

    The activity for ATP-ase was investigated in cells of rabbit and guinea pig epidermis and human oral mucosa. Observations both in the light- and electron microscope indicate that the ATP-ase positive cells of guinea pig and human epithelia are Langerhans cells while in the rabbit epidermis...

  5. Characterization of the effect of penehyclidine hydrochloride on muscarinic receptor subtypes mediating the contraction of guinea-pig isolated gastrointestinal smooth muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Hong-Tao; Liao, Zhi; Meng, Xian-Min; Yan, Xiao-Yan; Chen, Shu-Jie; Mo, Zheng-Ji

    2009-07-01

    The aim was to characterize the effect of penehyclidine hydrochloride, which mediates the relaxation of guinea-pig isolated gastrointestinal smooth muscle, on muscarinic receptor subtypes. Radioimmune assay was used to determine cAMP levels in isolated guinea-pig gastrointestinal smooth muscle to compare the selective effects of penehyclidine hydrochloride on muscarinic receptor subtypes. The results indicated that the relaxing effect of penehyclidine hydrochloride on isolated gastrointestinal smooth muscle contraction induced by acetylcholine was stronger than that of atropine (based on PA2 values). In the radioimmune assay, penehyclidine hydrochloride increased the cAMP content in isolated guinea-pig stomach smooth muscle and decreased the cAMP content in isolated guinea-pig intestinal smooth muscle, but the difference was not statistically significant at a dose of 10 mumol/l. The results suggest that penehyclidine hydrochloride has little or no effect on M2 receptor subtypes in guinea-pig gastrointestinal smooth muscle.

  6. X-ray induced dominant lethal mutations in mature and immature oocytes of guinea-pigs and golden hamsters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, B.D.; Lyon, M.F.

    1975-01-01

    The induction of dominant lethal mutations by doses of 100-400 rad X-rays in oocytes of the guinea-pig and golden hamster was studied using criteria of embryonic mortality. For both species higher yields were obtained from mature than from immature oocytes. Data on fertility indicated that in the golden hamster immature oocytes were more sensitive to killing by X-rays than mature oocytes but that the converse was true in the guinea-pig. The dose-response relationship for mutation to dominant lethals in pre-ovulatory oocytes of guinea-pigs and golden hamsters was linear, both when based on pre- and post-implantation loss only. The rate per unit dose was higher for the golden hamster, and the old golden hamsters were possibly slightly more sensitive than young ones

  7. Poor antioxidant status exacerbates oxidative stress and inflammatory response to Pseudomonas aeruginosa lung infection in Guinea Pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Peter Østrup; Lykkesfeldt, Jens; Bjarnsholt, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    , which is the main cause of morbidity and mortality in CF. Guinea pigs are unable to synthesize ascorbate (ASC) or vitamin C, a major antioxidant of the lung, and thus like human beings rely on its presence in the diet. On this basis, guinea pigs receiving ASC-deficient diet have been used as a model...... of oxidative stress. The aim of our study was to investigate the consequences of a 7-day biofilm-grown P. aeruginosa lung infection in 3-month-old guinea pigs receiving either ASC-sufficient or ASC-deficient diet for at least 2 months. The animals receiving ASC-deficient diet showed significantly higher......Considerable evidence supports the presence of oxidative stress in cystic fibrosis (CF). The disease has long been associated with both increased production of reactive oxygen species and impaired antioxidant status, in particular during the chronic pulmonary infection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa...

  8. Sex peculiarities of radiosensitivity. Communication IV. Action of ionizing radiation on the sexual cycles of mouse and guinea pig females

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alekseeva, L V; Kudryavtseva, A A [AN SSSR, Pushchino-na-Oke. Inst. Biologicheskoj Fiziki

    1975-01-01

    Animals (mice, guinea pigs) were irradiated with doses of 500, 700 and 750 R, while a control group was subjected to mock radiation. In all cases after mock and real irradiation, the sexual cycles of the female mice and guinea pigs were disturbed after 1 to 3 hours (after mock irradiation slightly, and after irradiation doses of 500 and 700 R to a greater extent). The restoration of the cycles of some animals after mock irradiation took place after 2 to 3 days, and of others after 10 to 14 days. After irradiation with doses of 500 to 700 R restoration of the cycles did not occur for two months and longer. Despite the considerable individual differences in the duration of the reaction, the delay was observed in all mice principally in the phase after heat, and in the guinea pigs during the inactive phase.

  9. Nasal cavity dimensions in guinea pig and rat measured by acoustic rhinometry and fluid-displacement method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Straszek, Sune; Pedersen, O.F.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to measure nasal passageway dimensions in guinea pigs and rats by use of acoustic rhinometry (AR) and by a previously described fluid-displacement method (FDM) (Straszek SP, Taagehoej F, Graff S, and Pedersen OF. J Appl Physiol 95: 635-642, 2003) to investigate...... the potential of AR in pharmacological research with these animals. We measured the area-distance relationships by AR of nasal cavities postmortem in five guinea pigs (Duncan Hartley, 400 g) and five rats (Wistar, 250 g) by using custom-made equipment scaled for the purpose. Nosepieces were made from plastic...... pipette tips and either inserted into or glued onto the nostrils. We used liquid perfluorocarbon in the fluid-displacement study, and it was carried out subsequent to the acoustic measurements. We found for guinea pigs that AR measured a mean volume of 98 mm(3) (95-100 mm(3)) (mean and 95% confidence...

  10. Immunogenicity of two adjuvant formulations of an inactivated African horse sickness vaccine in guinea-pigs and target animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaetano Federico Ronchi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Monovalent, inactivated and adjuvanted vaccines against African horse sickness, prepared with serotypes 5 and 9, were tested on guinea-pigs to select the formulation that offered the greatest immunity. The final formulation of the vaccines took into account the immune response in the guinea-pig and the inflammatory properties of two types of adjuvant previously tested on target animals. A pilot study was subsequently conducted on horses using a vaccine prepared with serotype 9. The vaccine stimulated neutralising antibodies from the first administration and, after the booster dose, 28 days later; high antibody levels were recorded for at least 10 months. The guinea-pig appears to be a useful laboratory model for the evaluation of the antigenic properties of African horse sickness vaccines.

  11. Sex peculiarities of radiosensitivity. Communication 4. Action of ionizing radiation on the sexual cycles of mouse and guinea pig females

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alekseeva, L.V.; Kudryavtseva, A.A.

    1975-01-01

    Animals (mice, guinea pigs) were irradiated with doses of 500, 700 and 750 r, while a control group was subjected to mock radiation. In all cases after mock and real irradiation, the sexual cycles of the female mice and guinea pigs were disturbed after 1-3 hours (after mock irradiation slightly, and after irradiation doses of 500 and 700 r to a greater extent). The restoration of the cycles of some animals after mock irradiation took place after 2 - 3 days, and of others after 10 - 14 days. After irradiation with doses of 500 - 700 r restoration of the cycles did not occur for two months and longer. Despite the considerable individual differences in the duration of the reaction, the delay was observed in all mice principally in the phase after heat, and in the guinea pigs during the inactive phase. (author)

  12. Influence of ascorbic acid on in vivo amidation of alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone in guinea pig pituitary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fenger, M; Hilsted, L

    1988-01-01

    The effect of ascorbic acid depletion on the amidation of alphamelanocyte stimulating hormone (alpha MSH) was studied in vivo in guinea pig pituitary. After four weeks, the concentration of ascorbic acid was 1.20 +/- 0.11 mumol/g tissue (mean +/- SD) in the pituitary and 0.34 +/- 0.07 mumol......-39) immunoreactivity was observed in the depleted guinea pigs. Gel chromatography and reversed-phase high-performance luquid chromatography showed that the alpha MSH and ACTH (1-14) immunoreactivity was of low molecular weight and partly mono- or diacetylated. Depletion of ascorbic acid had no influence on the degree...... of acetylation of alpha MSH and ACTH (1-14). It is concluded that depletion of ascorbic acid reduces the in vivo amidation of ACTH (1-14) in the guinea pig pituitary....

  13. Neurectomia vestibular e coclear no guinea pig vivo: uma via occipital Vestibular and cochlear neurectomy in the alive guinea pig: an occipital approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo David

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Forma de estudo: Experimental. Objetivo: Este artigo descreve uma nova via cirúrgica para atingir a inervatura vestíbulo-coclear (VIII par no Guinea pig vivo. Essa via é totalmente óssea (exceto o acesso ao próprio osso, o que implica em poucos danos às estruturas nobres do animal, o qual é passível de recuperação para estudos posteriores do sistema vestibular e coclear e todas as suas referências, com o ouvido interno, médio e externo. Conclusão: Mesmo exigindo precisão e controle, dada a proximidade com estruturas vitais, ela se mostra bastante viável do ponto de vista prático e muito menos invasiva e danosa em relação a outras cirurgias realizadas com a mesma finalidade, por permitir exames de imitanciometria, Bera, vemp, reflexos estapediais e do tensor do tímpano, entre outros físicos ou fisioelétricos.Study design: Experimental. Aim: This paper describes a new surgery neurectomy technique to the VIII pair in Guinea pig alive. This is a full boned way, except for the access to the bone itself, what implies in minor damage to important structures of the animal. The animal recuperation is pretty good for later studies of the vestibular and cochlear system, and all its references to inner, middle and external ears. Conclusion: Even though the precision and control necessary, because of the neighbourhoods vital structures, it shows enough availability from the practice sight, and much less invasible and damage than other surgeries with the same finality. It allows imitaciometry, bera, vemp, stapediun and tympanic tensor reflexes and others (physicals or physioelectric.

  14. Clebopride enhances contractility of the guinea pig stomach by blocking peripheral D2 dopamine receptor and alpha-2 adrenoceptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, K; Taniyama, K; Kuno, T; Sano, I; Ishikawa, T; Ohmura, I; Tanaka, C

    1991-05-01

    The mechanism of action of clebopride on the motility of guinea pig stomach was examined by the receptor binding assay for bovine brain membrane and by measuring gastric contractility and the release of acetylcholine from the stomach. The receptor binding assay revealed that clebopride bound to the D2 dopamine receptor with a high affinity and to the alpha-2 adrenoceptor and 5-HT2 serotonin receptor with relatively lower affinity, and not to D1 dopamine, alpha-1 adrenergic, muscarinic acetylcholine, H1 histamine, or opioid receptor. In strips of the stomach, clebopride at 10(-8) M to 10(-5) M enhanced the electrical transmural stimulation-evoked contraction and the release of acetylcholine. This enhancement was attributed to the blockade of the D2 dopamine receptor and alpha-2 adrenoceptor because: 1) Maximum responses obtained with specific D2 dopamine receptor antagonist, domperidone, and with specific alpha-2 adrenoceptor antagonist, yohimbine, were smaller than that with clebopride, and the sum of the effects of these two specific receptor antagonists is approximately equal to the effect of clebopride. 2) The facilitatory effect of clebopride was partially eliminated by pretreatment of the sample with domperidone or yohimbine, and the facilitatory effect of clebopride was not observed in preparations treated with the combination of domperidone and yohimbine. Clebopride also antagonized the inhibitory effects of dopamine and clonidine on the electrical transmural stimulation-evoked responses. These results indicate that clebopride acts on post ganglionic cholinergic neurons at D2 and alpha-2 receptors in this preparation to enhance enteric nervous system stimulated motility.

  15. Clebopride enhances contractility of the guinea pig stomach by blocking peripheral D2 dopamine receptor and alpha-2 adrenoceptor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeda, K.; Taniyama, K.; Kuno, T.; Sano, I.; Ishikawa, T.; Ohmura, I.; Tanaka, C.

    1991-01-01

    The mechanism of action of clebopride on the motility of guinea pig stomach was examined by the receptor binding assay for bovine brain membrane and by measuring gastric contractility and the release of acetylcholine from the stomach. The receptor binding assay revealed that clebopride bound to the D2 dopamine receptor with a high affinity and to the alpha-2 adrenoceptor and 5-HT2 serotonin receptor with relatively lower affinity, and not to D1 dopamine, alpha-1 adrenergic, muscarinic acetylcholine, H1 histamine, or opioid receptor. In strips of the stomach, clebopride at 10 - 8 M to 10 - 5 M enhanced the electrical transmural stimulation-evoked contraction and the release of acetylcholine. This enhancement was attributed to the blockade of the D2 dopamine receptor and alpha-2 adrenoceptor because: (1) Maximum responses obtained with specific D2 dopamine receptor antagonist, domperidone, and with specific alpha-2 adrenoceptor antagonist, yohimbine, were smaller than that with clebopride, and the sum of the effects of these two specific receptor antagonists is approximately equal to the effect of clebopride. (2) The facilitatory effect of clebopride was partially eliminated by pretreatment of the sample with domperidone or yohimbine, and the facilitatory effect of clebopride was not observed in preparations treated with the combination of domperidone and yohimbine. Clebopride also antagonized the inhibitory effects of dopamine and clonidine on the electrical transmural stimulation-evoked responses. These results indicate that clebopride acts on post ganglionic cholinergic neurons at D2 and alpha-2 receptors in this preparation to enhance enteric nervous system stimulated motility

  16. High lenticular tolerance to ultraviolet radiation-B by pigmented guinea-pig; application of a safety limit strategy for UVR-induced cataract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mody, Vino C; Kakar, Manoj; Söderberg, Per G; Löfgren, Stefan

    2012-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine a threshold measure, maximum tolerable dose (MTD), for avoidance of UVR-B-induced cataract in the pigmented guinea-pig. Thirty pupil-dilated anesthetized young female guinea-pigs, divided into five equal groups, received between 0 and 84.9 kJ/m(2) unilateral UVR-B. Lens extraction and in vitro lens photography occurred 24 hr after exposure. Measurement of intensity of lens light scattering served as quantifying tool for the degree of cataract. Data analysis included regression, using a second order polynomial model. The applied MTD concept was based on the UVR-B dose-response curve obtained for the pigmented guinea-pig. A smaller number of pigmented guinea-pigs, pigmented rats and albino rats underwent morphometric analysis of the anterior segment geometry. All eyes exposed to UVR-B developed cataract in the anterior subcapsular region. MTD for avoidance of UVR-B-induced cataract was 69.0 kJ/m(2) in the pigmented guinea-pig. Iris was considerably thicker in the guinea-pig than in the rats. Lens blockage by the dilated iris was lowest in the guinea-pig. Maximum tolerable dose for avoidance of UVR-B-induced cataract in the pigmented guinea-pig was 69.0 kJ/m(2), over 10-fold higher than the threshold 5 kJ/m(2) obtained by Pitts et al. in the pigmented rabbit. Maximum tolerable dose is an appropriate method for estimation of toxicity for UVR-B-induced cataract in the guinea-pig. The pigmented guinea-pig is significantly less sensitive to UVR-B exposure than the pigmented rabbit and pigmented rat. © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 Acta Ophthalmol.

  17. L-dehydroascorbic acid can substitute l-ascorbic acid as dietary vitamin C source in guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frikke-Schmidt, Henriette; Tveden-Nyborg, Pernille; Lykkesfeldt, Jens

    2016-04-01

    Vitamin C deficiency globally affects several hundred million people and has been associated with increased morbidity and mortality in numerous studies. In this study, bioavailability of the oxidized form of vitamin C (l-dehydroascorbic acid or DHA)-commonly found in vitamin C containing food products prone to oxidation-was studied. Our aim was to compare tissue accumulation of vitamin C in guinea pigs receiving different oral doses of either ascorbate or DHA. In all tissues tested (plasma, liver, spleen, lung, adrenal glands, kidney, muscle, heart, and brain), only sporadic differences in vitamin C accumulation from ascorbate or DHA were observed except for the lowest dose of DHA (0.25mg/ml in the drinking water), where approximately half of the tissues had slightly yet significantly less vitamin C accumulation than from the ascorbate source. As these results contradicted data from rats, we continued to explore the ability to recycle DHA in blood, liver and intestine in guinea pigs, rats and mice. These investigations revealed that guinea pigs have similar recycling capacity in red blood cells as observed in humans, while rats and mice do not have near the same ability to reduce DHA in erythrocytes. In liver and intestinal homogenates, guinea pigs also showed a significantly higher ability to recycle DHA compared to rats and mice. These data demonstrate that DHA in guinea pigs-as in humans-is almost as effective as ascorbate as vitamin C source when it comes to taking up and storing vitamin C and further suggest that the guinea pig is superior to other rodents in modeling human vitamin C homeostasis. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Evaluation of Pain Assessment Techniques and Analgesia Efficacy in a Female Guinea Pig (Cavia porcellus) Model of Surgical Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Vanessa L; Athavale, Stephanie; Simon, Katherine E; Kendall, Lon V; Nemzek, Jean A; Lofgren, Jennifer L

    2017-01-01

    Guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus) are a frequently used species in research, often involving potentially painful procedures. Therefore, evidence-based recommendations regarding analgesia are critically needed to optimize their wellbeing. Our laboratory examined the efficacy of carprofen and extended-release (ER) buprenorphine, alone and as a multimodal combination, for relieving postsurgical pain in guinea pigs. Animals were assessed by using evoked (mechanical hypersensitivity), nonevoked (video ethogram, cageside ethogram, time-to-consumption test), and clinical (weight loss) measurements for 96 h during baseline, anesthesia–analgesia, and hysterectomy conditions. In addition, ER buprenorphine was evaluated pharmacologically. Guinea pigs treated with a single analgesic showed increased mechanical sensitivity for at least 96 h and indices of pain according to the video ethogram for as long as 8 h, compared with levels recorded during anesthesia–analgesia. In contrast, animals given both analgesics demonstrated increased mechanical sensitivity and behavioral evidence of pain for only 2 h after surgery compared with anesthesia–analgesia. The cageside ethogram and time-to-consumption tests failed to identify differences between conditions or treatment groups, highlighting the difficulty of identifying pain in guinea pigs without remote observation. Guinea pigs treated with multimodal analgesia or ER buprenorphine lost at least 10% of their baseline weights, whereas weight loss in carprofen animals was significantly lower (3%). Plasma levels for ER buprenorphine exceeded 0.9 ng/mL from 8 to 96 h after injection. Of the 3 analgesia regimens evaluated, multimodal analgesia provided the most effective pain control in guinea pigs. However the weight loss in the ER buprenorphine–treated animals may need to be considered during analgesia selection. PMID:28724492

  19. Use of recombinant human thyroid-stimulating hormone for evaluation of thyroid function in guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Jörg; Wagner, Robert; Mitchell, Mark A; Fecteau, Kellie

    2013-02-01

    To evaluate the effects of administration of recombinant human (rh) thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) for evaluation of thyroid function in euthyroid guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus). Prospective, experimental study. 10 healthy, sexually intact, pet guinea pigs (approx 1 year of age). Guinea pigs were given rhTSH (100 μg, IM); plasma thyroxine concentrations were determined prior to and 3 and 4 hours after rhTSH injection. The animals were housed in 2 groups on the basis of sex and fed different commercial maintenance diets according to their husbandry. There was no significant difference in thyroxine concentrations between males and females before or after rhTSH injection. There was also no difference between thyroxine concentrations at 3 versus 4 hours after rhTSH injection. There was a significant difference between thyroxine concentrations before (median, 9.05 nmol/L [0.70 μg/dL]; 10% to 90% range, 7.39 to 16.99 nmol/L [0.57 to 1.32 μg/dL]) and after (mean ± SD, 23.95 ± 4.2 nmol/L) rhTSH injection. Euthyroid guinea pigs had plasma thyroxine concentrations of at least 7.30 nmol/L (0.57 μg/dL) and an increase of at least 2.6 times prestimulation thyroxine concentrations at 3 or 4 hours after stimulation. The results suggested that rhTSH administered IM can be used for the TSH stimulation testing in guinea pigs. We suggest thyroxine concentration in a euthyroid guinea pig should at least double 3 to 4 hours after rhTSH injection.

  20. Do β3-adrenergic receptors play a role in guinea pig detrusor smooth muscle excitability and contractility?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afeli, Serge A. Y.; Hristov, Kiril L.

    2012-01-01

    In many species, β3-adrenergic receptors (β3-ARs) have been reported to play a primary role in pharmacologically induced detrusor smooth muscle (DSM) relaxation. However, their role in guinea pig DSM remains controversial. The aim of this study was to investigate whether β3-ARs are expressed in guinea pig DSM and to evaluate how BRL37344 and L-755,507, two selective β3-AR agonists, modulate guinea pig DSM excitability and contractility. We used a combined experimental approach including RT-PCR, patch-clamp electrophysiology, and isometric DSM tension recordings. β3-AR mRNA message was detected in freshly isolated guinea pig DSM single cells. BRL37344 but not L-755,507 caused a slight decrease in DSM spontaneous phasic contraction amplitude and frequency in a concentration-dependent manner. In the presence of atropine (1 μM), only the spontaneous phasic contractions frequency was inhibited by BRL37344 at higher concentrations. Both BRL37344 and L-755,507 significantly decreased DSM carbachol-induced phasic and tonic contractions in a concentration-dependent manner. However, only BRL37344 inhibitory effect was partially antagonized by SR59230A (10 μM), a β3-AR antagonist. In the presence of atropine, BRL37344 and L-755,507 had no inhibitory effect on electrical field stimulation-induced contractions. Patch-clamp experiments showed that BRL37344 (100 μM) did not affect the DSM cell resting membrane potential and K+ conductance. Although β3-ARs are expressed at the mRNA level, they play a minor to no role in guinea pig DSM spontaneous contractility without affecting cell excitability. However, BRL37344 and L-755,507 have pronounced inhibitory effects on guinea pig DSM carbachol-induced contractions. The study outlines important DSM β3-ARs species differences. PMID:21993887

  1. Comparison of mouse, guinea pig and rabbit models for evaluation of plague subunit vaccine F1+rV270.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Zhizhen; Zhou, Lei; Zhang, Qingwen; Ren, Lingling; Dai, Ruixia; Wu, Benchuan; Wang, Tang; Zhu, Ziwen; Yang, Yonghai; Cui, Baizhong; Wang, Zuyun; Wang, Hu; Qiu, Yefeng; Guo, Zhaobiao; Yang, Ruifu; Wang, Xiaoyi

    2010-02-10

    In this study, a new subunit vaccine that comprised native F1 and recombinant rV270 was evaluated for protective efficacy using mouse, guinea pig and rabbit models in comparison with the live attenuated vaccine EV76. Complete protection against challenging with 10(6) colony-forming units (CFU) of virulent Yersinia pestis strain 141 was observed for mice immunized with the subunit vaccines and EV76 vaccine. In contrast, the subunit vaccine recipes VII (F1-20 microg+rV270-10 microg) and IX (F1-40 microg+rV270-20 microg) and EV76 vaccine provided 86%, 79% and 93% protection against the same level of challenge in guinea pigs and 100%, 83% and 100% protection in rabbits, respectively. The immunized mice with the vaccines had significantly higher IgG titres than the guinea pigs and rabbits, and the immunized guinea pigs developed significantly higher IgG titres than the rabbits, but the anti-F1 response in guinea pigs was more variable than in the mice and rabbits, indicating that guinea pig is not an ideal model for evaluating protective efficacy of plague subunit vaccine, instead the rabbits could be used as an alternative model. All the immunized animals with EV76 developed a negligible IgG titre to rV270 antigen. Furthermore, analysis of IgG subclasses in the immunized animals showed a strong response for IgG1, whereas those receiving EV76 immunization demonstrated predominant production of IgG1 and IgG2a isotypes. The subunit vaccine and EV76 vaccine are able to provide protection for animals against Y. pestis challenge, but the subunit vaccines have obvious advantages over EV76 in terms of safety of use. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The multidrug resistance 1 gene Abcb1 in brain and placenta: comparative analysis in human and guinea pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappas, Jane J; Petropoulos, Sophie; Suderman, Matthew; Iqbal, Majid; Moisiadis, Vasilis; Turecki, Gustavo; Matthews, Stephen G; Szyf, Moshe

    2014-01-01

    The Multidrug Resistance 1 (MDR1; alternatively ABCB1) gene product P-glycoprotein (P-gp), an ATP binding cassette transporter, extrudes multiple endogenous and exogenous substrates from the cell, playing an important role in normal physiology and xenobiotic distribution and bioavailability. To date, the predominant animal models used to investigate the role of P-gp have been the mouse and rat, which have two distinct genes, Abcb1a and Abcb1b. In contrast, the human has a single gene, ABCB1, for which only a single isoform has been validated. We and others have previously shown important differences between Abcb1a and Abcb1b, limiting the extrapolation from rodent findings to the human. Since the guinea pig has a relatively long gestation, hemomonochorial placentation and neuroanatomically mature offspring, it is more similar to the human, and may provide a more comparable model for investigating the regulation of P-gp in the brain and placenta, however, to date, the Abcb1 gene in the guinea pig remains to be characterized. The placenta and fetal brain are barrier sites that express P-gp and that play a critical role of protection of the fetus and the fetal brain from maternally administered drugs and other xenobiotics. Using RNA sequencing (RNA-seq), reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and quantitative PCR (QPCR) to sequence the expressed isoforms of guinea pig Abcb1, we demonstrate that like the human, the guinea pig genome contains one gene for Abcb1 but that it is expressed as at least three different isoforms via alternative splicing and alternate exon usage. Further, we demonstrate that these isoforms are more closely related to human than to rat or mouse isoforms. This striking, overall similarity and evolutionary relatedness between guinea pig Abcb1 and human ABCB1 indicate that the guinea pig represents a relevant animal model for investigating the function and regulation of P-gp in the placenta and brain.

  3. Characterization of guinea pig T cell responses elicited after EP-assisted delivery of DNA vaccines to the skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultheis, Katherine; Schaefer, Hubert; Yung, Bryan S; Oh, Janet; Muthumani, Karuppiah; Humeau, Laurent; Broderick, Kate E; Smith, Trevor R F

    2017-01-03

    The skin is an ideal target tissue for vaccine delivery for a number of reasons. It is highly accessible, and most importantly, enriched in professional antigen presenting cells. Possessing strong similarities to human skin physiology and displaying a defined epidermis, the guinea pig is an appropriate model to study epidermal delivery of vaccine. However, whilst we have characterized the humoral responses in the guinea pig associated with skin vaccine protocols we have yet to investigate the T cell responses. In response to this inadequacy, we developed an IFN-γ ELISpot assay to characterize the cellular immune response in the peripheral blood of guinea pigs. Using a nucleoprotein (NP) influenza pDNA vaccination regimen, we characterized host T cell responses. After delivery of the DNA vaccine to the guinea pig epidermis we detected robust and rapid T cell responses. The levels of IFN-γ spot-forming units averaged approximately 5000 per million cells after two immunizations. These responses were broad in that multiple regions across the NP antigen elicited a T cell response. Interestingly, we identified a number of NP immunodominant T cell epitopes to be conserved across an outbred guinea pig population, a phenomenon which was also observed after immunization with a RSV DNA vaccine. We believe this data enhances our understanding of the cellular immune response elicited to a vaccine in guinea pigs, and globally, will advance the use of this model for vaccine development, especially those targeting skin as a delivery site. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. Distribution of Tocopherols and Tocotrienols in Guinea Pig Tissues Following Parenteral Lipid Emulsion Infusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhidong; Harvey, Kevin A; Pavlina, Thomas M; Zaloga, Gary P; Siddiqui, Rafat A

    2016-07-01

    Tocopherols and tocotrienols possess vitamin E activity and function as the major lipid-soluble antioxidants in the human body. Commercial lipid emulsions are composed of different oils and supply different amounts of vitamin E. The objective of this study was to measure all 8 vitamin E homologs within 4 different commercial lipid emulsions and evaluate their distribution in guinea pig tissues. The distribution of vitamin E homologs within plasma and guinea pig tissues was determined using a high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) system. Lipid hydroperoxides in lipid emulsions were determined using a commercial kit (Cayman Chemical Company, Ann Arbor, MI), and malondialdehyde tissue levels were determined using an HPLC system. The lipid emulsions contained variable amounts of tocopherols, which were significantly different between emulsions. Tocotrienols were present at very low concentrations (≤0.3%). We found no correlation between the amount of vitamin E present in the lipid emulsions and lipid peroxidation. Hydroperoxides were the lowest with an olive oil-based emulsion and highest with a fish oil emulsion. The predominant vitamin E homolog in guinea pig tissues was α-tocopherol. No tissues had detectable levels of tocotrienols. Vitamin E levels (primarily α-tocopherol and γ-tocopherol) were highly variable among organ tissues. Plasma levels were a poor reflection of most tissue levels. Vitamin E levels within different lipid emulsions and plasma/tissues are highly variable, and no one tissue or plasma sample serves as a good proxy for levels in other tissues. All study emulsions were well tolerated and did not significantly increase systemic lipid peroxidation. © 2014 American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition.

  5. Repeated low-dose exposures to sarin, soman, or VX affect acoustic startle in guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, C D; Lee, R B; Moran, A V; Sipos, M L

    2016-01-01

    Chemical warfare nerve agents (CWNAs) are known to cause behavioral abnormalities in cases of human exposures and in animal models. The behavioral consequences of single exposures to CWNAs that cause observable toxic signs are particularly well characterized in animals; however, less is known regarding repeated smaller exposures that may or may not cause observable toxic signs. In the current study, guinea pigs were exposed to fractions (0.1, 0.2, or 0.4) of a medial lethal dose (LD50) of sarin, soman, or VX for two weeks. On each exposure day, and for a post-exposure period, acoustic startle response (ASR) was measured in each animal. Although relatively few studies use guinea pigs to measure behavior, this species is ideal for CWNA-related experiments because their levels of carboxylesterases closely mimic those of humans, unlike rats or mice. Results showed that the 0.4 LD50 doses of soman and VX transiently increased peak startle amplitude by the second week of injections, with amplitude returning to baseline by the second week post-exposure. Sarin also increased peak startle amplitude independent of week. Latencies to peak startle and PPI were affected by agent exposure but not consistently among the three agents. Most of the changes in startle responses returned to baseline following the cessation of exposures. These data suggest that doses of CWNAs not known to produce observable toxic signs in guinea pigs can affect behavior in the ASR paradigm. Further, these deficits are transient and usually return to baseline shortly after the end of a two-week exposure period. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Relaxant effects of Ocimum basilicum on guinea pig tracheal chains and its possible mechanism(s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hossein Boskabady

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Therapeutic effects of Ocimum basilicum on respiratory diseases especially dyspnea have been reported in Iranian ancient medical books. In the present study, the relaxant effects of macerated and soxhlet extracts of this plant on tracheal chains of guinea pigs were evaluated. The relaxant effects of 4 cumulative concentrations of macerated and soxhlet extracts (0.25, 0.5, 0.75 and 1.0 W/V in comparison with saline as negative control and 4 cumulative concentrations of theophylline (0.25, 0.5, 0.75, and 1.0 mM as positive control were examined on precontracted tracheal chains of two groups of 6 guinea pig by 60 mM KCl (group 1 and 10 µM methacholine (group 2. Decrease in contractile tone of tracheal chains was considered as relaxant effect. In group 1 experiments only the last two higher concentrations of theophylline showed significant relaxant effect compared to that of saline (p<0.001 for both concentrations, which were significantly greater than those of macerated and soxhlet extracts (p<0.001 for all cases and in group 2 experiments both macerated and soxhlet extracts showed concentrationdependent relaxant effects compared to that of saline (p<0.05 to p<0.001 for both extracts. There were significant differences between the relaxant effects of both extracts with those of theophylline in group 2 experiments (p<0.01 to p<0.001. The relaxant effects of macerated and soxhlet extracts in group 1 were significantly lower than those of groups 2. These results showed a potent relaxant effect of Ocimum basilicum on tracheal chains of guinea pigs which were lower than theophylline at concentrations used.

  7. Relaxation effect of marmin on guinea pig tracheal smooth muscle via NO-independent mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dadang Irfan Husori

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the relaxation mechanims of marmin on epithelium of guinea pig isolated trachea smooth muscle (TSM. Methods: The study was conducted using in vitro isolated-trachea experimental. The guinea pig isolated trachea were incubated in Krebs solution-containing organ bath and supplied with a mixed gas of O2:CO2 (95%:5%. Result: Removal of tracheal epithelium was associated with significant increases in the potencies of histamine and methacholine to contract guinea pig TSM. The pD2 value of histamine increased from 6.04依0.08 on epithelial-intact to 6.32依0.06 on epithelial-denuded (P<0.05. The pD2 value of methacholine also increased from 5.85依0.09 on epithelial-intact to 6.15依0.07 on epithelial-denuded (P<0.05. Marmin exhibited relaxation effects on TSM induced by methacholine (3伊10-5 mol/L and histamine (3伊10-5 mol/L. Inhibition of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 through incubation with indomethacin could reduce the relaxation effect of marmin (P<0.05 on methacholine- and histamine-induced contractions. However, no significant differenceswere shown in methylene blue, Nω-nitro-L-arginine (L-NNA and propranolol-incubated TSM. Conclusions: The results suggest that marmin has relaxation effect on TSM which is epithelial-dependent through the release of PGE2. However, nitric oxide, cGMP and 毬 2-adrenergic-mediated relaxation were not involved.

  8. Experimental intoxication of guinea pigs with Ipomoea carnea: behavioural and neuropathological alterations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cholich, Luciana A; Márquez, Mercedes; Pumarola i Batlle, Martí; Gimeno, Eduardo J; Teibler, Gladys P; Rios, Elvio E; Acosta, Ofelia C

    2013-12-15

    Ipomoea carnea is a toxic plant that affects goats, with symptoms being characterised by nervous disorders and death. Swainsonine and calystegines are the principal toxic components isolated from I. carnea, which also yields lysergic acid derivatives. The aim of this study was to improve the clinical characterisation of experimental intoxication by I. carnea in guinea pigs through the evaluation of behavioural changes and to perform a thorough histopathological analysis of the affected CNS. Leaves of I. carnea were administered to guinea pigs. Open-field gait analysis and monoamine levels were measured. The poisoned animals exhibited increased vocalisation, lethargy, and a reduction in the locomotion frequency after the fourth week of intoxication, as demonstrated in the open-field test. Significant differences were observed in hind-limb gait width by the last week of intoxication. After 65 days, the guinea pigs were euthanised, necropsied, and examined using light and electron microscopy. At the end of the experiment, plasma serotonin decreased. In contrast, dopamine decreased, and noradrenaline increased in urine. Brain sections were evaluated with conventional histological methods and immunohistochemistry (IHC), as well as by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Vacuoles were observed throughout the brain, but they were particularly prominent in the brainstem. In addition, there were PAS-negative regions, and the Nissl substance was dispersed or absent, which was confirmed with the Kluver-Barreda stain. Moderate microgliosis was observed by immunohistochemistry. In the medulla oblongata, numerous ubiquitin-positive spheroids together with neuronal degeneration were observed in the nucleus gracilis/cuneatus. Furthermore, vacuoles were observed in astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and endothelial cells by TEM. Our results showed that the behavioural effects may have been caused by alterations in the brain in conjunction with changes in monoamine levels. This

  9. Significance of skeletal muscle digitalis receptors for [3H]ouabain distribution in the guinea pig

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kjeldsen, K.; Norgaard, A.; Hansen, O.; Clausen, T.

    1985-01-01

    The importance of specific digitalis glycoside binding sites in skeletal muscle for the digitalis glycoside distribution in the guinea pig was evaluated using [ 3 H]ouabain and [ 3 H]digoxin binding assays. Measurements of [ 3 H]ouabain binding capacity (EOmax) in gastrocnemius and heart muscles in vitro gave values of 474 +/- 15 and 1,092 +/- 39 pmol/g wet wt., respectively, in 4-week-old guinea pigs. Hence the total amount of [ 3 H]ouabain binding sites in skeletal muscle and the heart was around 42,700 and 1,200 pmol, respectively. The apparent dissociation constants (Kd) for ouabain receptor interaction was 0.7 X 10(-7) and 1.5 X 10(-7) M for skeletal muscle and heart, respectively. Comparison of [ 3 H]ouabain and [ 3 H]digoxin binding revealed that these drugs are competitive. From birth to maturity the concentration of [ 3 H]ouabain binding sites in guinea pigs decreased from 803 +/- 58 to 304 +/- 28 pmol/g wet wt. in gastrocnemius muscle and from 1,458 +/- 31 to 1,079 +/- 19 pmol/g wet wt. in the heart. After i.p. injection, measurements of the distribution of [ 3 H]ouabain in plasma, skeletal muscle and the heart showed an almost equal relative specific occupancy of digitalis glycoside receptors in skeletal muscle and the heart: When 10% of the digitalis receptors in the heart were occupied by [ 3 H]ouabain, 13% of those in the skeletal muscles were occupied. It was calculated that 1 hr after the i.p. administration of [ 3 H]ouabain the amount of [ 3 H]ouabain specifically bound to the skeletal muscles and the heart corresponded to 5 times and 1/10 the amount available in the extracellular pool, respectively

  10. Organophosphorus pesticides decrease M2 muscarinic receptor function in guinea pig airway nerves via indirect mechanisms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Becky J Proskocil

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies link organophosphorus pesticide (OP exposures to asthma, and we have shown that the OPs chlorpyrifos, diazinon and parathion cause airway hyperreactivity in guinea pigs 24 hr after a single subcutaneous injection. OP-induced airway hyperreactivity involves M2 muscarinic receptor dysfunction on airway nerves independent of acetylcholinesterase (AChE inhibition, but how OPs inhibit neuronal M2 receptors in airways is not known. In the central nervous system, OPs interact directly with neurons to alter muscarinic receptor function or expression; therefore, in this study we tested whether the OP parathion or its oxon metabolite, paraoxon, might decrease M2 receptor function on peripheral neurons via similar direct mechanisms. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Intravenous administration of paraoxon, but not parathion, caused acute frequency-dependent potentiation of vagally-induced bronchoconstriction and increased electrical field stimulation (EFS-induced contractions in isolated trachea independent of AChE inhibition. However, paraoxon had no effect on vagally-induced bradycardia in intact guinea pigs or EFS-induced contractions in isolated ileum, suggesting mechanisms other than pharmacologic antagonism of M2 receptors. Paraoxon did not alter M2 receptor expression in cultured cells at the mRNA or protein level as determined by quantitative RT-PCR and radio-ligand binding assays, respectively. Additionally, a biotin-labeled fluorophosphonate, which was used as a probe to identify molecular targets phosphorylated by OPs, did not phosphorylate proteins in guinea pig cardiac membranes that were recognized by M2 receptor antibodies. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These data indicate that neither direct pharmacologic antagonism nor downregulated expression of M2 receptors contributes to OP inhibition of M2 function in airway nerves, adding to the growing evidence of non-cholinergic mechanisms of OP neurotoxicity.

  11. Maternal vitamin C deficiency during pregnancy persistently impairs hippocampal neurogenesis in offspring of guinea pigs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pernille Tveden-Nyborg

    Full Text Available While having the highest vitamin C (VitC concentrations in the body, specific functions of VitC in the brain have only recently been acknowledged. We have shown that postnatal VitC deficiency in guinea pigs causes impairment of hippocampal memory function and leads to 30% less neurons. This study investigates how prenatal VitC deficiency affects postnatal hippocampal development and if any such effect can be reversed by postnatal VitC repletion. Eighty pregnant Dunkin Hartley guinea pig dams were randomized into weight stratified groups receiving High (900 mg or Low (100 mg VitC per kg diet. Newborn pups (n = 157 were randomized into a total of four postnatal feeding regimens: High/High (Control; High/Low (Depleted, Low/Low (Deficient; and Low/High (Repleted. Proliferation and migration of newborn cells in the dentate gyrus was assessed by BrdU labeling and hippocampal volumes were determined by stereology. Prenatal VitC deficiency resulted in a significant reduction in postnatal hippocampal volume (P<0.001 which was not reversed by postnatal repletion. There was no difference in postnatal cellular proliferation and survival rates in the hippocampus between dietary groups, however, migration of newborn cells into the granular layer of the hippocampus dentate gyrus was significantly reduced in prenatally deficient animals (P<0.01. We conclude that a prenatal VitC deficiency in guinea pigs leads to persistent impairment of postnatal hippocampal development which is not alleviated by postnatal repletion. Our findings place attention on a yet unrecognized consequence of marginal VitC deficiency during pregnancy.

  12. New insights into neurogenic cyclic motor activity in the isolated guinea-pig colon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, M; Wiklendt, L; Keightley, L; Brookes, S J H; Dinning, P G; Spencer, N J

    2017-10-01

    The contents of the guinea pig distal colon consist of multiple pellets that move anally in a coordinated manner. This row of pellets results in continued distention of the colon. In this study, we have investigated quantitatively the features of the neurally dependent colonic motor patterns that are evoked by constant distension of the full length of guinea-pig colon. Constant distension was applied to the excised guinea-pig by high-resolution manometry catheters or by a series of hooks. Constant distension elicited regular Cyclic Motor Complexes (CMCs) that originated at multiple different sites along the colon and propagated in an oral or anal direction extending distances of 18.3±10.3 cm. CMCs were blocked by tetrodotoxin (TTX; 0.6 μ mol L -1 ), hexamethonium (100 μ mol L -1 ) or hyoscine (1 μ mol L -1 ). Application of TTX in a localized compartment or cutting the gut circumferentially disrupted the spatial continuity of CMCs. Localized smooth muscle contraction was not required for CMC propagation. Shortening the length of the preparations or disruption of circumferential pathways reduced the integrity and continuity of CMCs. CMCs are a distinctive neurally dependent cyclic motor pattern, that emerge with distension over long lengths of the distal colon. They do not require changes in muscle tension or contractility to entrain the neural activity underlying CMC propagation. CMCs are likely to play an important role interacting with the neuromechanical processes that time the propulsion of multiple natural pellets and may be particularly relevant in conditions of impaction or obstruction, where long segments of colon are simultaneously distended. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Receptors involved in the modulation of guinea pig urinary bladder motility by prostaglandin D2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Na N; Svennersten, Karl; de Verdier, Petra J; Wiklund, N Peter; Gustafsson, Lars E

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose We have described a urothelium-dependent release of PGD2-like activity which had inhibitory effects on the motility of guinea pig urinary bladder. Here, we have pharmacologically characterized the receptors involved and localized the sites of PGD2 formation and of its receptors. Experimental Approach In the presence of selective DP and TP receptor antagonists alone or combined, PGD2 was applied to urothelium-denuded diclofenac-treated urinary bladder strips mounted in organ baths. Antibodies against PGD2 synthase and DP1 receptors were used with Western blots and for histochemistry. Key Results PGD2 inhibited nerve stimulation -induced contractions in strips of guinea pig urinary bladder with estimated pIC50 of 7.55 ± 0.15 (n = 13), an effect blocked by the DP1 receptor antagonist BW-A868C. After blockade of DP1 receptors, PGD2 enhanced the contractions, an effect abolished by the TP receptor antagonist SQ-29548. Histochemistry revealed strong immunoreactivity for PGD synthase in the urothelium/suburothelium with strongest reaction in the suburothelium. Immunoreactive DP1 receptors were found in the smooth muscle of the bladder wall with a dominant localization to smooth muscle membranes. Conclusions and Implications In guinea pig urinary bladder, the main effect of PGD2 is an inhibitory action via DP1 receptors localized to the smooth muscle, but an excitatory effect via TP receptors can also be evoked. The urothelium with its suburothelium might signal to the smooth muscle which is rich in PGD2 receptors of the DP1 type. The results are important for our understanding of regulation of bladder motility. PMID:25917171

  14. Kisspeptin Expression in Guinea Pig Hypothalamus: Effects of 17β-Estradiol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosch, Martha A.; Xue, Changhui; Rønnekleiv, Oline K.

    2013-01-01

    Kisspeptin is essential for reproductive functions in humans. As a model for the human we have used the female guinea pig, which has a long ovulatory cycle similar to that of primates. Initially, we cloned a guinea pig kisspeptin cDNA sequence and subsequently explored the distribution and 17β-estradiol (E2) regulation of kisspeptin mRNA (Kiss1) and protein (kisspeptin) by using in situ hybridization, real-time PCR and immunocytochemistry. In ovariectomized females, Kiss1 neurons were scattered throughout the preoptic periventricular areas (PV), but the vast majority of Kiss1 neurons were localized in the arcuate nucleus (Arc). An E2 treatment that first inhibits (negative feedback) and then augments (positive feedback) serum luteinizing hormone (LH) increased Kiss1 mRNA density and number of cells expressing Kiss1 in the PV at both time points. Within the Arc, Kiss1 mRNA density was reduced at both time points. Quantitative real-time PCR confirmed the in situ hybridization results during positive feedback. E2 reduced the number of immunoreactive kisspeptin cells in the PV at both time points, perhaps an indication of increased release. Within the Arc, the kisspeptin immunoreactivity was decreased during negative feedback but increased during positive feedback. Therefore, it appears that in guinea pig both the PV and the Arc kisspeptin neurons act cooperatively to excite gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons during positive feedback. We conclude that E2 regulation of negative and positive feedback may reflect a complex interaction of the kisspeptin circuitry, and both the PV and the Arc respond to hormone signals to encode excitation of GnRH neurons during the ovulatory cycle. PMID:22173890

  15. Cholinergic-opioidergic interaction in the central amygdala induces antinociception in the guinea pig

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leite-Panissi C.R.A.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have demonstrated the involvement of the central nucleus of the amygdala (CEA in the modulation of defensive behavior and in antinociceptive regulation. In a previous study, we demonstrated the existence of a cholinergic-opioidergic interaction in the CEA, modulating the defensive response of tonic immobility in guinea pigs. In the present study, we investigated a similar interaction in the CEA, but now involved in the regulation of the nociceptive response. Microinjection of carbachol (2.7 nmol and morphine (2.2 nmol into the CEA promoted antinociception up to 45 min after microinjection in guinea pigs as determined by a decrease in the vocalization index in the vocalization test. This test consists of the application of a peripheral noxious stimulus (electric shock into the subcutaneous region of the thigh that provokes the emission of a vocalization response by the animal. Furthermore, the present results demonstrated that the antinociceptive effect of carbachol (2.7 nmol; N = 10 was blocked by previous administration of atropine (0.7 nmol; N = 7 or naloxone (1.3 nmol; N = 7 into the same site. In addition, the decrease in the vocalization index induced by the microinjection of morphine (2.2 nmol; N = 9 into the CEA was prevented by pretreatment with naloxone (1.3 nmol; N = 11. All sites of injection were confirmed by histology. These results indicate the involvement of the cholinergic and opioidergic systems of the CEA in the modulation of antinociception in guinea pigs. In addition, the present study suggests that cholinergic transmission may activate the release of endorphins/enkephalins from interneurons of the CEA, resulting in antinociception.

  16. Polydeoxyribonucleotides and nitric oxide release from guinea-pig hearts during ischaemia and reperfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masini, E.; Lupini, M.; Mugnai, L.; Raspanti, S.; Mannaioni, P. F.

    1995-01-01

    1. Two polydeoxyribonucleotides, produced by the controlled hydrolysis of DNA of mammalian lung (defibrotide and its lower molecular weight fraction, P.O. 085 DV), were studied for their ability to modify the release of nitrite and the coronary flow in perfusates collected from isolated, normally perfused hearts of guinea-pigs and from hearts subjected to regional ischaemia and reperfusion. 2. In guinea-pig normally perfused hearts, both defibrotide (DFT) and its fraction, P.O. 085 DV, increase the amount of nitrite appearing in perfusates in a concentration-dependent fashion. At the highest concentration studied (10(-6) M), P.O. 085 DV was more effective than DFT. A concomitant increase in the coronary flow was observed. 3. The increase in nitrite in perfusates and the increase in coronary flow induced by both DFT and P.O. 085 DV were significantly reduced by NG-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA, 10(-4) M), an inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase (NOS). 4. The endothelium-dependent vasodilator, acetylcholine (ACh), enhances the formation of nitrite and the coronary flow. Both the increase in coronary flow and in the formation of nitrite were significantly reduced by L-NMMA (10(-4) M). 5. In guinea-pig hearts subjected to ischaemia and reperfusion, the effect of both compounds in increasing the amount of nitrite in perfusates was more evident and more pronounced with P.O. 085 DV. 6. Reperfusion-induced arrhythmias were significantly reduced by both compounds to the extent of complete protection afforded by compound P.O. 085 DV. 7. The cardioprotective and antiarrhythmic effects of DFT and P.O. 085 DV are discussed. PMID:7582482

  17. Modification of osteoarthritis in the guinea pig with pulsed low-intensity ultrasound treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurkan, I; Ranganathan, A; Yang, X; Horton, W E; Todman, M; Huckle, J; Pleshko, N; Spencer, R G

    2010-05-01

    The Hartley guinea pig develops articular cartilage degeneration similar to that seen in idiopathic human osteoarthritis (OA). We investigated whether the application of pulsed low-intensity ultrasound (PLIUS) to the Hartley guinea pig joint would prevent or attenuate the progression of this degenerative process. Treatment of male Hartley guinea pigs was initiated at the onset of degeneration (8 weeks of age) to assess the ability of PLIUS to prevent OA, or at a later age (12 months) to assess the degree to which PLIUS acted to attenuate the progression of established disease. PLIUS (30 mW/cm(2)) was applied to stifle joints for 20 min/day over periods ranging from 3 to 10 months, with contralateral limbs serving as controls. Joint cartilage histology was graded according to a modified Mankin scale to evaluate treatment effect. Immunohistochemical staining for interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra), matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-3, MMP-13, and transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta1 was performed on the cartilage to evaluate patterns of expression of these proteins. PLIUS did not fully prevent cartilage degeneration in the prevention groups, but diminished the severity of the disease, with the treated joints showing markedly decreased surface irregularities and a much smaller degree of loss of matrix staining as compared to controls. PLIUS also attenuated disease progression in the groups with established disease, although to a somewhat lesser extent as compared to the prevention groups. Immunohistochemical staining demonstrated a markedly decreased degree of TGF-beta1 production in the PLIUS-treated joints. This indicates less active endogenous repair, consistent with the marked reduction in cartilage degradation. PLIUS exhibits the ability to attenuate the progression of cartilage degeneration in an animal model of idiopathic human OA. The effect was greater in the treatment of early, rather than established, degeneration. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Noise-induced nitrotyrosine increase and outer hair cell death in guinea pig cochlea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Wei-ju; Shi, Xiao-rui; Nuttall, Alfred

    2013-01-01

    Modern research has provided new insights into the biological mechanisms of noise-induced hearing loss, and a number of studies showed the appearance of increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) during and after noise exposure. This study was designed to investigate the noise exposure induced nitrotyrosine change and the mechanism of outer hair cells death in guinea pig cochlea. Thirty guinea pigs were used in this study. The experimental animals were either exposed for 4 hours per day to broadband noise at 122 dB SPL (A-weighted) for 2 consecutive days or perfused cochleae with 5 mg/ml of the SIN1 solutions, an exogenous NO and superoxide donor, for 30 minutes. Then the cochleae of the animals were dissected. Propidium iodide (PI), a DNA intercalating fluorescent probe, was used to trace morphological changes in OHC nuclei. The distribution of nitrotyrosine (NT) in the organ of Corti and the cochlear lateral wall tissue from the guinea pigs were examined using fluorescence immunohistochemistry method. Whole mounts of organ of Corti were prepared. Morphological and fluorescent changes were examined under a confocal microscope. Either after noise exposure or after SIN1 perfusion, outer hair cells (OHCs) death with characteristics of both apoptotic and necrotic degradation appeared. Nitrotyrosine immunolabeling could be observed in the OHCs from the control animals. After noise exposure, NT immunostaining became much greater than the control animals in OHCs. The apoptotic OHC has significant increase of nitrotyrosine in and around the nucleus following noise exposure. In the normal later wall of cochleae, relatively weak nitrotyrosine immunolabeling could be observed. After noise exposure, nitrotyrosine immunoactivity became stronger in stria vascularis. Noise exposure induced increase of nitrotyrosine production is associated with OHCs death suggesting reactive nitrogen species participation in the cochlear pathophysiology of noise

  19. Leucocyte profile and offspring production of guinea pig (Cavia cobaya given Anredera cordifolia leaf extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Wijayanti

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine leucocyte and offspring production of guinea pig (Cavia cobaya giving Anredera cordifolia leaf extract. Materials used were female 16 heads of guinea pig with body weight of 425g. The treatments were an extract of A. cordifolia leaf at doses of 0, 10, 50 and 90 mg/head, designated as T0, T1, T2 and T3, respectively. A. cordifolia leaf extract was administered orally from 10 days prepartum to 10 days postpartum. Blood was taken at 10 days prepartum and 10 days postpartum. Total birth of the offspring was observed. Data were analyzed by analysis of variance and if there was effect of treatment, then continued with Duncan multiple range test and Chi-Square test for fetal production between the given A. cordifolia leaf extract and control. The result showed that there was no significant difference for 10 days prepartum after addition of A cordifolia leaf extract treatment. The postpartum treated showed a total 50 mg/head level increaed for monocytes than that of level 0, 10 and 90 mg/head. Ten days postpartum treatment showed the total increase for leucocyte and monocytes total were 50 and 90 mg/head, respectively compared to 10 mg/head level. Total lymphocyte of 90 mg/head increased compared to level 10 and 50 mg/head. The highest total neutrophil as found at level of 50 mg/head which increased compared to the level of 0 and 10 mg/head. ProvisioningA. cordifolialeaf extract at doses level of 50 and 90 mg/head could increase litter size (P<0.05; χ2=9.267 and decreased offspring mortality (P<0.05; χ2=6.4. In conclusion, by giving 50 mg/head A. cordifolia leaf extract could increase leucocyte profile and offspring production of guinea pig.

  20. Recombinant guinea pig CCL5 (RANTES) differentially modulates cytokine production in alveolar and peritoneal macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skwor, Troy A; Cho, Hyosun; Cassidy, Craig; Yoshimura, Teizo; McMurray, David N

    2004-12-01

    The CC chemokine ligand 5 (CCL5; regulated on activation, normal T expressed and secreted) is known to recruit and activate leukocytes; however, its role in altering the responses of host cells to a subsequent encounter with a microbial pathogen has rarely been studied. Recombinant guinea pig (rgp)CCL5 was prepared, and its influence on peritoneal and alveolar macrophage activation was examined by measuring cytokine and chemokine mRNA expression in cells stimulated with rgpCCL5 alone or exposed to rgpCCL5 prior to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation. Levels of mRNA for guinea pig tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin (IL)-1beta, CCL2 (monocyte chemoattractant protein-1), and CXC chemokine ligand 8 (IL-8) were analyzed by reverse transcription followed by real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis using SYBR Green. Bioactive TNF-alpha protein concentration was measured using the L929 bioassay. Both macrophage populations displayed significant enhancement of all the genes and TNF-alpha protein levels when stimulated with rgpCCL5, except for CCL2 in alveolar macrophages. When peritoneal or alveolar macrophages were pretreated with rgpCCL5 for 2 h and then exposed to low concentrations of LPS, diminished cytokine and chemokine mRNA levels were apparent at 6 h compared with LPS alone. At the protein level, there was a reduction in TNF-alpha protein at 6 h in the CCL5-pretreated cells compared with LPS alone. These results further support a role for CCL5 in macrophage activation in addition to chemotactic properties and suggest a role in regulating the inflammatory response to LPS in the guinea pig by modulating the production of proinflammatory cytokines by macrophages.

  1. Ascorbic acid reduces noise-induced nitric oxide production in the guinea pig ear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrich, Ulf-Rüdiger; Fischer, Ilka; Brieger, Jürgen; Rümelin, Andreas; Schmidtmann, Irene; Li, Huige; Mann, Wolf J; Helling, Kai

    2008-05-01

    Noise-induced hearing loss can be caused, among other causes, by increased nitric oxide (NO) production in the inner ear leading to nitroactive stress and cell destruction. Some studies in the literature suggest that the degree of hearing loss (HL) could be reduced in an animal model through ascorbic acid supplementation. To identify the effect of ascorbic acid on tissue-dependent NO content in the inner ear of the guinea pig, we determined the local NO production in the organ of Corti and the lateral wall separately 6 hours after noise exposure. Prospective animal study in guinea pigs. Over a period of 7 days, male guinea pigs were supplied with minimum (25 mg/kg body weight/day) and maximum (525 mg/kg body weight/day) ascorbic acid doses, and afterwards exposed to noise (90 dB sound pressure level for 1 hour). The acoustic-evoked potentials were recorded before and after noise exposure. The organ of Corti and the lateral wall were incubated differently for 6 hours in culture medium, and the degree of NO production was determined by chemiluminescence. Ascorbic acid treatment reduced the hearing threshold shift after noise exposure depending on concentration. When the maximum ascorbic acid dose was substituted, NO production was significantly reduced in the lateral wall after noise exposure and slightly reduced in the organ of Corti. Oral supplementation of the natural radical scavenger ascorbic acid reduces the NO-production rate in the inner ear in noisy conditions. This finding supports the concept of inner ear protection by ascorbic acid supplementation.

  2. Delamanid Kills Dormant Mycobacteria In Vitro and in a Guinea Pig Model of Tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiuhao; Hashizume, Hiroyuki; Tomishige, Tatsuo; Nakamura, Izuru; Matsuba, Miki; Fujiwara, Mamoru; Kitamoto, Ryuki; Hanaki, Erina; Ohba, Yoshio; Matsumoto, Makoto

    2017-06-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) treatment is long and requires multiple drugs, likely due to various phenotypes of TB bacilli with variable drug susceptibilities. Drugs with broad activity are urgently needed. This study aimed to evaluate delamanid's activity against growing or dormant bacilli in vitro as well as in vivo Cultures of Mycobacterium bovis BCG Tokyo under aerobic and anaerobic conditions were used to study the activity of delamanid against growing and dormant bacilli, respectively. Delamanid exhibited significant bactericidal activity against replicating and dormant bacilli at or above concentrations of 0.016 and 0.4 mg/liter, respectively. To evaluate delamanid's antituberculosis activity in vivo , we used a guinea pig model of chronic TB infection in which the lung lesions were similar to those in human TB disease. In the guinea pig TB model, a daily dose of 100 mg delamanid/kg of body weight for 4 or 8 weeks demonstrated strong bactericidal activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis Importantly, histological examination revealed that delamanid killed TB bacilli within hypoxic lesions of the lung. The combination regimens containing delamanid with rifampin and pyrazinamide or delamanid with levofloxacin, ethionamide, pyrazinamide, and amikacin were more effective than the standard regimen (rifampin, isoniazid, and pyrazinamide). Our data show that delamanid is effective in killing both growing and dormant bacilli in vitro and in the guinea pig TB model. Adding delamanid to current TB regimens may improve treatment outcomes, as demonstrated in recent clinical trials with pulmonary multidrug-resistant (MDR) TB patients. Delamanid may be an important drug for consideration in the construction of new regimens to shorten TB treatment duration. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  3. Chronic hypoxia alters maternal uterine and fetal hemodynamics in the full-term pregnant guinea pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turan, Sifa; Aberdeen, Graham W; Thompson, Loren P

    2017-10-01

    Placental hypoxia is associated with maternal hypertension, placental insufficiency, and fetal growth restriction. In the pregnant guinea pig, prenatal hypoxia during early gestation inhibits cytotrophoblast invasion of spiral arteries, increases maternal blood pressure, and induces fetal growth restriction. In this study the impact of chronic maternal hypoxia on fetal heart structure was evaluated using four-dimensional echocardiography with spatiotemporal image correlation and tomographic ultrasound, and uterine and umbilical artery resistance/pulsatility indexes and fetal heart function were evaluated using pulsed-wave Doppler ultrasound. Pregnant guinea pigs were exposed to normoxia ( n = 7) or hypoxia (10.5% O 2 , n = 9) at 28-30 days gestation, which was maintained until full term (65 days). At full term, fetal heart structure and outflow tracts were evaluated in the four-chamber view. Fetal heart diastolic function was assessed by E wave-to-A wave diastolic filling ratios (E/A ratios) of both ventricles and systolic function by the myocardial performance index (or Tie) of left ventricles of normoxic ( n = 21) and hypoxic ( n = 17) fetuses. There were no structural abnormalities in fetal hearts. However, hypoxia induced asymmetric fetal growth restriction and increased the placental/fetal weight compared with normoxic controls. Hypoxia increased Doppler resistance and pulsatility indexes in the uterine, but not umbilical, arteries, had no effect on the Tie index, and increased the E/A ratio in left, but not right, ventricles. Thus, prolonged hypoxia, starting at midgestation, increases uterine artery resistance and generates fetal growth restriction at full term. Furthermore, the enhanced cardiac diastolic filling with no changes in systolic function or umbilical artery resistance suggests that the fetal guinea pig systemic circulation undergoes a compensated, adaptive response to prolonged hypoxia exposure. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological

  4. In vitro gamma irradiation Medical Center of leukemic cells in mice, rats, and guinea pigs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gross, L.; Dreyfuss, Y.; Ehrenreich, T.; Feldman, D.; Limbert, L.M.

    1980-01-01

    In vitro gamma irradiation of virus-induced (Gross) mouse leukemia cells at doses of 350 to 1600 rads (1 rad = 0.01 gray) had no effect on their ability to induce leukemia, usually within 2 weeks, after transplantation into syngeneic mice. However, when cells irradiated at doses of 2000-20,000 rads were transplanted, they induced leukemia after a latency period exceeding 2.5 months, similar to the results observed in mice inoculated with filtered mouse leukemia extracts. Similar results were also obtained after irradiation of leukemic cells derived from rats in which leukemia had been induced by rat-adapted mouse leukemia virus. Apparently, gamma irradiation at a dose of, or exceeding, 2000 rads, inhibits the ability of mouse and rat leukemic cells to induce leukemia after transplantation into syngeneic hosts; however, it does not inactivate the virus carried by such cells nor prevent it from inducing leukemia. [In previous experiments, doses of more than 4,500,000 rads were needed to inactivate the passage A (Gross) leukemia virus carried in either mouse or rat leukemic cells.] In vitro gamma irradiation of L2C guinea pig leukemic cells at doses of 750 to 2500 rads had no apparent effect on their ability to induce leukemia after transplantation into strain 2 guinea pigs. However, irradiation at doses of 3250 to 20,000 rads inactivated their ability to do so. The morphology of mouse, rat, and guinea pig leukemic cells and the virus particles present in such cells was not affected by irradiation at doses of 20,000 rads

  5. Mast cell mediators in citric acid-induced airway constriction of guinea pigs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, C.-H.; Lai, Y.-L.

    2005-01-01

    We demonstrated previously that mast cells play an important role in citric acid (CA)-induced airway constriction. In this study, we further investigated the underlying mediator(s) for this type of airway constriction. At first, to examine effects caused by blocking agents, 67 young Hartley guinea pigs were divided into 7 groups: saline + CA; methysergide (serotonin receptor antagonist) + CA; MK-886 (leukotriene synthesis inhibitor) + CA; mepyramine (histamine H 1 receptor antagonist) + CA; indomethacin (cyclooxygenase inhibitor) + CA; cromolyn sodium (mast cell stabilizer) + CA; and compound 48/80 (mast cell degranulating agent) + CA. Then, we tested whether leukotriene C 4 (LTC 4 ) or histamine enhances CA-induced airway constriction in compound 48/80-pretreated guinea pigs. We measured dynamic respiratory compliance (Crs) and forced expiratory volume in 0.1 s (FEV 0.1 ) during either baseline or recovery period. In addition, we detected histamine level, an index of pulmonary mast cell degranulation, in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) samples. Citric acid aerosol inhalation caused decreases in Crs and FEV 0.1 , indicating airway constriction in the control group. This airway constriction was significantly attenuated by MK-886, mepyramine, cromolyn sodium, and compound 48/80, but not by either methysergide or indomethacin. Both LTC 4 and histamine infusion significantly increased the magnitude of CA-induced airway constriction in compound 48/80-pretreated guinea pigs. Citric acid inhalation caused significant increase in histamine level in the BAL sample, which was significantly suppressed by compound 48/80. These results suggest that leukotrienes and histamine originating from mast cells play an important role in CA inhalation-induced noncholinergic airway constriction

  6. Spontaneous osteoarthritis in Dunkin Hartley guinea pigs: histologic, radiologic, and biochemical changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jimenez, P.A.; Glasson, S.S.; Trubetskoy, O.V.; Haimes, H.B.

    1997-01-01

    Dunkin Hartley guinea pigs develop spontaneous, age-related osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee and other joints. Histologic changes are observed beginning at 3 months of age. Disease severity increases with age, and at 18 months moderate to severe OA is observed. A study was undertaken to assess the morphologic and biochemical changes of 22-month-old animals, and to compare them with values in 2-month-old guinea pigs. Biochemical indices characteristic of OA, from tibial cartilage, indicated an increase in proteoglycan content from 283 +/- 2 micrograms/mg (mean +/- SEM) at 2 months of age to 365 +/- 6 micrograms/mg at 22 months. Collagen concentration in cartilage decreased from 364 +/- 2 micrograms/ at 2 months to 223 +/- 3 micrograms/mg at 22 months. Proteoglycan fragments found in synovial fluid measured 4.6 +/- 1 micrograms/ml at 2 months and increased to 37 +/- 2 micrograms/ml at 22 months. Radiographic changes observed at 22 months included marginal osteophytes of the tibia and femur, sclerosis of the subchondral bone of the tibial plateau, femoral condyle cysts, and calcification of the collateral ligaments. Histologic evaluation revealed severe OA, with a Mankin score of 10.7 +/- 0.5 in 22-month-old animals. In contrast, 2-month-old animals had no histologic or radiographically detectable lesions. The results of the study reported here indicate that the lesions observed in this model are similar to those of human OA. Spontaneous development of OA in guinea pig is amenable to the study of the pathogenesis of OA and to the evaluation of potential disease-modifying agents

  7. The actions of isoprenaline and mirabegron in the isolated whole rat and guinea pig bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persyn, Sara; De Wachter, Stefan; Wyndaele, Jean-Jacques; Eastham, Jane; Gillespie, James

    2016-07-01

    β3-adrenoceptor agonists influence overactive bladder in humans and animal models. However, data is emerging that the mode of action of these drugs is complex. The present study explored the actions of the β3-adrenergic agonist mirabegron and the non-selective agonist isoprenaline on the contractile systems in the rat and guinea pig bladder. Intravesical pressure was measured in isolated whole bladders from female adult animals. In both species spontaneous contractile activity was observed. The muscarinic agonist arecaidine produced complex responses consisting of an initial transient pressure rise followed by complex phasic activity. Three contractile elements were identified: intrinsic micro-contractile activity, initial transient response and steady state phasic activity. The intrinsic and steady state activity could be further divided into a baseline pressure with superimposed phasic activity. The effects of isoprenaline and mirabegron were investigated on these elements. In the rat, the micro-contractile activity could be completely inhibited by isoprenaline (full agonist). The arecaidine-induced initial and steady state baseline pressures were partially reduced, while the phasic activity was little affected. In the guinea pig, both the arecaidine-induced baseline pressure and the phasic activity were affected by isoprenaline. Mirabegron didn't produce significant inhibitory effects in any of the contractile elements in either species. These results show that complex contractile systems operate in the rat and guinea pig bladder that can be modulated by β1/β2-adrenoceptor mechanisms. No evidence was obtained for any β3-dependent regulation of contraction. These data support similar data in humans. Therefore the primary site of therapeutic action of β3-adrenergic agonists remains unknown. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Effects of piracetam supplementation on cochlear damage occuring in guinea pigs exposed to irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altas, E.; Ertekin, M.V.; Kuduban, O.; Gundogdu, C.; Demirci, E.; Sutbeyaz, Y.

    2006-01-01

    In this study we aimed to determine the role of piracetam (PIR) in preventing radiation induced cochlear damage after total-cranium irradiation (radiotherapy; RT). Male albino guinea pigs used in the study were randomly divided into three groups. Group 1 (Control group) (n=11) received neither PIR nor irradiation, but received saline solution intraperitoneally (i.p.) and received sham irradiation. Group 2 (RT group) (n=32) was exposed to total cranium irradiation of 33 Gy in 5 fractions of 6.6 Gy/d for five successive days, with a calculated (α/β=3.5) biological effective dose of fractionated irradiation equal to 60 Gy conventional fractionation, then received saline solution for five successive days i.p. Group 3 (PIR+RT group) (n=33) received total cranium irradiation, plus 350 mg/kg per day PIR for five successive days i.p. After the last dose of RT, the guinea pigs were all sacrificed at the 4th, 24th and 96th hours, respectively. Their cochleas were enucleated for histopathologic examination. It was observed that total cranium irradiation (RT group) promoted degeneration in stria vascularis (SV), spiral ganglion cells (SG), outer hair cells (OHC) and inner hair cell (IHC) of cochleas at these times (p 0.05) and IHC at 4th, 24th hours (p>0.05), there was a significant difference on radiation-induced cochlear degeneration in SV and OHC at 24th and 96th hours (p<0.05), IHC at 96th hour (p<0.05) and SG at 4th, 24th and 96th hours (p<0.05). There was no any cochlear degeneration in the control group. Piracetam might reduce radiation-induced cochlear damage in the guinea pig. These results are pioneer to studies that will be performed with PIR for radiation toxicity protection. (author)

  9. Thyroidal uptake and retention of 131I by pregnant and fetal guinea pigs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Book, S.A.; McNeill, D.A.

    1975-01-01

    Preliminary studies on thyroidal 131 I concentration by fetal guinea pigs indicate a peak uptake approximately 7 times that of the maternal gland, with an effective half-life of less than 2 days. The resultant dose was estimated to be 37 rads for the maternal gland and from 60 to 81 rads for the fetal gland per microcurie administered. From 1 to 11 days after maternal injection of 131 I, amniotic fluid contained more 131 I per liter than did fetal blood which in turn had a greater concentration than did maternal blood

  10. [Effects of dauricine on action potentials and slow inward currents of guinea pig ventricular papillary muscles].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, S N; Zhang, K Y

    1992-11-01

    Effects of dauricine (Dau) on the action potentials (AP), the slow action potentials (SAP), and the slow inward currents (Isi) of guinea pig ventricular papillary muscles were observed by means of intracellular microelectrode and single sucrose gap voltage clamp technique. In the early stage, Dau shortened action potential duration 100 (APD100) and effective refractory period (ERP) (ERP/APD ERP, and APD20, significantly decreased action potential amplitude (APA), maximum velocity (Vmax), and overshot (OS) (ERP/APD > 1; P SAP induced by isoprenaline (P < 0.01), and remarkably inhibited Isi (P < 0.01). The results suggested that Dau exerted an inhibitory effect on Na+, Ca2+, and K+ channels.

  11. Prenatal Iron Deficiency in Guinea Pigs Increases Locomotor Activity but Does Not Influence Learning and Memory

    OpenAIRE

    Fiset, Catherine; Rioux, France M.; Surette, Marc E.; Fiset, Sylvain

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the current study was to determine whether prenatal iron deficiency induced during gestation in guinea pigs affected locomotor activity and learning and memory processes in the progeny. Dams were fed either iron-deficient anemic or iron-sufficient diets throughout gestation and lactation. After weaning, all pups were fed an iron-sufficient diet. On postnatal day 24 and 40, the pups' locomotor activity was observed within an open-field test, and from postnatal day 25 to 40, th...

  12. Stereomicroscopic and histologic changes in the colon of guinea pigs fed degraded carrageenan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Steen Seier

    1980-01-01

    A colitis-like state induced in Guinea Pigs fed degraded carrageenan orally. By means of a combined semimacroscopic and histologic technique the course of the disease was followed during 28 days. The changes were primarily seen and became most prominent in the caecum. The first lesions were...... observed following 24 hours of treatment as small rounded foci initially with degenerative changes and inflammation in the surface epithelium, later forming superficial focal ulcerations. Ulcerative changes gradually progressed during the experiment, forming linear and later large, geographical ulcerations...

  13. Cutaneous Uptake of 14C-HD Vapor by the Hairless Guinea Pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-10-01

    guinea pig (HGP) is used by our laboratory to model the human cutaneous response to sulfur mustard (HD) exposure. We have determined the HD content in the skin of HOP after 7-minute exposures to vapors saturated with a mixture of HD and 14C-HD. Concentration/time (C1) values in the range of 2 mg/sq cm/min were determined by counting skin 14C disintegrations per minute (dpm) in animals euthanized immediately after exposure. These values are similar to human penetration rates obtained by other investigators. A direct relationship between C1 and relative humidity was

  14. Experimental joint immobilization in guinea pigs. Effects on the knee joint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcondesdesouza, J. P.; Machado, F. F.; Sesso, A.; Valeri, V.

    1980-01-01

    In young and adult guinea pigs, the aftermath experimentally induced by the immobilization of the knee joint in hyperextended forced position was studied. Joint immobilization which varied from one to nine weeks was attained by plaster. Eighty knee joints were examined macro and microscopically. Findings included: (1) muscular hypotrophy and joint stiffness in all animals, directly proportional to the length of immobilization; (2) haemoarthrosis in the first week; (3) intra-articular fibrous tissue proliferation ending up with fibrous ankylosis; (4) hyaline articular cartilage erosions; (5) various degrees of destructive menisci changes. A tentative explanation of the fibrous tissue proliferation and of the cartilage changes is offered.

  15. Production of arachidonic and linoleic acid metabolites by guinea pig tracheal epithelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oosthuizen, M.J.; Engels, F.; Van Esch, B.; Henricks, P.A.; Nijkamp, F.P.

    1990-01-01

    Pulmonary epithelial cells may be responsible for regulating airway smooth muscle function, in part by release of fatty acid-derived mediators. Incubation of isolated guinea pig tracheal epithelial cells with radiolabeled arachidonic acid (AA) leads to the production of 5- and 15-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (5- and 15-HETE) and smaller amounts of leukotriene (LT) B4 and C4 and 12-hydroxyheptadecatrienoic acid (HHT). Epithelial cells also are able to release linoleic acid (LA) metabolites. Incubation with radiolabeled linoleic acid leads to the formation of 9- and 13-hydroxyoctadecadienoic acid (9- and 13-HODE). The biological significance of these mediators produced by epithelial cells is discussed

  16. The hairless guinea-pig as a model for treatment of acute irritation in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, F; Hedegaard, K; Fullerton, A

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The effect of six skin care formulations on experimentally induced acute irritation was studied in hairless guinea-pigs (HLGP) and in human volunteers (HV). The formulations were a basic cream, a carbomer cream and four modifications of the carbomer cream, containing either 10...... and colorimetry. RESULTS: The glycerol cream was the only product showing effects potentially better than no treatment in HV. CONCLUSION: The HLGP was too sensitive an animal model as a predictor for effect in humans. There was no difference in efficacy of the formulations against the two different irritants...

  17. Absorption and retention of inorganic and organically incorporated technetium-95 by rats and guinea pigs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sullivan, M.F.; Graham, T.M.; Cataldo, D.A.; Schreckhise, R.G.

    1978-01-01

    Transport of /sup 95m/Tc, administered in both an inorganic and organically incorporated form, was measured across the gastrointestinal tracts of rats and guinea pigs. Absorption of Tc incorporated in animal tissue was about half that of inorganic pertechnitate administered by gavage. The form in which it was administered did not alter elimination rates. When Tc was administered to newborn rats by gavage, 50% remained in carcasses at 1 wk, mostly associated with the pelt, whereas only about 10% was retained by adults

  18. INFLUENCE OF ANTIBIOTICS ON THE MECHANICAL RESPONSES OF GUINEA-PIG ILEUM TO ACETYLCHOLINE AND HISTAMINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petroianu Andy

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The side effects of antibiotics have been extensively described during the last decades, however, their role on digestive motility must be better investigated. Following a line of research, the influence of penicillin, chloranfenicol tetracycline and gentamicine on longitudinal smooth muscle responses to acetylcholine and histamine were studied on guinea-pig ileum. There were no differences between the responses before and after the addition of each antibiotic. Further investigations must be performed in order to find a possible influence of antibiotics on digestive motility.

  19. Distribution of /sup 14/C-pipemidic acid in the guinea pig ear

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    Morino, Naoyoshi; Miyazaki, Hisashi; Hashimoto, Masahisa [Dainippon Pharmaceutical Co. Ltd., Osaka

    1978-03-01

    Macroautoradiographic studies on distribution of /sup 14/C-pipemidic acid in the guinea pig ear were performed after administration of the drug to provide its disposition for its application in the otolaryngological field. Petrosal bone, cochlea and auditory ossicles contained extremely low levels of /sup 14/C-pipemidic acid; blood, mucous tissues of tympanic cavity and tympanic membrane, low levels; tissues of external ear, moderate levels; and outer surface tissues of petrosal bone possibly including periosteum, significant levels. These otological tissue distributions of pipemidic acid suggest the effective applicability of the drug in the field.

  20. Radioimmunoassay for quantification of anti-tuberculin antibody concentration in guinea pig sera

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