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Sample records for guarani diptera ceratopogonidae

  1. Vector competence of Culicoides sonorensis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) to epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus serotype 7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Culicoides sonorensis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) is a vector of epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV) serotypes 1 and 2 in North America, where these viruses are well-known pathogens of white-tailed deer (WTD) and other wild ruminants. Although historically rare, reports of clinica...

  2. Spatial and temporal variation in the abundance of Culicoides biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) in nine European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cuellar, Ana Carolina; Kjær, Lene Jung; Kirkeby, Carsten Thure

    2018-01-01

    Biting midges of the genus Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) are vectors of bluetongue virus (BTV), African horse sickness virus and Schmallenberg virus (SBV). Outbreaks of both BTV and SBV have affected large parts of Europe. The spread of these diseases depends largely on vector distributio...

  3. Wing pattern variation in the Patagonian biting midge, Forcipomyia (Forcipomyia multipicta Ingram & Macfie (Diptera, Ceratopogonidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo R. SPINELLI

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Examination of the type-series and non-type specimens of the Patagonian biting midge, Forcipomyia (Forcipomyia multipicta Ingram & Macfie (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae, revealed considerable variation in wing patterns of both sexes. One pattern includes several distinct light spot areas, whereas another pattern (e.g, in the holotype only features marginal light spots in cell r3, while other light spots are barely perceptible or absent. The cause(s of the differential lack of dark macrotrichia in certain areas of the wing membrane in specimens of some series could not be attributed either to their age, sex, or method of preservation.

  4. Estado actual del conocimiento de la familia Ceratopogonidae en la Patagonia (Diptera: Nematocera Current knowledge of the family Ceratopogonidae in Patagonia (Diptera: Nematocera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo R. Spinelli

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Ceratopogonidae incluye pequeños dípteros nematoceros que crían en hábitats acuáticos o semiacuáticos. Hasta los '80, el conocimiento de su taxonomía en la Patagonia se hallaba limitado a la contribución de los comienzos de los '30 de Ingram y Macfie, sobre la base de material capturado en 1926-27, en el área del Parque Nacional Nahuel Huapi y zonas vecinas de Chile. En los últimos 25 años, se pusieron en marcha diferentes proyectos, resultando la descripción o registro de numerosos taxones para la región. Si se contabilizan los datos publicados, 102 especies habitan en la Patagonia, de las cuales 86 (84,31% son endémicas para la región. Este alto porcentaje es evidente en los bosques de Nothofagus, con 71 especies endémicas de este bioma, nueve lo son de la estepa y seis presentan registros en bosque y estepa. Datos aún no publicados concuerdan con este esquema. Diecinueve géneros están representados en la Patagonia, diez de ellos con amplia distribución, tres de distribución transantártica y seis son endémicos para el área. Para la misma, se hallan publicadas las revisiones de Forcipomyia, Atrichopogon, Borkenthelea, Macrurohelea y Paradasyhelea; se han finalizado y aún no publicado aquellas de Dasyhelea y Palpomyia, está muy avanzada la de Stilobezzia y se prevé comenzar con las de Austrohelea, Austrosphaeromias, Physohelea y Bezzia. Se calcula que estos datos no divulgados contienen al menos 55 especies todavía no descriptas. Con respecto a los aspectos biogeográficos se pueden destacar estudios que tienden a establecer relaciones entre las áreas reconocidas en esquemas biogeográficos propuestos para la región andina.Ceratopogonidae includes small nematoceran Diptera which breed in aquatic and semiaquatic habitats. Until the 80´s its taxonomic knowledge in Patagonia was limited to the early 30´s contribution of Ingram and Macfie, from material collected in 1926-27 in the area of the Nahuel Huapi National

  5. Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) host preferences and biting rates in the Netherlands : comparing cattle, sheep and the black-light suction trap

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elbers, A.R.W.; Meiswinkel, R.

    2014-01-01

    Host preference is an important determinant of feeding behaviour in biting insects and a critical component in the transmission of vector-borne diseases. The aim of the study was to quantify Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) host preferences and biting rates using tethered livestock at pasture

  6. Biting rates and developmental substrates for biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) in Iquitos, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercer, David R; Spinelli, Gustavo R; Watts, Douglas M; Tesh, Robert B

    2003-11-01

    Biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) were collected at 16 periurban and rural sites around Iquitos, Peru, between 17 October 1996 and 26 May 1997. Culicoides paraensis (Goeldi), the principal vector of Oropouche virus, was the most commonly collected species (9,086 flies) with Culicoides insinuatus Wirth & Blanton second (7,229 flies). Although both species were collected at all sampling sites (linear (distance surveyed approximately 25 km), C. paraensis dominated at northern collection sites (> 90%), whereas C. insinuatus prevailed at southern collection sites (> 60%). C. paraensis were collected from human sentinels at a constant rate throughout daylight hours, at similar rates during wet and dry months, and regardless of rainfall. Larval developmental substrates for C. paraensis included decaying platano (Musa x paradisiaca L. [Musaceae]) stems, stumps, flowers, fruits, and debris beneath platano trees as well as from soil beneath a fruiting mamay (Syzygium malaccense Merr. & Perry [Myrtaceae] ) tree and organic-rich mud along a lake shoreline. C. insinuatus adults likewise emerged from decaying platano and organic-rich mud along a lake shoreline, but also from debris accumulated in the axils of aguaje (Mauritia flexuosa L. [Palmae]) fronds and decaying citrus fruit. Despite high numbers of biting adults near putative substrates, adults of neither species emerged from other decomposing plant material, soil, phytotelmata, or artificial containers. Because both species of biting midges emerged in high numbers from all parts of platano (ubiquitous in Iquitos), it will be challenging to control them through sanitation.

  7. Breeding sites and species association of the main Bluetongue and Schmallenberg virus vectors, the Culicoides species (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae), in northern Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Zimmer, Jean-Yves; Losson, Bertrand; Saegerman, Claude; Haubruge, Eric; Francis, Frédéric

    2013-01-01

    Several species of Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) biting midges are biological vectors of bluetongue virus (BTV) and, as recently discovered, Schmallenberg virus (SBV) in northern Europe. Since their recent emergence in this part of the continent, these diseases that affect domestic and wild ruminants have caused considerable economic losses to the sheep and cattle industries. The substrates that are suitable for larval development of the main vector species are still relatively unknow...

  8. Vector competence of Culicoides sonorensis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae to epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus serotype 7

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    Ruder Mark G

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Culicoides sonorensis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae is a vector of epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV serotypes 1 and 2 in North America, where these viruses are well-known pathogens of white-tailed deer (WTD and other wild ruminants. Although historically rare, reports of clinical EHDV infection in cattle have increased in some parts of the world over the past decade. In 2006, an EHDV-7 epizootic in cattle resulted in economic loss for the Israeli dairy industry. White-tailed deer are susceptible to EHDV-7 infection and disease; however, this serotype is exotic to the US and the susceptibility of C. sonorensis to this cattle-virulent EHDV is not known. The objective of the study was to determine if C. sonorensis is susceptible to EHDV-7 infection and is a competent vector. Methods To evaluate the susceptibility of C. sonorensis, midges were fed on EHDV-7 infected WTD, held at 22 ± 1°C, and processed individually for virus isolation and titration on 4–16 days post feeding (dpf. Midges with a virus titer of ≥102.7 median tissue culture infective doses (TCID50/midge were considered potentially competent. To determine if infected C. sonorensis were capable of transmitting EHDV-7 to a host, a susceptible WTD was then fed on by a group of 14–16 dpf midges. Results From 4–16 dpf, 45% (156/350 of midges that fed on WTD with high titer viremia (>107 TCID50/ml were virus isolation-positive, and starting from 10–16 dpf, 32% (35/109 of these virus isolation-positive midges were potentially competent (≥102.7 TCID50/midge. Midges that fed on infected deer transmitted the virus to a susceptible WTD at 14–16 dpf. The WTD developed viremia and severe clinical disease. Conclusion This study demonstrates that C. sonorensis is susceptible to EHDV-7 infection and can transmit the virus to susceptible WTD, thus, C. sonorensis should be considered a potential vector of EHDV-7. Together with previous work, this study demonstrates

  9. Modelling the Northward Expansion of Culicoides sonorensis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae under Future Climate Scenarios.

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    Anna Zuliani

    Full Text Available Climate change is affecting the distribution of pathogens and their arthropod vectors worldwide, particularly at northern latitudes. The distribution of Culicoides sonorensis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae plays a key role in affecting the emergence and spread of significant vector borne diseases such as Bluetongue (BT and Epizootic Hemorrhagic Disease (EHD at the border between USA and Canada. We used 50 presence points for C. sonorensis collected in Montana (USA and south-central Alberta (Canada between 2002 and 2012, together with monthly climatic and environmental predictors to develop a series of alternative maximum entropy distribution models. The best distribution model under current climatic conditions was selected through the Akaike Information Criterion, and included four predictors: Vapour Pressure Deficit of July, standard deviation of Elevation, Land Cover and mean Precipitation of May. This model was then projected into three climate change scenarios adopted by the IPCC in its 5th assessment report and defined as Representative Concentration Pathways (RCP 2.6, 4.5 and 8.5. Climate change data for each predictor and each RCP were calculated for two time points pooling decadal data around each one of them: 2030 (2021-2040 and 2050 (2041-2060. Our projections showed that the areas predicted to be at moderate-high probability of C. sonorensis occurrence would increase from the baseline scenario to 2030 and from 2030 to 2050 for each RCP. The projection also indicated that the current northern limit of C. sonorensis distribution is expected to move northwards to above 53°N. This may indicate an increased risk of Culicoides-borne diseases occurrence over the next decades, particularly at the USA-Canada border, as a result of changes which favor C. sonorensis presence when associated to other factors (i.e. host and pathogen factors. Recent observations of EHD outbreaks in northern Montana and southern Alberta supported our projections and

  10. Vector competence of Culicoides sonorensis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) to epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus serotype 7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruder, Mark G; Howerth, Elizabeth W; Stallknecht, David E; Allison, Andrew B; Carter, Deborah L; Drolet, Barbara S; Klement, Eyal; Mead, Daniel G

    2012-10-17

    Culicoides sonorensis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) is a vector of epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV) serotypes 1 and 2 in North America, where these viruses are well-known pathogens of white-tailed deer (WTD) and other wild ruminants. Although historically rare, reports of clinical EHDV infection in cattle have increased in some parts of the world over the past decade. In 2006, an EHDV-7 epizootic in cattle resulted in economic loss for the Israeli dairy industry. White-tailed deer are susceptible to EHDV-7 infection and disease; however, this serotype is exotic to the US and the susceptibility of C. sonorensis to this cattle-virulent EHDV is not known. The objective of the study was to determine if C. sonorensis is susceptible to EHDV-7 infection and is a competent vector. To evaluate the susceptibility of C. sonorensis, midges were fed on EHDV-7 infected WTD, held at 22 ± 1°C, and processed individually for virus isolation and titration on 4-16 days post feeding (dpf). Midges with a virus titer of ≥ 10(2.7) median tissue culture infective doses (TCID(50))/midge were considered potentially competent. To determine if infected C. sonorensis were capable of transmitting EHDV-7 to a host, a susceptible WTD was then fed on by a group of 14-16 dpf midges. From 4-16 dpf, 45% (156/350) of midges that fed on WTD with high titer viremia (>10(7) TCID(50)/ml) were virus isolation-positive, and starting from 10-16 dpf, 32% (35/109) of these virus isolation-positive midges were potentially competent (≥ 10(2.7) TCID(50)/midge). Midges that fed on infected deer transmitted the virus to a susceptible WTD at 14-16 dpf. The WTD developed viremia and severe clinical disease. This study demonstrates that C. sonorensis is susceptible to EHDV-7 infection and can transmit the virus to susceptible WTD, thus, C. sonorensis should be considered a potential vector of EHDV-7. Together with previous work, this study demonstrates that North America has a susceptible ruminant and

  11. Biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae from Martín García Island, Argentina

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    María M Ronderos

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Nearly 230 species of biting midges have been recorded or described from Argentina; 38 of them are known from the Buenos Aires province and only one is cited from Martín García Island. This paper presents the results raised from six collecting trips which took place on the island during spring 2005, summer 2006 and autumn 2009. Diverse sampling sites including permanent and temporary aquatic environments were chosen, most of the ten sampling sites were ponds of diverse origin, some of these environments were covered with floating vegetation as Lemna gibba, Lemna minuscule, Salvinia biloba, Salvinia minima, Azolla filiculoides, Limnobium laevigatum, Pistia stratiotes, Spirodela intermedia, Wolffiella oblonga and Wolffia columbiana. Other sites were placed in urban and suburban areas. Adults were collected with sweep nets at sunrise and sunset and with light traps at intervals of four to five hours at night, depending on electricity availability on the island. Larvae and pupae were collected with different implements depending on characteristics of each surveyed aquatic habitat. In free standing water, they were captured with small sieves or hand pipettes and micropipettes, flotation techniques were utilized for sampling vegetated areas, free and rooted floating hydrophytes were extracted for removing insects among them. Thirteen species of Ceratopogonidae were collected, three of Atrichopogon Kieffer, three of Forcipomyia Meigen, two of Dasyhelea Kieffer, four of Culicoides Latreille, and one of Bezzia Kieffer, all representing new records from the island. Rev. Biol. Trop. 59 (3: 1183-1194. Epub 2011 September 01.

  12. Biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae from Martín García Island, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María M Ronderos

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Nearly 230 species of biting midges have been recorded or described from Argentina; 38 of them are known from the Buenos Aires province and only one is cited from Martín García Island. This paper presents the results raised from six collecting trips which took place on the island during spring 2005, summer 2006 and autumn 2009. Diverse sampling sites including permanent and temporary aquatic environments were chosen, most of the ten sampling sites were ponds of diverse origin, some of these environments were covered with floating vegetation as Lemna gibba, Lemna minuscule, Salvinia biloba, Salvinia minima, Azolla filiculoides, Limnobium laevigatum, Pistia stratiotes, Spirodela intermedia, Wolffiella oblonga and Wolffia columbiana. Other sites were placed in urban and suburban areas. Adults were collected with sweep nets at sunrise and sunset and with light traps at intervals of four to five hours at night, depending on electricity availability on the island. Larvae and pupae were collected with different implements depending on characteristics of each surveyed aquatic habitat. In free standing water, they were captured with small sieves or hand pipettes and micropipettes, flotation techniques were utilized for sampling vegetated areas, free and rooted floating hydrophytes were extracted for removing insects among them. Thirteen species of Ceratopogonidae were collected, three of Atrichopogon Kieffer, three of Forcipomyia Meigen, two of Dasyhelea Kieffer, four of Culicoides Latreille, and one of Bezzia Kieffer, all representing new records from the island. Rev. Biol. Trop. 59 (3: 1183-1194. Epub 2011 September 01.Alrededor de 230 especies de ceratopogónidos han sido registradas o descritas en Argentina, 38 de ellas son conocidas para la provincia de Buenos Aires y sólo una ha sido previamente citada para la Isla Martín García. En este trabajo se presentan los resultados obtenidos a partir de muestreos realizados en seis viajes a la isla

  13. Estado actual del conocimiento de la familia Ceratopogonidae en la Patagonia (Diptera: Nematocera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo R. SPINELLI

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Ceratopogonidae incluye pequeños dípteros nematocerosque crían en hábitats acuáticos o semiacuáticos. Hasta los ‘80, el conocimiento de su taxonomía en la Patagonia se hallaba limitado a la contribución de los comienzos de los ‘30 de Ingram y Macfie, sobre la base de material capturado en 1926-27, en el área del Parque Nacional Nahuel Huapi y zonas vecinasde Chile. En los últimos 25 años, se pusieron en marcha diferentes proyectos, resultando la descripción o registro de numerosos taxones para la región. Si se contabilizan los datos publicados, 102 especies habitan en la Patagonia, de las cuales 86 (84,31% son endémicas para la región. Este alto porcentaje es evidente en los bosques de Nothofagus, con 71 especies endémicas de estebioma, nueve lo son de la estepa y seis presentan registros en bosque y estepa. Datos aún no publicados concuerdan con este esquema. Diecinueve géneros están representados en la Patagonia, diez de ellos con amplia distribución,tres de distribución transantártica y seis son endémicos para el área. Para la misma, se hallan publicadas las revisiones de Forcipomyia, Atrichopogon, Borkenthelea, Macrurohelea y Paradasyhelea; se han finalizado y aún no publicado aquellas de Dasyhelea y Palpomyia, está muy avanzada la de Stilobezzia y se prevé comenzar con las de Austrohelea, Austrosphaeromias, Physohelea y Bezzia. Se calcula que estos datos no divulgados contienen al menos 55 especies todavía no descriptas. Con respecto a los aspectos biogeográficos se pueden destacar estudios que tienden a establecer relaciones entre las áreas reconocidas en esquemas biogeográficos propuestos para la región andina.

  14. Ceratopogonidae (Diptera: Nematocera of the piedmont of the Yungas forests of Tucumán: ecology and distribution

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    José Manuel Direni Mancini

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Within the Ceratopogonidae family, many genera transmit numerous diseases to humans and animals, while others are important pollinators of tropical crops. In the Yungas ecoregion of Argentina, previous systematic and ecological research on Ceratopogonidae focused on Culicoides, since they are the main transmitters of mansonelliasis in northwestern Argentina; however, few studies included the genera Forcipomyia, Dasyhelea, Atrichopogon, Alluaudomyia, Echinohelea, and Bezzia. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine the presence and abundance of Ceratopogonidae in this region, their association with meteorological variables, and their variation in areas disturbed by human activity. Monthly collection of specimens was performed from July 2008 to July 2009 using CDC miniature light traps deployed for two consecutive days. A total of 360 specimens were collected, being the most abundant Dasyhelea genus (48.06% followed by Forcipomyia (26.94% and Atrichopogon (13.61%. Bivariate analyses showed significant differences in the abundance of the genera at different sampling sites and climatic conditions, with the summer season and El Corralito site showing the greatest abundance of specimens. Accumulated rainfall was the variable that related the most to the abundance of Culicoides (10.56%, while temperature was the most closely related variable to the abundance of Forcipomyia, Dasyhelea, and Atrichopogon.

  15. First Record of Culicoides oxystoma Kieffer and Diversity of Species within the Schultzei Group of Culicoides Latreille (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) Biting Midges in Senegal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhoum, Mame T.; Fall, Moussa; Fall, Assane G.; Bellis, Glenn A.; Gottlieb, Yuval; Labuschagne, Karien; Venter, Gert J.; Diop, Mariame; Mall, Iba; Seck, Momar T.; Allène, Xavier; Diarra, Maryam; Gardès, Laëtitia; Bouyer, Jérémy; Delécolle, Jean-Claude; Balenghien, Thomas; Garros, Claire

    2013-01-01

    The Schultzei group of Culicoides Latreille (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) is distributed throughout Africa to northern Asia and Australasia and includes several potential vector species of livestock pathogens. The taxonomy of the species belonging to this species group is confounded by the wide geographical distribution and morphological variation exhibited by many species. In this work, morphological and molecular approaches were combined to assess the taxonomic validity of the species and morphological variants of the Schultzei group found in Senegal by comparing their genetic diversity with that of specimens from other geographical regions. The species list for Senegal was updated with four species: Culicoides kingi, C. oxystoma, C. enderleini and C. nevilli being recorded. This is the first record of C. oxystoma from Africa south of Sahara, and its genetic relationship with samples from Israel, Japan and Australia is presented. This work provides a basis for ecological studies of the seasonal and spatial dynamics of species of this species group that will contribute to better understanding of the epidemiology of the viruses they transmit. PMID:24386366

  16. Les porcheries : réservoirs des Culicoides (Diptera : Ceratopogonidae, vecteurs des virus de la Maladie de la Langue bleue et de Schmallenberg ?

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    Zimmer, JY.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pig farms: reservoirs of vectors of Bluetongue and Schmallenberg viruses?. Bluetongue (BT is a vector-borne disease that affects domestic and wild ruminants. Since its recent outbreak in northern Europe, this viral disease has caused considerable economic losses. The biological vectors of the bluetongue virus are biting midges belonging to the genus Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae. Several light trapping campaigns targeting these adult midges have been previously conducted in Belgium within cattle and sheep farms, but none have been performed inside pig farms. This study therefore aims to assess, using light traps, the levels of Culicoides populations that may have been present inside two Belgian pig farms during the fall and winter of 2008. The presence of (potential Culicoides vector species was demonstrated inside the pig buildings during the fall: 8 and 749 specimens belonging to 2 and 7 species were respectively trapped inside the pigsties, with the majority being Obsoletus complex females. The opening up of the buildings seemed to strongly influence their presence. Observation of the females' nutritional status suggests that these midges were likely to have fed or to have laid eggs inside the pig farms, despite the fact that pig's blood could not be identified in the abdomen of engorged females and that pig manure did not reveal the presence of larvae. Pigs could thus be involved in the maintenance of potential vector species populations of the BT virus, or of the new Schmallenberg virus.

  17. Biting Midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) from Cambay Amber Indicate that the Eocene Fauna of the Indian Subcontinent Was Not Isolated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stebner, Frauke; Szadziewski, Ryszard; Singh, Hukam; Gunkel, Simon; Rust, Jes

    2017-01-01

    India's unique and highly diverse biota combined with its unique geodynamical history has generated significant interest in the patterns and processes that have shaped the current distribution of India's flora and fauna and their biogeographical relationships. Fifty four million year old Cambay amber from northwestern India provides the opportunity to address questions relating to endemism and biogeographic history by studying fossil insects. Within the present study seven extant and three fossil genera of biting midges are recorded from Cambay amber and five new species are described: Eohelea indica Stebner & Szadziewski n. sp., Gedanohelea gerdesorum Stebner & Szadziewski n. sp., Meunierohelea cambayana Stebner & Szadziewski n. sp., Meunierohelea borkenti Stebner & Szadziewski n. sp., and Meunierohelea orientalis Stebner & Szadziewski n. sp. Fossils of species in the genera Leptoconops Skuse, 1889, Forcipomyia Meigen, 1818, Brachypogon Kieffer, 1899, Stilobezzia Kieffer, 1911, Serromyia Meigen, 1818, and Mantohelea Szadziewski, 1988 are recorded without formal description. Furthermore, one fossil belonging to the genus Camptopterohelea Wirth & Hubert, 1960 is included in the present study. Our study reveals faunal links among Ceratopogonidae from Cambay amber and contemporaneous amber from Fushun, China, Eocene Baltic amber from Europe, as well as the modern Australasian and the Oriental regions. These findings imply that faunal exchange between Europe, Asia and India took place before the formation of Cambay amber in the early Eocene.

  18. Guarani aquifer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The environmental protection and sustain ability develop project of Guarani Aquifer System is a join work from Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay and Uruguay with a purpose to increase the knowledge resource and propose technical legal and organizational framework for sustainable management between countries.The Universities funds were created as regional universities support in promotion, training and academic research activities related to environmental al social aspects of the Guarani Aquifer System.The aim of the project is the management and protection of the underground waters resources taking advantage and assesment for nowadays and future generations

  19. Guarani Basic Course, Part I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Robert W.; And Others

    This is the first in a two-volume basic course in Guarani, the indigenous language of Paraguay. The volume consists of an introduction to the Guarani language, some general principles for adult language-learning, and ten instructional units. Because the goal of the course is to encourage and lead the learner to communicate in Guarani in class and…

  20. Culicoides variipennis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) complex in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holbrook, F R; Tabachnick, W J

    1995-07-01

    Genetic relationships were examined among 24 collections, representing 23 populations of Culicoides variipennis (Coquillett) using isozyme electrophoresis of 11 protein encoding loci. The populations were collected from alkaline or fresh water larval habitats in California. Distance analysis demonstrated that C. v. occidentalis Wirth and Jones and C. v. sonorensis Wirth and Jones are genetically distinct. All C. v. occidentalis were geographically isolated from each other in highly alkaline or saline larval habitats, whereas C. v. sonorensis populations were collected from artificial freshwater habitats that were polluted with organic wastes. Higher levels of gene flow were found between C. v. sonorensis populations than from C. v. sonorensis populations to nearby C. v. occidentalis populations, indicative of genetic isolation between subspecies. Northern California C. v. sonorensis were genetically distinguishable from southern California C. v. sonorensis. The relationship between this variation and bluetongue disease epidemiology in California is discussed.

  1. Culicoides variipennis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) complex in Virginia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidtmann, E T; Holbrook, F R; Day, E; Taylor, T; Tabachnick, W J

    1998-09-01

    Immature Culicoides variipennis (Coquillett) were sampled from aquatic habitats throughout Virginia, reared to adults, and examined by isozyme electrophoresis to assess their taxonomic status. Data from 22 counties showed that C. v. variipennis is widespread and common, the predominant taxon throughout Virginia, and genetically similar to C. v. variipennis in Maryland. Because C. v. variipennis is considered an inefficient vector of the bluetongue viruses, this observation is consistent with the low seroprevalence of bluetongue in indigenous livestock of the mid-Atlantic region. Culicoides v. sonorensis Wirth & Jones, considered to be the primary North American vector of the bluetongue viruses, was recovered in large numbers only from a wastewater lagoon at a dairy in southeastern Virginia, but also was detected at low levels in 6 other counties. Comparison of genetic distances and patterns of discriminating alleles among Virginia populations of C. v. variipennis and C. v. sonorensis showed that respective subspecies are genetically distinct and show no evidence of introgression, irrespective of geographic- and habitat-level sympatry. The persistence of a pure C. v. sonorensis population in a dairy wastewater lagoon may reflect physico-chemical factors that influence the distribution of immature C. variipennis complex populations. A better understanding of the distribution of the C. variipennis complex will benefit regionalization of U.S. exports of livestock and livestock germplasm to bluetongue-free countries.

  2. The Culicoides of Southeast Asia (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    Type.-Holotype male, Chiang Mai Prov., Thailand, 1933, O.R. Causey (on slide, Type in USNM). Southeast Asia Records.-- INDONESIA: Sulawesi (North...Kapit Dist., Nanga Pelagus (Traub). SINGAPORE: Kg. Chantek Bahru (Colless); Nee Soon (Colless). THAILAND: Chiang Mai (Causey); Chiang Rai (Causey...THAILAND: Chiang Mai (Notonanda, Scanlon). Cholburi, Bangphra,(Scanlon). Khon Kaen Prov., Ban Phai and Chum Phae (Manop R.). Loei Prov., Dan Sal, Ban

  3. Guarani Basic Course, Part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Robert W.; And Others

    This volume of the basic course in Guarani (the indigenous language of Paraguay) contains the core stage, or class-instructional phase, of the ten units presented in Volume One. These units contain explanations, exercises, dialogues, various types of pattern drills, suggestions for games and communication activities, and various types of…

  4. O Desenho Cultural da Arquitetura Guarani

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Zibel Costa

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available This work is about the guarani-mbya tribe dwelling, and its relation to their cultural characteristics, especially those found in the ritual and mythological traditions. The guarani-mbya way of life or tradition - teco - can just exist in their own place - tecoa - which means 'place where we live according to our own way of life' (Melia, 1988:104

  5. Guarani aquifer hydrogeological synthesis of the Guarani aquifer system. Edicion bilingue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    This work represents the synthesis of current knowledge of the Guarani Aquifer System, based on technical products made by different companies and consultants who participated in the framework of the Project for Environmental Protection and Sustainable Development of the Guarani Aquifer.

  6. The bloodsucking biting midges of Argentina (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae

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    Gustavo R Spinelli

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available A key is presented for the identification of the adults of 54 species of bloodsucking ceratopogonids, 51 of which are known inhabitants of Argentina, and Culicoides uruguayensis Ronderos, C. pifanoi Ortiz, and C. trilineatus Fox, which are known to occur in bordering Uruguay and Paraguay. Wing photographs are provided of females of the 45 species of Culicoides. Three new species of Culicoides Latreille from Northeastern Argentina are described and illustrated: C. austroparaensis Spinelli, C. bachmanni Spinelli, and C. williamsi Spinelli. The following six species are recorded for the first time from Argentina and/or bordering localities in Paraguay: Leptoconops brasiliensis (Lutz, C. gabaldoni Ortiz, C. ginesi Ortiz, C. pifanoi Ortiz, C. pseudocrescentis Tavares and Luna Dias, and C. trilineatus; and C. estevezae Ronderos and Spinelli is newly recorded from Misiones province of Argentina. C. lopesi Barretto is excluded from the Argentinean ceratopogonid fauna.

  7. Culicoides midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae as vectors of orbiviruses in Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adela Sarvašová

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, rapid spread of Culicoides-borne pathogens such as bluetongue (BT and Schmallenberg viruses have been reported in Europe. In this study we examined the Culicoides populations in farms with wild and domestic ruminants in Eastern Slovakia with the aim to confirm the presence of biting midges serving as potential vectors of important pathogens. The main vector complexes were the Obsoletus complex (54%; n=4,209 and the Pulicaris complex (23%; n=1,796. To estimate the relative abundance of the cryptic species of the Obsoletus complex (Culicoides obsoletus, Culicoides scoticus and Culicoides montanus, we performed the multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR based on ITS-2 and ITS-1 segments, on 125 midges randomly sampled. The relative abundance of C. obsoletus ranged from 5.26% in the farm with wild ruminants to 85.71% in another farm with cattle and sheep. A total of 112 pools of parous and gravid females belonging to the Obsoletus and Pulicaris complexes were tested for virus detection by the real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR for BT virus, as well as for the Epizootic Hemorrhagic Disease Virus (EHDV, with negative results.

  8. Sonhos e nomes: as crianças Guarani

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PAULO HUMBERTO PORTO BORGES

    Full Text Available Este artigo tem como objetivo discutir como os grupos indígenas Guarani internalizam seu reko porã ("bom modo de proceder" entre suas crianças e constroem seus conceitos de infância e trabalho, no intuito de formarem o chamado guarani ete, ou seja, o(a guarani verdadeiro.

  9. Paraguayan Language Policy and the Future of Guarani.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gynan, Shaw N.

    2001-01-01

    In Paraguay, a majority of the population speaks Guarani, an indigenous language. Guarani is a co-official language along with Spanish and bilingual education has been implemented. Despite these positive measures, literacy education in Guarani is limited to urban areas. The challenge is how to find the political will and economic resources to…

  10. JEGUATÁ: O CAMINHAR ENTRE OS GUARANI

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    Luiz Gustavo Souza Pradella

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article the guarani ‘walk’ is elected as reflection’s object as from ethnographical frequentation in some spaces where mbyá and nhandeva groups can be actually found and circulating in eastern Rio Grande do Sul. As a specific form of mobility based on differentiated lecture of the elements in space, jeguatá or just guatá, (walk in the guarani idiom will be here analyzed in interface with shamanism, as a cosmopolitical form through which spaces are understood, forefront the presence and absence, and consequently alterity’s influence as identified by these groups.

  11. JEGUATÁ: O CAMINHAR ENTRE OS GUARANI

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    LUIZ GUSTAVO SOUZA PRADELLA

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article the guarani ‘walk’ is elected as reflection’s object as from ethnographical frequentation in some spaces where mbyá and nhandeva groups can be actually found and circulating in eastern Rio Grande do Sul. As a specific form of mobility based on differentiated lecture of the elements in space, jeguatá or just guatá, (walk in the guarani idiom will be here analyzed in interface with shamanism, as a cosmopolitical form through whichspaces are understood, forefront the presence and absence, and consequently alterity’s influence as identified by these groups.RESUMO: Neste artigo o ‘caminhar’ guarani é eleito como objeto de reflexões a partir da freqüentação etnográfica de alguns espaços onde se encontram e circulam atualmente grupos mbyá e nhandeva na região leste do Rio Grande do Sul. Enquanto forma de mobilidadeespecífica pautada por leituras diferenciadas dos elementos do espaço, o jeguatá ou somente guatá (caminhar no idioma guarani será aqui analisado em sua interface com o xamanismo, enquanto forma de cosmopolítica através da qual os espaços são entendidos, frente à presença e ausência, e conseqüente influência, das alteridades identificadas por estes grupos.

  12. THE REPRESENTATION INDIGENOUS GUARANI MEMOIR IN BOOKS

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    Caroline Hermínio Maldonado

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The works of authors memoir, researched this, depict the lifestyles Guarani and conflicts involving territorial disputes between the eighteenth and mid-twentieth century. They report experiences and seek their opinion about the relationship between indigenous people and migrants, as the authors themselves, who came to southern Ontario then on business and looking for productive land. From these works it is understood as the Indians managed to hide the regional history and justify their judgments about this population without considering the culture and without social organization. The research is to understand the phenomenon of invisibility to which they are subject, not only the Guarani, but the other indigenous peoples today the state of Mato Grosso do Sul.

  13. A Description of Colloquial Guarani. Janua Linguarum. Series Practical, XXVII.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregores, Emma; Suarez, Jorge A.

    The purpose of this book is to describe the phonological and grammatical structures of modern Guarani, as it is spoken today in Asuncion and neighboring regions of Paraguay. An introductory section considers the linguistic classification of Guarani, gives some background on its speakers, and discusses the sources used for this study. Part I,…

  14. Guarani I and Work Book (For Peace Corps Volunteers).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peace Corps (Paraguay).

    This workbook is designed for the Guarani language training of Peace Corps volunteers in Paraguay, and the content focuses on daily communication needs in that context. The workbook contains nine thematic instructional units based on performance objectives. A brief introduction gives an overview of Guarani's origins, distribution, and phonology.…

  15. Aqüífero Guarani

    OpenAIRE

    Freitas, Fabiana Paschoal de

    2004-01-01

    Dissertação (mestrado) - Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Centro de Ciências Jurídicas. Programa de Pós-Graduação em Direito. O Aqüífero Guarani é considerado um dos maiores aqüíferos do mundo, estendendo-se por uma área transfronteiriça estimada em 1,2 milhões de km², nos quais 71% encontram-se no Brasil, 19% na Argentina, 6% no Paraguai e 4% no Uruguai.

  16. Kyringué i kuery guarani

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, Melissa Santana de

    2004-01-01

    Dissertação (mestrado) - Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Centro de Filosofia e Ciências Humanas. Programa de Pós-Graduação em Antropologia Social. Esta pesquisa se insere na recente temática da Antropologia da Infância , da Criança e da Educação e tem como foco a participação das crianças Guarani no processo de "valorização da tradição" que vem ocorrendo há alguns anos na Aldeia M'Biguaçu, localizada no município de Biguaçu, SC. Através de um viés etnográfico, descrevo sua atuação...

  17. ARANDU RENDA REKO: A VIDA DA ESCOLA GUARANI MBYA

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    KALNA MARETO TEAO

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: This paper intends to analyze the visions of the Guarani Mbya on the school in the indigenous village of Três Palmeiras, Espírito Santo. According to the presupposition that the understanding of the school in the village is due to the comprehension of the Mbya culture. Moreover, the school as an exogenous space to the Guarani culture creates conflicts amongtwo differents worlds: the native and the surrounding society. Those conflicts are marked by the statement of the ethnic identity of the Guarani, through their way of being or nhandereko. The visions of the school are divided according to the variations of the social groups in the indigenous society: the adults and the political leaderships, the teachers, the parents and the community.RESUMO: Este trabalho busca analisar as visões dos Guarani Mbya sobre a escola na aldeia indígena de Três Palmeiras, Espírito Santo. Partimos do pressuposto de que o entendimento da escola na aldeia deve-se a compreensão da cultura Mbya. Além disso, a escola como espaço exógeno à cultura guarani promove conflitos entre dois mundos distintos: a indígena e a da sociedade envolvente. Esses conflitos são marcados pela afirmação da identidade étnica dos Guarani, através do seu modo de ser ou nhandereko. As visões sobre a escola dividem-sebasicamente de acordo com as variações dos grupos sociais da sociedade indígena em questão: mais velhos e lideranças políticas, os pais e a comunidade e os professores.

  18. Attitudes Toward Guarani and Spanish: A Pilot Study in Paraguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Nancy C.

    This study analyzes the language attitudes of the Paraguayan people toward their two languages, Guarani and Spanish. To study the bilingual situation in the South American country, a pilot survey was carried out in the capital city addressing the major topics of language attitudes, language usage, and language varieties. The goals of the survey…

  19. Switch Reference in Mbya Guarani: A Fair-Weather Phenomenon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dooley, Robert A.

    Switch reference, in which certain clauses contain a signal indicating whether that clause has the same or a different subject, is examined in Mbya Guarani. It is found that most cases can be covered by a grammatical rule stated in terms of the grammatical subjects of the two clauses involved, yielding "same subject" and "different…

  20. Attitudinal Dimensions of Guarani-Spanish Bilingualism in Paraguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gynan, Shaw N.

    1998-01-01

    Provides a study of language attitudes in Paraguay's unique Spanish-Guarani bilingual situation. Suggests issues of public opinion that language policy makers should consider in determining the roles of the two languages, especially with respect to literacy education. (Author/VWL)

  1. A Double-Verb Construction in Mbya Guarani.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dooley, Robert A.

    The double-verb construction in Mbya Guarani is described. In this construction, the second verb (V2) has a distinctive morphology. It is concluded that the construction, examined from several viewpoints (lexico-semantic, phonological, morphological, and syntactic) is a phrase in which V2 functions as a modifier of V1, and that is different from…

  2. Tubular wells perforation manual for investigation and training of Guarani Aquifer System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The Environmental protection and sustainable development of the Aquifer Guarani System project is a initiative by Argentina, Brasil, Paraguay y Uruguay with the aim to raise the knowledge, legal and institutional sustainable management from 2003-2008 period. The Guarani consortium integrated by Tahal Engineers Ltda.(Israel), SEINCO SRL. (Uruguay), Hidrocontrol S:A:(Paraguay), Arcadis Hidroambiente S.A. (Argentina) have shown in Tubular wells perforation for investigation and training of Guarani Aquifer System manual their first product. This Manual includes technical especifications focused in Guarani Aquifer System harmessing building

  3. Arqueofauna Da Tradição Guarani

    OpenAIRE

    Suliano Ferrasso; Pedro Ignácio Schmitz

    2012-01-01

    O estudo trata de remanescentes faunísticos presentes em sítios arqueológicos da Tradição Guarani e dos ambientes em que os sítios estavam inseridos. Para isto foram comparadas informações publicadas sobre a arqueofauna de 13 sítios da tradição cerâmica Guarani: um de São Paulo, um de Santa Catarina, dez do Rio Grande do Sul e um da Argentina. Há expressiva quantidade de trabalhos publicados tratando principalmente do fabrico ceramista desta população, porém os estudos de vestíg...

  4. "Chiriguano" Astronomy - Venus and a Guarani New Year

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Gonzalo

    A Supreme Decree emitted by the government of Bolivia instituted the celebration of the June solstices in view of the fact that the indigenous people, both the Andean highlands and the Amazon and Chaco, "have commemorated this event for thousands of years" (Gobierno del Estado Plurinacional de Bolivia, Decreto Supremo N° 0173, June16, 2009, La Paz). In the case of the lowlands' indigenous, particularly the Guarani people, the decree mentions the planet Venus as the argument for this celebration. In this case of study and in light of astronomical and ethnographic evidence, we analyze the relevance of this decree in the case of the Guarani people of the Bolivian Chaco region, known as "Chiriguanos".

  5. O Guarani no cinema brasileiro: o olhar imigrante

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila Schvarzman

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available O Guarani, de José de Alencar,de 1857, transformado em ópera por Carlos Gomes em 1870 serviu de base para 8 filmes entre 1908 e 1926.Traçamos aqui o percurso cultural da apropriação cinematográfica d´O Guarani pelo diretor italiano Vittorio Capellaro. Como as construções românticas da nacionalidade cristalizadas na literatura e na ópera do século XIX são apropriados num film d´art, gênero em voga na Europa e nas telas brasileiras. Como Capellaro e seus atores, todos imigrantes, integraram o cinema europeu, sua encenação e dramaturgia, às representações e ao imaginário nacional e aos fazeres do nascente cinema brasileiro. E de que forma sua obra dialoga com a sociedade que a recebe.

  6. Hospital morbidity among Guarani Indians in Southeastern and Southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Andrey Moreira; Coimbra, Carlos E A; Tavares, Felipe Guimarães

    2010-03-01

    Studies on hospital morbidity among Brazilian indigenous peoples are relatively recent, show limited coverage, and lack data sources capable of generating specific indicators according to ethnic group. The current study describes hospital morbidity in the indigenous population living in 83 Guarani villages in Southern and Southeastern Brazil (N=6,483), based on primary data obtained from a hospital admissions surveillance system implemented in 2007-2008, specifically for a case-control study on acute respiratory infections (ARI) in Guarani children. During the study period there were 666 hospitalizations in a total of 497 individuals, the majority under 5 years of age (71.9%). Respiratory illnesses were the main causes of hospitalization (64.6%), especially in children (<5 years: 77.6%; <1 year: 83.4%) and exceeded the proportions of hospital admissions from these causes in other indigenous groups. The overall hospitalization rate (per 100 person-years) was 8.8, or 71.4 under 1 year and 21.0 from 1 to 4 years of age. The ARI hospitalization rate (5.3) was 6.5 and 2.0 times higher than for diarrhea and other causes, respectively, while in children under 5 years of age (ARI=23.7) these differences were 7.4 and 5.4 times, respectively. The standardized Guarani hospitalization rate exceeded the standardized rates for the South and Southeast of Brazil by 40% and 210%, respectively. Hospitalization for primary care sensitive conditions and the high ARI rates indicate the need for studies to understand the epidemiology of ARI and investments to upgrade primary health care for the Guarani.

  7. Association between land cover and Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) breeding sites on four Danish cattle farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkeby, Carsten; Bødker, Rene; Stockmarr, Anders

    2009-01-01

    from 30 sampling points. Soil samples were set up in emergence chambers for hatching adult Culicoides. Two species of Culicoides (C punctatus and C pulicaris) emerged from nine of 12 soil samples from a wet, grazed field with manure. Seventy-two other samples from similar land cover on the three other......Biting midges of the genus Culicoides are vectors of bluetongue virus. Their larval habitats are poorly known in Northern Europe. Three classes of the CORINE land cover index, found within 300 in of four farms in Denmark, were used to stratify sampling sites for a total of 360 soil core samples...... farms were negative. Seven sampling points from pastures were incorrectly classified by CORINE. The remaining 23 sampling points were classified correctly. The visually observed land use was not sufficiently detailed to adequately predict Culicoides breeding sites in this study. The CORINE index failed...

  8. Biting Midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae: Culicoides Latr.) associated with livestock farms in the Faroe Islands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren Achim; Holm, Høgni; Overgaard Nielsen, Boy

    2017-01-01

    ) pseudoheliophilus Callot & Kremer, 1961, new to the Faroese fauna. C. impunctatus was common at most of the farms, females contributing >95% of the catch. Apparently C. pseudoheliophilus has a more limited distribution in the Faroe Islands and was only recorded from nine byres. The relative distribution of female C...

  9. Dermatozoonosis by Culicoides bite (Diptera, Ceratopogonidae in Salvador, State of Bahia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Italo A. Sherlock

    1964-01-01

    Full Text Available Os autores iniciam com êste, uma série de trabalhos sôbre a Dermatozoonose provocada pela picada de Culicoides, em Salvador, Bahia, Brasil. No presente, tratam das espécies de Culicoides encontradas em Salvador, baseados na coleta de 2.947 exemplares, durante os anos de 1959 a 1963. Encontraram as 4 espécies seguintes; C. (O. paraensis (Goeldi, 1905 C. (O. limonensis Ortiz & Leon, 1955 C. (C. insignis Lutz, 1913 C. (C. flavivenula Costa Lima, 1937. Não reencontraram o C. (C. maruim, Lutz, 1913 assinalado por fox (1948 e WIRTH & BLANTON (1956 para Salvador. Dessas espécies o C. (C. paraensis se mostrou a predominante, abrangendo 98% de exemplares coletados. Apresentam a distribuição das espécies por bairros e respectivas quantidades coletadas. Finalizando, dão as principais características morfológicas das espécies, ilustrando essas com desenhos do material por êles estudado.

  10. A new species of predaceous midge of the genus Monohelea Kieffer from Mexico (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felippe-Bauer, M L; Huerta, H; Bernal, S I

    2000-01-01

    A description and illustrations of Monohelea maya, new species, based on male and female characteristics are provided. The specimens were collected in the special biosphere Reserves of Ria Lagartos and Ria Celestun, Yucatan State, Mexico.

  11. Dermatozoonosis by Culicoides' bite (Diptera, Ceratopogonidae in Salvador, State of Bahia, Brazil: III - Epidemiological aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Italo A. Sherlock

    1965-01-01

    Full Text Available Nesta terceira contribuiçãos os Autores apresentam os aspectos Epídemiológicos da Dermatozoonose pela picada de Culicoides em Salvador. Salientam que embora a densidade de insetos outros de hábitos antropófilos seja elevada na cidade, as seguintes evidências os conduziram a responsabilizar os Culicoides: conincidência do aparecimento de casos de Dermatozoonose após um período de maior densidade de Culicoides; maior número de casos, desde que a densidade de Culicoides aumentou nos últimos anos; proveni~encia de maior número de casos dos bairros onde há maior infestação de Culicoides. A Dermatozoonose é acentuadamente mais freqüente no sexo feminino. Houve maior número de casos entre os negros, talvez devido a maior freqüencia de negros que procuram tratamento no Hospital das Clínicas. Não há predominância acentuada para determinado grupo etário. Num levantamento que fizeram sôbre a incomodidade do Culicoides observaram que 81% de 593 residências visitadas em diferentes bairros, são incomodadas, sendo o inverno a época de maior incômodo. As horas de maior incômodo, coincidem com a ocorrência horária máxima do Culicoides. Observaram que as medidas usadas pela população para combate ao inseto são inadequadas pois, em 56% das residências não se obtém qualquer resultado. Considerando que nesses último cinco anos a densidade de Culicoides aumentou inexplicàvelmente em Salvador, julgam que os seguintes fatôres participara para que êsse fenômeno ocorresse: a extinção do Serviço de Profilaxia da Febre Amarela em 1956, o qual, indiretamente, por meio de sua "polícia de fócos" combatendo o Aedes aegypti, controlava os Culicoides; o crescimento da cidade, aumentando o número de fossas, já que não existe um sistema de esgotos adequado; e a deficiência do Serviço de Limpeza Pública da Cidade, ocasionando o acúmulo de lixo nos quintais, terrenos baldios e mesmo em logradouros públicos. Essas condições permitiram a existência de uma extensa rêde de "focos potenciais" para a proliferação dos Culicoides que agora infestam a cidade.

  12. Sympatry in the Culicoides variipennis complex (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae): a taxonomic reassessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holbrook, F R; Tabachnick, W J; Schmidtmann, E T; McKinnon, C N; Bobian, R J; Grogan, W L

    2000-01-01

    We report sympatry among larval populations of the Culicoides variipennis complex in widespread and diverse aquatic habitats throughout the United States. Six sites in California, Nevada, New Mexico, and Texas were co-inhabited by C. v. occidentalis and C. v. sonorensis, whereas 8 sites in Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Maryland, and Texas were co-occupied by C. v. sonorensis and C. v. variipennis. No intermediate forms were identified either electrophoretically or morphologically in adults reared from field-collected larvae and pupae. The absence of intergrades in zones of sympatry represents sufficient evidence to confirm species status for Culicoides variipennis (Coquillett) and Culicoides occidentalis Wirth & Jones, and to elevate Culicoides sonorensis to species rank (NEW STATUS). Culicoides v. albertensis Wirth & Jones is a synonym of C. sonorensis (NEW SYNONYMY); C. v. australis Wirth & Jones also is confirmed as a synonym of C. sonorensis. We also demonstrated a correlation between population taxonomic status as determined by electrophoresis and adult morphology.

  13. Papular dermatitis induced in guinea pigs by the biting midge Culicoides sonorensis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Toole, D; Pérez de León, A A; Hearne, C; McHolland, L; Yun, L; Tabachnick, W

    2003-01-01

    Histological, ultrastructural, and virological examinations were performed on abdominal skin from guinea pigs after a blood meal by colony-bred biting midges, Culicoides sonorensis. Small, superficial, cutaneous, crateriform ulcers with necrosis of superficial dermis developed at feeding sites and healed within 24-48 hours. Animals developed nonpruritic erythematous papules 5 days after feeding that persisted until the study ended at 12 days after feeding. Papules corresponded histologically to foci of epidermal hyperplasia and superficial interstitial dermatitis with intraepidermal micropustules and scattered intraepidermal polykaryons. The principal ultrastructural changes were spongiosis in germinal epithelium and neutrophilic-histiocytic exocytosis. No viral agents or broken mouthparts were identified in lesions. The dermatitis may represent a host reaction to persisting insect salivary secretion and should be considered as an additional consequence of blood feeding in future studies involving biting midges.

  14. Sexual dimorphism and developmental change of the salivary glands in adult Culicoides variipennis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez de Leon, A A; Lloyd, J E; Tabachnick, W J

    1994-11-01

    Salivary glands of adult male and female Culicoides variipennis (Coquillett) were sexually dimorphic when examined by phase contrast light microscopy. Female salivary glands were larger and more complex than those in males. Each female gland consisted of a main gland, which was subdivided into a proximal neck and a distal body with reference to the salivary duct, and four accessory glands. Each male salivary gland consisted of a pear-shaped body with a constriction, or neck, that divided it into a proximal and a distal portion, with reference to the salivary duct. Salivary glands of both sexes increased in length from emergence to day 3, followed by a sex-specific pattern of decrease. Based on these morphological observations, we suggest that the salivary glands of female C. variipennis are specialized in the production of secretory materials for blood-feeding.

  15. Infection of guinea pigs with vesicular stomatitis New Jersey virus Transmitted by Culicoides sonorensis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez De León, Adalberto A; O'Toole, Donal; Tabachnick, Walter J

    2006-05-01

    Intrathoracically inoculated Culicoides sonorensis Wirth & Jones were capable of transmitting vesicular stomatitis New Jersey virus (family Rhabdoviridae, genus Vesiculovirus, VSNJV) during blood feeding on the abdomen of six guinea pigs. None of the guinea pigs infected in this manner developed clinical signs of vesicular stomatitis despite seroconversion for VSNJV. Guinea pigs infected by intradermal inoculations of VSNJV in the abdomen also failed to develop clinical signs of vesicular stomatitis. Three guinea pigs given intradermal inoculations of VSNJV in the foot pad developed lesions typical of vesicular stomatitis. Transmission by the bite of C. sonorensis may have facilitated guinea pig infection with VSNJV because a single infected C. sonorensis caused seroconversion and all guinea pigs infected by insect bite seroconverted compared with 50% of the guinea pigs infected by intradermal inoculation with a higher titer VSNJV inoculum. The role of C. sonorensis in the transmission of VSNJV is discussed.

  16. Microgeographic and temporal genetic variation in populations of the bluetongue virus vector Culicoides variipennis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabachnick, W J

    1992-05-01

    Seven Colorado populations of the bluetongue virus vector Culicoides varipennis (Coquillett) were analyzed for genetic variation at 19-21 isozyme loci. Permanent populations, which overwinter as larvae, showed little temporal genetic change at 19 loci. PGD and MDH showed seasonal changes in gene frequencies, attributable to selection at two permanent populations. Two temporary populations showed low heterozygosity compared with permanent populations. Independent estimates of gene flow, calculated using FST and the private allele method, were Nm* = 2.15 and 6.95, respectively. Colorado C. variipennis permanent populations showed high levels of gene flow which prevented significant genetic differentiation due to genetic drift. Temporary populations showed significant gene frequency differences from nearby permanent populations due to the "founder effect" associated with chance colonization.

  17. Cold storage effects on egg hatch in laboratory-reared Culicoides variipennis sonorensis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, G J; Tabachnick, W J

    1995-09-01

    The effects of cold storage (5 degrees C) on the hatching rates of laboratory-reared Culicoides variipennis sonorensis eggs were examined. Mortality increased with storage time. Average maximum embryo survivorship for 4 trials was 55.0 +/- 4.2 (+/- SEM) days. Alternating daily cycles of high and then low mean hatching rates occurred and possibly were due to location differences in temperature within the temperature-controlled rearing system. During cold storage at 5 degrees C, C. v. sonorensis eggs may be kept for ca. 28 days with an anticipated hatching rate of about 50%.

  18. First-generation physical map of the Culicoides variipennis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunamaker, R A; Brown, S E; McHolland, L E; Tabachnick, W J; Knudson, D L

    1999-11-01

    Recombinant cosmids labeled with biotin-11-dUTP or digoxigenin by nick translation were used as in situ hybridization probes to metaphase chromosomes of Culicoides variipennis (Coquillett). Paired fluorescent signals were detected on each arm of sister chromatids and were ordered along the 3 chromosomes. Thirty-three unique probes were mapped to the 3 chromosomes of C. variipennis (2n = 6): 7 to chromosome 1, 20 to chromosome 2, and 6 to chromosome 3. This work represents the first stage in generating a physical map of the genome of C. variipennis.

  19. Dynamics of epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus infection within the vector, Culicoides sonorensis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary K Mills

    Full Text Available Culicoides sonorensis biting midges are confirmed vectors of epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV, which causes mortality in white-tailed deer and ruminant populations. Currently, of the seven EHDV serotypes, only 1, 2, and 6 are detected in the USA, and very few studies have focused on the infection time course of these serotypes within the midge. The objective of this current research was to characterize EHDV-2 infection within the midge by measuring infection prevalence, virus dissemination, and viral load over the course of infection. Midges were fed a blood meal containing 106.9 PFU/ml EHDV-2, collected every 12 h from 0-2 days post feeding (dpf and daily from 3-10 dpf, and cohorts of 20 C. sonorensis were processed using techniques that assessed EHDV infection and dissemination. Cytopathic effect assays and quantitative (qPCR were used to determine infection prevalence, revealing a 50% infection rate by 10 dpf using both methods. Using immunohistochemistry, EHDV-2 infection was detectable at 5 dpf, and shown to disseminate from the midgut to other tissues, including fat body, eyes, and salivary glands by 5 dpf. Stain intensity increased from 5-8 dpf, indicating replication of EHDV-2 in secondary infection sites after dissemination. This finding is also supported by trends in viral load over time as determined by plaque assays and qPCR. An increase in titer between 4-5 dpf correlated with viral replication in the midgut as seen with staining at day 5, while the subsequent gradual increase in viral load from 8-10 dpf suggested viral replication in midges with disseminated infection. Overall, the data presented herein suggest that EHDV-2 disseminates via the hemolymph to secondary infection sites throughout the midge and demonstrate a high potential for transmission at five days at 25°C after an infective blood-meal.

  20. Fungal biological control agents for integrated management of Culicoides spp. (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae of livestock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. W. Narladkar

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Entomopathogenic fungi Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana had wide host range against insects and hence these are being exploited as fungal bio-pesticide on a large scale. Both fungi are proved pesticides against many crop pests and farmers are well acquainted with their use on the field. Thus, research was aimed to explore the potency of these fungal spores against larval and adult Culicoides midges, a pest of livestock. Materials and Methods: In-vitro testing of both fungal biological control agents was undertaken in Petri dishes against field collected Culicoides larvae, while in plastic beakers against field collected blood-engorged female Culicoides midges. In-vivo testing was undertaken by spraying requisite concentration of fungal spores on the drainage channel against larvae and resting sites of adult Culicoides midges in the cattle shed. Lethal concentration 50 (LC50 values and regression equations were drawn by following probit analysis using SPSS statistical computerized program. Results: The results of this study revealed LC50 values of 2692 mg and 3837 mg (108 cfu/g for B. bassiana and M. anisopliae, respectively, against Culicoides spp. larvae. Death of Culicoides larvae due to B. bassiana showed greenish coloration in the middle of the body with head and tail showed intense blackish changes, while infection of M. anisopliae resulted in death of Culicoides larvae with greenish and blackish coloration of body along with total destruction, followed by desquamation of intestinal channel. The death of adult Culicoides midges were caused by both the fungi and after death growth of fungus were very well observed on the dead cadavers proving the efficacy of the fungus. Conclusion: Preliminary trials with both funguses (M. anisopliae, B. bassiana showed encouraging results against larvae and adults of Culicoides spp. Hence, it was ascertained that, these two fungal molecules can form a part of biological control and alternative to chemical control and, therefore, can be inducted in integrated management programs.

  1. Dermatozoonosis by Culicoides' bite (Diptera, Ceratopogonidae in Salvador, State of Bahia, Brazil: IV - A clinical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Italo A. Sherlock

    1965-01-01

    Full Text Available A observação de 211 pacientes com reação intensa à picada do Culicoides, que procuraram tratamento na Clínica dermatológica do Hospital das Clínicas da Universidade da Bahia, durante os anos de 1959 e 1962, permitiu o estudo clínico dessa Dermatozoonose, cujos dados são aqui apresentados. A lesão parece ser de natureza alérgica e devido ao aspecto polimorfo pelo qual se apresenta, essa Dermatose pode lembrar o Prorigo, a Escabiose, as Lesões liquenoide; quando a manifestação é mais intensa torna-se uma verdadeira eczematização; quando há infecção secundária, lembra o impetigo folicular. O estudo histológico da lesão revelou ser ela a de uma inflamação crônica, com vascularites e preivascularites dermo-epidérmica, provàvelmente de natureza alérgica. Para que haja a formação da lesão, são necessários: a substância inoculada pelo inseto e o componente alérgico do indivíduo. Não se conhece a natureza da substância inoculada pelo inseto e as seguintes hipóteses são apresentadas para explicá-la: substâncias enzimáticas ou a histamina existentes nas glândulas salivares do Culicoides. Após a picada do Culicoisdes forma-se no local uma pequena área eritematosa que logo após se transforma em pápula; as pápulas podem desaparecer ou transformarem-se em vesículas; estas ao se romperem dilaceram a superfície cutânea, descamam-na ou pode advir uma infecção secundária e transformam-se em pústulas.

  2. Spatial abundance and clustering of Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) on a local scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkeby, Carsten; Bødker, Rene; Stockmarr, Anders

    2013-01-01

    , and cluster locations shifted between catch nights. No significant temporal autocorrelation was detected. CAR models for both species groups identified a significant positive impact of humidity and significant negative impacts of precipitation and wind turbulence. Temperature was also found to be significant...... abundance pattern of these two species groups in the field by intensive sampling with a grid of light traps on 16 catch nights. Neighboring trap catches can be spatially dependent on each other, hence we developed a conditional autoregressive (CAR) model framework to test a number of spatial and non...... of Culicoides moved around in a dynamic pattern varying between catch nights. This conforms with the modeling but was not explained by any of the tested covariates. The mean abundance within these clusters was up to 11 times higher for the Obsoletus group and 4 times higher for the Pulicaris group compared...

  3. The range of attraction for light traps catching Culicoides biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkeby, Carsten; Græsbøll, Kaare; Stockmarr, Anders; Christiansen, Lasse E; Bødker, René

    2013-03-15

    Culicoides are vectors of e.g. bluetongue virus and Schmallenberg virus in northern Europe. Light trapping is an important tool for detecting the presence and quantifying the abundance of vectors in the field. Until now, few studies have investigated the range of attraction of light traps. Here we test a previously described mathematical model (Model I) and two novel models for the attraction of vectors to light traps (Model II and III). In Model I, Culicoides fly to the nearest trap from within a fixed range of attraction. In Model II Culicoides fly towards areas with greater light intensity, and in Model III Culicoides evaluate light sources in the field of view and fly towards the strongest. Model II and III incorporated the directionally dependent light field created around light traps with fluorescent light tubes. All three models were fitted to light trap collections obtained from two novel experimental setups in the field where traps were placed in different configurations. Results showed that overlapping ranges of attraction of neighboring traps extended the shared range of attraction. Model I did not fit data from any of the experimental setups. Model II could only fit data from one of the setups, while Model III fitted data from both experimental setups. The model with the best fit, Model III, indicates that Culicoides continuously evaluate the light source direction and intensity. The maximum range of attraction of a single 4W CDC light trap was estimated to be approximately 15.25 meters. The attraction towards light traps is different from the attraction to host animals and thus light trap catches may not represent the vector species and numbers attracted to hosts.

  4. On morphology and distribution of Neurohelea luteitarsis (Waltl) (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) in Europe

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tóthová, A.; Knoz, J.; Gelbič, Ivan

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 45, č. 3 (2009), s. 297-301 ISSN 0037-9271 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IBS6022201 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : phylogeny * eversible sacs * spermatheca Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.600, year: 2009

  5. Molecular identification of bloodmeals from biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae; Culicoides Latreille) in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Sandra Boline; Nielsen, Søren A; Skovgård, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    engorged biting midges, and hosts were identified in 115 of 125 analysed specimens (90%). Cow, roe deer, horse, mallard and wood pigeon were identified as hosts. The most abundant host species was cow, which constituted 73.9% of the total identified bloodmeals, but the common wood pigeon was found...

  6. The range of attraction for light traps catching Culicoides biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkeby, Carsten; Græsbøll, Kaare; Stockmarr, Anders

    2013-01-01

    Background Culicoides are vectors of e.g. bluetongue virus and Schmallenberg virus in northern Europe. Light trapping is an important tool for detecting the presence and quantifying the abundance of vectors in the field. Until now, few studies have investigated the range of attraction of light tr...... light trap was estimated to be approximately 15.25 meters. The attraction towards light traps is different from the attraction to host animals and thus light trap catches may not represent the vector species and numbers attracted to hosts.......Background Culicoides are vectors of e.g. bluetongue virus and Schmallenberg virus in northern Europe. Light trapping is an important tool for detecting the presence and quantifying the abundance of vectors in the field. Until now, few studies have investigated the range of attraction of light...... traps. Methods Here we test a previously described mathematical model (Model I) and two novel models for the attraction of vectors to light traps (Model II and III). In Model I, Culicoides fly to the nearest trap from within a fixed range of attraction. In Model II Culicoides fly towards areas...

  7. A new species of predaceous midge of the genus Monohelea Kieffer from Mexico (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luiza Felippe-Bauer

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available A description and illustrations of Monohelea maya, new species, based on male and female characteristics are provided. The specimens were collected in the special biosphere Reserves of Ria Lagartos and Ria Celestun, Yucatan State, Mexico.

  8. Geochemical studies of Guarani ethnic groups pottery with XRF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Facetti-Masulli, J.F.; Romero de Gonzalez, V.; Zulma de Diaz; Kump, P.

    2010-01-01

    Artefacts of pottery belonging to the Guarani ethnic group were investigated by XRF techniques. The Tupi-Guarani, is one of the three main representatives of the Neolithic culture in the Amazonian scope. Such an ethnic group dispersed towards the South; in the Paraguayan area between the Paraguay and the Parana Rivers several Guarani ethnic movements by both rivers and their tributaries are perceived. The lithology and ceramics typology have contributed to support that perception. The archaeological findings help to clarify prehistoric cultural aspects and dispersal areas. In that context, the knowledge of the chemical composition of the found ceramic devices, in particular of the rare earth elements (REE) and other refractory ones provide information on this dispersion and its expansion. Selected trace elements (Rb, Sr, Y, Zr, Nb, Ba, La, Ce, and Nd) were determined in samples from thirteen archaeological sites with XRF using an Am-241 source. Their spidergrams have allowed identifying four different sets of samples according to their areas of provenance. (author)

  9. Diptera: Agromyzidae

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-01-31

    Jan 31, 2012 ... This study was conducted to develop sequential sampling plans to estimate larval density of Liriomyza sativae Blanchard (Diptera: Agromyzidae) at three precision levels in cucumber greenhouse. The within- greenhouse spatial patterns of larvae were aggregated. The slopes and intercepts of both Iwao's.

  10. Diptera: Tephritidae

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-03-19

    Mar 19, 2014 ... Wiedemann (Diptera: Tephritidae). Flávia Queiroz de Oliveira1*, José Bruno Malaquias2, Wennia Rafaelly de Souza Figueiredo3,. Jacinto de Luna Batista4, Eduardo Barbosa Beserra1 and Robério de Oliveira4. 1Universidade Estadual da Paraíba (UEPB), campus I/Campina Grande, Bodocongó, Paraíba, ...

  11. Passage of ingested Mansonella ozzardi (Spirurida: Onchocercidae) microfilariae through the midgut of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, Jefferson A; Bell, Jeffrey A; Turell, Michael J; Chadee, Dave D

    2007-01-01

    When virus and microfilariae are ingested concurrently by a mosquito, microfilariae (mf) may penetrate the mosquito midgut and introduce virus directly into the mosquito hemocoel, allowing mosquitoes to become infectious much sooner than normal and enhancing transmission of viruses by mosquitoes. Mansonella ozzardi (Manson) is a benign filarial nematode parasite of humans in Latin America and is transmitted by black flies (Diptera: Simuliidae) and biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae). Because M. ozzardi and dengue are sympatric, we wanted to know whether M. ozzardi mf had the ability to penetrate the midgut of Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae) and thus play a potential role in the enhancement of dengue transmission. To test this, the F1 progeny from locally collected Ae. aegypti were fed on M. ozzardi-infected human males in an endemic village in northern Trinidad. Mosquitoes were dissected at various times after feeding and examined for mf in the midguts and thoraces. Microfilariae penetrated the midguts of 43% of 63 mosquitoes that ingested mf. Overall, 11% of mf penetrated the midgut by 17 h after being ingested. The intensity of midgut penetration was positively correlated to the numbers of mf ingested. Because midgut penetration is a key requirement for mf enhancement to occur, the potential exists that M. ozzardi could be involved in the enhancement of dengue virus transmission.

  12. Soft computing and hydrogeologic characterization of the Serra Geral-Guarani aquifer system, Parana state, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwashita, F.; Friedel, M. J.; Ferreira, F. J.; Fraser, S. J.

    2011-12-01

    The Self-organizing map (SOM) technique is used to estimate missing hydrogeologic (hydraulic and hydrochemical) properties and evaluate potential connectivity between the Serra Geral and Guarani aquifer system. K-means clustering of SOM neurons is useful for identifying hydrogeologic units (conceptual models) in which the Serra Geral waters are carbonate-calcium and carbonate-magnesium, and Guarani waters are sodium, chloride, fluoride and sulfate as characteristic elements. SOM predictions appear generally consistent with current connectivity models with vertical fluxes from Guarani aquifer strongly influenced by geological structures. Additionally, we identify other new hydrochemical facies in the Serra Geral aquifer indicating areas with potential connections between the two aquifers.

  13. Astronomy and Cosmology of the Guarani of Southern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Mello, Flávia Cristina

    The Guarani Indians in South Brazil have a sophisticated system of thought about the cosmos. Presented here are some elements of their cosmology and cosmogony and the influences of the heavenly bodies in this people's everyday life, which have been collected in ethnographic research in the first decade of the 21st century. The main themes of cosmology and the origin of the Sun, Moon, and Earth are described, approximating this anthropological research to ethnoastronomy and cultural anthropology discussions. This research seeks to analyze comparatively this cosmological concept with other indigenous cosmological systems and to compare them with the Western cosmological system, thus including it in studies of cultural astronomy.

  14. Neuropsicologia transcultural: grupo indígena guarani Cross culture neuropsychology: guarany indian group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivian Maria Andrade

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Para investigar a influência da cultura sobre o desempenho cognitivo foram estudados processos intelectuais em indivíduos de populações etnicamente diferentes. Avaliamos 12 índios e 12 pessoas não indígenas, ambos os grupos constituídos por moradores da periferia de São Paulo, pareados de acordo com idade e nível educacional. Os seguintes testes foram utilizados: Dígitos, Blocos de Corsi, Desenho com Cubos e Nomeação de Figuras. A memória verbal imediata e tardia foi avaliada por meio de estórias relacionadas ao contexto ecológico de ambos os grupos, e a memória visual, pela apresentação e recuperação de figuras. Os resultados quantitativos não demonstraram diferenças significativas entre os grupos, porém, houve uma tendência estatística dos índios mostrarem maior domínio das tarefas visuais e motoras, e os não índios das tarefas verbais. Em conclusão, é possível que o grupo indígena use a cognição de forma mais concreta e intuitiva, em função do estilo peculiar de vida, das habilidades desenvolvidas, associado à baixa escolaridade.Intellectual processes were investigated in two different populations to study the influence of culture in cognitive performance. Twelve people of an indian population of the Guarany ethnic nation were compared to 12 people ("non-indians" paired according to age and education level, both groups residing in the periphery of the city of São Paulo. The following tests were used: Digit Span; Corsi Block-Tapping Test; Block Design and Naming Figure Test. The immediate and delayed verbal memory was assessed through a short story-task with a specific ecological context and the visual memory through animal figures retrieval. No statistical differences were observed between the two groups, but a statistic tendency was observed in the sense of the indigenous group apparently encountering more facility in visual and motors tasks and the "non-indians" in verbal tasks. The results suggest

  15. O “KESUITA” GUARANI: MITOLOGIA E TERRITORIALIDADE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALDO LITAIFF

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Guarani beliefs, as the Kesuita or Nhanderu and the Land with no evil, are here seen as autochthon axiomatic propositions, which refer to notions as those of territory and territoriality. The myth is an oral theory of practice, which uses heavenly bodies and elements of nature as tools for creating concepts, or “ideographic bases” (LÉVI-STRAUSS, 1964. It is intended to demonstrate that the mythic discourse can bear an indirect connection, or even adirect one, with empirical reality, while stressing those issues relating to territoriality.RESUMO: Crenças guarani como o Kesuita ou Nhanderu Mirim e a Terra sem mal, são vistas aqui como proposições axiomáticas autóctones referentes à noções de território e territorialidade. O mito é uma teoria oral da prática, que utiliza astros e elementos da naturezacomo ferramentas de conceitualização, ou “suportes ideográficos” (LÉVI-STRAUSS, 1964. Pretendemos demonstrar que o discurso mítico pode ter uma ligação indireta ou mesmo direta com a realidade empírica, destacando questões concernentes à territorialidade.

  16. The natural radioactivity in Guarani aquifer groundwater, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonotto, D M; Bueno, T O

    2008-10-01

    The measurements of gross alpha and gross beta radioactivity in groundwater samples from Guarani aquifer in Brazil are reported in this paper together with the activity concentration of the natural dissolved radionuclides (40)K, (238)U, (234)U, (226)Ra, (222)Rn, (210)Po, (210)Pb, (232)Th, (228Th), and (228)Ra. Most of the gross alpha radioactivity values were below the critical level of detection corresponding to 1 mBq/L, however, the whole data set for the gross beta radioactivity and radionuclides (40)K, (238)U, (234)U, (226)Ra, (222)Rn, (210)Po, (210)Pb, and (228)Ra was submitted to a statistical treatment, considering class intervals arranged in geometric progression, because of the great variability of the activity. The analysis indicated lognormal distribution of the data, as usually observed in samples taken from the natural context. An inverse relationship between the gross alpha and gross beta activity has been identified and is related to an increase in the K content in the water. The mobility coefficient has been estimated for (238)U, (226)Ra, (232)Th and (228)Ra in Guarani aquifer and the results indicated that the radioelement solubility in the studied system varies according to the following order: radium>uranium>thorium. The implications of the data obtained in terms of standards established for defining the drinking water quality have also been discussed.

  17. Mortality among Guarani Indians in Southeastern and Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey Moreira Cardoso

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Worldwide, indigenous peoples display a high burden of disease, expressed by profound health inequalities in comparison to non-indigenous populations. This study describes mortality patterns among the Guarani in Southern and Southeastern Brazil, with a focus on health inequalities. The Guarani population structure is indicative of high birth and death rates, low median age and low life expectancy at birth. The crude mortality rate (crude MR = 5.0/1,000 was similar to the Brazilian national rate, but the under-five MR (44.5/1,000 and the infant mortality rate (29.6/1,000 were twice the corresponding MR in the South and Southeast of Brazil. The proportion of post-neonatal infant deaths was 83.3%, 2.4 times higher than general population. The proportions of ill-defined (15.8% and preventable causes (51.6% were high. The principal causes of death were respiratory (40.6% and infectious and parasitic diseases (18.8%, suggesting precarious living conditions and deficient health services. There is a need for greater investment in primary care and interventions in social determinants of health in order to reduce the health inequalities.

  18. Mortality among Guarani Indians in Southeastern and Southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Andrey Moreira; Coimbra, Carlos E A; Barreto, Carla Tatiana Garcia; Werneck, Guilherme Loureiro; Santos, Ricardo Ventura

    2011-01-01

    Worldwide, indigenous peoples display a high burden of disease, expressed by profound health inequalities in comparison to non-indigenous populations. This study describes mortality patterns among the Guarani in Southern and Southeastern Brazil, with a focus on health inequalities. The Guarani population structure is indicative of high birth and death rates, low median age and low life expectancy at birth. The crude mortality rate (crude MR = 5.0/1,000) was similar to the Brazilian national rate, but the under-five MR (44.5/1,000) and the infant mortality rate (29.6/1,000) were twice the corresponding MR in the South and Southeast of Brazil. The proportion of post-neonatal infant deaths was 83.3%, 2.4 times higher than general population. The proportions of ill-defined (15.8%) and preventable causes (51.6%) were high. The principal causes of death were respiratory (40.6%) and infectious and parasitic diseases (18.8%), suggesting precarious living conditions and deficient health services. There is a need for greater investment in primary care and interventions in social determinants of health in order to reduce the health inequalities.

  19. The natural radioactivity in Guarani aquifer groundwater, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonotto, D.M. [Departamento de Petrologia e Metalogenia, Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Av. 24-A No. 1515, C.P. 178, CEP 13506-900, Rio Claro, Sao Paulo (Brazil)], E-mail: danielbonotto@yahoo.com.br; Bueno, T.O. [Departamento de Petrologia e Metalogenia, Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Av. 24-A No. 1515, C.P. 178, CEP 13506-900, Rio Claro, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2008-10-15

    The measurements of gross alpha and gross beta radioactivity in groundwater samples from Guarani aquifer in Brazil are reported in this paper together with the activity concentration of the natural dissolved radionuclides {sup 40}K, {sup 238}U, {sup 234}U, {sup 226}Ra, {sup 222}Rn, {sup 210}Po, {sup 210}Pb, {sup 232}Th, {sup 228Th}, and {sup 228}Ra. Most of the gross alpha radioactivity values were below the critical level of detection corresponding to 1 mBq/L, however, the whole data set for the gross beta radioactivity and radionuclides {sup 40}K, {sup 238}U, {sup 234}U, {sup 226}Ra, {sup 222}Rn, {sup 210}Po, {sup 210}Pb, and {sup 228}Ra was submitted to a statistical treatment, considering class intervals arranged in geometric progression, because of the great variability of the activity. The analysis indicated lognormal distribution of the data, as usually observed in samples taken from the natural context. An inverse relationship between the gross alpha and gross beta activity has been identified and is related to an increase in the K content in the water. The mobility coefficient has been estimated for {sup 238}U, {sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th and {sup 228}Ra in Guarani aquifer and the results indicated that the radioelement solubility in the studied system varies according to the following order: radium>uranium>thorium. The implications of the data obtained in terms of standards established for defining the drinking water quality have also been discussed.

  20. Thinouia mucronata (Sapindaceae, an ichthyotoxic species used by Guarani from Misiones, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor A. Keller

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Fishing practices carried out for Guarani people from Misiones, Argentina using stems ofThinouia mucronata are described. Some conjectures about the origin of using of thisichthyotoxic plant are developed

  1. Demographic and evolutionary trajectories of the Guarani and Kaingang natives of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrero, Andrea R; Silva-Junior, Wilson A; Bravi, Cláudio M; Hutz, Mara H; Petzl-Erler, Maria L; Ruiz-Linares, Andres; Salzano, Francisco M; Bortolini, Maria C

    2007-02-01

    A total of 278 individuals from two Brazilian Indian tribes (Guarani and Kaingang) living in five different localities had their mitochondrial DNA sequenced for the first hypervariable segment (HVS-I), and a fraction of them was also studied for seven biallelic Y-chromosome polymorphisms. Nineteen HVS-I lineages were detected, which showed distinct distributions in the two tribes. The G(ST) value obtained with the mtDNA data is about 5 times higher for the Guarani as compared to the Kaingang, suggesting a higher level of differentiation between the three Guarani partialities than between the two Kaingang villages. Non-Amerindian admixture varied with sex and in the Guarani was only observed through the paternal line. Using these data and those of other Tupian and Jêan tribes, it was possible to make inferences about past migratory movements and the genetic differentiation of these populations. Copyright 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  2. O “KESUITA” GUARANI: MITOLOGIA E TERRITORIALIDADE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldo Litaiff

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Crenças guarani como o Kesuita ou Nhanderu Mirim e a Terra sem mal, são vistas aqui como proposições axiomáticas autóctones referentes à noções de território e territorialidade. O mito é uma teoria oral da prática, que utiliza astros e elementos da natureza como ferramentas de conceitualização, ou “suportes ideográficos” (LÉVI-STRAUSS, 1964. Pretendemos demonstrar que o discurso mítico pode ter uma ligação indireta ou mesmo direta com a realidade empírica, destacando questões concernentes à territorialidade.

  3. Limnophyes guarani sp. n., a new hygropetric Orthocladiinae from southern Brazil (Diptera: Chironomidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinho, Luiz Carlos; Andersen, Trond

    2015-04-20

    A new species of Limnophyes Eaton collected in the Corvo Branco Mountains in Santa Catarina State is described and figured, based on male and female adults, larva and pupa. The species groups with L. griseata (Edwards) and L. bidumus Sæther as the adults have a pronounced humeral pit with lanceolate setae and an additional group of lanceolate setae just posterior to antepronotum. The adults are, however, distinctly smaller, have a lower AR and have more lanceolate setae in the group just posterior to antepronotum than the two other species. The pupa can easily be separated from the pupa of L. bidumus as the anal macroseta is longer than the anal lobe. The larva lives hygropetric on vertical rock surfaces. A key to male adults of Neotropical Limnophyes is given.

  4. Precedents and possibilities for improved social participation in Guarani aquifer management policy; Antecedentes y posibilidades para la mayor participacion social en la politica de gestion del Acuifero Guarani

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linsay-Herrera, F.; Taks, J.

    2012-11-01

    The Guarani Aquifer System Project, funded by the World Bank/GEF, acknowledged the importance of public participation in aquifer management through educational materials, workshops and other projects to disseminate information. At the conclusion of the project in 2009 public awareness initiatives trailed off due to lack of funding and the weakening of cross-sectorial organization. The Uruguayan publics awareness of the Guarani Aquifer System and its symbolic and strategic importance has grown over the last decade but this awareness is largely articulated through broad catch phrases. The next step toward active public participation in aquifer management policy is the creation of mechanisms firstly, for diffusing ever-evolving scientific and technical knowledge, secondly, encouraging behaviour and policy changes based on that knowledge and lastly, achieving a dialogue between local and international agendas focused on the Guarani Aquifer System. During 2011 the organizers of the Lo Esencial es Invisible a los Ojos project, sponsored by Uruguays Casa Bertolt Brecht and Italys Associazione Filo Rosso, collaborated with teachers, scientists, and other members of society in the former Guarani Aquifer System Project pilot sites of Rivera and Salto. The project will facilitate dialogue among local stakeholders to promote area-specific best practices and assist local actors to create multimedia products to both document this dialogue and communicate its outcomes. (Author)

  5. Vulnerability and Hydrogeologic Risk of the Guarani Aquifer System in the outcropping area located in Rivera Uruguay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montano, J.; Collazo, P.; Auge, M.

    2004-01-01

    The Project named Vulnerability and Hydrogeologic Risk of the Guarani Aquifer System in the outcropping area located in Rivera, Uruguay is developed by the Faculty of Science University of the Republic, together with the Faculty of Natural and Exact Sciences of the University of Buenos Aires, and it is financed by the Guarani Fund of Universities - Project for the Environmental Protection and Sustainable Development of the Guarani Aquifer System. This project has the aim of researching the characteristics and the hydrogeologic behavior of the Guarani Aquifer in the North portion of Uruguay, Department of Rivera (outcropping area). Moreover, to propose measures directed to their preservation through their sustainable use. The Hydrogeologic Study of the Guarani Aquifer System in this area will contribute not only with the best knowledge in its dynamics, but also helping to take measures in the water management and to avoid potential risks of contamination [es

  6. The HLA polymorphism of two distinctive South-American Indian tribes: the Kaingang and the Guarani.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petzl-Erler, M L; Luz, R; Sotomaior, V S

    1993-05-01

    The HLA-A, B, C, DR and DQ antigens of 240 Kaingang and 98 Guarani individuals have been characterized. The most frequent antigens found among the Kaingang are A31, 2, 24; B35, 51, 39, 48; Cw4, 7, 3, 1; DR8, 4, 2; DQ blank, 3. In the Guarani, they are A2, 28, 31; B40, 62, "53G"; Cw3, 4; DR2, 4, 8, 6; DQ3, blank. B " 53G" is an unusual antigen of the B5 cross-reactive group. DQ blank possibly corresponds to DQ4, not tested in this study. The reaction patterns of B35, B40 and DR4 indicate intra-tribal (of B35 and B40), and inter-tribal (DR4, B40 and B35) heterogeneity of these antigens. 408 Kaingang and 141 Guarani haplotypes were defined by segregation analysis. Of the commonest 10 Guarani and 9 Kaingang haplotypes, only one is shared by both tribes. Significant, positive linkage disequilibrium values for HLA-A,B; HLA-A,C; HLA-B,DR and most HLA-B,C antigen pairs were also different for the two populations. Genetic distance estimates between these two and another seven South-American Indian populations, and relative to the major human races (negroids, caucasoids, and mongoloids) reveal a comparatively high degree of divergence between the Kaingang and the Guarani, which is uncommon for Amerindian populations living close one to another.

  7. APONTAMENTOS SOBRE AS ALDEIAS GUARANI PRÉ-COLONIAIS DA BACIA DO RIO PARANÁ - PARANAPANEMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Lugli Pereira

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo buscou levantar dados bibliográficos e pesquisas de campo que caracterizassem particularidades e generalidades sobre as antigas aldeias guarani dos vales dos rios Paranapanema e Paraná. Esses dados, quando possível, foram correlacionados com documentos etnohistóricos e etnográficos, os quais, por meio de analogia, colaboraram para a interpretação. O estudo do caso complementar do Sítio Arqueologico Célia Maria contribuiu para entendermos melhor as características de aldeias guarani dispostas a distância dos grandes vales.

  8. FRAGMENTS' DISCOURSE: SOCIAL COSMOLOGY AND ALTERITY IN PRE-COLONIAL GUARANI POTTERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Schmidt Dias

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available According to the 16th century ethno historical documents, Guarani pottery decoration and formal variability were related to distinct kinds of vessel's use and painted pottery was used mainly in ritual situations. We analyze archaeological pottery collections from Rio Grande do Sul North shore and Norwest region, seeking to explore the relationship between graphic patterns and distinct functional types of vessels, as well the regional and/or chronological stylistic variation of the sample. In the case study here presented, we suggest that painted pottery has high potential for the analysis of issues related to pre-colonial Guarani alterity and their social cosmological universe.

  9. THE DISCRETE BEAUTY: AESTHETIC FOOD MBYÁ-GUARANI

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    Mártin César Tempass

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Beyond the palate, excessively felt also the preparation and consumption of foods are set in motion in. The vision is basic in this process, assisting the palate in the determination of that he is " appetizing". Thus, also we eat with the eyes, therefore beyond a good taste the food also it needs to offer a pleasant appearance. It occurs that each culture possesss specific tastes how much to the food. In the same way, each culture presents singularity in the visual presentation of its plates. This aesthetic specific, related to other domínios of the thought, reflects the social and cosmological order of the group that puts it in practical. Thus being, it is intended, through the ethnografic method, to more investigate the appreciated forms of visual presentation of foods between the Mbyá-Guarani, present aboriginal group in the south of Brazil, as well as the directions that this ethnic partiality attributes to the aesthetic one of its foods.

  10. EDXRF study of Tupi-guarani archaeological ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quinones, Fernando R. Espinoza [Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Parana, Toledo, PR (Brazil). Centro de Engenharia e Ciencias Exatas; Appoloni, Carlos R.; Aragao, Pedro H.; Santos, Adenilson O. dos; Silva, Luzeli M.; Barbieri, Paulo F.; Coimbra, Melayne M. [Universidade Estadual de Londrina, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica; Nascimento Filho, Virgilio F. do [Sao Paulo Univ., Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz. Dept. de Fisica e Meteorologia]|[Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)

    2000-07-01

    A set of indian Brazilian pottery fragments belonging to Tupi-Guarani tradition has been studied by an archaeometric non-destructive technique. The pottery fragments were accidentally discovered in the Santa Dalmacia farm, sited near Cambe city at the north of Parana brazilian state. Each one of these fragments came from different ceramic recipients and their physical characteristics are very similar. The EDXRF measurements were performed employing both an X-ray tube and three radioisotope sources (Fe, Cd and Pu). The compositional data of the ceramics paste and pigments is investigated. For detection of the elements within the ceramic paste, the fragments were irradiated at the center of the lateral section. While several superficial areas with remaining plastic decoration were also chosen and irradiated at the convex and concave sides of each fragment. A paste-subtracted compositional data of the remaining pigments was statically extracted from the XRF analysis of each area. A program based on the graphic polygonal representation method was developed and used to correlate the representative intensity data of each fragment. (author)

  11. EDXRF study of Tupi-guarani archaeological ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quinones, Fernando R. Espinoza

    2000-01-01

    A set of indian Brazilian pottery fragments belonging to Tupi-Guarani tradition has been studied by an archaeometric non-destructive technique. The pottery fragments were accidentally discovered in the Santa Dalmacia farm, sited near Cambe city at the north of Parana brazilian state. Each one of these fragments came from different ceramic recipients and their physical characteristics are very similar. The EDXRF measurements were performed employing both an X-ray tube and three radioisotope sources (Fe, Cd and Pu). The compositional data of the ceramics paste and pigments is investigated. For detection of the elements within the ceramic paste, the fragments were irradiated at the center of the lateral section. While several superficial areas with remaining plastic decoration were also chosen and irradiated at the convex and concave sides of each fragment. A paste-subtracted compositional data of the remaining pigments was statically extracted from the XRF analysis of each area. A program based on the graphic polygonal representation method was developed and used to correlate the representative intensity data of each fragment. (author)

  12. Removal of diuron and hexazinone from guarany aquifer groundwater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Di Bernardo Dantas

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The economy of many communities in southeastern Brazil is based on agroindustry, particularly the sugarcane industry. Recent studies have found increased use of herbicides in this type of agriculture, among which diuron and hexazinone are the most widely used. The water supply for some communities is derived entirely from the Guarany Aquifer (the world's largest transborder underground freshwater system, and some wells are located in recharge zones, which makes the groundwater more vulnerable to contamination. In this study, we monitored some of the wells located in the recharge area. We studied the removal of diuron and hexazinone from synthetic water prepared in the laboratory by preoxidation with chlorine and chlorine dioxide, as well as adsorption with granular activated carbon (GAC. The saturation time of GAC in tests with preoxidation with both oxidants was shorter than the saturation time in the test without preoxidation, possibly due to the formation of by - products that competed for the adsorption of the herbicides. The conclusion was that the use of activated carbon is important for removing the herbicides in question, as well as the by - products produced by these oxidants.

  13. Guarani Morphology in Paraguayan Spanish: Insights from Code-Mixing Typology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estigarribia, Bruno

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we examine the use of Guarani affixes and clitics in colloquial Paraguayan Spanish. We depart from the traditional view of these as "borrowings," and instead explore the idea that these phenomena can be integrated within Muysken's (2000, 2013, 2014) typology of code-mixing. We claim that most of these uses may stem from a…

  14. Voice and Biliteracy in Indigenous Language Revitalization: Contentious Educational Practices in Quechua, Guarani, and Maori Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornberger, Nancy H.

    2006-01-01

    This article considers instances of biliterate educational practice in contexts of indigenous language revitalization involving Quechua in the South American Andes, Guarani in Paraguay, and Maori in Aotearoa/New Zealand. In these indigenous contexts of sociohistorical and sociolinguistic oppression, the implementation of multilingual language…

  15. Nhembo'e: educação escolar nas aldeias Guarani = Nhembo’e: school education in the Guarani villages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bergamaschi, Maria Aparecida

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available O texto descreve processos e práticas de escolarização em duas aldeias Guarani do Rio Grande do Sul: Tekóa Anhetenguá (Porto Alegre e Tekoá Jataí'ty (Viamão, locais em que a escola é requisitada como possibilidade de aprender leitura, escrita e português, ou o "sistema dos brancos", como dizem, referindo-se ao que precisam aprender para realizar um diálogo mais equilibrado com as sociedades não indígenas. Mesmo conhecedores das leis que possibiltam a escola diferenciada na aldeia, os Guarani agem com cuidado e buscam um modo próprio para fazer o escolar, evidenciando as marcas de sua cosmologia. Assim como a palavra Nhembo'e refere escola e as práticas decorrentes dela, Nhembo'e, na língua Guarani, significa pronunciar as palavras sagradas da tradição e deixar-se instruir por elas

  16. EDXRF study of Tupi-Guarani archaeological ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appoloni, C. R.; Espinoza Quiñones, F. R.; Aragão, P. H. A.; dos Santos, A. O.; da Silva, L. M.; Barbieri, P. F.; do Nascimento Filho, V. F.; Coimbra, M. M.

    2001-06-01

    A set of Indian Brazilian pottery fragments belonging to Tupi-Guarani tradition has been studied by EDXRF. The main objective was to characterize the ceramic paste, as well as the superficial layer of the ceramic fragments, in order to get qualitative information about the pigment composition of the plastic decoration. Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) methodology was employed to obtain the ceramic paste composition, as well as the superficial layer of the ceramic fragments. The experimental set-up consisted of 238Pu, 55Fe and 109Cd radioactive sources, a X-ray tube (at 15 kV, 40 mA, Mo target and Zr filter), a Si(Li) detector (30 mm 2, with a Be window) and a multichannel analyzer. X-ray spectra were analyzed using the AXIL program. A program based on the graphic polygonal representation method was developed and used to correlate the representative intensity data of each fragment. A low Ca content and a systematic presence of relatively high concentrations of Fe can characterize the ceramic pastes. Ti and Zr are also always present at high levels, and Ni, Cu and in some cases Zn at level of traces; Rb, Sr, Ba and Y are also present at low concentration. The black pigment in the pottery plastic decoration is due to the presence of Mn, the red pigment is due to the presence of Fe, while the white pigment is characterized by the presence of Ba. For the eleven fragments studied, the polygonal representation method points that the same materials were employed in the pottery production, and the pigments in the plastic decoration were obtained from different inorganic materials.

  17. EDXRF study of Tupi-Guarani archaeological ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Appoloni, C.R. E-mail: appoloni@uel.br; Espinoza Quinones, F.R.; Aragao, P.H.A.; Santos, A.O. dos; Silva, L.M. da; Barbieri, P.F.; Nascimento Filho, V.F. do; Coimbra, M.M

    2001-06-01

    A set of Indian Brazilian pottery fragments belonging to Tupi-Guarani tradition has been studied by EDXRF. The main objective was to characterize the ceramic paste, as well as the superficial layer of the ceramic fragments, in order to get qualitative information about the pigment composition of the plastic decoration. Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) methodology was employed to obtain the ceramic paste composition, as well as the superficial layer of the ceramic fragments. The experimental set-up consisted of 238Pu, 55Fe and 109Cd radioactive sources, a X-ray tube (at 15 kV, 40 mA, Mo target and Zr filter), a Si(Li) detector (30 mm{sup 2}, with a Be window) and a multichannel analyzer. X-ray spectra were analyzed using the AXIL program. A program based on the graphic polygonal representation method was developed and used to correlate the representative intensity data of each fragment. A low Ca content and a systematic presence of relatively high concentrations of Fe can characterize the ceramic pastes. Ti and Zr are also always present at high levels, and Ni, Cu and in some cases Zn at level of traces; Rb, Sr, Ba and Y are also present at low concentration. The black pigment in the pottery plastic decoration is due to the presence of Mn, the red pigment is due to the presence of Fe, while the white pigment is characterized by the presence of Ba. For the eleven fragments studied, the polygonal representation method points that the same materials were employed in the pottery production, and the pigments in the plastic decoration were obtained from different inorganic materials.

  18. ACUTE LOWER RESPIRATORY INFECTION IN GUARANI INDIGENOUS CHILDREN, BRAZIL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Patricia Gomes de; Cardoso, Andrey Moreira; Sant'Anna, Clemax Couto; March, Maria de Fátima Bazhuni Pombo

    2018-03-29

    To describe the clinical profile and treatment of Brazilian Guarani indigenous children aged less than five years hospitalized for acute lower respiratory infection (ALRI), living in villages in the states from Rio de Janeiro to Rio Grande do Sul. Of the 234 children, 23 were excluded (incomplete data). The analysis was conducted in 211 children. Data were extracted from charts by a form. Based on record of wheezing and x-ray findings, ALRI was classified as bacterial, viral and viral-bacterial. A bivariate analysis was conducted using multinomial regression. Median age was 11 months. From the total sample, the ALRI cases were classified as viral (40.8%), bacterial (35.1%) and viral-bacterial (24.1%). It was verified that 53.1% of hospitalizations did not have clinical-radiological-laboratorial evidence to justify them. In the multinomial regression analysis, the comparison of bacterial and viral-bacterial showed the likelihood of having a cough was 3.1 times higher in the former (95%CI 1.11-8.70), whereas having chest retractions was 61.0% lower (OR 0.39, 95%CI 0.16-0.92). Comparing viral with viral-bacterial, the likelihood of being male was 2.2 times higher in the viral (95%CI 1.05-4.69), and of having tachypnea 58.0% lower (OR 0.42, 95%CI 0.19-0.92). Higher proportion of viral processes was identified, as well as viral-bacterial co-infections. Coughing was a symptom indicative of bacterial infection, whereas chest retractions and tachypnea showed viral-bacterial ALRI. Part of the resolution of non-severe ALRI still occurs at hospital level; therefore, we concluded that health services need to implement their programs in order to improve indigenous primary care.

  19. EDXRF study of Tupi-Guarani archaeological ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appoloni, C.R.; Espinoza Quinones, F.R.; Aragao, P.H.A.; Santos, A.O. dos; Silva, L.M. da; Barbieri, P.F.; Nascimento Filho, V.F. do; Coimbra, M.M.

    2001-01-01

    A set of Indian Brazilian pottery fragments belonging to Tupi-Guarani tradition has been studied by EDXRF. The main objective was to characterize the ceramic paste, as well as the superficial layer of the ceramic fragments, in order to get qualitative information about the pigment composition of the plastic decoration. Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) methodology was employed to obtain the ceramic paste composition, as well as the superficial layer of the ceramic fragments. The experimental set-up consisted of 238Pu, 55Fe and 109Cd radioactive sources, a X-ray tube (at 15 kV, 40 mA, Mo target and Zr filter), a Si(Li) detector (30 mm 2 , with a Be window) and a multichannel analyzer. X-ray spectra were analyzed using the AXIL program. A program based on the graphic polygonal representation method was developed and used to correlate the representative intensity data of each fragment. A low Ca content and a systematic presence of relatively high concentrations of Fe can characterize the ceramic pastes. Ti and Zr are also always present at high levels, and Ni, Cu and in some cases Zn at level of traces; Rb, Sr, Ba and Y are also present at low concentration. The black pigment in the pottery plastic decoration is due to the presence of Mn, the red pigment is due to the presence of Fe, while the white pigment is characterized by the presence of Ba. For the eleven fragments studied, the polygonal representation method points that the same materials were employed in the pottery production, and the pigments in the plastic decoration were obtained from different inorganic materials

  20. The medieval feminine personage in the romance O guarani

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afrânio Gurgel Lucena

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available We objectify to present a intertextual analysis of the literary text that contemplates a process of mythical constitution of the personages of the romance the Guarani (1857 of the writer Jose de Alencar. Focamos the analysis on the Cecília young for where we discover its “static” adaptation as medieval myth in the Brazilian romantic romance. The unconditional, protective and servile love of the Peri indian (One arquétipo of the medieval knight. conditions the construction of the loved one, therefore under the medieval myth of the gracious love, a personage is formed in function of the other, is opposing destinations that search the balance in the love. Exactly being something distant and inaccessible, as they present the trovadorescas Cantigas of love. In the theoretical recital, we have: MOISÉS (2004 - 2005 characterizing the mythos and the definitions of the plain and round personages; a platonic reference to the servile love in the Slap-up meal; Spalding (1973, Brunel (1988 for the dicionarizações concerning the thematic one and of the critical one; in the literary theory, Brunel, Pichois and Rousseau (1995, p.115: the myth, “a narrative set consecrated by the tradition”; in Samuel (2000, the mythical literariedade in the formation of a people; Bosi (1994, information on the indianismo and Coutinho (1988, gênese of our literariedade and the romantic romance. Thus, our work presents a result to the literary study: the thematic influence of the Average Age and its mythical love (gracious and servile in the composition of the indianista romance.

  1. Fly proof net shed for livestock: A novel concept of physical barrier for integrated management of Culicoides spp. (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. W. Narladkar

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim: An age old and time tested technique of mosquito net requiring no energy, used by humans since prehistoric period was the inspiration behind this novel technique of fly proof net shed for livestock. With the aim to develop similar type of net shed for animals, which will protect them at night from biting of range of insects from Culicoides midges to mosquitoes, research was undertaken. Materials and Methods: Net shed with pitch roof (gable type was erected for use of livestock. The open inlet area was covered with 40 mesh size wire net. The roof at attic level was fitted with hurricane type of ventilator. Shed was used for animals at night hours only. vane anemometer was used for estimation of temperature and wind related parameters. Thermal humidity index (THI and air changes were calculated as per the standard formulas. Based on these parameters suitability of shed was judged. Results: It was observed that, due to netting of the shed population of Culicoides and other flies and incidences of their bites at night hours were considerably lowered. As a result, animals were found comfortable, and their body movements undertaken for wiping off these flies were significantly reduced from 196.50 to 22.16. All it accrued to increased milk yield to the tune of 18.97% in the net shed buffaloes as against control shed. Studies on suitability and comfort to animals were tested by estimating THI and air changes per hour in the net shed, which also revealed the estimates in comfortable regimen and ventilation, remained not much affected despite of netting. Other parameters studied for testing its more accuracy by taking other species of animals as kids, for them also, shed was found suitable through estimation of various physiological and behavioral parameters. Finally, the efficacy of shed was judged on the basis of cost effectiveness. Highly encouraging results on the above said parameters endorsed the effectiveness of the technique. Conclusion: A net shed with pitch roof (gable type fitted with hurricane type ventilator at its top serves the purpose of a physical barrier to minimize host-pest contact. Observations recorded in the experiment are sound enough to conclude and to recommend the use of net shed for livestock.

  2. Community analysis of the abundance and diversity of biting midge species (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) in three European countries at different latitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möhlmann, Tim W R; Wennergren, Uno; Tälle, Malin; Favia, Guido; Damiani, Claudia; Bracchetti, Luca; Takken, Willem; Koenraadt, Constantianus J M

    2018-03-27

    The outbreaks of bluetongue and Schmallenberg disease in Europe have increased efforts to understand the ecology of Culicoides biting midges and their role in pathogen transmission. However, most studies have focused on a specific habitat, region, or country. To facilitate wider comparisons, and to obtain a better understanding of the spread of disease through Europe, the present study focused on monitoring biting midge species diversity in three different habitat types and three countries across Europe. Biting midges were trapped using Onderstepoort Veterinary Institute light traps at a total of 27 locations in Sweden, the Netherlands and Italy, comprising farm, peri-urban and wetland habitats. From July 2014 to June 2015 all locations were sampled monthly, except for during the winter months. Trapped midges were counted and identified morphologically. Indices on species richness, evenness and diversity were calculated. Community compositions were analysed using non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) techniques. A total of 50,085 female midges were trapped during 442 collection nights. More than 88% of these belonged to the Obsoletus group. The highest midge diversity was found in Sweden, while species richness was highest in the Netherlands, and most specimens were trapped in Italy. For habitats within countries, diversity of the trapped midges was lowest for farms in all countries. Differences in biting midge species communities were more distinct across the three countries than the three habitat types. A core midge community could be identified, in which the Obsoletus group was the most abundant. Variations in vector communities across countries imply different patterns of disease spread throughout Europe. How specific species and their associated communities affect disease risk is still unclear. Our results emphasize the importance of midge diversity data at community level, how this differs across large geographic range within Europe, and its implications on assessing risks of midge-borne disease outbreaks.

  3. Transmission of vesicular stomatitis New Jersey virus to cattle by the biting midge Culicoides sonorensis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez de Leon, Adalberto A; Tabachnick, Walter J

    2006-03-01

    Laboratory-reared Culicoides sonorensis Wirth & Jones were infected with vesicular stomatitis virus serotype New Jersey (family Rhabdoviridae, genus Vesiculovirus, VSNJV) through intrathoracic inoculation. After 10-d incubation at 25 degrees C, these insects were allowed to blood feed on four steers. Two other steers were exposed to VSNJV through intralingual inoculation with 10(8) tissue culture infective dose50 VSNJV. All six steers became seropositive for VSNJV. The results demonstrate the ability of C. sonorensis to transmit VSNJV to livestock. Only the animals intralingually inoculated with VSNJV showed clinical signs in the form of vesicles at the site of inoculation. Uninfected C. sonorensis allowed to feed on the exposed animals did not become infected with VSNJV. Animals infected by C. sonorensis showed a slower antibody response compared with intralingually inoculated animals. This is probably because of different amounts of virus received via insect transmission and syringe inoculation. A significant difference was found in the serum acute-phase protein alpha-1-acid glycoprotein in animals that received VSNJV through C. sonorensis transmission. These animals had previously been exposed to insect attack in the field compared with intralingually inoculated animals and C. sonorensis-infected animals that had been protected from insect attack. The failure to observe clinical signs of vesicular stomatitis through transmission of VSNJV by C. sonorensis may explain widespread subclinical infections during vesicular stomatitis epidemics.

  4. Handling small arbovirus vectors safely during biosafety level 3 containment: Culicoides variipennis sonorensis (Diptera:Ceratopogonidae) and exotic bluetongue viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, G J; Tabachnick, W J

    1996-05-01

    Equipment and procedures are described for biosafety level 3 (BL-3) containment work with small, zoophilic arthropods. BL-3 classified pathogens always must be manipulated in biological safety cabinets. Procedures, including physical barriers and handling methods, that prevent the escape of potentially virus-infected insects are discussed, and the use of a monitoring system for insect security is explained. The inability to recover escaped minute, flying insects poses a major difference from similar work with larger insects, such as mosquitoes. Methods were developed for the safe and secure handling of Culicoides variipennis sonorensis Wirth & Jones infected with exotic bluetongue viruses during BL-3 containment.

  5. Sources of variation in an enzyme-linked immunoassay of bluetongue virus in Culicoides variipennis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabachnick, W J; Mecham, J O

    1991-03-01

    An enzyme-linked immunoassay for detecting bluetongue virus in infected Culicoides variipennis was evaluated using a nested analysis of variance to determine sources of experimental error in the procedure. The major source of variation was differences among individual insects (84% of the total variance). Storing insects at -70 degrees C for two months contributed to experimental variation in the ELISA reading (14% of the total variance) and should be avoided. Replicate assays of individual insects were shown to be unnecessary, since variation among replicate wells and plates was minor (2% of the total variance).

  6. Genetic variation in laboratory and field populations of the vector of bluetongue virus, Culicoides variipennis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabachnick, W J

    1990-01-01

    Laboratory colonies and several natural populations of the biting midge Culicoides variipennis (Coquillett) were analyzed for genetic variation at 21 electrophoretic loci. The laboratory colonies maintained high levels of genetic variation measured by average expected heterozygosities (He = 0.142 +/- 0.008), although levels were lower than those observed in field collections (He = 0.198 +/- 0.009). A field population from Colorado, analyzed five times over a 1-yr period, showed a consistent trend in the change in gene frequencies at two loci. Genetic comparisons between natural populations were consistent with the existence of two subspecies. C. variipennis variipennis and C. variipennis sonorensis Wirth & Jones.

  7. Quantifying Dispersal of European Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) Vectors between Farms Using a Novel Mark-Release-Recapture Technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkeby, Carsten; Bødker, Rene; Stockmarr, Anders

    2013-01-01

    Studying the dispersal of small flying insects such as Culicoides constitutes a great challenge due to huge population sizes and lack of a method to efficiently mark and objectively detect many specimens at a time. We here describe a novel mark-release-recapture method for Culicoides in the field...

  8. Laboratory survival and blood feeding response of wild-caught Culicoides obsoletus Complex (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) through natural and artificial membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goffredo, M; Romeo, G; Monaco, F; Di Gennaro, A; Savini, G

    2004-01-01

    In late summer 2002, live wild-caught midges of the Obsoletus Complex were collected using blacklight traps placed at a horse stable in Teramo (Abruzzo, Italy). For the survival study under laboratory conditions, 1,500 Obsoletus Complex midges were kept at 17 degrees C-25 degrees C and provided only with a sucrose solution. Of these, 150 (10%) survived for at least 40 days and 3 midges were still alive after 92 days. In addition, 10 midges survived 10 days at 4 degrees C. For the feeding trials, 40 blood-meals (9,440 midges) were administered, 27 of which were successful (67.5%); the feeding rate ranged from 0.3% to 16.7%, with a total of 592 engorged midges. Similar feeding rates (U Mann-Whitney test=129.5 p>0.05) were obtained when natural (day-old chicken skin) and artificial (stretched parafilm) membranes were used. To infect the insects, a field strain of bluetongue (BT) virus (BTV) serotype 2 isolated from the spleen of a sheep during the 2000 Italian outbreak was added to the blood-meal. Two different viral solutions, with titres of 10(6)TCID(50)/ml and 10(7)TCID(50)/ml, were prepared. Uninfected blood was significantly more appetising (U Mann-Whitney test=88.5 pdays. During the incubation period, the dead insects were collected daily and analysed for evidence of virus infection. Of the 251 engorged midges, 54 (21.5%) died in the feeding chambers or during sorting on the chill table, 136 died within the first 10 days and 61 survived longer. BTV was isolated only from those which died just after feeding (52.6%; 10/19) or 24 h later (47.8%; 11/23). Considering the small number of midges tested after 10 days of incubation, the prevalence of infection detected in this study (95% probability) would have been higher than 4.74%. These preliminary results appear very promising as this is the first time that midges of the Obsoletus Complex have been successfully fed under laboratory conditions.

  9. Torix group Rickettsia are widespread in Culicoides biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae), reach high frequency and carry unique genomic features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilgrim, Jack; Ander, Mats; Garros, Claire; Baylis, Matthew; Hurst, Gregory D D; Siozios, Stefanos

    2017-10-01

    There is increasing interest in the heritable bacteria of invertebrate vectors of disease as they present novel targets for control initiatives. Previous studies on biting midges (Culicoides spp.), known to transmit several RNA viruses of veterinary importance, have revealed infections with the endosymbiotic bacteria, Wolbachia and Cardinium. However, rickettsial symbionts in these vectors are underexplored. Here, we present the genome of a previously uncharacterized Rickettsia endosymbiont from Culicoides newsteadi (RiCNE). This genome presents unique features potentially associated with host invasion and adaptation, including genes for the complete non-oxidative phase of the pentose phosphate pathway, and others predicted to mediate lipopolysaccharides and cell wall modification. Screening of 414 Culicoides individuals from 29 Palearctic or Afrotropical species revealed that Rickettsia represent a widespread but previously overlooked association, reaching high frequencies in midge populations and present in 38% of the species tested. Sequence typing clusters the Rickettsia within the Torix group of the genus, a group known to infect several aquatic and hematophagous taxa. FISH analysis indicated the presence of Rickettsia bacteria in ovary tissue, indicating their maternal inheritance. Given the importance of biting midges as vectors, a key area of future research is to establish the impact of this endosymbiont on vector competence. © 2017 The Authors. Environmental Microbiology published by Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. [Deaths in the center of life: reflections on curing and non-curing in Jesuit-Guarani missions (1609-75)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deckmann Fleck, Eliane Cristina

    2004-01-01

    The article investigates the impact of Western Christian concepts of disease and death on indigenous Guarani sensibility and their translation into social representations and practices in the Jesuit-Guarani missions of Paraguay's Jesuit Province during the seventeenth century. This research is based on a re-reading of the Cartas Anuas da Província Jesuítica do Paraguai, which encompass the 1609-75 period. The study seeks to ascertain how expressions of Guarani sensibility were appropriated by Jesuit discourse as part of the process of conversion to Christianity. It also accesses observable changes in Guarani sensibility as a result of this new mission reality.

  11. The fluoride in the groundwater of Guarani Aquifer System: the origin associated with black shales of Paraná Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, M. L.; Vieiro, A. P.; Machado, G.

    2008-09-01

    This work presents petrological and geochemical results of the black shales interval from Permian and Devonian strata of the Paraná Basin, Brazil and its relationships with fluoride of groundwater from Guarani Aquifer System. The Guarani Aquifer, located in South Brazil, Uruguay, Paraguay and Argentine, presents contents of fluoride higher than the Brazilian accepted potability limits. Several hypotheses have been presented for the origin of the fluoride in the groundwater of the Guarani Aquifer. Microcrystalline fluorite was registered in black shales of Ponta Grossa and Irati formations from Paraná Basin. The results shown in this work suggest that fluoride present in groundwater of Guarani Aquifer can be originated in deeper groundwater that circulates in Ponta Grossa and Irati formations. The interaction of the groundwater coming from deeper black shales with the groundwater-bearing Aquifer Guarani System occurs through regional fragile structures (faults and fractures) that constitute excellent hydraulic connectors between the two sedimentary packages. The microcrystalline fluorite registered in Ponta Grossa and Irati Formations can be dissolved promoting fluoride enrichment in groundwater of these black shales and Guarani Aquifer System.

  12. Knowledge of the Guarani language in medical students at a university hospital in Paraguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, Hassel Jimmy; Delgadillo, Lorena; Campuzano de Rolon, Ana; Jiménez, Diana; de Samudio, Angélica; Agüero, Adriana; Radice, César; Jiménez-Britez, Gustavo

    2018-04-10

    Paraguay is a bilingual country and knowledge of the guarani language is an important communication tool for the doctor- patient relationship. To determine the degree of and the factors that influence the knowledge of the Guaraní language in medical students at a University Hospital in Paraguay. Observational, cross-sectional, analytical study in which an anonymous questionnaire was applied to the final year medical students of a University Hospital of Paraguay. The baseline characteristics of the medical students and their degree of knowledge of the Guarani language were described. The association between the characteristics of the students and the degree of knowledge of the Guarani language was evaluated with the Chi square association test and the logistic regression model. We included 264 students in the survey. Eighty two percent come from the capital, 72% made their pre-university studies in the capital; 92% studied Guaraní in primary and secondary education; 67.9% do not interpret Guarani correctly; 8.5% understand and express themselves totally in Guaraní. Of these, 86% refer to have the greater learning of the language in their home; 75.2% of respondents believe that primary and secondary education did not help in learning the language. The degree of knowledge of the language (speaks and understands the Guarani language correctly) varies according to: the origin of the student, the inland regions or the capital (31.25% vs. 2.5%, adjusted OR = 0.24, 95% confidence interval: 0.06 to 0.92, p = 0.003); the location of primary and secondary school: inland versus capital (25.6% vs. 1%, adjusted OR: 0.08, 95% confidence interval: 0.01 to 0.53, p = 0.009). The degree of knowledge of the Guaraní language of the students is lower compared to the general population; those who best understand and express themselves were born or studied in the interior of the country. The majority considers that primary and secondary education contribute little in the learning of

  13. ESCOLA DIFERENCIADA GUARANI: ENTRE O VIVER SEMINAL E O VIVER OCIDENTAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Maria de Oliveira Viçosa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A construção das escolas diferenciadas da tradição Guarani tem representado um desafio para suas aldeias no interior do Rio Grande do Sul, bem como para as escolas rurais que acompanham esse processo e as universidades envolvidas. Partindo da observação e convivência com duas aldeias indígenas, a de Estrela Velha e a de Salto do Jacuí (investigando infâncias e educação Guarani, encontramos três escolas: a Escola Estadual Indígena de Ensino Fundamental Guarani, em Salto do Jacuí; a Escola Estadual Indígena de Ensino Fundamental Karaí Tata Endy Vera Claudio Acosta, em Estrela Velha, e profissionais da Escola Itaúba, situada no município de Estrela Velha, na qual possuem 6 estudantes indígenas. As duas primeiras estão sendo construídas nas aldeias e trabalham até o quinto ano do Ensino Fundamental. Enquanto são construídas, as crianças saem para escolas não indígenas. Em ambas as escolas diferenciadas, existem professores indígenas e não indígenas que ensinam principalmente língua Guarani, Português e Matemática, situadas no interior do Rio Grande do Sul. Nesse processo, nas duas aldeias, estão implicados lideranças indígenas, crianças e jovens das aldeias, professores Guarani e não indígenas, diretores da rede Estadual de Educação, Karai1 e KunhãKarai, estudantes e pesquisadores do Mestrado em Educação da Universidade de Santa Cruz – UNISC/RS2 , que juntos desenvolvem uma pesquisa-ação e etnográfica que vem acontecendo desde o início de 2013 de modo compartilhado e negociado através do diálogo e da escuta do que pensamos e queremos como escola diferenciada em cada aldeia Guarani. Apresentaremos as observações e diálogos que emergem do pesquisar conjuntamente e que produziram reflexões teóricas acerca do pensar, do viver seminal e ocidental.

  14. Hydrogeological monitoring in Riberao da onca basin located in out croup area of Guarani Aquifer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wendland, E.; Andrade Gomes Barreto, C.; Gomes, L. . E mail:ew@sc.usp.br

    2004-01-01

    Objective of this project is the estimation of the direct recharge rate of the Guarani Aquifer System, based on a water balance study in the Ribeirao da Onca basin, located in the outcrop area of the Botucatu Formation, in Brotas-SP (Brazil). It is intended to monitor the groundwater level behavior and the superficial outflow from the basin, as function of the registered precipitation and evapotranspiration, during two hydrological cycles. The results to be obtained are of general interest in the context of the Project for Environmental Protection and Integrated Sustainable Management of the Guarani Aquifer System, since understanding the process and rate of direct recharge are essential information for any initiative for management of the aquifer. In this work, the main activities proposed are presented [es

  15. Contemporary Guarani Shamanisms: “Traditional Medicine” and Discourses of Native Identity in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E J Langdon

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The psychoactive substance known as ayahuasca has long been identified with Amazonian shamanism and traditional medicine. Over the last two decades its use has spread outside this region to urban populations in different parts of the world. This paper examines the adoption of the ritual use of the beverage by the Guarani Indians along the southern coast of Brazil. We argue that this process is related to the growing politics of identity of Brazilian indigenous peoples as well as to public policies that promote cultural diversity. In the case analyzed here, the adoption of ayahuasca is articulated with an ongoing cultural revitalization in activities related to shamanism, health and education and with the specific desires and actions of the leading family in one Guarani village.

  16. Human papillomavirus cervical infection in Guarani Indians from the rainforest of Misiones, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonon, Sergio Andrés; Picconi, María Alejandra; Zinovich, Jorge Bruno; Nardari, Wanda; Mampaey, Mariana; Badano, Inés; Di Lello, Federico; Galuppo, Juan Antonio; Alonio, Lidia Virginia; Teyssie, Angélica Rita

    2004-01-01

    To evaluate the prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) cervical infection in women from the South American Guarani Indian tribe located in the rain forest of Misiones, north-eastern Argentina; a region with a high incidence of cervical carcinoma. A cross-sectional cytological and HPV screening of sexually active Guarani women from nine Indian settlements was conducted. Demographic data, information about sexual behavior, and gynaecological history were recorded. Fresh cervical specimens from 239 patients were collected, of which 207 were included in this study. Cytology and microbiological detection were carried out by the Papanicolaou and Gram stain methods, respectively. HPV detection and typing were analyzed by PCR and RFLP. Pap smears in 96% of all patients showed an inflammatory pattern. A possible etiologic agent was found in 58% of cases: 52% Trichomonas vaginalis, 35% Gardnerella vaginalis and 13% Candida sp. Seven cases had cytological changes compatible with Low Grade Intraepithelial Lesion (LGSIL), one with High Grade Intraepithelial Lesion (HGSIL) and one in situ cervical cancer. The prevalence for generic HPV infection was 64% (133/207). Genotyping gave a 26% prevalence for HPV types 16/18, 13% for types 6/11 and 30% for other types, with nine mixed infections. This work reports for the first time the prevalence of cervical HPV infection in Guarani women. Nearly all Guarani women had some grade of cervical disease. Generic HPV infection prevalence was elevated (64%), with predominance of high risk types 16/18. A large variety of viral types was detected, including high to intermediate risk types not found previously in the region.

  17. THE PROBLEM OF BRAZILIAN HERO: 'O GUARANI' IN LITERATURE AND COMICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascoal Farinaccio

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to analyze the aesthetic and ideological contradictions involved in the literary representation of the genuine Brazilian hero in the novel O Guarani, wrote by José de Alencar, and also in its graphical representation in the adaptation of this book to the language of comics. The context considered is that of a culture deeply marked by inferiority complex arising from its colonial history.

  18. Development and Modelling of a High-Resolution Aquifer Analog in the Guarani Aquifer (Brazil)

    OpenAIRE

    Höyng, Dominik

    2014-01-01

    A comprehensive and detailed knowledge about the spatial distribution of physical and chemical properties in heterogeneous porous aquifers plays a decisive role for a realistic representation of governing parameters in mathematical models. Models allow the simulation, prediction and reproduction of subsurface flow and transport characteristics. This work explains the identification, characterization and effects of small-scale aquifer heterogeneities in the Guarani Aquifer System (GAS) in S...

  19. A REPRESENTAÇÃO INDÍGENA GUARANI EM LIVROS MEMORIALISTAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CAROLINE HERMÍNIO MALDONADO

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO: As obras de autores memorialistas, pesquisadas neste trabalho, retratam o modo de vida guarani e os conflitos envolvendo disputas territoriais, entre o século XVIII e meados do século XX. Relatam experiências e buscam opinar sobre a relação entre indígenas e migrantes, como os próprios autores, que vieram para o sul do então Mato Grosso por motivos de trabalho e à procura de terras produtivas. A partir destas obras entende-se como conseguiram ocultar os indígenas da história regional e justificar seus juízos sobre essa população, considerando-a sem cultura e sem organização social. A pesquisa permite compreender o fenômeno da invisibilidade a que estão sujeitos, não somente os Guarani, mas os demais povos indígenas que habitam hoje o Estado do Mato Grosso do Sul.ABSTRACT: The works of authors memoir, researched this, depict the lifestyles Guarani and conflicts involving territorial disputes between the eighteenth and mid-twentieth century. They report experiences and seek their opinion about the relationship between indigenous people and migrants, as the authors themselves, who came to southern Ontario then on business and looking for productive land. From these works it is understood as the Indians managed to hide the regional history and justify their judgments about this population without considering the culture and without social organization. The research is to understand the phenomenon ofinvisibility to which they are subject, not only the Guarani, but the other indigenous peoples today the state of Mato Grosso do Sul.

  20. Geology of hole drill thermal infra basaltic (Guarani Aquifer System) in Salto Uruguay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goso, C.; Muzio, R.; Marmisolle, J.; De Souza, S.

    2004-01-01

    This paper deals with the lithological description of a thermal infrabasaltic (Guarani Aquifer System) hole drill cutting in Dayman (Kanarek Hotel), Salto department (Uruguay). This hole drill shows 152 meters of Buena Vista Formation (Upper Permian- Lower Triassic), 188 meters of Tacuarembo Formation (Upper Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous) and 940meters of Arapey Formation (Lower Cretaceous). Petrographical studies of six basaltic levels were done [es

  1. Dissolved {sup 210}Po and {sup 210}Pb in Guarani aquifer groundwater, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonotto, D.M. [Departamento de Petrologia e Metalogenia, Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Av. 24-A No. 1515, C.P. 178, CEP 13506-900 Rio Claro, Sao Paulo (Brazil)], E-mail: danielbonotto@yahoo.com.br; Caprioglio, L.; Bueno, T.O.; Lazarindo, J.R. [Departamento de Petrologia e Metalogenia, Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Av. 24-A No. 1515, C.P. 178, CEP 13506-900 Rio Claro, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2009-03-15

    The huge Guarani aquifer located in the South American continent is a very important resource for the region, and its drinking water quality has been investigated according to international standards, inclusive radiological parameters. This paper describes {sup 210}Po and {sup 210}Pb activity concentration data in groundwater samples collected at the Brazilian portion of Guarani aquifer, that is characterized by a great variability of temperature (18-70 deg. C), pH (4.0-9.9), sodium content (0.3-322 mg/l), bicarbonate content (0.1-318 mg/l), etc. Non-expensive alpha counting following some radiochemical steps for extracting and depositing dissolved {sup 210}Po was used. The results of the measurements for samples collected in duplicate yielded a maximum {sup 210}Po activity concentration of 3.7 mBq/L and a maximum {sup 210}Pb activity concentration of 6.7 mBq/l, that are values greatly lower than the guidance level of 0.1 Bq/l established by the WHO for their presence in drinking water. The high sensitivity of the method allowed its applicability on the identification of complexes geochemical and hydrogeological processes occurring in Guarani aquifer as well on the evaluation of the drinking water quality in terms of dose calculations.

  2. Dissolved 210Po and 210Pb in Guarani aquifer groundwater, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonotto, D.M.; Caprioglio, L.; Bueno, T.O.; Lazarindo, J.R.

    2009-01-01

    The huge Guarani aquifer located in the South American continent is a very important resource for the region, and its drinking water quality has been investigated according to international standards, inclusive radiological parameters. This paper describes 210 Po and 210 Pb activity concentration data in groundwater samples collected at the Brazilian portion of Guarani aquifer, that is characterized by a great variability of temperature (18-70 deg. C), pH (4.0-9.9), sodium content (0.3-322 mg/l), bicarbonate content (0.1-318 mg/l), etc. Non-expensive alpha counting following some radiochemical steps for extracting and depositing dissolved 210 Po was used. The results of the measurements for samples collected in duplicate yielded a maximum 210 Po activity concentration of 3.7 mBq/L and a maximum 210 Pb activity concentration of 6.7 mBq/l, that are values greatly lower than the guidance level of 0.1 Bq/l established by the WHO for their presence in drinking water. The high sensitivity of the method allowed its applicability on the identification of complexes geochemical and hydrogeological processes occurring in Guarani aquifer as well on the evaluation of the drinking water quality in terms of dose calculations.

  3. Legal protection of the Guarani aquifer in Ribeirao Preto (Sao Paulo State, Brasil); Tutela juridica do Aquifero Guarani em Ribeirao Preto (Estado de Sao Paulo, Brasil)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedroso Goulart, M.; Cavalheiro Navajas Sampaio Campos, H.; Nepomuceno, O.

    2012-11-01

    The Guarani aquifer is one of the largest reservoirs of groundwater in the world and represents a strategic reserve for the four countries of South America where it occurs: Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay and Uruguay. The municipality of Ribeirao Preto, located in the north-east region of Sao Paulo, with a population of over 600,000 inhabitants, is supplied entirely by water from this aquifer. Hydrogeological studies reveal the existence of a large cone of drawdown in the centre of the city due to the intensive and indiscriminate use of water pumped out by wells for decades. In rural areas, where many of the rocky outcrops of the aquifer occur and which affords direct recharge by rain water, the risk of contamination by pesticides is of some concern. Over the years the Public Ministry of Sao Paulo in Ribeirao Preto has provided guidelines for actions and initiatives in environmental protection, especially with regard to the Guarani aquifer. These actions and initiatives are based mainly on the principle of the supremacy of public interest over private interest and the principle of caution. On the basis of these premises the prosecutor works with the government and the private sector to monitor and readmitted environmental liabilities that threaten the aquifer (landfills, diffuse contamination etc.) and to maintain due discipline within the activities that take place within the recharge zone (agriculture, industry and urbanization) including those of regulation and territorial planning. (Author)

  4. [Nutritional status of Guarani indigenous children in the States of Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreto, Carla Tatiana Garcia; Cardoso, Andrey Moreira; Coimbra, Carlos E A

    2014-03-01

    This article reports the results of a nutritional survey among Guarani indigenous children < 5 years of age in the States of Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo, Brazil. Prevalence rates for malnutrition according to various anthropometric indices were 50.4% (low stature-for-age), 7.9% (low weight-for-age), and 0.8% (low weight-for-stature). Prevalence of stunting in Guarani children was 96% higher than for indigenous children in Brazil as a whole (25.7%) and 7.2 times that in children from the general population (7%). Prevalence of anemia was 65.2%, 3.1 times higher than in non-indigenous children (20.9%). The study highlights the high prevalence of chronic undernutrition and anemia in Guarani children and calls attention to serious inequalities in health and nutrition that affect indigenous children in Brazil.

  5. Water balance in the Guarani Aquifer outcrop zone based on hydrogeologic monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendland, E.; Barreto, C.; Gomes, L. H.

    2007-09-01

    SummaryMain objective of this work was the study of the infiltration and recharge mechanisms in the Guarani Aquifer System (GAS) outcrop zone. The study was based on hydrogeologic monitoring, evapotranspiration and water balance in a pilot watershed. The pilot watershed (Ribeirão da Onça) is situated in the outcrop zone of the Guarani Aquifer between parallels 22°10' and 22°15' (south latitude) and meridians 47°55' and 48°00' (west longitude). For the execution of the research project, a monitoring network (wells, rain gauge and linigraph) was installed in the watershed. Data have been systematically collected during the period of a hydrological year. Water level fluctuation has been used to estimate deep recharge and subsurface storage variation. The method used to estimate the direct recharge adopted the hypothesis that the recession of the groundwater level obeys a function of power law type. Direct recharge is obtained through the difference between the actual level of an unconfined aquifer and the level indicated by extrapolation of the recession curve, in a given period. Base outflow is estimated through a mixed function (linear and exponential). Outflow in the creek has been measured with current meter and monitored continuously with a linigraph. The annual infiltration in 2005 was estimated to be 350 mm, while the deep recharge, based on water balance, appears to be 3.5% of the precipitation (1410 mm). These results indicate that the estimated long term water availability of the Guarani Aquifer System should be studied more carefully.

  6. Human papillomavirus type 16 molecular variants in Guarani Indian women from Misiones, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonon, Sergio Andrés; Basiletti, Jorge; Badano, Ines; Alonio, Lidia Virginia; Villa, Luisa Lina; Teyssie, Angélica Rita; Picconi, María Alejandra

    2007-01-01

    To identify human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16) E6 and L1 molecular variants infecting Guarani Indian women settled in Misiones, Argentina, a region with a high prevalence of cervical cancer. Some intratypic molecular variants of HPV16 have been associated with greater oncogenic risk, but their implication in the etiology of cervical cancer is still uncertain. Seventy HPV16 positive cervical samples from Guarani Indian women settled in two different areas of Misiones, Argentina, (34 from the northern area and 36 from the central area), were analyzed. Thirty-seven had normal cytology, 18 had a low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LGSIL), and 15 a high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HGSIL). HPV16 E6 and L1 molecular variants were identified by PCR, followed by dot blot hybridization with 23 and 12 biotinylated oligonucleotide probes, respectively. The frequency of HPV16 variants over the Guarani population was 51% EP (European prototype), 32% E-350G, 9% Af1-a (African 1), 4% E-6862C, 3% Af2-a, and 1% AA-a (Asian-American). The distribution of variants was not homogeneous in the two areas under analysis, with the northern area being more diverse showing 74% of European variants, while the central area presented exclusively E variants. No statistically significant association was found between any particular variant and grade of cervical lesion. This study reports for the first time HPV16 E6 and L1 molecular variants infecting women from an aboriginal community inhabiting a rainforest region of South America. The presence of E class variants could be attributed primarily to contacts with the Spanish conquerors, and Af variants from African slaves introduced later in the South American continent.

  7. Perfil de auto-anticorpos em índios das tribos Kaingang e Guarani do Sul do Brasil Autoantibody profile among Kaingang and Guarani Indians in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirley Ramos da Rosa Utiyama

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo teve por objetivo investigar o perfil de auto-anticorpos em 241 amostras de sangue de 176 índios Kaingang e 65 índios Guarani de três populações das reservas indígenas do Rio das Cobras e Ivaí, no Estado do Paraná, região Sul do Brasil. Foram investigados os anticorpos antimúsculo liso, antimitocôndrias, antinucleares, anticélulas gástricas parietais e antimicrossomas de fígado e rim, por método de imunofluorescência indireta. Os resultados foram comparados com os de um grupo de 100 indivíduos sadios, pertencentes à população geral. Obteve-se uma positividade total de 9% para a população indígena investigada e 4% para os controles, com resultado significativo para prevalência dos anticorpos antimúsculo liso nas populações Kaingang e Guarani do Rio das Cobras (P = 0,03. É provável que as práticas culturais envolvendo escarificações, tatuagens e processamento oral de alimentos, aliadas ao processo de aculturação e maior convívio com populações não indígenas, exponham os índios a doenças infecciosas anteriormente inexistentes entre os mesmos. Possíveis mecanismos de mimetismo molecular a antígenos virais ou bacterianos poderiam explicar a presença desses auto-anticorpos nessas populações indígenas.This study investigated the autoantibody profile of 241 blood samples from 176 Kaingang and 65 Guarani Indians from three populations living on the Rio das Cobras and Ivaí reservations, in the state of Paraná, in southern Brazil. The presence of antimitochondrial, antismooth muscle, antinuclear, antiparietal cell, and anti-liver-kidney microsome antibodies was determined by indirect immunofluorescence. These results were compared with samples from 100 healthy Caucasian individuals from the general population of the state. Total positivity was 9% for the indigenous population and 4% for the control population. The prevalence of antismooth muscle antibodies was significantly higher among the

  8. Mortality among Guarani Indians in Southeastern and Southern Brazil Mortalidade indígena Guarani no Sul e Sudeste do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey Moreira Cardoso

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Worldwide, indigenous peoples display a high burden of disease, expressed by profound health inequalities in comparison to non-indigenous populations. This study describes mortality patterns among the Guarani in Southern and Southeastern Brazil, with a focus on health inequalities. The Guarani population structure is indicative of high birth and death rates, low median age and low life expectancy at birth. The crude mortality rate (crude MR = 5.0/1,000 was similar to the Brazilian national rate, but the under-five MR (44.5/1,000 and the infant mortality rate (29.6/1,000 were twice the corresponding MR in the South and Southeast of Brazil. The proportion of post-neonatal infant deaths was 83.3%, 2.4 times higher than general population. The proportions of ill-defined (15.8% and preventable causes (51.6% were high. The principal causes of death were respiratory (40.6% and infectious and parasitic diseases (18.8%, suggesting precarious living conditions and deficient health services. There is a need for greater investment in primary care and interventions in social determinants of health in order to reduce the health inequalities.Mundialmente, povos indígenas apresentam elevada carga de doença, expressa por profundas iniquidades em saúde na comparação com os não-indígenas. Neste estudo, descreve-se a mortalidade Guarani no Sul e Sudeste do Brasil, com foco nas iniquidades em saúde. A estrutura populacional Guarani expressa elevada natalidade, mortalidade precoce e baixa idade mediana e esperança de vida ao nascer. A taxa de mortalidade bruta (TM bruta = 5,0/1.000 se assemelha à nacional, mas a TM < 5 anos (44,5/1.000 e a taxa de mortalidade infantil (29,6/1.000 são duas vezes maiores que as TM correspondentes nas regiões Sul e Sudeste. A proporção de óbitos infantis pós-neonatais foi de 83,3%, 2,4 vezes maior que a população geral. As proporções de causas mal definidas (15,8% e de evitáveis pelos serviços de saúde (51

  9. Neoelmis guarani Shepard & Barr, a sexually dimorphic new species from Paraguay (Insecta: Coleoptera: Elmidae: Elminae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepard, William D; Barr, Cheryl B

    2016-02-22

    Neoelmis guarani new species is described and illustrated from specimens collected in streams of the Cordillera de los Altos, southeast of Asunción and near the towns of Piribebuy and Chololó, Paraguay. Males and females of this species exhibit strong secondary sexual dimorphism not found in other known species of Neoelmis. Males have striking modifications of the pro- and mesothoracic legs and bear a pair of ventrally projecting processes on both the mesoventrite and the second abdominal ventrite. Females have the elytra modified with a pair of dorsal projections.

  10. Radon in groundwaters from Guarany aquifer, South America: environmental and exploration implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonotto, D.M.; Caprioglio, L.

    2002-01-01

    Groundwater and sandstone samples were analyzed for radon in Guarany aquifer, Parana sedimentary basin, South America. The dissolved radon ranged between 3 and 3303 pCi/l, being lognormally distributed, with a modal value of 1315 pCi/l, and a median value of 330 pCi/l. 222 Rn leakage experiments for sandstones yielded a theoretical value of 1390 pCi/l for 222 Rn in water, showing that theoretical modeling can reliably be used to interpret laboratory and field data

  11. [The nutritional status of Kaingang and Guarani indigenous peoples in the State of Paraná, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boaretto, Juliana Dias; Molena-Fernandes, Carlos Alexandre; Pimentel, Giuliano Gomes de Assis

    2015-08-01

    This study arose from the need to comprehend epidemiological aspects to establish a policy for physical activity for indigenous peoples. Although infectious diseases are still the main causes of suffering in these ethnic groups, chronic diseases have emerged due to the process of epidemiological/nutritional change in indigenous peoples subject to the policy of life on reservations. The scope of this study was to evaluate the nutritional status of indigenous peoples belonging to two ethnic groups in the State of Paraná. Anthropometric data were collected on 178 adults belonging to the Kaingang (n = 117) and Guarani (n = 61) indigenous ethnic groups. The prevalence of being overweight in Guarani and Kaingang adults was 32.3% and 41%, respectively, detecting a prevalence of obesity in the order of 3.2% among the Guarani indigenous people and 12.8% among the Kaingang ethnic group. Anthropometric changes observed among the Guarani and Kaingang indigenous peoples of Paraná are of increasing concern according to some studies. Thus, the results of this study reinforce the need for integrated actions such as nutritional guidance and physical activity during leisure time for the promotion of the health of these populations.

  12. A VIVÊNCIA DOS MAIS VELHOS EM UMA COMUNIDADE INDÍGENA GUARANI MBYÁ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipa Daniela Marques

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available É possível entender que o aumento de pessoas idosas no mundo requer uma perspectiva transcultural da adultez e da velhice. Assim, este estudo exploratório procurou compreender a dinâmica cultural de uma comunidade indígena, destacando o papel da pessoa mais velha. Para tal foram realizadas entrevistas abertas com roteiro semi-estrurado com seis interlocutores do Conselho de Anciãos do povo Guarani-Mbyá, de uma tradicional aldeia de São Paulo que se dispuseram a participar; e outras informações e impressões foram registradas ao longo da pesquisa num diário de campo. A análise do conteúdo sugeriu que "ser Guarani-Mbyá" é um modo de viver e estar, orientado para a preservação da tradição através da educação e religião; o papel dos mais velhos como guardiões e transmissores das tradições. Os resultados contribuem para olhar o envelhecimento sob outras perspectivas culturais.

  13. [Autoantibody profile among Kaingang and Guarani tribe Indians in Southern Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utiyama, S R; Guardiano, J; Petzl-Erler, M L; Mocelim, V; de Messias-Reason, I J

    2000-06-01

    This study investigated the autoantibody profile of 241 blood samples from 176 Kaingang and 65 Guarani Indians from three populations living on the Rio das Cobras and Ivaí reservations, in the state of Paraná, in southern Brazil. The presence of antimitochondrial, anti-smooth muscle, antinuclear, anti-parietal cell, and anti-liver-kidney microsome antibodies was determined by indirect immunofluorescence. These results were compared with samples from 100 healthy Caucasian individuals from the general population of the state. Total positivity was 9% for the indigenous population and 4% for the control population. The prevalence of anti-smooth muscle antibodies was significantly higher among the Guarani and Kaingang individuals from the Rio das Cobras reservation (P = 0.03). It is likely that the increased exposure that these indigenous Brazilians have to infectious diseases that were previously unknown to them comes from more contact with non-native populations, growing acculturation, and cultural practices that include scarification and tattooing. The presence of auto-antibodies in these Brazilian Indians may be related to mechanisms of molecular mimicry with viral or bacterial antigens.

  14. New extractive technologies for unconventional hydrocarbon exploitation and potential environmental hazards to the Guarani aquifer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meroni, E.; Pineiro, G.

    2014-01-01

    This investigation presents a scientific approach about the impact of hydraulic fracturing (f racking) in North America. We focus on the impacts to groundwater, to ascertain whether this technology would produce a similar impact if applied to Norte Basin of Uruguay and a possible impact on the Guarani aquifer. The non- conventional methodologies for hydrocarbon exploitation are described and analysed, taking into account in particular, the characteristics and the profitability of the geological formations that might be potential sources in the Norte Basin of Uruguay. By several in-depth interviews to academic, technic and politic personalities we explored the amount and quality of information that Uruguayan people have about the presence of shale oil and gas resources in the country, as well as on the current normative for their eventual exploitation, and on the contracts that the Uruguayan government has already signed with international oil companies pending the studies required by the current pertinent environmental regulation. The risks for the Guarani Aquifer System if applying hydraulic fracture in rocks directly related to those containing the aquifer, is also analysed

  15. Changes in the acquisition and consumption of food plants and their relationship with indigenous perceptions of health in a Guarani village, São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scalco, Nayara; Rodrigues, Eliana

    2013-10-01

    The present study investigated Guarani village interviewees’ diet changes over time, their perceptions about the changes and the effects of these changes on their health. The study employed qualitative methods with a sample of Guarani Indians selected by snowball sampling. Ethnographic methods and techniques included field diaries, informal and unstructured interviews and participant observation. The Tenondé Porã Guarani village is located in the district of Parelheiros, São Paulo, Brazil. Interviews were conducted from July 2008 to December 2009. Fifteen Guarani Indians, males and females in age categories ranging from youths to elders, took part in the study. The interviewees reported changes in how food was obtained, the occurrence of food substitutions and food species abandonment, recipe changes and the introduction of new foods. Some ritual use of plants was maintained. Disease frequency was found to increase because of this change and a lack of obedience to Nhanderu (the Guarani God). A lack of space for daily traditional activities (e.g. farming, hunting) was found to result in sedentary lifestyles. The village location was a key factor in the Guarani diet change, although some rituals related to available plants were preserved.

  16. Demographic Structure and Evolutionary History of Drosophila ornatifrons (Diptera, Drosophilidae) from Atlantic Forest of Southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustani, Emanuele C; Oliveira, Ana Paula F; Santos, Mateus H; Machado, Luciana P B; Mateus, Rogério P

    2015-04-01

    Drosoph1la ornatifrons of the guarani group (Diptera: Drosophilidae) is found mainly in humid areas of the Atlantic Forest biome, especially in the southern region of Brazil. Historical and contemporary fragmentation events influenced species diversity and distribution in this biome, although the role of paleoclimatic and paleogeographic events remain to be verified. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the demographic structure of D. ornatifrons from collection sites that are remnants of Atlantic Forest in southern Brazil, in order to contribute to the understanding of the processes that affected the patterns of genetic variability in this species. To achieve this goal, we sequenced 51 individuals from nine localities and 64 individuals from six localities for the mitochondrial genes Cytochrome Oxidase I and II, respectively. Our results indicate that D. ornatifrons may have experienced a demographic expansion event from the southernmost locations of its distribution, most likely from those located next to the coast and in fragments of Atlantic Forest inserted in the Pampa biome (South 2 group), towards the interior (South 1 group). This expansion probably started after the last glacial maximum, between 20,000 and 18,000 years ago, and was intensified near the Pleistocene-Holocene transition, around 12,000 years ago, when temperature started to rise. In this work we discuss how the haplotypes found barriers to gene flow and dispersal, influenced by the biogeographic pattern of Atlantic Forest.

  17. Estimating groundwater recharge in the outcrop area of the Guarani Aquifer System; Estimativa de recarga subterranea en area de afloramento do Sistema Aquifero Guarani

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucas, M. C.; Guanabara, R. C.; Wendland, E.

    2012-11-01

    The Guarani aquifer system (GAS) is one of the most important groundwater reservoirs in South America. Its main groundwater recharge occurs in the outcrop areas of the Botucatu and Piramboia formations. In these areas groundwater input, such as the infiltration of precipitation, is controlled mainly by climatic characteristics, soil proprieties and land use in the area. We provide here an estimation of the annual recharge into the Ribeirao da Onca basin, located in an outcrop area of the GAS, resulting from data collected during monitoring from September 2004 until August 2011. Fluctuations in the water table were measured at 11 piezometers, sited in different crops areas. Processing techniques for multispectral images were used to map land use. Recharge was estimated by a local-scale method (water-table fluctuation, WTF). Recharge estimates for areas with citrus and eucalyptus proved to be lower than for areas under grassland and sugar cane. Annual recharge rates estimated for the entire watershed ranged from 80 mm to 359 mm for annual precipitations of 1,175.5 mm and 1,807.7 mm. The assessment of recharge in outcrop areas is essential for a suitable future exploitation of the GAS. (Author)

  18. DIMENSIONS OF BEAUTIFUL: DAILY LIFE AND VOCAL ART OF MBYA-GUARANI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Pissolato

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Based on Joanna Overing´s concept of “aesthetics of production” (1991, which is the framework for a set of researches whose central analysis of the social indian Amazon brings to the fore the notions of “conviviality and daily life” (OVERING & PASSES, 2000, this paper intends to discuss the dimensions of “beauty” in the Mbya (Guarani experience. It aims, on one hand, at approaching the multiple aspects of “doing beautifully” vesus “doing well” (-japo porã, which guides human behavior, and, on the other hand, thinking about the making and experience of “good/beautiful” in the context of music and ritual dancing.

  19. Electrophoretic protein polymorphisms in Kaingang and Guarani Indians of Southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salzano, Francisco M; Callegari-Jacques, Sidia M; Weimer, Tania A; Franco, Maria H L P; Hutz, Mara H; Petzl-Erler, Maria L

    1997-01-01

    A total of 337 Kaingang and Guarani Indians from two localities were studied in relation to 18 protein genetic loci. In one of the localities, members of these two groups live side by side but show little genetic similarity, emphasizing the influence of cultural factors in the mating behavior of human groups. Integrating the present results with previous ones, it was verified that the genetic relationships among six Kaingang populations do not follow the pattern expected from their geographical distribution. Comparisons made with three other Ge˜-speaking tribes indicate that the Kaingang did not separate well from them. Most (96%) of the variability in the six polymorphic systems considered occur at the intrapopulational level. Am. J. Hum. Biol. 9:505-512, 1997. © 1997 Wiley-Liss, Inc. Copyright © 1997 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  20. Can Remote Sensing Detect Aquifer Characteristics?: A Case Study in the Guarani Aquifer System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richey, A. S.; Thomas, B.; Famiglietti, J. S.

    2013-12-01

    Global water supply resiliency depends on groundwater, especially regions threatened by population growth and climate change. Aquifer characteristics, even as basic as confined versus unconfined, are necessary to prescribe regulations to sustainably manage groundwater supplies. A significant barrier to sustainable groundwater management exists in the difficulties associated with mapping groundwater resources and characteristics at a large spatial scale. This study addresses this challenge by investigating if remote sensing, including with NASA's Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE), can detect and quantify key aquifer parameters and characteristics. We explore this through a case study in the Guarani Aquifer System (GAS) of South America, validating our remote sensing-based findings against the best available regional estimates. The use of remote sensing to advance the understanding of large aquifers is beneficial to sustainable groundwater management, especially in a trans-boundary system, where consistent information exchange can occur within hydrologic boundaries instead of political boundaries.

  1. REFLEXIONS ON MBYA-GUARANI SCHOOLING: MERE ENVIRONMENTAL BEING AND KNOWLEDGE OF THE TECHNIQUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosemary Modernel Madeira

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This article is about the relationship between the Mbyá Guarani and the School and about how they are getting closer to citizen life, including perspectives of job, monetary gain and consumption of the object. Substantiated on Rodolfo Kusch and Martin Heidegger, the article looks for a vision of the human in his antagonistic facets: the one who believes in destiny and surrenders to the ambiental ¨mere being¨, and the one who pursuits ¨being someone¨ on the effort of the citizen ethics, proclaimed by the School. Through the analysis of the texts and speeches from teachers and leaders, the article develops trying to understand how the Mbyá take the citizen tecnique, represented in the School, to (reinvent their own tecnique and (retake their own culture

  2. Doses from 222Rn, 226Ra, and 228Ra in groundwater from Guarani aquifer, South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonotto, D M

    2004-01-01

    Groundwater samples were analysed for 222Rn, 226Ra, and 228Ra in Guarani aquifer spreading around 1 million km2 within four countries in South America, and it was found that their activity concentrations are lognormally distributed. Population-weighted average activity concentration for these radionuclides allowed to estimate a value either slightly higher (0.13 mSv/year) than 0.1 mSv for the total effective dose or two times higher (0.21 mSv/year) than this limit, depending on the choice of the dose conversion factor. Such calculation adds useful information for the appropriate management of this transboundary aquifer that is socially and economically very important to about 15 million inhabitants living in Brazil, Argentina, Uruguay and Paraguay.

  3. Doses from 222Rn, 226Ra, and 228Ra in groundwater from Guarani aquifer, South America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonotto, D.M.

    2004-01-01

    Groundwater samples were analysed for 222 Rn, 226 Ra, and 228 Ra in Guarani aquifer spreading around 1 million km 2 within four countries in South America, and it was found that their activity concentrations are lognormally distributed. Population-weighted average activity concentration for these radionuclides allowed to estimate a value either slightly higher (0.13 mSv/year) than 0.1 mSv for the total effective dose or two times higher (0.21 mSv/year) than this limit, depending on the choice of the dose conversion factor. Such calculation adds useful information for the appropriate management of this transboundary aquifer that is socially and economically very important to about 15 million inhabitants living in Brazil, Argentina, Uruguay and Paraguay

  4. Hydric results in Guarani Aquifer System formation zone through by hydrogeological monitoring in representative basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wendland, E.; Barreto, C.; Gomes, L.; Dias Paiva, J.

    2007-01-01

    This work describes the direct and deep recharge in the Guarani Aquifer System, based on the evaluation of data acquired at the Ribeirao da Onca watershed, which is located at the outcrop zone of the GAS in Sao Paulo State, Brazil. During one year hydrological data (precipitation, temperature, discharge etc) have been monitored at the watershed. Using water level fluctuation measured in 23 monitoring wells, the direct recharge, the free aquifer storage and the base flow could be evaluated.The direct recharge of the system at the watershed has been estimated to 29% of the total precipitation in the period. Due to the drainage by the Ribeirao da Onca, the deep recharge, which effectively reaches the GAS, is reduced to 3,5% of the annual precipitation

  5. A escrita política e o pensamento dos Guarani em tempos de autogoverno (c.1753

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Santos Neumann

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO Em meados do século XVIII os Guarani das reduções escreveram com frequência, documentos em que expressam um pensamento político próprio. Nesses textos é possível observar sua capacidade de agir, mas também sua percepção dos acontecimentos em curso por meio de um pensamento em guarani. Essa autonomia indígena, em um momento de contestação política, estava embasada nas teorias que pautaram a sua instrução e que paradoxalmente serviram para justificar ações em defesa dos seus interesses, devidamente amparados nos valores da monarquia católica.

  6. Medicinal Plant Diversity and Inter-Cultural Interactions between Indigenous Guarani, Criollos and Polish Migrants in the Subtropics of Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kujawska, Monika; Hilgert, Norma I.; Keller, Héctor A.; Gil, Guillermo

    2017-01-01

    Numerous studies highlight the importance of phytotherapy for indigenous and non-indigenous people in different parts of the world. In this work we analyze the richness (number of species), diversity (plant identity and the number of illnesses for which it is used) and similarity of plant species and illnesses treated with them, in order to contribute new data and insight into the importance of plant medicines to the local medical systems of people living in Misiones province, in the subtropics of Argentina. Three sympatric groups were compared: Guarani Indians, Criollos (mestizos) and Polish migrants. Quantitative scrutiny was focused on both primary and secondary sources. The similarity and diversity of medicinal plants and uses between groups was calculated by applying the Sørensen quantitative coefficient and the Shannon-Wiener index, respectively. In order to identify the characteristic plant species used by each group, the Cultural Importance and Prevalence Value (CIPV) was calculated based on the species Indicator Value (IndVal), which combines a species relative abundance with its relative frequency of occurrence in the various groups, and modified according to the type of the analyzed data. The important finding is a great variation in the number of species used by the study groups. Altogether, 509 botanical species were registered: Guarani (397), Criollos (243) and Polish migrants (137). For all groups, the use of native medicinal plants prevailed. The Guarani appear to be the local experts in use of medicinal plants. There is the significant difference in the number of treated illnesses by each taxon among three groups. Criollos and Polish migrants exhibit the greatest similarity in illnesses treated with medicinal plants. These groups share a corpus of knowledge related to illness nosology, and have a symptomatic approach to illness treatment. The Guarani have an etiological approach to illness diagnosis and healing, which may be viewed as a barrier to

  7. Medicinal Plant Diversity and Inter-Cultural Interactions between Indigenous Guarani, Criollos and Polish Migrants in the Subtropics of Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kujawska, Monika; Hilgert, Norma I; Keller, Héctor A; Gil, Guillermo

    2017-01-01

    Numerous studies highlight the importance of phytotherapy for indigenous and non-indigenous people in different parts of the world. In this work we analyze the richness (number of species), diversity (plant identity and the number of illnesses for which it is used) and similarity of plant species and illnesses treated with them, in order to contribute new data and insight into the importance of plant medicines to the local medical systems of people living in Misiones province, in the subtropics of Argentina. Three sympatric groups were compared: Guarani Indians, Criollos (mestizos) and Polish migrants. Quantitative scrutiny was focused on both primary and secondary sources. The similarity and diversity of medicinal plants and uses between groups was calculated by applying the Sørensen quantitative coefficient and the Shannon-Wiener index, respectively. In order to identify the characteristic plant species used by each group, the Cultural Importance and Prevalence Value (CIPV) was calculated based on the species Indicator Value (IndVal), which combines a species relative abundance with its relative frequency of occurrence in the various groups, and modified according to the type of the analyzed data. The important finding is a great variation in the number of species used by the study groups. Altogether, 509 botanical species were registered: Guarani (397), Criollos (243) and Polish migrants (137). For all groups, the use of native medicinal plants prevailed. The Guarani appear to be the local experts in use of medicinal plants. There is the significant difference in the number of treated illnesses by each taxon among three groups. Criollos and Polish migrants exhibit the greatest similarity in illnesses treated with medicinal plants. These groups share a corpus of knowledge related to illness nosology, and have a symptomatic approach to illness treatment. The Guarani have an etiological approach to illness diagnosis and healing, which may be viewed as a barrier to

  8. Remarkable Anti-Trichomonas vaginalis Activity of Plants Traditionally Used by the Mbyá-Guarani Indigenous Group in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Lia Costa Brandelli

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Trichomonas vaginalis, a flagellate protozoan, is the causative agent of trichomonosis, the most common nonviral sexually transmitted disease worldwide. Taking into account the increased prevalence of metronidazole-resistant isolates, alternative drugs are essential for the successful treatment. Natural products are the source of most new drugs, and popular wisdom about the use of medicinal plants is a powerful tool in this search. In this study, the activity of 10 medicinal plants extensively used in daily life by Mbyá-Guarani indigenous group was evaluated against seven different T. vaginalis isolates. Among the aqueous extracts tested, Verbena sp. (Guachu ka'a in Mbyá-Guarani language and Campomanesia xanthocarpa (Guavira in Mbyá-Guarani language showed the highest activity against T. vaginalis with MIC value of 4.0 mg/mL reaching 100% of efficacy against the parasite. The kinetic growth assays showed that the extracts promoted complete growth abolishment after 4 h of incubation. In addition, the extracts tested did not promote a significant hemolytic activity against human erythrocytes. Our results show for the first time the potential activity of Verbena sp. and C. xanthocarpa against T. vaginalis. In addition, this study demonstrates that indigenous knowledge is an important source of new prototype antiprotozoal agents.

  9. Remarkable anti-trichomonas vaginalis activity of plants traditionally used by the Mbyá-Guarani indigenous group in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandelli, Clara Lia Costa; Vieira, Patrícia de Brum; Macedo, Alexandre José; Tasca, Tiana

    2013-01-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis, a flagellate protozoan, is the causative agent of trichomonosis, the most common nonviral sexually transmitted disease worldwide. Taking into account the increased prevalence of metronidazole-resistant isolates, alternative drugs are essential for the successful treatment. Natural products are the source of most new drugs, and popular wisdom about the use of medicinal plants is a powerful tool in this search. In this study, the activity of 10 medicinal plants extensively used in daily life by Mbyá-Guarani indigenous group was evaluated against seven different T. vaginalis isolates. Among the aqueous extracts tested, Verbena sp. (Guachu ka'a in Mbyá-Guarani language) and Campomanesia xanthocarpa (Guavira in Mbyá-Guarani language) showed the highest activity against T. vaginalis with MIC value of 4.0 mg/mL reaching 100% of efficacy against the parasite. The kinetic growth assays showed that the extracts promoted complete growth abolishment after 4 h of incubation. In addition, the extracts tested did not promote a significant hemolytic activity against human erythrocytes. Our results show for the first time the potential activity of Verbena sp. and C. xanthocarpa against T. vaginalis. In addition, this study demonstrates that indigenous knowledge is an important source of new prototype antiprotozoal agents.

  10. High prevalence of rheumatoid factor associated with clinical manifestations of rheumatic disease in Kaingang and Guarani Indians from Southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribas, João Luiz Coelho; Utiyama, Shirley Ramos da Rosa; Nisihara, Renato Mitsunori; Boeira, Maristela; Reason, Iara Taborda de Messias

    2009-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to perform a screening for rheumatoid factor (RF) and anti-nuclear antibody in Kaingang, Guarani and Mestizos individuals from Mangueirinha Reservation, State of Paraná, Brazil, and associate it with demographic and clinical data. Serum samples from 321 aborigines (125 male and 196 female; 4-86 years old) and 180 non-Indians healthy individuals were analysed (62 male and 118 female; 2-81 years old). Antinuclear antibody (ANA) was tested by indirect immunofluorescence, and RF by agglutination in latex and turbidimetry. RF was higher in Kaingang when compared to Guarani (P = 0.009), Mestizos (P = 0.061) and non-Indians (P = 0.010). A significant increase of RF was observed in Kaingang women versus Kaingang men (P = 0.002) and, among the women, in Kaingang when compared to Mestizos and Guarani (P

  11. Guarani nas "Ruínas Jesuíticas de São Miguel das Missões"

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    Elza Maria Guerreiro Marcon

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The expansion of the touristic activity has given place a new reflection about the process of local and regional development that tourism produces, for it has capacity of increasing profit in the regions where it occurs. Taking into account that the cultural tourism is an agent of development, this article deals with the trajectory of the Guarani Mbya community from 1988 to 2003 in the county of São Miguel das Missões, in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, where the touristic attraction is the “Jesuitic Ruins of Saint Michael of the Missions”. The article tries to identify the benefits wich the community has had, due to the local touristic activity. It was confirmed that the Guarani, as a result of this activity, are now the owners of the land and that their permanence in the Inhacapetum reserve is a way of showing the development factor in this analized period of time and the role that touristic activity has had in their lives. Even though the State of Rio Grande do Sul has claimed it is the responsible for all this accomplishment, this isn’t confirmed. Citizens related to the local government where the indian settlement is located, are main responsibles for the benefits reached by the Guarani community.

  12. Hydrogeological conceptual model for Guarani Aquifer System: A tool for management; Modelo hidrogeologico conceptual del Sistema Acuifero Guarani (SAG): una herramienta para la gestion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gastmans, D.; Veroslavsky, G.; Kiang Cahng, H.; Caetano-Chang, M. R.; Nogueira Pressinotti, M. M.

    2012-11-01

    The Guarani aquifer system (GAS) extends beneath the territories of Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay and Uruguay and thus represents a typical example of a transboundary aquifer. The GAS is an important source of drinking water for the population living within its area. Because of differences in the legal norms concerning water resources in these four countries, an urgently required legal framework for the shared management of the groundwater is currently being drawn up. Within this context, the conceptual regional hydrogeological model should be used as an important tool to delineate shared actions, particularly in regions where the groundwater flow is transboundary. The GAS is considered to be a continuous aquifer made up of Mesozoic continental clastic sedimentary rocks that occur in the Parana and Chacoparanense sedimentary basins, and is bounded at its base by a Permo-Eotriassic regional unconformity and at the top by lower-Cretaceous basaltic lava. The groundwater flow shows a regional trend from N to S along the main axis of these basins. With regard to the major tectonic structures of these sedimentary basins, various main hydrodynamic domains can be distinguished, such as the Ponta Grossa arch and the Asuncion-Rio Grande dorsal. Regional recharge areas are primarily located in the eastern and northern outcrop areas, whilst the western end of the GAS, the Mato Grosso do Sul, contains zones of local recharge and regional discharge. Transboundary flow is observed in areas confined to the national borders of the four countries. Nevertheless, due to the groundwater residence times in the GAS special management actions are called for to prevent over-exploitation, particularly in the confined zones of the aquifer. (Author)

  13. Hydrochemistry of the Guarani Aquifer System and implications for its management; Hidroquimica del Sistema Acuifero Guarani e implicaciones para la gestion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manzano, M.; Guimaraens, M.

    2012-11-01

    Within the framework of the Project for the Sustainable Management of the Guarani aquifer system (GAS) we have studied the chemical baseline of its distribution and origin in order to build up a sound scientific understanding of the aquifer and thus be able to support its correct management. We have used chemical data obtained within this project and also in former studies. The baseline chemical facies, their distribution and the possible hydrogeochemical reactions involved were studied with the support of classical graphic tools. The hydrochemical conceptual model was checked with mass balances and inverse modeling, and the relative contribution to the balances of every thermodynamically feasible reaction was assessed. The GAS chemical baseline is quite homogeneous. Three chemical facies were found throughout the aquifer as a whole, appearing in the same order downstream from the outcropping recharge areas towards the confined sectors in the centre of the basin: facies A (Ca-HCO{sub 3} and Mg-HCO{sub 3} water), produced mainly by rainwater infiltration dissolving CO{sub 2} and carbonate minerals; facies B (Na-HCO{sub 3} water), caused mostly by facies A water undergoing cationic exchange and carbonate dissolution; and facies C (Na-HCO{sub 3}-SO{sub 4}-Cl to Na-Cl or Na-SO{sub 4} water), resulting from the mixing of facies B with a more saline groundwater from geological formations underlying those formally designed as being part of the SAG. Fluorine seems to be associated with this deep, saline groundwater. Under natural conditions the magnitude of the upward flows seems scarcely relevant, but uncontrolled groundwater exploitation may lead to increased flow rates and to the pollution of large aquifer areas that at the moment contain good-quality water. (Author)

  14. FROM TRADITIONAL PRACTICES TO REDUCTION PRACTICES: RITUALS OF HEALING, GRIEF AND BURIAL AT THE JESUIT-GUARANI REDUCTIONS (JESUIT PROVINCE OF PARAGUAY, 17TH CENTURY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Cristina Deckmann Fleck

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This article intends to evince and analyze the impact of the Christian conceptions of sickness and death on the Guarani indian sensibility and its translation in terms of representations and social practices in the Jesuitical reductions. The analysis of the records made by the missionaries, especially the Cartas Ânuas of the Jesuitical Province of Paraguay regarding the period from 1609 to 1675, revealed that, on the one hand, the Guarani kept traditional practices of their religious sensibility – as is evinced in the resignification of the "copious crying" and the funereal laments –, and, on the other hand, that the missionaries, besides incorporating the native pharmacopoeia and many of the indian healing practices, skillfully manipulated the cures and the "bien morir", a strategy that was fundamental to the success of the civilization-conversion project of the Companhia de Jesus alongside the Guarani.

  15. The language policies about the Guarani in Paraguay and the imaginary bilingualism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joyce Palha Colaça

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available O artigo que aqui se apresenta é um recorte de nossa tese de doutorado, em que analisamos discursivamente a construção do lugar que ocupa o guarani no Paraguai, como língua oficial na atualidade. Para tanto, filiamo-nos às pesquisas desenvolvidas no âmbito da História das Ideias Linguísticas (AUROUX, 1998, 2009 [1992], 2010 [1994]; ORLANDI, 1983, 1988, 2008 [1990], em seu entrelaçamento com a Análise do Discurso de linha francesa (PÊCHEUX, 1988 [1975], 1990 [1969]; 2010 [1994], para construir nossa reflexão e avançar nos estudos referentes ao tema. Objetivando compreender os sentidos produzidos acerca do imaginário de bilinguismo, analisamos as ações da Secretaria de Políticas Linguísticas, a partir da descrição de três projetos, dentre os quais selecionamos o intitulado Rohayhu Che Ñe’ẽ: una semana en lengua guaraní. Observamos o funcionamento dos discursos sobre o guarani no espaço de enunciação (GUIMARÃES, 2005 paraguaio e, também, no latino-americano, por sua incorporação como língua oficial de trabalho do Mercosul. Pela análise empreendida, foi possível verificar como a memória (PÊCHEUX, 2007 sobre as línguas se inscreve na produção de políticas de línguas sobre o bilinguismo, pela promoção de um bilinguismo imaginário. No jogo das relações de forças travadas no embate entre as línguas, nas textualidades analisadas, materializam-se os efeitos de sentidos produzidos ideológica e historicamente, em um processo que segue promovendo a língua. --- http://dx.doi.org/10.12957/matraga.2016.21231

  16. A pedagogia da ilustração e os guarani-missioneiros no Rio Grande de São Pedro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Protásio Paulo Langer

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available  O presente trabalho visa abordar o projeto pedagógico do iluminismo português imposto aos guaranis provenientes dos Sete Povos das Missões e estabelecidos na aldeia de Nossa Senhora dos Anjos, entre 1762 e 1801. Consideramos o tema relevante não só por suscitar problemas relativos aos primórdios da implantação da educação oficial no Rio Grande do Sul, mas também pelos resultados obtidos com o programa civilizatório pombalino que objetivava a substituição cultural dos guarani-missioneiros no Rio Grande de São Pedro. Palavras-chave: guarani-missioneiros, iluminismo, Rio Grande de São Pedro. Abstract This paper aims to approach the pedagogical project based on the portuguese iluminism which was imposed upon the Guarani indians of the Sete Povos das Missões (the Seven Peoples of the Missions that lived in the aldeia Nossa Senhora dos Anjos (Our Lady of the Angel's village between 1762 and 1801. This subject is relevant because it raises problems related to the early implementation of the official education in Rio Grande do Sul, as wel as the results obtained through the civilizatory program devised by marquês de Pombal which intended to promote the westernization of the Guarani indians in the Province of the Rio Grande de São Pedro. Keywords:  Guarani indians, iluminism, Rio Grande de São Pedro.

  17. A key, based on wing patterns of biting midges (genus Culicoides Latreille - Diptera: Ceratopogonidae in the Iberian Peninsula, for use in epidemiological studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rawlings, Peter

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available The identity of vectors of disease are often required speedily in epidemiological studies but with a precision which excludes as many other species as possible. Identification keys usually require the examination of many different parts of the suspected vector to pinpoint the species. This consumes considerable time and resources, so epidemiologists tend to ignore them. Asimplified approach to identification is proposed, using the characteristics of a single part of the body (the wings of biting midges of the genus Culicoides. The level of differentiation was epidemiologically valuable. The monoclave could not differentiate all the species from each other but more than one third (20/58 of identifications were for single species, and a further 12/58 identifications gave only two possibilities, making 55.2% of identifications to an accuracy of at most one of two species. The diagnosis of vector species was reached in a maximum of six decision points. The only notable exception to valuable differentiation was the four species in the Culicoides obsoletus group which had almost identical female wing patterns. The ready availability of simple keys, which can be used by anyone without formal training in taxonomy, for all the species of a group in a region should encourage greater standardisation of identifications in all studies, including those not primarily aimed at systematics. These monoclaves can also serve as the primary tools to build computerised image-recognition systems for genera, families and orders of insects.Con frequencia en los estudios epidemiológicos hace falta conocer con rapidez, pero también con precisión, la identidad de los vectores. Por lo general los procedimientos de identificación y las claves exigen el examen de un elevado número de partes diferentes del vector sospechoso. Este enfoque consume mucho tiempo y recursos por lo que tiende a ser evitado por los epidemiólogos. Se propone un sistema simplificado para la identificación, el cual utiliza las caracteristicas de sólo una parte del cuerpo (las alas de los ceratopogónidos del género Culicoides. El nivel de diferenciación es bueno (55.2% de las 58 especies presentes y abarca casi todas las especies implicadas en la transmisión de virus y otros agentes patógenos de animales en la Península Ibérica. El diagnóstico de una especie precisa un máximo de seis criterios. La única excepción importante la constituyen las cuatro especies del grupo Culicoides obsoletus, las hembras de las cuales muestran un diseño alar casi idéntico. La utilización de claves sencillas debería proporcionar una mejor estandarización de la identificación en todos los estudios, incluso los realizados por no sistemáticos. Estas claves pueden servir como el instrumento más importante para desarrollar sistemas informáticos de reconocimiento de géneros, familias y especies de insectos por medio de imágenes.

  18. A comparison of a new centrifuge sugar flotation technique with the agar method for the extraction of immature Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) life stages from salt marsh soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two sampling techniques, agar extraction (AE) and centrifuge sugar flotation extraction (CSFE) were compared to determine their relative efficacy to recover immature stages of Culicoides spp from salt marsh substrates. Three types of samples (seeded with known numbers of larvae, homogenized field s...

  19. Delineation of Culicoides species by morphology and barcode exemplified by three new species of the subgenus Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) from Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren Achim; Kristensen, Michael

    2015-01-01

    new species initially separated by DNA barcoding with mitochondrial COI can be distinguished by morphological characters. In this context a key to Scandinavian subgenus Culicoides using wing and maxillary palp characters is presented. The key is including the three new species Culicoides boyi...... is considered, as well as the evolutionary relationships between species within this genus remains problematic. In recent years molecular barcoding has assisted substantially in the identification of biting midges in the multiple entomological survey projects which were initiated in many European countries...... following the bluetongue outbreak in 2006–2009. These studies revealed potentially new species and “species-complexes” with large genetic and morphological variability. Here we use molecular barcoding, together with morphological analysis, to study subgenus Culicoides Latreille from Scandinavia with focus...

  20. Molecular differentiation of Culicoides biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) from the subgenus Culicoides Latreille in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, S. B.; Nielsen, S. Achim; Skovgård, H.

    2012-01-01

    complexes are hard to distinguish. We evaluated the use of the mitochondrial DNA cytochrome oxidase I gene (COI) barcode region in the identification of species within the subgenus Culicoides. COI barcode sequence divergence within species was ... impunctatus, and Culicoides grisescens. Additionally, this study confirms the existence of Culicoides halophilus as a valid taxon and presents the first Culicoides deltus barcode sequences. Three additional groups of specimens were identified: Culicoides dk1 with a COI barcode diverging by 14.3% to 17.2% from...... other subgenus Culicoides species and Culicoides Kalix and Culicoides dk3, which diverged by 5.9% from each other and showed 12.5% to 17.6% divergence in COI barcode to subgenus Culicoides specimens....

  1. Functional validation of Apoptosis Genes IAP1 and DRONC in midgut tissue of the biting midge Culicoides sonorensis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) by RNAi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Culicoides biting midges transmit multiple ruminant viruses, including bluetongue virus and epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus, causing significant economic burden worldwide due to trade restrictions and production loss. To limit the spread of these viruses, control strategies focus on ...

  2. Monitoring of biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae: Culicoides Latreille) on farms in Sweden during the emergence of the 2008 epidemic of bluetongue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren Achim; Nielsen, Boy Overgaard; Chirico, Jan

    2010-01-01

    In light of the emergence of bluetongue in northern Europe, populations of Culicoides species were monitored in 2007-2008 by means of Onderstepoort blacklight suction traps operating at livestock farms in Sweden. The location of the 22 sampling sites ranged from about latitude 55°N to about 68°N....... A total of 61,669 male and female Culicoides were captured, of which, 52,319 were trapped outside the farms and 9,350 in byres or livestock sheds. Thirty-three Culicoides species were recorded, of which, 30 were new to Sweden. The species and their relative abundance and spatial distribution on sites...... are presented. Two species incriminated as vectors of bluetongue virus, viz. Culicoides obsoletus (about 38%) and Culicoides scoticus (about 36%), were predominant and common in the environment of livestock farms practically all over the Swedish mainland, penetrating far north to at least 65°N. The two species...

  3. Detection of Leishmania amazonensis and Leishmania braziliensis in Culicoides (Diptera, Ceratopogonidae) in an endemic area of cutaneous leishmaniasis in the Brazilian Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebêlo, José Manuel Macário; Rodrigues, Bruno Leite; Bandeira, Maria da Conceição Abreu; Moraes, Jorge Luiz Pinto; Fonteles, Raquel Silva; Pereira, Silma Regina Ferreira

    2016-12-01

    Biting midges in the genus Culicoides act as vectors of arboviruses throughout the world and as vectors of filariasis in Latin America, the Caribbean, and parts of Africa. Although Culicoides spp. are currently not considered to be vectors of Leishmania protozoa, the high abundance of biting midges in areas with active cutaneous leishmaniasis transmission points to the possibility of Culicoides infection by these pathogens. We used PCR to test captured Culicoides species for natural infection with Leishmania spp. We tested 450 Culicoides females, divided into 30 pools of 15 individuals each, as follows: nine pools of C. foxi (135 specimens), seven pools of C. filariferus (105), seven pools of C. insignis (105), five pools of C. ignacioi (75), and two pools of C. flavivenula (30). PCR confirmed the presence of Leishmania braziliensis DNA in C. ignacioi (0.14%), C. insignis (0.14%), and C. foxi (0.11); and Le. amazonensis DNA in C. filariferus (0.14%) and C. flavivenula (0.50%). We conclude that these Culicoides species can be naturally infected, but vector competence and transmission capability must be confirmed in future studies. Our results warrant further investigation into the role of these biting midge species in the leishmaniasis epidemiological cycle. © 2016 The Society for Vector Ecology.

  4. Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) midges, the vectors of African horse sickness virus--a host/vector contact study in the Niayes area of Senegal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fall, Moussa; Diarra, Maryam; Fall, Assane G; Balenghien, Thomas; Seck, Momar T; Bouyer, Jérémy; Garros, Claire; Gimonneau, Geoffrey; Allène, Xavier; Mall, Iba; Delécolle, Jean-Claude; Rakotoarivony, Ignace; Bakhoum, Mame T; Dusom, Ange M; Ndao, Massouka; Konaté, Lassana; Faye, Ousmane; Baldet, Thierry

    2015-01-21

    African horse sickness (AHS) is an equine disease endemic to Senegal. The African horse sickness virus (AHSV) is transmitted to the mammalian hosts by midges of the Culicoides Latreille genus. During the last epizootic outbreak of AHS in Senegal in 2007, 1,169 horses died from this disease entailing an estimated cost of 1.4 million euros. In spite of the serious animal health and economic implications of AHS, very little is known about determinants involved in transmission such as contact between horses and the Culicoides species suspected of being its vectors. The monthly variation in host/vector contact was determined in the Niayes area, Senegal, an area which was severely affected by the 2007 outbreak of AHS. A horse-baited trap and two suction light traps (OVI type) were set up at each of five sites for three consecutive nights every month for one year. Of 254,338 Culicoides midges collected 209,543 (82.4%) were female and 44,795 (17.6%) male. Nineteen of the 41 species collected were new distribution records for Senegal. This increased the number of described Culicoides species found in Senegal to 53. Only 19 species, of the 41 species found in light trap, were collected in the horse-baited trap (23,669 specimens) largely dominated by Culicoides oxystoma (22,300 specimens, i.e. 94.2%) followed by Culicoides imicola (482 specimens, i.e. 2.0%) and Culicoides kingi (446 specimens, i.e. 1.9%). Culicoides oxystoma should be considered as a potential vector of AHSV in the Niayes area of Senegal due to its abundance on horses and its role in the transmission of other Culicoides-borne viruses.

  5. [Field efficacy of repellent formulation containing para-menthane-3,8-diol and lemongrass against Culicoides pachymerus (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) in Colombia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santamaría, Erika; Cabrera, Olga Lucía; Zipa, Yaneth; Pardo, Raúl Hernando

    2012-09-01

    Culicoides pachymerus is a major pest species for the inhabitants of the western Boyacá province of Colombia. The effect of a repellent lotion based on p-menthane-3,8-diol (16%) and lemongrass oil (2%) was evaluated against the bites of C. pachymerus. The repellent lotion was compared simultaneously with a control (no treatment) by human landing catches of C. pachymerus on the forearms of paired volunteers situated near human dwellings. Protection percentage and protection time for 3 to 6 h after repellent application was calculated. The test was repeated ten times. Only two females of C. pachymerus were collected on arms with the repellent treatment. In contrast, the mean biting rate in the untreated control was 47.7 midges/person/10 min. Mean protection percentage of the repellent was 100% up to 4 h and 99.5% up to 5 h. Protection time was 332.2 and 338.2 min in the two replicates where bites of C. pachymerus were confirmed. In the remaining eight replicates protection time exceeded the test duration. The repellent showed high efficacy against C. pachymerus, up to 5 h post-application.

  6. Taxonomic problems in the subgenus Meloehelea Wirth of the genus Atrichopogon Kieffer (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) inferred from both morphological and molecular characters

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tóthová, A.; Knoz, J.; Sonnek, R.; Bryja, Josef; Vaňhara, J.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 19, č. 1 (2008), s. 1-12 ISSN 0785-8760 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GD524/05/H536 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : taxonomy * biting midges * 16S rDNA Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 0.410, year: 2008 http://www.entomologicafennica.org/Volume19/abstracts19_1.htm

  7. Avañe’e, ñe’e tavy, karai ñe’e: escolarização do guarani e diglossia no Paraguai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastião Peres

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available  O Paraguai apresenta uma situação de profunda desigualdade social: 10% da população detém 42% da riqueza; 40% da população detém 10% da riqueza. Vinculada a isto, apresenta uma situação de diglossia: 39,2% dos paraguaios são monolingües em guarani e 6,4% monolingües em castelhano. Porém, a escola sempre utilizou como língua de ensino o castelhano, gerando elevados índices de insucesso escolar. Com a oficialização do guarani em 1992, intensificou­-se a discussão sobre qual modalidade utilizar na escola: o jopara, guarani interferido pelo castelhano, utilizado cotidianamente, ou o guaraniete, guarani puro, acadêmico. A identificação do guarani como língua da pobreza provoca rejeições quanto à sua escolarização. No passado, o castelhano era considerado a língua dos senhores, e o guarani a língua do povo. A escolarização do guarani pode resultar na sua senhorização.Palavras-chave: língua guarani, Paraguai.   Abstract Paraguay presents a situation of deep social inequality: 10% of its population owns 42% of the country richness, while 40% of its population owns no more than 10% of the country richness. Linked to this, it presents a situation of diglossia: 39,2% of Paraguayans speak only guaranian and 6,4% speak only Castilian. In spite of this situation, the school system has always used Castilian as the teaching language, which caused high rates of school failure. After the officialization of the guaranian language in 1992, the discussion on which modality should be used in the school increased: the jopara, a guaranian intervened by Castilian, which is used daily, or guaraniete, a pure academic guaranian. Guaranian identification as poor people language gives rise to rejections as to its use in school. In the past, Castilian was considered the masters' language, while guaranian was seen as the language of underlings. The schooling of guaranian, that is, its introduction into school, may mean its masterization

  8. Energetic characterization of the husk of the castor bean fruits of the variety Guarani

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teramoto, Erico Tadao; Sousa, Frederico Faula; Castro Neto, Pedro [Universidade Federal de Lavras (DEG/UFLA), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia; Trugilho, Paulo Fernando [Universidade Federal de Lavras (DCF/UFLA), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencias Florestais; Fraga, Antonio Carlos [Universidade Federal de Lavras (DAG/UFLA), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Agricultura; Nunes, Ramon Rachide [Universidade Federal de Lavras (DAG/UFLA), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica

    2008-07-01

    The knowledge of the physical properties and of the calorific power and of the immediate chemical analysis certain products are interesting for the development of new technologies and equipment for your processing or use as fuel. This way, due to the scarce readiness of referring works for the husk of the castor bean fruits, the present study seeks complemental the available data in the literature. For such were certain the following properties of the husk of the castor bean fruits of variety Guarani: angle of repose, hectolitre weigh, moisture, ash content, volatile material content, fixed carbon content and superior calorific power and inferior calorific power. The following values were found: 42 deg for the angle of repose, 13.92 kg for the hectolitre weight, 4223.19 kcal/kg for the superior calorific power, 3829.92 kcal/kg for the inferior calorific power, 8.21% for the moisture, 9.86% for the ash content, 73.67% for the volatile material content and 8.26% for the fixed carbon content. (author)

  9. Assessment of groundwater recharge and water fluxes of the Guarani Aquifer System, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabelo, Jorge Luiz; Wendland, Edson

    2009-11-01

    The groundwater recharge and water fluxes of the Guarani Aquifer System in the state of Sao Paulo in Brazil were assessed through a numeric model. The study area (6,748 km2) comprises Jacaré-Guaçú and Jacaré-Pepira River watersheds, tributaries of the Tietê River in the central region of the state. GIS based tools were used in the storage, processing and analysis of data. Main hydrologic phenomena were selected, leading to a groundwater conceptual model, taking into account the significant outcrops occurring in the study area. Six recharge zones were related to the geologic formation and structures of the semi-confined and phreatic aquifer. The model was calibrated against the baseflows and static water levels of the wells. The results emphasize the strong interaction of groundwater flows between watersheds and the groundwater inflow into the rivers. It has been concluded that lateral groundwater exchanges between basins, the deep discharges to the regional system, and well exploitation were not significant aquifer outflows when compared to the aquifer recharge. The results have shown that the inflows from the river into the aquifer are significant and have the utmost importance since the aquifer is potentially more vulnerable in these places.

  10. The Guarani Aquifer System: estimation of recharge along the Uruguay-Brazil border

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Andrea A.; Rodríguez, Leticia B.; Vives, Luis S.

    2010-11-01

    The cities of Rivera and Santana do Livramento are located on the outcropping area of the sandstone Guarani Aquifer on the Brazil-Uruguay border, where the aquifer is being increasingly exploited. Therefore, recharge estimates are needed to address sustainability. First, a conceptual model of the area was developed. A multilayer, heterogeneous and anisotropic groundwater-flow model was built to validate the conceptual model and to estimate recharge. A field campaign was conducted to collect water samples and monitor water levels used for model calibration. Field data revealed that there exists vertical gradients between confining basalts and underlying sandstones, suggesting basalts could indirectly recharge sandstone in fractured areas. Simulated downward flow between them was a small amount within the global water budget. Calibrated recharge rates over basalts and over outcropping sandstones were 1.3 and 8.1% of mean annual precipitation, respectively. A big portion of sandstone recharge would be drained by streams. The application of a water balance yielded a recharge of 8.5% of average annual precipitation. The numerical model and the water balance yielded similar recharge values consistent with determinations from previous authors in the area and other regions of the aquifer, providing an upper bound for recharge in this transboundary aquifer.

  11. Characteristics and conditions of the recharging water in the Guarani Aquifer System in Paraguay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Risiga, A.; Venecio, M.; Sosa, D.; Lenzi, L.

    2007-01-01

    In order to evaluate the characteristics and conditions of the water recharging The Sistema Acuifero Guarani (SAG) in Eastern Paraguay, and their relation to hydrological and environmental issues, this work focussed on the aquifers integrating that System, Independence Group, Misiones Formation and the Basalts of Alto Parana Formation.The regional climatic characterization for the period 1901/2000 was elaborated with monthly precipitation information from a grid of spatially distributed data, and a series Hydric balance on a monthly basis was made with available information from the whole record length at each station in the studied area, which shows the predominance of annual excesses s in all the gauging stations.The infiltration and hydraulic conductivity tests performed in different soils evidence values of basic infiltration and hydraulic conductivity oscillating between 3 and 9 mm/h.The previously compiled information and the one elaborated for the project were integrated into a geographic information system.Besides, three causes originating potential risk of soil, surface water and groundwater contamination were identified: the increasing use of agr i-chemicals, the deficit in basic sanitary infrastructure and the absence of monitoring and adequate environmental conditions in the industrial activities and effluent removal.Therefore, there is the need to work with a monitoring network, to implement actions of environmental control and to encourage more detailed studies to enable the follow up and control of recharge water

  12. Some possible evolutionary scenarios suggested by {sup 36}Cl measurements in Guarani aquifer groundwaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cresswell, R.G. [CSIRO Land and Water, 120 Meiers Road, Indooroopilly, Queensland 4068 (Australia)], E-mail: richard.cresswell@csiro.au; Bonotto, D.M. [Departamento de Petrologia e Metalogenia, Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Av. 24-A No. 1515, C.P. 178, CEP 13506-900 Rio Claro, Sao Paulo (Brazil)], E-mail: danielbonotto@yahoo.com.br

    2008-08-15

    The Guarani aquifer underlies 1.2 M km{sup 2} in the Parana sedimentary basin of South America and is an important source of water for industry, agriculture, and domestic supplies. To determine the sustainability of this aquifer we need to understand the dynamics of the groundwater system. This paper describes the first {sup 36}Cl measurements on aquifer groundwaters and some measurements on South American rainwaters, thought to be indicative of the recharge water. The results are compared to previous work in the region, including other radioisotope analyses. A simple model is developed, incorporating radioactive decay, allowing scenarios to be developed for mixing different waters at different mixing rates. Thus, mixing scenarios consistent with other hydrogeological and hydrogeochemical data could be assessed. A model that mixes fresh recharging waters with formational waters, that contain elevated chloride levels, but low (in situ) {sup 36}Cl levels, can explain most of the results presented here. The expectation that rainwater samples would provide a good end-member for modelling recharge proved problematic, however. As a consequence, it is suggested that either: the recharge waters are not sourced from the same locations as the rains; that the current rainfall and fallout conditions were significantly different in the past; or that the low levels of chloride in rainfall may have allowed some contamination of the samples by old ({sup 36}Cl-free) chloride during the recharge process.

  13. Some possible evolutionary scenarios suggested by 36Cl measurements in Guarani aquifer groundwaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cresswell, R G; Bonotto, D M

    2008-08-01

    The Guarani aquifer underlies 1.2 M km2 in the Paraná sedimentary basin of South America and is an important source of water for industry, agriculture, and domestic supplies. To determine the sustainability of this aquifer we need to understand the dynamics of the groundwater system. This paper describes the first 36Cl measurements on aquifer groundwaters and some measurements on South American rainwaters, thought to be indicative of the recharge water. The results are compared to previous work in the region, including other radioisotope analyses. A simple model is developed, incorporating radioactive decay, allowing scenarios to be developed for mixing different waters at different mixing rates. Thus, mixing scenarios consistent with other hydrogeological and hydrogeochemical data could be assessed. A model that mixes fresh recharging waters with formational waters, that contain elevated chloride levels, but low (in situ) 36Cl levels, can explain most of the results presented here. The expectation that rainwater samples would provide a good end-member for modelling recharge proved problematic, however. As a consequence, it is suggested that either: the recharge waters are not sourced from the same locations as the rains; that the current rainfall and fallout conditions were significantly different in the past; or that the low levels of chloride in rainfall may have allowed some contamination of the samples by old (36Cl-free) chloride during the recharge process.

  14. Some possible evolutionary scenarios suggested by 36Cl measurements in Guarani aquifer groundwaters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cresswell, R.G.; Bonotto, D.M.

    2008-01-01

    The Guarani aquifer underlies 1.2 M km 2 in the Parana sedimentary basin of South America and is an important source of water for industry, agriculture, and domestic supplies. To determine the sustainability of this aquifer we need to understand the dynamics of the groundwater system. This paper describes the first 36 Cl measurements on aquifer groundwaters and some measurements on South American rainwaters, thought to be indicative of the recharge water. The results are compared to previous work in the region, including other radioisotope analyses. A simple model is developed, incorporating radioactive decay, allowing scenarios to be developed for mixing different waters at different mixing rates. Thus, mixing scenarios consistent with other hydrogeological and hydrogeochemical data could be assessed. A model that mixes fresh recharging waters with formational waters, that contain elevated chloride levels, but low (in situ) 36 Cl levels, can explain most of the results presented here. The expectation that rainwater samples would provide a good end-member for modelling recharge proved problematic, however. As a consequence, it is suggested that either: the recharge waters are not sourced from the same locations as the rains; that the current rainfall and fallout conditions were significantly different in the past; or that the low levels of chloride in rainfall may have allowed some contamination of the samples by old ( 36 Cl-free) chloride during the recharge process

  15. Hydrogeochemistry and statistical analysis applied to understand fluoride provenance in the Guarani Aquifer System, Southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marimon, Maria Paula C; Roisenberg, Ari; Suhogusoff, Alexandra V; Viero, Antonio Pedro

    2013-06-01

    High fluoride concentrations (up to 11 mg/L) have been reported in the groundwater of the Guarani Aquifer System (Santa Maria Formation) in the central region of the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Southern Brazil. In this area, dental fluorosis is an endemic disease. This paper presents the geochemical data and the combination of statistical analysis (Principal components and cluster analyses) and geochemical modeling to achieve the hydrogeochemistry of the groundwater and discusses the possible fluoride origin. The groundwater from the Santa Maria Formation is comprised of four different geochemical groups. The first group corresponds to a sodium chloride groundwater which evolves to sodium bicarbonate, the second one, both containing fluoride anomalies. The third group is represented by calcium bicarbonate groundwater, and in the fourth, magnesium is the distinctive parameter. The statistical and geochemical analyses supported by isotopic measurements indicated that groundwater may have originated from mixtures of deeper aquifers and the fluoride concentrations could be derived from rock/water interactions (e.g., desorption from clay minerals).

  16. Learning to Inhabit the Forest: Autonomy and Interdependence of Lives from a Mbya-Guarani Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remorini, Carolina

    2015-01-01

    This chapter examines the ideas of reciprocity, respect, autonomy, and interdependence of lives and the impact of these on children's learning. Using an ecological perspective that recognizes humans' relationship with other living beings that inhabit the forest, this chapter is based on ethnographic research conducted in two Mbya-Guarani communities (Argentina). Respect and reciprocity are key for children to develop as part of the community and the forest and they are related to children's well-being and health. I describe Mbya perspectives on children's growth and development, emphasizing the balance between interdependence and autonomy as complementary goals and values, providing examples of environmentally relevant skills to grow up in the forest. These skills are associated with particular ways of inhabiting the forest, including learning how to walk in it and developing entendimiento (understanding). These make possible children's integration in community life through their participation and collaboration in daily activities. I attempt to articulate these ideas with the theoretical framework of Learning by Observing and Pitching In, especially concerning ways of organizing and supporting children's learning processes in the context of their engagement with multiaged and more experienced group of people. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Investigation on traditional medicines of Guarany Indio and studies on diterpenes from Scoparia dulcis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Toshimitsu

    2011-01-01

    In interviews on the traditional herbal medicines of Tupi-Guarany Indians at the herbal market of Asuncion and questionnaire from their users, it was clarified that various useful medicinal plants are available in Paraguay and most of them are generally used without drying. In the search for bioactive substances from those plants, a β-glucuronidase-inhibitory diterpene called scoparic acid A (SA) was isolated from Scoparia dulcis L. together with scoparic acid B, scoparic acid C, and the aphidicolin-like tetracyclic diterpenes scopadulcic acid A (SDA) and scopadulcic acid B (SDB). HPLC analysis of diterpenes in the individual plants of Paraguayan and Asian S. dulcis revealed the presence of three chemotypes based on major component, i.e., SA type, SDB type, and SDX type containing mainly scopadiol and scopadulciol (SDC). SA and SDB were elucidated to be mainly biosynthesized in the leaves via 2-C-methyl-D-erythritol- 4-phosphate pathway, and a leaf organ culture system containing methyl jasmonate 10 µM was found to enhance the production of diterpenes by activation of Ca-signal transduction systems such as calmodulin and protein kinase C. On the other hand, SDB and SDC were found to show multifaceted pharmacological effects such as inhibitory effects on gastric acid excretion, bone resorption, replication of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), etc. In addition, SDC was suggested to be applicable to cancer gene therapy using ganciclovir or acyclovir and the HSV-1 thymidine kinase gene called the suicide gene.

  18. Movimento do herbicida tebutiuron em dois solos representativos das áreas de recarga do aqüífero Guarani Movement of the tebuthiuron herbicide in two representative soils of recharge areas of the Guarani aquifer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco A. F. Gomes

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available O movimento do herbicida tebutiuron foi analisado em um Latossolo Vermelho Distrófico psamítico (LVdq e um Neossolo Quartzarênico Órtico típico (RQo, representativos das áreas de recarga do aqüífero Guarani no Brasil, tendo como fatores influenciadores, a condutividade hidráulica (K, o teor de carbono orgânico (CO e o teor de argila (TAr. O presente estudo foi realizado em colunas de solos indeformados, com aplicação do produto comercial contendo o herbicida em discussão. Esses parâmetros evidenciam certa influência na movimentação vertical do herbicida tebutiuron, particularmente no RQo, uma vez que esse herbicida é quimicamente neutro. Observou-se, por exemplo, uma diferença significativa entre os valores K dos dois solos, sendo superior no RQo. Além de uma relação inversa entre teores de CO e de TAr e os valores de K dos dois solos, indicando serem aqueles parâmetros inibidores do deslocamento do tebutiuron no perfil do solo. Os resultados aqui obtidos neste trabalho visam subsidiar estudos de avaliação de risco ambiental, sobretudo água subterrânea, a partir de áreas de recarga de aqüíferos naturalmente frágeis, com ênfase para o aqüífero Guarani.The movement of the tebuthiuron herbicide was analyzed in two representative soils - Quatzipsammentic Haplorthox, Typic Quartzipsamment, of the recharge areas of the Guarani aquifer in Brazil. The main factors in this movement are hydraulic conductivity (K, organic carbon content (OC and clay content (CT. The experiment was carriel out in columns (type lisimeters with application of the commercial product. These parameters showed great influence on the vertical movement of the tebuthiuron herbicide, specially in the Typic Quartzipsamment soil. The high (K values in this soil have a direct relationship with tebuthiuron collected in water percolated by columns. Inverse relationship between carbon content (OC and clay content (CT with hydraulic conductivity (K was

  19. A OBRA ALÉM DA OBRA: IMAGENS E REPRESENTAÇÕES MÍTICAS GUARANI MBYA

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    Cássia A. Guimarães

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available As narrativas e imagens retratadas no livro didático criado pelo CECI (Centro de Educação e Cultura Indígena Guarani Mbya - PMSP Nhandereko Nhemombe’u Tenonderã (Histórias para Contar e Sonhar (2007, expressam um corpus documental sobre a cultura desse grupo étnico. Através deste, compreende-se o mito como uma linguagem fundacional e de recriação de saberes imemoriais. Ordena-se um imaginário social que progride historicamente por uma linguagem que recria e fortalece a identidade e história desse povo.

  20. A Carta Guarani Kaiowá e o direito a uma literatura com terra e das gentes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marília Librandi-Rocha

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article proposes to consider the Guarani Kaiowa ’ s Letter as part of contemporary Literature produced in Brazil. This inclusion presents itself as a theoretical challenge because it obligates us to explicit what we understand by “literature”, its connections to Human Rights, and which place this letter occupies within the history of Brazilian literature. The final aim is to think not only about “o ur” literature, historically linked to the colonial and then to the national system, but about a post - colonial literature produced and signed by the pluralities of people living in Brazil.

  1. OS TUPI GUARANI DA ALDEIA RENASCER (SP: UMA REFLEXÃO SOBRE OS ENUNCIADOS DA MISTURA E OS AGENCIAMENTOS DA "CULTURA"

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    Amanda Cristina Danaga

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Esse artigo visa discutir a interlocução da aldeia Renascer com os outros (índios e não índios dentro do contexto de produção da “cultura”. A aldeia em questão fica no município de Ubatuba e formou-se a partir da ocupação de uma aldeia cenográfica, utilizada nas filmagens do longa-metragem “Hans Staden”. Na aldeia residem índios Tupi Guarani e Guarani Mbya, e, assim como as demais aldeias da região, Renascer está inserida no “universo dos projetos” na busca por maior visibilidade no cenário político nacional e nos investimentos, para tornar aparentes as singularidades de sua “cultura”. Na Aldeia Renascer os Tupi Guarani e Guarani Mbya (apesar das diferenças que destacam entre si se organizam e se complementam em torno dos aspectos políticos e religiosos de suas comunidades, agenciando o discurso da “cultura”, principalmente, na interação com o mundo dos não índios, ao requererem seus direitos territoriais e reconhecimento em vários aspectos.

  2. Sobre feitiços e ritos: enfermidade e cura nas reduções jesuítico-guaranis (século 17 On spells and rites: illness and cures in the Jesuitic-Guarani mission settlements (17th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Cristina Deckmann Fleck

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo tem como objetivo principal apresentar as altera- ções nas práticas mágico-terapêuticas empregadas pelos Guarani, em decorrência do projeto jesuítico de civilização e de conversão que previa a concentração dos indígenas em reduções e a normatização de suas manifestações rituais e religiosas.This article has the main objective to introduce the alterations in the Guarani.s magic- therapeutic practices, resulting of Jesuit.s converting and civilization project, which demanded the concentration of the Indians in mission settlements and the regulation of ritual and devotional expressions.

  3. Estimation of the regional evapotranspiration through remote sensing in the Guarani Aquifer System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivas, R.; Vives, L.; Schirmbeck, J.; Wohl Coelho, O.

    2007-01-01

    The present study shows the way of incorporating remote sensors (RS) as a tool in the study of the Guarani Aquifer System (GAS).The integration of the RS has been achieved from images captured by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) through the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) Sensor. An approximate estimate of the evapotranspiration (ET) at the basin scale has been carried out using the land surface temperature (LST) obtained from these images. The areas in which the ET model has been used corresponds to the basin of the Dos Sinos River (DSR) located at the Northwest of the Rio Grande Do Sul State (RGS).The ET values obtained combining images with meteorological data were compared with the measures obtained in target.Data of ET estimated from satellite have been verified with measurements carried out with thermal infrared hand sensor for surface.The ET estimates have been carried out in situ with classical method (Penman Monteith equation) and with energy balance (EB).To estimate BE four radiation sensors (of long and short wave, in both cases incoming and outgoing) have been installed. In order to carry out the EB, the equation of conservation of energy was used. The results from comparing local and spatial ET show that the model is adequate to the regional scale and that its error is plus less 0.6 mm d-1. The maps produced allow to know rhe spatial behaviour of the ET in the RDS basin.Finally, it is important to underline that the methodology used to estimate ET is adequate to be extended to the rest of the GAS or any other regional basins

  4. Intestinal parasitism and socio-environmental factors among Mbyá-Guarani Indians, Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandelli, Clara Lia Costa; de Carli, Geraldo Attilio; Macedo, Alexandre José; Tasca, Tiana

    2012-01-01

    Disturbing data reveal the prevalence of intestinal parasites and their relationship with socio-environmental factors among Mbyá-Guarani Indians. The prevalence was determined by spontaneous sedimentation in water, centrifugation-floatation, and Kato-Katz. A socioeconomic questionnaire was submitted to each family. The overall prevalence of intestinal parasites was 88.7%, and 45.5% were polyparasitized. There was 90.5% prevalence of enteric parasites in children (1-12- year-old), and 85% among 13-65-year-old individuals, indicating that both age groups are extensively parasitized. The parasite load was low to moderate for geohelminths and 75% of the families did not have latrine, thus the practice of defecation occurred outdoors. These findings suggest that the multiple intestinal parasitism in the Mbyá-Guarani community is high to the point of being the rule, and that it relates essentially to the traditional lifestyle and health habits. It is urgently necessary to implement the association of anti-parasitic treatment with sanitation improvement. This should be done simultaneously with health education activities for this population.

  5. Intestinal parasitism and socio-environmental factors among Mbyá-Guarani indians, Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Lia Costa Brandelli

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Disturbing data reveal the prevalence of intestinal parasites and their relationship with socio-environmental factors among Mbyá-Guarani Indians. The prevalence was determined by spontaneous sedimentation in water, centrifugation-floatation, and Kato-Katz. A socioeconomic questionnaire was submitted to each family. The overall prevalence of intestinal parasites was 88.7%, and 45.5% were polyparasitized. There was 90.5% prevalence of enteric parasites in children (1-12- year-old, and 85% among 13-65-year-old individuals, indicating that both age groups are extensively parasitized. The parasite load was low to moderate for geohelminths and 75% of the families did not have latrine, thus the practice of defecation occurred outdoors. These findings suggest that the multiple intestinal parasitism in the Mbyá-Guarani community is high to the point of being the rule, and that it relates essentially to the traditional lifestyle and health habits. It is urgently necessary to implement the association of anti-parasitic treatment with sanitation improvement. This should be done simultaneously with health education activities for this population.

  6. Assessing recharge using remotely sensed data in the Guarani Aquifer System outcrop zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, M. C.; Oliveira, P. T. S.; Melo, D. D.; Wendland, E.

    2014-12-01

    Groundwater recharge is an essential hydrology component for sustainable water withdrawal from an aquifer. The Guarani Aquifer System (GAS) is the largest (~1.2 million km2) transboundary groundwater reservoir in South America, supplying freshwater to four countries: Brazil, Argentina, Paraguay and Uruguay. However, recharge in the GAS outcrop zones is one of the least known hydrological variables, in part because studies from hydrological data are scarce or nonexistent. We assess recharge using the water-budget as the difference of precipitation (P) and evapotranspiration (ET). Data is derived from remotely sensed estimates of P (TRMM 3B42 V7) and ET (MOD16) in the Onça Creek watershed over the 2004­-12 period. This is an upland-flat watershed (slope steepness < 1%) dominated by sand soils and representative of the GAS outcrop zones. We compared the remote sensing approach against Water Table Fluctuation (WTF) method and another water-budget using ground-based measurements. Uncertainty propagation analysis were also performed. On monthly basis, TRMM P exhibited a great agreement with ground-based P data (R2 = 0.86 and RMSE = 41 mm). Historical (2004-12) mean(±sd) satellite-based recharge (Rsat) was 537(±224) mm y-1, while ground-based recharge using water-budget (Rgr) and WTF (Rwtf) method was 469 mm y-1 and 311(±150) mm y-1, respectively. We found that ~440 mm y-1 is a reasonable historical mean (between Rsat, Rgr and Rwtf) recharge for the study area over 2004-2012 period. The latter mean recharge estimate is about 29% of the mean historical P (1,514 mm y-1). Our results provide the first insight about an intercomparison of water budget from remote sensing and measured data to estimate recharge in the GAS outcrop zone. These results should be useful for future studies on assessing recharge in the GAS outcrop zones. Since accurate and precise recharge estimation still is a gap, our recharge satellite-based is considered acceptable for the Onça Creek

  7. Identifying Stream/Aquifer Exchange by Temperature Gradient in a Guarani Aquifer System Outcrop Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendland, E.; Rosa, D. M. S.; Anache, J. A. A.; Lowry, C.; Lin, Y. F. F.

    2017-12-01

    Recharge of the Guarani Aquifer System (GAS) in South America is supposed to occur mainly in the outcrop zones, where the GAS appears as an unconfined aquifer (10% of the 1.2 Million km2 aquifer extension). Previous evaluations of recharge are based essentially on water balance estimates for the whole aquifer area or water table fluctuations in monitoring wells. To gain a more detailed understanding of the recharge mechanisms the present work aimed to study the stream aquifer interaction in a watershed (Ribeirão da Onça) at an outcrop zone. Two Parshall flumes were installed 1.3 km apart for discharge measurement in the stream. Along this distance an optic fiber cable was deployed to identify stretches with gaining and losing behavior. In order to estimate groundwater discharge in specific locations, 8 temperature sticks were set up along the stream reach to measure continuously the vertical temperature gradient. A temperature probe with 4 thermistors was also used to map the shallow streambed temperature gradient manually along the whole distance. The obtained results show a discharge difference of 250 m3/h between both flumes. Since the last significant rainfall (15 mm) in the watershed occurred 3 months ago, this value can be interpreted as the base flow contribution to the stream during the dry season. Given the temperature difference between groundwater ( 24oC) and surface water ( 17oC) the fiber-optic distributed temperature sensing (FO-DTS) allowed the identification of stretches with gaining behavior. Temperature gradients observed at the streambed varied between 0.67 and 14.33 oC/m. The study demonstrated that heat may be used as natural tracer even in tropical conditions, where the groundwater temperature is higher than the surface water temperature during the winter. The obtained results show that the discharge difference between both flumes can not be extrapolated without detailed analysis. Gaining and loosing stretches have to be identified on order

  8. Groundwater movement study of Guarani Aquifer System through isotopes in Parana Sao Paulo and Uruguay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Da Rosa Filho, E.; Chemas Hindi, E.; Lima Bittencourt, A.; Aravena, R.; Montano, J.; Duarte, U.

    2007-01-01

    The current conceptual models of the Guarany Aquifer System (GAS), found in Galboa et al. (1976), Fraga (1992); Campos (1994), Araujo et al. (1995), Rosa Filho et al. (1998) and Campos (2000), are in regional scale, taking only intoaccount the aquifer stratigraphic characteristics, showing the Piramboia and Botucatu Formations gently dipping under the Serra Geral Formation. This model represents the aquifer like an almost homogeneous and isotropic layer, desregarding local influences caused by fauts and intrusive bodies on the groundwater flow or on the water volume stored in the aquifer, as quoted by Sinelli et al. (1984). The GAS shows many structural conditioning, with highligts to the depocenters of Serra Geral Formation, reactivation of faulting systems, the uplift of the present basin s borders and the activation of the Rio Grande and Ponta Grossa Arches (Araujo et al., 1995). Regarding the structural control due to the Ponta Grossa Arch, it is worthwhile to point out the ocurrence along the mentioned arch, of innumerous diabase dykes predominately striking NW (Ferreira 1982a,b).The dykes and regional geological structures (faultings) play an important role on the structural compartimentation of the GAS. The strategy for the GAS exploitation, inside Parana State, must involve technical, scientific (geology, geophysics, hydrochemistr y and isotopic studies) and socio-economic approaches, in order to select the favourable targets for groundwater withdraw and, simultaneously, allow a proper management that result in a good balance between water production and use and protection of the GAS. Therefore, the knowledge of local geological factors controling the aquifer hydrodynamic (flow pattern, volume of stored water, well yieldings and water quality) besides its geometric compartimentation (unities with different hydrodynamic behaviour), will contribute to the development of a conceptual qualitative model to be used as a tool for the SAG mangement. The results of

  9. Climate change impact on groundwater levels in the Guarani Aquifer outcrop zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, D. D.; Wendland, E.

    2013-12-01

    The unsustainable use of groundwater in many countries might cause water availability restrictions in the future. Such issue is likely to worsen due to predicted climate changes for the incoming decades. As numerous studies suggest, aquifers recharge rates will be affected as a result of climate change. The Guarani Aquifer System (GAS) is one of the most important transboundary aquifer in the world, providing drinkable water for millions of people in four South American countries (Brazil, Argentina, Uruguay and Paraguay). Considering the GAS relevance and how its recharge rates might be altered by climatic conditions anomalies, the objective of this work is to assess possible climate changes impacts on groundwater levels in this aquifer outcrop zone. Global Climate Models' (GCM) outputs were used as inputs in a transient flux groundwater model created using the software SPA (Simulation of Process in Aquifers), enabling groundwater table fluctuation to be evaluated under distinct climatic scenarios. Six monitoring wells, located in a representative basin (Ribeirão da Onça basin) inside a GAS outcrop zone (ROB), provided water table measurements between 2004 and 2011 to calibrate the groundwater model. Using observed climatic data, a water budget method was applied to estimate recharge in different types of land uses. Statistically downscaled future climate scenarios were used as inputs for that same recharge model, which provided data for running SPA under those scenarios. The results show that most of the GCMs used here predict temperature arises over 275,15 K and major monthly rainfall mean changes to take place in the dry season. During wet seasons, those means might experience around 50% decrease. The transient model results indicate that water table variations, derived from around 70% of the climate scenarios, would vary below those measured between 2004 and 2011. Among the thirteen GCMs considered in this work, only four of them predicted more extreme

  10. State sovereignty over natural fresh-water resources and the Guarani Aquifer Agreement; La soberania de los Estados sobre sus recursos naturales de agua dulce y el Acuerdo sobre el Acuifero Guarani

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pastori, A.

    2012-11-01

    Our intention in this paper is to study the scope of the concept of the sovereignty of states over their natural resources in general, and water resources in particular. Within this context it seeks to establish what the incidence of this concept is with regard to the management of shared international resources and whether states have limited or reduced the scope of this concept as far as the use of water resources is concerned. We analyse whether these bounds have been exercised directly in rules relating to international watercourses or aquifers, or by indirect routes such as environmental standards or norms regarding human rights, without contravening already existing acquired rights. Finally, it considers the relevance of the inclusion of this notion of sovereignty in the Guarani Aquifer Agreement and whether this follows the same path or diverges from the internationally accepted concepts just mentioned. (Author)

  11. Towards the Joint-Management of Transboundary Groundwaters: Hydrogeology and the Guarani Aquifer System; Hacia una gestion compartida de las aguas subterraneas transfronterizas: la Hidrogeologia y el Sistema Acuifero Guarani

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walter, M.

    2012-11-01

    In stark contrast to other international waters such as shared rivers or lakes, transboundary groundwaters are rarely co-managed. Management initiatives for shared groundwaters depend on scientific knowledge, which is often unavailable, and are influenced by a multiplicity of local issues that preclude the straightforward implementation of regulatory mechanisms. Drawing from historical documents and interviews with management experts, scientists and socio-economic stake holders, we examine the roles of science and scientific co-operation in the process that led to the creation of co-management instruments for the Guarani aquifer system. This analytical approach purposely sidesteps archetypical discussion about geopolitical differences and the incompatibility of institutional settings, arguing instead that hydrogeological knowledge is a constitutive dimension of the decision-making process, in which it operates both as a tool for the re framing of preferences as a challenge to established institutional frameworks. (Author)

  12. The importance of transient flow simulation in the numerical model of the Guarani Aquifer System; Importancia de la formulacion del regimen temporal de flujo en el modelo numerico del Sistema Acuifero Guarani

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez, A.; Vives, L.; Rodriguez, L.; Cota, S. D. S.

    2012-11-01

    A regional groundwater flow model under a steady-state regime has been developed within the framework of the Project for the Environmental Protection and Sustainable Development of the Guarani Aquifer System. The model has allowed the comparison of several plausible hypotheses concerning different conceptual models, mainly with regard to alternative hydraulic conductivity zoning. We assess here the influence of the flow regime, either steady-state or temporal, on the magnitude of hydraulic conductivity and the water balance. The response time to various external stresses is also analyzed. The results indicate that the effect of increasing pumping is immediately noticeable close to pumping wells whilst the effect manifests with a lag time, though less intensively, as the distance from the pumping centre increments. The effect of pumping would be imperceptible 300 km away, at least for the simulated conditions in a 100-year scenario. (Author)

  13. The principle of state sovereignty in the Agreement on the Guarani Aquifer and legal problems specific to Argentina; El principio de la soberania estatal en el Acuerdo sobre el Acuifero Guarani. Problemas juridicos particulares de la Argentina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apesteguia, G. J.

    2012-11-01

    The Agreement on the Guarani Aquifer (AGA) devotes its first three articles specifically to the state sovereignty of the parties with regard to the Guarani Aquifer System (GAS). The AGA reveals its intention to establish two inherent points concerning dominion over the water resource in question: the first refers to the ownership of the GAS by the parties involved (without the Agreements expressly alluding in its Art. 1 to the territorial scope of this dominion, as it does in the following point), and the second refers to the implementation of the law, which, according to Art. 2, subordinates it to constitutional and legal requirements and pursuant to the rules of applicable international law, a passage which leaves us with two questions: Does it entail an order of regulatory precedence? is international law reduced to the observance of legal precedents? For Argentina, the ruling in Art. 2 of the AGA will require great efforts to reconcile its legislative and judicial criteria on the two points mentioned: ownership and the environmental aspects of the different activities allowed on the surface above the GAS. In my opinion, Argentina must tackle the following legal issues: a) To amend the Civil Code (resolving the matter of the extent of the private dominion belonging to the owner of the ground above the groundwater); b) To legislate on aquifers at the federal level, bearing in mind the existing state norms; c) To restrict the access to and use of the GAS to the local people, being as it is the only resource of water for many communities. (Author)

  14. Doses from {sup 222}Rn, {sup 226}Ra, and {sup 228}Ra in groundwater from Guarani aquifer, South America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonotto, D.M. E-mail: dbonotto@rc.unesp.br

    2004-07-01

    Groundwater samples were analysed for {sup 222}Rn, {sup 226}Ra, and {sup 228}Ra in Guarani aquifer spreading around 1 million km{sup 2} within four countries in South America, and it was found that their activity concentrations are lognormally distributed. Population-weighted average activity concentration for these radionuclides allowed to estimate a value either slightly higher (0.13 mSv/year) than 0.1 mSv for the total effective dose or two times higher (0.21 mSv/year) than this limit, depending on the choice of the dose conversion factor. Such calculation adds useful information for the appropriate management of this transboundary aquifer that is socially and economically very important to about 15 million inhabitants living in Brazil, Argentina, Uruguay and Paraguay.

  15. The study of ground water movements about Guarani Aquifer system through Parana, Sao Paulo isotopes and Uruguay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Da Rosa Filho, E.; Lima Bittendourt, A.; Chemas Hindt, E.; Duarte, U.; Montano, J.

    2004-01-01

    This study relates tectonic features to hydrochemistry properties in order to show an example where the Guarany Aquifer behaves like a closed compartiment. This situation can be used as a model to other localities with similar geological structures where the aquifer is not recharged by modern waters, therefore, groundwater withdrawal from deep wells depletes the aquifer turning its exploitation not recommended. This study area was located inside the limits of the Ponta Grossa Arch, especially by the the Rio Alonzo and Sao Jeronimo-Curiuva lineaments. Among the waters that had been already classified in Sao Paulo and Parana States (Brazil), predominate the calcium-bicarbonate and sodiumbicarbonate types and the characteristic of the water in this particular case is sodiumsulfate- chloride type with TDS above 1000 mg/L

  16. Perceptions on hospitality when visiting secluded communities of guaranis, caiçaras e quilombolas in Paraty region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Alberto Beares

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Tourism in secluded communities puts different cultures in contact with each other and must be handled carefully not to cause environmental damage as well as cultural loss which might jeopardize the local development and create hostile relationships. The proposal of in sito tourism, considering the local memory and patrimony as a hospitality potential, was observed during technical visitations to three communities located in the Paraty region and surroundings: Guarani, Caiçara (fishermen and Quilombola(African slaves descendants. Through field work involving visitations to communities and interviews with locals, information regarding cultural differences and the importance of the land occupation in the history of each of the communities was assessed. The common link in the history of these peoples is the struggle for the right of land possession. During visits when people shared their territory various forms of hospitality in each community were verified, issued from different cultures and cultural values.

  17. Evaluation of the groundwater Hydric resources of the Guarani Aquifer System from Municipality of Araguari, Minas Gerais Brasil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menegasse Velasquez, L. . E- mail: menegasse@dedalus.lcc.ufmg.br; De Carvalho Filho, C.; Costa Camargos, C. .E- mail: cacf@cdtn.br; E- mail: rena@cpd.ufmt.br

    2007-01-01

    The municipality of Araguari, with a total territorial area of 2.745.85 km2, is located in the western border of the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, and is situated at the northeastern limit of the Guarani Aquifer System-GAS. This work intends to increase the knowledge of the quantitative potencial and of the dynamics of the GAS in the Municipality bythe development of the following technical activities: elaboration of a conceptual hydrogeologic model of the GAS in the municipality; evaluation of the groundwater recharge; evaluation of groundwater reserves and resources; hydrochemical characterization; investigacion of the provenance and dynamics of groundwater by means of the stable isotopes analysis; elaboration of a hydrogeologic mathematical model of Bauru Aquifer; and evaluation of the natural vulnerability of Bauru Aquifer to anthropic pollution

  18. Evaluation of Microstructural Parameters of Reservoir Rocks of the Guarani Aquifer by Analysis of Images Obtained by X- Ray Microtomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, J. S.; Lima, F. A.; Vieira, S. F.; Reis, P. J.; Appoloni, C. R.

    2015-07-01

    Microstructural parameters evaluation of porous materials, such as, rocks reservoir (water, petroleum, gas...), it is of great importance for several knowledge areas. In this context, the X-ray microtomography (μ-CT) has been showing a technical one quite useful for the analysis of such rocks (sandstone, limestone and carbonate), object of great interest of the petroleum and water industries, because it facilitates the characterization of important parameters, among them, porosity, permeability, grains or pore size distribution. The X-ray microtomography is a non-destructive method, that besides already facilitating the reuse of the samples analyzed, it also supplies images 2-D and 3-D of the sample. In this work samples of reservoir rock of the Guarani aquifer will be analyzed, given by the company of perforation of wells artesian Blue Water, in the municipal district of Videira, Santa Catarina, Brazil. The acquisition of the microtomographys data of the reservoir rocks was accomplished in a Skyscan 1172 μ-CT scanner, installed in Applied Nuclear Physics Laboratory (LFNA) in the State University of Londrina (UEL), Paraná, Brazil. In this context, this work presents the microstructural characterization of reservoir rock sample of the Guarani aquifer, analyzed for two space resolutions, 2.8 μm and 4.8 μm, where determined average porosity was 28.5% and 21.9%, respectively. Besides, we also determined the pore size distribution for both resolutions. Two 3-D images were generated of this sample, one for each space resolution, in which it is possible to visualize the internal structure of the same ones.

  19. REFLEXÕES SOBRE A ESCOLA MBYA GUARANI: O MERO ESTAR AMBIENTAL E O CONHECIMENTO DA TÉCNICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROSEMARY MODERNEL MADEIRA

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: This article is about the relationship between the Mbyá Guarani and the School and about how they are getting closer to citizen life, including perspectives of job, monetary gain and consumption of the object. Substantiated on Rodolfo Kusch and Martin Heidegger, the article looks for a vision of the human in his antagonistic facets: the one who believes in destiny and surrenders to the ambiental ¨mere being¨, and the one who pursuits ¨being someone¨ on the effort of the citizen ethics, proclaimed by the School. Through the analysis of the texts and speeches from teachers and leaders, the article develops trying to understand how the Mbyátake the citizen tecnique, represented in the School, to (reinvent their own tecnique and (retake their own culture.RESUMO: O presente artigo trata da relação dos Mbyá Guarani com a Escola e de sua aproximação do viver cidadão, incluindo a perspectiva do emprego, do ganho monetário e do consumo do objeto. Substanciado em Rodolfo Kusch e Martin Heidegger, o artigo busca uma visão do humano nas suas facetas antagônicas: o que crê no destino e se entrega ao mero estar ambiental e o que busca o ser alguém no afã da ética cidadã promulgada pela Escola. Através da análise dos textos e dos discursos de professores e lideranças, o artigo desenvolve-setentando entender como os Mbyá apropriam-se da técnica cidadã, representada na Escola, para (reinventarem sua própria técnica e (retomarem sua própria cultura.

  20. Quality of public water supply of Ribeirão Preto in the Guarani aquifer area: metals and nitrate analyses

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    Eliana Leão Prado

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The city of Ribeirão Preto, SP, is fully supplied by groundwater from the Guarani aquifer. The city has a total of 102 public supply wells registered in the Ribeirão Preto Water and Sewage Department, approximately 13,400 m³/h of water are uptaken from them. Some wells are located in the recharge area of the Guarani Aquifer, a region susceptible to anthropogenic pollution. This study aimed to evaluate the quality of water of public supply wells in Ribeirão Preto considering specific chemical parameters including pH, metals and nitrate. Three sampling collections were performed in 33 wells for water supply in Ribeirão Preto, in May and November 2008, and in July 2009, as well. Analyses of the metals Fe, Zn, Mn, Cr, Pb, Cu and Cd were performed using the Induced Plasma Spectroscopy technique (ICP-OES. The analyses of nitrate concentration were performed using spectrophotometric method. Regarding the metals and nitrate parameters, all samples were within the values established by the ordinance of the Ministry of Health No. 518 of 2004. Regarding pH, a small number of wells had pH below the limit of drinkable water, but values were very close to the lower limit established by the ordinance. Water of public supply wells in Ribeirão Preto are, in general, of good quality, showing no restrictions for use. Nevertheless, continuous monitoring of all public supply wells is necessary, especially regarding the presence of nitrate and chromium, second report of Company of Technology and Environmental Sanitation – Cetesb.

  1. Geochemical and stable isotopic evolution of the Guarani Aquifer System in the state of São Paulo, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sracek, Ondra; Hirata, Ricardo

    2002-09-01

    The purpose of this report is to explain geochemical and stable isotopes trends in the Brazilian unit of the Guarani Aquifer System (Botucatu and Piramboia aquifers) in São Paulo State, Brazil. Trends of dissolved species concentrations and geochemical modeling indicated a significant role of cation exchange and dissolution of carbonates in downgradient evolution of groundwater chemistry. Loss of calcium by the exchange for sodium drives dissolution of carbonates and results in Na-HCO3 type of groundwater. The cation-exchange front moves downgradient at probably much slower rate compared to the velocity of groundwater flow and at present is located near to the cities of Sertãozinho and Águas de Santa Barbara (wells PZ-34 and PZ-148, respectively) in a shallow confined area, 50-70 km from the recharge zone. Part of the sodium probably enters the Guarani Aquifer System. together with chloride and sulfate from the underlying Piramboia Formation by diffusion related to the dissolution of evaporates like halite and gypsum. High concentrations of fluorine (up to 13.3 mg/L) can be explained by dissolution of mineral fluoride also driven by cation exchange. However, it is unclear if the dissolution takes place directly in the Guarani Aquifer System or in the overlying basaltic Serra Geral Formation. There is depletion in δ2H and δ18O values in groundwater downgradient. Values of δ13C(DIC) are enriched downgradient, indicating dissolution of calcite under closed system conditions. Values of δ13C(DIC) in deep geothermal wells are very high (>-6.0‰) and probably indicate isotopic exchange with carbonates with δ13C about -3.0‰. Future work should be based on evaluation of vertical fluxes and potential for penetration of contamination to the Guarani Aquifer System. Résumé. Cet article a pour objet d'expliquer l'évolution de la géochimie et des isotopes stables dans l'unité brésilienne du système aquifère du Guarani (aquifères de Botucatu et Piramboia), dans

  2. Evaluation of Microstructural Parameters of Reservoir Rocks of the Guarani Aquifer by Analysis of Images Obtained by X- Ray Microtomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandes, J S; Lima, F A; Vieira, S F; Reis, P J; Appoloni, C R

    2015-01-01

    Microstructural parameters evaluation of porous materials, such as, rocks reservoir (water, petroleum, gas...), it is of great importance for several knowledge areas. In this context, the X-ray microtomography (μ-CT) has been showing a technical one quite useful for the analysis of such rocks (sandstone, limestone and carbonate), object of great interest of the petroleum and water industries, because it facilitates the characterization of important parameters, among them, porosity, permeability, grains or pore size distribution. The X-ray microtomography is a non-destructive method, that besides already facilitating the reuse of the samples analyzed, it also supplies images 2-D and 3-D of the sample. In this work samples of reservoir rock of the Guarani aquifer will be analyzed, given by the company of perforation of wells artesian Blue Water, in the municipal district of Videira, Santa Catarina, Brazil. The acquisition of the microtomographys data of the reservoir rocks was accomplished in a Skyscan 1172 μ-CT scanner, installed in Applied Nuclear Physics Laboratory (LFNA) in the State University of Londrina (UEL), Paraná, Brazil. In this context, this work presents the microstructural characterization of reservoir rock sample of the Guarani aquifer, analyzed for two space resolutions, 2.8 μm and 4.8 μm, where determined average porosity was 28.5% and 21.9%, respectively. Besides, we also determined the pore size distribution for both resolutions. Two 3-D images were generated of this sample, one for each space resolution, in which it is possible to visualize the internal structure of the same ones. (paper)

  3. “WITHOUT TEKOA THERE IS NOT TEKO - NO LAND NO CULTURE": STUDY AND SELF-SUSTAINING DEVELOPMENT OF GUARANI INDIGENOUS COMMUNITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldo Litaiff

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This article reports the results of the “Sem tekoa não há teko, sem terra não há cultura: estudo e desenvolvimento auto-sustentável de comunidades indígenas guarani” project. It was carried out by UNISUL (University of the South of Santa Catarina and by UFSC (Federal University of Santa Catarina from March, 2002 through December, 2007, and aimed at promoting economic modes appropriate for the ethnodevelopment and auto sustainability of the guarani land at the coast of the state of Santa Catarina, a measure compatible with teko, that is, the way of beeing, the guarani culture.

  4. HLA polymorphism in a Guarani-Indian population from Paraguay and its usefulness for the Hispano-Indian admixture study in Paraguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benitez, O; Busson, M; Charron, D; Loiseau, P

    2011-02-01

    In this study we investigated the human leucocyte antigen-A (HLA-A), -B and DRB1 polymorphism of Native American population of Paraguay, the Guarani Indians. We found that the HLA variability consisted of 5 HLA-A, 7 HLA-B and 6 HLA-DRB1 groups of alleles and of several specific alleles (B*1504, B*3505, B*3912, B*4004, B*5104, DRB1*0411, DRB1*1413) common in other Native American populations. The comparison of the HLA polymorphism of the Guaranis from Paraguay with the «Mestizos» of Paraguay and the Spaniards showed that the «Mestizos» of Paraguay are genetically very distant from the Guarani Indians of Paraguay but much more close to the Spaniards. This can be explained, at least in part, by the history of the country. Our results are of importance in transplantation, in particular in the search for an unrelated donor for a Paraguayan patient requiring hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  5. Estado nutricional de crianças indígenas Guarani nos estados do Rio de Janeiro e São Paulo, Brasil

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    Carla Tatiana Garcia Barreto

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo reporta os resultados de inquérito nutricional de crianças indígenas Guarani < 5 anos de idade nos estados do Rio de Janeiro e São Paulo, Brasil. As prevalências de desnutrição, segundo vários índices antropométricos foram de: 50,4% (baixa estatura para idade, 7,9% (baixo peso para idade e 0,8% (baixo peso para estatura. O déficit de estatura verificado na criança Guarani foi 96% maior do que nas crianças indígenas no Brasil (25,7% e 7,2 vezes do que o registrado nas crianças da população geral (7%. A prevalência de anemia foi de 65,2%, 3,1 vezes a prevalência correspondente nas crianças não indígenas (20,9%. Este estudo destaca elevadas prevalências de desnutrição crônica e anemia na criança Guarani, e põe em evidência as graves desigualdades em saúde e nutrição que afetam a criança indígena no país.

  6. EDUCAÇÃO ESCOLAR INDÍGENA DIFERENCIADA E INTERCULTURAL ENTRE OS GUARANI MBYÁ DO RIO DE JANEIRO: O LEGITIMO E O REAL

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    Katia Antunes Zephiro

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Katia Antunes Zephiro, Norielem de Jesus MartinsDOI: 10.12957/periferia.2015.21968Este artigo aborda o processo de construção da educação escolar diferenciada indígena no Rio de Janeiro na atualidade. A partir de um breve histórico dessa construção apontamos as principais demandas de educação escolar nas comunidades indígenas Guarani Mbyá no Estado, buscando compreender quem são estes sujeitos, de onde falam, a forma com que se relacionam e pensam a organização do tempo escolar a partir de sua própria concepção de educação. Discutiremos de que forma a interculturalidade pode se fazer presente na construção de um currículo decolonial, que valorize diferentes saberes em sua concepção. Neste intuito, consideramos essencial uma análise da vulnerabilidade social dessas comunidades para que as ações educativas sejam planejadas para fortalecimento intracultural, proporcionando assim a construção de bases para um interculturalismo crítico. Para discutir essa temática dialogaremos com autores do campo da Modernidade, Colonialidade e do interculturalismo crítico, de forma que possamos refletir sobre o atendimento realizado nas comunidades guarani e as necessidades existentes. Consideramos necessário garantir que os conhecimentos Guarani Mbya sejam os condutores do processo educativo e que sejam reconhecidos como saberes/conhecimentos válidos. Compreendemos que fortalecendo as relações intraculturais, ou seja, valorizando e estimulando a temporalidade guarani, pesquisas e vivências entre as comunidades, podemos minimizar os impactos da vulnerabilidade social empoderando esses sujeitos para um diálogo intercultural igualitário, na perspectiva de uma educação libertadora. Por fim faremos uma análise de como ao longo do tempo percebemos avanços e recuos na construção de um projeto público de educação escolar indígena diferenciada, específica, intercultural e bilíngue no Rio de Janeiro, refletindo sobre novas

  7. "Mientras volaban correos por los pueblos": autogoverno e práticas letradas nas missões Guarani - século XVII

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    Eduardo Neumann

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Em meados do século XVIII foi firmado o Tratado de Madri (1750 entre as duas monarquias ibéricas, procurando definir uma nova fronteira na América meridional. Esse tratado refletiu-se de maneira acentuada entre os índios Guarani aldeados sob a tutela da Companhia de Jesus, deflagrando uma rebelião colonial conhecida na historiografia como Guerra Guaranítica (1754-1756. Esse período foi marcado por uma intensa troca de correspondência entre jesuítas, autoridades peninsulares e os Guarani. A elite letrada das missões, através dos índios principais, externaram seu ponto de vista por escrito, procurando anular ou impedir a execução desse tratado. Os documentos produzidos pelos Guarani sublevados diante da presença das comissões demarcadoras na América meridional, seja na forma de bilhetes, cartas ou avisos, permitem repensar as relações estabelecidas entre esses índios e a escrita, e sinalizam uma discussão pouco referida pela historiografia, ou seja, a existência da defesa por escrito do ponto de vista nativo.In the middle XVIIIth century, the "Tratado de Madrid" (1750 took place between Portugal and Spain. Both countries were looking forward to define the new southern Latin America frontier. The Tratado de Madrid had a strongly impact over the indians communities under Jesuits influence, starting colonial rebellion named Guaranitc War (1754-1756. During this period an intense communication by mail between the Spanish authorities, priests and the Guarani was noticed. The "indios principais" - the Missions writing elite - expressed their opinion writing letters in the way to cancel the Tratado de Madrid. The different kinds of documents produced by the insurgent Guaranis letters, notes and messages- let us to rethink the relation between the indians and the writing culture. It also indicates the lack of attention in the historical debate to the native point of view expressed by writing.

  8. Hypoacousis prevalence in Kaiowá and Guarani indigenous children Prevalência de hipoacusia em crianças indígenas Kaiowá e Guarani

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    Renata Palópoli Pícoli

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: to determine hypoacousis prevalence in Kaiowá and Guarani indigenous children. METHODS: a cross-sectional study was performed using a sample of 126 indigenous children from zero to 59 months old from the Caarapó Indian Reserve, Mato Grosse do Sul, Brazil. Hearing ability screening was performed by measuring transient evoked otoacoustic emissions. Children with hearing impairment were retested. Confirmed cases following retest were referred to imitanciometry testing. RESULTS: during hearing ability screening, 25 (23.6% children showed hearing impairment. Seventeen children had normal outcomes during retest and six of them confirmed hearing impairment and were referred to imitanciometry testing. Hypoacousis prevalence identified by the study reached 5.6%, 3 (2.8% and 3 (2.8% suggestive of conductive and sensorineural types, respectively. The last ones were referred to complementary otorhinolaryngologic assessment for diagnosis confirmation. Hearing impairment cases determined by this study were not statistically significant when related to gender and age. CONCLUSIONS: problems concerning the prevalence of hearing impairment determined in the focused population suggest the need for hearing health programs to be developed with other child health programs.OBJETIVOS: identificar a prevalência de hipoacusia em crianças indígenas Kaiowá e Guarani. MÉTODOS: estudo transversal, com uma amostra de 126 crianças indígenas de zero a 59 meses da Terra Indígena de Caarapó, em Mato Grosso do Sul, Brasil. As crianças foram submetidas ao exame das emissões otoacústicas evocadas transitórias, que serviu como triagem auditiva. O reteste foi realizado nas crianças que apresentaram resultado alterado na triagem auditiva. Os casos que, no reteste, permaneceram alterados foram encaminhados para o exame da imitanciometria. RESULTADOS: na triagem auditiva, foram identificadas 25 (23,6% crianças com resultado alterado; dessas, 17 apresentaram

  9. DAS PRÁTICAS TRADICIONAIS ÀS PRÁTICAS REDUCIONAIS: RITUAIS DE CURA, LUTO E SEPULTAMENTO NAS REDUÇÕES JESUÍTICO-GUARANI (PROVÍNCIA JESUÍTICA DO PARAGUAI, SÉCULO XVII

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    ELIANE CRISTINA DECKMANN FLECK

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This article intends to evince and analyze the impact of the Christian conceptions of sickness and death on the Guarani indian sensibility and its translation in terms of representations and social practices in the Jesuitical reductions. The analysis of the records made by the missionaries, especially the Cartas Ânuas of the Jesuitical Province of Paraguay regarding the period from 1609 to 1675, revealed that, on the one hand, the Guarani kept traditional practices of their religious sensibility – as is evinced in the resignification of the "copious crying" and the funereal laments –, and, on the other hand, that the missionaries, besides incorporating the native pharmacopoeia and many of the indian healing practices,skillfully manipulated the cures and the "bien morir", a strategy that was fundamental to the success of the civilization-conversion project of the Companhia de Jesus alongside the Guarani.

  10. Educação Escolar Indígena - A prática docente dos Guarani Mbya

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    Janaína Aline dos Santos e Souza

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho, vinculado a pesquisa de Mestrado em andamento, propõe o seguinte problema de pesquisa: o que o professorado indígena Guarani Mbya entende ser sua prática docente? Parte-se do pressuposto de que a educação escolar indígena, mais precisamente a partir de 1970, começa a ser ressignificada pelos próprios movimentos e organizações indígenas – reestruturando uma instituição tipicamente não-indígena, norteada até então por princípios de catequização, civilização, integração e preservação –, e que sua reconstrução junto aos projetos de futuro de cada etnia se constitui potencialmente como inovação educacional, superando seu caráter colonialista. Esta pesquisa pretende verificar se a visão que os professores e professoras indígenas têm de suas práticas se fundamenta ou não no modo de transmissão dos saberes tradicionais de sua cultura. No primeiro caso, tais práticas estariam inscritas na luta por reconhecimento e seriam adaptadas à atividade escolar. No entanto, as práticas docentes podem também ser mera reprodução do modelo de ensino escolar predominante, originalmente não-indígena, ainda que se trate oficialmente de uma escola diferenciada. Para examinar essas alternativas, vêm sendo realizadas entrevistas e observação direta na Escola Estadual IndígenaGwyra Pepo, localizada na região de Parelheiros, no município de São Paulo. As informações recolhidas serão analisadas por meio das bases teóricas das pesquisas antropológicas sobre os Guarani e sociológicas sobre inovação educacional, bem como pelo recurso às produções da etnologia ameríndia a respeito da educação escolar indígena

  11. Guidelines for the development and environmental protection of the outcrop area in the Guarani aquifer system in Sao Paulo State, Brazil; Diretrizes para o desenvolvimento e protecao ambiental da area de afloramento do Sistema Aquifero Guarani no estado de Sao Paulo, Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alburquerque Filho, J. L.; Carvalho, A. M. de; Ikematsu, P.; Costa Barbosa, M.; Iritani, M.; Nogueira Pressinoti, M. M.; Rocha, G.; Pereira Militao da Silva, M.; Theodorovicz, A.

    2012-11-01

    The Guarani aquifer system (GAS) is an important public water source. The unconfined areas are those where the aquifer is more vulnerable to contamination, justifying the creation of a Protection and Recovery Source Area (Area de Protecao e Recuperacao de Manancial - APRM), as established in Act 9.866/97 of Sao Paulo State. We present here the results of the project Environmental Diagnosis in Support of the Plan for the Development and Environmental Protection Plan of the Outcrop Area of the Guarani Aquifer System in Sao Paulo State (Plano de Desenvolvimento e Protecao Ambiental da Area de Afloramento do Sistema Aquifero Guarani no Estado de Sao Paulo PDPA-SAG) and describe the areas of intervention defined by this law. The characterization of the area studied focuses on the physical and socio-economic aspects of the region, in addition to the pertinent legislation. Partial results indicate that the condition of the aquifer is satisfactory, but territorial discipline continues to be of prime importance. (Author)

  12. Shallow aquifer response to climate change scenarios in a small catchment in the Guarani Aquifer outcrop zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Davi C D; Wendland, Edson

    2017-05-01

    Water availability restrictions are already a reality in several countries. This issue is likely to worsen due to climate change, predicted for the upcoming decades. This study aims to estimate the impacts of climate change on groundwater system in the Guarani Aquifer outcrop zone. Global Climate Models (GCM) outputs were used as inputs to a water balance model, which produced recharge estimates for the groundwater model. Recharge was estimated across different land use types considering a control period from 2004 to 2014, and a future period from 2081 to 2099. Major changes in monthly rainfall means are expected to take place in dry seasons. Most of the analysed scenarios predict increase of more than 2 ºC in monthly mean temperatures. Comparing the control and future runs, our results showed a mean recharge change among scenarios that ranged from ~-80 to ~+60%, depending on the land use type. As a result of such decrease in recharge rates, the response given by the groundwater model indicates a lowering of the water table under most scenarios.

  13. Development methodologies evaluation of the charge and vulnerability of the Aquifer Guarani System in Argentina and Uruguay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, L.; Gomez, A.; Oleaga, A.

    2007-01-01

    The study area is located in the Uruguayan/Brazilian border near the cities of Rivera (Uruguay) and Santa Ana do Livramento (Brasil) and their surroundings. The area is characterized by the presence of fractured basalts of the Arapey or Serra Geral Formation and sandstones of the Tacuarembo-Rivera (Botucatu) Formation that form up the Guarani Aquifer System (GAS). The general objectives of the project were to adapt and apply methodologies to estimate the recharge to the fractured aquifer and to estimate the fraction of that recharge that eventually reaches the GAS in the study area. The development of new methodologies for the vulnerability assessment of the Serra Geral Formation was also sought. Piezo metric data, geological and structural analyses and hydrogeochemical studies were used to construct the conceptual model of the system behavior. Then, a numerical model was implemented to validate the conceptual model, reproduce the current system behavior, and estimate the recharge to the sandstones (either from the overlying basalts or from rainfall). The model would indicate a downward flow, i.e., recharge from the fractured basalt to the shallow aquifer, and from it to the deep aquifer, which matches the hypothesis of this research. As for the vulnerability of the GAS below the fractured zone, and reminding that there would be recharge from the basalt, adapted methodologies from flat-land scenarios were proposed, integrating the degree of fracturing of the volcanic rocks and the thickness of the unsaturated zone

  14. A combined method for evaluating radon and progeny in waters and its use at Guarani aquifer, Sao Paulo State, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonotto, D.M.; Mello, C.B.

    2006-01-01

    A combined method for evaluating radon ( 222 Rn) and progeny ( 214 Pb and 214 Bi) in water was developed by using inexpensive alpha scintillation counting and gamma ray spectrometry through NaI(Tl) scintillation detectors. A groundwater sample collected at the Pocos de Caldas alkaline massif in Brazil was submitted to the technique in order to assure its applicability by comparing the volumetric activities by different methods. Similar volumetric activity was determined for 214 Pb and 214 Bi in the sample analyzed that is compatible with the expected condition of radioactive equilibrium between these nuclides. The combined method was successfully used to analyze groundwater samples from Guarani aquifer in Sao Paulo State, Brazil, and the results of the measurements indicated that 214 Pb and 214 Bi provide useful information concerning the evaluation of the drinking water quality in terms of radiological aspects. This is because they are directly identified in the water samples, without the need of requiring the assumption of the establishment of the transient equilibrium condition with its parent 222 Rn

  15. GROUNDWATER QUALITY EVALUATION OF PERMANENT PRESERVATION AREAS (GUARANI AQUIFER SYSTEM - GAS, RIO PARDO HYDROGRAPHICAL BASIN, RS, BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adilson Ben da Costa

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to evaluate the quality of groundwater in areas of permanent preservation (Guarani Aquifer System – GAS in the Rio Pardo Hydrographical Basin, RS, Brazil, using physical, chemical and microbiological variables, based on resolution no. 396/2008 of the National Council on the Environment - CONAMA. Nine sampling points were distributed throughout the basin, where groundwater was classified as the major ions through the Piper diagram. The results indicated that most of the wells evaluated were classified in Class 4, accounting for water uses less restrictive. However, it should be considered that the aquifers are characterize by different geological conditions, having intrinsical physical, chemical and biological variables with hydrogeochemical variations, requiring that their quality levels are often based on these characteristics, as noted in diagram Piper, where the samples P1, P2, P3, P5 and P9 were classified as calcium bicarbonate, the waters of the points P4, P6, P7 as sodium bicarbonate and P8 as sulfated. It was found that the quality of water from wells with depths less than 6 m are becoming more vulnerable due to anthropogenic activities, as showing by the concentration of nitrate, total and thermotolerant coliforms, while the quality of water from deeper wells basically depends on their hydrogeological and hydrogeochemical characteristics based on the concentration of sodium and sulfate variables. However, they also showed contamination by human activities, mainly by the nitrate variable.

  16. RITUAIS DE INICIAÇÃO E RELAÇÕES COM A NATUREZA ENTRE OS MBYA-GUARANI

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    Marilyn Cebolla Badie

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available No presente artigo indago a respeito dos rituais de iniciação entre os Mbya-Guarani em Misiones, Argentina. A puberdade parece ser uma das etapas mais críticas e perigosas do ciclo vital mbya. A alma da pessoa encontra-se num estado de grande vulnerabilidade e pode ser presa das alteridades extra-humanas da floresta. Por isto, devem se apurar os cuidados que incluem restrições alimentares e um forte controle do comportamento. A principal característica do ritual para as meninas é a reclusão a que são submetidas; os meninos, pelo contrário, são expostos a constantes atividades e serviços que podem ser considerados públicos. As iñengue e os ñe'enguchu devem aprender a se comportar segundo os modelos feminino e masculino da sociedade mbya, já que as mudanças não envolvem somente o corpo, mas também o status que terão dali em diante

  17. A combined method for evaluating radon and progeny in waters and its use at Guarani aquifer, Sao Paulo State, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonotto, D.M. [Departamento de Petrologia e Metalogenia, Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), IGCE-Instituto de Geociencias e Ciencias Exatas, Av. 24-A, No. 1515, C.P. 178, CEP 13506-900, Rio Claro, Sao Paulo (Brazil)]. E-mail: dbonotto@rc.unesp.br; Mello, C.B. [Departamento de Petrologia e Metalogenia, Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), IGCE-Instituto de Geociencias e Ciencias Exatas, Av. 24-A, No. 1515, C.P. 178, CEP 13506-900, Rio Claro, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2006-07-01

    A combined method for evaluating radon ({sup 222}Rn) and progeny ({sup 214}Pb and {sup 214}Bi) in water was developed by using inexpensive alpha scintillation counting and gamma ray spectrometry through NaI(Tl) scintillation detectors. A groundwater sample collected at the Pocos de Caldas alkaline massif in Brazil was submitted to the technique in order to assure its applicability by comparing the volumetric activities by different methods. Similar volumetric activity was determined for {sup 214}Pb and {sup 214}Bi in the sample analyzed that is compatible with the expected condition of radioactive equilibrium between these nuclides. The combined method was successfully used to analyze groundwater samples from Guarani aquifer in Sao Paulo State, Brazil, and the results of the measurements indicated that {sup 214}Pb and {sup 214}Bi provide useful information concerning the evaluation of the drinking water quality in terms of radiological aspects. This is because they are directly identified in the water samples, without the need of requiring the assumption of the establishment of the transient equilibrium condition with its parent {sup 222}Rn.

  18. [Prevalence of wheezing and associated factors in Guarani indigenous children hospitalized for acute respiratory infections in Southern and Southeastern Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Patrícia Gomes de; Cardoso, Andrey Moreira; Sant Anna, Clemax Couto

    2014-07-01

    Prevalence of wheezing was studied in Guarani indigenous children hospitalized for acute lower respiratory tract infections in Southern and Southeastern Brazil, recruited by a surveillance routine established in villages from May 2007 to June 2008. Data were obtained from hospital records. Crude and adjusted prevalence ratios for wheezing were estimated according to categories of target variables, using Poisson regression with robust variance. Prevalence of wheezing was 58.1% (136/234). Risk factors that remained significantly associated with wheezing in the final model were: age bracket, inversely associated (0-11 months: reference; 24-35 months: 0.63, 95%CI: 0.40-0.99); hospitalization in the autumn (summer: reference; autumn: 1.58, 95%CI: 1.05-2.40); dyspnea (1.41, 95%CI: 1.09-1.83); chest indrawing (1.42, 95%CI: 1.16-1.73); crackles (1.43, 95%CI: 1.09-1.87). The results show a high disease burden related to wheezing and suggest the phenotype of early-onset persistent wheezing related to recurrence of viral respiratory infections.

  19. Recharge contribution to the Guarani Aquifer System estimated from the water balance method in a representative watershed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendland, Edson; Gomes, Luis H; Troeger, Uwe

    2015-01-01

    The contribution of recharge to regional groundwater flow systems is essential information required to establish sustainable water resources management. The objective of this work was to determine the groundwater outflow in the Ribeirão da Onça Basin using a water balance model of the saturated soil zone. The basin is located in the outcrop region of the Guarani Aquifer System (GAS). The water balance method involved the determination of direct recharge values, groundwater storage variation and base flow. The direct recharge was determined by the water table fluctuation method (WTF). The base flow was calculated by the hydrograph separation method, which was generated by a rain-flow model supported by biweekly streamflow measurements in the control section. Undisturbed soil samples were collected at depths corresponding to the variation zone of the groundwater level to determine the specific yield of the soil (drainable porosity). Water balances were performed in the saturated zone for the hydrological years from February 2004 to January 2007. The direct recharge ranged from 14.0% to 38.0%, and groundwater outflow from 0.4% to 2.4% of the respective rainfall during the same period.

  20. Social representations of the health care of the Mbyá-Guarani indigenous population by health workers 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falkenberg, Mirian Benites; Shimizu, Helena Eri; Bermudez, Ximena Pamela Díaz

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: to analyze the social representations of health care of the Mbyá-Guarani ethnic group by multidisciplinary teams from the Special Indigenous Health District in the south coast of Rio Grande do Sul state (Distrito Sanitário Especial Indígena Litoral Sul do Rio Grande do Sul), Brazil. Method: a qualitative method based on the theory of social representations was used. Data were collected via semi-structured interviews with 20 health workers and by participant observation. The interviews were analyzed with ALCESTE software, which conducts a lexical content analysis using quantitative techniques for the treatment of textual data. Results: there were disagreements in the health care concepts and practices between traditional medicine and biomedicine; however, some progress has been achieved in the area of intermedicality. The ethnic boundaries established between health workers and indigenous peoples based on their representations of culture and family, together with the lack of infrastructure and organization of health actions, are perceived as factors that hinder health care in an intercultural context. Conclusion: a new basis for the process of indigenous health care needs to be established by understanding the needs identified and by agreement among individuals, groups, and health professionals via intercultural exchange. PMID:28177056

  1. Educação e arte na redução jesuítico-guarani de Trinidad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graciela René Ormezzano

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Esta investigação trata da arte nos processos educativos introduzidos pelos jesuítas junto aos Guarani nas reduções missioneiras. Objetiva-se interpretar os modos educacionais e as estratégias textuais utilizadas pelos jesuítas, descrever o espaço urbanístico da redução de Santísima Trinidad del Paraná e da produção artística para tentar entender a influência europeia na população indígena, no período compreendido entre 1706 e 1767. Trata-se de uma pesquisa bibliográfica que utiliza também fontes primárias embasadas na documentação já publicada e fotografias. Optou-se por uma abordagem qualitativa, seguindo o método histórico-antropológico descritivo de um grupo populacional assentado numa determinada redução e discutem-se as relações educacionais entre ambas as culturas. Nesse sentido, são apontadas no texto as diferenças culturais e o que pode ser compreendido como suas possibilidades de interculturalidade.

  2. Identidades híbridas: atitudes linguísticas dos Guarani do Pinhalzinho, Estado do Paraná

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosana Hass Kondo

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Tendo como pressuposto que a identidade não é ‘dada ao nascer’ (HALL, 2006, mas é construída cotidianamente e continuamente (BAUMAN, 2005, pretendemos, neste texto, argumentar que, não se pode atrelar a identidade indígena apenas ao conhecimento ou uso da língua indígena ou presença de determinados traços culturais, visto que os discursos aqui examinados indicam que a(s identidade(s é(são híbrida(s, mestiça(s e que, portanto a identidade indígena pode ser veiculada também em língua portuguesa. Para tanto, trazemos dados e análises resultantes de uma pesquisa etnográfica (LÜDKE; ANDRÉ, 1986, em nível de mestrado, realizada entre 2011 e 2012, na comunidade indígena do Pinhalzinho, Tomazina, Estado do Paraná. Os resultados obtidos na análise dos dados sugerem que: as atitudes e representações que os Guarani apresentam sobre língua, cultura e identidade indígena são influenciadas pelas concepções do que os não-indígenas elegeram como critérios definidores para tal.

  3. Guarani education and religion in the state of Paraná, Brazil: a study on the Nimongarai ritual

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosangela Celia Faustino

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to the violent expropriation and commercialization of large areas in the state of Paraná, Brazil, at the beginning of the 20th century the surviving indigenous groups were herded within small parcels of land, called villages, and currently denominated Indigene Land (IL. The Nhandewa Guarani of the northern region of the state of Paraná, living in the Laranjinha, Ywyporã and Pinhalzinho ILs, have experienced terrible conditions since they lost many of their traditions and culture, including their language. During the 1980s and 1990s and within the context of the world economic crisis, the international organisms UNESCO and World Bank aimed at social cohesion and started, as a joint venture with the national states, the implementation of an inclusion policy based on the right to be different. Current analysis discusses the results of a cultural revival project developed through the register of narratives by the indigene elderly people with regard to the Nimongarai baptism ritual and pedagogical interventions in schools in the state of Paraná.

  4. Molecular phylogeny of Miltogramminae (Diptera Sarcophagidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Piwczyński, Marcin; Pape, Thomas; Deja-Sikora, Edyta

    2017-01-01

    Miltogramminae is one of the phylogenetically most poorly studied taxa of the species-rich family Sarcophagidae (Diptera). Most species are kleptoparasites in nests of solitary aculeate wasps and bees, although parasitoids and saprophagous species are also known, and the ancestral miltogrammine l...

  5. O céu é o limite: como extrapolar as normas rígidas da cerâmica Guarani

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gislene Monticelli

    Full Text Available A cultura Guarani, entendida de modo generalizante, pode ser considerada como a manifestação de uma sociedade prescritiva, as análises e interpretações das vasilhas de cerâmica (ou os fragmentos destas, confeccionadas pelas ceramistas Guarani no passado, por um lado, demonstram um apego às normas estilísticas e às regras tecnológicas bem definidas. Alguns aspectos, como forma e função, foram fundamentais para que as vasilhas pudessem ser reconhecidas e assim tivessem a garantia de utilização adequada, seja em atividades cotidianas ou rituais ao longo do tempo. É possível encontrar alguns casos em que houve a modificação de aspectos, que demonstram a capacidade e a vontade das ceramistas em inovar. São ilustrados exemplos de inovações em uma coleção de fragmentos e vasilhas encontradas em sítio arqueológico às margens do rio Pelotas, na divisa dos estados do Rio Grande do Sul e Santa Catarina, ao final dos anos de 1990, por ocasião do salvamento do patrimônio ameaçado pelo impacto de um empreendimento de grande porte. A cerâmica obtida neste sítio demonstra uma autêntica 'fábrica de idéias'. Desta forma, acreditamos ser possível resgatar informações que são fundamentais na busca da compreensão da cerâmica guarani obtida em nossas pesquisas arqueológicas, ajudando a compreender o que a faz única e, ao mesmo tempo, tão diversa.

  6. Risk factors for hospital admission due to acute lower respiratory tract infection in Guarani indigenous children in southern Brazil: a population-based case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Andrey M; Coimbra, Carlos E A; Werneck, Guilherme L

    2013-05-01

    To assess risk factors associated with hospital admission due to acute lower respiratory tract infection (ALRTI) in indigenous Guarani children <5 years of age in southern Brazil. Population-based matched case-control study from May 2007 to June 2008 in 81 Guarani villages. Cases were defined as hospital admissions due to confirmed ALRTI. Two controls free from acute respiratory infection, matched according to age, sex and place of residence, were selected for each case at the time of the case's hospitalisation. Both cases and controls were recruited by a surveillance routine established for the study. The analysis was performed on 120 cases and 201 controls. The risk factors that remained significantly associated with hospitalisation due to ALRTI in the hierarchical multivariate conditional logistic regression were: low stable monthly per capita household income (Guarani children. Our study provides the first evidence about their determinants in indigenous peoples in Brazil that can help to better understand the epidemiology of respiratory infections in indigenous children. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  7. Preliminary Analysis of the Role of Wetlands and Rivers in the Groundwater Discharge of the Guarani Aquifer System in NE Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vives, L.; Rodriguez, L.; Manzano, M.; Valladares, A.; Agarwaal, P.; Araguas, L.

    2011-01-01

    The Guarani Aquifer System (GAS) is a transboundary aquifer occupying parts of Brazil, Uruguay, Paraguay and Argentina, covering some 1200000 km''2. The location and magnitude of recharge and the magnitude of regional discharges are uncertain. Regional groundwater flow modeling suggests that some discharge may occur through selected reaches of the Parana and Uruguay rivers and their tributaries, and perhaps, through the Ibera wetland system within Argentina. Preliminary findings of hydrochemical and isotopic sampling and analysis from surface water and groundwater in the Southern GAS region, studying the role of rivers and wetlands in the aquifer discharge and revising the conceptual model, are presented.

  8. Percepção de saúde na etnia Guarani Mbyá e a atenção à saúde Perception of health among the Guarany Mbyá ethnic group and health care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almir de Amorim Von Held

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available O artigo resulta de pesquisa qualitativa sobre a percepção de saúde da etnia Guarani Mbyá, realizada em três aldeias no Rio Grande do Sul e uma em Santa Catarina. As características culturais da etnia foram pesquisadas na literatura, observadas no trabalho de campo e confirmadas nas vinte entrevistas abertas realizadas com membros das comunidades e profissionais de saúde da Fundação Nacional de Saúde (Funasa que responde pela assistência básica às aldeias. Os resultados mostram que os Mbyá consideram o choque cultural com a sociedade envolvente o principal fator de adoecimento, enfatizando a importância de preservar e valorizar seu modo de vida tradicional para a manutenção da saúde de indivíduos e coletividades. Os dados permitem associar suas representações sobre saúde aos problemas fundiários e de justiça social vivenciados pelos grupos. Apontam a importância de aprimorar a formação dos quadros técnicos de saúde, especificamente no que diz respeito à compreensão das diferenças interétnicas entre a cultura Mbyá e ocidental para garantir a efetividade de tratamentos e programas. A análise ressalta ainda aspectos positivos e negativos na operacionalização da assistência à saúde nas aldeias e, nas considerações finais, são apresentadas sugestões para seu aprimoramento.The article results from a qualitative research on the perception of health of the Guarany Mbyá ethnic group held in 3 villages in the South of Brazil. The cultural characteristics of the group were surveyed in the literature, observed in fieldwork and confirmed in the 20 open interviews conducted with community members and health professionals from the National Health Foundation (FUNASA, responsible for the basic assistance to the villages. The results show that the Mbyá consider the cultural shock with the surrounding society the main factor of illness, emphasizing the importance of preserving and enhancing their traditional way of

  9. The definition of the western boundary of the Guarani Aquifer System (Gran Chaco, Argentina): technical or conventional; Definicion del limite occidental del Sistema Acuifero Guarani (Gran Chaco, Argentina): tecnico o convencional

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodello, E. A.; Veroslavsky, G.

    2012-11-01

    Unlike the eastern, northern and southern borders of the Guarani aquifer system (GAS), which extends beneath considerable regions of Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay and Uruguay, the western boundary, within the Gran Chaco, has no clear hydrogeologic definition that can be recognized at either the surface or subsurface. For this reason, the precise location of the aquifer in this area is open to many different possibilities, depending upon the factors or interests involved. Thus technical specialists have proposed locations that include or exclude, according to their own criteria, large sections of the Argentine Gran Chaco, the management and use of which, from an administrative point of view, imply diverse economic consequences. The Lomadas de Otumpa, located near the border between the Santiago del Estero and Chaco provinces, are gently sloping hills, rising to a height of no more than 110 m above the wide expanse of surrounding plains comprising the Gran Chaco. They trend NNE and are 200 km long and from 20 to 80 km in width, reflecting the presence of the regional Otumpa alignment. The Lomadas de Otumpa are clearly defined at the surface and thus they allow a geographical boundary to be imposed on the GAS sequences according to: i) their notable structural features at the surface, and ii) the close matching of the thinning and/or absence of the associated sedimentary record underground. Because the definition of the limits of the GAS has an influence on its evaluation, management, use and conservation, both at a technical and administrative level, it is of great importance to ascertain its hydrogeologic boundaries. (Author)

  10. Analysis of fracturing in the basalts of the Serra Geral Aquifer and the potential regional recharge of the Guarani Aquifer System; Analise de fraturas dos basaltos do Aquifero Serra Geral e o potencial de recarga regional do Sistema Aquifero Guarani

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandes, A. J.; Assis Negri, F. de; Azevedo Sobrino, J. M.; Varnier, C.

    2012-11-01

    The Geological Institute, belonging to the Ministry for the Environment of the State of Sao Paulo, is currently undertaking regional research into vertical groundwater flow through the basalts in the Serra Geral Aquifer (ASG), which influences recharge of the sandstones in the underlying Guarani Aquifer System (SAG) and therefore the quantity of groundwater available and its susceptibility to pollution. The study area corresponds to the outcropping region of the ASG, an area of the state of Sao Paulo that contains important urban centres. The methods used included: (1) field work, focused on characterizing the vertical tectonic structures and the stresses responsible for their origin; and (2) an analysis of the structural data collected, aimed at identifying brittle tectonic events and their influence on groundwater flow. Distinguishing between cooling and tectonic fractures is a relevant aspect of the field work as only the tectonic events are capable of cutting across the vesicular beds, which otherwise form a barrier against vertical flow and block any connection between the aquifers. Three tectonic strike-slip events have been identified, each having generated hybrid tectonic fractures, which, because they involve extension as well as shearing, potentially favour flow. Diagnostic features suggest the occurrence in the south-western zone of the study area of preferential flow along fractures in the direction N70-80W and N60-80E, and secondary ones trending N20W and N20E; in the northeastern zone there is flow along secondary fractures in the direction N15W and N5-10E and in the central zone N40-65W. (Author)

  11. Evaluation of remotely sensed data for estimating recharge to an outcrop zone of the Guarani Aquifer System (South America)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Murilo; Oliveira, Paulo T. S.; Melo, Davi C. D.; Wendland, Edson

    2015-08-01

    The Guarani Aquifer System (GAS) is the largest transboundary groundwater reservoir in South America, yet recharge in the GAS outcrop zones is one of the least known hydrological variables. The objective of this study was to assess the suitability of using remote sensing data in the water-budget equation for estimating recharge inter-annual patterns in a representative GAS outcropping area. Data were obtained from remotely sensed estimates of precipitation ( P) and evapotranspiration (ET) using TRMM 3B42 V7 and MOD16, respectively, in the Onça Creek watershed in Brazil over the 2004-2012 period. This is an upland flat watershed (slope steepness <1 %) dominated by sandy soils and representative of the GAS outcrop zones. The remote sensing approach was compared to the water-table fluctuation (WTF) method and another water-budget equation using ground-based measurements. On a monthly basis, the TRMM P estimate showed significant agreement with the ground-based P data ( r = 0.93 and RMSE = 41 mm). Mean(±SD) satellite-based recharge ( R sat) was 537(±224) mm year-1. Mean ground-based recharge using the water-budget ( R gr) and the WTF ( R wtf) methods were 469 mm year-1 and 311(±75) mm year-1, respectively. Results show that 440 mm year-1 is a mean (between R sat, R gr and R wtf) recharge for the study area over the 2004-2012 period. The latter mean recharge estimate is about 29 % of the mean historical P (1,514 mm year-1). These results are useful for future studies on assessing recharge in the GAS outcrop zones where data are scarce or nonexistent.

  12. Hydric resources evaluation of the Guarani Aquifer System in the State of Minas Gerais Araguari municipality, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menegasse Velasquez, L.; De Carvalho Filho; Brandao Froes, C.

    2004-01-01

    The general objective of this project is to investigate the aquifers comprised by the Guarany Aquifer System that could eventually be found at the county of Araguari, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The main purpose of this investigation is to assist in the implementation of a comprehensive program for the management of the water resources in this region.The proposal can be justified by the fact that, being Araguari located at the north-northeast limit of the river Parana basin, at the plateau which separates the basins of rivers Paranaiba and Araguari, the town concentrates about 90% of the whole population of the county, and is totally supplied by groundwater from the upper formations (Serra Geral and, predominantly, Bauru). Data on these aquifers are scarce, and their intensive explotation has already given rise to conflicts amongst the several water users, such as public and private water supply companies, and industrial and agricultural sectors. Aiming at the evaluation of the groundwater fluxes behavior in the aquifers, as well as the evaluation of their vulnerability to human impacts, besides some other more specific goals, and taking into account two recent studies carried out in the region, a methodology was proposed for simultaneous approaches to the problem, involving from the establishment of a hydrogeological conceptual model to the elaboration/application of a mathematical model for simulation of the groundwater flux and the preparation of natural and specific vulnerability maps of the aquifer system, including the local water budget. The studies will be conducted by the application of classical hydrological and hydrogeological techniques, as well as by the application of nuclear (tracer) and isotopic techniques [es

  13. Medicinal Plants Used by a Mbyá-Guarani Tribe Against Infections: Activity on KPC-Producing Isolates and Biofilm-Forming Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandelli, Clara Lia Costa; Ribeiro, Vanessa Bley; Zimmer, Karine Rigon; Barth, Afonso Luís; Tasca, Tiana; Macedo, Alexandre José

    2015-11-01

    The traditional use of medicinal plants for treatment of infectious diseases by an indigenous Mbyá-Guarani tribe from South Brazil was assessed by evaluating the antibiotic and antibiofilm activities against relevant bacterial pathogens. Aqueous extracts from 10 medicinal plants were prepared according to indigenous Mbyá-Guarani traditional uses. To evaluate antibiotic (OD600) and antibiofilm (crystal violet method) activities, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, Staphylococcus epidermidis ATCC 35984 and seven multi-drug resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC)-producing bacterial clinical isolates were challenged with the extracts. Furthermore, the susceptibility profile of KPC-producing bacteria and the ability of these isolates to form biofilm were evaluated. The plants Campomanesia xanthocarpa, Maytenus ilicifolia, Bidens pilosa and Verbena sp. showed the best activity against bacterial growth and biofilm formation. The majority of KPC-producing isolates, which showed strong ability to form biofilm and a multidrug resistance profile, was inhibited by more than 50% by some extracts. The Enterobacter cloacae (KPC 05) clinical isolate was the only one resistant to all extracts. This study confirms the importance of indigenous traditional medicinal knowledge and describes for the first time the ability of these plants to inhibit biofilm formation and/or bacterial growth of multi-drug resistant KPC-producing isolates.

  14. Taxonomic Study of Species Formerly Identified as Anopheles mediopunctatus and Resurrection of An. costai (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-05-01

    Diptera: Culicidae). Rev. Bras. Entomol. 10: 169-187. 1962. Entomologia medica, vol. I. Parte Geral, Diptera, Anophelini. Faculdade de Higiene e...Ronderos. 1962. Mosquitos de la Re- Ortiz, I. 1968. Apuentes de entomologia medica: 10s mos- publica Argentina. I. Tribu Anophelini (Diptera - Culic

  15. Bluetongue, Schmallenberg - what is next? Culicoides-borne viral diseases in the 21st Century

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koenraadt, C.J.M.; Balenghien, T.; Carpenter, S.; Ducheyne, E.; Elbers, A.R.W.; Fife, M.; Garros, C.; Ibanez-Justicia, A.; Kampen, H.; Kormelink, R.J.M.; Losson, B.; Poel, van der W.H.M.; Regge, de N.; Rijn, van P.A.; Sanders, C.; Schaffner, F.; Sloet van Oldruitenborgh-Oosterbaan, M.M.; Takken, W.; Werner, D.; Seelig, F.

    2014-01-01

    In the past decade, two pathogens transmitted by Culicoides biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae), bluetongue virus and Schmallenberg virus, have caused serious economic losses to the European livestock industry, most notably affecting sheep and cattle. These outbreaks of arboviral disease have

  16. Bluetongue, Schmallenberg - what is next? : Culicoides-borne viral diseases in the 21st Century

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koenraadt, Constantianus Jm; Balenghien, Thomas; Carpenter, Simon; Ducheyne, Els; Elbers, Armin Rw; Fife, Mark; Garros, Claire; Ibáñez-Justicia, Adolfo; Kampen, Helge; Kormelink, Richard Jm; Losson, Bertrand; van der Poel, Wim Hm; De Regge, Nick; van Rijn, Piet A; Sanders, Christopher; Schaffner, Francis; Sloet van Oldruitenborgh-Oosterbaan, Marianne M|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/075234394; Takken, Willem; Werner, Doreen; Seelig, Frederik

    2014-01-01

    In the past decade, two pathogens transmitted by Culicoides biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae), bluetongue virus and Schmallenberg virus, have caused serious economic losses to the European livestock industry, most notably affecting sheep and cattle. These outbreaks of arboviral disease have

  17. "Conhecimento tradicional" e currículo multicultural: notas com base em uma experiência com estudantes indígenas Kaiowá/Guarani "Traditional knowledge" and the multicultural curriculum: notes from an experience with indigenous Kaiowá/Guarani students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Aparecida de Souza Perrelli

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo situa-se no campo dos estudos culturais que compreendem o currículo escolar como lugar de disputa pela legitimidade de expressão do conhecimento de distintas culturas. Nessa compreensão, e comprometido com o empoderamento do povo indígena Kaiowá/Guarani, este trabalho destina-se a conhecer as especificidades dos saberes das sociedades tradicionais e a levantar questões pertinentes à pesquisa e à inserção deste conhecimento no currículo escolar. Os dados foram obtidos com base em levantamento bibliográfico e por meio de depoimentos de estudantes do Curso de Formação de Professores Indígenas Kaiowá/Guarani de Mato Grosso do Sul. O texto traz uma breve apresentação desse povo indígena e da sua luta pela escola específica e intercultural. Caracteriza o conhecimento tradicional (formas de aquisição, distribuição e transmissão e remete a discussões que argumentam a favor de um currículo escolar aberto aos conhecimentos de culturas historicamente silenciadas.This article is positioned in the field of cultural studies that includes the school curriculum as a place of disputed legitimacy for the expression of the knowledge of different cultures. Based on this theory, and committed to the empowerment of indigenous Kaiowá/Guarani people, this work aims to understand the specific knowledge of traditional societies and raise issues that are relevant to research and the place of such knowledge in the school curriculum. The data were obtained from bibliographical research and through testimonials from students on the Course for Indigenous Kaiowá/Guarani Teachers of the Mato Grosso do Sul. This text provides a brief overview of indigenous people and their struggle for a schooling that is specific and intercultural. Also, it features traditional knowledge (forms of acquisition, distribution and transmission and refers to discussions which sustain a school curriculum open to the knowledge of cultures which are historically

  18. Relation between sedimentary framework and hydrogeology in the Guarani Aquifer System in São Paulo state, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, Ricardo; Gesicki, Ana; Sracek, Ondra; Bertolo, Reginaldo; Giannini, Paulo César; Aravena, Ramón

    2011-04-01

    This paper presents the results of a new investigation of the Guarani Aquifer System (SAG) in São Paulo state. New data were acquired about sedimentary framework, flow pattern, and hydrogeochemistry. The flow direction in the north of the state is towards the southwest and not towards the west as expected previously. This is linked to the absence of SAG outcrop in the northeast of São Paulo state. Both the underlying Pirambóia Formation and the overlying Botucatu Formation possess high porosity (18.9% and 19.5%, respectively), which was not modified significantly by diagenetic changes. Investigation of sediments confirmed a zone of chalcedony cement close to the SAG outcrop and a zone of calcite cement in the deep confined zone. The main events in the SAG post-sedimentary history were: (1) adhesion of ferrugineous coatings on grains, (2) infiltration of clays in eodiagenetic stage, (3) regeneration of coatings with formation of smectites, (4) authigenic overgrowth of quartz and K-feldspar in advanced eodiagenetic stage, (5) bitumen cementation of Pirambóia Formation in mesodiagenetic stage, (6) cementation by calcite in mesodiagenetic and telodiagenetic stages in Pirambóia Formation, (7) formation of secondary porosity by dissolution of unstable minerals after appearance of hydraulic gradient and penetration of the meteoric water caused by the uplift of the Serra do Mar coastal range in the Late Cretaceous, (8) authigenesis of kaolinite and amorphous silica in unconfined zone of the SAG and cation exchange coupled with the dissolution of calcite at the transition between unconfined and confined zone, and (9) authigenesis of analcime in the confined SAG zone. The last two processes are still under operation. The deep zone of the SAG comprises an alkaline pH, Na-HCO 3 groundwater type with old water and enriched δ 13C values (-18.8) close to the SAG outcrop. This is consistent with a conceptual geochemical model of the SAG, suggesting dissolution of calcite

  19. Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class III genetics in two Amerindian tribes from southern Brazil: the Kaingang and the Guarani.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weg-Remers, S; Brenden, M; Schwarz, E; Witzel, K; Schneider, P M; Guerra, L K; Rehfeldt, I R; Lima, M T; Hartmann, D; Petzl-Erler, M L; de Messias, I J; Mauff, G

    1997-10-01

    Population genetic studies of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class III region, comprising C2, BF and C4 phenotypes, and molecular genetic data are rarely available for populations other than Caucasoids. We have investigated three Amerindian populations from Southern Brazil: 131 Kaingang from Ivaí (KIV), 111 Kaingang (KRC) and 100 Guarani (GRC) from Rio das Cobras. Extended MHC haplotypes were derived after standard C2, BF, C4 phenotyping and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis with TaqI, together with HLA data published previously by segregation analysis. C2 and BF frequencies corresponded to other Amerindian populations. C4B*Q0 frequency was high in the GRC (0.429) but low in the Kaingang. Unusual C4 alleles were found, viz. C4A*58, A*55 and C4B*22 (presumably non-Amerindian) and aberrant C4A*3 of Amerindian origin occurring with a frequency of 0.223 in the GRC. C4A*3 bands of homo- and heterozygous individuals carrying this variant were Rodgers 1 positive and Chido 1,3 positive, showed a C4A specific lysis type and a C4A like alpha-chain. Polymerase chain reaction studies and sequencing showed that this is based on a C4A*3 duplication with a regular C4A*3 and a partially converted C4A*0304 carrying the C4B specific epitopes Ch 6 and Ch 1,3. Associations of class III haplotypes with particular RFLP patterns were similar to those reported for Caucasoids. The previously described association between combined C4A and CYP21P deletions and the 6.4 kb TaqI fragment was not seen in these Amerindians. This fragment occurred within a regular two locus gene structure in the Kaingang, representing a "short" gene at C4 locus I. C4 and CYP21 duplications were frequently observed. The distribution of extended MHC haplotypes provides evidence for a close relationship between the KIV and KRC and a larger genetic distance between the two Kaingang groups and the GRC.

  20. Infestation of fruit fly, Bactrocera (Diptera: Tephritidae) on mango ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Infestation of fruit fly, Bactrocera (Diptera: Tephritidae) on mango ( Mangifera indica L.) in peninsular Malaysia. ... Abstract. A survey was carried out in mango orchards in Peninsular Malaysia with aimed to determine the ... HOW TO USE AJOL.

  1. Social representations of the health care of the Mbyá-Guarani indigenous population by health workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falkenberg, Mirian Benites; Shimizu, Helena Eri; Bermudez, Ximena Pamela Díaz

    2017-02-06

    to analyze the social representations of health care of the Mbyá-Guarani ethnic group by multidisciplinary teams from the Special Indigenous Health District in the south coast of Rio Grande do Sul state (Distrito Sanitário Especial Indígena Litoral Sul do Rio Grande do Sul), Brazil. a qualitative method based on the theory of social representations was used. Data were collected via semi-structured interviews with 20 health workers and by participant observation. The interviews were analyzed with ALCESTE software, which conducts a lexical content analysis using quantitative techniques for the treatment of textual data. there were disagreements in the health care concepts and practices between traditional medicine and biomedicine; however, some progress has been achieved in the area of intermedicality. The ethnic boundaries established between health workers and indigenous peoples based on their representations of culture and family, together with the lack of infrastructure and organization of health actions, are perceived as factors that hinder health care in an intercultural context. a new basis for the process of indigenous health care needs to be established by understanding the needs identified and by agreement among individuals, groups, and health professionals via intercultural exchange. analisar as representações sociais do cuidado em saúde entre trabalhadores que atuam em equipes multidisciplinares no Distrito Sanitário Especial Indígena Litoral Sul do Rio Grande do Sul, junto à etnia Mbyá-Guarani. utilizou-se método qualitativo, fundamentado na teoria das Representações Sociais. Os dados foram coletados por meio de entrevistas semiestruturadas com 20 trabalhadores e da observação participante. As entrevistas analisadas com o software ALCESTE, o qual realiza a análise lexical de conteúdo por meio de técnicas quantitativas de tratamento de dados textuais. verificou-se que existe tensão entre as concepções e práticas de cuidado da

  2. O AQÜÍFERO GUARANI E SEUS PARÂMETROS JURÍDICOS: PERSPECTIVAS E LÓGICAS DA ESCASSEZ DE ÁGUA DOCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Guy Caubet

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available O Aqüífero Guarani não é um tanque de água subterrâneo. É um conjunto fraturado de eventuais oportunidades de obter água potável em diversos lugares. Quando usadas suas águas, cria-se espaço para receber águas superficiais eventualmente contaminadas. O balanço atual do uso das águas de superfície e subterrâneas, no mundo todo, evidencia que a mercantilização substitui rapidamente as antigas obrigações de políticas públicas de providenciar água de qualidade em quantidades suficientes para o conjunto da população. As normas nacionais e internacionais recém adotadas não são suficientes para reverter o quadro atual.

  3. "Piores que bestas feras": Garcilaso de la Vega e o imaginário hispano-inca sobre os Guarani Chiriguano

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    Protasio Paulo Langer

    Full Text Available No presente artigo propomos uma análise do imaginário de Garcilaso de la Vega sobre os Chiriguano - povo guarani falante que, por volta do século XV, se estabeleceu nas fronteiras do império andino. O tenaz enfrentamento que travaram contra os exércitos imperiais incaicos e, posteriormente, contra os hispânicos ensejou que o cronista Garcilaso de la Vega descrevesse os Chiriguano como a antítese da civilização. Nossa análise incide sobre como esse cronista mestiço abordou os Chiriguano, no intuito de tecer similaridades entre o imaginário cristão e o inca.

  4. RELIGIÃO GUARANI NHANDEWA: UMA COMPLEXA ORGANIZAÇÃO E RECRIAÇÃO PARA A VIDA E A EDUCAÇÃO.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosangela Célia Faustino

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available O presente texto apresenta um estudo sobre aspectos históricos, culturais e religiosos dos Guarani Nhandewa evidenciando como a religião, antiga e atual são complexas em detalhes sendo elemento importantíssimo na cosmovisão dos grupos pois permeia todos os domínios da vida, da luta pela sobrevivência e permanência enquanto grupo étnico diferenciado. Destaca-se o relevante caráter da educação entendida como um dom sagrado, recebido de Nhanderu, mas que deve ser exercitada e aprendida por toda a vida pela mediação daqueles que sabem mais, os adultos e os mais velhos.

  5. Preliminary Analysis of the Role of Wetlands and Rivers in the Groundwater Discharge of the Guarani Aquifer System in NE Argentina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vives, L., E-mail: lvives@faa.unicen.edu.ar [Instituto de Hidrologia de Llanuras, Universidad Nacional del Centro de la Provincia de Buenos Aires, Azul (Argentina); Rodriguez, L. [Centro de Estudios Hidroambientales, Facultad de Ingenieria y Ciencias Hidricas, Universidad Nacional del Litoral, Santa Fe (Argentina); Manzano, M. [Escuela de Ingenieria de Caminos y de Minas, Universidad Politecnica de Cartagena, Cartagena (Spain); Valladares, A. [Subsecretaria de Recursos Hidricos (Argentina); Aggarwal, P. K.; Araguas Araguas, L. [International Atomic Energy Angency, Vienna (Austria)

    2013-07-15

    The Guarani Aquifer System (GAS) is the largest aquifer in South America. Previous regional hydrochemical and isotopic studies suggested that discharge may occur at wetlands and reaches of the Parana and Uruguay Rivers. Preliminary findings of a project aimed at verifying the discharge hypothesis on the southern GAS region are presented. The hydrochemical- isotopic composition of 17 samples from surface and groundwater in that area were analysed. Some waters showed chemical facies and isotopic (stable isotope and carbon-14) signatures similar to the formerly identified as GAS+pre-GAS formations. Admixtures between modern and GAS+pre-GAS waters were found at depths between less than 100 m and 200 m. A 96 m deep well located near the Ibera lagoon showed chemical and isotopic composition indicating presence of GAS waters. The hydraulic gradient favours upward flow near the wetlands, but surface waters seem to originate from local recharge. Investigations continue, incorporating {sup 222}Rn and new sampling sites. (author)

  6. A Manifestação de Tópico e Foco em Línguas da Família Tupi-Guarani

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    Marcia Maria Damaso VIEIRA

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Neste artigo, temos como objetivo identificar e descrever algumas construções envolvendo tópico e foco em duas línguas da família Tupi-Guarani: Asurini do Trocará e Tupinambá. Com base na abordagem cartográfica de Rizzi (1997,2004 para a periferia esquerda da oração, forneceremos evidências para a manifestação de diferentes tipos de categorias discursivas, como tópico com deslocamento para a esquerda e foco nas construções conhecidas como Indicativo II. Com a fi nalidade de enriquecer o nosso trabalho, resgatamos a análise de Rodrigues (1990 sobre um determinado tipo de foco verifi cado em Tupinambá que apresenta comportamento semelhante ao sistema de obviation encontrado nas línguas algonquinas.

  7. Using 81Kr-age of groundwater in the Guarani Aquifer, Brazil, to constrain estimates of continental degassing flux of 4He

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, P. K.; Matsumoto, T.; Sturchio, N. C.; Chang, H. K.; Gastmans, D.; Lu, Z.; Jiang, W.; Müller, P.; Yokochi, R.; Han, L.; Klaus, P.; Torgersen, T.

    2013-12-01

    Continental degassing flux of helium is the dominant component of dissolved helium in deep groundwater together with that produced in-situ in the aquifer. A reliable estimate of the degassing flux is critical to the use of 4He as a dating tool in groundwater studies. The degassing flux is also important for understanding fluid and heat transport in the mantle and the rust. An independent tracer of groundwater age is required in order to deconvolute the two signals of the external, degassing flux and in situ production. Estimates of degassing flux mostly have relied upon shorter-lived radionuclides such as 14C and tritium and the resulting flux estimates have a significant variability (Torgersen, 2010). In the Guarani Aquifer in Brazil, an effective crustal 4He degassing flux into the aquifer was estimated from 81Kr ages ranging from about 70 Ka to 570 Ka. We then used the model framework of Toregesen and Ivey (1985), modified to include a diffusive reduction of originally uniform crustal helium flux from basement rocks through a thick sedimentary layer beneath the aquifer, to calculate a distribution of radiogenic 4He within the aquifer. With this framework, we obtain 4He ages that are consistent with ages based on 81Kr and 14C, and with a crustal degassing flux equivalent to that estimated from U and Th contents in the crust. The model framework for the Guarani Aquifer is also applied to data from other deep aquifers in Africa and Australia and our results suggest that the continental flux of 4He may be uniform, at least in stable continental areas. Additionally, a reliable estimate of the 4He degassing flux also helps to constrain the surficial discharge of deep groundwater.

  8. ENTRE O DEVIR E A TRANSFORMAÇÃO: REFLEXÕES ANTROPOLÓGICAS ENTRE OS MBYÁ-GUARANI NO CONE SUL

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    Bruno Nascimento Huyer

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho é resultado de pesquisas antropológicas realizadas entre os Mbyá-Guarani na Região Sul do Brasil e norte da Argentina. Baseando-se no método etnográfico, a pesquisa buscou noções nativas de relação com as alteridades, humanas e não humanas. Para este fim, o trabalho dividiu-se em duas partes: a primeira centra-se na análise de um homem que acabou transformando-se em onça ao desejar em excesso o sangue das carnes cruas. A segunda parte busca apresentar como essa transformação pode informar a relação dos Mbyá com os não indígenas. Para isso, parte-se da história de um mbyá que, enfeitiçado por uma mulher não indígena, casa-se com ela e passa a morar na cidade, abandonando sua família. Essas duas histórias parecem sugerir que, do mesmo modo que o Mbyá motivado pelo desejo de carne (crua transforma-se em onça e abandona seus parentes para viver na floresta, há os Guarani que, enfeitiçados pela carne (nua dos não indígenas, abandonam suas famílias para viver nas cidades. Conclui-se que a relação com outrem necessita ser praticada com os cuidados de uma boa distância para não cair no risco da mestiçagem.

  9. Mito, diversidade cultural e educação: notas sobre a invisibilidade guarani no Rio Grande do Sul e algumas estratégias nativas de superação

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    Ceres Karam Brum

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ResumoA questão da invisibilidade guarani no Rio Grande do Sul se assenta em um conjunto de elementos que perpassam a história dessas populações de diferentes formas. Dentre eles se destacam narrativas produzidas por não índios e que apresentam visões recorrentes e idealizadas que têm como referentes expressões do folclore gaúcho. Nos últimos anos, porém, perspectivas indígenas passam a integrar as significações acerca desse passado e questionar a invisibilidade guarani no Rio Grande do Sul. Trata-se dos filmes produzidos pelo Coletivo Mbya-Guarani de Cinema/Vídeo nas Aldeias. Ao longo deste texto desejamos analisar algumas relações entre mito, diversidade cultural e educação, tomando como base essas representações acerca do passado missioneiro, acionadas a partir do Sítio Arqueológico de São Miguel Arcanjo e da figura de Sepé Tiaraju.

  10. O turismo como agente de desenvolvimento social e a comunidade Guarani nas “Ruínas Jesuíticas de São Miguel das Missões”

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    Guerreiro Marcon, Elza Maria

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The expansion of the touristic activity has given place a new reflection about the process of local and regional development that tourism produces, for it has capacity of increasing profit in the regions where it occurs. Taking into account that the cultural tourism is an agent of development, this article deals with the trajectory of the Guarani Mbya community from 1988 to 2003 in the county of São Miguel das Missões, in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, where the touristic attraction is the “Jesuitic Ruins of Saint Michael of the Missions”. The article tries to identify the benefits wich the community has had, due to the local touristic activity. It was confirmed that the Guarani, as a result of this activity, are now the owners of the land and that their permanence in the Inhacapetum reserve is a way of showing the development factor in this analized period of time and the role that touristic activity has had in their lives. Even though the State of Rio Grande do Sul has claimed it is the responsible for all this ac-complishment, this isn’t confirmed. Citizens related to the local government where the indian settlement is located, are main responsibles for the benefits reached by the Guarani community

  11. Diagnóstico sobre o conhecimento da comunidade em uma área de recarga do Aquífero Guarani, região de São Carlos, SP, Brasil / Diagnosis of community knowledge in a recharge area of the Guarani Aquifer, the region of Sao Carlos, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Maria Barbosa Martins

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available As águas superficiais estão escassas em algumas regiões do Brasil, além de ser um problema generalizado à poluição das mesmas, de tal forma que o abastecimento público em muitas cidades é feito com o uso de águas subterrâneas retiradas de aquíferos por poços tubulares profundos. O Aquífero Guarani está localizado na região centro-leste da América do Sul e a cidade de São Carlos (SP é uma das que se localizam diretamente acima dele, em uma região de recarga desse sistema. Cerca de 50% do abastecimento de água de São Carlos é oriundo do Aquífero Guarani, sendo assim, há uma preocupação em buscar informações e informar a população da cidade de sua existência e possíveis ameaças de contaminação. No presente trabalho, foi desenvolvido um questionário para levantamento do conhecimento da comunidade de moradores dos bairros Cidade Aracy, Antenor Garcia e região, localizados sobre área de recarga do Aquífero, com solo arenoso. A aplicação do questionário foi em forma de entrevista com os moradores. Também se verificou junto a órgãos públicos e ONGs a existência de trabalhos destinados à divulgação e orientação a respeito do tema. Os resultados obtidos indicam que há pouco ou nenhum conhecimento sobre o tema pelos moradores e faltam adequações locais para a preservação desse bem público. Há trabalhos desenvolvidos no local por ONGs e universidades, mas sem relação direta com o Aquífero Guarani. Conclui-se, com o presente estudo, que há a necessidade inicial de informar a população local sobre o aquífero e sua área de recarga. A elaboração de material educativo para divulgação do tema, a ser usado em escolas e grupos organizados sem tempo de término, pode ser uma estratégia apropriada para um trabalho que deve ser contínuo e progressivo.

  12. Guarani Paraguayo [Encyclopedia entry

    OpenAIRE

    Drude, S.

    2005-01-01

    Guaraní , Paraguaisches Guaraní, Eigen-Bez. Avañe’ẽ, Sprache in Paraguay (über 3,5 Mio. Sprecher, 95 % der Bev.), NO-Argentinien (bis zu 1 Mio. Sprecher) und S-Brasilien. Das zu den Tupí-Guaraní-Sprachen zählende G. ist eine der größten → Indianersprachen S-Amerikas (nach Ketschua und vor Aimara) und die einzige, die überwiegend von Nicht-Indianern gebraucht wird. Seit den 1990-Jahren ist das G. in Paraguay als Nationalsprache anerkannt und wird auch in Schulen verwendet. Das G. wurde durch d...

  13. “E OS CABOCLOS FORAM SE ACABANDO”: A (reconstrução de sentidos do passado dos Caboclos da Vila de Guarany

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    Marcos Felipe Vicente

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available A História Pública tem apresentado um esforço de construção de uma história com maior participação de seus públicos, desde seu entendimento como plateia, ao seu papel de sujeitos históricos. Utilizando a História oral como fundamento teórico-metodológico, este trabalho busca analisar a construção da memória dos descendentes dos Caboclos de Guarany no início do século XXI e a forma como representam seu passado ancestral e seu direito à terra, atribuindo sentidos ao passado e ao presente. Dessa maneira, a memória desses descendentes representa uma resistência ao interminável processo de expropriação e, principalmente, ao esquecimento produzido pela sociedade, em processo de compartilhamento de autoridade sobre o que se produziu entre depoentes e pesquisador.   PALAVRAS-CHAVE: História Pública, Memória, Esquecimento, Identidades.     ABSTRACT The Public History has shown an effort to build a history with greater participation of its public, since its understanding as an audience to its role as historical subjects. Using oral history as a theoretical-methodological foundation, this paper aims to the construction of the Caboclos of Guarany descendants' memory in the beginning of  the 21st century and the way they represent their ancestral past and their right to the land, assigning meanings to past and present. In this way, the memory of these descendants represents a resistance to the endless process of expropriation and, mainly, to the oblivion produced by society, in process of sharing authority over what took place between deponents and researcher.   KEYWORDS: Public History, Memory, Oblivion, Identities.     RESUMEN La historia pública ha demostrado esfuerzo para  la construcción de una historia con una mayor participación de su público, desde su comprensión como audiencia, a su papel como sujetos históricos. Utilizando la historia oral como fundamento teórico y metodológico, este trabajo analiza la

  14. Diptera, Drosophilidae: historical occurrence in Brazil

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    Valente, V. L. S.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This study presents a literature review of Drosophilidae (Diptera species occurrence in Brazil. The number of speciesrecorded is 304, with Drosophila being the genus with the greatest number of species, followed by Zygothrica,Hirtodrosophila and Diathoneura, which belong to the Drosophilinae subfamily. Drosophila was shown to be the mostinvestigated taxon in the family, with the best resolved species distribution. The low number of records of species fromother genera indicates the paucity of studies specifically designed to investigate these species. Records of species forsome regions of the country like the north and northeast, as well as for some biomes like Caatinga, Pantanal and thePampas, are likewise rare. Apart from the banana bait, different collection methods may be necessary, like thecollection at other oviposition resources, the use of baits other than fermenting fruit, and the adoption of samplingapproaches that do not use baits.

  15. History of tachinid classification (Diptera, Tachinidae

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    James O Hara

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The history of the classification of the Tachinidae (Diptera is traced from Meigen to the present. The contributions of Robineau-Desvoidy, Townsend, Villeneuve, Mesnil, Herting, Wood and many others are discussed within a chronological, taxonomic, and geographic context. The gradual development of the Tachinidae into its modern concept as a family of the Oestroidea and the emergence of the classificatory scheme of tribes and subfamilies in use today are reviewed. Certain taxa that have in the past been difficult to place, or continue to be of uncertain affinity, are considered and some are given in a table to show their varied historical treatments. The more significant systematic works published on the Tachinidae in recent decades are enumerated chronologically.

  16. Rehydration of forensically important larval Diptera specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanford, Michelle R; Pechal, Jennifer L; Tomberlin, Jeffery K

    2011-01-01

    Established procedures for collecting and preserving evidence are essential for all forensic disciplines to be accepted in court and by the forensic community at large. Entomological evidence, such as Diptera larvae, are primarily preserved in ethanol, which can evaporate over time, resulting in the dehydration of specimens. In this study, methods used for rehydrating specimens were compared. The changes in larval specimens with respect to larval length and weight for three forensically important blow fly (Diptera: Calliphoridae) species in North America were quantified. Phormia regina (Meigen), Cochliomyia macellaria (F.), and Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart) third-instar larvae were collected from various decomposing animals and preserved with three preservation methods (80% ethanol, 70% isopropyl alcohol, and hot-water kill then 80% ethanol). Preservative solutions were allowed to evaporate. Rehydration was attempted with either of the following: 80% ethanol, commercial trisodium phosphate substitute solution, or 0.5% trisodium phosphate solution. All three methods partially restored weight and length of specimens recorded before preservation. Analysis of variance results indicated that effects of preservation, rehydration treatment, and collection animal were different in each species. The interaction between preservative method and rehydration treatment had a significant effect on both P. regina and C. macellaria larval length and weight. In addition, there was a significant interaction effect of collection animal on larval C. macellaria measurements. No significant effect was observed in C. rufifacies larval length or weight among the preservatives or treatments. These methods could be used to establish a standard operating procedure for dealing with dehydrated larval specimens in forensic investigations.

  17. O ESTADO NACIONAL E AS POLÍTICAS DESENVOLVIMENTISTAS: O “CERCO ARTICULADO” CONTRA OS GUARANI NA TRÍPLICE FRONTEIRA SUL

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    Senilde Alcântara Guanaes

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This text talks about the history of forced displacement of the Avá Guarani people in the southern triple border, especially in western Paraná, caused by conservation projects, economic enterprises and territorial expansion, and by dictatorial regimes which expropriated traditional populations, indigenous and rural of their homelands. On the one hand, it is proposed contextualize historically the current social and political situation of the indigenous peoples in the region, and on the other, the forms of struggle and resistance articulated by the indigenous movements. From this local context, is possible to broaden the discussion about to the territorial, economic and political conditions of the indigenous peoples for the all country, especially in border areas, questioning not only the relationship with the national state and civil society, but also the environmental policies and guardianship of the various actors involved, examining the political and ethnic clashes with the surrounding society and with the own Anthropology, which has also been challenged to think and relate to a new indigenous protagonism. The indigenous movement has sought act not only in the political spaces and government, but also in the academic spheres and the media.

  18. Stable isotopes (2H, 18O and 13C) in groundwaters from the northwestern portion of the Guarani Aquifer System (Brazil)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gastmans, Didier; Chang, Hung Kiang; Hutcheon, Ian

    2010-09-01

    The groundwater flow pattern of the western part of the Guarani Aquifer System (GAS), Brazil, is characterized by three regional recharge areas in the north, and a potentiometric divide in the south, which trends north-south approximately. Groundwater flow is radial from these regional recharge areas toward the center of Paraná Sedimentary Basin and toward the western outcrop areas at the border of the Pantanal Matogrossense, because of the potentiometric divide. The isotopic composition of GAS groundwater leads to understanding the paleoclimatic conditions in the regional recharge areas. The δ18O and δ2H isotopic ratios of GAS groundwaters vary, respectively, from -9.1 to -4.8‰ V-SMOW and -58.4 to -21.7‰ V-SMOW. In the recharge zones, enriched δ18O values are observed, while in the confined zone lighter δ18O values are observed. These suggest that climatic conditions were 10°C cooler than the present during the recharge of these waters. The δ13C ratios in groundwater of GAS, in the study area, vary from -19.5 to -6.5‰ VPDB, increasing along the regional flow lines toward the confined zone. This variation is related to dissolution of carbonate cement in the sandstones.

  19. VULNERABILIDADE E RISCO À CONTAMINAÇÃO DOS SOLOS DA ÁREA DE RECARGA DO AQUÍFERO GUARANI NO ESTADO DE GOIÁS

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    Thaís Moreira Alves

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho tem como objetivo apresentar a estimativa da vulnerabilidade natural e risco dos solos à contaminação nas áreas de recarga do Aqüífero Guarani, no sudoeste do Estado de Goiás (SAG/GOIÁS. Para estabelecer as classes de vulnerabilidade desses solos utilizou-se de técnicas de SIG, cruzando-se os mapas de declividade dos terrenos com o de solos, o de condutividade hidráulica e o de uso do solo, todos na mesma escala, obtendo-se as classes de vulnerabilidade e de risco. Avaliou-se que 45% das áreas de recarga do aqüífero possuem vulnerabilidade muito alta e 47% são consideradas da classe alta, juntas somando mais de 90% da área total de recarga do aqüífero no Estado de Goiás. Calculou-se que 32,8% apresentam alto risco e 27,5% apresentam muito alto risco somado 60% do total da área. Concluiu-se que a vulnerabilidade e risco da área de recarga do SAG em Goiás são elevados e por isso inspiram cuidados, sobretudo preventivos, com o uso, manejo e conservação dos solos.

  20. Stochastic simulation of time-series models combined with geostatistics to predict water-table scenarios in a Guarani Aquifer System outcrop area, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzione, Rodrigo L.; Wendland, Edson; Tanikawa, Diego H.

    2012-11-01

    Stochastic methods based on time-series modeling combined with geostatistics can be useful tools to describe the variability of water-table levels in time and space and to account for uncertainty. Monitoring water-level networks can give information about the dynamic of the aquifer domain in both dimensions. Time-series modeling is an elegant way to treat monitoring data without the complexity of physical mechanistic models. Time-series model predictions can be interpolated spatially, with the spatial differences in water-table dynamics determined by the spatial variation in the system properties and the temporal variation driven by the dynamics of the inputs into the system. An integration of stochastic methods is presented, based on time-series modeling and geostatistics as a framework to predict water levels for decision making in groundwater management and land-use planning. The methodology is applied in a case study in a Guarani Aquifer System (GAS) outcrop area located in the southeastern part of Brazil. Communication of results in a clear and understandable form, via simulated scenarios, is discussed as an alternative, when translating scientific knowledge into applications of stochastic hydrogeology in large aquifers with limited monitoring network coverage like the GAS.

  1. A combined method for evaluating radon and progeny in waters and its use at Guarani aquifer, São Paulo State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonotto, D M; Mello, C B

    2006-01-01

    A combined method for evaluating radon (222Rn) and progeny (214Pb and 214Bi) in water was developed by using inexpensive alpha scintillation counting and gamma ray spectrometry through NaI(Tl) scintillation detectors. A groundwater sample collected at the Poços de Caldas alkaline massif in Brazil was submitted to the technique in order to assure its applicability by comparing the volumetric activities by different methods. Similar volumetric activity was determined for 214Pb and 214Bi in the sample analyzed that is compatible with the expected condition of radioactive equilibrium between these nuclides. The combined method was successfully used to analyze groundwater samples from Guarani aquifer in São Paulo State, Brazil, and the results of the measurements indicated that 214Pb and 214Bi provide useful information concerning the evaluation of the drinking water quality in terms of radiological aspects. This is because they are directly identified in the water samples, without the need of requiring the assumption of the establishment of the transient equilibrium condition with its parent 222Rn.

  2. DEUS É AMOR: ACULTURAÇÃO RELIGIOSA E ETNOCÍDIO ENTRE OS GUARANI KAIOWÁ NA ALDEIA BORORÓ DE DOURADOS, MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabíola Renata Caldas

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Tivemos por objetivo no presente trabalho analisar a evangelização realizada pelas missões evangélicas e católicas em povos indígenas, destacando os diferentes métodos utilizados pelas missões, que seriam a transculturação e a inculturação. Outrossim, discutimos o genocídio cultural, também denominado etnocídio, conduta não tipificada como crime, tampouco reconhecida perante o Tribunal Penal Internacional e o Estatuto de Roma, mas que decorre do extermínio do “outro”, por meio da destruição da sua cultura, religião, língua, etc. Ao final, analisamos a atuação dos evangélicos em aldeias de Dourados e seu entorno, dando enfoque ao caso concreto da Igreja Pentecostal Deus é Amor, entre o povo Guarani Kaiowá, na Aldeia Bororó na cidade de Dourados, que sofreu e ainda sofre uma forma de genocídio cultural por meio da transculturação realizada por essa missão evangélica. Palavras-chave: Missões. Povos indígenas. Etnocídio.

  3. Pedagogização da literacy e alunos indígenas Guarani e Kaiowá de Dourados/MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilda Moraes Garcia Bruno

    Full Text Available Resumo Este trabalho objetiva discutir, a partir das contribuições de Brian Street, a pedagogização da literacy1 que ocorre entre os indígenas Guarani e Kaiowá da cidade de Dourados, no Mato Grosso do Sul. De abordagem etnográfica, com base nos Estudos Culturais, os dados da pesquisa foram coletados utilizando o instrumento da observação, da entrevista com 10 professores e de um conjunto de atividades pedagógicas realizadas com 08 alunos indígenas, com idade entre 12 a 15 anos. Os resultados do estudo apontam que o domínio da leitura e da escrita, além do conhecimento dos códigos ocidentais, tem sido sinônimo de sucesso profissional e acadêmico. Embora os alunos indígenas tenham um conhecimento tradicional, reconhecido a partir das histórias do seu povo, o que tem sido valorizado na escola é o código da escrita, que, ao não ser dominado, gera estigmas e preconceitos.

  4. PULSÕES NA ARTE MBYÁ-GUARANI: OS SEUS PENSAMENTOS E SENTIMENTOS REFLETIDOS ATRAVÉS DOS OBJETOS CERÂMICOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franklin da Silva Alonso

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Esse ensaio se refere à investigação acadêmica iniciada por mim no curso de Mestrado em Arte, Cultura e Cognição na Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro entre 2012 e 2014, tendo por objeto de estudos a cerâmica dos índios Mbyá-Guarani em suas aldeias localizadas nas cidades de Niterói e de Maricá, Rio de Janeiro. Percebendo haver atualmente um distanciamento desses índios com a arte oleira, buscou-se revitalizar nesses ambientes tal prática por meio de oficinas de trabalho coletivo junto às crianças mbyá, apresentando-lhes as características morfológicas e pictóricas tradicionais que os itens cerâmicos simbolicamente expõe para haver a devida valorização de sua etnicidade frente à sociedade contemporânea dos não índios.

  5. UM ESTUDO DE CASO SOBRE O FUMO, O USO DOS CACHIMBOS E AS PRÁTICAS DE FUMAR ENTRE OS MBYÁ-GUARANI (RS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Pôrto Marques

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo trata de uma pesquisa acerca dos cachimbos utilizados entre grupos indígenas Mbyá-Guarani de aldeias próximas à cidade de Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul. Com o intuito de estudar o uso do fumo e as práticas do fumar – nos cachimbos (petynguá – se buscou, através da prática etnográfica, perceber de que maneira e em que medida se dá esse uso e o que ele significa para tais grupos. Traz-se, ainda, referências em trabalhos etnográficos acerca do uso do fumo entre outras etnias ameríndias, a fim de proporcionar certo entendimento de tal temática, no sentido de reforçar a valorização da prática de fumar como parte fundamental da sociocosmologia de muitos grupos ameríndios.

  6. Checklist of the family Simuliidae (Diptera of Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jari Ilmonen

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A checklist of the family Simuliidae (Diptera is provided for Finland and recognizes 56 species. One new record has been added (Simulium latipes and one name sunken in synonymy (Simulium carpathicum. Furthermore, Simulium tsheburovae is treated as a doubtful record.

  7. Invloed van inundatie van graslanden op terrestrische dansmuggen (Diptera: Chironomidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moller Pilot, H.

    2005-01-01

    Influence of flooding on terrestrial chironomids in grassland (Diptera: Chironomidae) Although flooding is an important factor for the invertebrate fauna of grassland, not much is published on this topic. As in other groups the different species of terrestrial Chironomidae display different

  8. Crowdsourcing for large-scale mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampling a cosmopolitan mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) species throughout its range is logistically challenging and extremely resource intensive. Mosquito control programmes and regional networks operate at the local level and often conduct sampling activities across much of North America. A method f...

  9. Initial survey of predacious diptera on hemlocks in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hisashi Ohishi; Shigehiko Shiyake; Yorio Miyatake; Ashley Lamb; Michael E. Montgomery

    2011-01-01

    Some species of Coleoptera and Diptera are specialist predators of adelgids. Previously, we reported our survey of predacious Coleoptera on hemlocks in Japan (Shiyake et al. 2008). Two of these beetles, Sasajiscymnus tsugae and Laricobius sp. nov., have been exported to the U.S. for biological control. Here, we provide the first...

  10. Estimation of larval density of Liriomyza sativae Blanchard (Diptera ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted to develop sequential sampling plans to estimate larval density of Liriomyza sativae Blanchard (Diptera: Agromyzidae) at three precision levels in cucumber greenhouse. The within- greenhouse spatial patterns of larvae were aggregated. The slopes and intercepts of both Iwao's patchiness ...

  11. New sanitation techniques for controlling tephritid fruit flies (Diptera ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    New approaches to sanitation in a cropping system susceptible to tephritid fruit flies (Diptera tephritidae) in Hawaii have been investigated. Six trials were conducted in tent-like structures to demonstrate that melon fly larvae (Bacrocera cucurbitae, Coquillett) are not reliably controlled by malathion sprayed on the surface of ...

  12. Surface ultrastructure of third-instar Megaselia scalaris (Diptera: Phoridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukontason Kabkaew L

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe some ultrastructure of the third-instar Megaselia scalaris (Diptera: Phoridae using scanning electron microscopy, with the cephalic segment, anterior spiracle and posterior spiracle being emphasized. This study provides the taxonomic information of this larval species, which may be useful to differentiate from other closely-related species.

  13. Comprehensive inventory of true flies (Diptera) at a tropical site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian V. Brown; Art Borkent; Peter H. Adler; Dalton de Souza Amorim; Kevin Barber; Daniel Bickel; Stephanie Boucher; Scott E. Brooks; John Burger; Zelia L. Burington; Renato S. Capellari; Daniel N. R. Costa; Jeffrey M. Cumming; Greg Curler; Carl W. Dick; John H. Epler; Eric Fisher; Stephen D. Gaimari; Jon Gelhaus; David A. Grimaldi; John Hash; Martin Hauser; Heikki Hippa; Sergio Ibanez-Bernal; Mathias Jaschhof; Elena P. Kameneva; Peter H. Kerr; Valery Korneyev; Cheslavo A. Korytkowski; Giar-Ann Kung; Gunnar Mikalsen Kvifte; Owen Lonsdale; Stephen A. Marshall; Wayne Mathis; Verner Michelsen; Stefan Naglis; Allen L. Norrbom; Steven Paiero; Thomas Pape; Alessandre Pereira-Colavite; Marc Pollet; Sabrina Rochefort; Alessandra Rung; Justin B. Runyon; Jade Savage; Vera C. Silva; Bradley J. Sinclair; Jeffrey H. Skevington; John O. Stireman; John Swann; F. Christian Thompson; Pekka Vilkamaa; Terry Wheeler; Terry Whitworth; Maria Wong; D. Monty Wood; Norman Woodley; Tiffany Yau; Thomas J. Zavortink; Manuel A. Zumbado

    2018-01-01

    Estimations of tropical insect diversity generally suffer from lack of known groups or faunas against which extrapolations can be made, and have seriously underestimated the diversity of some taxa. Here we report the intensive inventory of a four-hectare tropical cloud forest in Costa Rica for one year, which yielded 4332 species of Diptera, providing the first...

  14. Effective chemical control of fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) pests in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effective chemical control of fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) pests in mango orchards in northern Côte-d'Ivoire. OR N'depo, N Hala, A N'da Adopo, F Coulibaly, PK Kouassi, JF Vayssieres, M de Meyer ...

  15. Karyotypic studies of four species of the blackfly, Simulium (Diptera ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    mallory

    2012-01-12

    Jan 12, 2012 ... Drosophila melanogaster: Practical uses in cell and molecular biology in: Goldstein LSB (Eds). Methods in cell biology. Academic Press Inc. p. 555. Henry W, Dey SK, Varma R (2009). The salivary gland chromosomes of the Himalayan Black fly Simulium (Simulium) dentatum (Diptera: Simuliidae). Zool. Sci.

  16. Studies on Anopheles (Kerteszia) homunculus Komp (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Brasileira de Malariologia e Doenças Tropicais 16, 329–348. Forattini, O.P. (1962) Entomologia médica. Parte geral, Diptera, Anophelini. Vol.1...Estado do Espírito Santo, Brasil. Revista Brasileira de Entomologia 52, 671–673. Schultz, J., Müller, T., Achtziger, M., Seibel, P.N., Dandekar, T

  17. Phytosanitary treatments against Bactrocera dorsalis(Diptera: Tephritidae): current situation and future prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bactrocera dorsalis(Hendel)(Diptera: Tephritidae) is arguably the most important tephritid attacking fruits after Ceratitis capitata(Wiedemann)(Diptera: Tephritidae). In 2003, it was found in Africa and quickly spread to most of the sub-Saharan part of the continent destroying fruits and creating re...

  18. Diptera Community In The Littoral Zone Of A North East Arid Zone ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Maiduguri, Nigeria, were studied between January and June 2002. Dipteran samples were collected every 2 weeks from five different stations. Five groups of diptera organisms simulidae, chironomidae, centrapogo nidae, culicidae and chaoboridae were found in analyzable numbers. The diptera assemblage was ...

  19. Combining lead isotopes and cluster analysis to distinguish the Guarani and Serra Geral Aquifer Systems and contaminated waters in a highly industrialized area in Southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, Isadora Aumond; Roisenberg, Ari

    2017-10-01

    The Rio dos Sinos Watershed area is located at the Middle-West region of the Rio Grande do Sul State, Southern Brazil, along thirty two municipalities and affecting 1.5 million inhabitants and many important industrial centers. Three main aquifers are recognized in the study area: the unconfined-fractured Serra Geral Aquifer System, the porous Guarani Aquifer System, and the Permian Aquitard. This study aims to understand groundwater, surface water and human activity interactions in the Rio dos Sinos Watershed, evaluating the application of stable lead isotopic ratios analyzed for this propose. Thirty six groundwater samples, 8 surface water samples and 5 liquid effluents of tanneries and landfills samples were measured using a Thermal Ionization Mass Spectrometer Thermo-Finnigan and a Neptune Multi-Collector Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer. Groundwater isotopic ratios have a wider range compared to the surface water, with less radiogenic averages 208 Pb/ 204 Pb = 38.1837 vs 38.4050 (standard deviation = 0.2921 vs 0.1343) and 206 Pb/ 204 Pb = 18.2947 vs 18.4766 (standard deviation = 0.2215 vs 0.1059), respectively. Industrial liquid effluents (tanneries and industrial landfill) have averages 208 Pb/ 204 Pb = 38.1956 and 206 Pb/ 204 Pb = 18.3169, distinct from effluent samples of domestic sanitary landfill (averages 208 Pb/ 204 Pb = 38.2353 and 206 Pb/ 204 Pb = 18.6607). Hierarchical cluster analysis led to distinguish six groups of groundwater, representing the three aquifers that occur in the area, two clusters suggesting groundwater mixtures and one demonstrating a highly contaminated groundwater. By analyzing the cluster results and wells' stratigraphic profiles it was possible to distinguish the different aquifers in the area. The Serra Geral Aquifer System has 206 Pb/ 204 Pb ratios between 18.4718 and 18.7089; 207 Pb/ 204 Pb between 15.6692 and 15.6777; 208 Pb/ 204 Pb between 38.6826 and 38.7616; 207 Pb/ 206 Pb between 0.8372 and 0

  20. The Honey-lips et The Guarani : les romans de José de Alencar en langue anglaise à la fin du XIXe siècle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria Cristina Bezerra

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Dans les dernières décennies du XIXe siècle, deux romans de José de Alencar ont été traduits et obtenu circulation dans des pays de langue anglaise. Iraçéma : the honey-lips, version de Isabel Burton, est apparue en 1886 à Londres, em suscitant la réception critique dans des journaux du Royaume-Uni. The Guarany, traduit par James William Hawes, est sorti de façon découpée en 1893 dans le jornal Overland Monthly and Out West Magazine, de San Francisco, aux États-Unis, pays où Alencar a aussi été mentionné par la presse locale. Ce travail se propose d’analyser la réception de ces ouvrages et de José de Alencar dans le Royaume-Uni et les États- Unis. Il a également pour but de vérifier le rôle des traducteurs, éditeurs, critiques et de la presse dans la configuration de l’évaluation de cet écrivain et de ses oeuvres dans ces pays, en considérant, toujours que possible, le rapport de ces passeurs avec la culture brésilienne. La réception critique de Alencar dans ces pays révèle sa bonne évaluation aussi bien que la traduction de ses romans semble avoir répondu à l’intérêt du public étranger à s’illustrer.

  1. Krypton-81, Helium-4 and Carbon-14 based estimation of groundwater ages in the Guarani Aquifer System: implications for the He-4 geochronometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, P. K.; Chang, H. K.; Gastmans, D.; Sturchio, N. C.; Araguas, L.; Matsumoto, T.; Lu, Z.; Jiang, W.; Yokochi, R.; Mueller, P.

    2012-12-01

    Characterization of aquifer systems remains a challenge, particularly for large aquifers with limited hydrogeological information. Groundwater age is an important parameter that integrates aquifer recharge and flow dynamics and provides the ability to reliably constrain groundwater models. We have used multiple isotope tracers (C-14, He-4, and Kr-81) to estimate the age of groundwater along a 400-km transect in the north-eastern part of the Guarani Aquifer System (GAS) in Brazil. Carbon-14 measurements were made with an AMS, He-4 by mass-spectrometry, and Kr-81 by atom trap trace analysis (ATTA). Groundwater samples were collected along a groundwater flow path that runs from the outcrop area in the east to the deep confined section in the west, where the aquifer is up to about 1000 m deep. Present groundwater recharge occurs in the outcrop areas, as indicated by the presence of tritium and modern 14C. Carbon-14 activities reach values below detection limit at relatively short distances (a few km) from the outcrop. Abundance of 81Kr (half-life 229 Ka), in samples free of C-14, decreases from 0.81±0.11 (expressed as (81Kr/Kr)sample/(81Kr/Kr)air) in the east to 0.18±0.03 in the western-most sample (estimated age = 566±60 ka). Measured 4He-excess is far above that expected from in-situ production rates in sandstone aquifers and overestimates the age by several orders of magnitude. We used 81Kr ages to calibrate the 4He geochronometer which indicates a basal flux of about 2.8 x10-11 cm3STP He/cm2/a. This flux is lower than most estimates of basal flux in previous studies and will allow a wider use of 4He for groundwater dating and aquifer characterization.

  2. RELATIONS BETWEEN THE PHYSICAL SPACE, THE MBYÁ-GUARANI LIFESTYLE AND THE EATING HABITS IN THE PERSPECTIVE OF HEALTHY SAFETY: RE-FLECTIONS ON THE ARAÇA-Í INDIAN AREA IN PIRAQUARA, PARANÁ, BRAZIL.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Symone Cortese da Silva Auzani

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This work is a qualitative study about the relation between the physical space, lifestyle and eating habits among the Mbyá-Guarani living in the Karuguá (Paraná. In the first stage, the spatial location of the Karuguá community as well as the elements that compose it are dis-cussed. In the second stage, the meaning of being a Mbyá-Guarani and their relation with the environment and with the eating habits of this ethny are outlined. In the third stage, a reflex-ion over the relation between traditional eating habits and current eating habits stressing their cultural aspects is made, emphasizing what concerns the Human Right to Adequate Food and Nutrition in the context of Food and Nutritional Security. Finally, the issues around indian rights and the laws created by the Brazilian government are discussed, since it becomes clear that it does not assure the Human Right to Adequate Food and Nutrition.

  3. An Algal Diet Accelerates Larval Growth of Anopheles gambiae (Diptera: Culicidae) and Anopheles arabiensis (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuno, N; Kohzu, A; Tayasu, I; Nakayama, T; Githeko, A; Yan, G

    2018-01-21

    The population sizes of Anopheles gambiae Giles (Diptera: Culicidae) and Anopheles arabiensis Patton (Diptera: Culicidae) increase dramatically with the onset of the rainy season in sub-Saharan Africa, but the ecological mechanisms underlying the increases are not well understood. As a first step toward to understand, we investigated the proliferation of algae, the major food of mosquito larvae, in artificial fresh water bodies exposed to sunlight for a short period, and old water bodies exposed to sunlight for a long period, and the effects thereof on the development of these anopheline larvae. We found that an epizoic green algal species of the genus Rhopalosolen (Chlorophyta: Chlorophyceae) proliferated immediately after water freshly taken from a spring was placed in sunlight. This alga proliferated only briefly (for ~10 d) even if the water was repeatedly exposed to sunlight. However, various algal species were observed in water that remained under sunlight for 40 d or longer (i.e., in old water bodies). The growth performance of larvae was higher in sunlight-exposed (alga-rich) water than in shade-stored (alga-poor) water. Stable isotope analysis suggested that these two anopheline species fed on Rhopalosolen algae in fresh water bodies but hardly at all on other algae occurring in the old water bodies. We concluded that freshly formed ground water pools facilitate high production of anopheline species because of the proliferation of Rhopalosolen algae therein, and the increase in the number of such pools in the rainy season, followed by rapid increases in A. gambiae and A. arabiensis numbers. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Comments on the association of immatures of Hemerodromia (Diptera, Empididae) and Simulium (Diptera, Simuliidae), and first record of this association in the Atlantic Forest (Brazil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez Molina, Óscar; Gil-Azevedo, Leonardo Henrique

    2016-11-01

    Larvae of Empididae (Diptera) prey on black fly immatures and its pupae can be collected from pupal cases of Simuliidae (Diptera). The aim of our work was to report the second record of association between immatures of Empididae and Simuliidae in the Neotropical Region and the first for the Atlantic Forest (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil). We collected 4982 pupae and exuviae of Simulium Latreille, (Diptera, Simuliidae) and found three with a pupa of Hemerodromia Meigen (Diptera, Empididae) inside. This shows that the use of black flies cocoons by dance flies occurs at extremely low frequencies, which might explain why this association is so rarely recorded. Our results are relevant for a better comprehension of the predator-prey relationship between these families. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Lekking behavior of Anastrepha Fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segura, D.; Petit-Marty, N.; Cladera, J.; Sciurano, R.; Calcagno, G.; Gomez Cendra, P.; Vilardi, J.; Vera, T.; Allinghi, A.

    2007-01-01

    Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) displays a lek mating system. Males form groups in which they simultaneously display signals (acoustical, visual, or chemical) to attract females with the purpose of mating. Females visit the lek and choose among signaling and courting males to mate. Scarce information is available in A. fraterculus about the main factors involved in female choice and the behavior of displaying males. This information could be important within the context of pest control programs with a sterile insect technique (SIT) component, because departures from normal sexual behavior caused by artificial rearing could affect males' performance in the field. In this study we assessed A. fraterculus male behavior within the leks and analyzed the importance of behavioral and morphological traits on their copulatory success. The existence of preferred places for lek formation was evaluated in field cages with trees inside and analyzed by dividing the trees in sectors according to a 3-dimensional system. Males were individually weighed, marked, and observed every 15 min. Morphometric and behavioral characteristics of successful and unsuccessful males were compared. Most successful males grouped in a region of the tree characterized by the highest light intensity in the first 2 h of the morning. Results showed that pheromone calling activity is positively associated with copulatory success. Copulations were more frequent for males calling inside the lek, indicating that pheromone calling activity and presence in the lek are key factors for copulatory success. A positive association between copulatory success and eye length was found; some characteristics of the face were also associated with copula duration and latency. (author) [es

  6. First record of Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart) (Diptera, Calliphoridae) from Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    José O. de Almeida Silva; Fernando da S. Carvalho-Filho; Maria C. Esposito; Geniana A. Reis

    2012-01-01

    First record of Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart) (Diptera, Calliphoridae) from Brazil. In addition to its native fauna, the Neotropical region is known to be inhabited by four introduced species of blow flies of the genus Chrysomya. Up until now, only three of these species have been recorded in Brazil - Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann), Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius), and Chrysomya putoria (Wiedemann). In South America, C. rufifacies (Macquart) has only been reported from Argentina and Colom...

  7. AVALIAÇAO DA QUALIDADE DAS ÁGUAS SUBTERRÂNEAS DA BACIA HIDROGRÁFICA DO RIO PARDO, SISTEMA AQUÍFERO GUARANI, RS, BRASIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marluce Purper

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desta pesquisa foi avaliar a qualidade das águas subterrâneas em áreas de preservação permanente (Sistema Aquífero Guarani – SAG da Bacia Hidrográfica do Rio Pardo, RS, Brasil, através de variáveis físicas, químicas e microbiológicas. Nove pontos de coleta foram distribuídos ao longo da bacia, nos quais as águas subterrâneas foram classificadas quanto aos íons de maior ocorrência quantitativa. Os resultados indicaram que a maioria dos poços avaliados enquadraram-se na Classe 4 de usos da água, correspondendo a águas de usos menos restritivos (como recreação de contato secundário. Entretanto, deve-se considerar que os aquíferos são caracterizados por diferentes condições geológicas, com características físicas, químicas e biológicas intrínsecas, e também variações hidrogeoquímicas, sendo necessário que as suas classes de qualidade sejam determinadas com base nessas especificidades. As amostras P1, P2, P3, P5 e P9 classificaram-se como bicarbonatadas cálcicas; as águas dos pontos P4, P6, P7 como bicarbonatadas sódicas; e P8 como sulfatada. Verificou-se que a qualidade das águas de poços com profundidade inferior a 6 m está mais vulnerável, devido a alterações antrópicas em função da concentração de nitrato, coliformes totais e termotolerantes, enquanto a qualidade das águas de poços mais profundos depende basicamente de suas características hidrogeológicas e hidrogeoquímicas naturais, em função das variáveis sulfato e sódio.

  8. A dimensão político-institucional das estratégias sócio ambientais: o jogo Aracruz Celulose S.A. - índios Tupiniquim e Guarani

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    Andrade José Célio Silveira

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Analisando o jogo de conflito e cooperação entre a Aracruz Celulose e os Índios Tupiniquim e Guarani, este trabalho alerta para a necessidade de estudar o processo de formação das estratégias sócio-ambientais como um exercício político de busca de legitimidade. Neste sentido, os autores analisam a dimensão político-institucional das estratégias sócio-ambientais da Aracruz Celulose, a partir de um referencial teórico baseado na abordagem sociológica das lógicas de ação dos atores organizacionais.

  9. Plantas relacionadas con tabúes del ciclo reproductivo de los Guaraníes de Misiones, Argentina Plants related to taboos of the reproductive cycle of guaranies from Misiones, Argentina

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    Héctor A Keller

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Los guaraníes de las parcialidades Mbya y Ava Chiripa observan normas de conducta específicas durante la etapa reproductiva de los miembros de sus comunidades. Algunas de estas reglas implican tabúes que se relacionan con plantas, las cuales son tratadas en la presente contribución. El manuscrito es ilustrado mediante fotografías de algunas de las especies mencionadas.Guaranis of Mbya and Ava Chiripa groups, observes norms of specific conduct during the reproductive stage of the members of his communities. Someone of these rules imply taboos related with plants, these plants are treated in the present contribution. The manuscript is illustrated by means photographies of someone of the mentioned species.

  10. New gall midges (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae) associated with Eugenia uniflora and Psidium cattleianum (Myrtaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Maia,Valéria C; Nava,Dori E

    2011-01-01

    Two new species and a new genus of gall midges (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae) are described and illustrated. Both species induce leaf galls on Myrtaceae, the former on Eugenia uniflora and the latter on Psidium cattleianum.

  11. Cardiocladius oliffi (Diptera: Chironomidae as a potential biological control agent against Simulium squamosum (Diptera: Simuliidae

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    Wilson Michael D

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The control of onchocerciasis in the African region is currently based mainly on the mass drug administration of ivermectin. Whilst this has been found to limit morbidity, it does not stop transmission. In the absence of a macrofilaricide, there is a need for an integrated approach for disease management, which includes vector control. Vector control using chemical insecticides is expensive to apply, and therefore the use of other measures such as biological control agents is needed. Immature stages of Simulium squamosum, reared in the laboratory from egg masses collected from the field at Boti Falls and Huhunya (River Pawnpawn in Ghana, were observed to be attacked and fed upon by larvae of the chironomid Cardiocladius oliffi Freeman, 1956 (Diptera: Chironomidae. Methods Cardiocladius oliffi was successfully reared in the rearing system developed for S. damnosum s.l. and evaluated for its importance as a biological control agent in the laboratory. Results Even at a ratio of one C. oliffi to five S. squamosum, they caused a significant decrease in the number of adult S. squamosum emerging from the systems (treatments. Predation was confirmed by the amplification of Simulium DNA from C. oliffi observed to have fed on S. squamosum pupae. The study also established that the chironomid flies could successfully complete their development on a fish food diet only. Conclusion Cardiocladius oliffi has been demonstrated as potential biological control agent against S. squamosum.

  12. First Record of Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart) (Diptera, Calliphoridae) in Southeastern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Ribeiro, Antonia de Castro; UNIRIO; Cardoso, Debora; UESB; Lessa, Cláudia Soares dos Santos; UNIRIO; Moya-Borja, Gonzalo Efrain; UFRRJ; Aguiar, Valéria Magalhães; UNIRIO

    2013-01-01

    The present note reports the first record of Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart) in Southeastern Brazil, in the municipality of Seropédica, Rio de Janeiro. The collecting was conducted with Diptera traps using fresh fish as bait. Primeiro Registro de Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart) (Diptera, Calliphoridae) no Sudeste do Brasil Resumo. A presente nota relata o primeiro registro da espécie Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart), no Sudeste do Brasil, no Município de Serop&...

  13. New gall midges (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae) associated with Eugenia uniflora and Psidium cattleianum (Myrtaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Maia, Valéria C; Nava, Dori E

    2011-01-01

    Two new species and a new genus of gall midges (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae) are described and illustrated. Both species induce leaf galls on Myrtaceae, the former on Eugenia uniflora and the latter on Psidium cattleianum. Duas novas espécies e um novo gênero de insetos galhadores (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae) são descritos e ilustrados. Ambas espécies induzem galhas foliares em Myrtaceae, a primeira em Eugenia uniflora e a segunda em Psidium cattleianum.

  14. “E QUANDO A “CULTURA” VIRA UM PROBLEMA?”: RELAÇÕES ENTRE A EDUCAÇÃO DAS CRIANÇAS KAIOWA E GUARANI E A REDE DE GARANTIA DE DIREITOS EM TE’ÝIKUE, CAARAPÓ – MS

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    Diógenes Egidio Cariaga

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo problematiza questões sobre modos de fazer usos da “cultura” no contexto das relações entre os Kaiowa que vivem em Te’ýikue, terra indígena situada no município de Caarapó – MS, e as agências que configuram a rede de promoção e proteção dos direitos da criança e do adolescente. O texto articula questões referentes aos efeitos da intensificação das relações entre o modo de ser dos Kaiowa e dos Guarani – ñande reko – com as transformações históricas vivenciadas em quase um século de experiência de vida com o modo de ser dos brancos – karai reko. A intenção da pesquisa fora demonstrar o efeito das transformações na socialidade kaiowa e guarani a partir de contextos de enunciação onde a cultura e a “cultura” emergem como operações reflexivas e objetificadoras tanto para os Kaiowa e os Guarani quanto para os não indígenas, para problematizar o que está em jogo quando conceitos de cultura são mobilizados para mediar diferentes modos de pensar regimes de conhecimento.

  15. Phylogenetic inference of calyptrates, with the first mitogenomes for Gasterophilinae (Diptera: Oestridae) and Paramacronychiinae (Diptera: Sarcophagidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dong; Yan, Liping; Zhang, Ming; Chu, Hongjun; Cao, Jie; Li, Kai; Hu, Defu; Pape, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    The complete mitogenome of the horse stomach bot fly Gasterophilus pecorum (Fabricius) and a near-complete mitogenome of Wohlfahrt's wound myiasis fly Wohlfahrtia magnifica (Schiner) were sequenced. The mitogenomes contain the typical 37 mitogenes found in metazoans, organized in the same order and orientation as in other cyclorrhaphan Diptera. Phylogenetic analyses of mitogenomes from 38 calyptrate taxa with and without two non-calyptrate outgroups were performed using Bayesian Inference and Maximum Likelihood. Three sub-analyses were performed on the concatenated data: (1) not partitioned; (2) partitioned by gene; (3) 3rd codon positions of protein-coding genes omitted. We estimated the contribution of each of the mitochondrial genes for phylogenetic analysis, as well as the effect of some popular methodologies on calyptrate phylogeny reconstruction. In the favoured trees, the Oestroidea are nested within the muscoid grade. Relationships at the family level within Oestroidea are (remaining Calliphoridae (Sarcophagidae (Oestridae, Pollenia + Tachinidae))). Our mito-phylogenetic reconstruction of the Calyptratae presents the most extensive taxon coverage so far, and the risk of long-branch attraction is reduced by an appropriate selection of outgroups. We find that in the Calyptratae the ND2, ND5, ND1, COIII, and COI genes are more phylogenetically informative compared with other mitochondrial protein-coding genes. Our study provides evidence that data partitioning and the inclusion of conserved tRNA genes have little influence on calyptrate phylogeny reconstruction, and that the 3rd codon positions of protein-coding genes are not saturated and therefore should be included. PMID:27019632

  16. Necrophagous diptera associated with wild animal carcasses in southern Brazil

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    Ândrio Z. da Silva

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Necrophagous Diptera associated with wild animal carcasses in southern Brazil. The aim of this study was to acquire a better knowledge concerning the diversity of necrophagous Diptera that develop on wild animal carcasses. For this purpose, the decomposition of six wild animal carcasses was observed in order to collect and identify the main species of necrophagous flies associated with the decomposition process. The carcasses were found on highways near the cities of Pelotas and Capão do Leão in the initial stage of decomposition, with no significant injuries or prior larval activity. Four wild animal models were represented in this study: two specimens of Didelphis albiventris Lund, 1840; two Tupinambis merianae Linnaeus, 1758; one Nothura maculosa Temminck, 1815; and one Cerdocyon thous Linnaeus, 1766. A total of 16,242 flies from 14 species were reared in the laboratory, where Muscidae presented the greatest diversity of necrophagous species. Overall, (i carcasses with larger biomass developed a higher abundance of flies and (ii the necrophagous community was dominated by Calliphoridae, two patterns that were predicted from published literature; and (iii the highest diversity was observed on the smaller carcasses exposed to the lowest temperatures, a pattern that may have been caused by the absence of the generalist predator Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann, 1819. (iv An UPGMA analysis revealed a similar pattern of clusters of fly communities, where the same species were structuring the groupings.

  17. Hamaca Paraguaya: um Godot guarani?

    OpenAIRE

    Farias, Fernando Mesquita de

    2011-01-01

    O presente artigo propõe estabelecer relações entre o filme Hamaca Paraguaya, dirigido por Paz Encina e a peça teatral Esperando Godot do dramaturgo irlandês Samuel Beckett. O estudo, sem o intuito de fixar vínculos comparativos, propõe uma análise das duas obras, apoiando-se em dois eixos temáticos comuns: a espera e a incomunicabilidade, pontuando reflexões entre o indivíduo e sua existência. Organização, execução e patrocínio: UNILA e Itaipu-Paraguay - Parceria: NELOOL/UFSC ...

  18. Species composition of forensically important blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) and flesh flies (Diptera: Sarcophagidae) through space and time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fremdt, Heike; Amendt, Jens

    2014-03-01

    Weekly monitoring of forensically important flight-active blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) and flesh flies (Diptera: Sarcophagidae) was performed using small baited traps. Sampling took place in two rural, one suburban and two urban habitats in and around Frankfurt (Main), Germany, lasting two years and eight months. Highest values for species richness and Chao-Shen entropy estimator for Shannon's index in both families were found at the urban sites, peaking during summer. Space-time interaction was tested and found to be significant, demonstrating the value of a statistical approach recently developed for community surveys in ecology. K-means partitioning and analysis of indicator species gave significant temporal and habitat associations of particular taxa. Calliphora vicina was an indicator species for lower temperatures without being associated with a particular habitat. Lucilia sericata was an indicator for urban sites, whereas Lucilia ampullacea and Lucilia caesar were indicators for rural sites, supplemented by the less frequent species Calliphora vomitoria. Sarcophagidae were observed during a clearly shorter period of year. Sarcophaga subvicina+Sarcophaga variegata was found to be an indicator for urban habitats during summer as well as Sarcophaga albiceps for rural habitats. A significant association of Sarcophaga caerulescens to rural habitats as well as one of Sarcophaga similis to urban habitats was observed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Chironomid midges (Diptera, chironomidae) show extremely small genome sizes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornette, Richard; Gusev, Oleg; Nakahara, Yuichi; Shimura, Sachiko; Kikawada, Takahiro; Okuda, Takashi

    2015-06-01

    Chironomid midges (Diptera; Chironomidae) are found in various environments from the high Arctic to the Antarctic, including temperate and tropical regions. In many freshwater habitats, members of this family are among the most abundant invertebrates. In the present study, the genome sizes of 25 chironomid species were determined by flow cytometry and the resulting C-values ranged from 0.07 to 0.20 pg DNA (i.e. from about 68 to 195 Mbp). These genome sizes were uniformly very small and included, to our knowledge, the smallest genome sizes recorded to date among insects. Small proportion of transposable elements and short intron sizes were suggested to contribute to the reduction of genome sizes in chironomids. We discuss about the possible developmental and physiological advantages of having a small genome size and about putative implications for the ecological success of the family Chironomidae.

  20. First record of Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart (Diptera, Calliphoridae from Brazil

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    José O. de Almeida Silva

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available First record of Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart (Diptera, Calliphoridae from Brazil. In addition to its native fauna, the Neotropical region is known to be inhabited by four introduced species of blow flies of the genus Chrysomya. Up until now, only three of these species have been recorded in Brazil - Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann, Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius, and Chrysomya putoria (Wiedemann. In South America, C. rufifacies (Macquart has only been reported from Argentina and Colombia. This study records C. rufifacies from Brazil for the first time. The specimens were collected in an area of cerrado (savanna-like vegetation in the municipality of Caxias in state of Maranhão, and were attracted by pig carcasses.

  1. Invasion Biology of Aedes japonicus japonicus (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Dina M.

    2014-01-01

    Aedes japonicus japonicus (Theobald) (Diptera: Culicidae) has recently expanded beyond its native range of Japan and Korea into large parts of North America and Central Europe. Population genetic studies begun immediately after the species was detected in North America revealed genetically distinct introductions that subsequently merged, likely contributing to the successful expansion. Interactions, particularly in the larval stage, with other known disease vectors give this invasive subspecies the potential to influence local disease dynamics. Its successful invasion likely does not involve superior direct competitive abilities, but it is associated with the use of diverse larval habitats and a cold tolerance that allows an expanded seasonal activity range in temperate climates. We predict a continued but slower expansion of Ae. j. japonicus in North America and a continued rapid expansion into other areas as this mosquito will eventually be considered a permanent resident of much of North America, Europe, Asia, and parts of Hawaii. PMID:24397520

  2. Epilepsy-associated stigma in Bolivia: a community-based study among the Guarani population: an International League Against Epilepsy/International Bureau for Epilepsy/World Health Organization Global Campaign Against Epilepsy Regional Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, Elisa; Bartoloni, Alessandro; Sofia, Vito; Rafael, Florentina; Magnelli, Donata; Padilla, Sandra; Quattrocchi, Graziella; Bartalesi, Filippo; Segundo, Higinio; Zappia, Mario; Preux, Pierre-Marie; Nicoletti, Alessandra

    2012-09-01

    Epilepsy is associated with a significant burden of social stigma that appears to be influenced by psychosocial and cultural factors. Stigma has a negative effect on the management of people with epilepsy (PWE), representing one of the major factors that contribute to the burden of epilepsy. To assess stigma perception among the Guarani population, one hundred thirty-two people living in Guaraní communities in Bolivia were invited to complete the Stigma Scale of Epilepsy questionnaire. The main determinants of stigma identified were: the fear linked to loss of control, the feelings of sadness and pity toward PWE, the difficulties faced by PWE in the professional and relationship fields, the level of education and type of seizure. Our study pointed out that, in this population, PWE face difficulties in everyday life because of epilepsy-associated stigma and the results attest to the importance of promoting community-based educational programs aimed at reducing the stigmatization process. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Cordiamyia globosa gen.n. e sp.n. (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae, Cecidomyiidi associado com Cordia Verbenacea DC. (Boraginaceae no Brasil Cordiamyia globosa gen.n. and sp.n. (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae associated with Cordia verbekacea DC. (Boraginaceae in Brazil

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    Valéria Cid Maia

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Cordiamyia globosa gen.n., sp.n. (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae, Cecidomyiidi associated with Cordia verbenacea (Boraginaceae, in Brazil, is described and illustrated (larva, pupa, male, female and gall.

  4. INTER-RELAÇÕES ENTRE ESPAÇO FÍSICO, MODO DE VIDA MBYÁ-GUARANI E ALIMENTAÇÃO NA PERSPECTIVA DA SEGURANÇA ALIMENTAR: REFLEXÕES SOBRE A ÁREA INDÍGENA ARAÇA-Í EM PIRAQUARA/PR

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    SYMONE CORTESE DA SILVA AUZANI

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: This work is a qualitative study about the relation between the physical space, lifestyle and eating habits among the Mbyá-Guarani living in the Karuguá (Paraná. In the first stage, the spatial location of the Karuguá community as well as the elements that compose it are discussed. In the second stage, the meaning of being a Mbyá-Guarani and their relation with the environment and with the eating habits of this ethny are outlined. In the third stage, areflexion over the relation between traditional eating habits and current eating habits stressing their cultural aspects is made, emphasizing what concerns the Human Right to Adequate Food and Nutrition in the context of Food and Nutritional Security. Finally, the issues around indian rights and the laws created by the Brazilian government are discussed, since it becomes clear that it does not assure the Human Right to Adequate Food and Nutrition.RESUMO: Este trabalho é um estudo qualitativo sobre as inter-relações entre espaço físico, modo de vida e cultura alimentar entre os Mbyá-Guarani moradores da aldeia Karuguá (Paraná. No primeiro momento discute-se a localização espacial e uma descrição sobre os elementos que a compõem. No segundo momento surge o significado de ser um Mbyá-Guarani e suas inter-relações com o ambiente e com as práticas alimentares dessa etnia. Na terceira parte do trabalho, busca-se promover uma reflexão sobre a relação entre a alimentação tradicional e a alimentação atual, enfatizando os aspectos referentes ao direito humano à alimentação adequada no contexto da Segurança Alimentar e Nutricional, com ênfase nos aspectos culturais. Por fim os direitos indígenas e as leis criadas pelo Estado brasileiro são problematizadas, pois evidencia-se que elas não garantem a realização do Direito Humano a alimentação Adequada.

  5. “QUANDO ESCREVO, ESCREVO COM SENTIMENTO, POR TER QUE PROVAR AO BRASIL, QUE KAINGANG, GUARANIS, SEM TERRA E NEGROS, TAMBÉM SÃO GENTES”: Subsídios acerca da aplicabilidade da lei 10.639/03 no Colégio Estadual ‘Marcílio Dias’ - Guaraqueçaba-PR

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    José Carlos Muniz

    2015-10-01

    More than a decade after the creation of the law 10.639/03 mandating the inclusion of History and Indigenous Culture, African and Afro-Brazilian in the school curriculum, this study analyzes its implementation in State College "Marcilio Dias", an institution that receives indigenous students, caiçaras and Guarani. From pedagogical actions in the last five years, aimed at promoting self-esteem on the evidence of ethnic-cultural contribution, the appreciation of local history and combat the practice of racism and discrimination, impregnated in society Brazilian serves allowance for the school 's commitment to such approaches, making it thus fulfill its role in civic education.

  6. Clinodiplosis costai, uma nova espécie galhadora (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae associada com Paullinia weinmanniaefolia Mart (Sapindaceae Clinodiplosis costai, a new galler species (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae associated with Paullinia weinmanniaefolia Mart (Sapindaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria C. Maia

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Clinodiplosis costai, uma nova espécie de Cecidomyiidae (Diptera que induz galhas em folhas jovens de Paullinia weinmanniaefolia é descrita (larva, macho e fêmea com base em material do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (Brasil.Clinodiplosis costai, a new species of Cecidomyiidae (Diptera that induces galls on young leaves of Paullinia weinmanniaefolia is described (larva, male and female based on material from Rio de Janeiro State (Brazil.

  7. Um novo gênero e espécie de Schizomyiina (Diptera, Cedidomyiidae associados com Piperaceae no Brasil A new genus and species of Schizomyiina (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae associated with Piperaceae from Brazil

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    Valéria Cid Maia

    Full Text Available Parametasphondylia piperis (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae, Asphondyliini, Schizomyiina, um novo gênero e espécie galhadora associada com Piper sp. (Piperaceae é descrita e ilustrada (larva, pupa, macho e fêmea com base em material obtido em Minas Gerais, Brasil.Parametasphondylia piperis (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae, Asphondyliini, Schizomyiina, a new gall maker genus and species associated with Piper sp. (Piperaceae is described and illustrated (larva, pupa, male and female based on material obtained from Minas Gerais, Brazil.

  8. Diel activity and preferred landing sites in Culicoides biting midges attacking Fjord horses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elbers, A.R.W.; Heuvel, van den S.J.; Meiswinkel, R.

    2016-01-01

    In the summer of 2014, in the central part of The Netherlands, Culicoides spp. (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) attack rates, biting rates, and preferred landing sites were determined for a pair of Fjord horses maintained permanently at pasture in an area devoid of cattle. Eleven body regions of the

  9. New records of long-legged flies (Diptera: Dolichopodidae) from Armenia, with description of Campsicnemus armeniacus sp.n.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Negrobov, O. P.; Manko, P.; Hrivniak, Ľuboš; Oboňa, J.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 72, č. 1 (2017), s. 70-75 ISSN 0006-3088 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Diptera * Dolichopodidae * distributions Subject RIV: EG - Zoology OBOR OECD: Zoology Impact factor: 0.759, year: 2016

  10. Prey suitability and phenology of Leucopis spp. (Diptera: Chamaemyiidae) associated with hemlock woolly adelgid (Hemiptera: Adelgidae) in the Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarah M. Grubin; Darrell W. Ross; Kimberly F. Wallin

    2011-01-01

    Leucopis spp. (Diptera: Chamaemyiidae) from the Pacific Northwest previously were identified as potential biological control agents for the hemlock woolly adelgid, Adelges tsugae Annand (Hemiptera: Adelgidae), in the eastern United States. We collected Leucopis spp. larvae from A. tsugae...

  11. New records of diptera families Anisopodidae, Bibionidae, Dixidae, Ptychopteridae and Scatopsidae from Armenia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Oboňa, J.; Dvořák, L.; Haenni, J.-P.; Manko, P.; Hrivniak, Ľuboš; Papyan, L.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 40, č. 1 (2017), s. 61-67 ISSN 0341-8391 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : biodiversity hotspots * Armenia * Diptera Subject RIV: EG - Zoology OBOR OECD: Zoology Impact factor: 0.784, year: 2016 http://pfeil-verlag.de/publikationen/spixiana-zeitschrift-fuer-zoologie-band-40/

  12. Annotated world bibliography of host plants of the melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Cocquillett) (Diptera:Tephritidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae(Coquillett), is a widespread, economically important tephritid fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) species. Bactrocera cucurbitae infests fruits and vegetables of a number of different plant species, with many host plants in the plant family Cucurbitaceae, but with ...

  13. Two pests overlap: Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae) use of fruit exposed to Halyomorpha halys (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spotted wing drosophila, Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura) (Diptera: Drosophilidae), and brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys (Stål) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) are global economic pests. Both pests may co-occur on small fruits, and we investigated whether fruit recently exposed to H. halys woul...

  14. Behavioral responses of Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae) to visual stimuli under laboratory, semifield, and field conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura) (Diptera: Drosophilidae) is an invasive pest in the United States that attacks soft-skinned ripening fruit such as raspberries, blackberries, and blueberries. Little is known regarding specific cues D. suzukii utilizes to locate and select host fruit, and inconsistenc...

  15. Records of Limoniidae and Pediciidae (Diptera) from Armenia, with the first Armenian checklist of these families

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Oboňa, J.; Starý, J.; Manko, P.; Hrivniak, Ľuboš; Papyan, L.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 2016, č. 585 (2016), s. 125-142 ISSN 1313-2989 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Diptera * Limoniidae * Pediciidae Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.031, year: 2016 http://zookeys.pensoft.net/articles.php?id=8330

  16. Thalassomya gutae sp. n., a new marine chironomid (Diptera: Chironomidae: Telmatogetoninae) from the Brazilian coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Oliveira, Caroline Silva Neubern; Da Silva, Fabio Laurindo; Trivinho-Strixino, Susana

    2013-01-01

    One new species of Thalassomya Schiner, 1856 (Diptera: Chironomidae: Telmatogetoninae), T. gutae sp. n. is described and figured as male, pupa and larva. The specimen was collected in the marine zone between tidemarks, in southeastern Brazilian coast and is the first species of this genus recorded to Brazil.

  17. De larven van het geslacht Einfeldia Kieffer, 1924: nomenclatuur en tabel tot de soorten (Diptera: Chironomidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moller Pillot, H.K.M.; Wiersma, S.M.

    1997-01-01

    The larvae of the genus Einfeldia Kieffer, 1924: nomenclature and key to the species (Diptera: Chironomidae). A review is given of the identities of groups and taxa of Einfeldia in the larval stage as given in the literature. Three species remain on the Dutch list: E. carbonaria (Meigen), E.

  18. Two new species of Quichuana Knab (Diptera: Syrphidae) from the paramo ecosystems in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoya, Augusto L; Ricarte, Antonio; Wolff, Marta

    2017-03-20

    Two new species of Quichuana Knab (Diptera: Syrphidae), Quichuana citara Montoya & Wolff sp. n. and Quichuana nigropilosa Montoya & Ricarte sp. n. are described from highlands of the Colombian Andes. Images of type material, including drawings of male genitalia are provided. An adjustment for the latest identification key for the Quichuana species and distribution maps for those species occurring in Colombia are given.

  19. Nomenclatural studies toward a world list of Diptera genus-group names. Part V

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Evenhuis, Neal L.; Pape, Thomas; Pont, Adrian C.

    and method of fixation, current status of the name, family placement, and a list of any emendations of it that have been found in the literature. Remarks are given to clarify nomenclatural or taxonomic information. In addition, an index to all the species-group names of Diptera proposed by Macquart (3...

  20. Psychoda surcoufi, een motmug van compost, nieuw voor Nederland (Diptera: Psychodidae).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boumans, L.

    2009-01-01

    Psychoda surcoufi, a mothfly of compost, new to the Netherlands (Diptera: Psychodidae) Psychoda surcoufi Tonnoir, 1922 is reported as a new species for the Dutch checklist. Adults were collected in large numbers in a compost barrel from late February until April 2009, together with P. albipennis

  1. Systematics and phylogeny of Centrioncidae, a new afromontane family of Diptera (Schizophora)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feijen, H.R.

    1983-01-01

    Arguments are put forward for the erection of a new family of Diptera, named Centrioncidae. Centrioncus prodiopsis, its only previously described representative, was originally placed in the Sepsidae and later transferred to the Diopsidae. This species is now redescribed and five more Centrioncus

  2. Multiple, independent colonizations of the Hawaiian Archipelago by the family Dolichopodidae (Diptera)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Goodman, K.R.; Evenhuis, N.; Bartošová-Sojková, Pavla; O'Grady, P. M.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 4, NOV 17 (2016), č. článku e2704. ISSN 2167-8359 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : colonization history * Diptera * divergence dating * Dolichopodidae * evolutionary radiation * long distance dispersal * Hawaiian islands Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.177, year: 2016

  3. Attraction of Rhagoletis indifferens (Diptera: Tephitidae) to white light in the presence and absence of ammonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attraction of tephritid fruit flies to light and its role in fly biology and management has received little attention. Here, the objective was to show that western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran (Diptera: Tephritidae), is attracted to white light in the presence and absence of ammo...

  4. Amazonimyia gigantea gen. n., sp. n., a new Tanypodinae (Diptera: Chironomidae) from the Neotropical Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Silva, Fabio Laurindo; Wiedenbrug, Sofia

    2015-04-15

    A new genus, Amazonimyia, is established for a species of the tribe Pentaneurini (Diptera, Chironomidae, Tanypodinae) from the Amazon Rainforest in northern Brazil. Generic diagnoses for adult male and pupa are provided together with descriptions of a new species, Amazonimyia gigantea.

  5. Description of the female of Ctenodontina nairae Vieira (Diptera, Asilidae, Asilinae, with new distribution records

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Vieira

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Description of the female of Ctenodontina nairae Vieira (Diptera, Asilidae, Asilinae, with new distribution records. The female of Ctenodontina nairae Vieira, 2012 is described for the first time. Description and illustrations of the habitus, wing and terminalia of the female are provided. The distribution is extended to Bolivia and Peru.

  6. Primeiro registro de Zaprionus indianus Gupta (Diptera: Drosophilidae no Estado do Acre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Vasconcelos

    2017-04-01

    Abstract. This work makes reference to the first record of Zaprionus indianus Gupta (Diptera: Drosophilidae found in carambola fruits (Averrhoa carambola L. in a residential yard located in the county of Rio Branco, Acre, Brazil. The emerged flies were preserved in flasks containing 70% alcohol and identified by the characteristics of the anterior left leg and the male’s genitalia.

  7. First record of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann (Diptera: Tephritidae in the state of Acre, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Adaime

    2017-12-01

    Resumo. Registra-se pela primeira vez a presença de Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann (Diptera: Tephritidae no estado do Acre, Brasil, a partir de frutos de goiabeira (Psidium guajava L. e de caramboleira (Averrhoacarambola L., aumentando o conhecimento dos registros geográficos dessa mosca na Amazônia brasileira.

  8. Übersicht der bisher in Europa beobachteten, an Spinnen (Araneae parasitierenden Fliegen (Diptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kreuels, Martin

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available A list of european parasitic flies (Diptera and their prey is presented. The Hippoboscidae: Melophagus ovinus (Linnaeus, 1758 is described as an accidental parasite of Alopecosa striatipes (C.L. Koch, 1837. 24 species of parsitic flies and 20 spider host species are listed.

  9. Übersicht der bisher in Europa beobachteten, an Spinnen (Araneae) parasitierenden Fliegen (Diptera)

    OpenAIRE

    Kreuels, Martin

    1998-01-01

    A list of european parasitic flies (Diptera) and their prey is presented. The Hippoboscidae: Melophagus ovinus (Linnaeus, 1758) is described as an accidental parasite of Alopecosa striatipes (C.L. Koch, 1837). 24 species of parsitic flies and 20 spider host species are listed.

  10. Description of the Immature Stages of Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) rondoni (Neiva & Pinto) (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-05-01

    Neiva & Pinto) (Diptera: Culicidae) Maria Anice Mureb Sallum/+, Richard C Wilkerson* Núcleo de Pesquisa Taxonômica e Sistemática em Entomologia ...Taxonômica e Sistemática em Entomologia Médica, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo. The following specimens were used for setal counts and measurements (the

  11. Fatores estruturais e as práticas de autoatenção das famílias com parentes com transtornos mentais: Contexto Kaiowá e Guarani do Mato Grosso do Sul , Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio de Carvalho SILVA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo apresenta os resultados da pesquisa sobre as percepções e práticas de autoatenção dos índios Kaiowá e Guarani de Mato Grosso do Sul no que se refere aos parentes de indivíduos engajados em um processo clínico e diagnosticados como sofrendo de psicopatologia crônica. As famílias reconhecem sua responsabilidade moral de cuidar de seus parentes, porém fatores estruturais exercem uma influência forte sobre o tipo de cuidado que elas podem oferecer. Enquanto algumas delas conseguem acompanhar e gerenciar os cuidados necessários para manter a estabilidade do estado do doente, outros enfrentam dificuldades para operacionalizar sua responsabilidade de cuidar. Observamos que as práticas de autoatenção oferecidas pelas famílias são relacionadas com diversos fatores, tais como coesão familiar, situação financeira, gênero do doente e julgamento moral sobre sua conduta. Estas fatores são consequências dos processos históricos e econômicos que impactam no sistema de organização social tradicional baseado em reciprocidade. As dificuldades das famílias nem sempre são reconhecidas pelos os profissionais de saúde, no anseio de que a família acolha e cuide do seu doente.

  12. Survey of geomorphological and hydrogeological data for mapping groundwater vulnerability of the Guarani Aquifer in Portão and Estância Velha/RS using the DRASTIC method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osmar G. Wöhl Coelho

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The vulnerability mapping of groundwater contamination has been widely developed and included in municipal plans to guide environmental management policies and it is recommended in CONAMA 396 Resolution (Brasil, 2008. Portão and Estância Velha, RS regions present potencial risk of contamination due to industrial activities. The Guarani Aquifer System (SAG in the study area is composed by the Pirambóia and Botucatu Formations. Both formations are formed by sandstones and they are partially confined by the basalts of the Serra Geral Aquifer. The method DRASTIC was chosen to build the vulnerability map. The shallow water table and the sedimentary lithology are indicative factors of intermediate to high vulnerability. The soils were divided in domains according to their texture. The first domain of claysoil has an impermeable behavior. The infiltration tests and thick layers of clay confirm a low hydraulic conductivity of this pedological unit, providing a natural protection of the aquifer. However, in the study area, the second claysoil domain is dominant and has more diffuse sand in the profile. The restricted presence of expansive clay minerals increases the vulnerability. Occupancy of areas of high vulnerability is directly related to the contamination of the aquifer. The efficiency of the map is related to the interdependence of parameters involving hydrogeological and geomorphological aspects. Thus, it has been observed a high degree of vulnerability to groundwater contamination in 25% of the area, an intermediate vulnerability in 72.4%, and a low degree in only 2.6% of the area.

  13. Chironomid (Diptera, Chironomidae species assemblages in northeastern Algerian hydrosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Chaib

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to analyze the distribution of chironomids (Diptera, Chironomidae, and determine their substrate preferences, from two hydrosystems located in northeastern Algeria: the Kebir-East and the Seybouse wadis. Sixty-five species were recorded in 49 sampling sites distributed along the main courses of the two hydrographic nets and their tributaries. The majority of taxa comprised cosmopolitan species widely distributed along these two hydrosystems. Cricotopus (Cricotopus bicinctus showed the highest abundance and frequency of occurrence (29.52% and was widespread in almost all the sampling sites. Species richness ranged from 4 to 23, Shannon diversity between 0.15 and 0.90, Evenness from 0.23 to 1. A cluster analysis was carried out to represent the different groups of sites sharing similar species composition. Agglomerative cluster analysis grouped the sampling sites into four clusters according to the community data. An Indval analysis was then carried out to detect indicator species for each group of the sampling sites. Cricotopus (Isocladius sylvestris was indicator of the first group of the sampling sites. Orthocladius pedestris, Rheocricotopus chalybeatus and C. bicinctus were indicators of the second group, and Polypedilum cultellatum of the third group. The fourth group was not characterized by any species. Indval analysis allowed also to determine species preferences for substrate size: Corynoneura scutellata and Dicrotendipes nervosus emphasized a preference to fine gravel, and Glyptotendipes pallens to fine sand.

  14. Biology of Anastrepha grandis (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Different Cucurbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolzan, Anderson; Nava, Dori E; Garcia, Flávio R M; Valgas, Ricardo A; Smaniotto, Giovani

    2015-06-01

    Anastrepha grandis (Macquart) (Diptera: Tephritidae) is one of the main pests of cucurbits in Brazil. Losses occur due to the damage caused to the fruits and the embargo on exports, as A. grandis is considered a quarantine pest in countries that import Brazilian cucurbits. This study aimed to evaluate the development of A. grandis in hosts of the Cucurbitaceae family. The hosts used were stem squash (Cucurbita pepo L.), squash (Cucurbita moschata Duchesne), chayote [Sechium edule (Jacq.) Swartz], mini watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum & Nakai], Spanish melon (Cucumis melo L.), hybrid squash "Tetsukabuto" (C. moschata×Cucurbita maxima Duchesne), and salad cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.). We evaluated the viability and duration of egg-to-pupa period, pupal weight, sex ratio, and average number of pupae per fruit under controlled conditions of temperature, relative humidity, and photophase. The preoviposition and oviposition periods, fecundity, fertility, and longevity of females were determined for adults. Hosts of the genus Cucurbita provided a better development of A. grandis in comparison with other hosts, and presented a greater number of insects on fruit as well as higher infestation rate. Fecundity and longevity were also higher for females that developed in hosts of the genus Cucurbita, although values of these biological parameters varied between stem squash, squash, hybrid squash "Tetsukabuto." © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Expectoration of Flaviviruses during sugar feeding by mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Hurk, Andrew F; Johnson, Petrina H; Hall-Mendelin, Sonja; Northill, Judy A; Simmons, Russell J; Jansen, Cassie C; Frances, Stephen P; Smith, Greg A; Ritchie, Scott A

    2007-09-01

    Biological transmission of arboviruses to a vertebrate host occurs when virions are expelled along with saliva during blood feeding by a hematophagous arthropod. We undertook experiments to determine whether mosquitoes expectorate flaviviruses in their saliva while sugar feeding. Batches of Culex annulirostris Skuse and Culex gelidus Theobald (Diptera: Culicidae) were orally infected with Japanese encephalitis (family Flaviviridae, genus Flavivirus, JEV), Kunjin (family Flaviviridae, genus Flavivirus, KUNV; a subtype of West Nile virus), and Murray Valley encephalitis (family Flaviviridae, genus Flavivirus, MVEV) viruses. After a 7-d extrinsic incubation, these mosquitoes were offered sucrose meals via cotton pledgets, which were removed daily and processed for viral RNA by using real-time TaqMan reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assays. JEV, MVEV, and KUNV RNA was detected in all pledgets removed from batches of Cx. gelidus on days 7-14 postexposure. In contrast, detection rates were variable for Cx. annulirostris, with KUNV detected in 0.3 M sucrose pledgets on all days postexposure, and JEV and MVEV detected on 57 and 50% of days postexposure, respectively. Higher concentrations of sucrose in the pledget did not increase virus detection rates. When individual JEV-infected Cx. gelidus were exposed to the sucrose pledget, 73% of mosquitoes expectorated virus with titers that were detectable by TaqMan RT-PCR. These results clearly show that flaviviruses are expectorated by infected mosquitoes during the process of sugar feeding on artificial pledgets. Potential applications of the method for arboviral bioassays and field surveillance are discussed.

  16. The phylogenetic relationships among infraorders and superfamilies of Diptera based on morphological evidence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lambkin, Christine L.; Sinclair, Bradley J.; Pape, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Members of the megadiverse insect order Diptera (flies) have successfully colonized all continents and nearly all habitats. There are more than 154 000 described fly species, representing 1012% of animal species. Elucidating the phylogenetic relationships of such a large component of global...... biodiversity is challenging, but significant advances have been made in the last few decades. Since Hennig first discussed the monophyly of major groupings, Diptera has attracted much study, but most researchers have used non-numerical qualitative methods to assess morphological data. More recently......, quantitative phylogenetic methods have been used on both morphological and molecular data. All previous quantitative morphological studies addressed narrower phylogenetic problems, often below the suborder or infraorder level. Here we present the first numerical analysis of phylogenetic relationships...

  17. Tabanidae and other Diptera on Camel’s Hump Vermont: Ecological Observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey Freeman

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available A canopy trap and aerial nets led to finding 8 species of Tabanidae. There was an abundance of calyptrate muscoid flies. Camel’s Hump is in the Green Mountains of western New England, USA. Discovering Diptera on Camel’s Hump involved sixteen visits over 40 years. Upwards of 23 other Diptera species are listed. Habitats on the east side and above 762 m (2500 ft elevation on Camel’s Hump differ from the west slope but the boreal forest on both sides is influenced by cloud and fog precipitation on trees. The cliffs just above the 900 m level along the east side are often overlooked, are not seen from the summit and provide access to morning sun for insects. Recent visits explored the role of polarized skylight in relation to the canopy trap, the boreal forest environment and flies found there.

  18. Multiple species of scuttle flies (Diptera: Phoridae) as contaminants in forensic entomology laboratory insect colony.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuha, R M; Jenarthanan, L X Q; Disney, R H L; Omar, B

    2015-09-01

    In forensic entomology, larval rearing usually includes the presence of biological contaminants including scuttle flies (Diptera: Phoridae). Scuttle flies are recognized as forensically important insects and have been reported causing nuisance and contamination in laboratory environments. This paper reports for the first time the finding of multiple scuttle fly species affecting colonies of third instar larvae of the Oriental latrine blowfly, Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius) (Diptera: Calliphoridae), reared indoors at the Forensic Science Simulation Site, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia. Adult scuttle flies were discovered inside a rearing container after the emergence of adult C. megacephala., The scuttle fly species are Megaselia scalaris (Loew), M. spiracularis Schmitz and Puliciphora borinquenensis (Wheeler). Notes on the life history and biology of these species are discussed herein.

  19. Tempo e Espaço Guarani: um estudo acerca da ocupação, cronologia e dinâmica de movimentação pré-colonial na Bacia do Rio Taquari/Antas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Schneider

    Full Text Available Resumo Neste artigo foram analisadas as relações espaciais e temporais da ocupação Guarani pré-colonial na Bacia do Rio Taquari/Antas a partir da delimitação do perímetro da ocupação e seu estabelecimento na paisagem, da cronologia intrasítio e regional e de discussões referentes às movimentações espaciais. A partir dos resultados foram mapeados 121 sítios Guarani na porção centro-sul da Bacia, em um perímetro de várzeas que circundou as terras altas do Planalto das Araucárias, demonstrando tratar-se de uma ocupação regional longa, entre os séculos XIV e XVIII. O estabelecimento teria ocorrido a partir da conexão entre o Rio Jacuí e o Rio Taquari/Antas, em uma expansão compulsória do sul para o norte, observando-se assentamentos contemporâneos em todo o perímetro e sítios com fatores de alta permanência. Tal dinâmica justificar-se-ia a partir de um controle consciente do ambiente, permitindo, por um lado, a manutenção das aldeias, e, por outro, o crescimento demográfico e novas expansões. Além da motivação demográfica, inferiu-se a possibilidade de que os limites da ocupação Guarani na região tenham sido estabelecidos de forma igualmente consciente a partir de um pulso de expansão inicial e posterior estabilidade, configurando-se a ocupação compulsória como uma estratégia de manutenção política do território.

  20. Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae in Mila 26 – Maliuc area (Danube Delta, Romania – preliminary data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PRIOTEASA Florian-Liviu

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The present paper reports the preliminary results of the survey of the mosquito fauna (Diptera: Culicidae in Maliuc - Mila 26 area, in 2006. A number of 1,255 mosquitoes, belonging to 14 species have beencaptured in three investigation sites. The results of the data-analysis were used for drawing up the annual dynamics of the various mosquito species from a specific location in Maliuc - Mila 26 area for the period April –September.

  1. Melia azedarach L. extracts and their activity on Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marise M. O. Cabral

    Full Text Available Crudes extracts and fractions from seeds of Melia azedarach L. (Meliaceae have been assayed on Musca domestica Linnaeus, 1758 (Diptera: Muscidae. Thus, the post-embryonic development of the flies was reduced and the delay from newly hatched larvae to adults had significant increase. In addition, the pupal weights were reduced and the sexual ratio altered. Toxicity to fly eggs was also observed.

  2. The species of the genus Diamesa (Diptera, Chironomidae) known to occur in Italian Alps and Apennines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montagna, Matteo; Urbanelli, Sandra; Rossaro, Bruno

    2016-11-15

    Some rare species from Italian Alps, belonging to the genus Diamesa Meigen, 1835 (Diptera, Chironomidae) are here redescribed as adult males, because only old, incomplete descriptions are available for these taxa. Terminology of male genitalia is reviewed, diagnostic features are illustrated in detail, and notes on biology and geographical distribution of the examined species are provided. An identification key to the known adult males is presented.

  3. Tanytarsini (Diptera: Chironomidae) from madicolous habitat in Southeast Brazil: new species and new records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trivinho-Strixino, Susana; Shimabukuro, Erika Mayumi

    2017-05-23

    Tanytarsini (Diptera: Chironomidae: Chironominae) collected from madicolous habitats in Brazil are analyzed, and three new species of Tanytarsus van der Wulp are described and illustrated: T. angelae sp. n. and T. alaidae sp. n. as adult male and T. alienus sp. n. as male and female. New records of another Brazilian Tanytarsus species are also presented, and immature stages of Paratanytarsus silentii Trivinho-Strixino are described.

  4. Culicidae (Diptera, Culicomorpha from the western Brazilian Amazon: Juami-Japurá Ecological Station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Sá Gomes Hutchings

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available With 312 trap-hours of sampling effort, 1554 specimens of Culicidae (Diptera were collected, using CDC and Malaise traps, in nine different locations along the Juami River, within the Juami-Japurá Ecological Station, Amazonas State, Brazil. A list of mosquito species with 54 taxa is presented, which includes three new distributional records for the state of Amazonas. The species found belong to the genera Anopheles, Aedeomyia, Aedes, Psorophora, Culex, Coquillettidia, Sabethes, Wyeomyia and Uranotaenia.

  5. Age estimation of Calliphora (Diptera: Calliphoridae) larvae using cuticular hydrocarbon analysis and Artificial Neural Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Moore, H E; Butcher, J B; Adam, C D; Day, C R; Falko, P D

    2016-01-01

    Cuticular hydrocarbons were extracted daily from the larvae of two closely related blowflies Calliphora vicina and Calliphora vomitoria (Diptera: Calliphoridae). The hydrocarbons were then analysed using Gas Chromatography–Mass Spectrometry (GC–MS), with the aim of observing changes within their chemical profiles in order to determine the larval age. The hydrocarbons were examined daily for each species from 1 day old larvae until pupariation. The results show significant chemical changes occ...

  6. Culicoides (Diptera, Heleidae na cidade de Recife capturados com isca luminosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederico S. Barbosa

    1968-02-01

    Full Text Available Eleven species of the genus Culicoides (Diptera, Heleidae were recorded frorn a mangrove area in the town of Recife, Brazil. The midges were collected by 6 light traps during the period of a whole year, 1954-1955. The predominant species were C. maruim, C. guyanensis and C. insignis. The first one represented 73.7% of the total collected. Seasonal variations were markedly observed, with higher number of midges appearing during the period of March to July.

  7. [Means of the formation of gonotrophic relations in blood-sucking Diptera].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamarina, N A

    1987-01-01

    Gonotrophic relations in low and higher bloodsucking Diptera are fundamentally different that results from an initial type of feeding and trophic behaviour. Trophic behaviour of low dipterous hematophages and gonotrophic harmony peculiar to them can be traced from entomophagy, that is from the predatory mode of life on account of small insects. By the type of the trophic behaviour low bloodsucking Diptera are predators with a typical moment contact with the prey. More primitive is a type of gonotrophic harmony characteristic of hunters for diffusely spread prey (incomplete blood portion provides the maturation of incomplete portion of eggs). Hunting for diffusely spread prey is characteristic of entomophages too. The appearance of gregarious ruminants facilitates the possibility of repeated contacts with prey and blood satiation threshold increases. This is a higher type of gonotrophic harmony providing a maximum realization of potential fecundity. The initial saprophagy of higher Diptera is associated with another type of trophic behaviour (long contact with food substratum) that is a prerequisite for quite a different way of evolution of host-parasite relationships in higher Diptera. This leads to more close connections with the host and excludes gonotrophic harmony. Females were the first to begin the exploitation of vertebrate animals. This is connected with the peculiarities of their behaviour during egg laying such as the stay near animals for laying eggs into fresh dung. Autogeneity, nectarophagy and aphagia are homologous phenomena which reflect the loss of an animal component of food or both components at the level of non-specialized saprophagy rather than secondary loss of bloodsucking. The scheme of gonotrophic relations is given.

  8. Toxicity of Thiophenes from Echinops transiliensis (Asteraceae) against Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) Larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Toxicity of Thiophenes from Echinops transiliensis (Asteraceae) against Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) Larvae by Hiroshi Nakano*a)b)c), Abbas...larvicides against Aedes aegypti. Structural differences among compounds 3, 5, and 8 consisted in differing AcO and OH groups attached to C(3’’) and C(4...serious human diseases including malaria, Japanese encephalitis, yellow fever, dengue, and filariasis. The urban-adapted Aedes aegypti mosquito has become

  9. New species of Lopesia (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae associated with Eichhornia azurea (Pontederiaceae from Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria V. Urso-Guimarães

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A new species of gall midge, Lopesia eichhorniae sp. nov. (Cecidomyiidae, Diptera, associated with rhizomes of Eichhornia azurea (Sw. Kunth (Pontederiaceae is described. This is the first record of Lopesia galls in this species of macrophyte, quite common in natural and artificial lakes in Southeast Brazil. Illustrations of the adults (male and female, pupa, larva, and gall of the new species are presented.

  10. Spook and Spookier code for stage-specific components of the ecdysone biosynthetic pathway in Diptera

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ono, Hajime; Rewitz, Kim; Shinoda, Tetsu

    2006-01-01

    is eliminated in larvae carrying mutations in molting defective (mld), a gene encoding a nuclear zinc finger protein that is required for production of ecdysone during Drosophila larval development. Intriguingly, mld is not present in the Bombyx mori genome, and we have identified only one spook homolog in both...... Bombyx and Manduca that is expressed in both embryos and larva. These studies suggest an evolutionary split between Diptera and Lepidoptera in how the ecdysone biosynthetic pathway is regulated during development....

  11. Pictorial identification key for species of Sarcophagidae (Diptera of potential forensic importance in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karine Pinto e Vairo

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Pictorial identification key for species of Sarcophagidae (Diptera of potential forensic importance in southern Brazil. Species of the subfamily Sarcophaginae are important to forensic entomology due to their necrophagous habits. This contribution presents a pictorial key for the identification of 22 Sarcophaginae species in 10 genera that are commonly found in southern Brazil. Photographs of the main structures used in species identification, mainly from the male terminalia, are provided.

  12. The Brazilian Malaria Vector Anopheles (Kerteszia) Cruzii: Life Stages and Biology (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-11-01

    Mosquitos no litoral paranaense. I - Idade fisioldgica de no Parque National da Serra dos Orgaos, Anopheles cruzii (Diptera, Culicidae). Arq. Estado do...no Parque National da Peryassii, A.G. 1908. OS culicideos do Brazil. Serra dos Grgaos, Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Inst. de Manguinhos, Rio de Janeiro...Kerteszia no litoral Guimar%es, A.E. and V.N.M. Victoria. 1986. do estado de Santa Catarina. Rev. Bras. Mosquitos no Parque National da Serra dos

  13. Seasonality of Lutzomyia fairtigi (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae), a species endemic to Eastern Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Molina, Jorge Alberto; Ortiz, Mario Iván; Guhl, Felipe

    2008-01-01

    The bionomics of sand flies (Diptera: Phlebotominae) was studied monthly for two consecutive years in alluvial gallery forests in the department of Casanare, Northeastern Colombia. A total of 2,365 specimens and 10 species were captured using CDC light traps and Shannon traps, and from diurnal resting places, and human landing collections. Lutzomyia fairtigi Martins (55%), Lutzomyia micropyga (Mangabeira) (20.9%), and Lutzomyia antunesi (Coutinho) (13.5%) were the predominant species in the r...

  14. Diptera of sanitary importance associated with composting of biosolids in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria Alejandra Labud

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Odorous compounds produced at the biosolids composting plant in Bariloche (NW Patagonia attract a variety of insects, mainly belonging to the order Diptera. In order to characterize these flies, collected specimens were taxonomically identified, their community characteristics were described and their sanitary and synanthropic importance and autochthonous or introduced character were determined. METHODS: Sampling was performed from October 1999 until March 2000. Adults were collected using an entomological net, and larvae and puparia were obtained from the composting material and incubated to obtain adults. Richness, abundance and sex ratio were calculated. RESULTS: A total of 9 taxa of Diptera were identified: Sarconesia chlorogaster, Phaenicia sericata, Calliphora vicina, Cochliomya macellaria, Ophyra sp, Muscina stabulans, Musca domestica, Sarcophaga sp and Fannia sp. Specimens of Anthomyiidae, Acaliptratae and one larva of Eristalis tenax were also found. Ophyra sp. was the most abundant taxa. All the captured Diptera belonged to introduced taxa. Most of them are considered to be eusynanthropic and/or hemisynanthropic and have sanitary importance as they may cause myiasis and pseudomyiasis. The high number of females registered and the finding of immature stages indicated that flies can develop their complete life cycle on biosolid composting windrows. CONCLUSIONS: The characterization of flies obtained in this study may be useful for defining locations of urban or semi-urban composting facilities. It also highlights the importance of sanitary precautions at such plants.

  15. The Community of Hymenoptera Parasitizing Necrophagous Diptera in an Urban Biotope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederickx, Christine; Dekeirsschieter, Jessica; Verheggen, François J.; Haubruge, Eric

    2013-01-01

    Most reports published in the field of forensic entomology are focused on Diptera and neglect the Hymenoptera community. However, Hymenoptera are part of the entomofaunal colonization of a dead body. The use of Hymenoptera parasitoids in forensic entomology can be relevant to evaluate the time of death. Hymenoptera parasitoids of the larvae and pupae of flies may play an important role in the estimation of the post-mortem period because their time of attack is often restricted to a small, well-defined window of time in the development of the host insect. However, these parasitoids can interfere with the developmental times of colonizing Diptera, and therefore a better understanding of their ecology is needed. The work reported here monitored the presence of adult Hymenoptera parasitoids on decaying pig carcasses in an urban biotope during the summer season (from May to September). Six families and six species of parasitoids were recorded in the field: Aspilota fuscicornis Haliday (Braconidae), Alysia manducator Panzer, Nasonia vitripennis Walker (Pteromalidae), Tachinaephagus zealandicus Ashmead (Encyrtidae), Trichopria sp. (Diapriidae), and Figites sp. (Figitidae). In the laboratory, five species emerged from pupae collected in the field: Trichopria sp., Figites sp., A. manducator, N. vitripennis, and T. zealandicus. These five species colonize a broad spectrum of Diptera hosts, including those species associated with decomposing carcasses, namely those from the families Calliphoridae, Muscidae, Fanniidae, and Sarcophagidae. PMID:23895458

  16. Diptera of Medico-Legal Importance Associated With Pig Carrion in a Tropical Dry Forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasconcelos, S D; Salgado, R L; Barbosa, T M; Souza, J R B

    2016-06-20

    The diversity of necrophagous Diptera is largely unknown in seasonally dry tropical forests, despite their medical, veterinary, and forensic relevance. We performed a study in the dry Caatinga forest exclusive to Brazil in order to assess the diversity and temporal pattern of Diptera species using pig carcasses as substrates. Adults were collected daily until complete skeletonization. We collected 17,142 adults from 18 families, 10 of which comprise species with known necrophagous habits. The most abundant families were Calliphoridae (47.3% of specimens), Sarcophagidae (20.8%), and Muscidae (15.5%), whereas Sarcophagidae stood out in terms of richness with 21 species. The native Cochliomyia macellaria (F.) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) and the invasive Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedmann) (Calliphoridae) were the dominant species. A total of 18 species reached the carcass during the first 48 h postdeath. The bloated and active decay stages had the highest richness and abundance of dipterans. From a forensic standpoint, C. macellaria and C. albiceps are likely to aid in establishing postmortem interval due to their early arrival and high abundance on the carcass. Despite harsh environmental conditions, the Caatinga harbors a rich assemblage of dipterans that play a key role in carrion decomposition. Their medico-veterinary importance is strengthened by the poor local sanitary conditions. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Diptera Brachycera found inside the esophagus of a mummified adult male from the early XIX century, Lisbon, Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Souto Couri

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Fly puparia and adult fragments of diptera muscid were found inside the esophagus of a mummified body from the early XIX century, buried inside the crypt of the Sacrament Church (Lisbon, Portugal. The identification of the material revealed a monospecific colonization by Ophyra capensis (Wiedemann (Diptera: Muscidae, a species known to invade corpses in the ammoniacal fermentation wave. This species can be found in corpses kept indoors, not available to the early waves of blowflies (Diptera: Calliphoridae. In the present case, the number of pupae and their developmental stage suggest that the female invaded the mummified corpse through the partially opened mouth and the oviposition took place directly inside the esophagus. This is the first case of O. capensis infesting internal organs of an intact corpse. The use of chemical products for the embalming process probably explains why external colonization did not occur.

  18. Análise cladística de Euprepina Hull (Diptera, Bombyliidae, Bombyliinae Cladistic analysis of Euprepina Hull, (Diptera, Bombyliidae, Bombyliinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos José Einicker Lamas

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available A cladistic analysis of Euprepina Hull, 1971 (Diptera, Bombyliidae, Bombyliinae, a Neotropical genus that includes ten species, was made. The cladogram was obtained from eight studied species, based on a data matrix with 21 characters, using the program Hennig86. Character states were polarized following outgroup analysis, and an hypothetical ancestor was included in the analysis in order to root the tree. The options used, "ie*" and "xs w", resulted in four most parsimonious trees with ci = 79, ri = 80 and length 115. The monophiletism of Euprepina was supported by two synapomorphies.

  19. Nota sobre culicídeos (Diptera: Culicidae da bacia do rio Purus, Acre, Amazônia (Brasil Note on the culicidae (Diptera: Culicidae of the River Purus Basin, Acre, Amazonian, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delsio Natal

    1992-04-01

    Full Text Available Foram feitas coletas de mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae na área do projeto de Colonização Pedro Peixoto, no Estado do Acre, Brasil. Obteve-se um total de 4.588 exemplares pertencentes a 53 espécies ou grupos. Salienta-se a ocorrência de Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus oswaldoi.Mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae collections were made on the Pedro Peixoto Colonization Project in the State of Acre, Brazil. Four thousand, five hundred and eighty-eight (4,588 specimens were collected and fifty-three (53 species or group recognised. The occurrence of Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus oswaldoi is given special emphasis.

  20. A check list of necrophagous flies (Diptera: Calyptratae from urban area in Medellín, Colombia Lista de moscas necrófagas (Diptera: Calyptratae del área urbana del municipio de Medellín, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Alberto Salazar-Ortega

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available An updated checklist of necrophagous flies (Diptera, Calyptratae occurring in the urban area of Medellín-Colombia is presented. 27 species belonging to 4 families are reported. Data were obtained from field work and recent bibliography references.Se presenta una lista actualizada de moscas necrófagas (Diptera, Calyptratae presentes en el área urbana del municipio de Medellín. Se registran 27 especies incluidas en cuatro familias. Los datos se obtuvieron a partir de recolectas en campo y referencias bibliográficas.

  1. Integrated Taxonomy and DNA Barcoding of Alpine Midges (Diptera: Chironomidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montagna, Matteo; Mereghetti, Valeria; Lencioni, Valeria; Rossaro, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    Rapid and efficient DNA-based tools are recommended for the evaluation of the insect biodiversity of high-altitude streams. In the present study, focused principally on larvae of the genus Diamesa Meigen 1835 (Diptera: Chironomidae), the congruence between morphological/molecular delimitation of species as well as performances in taxonomic assignments were evaluated. A fragment of the mitochondrial cox1 gene was obtained from 112 larvae, pupae and adults (Diamesinae, Orthocladiinae and Tanypodinae) that were collected in different mountain regions of the Alps and Apennines. On the basis of morphological characters 102 specimens were attributed to 16 species, and the remaining ten specimens were identified to the genus level. Molecular species delimitation was performed using: i) distance-based Automatic Barcode Gap Discovery (ABGD), with no a priori assumptions on species identification; and ii) coalescent tree-based approaches as the Generalized Mixed Yule Coalescent model, its Bayesian implementation and Bayesian Poisson Tree Processes. The ABGD analysis, estimating an optimal intra/interspecific nucleotide distance threshold of 0.7%-1.4%, identified 23 putative species; the tree-based approaches, identified between 25-26 entities, provided nearly identical results. All species belonging to zernyi, steinboecki, latitarsis, bertrami, dampfi and incallida groups, as well as outgroup species, are recovered as separate entities, perfectly matching the identified morphospecies. In contrast, within the cinerella group, cases of discrepancy arose: i) the two morphologically separate species D. cinerella and D. tonsa are neither monophyletic nor diagnosable exhibiting low values of between-taxa nucleotide mean divergence (0.94%); ii) few cases of larvae morphological misidentification were observed. Head capsule color is confirmed to be a valid character able to discriminate larvae of D. zernyi, D. tonsa and D. cinerella, but it is here better defined as a color gradient

  2. Deficiência visual nas crianças indígenas em idade escolar das etnias Guarani e Kaiowá na região da Grande Dourados/MS: um estudo sobre a incidência e as necessidades específicas e educacionais especiais Visual impairment on school-age children of Guarani and Kaiowá communities of Grande Dourados, MS: a study about incidence and specific educational needs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Aparecida de Sá

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Pesquisas sobre deficiência visual nas populações indígenas das etnias Guarani e Kaiowá são escassas. O objetivo geral deste estudo consistiu em mapear a deficiência visual entre os escolares indígenas da Região da Grande Dourados, MS. Os objetivos específicos foram: identificar os escolares indígenas com baixa visão e cegueira nas escolas indígenas; caracterizar as causas da deficiência visual nessa população; descrever as necessidades específicas e educacionais especiais dos escolares indígenas com deficiência visual. Os procedimentos para coleta de dados foram: observação de campo e triagem ocular de seis mil escolares; avaliação oftalmológica, funcional da visão, das necessidades específicas e educacionais especiais dos escolares identificados. Os resultados indicaram alta incidência de deficiência visual entre a população estudada: nove cegos, dos quais quatro não têm acesso à educação; dos sete com baixa visão, três estão fora da escola; um deles apresenta deficiência múltipla. As causas prevalentes foram atrofia óptica e alteração retiniana. As avaliações apontam adequações relativas: distância de discriminação de objetos, gravuras, obstáculos; compensação do campo visual para locomoção e atividades diárias; adaptação de materiais pedagógicos quanto aos contrastes, tamanho de letras, cores e o controle da iluminação; necessidades de recursos ópticos especiais e não ópticos. Conclui-se que a efetivação do direito à saúde e à educação entre os escolares indígenas é ignorada pelo poder público, observa-se múltipla negação de direitos: a combinação da pobreza com a deficiência, a falta de acesso à saúde ocular e ao Atendimento Educacional Especializado.Research on visual impairment among Guarani and Kaiowá indigenous populations is scarce. The general objective of this study consisted of mapping and identifying visual impairment of indigenous students of the

  3. Host plants of Melon Fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae(Coquillett)(Diptera:Tephritidae); and provisional list of suitable host plants of the Melon Fly, Bactrocera(Zeugodacus)cucurbitae(Coquillett)(Diptera:Tephritidae),Version 2.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    The melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett), is a widespread, economically important tephritid fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) species. Bactrocera cucurbitae infests fruits and vegetables of a number of different plant species, with many host plants in the plant family Cucurbitaceae, but with...

  4. Host plants of Carambola fruit fly, Bactrocera carambolae Drew & Hancock(Diptera:Tephritidae);and provisional list of suitable host plants of Carambola fruit fly,(Bactrocera(Bactrocera) carambolae Drew & Hancock(Diptera:Tep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bactrocera carambolae Drew & Hancock (Diptera: Tephritidae), commonly known as the carambola fruit fly, is native to Southeast Asia, but has extended its geographic range to several countries in South America. As with other tephritid fruit fly species, establishment of B.carambolae in areas where it...

  5. Pos-harvest control of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann, 1824) (Diptera: Tephritidae) in guava fruits (Psidium guajava L.).; Controle pos-colheita de Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann, 1824) (Diptera: Tephritidae) em frutos de goiaba (Psidium guajava L.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doria, Hayda Oliveira Souza

    2006-07-01

    The objective of this work is to evaluate the effect of the treatment with steam heating, hot water and gamma radiation of Co-60 on eggs and fruit flies larvae (Ceratitis capitata Wiedemann, 1824) (Diptera: Tephritidae), and analyze the effect of these treatments in the fruit quality (chemical composition)

  6. Morphology of immature stages of Atherigona reversura (Diptera: Muscidae), with notes on the recent invasion of North America

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grzywacz, Andrzej; Pape, Thomas; Hudson, William G.

    2013-01-01

    The muscid shoot-fly Atherigona reversura Villeneuve (Diptera: Muscidae), recently introduced to North America, is reported for the first time from the Neotropical Region: Mexico, Chiapas, Chiapa de Corzo. Information about distribution throughout the continent is summarized. Morphology of the se......The muscid shoot-fly Atherigona reversura Villeneuve (Diptera: Muscidae), recently introduced to North America, is reported for the first time from the Neotropical Region: Mexico, Chiapas, Chiapa de Corzo. Information about distribution throughout the continent is summarized. Morphology...

  7. The Subgenus Stegomyia of Aedes in the Afrotropical Region. 2. The Dendrophilus Group of Species (Diptera: Culicidae) (Contributions of the American Entomological Institute. Volume 29, Number 4, 1997)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    or reservoirs of eight viruses , six of which cause human illness (Chikungunya, dengue 1 and 2, Dugbe, Rift Valley fever, yellow fever and Zika ...suggested that Ae. deboeri may be the jungle vector of the yellow fever virus in Langata. A edes Aedes Aedes Aedes (Stegomyia) demeilloni Edwards... Aedes (Stegomyia) Iedgeri (Diptera: Culicidae). Mosq. Syst. 13: 92-113. Aedes (Stegomyia) bromeliae (Diptera: Culicidae), the yellow fever virus

  8. A new species of genus Chorebus Haliday (Hymenoptera, Alysiinae parasitising Hexomyza caraganae Gu (Diptera, Agromyzidae from NW China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Li

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Chorebus (Stiphrocera hexomyzae sp. n. (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Alysiinae, Dacnusini is described and illustrated. It was reared from twig galls of Hexomyza caraganae Gu (Diptera, Agromyzidae on Caragana korshinskii Kom. f. (Fabaceae in Ningxia and Inner Mongolia (NW China. A partial key to related or similar Chorebus species is provided.

  9. Assessment of Navel oranges, Clementine tangerines and Rutaceous fruits as hosts of Bactrocera cucurbitae and Bactrocera latifrons (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Export of Citrus spp., widely cultivated throughout the tropics and subtropics, may require risk mitigation measures if grown in areas with established tephritid fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) populations capable of infesting the fruits. Two tephritid fruit fly species whose geographic ranges have...

  10. Effects of seasonality and resource limitation on organic matter turnover by Chironomidae (Diptera) in southern Appalachian headwater streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angela Romito; Susan Eggert; Jeffrey Diez; J. Wallace

    2010-01-01

    Despite their high abundance, secondary production, and known reliance on detrital material, the role of chironomids (Diptera) in fine particulate organic matter (FPOM) dynamics has not been well quantified. We conducted field trials using fluorescent pigment markers to estimate seasonal rates of consumption, annual secondary production, assimilation efficiency (AE),...

  11. Nota sobre culicídeos (Diptera: Culicidae da bacia do rio Purus, Acre, Amazônia (Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natal Delsio

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available Foram feitas coletas de mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae na área do projeto de Colonização Pedro Peixoto, no Estado do Acre, Brasil. Obteve-se um total de 4.588 exemplares pertencentes a 53 espécies ou grupos. Salienta-se a ocorrência de Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus oswaldoi.

  12. A report on the pupae of Desmometopa sp. (Diptera: Milichiidae) recovered from a human corpse in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumara, T K; Abu Hassan, A; Che Salmah, M R; Bhupinder, S

    2010-04-01

    The pupae of Desmometopa sp. (Diptera: Milichiidae) were collected from a human corpse found indoor in active decay stage together with the larvae of Sarcophagidae, Synthesiomyia nudiseta (Wulp), Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius) and Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart). This research note is the first report of the Desmometopa sp. recovered from a human corpse in Malaysia.

  13. Remarkable fly (Diptera) diversity in a patch of Costa Rican cloud forest: Why inventory is a vital science

    Science.gov (United States)

    All flies (Diptera) collected for one year from a four-hectare (150 X 266 meter) patch of cloud forest at 1600 meters above sea level at Zurquí de Moravia, San José Province, Costa Rica (hereafter referred to as Zurquí), revealed an astounding 4,348 species. These amount to more than half the number...

  14. Development and oviposition preference of house flies and stable flies (Diptera: Muscidae) in six substrates from Florida equine facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    House flies, Musca domestica L., and stable flies, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.), (Diptera: Muscidae), common pests on equine facilities, were studied in the laboratory to determine their oviposition preferences and larval development on six substrates commonly found on equine facilities. The substrates...

  15. Attractiveness of MM-X traps baited with human or synthetic odor to mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in The Gambia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qiu, Y.T.; Smallegange, R.C.; Braak, ter C.J.F.; Spitzen, J.; Loon, van J.J.A.; Jawara, M.; Milligan, P.; Galimard, A.M.S.; Beek, van T.A.; Knols, B.G.J.; Takken, W.

    2007-01-01

    Chemical cues play an important role in the host-seeking behavior of blood-feeding mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae). A field study was carried out in The Gambia to investigate the effects of human odor or synthetic odor blends on the attraction of mosquitoes. MM-X traps baited with 16 odor blends to

  16. A comparative analysis of resistance testing methods in Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) from St. Johns County, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aedes albopictus Skuse (Diptera: Culicidae) was tested for resistance to permethrin, bifenthrin, and malathion using Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) bottle bioassays and topical toxicology assays on adults and larval bioassays. Eggs were collected from 3 locations across St. Johns C...

  17. Nota sobre culicídeos (Diptera: Culicidae da bacia do rio Purus, Acre, Amazônia (Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delsio Natal

    1992-04-01

    Full Text Available Foram feitas coletas de mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae na área do projeto de Colonização Pedro Peixoto, no Estado do Acre, Brasil. Obteve-se um total de 4.588 exemplares pertencentes a 53 espécies ou grupos. Salienta-se a ocorrência de Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus oswaldoi.

  18. An annotated checklist of the horse flies (Diptera: Tabanidae) of Lebanon with remarks on ecology and zoogeography: Pangoniinae and Chrysopsinae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowledge of the horse fly fauna (Diptera: Tabanidae) of Lebanon is fragmentary while in most neighboring countries it has been fairly well researched. Therefore USDA-CMAVE scientists and Israeli scientists worked cooperatively to survey the species of horse flies in the Lebanon. Chrysops flavipes ...

  19. Pos-harvest control of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann, 1824) (Diptera: Tephritidae) in guava fruits (Psidium guajava L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doria, Hayda Oliveira Souza

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this work is to evaluate the effect of the treatment with steam heating, hot water and gamma radiation of Co-60 on eggs and fruit flies larvae (Ceratitis capitata Wiedemann, 1824) (Diptera: Tephritidae), and analyze the effect of these treatments in the fruit quality (chemical composition)

  20. Attraction, oviposition preferences, and olfactory responses of corn-infesting Ulidiidae (Diptera) to various host-based substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fresh market sweet corn produced in Florida is threatened by larval damage by Euxesta stigmatias Loew, E. eluta Loew, and Chaetopsis massyla Walker (Diptera: Ulidiidae) that renders ears unmarketable. No standard lure exists for monitoring these pests. Oviposition and attraction bioassays were desig...

  1. New species of Megastylus (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae: Orthocentrinae) reared from larvae of Keroplatidae fungus gnats (Diptera) in a Dutch orchid greenhouse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Humala, Andrei E.; Kruidhof, Marjolein; Woelke, Joop

    2017-01-01

    A new parasitoid wasp species belonging to the genus Megastylus (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae: Orthocentrinae) found in an orchid nursery in The Netherlands is described and illustrated: Megastylus woelkei sp. nov. It was reared from parasitized larvae of fungus gnats (Diptera: Keroplatidae). The

  2. Low-dose irradiation with modified atmosphere packaging for mango against the Oriental Fruit Fly (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irradiation and vapor–heating treatments are commonly used to disinfest the Oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (Diptera:Tephritidae), and other pests on mango fruits before export from Thailand to foreign markets. Modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) used during export of mangoes create...

  3. Subfamily Limoniinae Speiser, 1909 (Diptera, Limoniidae) from Baltic amber (Eocene): the genus Helius Lepeletier & Serville, 1828.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kania, Iwona

    2014-06-10

    A revision of the genus Helius Lepeletier & Serville, 1828 (Diptera: Limoniidae) from Baltic amber (Eocene) is presented. Redescriptions of 5 species, Helius formosus Krzemiński, 1993, Helius linus Podenas, 2002, Helius minutus (Loew, 1850), Helius mutus Podenas, 2002, Helius pulcher (Loew, 1850) of this genus from Baltic amber are given and documented by photographs and drawings. Four new species of the genus Helius from Baltic amber are described: Helius gedanicus sp. nov., Helius hoffeinsorum sp. nov., Helius similis sp. nov., Helius fossilis sp. nov. A key to species of Helius from Baltic amber is provided. Patterns morphological evolution and the aspects evolutionary history of Helius are discussed.

  4. Second Supplement to A Catalog of the Mosquitoes of the World (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    104. Brunhes, J. 1977a. Les moustiques de l’archipel des Comores I. - Inventaire, &partition et description de quatre esptces ou sous-espscies...nouvelles. Cah. O.R.S.T.O.M. Ser. Entomol. Med. Parasitol. 15:131-152. Brunhes, J. 1977b. Les moustiques de l’archipel des Comores 11. - Description de...Dieng. 1978. Aedes (Stegomyia) neoafricanus un nouvelle espzcie de moustique capture’e au Sgne’gal Oriental (Diptera: Culicidae), Cah. O.R.S.T.O.M

  5. Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) established in the vicinity of Knoxville, Tennessee, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahid, S A; Hall, R D; Haskell, N H; Merritt, R W

    2000-07-01

    The hairy maggot blow fly, Chrsomya rufifacies (Macquart) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) was collected in large numbers as both adults and immatures in the Knoxville, Tennessee, area during 1998 and is likely established there. The distribution of this species in the Old World, isothermal data, and its collection from mid-Michigan during 1998 suggest that it will eventually occupy most of the U.S. The forensic importance of C. rufifacies makes it probable that it will factor into an increasing number of medicolegal cases, but the expanding distribution of this species decreases its utility as a geographic indicator when postmortem movement of decedents is suspected.

  6. Gastric and intestinal myiasis due to Ornidia obesa (Diptera: Syrphidae in humans. First report in colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo López V

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Myasis are parasitic infestations of animals and humans tissues and is caused by fly larvae. This kind of infestation has Public Health importance. In the Colombian biomedical literature the reports about myiasis in humans are scarce. In this paper, we report two cases of patients with gastrointestinal myiasis where the etiologic agents involved were Ornidia obesa and Ornidia sp (Diptera: Syrphidae. The taxonomic identification of the larvae was done at the Colombian Institute of Tropical Medicine and taxonomic confirmation was done at the laboratory of medicine veterinary and Zoology of Sao Pablo University. These two cases of myiasis are of first report in Colombia

  7. Bioefficacy of Insect Growth Regulators Against Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidea) From Sarawak, Malaysia: A Statewide Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Koon Weng; Chen, Chee Dhang; Lee, Han Lim; Low, Van Lun; Sofian-Azirun, Mohd

    2018-05-28

    The susceptibility status of Aedes albopictus (Skuse; Diptera: Culicidea) larvae collected from 13 districts in Sarawak state, Malaysia was evaluated against five insect growth regulators (IGRs) namely, methoprene, pyriproxyfen, diflubenzuron, cyromazine, and novaluron. Field populations of Ae. albopictus were susceptible to methoprene, pyriproxyfen, cyromazine and novaluron with resistance ratios (RRs) ranging from 0.19-0.38, 0.05-0.14, 0.50-0.95, and 0.75-1.00, respectively. Nevertheless, tolerance towards diflubenzuron (0.33-1.33) was observed in this study. In general, these IGRs exhibited promising results and can be used as alternative control agents against field populations of Ae. albopictus in Sarawak, Malaysia.

  8. A sex pheromone receptor in the Hessian fly Mayetiola destructor (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae

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    Martin N. Andersson

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The Hessian fly, Mayetiola destructor Say (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae, is a pest of wheat and belongs to a group of gall-inducing herbivores. This species has a unique life history and several ecological features that differentiate it from other Diptera such as Drosophila melanogaster and blood-feeding mosquitoes. These features include a short, non-feeding adult life stage (1-2 days and the use of a long-range sex pheromone produced and released by adult females. Sex pheromones are detected by members of the odorant receptor (OR family within the Lepidoptera, but no receptors for similar long-range sex pheromones have been characterized from the Diptera. Previously, 122 OR genes have been annotated from the Hessian fly genome, with many of them showing sex-biased expression in the antennae. Here we have expressed, in HEK293 cells, five MdesORs that display male-biased expression in antennae, and we have identified MdesOR115 as a Hessian fly sex pheromone receptor. MdesOR115 responds primarily to the sex pheromone component (2S,8E,10E-8,10-tridecadien-2-yl acetate, and secondarily to the corresponding Z,E-isomer. Certain sensory neuron membrane proteins (i.e., SNMP1 are important for responses of pheromone receptors in flies and moths. The Hessian fly genome is unusual in that it encodes six SNMP1 paralogues, of which five are expressed in antennae. We co-expressed each of the five antennal SNMP1 paralogues together with each of the five candidate sex pheromone receptors from the Hessian fly and found that they do not influence the response of MdesOR115, nor do they confer responsiveness in any of the non-responsive ORs to any of the sex pheromone components identified to date in the Hessian fly. Using Western blots, we detected protein expression of MdesOrco, all MdesSNMPs, and all MdesORs except for MdesOR113, potentially explaining the lack of response from this OR. In conclusion, we report the first functional characterization of an OR from the

  9. Protomedetera, a new genus from the Oriental and Australasian realms (Diptera, Dolichopodidae, Medeterinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Chufei; Grootaert, Patrick; Yang, Ding

    2018-01-01

    Protomedetera gen. n. (Diptera: Dolichopodidae), a new genus of the subfamily Medeterinae, is described from the Oriental and Australasian realms based on four new species. Protomedetera singaporensis Grootaert & Tang, sp. n. is designated as type of the new genus. The genus is peculiar because of the small body size, the small globular first flagellomere (postpedicel), the simple male genitalia with indistinct or small epandrial lobe and half-hidden cercus. The following four new species are described and illustrated: P. biconvexa sp. n. , P. biseta sp. n. , P. glabra sp. n. , and P. singaporensis sp. n. A key to the species of the new genus is provided.

  10. Fecundity and life table of different morphotypes of Phlebotomus argentipes (Diptera: Psychodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinesh, D S; Kumar, A J; Kumar, V; Ranjan, A; Das, P

    2011-10-01

    Phlebotomus argentipes Annandale and Brunetti (Diptera: Psychodidae), the established vector for Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL) have shown some morphological variations in India and its subcontinents. The variable egg laying capacity was found in different morphotypes of P. argentipes with maximum in type III followed by type I and II. The fecundity was enhanced by providing 25% glucose soaked filter paper surface in all types. However, significant increase was found in type-I (P < 0.05). The differences in fecundity indicate the biological variations among P. argentipes population. The findings will be helpful in searching out the sibling species among P. argentipes population.

  11. Pollinator diversity (Hymenoptera and Diptera in semi-natural habitats in Serbia during summer

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    Mudri-Stojnić Sonja

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess species diversity and population abundance of the two main orders of pollinating insects, Hymenoptera and Diptera. The survey was conducted in 16 grassland fragments within agro-ecosystems in Vojvodina, as well as in surrounding fields with mass-flowering crops. Pollinators were identified and the Shannon-Wiener Diversity Index was used to measure their diversity. Five families, 7 subfamilies, 26 genera and 63 species of insects were recorded. All four big pollinator groups investigated were recorded; hoverflies were the most abundant with 32% of the total number of individuals, followed by wild bees - 29%, honeybees - 23% and bumblebees with 16%.

  12. Parasitism of Harmonia axyridis (Pallas (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae by Strongygaster brasiliensis (Towsend (Diptera: Tachinidae

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    Camila Castro-Guedes

    2018-04-01

    Resumo. Harmonia axyridis (Pallas é uma espécie de Coccinellidae originária do Nordeste da Ásia e utilizada como agente de controle biológico de afídeos. Como é uma espécie invasora é muito importante conhecer seus inimigos naturais. Dessa forma, este trabalho fornece o primeiro registro de Strongygaster brasiliensis (Towsend(Diptera: Tachinidae parasitando H. axyridis no sul do Brasil.

  13. On the biology of Symbiocladius rhithrogenae (ZAVREL, 1924) (Diptera: Chironomidae) from the Chornohora Mts., Ukraine

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gilka, W.; Klonowska-Olejnik, M.; Godunko, Roman J.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 76, - (2007), s. 285-291 ISSN 0032-3780 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR 1QS500070505 Grant - others:Institute of Environmental Sciences(PL) BW/V/INOS/4/06; Institute of Environmental Sciences(PL) DS/WBiNoZ/INoS/756/06; INTAS Fellowship Grant for Young Scientists(BE) 05-109-4162 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Source of funding: R - rámcový projekt EK Keywords : Diptera * Chironomidae * Symbiocladius rhithrogenae Subject RIV: EG - Zoology

  14. Diptera, Muscidae, Cariocamyia maculosa Snyder: Primeiro Registro para o Nordeste do Brasil

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    Thayana Monteiro

    2011-12-01

    Abstract. Cariocamyia maculosa Snyder, is a muscid fly with records from Colombia and Brazil (Southern, Southeastern and Central-West regions. In a survey of Diptera saprophagous in Feira de Santana, state of Bahia, with animal organic bait were collected 46 specimens of C. maculosa. This is the first record of the species to Bahia and Northeastern of Brazil. The forensic importance and the anthropized status of C. maculosa have not been detached in the specialized literature and new studies should be improved to corroborate these conditions.

  15. First description of the immature stages of Hemilucilia segmentaria (Diptera: Calliphoridae

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    PATRICIA J THYSSEN

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The immature stages oí Hemilucilia segmentaria (Fabricius, 1805 (Diptera: Calliphoridae are described. Egg morphology and structures such as the cephalopharyngeal skeleton, anterior and posterior spiracles, and the dorsal spines between the prothorax and mesothorax from first, second and third instar larvae are characterized, using light and scanning electron microscopy. This species is abundant in Neotropical forests and, because of its necrophagous behavior, is of substantial medico-legal importance for estimating the postmortem interval in criminal investigations. Information presented herein may be useful to differentiate among eggs and larvae of closely related species and to supplement the database for blowfly identification

  16. Review of the genera Stenopyrgota Malloch and Tropidothrinax Enderlein (Diptera, Pyrgotidae

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    Ramon Luciano Mello

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Review of the genera Stenopyrgota Malloch and Tropidothrinax Enderlein (Diptera, Pyrgotidae. The Neotropical genera Stenopyrgota Malloch, 1929 and Tropidothrinax Enderlein, 1942 are reviewed. The genus Stenopyrgota is composed by the species S. mexicana Malloch, 1929 and S. crassitibia Aczél, 1956. The monotypic genus Tropidothrinax is composed by the species T. boliviensis Enderlein, 1942. The species of Stenopyrgota and Tropidothrinax are redescribed and illustrations of the main taxonomic characters are given. Illustrations of the type material of the species covered by this paper are presented for the first time.

  17. A pictorial key and diagnosis of the Brazilian genera of Micropezidae (Diptera, Nerioidea

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    Gustavo Borges Ferro

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A pictorial key and diagnosis of the Brazilian genera of Micropezidae (Diptera, Nerioidea. This paper provides the first pictorial key and diagnosis for the Brazilian genera of the Micropezidae, based on external morphological characters illustrated with photographs. The key includes 13 genera: Cardiacephala Macquart, Cliobata Enderlein, Grallipeza Rondani, Metasphen Frey, Micropeza Meigen, Parasphen Enderlein, Planipeza Marshall, Plocoscelus Enderlein, Poecilotylus Hennig, Ptilosphen Enderlein, Rainieria Rondani, Scipopus Enderlein and Taeniaptera Macquart. For each genus, the species known to occur in Brazil are listed and their distribution records, including new ones, are provided.

  18. Toxomerus duplicatus Wiedemann, 1830 (Diptera: Syrphidae preying on Microtheca spp. (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae larvae

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    VS Sturza

    Full Text Available Microtheca spp. (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae are insect pests primarily related to Brassicaceae crops. In the State of Rio Grande do Sul (RS, southern Brazil, they are found on forage turnip, Raphanus sativus L. var. oleiferus Metzg., which is commonly grown during fall/winter seasons. This work reports the predation of Microtheca spp. larvae by Toxomerus duplicatus Wiedemann, 1830 (Diptera: Syrphidae larvae, on forage turnip crop, in Santa Maria, RS. This register provides new information about Microtheca spp. natural enemies in Brazil, which might be a new option for integrate pest management of these species.

  19. Report of Sphenochernes camponoti (Beier, 1970 (Pseudoscorpiones, Chernetidae in phoresy on Fanniidae (Diptera

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    André Felipe de Araujo Lira

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Phoresy is a common dispersal behavior among pseudoscorpions. Neotropical pseudoscorpions, mainly from the North and Northeast regions of Brazil, are known for their dispersal relationships with beetles and flies. Here, we report phoretic association among nymphs of Sphenochernes camponoti (Chernetidae and Fannia flies (F. pusio, F. yenhedi, and F. canicularis (Diptera, Fanniidae. Twelve flies, each carrying a young pseudoscorpion, were collected in Caatinga vegetation in Pernambuco State, Brazil. Sphenochernes camponoti is a myrmecophilous pseudoscorpion that lives in Camponotus and Acromyrmex colonies. Despite its association with ants, this pseudoscorpion uses other winged arthropods to disperse. This is the first report of phoresy by Sphenochernes camponoti.

  20. Natural infection of Lutzomyia neivai and Lutzomyia sallesi (Diptera: Psychodidae) by Leishmania infantum chagasi in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraiva, Lara; Carvalho, Gustavo M L; Gontijo, Célia M F; Quaresma, Patrícia F; Lima, Ana C V M R; Falcão, Alda L; Andrade Filho, José D

    2009-09-01

    Natural infections with Leishmania were found in females of the phlebotomine sand flies Lutzomyia neivai (Pinto) (= Nyssomyia neivai) and Lutzomyia sallesi (Galvão & Coutinho) (= Evandromyia sallesi) (Diptera: Psychodidae) from Lassance, in the Brazilian state of Minas Gerais. Promastigotes were found in the pyloric region of the former species and in the abdominal midgut of the latter species. Insects found to be infected by microscopic examination were macerated in saline solution and inoculated into hamsters. Subsequent analysis by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism revealed both isolates to belong to the species Leishmania infantum chagasi Cunha & Chagas.

  1. Estirpes de Bacillus thuringiensis efetivas contra insetos das ordens Lepidoptera, Coleoptera e Diptera Bacillus thuringiensis strains effective against insects of Lepidoptera, Coleoptera and Diptera orders

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    Lílian Botelho Praça

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi selecionar entre 300 estirpes de Bacillus thuringiensis as efetivas simultaneamente contra larvas de Spodoptera frugiperda J.E. Smith e Anticarsia gemmatalis Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae, Anthonomus grandis Boheman (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Aedes aegypti Linnaeus e Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae. Foram selecionadas duas estirpes de B. thuringiensis, denominadas S234 e S997, que apresentaram atividade contra as três ordens de insetos. As estirpes foram caracterizadas por métodos morfológicos, bioquímicos e moleculares. As mesmas apresentaram duas proteínas principais de 130 e 65 kDa, produtos de reação em cadeia da polimerase de tamanho esperado para a detecção dos genes cry1Aa, cry1Ab, cry1Ac, cry1B e cry2 e cristais bipiramidais, cubóides e esféricos.The aim of this work was to select among 300 strains of Bacillus thuringiensis those which are simultaneously effective against larvae of Spodoptera frugiperda J.E. Smith and Anticarsia gemmatalis Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae, Anthonomus grandis Boheman (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Aedes aegypti Linnaeus and Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae. Two strains of B. thuringiensis were selected, S234 and S997, which presented activity against those three insect orders. Both strains were characterized by morphological, biochemical and molecular methods. They have presented two main proteins with 130 and 65 kDa, polimerase chain reaction products with expected sizes for detection of the genes cry1Aa, cry1Ab, cry1Ac, cry1B and cry2 and bipiramidal, cubical and spherical crystals.

  2. Taxonomia e morfologia de espécies neotropicais de Graphomya Robineau-Desvoidy (Diptera, Muscidae Taxonomic study of neotropical species of Graphomya Robineau-Desvoidy (Diptera, Muscidae

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    Bianca Marques

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Graphomya Robineau-Desvoidy (Diptera, Muscidae pode ser reconhecido por padrões cromáticos característicos no mesonoto e abdômen e pelas cerdas catepisternais 0:2. Das 14 espécies citadas na literatura para a Região Neotropical, sete são redescritas, com descrições das terminálias masculina e feminina - G. analis (Macquart, G. maculata (Scopoli, G. meridionalis Townsend, G. mexicana Giglio-Tos, G. occidentalis Arntfield, G. podexaurea(Enderlein e G. tropicalis Malloch, aqui revalidada. Ilustrações coloridas do mesonoto e do abdômen são apresentadas para facilitar o reconhecimento das espécies. O neótipo de G. maculata é designado. A fêmea de G. podexaurea é registrada pela primeira vez. O registro geográfico das seguintes espécies é ampliado: G. meridionalis para o Equador e Peru; G. mexicana e G. podexaurea para o Brasil; G. tropicalis para Colômbia e Brasil.Graphomya Robineau-Desvoidy (Diptera, Muscidae is recognized by characteristic color patterns on mesonotum and abdomen and by the disposition of the katepisternal setae 0:2. From the 14 species recorded in the Neotropical Region, seven are redescribed with the descriptions of male and female terminalia - G. analis (Macquart, G. maculata (Scopoli, G. meridionalis Townsend, G. mexicana Giglio-Tos, G. occidentalis Arntfield, G. podexaurea(Enderlein and G. tropicalis Malloch, herein revalidated. Colored illustrations of mesonotum and abdomen are presented in order to aid the recognition of the species. The neotype of G. maculata is designated. The female of G. podexaurea is recorded for the first time. The geographic record of the following species is enlarged: G. meridionalis for Ecuador and Peru; G. mexicana and G. podexaurea for Brazil and G. tropicalis for Colombia and Brazil.

  3. Demographic and quality control parameters of Anastrepha Fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae) maintained under artificial rearing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vera, T.; Abraham, S.; Oviedo, A.; Willink, E.

    2007-01-01

    The integration of the sterile insect technique (SIT) in the management of the South American fruit fly Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) is a promising alternative to chemically-based control in those areas where it is sympatric with Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) or other tephritid species for which the SIT is being used. Implementation of the SIT requires the development of a cost effective mass-rearing protocol. In this work, we present demographic and quality control parameters for the A. fraterculus strain reared at the Estacion Experimental Agroindustrial Obispo Colombres, Tucuman, Argentina. Considering the rearing cage as the reproduction unit, we observed that fecundity is optimal during the first 3 weeks after the onset of oviposition. Fertility was constant during this period. During 2003 and 2004, some improvements were made to the existing rearing protocol, which resulted in increased larval viability, pupal weight, and adult emergence. Current weekly egg production is 1 million per week. These eggs are used to maintain the colony and to assess quality parameters. Finally, research needs leading to improved yields and fly quality are discussed. (author) [es

  4. Indoor decomposition study in Malaysia with special reference to the scuttle flies (Diptera: Phoridae

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    Raja M. Zuha

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Scuttle flies (Diptera: Phoridae are a diversified insect group of forensic importance. Their frequent presence on human corpses indoors and in concealed environments can be the sole indicators to estimate the minimum post mortem interval (PMImin. However, bionomics of scuttle flies on decomposing animal carcasses are rarely documented indoors. The objective of this research is to observe and document the occurrence of scuttle flies on decomposing animal carcass placed inside a portable cabin maintained at room temperature (≈25.0 °C in Bangi, Malaysia. This study was conducted in two rounds for a period of 40-day each and samplings were carried out in different intervals. Adult scuttle flies were aspirated directly from the carcass and preserved in 70% ethanol. Their larvae and pupae were reared until adult stage to facilitate identification. Megaselia scalaris (Loew, Megaselia spiracularis (Schmitz and Dohrniphora cornuta (Bigot were the scuttle flies found on the carcasses with M. scalaris being the earliest and dominant to colonize the body. This cosmopolitan species proved to be the best indicator to estimate PMImin indoor but in the increased presence of other fly species, it might be relegated to a secondary role. The scuttle flies were also found to coexist with other dipterans of forensic importance in an indoor environment, mainly Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius (Diptera: Calliphoridae. This information expands the knowledge on the bionomics of scuttle flies on decomposing animal remains indoors.

  5. Procontarinia mangiferae (Felt (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae new pest of mango (Mangifera indica L. in Cuba

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    Jorge Luís Rodríguez Tapia

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The diptera grouped in the family Cecidomyiidae, are considered important pests in the crop of mango (Mangifera indica L.. In the period of 2013-15, prospections were carried out in patios and plantations of several localities of Cuba (Havana, Artemisa, Mayabeque, Ciego de Ávila and Santiago de Cuba, during the stages of vegetative and floral sprouting, to evaluate the presence of insects. Thirteen samplings were made and 25 young leaves and 10 floral shoots were collected per sample, for a total of 325 young leaves and 130 floral shoots in which the number of galls, larvae, pupae and adults of an agallero insect was determined. A total of 2 423 galls were found in young leaves, which represented an average of 7.5 guts per leaf. A total of 207 larvae, 60 pupae and 40 adults were counted among diptera males and females. The morphological characters of the collected insects allowed identifying Procontarinia mangiferae (Felt, belonging to the family Cecidomyiidae, as the cause of the galls in the young leaves and floral shoots in the mango areas sampled.

  6. Pictorial identification key for species of Sarcophagidae (Diptera of potential forensic importance in southern Brazil

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    Karine Pinto e Vairo

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Pictorial identification key for species of Sarcophagidae (Diptera of potential forensic importance in southern Brazil. Species of the subfamily Sarcophaginae are important to forensic entomology due to their necrophagous habits. This contribution presents a pictorial key for the identification of 22 Sarcophaginae species in 10 genera that are commonly found in southern Brazil. Photographs of the main structures used in species identification, mainly from the male terminalia, are provided.Chave pictórica para a identificação das espécies de Sarcophagidae (Diptera de potencial importância forense do sul do Brasil. Espécies da subfamília Sarcophaginae são importantes para a entomologia forense devido ao seu hábito necrófago. Este trabalho apresenta uma chave pictórica para a identificação de 22 espécies de Sarcophaginae de 10 gêneros encontradas na região sul do Brasil. São fornecidas fotografias dos principais estruturas das espécies, principalmente da terminália masculina.

  7. First records of Synthesiomyia nudiseta (Diptera: Muscidae) from forensic cases in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo Pinto, Sara; Giordani, Giorgia; Tuccia, Fabiola; Ventura, Francesco; Vanin, Stefano

    2017-07-01

    The knowledge of the fauna associated with carrions and cadavers for a specific region plays a fundamental role in the estimation of the time since death in forensic cases. In the last years global warming and globalization have affected the insect species distribution. This phenomenon is affecting also the species of forensic interest associated with the cadaver decomposition. The species distribution shift, in the forensic context, has been mainly observed in Diptera of different family: Calliphoridae, Stratiomyidae and Phoridae. In the last decade the presence of the carrion feeding species, Synthesiomyia nudiseta (Diptera: Muscidae), was reported from forensic cases in Spain and in the last year from Italy where the species was collected from 5 bodies in different decomposition stages in the Genoa district. All the records concern indoor cases with the presence of other species belonging to the first colonization waves (e.g. Calliphoridae, Sarcophagidae). Different hypothesis about the presence of the species in Italy can be suggested, but the molecular analysis and the importation records support the introduction trough commercial exchanges with Asian countries instead of a variation in the species distribution area from the Iberian Peninsula. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Permethrin resistance in Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) and associated fitness costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Hiang Hao; Zairi, Jaal

    2013-03-01

    Insecticide resistance has become a serious issue in vector management programs. Information on insecticidal resistance and its associated mechanisms is important for successful insecticide resistance management. The selection of a colony of permethrin-resistant Aedes albopictus (Skuse) (Diptera: Culicidae), originating from Penang Island, Malaysia, yielded high larval-specific resistance to permethrin and cross-resistance to deltamethrin. Synergism assays showed that the major mechanism underlying this resistance involves cytochrome P450 monooxygenase. The resistance is autosomal, polygenically inherited and incompletely dominant (D = 0.26). Resistant larvae were reared under different conditions to assess the fitness costs. Under high larval density, larval development time of the resistant SGI strain was significantly longer than the susceptible VCRU strain. In both high- and low-density conditions SGI showed a lower rate of emergence and survival compared with the VCRU strain. Resistant larvae were more susceptible to predation by Toxorhynchites splendens (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Culicidae) larvae. The body size of SGI females reared under high-density conditions was larger compared with females of the susceptible strain. SGI females survived longer when starved than did VCRU females. The energy reserve upon eclosion was positively correlated with the size of the adults.

  9. Proteolytic activity regarding Sarconesiopsis magellanica (Diptera: Calliphoridae) larval excretions and secretions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinilla, Yudi T; Moreno-Pérez, Darwin A; Patarroyo, Manuel A; Bello, Felio J

    2013-12-01

    Sarconesiopsis magellanica (Diptera: Calliphoridae) is a medically important necrophagous fly which is used for establishing the post-mortem interval. Diptera maggots release proteolytic enzymes contained in larval excretion and secretion (ES) products playing a key role in digestion. Special interest in proteolytic enzymes has also been aroused regarding understanding their role in wound healing since they degrade necrotic tissue during larval therapy. This study was thus aimed at identifying and characterising S. magellanica proteolytic enzyme ES products for the first time. These products were obtained from first-, second- and third-instar larvae taken from a previously-established colony. ES proteins were separated by SDS-PAGE and their proteolytic activity was characterised by zymograms and inhibition assays involving BAPNA (Nα-benzoyl-dl-Arg-p-nitroanilide) and SAPNA substrates, using synthetic inhibitors. The protein profile ranged from ∼69kDa to ∼23kDa; several of them coincided with the Lucilia sericata ES protein profile. Serine-protease hydrolysis activity (measured by zymogram) was confirmed when a ∼25kDa band disappeared upon ES incubation with PMSF inhibitor at pH 7.8. Analysis of larval ES proteolytic activity on BAPNA and SAPNA substrates (determined by using TLCK and TPCK specific inhibitors) suggested a greater amount of trypsin-like protease. These results support the need for further experiments aimed at validating S. magellanica use in larval therapy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Description of the male of Lepidodexia (Xylocamptopsis teffeensis (Townsend (Diptera, Sarcophagidae

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    Karlla Patrícia Silva

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Description of the male of Lepidodexia (Xylocamptopsis teffeensis (Townsend (Diptera, Sarcophagidae. The male of Lepidodexia (Xylocamptopsis teffeensis (Townsend, 1927 is described and illustrated for the first time based on material housed in the entomological collection of Museu Nacional, Rio de Janeiro (MNRJ. This monotypic subgenus has been recorded in the Brazilian Amazon Rainforest, first in the state of Amazonas and now in the state of Pará. The general structure of the male terminalia is similar that of other Lepidodexia, especially of the subgenus Lepidodexia, by the short distiphallus, juxta with apical projection, and vesica with a membranous spinous lobe.Descrição do macho de Lepidodexia (Xylocamptopsis teffeensis (Townsend, 1927 (Diptera: Sarcophagidae. O macho de Lepidodexia (Xylocamptopsis teffeensis é descrito e ilustrado pela primeira vez, com base em material depositado na coleção entomológica do Museu Nacional, Rio de Janeiro (MNRJ. Esse subgênero monotípico tem sido registrado na Floresta Amazônica brasileira, primeiramente no estado do Amazonas e agora no Pará. A estrutura geral da terminália masculina é similar a de outras espécies de Lepidodexia, especialmente do subgênero Lepidodexia, pelo distifalo curto, juxta com projeção apical e vesica com lobo membranoso e espinhoso.

  11. Anomalías morfológicas en diferentes estructuras de cinco especies de Lutzomyia (Diptera: Psychodidae Morphological abnormalities in different structures of five species of Lutzomyia (Diptera: Psychodidae

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    Daniela Vergara

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Se describen e ilustran diversos casos de anomalías morfológicas de cinco diferentes especies de Lutzomyia França (Diptera Psychodidae. Estas teratologías se observan en varias estructuras importantes para la identificación taxonómica de dichas especies. Los diferentes individuos pertenecientes a las especies L. columbiana, L. hartmanni, L. reburra, L. ayrozai y L. panamensis fueron capturados en diversos departamentos en Colombia.Diverse morphological anomalies in five different species of Lutzomyia França (Diptera: Pychodidae are described and illustrated. These theratologies are observed in various structures important for the taxonomic identification of the species. The different individuals that belong to the species L. columbiana, L. hartmanni, L. reburra, L. ayrozai and L. panamensis were captured in diverse departments in Colombia.

  12. Field evaluation of the efficacy and safety of a deltamethrin pour on formulation (Butox® 7.5 mg/ml pour on) for the control of Culicoides midges in sheep

    OpenAIRE

    Weiher, Wiebke

    2014-01-01

    Culicoides spp. (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) are the main vectors of Bluetongue and Schmallenberg virus disease, which are infectious diseases of ruminants. Recently, both viral diseases occurred for the first time in Germany and caused substantial suffering and large economic losses, primarily in sheep flocks. None of the currently available insecticides is registered to control infestations with Culicoides midges in ruminants. This study aimed to assess the safety and efficacy of a pour on fo...

  13. Fruit Flies of the Genus Anastrepha (Diptera: Tephritidae) From Some Localities of Paraguay: New Records, Checklist, and Illustrated Key

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, Osmar René; Fariña, Nelson Librado; Lopes, Gleidyane Novaes; Uramoto, Keiko; Zucchi, Roberto Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Abstract This study deals with fruit flies of the genus Anastrepha Schiner (Diptera: Tephritidae) collected in McPhail traps in the municipalities of Concepción, Belén, Horqueta, Loreto (state of Concepción) and Santa Rosa (state of Misiones), Paraguay. In total, 17 species were captured, 9 of which are new records for Paraguay. All morphological characters used for species identification are illustrated. RESUMEN. Se estudió las especies de moscas de las frutas del género Anastrepha Schiner (Diptera: Tephritidae), colectadas en trampas tipo McPhail en las localidades de Concepción, Belén, Horqueta (Departamento de Concepción) y Santa Rosa (Departamento de Misiones). En total fueron capturadas 17 especies, de las cuales nueve especies corresponden a nuevos registros para el Paraguay. Todos los caracteres morfológicos para la identificación de las especies fueron ilustrados. PMID:25525098

  14. Fluorescence Imaging of Posterior Spiracles from Second and Third Instars of Forensically-important Chrysomya rufifacies (Diptera: Calliphoridae)*

    OpenAIRE

    Flores, Danielle; Miller, Amy L.; Showman, Angelique; Tobita, Caitlyn; Shimoda, Lori M.N.; Sung, Carl; Stokes, Alexander J.; Tomberlin, Jeffrey K.; Carter, David O.; Turner, Helen

    2016-01-01

    Entomological protocols for aging blow fly (Diptera: Calliphoridae) larvae to estimate the time of colonization (TOC) are commonly used to assist in death investigations. While the methodologies for analysing fly larvae differ, most rely on light microscopy, genetic analysis or, more rarely, electron microscopy. This pilot study sought to improve resolution of larval stage in the forensically-important blow fly Chrysomya rufifacies using high-content fluorescence microscopy and biochemical me...

  15. Identification and Transcription Profiling of NDUFS8 in Aedes taeniorhynchus (Diptera: Culicidae): Developmental Regulation and Environmental Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-18

    Identification and transcription profiling of NDUFS8 in Aedes taeniorhynchus (Diptera: Culicidae): developmental regulation and environmental response...7205 Email lmzhao@ufl.edu Abstract: The cDNA of a NADH dehydrogenase-ubiquinone Fe-S protein 8 subunit (NDUFS8) gene from Aedes (Ochlerotatus...information useful for developing dsRNA pesticide for mosquito control. Keywords: Aedes taeniorhynchus, AetNDUFS8, mRNA expression, development

  16. Remarkable fly (Diptera) diversity in a patch of Costa Rican cloud forest: Why inventory is a vital science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Art Borkent; Brian V. Brown; Peter H. Adler; Dalton de Souza Amorim; Kevin Barber; Daniel Bickel; Stephanie Boucher; Scott E. Brooks; John Burger; Zelia L. Burington; Renato S. Capellari; Daniel N. R. Costa; Jeffrey M. Cumming; Greg Curler; Carl W. Dick; John H. Epler; Eric Fisher; Stephen D. Gaimari; Jon Gelhaus; David A. Grimaldi; John Hash; Martin Hauser; Heikki Hippa; Sergio Ibanez-Bernal; Mathias Jaschhof; Elena P. Kameneva; Peter H. Kerr; Valery Korneyev; Cheslavo A. Korytkowski; Giar-Ann Kung; Gunnar Mikalsen Kvifte; Owen Lonsdale; Stephen A. Marshall; Wayne N. Mathis; Verner Michelsen; Stefan Naglis; Allen L. Norrbom; Steven Paiero; Thomas Pape; Alessandre Pereira-Colavite; Marc Pollet; Sabrina Rochefort; Alessandra Rung; Justin B. Runyon; Jade Savage; Vera C. Silva; Bradley J. Sinclair; Jeffrey H. Skevington; John O. Stireman; John Swann; F. Christian Thompson; Pekka Vilkamaa; Terry Wheeler; Terry Whitworth; Maria Wong; D. Monty Wood; Norman Woodley; Tiffany Yau; Thomas J. Zavortink; Manuel A. Zumbado

    2018-01-01

    Study of all flies (Diptera) collected for one year from a four-hectare (150 x 266 meter) patch of cloud forest at 1,600 meters above sea level at Zurquí de Moravia, San José Province, Costa Rica (hereafter referred to as Zurquí), revealed an astounding 4,332 species. This amounts to more than half the number of named species of flies for all of Central America....

  17. Posterior spiracles of fourth instar larvae of four species of phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae under scanning electron microscopy

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    Pessoa Felipe Arley Costa

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, posterior spiracles of laboratory-reared fourth instar larvae of Lutzomyia longipalpis, L. migonei, L. lenti, and L. whitmani (Diptera: Psychodidae of the State of Ceará, Brazil, were examined under scanning electron microscopy. The number of papillae of spiracles examined varied according to the species examined, but no intraspecific differences were found. The importance of this structure to sand fly larva identification and phylogeny is commented.

  18. First survey of fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) and parasitoid diversity among myrtaceae fruit across the state of Bahia, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Lidia Nogueira; Santos, Mírian Silva; Dutra, Vivian Siqueira; Araujo, Elton Lucio; Costa, Marco Antonio; Silva, Janisete Gomes

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the diversity of fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) species that use myrtaceous fruit, particularly guava, as hosts in several localities in the state of Bahia and to determine the infestation rates, pupal viability rates, and fruit fly-parasitoid associations. Sampling of myrtaceous fruit was carried out in 24 municipalities in different regions in the state of Bahia. Four fruit fly species, Anastrepha fraterculus, Anastrepha zenildae, Anastrepha sor...

  19. Calycomyza hyptidis Spencer (Diptera,Agromyzidae: descriptions, redescriptions and first record in Ocimum basilicum (Lamiaceae in Brazil

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    Viviane Rodrigues de Sousa

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Calycomyza hyptidis Spencer (Diptera, Agromyzidae: descriptions, redescriptions and first record in Ocimum basilicum (Lamiaceae in Brazil. All phases of the leafminer Calycomyza hyptidis Spencer are for the first time described, including the larva, puparium and adult female. Illustrations are presented for male and female terminalia, mine, larva and pupa. The species is first recorded in leaves of Ocimum basilicum L. (Lamiaceae in Brazil.

  20. Anomalías morfológicas en diferentes estructuras de cinco especies de Lutzomyia (Diptera: Psychodidae

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    Daniela VERGARA

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Se describen e ilustran diversos casos de anomalías morfológicas de cinco diferentes especies de Lutzomyia França (Diptera Psychodidae. Estas teratologías se observan en varias estructuras importantes para la identificación taxonómica de dichas especies. Los diferentes individuos pertenecientes a las especies L. columbiana, L. hartmanni, L. reburra, L. ayrozai y L. panamensis fueron capturados en diversos departamentos en Colombia.

  1. Larvicidal & ovicidal efficacy of Pithecellobium dulce (Roxb.) Benth. (Fabaceae) against Anopheles stephensi Liston & Aedes aegypti Linn. (Diptera: Culicidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Govindarajan, M.; Rajeswary, M.; Sivakumar, R.

    2013-01-01

    Background & objectives: In view of the recently increased interest in developing plant origin insecticides as an alternative to chemical insecticide, this study was undertaken to assess the larvicidal and ovicidal potential of the crude hexane, benzene, chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol solvent extracts from the medicinal plant Pithecellobium dulce against the mosquito vectors, Anopheles stephensi and Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae). Methods: Larvicidal activity of P. dulce plant...

  2. "Jejenes" (Diptera: Simuliidae of Nahuel Huapi National Park, Patagonia, Argentina: Preliminary results "Jejenes" (Diptera: Simuliidae del Parque Nacional Nahuel Huapi, Patagonia, Argentina: Resultados preliminares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis M. Hernández

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The Simuliidae is a family of Diptera with approximately 2072 described species worldwide. The females of the majority of the species feed from vertebrates' blood, which makes them a significant plague that affects both men as well as cattle, birds, and other vertebrates. The objective of this paper is to create an inventory of Simuliidae and to reveal certain aspects of the biology and distribution of this family of aquatic insects in the Nahuel Huapi National Park. Moreover, information on the zoogeography of Simuliidae in Patagonia is provided. Five genera, 3 subgenera and 32 species Simuliidae are recorded from Patagonia: Cnesia (three spp., Cnesiamima (one sp., Gigantodax (14 spp., Paraustrosimulium (one sp., Simulium (Ectemnaspis (one sp., S. (Psaroniocompsa (one sp. and S. ( Pternaspatha (11 spp., At present, we have collected all five genera, one subgenus of Simulium (Pternaspatha, and 19 species of Simuliidae in the park, which amounts to 57% of the Simuliidae fauna in this area. Puerto Blest, a characteristic area of the High-Andean phytogeographical province (humid forest, showed the highest diversity of Simuliidae.Los simúlidos pertenecen a una familia de Diptera (Simuliidae con alrededor de 2.072 especies descritas a nivel mundial. Las hembras de la mayoría de las especies se alimentan con sangre de vertebrados, lo cual las convierte en importantes plagas que afectan tanto al hombre como al ganado, aves y otros vertebrados. Los objetivos de este trabajo son llevar a cabo un inventario de Simuliidae y dar a conocer algunos aspectos de la biología y la distribución de esta familia de insectos acuáticos en el Parque Nacional Nahuel Huapi, Argentina. Además, se proporciona información sobre la biogeografía de Simuliidae en la Patagonia. Cinco géneros, un subgénero y 32 especies de simúlidos han sido registrados para Patagonia: Cnesia (3 spp., Cnesiamima (1 sp., Gigantodax (14 spp., Paraustrosimulium (1 sp., Simulium

  3. Effects of bioirrigation of non-biting midges (Diptera: Chironomidae) on lake sediment respiration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranov, Viktor; Lewandowski, Jörg; Romeijn, Paul; Singer, Gabriel; Krause, Stefan

    2016-06-01

    Bioirrigation or the transport of fluids into the sediment matrix due to the activities of organisms such as bloodworms (larvae of Diptera, Chironomidae), has substantial impacts on sediment respiration in lakes. However, previous quantifications of bioirrigation impacts of Chironomidae have been limited by technical challenges such as the difficulty to separate faunal and bacterial respiration. This paper describes a novel method based on the bioreactive tracer resazurin for measuring respiration in-situ in non-sealed systems with constant oxygen supply. Applying this new method in microcosm experiments revealed that bioirrigation enhanced sediment respiration by up to 2.5 times. The new method is yielding lower oxygen consumption than previously reported, as it is only sensitive to aerobic heterotrophous respiration and not to other processes causing oxygen decrease. Hence it decouples the quantification of respiration of animals and inorganic oxygen consumption from microbe respiration in sediment.

  4. Two new species of Stenochironomus Kieffer (Diptera, Chironomidae) from Zhejiang, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Xin; Lin, Xiaolong; Liu, Yuedan; Wang, Xinhua

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Two new species of Stenochironomus Kieffer (Diptera: Chironomidae: Chironominae), Stenochironomus brevissimus sp. n. and Stenochironomus linanensis sp. n., are described from China and the male imagines are illustrated. Stenochironomus brevissimus sp. n. can be separated from the so far known species by having very short and small, spatulate superior volsella with two long setae, whereas Stenochironomus linanensis sp. n. is easily separated from the other species of Stenochironomus by the following characters: wings transparent, body yellow, superior volsella finger-like, with nine long setae, elongated inferior volsella with four long setae and one well developed terminal spine; tergite IX with 10−15 long setae medially. A key to the males of Stenochironomus occurring in China is given. PMID:25685018

  5. Integrating DNA barcodes and morphology for species delimitation in the Corynoneura group (Diptera: Chironomidae: Orthocladiinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, F L; Wiedenbrug, S

    2014-02-01

    In this study, we use DNA barcodes for species delimitation to solve taxonomic conflicts in 86 specimens of 14 species belonging to the Corynoneura group (Diptera: Chironomidae: Orthocladiinae), from the Atlantic Forest, Brazil. Molecular analysis of cytochrome c-oxidase subunit I (COI) gene sequences supported 14 cohesive species groups, of which two similar groups were subsequently associated with morphological variation at the pupal stage. Eleven species previously described based on morphological criteria were linked to DNA markers. Furthermore, there is the possibility that there may be cryptic species within the Corynoneura group, since one group of species presented internal grouping, although no morphological divergence was observed. Our results support DNA-barcoding as an excellent tool for species delimitation in groups where taxonomy by means of morphology is difficult or even impossible.

  6. Blow fly maggots (Diptera: Calliphoridae)from a human corpse in a vehicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sribanditmongkol, Pongruk; Monum, Tawachai; Wannasan, Anchalee; Tomberlin, Jeffery K; Sukontason, Kom; Sukontason, Kabkaew L

    2014-09-01

    Correct species identification and development data of insects associated with a cadaver can help estimate the time of colonization which could be used to infer a minimal post-mortem interval (minPMI) for forensic investigations. Human remains are found in a variety of locations ranging from open fields to inside automobiles. We report the investigation of blow fly larvae collected from a decomposing body located in the trunk of a car. There were two blow fly (Diptera: Calliphoridae) species: Achoetandrus rufifacies (Macquart) and Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius). Blow flies can enter the vehicle and colonize human remains. Based on age estimations of third stage larvae of A. rufifacies, the minPMI was estimated to be 4-5 days, which was within the range of 3-5 days estimated by other forensically relevant information.

  7. Development of Lutzomyia intermedia and Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae larvae in different diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WERMELINGER E. D.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to evaluate, in laboratory, the development of Lutzomyia intermedia and Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae larvae, vectors of leishmaniasis in Brazil, in the following diets: industrialized food for rabbits, dogs, hamsters and aquarium fishes, besides liver powder, cooked lettuce, wheat germ, beer yeast, oat, wheat bran and a diet denominated aged food. Except wheat bran for L. intermedia, all diets provided adequate development for both species, which showed that any of them can be used in laboratory insectaries for these insects. L. intermedia showed better development with most nutritious diets and both species presented better development with aged food. Fungi as an additional nutrient source for L. intermedia and L. longipalpis is suggested.

  8. Sindbis virus infection alters blood feeding responses and DEET repellency in Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qualls, Whitney A; Day, Jonathan F; Xue, Rui-De; Bowers, Doria F

    2012-03-01

    Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae) female mosquitoes infected systemically with Sindbis virus (SINV) took longer than uninfected mosquitoes to locate and fully engorge on blood. On days 7 and 14 postexposure, blood feeding took 1.3 and 1.5 times longer in mosquitoes with a disseminated SINV infection, respectively. SINV dissemination did not affect the average weight of unfed Ae. aegypti, but did result in a 10 and 12% increase in blood imbibed compared with mosquitoes without a positive SINV dissemination and non-SINV-exposed mosquitoes, respectively. Ae. aegypti mosquitoes with a disseminated SINV infection fed an average of 4 h sooner than uninfected mosquitoes when offered a bloodmeal contained inside a DEET (N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide) saturated (30%) bovine sausage casing. Together, these results indicate that behavioral changes in mosquito host-seeking, blood feeding and sensitivity to DEET occurred in mosquitoes after SINV infection and dissemination.

  9. Microsporidiosis (Microsporidia: Culicosporidae) alters blood-feeding responses and DEET repellency in Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnard, Donald R; Xue, Rui-De; Rotstein, Margaret A; Becnel, James J

    2007-11-01

    Infection of Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae) with Edhazardia aedis (Microsporidia: Culicosporidae) reduced mean human host attraction and landing/probing rates in female mosquitoes by 53 and 62%, respectively, compared with rates in microsporidia-free females. Infection with E. aedis reduced the average weight of unfed female mosquitoes by 4%, caused them to imbibe 23% less blood, and to lay 30% fewer eggs than healthy females. In contrast, E. aedis-infected mosquitoes required 20% more time (>1 h) than healthy females to bite skin treated with 15% DEET. Statistically significant morbidity in E. aedis-infected females was indicated by reductions in host attraction and landing/probing responses, the mass of unfed and blood-engorged females, and fecundity, and by increased DEET repellency.

  10. Morphology and Developmental Rate of the Blow Fly, Hemipyrellia ligurriens (Diptera: Calliphoridae: Forensic Entomology Applications

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    Nophawan Bunchu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Hemipyrellia ligurriens (Diptera: Calliphoridae is a forensically important blow fly species presented in many countries. In this study, we determined the morphology of all stages and the developmental rate of H. ligurriens reared under natural ambient conditions in Phitsanulok province, northern Thailand. Morphological features of all stages based on observing under a light microscope were described and demonstrated in order to use for identification purpose. Moreover, development time in each stage was given. The developmental time of H. ligurriens to complete metamorphosis; from egg, larva, pupa to adult, took 270.71 h for 1 cycle of development. The results from this study may be useful not only for application in forensic investigation, but also for study in its biology in the future.

  11. The type specimens of Calyptratae (Diptera) housed in non-traditional institutions in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patitucci, Luciano Damián; Mulieri, Pablo Ricardo; Domínguez, M Cecilia; Mariluis, Juan Carlos

    2015-01-14

    The type material of species of Calyptratae Diptera belonging to Anthomyiidae, Calliphoridae, Fanniidae, Muscidae, Sarcophagidae, and Tachinidae, housed in the collections of non-traditional institutions in Argentina were examined. These collections were included in the recently created "Sistema Nacional de Datos Biológicos" (National Biological Data System). We examined four collections: "Administración Nacional de Laboratorios e Institutos de Salud 'Dr. Carlos G. Malbrán'" (ANLIS), "Instituto Nacional de Tecnología Agropecuaria, Castelar, Buenos Aires" (INTA), "Instituto Argentino de Investigaciones de las Zonas Áridas" (IADIZA); and "Fundación Félix de Azara" (CFA). Comparison of the original descriptions of these species with the label information revealed the existence of 24 holotypes, 5 lectotypes, 11 syntypes, and 441 paratypes/paralectotypes. Complete information is given for each type, including reference to the original description, label data, and preservation condition. 

  12. Evolution of Lower Brachyceran Flies (Diptera and Their Adaptive Radiation with Angiosperms

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    Bo Wang

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The Diptera (true flies is one of the most species-abundant orders of Insecta, and it is also among the most important flower-visiting insects. Dipteran fossils are abundant in the Mesozoic, especially in the Late Jurassic and Early Cretaceous. Here, we review the fossil record and early evolution of some Mesozoic lower brachyceran flies together with new records in Burmese amber, including Tabanidae, Nemestrinidae, Bombyliidae, Eremochaetidae, and Zhangsolvidae. The fossil records reveal that some flower-visiting groups had diversified during the mid-Cretaceous, consistent with the rise of angiosperms to widespread floristic dominance. These brachyceran groups played an important role in the origin of co-evolutionary relationships with basal angiosperms. Moreover, the rise of angiosperms not only improved the diversity of flower-visiting flies, but also advanced the turnover and evolution of other specialized flies.

  13. Graphomya Robineau-Desvoidy from Costa Rica: descriptions and first records (Diptera, Muscidae

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    MS. Couri

    Full Text Available Graphomya Robineau-Desvoidy (Diptera, Muscidae occurs in temperate and tropical regions of the world. It is known in the Neotropical Region from fifteen species. The genus is here recorded for the first time from Costa Rica, on the basis of three species: G. auriceps Malloch, 1934; G. mexicana Giglio-Tos, 1893 and G. tropicalis Malloch, 1934. A key for the recognition of these three species is given. G. auriceps is redescribed, including the morphology of male and female terminalia and the male of G. tropicalis is described for the first time. For G. mexicana, a well-known species in the literature, only a brief diagnosis and the material examined are listed.

  14. Five new records of bee flies (Bombyliidae, Diptera from Saudi Arabia with zoogeographical remarks

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    Magdi El-Hawagry

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Five bee-fly species (Bombyliidae, Diptera have been listed in this paper as new to the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Four of the recorded species have been identified to the level of species, namely: Bombomyia discoidea (Fabricius, 1794, Spogostylum candidum (Sack, 1909, Exoprosopa linearis Bezzi, 1924, and Exoprosopa minos (Meigen, 1804, while the fifth one only to genus, Desmatoneura sp. The species have been collected from Al-Baha and Asir Provinces in the south-western part of the Kingdom. One of the four identified species, Exoprosopa linearis, has an Afrotropical affinity, and another two, Spogostylum candidum and Bombomyia discoidea, have considerable Afrotropical distributions, and this result agrees to some extent with studies considering these parts of the Arabian Peninsula, including Al-Baha and Asir Provinces, having Afrotropical influences and may be included in the Afrotropical Region rather than in the Palaearctic Region or the Eremic zone.

  15. Predatory behavior of Pseudodorus clavatus (Diptera, Syrphidae on aphids tended by ants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Bächtold

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Predatory behavior of Pseudodorus clavatus (Diptera, Syrphidae on aphids tended by ants. In this study, we examined the interactions between myrmecophilous aphids, their ant-guards and a predatory syrphid species, Pseudodorus clavatus (F.. Larvae of this predator were found in the colonies of three aphid species: Aphis gossypii, A. spiraecola and Toxoptera sp., which were tended by eight ant species, especially Camponotus. Hoverfly larvae managed to infiltrate the aphid colonies and consume nymphs. Predator larvae exhibited inconspicuous movements and were not detected by ants which were commonly observed touching and antennating the larvae they come into contact. These results suggest that behavioral and chemical cues are involved in the infiltration and on the successful predation of syrphids upon aphids.

  16. Seasonality of Lutzomyia fairtigi (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae), a species endemic to Eastern Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, Jorge Alberto; Ortiz, Mario Iván; Guhl, Felipe

    2008-08-01

    The bionomics of sand flies (Diptera: Phlebotominae) was studied monthly for two consecutive years in alluvial gallery forests in the department of Casanare, Northeastern Colombia. A total of 2,365 specimens and 10 species were captured using CDC light traps and Shannon traps, and from diurnal resting places, and human landing collections. Lutzomyia fairtigi Martins (55%), Lutzomyia micropyga (Mangabeira) (20.9%), and Lutzomyia antunesi (Coutinho) (13.5%) were the predominant species in the region. Lutzomyia flaviscutellata and Lutzomyia panamensis, potential vectors of Leishmania in Colombia and neighboring countries, were also collected, but in low numbers. Lu. fairtigi is an endemic species to Colombia, and minimal data are available on its biology and distribution. The present study provides additional information about Lu. fairtigi, such as the diurnal activity displayed by females on cloudy days, the greater density during the rainy season (April to October), marked anthropophilia, and the presence of flagellates in the midgut of one female.

  17. First record of spotted wing drosophila Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae in Montenegro

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    Snježana Hrnčić

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The spotted wing drosophila Drosophila suzukii Matsumura (Diptera: Drosophilidae is an invasive pest originating from Southeast Asia. It was detected for the first time in Europe in 2008 (Spain and Italy and subsequently in other European countries. It is a highly polyphagous pest that infests healthy, ripening fruit and presents a serious threat to fruit production, particularly of soft skinned fruit. In the first half of October 2013, a new fruit fly species was unexpectedly detected in Tephri traps baited with the three-component female-biased attractant BioLure that is regularly used for monitoring the Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata Wiedem. (Diptera: Tephritidae in Montenegro. Brief visual inspection identified the new species as the spotted wing drosophila D. suzukii. The pest was first recorded in several localities on the Montenegrin seacoast around Boka Kotor Bay. After the finding, all Drosophila specimens were collected from traps for further laboratory observation. A quick follow-up monitoring of other Tephri traps was carried out within the next few days on the rest of the seacoast (localities from Tivat to Ulcinj. Additionally, Tephri traps were set up around Lake Skadar and in the city of Podgorica, as well as on fresh fruit markets in Podgorica. The results of this preliminary study showed that D. suzukii was present in all surveyed locations and adults were captured until late December. Both sexes were found in traps with BioLure. Our data show that D. suzukii is present in southern parts of Montenegro and there is a serious threat of its further spreading, particularly towards northern parts of the country where the main raspberry and blueberry production is placed. The results also show that Tephri traps baited with BioLure can be used for detection and monitoring of spotted wing drosophila.

  18. New species and new records of Mydidae from the Afrotropical and Oriental regions (Insecta, Diptera, Asiloidea

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    Torsten Dikow

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available New Mydidae species are described from the Afrotropical and Oriental regions including the first records of this family from several countries in eastern Africa (Kenya, Tanzania, and Uganda and Mauritania in western Africa as well as Nepal and Thailand in Asia. The new species are, Leptomydinae: Leptomydas notos sp. n. (south-western India, Leptomydas rapti sp. n. (south-central Nepal, Leptomydas tigris sp. n. (north-central Thailand; Syllegomydinae: Mydaselpidini: Mydaselpis ngurumani sp. n. (south-eastern Kenya, north-eastern Tanzania, Vespiodes phaios sp. n. (south-eastern Kenya; Syllegomydinae: Syllegomydini: Syllegomydas (Notobates astrictus sp. n. (Kenya, Syllegomydas (Notobates heothinos sp. n. (Kenya and Uganda, Syllegomydas (Syllegomydas elachys sp. n. (northern Zimbabwe. Syllegomydas (Syllegomydas proximus Séguy, 1928 is recorded from western Mauritania and re-described. Syllegomydas (Notobates dispar (Loew, 1852, which was previously listed as incertae sedis in the Afrotropical Diptera catalogue, is re-described and illustrated based on examination of the type specimens and several additional specimens from Mozambique. Cephalocera annulata Brunetti, 1912 and Syllegomydas bucciferus Séguy, 1928, described from north-eastern India and previously unplaced in the Oriental Diptera catalogue, are newly combined with Leptomydas Gerstaecker, 1868 and together with Leptomydas indianus Brunetti, 1912, also from north-eastern India, placed in Leptomydinae. Comments on the possible synonymy of the genera of Mydaselpidini are made. Illustrations and photographs are provided to support the descriptions and future identification. A provisional dichotomous key to Mydidae genera occurring in eastern Africa (Kenya, Malawi, Mozambique, Somalia, Tanzania, Uganda and the Oriental Region is provided. Distribution, occurrence in biodiversity hotspots and high-biodiversity wilderness areas, and seasonal incidence are discussed for all species.

  19. Presence and Potential Distribution of Aedes albopictus and Aedes japonicus japonicus (Diptera: Culicidae) in Slovenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalan, Katja; Ivovic, Vladimir; Glasnovic, Peter; Buzan, Elena

    2017-11-07

    In Slovenia, two invasive mosquito species are present, Aedes albopictus (Skuse, 1895) (Diptera: Culicidae) and Aedes japonicus (Theobald, 1901) (Diptera: Culicidae). In this study, we examined their actual distribution and suitable habitats for new colonizations. Data from survey of species presence in 2013 and 2015, bioclimatic variables and altitude were used for the construction of predictive maps. We produced various models in Maxent software and tested two bioclimatic variable sets, WorldClim and CHELSA. For the variable selection of A. albopictus modeling we used statistical and expert knowledge-based approach, whereas for A. j. japonicus we used only a statistically based approach. The best performing models for both species were chosen according to AIC score-based evaluation. In 2 yr of sampling, A. albopictus was largely confined to the western half of Slovenia, whereas A. j. japonicus spread significantly and can be considered as an established species in a large part of the country. Comparison of models with WorldClim and CHELSA variables for both species showed models with CHELSA variables as a better tool for prediction. Finally, we validated the models performance in predicting distribution of species according to collected field data. Our study confirms that both species are co-occurring and are sympatric in a large part of the country area. The tested models could be used for future prevention of invasive mosquitoes spreading in other countries with similar bioclimatic conditions. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Grapefruit as a host for the West Indian fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangan, Robert L; Thomas, Donald B; Moreno, Aleena Tarshis; Robacker, David

    2011-02-01

    The most common hosts for the West Indian fruit fly, Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart) (Diptera: Tephritidae) are fruit in the family Anacardiaceae (mango [Mangifera L.] and mombin [Spondias L.] species). However, similar to many of the tropical fruit flies of major economic importance, this species attacks several other families of crop fruit, including Annonaceae (cherimoya, Annona cherimola Mill.), Myrtaceae (guava, Psidium L.), Oxalidaceae (carambola, Averrhoa carambola L.), Passifloraceae (granadilla, Passiflora quadrangularis Mill.), and Sapotaceae [mamey sapote, Pouteria sapota (Jacq.) H. E. Moore & Steam]. In the family Rutaceae the economically important genus Citrus has been reported and until recently considered a host for this fruit fly. In this study, we reviewed the taxonomy of A. obliqua, tested specific chemicals that may inhibit oviposition, compared egg-to-adult survival of A. obliqua on preferred hosts and on grapefruit (Citrus X paradisi Macfad.), and measured fruit tissue-specific developmental rates of A. obliqua and the known citrus breeding Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens (Loew) (Diptera: Tephritidae), from egg to pupae. Our literature review shows much confusion concerning the taxonomy of this and related Anastrepha species, including synonymies and confusion with other species. The deterrent effect of the highest concentration of flavonoids for oviposition, although significant, was not absolute. Experiments carried out under laboratory conditions showed 15-40 times greater survival of A. ludens (whose preferred hosts include Rutaceae) on grapefruit compared with A. obliqua for both tree attached and harvested fruit. Experiments of survival of developing stages over time showed that the two species oviposit into different tissues in the fruit, and mortality is much higher for the West Indian fruit fly in the flavedo and albedo of the fruit compared with the Mexican fruit fly.

  1. TWO NEW RECORDS OF Isomyia paurogonita FANG AND FAN, 1986 AND Sumatria latifrons Malloch, 1926 (DIPTERA: CALLIPHORIDAE FROM NORTHERN THAILAND, WITH REVISED KEY TO THE SPECIES OF Isomyia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nophawan Bunchu

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available During the annual fly survey at Doi Nang Kaew in Doi Saket District, Chiang Mai Province of Thailand in 2011, Isomyia paurogonita Fang & Fan, 1986 (Diptera: Calliphoridae and Sumatria latifrons Malloch, 1926 (Diptera: Calliphoridae were collected for the first time in Thailand. They are the rare species of the subfamily Rhiniinae (tribe Cosminini. Prior to this finding, fifteen species of Isomyia and two species of Sumatria were recorded from Thailand. Therefore, 96 blow fly species have been found in this country. These new locality records of both flies are very important for further research on their biology and ecology in Thailand.

  2. Identification of the species of the Cheilosia variabilis group (Diptera, Syrphidae) from the Balkan Peninsula using wing geometric morphometrics, with the revision of status of C. melanopa redi Vujic, 1996

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Francuski, Lj.; Vujic, A.; Kovacevic, A.; Ludoski, J.; Milankov, V.

    2009-01-01

    The present study investigates phenotypic differentiation patterns among four species of the Cheilosia variabilis group (Diptera, Syrphidae) using a landmark-based geometric morphometric approach. Herein, wing geometric morphometrics established species boundaries that confirm C. melanopa and C.

  3. Avaliação da qualidade das águas subterrâneas em áreas de preservação permanente (sistema aquífero guarani – sag, bacia hidrográfica do Rio Pardo, RS, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adilson Ben da Costa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo principal deste estudo foi avaliar a qualidade das águas subterrâneas em áreas de preservação permanente (SistemaAqüífero Guarani – SAG da Bacia Hidrográfica do Rio Pardo, RS, Brasil, através de variáveis físicas, químicas emicrobiológicas, tendo como base a resolução nº 396 do Conselho Nacional do Meio Ambiente – CONAMA. Nove pontos decoleta foram distribuídos ao longo da bacia, nos quais as águas subterrâneas foram classificadas quanto aos íons de maiorocorrência quantitativa através do diagrama de Piper. Os resultados indicaram que a maioria dos poços avaliados enquadraram-sena Classe 4 de usos da água, correspondendo a águas de usos menos restritivos. Entretanto, deve-se considerar que os aquíferos seapresentam em diferentes contextos geológicos, e que possuem características físicas, químicas e biológicas intrínsecas, comvariações hidrogeoquímicas, sendo necessário que as suas classes de qualidade sejam pautadas nessas especificidades, como seobservou no diagrama de Piper, onde as amostras P1, P2, P3, P5 e P9 classificaram-se como bicarbonatadas cálcicas, as águas dospontos P4, P6, P7 como bicarbonatadas sódicas e P8 se classificou como sulfatada. Verificou-se que a qualidade das águas depoços com profundidade inferior a 6 m está mais vulnerável devido a alterações antrópicas em função da concentração de nitrato,coliformes totais e termotolerantes, enquanto que a qualidade das águas de poços mais profundos depende basicamente de suascaracterísticas hidrogeológicas e hidrogeoquímicas naturais, em função das variáveis sulfato e sódio. Contudo, tambémapresentaram contaminação por atividade antrópica, principalmente pela variável nitrato.Abstract The aim of this research was to evaluate thequality of groundwater in areas of permanent preservation(Guarani Aquifer System – GAS in the Rio PardoHydrographical Basin, RS, Brazil, using physical, chemicaland

  4. Tackling the growing threat of dengue: Phyllanthus niruri-mediated synthesis of silver nanoparticles and their mosquitocidal properties against the dengue vector Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosquitoes transmit pathogens that cause millions of human deaths each year. Dengue virus is transmitted to humans in tropical and subtropical areas by Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae). The use of synthetic insecticides to control this mosquito is accompanied by high operational costs and adverse...

  5. Capture of melon flies, Zeugodacus cucurbitae (Diptera: Tephritidae), in a food-baited Multilure trap: influence of distance, diet, and sex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many countries operate trapping programs to detect invasions of pestiferous fruit fly species (Diptera: Tephritidae). Surveillance relies heavily on traps baited with male lures, which, while powerful, have limited effectiveness, because (i) they are sex-specific and (ii) males of some species do no...

  6. Development of an attract-and-kill strategy for Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae): evaluation of attracticidal spheres under laboratory and field conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drosophila suzukii Matsumura (Diptera: Drosophilidae) is an invasive, polyphagous fruit fly that attacks soft-skinned fruits. Originally from Asia, D. suzukii has successfully invaded the United States as well as European and South American countries. Currently, calendar-based insecticide applicat...

  7. A Guide to Basic Taxonomic Literature for the Genera of North American Chironomidae (Diptera) - Adults, Pupae, and Larvae. Bulletin No. 447.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Karl W.

    A generic list of North American Chironomidae (Diptera) is presented to help aquatic biologists quickly locate important taxonomic references for the adults, larvae, and pupae of each genus. The list (in chart format) includes literature published through 1981. When recent literature is available, older references are omitted, since the purpose of…

  8. Interkingdom cues by bacteria associated with conspecific and heterospecific eggs of Cochliomyia macellaria and Chrysomya rufifacies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) potentially govern succession on carrion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deciphering the mechanisms that regulate animal behavior related to succession on ephemeral resources is critical for elucidating food web dynamics and nutrient recycling. Blow fly (Diptera: Calliphoridae) colonization and utilization of vertebrate carrion serve as a model for such studies, as the...

  9. Direct multiplex PCR (dmPCR) for the identification of six Phlebotomine sand fly species (Diptera: Psychodidae), including major Leishmania vectors of the Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae, subfamily Phlebotominae) are haematophagous insects that are known to transmit several anthroponotic and zoonotic diseases. Reliable identification of sand flies at species level is crucial for their surveillance, the detection and spread of their pathogens and the ...

  10. Benthic communities in inland salinized waters with different salinities and nutrient concentrations and the ecology of Chironomus aprilinus (Diptera: Chironomidae) in the Czech Republic.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Matěna, Josef; Šímová, I.; Brom, J.; Novotná, K.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 113, January (2016), s. 122-129 E-ISSN 1802-8829 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Diptera * Chironomidae * Chironomus aprilinus * coal mining * hydric restoration * saline inland waters * fertilization Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.167, year: 2016

  11. Two new species of sympatric Fergusonina flies (Diptera: Fergusoninidae) from bud galls on high elevation snow gums (Eucalyptus pauciflora Sieb. ex Spreng. complex) in the Australian Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two species of Fergusonina Malloch fly, F. daviesae Nelson sp.n. and F. taylori Nelson sp.n. (Diptera: Fergusoninidae), are described from terminal leaf bud galls on high elevation snow gums (Eucalyptus pauciflora complex) in the Australian Alps. These species occur in sympatry at the six locations...

  12. A comparative assessment of the response of three fruit fly species (Diptera: Tephritidae) to a spinosad-based bait: Effect of ammonium acetate, female age, and protein hunger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammonia-releasing substances are known to play an important role in fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) attraction to food sources and this information has been exploited for the development of effective synthetic food-based lures and insecticidal baits. In field studies conducted in Hawaii, we examine...

  13. Catalogue of Lygistorrhinidae (Diptera: Bibionomorpha) types housed in the collection of the Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Sarah Siqueira; Falaschi, Rafaela Lopes; Lamas, Carlos josÉ Einicker

    2018-04-20

    This paper provides a catalogue of the type specimens of Lygistorrhinidae (Diptera: Bibionomorpha) held in the collection of the Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de São Paulo, Brazil (MZUSP). Label information and type condition of the six type specimens (three holotypes and three paratypes) of four species are provided, along with high resolution images of the types and their labels.

  14. An overview of tropical pest species of bactrocera fruit flies (Diptera:Tephritidae) and the integration of biopesticides with other biological approaches for their management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fruit flies (Diptera:Tephritidae) are among the most economically important pest species in the world, attacking a wide range of fruits and fleshy vegetables throughout tropical and sub-tropical areas of the world. These species are such devastating crop pests that major control and eradication prog...

  15. Studies on the sand fly fauna (Diptera: Psychodidae) in high-transmission areas of cutaneous leishmaniasis in the Republic of Suriname

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kent, Alida D.; Dos Santos, Thiago V.; Gangadin, Anielkoemar; Samjhawan, Ashok; Mans, Dennis R. A.; Schallig, Henk D. F. H.

    2013-01-01

    Sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) are the vectors of Leishmania parasites, the causative agents of leishmaniasis. Cutaneous leishmaniasis is an increasing public health problem in the Republic of Suriname and is mainly caused by Leishmania (Vianna) guyanensis, but L. (V.) braziliensis, L. (L.)

  16. Development of Rhagoletis pomonella and Rhagoletis indifferens (Diptera: Tephritidae)in mango and other tropical and temperate fruit in the laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temperate fruit flies in the genus Rhagoletis (Diptera: Tephritidae) have narrow host ranges relative to those of tropical fruit flies, suggesting they will not attack or are incapable of developing in most novel fruit. Here we tested the hypothesis that apple maggot fly, Rhagoletis pomonella (Wals...

  17. A review of recorded host plants of Oriental Fruit Fly, Bactrocera (Bactrocera)dorsalis(Hendel)(Diptera: Tephritidae), version 3.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bactrocera (Bactrocera) dorsalis (Hendel)(Diptera: Tephritidae), commonly known as the Oriental fruit fly, is regulated through the Plant Protection Act of 2000 (7 U.S.C. 7701-7772) and relevant Parts and Subparts of the Code of Federal Regulations (7 CFR – Agriculture). Presented herein is a compre...

  18. Intra-puparial development of the females of Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann (Diptera, Calliphoridae Desenvolvimento intra-pupal de fêmeas de Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann (Diptera, Calliphoridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Roberto Pujol-Luz

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Intra-puparial development of the females of Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann (Diptera, Calliphoridae. The chronology and morphological changes that take place during intra-puparial development of Chrysomya albiceps is described based on 254 specimens reared in the laboratory. Larvae were obtained from the eggs laid by a single female. The pre-pupae were separated according to the reduction of larval length and the degree of pigmentation and sclerotization of the cuticle. After pupation, 10 individuals were fixed in Carnoy's solution and preserved in 70% ethanol, 10 individuals were fixed every 3 hours up to complete the first 24 hours (n = 80, the remaining individuals were fixed every six hours up to the 90th hour (n = 110 when 54 females emerged. The pupae were immersed in 5% formic acid for 48 hours and maintained in 70% ethanol, and then dissected and analyzed. C. albiceps shows four intra-puparial stages, each of which were described and compared with those described for Musca domestica, Calliphora erythrocephala, Sarcophaga bullata, Cuterebra tenebrosa, Oestrus ovis and Dermatobia hominis. Four developmental stages may be described: (1 the larva-pupa apolysis, after three hours; (2 the criptocephalic pupa, after six hours; (3 the phanerocephalic pupa, after nine hours; (4 the pharate pupa, after nine hours. The pharate adult is completely formed after 81 hours.Desenvolvimento intra-pupal de fêmeas de Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann (Diptera, Calliphoridae A cronologia e as mudanças morfológicas que ocorrem durante o desenvolvimento intra-pupal de Chrysomya albiceps são descritos com base em 254 espécimes criados em laboratório. As larvas foram obtidas a partir os ovos postos por uma única fêmea. As pré-pupas foram separadas de acordo com a redução do comprimento larval, o grau de pigmentação e esclerotização da cutícula, depois da formação das pupas, 10 indivíduos foram fixados em solução de Carnoy e conservados em etanol

  19. Biting Midges (Ceratopogonidae: Culicoides Latreille) Recorded from Farms in Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, S. A.; Nielsen, B.O.; Chirico, J.

    2009-01-01

    In light of the emergence of bluetongue in Northern Europe, populations of Culicoides species were monitored in and around several Swedish livestock farms (surveillance in 2007 and 2008). The position of the sampling sites ranged from about latitude 55° N to about 68° N. Thirty-three Culicoides s...

  20. Survival and Development of Hermetia illucens (Diptera: Stratiomyidae): A Biodegradation Agent of Organic Waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clariza Samayoa, Ana; Chen, Wei-Ting; Hwang, Shaw-Yhi

    2016-12-01

    The black soldier fly, Hermetia illucens (L.) (Diptera: Stratiomyidae), was reared on artificial diet (wheat bran and chicken feed) in the laboratory at 28ºC (immature stages) and under a greenhouse set at 28ºC (adults). Data were collected and analyzed based on an age-stage, two-sex life table. The intrinsic rate of increase (r), finite rate of increase (λ), net reproduction rate (R 0 ), and mean generation time (T) were 0.0759 (d -1 ), 1.0759 (d -1 ), 68.225 offspring, and 55.635 d, respectively. The maximum reproductive value of females occurred at 54 d. Only six females out of 21 were able to successfully oviposit. The number of eggs laid per female ranged from 236 to a maximum of 1,088 eggs. We demonstrated that first-instar larvae of H. illucens are more susceptible to perishing when reared under artificial diet than are later instars. La mosca soldado negro, Hermetia illucens (L.) (Diptera: Stratiomyidae), fue alimentada en una dieta artificial (salvado de trigo y alimento para pollos) en el laboratorio a 28ºC (estados inmaduros) y en un invernadero a 28ºC (adultos). Los datos fueron recopilados y analizados en base a la tabla de vida de ambos sexos, edad y etapa. La tasa intrínseca de crecimiento (r), tasa finita de crecimiento (λ), la tasa neta de reproducción (R 0 ) y el tiempo medio generacional (T) fueron 0.0759 (d), 1.0759 (d), 68.225 crías, y 55.635 (d), respectivamente. El valor reproductivo máximo de las hembras se produjo a los 54 días. Sólo 6 de las 21 hembras fueron capaces de poner huevos con éxito. El número de huevos por hembra varió de 236 a un máximo de 1088 huevos. Hemos demostrado que cuando han sido criados en una dieta artificial, las larvas de H. illucens durante el primer instar son más susceptibles a perecer que los instares posteriores. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Parasitismo entre especies (Diptera, Hymenoptera en los nidos de Stictia signata (Hymenoptera: Sphecidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio A. Genaro

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available S. signata es una de las avispas de la arena más frecuentemente observada en los cayos y las costas de Cuba. Las hembras construyen los nidos en la arena y los abastecen con moscas, para alimentar a la descendencia. Se describe la conducta de dos especies: Liohippelates n. sp. circa collusor (Diptera: Chloropidae y Hexacola sp. (Hymenoptera: Eucoilidae para penetrar al interior de los nidos de S. signata. Las observaciones se efectuaron durante 1989 hasta 1991, en playa Caimito, sur de la provincia de La Habana, Cuba. Liohippelates cleptoparasitó el 100% de los nidos. Sus larvas necrófagas se alimentaron de los restos de las presas dejadas por la larva de S. signata, sin afectarla. Sólo en un caso la larva mostró signos de mortalidad, porque además del número alto de cleptoparásitos inmaduros, habían 53 moscas adultas alimentándose de los fluidos corporales de las presas. Hexacola sp. fue un parasitoide de las larvas de Liohippelates, en el interior de las celdillas. A pesar del elevado cleptoparasitismo, la población del esfécido se mantuvo elevada durante los años de observación.Stictia signata is one of the most frequently observed sand wasps in the Cuban keys and coasts. Females build their nests in the sand and supply them with flies to feed offspring. Here, I describe the behavior of two species, Liohippelates n. sp. near collusor (Diptera: Chloropidae and Hexacola sp. (Hymenoptera: Eucoilidae, which enter the nests of S. signata. The observations were carried out from 1989 through 1991 in Caimito beach, Southern Havana province, Cuba. Liohippelates inhabited 100% of the nests. Its necrofagous larvae fed on the remnants of prey left by the larva of S. signata, without affecting the larva. Only in one case did the larva show signs of mortality because, apart from the high number of immature cleptoparasites, there were 53 adult flies feeding on prey body fluids. Hexacola sp. parasitized the larvae of Liohippelates within the

  2. Sterilization of fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) with X-rays for sterile insect technique programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mastrangelo, Thiago de Araujo

    2009-01-01

    Recent fear of acts of terrorism provoked an increase of delays and denials in the shipment of radioisotopes. This truly represented a menace to sterile insect production projects around the world. In order to validate the use of a new kind of low-energy Xray irradiator, a series of radiobiological studies on Ceratitis capitata (tsl-VIENNA 8 strain) (Wied., 1824) (Diptera: Tephritidae) and an Argentinean strain of Anastrepha fraterculus (Wied., 1830) (Diptera: Tephritidae) were carried out, also comparing biological effectiveness between X-rays and traditional γ radiation from 60 Co. Pupae 48- 24 h before adult emergence of C. capitata males and both sexes of A. fraterculus were irradiated with doses ranging from 15 to 120 Gy and 10 to 70 Gy respectively. Doses that induce 50, 90 and 99% of sterility were estimated and the hypothesis of Parallelism for the Probit equations was tested. Doses of 82.7 Gy of X-rays and 128.2 Gy of γ rays (thus, a RBE∼1.5) induced 99% sterility on medfly males. The fertility of A. fraterculus fertile females crossed with 41 Gy of X-rays and 62.7 Gy of γ rays decreased in 99% comparing with the control group (RBE∼1.5). 99% sterility of A. fraterculus irradiated females was achieved with 60-80 Gy (RBE∼0.7). The standard quality control parameters of fecundity, adult emergence, fliers and survival were not significantly affected by the two types of radiation (RBE∼1) either for medfly or A. fraterculus (p>0.01), being averages in conformity with the values required by FAO/IAEA/USDA. Only fecundity of irradiated A. fraterculus females was severely reduced with increasing doses and no egg was laid at 70 Gy of both radiations. There were no significant differences between X-rays and γ rays regarding mating indices (RSI for medfly, RII, ISI, MRPI and FRPI for A. fraterculus) (p>0.05), what indicated more random matings for fertile and sterile insects. The results demonstrated that no significant difference in biological

  3. The type specimens of Tachinidae (Diptera) housed in the Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales "Bernardino Rivadavia", Buenos Aires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulieri, Pablo Ricardo; Patitucci, Luciano Damián; Bachmann, Axel Oscar; O'Hara, James E

    2013-01-01

    The type material of species of Tachinidae (Diptera) housed in the collection of the Entomology Division of the Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales "Bernardino Rivadavia" were examined and are herein documented. The collection contains 202 type specimens consisting of 54 species described by E.E. Blanchard and 12 described by J. Brèthes. Comparison of their original descriptions with the label information reveals the existence of 24 holotypes, 1 lectotype, 141 syntypes and 36 paratypes. Complete information is given for each type, including reference to the original description, label data, and preservation condition.

  4. Efeito do Envelhecimento de Isca na Captura de Moscas (Diptera: Brachycera em Área de Caatinga

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Nascimento

    2014-04-01

    Abstract. Diptera species, especially flies, has shown potential as bioindicators for environmental changes. There are different methods to capture these animals, including traps with food baits. In this study, we assess the efficiency of traps for catching flies using bait of cane sugar molasses, analyzing the ecological parameters: abundance, species richness and species composition of flies during different periods of exposure of the traps in the field: 24, 48, 72 and 96h. Species richness and abundance showed significant change with respect to exposure time in the field, with stabilization after 48h, and species composition differed between the first and the other days.

  5. The impact of industrial anthropization on mosquito (Diptera, Culicidae) communities in mangrove areas of Guanabara Bay (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, A S; Couri, M S; Florindo, L

    2012-02-01

    The effects of industrial anthropization on species composition and community diversity of Culicidae (Diptera) were studied in a mangrove area impacted by industrial activities as compared to a preserved area, both around Guanabara Bay in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Diversity, equitability, and species richness in Culicidae community differed between the studied areas. Indicator species analysis and correspondence analysis were carried out and indicated that the Sabethini, especially Wyeomyia (Phoniomyia) theobaldi Lane, Wyeomyia (Phoniomyia) fuscipes (Edwards), and a non-identified species of Wyeomyia sp. were associated to the preserved area, whereas Aedes taeniorhynchus Wiedemann and Aedes scapularis (Rondani) to the impacted area.

  6. An updated checklist of the Culicidae (Diptera) of Morocco, with notes on species of historical and current medical importance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trari, Bouchra; Dakki, Mohamed; Harbach, Ralph E

    2017-06-01

    An updated checklist of the mosquito species (Diptera: Culicidae) recorded in Morocco from 1916 to 2016 is provided, including synonyms and synonymous usage for each species. Forty-three species belonging to seven genera are recorded so far: Anopheles (9), Aedes (12) Coquillettidia (2), Culex (12), Culiseta (5), Orthopodomyia (1) and Uranotaenia (2). Traditional and equivalent names in the polyphyletic concept of Aedes are provided for the aedine species. The historical importance and current potential threat of mosquitoes to human health in Morocco is reviewed. © 2017 The Society for Vector Ecology.

  7. Cytogenetic comparison of chironomid midge Glyptotendipes glaucus (Meigen, 1818 (Diptera, Chironomidae populations from Northwest Russia and Ukraine (Chernobyl zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    - -

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Functional characters of polythene chromosomes and chromosomal rearrangements in salivary glands of 177 larvae of Glyptotendipes glaucus (Diptera, Chironomidae from reservoirs of Russia and Ukraine (Chernobyl have been analysed. Similarity of the populations studied based on a pool of chromosomal reorganizations has been established. The general types of inversions in chromosomal arms A, B, D and E have been detected. Influence of radioactive pollution (Chernobyl on functional changes of a nucleus, Balbiani rings, puffs, morphology of disks and interdisks is revealed.

  8. Development of quality control procedures for mass produced and released Bactrocera Philippinensis (Diptera: Tephritidae) for sterile insect technique programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Resilva, S.; Obra, G.; Zamora, N.; Gaitan, E.

    2007-01-01

    Quality control procedures for Bactrocera philippinensis Drew and Hancock 1994 (Diptera: Tephritidae) used in sterile insect technique (SIT) programs were established in the mass rearing facility at the Philippine Nuclear Research Institute. Basic studies on pupal irradiation, holding/packaging systems, shipping procedures, longevity, sterility studies, and pupal eye color determination in relation to physiological development at different temperature regimes were investigated. These studies will provide baseline data for the development of quality control protocols for an expansion of B. philippinensis field programs with an SIT component in the future. (author) [es

  9. BACTERIA CARRIED BY CHRYSOMYA MEGACEPHALA (FABRICIUS, 1794 (DIPTERA: CALLIPHORIDAE IN SINOP, MATO GROSSO, BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. S. Carneiro

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Chrysomya megacephala (Diptera: Calliphoridae, popularly known as blowfly, has a great capacity for dispersion and, due to factors such as food abundance and favorable climate, it colonizes Brazil completely in a short time. These insects are important to the sectors of epidemiology, public health and forensics, especially due to carrying microorganisms such as bacteria, viruses, protozoa and helminthes, which are responsible for the spread of diseases such as dysentery, cholera, botulism, typhoid fever, brucellosis, polio, smallpox and tuberculosis. The objective of this study was to verify the diversity of bacteria carried by this species in the Federal University of Mato Grosso – Campus of Sinop during the month of January of 2012. The flies were collected using two traps baited with 100 g of fresh sardines on each and maintained in the field for 24 hours. Twenty specimens of C. megacephala were placed in Petri dishes, to walk for two minutes upon Nutrient Agar (NA. After establishment of the colonies, isolation of the bacteria on the NA medium and their multiplication in test tubes containing the same culture medium was performed, and later sent to identification by gas chromatography. The bacteria encountered were Aquaspirillum polymorphum; Burkholderia ambifaria; Burkholderia anthina; Burkholderia cepacia; Burkholderia cenocepacia; Burkholderia pyrrocinia; Burkholderia stabilis; Paenibacillus macerans; Virgibacillus pantothenticus, Bacillus subtilis e Photorhabdus luminescens luminescens, with the last two species considered of importance in the plant protection sector.

  10. Ecological and epidemiological status of species of the Phlebotomus perniciosus complex (Diptera: Psychodidae, Phlebotominae) in Morocco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarrouk, Asmae; Kahime, Kholoud; Boussaa, Samia; Belqat, Boutaïna

    2016-03-01

    Leishmania infantum (Kinetoplastida: Trypanosomatidae) infection is transmitted by an infected female sand fly (Diptera: Psychodidae, Phlebotominae) of the subgenus Larroussius: Phlebotomus ariasi, Phlebotomus perniciosus, and Phlebotomus longicuspis in the Mediterranean basin. In Morocco, the vectorial role of P. ariasi was demonstrated, while that of P. longicuspis and P. perniciosus is not elucidated. In addition, Moroccan P. longicuspis and P. perniciosus populations present a higher morphologic and genetic variability. It was classified as P. perniciosus complex, including typical (PN) and atypical (PNA) morphs of P. perniciosus, P. longicuspis sensu stricto (LCss), and a sibling species of P. longicuspis (LCx). With the aim to study the ecological and epidemiological status of P. perniciosus complex species in Morocco, entomological surveys were carried out during three entomological seasons (2012, 2013, and 2014). We collected a total of 6298 specimens from 81 localities of northern, central, and southern Morocco. After describing the geographical distribution of P. perniciosus complex trough Morocco according to many variables (altitude, latitude, and longitude), we discuss the resulting epidemiological implications of its species. Our results highlight the geographical distribution of the two morphs of P. perniciosus through Morocco: PN is limited to the north, while PNA is widespread in northern, central, and southern Morocco. In terms of vectorial role, we hypothesize the potential involvement of PN, LCss, and LCx, at least, with P. ariasi, in the epidemiological cycle of L. infantum in Morocco.

  11. Development sites, feeding modes and early stages of seven European Palloptera species (Diptera, Pallopteridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotheray, Graham E

    2014-12-19

    Two hundred and ninety-eight rearing records and 87 larvae and puparia were obtained of seven species of Palloptera Fallén (Diptera, Pallopteridae), mainly in Scotland during 2012-2013. The third stage larva and puparium of each species were assessed morphologically and development sites and feeding modes investigated by rearing, observation and feeding tests. Early stages appear to be distinguished by the swollen, apico-lateral margins of the prothorax which are coated in vestiture and a poorly developed anal lobe with few spicules. Individual pallopteran species are separated by features of the head skeleton, locomotory spicules and the posterior respiratory organs. Five species can be distinguished by unique character states. Observations and feeding tests suggest that the frequently cited attribute of zoophagy is accidental and that saprophagy is the primary larval feeding mode with autumn/winter as the main period of development. Food plants were confirmed for flowerhead and stem developing species and rain is important for maintaining biofilms on which larvae feed. Due to difficulties in capturing adults, especially males, the distribution and abundance of many pallopteran species is probably underestimated. Better informed estimates are possible if early stages are included in biodiversity assessments. To facilitate this for the species investigated, a key to the third stage larva and puparium along with details on finding them, is provided. 

  12. Near Infrared Imaging As a Method of Studying Tsetse Fly (Diptera: Glossinidae) Pupal Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Zelda R; Parker, Andrew G

    2016-01-01

    Near infrared (NIR) photography and video was investigated as a method for observing and recording intrapuparial development in the tsetse fly Glossina palpalis gambiensis and other Muscomorpha (Cyclorrhapha) Diptera. We showed that NIR light passes through the puparium, permitting images of the true pupae and pharate adult to be captured. Various wavelengths of NIR light from 880 to 1060 nm were compared to study the development of tsetse fly pupae from larviposition to emergence, using time-lapse videos and photographs. This study was carried out to advance our understanding of tsetse pupal development, specifically with the goal of improving a sorting technique which could separate male from female tsetse flies several days before emergence. Separation of the sexes at this stage is highly desirable for operational tsetse sterile insect technique control programmes, as it would permit the easy retention of females for the colony while allowing the males to be handled, irradiated and shipped in the pupal stage when they are less sensitive to vibration. In addition, it presents a new methodology for studying the pupal stage of many coarctate insects for many applications. NIR imaging permits observation of living pupae, allowing the entire development process to be observed without disruption. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America.

  13. Evaluation of Housekeeping Genes for Quantitative Real-Time PCR Analysis of Bradysia odoriphaga (Diptera: Sciaridae

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    Caihua Shi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The soil insect Bradysia odoriphaga (Diptera: Sciaridae causes substantial damage to Chinese chive. Suitable reference genes in B. odoriphaga (Bradysia odoriphaga have yet to be identified for normalizing target gene expression among samples by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR. This study was focused on identifying the expression stability of 12 candidate housekeeping genes in B. odoriphaga under various experiment conditions. The final stability ranking of 12 housekeeping genes was obtained with RefFinder, and the most suitable number of reference genes was analyzed by GeNorm. The results revealed that the most appropriate sets of internal controls were RPS15, RPL18, and RPS18 across developmental phases; RPS15, RPL28, and GAPDH across temperatures; RPS15 and RPL18 across pesticide treatments; RSP5, RPS18, and SDHA across photoperiods; ACTb, RPS18, and RPS15 across diets; RPS13 and RPL28 across populations; and RPS15, ACTb, and RPS18 across all samples. The use of the most suitable reference genes versus an arbitrarily selected reference gene resulted in significant differences in the analysis of a target gene expression. HSP23 in B. odoriphaga was found to be up-regulated under low temperatures. These results will contribute to the standardization of qRT-PCR and will also be valuable for further research on gene function in B. odoriphaga.

  14. Using the Developmental Gene Bicoid to Identify Species of Forensically Important Blowflies (Diptera: Calliphoridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seong Hwan Park

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Identifying species of insects used to estimate postmortem interval (PMI is a major subject in forensic entomology. Because forensic insect specimens are morphologically uniform and are obtained at various developmental stages, DNA markers are greatly needed. To develop new autosomal DNA markers to identify species, partial genomic sequences of the bicoid (bcd genes, containing the homeobox and its flanking sequences, from 12 blowfly species (Aldrichina grahami, Calliphora vicina, Calliphora lata, Triceratopyga calliphoroides, Chrysomya megacephala, Chrysomya pinguis, Phormia regina, Lucilia ampullacea, Lucilia caesar, Lucilia illustris, Hemipyrellia ligurriens and Lucilia sericata; Calliphoridae: Diptera were determined and analyzed. This study first sequenced the ten blowfly species other than C. vicina and L. sericata. Based on the bcd sequences of these 12 blowfly species, a phylogenetic tree was constructed that discriminates the subfamilies of Calliphoridae (Luciliinae, Chrysomyinae, and Calliphorinae and most blowfly species. Even partial genomic sequences of about 500 bp can distinguish most blowfly species. The short intron 2 and coding sequences downstream of the bcd homeobox in exon 3 could be utilized to develop DNA markers for forensic applications. These gene sequences are important in the evolution of insect developmental biology and are potentially useful for identifying insect species in forensic science.

  15. Bacteria and Hoverflies (Diptera: Syrphidae) in Tree Hollows From the Iberian Mediterranean Forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Galván, I R; Ferrer, J; Galante, E; Marcos-García, M A

    2017-02-01

    Saproxylic insect communities inhabiting tree hollows in Mediterranean forests depend on a combination of physical characteristics and interactions occurring between community member species. Despite the need to preserve these organisms, little is known about their interrelationships, in particular those relationships between saproxylic insects and microbiota occurring in these microhabitats. In tree hollows of Quercus rotundifolia Lamark that hold water and contain dead leaves, abundant microbial populations can be found. Developing on them are the larvae of Mallota dusmeti Andréu, 1926 (Diptera: Syrphidae), a vulnerable species (IUCN category: Marcos-García and Quinto 2011). This study provides the first data on the microbiota living inside the gut of the larvae of M. dusmeti, as well as the microbiota in the hollow where these larvae develop. Bacteria were identified by amplification and partial sequencing of the V1-V3 regions and the complete nucleotide sequence of 16S rRNA genes. We found eight species of bacteria living in tree hollows and three species in the gut of M. dusmeti larvae: Bacillus cereus, Bacillus toyonensis, and Lysinibacillus sphaericus. The filter-feeding mechanism characteristic of M. dusmeti larvae is selective in enabling ingestion of bacteria only above 2.1 µm in diameter. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Pupal development and pigmentation process of a polka-dotted fruit fly, Drosophila guttifera (Insecta, Diptera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukutomi, Yuichi; Matsumoto, Keiji; Agata, Kiyokazu; Funayama, Noriko; Koshikawa, Shigeyuki

    2017-06-01

    Various organisms have color patterns on their body surfaces, and these color patterns are thought to contribute to physiological regulation, communication with conspecifics, and signaling with the environment. An adult fly of Drosophila guttifera (Insecta: Diptera: Drosophilidae) has melanin pigmentation patterns on its body and wings. Though D. guttifera has been used for research into color pattern formation, how its pupal development proceeds and when the pigmentation starts have not been well studied. In this study, we defined the pupal stages of D. guttifera and measured the pigment content of wing spots from the pupal period to the period after eclosion. Using a transgenic line which carries eGFP connected with an enhancer of yellow, a gene necessary for melanin synthesis, we analyzed the timing at which the yellow enhancer starts to drive eGFP. We also analyzed the distribution of Yellow-producing cells, as indicated by the expression of eGFP during pupal and young adult periods. The results suggested that Yellow-producing cells were removed from wings within 3 h after eclosion, and wing pigmentation continued without epithelial cells. Furthermore, the results of vein cutting experiments showed that the transport of melanin precursors through veins was necessary for wing pigmentation. These results showed the importance of melanin precursors transported through veins and of extracellular factors which were secreted from epithelial cells and left in the cuticle.

  17. Identifying insects with incomplete DNA barcode libraries, African fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) as a test case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virgilio, Massimiliano; Jordaens, Kurt; Breman, Floris C; Backeljau, Thierry; De Meyer, Marc

    2012-01-01

    We propose a general working strategy to deal with incomplete reference libraries in the DNA barcoding identification of species. Considering that (1) queries with a large genetic distance with their best DNA barcode match are more likely to be misidentified and (2) imposing a distance threshold profitably reduces identification errors, we modelled relationships between identification performances and distance thresholds in four DNA barcode libraries of Diptera (n = 4270), Lepidoptera (n = 7577), Hymenoptera (n = 2067) and Tephritidae (n = 602 DNA barcodes). In all cases, more restrictive distance thresholds produced a gradual increase in the proportion of true negatives, a gradual decrease of false positives and more abrupt variations in the proportions of true positives and false negatives. More restrictive distance thresholds improved precision, yet negatively affected accuracy due to the higher proportions of queries discarded (viz. having a distance query-best match above the threshold). Using a simple linear regression we calculated an ad hoc distance threshold for the tephritid library producing an estimated relative identification error DNA barcodes and should be used as cut-off mark defining whether we can proceed identifying the query with a known estimated error probability (e.g. 5%) or whether we should discard the query and consider alternative/complementary identification methods.

  18. A new genus and species of Australian Tanypodinae (Diptera: Chironomidae) tolerant to mine waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cranston, Peter S

    2017-05-09

    For over 25 years an undescribed Tanypodinae (Diptera: Chironomidae) has been known to dominate the lotic invertebrate assemblage associated with long-term polluting mine adits in Captains Flat, on the Molonglo River, southern New South Wales, Australia. Although known in all life stages, it has been impossible to allocate the species to any described genus. Renewed interest in the taxonomy of the Tanypodinae, particularly associated with molecular investigations and pollution indicator status warrants formal description. All stages conform to tribe Pentaneurini, but each life stage differs in morphological resemblance. Yarrhpelopia Cranston gen. n. is proposed for the taxon previously referred to under the informal code name of 'genus A'. The genus name derives from south-east Australian aboriginal word yarrh, in recognition of its core distribution and presence in flowing waters. A single species, A. norrisi Cranston sp. n., is described, acknowledging the late Professor Richard Norris, an influential Australian limnologist. Larvae dominate the benthos immediately adjacent to mine adits that continue to leach heavy metals (zinc, cadmium, copper and lead) into downstream sediments. A wider distribution includes cleaner near pristine, eastern Australian rivers between 30° and 42°S, but these records are excluded from the type series pending molecular insights into species limits.

  19. A revised annotated checklist of the Chironomidae (Insecta: Diptera) of the southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, Broughton A.; Hudson, Patrick L.; Lenat, David R.; Smith, David

    1997-01-01

    A revised annotated checklist for the chironomid midges (Diptera: Chironomidae) of the southeastern United States is presented that includes the states of Alabama, Florida, Georgia, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Tennessee. Much of the information concerns occurrence and habitat preference records based upon the authors' data, as well as published and unpublished data. Some information is also presented that includes aspects of biology, habitat preference, bibliographic sources, and nomenclatorial changes. Based upon the present work, the chironomid fauna of the southeastern states is comprised of 189 genera (172 described, 17 informally or unofficially described) and 754 species (505 described, 17 informally or unofficially described, 33 that are assumed for generic or subgeneric presence only, 197 estimated species, and 2 species groups). Several new species synonyms and generic placements are recognized. Thirty-eight genera known from the Nearctic region remain unknown from the southeastern states. Diversity of species was greatest in the subfamily Chironominae, considering named as well as unnamed and estimated species. There were no significant changes in overall regional distribution patterns of subfamilies or habitat preferences form that which has been previously reported. The greatest totals for regional records, habitat types, and state occurrences were the Coastal Plain (378), streams (271), and North Carolina (373), respectively.

  20. [Key to chironomid pupal exuviae (Diptera: Chironomidae) of tropical high Andean streams].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, Narcís; González-Trujillo, Juan David; Ospina-Torres, Rodulfo

    2014-12-01

    The Chironomidae is a cosmopolitan family of Nematoceran flies with more than 20,000 species described. However the diversity of genera and species of the family in the Andean region beyond the 2,000 m.a.s.l are scarcely known. We conducted faunal surveys and biomonitoring research in different streams of Colombia, Ecuador and Peru from May 2005 to October 2011. Based on specimens collections, a taxonomic key was developed to identify pupae and pupal exuviae of 46 genera of midges (Diptera, Chironomidae) collected from streams at high altitude areas on the Andean tropical mountains. We included illustrations and brief taxonomic descriptions for all genera, of which several ones have not yet been formally described; in this latter case we used the nomenclature of Roback & Coffman (1983). For two genera, Cricotopus and Genus 1, keys to the most com- mon morphospecies were provided. Results showed that in this area the chironomid assemblages are dominated by the members of the subfamily Orthocladiinae (22 genera) followed by the Chironominae (13). Six genera of Tanypodinae were identified, while only three and two genera were present from subfamilies Podonominae and Diamesinae. This key may be very useful for both studies about drift in streams, and for biomonitoring purposes.

  1. DNA Barcoding for Species Identification of Insect Skins: A Test on Chironomidae (Diptera) Pupal Exuviae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekrem, Torbjørn; Stur, Elisabeth

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Chironomidae (Diptera) pupal exuviae samples are commonly used for biological monitoring of aquatic habitats. DNA barcoding has proved useful for species identification of chironomid life stages containing cellular tissue, but the barcoding success of chironomid pupal exuviae is unknown. We assessed whether standard DNA barcoding could be efficiently used for species identification of chironomid pupal exuviae when compared with morphological techniques and if there were differences in performance between temperate and tropical ecosystems, subfamilies, and tribes. PCR, sequence, and identification success differed significantly between geographic regions and taxonomic groups. For Norway, 27 out of 190 (14.2%) of pupal exuviae resulted in high-quality chironomid sequences that match species. For Costa Rica, 69 out of 190 (36.3%) Costa Rican pupal exuviae resulted in high-quality sequences, but none matched known species. Standard DNA barcoding of chironomid pupal exuviae had limited success in species identification of unknown specimens due to contaminations and lack of matching references in available barcode libraries, especially from Costa Rica. Therefore, we recommend future biodiversity studies that focus their efforts on understudied regions, to simultaneously use morphological and molecular identification techniques to identify all life stages of chironomids and populate the barcode reference library with identified sequences.

  2. Using various lines of evidence to identify Chironomus species (Diptera: Chironomidae) in eastern Canadian lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proulx, Isabelle; Martin, Jon; Carew, Melissa; Hare, Landis

    2013-11-29

    Chironomus Meigen (Diptera, Chironomidae) larvae are usually the largest sediment-burrowing chironomids, and as such often constitute a major part of the freshwater infaunal biomass. However, use of this genus in ecological, environmental and paleoecological studies is hampered by the fact that Chironomus larvae are difficult to identify to species because the larvae of many species are morphologically similar. We used a combination of morphological, cytological and genetic techniques to distinguish Chironomus larvae collected from 31 water bodies located in eastern Canada, producing 17 distinguishable groupings. These groups of larvae were ultimately identified as belonging to 14 known species (C. anthracinus, C. bifurcatus, C. cucini, C. decorus-group sp. 2, C. dilutus, C. entis, C. frommeri, C. harpi, C. maturus, C. nr. atroviridis (sp. 2i), C. ochreatus, C. plumosus, C. staegeri and C. 'tigris') and three other species that remain unidentified (C. sp. NAI-III). No single approach served to delimit and identify larvae of all 17 Chironomus species that we collected. Although we expected that morphological criteria alone would be insufficient, our results suggest that DNA barcoding, using either the mitochondrial cox1 or the nuclear gb2β gene, was also inadequate for separating some Chironomus species. Thus we suggest that multiple approaches will often be needed to correctly identify Chironomus larvae to species.

  3. Cytogenetic characteristics of Chironomus balatonicus Devai, Wulker, Scholl (Diptera, Chironomidae) from the Chernobyl region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michailova, P.; Petrova, N.

    1994-01-01

    A cytogenetic analysis was carried out on a population of Chironomus balatonicus (Chironomidae, Diptera) from Chernobyl, a highly radioactive area of the Kiev region. Several chromosomal aberrations were established unique to a population of Chironomus balatonicus living in an area contaminated by radioactive waste. Five new heterozygous inversions, deficiencies in arms C, D, E, F and chromatid breaks were found in the irradiated population but not in nonirradiated populations. A pericentric inversion in chromosome AB occurred at a relatively high frequency. Genome aberrations expressed by a heterochromatized 'B' chromosome were evident. In the irradiated and nonirradiated populations common inversions occurred showing variation in their frequency depending on specific environmental conditions. The somatic and also the germ cells were characterized by a number of heteropycnotic nuclei and vacuolized chromosomes. Both the somatic and germ cells showed changes in the structural and functional organization of heterochromatin and this was particularly marked in the telomeric sectors of the chromosomes. The heterochromatin which is extremely sensitive to radioactivity appears to protect euchromatin from adverse environmental conditions

  4. Conochironomus (Diptera: Chironomidae) in Asia: new and redescribed species and vouchering issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cranston, Peter S

    2016-05-09

    The presence of the Afro-Australian genus Conochironomus Freeman, 1961 (Diptera: Chironomidae) in Asia has been recognised only informally. An unpublished thesis included Conochironomus from Singapore, and the genus has been keyed from Malaysia without named species. Here, the Sumatran Conochironomus tobaterdecimus (Kikuchi & Sasa, 1980) comb. n. is recorded from Singapore and Thailand. The species is transferred from Sumatendipes Kikuchi & Sasa, 1980, rendering the latter a junior synonym (syn. n.) of Conochironomus Freeman. Conochironomus nuengthai sp. n. and Conochironomus sawngthai sp. n. are described as new to science, based on adult males from Chiang Mai, Thailand. All species conform to existing generic diagnoses for all life stages, with features from male and female genitalia, pupal cephalic tubercles and posterolateral 'spurs' of tergite VIII providing evidence for species distinction. Some larvae are linked to C. tobaterdecimus through molecular barcoding. Variation in other larvae, which clearly belong to Conochironomus and are common throughout Thailand, means that they cannot be segregated to species. Larval habitats include pools in river beds, urban storage reservoirs, drains with moderately high nutrient loadings, and peat swamps. Endochironomus effusus Dutta, 1994 from north-eastern India may be a congener but may differ in adult morphology, thereby precluding formal new combination until discrepancies can be reconciled. Many problems with vouchering taxonomic and molecular material are identified that need to be rectified in the future.

  5. A DNA Barcode Library for Korean Chironomidae (Insecta: Diptera) and Indexes for Defining Barcode Gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sungmin; Song, Kyo-Hong; Ree, Han-Il; Kim, Won

    2012-01-01

    Non-biting midges (Diptera: Chironomidae) are a diverse population that commonly causes respiratory allergies in humans. Chironomid larvae can be used to indicate freshwater pollution, but accurate identification on the basis of morphological characteristics is difficult. In this study, we constructed a mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI)-based DNA barcode library for Korean chironomids. This library consists of 211 specimens from 49 species, including adults and unidentified larvae. The interspecies and intraspecies COI sequence variations were analyzed. Sophisticated indexes were developed in order to properly evaluate indistinct barcode gaps that are created by insufficient sampling on both the interspecies and intraspecies levels and by variable mutation rates across taxa. In a variety of insect datasets, these indexes were useful for re-evaluating large barcode datasets and for defining COI barcode gaps. The COI-based DNA barcode library will provide a rapid and reliable tool for the molecular identification of Korean chironomid species. Furthermore, this reverse-taxonomic approach will be improved by the continuous addition of other speceis’ sequences to the library. PMID:22138764

  6. Reduced Insecticide Susceptibility in Aedes vexans (Diptera: Culicidae) Where Agricultural Pest Management Overlaps With Mosquito Abatement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunbar, Mike W; Bachmann, Amanda; Varenhorst, Adam J

    2018-05-04

    Mosquito abatement programs in Midwestern communities frequently exist within landscapes dominated by agriculture. Although separately managed, both agricultural pests and mosquitoes are targeted by similar classes of insecticides. As a result, there is the potential for unintended insecticide exposure to mosquito populations from agricultural pest management. To determine the impact that agricultural management practices have on mosquito insecticide susceptibility we compared the mortality of Aedes vexans (Meigen; Diptera: Culicidae) between populations sampled from locations with and without mosquito abatement in South Dakota, a region dominated by agricultural production. Collection locations were either within towns with mosquito abatement programs (n = 2; Brookings and Sioux Falls, SD) or located > 16 km from towns with mosquito abatement programs (n = 2; areas near Harrold and Willow Lake, SD). WHO bioassays were used to test susceptibly of adults to differing insecticide classes relative to their respective controls; 1) an organochlorine (dieldrin 4%), 2) an organophosphate (malathion 5%), and 3) a pyrethroid (lambda-cyhalothrin 0.05%). Corrected mortality did not significantly differ between locations with or without abatement; however, when locations were analized by proportion of developed land within the surrounding landscape pyrethroid mortality was significantly lower where crop production dominated the surrounding landscape and mosquito abatement was present. These data suggest that agricultural pest management may incidentally contribute to reduced mosquito susceptibility where overlap between agricultural pest management and mosquito abatement exists. Decoupling insecticide classes used by both agricultural and public health pest management programs may be necessary to ensure continued efficacy of pest management tools.

  7. Calling behavior of mass-reared and wild Anastrepha serpentina (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castrejón-Gómez, Victor R; Lascares, Shaila; Malo, Edi A; Toledo, Jorge; Rojas, Julio C

    2007-08-01

    The calling behavior of mass-reared and wild males of Anastrepha serpentina (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) was studied both in the laboratory and in field cage tests. In the laboratory, density (1, 5, and 10 males per container), age, and hour of day significantly affected calling behavior. Mass-reared males called independently of density, whereas wild males only called at densities of 5 and 10 individuals. Males of both strains started calling when they were 5-7 d old. The daily pattern of male calling was similar in both strains, starting at 0730 hours, and reaching a peak at 1330-1630 hours. Field cage tests showed that mass-reared males started calling when they were 5d old; the period of peak calling was when males were 8-9 d old. In contrast, wild males began calling when they were 10 d old, reaching peaks when males were 13, 15, and 18 d old. Wild males tended to form leks to call during each day of the experiment, whereas mass-reared males only formed leks during 2 d, both strains displaying very low levels. During field cage tests, males, independently of strain, displayed two calling peaks, one peak in the morning and one peak in the afternoon, whereas males observed in the laboratory only showed a single calling peak. The results are discussed in view of the effects of mass rearing A. serpentina males in relation to potential use of the sterile insect technique.

  8. Worthy of their name: how floods drive outbreaks of two major floodwater mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berec, Ludĕk; Gelbic, Ivan; Sebesta, Oldrich

    2014-01-01

    An understanding of how climate variables drive seasonal dynamics of mosquito populations is critical to mitigating negative impacts of potential outbreaks, including both nuisance effects and risk of mosquito-borne infectious disease. Here, we identify climate variables most affecting seasonal dynamics of two major floodwater mosquitoes, Aedes vexans (Meigen, 1830) and Aedes sticticus (Meigen, 1838) (Diptera: Culicidae), along the lower courses of the Dyje River, at the border between the Czech Republic and Austria. Monthly trap counts of both floodwater mosquitoes varied both across sites and years. Despite this variability, both models used to fit the observed data at all sites (and especially that for Ae. sticticus) and site-specific models fitted the observed data quite well. The most important climate variables we identified-temperature and especially flooding-were driving seasonal dynamics of both Aedes species. We suggest that flooding determines seasonal peaks in the monthly mosquito trap counts while temperature modulates seasonality in these counts. Hence, floodwater mosquitoes indeed appear worthy of their name. Moreover, the climate variables we considered for modeling were able reasonably to predict mosquito trap counts in the month ahead. Our study can help in planning flood management; timely notification of people, given that these mosquitoes are a real nuisance in this region; public health policy management to mitigate risk from such mosquito-borne diseases as that caused in humans by the Tahyna virus; and anticipating negative consequences of climate change, which are expected only to worsen unless floods, or the mosquitoes themselves, are satisfactorily managed.

  9. Intra-puparial development of the females of Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann (Diptera, Calliphoridae

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    José Roberto Pujol-Luz

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Intra-puparial development of the females of Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann (Diptera, Calliphoridae. The chronology and morphological changes that take place during intra-puparial development of Chrysomya albiceps is described based on 254 specimens reared in the laboratory. Larvae were obtained from the eggs laid by a single female. The pre-pupae were separated according to the reduction of larval length and the degree of pigmentation and sclerotization of the cuticle. After pupation, 10 individuals were fixed in Carnoy's solution and preserved in 70% ethanol, 10 individuals were fixed every 3 hours up to complete the first 24 hours (n = 80, the remaining individuals were fixed every six hours up to the 90th hour (n = 110 when 54 females emerged. The pupae were immersed in 5% formic acid for 48 hours and maintained in 70% ethanol, and then dissected and analyzed. C. albiceps shows four intra-puparial stages, each of which were described and compared with those described for Musca domestica, Calliphora erythrocephala, Sarcophaga bullata, Cuterebra tenebrosa, Oestrus ovis and Dermatobia hominis. Four developmental stages may be described: (1 the larva-pupa apolysis, after three hours; (2 the criptocephalic pupa, after six hours; (3 the phanerocephalic pupa, after nine hours; (4 the pharate pupa, after nine hours. The pharate adult is completely formed after 81 hours.

  10. Representatividade do gênero Lopesia Rübsaamen (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae no Brasil

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    Valéria Cid Maia

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Vinte e três espécies de Lopesia Rübsaamen (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae são conhecidas, todas como indutoras de galhas. A maioria das espécies é Neotropical, também com distribuição Neártica, Afrotropical e Australasiana. A diversidade do gênero no Brasil é avaliada com base na literatura e dados da coleção de Cecidomyiidae do Museu Nacional, Rio de Janeiro. O gênero está representado no Brasil por 23 espécies (18 descritas e 5 não determinadas, o que corresponde a 78% do total de espécies descritas e 95% da fauna neotropical fauna. Estes dados mostram que o gênero é representado no Brasil. A maioria das espécies (78% induz galhas foliares. Gema e caule foram outros órgãos vegetais galhados. As espécies estão associadas a dez famílias botânicas, sendo mais comuns em Burseraceae, Clusiaceae e Fabaceae. A maior parte foi coletada em Mata Atlântica, principalmente em restinga, e o Rio de Janeiro suporta o maior número de espécies registradas. A distribuição geográfica de três espécies é ampliada.

  11. Effects of the antibiotics Gentamicin on the postembryonic development of Chrysomya putoria (Diptera: Calliphoridae).

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    Ferraz, Adriana C P; Dallavecchia, Daniele L; Silva, Débora C; Figueiredo, Adriana L; Proença, Barbara; Silva-Filho, Renato G; Aguiar, Valéria M

    2014-01-01

    We evaluate the effects the antibiotic Gentamicin on the development of Chrysomya putoria (Wiedemann, 1818). Third-generation, first-instar larvae were reared in a climatic chamber on 60 g of homogenate + agar 65% and were treated with three concentrations of Gentamicin: 4.44 mg/ml, 13.33 mg/ml, and 66.66 mg/ml. The control consisted of distilled water. The relationships between mean body mass of mature larvae (measured after diet abandonment, in batches of five individuals), duration of larval and pupal stages, and overall duration of development were analyzed. The actual sex ratio was compared against the expected using the chi square. None of the parameters measured differed significantly among the four treatments, with one exception: when Gentamicin concentration was 13.33 mg/ml, larval viability differed significantly from the control. All larvae from all treatments were considered normal. We conclude that the antibiotic did not significantly alter the development of C. putoria (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Calliphoridae). © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.

  12. The mitochondrial genome of Elodia flavipalpis Aldrich (Diptera: Tachinidae and the evolutionary timescale of Tachinid flies.

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    Zhe Zhao

    Full Text Available Tachinid flies are natural enemies of many lepidopteran and coleopteran pests of forests, crops, and fruit trees. In order to address the lack of genetic data in this economically important group, we sequenced the complete mitochondrial genome of the Palaearctic tachinid fly Elodia flavipalpis Aldrich, 1933. Usually found in Northern China and Japan, this species is one of the primary natural enemies of the leaf-roller moths (Tortricidae, which are major pests of various fruit trees. The 14,932-bp mitochondrial genome was typical of Diptera, with 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA genes, and 2 rRNA genes. However, its control region is only 105 bp in length, which is the shortest found so far in flies. In order to estimate dipteran evolutionary relationships, we conducted a phylogenetic analysis of 58 mitochondrial genomes from 23 families. Maximum-likelihood and Bayesian methods supported the monophyly of both Tachinidae and superfamily Oestroidea. Within the subsection Calyptratae, Muscidae was inferred as the sister group to Oestroidea. Within Oestroidea, Calliphoridae and Sarcophagidae formed a sister clade to Oestridae and Tachinidae. Using a Bayesian relaxed clock calibrated with fossil data, we estimated that Tachinidae originated in the middle Eocene.

  13. Insecticide Activity of Ageratina jahnii and Ageratina pichinchensis (Asteraceae against Lutzomyia migonei (Diptera: Psychodidae

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    Lizzeth Torres

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Insects are mostly pathogens transmitters, thus the necessity of finding effective bioinsecticides to combat them. In the present investigation, the insecticide activity of Ageratina jahnii and Ageratina pichinchensis (Asteraceae essential oils, methanol, and aqueous extracts was evaluated against Lutzomyia migonei (Diptera: Psychodidae females, Leishmania transmitters, a wide distributed parasitosis in Latin America. Materials and Methods: All extracts were prepared by maceration at room temperature, and essential oils were obtained by hydrodistillation process. Females of L. migonei were used in the bioassays using the adulticide test in pots. Results: Essential oils from both assayed plant species showed 100% of L. migonei mortality at 48 h of exposure at the concentration of 10 mg/ml. A. jahnii essential oil exhibited the following values, LD50 = 0.39 mg/ml, LD90 = 1.57 mg/ml, LD95 = 2.31 mg/ml, and LD99 = 4.80 mg/ml while for A. pichinchensis essential oil values were LD50 = 0.31 mg/ml, LD90 = 0.99 mg/ml, LD95 = 1.38 mg/ml, and LD99 = 2.55 mg/ml. Conclusion: Higher toxicity was observed with A. pichinchensis essential oil against L. migonei, comparing to A. jahnii oil. Two new plant species are being reported, showing bioactive properties against common tropical disease vectors such as L. migonei, hence, opening possibilities to a more environmental friendly control.

  14. Bionomics of Neolasioptera aculeatae (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae, a promising biological control candidate against Parkinsonia aculeata (Fabaceae

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    Fernando Mc KAY

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Inspecciones de campo realizadas sobre Parkinsonia aculeata L. en el Norte-centro de Argentina entre 2008 y 2011 revelaron la presencia del mosquito agallícola Neolasioptera aculeatae Gagné (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae. La presencia de las agallas de N. aculeatae está restringida a la distribución norte de P. aculeata. La disección de agallas recolectadas a lo largo del año, reveló la presencia de larvas y/o pupas en distintos estados fenológicos de P. aculeata. La emergencia de adultos de N. aculeatae tuvo lugar 13 a 34 días desde la recolección en el campo y se extendió por un período promedio de 22 días. Entre once especies de leguminosas inspeccionadas en el campo, adultos de N. aculeatae emergieron únicamente de agallas recolectadas sobre P. aculeata. Los atributos biológicos y el restringido conjunto de plantas hospederas utilizadas en el campo, hacen de N. aculeatae un agente promisorio para el control biológico de P. aculeata.

  15. Assessing the Risk of Establishment of Rhagoletis cerasi (Diptera: Tephritidae) in the United States and Globally.

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    Wakie, Tewodros T; Yee, Wee L; Neven, Lisa G

    2018-05-28

    The European cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis cerasi (L.) (Diptera: Tephritidae), is a highly destructive pest of cherries (Prunus spp.) (Rosaceae) in Europe and Asia. In 2016, R. cerasi was detected in Ontario, Canada, and in 2017 in New York State, USA, the first records of this pest in North America. The initial detections in Canada caused concern for the major cherry-growing states of Michigan, Washington, Oregon, and California in the United States. Establishment of R. cerasi in the United States could restrict cherry exports to other markets and increase costs needed for fly control, but it is unknown if R. cerasi can establish in U.S. commercial cherry regions. Here, we used the CLIMEX ecological niche model to determine the risk of establishment of R. cerasi in the United States and globally. Within the United States under a no-irrigation scenario, R. cerasi would establish in the East and West Coasts; however, under an irrigation scenario, its distribution would expand to the major cherry-growing regions in the interior of central and eastern Washington and in California. Results also showed that if introduced, R. cerasi would likely establish in eastern China, Japan, the Koreas, Australia, New Zealand, South America, South Africa, Mexico, and Canada. Host plant (Prunus spp. and Lonicera spp. [Caprifoliaceae]) presence, although not included in models, would affect fly establishment. Our results stress the importance of surveying for R. cerasi to prevent its spread and establishment within the United States and other countries.

  16. Artificial activation of mature unfertilized eggs in the malaria vector mosquito, Anopheles stephensi (Diptera, Culicidae).

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    Yamamoto, Daisuke S; Hatakeyama, Masatsugu; Matsuoka, Hiroyuki

    2013-08-01

    In the past decade, many transgenic lines of mosquitoes have been generated and analyzed, whereas the maintenance of a large number of transgenic lines requires a great deal of effort and cost. In vitro fertilization by an injection of cryopreserved sperm into eggs has been proven to be effective for the maintenance of strains in mammals. The technique of artificial egg activation is a prerequisite for the establishment of in vitro fertilization by sperm injection. We demonstrated that artificial egg activation is feasible in the malaria vector mosquito, Anopheles stephensi (Diptera, Culicidae). Nearly 100% of eggs dissected from virgin females immersed in distilled water darkened, similar to normally oviposited fertilized eggs. It was revealed by the cytological examination of chromosomes that meiotic arrest was relieved in these eggs approximately 20 min after incubation in water. Biochemical examinations revealed that MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase)/ERK (extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase) and MEK (MAPK/ERK kinase) were dephosphorylated similar to that in fertilized eggs. These results indicate that dissected unfertilized eggs were activated in distilled water and started development. Injection of distilled water into body cavity of the virgin blood-fed females also induced activation of a portion of eggs in the ovaries. The technique of artificial egg activation is expected to contribute to the success of in vitro fertilization in A. stephensi.

  17. Effects of temperature and tissue type on Chrysomya rufifacies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) (Macquart) development.

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    Flores, Micah; Longnecker, Michael; Tomberlin, Jeffery K

    2014-12-01

    The hairy maggot blow fly, Chrysomya rufifacies (Diptera: Calliphoridae), is a forensically important fly often encountered on human and other vertebrate remains in temperate and tropic regions throughout the world including Australia, Asia, Central America and North America. C. rufifacies was reared under controlled laboratory conditions on three muscle types (i.e., porcine, equine and canine) at three temperatures (i.e., 20.8, 24.8 and 28.3°C). Rate of larval weight gain across time was statistically significant between muscle types (P≤0.0001) and approaching significance across time between temperatures (P=0.0511). This research represents the first development study for C. rufifacies from central Texas, USA and the first study to examine the impact of tissue type on its development. Furthermore, these data, when compared to those available in the literature, indicate developmental differences that could be due to genetic differences in populations or possibly methods employed during the studies. Caution should be emphasized when applying development data for this species from one region to forensic investigations in other ecoregions as such differences in development based on tissue fed upon by larvae, population genetics, and methodologies used in the studies could represent error in estimating the time of colonization. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Occurrence of blow fly species (Diptera: calliphoridae) in Phitsanulok Province, Northern Thailand.

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    Bunchu, Nophawan; Sukontason, Kom; Sanit, Sangob; Chidburee, Polprecha; Kurahashi, Hiromu; Sukontason, Kabkaew L

    2012-12-01

    Based on the current forensic importance of blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae), their biological aspects have been studied increasingly worldwide. The blow fly fauna in Phitsanulok Province, Northern Thailand was studied from May 2009 to April 2010 in the residential, agricultural, mountainous and forested areas of Muang, Wat Bot, Nakhon Thai and Wang Thong districts, respectively, in order to know the occurrence of blow flies in this province. Collections were carried out monthly using commercial funnel fly traps and sweeping methods, with 1-day tainted pork viscera as bait. Identification of adult blow flies exhibited 14 634 specimens, comprising of 5 subfamilies, 14 genera and 36 species. Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius, 1794) and Achoetandrus rufifacies (Macquart, 1843) were the most and second most abundant species trapped, respectively. These two species of carrion flies prevailed in all the types of land investigated. We calculated and compared the diversity indices, species evenness and richness, and similarity coefficients of the blow fly species in various areas. The data from this study may be used to identify the potential of forensicallyimportant fly species within Phitsanulok Province and fulfill the information on blow fly fauna in Thailand.

  19. Phenotypic polymorphism of Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) may lead to species misidentification.

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    Grella, Maicon D; Savino, André G; Paulo, Daniel F; Mendes, Felipe M; Azeredo-Espin, Ana M L; Queiroz, Margareth M C; Thyssen, Patricia J; Linhares, Arício X

    2015-01-01

    Species identification is an essential step in the progress and completion of work in several areas of biological knowledge, but it is not a simple process. Due to the close phylogenetic relationship of certain species, morphological characters are not always sufficiently distinguishable. As a result, it is necessary to combine several methods of analysis that contribute to a distinct categorization of taxa. This study aimed to raise diagnostic characters, both morphological and molecular, for the correct identification of species of the genus Chrysomya (Diptera: Calliphoridae) recorded in the New World, which has continuously generated discussion about its taxonomic position over the last century. A clear example of this situation was the first record of Chrysomya rufifacies in Brazilian territory in 2012. However, the morphological polymorphism and genetic variability of Chrysomya albiceps studied here show that both species (C. rufifacies and C. albiceps) share very similar character states, leading to misidentification and subsequent registration error of species present in our territory. This conclusion is demonstrated by the authors, based on a review of the material deposited in major scientific collections in Brazil and subsequent molecular and phylogenetic analysis of these samples. Additionally, we have proposed a new taxonomic key to separate the species of Chrysomya found on the American continent, taking into account a larger number of characters beyond those available in current literature. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Human wound colonization by Lucilia eximia and Chrysomya rufifacies (Diptera: Calliphoridae): myiasis, perimortem, or postmortem colonization?

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    Sanford, Michelle R; Whitworth, Terry L; Phatak, Darshan R

    2014-05-01

    The infestation of human or animal tissues by fly larvae has been given distinctive terminology depending on the timing and location of colonization. Wounds and orifices colonized by Diptera in a living human or animal are typically referred to as myiasis. When the colonization occurs after death, it is referred to as postmortem colonization and can be used to estimate the minimum postmortem interval. What happens when the human, as in the case presented here, has a necrotic limb while the human remains alive, at least for a short period of time? The case presented here documents perimortem wound colonization by Lucilia eximia (Wiedemann) and Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart) and the considerations for approximating development temperatures and estimating the time of colonization (TOC). This represents the first record of L. eximia in human myiasis in the United States and the first record of the co-occurrence of L. eximia and C. rufifacies in human myiasis in the United States. The TOC was estimated using both ambient and body temperature. Insect colonization before death complicates the estimation of TOC and minimum postmortem interval and illustrates the problem of temperature approximation in forensic entomology casework.