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Sample records for guam northern mariana

  1. Guam and the Northern Mariana Islands ESI: INVERT (Invertebrate Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for intertidal-, reef-, and mangrove-associated invertebrate species in Guam and the Northern Mariana...

  2. Guam and the Northern Mariana Islands ESI: FISH (Fish Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for reef, pelagic, benthic, and estuarine fish species in Guam and the Northern Mariana Islands. Vector...

  3. Seismic hazard assessment for Guam and the Northern Mariana Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Charles S.; Haller, Kathleen M.; Luco, Nicholas; Petersen, Mark D.; Frankel, Arthur D.

    2012-01-01

    We present the results of a new probabilistic seismic hazard assessment for Guam and the Northern Mariana Islands. The Mariana island arc has formed in response to northwestward subduction of the Pacific plate beneath the Philippine Sea plate, and this process controls seismic activity in the region. Historical seismicity, the Mariana megathrust, and two crustal faults on Guam were modeled as seismic sources, and ground motions were estimated by using published relations for a firm-rock site condition. Maps of peak ground acceleration, 0.2-second spectral acceleration for 5 percent critical damping, and 1.0-second spectral acceleration for 5 percent critical damping were computed for exceedance probabilities of 2 percent and 10 percent in 50 years. For 2 percent probability of exceedance in 50 years, probabilistic peak ground acceleration is 0.94 gravitational acceleration at Guam and 0.57 gravitational acceleration at Saipan, 0.2-second spectral acceleration is 2.86 gravitational acceleration at Guam and 1.75 gravitational acceleration at Saipan, and 1.0-second spectral acceleration is 0.61 gravitational acceleration at Guam and 0.37 gravitational acceleration at Saipan. For 10 percent probability of exceedance in 50 years, probabilistic peak ground acceleration is 0.49 gravitational acceleration at Guam and 0.29 gravitational acceleration at Saipan, 0.2-second spectral acceleration is 1.43 gravitational acceleration at Guam and 0.83 gravitational acceleration at Saipan, and 1.0-second spectral acceleration is 0.30 gravitational acceleration at Guam and 0.18 gravitational acceleration at Saipan. The dominant hazard source at the islands is upper Benioff-zone seismicity (depth 40–160 kilometers). The large probabilistic ground motions reflect the strong concentrations of this activity below the arc, especially near Guam.

  4. Guam and the Northern Mariana Islands ESI: ESI (Environmental Sensitivity Index Shoreline Types - Lines)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains vector lines representing the shoreline and coastal habitats for Guam and the Northern Mariana Islands, classified according to the...

  5. Guam and the Northern Mariana Islands ESI: M_MAMMAL (Marine Mammal Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for dolphins in Guam and the Northern Mariana Islands. Vector polygons in this data set represent marine...

  6. Guam and the Northern Mariana Islands ESI: BENTPT (Benthic Points)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for Coral Areas of Special Significance (CASS) and Seagrass Areas of Special Significance (SASS) in Guam...

  7. Guam and the Northern Mariana Islands ESI: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for pelagic birds, shorebirds, wading birds, waterfowl, gulls, terns, and passerine birds in Guam and the...

  8. Guam and the Northern Mariana Islands ESI: MGT (Management Area Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains geographical boundary information for National Park Service properties, wildlife refuges, and other management areas in Guam and the Northern...

  9. Guam and the Northern Mariana Islands ESI: HYDRO (Hydrography Lines and Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains vector lines and polygons representing coastal hydrography used in the creation of the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) for Guam and the...

  10. Reson 8101ER Multibeam Sonar Data from Cruise SE1002 Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands and Guam

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Reson 8101ER multibeam Data were collected in February 11 - March 14, 2010 aboard NOAA Ship Oscar Elton Sette in the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands and...

  11. CRED REA Algal Assessments at Guam, Marianas Archipelago in 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Twelve quadrats were sampled along 2 consecutively-placed, 25m transect lines, as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments, conducted at 10 sites at Guam in the Marianas...

  12. Marine Resource Survey in waters surrounding Guam and the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (SE1002, EK60)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The goals of the cruise were to collect a variety of data to assess the status of marine resources in waters surrounding Guam and CNMI. Marine resource habitats were...

  13. 75 FR 60438 - Record of Decision for the Guam and Commonwealth of Northern Mariana Islands Military Relocation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-30

    ... Andersen AFB, rehabilitation of existing wells, interconnects with the GWA water system, and construction... existing Navy Apra Harbor landfill until the new GovGuam public landfill at Layon is completed. Relative to...

  14. 2007 Reson 8101ER Multibeam Sonar Data from Cruise AHI0702 - Guam and the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Reson 8101ER multibeam Data were collected between 9 May - 19 May 2007 aboard NOAA Survey Launch Acoustic Habitat Investigator (AHI) at Santa Rosa Reef, Guam Island,...

  15. Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement, Guam and Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands Military Relocation (2012 Roadmap Adjustments)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-01

    whether for cultural practices, recreation, tourism , or academic study would also diminish the cultural resources of Guam. MITIGATION MEASURES AND...opportunities for important cultural practices. Reduced access to cultural sites, whether for cultural practices, recreation, tourism , or academic study...playgrounds, active sports areas, parks, residences, motels, hotels, schools, churches, places of worship, libraries, and hospitals. C 72 (Exterior

  16. Secondhand Smoke Concentrations in Hospitality Venues in the Pacific Basin: Findings from American Samoa, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, and Guam

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Brian A; Dube, Shanta R; Ko, Jean Y

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Secondhand smoke (SHS) from burning tobacco products causes disease and premature death among nonsmokers. Although the number of laws prohibiting smoking in indoor public places continues to increase, millions of nonsmokers in the United States (US) and its territories remain exposed to SHS. This study assessed indoor air pollution from SHS in hospitality venues in three US Pacific Basin territories. Methods Air monitors were used to assess PM2.5, an environmental marker for SHS, in 19 smoke-permitted and 18 smoke-free bars and restaurants in American Samoa, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI), and Guam. Observational logs were used to record smoking and other sources of air pollution. Differences in average PM2.5 concentrations were determined using bivariate statistics. Results The average PM2.5 level in venues where smoking was always permitted [arithmetic mean (AM)=299.98 μg/m3; geometric mean (GM)=200.39 μg/m3] was significantly higher (p<0.001) than smoke-free venues [AM=8.33 μg/m3; GM=6.14 μg/m3]. In venues where smoking was allowed only during certain times, the average level outside these times [AM=42.10 μg/m3; GM=41.87 μg/m3] was also significantly higher (p<0.001) than smoke-free venues. Conclusions Employees and patrons of smoke-permitted bars and restaurants are exposed to dangerous levels of air pollution from SHS, even during periods when active smoking is not occurring. Prohibiting smoking in all public indoor areas, irrespective of the venue type or time of day, is the only way to fully protect nonsmokers from SHS exposure in these environments. PMID:22393958

  17. Secondhand smoke concentrations in hospitality venues in the Pacific Basin: findings from American Samoa, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, and Guam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Brian A; Dube, Shanta R; Ko, Jean Y

    2011-01-01

    Secondhand smoke (SHS) from burning tobacco products causes disease and premature death among nonsmokers. Although the number of laws prohibiting smoking in indoor public places continues to increase, millions of nonsmokers in the United States (US) and its territories remain exposed to SHS. This study assessed indoor air pollution from SHS in hospitality venues in three US Pacific Basin territories. Air monitors were used to assess PM2.5, an environmental marker for SHS, in 19 smoke-permitted and 18 smoke- free bars and restaurants in American Samoa, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI), and Guam. Observational logs were used to record smoking and other sources of air pollution. Differences in average PM2.5 concentrations were determined using bivariate statistics. The average PM2.5 level in venues where smoking was always permitted [arithmetic mean (AM)=299.98 μg/m3; geometric mean (GM)=200.39 μg/ m3] was significantly higher (p<0.001) than smoke-free venues [AM=8.33 μg/m3; GM=6.14 μg/m3]. In venues where smoking was allowed only during certain times, the average level outside these times [AM=42.10 μg/m3; GM=41.87 μg/m3] was also significantly higher (p<0.001) than smoke-free venues. Employees and patrons of smoke-permitted bars and restaurants are exposed to dangerous levels of air pollution from SHS, even during periods when active smoking is not occurring. Prohibiting smoking in all public indoor areas, irrespective of the venue type or time of day, is the only way to fully protect nonsmokers from SHS exposure in these environments.

  18. CRED REA Fish Team Belt Transect Survey at Guam, Marianas Archipelago, 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Belt transects along 3 consecutively-placed, 25m transect lines were surveyed as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 10 sites at Guam in the Marianas...

  19. African Journals Online: Northern Mariana Islands

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online: Northern Mariana Islands. Home > African Journals Online: Northern Mariana Islands. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Browse By Category · Browse Alphabetically · Browse By Country · List All Titles · Free to read Titles This ...

  20. 33 CFR 334.1420 - Pacific Ocean off Orote Point, Apra Harbor, Island of Guam, Marianas Islands; small arms firing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pacific Ocean off Orote Point, Apra Harbor, Island of Guam, Marianas Islands; small arms firing range. 334.1420 Section 334.1420... AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1420 Pacific Ocean off Orote Point, Apra Harbor, Island of Guam...

  1. Northern Mariana Islands Marine Monitoring Team Reef Flat Surveys

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands' (CNMI) interagency marine monitoring team conducts surveys on reef flat areas on the islands of Saipan, Tinian and...

  2. Mariana

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Mariana source code has been open sourced. Download the tar file Mariana.tgz below. I would love feedback. Mariana is an auto-classifier algorithm that...

  3. The effects of withdrawals and drought on groundwater availability in the Northern Guam Lens Aquifer, Guam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gingerich, Stephen B.

    2013-01-01

    Owing to population growth, freshwater demand on Guam has increased in the past and will likely increase in the future. During the early 1970s to 2010, groundwater withdrawals from the limestone Northern Guam Lens Aquifer, the main source of freshwater on the island, tripled from about 15 to 45 million gallons per day. Because of proposed military relocation to Guam and expected population growth, freshwater demand on Guam is projected to increase further. The expected increased demand for groundwater has led to concern over the long-term sustainability of withdrawals from existing and proposed wells. A three-dimensional numerical groundwater flow and transport model was developed to simulate the effects of hypothetical withdrawal and recharge scenarios on water levels and on the transition zone between freshwater and saltwater. The model was constructed by using average recharge during 1961–2005 and withdrawals from 2010. Hydraulic properties used to construct the model were initially based on published estimates but ultimately were adjusted to obtain better agreement between simulated and measured water levels and salinity profiles in the modeled area. Two hypothetical groundwater withdrawal scenarios were simulated: no withdrawal to simulate predevelopment conditions and withdrawal at 2010 rates under a 5-year drought. Simulation results indicate that prior to pumping; the fresh-water lens was 10 to 50 feet thicker in the Yigo-Tumon basin and more than 50 feet thicker in the Hagåtña basin. Results also indicate that continuing the 2010 withdrawal distribution during a 5-year drought would result in decreased water levels, a thinner freshwater lens, and increased salinity of water pumped from wells. The available water with an acceptable salinity (chloride concentration less than 200 milligrams per liter) would decrease from about 34 million gallons per day to 11.5 million gallons per day after 5 years but recover to pre-drought levels 5 years after the

  4. Territory Boundary Polygons, Northern Marianas Islands (CNMI), 1999, US Census Bureau

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Boundaries of the northern most islands of the Northern Marianas Islands (CNMI). Siapan, Rota and Tinian are not included in these data set. TIGER, TIGER/Line, and...

  5. Epidemiology of areca (betel) nut use in the mariana islands: Findings from the University of Guam/University of Hawai`i cancer center partnership program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulino, Yvette C; Hurwitz, Eric L; Ogo, Joanne C; Paulino, Tristan C; Yamanaka, Ashley B; Novotny, Rachel; Wilkens, Lynne R; Miller, Mary Jane; Palafox, Neal A

    2017-10-01

    Areca (betel) nut is considered a Group 1 human carcinogen shown to be associated with other chronic diseases in addition to cancer. This paper describes the areca (betel) nut chewing trend in Guam, and health behaviors of chewers in Guam and Saipan. The areca (betel) nut module in the Guam Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance Survey was used to calculate the 5-year (2011-2015) chewing trend. To assess the association between areca (betel) nut chewing and health risks in the Mariana Islands, a cross-section of 300 chewers, ≥18years old, were recruited from households in Guam and Saipan. Self-reported socio-demographics, oral health behaviors, chronic disease status, diet, and physical activity were collected. Anthropometry was measured. Only areca (betel) nut-specific and demographic information were collected from youth chewers in the household. The 5-year areca (betel) nut chewing prevalence in Guam was 11% and increased among Non-Chamorros, primarily other Micronesians, from 2011 (7%) to 2015 (13%). In the household survey, most adult chewers (46%) preferred areca nut with betel leaf, slaked lime, and tobacco. Most youth chewers (48%) preferred areca nut only. Common adult chronic conditions included diabetes (14%), hypertension (26%), and obesity (58%). The 5-year areca (betel) nut chewing prevalence in Guam is comparable to the world estimate (10-20%), though rising among Non-Chamorros. Adult and youth chewers may be at an increased risk for oral cancer. Adult chewers have an increased risk of other chronic health conditions. Cancer prevention and intervention strategies should incorporate all aspects of health. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Variation in the Mating Systems of Wrasses (Labridae at a Spawning Aggregation Site on Guam, Mariana Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terry J. Donaldson

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The wrasses (family Labridae exhibit a diverse number of mating strategies and behaviors. This diversity is expressed not only interspecifically but also intraspecifically. At Guam, Mariana Islands, over twenty species of wrasses spawn on a small, shallow coral reef known as Finger Reef that projects outward from the main reef into Apra Harbor. Preliminary observations indicated that the mating system utilized by some wrasses varied within species. To examine why this occurs, I utilized direct visual observations supplemented by underwater video and photography. I recorded the identity of the species courting, the number of individuals participating, the distribution of male mating territories, courtship and spawning behaviors, and courtship success. Field work utilized snorkeling for several hours a day variously within the lunar month during 2013-2015. I found that courtship and spawning occurs either in temporary resident spawning aggregations or within a protogynous haremic mating system. Within spawning aggregations, mating systems include a lek-like system with paired spawning, and group or promiscuous spawning. Haremic species followed the traditional single male-multiple female model. Both group-spawning and haremic species, however, also spawned in simple male-female pairs. Sneaking or streaking behavior during pelagic spawning events were observed in all mating systems. The results of these observations found that lek-like behavior and group spawning were dependent upon higher densities of males and females at the site. At lower densities, however, some species reverted to simple paired spawning while others used a haremic system rather than a lek-like system. This suggests that some species of wrasses practice a mixed strategy that is dependent upon fish density during the courtship period.

  7. Demonstration of base catalyzed decomposition process, Navy Public Works Center, Guam, Mariana Islands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, A.J.; Freeman, H.D.; Brown, M.D.; Zacher, A.H.; Neuenschwander, G.N.; Wilcox, W.A.; Gano, S.R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Kim, B.C.; Gavaskar, A.R. [Battelle Columbus Div., OH (United States)

    1996-02-01

    Base Catalyzed Decomposition (BCD) is a chemical dehalogenation process designed for treating soils and other substrate contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), pesticides, dioxins, furans, and other hazardous organic substances. PCBs are heavy organic liquids once widely used in industry as lubricants, heat transfer oils, and transformer dielectric fluids. In 1976, production was banned when PCBs were recognized as carcinogenic substances. It was estimated that significant quantities (one billion tons) of U.S. soils, including areas on U.S. military bases outside the country, were contaminated by PCB leaks and spills, and cleanup activities began. The BCD technology was developed in response to these activities. This report details the evolution of the process, from inception to deployment in Guam, and describes the process and system components provided to the Navy to meet the remediation requirements. The report is divided into several sections to cover the range of development and demonstration activities. Section 2.0 gives an overview of the project history. Section 3.0 describes the process chemistry and remediation steps involved. Section 4.0 provides a detailed description of each component and specific development activities. Section 5.0 details the testing and deployment operations and provides the results of the individual demonstration campaigns. Section 6.0 gives an economic assessment of the process. Section 7.0 presents the conclusions and recommendations form this project. The appendices contain equipment and instrument lists, equipment drawings, and detailed run and analytical data.

  8. Recruitment and Retention Problems in Paradise? Lessons from the Northern Mariana Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rude, Harvey; And Others

    This paper reports on a study that examined teacher recruitment and retention practices in the Northern Mariana Islands public school system. The study was conducted due to shortages of special education teachers and related services personnel. Based on a review of school district documents on recruitment and retention practices and interviews…

  9. 76 FR 55501 - Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands Transitional Worker Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-07

    ... necessary professional licenses or educational degrees, for other employment-based status under the INA. DHS... businesses and expanding tourism and economic development in the CNMI. They also argued that the CNRA does... Office, GAO-08-791, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, Managing Potential Impact of Applying U...

  10. C-CAP Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI), Rota 1946-2005-Era Land Cover Change Analysis

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains the 1946-era and 2005-era classifications of Rota, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands and can be used to analyze change. This data...

  11. Final integrated trip report: site visits to Area 50, Andersen Air Force Base, Guam National Wildlife Refuge, War in the Pacific National Historical Park, Guam, Rota and Saipan, CNMI, 2004-2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Steven C.; Pratt, Linda W.

    2006-01-01

    Limestone forests are the most diverse natural plant communities of Guam. Like other natural vegetation types, these forests have a long history of anthropogenic disturbances, being altered and shaped by humans for more than 4,000 years. Although this occupation represents a relatively long human influence in comparison to other Pacific islands, animals associated with humans, such as commensal rodents, arrived in these islands beginning only 1,000 years ago, and larger mammals, such as pigs (Sus scrofa), may not have arrived until European contact. Limestone forests, which also occur on several other Mariana Islands, developed in the presence of frequent tropical storms and are therefore well adapted to this type of natural disturbance regime. However, recent human activities including large scale clearing and conversion combined with the presence of high levels of alien herbivores and seed predators, and the loss of ecological services provided by the former native avifauna may be causing the decline of Guam's forests. Limestone forests on northern Guam, much like those of other Mariana Islands, were heavily cleared for the construction of military installations during World War II. The accidental introduction of the Brown Tree Snake (Boiga irregularis; BTS) around this same period subsequently accelerated the disappearance of Guam's native avifauna and other endemic terrestrial vertebrates, and with them, seed dispersal, pollination, and the predatory regulation of herbivorous insects. Guam and the Mariana Islands contained a high proportion (32 pecent) of endemic bird species, with 4 forms endemic to Guam alone: the now extinct Guam Flycatcher (Myiagra freycineti), and Guam Bridled White-eye (Zosterops conspicillatpicillata), one of three island endemic subspecies from the Marianas; Guam rail (Rallus owstonii); and Guam Kingfisher (Todiramphus cinnamominus cinnamominus), an island endemic subspecies of the regionally endemic Micronesian Kingfisher. Guam once

  12. Blooms of a benthic ciliate, Maristentor dinoferus (Heterotrichea: Maristentoridae, on coral reefs of Guam, Mariana Islands. (Note

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schefter, M.

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Maristentor dinoferus is visible in situ with the naked eye; it forms aggregations at several scales: individuals form dynamic clusters within colonies that are normally widely scattered, but in recurrent blooms during the dry seasons of 2005 through 2007, colonies often formed close together in patches (metapopulations. Patches were extremely abundant in Guam, both in Apra Harbor and on the outer coast. This is the first time that long-term changes in a benthic ciliate population have been documented in situ and that multi-scale patchiness has been reported for a benthic ciliate. Colonies were mapped and monitored; some patches over 1 m diameter were recorded. Since 2008, the distribution has again consisted of scattered colonies, as it did from 1999–2004.

  13. Vegetation assessment of forests of Pagan Island, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, Linda W.

    2011-01-01

    As part of the Marianas Expedition Wildlife Surveys-2010, the forest vegetation of the island of Pagan, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI), was sampled with a series of systematic plots along 13 transects established for monitoring forest bird populations. Shrubland and grassland were also sampled in the northern half of the island. Data collected were woody plant density, tree diameter at breast height, woody plant density in height classes below 2 m, and ground cover measured with the point-intercept method. Coconut forests (Cocos nucifera) were generally found to have low native tree diversity, little regeneration of trees and shrubs in the forest understory, and little live ground cover. The sole exception was a coconut-dominated forest of the northeast side of the island that exhibited high native tree diversity and a large number of young native trees in the understory. Ironwood (Casuarina equisetifolia) forests on the northern half of the island were nearly monocultures with almost no trees other than ironwood in vegetation plots, few woody plants in the understory, and low ground cover dominated by native ferns. Mixed native forests of both northern and southern sections of the island had a diversity of native tree species in both the canopy and the sparse understory. Ground cover of native forests in the north had a mix of native and alien species, but that of the southern half of the island was dominated by native ferns and woody plants.

  14. Guam and the Northern Mariana Islands ESI: SOCECON (Socioeconomic Resource Points)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains human-use resource data for airports, aquaculture sites, archaeological/historic sites, boat ramps, coast guard stations, dive sites, marinas,...

  15. A Re-Os Study of Depleted Trench Peridotites from Northern Mariana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, T.; Snow, J. E.; Heri, A. R.; Brandon, A. D.; Ishizuka, O.

    2017-12-01

    Trench peridotites provide information about the influence of subduction initiation on the extent of mantle wedge melting. They preserve melting records throughout subduction history, and as a result, likely experience multiple melt extraction events leading to successive depletion of melt/fluid mobile major and trace elements. To track melting histories of trench peridotites, Re-Os and PGEs can be used as reliable tracers to constrain early melt extraction or re-fertilization events. The Izu-Bonin-Mariana arc, being the largest intra-oceanic subduction system, provides an excellent area to study the formation of supra-subduction zone mantle and crust. Residual peridotite (harzburgite and dunite) samples were collected by dredging from the landward slope of the northern Mariana Trench. The samples are serpentinized to various extents (typical of abyssal peridotites), leaving behind relict grains of spinel, enstatite and olivine embedded within a serpentine matrix along with occasional interstitial diopside. Major element analyses of primary minerals reveal a wide range of variations in Cr# of spinels from 0.31-0.85 indicating 16-20% of melt fraction with dunites apparently experiencing the highest amount of partial melting. For Re-Os and PGE geochemistry, samples with high amounts of spinel (>4 vol %) and variable Cr# were chosen. Initial results show that bulk rock 187Os/188Os ratios range from 0.1113 to 0.1272. All of the samples are sub-chondritic, but in some cases, they are more radiogenic than average abyssal peridotites. Os abundances vary from 1-9 ppb. Sub-chondritic values can be attributed to the samples having evolved from a Re-depleted mantle source indicating a previous melt-extraction event. The cpx-harzburgites, having lower Cr# ( 0.4) are more radiogenic than ultra depleted dunites (Cr# 0.8), which might indicate preferential removal of Os during an apparent higher degree of partial melting experienced by dunites. The higher 187Os/188Os ratios of

  16. Compositional Variations of Paleogene and Neogene Tephra From the Northern Izu-Bonin-Mariana Arc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tepley, F. J., III; Barth, A. P.; Brandl, P. A.; Hickey-Vargas, R.; Jiang, F.; Kanayama, K.; Kusano, Y.; Li, H.; Marsaglia, K. M.; McCarthy, A.; Meffre, S.; Savov, I. P.; Yogodzinski, G. M.

    2014-12-01

    A primary objective of IODP Expedition 351 was to evaluate arc initiation processes of the Izu-Bonin-Mariana (IBM) volcanic arc and its compositional evolution through time. To this end, a single thick section of sediment overlying oceanic crust was cored in the Amami Sankaku Basin where a complete sediment record of arc inception and evolution is preserved. This sediment record includes ash and pyroclasts, deposited in fore-arc, arc, and back-arc settings, likely associated with both the ~49-25 Ma emergent IBM volcanic arc and the evolving Ryukyu-Kyushu volcanic arc. Our goal was to assess the major element evolution of the nascent and evolving IBM system using the temporally constrained record of the early and developing system. In all, more than 100 ash and tuff layers, and pyroclastic fragments were selected from temporally resolved portions of the core, and from representative fractions of the overall core ("core catcher"). The samples were prepared to determine major and minor element compositions via electron microprobe analyses. This ash and pyroclast record will allow us to 1) resolve the Paleogene evolutionary history of the northern IBM arc in greater detail; 2) determine compositional variations of this portion of the IBM arc through time; 3) compare the acquired data to an extensive whole rock and tephra dataset from other segments of the IBM arc; 4) test hypotheses of northern IBM arc evolution and the involvement of different source reservoirs; and 5) mark important stratigraphic markers associated with the Neogene volcanic history of the adjacent evolving Ryukyu-Kyushu arc.

  17. Endangered Green Turtles (Chelonia mydas of the Northern Mariana Islands: Nesting Ecology, Poaching, and Climate Concerns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tammy M. Summers

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Marine turtles in the western Pacific remain threatened by anthropogenic impacts, but the region lacks long-term biological data for assessing conservation status and trends. The Central West Pacific (CWP population of green turtles (Chelonia mydas was listed as Endangered by the U.S. in 2016, highlighting a need to fill existing data gaps. This study focuses on the subset of this population nesting in the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI. Using 11 years of nesting data, we (i estimate reproductive demographic parameters, (ii quantify abundance and trends, and (iii estimate the impacts of anthropogenic threats, such as poaching of nesting females and increasing sand temperatures. In 2006–2016, nesting beach surveys, identification tagging, and nest excavations were conducted on Saipan, and rapid assessments of nesting activity were conducted on Tinian and Rota. On Saipan, temperature data-loggers were deployed inside nests and evidence of poaching (adults and eggs was recorded. This study documents year-round nesting with a peak in March–July. Nester abundance for the three islands combined was 11.9 ± 5.7 (mean ± standard deviation females annually, with at least 62.8 ± 35.1 nests observed per year. For 39 tagged individuals, straight carapace length was 95.6 ± 4.5 cm, remigration interval was 4.6 ± 1.3 years, and somatic growth was 0.3 ± 0.2 cm/yr. Reproductive parameter estimates included clutch frequency of 7.0 ± 1.3 nests per female, inter-nesting interval of 11.4 ± 1.0 days, clutch size of 93.5 ± 21.4 eggs, incubation period of 56.7 ± 6.4 days, hatching success of 77.9 ± 27.0%, and emergence success of 69.6 ± 30.3%. Mean nest temperature of 30.9 ± 1.5°C was above the pivotal threshold of 29.0°C for temperature dependent sex determination, suggesting a female bias may already exist. Model results suggest (i hatching success decreases and embryonic death increases when nests experience maximum temperatures

  18. Geology, Streamflow, and Water Chemistry of the Talufofo Stream Basin, Saipan, Northern Mariana Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izuka, Scot K.; Ewart, Charles J.

    1995-01-01

    A study of the geology, streamflow, and water chemistry of Talufofo Stream Basin, Saipan, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, was undertaken to determine the flow characteristics of Talufofo Stream and the relation to the geology of the drainage basin. The Commonwealth government is exploring the feasibility of using water from Talufofo Stream to supplement Saipan's stressed municipal water supply. Streamflow records from gaging stations on the principal forks of Talufofo Stream indicate that peak streamflows and long-term average flow are higher at the South Fork gaging station than at the Middle Fork gaging station because the drainage area of the South Fork gaging station is larger, but persistent base flow from ground-water discharge during dry weather is greater in the Middle Fork gaging station. The sum of the average flows at the Middle Fork and South Fork gaging stations, plus an estimate of the average flow at a point in the lower reaches of the North Fork, is about 2.96 cubic feet per second or 1.91 million gallons per day. Although this average represents the theoretical maximum long-term draft rate possible from the Talufofo Stream Basin if an adequate reservoir can be built, the actual amount of surface water available will be less because of evaporation, leaks, induced infiltration, and reservoir-design constraints. Base-flow characteristics, such as stream seepage and spring discharge, are related to geology of the basin. Base flow in the Talufofo Stream Basin originates as discharge from springs near the base of limestones located in the headwaters of Talufofo Stream, flows over low-permeability volcanic rocks in the middle reaches, and seeps back into the high-permeability limestones in the lower reaches. Water sampled from Talufofo Stream during base flow had high dissolved-calcium concentrations (between 35 and 98 milligrams per liter), characteristic of water from a limestone aquifer. Concentrations of potassium, sodium, and chloride

  19. 20 CFR 625.30 - Appeal Procedures for Guam, American Samoa, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... as the referee deems necessary. Any issue involved in the claim shall be considered and passed upon... and kept. Such transcript together with all exhibits, papers, and requests filed in the proceeding... of the referee shall be kept on file at his/her office or agency for at least 3 years. [55 FR 557...

  20. Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) Atlas: Guam and the Northern Mariana Islands, maps and geographic information systems data (NODC Accession 0002825)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Currently, the most widely used approach to sensitive environment mapping in the United States is the NOAA Environmental Sensitivity Index or ESI. This approach...

  1. Draft Environmental Impact Statement for Divert Activities and Exercises, Guam and Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    and other wildlife from suitable habitat in the 7 proposed Project Area. Smaller, less-mobile species and those seeking refuge in burrows could 8...the NONROAD model and were provided to e²M by Larry Landman of the Air Quality and Modeling Center (Landman.Larry@epamail.epa.gov) on 12/14/07...Emission factors are taken from the NONROAD model and were provided to e²M by Larry Landman of the Air Quality and Modeling Center (Landman.Larry

  2. Impacts of the Brown Tree Snake: Patterns of Decline and Species Persistence in Guam's Avifauna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiles, G.J.; Bart, J.; Beck, R.E.; Aguon, C.F.

    2003-01-01

    Predation by brown tree snakes (Boiga irregularis ) devastated the avifauna of Guam in the Mariana Islands during the last half of the twentieth century, causing the extirpation or serious reduction of most of the island's 25 resident bird species. Past studies have provided qualitative descriptions of the decline of native forest birds but have not considered all species or presented quantitative analyses. We analyzed two sets of survey data gathered in northern Guam between 1976 and 1998 and reviewed unpublished sources to provide a comprehensive account of the impact of brown tree snakes on the island's birds. Our results indicate that 22 species, including 17 of 18 native species, were severely affected by snakes. Twelve species were likely extirpated as breeding residents on the main island, 8 others experienced declines of ≥90% throughout the island or at least in the north, and 2 were kept at reduced population levels during all or much of the study. Declines of ≥90% occurred rapidly, averaging just 8.9 years along three roadside survey routes combined and 1.6 years at a 100-ha forested study site. Declines in northern Guam were also relatively synchronous and occurred from about 1976 to 1986 for most species. The most important factor predisposing a species to coexistence with brown tree snakes was its ability to nest and roost at locations where snakes were uncommon. Large clutch size and large body size were also related to longer persistence times, although large body size appeared to delay, but not prevent, extirpation. Our results draw attention to the enormous detrimental impact that brown tree snakes are likely to have upon invading new areas. Increased containment efforts on Guam are needed to prevent further colonizations, but a variety of additional management efforts would also benefit the island's remaining bird populations.

  3. Constraints on the diversity and distribution of coral-reef assemblages in the volcanic Northern Mariana Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houk, P.; Starmer, J.

    2010-03-01

    A central problem for jurisdictional scientists and managers is to reconcile how multiple environmental regimes, encompassing continuous, intermittent and human disturbances, influence pertinent ecological management targets. The presence of heterogeneous environments throughout the volcanic Northern Mariana Islands (NMI), coupled with the availability of descriptive physical data, form the basis examining environmental-ecological relationships. Since 2003, coral abundances and macrobiota (all visibly recognizable taxa greater than 2 cm) occurrences have been estimated at 42 reef slopes along the volcanic archipelago. Analyses showed that reef types acted as surrogates of coral growth capacity and the modern assemblages residing upon them, being highest and most favorable, respectively, where relatively high salinity levels, low-to-moderate wave exposure, and an absence of volcanic activity for ~90 years existed. However, island size was the greatest constraint on species richness overall, but relations with corals were dampened by volcanic activity and increased for sponges and algae where greater connection with the island aquifer existed (i.e., relatively low salinity levels). The number of years since volcanic activity has occurred was positively related to the residuals of species-area relationships and coral cover, with a ~90-year time frame predicted for recovery. Notably, no relationships with watershed characteristics or distance from CNMI’s main fishing port and coral-reef assemblages or species richness were found. Further examination of specific management concerns, such as fisheries and feral animal populations, should be designed to account for the inherent differences in driving environmental regimes. Management strategies focused upon conserving biodiversity and ecosystem function should be centered at the island level, matching the operational scale of dominant environmental-ecological relationships. Marine reserves represent a strategy pertinent

  4. Construction, Geologic, and Hydrologic Data from Five Exploratory Wells on Rota, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, 1999

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carruth, Rob

    2005-01-01

    Rota is the southernmost of the 14 small islands that make up the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands. Reduced springflow at Matan Hanom and As Onan springs occurred during a drought associated with the 1997-98 El Nino. Water from the two developed springs constituted the only municipal water source for the island at that time. In April 1998, reduced water supplies forced the Commonwealth Utilities Corporation to restrict water service in the principal villages of Songsong and Sinapalu for the duration of the dry season. In 1999, Five exploratory wells, EX-1 through EX-5 (CUC wells SP-MW1, SP-1, -2, -3, and SP-MW2), were drilled in the Sinapalu region of Rota to (1) assess the availability of fresh ground-water resources in an area where no other well information were available, and (2) to provide a new water source to help mitigate the impacts of drought associated with recurring El Nino weather events. The wells penetrated mainly light colored (dirty white to brownish), fragmental limestones containing abundant coral remains. Sustained-rate, recovery, and step-drawdown aquifer tests were attempted at each of the five exploratory wells to estimate aquifer properties in the vicinity of the wells and to assess the potential for new water sources. At wells EX-1 (CUC well SPMW1) and EX-5 (CUC well SP-MW2), attempts to conduct sustained-rate aquifer tests resulted in excessive drawdown to the pump intakes in the vicinity of the wells. At well EX-2 (CUC well SP-1), the maximum drawdown measured in the pumped well was 3.93 ft during 8 days of sustained pumping at an average rate of 187 gal/min. At well EX-3 (CUC well SP-2), the maximum drawdown measured in the pumped well was 2.31 ft during 8 days of sustained pumping at an average rate of 108 gal/min, and at well EX-4 (CUC well SP-3), the maximum drawdown measured in the pumped well was 3.27 ft during 8 days of sustained pumping at an average rate of 139 gal/min. Specific conductance at the end of 8 days of

  5. Population ecology of the tonguefish Symphurus thermophilus (Pisces; Pleuronectiformes; Cynoglossidae) at sulphur-rich hydrothermal vents on volcanoes of the northern Mariana Arc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunnicliffe, Verena; Tyler, Jennifer; Dower, John F.

    2013-08-01

    Flatfish are a major component of the hydrothermal vent community on three seamounts of the northern Mariana Volcanic Arc in the northwest Pacific. Nikko, Kasuga-2 and Daikoku seamounts host vent fields between 375 and 480 m depth where high temperature vents release molten sulphur. The small cynoglossid tonguefish, Symphurus thermophilus Munroe and Hashimoto, is ubiquitous in all vent habitats observed on these seamounts: among extensive fields of tubeworms and mussels and on solid sulphur surfaces on Nikko; on sulphur-rich sediments and barnacle-covered boulders on Kasuga-2; and on recent sulphur flows and on broad areas of loose and semi-consolidated sediments on Daikoku. We recorded repeated forays by individuals onto flows of molten sulphur as these surfaces cooled. Based on observations using ROVs, the mean density is 90 fish/m2 with maximum counts over 200 fish/m2 on Daikoku sediments. Compared to collected tonguefish from Daikoku and Kasuga-2, those from Nikko have significantly greater lengths and, on average, six times the mass. Otolith data indicate upper ages of 13 years with Nikko tonguefish growing significantly faster. Diets of tonguefish on the three seamounts reflect the different habitats and prey availability; in Daikoku specimens, small crustaceans and polychaetes are most common while on Nikko, gut contents are predominantly larger shrimp. We made the unusual observation of stunned midwater fish falling to the seafloor near the vents where S. thermophilus immediately attacked them. This tonguefish has a wide diet range and foraging behaviour that likely influence the differing growth rates and sizes of fish inhabiting the different vent sites. Limited genetic data suggest that larval exchange probably occurs among sites where the common habitat factor is high levels of elemental sulphur forming hard and partly unconsolidated substrata. Here, in the northern range of the Mariana Trench Marine National Monument, S. thermophilus, despite having an

  6. Forest pathology in Yap, Palau, Pohnpei, Kosrae, Guam and Saipan, Sept. 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phil Cannon

    2014-01-01

    In September of 2013, an opportunity was seized by the Regional Forest Pathologist to do some work on the following islands in Micronesia and the Marianas: Yap, Palau, Guam, Saipan, Pohnpei, and Kosrae. The principle justification for doing the work at this time was that satellite images showed large areas of dead mangroves on Yap (Liu, pers. com). Many...

  7. Guam and Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI) Benthic Habitat Maps Prepared by Visual Interpretation from IKONOS satellite imagery procured by NOAA

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This project is a cooperative effort among the National Ocean Service, National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science, Center for Coastal Monitoring and Assessment; the...

  8. NOAA Office for Coastal Management Coastal Inundation Digital Elevation Model: Guam Weather Forecast Office (GUM WFO) - Saipan, Commonwealth of Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data were created as part of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Office for Coastal Management's efforts to create an online mapping viewer...

  9. An Examination of Visa Free Travel for Russian and Chinese Citizens to U.S. Territories in the Pacific (Guam and the Commonwealth of the Northern Marianas)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-10

    them. Attack him where he is unprepared, appear where you are not expected. ― Sun Tzu , The Art of War How Did They Get In? The events of 9/11...Recommendations ......................................................................................................... 75 BIBLIOGRAPHY ...www.prnewswire.com/news-releases/presidents-waiver-of-new-visa-rules-will- expose-us-to-threats-300218369.html. 78 BIBLIOGRAPHY 80th U.S. Congress

  10. FOREIGN RELATIONS: Migration From Micronesian Nations Has Had Significant Impact on Guam, Hawaii, and the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2001-01-01

    ... to live and work in the United States. One of these Compacts was enacted in 1986 with the Federated States of Micronesia and the Republic of the Marshall Islands, while the second Compact was implemented in 1994 with the Republic of Palau...

  11. 2001-2003 IKONOS Imagery for Guam and the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI) Utilized to Map Shallow Water Benthic Habitats

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This project is a cooperative effort among the National Ocean Service, National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science, Center for Coastal Monitoring and Assessment; the...

  12. A snake in paradise: Dusturbance of plant reproduction following extirpation of bird flower-visitors on Guam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Hanne Skovgaard; Dupont, Yoko; Olesen, Jens Mogens

    2008-01-01

    native plant species in Guam. We investigated flower visitation, seed set and germination in two native plants, the mangrove tree Bruguiera gymnorrhiza and the forest tree Erythrina variegata var. orientalis. Both species are bird-pollinated. Studies were conducted on two Mariana islands, Guam (with high...... mutualistic interactions, which may, in turn, result in a lower recruitment of native plants. Thus, the treesnake affects not only potential prey species, but its effects cascade through the entire ecosystem on Guam. Conservation actions should be directed towards an improved recruitment (artificial...... pollination, planting) of the affected plant species....

  13. Genetic structure, diversity, and interisland dispersal in the endangered Mariana Common Moorhen (Gallinula chloropus guami)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Mark P.; Mullins, Thomas D.; Haig, Susan M.; Takano, Leilani L.; Garcia, Karla

    2015-01-01

    The Mariana Common Moorhen (Gallinula chloropus guami) is a highly endangered taxon, with fewer than 300 individuals estimated to occur in the wild. The subspecies is believed to have undergone population declines attributable to loss of wetland habitats on its native islands in the Mariana Islands. We analyzed mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequences (control region and ND2 genes) and nuclear microsatellite loci in Mariana Common Moorhens from Guam and Saipan, the two most distal islands inhabited by the subspecies. Our analyses revealed similar nuclear genetic diversity and effective population size estimates on Saipan and Guam. Birds from Guam and Saipan were genetically differentiated (microsatellites: FST = 0.152; control region: FST = 0.736; ND2: FST= 0.390); however, assignment tests revealed the presence of first-generation dispersers from Guam onto Saipan (1 of 27 sampled birds) and from Saipan onto Guam (2 of 28 sampled birds), suggesting the capability for long-distance interpopulation movements within the subspecies. The observed dispersal rate was consistent with long-term estimates of effective numbers of migrants per generation between islands, indicating that movement between islands has been an ongoing process in this system. Despite known population declines, bottleneck tests revealed no signature of historical bottleneck events, suggesting that the magnitude of past population declines may have been comparatively small relative to the severity of declines that can be detected using genetic data.

  14. Assessment of distribution and abundance estimates for Mariana swiftlets (Aerodramus bartschi) via examination of survey methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Nathan C.; Haig, Susan M.; Mosher, Stephen M.

    2018-01-01

    We described past and present distribution and abundance data to evaluate the status of the endangered Mariana Swiftlet (Aerodramus bartschi), a little-known echolocating cave swiftlet that currently inhabits 3 of 5 formerly occupied islands in the Mariana archipelago. We then evaluated the survey methods used to attain these estimates via fieldwork carried out on an introduced population of Mariana Swiftlets on the island of O'ahu, Hawaiian Islands, to derive better methods for future surveys. We estimate the range-wide population of Mariana Swiftlets to be 5,704 individuals occurring in 15 caves on Saipan, Aguiguan, and Guam in the Marianas; and 142 individuals occupying one tunnel on O'ahu. We further confirm that swiftlets have been extirpated from Rota and Tinian and have declined on Aguiguan. Swiftlets have remained relatively stable on Guam and Saipan in recent years. Our assessment of survey methods used for Mariana Swiftlets suggests overestimates depending on the technique used. We suggest the use of night vision technology and other changes to more accurately reflect their distribution, abundance, and status.

  15. 75 FR 79264 - E-2 Nonimmigrant Status for Aliens in the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands With Long...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-20

    .... USCIS-2008-0035] RIN 1615-AB75 E-2 Nonimmigrant Status for Aliens in the Commonwealth of the Northern... period is a provision authorizing the Secretary of Homeland Security to classify an alien foreign... alien, notwithstanding the treaty requirements otherwise applicable. Id. Eligible investors are those...

  16. The bioinvasion of Guam: inferring geographic origin, pace, pattern and process of an invasive lizard (Carlia) in the Pacific using multi-locus genomic data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, C.C.; Rittmeyer, E.N.; Oliver, L.A.; Andermann, J.O.; Zug, G.R.; Rodda, G.H.; Jackson, N.D.

    2011-01-01

    Invasive species often have dramatic negative effects that lead to the deterioration and loss of biodiversity frequently coupled with the burden of expensive biocontrol programs and subversion of socioeconomic stability. The fauna and flora of oceanic islands are particularly susceptible to invasive species and the increase of global movements of humans and their products since WW II has caused numerous anthropogenic translocations and increased the ills of human-mediated invasions. We use a multi-locus genomic dataset to identify geographic origin, pace, pattern and historical process of an invasive scincid lizard (Carlia) that has been inadvertently introduced to Guam, the Northern Marianas, and Palau. This lizard is of major importance as its introduction is thought to have assisted in the establishment of the invasive brown treesnake (Boiga irregularis) on Guam by providing a food resource. Our findings demonstrate multiple waves of introductions that appear to be concordant with movements of Allied and Imperial Japanese forces in the Pacific during World War II.

  17. Guam Energy Action Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conrad, M. D.; Ness, J. E.

    2013-07-01

    Describes the four near-term strategies selected by the Guam Energy Task Force during action planning workshops conducted in March 2013, and outlines the steps being taken to implement those strategies. Each strategy addresses one of the energy sectors identified in the earlier Guam strategic energy plan as being an essential component of diversifying Guam's fuel sources and reducing fossil energy consumption 20% by 2020. The four energy strategies selected are: (1) expanding public outreach on energy efficiency and conservation, (2) establishing a demand-side management revolving loan program, (3) exploring waste-to-energy options, and (4) influencing the transportation sector via anti-idling legislation, vehicle registration fees, and electric vehicles.

  18. Guam Strategic Energy Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conrad, M. D.

    2013-07-01

    Describes various energy strategies available to Guam to meet the territory's goal of diversifying fuel sources and reducing fossil energy consumption 20% by 2020.The information presented in this strategic energy plan will be used by the Guam Energy Task Force to develop an energy action plan. Available energy strategies include policy changes, education and outreach, reducing energy consumption at federal facilities, and expanding the use of a range of energy technologies, including buildings energy efficiency and conservation, renewable electricity production, and alternative transportation. The strategies are categorized based on the time required to implement them.

  19. 2007 EM300 and EM3002D Multibeam Sonar Data from Cruise Hi'ialakai HI0702 - Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — EM300 and EM3002D multibeam Data were collected from May 12-22, 2007, aboard NOAA Ship Hi'ialakai at Santa Rosa Reef, Guam Island, Rota Island, Aguijan Island,...

  20. PAH Baselines for Amazonic Surficial Sediments: A Case of Study in Guajará Bay and Guamá River (Northern Brazil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Camila Carneiro Dos Santos; Santos, Ewerton; Ramos, Brunalisa Silva; Damasceno, Flaviana Cardoso; Correa, José Augusto Martins

    2018-06-01

    The 16 priority PAH were determined in sediment samples from the insular zone of Guajará Bay and Guamá River (Southern Amazon River mouth). Low hydrocarbon levels were observed and naphthalene was the most representative PAH. The low molecular weight PAH represented 51% of the total PAH. Statistical analysis showed that the sampling sites are not significantly different. Source analysis by PAH ratios and principal component analysis revealed that PAH are primary from a few rate of fossil fuel combustion, mainly related to the local small community activity. All samples presented no biological stress or damage potencial according to the sediment quality guidelines. This study discuss baselines for PAH in surface sediments from Amazonic aquatic systems based on source determination by PAH ratios and principal component analysis, sediment quality guidelines and through comparison with previous studies data.

  1. Military Training in the Marianas

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1998-01-01

    .... Approximately 4,600 personnel from the Air Force, Navy, Guam National Guard, Army Reserve, and Marine Corps as well as transiting carrier battle groups and amphibious ready groups depend on Guam...

  2. Groundwater availability study for Guam; goals, approach, products, and schedule of activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gingerich, Stephen B.; Jenson, John W.

    2010-01-01

    An expected significant population increase on Guam has raised concern about the sustainability of groundwater resources. In response, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in collaboration with the University of Guam's Water and Environmental Research Institute of the Western Pacific (WERI) and with funding from the U.S. Marine Corps (USMC), is conducting a 3.5-year study to advance understanding of regional groundwater dynamics in the Northern Guam Lens Aquifer, provide a new estimate of groundwater recharge, and develop a numerical groundwater flow and transport model for northern Guam. Results of the study, including two USGS reports and a well database, will provide more reliable evaluations of the potential effects of groundwater production and help guide sustainable management of this critical resource.

  3. Guam Initial Technical Assessment Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baring-Gould, I.; Conrad, M.; Haase, S.; Hotchkiss, E.; McNutt, P.

    2011-04-01

    Under an interagency agreement, funded by the Department of Interior's (DOI) Office of Insular Affairs (OIA), the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) was tasked to deliver technical assistance to the island of Guam by conducting an island initial technical assessment that would lay out energy consumption and production data and establish a baseline. This assessment will be used to conduct future analysis and studies by NREL that will estimate energy efficiency and renewable energy potential for the island of Guam.

  4. EX1605L3 (CAPSTONE CNMI & Mariana Trench MNM (ROV & Mapping)) (EM302)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains oceanographic data collected in the deep water areas around the Commonwealth of the Northern Marianas Islands (CNMI). Operations for this...

  5. WATER TEMPERATURE and DEPTH collected from NOAA Ship OSCAR ELTON SETTE in Guam, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, and others from 2015-05-08 to 2015-06-06 (NCEI Accession 0155929)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — XBT data were collected during a Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center's Cetacean Research Program's shipboard cetacean survey (Cruise ID SE 15-02). XBT casts...

  6. CRED 5m Gridded multibeam bathymetry of Guam Island, Guam U.S. Territory

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded bathymetry shelf, bank and slope environments of Guam Island, Guam U.S. Territory. Bottom coverage was achieved in depths between 0 and -3532 meters but this...

  7. Tectonics and Non-isostatic Topography of the Mariana Trench and Adjacent Plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hongyu, L.; Lin, J.; Zhou, Z.; Zhang, F.

    2017-12-01

    Multi-types of geophysical data including multibeam bathymetry, sediment thickness, gravity anomaly, and crustal magnetic age were analyzed to investigate tectonic processes of the Mariana Trench and the surrounding plates. We calculated non-Airy-isostatic topography by removing from the observed bathymetry the effects of sediment loading, thermal subsidence, and Airy local isostatically-compensated topography. The Mariana Trench was found to be associated with a clearly defined zone of negative non-isostatic topography, which was caused by flexural bending of the subducting Pacific plate and with the maximum depth anomaly and flexural bending near the Challenger Deep. In contrast, the Caroline Ridge and Caroline Islands Chain have much more subdued non-isostatic topography, indicating their higher topography is largely compensated by thicker crust. Along the Mariana Trough, the northern and central segments appear to be associated with relatively low magma supply as indicated by the relatively low topography and thin crust. In contrast, the southern Mariana Trough is associated with relatively high magma supply as indicated by the relatively high and smoother topography, an axial high spreading center, and relatively thick crust. The southern end of the Mariana Trough was also found to be associated with positive non-isostatic topographic anomaly, which might be caused by the complex tectonic deformation of the overriding Mariana and Philippine Sea plates and their interaction with the subducting Pacific plate. Analysis further revealed that the southern Mariana Arc, located between the Mariana Trench and Mariana Trough, is associated with positive non-isostatic topographic anomalies, which may be explained by the late stage magmatic loading on the older and thus stronger lithospheric plate of the Mariana volcanic arc.

  8. Guam Transportation Petroleum-Use Reduction Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, C.

    2013-04-01

    The island of Guam has set a goal to reduce petroleum use 20% by 2020. Because transportation is responsible for one-third of on-island petroleum use, the Guam Energy Task Force (GETF), a collaboration between the U.S. Department of Energy and numerous Guam-based agencies and organizations, devised a specific plan by which to meet the 20% goal within the transportation sector. This report lays out GETF's plan.

  9. Life on Guam: Coral Reef. 1977 Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall, Richard H.; Eldredge, L. G.

    As part of an updated series of activity oriented educational materials dealing with aspects of the Guam environment, this publication deals primarily with the marine environment of Guam. Developed for junior and senior high school students of this island, this material can be adapted to marine studies in other areas as well. Contents deal with…

  10. Life on Guam: Schoolyard Surveys. 1977 Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Magdalena T.

    As part of an updated series of activity oriented educational materials dealing with aspects of the Guam environment, this publication focuses on the common plants and animals found in schoolyards on Guam. Like a field guide, this publication contains descriptions, ecological information, and some historical notes about the common trees, shrubs,…

  11. 77 FR 25452 - Applications for New Awards; Territories and Freely Associated States Education Grant Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-30

    ... (American Samoa, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, Guam, and the Virgin Islands) and the... Applicants: LEAs in American Samoa, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, Guam, the U.S. Virgin... the fourteenth calendar day before the application deadline date falls on a Federal holiday, the next...

  12. 78 FR 17705 - Privacy Act of 1974, as Amended; Notice of a New System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-22

    ..., including American Samoa, Guam, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, the U.S. Virgin Islands... photograph. A ``system of records'' is a group of any records under the control of an agency for which... of Guam, American Samoa, the U.S. Virgin Islands and the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands...

  13. Provision of genetics services on Guam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McWalter, Kirsty; Hasegawa, Lianne; Au, Sylvia Mann

    2013-12-01

    Guam's geographic isolation and lack of community resources have resulted in unique healthcare needs. In 2006, the Western States Genetic Services Collaborative (WSGSC) conducted a genetics needs assessment and found that professional development is limited, families lack access to genetic services, and improved coverage of genetic testing is needed. With funding from the WSGSC, a Guam genetics outreach clinic was established and staffed by genetic counselors and a medical geneticist from Hawaii. Four clinics have been held to date. Although several challenges have been encountered, including minimal coverage of genetic testing by Guam insurance companies, limited referrals for families with private insurance, and inappropriate referral indications, the outreach clinic has been successful at increasing access to genetic services and improving professional development. With more collaborative work by staff from Guam, Hawaii, and the WSGSC, provision and reimbursement of genetic services and testing will continue to improve.

  14. Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS): Guam

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) 6-day, 3-hourly forecast for the region surrounding Guam at approximately 2-km resolution. While considerable effort has been...

  15. Guam Commercial Fisheries BioSampling (CFBS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Guam Commercial Fisheries Biosampling program, which collects length and weight frequency data for whole commercial catches, and samples 4-8 species for in-depth...

  16. [Lessons from Guam ALS/PDC study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asao, Hirano

    2007-11-01

    An extraordinarily high incidence of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and parkinsonism-dementia complex (PDC) affecting the native population was discovered on the island of Guam a half century ago. Guam ALS is identical to classic ALS clinically and pathologically while PDC is marked by progressive parkinsonism and dementia. The unusual histological finding in these fetal neurodegenerative diseases is the presence of numerous neurofibrillary tangles in a selective topographic distribution unassociated with senile plaques. There have been remarkable advances in field of age-associated neurodegenerative disease after our initial study of Guam cases. Four noteworthy topics are presented in this communication. 1) Clinically, the coexistence of parkinsonism and dementia was frequently recognized in Parkinson disease and Alzheimer disease. Some other new disease entities characterized by coexistence of parkinsonism and dementia have been reported. These include progressive supranuclear palsy, frontotemporal dementia and parkinsonism linked to chromosome 17. 2) Neuropathologically, abundant neurofibrillary tangles unassociated with senile plaques were demonstrated in many diseases such as aftermath of boxing and tangle-only dementia. Furthermore, tau-positive structures were recognized not only in neurons but in glial cells in certain diseases. Tauopathy is one of the current hot research subjects. 3) Familial aggregation of Guam ALS patients provoked investigation of familial ALS elsewhere. Familial motor neuron disease with SOD1 mutation is the target of worldwide intense investigation at the present time. SOD1 gene mutation is, however, not found in Guam ALS. 4) The most striking findings of the Guam study is the gradual decline in the incidence of ALS on Guam during a quarter century and virtual disappearance of new patients. This may be linked to a remarkable change in environment and life style of the Chamorro population. The etiology of ALS is still unknown and

  17. Diario de una infancia. Mariana

    OpenAIRE

    Casal, Silvana

    2017-01-01

    Resumen: Este artículo está centrado en el análisis del diario de infancia que una de mis entrevistadas, Mariana, escribió durante su niñez en la dictatorial República Argentina a partir del secuestro de su padre, producido en 1977, situación que dio pie al exilio familiar en México. Mariana nos permite entrar en su universo, conocer sus sentimientos y emociones, y acercarnos -a través de sus palabras plasmadas en las cartas que le escribe a su padre desaparecido- a su vida cotidiana y a trav...

  18. 7 CFR 318.13-17 - Regulated articles from Guam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Regulated articles from Guam. 318.13-17 Section 318.13... Articles From Hawaii and the Territories § 318.13-17 Regulated articles from Guam. (a)(1) Regulated articles, other than soil, may be moved from Guam into or through any other State only if they meet the...

  19. Noble gas and carbon isotopes in Mariana Trough basalt glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernard, M.; Jambon, A.; Gamo, T.; Nishio, Y.; Sano, Y.

    1998-01-01

    Noble gas elemental and isotopic compositions have been measured as well as the abundance of C and its isotopic ratios in 11 glasses from submarine pillow basalts collected from the Mariana Trough. The 3 He/ 4 He ratios of 8.22 and 8.51 R atm of samples dredged from the central Mariana Trough (similar18N) agree well with that of the Mid-Ocean Ridge Basalt (MORB) glasses (8.4±0.3 R atm ), whereas a mean ratio of 8.06±0.35 R atm in samples from the northern Mariana Trough (similar20N) is slightly lower than those of MORB. One sample shows apparent excess of 20 Ne and 21 Ne relative to atmospheric Ne, suggesting incorporation of solar-type Ne in the magma source. There is a positive correlation between 3 He/ 4 He and 40 Ar/ 36 Ar ratios, which may be explained by mixing between MORB-type and atmospheric noble gases. Excess 129 Xe is observed in the sample which also shows 20 Ne and 21 Ne excesses. Observed δ 13 C values of similar20N samples vary from -3.76 per thousand to -2.80 per thousand, and appear higher than those of MORB, and the corresponding CO 2 / 3 He ratios are higher than those of MARA samples at similar18N, suggesting C contribution from the subducted slab. (Copyright (c) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  20. Status and trends of the land bird avifauna on Tinian and Aguiguan, Mariana Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camp, Richard J.; Pratt, Thane K.; Amidon, Fred; Marshall, Ann P.; Kremer, Shelly; Laut, Megan

    2012-01-01

    Avian surveys were conducted on the islands of Tinian and Aguiguan, Marianas Islands, in 2008 by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service to provide current baseline densities and abundances and assess population trends using data collected from previous surveys. On Tinian, during the three surveys (1982, 1996, and 2008), 18 species were detected, and abundances and trends were assessed for 12 species. Half of the 10 native species—Yellow Bittern (Ixobrychus sinensis), White-throated Ground-Dove (Gallicolumba xanthonura), Collared Kingfisher (Todiramphus chloris), Rufous Fantail (Rhipidura rufifrons), and Micronesian Starling (Aplonis opaca)—and one alien bird—Island Collared-Dove (Streptopelia bitorquata)—have increased since 1982. Three native birds—Mariana Fruit-Dove (Ptilinopus roseicapilla), Micronesian Honeyeater (Myzomela rubratra), and Tinian Monarch (Monarcha takatsukasae)—have decreased since 1982. Trends for the remaining two native birds—White Tern (Gygis alba) and Bridled White-eye (Zosterops saypani)—and one alien bird—Eurasian Tree Sparrow (Passer montanus)—were considered relatively stable. Only five birds—White-throated Ground-Dove, Mariana Fruit-Dove, Tinian Monarch, Rufous Fantail, and Bridled White-eye—showed significant differences among regions of Tinian by year. Tinian Monarch was found in all habitat types, with the greatest monarch densities observed in limestone forest, secondary forest, and tangantangan (Leucaena leucocephala) thicket and the smallest densities found in open fields and urban/residential habitats. On Aguiguan, 19 species were detected on one or both of the surveys (1982 and 2008), and abundance estimates were produced for nine native and one alien species. Densities for seven of the nine native birds—White-throated Ground-Dove, Mariana Fruit-Dove, Collared Kingfisher, Rufous Fantail, Bridled White-eye, Golden White-eye (Cleptornis marchei), and Micronesian Starling—and the alien bird— Island

  1. Guam Community Coral Reef Monitoring Program, Benthic Quadrat Surveys at Guam in 2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Guam community members gathered benthic cover data using a 0.25m2 quadrat with 6 intersecting points at each meter along a 25-meter transect. Members identified...

  2. Guam Community Coral Reef Monitoring Program, Benthic Training Surveys at Guam in 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Guam community members gathered benthic cover data using a 0.25m2 quadrat with 6 intersecting points at each meter along a 25-meter transect. Members identified...

  3. Guam Community Coral Reef Monitoring Program, Macroinvertebrate Training Surveys in Guam in 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Guam community members gathered macroinvertebrate within a 25-meter x 2-meter belt transect. Members identified macroinvertebrates to species (when possible),...

  4. Oceanographic data collected during the EX1605L2 (CAPSTONE CNMI & Mariana Trench MNM (Mapping)) on NOAA Ship OKEANOS EXPLORER in the North Pacific Ocean from 2016-05-20 to 2016-06-11 (NCEI Accession 0155917)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains oceanographic data collected in the Commonwealth of the Northern Marianas Islands (CNMI), beginning in Mutan, Saipan and concluding in Santa...

  5. Life on Guam: Farm & Garden. 1977 Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Philip H.

    As part of an updated series of activity oriented educational materials dealing with aspects of the Guam environment, this publication focuses on backyard gardening and nursery methods. Included in this "How to Do It" learning resource are such agricultural techniques as hydroponics, grafting and budding, and fertilizing. This…

  6. 14 CFR 99.47 - Guam ADIZ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Guam ADIZ. 99.47 Section 99.47 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES SECURITY CONTROL OF AIR TRAFFIC Designated Air Defense Identification Zones § 99...

  7. CRED REA Invertebrate Quantitative Assessments at Guam Island, Marianas Archipelago, in 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To support a long-term NOAA Coral Reef Conservation Program (CRCP) for sustainable management and conservation of coral reef ecosystems, from 5 April - 14 April...

  8. CRED Towed-Diver Fish Biomass Survey at Guam, Marianas in 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To support NOAA Coral Reef Conservation Program (CRCP) long-term goals for sustainable management and conservation of coral reef ecosystems, towed-diver surveys (AKA...

  9. Slope 60 m grid derived from gridded bathymetry of Guam Island, Mariana Islands, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Slope is derived from gridded (60 m cell size) multibeam bathymetry, collected aboard NOAA Ship Hiialaka'i and R/V AHI. Cell values reflect the maximum rate of...

  10. CRED Towed-Diver Fish Biomass Surveys at Guam Island, Marianas Archipelago in 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Towed-diver surveys (aka. Towboard surveys) are conducted by the Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED) of the NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) as...

  11. CRED REA Invertebrate Quantitative Assessments at Guam Island, Marianas Archipelago, in 2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To support a long-term NOAA Coral Reef Conservation Program (CRCP) for sustainable management and conservation of coral reef ecosystems, from 3 - 9 October 2005,...

  12. CRED Towed-Diver Fish Biomass Survey at Guam, Mariana Archipelago in 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To support NOAA Coral Reef Conservation Program (CRCP) long-term goals for sustainable management and conservation of coral reef ecosystems, towed-diver surveys (AKA...

  13. CRED Towed-Diver Benthic Characterization Surveys at Guam Island, Marianas Archipelago in 2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To support NOAA Coral Reef Conservation Program (CRCP) long-term goals for sustainable management and conservation of coral reef ecosystems, towed-diver surveys...

  14. Archaeological and Historical Reconnaissance Survey of the Ugum River Valley, Guam, Mariana Islands,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-08-01

    important food plant in Micro- neisa; and betel nut (Areca catechu), chewed for its stimulant effect . Although feral yams (Dioscorea sp.) were not found...determining action required to mitigate the adverse effects of proposed dam construction and sub- sequent flooding of the upper Ugum River drainage. The dam...A:33). Plant identifications were made with reference to Stone (1970). Zone 1 is a mixed, broad- leafed , tropical forest (Fosberg’s Unit 2;. Tracey et

  15. CRED Rapid Ecological Assessment Reef Fish Survey at Guam, Marianas in 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To support a long-term NOAA Coral Reef Conservation Program (CRCP) for sustainable management and conservation of coral reef ecosystems, from 20110606 to 20110617,...

  16. CRED REA Coral Health and Disease Assessment at Guam, Marianas Archipelago in 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Coral health and disease assessments were conducted along 2 consecutively placed 25-m transects, as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 10 sites at...

  17. Archaeological investigation of caves and rock shelters on Guam and Tinian : a synthesis of their use through time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixon, B.; Schaefer, R.

    2014-01-01

    Archaeological investigations in the Micronesian archipelago of the Mariana Islands have generally focused on habitation sites occupied from the Pre-Latte through Latte Period, with more recent attention to palaeoenvironmental studies such as wetland sediment cores, residue analysis of ceramics and tools, agricultural soil analyses, and climate change modeling. One site type recognized as having an early and repeated record of human use over the 3500 year history of the islands is the cave and/or rock shelter. This paper examines their use through time on Guam and Tinian, not as an ancillary feature to habitation sites, but as an independent measure of social and ecological processes in the Western Pacific. (author)

  18. Diario de una infancia. Mariana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Beatriz Casal

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo está centrado en el análisis del diario de infancia que una de mis entrevistadas, Mariana, escribió durante su niñez en la dictatorial República Argentina a partir del secuestro de su padre, producido en 1977, situación que dio pie al exilio familiar en México. Mariana nos permite entrar en su universo, conocer sus sentimientos y emociones, y acercarnos –a través de sus palabras plasmadas en las cartas que le escribe a su padre desaparecido– a su vida cotidiana y a través de ella a la de muchos otros niños que vivieron situaciones de violencia similares. Mi propósito es enfatizar que los niños son actores sociales y su aporte es vital en la construcción de una historia que los incluya como agentes activos. Abordaré la importancia histórica de escuchar la voz de los niños y el significado de acceder a escritos elaborados por ellos mismos durante la infancia.

  19. Mariana Trench Bathymetric Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) created a bathymetric digital elevation model (DEM) for the Mariana Trench and adjacent seafloor in the Western...

  20. Marianas Boat Fishing Cost Earnings Study 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data represent a cost-earnings study of the boat based fishing in the Mariana Archipelago fielded in 2011. Data collected include fisher classification, vessel...

  1. Screening for oral potentially malignant disorders among areca (betel) nut chewers in Guam and Saipan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulino, Yvette C; Hurwitz, Eric L; Warnakulasuriya, Saman; Gatewood, Robert R; Pierson, Kenneth D; Tenorio, Lynnette F; Novotny, Rachel; Palafox, Neal A; Wilkens, Lynne R; Badowski, Grazyna

    2014-12-11

    The Mariana Islands, including Guam and Saipan, are home to many ethnic subpopulations of Micronesia. Oral cancer incidence rates vary among subpopulations, and areca (betel) nut chewing, a habit with carcinogenic risks, is common. Our objectives were to conduct a screening program to detect oral potentially malignant disorders (OPMD) in betel nut chewers, measure their betel nut chewing practices, and assess the prevalence of the oral human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in a subset of betel nut chewers in these islands. A cross-section of 300 betel nut chewers ≥18 years old [in Guam (n = 137) and in Saipan (n = 163)] were recruited between January 2011-June 2012. We collected demographic, socioeconomic, and oral behavioural characteristics. Latent class analysis was used to identify chewing patterns from selected chewing behaviours. Following calibration of OPMD against an expert, a registered oral hygienist conducted oral examinations by house to house visits and referred positive cases to the study dentist for a second oral examination. Buccal smears were collected from a subset (n = 123) for HPV testing. Two classes of betel nut chewers were identified on 7 betel nut behaviours, smoking, and alcohol use; a key difference between the two Classes was the addition of ingredients to the betel quid among those in Class 2. When compared on other characteristics, Class 1 chewers were older, had been chewing for more years, and chewed fewer nuts per day although chewing episodes lasted longer than Class 2 chewers. More Class 1 chewers visited the dentist regularly than Class 2 chewers. Of the 300 participants, 46 (15.3%; 3.8% for Class 1 and 19.4% for Class 2) had OPMD and one (0.3%) was confirmed to have squamous cell carcinoma. The prevalence of oral HPV was 5.7% (7/123), although none were high-risk types. We found two patterns of betel nut chewing behaviour; Class 2 had a higher frequency of OPMD. Additional epidemiologic research is needed to

  2. 33 CFR 110.238 - Apra Harbor, Guam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Apra Harbor, Guam. 110.238 Section 110.238 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.238 Apra Harbor, Guam. (a) The anchorage grounds (Datum: WGS...

  3. Oceanographic data and information collected during the EX1605L3 (CAPSTONE CNMI & Mariana Trench MNM (ROV & Mapping)) on NOAA Ship OKEANOS EXPLORER in the North Pacific Ocean from 2016-06-17 to 2016-07-10 (NCEI Accession 0156334)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains oceanographic data collected in the deep water areas around the Commonwealth of the Northern Marianas Islands (CNMI). Operations for this...

  4. 78 FR 63280 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Extension of an Approved Information Collection Request...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-23

    ... holidays. Instructions: All submissions must include the Agency name and docket number. For detailed..., Puerto Rico, American Samoa, Guam, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands and the U.S. Virgin...

  5. 78 FR 76391 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Notice of Request for Extension of Currently Approved...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-17

    ... a.m. to 4:00 p.m., Monday through Friday, except Federal holidays. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title..., the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, the Territories of Guam, the Virgin Islands and...

  6. 76 FR 12847 - Public Road Mileage for Apportionment of Highway Safety Funds; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-09

    ... FHWA are from 8 a.m. to 4:30 p.m., e.t., Monday through Friday, except Federal holidays. SUPPLEMENTARY..., Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, Guam, American Samoa, and the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana...

  7. 40 CFR 85.1502 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, Guam, American Samoa, and the U.S. Virgin Islands. (15) Useful... are open for normal business. Saturdays, Sundays, and official Federal holidays are not working days...

  8. 40 CFR 745.223 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... sampling. Business day means Monday through Friday with the exception of Federal holidays. Certified firm... Rico, the Virgin Islands, Guam, the Canal Zone, American Samoa, the Northern Mariana Islands, or any...

  9. 15 CFR 921.2 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... United States, in or bordering on, the Atlantic, Pacific, or Arctic Ocean, the Gulf of Mexico, Long... includes Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, Guam, the Commonwealth of the Northern Marianas Islands, the...

  10. 78 FR 45540 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection: Public Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-29

    ... Northern Mariana Islands, the Virgin Islands, American Samoa, Guam, the U.S. Virgin Islands, the Federated... train personnel and to be able to respond to a collection of information; to search data sources; to...

  11. 31 CFR 103.26 - Reports of certain domestic coin and currency transactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... order requiring any domestic financial institution or group of domestic financial institutions in a... Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, the United States Virgin Islands, Guam, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana...

  12. 9 CFR 96.1 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) Parts of several national entities combined into an area; or (4) A group of national entities (countries... Columbia, Guam, the Northern Mariana Islands, Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands of the United States...

  13. 40 CFR 81.1 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... organized group or community, including any Alaska Native village, which is federally recognized as eligible... Virgin Islands, Guam, and American Samoa and includes the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands...

  14. 77 FR 26734 - Notice of Intent To Extend a Currently Approved Information Collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-07

    ... American Samoa, Guam, Micronesia, Northern Marianas, Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands. The objectives of... practices; (2) youth group participants; and (3) staff. NEERS consists of separate software sub-systems for...

  15. 36 CFR 230.31 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... individual, group, association, corporation, Indian Tribe, or other legal private entity owning nonindustrial... Virgin Islands of the United States, Guam, American Samoa, and the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana...

  16. 28 CFR 33.100 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., the United States Virgin Islands, American Samoa, Guam, and the Northern Mariana Islands; (e) The term...)) which defines Indian tribe as meaning any Indian tribe, band, nation, or other organized group or...

  17. 41 CFR 60-300.5 - Equal opportunity clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... hiring of any particular job applicants or from any particular group of job applicants, and nothing... Puerto Rico, Guam, the Virgin Islands, American Samoa, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands...

  18. 7 CFR 110.2 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., band, or group of Indians subject to the jurisdiction of the United States and recognized by the United..., the Virgin Islands, Guam, American Samoa, the Northern Mariana Islands, and any other territory or...

  19. 42 CFR 5.2 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... population group; or (3) a public or nonprofit private medical facility. Health service area means a health... Rico, the Northern Mariana Islands, the Virgin Islands, Guam, American Samoa, and the Trust Territory...

  20. 33 CFR 169.5 - How are terms used in this part defined?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Center means a center established by a SOLAS Contracting Government or a group of Contracting Governments... District of Columbia, Guam, Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, American Samoa, the Northern Mariana Islands...

  1. 45 CFR 2550.20 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... tribe. (1) An Indian tribe, band, nation, or other organized group or community, including— (i) Any... States Virgin Islands, Guam, American Samoa, and the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands. (l...

  2. 48 CFR 52.222-35 - Equal Opportunity for Veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... particular group of job applicants and is not intended to relieve the Contractor from any requirements of... of Columbia, Puerto Rico, the Northern Mariana Islands, American Samoa, Guam, the U.S. Virgin Islands...

  3. Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Regional Atmospheric Model: Guam

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) mesoscale numerical weather prediction model 7-day hourly forecast for the region surrounding the island of Guam at...

  4. Apra Harbor, Guam Tsunami Forecast Grids for MOST Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Apra Harbor, Guam Forecast Model Grids provides bathymetric data strictly for tsunami inundation modeling with the Method of Splitting Tsunami (MOST) model. MOST...

  5. Guam 1/3 arc-second DEM

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 1/3-second Guam Elevation Grid provides bathymetric data in ASCII raster format of 1/3-second resolution in geographic coordinates. This grid is strictly for...

  6. OVERSEAS HOUSING ALLOWANCE FOR GUAM: A NEW WAY FORWARD

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    18 External Reviews by AFAA, NGB, OSI , IR, and Third Party Audits ............................ 18 Internal Reviews...two OCONUS locations exempt from OHA. These discoveries construct a logical case for BAH for Guam. External Reviews by AFAA, NGB, OSI , IR, and Third...of a private rental property company as opposed to a Base Housing Office. This same model can work on Guam should BAH be considered. Expected Impact

  7. Conductivity-Temperature-Depth (CTD) Hydrocast Data from NOAA Ship HI'IALAKAI and NOAA Ship OSCAR ELTON SETTE around the Hawaiian Islands, Guam, and the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands from 2007-05-08 to 2008-11-14 (NODC Accession 0052123)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center, part of the National Marine Fisheries Service, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), conducted...

  8. Guam Long-term Coral Reef Monitoring Program Coral Colony Size and Condition Surveys since 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Government of Guam's Long-term Coral Reef Monitoring Program, coordinated by the Guam Coastal Management Program until October 2013 and now coordinated by the...

  9. Guam Long-term Coral Reef Monitoring Program Reef Fish Surveys since 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Government of Guam's Long-term Coral Reef Monitoring Program, coordinated by the Guam Coastal Management Program until October 2013 and now coordinated by the...

  10. Guam Long-term Coral Reef Monitoring Program Macroinvertebrate Belt Transects since 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Government of Guam's Long-term Coral Reef Monitoring Program, coordinated by the Guam Coastal Management Program until October 2013 and now coordinated by the...

  11. Guam Long-term Coral Reef Monitoring Program Reef Fish Surveys FY2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Government of Guam's Long-term Coral Reef Monitoring Program, coordinated by the University of Guam Marine Lab, involves the collection of data for a suite of...

  12. Multibeam collection for Marianas: Multibeam data collected aboard Onnuri from 2003-09-18 to 2003-09-23, Guam to Guam

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is part of a larger set of data called the Multibeam Bathymetry Database (MBBDB) where other similar data can be found at...

  13. 48 CFR 252.222-7005 - Prohibition on use of nonimmigrant aliens-Guam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... nonimmigrant aliens-Guam. 252.222-7005 Section 252.222-7005 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE... CLAUSES Text of Provisions And Clauses 252.222-7005 Prohibition on use of nonimmigrant aliens—Guam. As prescribed in 222.7302, use the following clause: Prohibition on Use of Nonimmigrant Aliens—Guam (SEP 1999...

  14. 76 FR 18773 - Marianas Trench Marine National Monument, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, et al...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-05

    ... during public scoping. Climate change impacts and adaptation. Marine debris impacts and removal. Invasive..., related marine resources and species, and conservation efforts. Traditional access to the Monument by... activities do not degrade the Monument's coral reef ecosystem or related marine resources or species, or...

  15. 76 FR 50315 - Notice of Fiscal Year 2012 Safety Grants and Solicitation for Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-12

    ... Friday, except Federal holidays. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Background and Purpose FMCSA recognizes that... requirement for matching funds for the Virgin Islands, American Samoa, Guam, and the Commonwealth of the..., Guam, American Samoa, the Northern Marianas, and the U.S. Virgin Islands, and the District of Columbia...

  16. 76 FR 35186 - Notice of Availability of a Pest Risk Analysis for Interstate Movement of Rambutan From Puerto...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-16

    ... hours are 8 a.m. to 4:30 p.m., Monday through Friday, except holidays. To be sure someone is there to... U.S. Virgin Islands, Guam, and the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands to prevent plant... defined area (a prohibition on movement to Hawaii, the Virgin Islands, or Guam) and marking of the boxes...

  17. Bamboo!! Improving island economy and resilience with Guam College students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy Owen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examines possibilities in improving Guam’s economic independence. Growing economically and culturally sustainable industries benefit future generations. In this work bamboo, historically utilized on the island by the native CHamoru, is evaluated for industry and market potential specifically for Guam. Young adults of the island engaged to find creative possibilities for improving economic sustainability, utilizing methods that worked for them. Results include the use of social networking, gaining viewpoints of young adults who are far more interested in marketing the products than manufacturing them. Additionally, a potential for bamboo as a food source and charcoal aligns with the fiesta culture of Guam. Sourcing of Bamboo vulgaris, Guamís major bamboo species, has ecological benefits, while blumeana could be cultivated for crafts for export and tourists. Future study is planned to further involve young adults utilizing social networking methods developing culturally appealing and ecologically beneficial industry for the island.

  18. Elasto-plastic deformation and plate weakening due to normal faulting in the subducting plate along the Mariana Trench

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhiyuan; Lin, Jian

    2018-06-01

    We investigated variations in the elasto-plastic deformation of the subducting plate along the Mariana Trench through an analysis of flexural bending and normal fault characteristics together with geodynamic modeling. Most normal faults were initiated at the outer-rise region and grew toward the trench axis with strikes mostly subparallel to the local trench axis. The average trench relief and maximum fault throws were measured to be significantly greater in the southern region (5 km and 320 m, respectively) than the northern and central regions (2 km and 200 m). The subducting plate was modeled as an elasto-plastic slab subjected to tectonic loading at the trench axis. The calculated strain rates and velocities revealed an array of normal fault-like shear zones in the upper plate, resulting in significant faulting-induced reduction in the deviatoric stresses. We then inverted for solutions that best fit the observed flexural bending and normal faulting characteristics, revealing normal fault penetration to depths of 21, 20, and 32 km beneath the seafloor for the northern, central, and southern regions, respectively, which is consistent with the observed depths of the relocated normal faulting earthquakes in the central Mariana Trench. The calculated deeper normal faults of the southern region might lead to about twice as much water being carried into the mantle per unit trench length than the northern and central regions. We further calculated that normal faulting has reduced the effective elastic plate thickness Te by up to 52% locally in the southern region and 33% in both the northern and central regions. The best-fitting solutions revealed a greater apparent angle of the pulling force in the southern region (51-64°) than in the northern (22-35°) and central (20-34°) regions, which correlates with a general southward increase in the seismically-determined dip angle of the subducting slab along the Mariana Trench.

  19. 1969 Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands Historical Scanned Imagery

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These images are part of a project funded by NOAA Office for Coastal Management to develop a high quality, user-friendly, attributed, centralized, multi-territorial...

  20. 1947 Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands Historical Scanned Imagery

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These images are part of a project funded by NOAA Office for Coastal Management to develop a high quality, user-friendly, attributed, centralized, multi-territorial...

  1. 1946 Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands Historical Scanned Imagery

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These images are part of a project funded by NOAA Office for Coastal Management to develop a high quality, user-friendly, attributed, centralized, multi-territorial...

  2. 1949 Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands Historical Scanned Imagery

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These images are part of a project funded by NOAA Office for Coastal Management to develop a high quality, user-friendly, attributed, centralized, multi-territorial...

  3. Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands Strategic Energy Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conrad, M. D.; Ness, J. E.

    2013-07-01

    Describes various energy strategies available to CNMI to meet the territory's goal of diversifying fuel sources and reducing fossil energy consumption. The information presented in this strategic energy plan will be used by the CNMI Governor's Energy Task Force to develop an energy action plan. Available energy strategies include policy changes, education and outreach, and expanding the use of a range of energy technologies, including renewable electricity production and buildings energy efficiency and conservation.

  4. Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands Energy Action Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conrad, M. D.; Ness, J. E.

    2013-07-01

    This document describes the three near-term energy strategies selected by the CNMI Energy Task Force during action planning workshops conducted in March 2013, and outlines the steps being taken to implement those strategies. The three energy strategies selected by the task force are (1) designing a demand-side management program focusing on utility, residential and commercial sectors, (2) developing an outreach and education plan focused on energy conservation in government agencies and businesses, including workplace rules, and (3) exploring waste-to-energy options. The task force also discussed several other medium- and long-term energy strategies that could be explored at a future date.

  5. Northern Mariana Islands Marine Monitoring Team Sea Temperature Measurements

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Site specific monitoring of sea temperature is conducted using submersible temperature dataloggers at selected sites and depths around the islands of Saipan and Rota.

  6. The Evolution of Epidemic Suicide on Guam: Context and Contagion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Heather

    2010-01-01

    Thirty years of suicide rates for Guam were analyzed by age, sex, period, and cohort. Youth suicide increased rapidly in the 1990s; certain cohorts have higher rates. Four explanatory factors are discussed, including ecological factors and migration from the Federated States of Micronesia. Direct and indirect suicide contagion followed the death…

  7. CRED REA Line Point Intercept Surveys of Benthic Parameter Assessments at Guam Island, Marianas Archipelago in 2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To support a long-term NOAA Coral Reef Conservation Program (CRCP) for sustainable management and conservation of coral reef ecosystems, from 3 - 9 October 2005,...

  8. CRED REA Line Point Intercept Surveys of Benthic Parameter Assessments at Guam Island, Marianas Archipelago in 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To support a long-term NOAA Coral Reef Conservation Program (CRCP) for sustainable management and conservation of coral reef ecosystems, from 12 - 22 May 2007, line...

  9. CRED REA Line Point Intercept Surveys of Benthic Parameter Assessments at Guam Island, Marianas Archipelago in 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To support a long-term NOAA Coral Reef Conservation Program (CRCP) for sustainable management and conservation of coral reef ecosystems, from 5 April - 14 April...

  10. CRED REA Belt Surveys of Coral Population and Disease Assessments at Guam Island, Marianas Archipelago in 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To support a long-term NOAA Coral Reef Conservation Program (CRCP) for sustainable management and conservation of coral reef ecosystems, from 5 April - 14 April...

  11. CRED Rapid Ecological Assessment Line Point Intercept Survey of Benthic Parameter Assessments at Guam, Marianas in 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Line point intercept (LPI) surveys and benthic composition assessments were conducted during Rapid Ecological Assessments (REA) as part of the Pacific Reef...

  12. CRED Rapid Ecological Assessment Belt Surveys of Coral Population and Disease Assessment at Guam, Marianas in 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To support a long-term NOAA Coral Reef Conservation Program (CRCP) for sustainable management and conservation of coral reef ecosystems, from 20110407 to 20110509,...

  13. Cancer in Guam and Hawaii: A comparison of two U.S. Island populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Brenda Y; Bordallo, Renata A; Green, Michael D; Haddock, Robert L

    2017-10-01

    Cancer disparities within and across populations provide insight into the influence of lifestyle, environment, and genetic factors on cancer risk. Guam cancer incidence and mortality were compared to that of Hawaii using data from their respective population-based, central cancer registries. In 2009-2013, overall cancer incidence was substantially lower in Guam than in Hawaii for both sexes while overall cancer mortality was higher for Guam males. Cervical cancer incidence and prostate cancer mortality were higher in Guam. Both incidence and mortality were higher among Guam men for cancers of the lung & bronchus, liver & intrahepatic bile duct, and nasopharynx; Chamorro men were disproportionately affected by these cancers. Filipinos and Whites in Guam had lower overall cancer incidence compared to Filipinos and Whites in Hawaii. Although breast cancer incidence was significantly lower in Guam compared to Hawaii, women in Guam presented at younger ages and with rarer disease histologies such as inflammatory carcinoma were more prevalent. Guam patients were also diagnosed at younger ages for cancers of bladder, pancreas, colon & rectum, liver & intrahepatic bile duct, lung & bronchus, stomach, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, and leukemia. Smoking, infectious agents, and betel nut chewing appear to be important contributors to the burden of cancer in Guam. Earlier onset of cancer in Guam suggests earlier age of exposure to key risk factors and/or a more aggressive pathogenesis. Contrasting cancer patterns within Guam and between Guam and Hawaii underscore the potential influence of genes, lifestyle, and environmental factors on cancer development and progression. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. CRED REA Coral Population Parameters at Rota, Marianas Archipelago, 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Belt transects along 2 consecutively-placed, 25m transect lines were surveyed as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 6 sites at Rota in the Marianas...

  15. REST Service - Resource Assessment Investigation of the Mariana Archipelago (RAIOMA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data service represents a subset of fisheries research carried out by the Pacific Island Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) in the Mariana Archipelago. Specific...

  16. CRED REA Algal Assessments at Rota, Marianas Archipelago in 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Twelve quadrats were sampled along 2 consecutively-placed, 25m transect lines, as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments, conducted at 6 sites at Rota in the Marianas...

  17. CRED REA Algal Assessments at Maug, Marianas Archipelago in 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Twelve quadrats were sampled along 2 consecutively-placed, 25m transect lines, as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments, conducted at 9 sites at Maug in the Marianas...

  18. Origin and identity of Fejervarya (Anura: Dicroglossidae) on Guam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wostl, Elijah; Smith, Eric N.; Reed, Robert

    2016-01-01

    We used morphological and molecular data to infer the identity and origin of frogs in the genus Fejervarya that have been introduced to the island of Guam. Mensural and meristic data were collected from 96 specimens from throughout their range on the island and a principal component analysis was used to investigate the distribution of these data in morphological space. We also amplified a fragment of the 16S ribosomal ribonucleic acid mitochondrial gene from 27 of these specimens and compared it to 63 published sequences of Fejervarya and the morphologically similar Zakerana. All examined Fejervarya from Guam are morphologically indistinguishable and share an identical haplotype. The molecular data identify them as Fejervarya cancrivora with a haplotype identical to F. cancrivora from Taiwan.

  19. Invertebrate vectors, parasites, and rickettsial agents in Guam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnson, J.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available We conducted a 3-week field study of ectoparasites of humans and domestic animals throughout Guam. Thirteen species of ectoparasitic arthropods were collected. Ectoparasites of medical or veterinary significance included the ticks Rhipicephalus sanguineus and Rhipicephalus microplus, fleas Ctenocephalides felis and Xenopsylla cheopsis, and the head louse Pediculus humanus capitis. Polymerase chain reaction based screening for rickettsial and protozoan pathogens detected pathogens in eight arthropods. These included Anaplasma platys, Coxiella burnetii, Babesia canis vogeli, and Hepatozoon canis.

  20. Guam Long-term Coral Reef Monitoring Program Benthic Percent Cover Derived from Image Analysis since 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Government of Guam's Long-term Coral Reef Monitoring Program, coordinated through the Guam Coastal Management Program until October 2013 and now coordinated...

  1. Causes of earthquake spatial distribution beneath the Izu-Bonin-Mariana Arc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Xiangchao; Li, Sanzhong; Wang, Yongming; Suo, Yanhui; Dai, Liming; Géli, Louis; Zhang, Yong; Guo, Lingli; Wang, Pengcheng

    2018-01-01

    Statistics about the occurrence frequency of earthquakes (1973-2015) at shallow, intermediate and great depths along the Izu-Bonin-Mariana (IBM) Arc is presented and a percent perturbation relative to P-wave mean value (LLNL-G3Dv3) is adopted to show the deep structure. The correlation coefficient between the subduction rate and the frequency of shallow seismic events along the IBM is 0.605, proving that the subduction rate is an important factor for shallow seismic events. The relationship between relief amplitudes of the seafloor and earthquake occurrences implies that some seamount chains riding on the Pacific seafloor may have an effect on intermediate-depth seismic events along the IBM. A probable hypothesis is proposed that the seamounts or surrounding seafloor with high degree of fracture may bring numerous hydrous minerals into the deep and may result in a different thermal structure compared to the seafloor where no seamounts are subducted. Fluids from the seamounts or surrounding seafloor are released to trigger earthquakes at intermediate-depth. Deep events in the northern and southern Mariana arc are likely affected by a horizontal propagating tear parallel to the trench.

  2. Geochemistry of southern Pagan Island lavas, Mariana arc: The role of subduction zone processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marske, J.P.; Pietruszka, A.J.; Trusdell, F.A.; Garcia, M.O.

    2011-01-01

    New major and trace element abundances, and Pb, Sr, and Nd isotopic ratios of Quaternary lavas from two adjacent volcanoes (South Pagan and the Central Volcanic Region, or CVR) located on Pagan Island allow us to investigate the mantle source (i.e., slab components) and melting dynamics within the Mariana intra-oceanic arc. Geologic mapping reveals a pre-caldera (780-9.4ka) and post-caldera (<9.4ka) eruptive stage for South Pagan, whereas the eruptive history of the older CVR is poorly constrained. Crystal fractionation and magma mixing were important crustal processes for lavas from both volcanoes. Geochemical and isotopic variations indicate that South Pagan and CVR lavas, and lavas from the northern volcano on the island, Mt. Pagan, originated from compositionally distinct parental magmas due to variations in slab contributions (sediment and aqueous fluid) to the mantle wedge and the extent of mantle partial melting. A mixing model based on Pb and Nd isotopic ratios suggests that the average amount of sediment in the source of CVR (~2.1%) and South Pagan (~1.8%) lavas is slightly higher than Mt. Pagan (~1.4%) lavas. These estimates span the range of sediment-poor Guguan (~1.3%) and sediment-rich Agrigan (~2.0%) lavas for the Mariana arc. Melt modeling demonstrates that the saucer-shaped normalized rare earth element (REE) patterns observed in Pagan lavas can arise from partial melting of a mixed source of depleted mantle and enriched sediment, and do not require amphibole interaction or fractionation to depress the middle REE abundances of the lavas. The modeled degree of mantle partial melting for Agrigan (2-5%), Pagan (3-7%), and Guguan (9-15%) lavas correlates with indicators of fluid addition (e.g., Ba/Th). This relationship suggests that the fluid flux to the mantle wedge is the dominant control on the extent of partial melting beneath Mariana arc volcanoes. A decrease in the amount of fluid addition (lower Ba/Th) and extent of melting (higher Sm/Yb), and

  3. Sodium in Store and Restaurant Food Environments - Guam, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Sandra L; VanFrank, Brenna K; Lundeen, Elizabeth; Uncangco, Alyssa; Alam, Lawrence; King, Sallyann M Coleman; Cogswell, Mary E

    2016-05-27

    Compared with the United States overall, Guam has higher mortality rates from cardiovascular disease and stroke (1). Excess sodium intake can increase blood pressure and risk for cardiovascular disease (2,3). To determine the availability and promotion of lower-sodium options in the nutrition environment, the Guam Department of Public Health and Social Services (DPHSS) conducted an assessment in September 2015 using previously validated tools adapted to include sodium measures. Stores (N = 114) and restaurants (N = 63) were randomly sampled by region (north, central, and south). Data from 100 stores and 62 restaurants were analyzed and weighted to account for the sampling design. Across the nine product types assessed, lower-sodium products were offered less frequently than regular-sodium products (prestaurants engaged in promotion practices such as posting sodium information (3%) or identifying lower-sodium entrées (1%). Improving the availability and promotion of lower-sodium foods in stores and restaurants could help support healthier eating in Guam.

  4. Two Years of Site Diversity Measurements in Guam, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta, Roberto J.; Morse, J.; Zemba, M.; Nessel, J.

    2012-01-01

    As NASA communication networks upgrade to higher frequencies, such as Ka-Band, atmospherically induced attenuation can become significant. This attenuation is caused by rain, clouds and atmospheric gases (oxygen and water vapor), with rain having the most noticeable effects. One technique to circumvent the increase in attenuation is to operate two terminals separated by a distance that exceeds the average rain cell size. The fact that rain cells are of finite size can then be exploited by rerouting the signal to the terminal with the strongest link. This technique, known as site diversity, is best suited for climates that have compact (less than 2km) and intense rain cells such as in Guam. In order to study the potential diversity gain at the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite (TDRS) Remote Ground Terminal (GRGT) complex in Guam a site test interferometer (STI) was installed in May of 2010. The STI is composed of two terminals with a 900m baseline that observe the same unmodulated beacon signal broadcast from a geostationary satellite (e.g., UFO 8). The potential site diversity gain is calculated by measuring the difference in signal attenuation seen at each terminal. Over the two years of data collection the cumulative distribution function (CDF) of the site diversity gain shows a better than 3 dB improvement for 90% of the time over standard operation. These results show that the use of site diversity in Guam can be very effective in combating rain fades.

  5. Telluric Imaginary and Images on Mariana Tragedy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Orellana

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The text holds on the analysis of the mythical aspects in the journalistic coverage of the destruction occurred on the night of November 5, 2015 in Bento Rodrigues district in the Brazilian city of Mariana, Minas Gerais. We dedicate our analysis to the visual aspects of human and environmental tragedy. The text contains five sections. Initially, we discuss the application of the myths which facilitate the approach of telluric mythemes in Brazil. Next, we deal with the symbolism of mud and poetic land. On continuation, we address matters of death and the destruction of life in Rio Doce. It can be observed as the imaginary mythical heroic becomes an important vector in which the journalistic discourse proposes their narratives and imaginary related to the feminine universe persist with pejorative notions; that are defined by mytheme mud and its imagery leads.

  6. 50 CFR 665.420 - Mariana coral reef ecosystem fisheries. [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Mariana coral reef ecosystem fisheries. [Reserved] 665.420 Section 665.420 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL... PACIFIC Mariana Archipelago Fisheries § 665.420 Mariana coral reef ecosystem fisheries. [Reserved] ...

  7. 33 CFR 334.1430 - Apra Inner Harbor, Island of Guam; restricted area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Apra Inner Harbor, Island of Guam... THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1430 Apra Inner Harbor, Island of Guam; restricted area. (a) The restricted area. The waters within Apra Inner Harbor and...

  8. 33 CFR 110.129a - Apra Harbor, Guam. (Datum: WGS 84)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Apra Harbor, Guam. (Datum: WGS 84) 110.129a Section 110.129a Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.129a Apra Harbor, Guam. (Datum: WGS 84) (a...

  9. 2012-2013 U.S. Geological Survey LiDAR: Territory of Guam

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Territory of Guam, LiDAR Task G11PD01189 This task order is for production of surface model products of The Territory of Guam. The models are produced from data...

  10. ‘Hummingbird’ Sign in a Patient with Guam Parkinsonism-Dementia Complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianrong Yeo

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available We present a case of a 71-year-old male Chamorro patient from Guam who presented with progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP-Richardson’s syndrome. Considering his strong family history of parkinsonism and a PSP phenotype, he was clinically diagnosed with Guam parkinsonism-dementia complex (PDC. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI of the brain revealed prominent midbrain atrophy with preserved pontine volume, forming the ‘hummingbird’ sign, which has not been described before in Guam PDC. Molecular analysis of the chromosome 9 open reading frame 72 gene (C9orf72 showed only 6 GGGGCC repeats. We discuss the clinico-pathological similarities and differences between PSP and Guam PDC, and highlight the topography of neuropathological changes seen in Guam PDC to explain the appearance of the ‘hummingbird’ sign on MRI.

  11. The Brown Tree Snake on Guam: How the Arrival of One Invasive Species Damaged the Ecology, Commerce, Electrical Systems and Human Health on Guam: A Comprehensive Information Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritts, Thomas H.; Leasman-Tanner, Dawn

    2001-01-01

    Synopsis -- Shortly after World War II, and before 1952, the brown tree snake was accidentally transported from its native range in the South Pacific to Guam, probably as a stowaway in ship cargo. As a result of abnormally abundant prey resources on Guam and the absence of natural predators and other population controls, brown tree snake populations reached unprecedented numbers. Snakes caused the extirpation of most of the native forest vertebrate species; thousands of power outages affecting private, commercial, and military activities; widespread loss of domestic birds and pets; and considerable emotional trauma to residents and visitors alike when snakes invaded human habitats with the potential for severe envenomation of small children. Since Guam is a major transportation hub in the Pacific, numerous opportunities exist for the brown tree snakes on Guam to be introduced accidentally to other Pacific islands as passive stowaways in ship and air traffic from Guam. Numerous sightings of this species have been reported on other islands, and an incipient population is probably established on Saipan. It is important that people who may come in contact with the brown tree snake, particularly on neighboring islands and other high-risk sites, understand the scope of this problem and how to identify the snake so proper action can be taken. This resource has been developed to provide source materials on the history of the invasion, continuing threats, research results, and containment and management of the brown tree snake (Boiga irregularis) in Guam and its relevance to other islands and mild continental environments.

  12. Allozyme variation in Picea mariana from Newfoundland: Discussion

    Science.gov (United States)

    William B. Critchfield

    1987-01-01

    In their recent paper describing the distribution of genetic variation in black spruce (Picea mariana (Mill.) B.S.P.) on the island of Newfoundland, Yeh et el. (1986) concluded that a center of variability in west-central Newfoundland derived from ancestral populations that persisted on the island during the last (Wisconsin) glaciation. They...

  13. Trench Advance By the Subduction of Buoyant Features - Application to the Izu-Bonin-Marianas Arc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goes, S. D. B.; Fourel, L.; Morra, G.

    2014-12-01

    Most subduction trenches retreat, not only today but throughout the Cenozoic. However, a few trenches clearly advance during part of the evolution, including Izu-Bonin Marianas (IBM) and Kermadec. Trench retreat is well understood as a basic consequence of slab pull, but it is debated what causes trench advance. The IBM trench underwent a complex evolution: right after its initiation, it rotated clockwise, leading to very fast retreat in the north and slow retreat in the south. But since 10-15 Ma, IBM trench motions have switched to advance at the southern end, and since 5 Ma also the northern end is advancing. Based on 2-D subduction models, it has been proposed proposed that the change in age of the subducting plate at the IBM trench (from 40-70 m.y. at the initiation of the trench 45 m.y. ago to 100-140 m.y. lithosphere subducting at the trench today) and its effect on plate strength could explain the transition from trench retreat to trench advance, and that the age gradient (younger in the north and older in the south) could explain the rotation of the trench. However, with new 3-D coupled fluid-solid subduction model where we can include such lateral age gradients, we find that this does not yield the observed behaviour. Instead, we propose an alternative mechanism, involving the subduction of the buoyant Caroline Island Ridge at the southern edge of the Mariana trench and show that it can explain both trench motion history and the current morphology of the IBM slab as imaged by seismic tomography.

  14. Geographic Response Plan (GRP) Sensitive Site Points (Editable), Guam, 2016, US EPA Region 9

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This is an editable point feature data set with points over Apra Harbor in Guam. These points represent sensitive sites such as access points for public use and...

  15. Atlantis Modeled Output Data for the Coral Reef Ecosystems of Guam

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A proof-of-concept Guam Atlantis Coral Reef Ecosystem Model has been developed and an added coral module to the Atlantis framework has been validated. The model is...

  16. Gridded multibeam bathymetry of Apra Harbor, Guam U.S. Territory

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded bathymetry from Apra Harbor, Guam U.S. Territory. The netCDF and Arc ASCII grids include multibeam bathymetry from the Reson SeaBat 8125 multibeam sonar...

  17. Understanding Extension in the Southern Marianas and the Challenger Deep: a 21ST Century Geoscientific Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, R. J.; Ribeiro, J. M.; Martinez, F.; Ohara, Y.

    2017-12-01

    The Challenger Deep (CD) is the deepest spot on Earth's solid surface and the reasons for its great depth are controversial. In general, trench depths (without sediments) are thought to reflect slab age; old oceanic lithosphere arrives at the trench deeper so similar downbending makes deeper trenches than young oceanic lithosphere. Slab tears and edges and short slabs also may help trenches deepen by making it easier to roll back. In the case of the CD, we are unsure of subducted oceanic lithosphere age because this lies near the juncture of Jurassic and Oligocene crusts. A slab edge to the west and a slab tear to the east may also help the Pacific plate roll back and contribute to its depth. A possible unexamined reason for CD's great depth may be strong extension of the overlying plate associated with opening of the Mariana Trough backarc basin (MT-BAB). GPS on islands indicate southward-increasing extension rates of at least 45mm/yr at the latitude of Guam (Kato et al. 2003 GRL; see Martinez et al. T037 for more info); extension rates are likely to be greater in the MT-BAB north of CD. There are few convergent margins where strong extension affects the overriding plate. Overriding plate extension may help deepen trenches by narrowing the plate coupling zone (Gvirtzman and Stern 2003 Tectonics). Asthenosphere outflow from the shrinking Philippine Sea plate could also push against the slab to depress it. The region around the CD is very deep water, presenting major challenges for future study. The combined deepwater assets and brainpower of the US, Japan, and China are needed to do this work. Both subducting and overriding plates need study. For the downgoing plate, we need IODP drilling and refraction studies to determine its age and crustal and lithospheric structure; electromagnetic sounding would also help reveal upper plate structure. We need passive OBS studies to map slab tears and edges. We need to better understand the tectonic evolution of the MT

  18. Age and size effects on seed productivity of northern black spruce

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. N. Viglas; C. D. Brown; J. F. Johnstone

    2013-01-01

    Slow-growing conifers of the northern boreal forest may require several decades to reach reproductive maturity, making them vulnerable to increases in disturbance frequency. Here, we examine the relationship between stand age and seed productivity of black spruce (Picea mariana (Mill.) Britton, Sterns & Poggenb.) in Yukon Territory and Alaska....

  19. 33 CFR 165.1404 - Apra Harbor, Guam-security zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY REGULATED NAVIGATION AREAS AND LIMITED ACCESS AREAS Specific Regulated... surrounding Naval Mooring Buoy No. 702 (Located at 13°27′30.1″ N and 144°38′12.9″ E. Based on World Geodetic... unless authorized by the Captain of the Port, Guam. [COTP Guam Reg. 89-001, 55 FR 18725, May 4, 1990] ...

  20. Facilitators and Barriers for Successful Breastfeeding Among Migrant Chuukese Mothers on Guam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn M. Wood PhD, RNC-OB

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to identify factors that serve as facilitators and barriers for breastfeeding among Chuukese immigrant women living in Guam. Traditionally, Chuukese women exclusively breastfeed their babies; however, it is reported that breastfeeding decreases among these women when they migrate to Guam. Little is known about why this happens. A qualitative approach that included key informant interviews and focus groups of Chuukese women ( N  = 24 who had migrated to Guam and delivered a baby on Guam within the past 5 years was completed. The project interview or discussion guides were guided by the Theory of Reasoned Action and explored facilitators and barriers for successful breastfeeding among these Chuukese immigrant women. Among this population, key facilitators for breastfeeding included high levels of self-confidence, family support, knowledge about breastfeeding, and the existence of strong traditional Chuukese cultural values. Key barriers included experiences of cultural conflict or social change, lack of support from their local community, family and health-care staff, as well as limited self-knowledge about how to manage common breastfeeding problems. Where more facilitators were reported, breastfeeding was more often practiced, and where more barriers were reported, formula feeding was more likely. Social factors, health system policies, and proactive nursing support are important influencing factors for breastfeeding among the Chuukese immigrant population on Guam. Nursing can play key roles in policy, professional leadership and practice, and social advocacy to support breastfeeding promotion and maintenance on Guam.

  1. Tectonics of the Philippine Sea plate before and after 52 Ma subduction initiation to form the Izu-Bonin-Mariana arc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishizuka, O.; Tani, K.; Harigane, Y.; Umino, S.; Stern, R. J.; Reagan, M. K.; Hickey-Vargas, R.; Yogodzinski, G. M.; Kusano, Y.; Arculus, R. J.

    2016-12-01

    Robust tectonic reconstruction of the evolving Philippine Sea Plate for the period immediately before and after subduction initiation 52 Ma to form the Izu-Bonin-Mariana (IBM) arc is prerequisite to understand cause of subduction initiation (SI) and test competing hypotheses for SI such as spontaneous or induced nucleation. Understanding of nature and origin of overriding and subducting plates is especially important because plate density is a key parameter controlling SI based on numerical modeling (e.g., Leng and Gurnis 2015). There is increasing evidence that multiple geological events related to changing stress fields took place in and around Philippine Sea plate about the time of SI 52 Ma (Ishizuka et al., 2011). For our understanding of the early IBM arc system to increase, it is important to understand the pattern and tempo of these geological events, particularly the duration and extent of seafloor spreading in the proto arc associated with SI, and its temporal relationship with spreading in the West Philippine Basin (WPB). IODP Exp. 351 provided evidence of SI-related seafloor spreading west of the Kyushu-Palau Ridge (Arculus et al., 2015). Planned age determination of the basement crust at Site U1438 will constrain the timing and geometry of SI-related spreading and its relationship to variation in mode of spreading in the WPB including rotation of spreading axis. Some tectonic reconstructions suggest that part of the IBM arc could have formed on "young" WPB crust. Dredging of the northern Mariana forearc crust and mantle in 2014 aimed to test this hypothesis. Preliminary data indicates that early arc crustal section of the N. Mariana forearc is geochemically and temporally similar to that exposed in the Bonin and southern Mariana forearcs. New tectonic reconstructions for the nascent IBM system will be presented based on these observations.

  2. A tale of two arcs? Plate tectonics of the Izu-Bonin-Mariana (IBM) arc using subducted slab constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, J. E.; Suppe, J.; Renqi, L.; Kanda, R. V. S.

    2014-12-01

    Published plate reconstructions typically show the Izu-Bonin Marianas arc (IBM) forming as a result of long-lived ~50 Ma Pacific subduction beneath the Philippine Sea. These reconstructions rely on the critical assumption that the Philippine Sea was continuously coupled to the Pacific during the lifetime of the IBM arc. Because of this assumption, significant (up to 1500 km) Pacific trench retreat is required to accommodate the 2000 km of Philippine Sea/IBM northward motion since the Eocene that is constrained by paleomagnetic data. In this study, we have mapped subducted slabs of mantle lithosphere from MITP08 global seismic tomography (Li et al., 2008) and restored them to a model Earth surface to constrain plate tectonic reconstructions. Here we present two subducted slab constraints that call into question current IBM arc reconstructions: 1) The northern and central Marianas slabs form a sub-vertical 'slab wall' down to maximum 1500 km depths in the lower mantle. This slab geometry is best explained by a near-stationary Marianas trench that has remained +/- 250 km E-W of its present-day position since ~45 Ma, and does not support any significant Pacific slab retreat. 2) A vanished ocean is revealed by an extensive swath of sub-horizontal slabs at 700 to 1000 km depths in the lower mantle below present-day Philippine Sea to Papua New Guinea. We call this vanished ocean the 'East Asian Sea'. When placed in an Eocene plate reconstruction, the East Asian Sea fits west of the reconstructed Marianas Pacific trench position and north of the Philippine Sea plate. This implies that the Philippine Sea and Pacific were not adjacent at IBM initiation, but were in fact separated by a lost ocean. Here we propose a new IBM arc reconstruction constrained by subducted slabs mapped under East Asia. At ~50 Ma, the present-day IBM arc initiated at equatorial latitudes from East Asian Sea subduction below the Philippine Sea. A separate arc was formed from Pacific subduction below

  3. Age of Izu-Bonin-Mariana arc basement

    OpenAIRE

    Ishizuka, O; Hickey-Vargas, R; Arculus, RJ; Yogodzinski, GM; Savov, IP; Kusano, Y; McCarthy, A; Brandl, PA; Sudo, M

    2018-01-01

    Documenting the early tectonic and magmatic evolution of the Izu–Bonin–Mariana (IBM) arc system in the Western Pacific is critical for understanding the process and cause of subduction initiation along the current convergent margin between the Pacific and Philippine Sea plates. Forearc igneous sections provide firm evidence for seafloor spreading at the time of subduction initiation (52 Ma) and production of “forearc basalt”. Ocean floor drilling (International Ocean Discovery Program Expedit...

  4. The Tragedy in Mariana (MG: Aphorizations, Media and Argumentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glaucia Muniz Proença Lara

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In situations of disaster or tragedy of major proportions, as it was the case of the disruption of the dam belonging to the mining company Samarco, in Mariana - MG, the voices of the victims – people now dispossessed of all or almost all – are highlighted, dividing media space with the speech of authorities and experts. Articulating this issue with the notion of aphorization proposed by Maingueneau (2012, our goal is to analyze the special section of the newspaper Estado de Minas (12/05/2015 , entitled: “Mariana voices: pain in the first person” (“Vozes de Mariana: a dor em primeira pessoa”, so as to find out how secondary aphrorizations (i.e. those that are detached from a text in the form of titles, intertitles and/or photo captions related to the victims are (reconstructed by the newspaper. Articulating French Discourse Analysis with the contributions of Argumentative Semantics (see, for example, DUCROT 1987 , KOCH , 1992, we intend to grasp, in the examined aphorizations, linguistic “marks”, such as vocabulary selection, modalizers, presupposition markers, among others, that allow us to reconstruct the feelings (“the pain” manifested by these “anonymous voices” about the tragedy. We assume, therefore, the fundamental role that the media play in the construction of public opinion, to the extent that, by highlighting or silencing certain voices, they will (conform images of the events and of the participating actors.

  5. 77 FR 61746 - Notice of Intent To Prepare a Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement for the Guam and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-11

    ..., and associated infrastructure on Guam to support the relocation of a substantially reduced number of... housing, and associated infrastructure on Guam. The purpose and need for the proposed action is to ensure... of the U.S. Code, to satisfy individual live- fire training requirements as described in the Final...

  6. 76 FR 14679 - Prevailing Wage Rates for Construction Occupations on Guam for Purposes of the H-2B Temporary...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-17

    ...)(v)(E) and (F). If the prevailing wage rate is too low, available U.S. workers may be dissuaded from... Docket No. USCIS-2010-0006] RIN 1615-ZA98 Prevailing Wage Rates for Construction Occupations on Guam for... the public on the system that the Governor of Guam is using to determine prevailing wage rates for...

  7. Academic Achievement and Classification of Students from the Freely Associated States in Guam Schools. REL 2017-260

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Joshua; Stringer, Katie; Arens, Sheila A.; Cicchinelli, Louis F.; San Nicolas, Heidi; Flores, Nieves

    2017-01-01

    Guam is home to the largest population of migrants from the Freely Associated States (FAS): the Federated States of Micronesia, the Republic of the Marshall Islands, and the Republic of Palau. FAS students made up 22 percent of total student enrollment in Guam public schools in 2012. FAS students face a number of challenges when they enter Guam…

  8. 42 CFR 407.43 - Buy-in groups available to Puerto Rico, Guam, the Virgin Islands, and American Samoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Virgin Islands, and American Samoa. (a) Categories included in buy-in groups. The buy-in groups that are..., Guam, the Virgin Islands, and American Samoa may choose any of the following coverage groups: (1) Group... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Buy-in groups available to Puerto Rico, Guam, the...

  9. Early response of ground layer plant communities to wildfire and harvesting disturbance in forested peatland ecosystems in northern Minnesota, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erika R. Rowe; Anthony W. D' Amato; Brian J. Palik; John C. Almendinger

    2017-01-01

    A rare, stand-replacing fire in northern Minnesota, USA provided the opportunity to compare the effects of wildfire and timber harvesting in two peatland forest communities, nutrient-poor black spruce (Picea mariana) bogs (BSB) and nutrient-rich tamarack (Larix laricina) swamps (RTS). We found the response between the two...

  10. Islands on the edge: housing development and other threats to America's Pacific and Caribbean Island forests: a Forests on the Edge report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susan M. Stein; Mary A. Carr; Greg C. Liknes; Sara J. Comas

    2014-01-01

    This report provides an overview of expected housing density changes and related impacts to private forests on America's islands in the Pacific and Caribbean, specifically Hawaii, Guam, American Samoa, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands. We discuss the vulnerability of island forests to conversion for housing...

  11. Appendix 1: Regional summaries - Hawaii and U.S Affiliated Pacific Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christian Giardina

    2012-01-01

    Hawaii and the U.S.-affiliated Pacific islands, including Guam, American Samoa, Commonwealth of Northern Mariana Islands, Federated States of Micronesia, Republic of Palau, and the Marshall Islands (fig. A1-3), contain a high diversity of flora, fauna, ecosystems, geographies, and cultures, with climates ranging from lowland tropical to alpine desert. Forest ecosystems...

  12. 19 CFR 148.102 - Flat rate of duty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) PERSONAL DECLARATIONS AND EXEMPTIONS Noncommercial Importations of Limited Value § 148.102 Flat... fair retail value in the country of acquisition. (b) American Samoa, Guam, the Northern Mariana Islands..., effective January 1, 2001, and 1.5 percent, effective January 1, 2002, of the fair retail value in the...

  13. 78 FR 57835 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Notice of 6-Month Extension of the Final...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-20

    ...; Christiansted, St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands; Charlotte Amalie, St. Thomas, U.S. Virgin Islands; Hilo, Hawaii, Hawaii; Kailua Kona, Hawaii, Hawaii; Kaunakakai, Molokai, Hawaii; Wailuku, Maui, Hawaii; Lihue, Kauai, Hawaii; Honolulu, Oahu, Hawaii; Hagatna, Guam; Saipan, Commonwealth of the Northern Marianas Islands...

  14. Medicaid and CHIP: Opportunities Exist to Improve U.S. Insular Area Demographic Data That Could Be Used to Help Determine Federal Funding. GAO-09-558R

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohn, Linda T.

    2009-01-01

    The five largest insular areas of the United States--American Samoa, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI), Guam, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands--receive federal funding through Medicaid and the State Children's Health Insurance Program (CHIP), joint federal-state programs that finance health care for certain low-income…

  15. 77 FR 75939 - Control of Communicable Diseases: Foreign; Scope and Definitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-26

    ... Monday through Friday, except for legal holidays, from 9 a.m. until 5 p.m., Eastern Standard Time, at..., Guam, the Northern Mariana Islands, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands. We.... Virgin Islands. Currently, only Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands are explicitly listed in the...

  16. 77 FR 8848 - Application for New Awards; Advanced Placement (AP) Test Fee Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-15

    ... United States Virgin Islands, Guam, American Samoa, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, and... days or, if the fourteenth calendar day before the application deadline date falls on a Federal holiday, the next business day following the Federal holiday), you mail or fax a written statement to the...

  17. 41 CFR 105-56.003 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., excluding Federal legal holidays. For purposes of computation, the last day of the period will be included unless it is a Federal legal holiday. (d) Creditor agency means any agency that is owed a debt, including... Columbia, American Samoa, Guam, the United States Virgin Islands, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana...

  18. 78 FR 24155 - Notice of Availability of a Pest Risk Analysis for Interstate Movement of Sapote Fruit From...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-24

    ... hours are 8 a.m. to 4:30 p.m., Monday through Friday, except holidays. To be sure someone is there to... Hawaii, Puerto Rico, the U.S. Virgin Islands, Guam, and the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands...

  19. 78 FR 19691 - Applications for New Awards; Advanced Placement (AP) Test Fee Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-02

    ... United States Virgin Islands, Guam, American Samoa, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, and... the fourteenth calendar day before the application deadline date falls on a Federal holiday, the next business day following the Federal holiday), you mail or fax a written statement to the Department...

  20. 78 FR 53497 - Uniform Procedures for State Highway Safety Grant Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-29

    ...., Eastern Time, Monday through Friday, except Federal holidays. Whichever way you submit your comments... holidays. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Barbara Sauers, Program Manager, National Highway Traffic Safety... Columbia, Puerto Rico, U.S. Virgin Islands, Guam, American Samoa, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana...

  1. 78 FR 37653 - Notice of Fiscal Year (FY) 2014 Safety Grants and Solicitation for Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-21

    ... p.m., ET, Monday through Friday, except Federal holidays. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Background and... matching funds. The FMCSA Administrator waives the matching funds requirement for the Virgin Islands... Rico, Guam, American Samoa, the Northern Marianas, and the U.S. Virgin Islands, and the District of...

  2. 78 FR 60996 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Request for Comments for a New Information Collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-02

    ..., between 9 a.m. and 5 p.m. ET, Monday through Friday, except Federal holidays. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION...:00 a.m. to 4:00 p.m., Monday through Friday, except Federal holidays. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION..., the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, the Territories of Guam, the Virgin Islands and...

  3. 47 CFR 27.1208 - BTA service areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    .... Except for incumbent BRS licenses, BRS service areas are Basic Trading Areas (BTAs) or additional service... in places where Rand McNally has not defined BTAs: American Samoa; Guam; Gulf of Mexico Zone A; Gulf of Mexico Zone B; Gulf of Mexico Zone C; Northern Mariana Islands; Mayaguez/Aguadilla-Ponce, Puerto...

  4. Presented by REL Pacific at McREL: Available Resources and Work in Progress. Research Digest. [Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regional Educational Laboratory Pacific, 2014

    2014-01-01

    REL Pacific at McREL, one of 10 Regional Educational Laboratories (RELs) funded by the Institute of Education Sciences (IES), serves educators in American Samoa, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, the Federated States of Micronesia (Chuuk, Kosrae, Pohnpei, and Yap), Guam, Hawai'i, the Republic of the Marshall Islands, and the…

  5. Getting to Know Education in the Pacific Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regional Educational Laboratory Pacific, 2014

    2014-01-01

    The Pacific region is comprised of American Samoa, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI); the Federated States of Micronesia (FSM)-Chuuk, Kosrae, Pohnpei, and Yap; Guam; Hawai'i; the Republic of the Marshall Islands; and the Republic of Palau. This document begins by providing a map of the REL Pacific region overlaid on a map of…

  6. Presented by REL Pacific at McREL: A Summary of Cross-Regional Educational Laboratory Studies. Research Digest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regional Educational Laboratory Pacific, 2013

    2013-01-01

    REL Pacific at McREL, 1 of 10 Regional Educational Laboratories (RELs) funded by the Institute of Education Sciences (IES), serves educators in American Samoa, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, the Federated States of Micronesia (Chuuk, Kosrae, Pohnpei, and Yap), Guam, Hawai'i, the Republic of the Marshall Islands, and the Republic…

  7. Evaluation of DoD Compliance with the Sex Offender Registration and Notification Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-29

    entry as non-military personnel. According to INTERPOL, U.S. Armed Forces, with support from the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) and...the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, Guam, American Samoa, the Northern Mariana Islands, the U.S. Virgin Islands, and Indian Tribes) in which he or she

  8. Retention and Attrition of Pacific School Teachers and Administrators (RAPSTA) Study: Republic of the Marshall Islands (RMI). Research Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Research and Development Cadre, Honolulu, HI.

    Pacific Resources for Education and Learning (PREL) works with 10 American-affiliated Pacific entities: American Samoa, the Commonwealth of Northern Mariana Islands, the Federated States of Micronesia (Chuuk, Kosrae, Pohnpei, Yap), Guam, Hawaii, the Republic of the Marshall Islands, and the Republic of Palau. The survey raises awareness of the…

  9. Presented by REL Pacific at McREL: Available Resources and Work in Progress. Research Digest. Volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regional Educational Laboratory Pacific, 2014

    2014-01-01

    REL Pacific at McREL, one of 10 Regional Educational Laboratories (RELs) funded by the U.S. Department of Education's Institute of Education Sciences (IES), serves educators in American Samoa, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, the Federated States of Micronesia (Chuuk, Kosrae, Pohnpei, and Yap), Guam, Hawai'i, the Republic of the…

  10. 12 CFR 1805.201 - Certification as a Community Development Financial Institution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... States, Puerto Rico, Guam, American Samoa, the Virgin Islands, and the Northern Mariana Islands); and..., census tract, block numbering area, block group, or American Indian or Alaska Native area (as such units... Areas that are used to comprise an Investment Area shall be limited to census tracts, block groups and...

  11. 75 FR 32673 - Finding of Failure To Submit Section 110 State Implementation Plans for Interstate Transport for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-09

    ... Ms. Gobeail McKinley, Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards, Geographic Strategies Group, Mail... and the U.S. Region II, 290 Broadway, 25th Floor, New Virgin Islands. York, NY 10007-1866. Cristina... Northern Mariana Islands, Guam, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands. EPA is making a finding of...

  12. 42 CFR 411.101 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Under Group Health Plans: General Provisions § 411.101 Definitions. As used in this subpart and in... individual States, Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, Guam, American Samoa, the Northern Mariana Islands, and... taxes on employers and employees under section 21 of the Internal Revenue Code. Group health plan (GHP...

  13. 40 CFR 49.2 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., or other organized group or community, including any Alaska Native village, which is federally... of their status as Indians. (d) Indian Tribe Consortium or Tribal Consortium means a group of two or..., the Virgin Islands, Guam, and American Samoa and includes the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana...

  14. 34 CFR 370.6 - What definitions apply?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., in which case it is individual advocacy; (2) More than one individual or a group or class of... advocacy. Class action means a formal legal suit on behalf of a group or class of individuals filed in a... Rico, The United States Virgin Islands, Guam, American Samoa, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana...

  15. Selective predation by feral cats on a native skink on Guam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lardner, Björn; Reed, Robert N.; Adams, Amy A. Yackel; Mazurek, M.J.; Hinkle, Thomas J.; Levasseur, Patricia M.; Palmer, Meredith S.; Savidge, Julie A.

    2013-01-01

    Two species of skinks (Fig. 1) occur in a 5-ha plot on Guam where we have been conducting intensive research on Brown Treesnake (Boiga irregularis) population biology for nearly a decade (Rodda et al. 2007). The Pacific Blue-tailed Skink (Emoia caeruleocauda [de Vis 1892]) is native to Guam, whereas the Curious Skink (Carlia ailanpalai Zug 2004) is invasive. On the evening of 27 November 2012, PML and MSP discovered a pile of vomited skinks (Fig. 2) inside the plot (UTM 55P: 269125 m E, 1508930 m N).

  16. Mantle Serpentinization near the Central Mariana Trench Constrained by Ocean Bottom Surface Wave Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, C.; Wiens, D. A.; Lizarralde, D.; Eimer, M. O.; Shen, W.

    2017-12-01

    We investigate the crustal and uppermost mantle seismic structure across the Mariana trench by jointly inverting Rayleigh wave phase and group velocities from ambient noise and longer period phase velocities from Helmholtz tomography of teleseismic waveforms. We use data from a temporary deployment in 2012-2013, consisting of 7 island-based stations and 20 broadband ocean bottom seismographs, as well as data from the USGS Northern Mariana Islands Seismograph Network. To avoid any potential bias from the starting model, we use a Bayesian Monte-Carlo algorithm to invert for the azimuthally-averaged SV-wave velocity at each node. This method also allows us to apply prior constraints on crustal thickness and other parameters in a systematic way, and to derive formal estimates of velocity uncertainty. The results show the development of a low velocity zone within the incoming plate beginning about 80 km seaward of the trench axis, consistent with the onset of bending faults from bathymetry and earthquake locations. The maximum depth of the velocity anomaly increases towards the trench, and extends to about 30 km below the seafloor. The low velocities persist after the plate is subducted, as a 20-30 km thick low velocity layer with a somewhat smaller velocity reduction is imaged along the top of the slab beneath the forearc. An extremely low velocity zone is observed beneath the serpentine seamounts in the outer forearc, consistent with 40% serpentinization in the forearc mantle wedge. Azimuthal anisotropy results show trench parallel fast axis within the incoming plate at uppermost mantle depth (2%-4% anisotropy). All these observations suggest the velocity reduction in the incoming plate prior to subduction results from both serpentinized normal faults and water-filled cracks. Water is expelled from the cracks early in subduction, causing a modest increase in the velocity of the subducting mantle, and moves upward and causes serpentinization of the outer forearc

  17. Terrestrial bird population trends on Aguiguan (Goat Island), Mariana Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amidon, Fred; Camp, Richard J.; Marshall, Ann P.; Pratt, Thane K.; Williams, Laura; Radley, Paul; Cruz, Justine B.

    2014-01-01

    The island of Aguiguan is part of the Mariana archipelago and currently supports populations of four endemic species, including one endemic genus, Cleptornis. Bird population trends since 1982 were recently assessed on the neighbouring islands of Saipan, Tinian, and Rota indicating declines in some native species. Point-transect surveys were conducted in 2008 by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service to assess population densities and trends on Aguiguan. Densities for six of the nine native birds—White-throated Ground-dove Gallicolumba xanthonura, Collared Kingfisher Todiramphus chloris, Rufous Fantail Rhipidura rufifrons, Golden White-eye Cleptornis marchei, Bridled White-eye Zosterops conspicillatus and Micronesian Starling Aplonis opaca—and the non-native bird—Island Collared-dove Streptopelia bitorquata—were significantly greater in 2008 than in 1982. No differences in densities were detected among the surveys for Mariana Fruit-dove Ptilinopus roseicapilla, and Micronesian MyzomelaMyzomela rubratra. Three federally and locally listed endangered birds—Nightingale Reed-warbler Acrocephalus luscinius, Mariana Swiftlet Collocalia bartschi, and Micronesian Megapode Megapodius laperous)—were either not detected during the point-transect counts, the surveys were not appropriate for the species, or the numbers of birds detected were too small to estimate densities. The factors behind the increasing trends for some species are unknown but may be related to increased forest cover on the island since 1982. With declining trends for some native species on neighbouring islands, the increasing and stable trends on Aguiguan is good news for forest bird populations in the region, as Aguiguan populations can help support conservation efforts on other islands in the archipelago.

  18. [Aquatic heteroptera from Mariana County, Minas Gerais, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Marco A A; de Melo, Alan L; Vianna, Gustavo J C

    2006-01-01

    In surveys carried out in lotic and lentic environments in Mariana County, Minas Gerais state, Brazil, 35 genera and 64 species of aquatic and semi-aquatic Heteroptera were recorded, distributed in 13 families. Thirty four species were collected in lentic environments, while in lotic environments 48 species were collected, some of them common to both environments. Nepomorpha presented the greatest number of species (45), markedly for the family Naucoridae, represented by 12 species. Among the 19 Gerromorpha species collected, eight were Veliidae and six were Gerridae.

  19. Canine detection of free-ranging brown treesnakes on Guam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savidge, J.A.; Stanford, J.W.; Reed, R.N.; Haddock, G.R.; Adams, A.A.Y.

    2011-01-01

    We investigated canine teams (dogs and their handlers) on Guam as a potential tool for finding invasive brown treesnakes (Boiga irregularis) in the wild. Canine teams searched a 40 ?? 40 m forested area for a snake that had consumed a dead mouse containing a radio-transmitter. To avoid tainting the target or target area with human scent, no snake was handled or closely approached prior to searches. Trials were conducted during the morning when these nocturnal snakes were usually hidden in refugia. A radiotracker knew the snake's location, but dog handlers and search navigators did not. Of 85 trials conducted over four months, the two canine teams had an average success rate of 35% of correctly defining an area ??? 5 ?? 5 m that contained the transmittered snake; the team with more experience prior to the trials had a success rate of 44% compared with 26% for the less experienced team. Canine teams also found 11 shed skins from wild snakes. Although dogs alerted outside the vicinity of transmittered snakes, only one wild, non-transmittered snake was found during the trials, possibly reflecting the difficulty humans have in locating non-transmittered brown treesnakes in refugia. We evaluated success at finding snakes as a function of canine team, number of prior trials (i.e. experience gained during the trials), recent canine success at finding a target snake, various environmental conditions, snake perch height, and snake characteristics (snout-vent length and sex). Success rate increased over the course of the trials. Canine team success also increased with increasing average humidity and decreased with increasing average wind speed. Our results suggest dogs could be useful at detecting brown treesnakes in refugia, particularly when compared to daytime visual searches by humans, but techniques are needed to help humans find and extract snakes once a dog has alerted. ?? New Zealand Ecological Society.

  20. Transcriptomics-guided bottom-up and top-down venomics of neonate and adult specimens of the arboreal rear-fanged Brown Treesnake, Boiga irregularis, from Guam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pla, Davinia; Petras, Daniel; Saviola, Anthony J; Modahl, Cassandra M; Sanz, Libia; Pérez, Alicia; Juárez, Elena; Frietze, Seth; Dorrestein, Pieter C; Mackessy, Stephen P; Calvete, Juan J

    2018-03-01

    The Brown Treesnake (Boiga irregularis) is an arboreal, nocturnal, rear-fanged venomous snake native to northern and eastern regions of Australia, Papua New Guinea and the Solomon Islands. It was inadvertently introduced onto the island of Guam during the late 1940's to early 1950's, and it has caused massive declines and extirpations of the native bird, lizard, and mammal populations. In the current study, we report the characterization of the venom proteome of an adult and a neonate B. irregularis specimens from Guam by a combination of venom gland transcriptomic and venomic analyses. Venom gland transcriptomic analysis of an adult individual identified toxins belonging to 18 protein families, with three-finger toxin isoforms being the most abundantly expressed transcripts, comprising 94% of all venom protein transcript reads. Transcripts for PIII-metalloproteinases, C-type lectins, cysteine-rich secretory proteins, acetylcholinesterases, natriuretic peptides, ficolins, phospholipase A 2 (PLA 2 ) inhibitors, PLA 2 s, vascular endothelial growth factors, Kunitz-type protease inhibitors, cystatins, phospholipase Bs, cobra venom factors, waprins, SVMP inhibitors, matrix metalloproteinases, and hyaluronidases were also identified, albeit, at very low abundances ranging from 0.05% to 1.7% of the transcriptome. The venom proteomes of neonate and adult B. irregularis were also both overwhelmingly (78 and 84%, respectively) dominated by monomeric and dimeric 3FTxs, followed by moderately abundant (21% (N) and 13% (A)) CRISPs, low abundance (1% (N), 3% (A)) PIII-SVMPs, and very low abundance (blot analysis showed that all venom proteins were recognized by anti-BTS IgGs, and cross-reactivity with other rear-fanged snake venoms was also observed. Incubation of anti-BTS venom IgGs with crude B. irregularis venom resulted in a significant decrease in proteolytic (SVMP) activity against azocasein. These results provide the first comparative venomic and anti-venomic analysis of

  1. Coastal Circulation and Sediment Dynamics in War-in-the-Pacific National Historical Park, Guam; measurements of waves, currents, temperature, salinity, and turbidity, June 2007-January 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storlazzi, Curt D.; Presto, M. Katherine; Logan, Joshua B.

    2009-01-01

    , and their impact on reef health and ecology are essential for effective reef management. Two of the main anthropogenic activities along west-central Guam's coastline that may impact the region's coral reef ecosystems include pollution and coastal land use/development, as discussed in the review by Porter and others (2005). The pollution threats include point-sources, such as municipal wastewater (Northern District, Hagatna, Naval Station Guam, and Agat-Santa Rita Waster Water Treatment Plants), cooling water (Tanguisson Steam and Cabras Power Plants), and numerous storm water, ballast water, and tank bottom draw outfalls; nonpoint sources include septic systems, urban runoff, illegal dumping, and groundwater discharges. Poor land-use practices include development without the use of runoff management measures, increased areal extent of impervious surfaces and decreased extent of vegetative barriers, and recreational off-road vehicle use. Furthermore, feral ungulates and illegal wildfires remove protective vegetative cover and generally result in increased soil erosion. While anthropogenic point-sources have been reduced in many areas due to better management practices, nonpoint sources have either stayed constant or increased. Between 1975 and 1999, it is estimated that Guam lost more than a quarter of its tree cover, and more than 750 wildfires each year have resulted in a greater proportion of badlands and other erosion-prone land surfaces with high erosion rates (Forestry and Soil Resources Division, 1999). Approximately 1.8 square kilometers (km2) of Asan Bay, west-central Guam, lies within the National Park Service's (NPS) War-in-the-Pacific National Historical Park's (WAPA) Asan Unit; the bay is the sink for material coming out of the Asan watershed. Anthropogenic modifications of the watersheds adjacent to Asan Bay, which include intentionally-set wildfires, construction, and agriculture (Minton, 2005), are believed to have increased over the past 25

  2. Evaluation of trap capture in a geographically closed population of brown treesnakes on Guam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyrrell, C.L.; Christy, M.T.; Rodda, G.H.; Yackel Adams, A.A.; Ellingson, A.R.; Savidge, J.A.; Dean-Bradley, K.; Bischof, R.

    2009-01-01

    1. Open population mark-recapture analysis of unbounded populations accommodates some types of closure violations (e.g. emigration, immigration). In contrast, closed population analysis of such populations readily allows estimation of capture heterogeneity and behavioural response, but requires crucial assumptions about closure (e.g. no permanent emigration) that are suspect and rarely tested empirically. 2. In 2003, we erected a double-sided barrier to prevent movement of snakes in or out of a 5-ha semi-forested study site in northern Guam. This geographically closed population of >100 snakes was monitored using a series of transects for visual searches and a 13 ?? 13 trapping array, with the aim of marking all snakes within the site. Forty-five marked snakes were also supplemented into the resident population to quantify the efficacy of our sampling methods. We used the program mark to analyse trap captures (101 occasions), referenced to census data from visual surveys, and quantified heterogeneity, behavioural response, and size bias in trappability. Analytical inclusion of untrapped individuals greatly improved precision in the estimation of some covariate effects. 3. A novel discovery was that trap captures for individual snakes consisted of asynchronous bouts of high capture probability lasting about 7 days (ephemeral behavioural effect). There was modest behavioural response (trap happiness) and significant latent (unexplained) heterogeneity, with small influences on capture success of date, gender, residency status (translocated or not), and body condition. 4. Trapping was shown to be an effective tool for eradicating large brown treesnakes Boiga irregularis (>900 mm snout-vent length, SVL). 5. Synthesis and applications. Mark-recapture modelling is commonly used by ecological managers to estimate populations. However, existing models involve making assumptions about either closure violations or response to capture. Physical closure of our population on a

  3. 33 CFR 80.1490 - Apra Harbor, U.S. Territory of Guam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Apra Harbor, U.S. Territory of Guam. 80.1490 Section 80.1490 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Islands § 80.1490 Apra Harbor, U...

  4. 33 CFR 165.1402 - Apra Outer Harbor, Guam-regulated navigation area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Apra Outer Harbor, Guam-regulated....1402 Apra Outer Harbor, Guam—regulated navigation area. (a) The following is a regulated navigation area—The waters of the Pacific Ocean and Apra Outer Harbor enclosed by a line beginning at latitude 13...

  5. Side-scan imagery of Apra Harbor, Guam U.S. Territory

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded side-scan imagery collected in Apra Harbor, Guam U.S. Territory, USA. The GeoTIFF and Arc ASCII file includes data that were collected using a Klein 3000...

  6. 7 CFR 319.24a - Administrative instructions relating to entry of corn into Guam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Administrative instructions relating to entry of corn...) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Corn Diseases Quarantine § 319.24a Administrative instructions relating to entry of corn into Guam. Corn may be...

  7. Link between sewage-derived nitrogen pollution and coral disease severity in Guam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Redding, Jamey E.; Myers-Miller, Roxanna L.; Baker, David M.; Fogel, Marilyn; Raymundo, Laurie J.; Kim, Kiho

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • We evaluated sources of nitrogen pollution in coastal waters of Guam. • Stable isotope analyses showed the dominance of sewage-derived nitrogen. • Nitrogen inputs correlated with coral disease severity. • Planned population increase on Guam will exacerbate impact of coral diseases. -- Abstract: The goals of this study were to evaluate the contribution of sewage-derived N to reef flat communities in Guam and to assess the impact of N inputs on coral disease. We used stable isotope analysis of macroalgae and a soft coral, sampled bimonthly, as a proxy for N dynamics, and surveyed Porites spp., a dominant coral taxon on Guam’s reefs, for white syndrome disease severity. Results showed a strong influence of sewage-derived N in nearshore waters, with δ 15 N values varying as a function of species sampled, site, and sampling date. Increases in sewage-derived N correlated significantly with increases in the severity of disease among Porites spp., with δ 15 N values accounting for more than 48% of the variation in changes in disease severity. The anticipated military realignment and related population increase in Guam are expected to lead to increased white syndrome infections and other coral diseases

  8. Sea Water Air Conditioning (SWAC) at Naval Base Guam: Cost-Benefit Analysis and Acquisition Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-16

    of Dadi Beach has karsts, which are underground drainage systems with sinkholes and caves. The risk with such geography is the drilling rig could fall...into a sinkhole and be lost while tunneling beneath the surf zone, which according to NB Guam authorities has already occurred.  Orote Landfill

  9. Sea Water Air Conditioning (SWAC) at Naval Base Guam: Cost-Beneit Analysis and Acquisition Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    vicinity of Dadi Beach has karsts, which are underground drainage systems with sinkholes and caves. The risk with such geography is the drilling rig...could fall into a sinkhole and be lost while tunneling beneath the surf zone, which according to NB Guam authorities has already occurred.  Orote

  10. 26 CFR 301.7654-1 - Coordination of U.S. and Guam individual income taxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... determination of the source of income shall be based on the principles contained in sections 861 through 863... collections attributable to income from sources within the United States shall be covered into the Treasury of the United States. (ii) Net collections attributable to income from sources within Guam shall be...

  11. Investigation of acoustic sensors to detect coconut rhinoceros beetle in Guam

    Science.gov (United States)

    The coconut rhinoceros beetle, Oryctes rhinoceros, was accidentally introduced into Guam last year and now threatens the Island’s forests and tourist industry. These large insects can be detected easily with acoustic sensors, and procedures are being developed to incorporate acoustic technology int...

  12. An Evolutionary Approach to the Biological Management of Invasive Brown Treesnakes (Boiga irregularis) on Guam

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-14

    only two snake species on the Guam, the other of which is a burrowing blind snake Ramphotyphlops braminus (possibly introduced as well), and none of...descriptions of three new species. Systematic Parasitology 1:127-140. Roberts, L. S. and J. J. Janovy. 2005. Gerald D. Schmidt and Larry S. Roberts

  13. 75 FR 54497 - Ocean Dumping; Guam Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Site Designation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-08

    .... SUMMARY: The EPA is designating the Guam Deep Ocean Disposal Site (G- DODS) as a permanent ocean dredged... administration of ocean disposal permits; (2) development and maintenance of a site monitoring program; (3... include: (1) Regulating quantities and types of material to be disposed, including the time, rates, and...

  14. Catalyst for Change: Perceptions of Postgraduate Education among Guam's Filipino Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Rowena Pena Vega

    2012-01-01

    Filipino people's association with the Asian American and Pacific Islander (AAPI) population contributes to why they are overlooked in social sciences research. Particularly, academic literature on Filipino women living in the United States and Guam is lacking; therefore, programs, supports, and practices geared toward understanding and addressing…

  15. An Interdisciplinary Exploration of the Mariana Region with the NOAA ship Okeanos Explorer: Scientific Highlights from the April-July 2016 Expedition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glickson, D.; Amon, D.; Pomponi, S. A.; Fryer, P. B.; Elliott, K.; Lobecker, E.; Cantwell, K. L.; Kelley, C.

    2016-12-01

    From April to July 2016, an interdisciplinary team of ship-based and shore-based scientists investigated the biology and geology of the Marianas region as part of the 3-year NOAA Campaign to Address the Pacific monument Science, Technology, and Ocean NEeds (CAPSTONE) using the telepresence-enabled NOAA ship Okeanos Explorer. The focus of the expedition was on the Marianas Trench Marine National Monument and the waters of the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands. A variety of habitats were explored, including deep-sea coral and sponge communities, bottom fisheries, mud volcanoes, hydrothermal vents, Prime Crust Zone seamounts, and the Trench subduction zone. The expedition successfully collected baseline information at 41 sites at depths from 240 to 6,000 m. High-resolution imagery was obtained along the dive tracks, both in the water column and on the seafloor. Over 130 biological and geologic samples were collected. Many of the organisms documented are likely to be new species or new records of occurrence, and dozens of observations were the first ever collected in situ. Almost 74,000 square kilometers of seafloor were mapped, greatly improving both coverage and resolution in the region. New geologic features were mapped and explored, including ridges and new lava flow fields. Public engagement was substantial, with over 3.1 million total views of the live streaming video/audio feeds. The telepresence paradigm was tested rigorously, with active participation from 100 scientists in five countries and at least nine time zones. The shore-based team provided strong scientific expertise, complementing and expanding the knowledge of the ship-based science leads.

  16. Relative validity and reliability of a quantitative food frequency questionnaire for adults in Guam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachael T. Leon Guerrero

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Guam is a US territory in the western Pacific with a diverse population that includes understudied ethnic groups such as Chamorros and Filipinos. A food frequency questionnaire (FFQ to estimate dietary intake was needed to facilitate studies of diet and health among adults living in Guam. Objective: To develop and validate an FFQ to assess dietary intake over a 1-year period among adult Guam residents. Design: A three-part study was conducted: 1 an initial cross-sectional study using 24-h recalls to identify a food and beverage list for the FFQ and resulting in a final FFQ containing 142 food and drink items; 2 to test reliability, 56 different individuals completed the FFQ twice; and 3 to test relative validity, self-administered FFQs and up to 2 days of food record data from an additional 109 individuals were collected, and daily nutrient intake from the two methods was compared. Results: The reliability of the FFQ was very good (ρ range=0.65–0.75, and the relative validity of the FFQ was good for women (median Spearman's correlation [ρ] between instruments of 0.45 across 20 nutrients and an interquartile range [IQR] of 0.42–0.58 and generally adequate for men (median ρ=0.31, IQR=0.23–0.55. Validity was also good for Chamorros (median ρ=0.47, IQR=0.38–0.53 and generally adequate for Filipinos (median ρ=0.42, IQR=0.20–0.62. Correlations after energy adjustment were lower (overall median ρ=0.20, IQR=0.14–0.26. Conclusions: The FFQ can be used to rank nutrient intake for adults in Guam and may be helpful in the analysis of relationships between diet and chronic disease in Guam.

  17. CRED REA Fish Team Belt Transect Survey at Rota, Marianas Archipelago, 2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Belt transects along 3 consecutively-placed, 25m transect lines were surveyed as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 6 sites at Rota in the Marianas...

  18. CRED REA Fish Team Belt Transect Survey at Saipan, Marianas Archipelago, 2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Belt transects along 3 consecutively-placed, 25m transect lines were surveyed as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 8 sites at Saipan in the Marianas...

  19. 76 FR 10006 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Economic Surveys of American Samoa, Guam, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-23

    ... Mariana Islands (CNMI) Small Boat-Based Fisheries AGENCY: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration... paperwork and respondent burden, invites the general public and other Federal agencies to take this..., bottomfish, and pelagics fisheries with which to conduct economic analyses that will improve fishery...

  20. Analysis of Department of Defense (DoD) Transportation Mode Strategies for Shipping Fresh Fruits and Vegetables (FFV) to Guam

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stafford, Glen

    1998-01-01

    ...) to Guam, to discuss which alternatives provide the highest service level in terms of prolonging FFV shelf life under what circumstances, and to identify those additional considerations that affect...

  1. "Little Island into Mighty Base": Indigeneity, Race, and U.S. Empire in Guam, 1944-1962

    OpenAIRE

    Flores, Alfred Peredo

    2015-01-01

    This dissertation examines the creation of Guam’s post-World War II multiracial society through Chamorro land stewardship and the recruitment of non-local labor. This tiny 212-square-mile island in the western Pacific became a crucible of American empire that connected Guam, the Philippines, and the United States. This synergy of expansion between the U.S. government and private industry resulted in the construction of Apra Harbor, bases, military homes, and roads throughout Guam. This pro...

  2. Layered hydrothermal barite-sulfide mound field, East Diamante Caldera, Mariana volcanic arc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, James R.; de Ronde, Cornel E. J.; Koski, Randolph A.; Ditchburn, Robert G.; Mizell, Kira; Tamura, Yoshihiko; Stern, Robert J.; Conrad, Tracey; Ishizuka, Osamu; Leybourne, Matthew I.

    2014-01-01

    East Diamante is a submarine volcano in the southern Mariana arc that is host to a complex caldera ~5 × 10 km (elongated ENE-WSW) that is breached along its northern and southwestern sectors. A large field of barite-sulfide mounds was discovered in June 2009 and revisited in July 2010 with the R/V Natsushima, using the ROV Hyper-Dolphin. The mound field occurs on the northeast flank of a cluster of resurgent dacite domes in the central caldera, near an active black smoker vent field. A 40Ar/39Ar age of 20,000 ± 4000 years was obtained from a dacite sample. The mound field is aligned along a series of fractures and extends for more than 180 m east-west and >120 m north-south. Individual mounds are typically 1 to 3 m tall and 0.5 to 2 m wide, with lengths from about 3 to 8 m. The mounds are dominated by barite + sphalerite layers with the margins of each layer composed of barite with disseminated sulfides. Rare, inactive spires and chimneys sit atop some mounds and also occur as clusters away from the mounds. Iron and Mn oxides are currently forming small (caldera, mineralization resulted from focused flow along small segments of linear fractures rather than from a point source, typical of hydrothermal chimney fields. Based on the mineral assemblage, the maximum fluid temperatures were ~260°C, near the boiling point for the water depths of the mound field (367–406 m). Lateral fluid flow within the mounds precipitated interstitial sphalerite, silica, and Pb minerals within a network of barite with disseminated sulfides; silica was the final phase to precipitate. The current low-temperature precipitation of Fe and Mn oxides and silica may represent rejuvenation of the system.

  3. The remote transmission test of the GUAM measurement data by the wireless LAN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asano, Takashi; Fujiwara, Shigeo; Takahashi, Saburo; Nemoto, Tadayuki; Sato, Takashi; Kuniyasu, Kazufusa; Hiruta, Kazuhiko

    2008-01-01

    JAEA has developed and demonstrated the Remote Monitoring (RM) technology on the safeguards equipment at the storage area in PFPF to improve the efficiency of the inspection activity. JAEA is considering the expansion of the RM technology to the safeguards equipment in the process area to improve the efficiency of the inspection activity under the integrated safeguards. JAEA considers that the cabling cost and work in the facility will be reduced to apply the wireless LAN to the RM technology. JAEA performed the confirmatory testing of the performance of the Glove box Unattended Assay and Monitoring system (GUAM) and the remote transmission of the GUAM measurement data by the wireless LAN in cooperation with Japan Nuclear Fuel Limited. In this test, JAEA confirmed it's possible to establish the wireless LAN networking in the process area. This paper reports the applicability of the wireless LAN to the RM technology based on the results of the confirmatory testing. (author)

  4. Dysfunction of Protein Quality Control in Parkinsonism–Dementia Complex of Guam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bert M. Verheijen

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Guam parkinsonism–dementia complex (G-PDC is an enigmatic neurodegenerative disease that is endemic to the Pacific island of Guam. G-PDC patients are clinically characterized by progressive cognitive impairment and parkinsonism. Neuropathologically, G-PDC is characterized by abundant neurofibrillary tangles, which are composed of hyperphosphorylated tau, marked deposition of 43-kDa TAR DNA-binding protein, and neuronal loss. Although both genetic and environmental factors have been implicated, the etiology and pathogenesis of G-PDC remain unknown. Recent neuropathological studies have provided new clues about the pathomechanisms involved in G-PDC. For example, deposition of abnormal components of the protein quality control system in brains of G-PDC patients indicates a role for proteostasis imbalance in the disease. This opens up promising avenues for new research on G-PDC and could have important implications for the study of other neurodegenerative disorders.

  5. A New Great Game: US-China Competition in Guam and the CNMI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    media . It would appear the US in Guam and the CNMI is playing the role of the metaphorical frog being slowly boiled to death in a Chinese pot...nonimmigrant worker and tourism policy which greatly aid an aggressive Chinese intelligence collection posture. Finally, Chapter 5 will provide...island chain. This intersection of interest extends beyond physical geography. While the US has most significantly impacted the social geographies of

  6. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Socioeconomic surveys of human use, knowledge, attitudes, and perceptions in Guam from 2016-02-06 to 2016-07-27 (NCEI Accession 0163205)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The data in this file come from a survey of adult residents in Guam. The survey was conducted for a random stratified sample of households on the island of Guam from...

  7. Stability of detectability over 17 years at a single site and other lizard detection comparisons from Guam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodda, Gordon H.; Dean-Bradley, Kathryn; Campbell, Earl W.; Fritts, Thomas H.; Lardner, Bjorn; Yackel Adams, Amy A.; Reed, Robert N.

    2015-01-01

    To obtain quantitative information about population dynamics from counts of animals, the per capita detectabilities of each species must remain constant over the course of monitoring. We characterized lizard detection constancy for four species over 17 yr from a single site in northern Guam, a relatively benign situation because detection was relatively easy and we were able to hold constant the site, habitat type, species, season, and sampling method. We monitored two species of diurnal terrestrial skinks (Carlia ailanpalai [Curious Skink], Emoia caeruleocauda [Pacific Bluetailed Skink]) using glueboards placed on the ground in the shade for 3 h on rainless mornings, yielding 10,286 skink captures. We additionally monitored two species of nocturnal arboreal geckos (Hemidactylus frenatus [Common House Gecko]; Lepidodactylus lugubris [Mourning Gecko]) on the basis of 15,212 sightings. We compared these count samples to a series of complete censuses we conducted from four or more total removal plots (everything removed to mineral soil) totaling 400 m2(about 1% of study site) in each of the years 1995, 1999, and 2012, providing time-stamped quantification of detectability for each species. Unfortunately, the actual population trajectories taken by the four species were masked by unexplained variation in detectability. This observation of debilitating latent variability in lizard detectability under nearly ideal conditions undercuts our trust in population estimation techniques that fail to quantify venue-specific detectability, rely on pooled detection probability estimates, or assume that modulation in predefined environmental covariates suffices for estimating detectability.

  8. Chuukese migrant women in Guam: Perceptions of barriers to health care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret Hattori-Uchima

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This descriptive qualitative study examined perceived barriers to health care among Chuukese migrant women in Guam and explored which factors influenced health-seeking behaviors. Study participants recommended interventions which may reduce those perceived barriers. Since the Compact of Free Association with the United States was enacted in 1985, there has been a dramatic rise in the numbers of Chuukese migrating to Guam. This migration is anticipated to continue with more migrants needing health care, education, and social services. Little is known about their perceptions of barriers to health care services or the cultural, social, economic, and other factors that influence their health-seeking behaviors. Focus group interviews provided rich data, which were analyzed using content analysis. Themes included barriers to seeking and maintaining health and social and cultural factors influencing health-seeking behaviors. Major barriers identified were financial issues, difficulty in obtaining care due to long wait times, transportation problems, and struggles with both language and cultural nuances of communication. It was found that the women identified a mistrust of health and social services resulting from communication barriers. Social and cultural factors included the use of traditional Chuukese medicines, lack of preventive care services, confidentiality concerns, and feelings of mistreatment. Participants made recommendations for improved care and expressed a strong desire to achieve the mutual goal of better health care for Chuukese migrants in Guam.

  9. 78 FR 7385 - Western Pacific Fisheries; Fishing in the Marianas Trench, Pacific Remote Islands, and Rose Atoll...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    ...-BA98 Western Pacific Fisheries; Fishing in the Marianas Trench, Pacific Remote Islands, and Rose Atoll... Presidential proclamations that created the Marianas Trench, Pacific Remote Islands, and Rose Atoll Marine..., 2009). Proclamation 8337 of January 6, 2009, ``Establishment of the Rose Atoll Marine National Monument...

  10. Risk factors for breast cancer in the breast cancer risk model study of Guam and Saipan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leon Guerrero, Rachael T; Novotny, Rachel; Wilkens, Lynne R; Chong, Marie; White, Kami K; Shvetsov, Yurii B; Buyum, Arielle; Badowski, Grazyna; Blas-Laguaña, Michelle

    2017-10-01

    Chamorro Pacific Islanders in the Mariana Islands have breast cancer incidence rates similar to, but mortality rates higher than, those of U.S. women. As breast cancer risk factors of women of the Mariana Islands may be unique because of ethnic and cultural differences, we studied established and suspected risk factors for breast cancer in this unstudied population. From 2010-2013, we conducted retrospective case-control study of female breast cancer (104 cases and 185 controls) among women in the Mariana Islands. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated for each of various lifestyle-related factors from logistic regression of breast cancer, in all women and in pre- and postmenopausal women separately. Tests for interaction of risk factors with ethnicity were based on the Wald statistics for cross-product terms. Of the medical and reproductive factors considered - age at menarche, breastfeeding, number of live births, age at first live birth, hormone use, and menopause - only age at first live birth was confirmed. Age at first live birth, among parous women, was higher among cases (mean 24.9 years) than controls (mean 23.2 years); with increased breast cancer risk (OR=2.53; 95% CI, 1.04-6.19 for age≥30y compared to risk and only in Filipino women. The association with many other established risk factors, such as BMI, hormone use and physical activity, were in the expected direction but were not significant. Associations for family history of breast cancer and alcohol intake were not evident CONCLUSIONS: The results provide a basis for cancer prevention guidance for women in the Mariana Islands. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. The History of Care for the Low-Incident Handicapped in the Territory of Guam: Is There a Necessary Development Change in the Delivery of Special Education Services?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peckens, Gloria

    A brief history of care for handicapped individuals on Guam is traced from early refusal to acknowledge their existence, to their increased visibility and current efforts toward least restrictive placement for education and care. It is explained that societal attitudes toward the handicapped in Guam are characterized by pity, neglect and repulsion…

  12. Vectorized Shoreline of Rota, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, Derived from IKONOS Imagery, 2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — IKONOS imagery was purchased to support the Pacific Islands Geographic Information System (GIS) project and the National Ocean Service's (NOS) coral mapping...

  13. Sarigan Island IKONOS Imagery - IKONOS Imagery for the Northern Mariana Islands, 2001-2003

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This project is a cooperative effort among the National Ocean Service, National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science, Center for Coastal Monitoring and Assessment; the...

  14. Rota Island IKONOS Mosaic Imagery 2001-2003 - IKONOS Imagery for the Northern Mariana Islands

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This project is a cooperative effort between the National Ocean Service, National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science, Center for Coastal Monitoring and Assessment,...

  15. Aguijan Island IKONOS Mosaic Imagery 2001-2003 - IKONOS Imagery for the Northern Mariana Islands

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This project is a cooperative effort between the National Ocean Service, National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science, Center for Coastal Monitoring and Assessment,...

  16. Sarigan Island IKONOS Mosaic Imagery 2001-2003 - IKONOS Imagery for the Northern Mariana Islands

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This project is a cooperative effort between the National Ocean Service, National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science, Center for Coastal Monitoring and Assessment,...

  17. Maug Islands IKONOS Mosaic Imagery 2001-2003 - IKONOS Imagery for the Northern Mariana Islands

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This project is a cooperative effort between the National Ocean Service, National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science, Center for Coastal Monitoring and Assessment,...

  18. Aguijan Island IKONOS Imagery - IKONOS Imagery for the Northern Mariana Islands, 2001-2003

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This project is a cooperative effort among the National Ocean Service, National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science, Center for Coastal Monitoring and Assessment; the...

  19. Farallon de Pajaros IKONOS Mosaic Imagery 2001-2003- IKONOS Imagery for the Northern Mariana Islands

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This project is a cooperative effort between the National Ocean Service, National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science, Center for Coastal Monitoring and Assessment,...

  20. Rota Island IKONOS Imagery - IKONOS Imagery for the Northern Mariana Islands, 2001-2003

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This project is a cooperative effort among the National Ocean Service, National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science, Center for Coastal Monitoring and Assessment; the...

  1. Farallon de Medinilla IKONOS Imagery - IKONOS Imagery for the Northern Mariana Islands, 2001-2003

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This project is a cooperative effort among the National Ocean Service, National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science, Center for Coastal Monitoring and Assessment; the...

  2. Saipan Island IKONOS Mosaic Imagery 2001-2003 - IKONOS Imagery for the Northern Mariana Islands

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This project is a cooperative effort between the National Ocean Service, National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science, Center for Coastal Monitoring and Assessment,...

  3. Maug Islands IKONOS Imagery - IKONOS Imagery for the Northern Mariana Islands, 2001-2003

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This project is a cooperative effort among the National Ocean Service, National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science, Center for Coastal Monitoring and Assessment; the...

  4. Anatahan Island IKONOS Imagery - IKONOS Imagery for the Northern Mariana Islands, 2001-2003

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This project is a cooperative effort among the National Ocean Service, National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science, Center for Coastal Monitoring and Assessment; the...

  5. Pagan Island IKONOS Imagery - IKONOS Imagery for the Northern Mariana Islands, 2001-2003

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This project is a cooperative effort among the National Ocean Service, National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science, Center for Coastal Monitoring and Assessment; the...

  6. Tinian Island IKONOS Imagery - IKONOS Imagery for the Northern Mariana Islands, 2001-2003

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This project is a cooperative effort among the National Ocean Service, National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science, Center for Coastal Monitoring and Assessment; the...

  7. Tinian Island IKONOS Mosaic Imagery 2001-2003 - IKONOS Imagery for the Northern Mariana Islands

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This project is a cooperative effort between the National Ocean Service, National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science, Center for Coastal Monitoring and Assessment,...

  8. Alamagan Island IKONOS Imagery - IKONOS Imagery for the Northern Mariana Islands, 2001-2003

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This project is a cooperative effort among the National Ocean Service, National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science, Center for Coastal Monitoring and Assessment; the...

  9. Farallon de Pajaros IKONOS Imagery - IKONOS Imagery for the Northern Mariana Islands, 2001-2003

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This project is a cooperative effort among the National Ocean Service, National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science, Center for Coastal Monitoring and Assessment; the...

  10. Farallon de Medinilla IKONOS Mosaic Imagery 2001-2003 - IKONOS Imagery for the Northern Mariana Islands

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This project is a cooperative effort between the National Ocean Service, National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science, Center for Coastal Monitoring and Assessment,...

  11. Asuncion Island IKONOS Mosaic Imagery 2001-2003 - IKONOS Imagery for the Northern Mariana Islands

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This project is a cooperative effort between the National Ocean Service, National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science, Center for Coastal Monitoring and Assessment,...

  12. Anatahan Island IKONOS Mosaic Imagery 2001-2003 - IKONOS Imagery for the Northern Mariana Islands

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This project is a cooperative effort between the National Ocean Service, National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science, Center for Coastal Monitoring and Assessment,...

  13. Agrihan Island IKONOS Imagery - IKONOS Imagery for the Northern Mariana Islands, 2001-2003

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This project is a cooperative effort among the National Ocean Service, National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science, Center for Coastal Monitoring and Assessment; the...

  14. Guguan Island IKONOS Mosaic Imagery 2001-2003 - IKONOS Imagery for the Northern Mariana Islands

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This project is a cooperative effort between the National Ocean Service, National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science, Center for Coastal Monitoring and Assessment,...

  15. Saipan Island IKONOS Imagery - IKONOS Imagery for the Northern Mariana Islands, 2001-2003

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This project is a cooperative effort among the National Ocean Service, National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science, Center for Coastal Monitoring and Assessment; the...

  16. Asuncion Island IKONOS Imagery - IKONOS Imagery for the Northern Mariana Islands, 2001-2003

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This project is a cooperative effort among the National Ocean Service, National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science, Center for Coastal Monitoring and Assessment; the...

  17. Alamagan Island IKONOS Mosaic Imagery 2001-2003 - IKONOS Imagery for the Northern Mariana Islands

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This project is a cooperative effort between the National Ocean Service, National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science, Center for Coastal Monitoring and Assessment,...

  18. Benthic Habitats of the Alamagan, Northern Mariana Archipelago 2001-2003, Derived From IKONOS Imagery

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This project is a cooperative effort between the National Ocean Service, National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science, Center for Coastal Monitoring and Assessment,...

  19. Benthic Habitats of the Asuncion Island Northern Mariana Archipelago 2001-2003, Derived From IKONOS Imagery

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This project is a cooperative effort between the National Ocean Service, National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science, Center for Coastal Monitoring and Assessment,...

  20. Benthic Habitats of the Maug Islands Northern Mariana Archipelago 2001-2003, Derived From IKONOS Imagery

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This project is a cooperative effort between the National Ocean Service, National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science, Center for Coastal Monitoring and Assessment,...

  1. Benthic Habitats of the Sarigan, Northern Mariana Archipelago 2001-2003, Derived From IKONOS Imagery

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This project is a cooperative effort between the National Ocean Service, National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science, Center for Coastal Monitoring and Assessment,...

  2. Benthic Habitats of the Northern Mariana Archipelago Derived From IKONOS Imagery, 2001-2003

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This project is a cooperative effort among the National Ocean Service, National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science, Center for Coastal Monitoring and Assessment; the...

  3. Vectorized Shoreline of Saipan, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, Derived from IKONOS Imagery, 2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — IKONOS imagery was purchased to support the Pacific Islands Geographic Information System (GIS) project and the National Ocean Service's (NOS) coral mapping...

  4. Vectorized Shoreline of Tinian, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, Derived from IKONOS Imagery, 2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — IKONOS imagery was purchased to support the Pacific Islands Geographic Information System (GIS) project and the National Ocean Service's (NOS) coral mapping...

  5. C-CAP Land Cover, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI), Rota 2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set consists of land derived from high resolution imagery and was analyzed according to the Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) protocol to determine...

  6. BioSearch Marinelife Observer Program for the Northern Mariana Islands

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — BioSearch is a volunteer monitoring program targeting recreational divers and boaters and designed to gather information about occurrences of large or rare...

  7. 78 FR 70248 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-25

    ... of the 1970 Act Amendments, CNMI was part of the post-World War II United Nations' Trust Territory of...) accordingly. EPA indicated that these changes to each subpart had no substantive effect but were rather made..., provisions of the Social Security Act and the Public Health Service Act. Paragraph (2) states ``those laws...

  8. Rugosity grid (5 m) derived from gridded bathymetry of Saipan Island, Commonwealth of the Northern Marianas

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Rugosity is derived from gridded (5 m cell size) bathymetry from two sources: Multibeam bathymetry collected by Coral Reef Ecosystem Division aboard NOAA R/V AHI,...

  9. H11674: NOS Hydrographic Survey , Saipan Harbor, Northern Mariana Islands, 2007-05-24

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has the statutory mandate to collect hydrographic data in support of nautical chart compilation for safe...

  10. 5 m Gridded multibeam bathymetry of Rota Island, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Rota Island, CNMI. Bottom coverage was achieved in depths between 0 and -1905 meters; this 5-m grid has data only to -400 m. The netCDF and Arc ASCII grids include...

  11. Gridded multibeam bathymetry of Rota Island, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded bathymetry shelf, bank and slope environments of Rota Island, CNMI. Bottom coverage was achieved in depths between 0 and -1905 meters. The netCDF and Arc...

  12. C-CAP Land Cover, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI), Rota 1946

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set consists of land derived from scanned black and white aerial photographs and was analyzed according to the Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP)...

  13. Vectorized Shoreline of Saipan, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, Derived from IKONOS Imagery, 2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — IKONOS imagery was purchased to support the Pacific Islands Geographic Information System (GIS) project and the National Ocean Service's (NOS) coral mapping...

  14. Vectorized Shoreline of Sarigan, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands 2001, Derived from IKONOS Imagery

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — IKONOS imagery was purchased to support the Pacific Islands Geographic Information System (GIS) project and the National Ocean Service's (NOS) coral mapping...

  15. A serpentinite-hosted ecosystem in the Southern Mariana Forearc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohara, Yasuhiko; Reagan, Mark K; Fujikura, Katsunori; Watanabe, Hiromi; Michibayashi, Katsuyoshi; Ishii, Teruaki; Stern, Robert J; Pujana, Ignacio; Martinez, Fernando; Girard, Guillaume; Ribeiro, Julia; Brounce, Maryjo; Komori, Naoaki; Kino, Masashi

    2012-02-21

    Several varieties of seafloor hydrothermal vents with widely varying fluid compositions and temperatures and vent communities occur in different tectonic settings. The discovery of the Lost City hydrothermal field in the Mid-Atlantic Ridge has stimulated interest in the role of serpentinization of peridotite in generating H(2)- and CH(4)-rich fluids and associated carbonate chimneys, as well as in the biological communities supported in highly reduced, alkaline environments. Abundant vesicomyid clam communities associated with a serpentinite-hosted hydrothermal vent system in the southern Mariana forearc were discovered during a DSV Shinkai 6500 dive in September 2010. We named this system the "Shinkai Seep Field (SSF)." The SSF appears to be a serpentinite-hosted ecosystem within a forearc (convergent margin) setting that is supported by fault-controlled fluid pathways connected to the decollement of the subducting slab. The discovery of the SSF supports the prediction that serpentinite-hosted vents may be widespread on the ocean floor. The discovery further indicates that these serpentinite-hosted low-temperature fluid vents can sustain high-biomass communities and has implications for the chemical budget of the oceans and the distribution of abyssal chemosynthetic life.

  16. Vertically distinct microbial communities in the Mariana and Kermadec trenches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaldson, Sierra; Osuntokun, Oladayo; Xia, Qing; Nelson, Alex; Blanton, Jessica; Allen, Eric E.; Church, Matthew J.; Bartlett, Douglas H.

    2018-01-01

    Hadal trenches, oceanic locations deeper than 6,000 m, are thought to have distinct microbial communities compared to those at shallower depths due to high hydrostatic pressures, topographical funneling of organic matter, and biogeographical isolation. Here we evaluate the hypothesis that hadal trenches contain unique microbial biodiversity through analyses of the communities present in the bottom waters of the Kermadec and Mariana trenches. Estimates of microbial protein production indicate active populations under in situ hydrostatic pressures and increasing adaptation to pressure with depth. Depth, trench of collection, and size fraction are important drivers of microbial community structure. Many putative hadal bathytypes, such as members related to the Marinimicrobia, Rhodobacteraceae, Rhodospirilliceae, and Aquibacter, are similar to members identified in other trenches. Most of the differences between the two trench microbiomes consists of taxa belonging to the Gammaproteobacteria whose distributions extend throughout the water column. Growth and survival estimates of representative isolates of these taxa under deep-sea conditions suggest that some members may descend from shallower depths and exist as a potentially inactive fraction of the hadal zone. We conclude that the distinct pelagic communities residing in these two trenches, and perhaps by extension other trenches, reflect both cosmopolitan hadal bathytypes and ubiquitous genera found throughout the water column. PMID:29621268

  17. Investigation of the possible connection of rock and soil geochemistry to the occurrence of high rates of neurodegenerative diseases on Guam and a hypothesis for the cause of the diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, William R.; Sanzolone, Richard F.

    2003-01-01

    High incidences of neurodegenerative diseases, mainly dementia, parkinsonism, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, occur on the island of Guam (Koerner, 1952; Kurland and Mulder, 1954). The occurrence and description of the diseases and a summary of the investigations can be found in Perl (1997). The diseases have been more prevalent along the southern coast, particularly the small villages of Umatac, Merizo, and Inarajan (Reed and Brody, 1975; Roman, 1996; and Perl, 1997) (fig. 1), and referred to as the southern villages in this report. Tertiary volcanic rocks underlie most of the southern part of the island, including these villages. The northern part of Guam, with lower incidences of the diseases, consists of carbonate rocks. Epidemiological studies beginning in the early 1950’s failed to show the cause to be genetic etiology (Plato and others, 1986; Zhang and others, 1990). In recent studies, the search for pathogenic mechanisms has shifted to environmental factors. Excesses or deficiencies of various elements from dietary sources including drinking water can have an effect on human health. These deficiencies or excesses can usually be attributed to the geochemical composition of the rocks and derived soils that underlie the area. An example is the high concentration of Se in soil associated with the occurrence of selenosis in adults (Mills, 1996). Yase (1972) suggested that the neurodegenerative diseases on Guam may be related to accumulation of trace elements such as manganese and aluminum, both of which may cause neurodegeneration. It has been suggested that a deficiency in calcium and magnesium in the soil and water along with readily available aluminum could be connected to the occurrence of the diseases (Gajdusek, 1982; Yanagihara and others, 1984; Garruto and others, 1989). Some of the studies investigated metal exposure, particularly aluminum and manganese, and deficiencies in calcium and magnesium (Garruto and others, 1984). Aluminum has been shown to

  18. Simultaneous Ka-Band Site Characterization: Goldstone, CA, White Sands, NM, and Guam, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta, Roberto; Morse, Jacquelynne; Zemba, Michael; Nessel, James; Morabito, David; Caroglanian, Armen

    2011-01-01

    To statistically characterize atmospheric effects on Ka-band links at NASA operational sites, NASA has constructed site test interferometers (STI s) which directly measure the tropospheric phase stability and rain attenuation. These instruments observe an unmodulated beacon signal broadcast from a geostationary satellite (e.g., Anik F2) and measure the phase difference between the signals received by the two antennas and its signal attenuation. Three STI s have been deployed so far: the first one at the NASA Deep Space Network Tracking Complex in Goldstone, California (May 2007); the second at the NASA White Sands Complex, in Las Cruses, New Mexico (February 2009); and the third at the NASA Tracking and Data Relay Satellite (TDRS) Remote Ground Terminal (GRGT) complex in Guam (May 2010). Two station-years of simultaneous atmospheric phase fluctuation data have been collected at Goldstone and White Sands, while one year of data has been collected in Guam. With identical instruments operating simultaneously, we can directly compare the phase stability and rain attenuation at the three sites. Phase stability is analyzed statistically in terms of the root-mean-square (rms) of the tropospheric induced time delay fluctuations over 10 minute blocks. For two years, the time delay fluctuations at the DSN site in Goldstone, CA, have been better than 2.5 picoseconds (ps) for 90% of the time (with reference to zenith), meanwhile at the White Sands, New Mexico site, the time delay fluctuations have been better than 2.2 ps with reference to zenith) for 90% of time. For Guam, the time delay fluctuations have been better than 12 ps (reference to zenith) at 90% of the time, the higher fluctuations are as expected from a high humidity tropical rain zone. This type of data analysis, as well as many other site quality characteristics (e.g., rain attenuation, infrastructure, etc.) will be used to determine the suitability of all the sites for NASA s future communication services at Ka-band.

  19. Ripening of Pithecellobium dulce (Roxb.) Benth. [Guamúchil] Fruit: Physicochemical, Chemical and Antioxidant Changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall-Medrano, Abraham; González-Aguilar, Gustavo A; Loarca-Piña, Guadalupe F; López-Díaz, José A; Villegas-Ochoa, Mónica A; Tortoledo-Ortiz, Orlando; Olivas-Aguirre, Francisco J; Ramos-Jiménez, Arnulfo; Robles-Zepeda, Ramón

    2016-12-01

    The fruit of Guamúchil is an excellent source of bioactive compounds for human health although their natural occurrence could be affected by the ripening process. The aim was to evaluate some physicochemical, chemical and antioxidant changes in guamúchil fruit during six ripening stages (I to VI). A defined trend (p ≤ 0.003) was observed for color [°Hue, 109 (light green) to 20 (dark red)], anthocyanins (+571 %), soluble solids (+0.33 o Brix), ash (+16 %), sucrose (-91 %), proanthocyanidins (63 %), ascorbic acid (-52 %) and hydrolysable PC (-21 %). Carotenoids were not detected and chlorogenic acid was the most abundant phenolic compound. Maximal availability of these bioactives per ripening stage (p ≤ 0.03) was as follows: I (protein/ lipids/ sucrose/ proanthocyanidins/ hydrolysable phenolics), II (total sugars/ascorbic acid), III (total phenolics), IV (flavonoids/ chlorogenic acid) and VI (fructose/ glucose/ anthocyanins). Color change was explained by sucrose (β = 0.47) and anthocyanin (β = 0.20) contents (p < 0.001). Radical scavenging capacity (ORAC, DPPH and TEAC) strongly correlated with total PC (r = 0.49-0.65, p ≤ 0.001) but 89 % of ORAC's associated variance was explained by anthocyanin + sucrose + ascorbic acid (p ≤ 0.0001). Guamúchil fruit could be a more convenient source of specific bioactive compounds if harvested at different ripening stages.

  20. Women in Guam consume more calories during feast days than during non-feast days.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulino, Yvette C; Leon Guerrero, Rachael T; Novotny, Rachel

    2011-03-01

    Parties (feast days) have become increasingly frequent and abundant, in terms of food, on the island of Guam. Considering the potential impact of this frequency and abundance on food intake, this study compared food intake during feast days and non-feast days of women in Guam (25 Chamorros; 24 Filipinas). The women (≥40 yr) recalled foods they usually consumed during feast days. Subsequently, a 24-hour dietary recall for a non-feast day was completed by a subsample (n=25). Height, weight, and waist circumference were measured to assess obesity status. Statistical analyses (paired t-test, ANOVA, and chi-square test) were performed with SPSS. Compared to a non-feast day, the women reported higher intakes of dietary energy (2645.0 ± 1125.8 versus 1654.0 ± 718.8 kcal/day), carbohydrates (43.8 ± 11.5% versus 51.8 ± 10.2% of kcal), total fat (34.1 ± 7.8% versus 27.5 ± 9.6% of kcal), saturated fat (11.4 ± 4.7% versus 7.9 ± 3.4% of kcal), and sugar (89.5 ± 62.8 versus 47.3 ± 42.2 g/day) on feast days. Chamorros, compared to Filipinas, reported higher dietary energy density (1.7 ± 0.4 versus 1.4 ± 0.3 kcal/g), total fat (35.3 ± 8.9% versus 30.7 ± 6.8% of kcal), and saturated fat (12.4 ± 4.9% versus 9.4 ± 3.3% of kcal); and lower servings of fruit (0.5 ± 1.0 versus 2.7 ± 1.8) on feast days. Fourteen Chamorros (56.0%) and one Filipina (4.1%) were classified as obese. Current feasting behaviors of women in Guam may contribute to obesity if continued for a long period. The women would benefit by choosing more fruit and vegetable dishes in place of high-energy dishes. Chamorro women would particularly benefit by reducing saturated fat intake. Traditional foods, such as taro, breadfruit, seafood, fruits, and vegetables, would help accomplish this and thus should be promoted at parties on Guam.

  1. Initial magmatism and evolution of the Izu-Bonin-Mariana Arc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arculus, R. J.

    2016-12-01

    Expedition 351 of the IODP targeted site U1438 in the Amami Sankaku Basin, northwestern Philippine Sea , 70 km west of the northern Kyushu-Palau Ridge (KPR). The latter formed a chain of stratovolcanoes of the Izu-Bonin-Mariana (IBM) arc, and a remnant arc following migration of the volcanic front eastwards during Shikoku backarc basin formation in the Miocene. Unravelling causes of subduction initiation drove the primary aims of the Expedition involving recovery of igneous basement below the KPR, and a history of the magmatic evolution of the KPR preserved in a clastic record. All these aims were achieved, but with some surprises. Out of 1600m drilled in 4700m water depth, 150m of igneous oceanic crust comprising low-K, tholeiitic basalt lava flows were recovered at U1438. The lavas are variably glassy to microphyric, Cr-spinel-olivine-plagioclase-clinopyroxene-bearing, have high V/Ti, very low absolute rare earth element abundances and low La/Yb, and radiogenic Hf at a given 143/144Nd compared to basalts of mid-ocean ridges. The basement is geochemically and petrologically similar to so-called "forearc basalts" recovered trenchward of the active IBM volcanic front, and of similar or older age (≥52Ma). Highly melt-depleted mantle source(s) were involved and high-temperature, low-pressure dehydration of the subducting Pacific Plate. Compositions of glass (formerly melt) inclusions in clinopyroxene-bearing clasts and sandstones in sediments overlying the basement show a change from medium-Fe (aka "calcalkaline") to low-Fe (tholeiitic) magmas during the Eocene-Oligocene evolution of the KPR. Widespread magmatism along- and across-strike of the nascent IBM system coupled with geologic constraints from the western Philippine Sea, indicate subduction initiation at the IBM arc likely propagated adjacent to Mesozoic-aged arcs/basins to the west of the KPR, following plate reorganization subsequent to the demise of the Izanagi-Pacific Ridge along eastern Asia at 60Ma

  2. Age of Izu-Bonin-Mariana arc basement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishizuka, Osamu; Hickey-Vargas, Rosemary; Arculus, Richard J.; Yogodzinski, Gene M.; Savov, Ivan P.; Kusano, Yuki; McCarthy, Anders; Brandl, Philipp A.; Sudo, Masafumi

    2018-01-01

    Documenting the early tectonic and magmatic evolution of the Izu-Bonin-Mariana (IBM) arc system in the Western Pacific is critical for understanding the process and cause of subduction initiation along the current convergent margin between the Pacific and Philippine Sea plates. Forearc igneous sections provide firm evidence for seafloor spreading at the time of subduction initiation (52 Ma) and production of "forearc basalt". Ocean floor drilling (International Ocean Discovery Program Expedition 351) recovered basement-forming, low-Ti tholeiitic basalt crust formed shortly after subduction initiation but distal from the convergent margin (nominally reararc) of the future IBM arc (Amami Sankaku Basin: ASB). Radiometric dating of this basement gives an age range (49.3-46.8 Ma with a weighted average of 48.7 Ma) that overlaps that of basalt in the present-day IBM forearc, but up to 3.3 m.y. younger than the onset of forearc basalt activity. Similarity in age range and geochemical character between the reararc and forearc basalts implies that the ocean crust newly formed by seafloor spreading during subduction initiation extends from fore- to reararc of the present-day IBM arc. Given the age difference between the oldest forearc basalt and the ASB crust, asymmetric spreading caused by ridge migration might have taken place. This scenario for the formation of the ASB implies that the Mesozoic remnant arc terrane of the Daito Ridges comprised the overriding plate at subduction initiation. The juxtaposition of a relatively buoyant remnant arc terrane adjacent to an oceanic plate was more favourable for subduction initiation than would have been the case if both downgoing and overriding plates had been oceanic.

  3. Mantle contamination and the Izu-Bonin-Mariana (IBM) 'high-tide mark': evidence for mantle extrusion caused by Tethyan closure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flower, M. F. J.; Russo, R. M.; Tamaki, K.; Hoang, N.

    2001-04-01

    Western Pacific basins are characterized by three remarkable attributes: (1) complex kinematic histories linked to global-scale plate interactions; (2) DUPAL-like contaminated mantle; and (3) rapid post-Mesozoic rollback of the confining arc-trench systems. The coincidence of slab steepening, extreme arc curvature, and vigorous basin opening associated with the Mariana convergent margin suggests that rollback continues in response to an east-directed mantle 'wind'. Against a backdrop of conflicting kinematic and genetic interpretations we explore the notion that eastward asthenospheric flow driven by diachronous Tethyan closure caused stretching of eastern Eurasia and concomitant opening of western Pacific basins. Marking the eastern boundary of the latter, the Izu-Bonin-Mariana forearc may be regarded as a litho-tectonic 'high-tide mark' comprising igneous and metamorphic products from successive episodes (since ca. 45 Ma.) of arc sundering and backarc basin opening. The forearc also forms an isotopic boundary separating contaminated western Pacific mantle from the N-MORB Pacific Ocean reservoir. While the isotopic composition of western Pacific mantle resembles that feeding Indian Ocean hotspot and spreading systems, its spatial-temporal variation and the presence of subduction barriers to the south appear to preclude northward flow of Indian Ocean mantle and require an endogenous origin for sub-Eurasian contaminated mantle. It is concluded that the extrusion of Tethyan asthenosphere, contaminated by sub-Asian cratonic lithosphere, was a major cause of western Pacific arc rollback and basin opening. The model is consistent with paleomagnetic and geologic evidence supporting independent kinematic histories for constituent parts of the Philippine Sea and Sunda plates although interpretation of these is speculative. Compounded by effects of the Australia-Indonesia collision, late-Tethyan mantle extrusion appears to have produced the largest DUPAL domain in the

  4. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Benthic Images Collected from Climate Stations across the Mariana Archipelago in 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Photoquadrat benthic images were collected at NCRMP climate stations and permanent sites identified by the Ocean and Climate Change team across the Mariana...

  5. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Towed-diver Surveys of Large-bodied Fishes of the Marianas since 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The towed-diver method is used to conduct surveys of large-bodied (> 50 cm) fishes in the Hawaiian and Mariana Archipelagos, American Samoa, and the Pacific...

  6. Integrated hard and soft bottom seafloor substrate maps at select islands in American Samoa and the Mariana Archipelago

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Seafloor substrate (i.e., hard vs. soft bottom) from 0 to 50 m depths around islands in American Samoa and Mariana Archipelago produced by the NOAA Coral Reef...

  7. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Benthic Images Collected from Climate Stations across the Mariana Archipelago in 2014 (NCEI Accession 0157759)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Photoquadrat benthic images were collected at NCRMP climate stations and permanent sites identified by the Ocean and Climate Change team across the Mariana...

  8. CRED SVP Drifting Buoy Argos_ID 28638 Data, Saipan in the Marianas Archipelago, 200308-200503 (NODC Accession 0067473)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CRED SVP drifter Argos_ID 28638 was deployed in the region of Marianas Archipelago to assess ocean currents and sea surface temperature. SVP drifter data files...

  9. CRED SVP Drifting Buoy Argos_ID 29099 Data, Rota in the Marianas Archipelago, 200309-200402 (NODC Accession 0067473)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CRED SVP drifter Argos_ID 29099 was deployed in the region of Marianas Archipelago to assess ocean currents and sea surface temperature. SVP drifter data files...

  10. 29 CFR 570.10 - Rules for certificates of age in the State of Alaska and the Territory of Guam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Rules for certificates of age in the State of Alaska and the Territory of Guam. 570.10 Section 570.10 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS CHILD LABOR REGULATIONS, ORDERS AND STATEMENTS OF...

  11. Guam Medical Staffing Plan Needs Improvement to Ensure Eligible Beneficiaries Will Have Adequate Access to Health Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-16

    Podiatry • Gastroenterology • Pediatric Psychology • Pediatric Psychiatry • Cardio Thoracic Surgery NMW estimated that USNH Guam will deliver...considered using circuit rider programs for neurology and podiatry . Circuit rider programs provide limited access to specialty care because providers...are: Neurology, Neurosurgery, Cardiology, Cardio Thoracic Surgery, NICU, Podiatry , Gastroenterology; Pediatric Psychiatry, and Pediatric Psychology

  12. Human polyomavirus JC variants in Papua New Guinea and Guam reflect ancient population settlement and viral evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryschkewitsch, C F; Friedlaender, J S; Mgone, C S; Jobes, D V; Agostini, H T; Chima, S C; Alpers, M P; Koki, G; Yanagihara, R; Stoner, G L

    2000-07-01

    The peopling of the Pacific was a complex sequence of events that is best reconstructed by reconciling insights from various disciplines. Here we analyze the human polyomavirus JC (JCV) in Highlanders of Papua New Guinea (PNG), in Austronesian-speaking Tolai people on the island of New Britain, and in nearby non-Austronesian-speaking Baining people. We also characterize JCV from the Chamorro of Guam, a Micronesian population. All JCV strains from PNG and Guam fall within the broad Asian group previously defined in the VP1 gene as Type 2 or Type 7, but the PNG strains were distinct from both genotypes. Among the Chamorro JCV samples, 8 strains (Guam-1) were like the Type 7 strains found in Southeast Asia, while nine strains (Guam-2) were distinct from both the mainland strains and most PNG strains. We identified three JCV variants within Papua New Guinea (PNG-1, PNG-2 and PNG-3), but none of the Southeast Asian (Type 7) strains. PNG-1 strains were present in all three populations (Highlanders and the Baining and Tolai of New Britain), but PNG-2 strains were restricted to the Highlanders. Their relative lack of DNA sequence variation suggests that they arose comparatively recently. The single PNG-3 strain, identified in an Austronesian-speaking Tolai individual, was closely related to the Chamorro variants (Guam-2), consistent with a common Austronesian ancestor. In PNG-2 variants a complex regulatory region mutation inserts a duplication into a nearby deletion, a change reminiscent of those seen in the brains of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy patients. This is the first instance of a complex JCV rearrangement circulating in a human population.

  13. Two Years of Simultaneous K(sub a)-Band Measurements: Goldstone, CA; White Sands, NM; and Guam, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta, Roberto J.; Zemba, M.; Morse, J.; Nessel, J.

    2012-01-01

    In order to statistically characterize the effect of the Earth's atmosphere on Ka-Band links, site test interferometers (STIs) have been deployed at three of NASA s operational sites to directly measure each site's tropospheric phase stability and rain attenuation. These STIs are composed of two antennas on a short baseline (less than 1km) that observe the same unmodulated beacon signal broadcast from a geostationary satellite (e.g., Anik F2). The STIs are used to measure the differential phase between the two received signals as well as the individual signal attenuation at each terminal. There are currently three NASA sites utilizing STIs; the Goldstone Deep Space Communications Complex near Barstow, California; the White Sands Complex in Las Cruces, New Mexico; and the Guam Remote Ground Terminal on the island of Guam. The first two sites are both located in desert regions that have highly similar climates in terms of their seasonal temperatures, average humidity, and annual rain fall (the primary factors in determining phase stability). In contrast, Guam is in a tropical region with drastically higher annual rainfall and humidity. Five station years of data have been collected in Goldstone, three in White Sands, and two in Guam, yielding two years of simultaneous data collection across all three sites. During this period of simultaneous data collection, the root-mean-square (RMS) of the time delay fluctuations stayed under 2.40 picoseconds for 90% of the time in Goldstone, under 2.07 picoseconds for 90% of the time in White Sands, and under 10.13 picoseconds for 90% of the time in Guam. For the 99th percentile, the statistics were 6.32 ps, 6.03 ps, and 24.85 ps, respectively. These values, as well as various other site quality characteristics, will be used to determine the suitability of these sites for NASA s future communication services at Ka-Band.

  14. Molecular Variation in Picea Rubens and Picea Mariana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobola, Michael S.

    Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) variation was examined among samples from the entire range of red spruce (Picea rubens Sarg.), the eastern complex of black spruce (Picea mariana (Mill.) B.S.P.), control -cross red-on-black hybrids, and natural populations of red and black spruce. Within-species and population variation was examined. In addition an accurate species index capable of identifying red spruce, black spruce and hybridization between the two species was developed. The nuclear rDNA repeat unit size in Picea ranged from a minimum of 32 kbp to greater than 40 kbp, two to three fold larger than the typical angiosperm rDNA unit. At a size greater than 32 kbp and a concentration averaging 1.2-1.3 times 10^4 copies per pg genomic DNA, the rDNA repeat constitutes approximately 4% of the spruce genome. The rDNA repeat units were found to be polymorphic within an individual genome with up to five distinct rDNA repeat unit types (alleles) evident. The RFLPs observed in the rDNA repeat were not species specific; however, noticeable trends in internal allelic frequencies were noticed which were useful for between-species differentiation. One marker (EMW 4.35) displayed a significant relationship with geographic origins and habitat suggesting that the observed between-species variation for this marker may be due to selection rather than the result of a true species difference. Variation in the nuclear rDNA repeat could not accurately differentiate hybrids from black spruce. Additional markers were required to identify hybrids. RFLPs were identified for the organelle genomes of red spruce, and black spruce. The organelle inheritance pattern was deduced using controlled-cross hybrids. Organelle markers were combined with allelic data from the nuclear rDNA repeat to derive a simple three character index capable of identifying red spruce, black spruce and hybridization between the two species. Significant gene flow was observed between red and black spruce

  15. Northern employment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zavitz, J.

    1997-01-01

    Hiring practices and policies and employment opportunities that were available in the Beaufort Sea and MacKenzie Delta project for local residents and for people from southern Canada were dealt with in this chapter. Depending on the source, Northern hiring was a mere token, or a genuine and successful effort on the part of the companies to involve the native population and to share with them the benefits of the project. The fact remains that opening up job opportunities for Northerners was not easily attained, and would never have been realized without the involvement of government and community organizations. Government also played a major role in developing policies and training regimes. By the end of exploration operations, the hiring of Northern residents in the oil and gas industry had become a requirement of drilling applications. Training programs were also created to ensure that Northern residents received the means necessary to take advantage of Northern employment opportunities

  16. 2003 Reson 8101ER Multibeam Sonar Data from Cruise OES-03-07/AHI-03-07, Data Set Name Guam.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Reson 8101ER multibeam Data were collected between 22-26 September 2003 (JD 265-269) aboard NOAA Survey Launch Acoustic Habitat Investigator (AHI) at Guam Island in...

  17. Preliminary hard and soft bottom seafloor substrate map derived from gridded sidescan and bathymetry derivatives at Apra Harbor, Guam U.S. Territory.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Preliminary hard and soft seafloor substrate map classified from sidescan data and bathymetric derivatives at Apra Harbor, Guam U.S. Territory. The dataset was...

  18. Defense Infrastructure: Guam Needs Timely Information from DOD to Meet Challenges in Planning and Financing Off-Base Projects and Programs to Support a Larger Military Presence

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-11-13

    plan to guide the civilian community as a result of rapid military growth • Designing, testing, and implementation of an econometric model to...continue. 17 48 U.S.C. § 1423a. Most U.S. states and local municipalities have similar...additional revenue. For instance, Guam receives federal income taxes paid by military and civilian employees of the U.S. government stationed in Guam.22

  19. Improving Strategies to Prevent and Prepare for Radiological Attack

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    minimum 0.75% of available grant funding. Additionally, American Samoa, Guam, the Northern Mariana Islands, and the U.S. Virgin Islands each receive a...and Florida offer tax holidays on hurricane readiness supplies. The government should consider additional incentives to promote readiness. One...Taxation. “May Sales Tax Holiday : Hurricane and Emergency Preparedness Equipment.” Virginia Department of Taxation Web site http://www.tax.virginia.gov

  20. Health Security Intelligence: Assessing the Nascent Public Health Capability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    States of Micronesia, Republic of the Marshall Islands , and Republic of Palau) (CDC— PHPR—Funding, Guidance, and Technical Assistance to States...and eight U.S. territories and freely associated states (American Samoa, Guam, U.S. Virgin Islands , Northern Mariana Islands , Puerto Rico, Federated...planning for the aerosolized release of the toxin ricin near state and federal government facilities (Jaslow, 2011). A recent report by the Aspen

  1. Energy recovery ventilation as a radon mitigation method for Navy family housing in Guam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-12-01

    Energy recovery ventilation involves the exchange of contaminated indoor air with fresh, uncontaminated outdoor air with recovery of energy. During radon mitigation diagnostics, air change measurements were performed within three typical Navy family houses, and some were found to be well below recommended minimum standards. The only practical way to solve the indoor air quality problem was to increase the ventilation rate. Options were evaluated, and it was decided to install energy recovery ventilation (ERV) systems. An ERV system is a packaged unit complete with blower fans, controls, and air-to-air heat exchanger. However, because of economical limits on the quantity of conditioned air that can be exchanged, ERV has a finite range of application in radon abatement. In Guam, ERV has potential applications in up to 370 units and in an additional 154 units if the mechanical systems are moved indoors. The performance of ERV systems were evaluated during a demonstration program to determine the removal efficiency of radon

  2. Municipal solid waste energy conversion study on Guam and American Samoa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-03-31

    In the Pacific Islands of Guam and Tutuila in American Samoa, conversion of municipal solid waste to useable energy forms - principally electricity but possibly steam - may hold promise for reducing economic dependence on imported petroleum. A secondary benefit may be derived from reduction of solid waste landfill requirements. At the preliminary planning stage, waste-to-energy facilities producing electricity appear technically and environmentally feasible. Economically, the projects appear marginal but could be viable under specific conditions related to capital costs, revenue from garbage collection and revenue from the sale of the energy generated. Grant funding for the projects would considerably enhance the economic viability of the proposed facilities. The projects appear sufficiently viable to proceed to the detailed planning stage. Such projects are not viable for the islands now emerging from the US Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands.

  3. Developing a Betel Quid Cessation Program on the Island of Guam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, John; Kawamoto, Crissy; Pokhrel, Pallav; Paulino, Yvette; Herzog, Thaddeus

    2015-01-01

    Betel quid is a psychoactive drug preparation typically made up of a combination of areca quid, slaked lime, piper betel leaf and tobacco. It is the fourth most commonly consumed drug in the world with global use concentrated in the Asia-Pacific region (Boucher and Mannan, 2002; Warnakulasuriya and Peters, 2002). The International Agency for Research on Cancer has classified betel quid as a Group 1 carcinogen (IARC, 2004; Lin et al., 2006), and its use has been associated with oral and oropharyngeal cancer, oral lesions, oral leukoplakia, submucous fibrosis, gum disease, and cancer of the pharynx and esophagus (IARC, 2004; Oakley et al., 2005; Shah et al., 2002; Warnakulasuriya, 2002). This paper reports on the feasibility of an innovative betel quid cessation program carried on the U.S. territory of Guam, and is the first of its kind. The program is described, along with the challenges encountered during the implementation process.

  4. Geology of Saipan, Mariana Islands; Part 4, Submarine topography and shoal-water ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloud, Preston E.

    1959-01-01

    The topography of the sea floor within 10 miles of Saipan broadly resembles that of the land. Eastward, toward the Mariana trench, slopes are about 6°, without prominent benches or scarps. This is inferred to indicate easterly continuation of generally pyroclastic bedrock. The westward slope averages 2° to 3° and consists mainly of nearly flat benches and westfacing scarps. This is taken to imply westward continuation of a limestone bench-and-fault-scarp topography. Projection of known faults to sea and through Tinian, on the basis of topographic trends, suggests a pattern of west-dipping normal faults that parallel the strike of the Mariana ridge and affect the shape and position of islands at the crest of the ridge.

  5. Land cover change of watersheds in Southern Guam from 1973 to 2001.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Yuming; Khosrowpanah, Shahram; Heitz, Leroy

    2011-08-01

    Land cover change can be caused by human-induced activities and natural forces. Land cover change in watershed level has been a main concern for a long time in the world since watersheds play an important role in our life and environment. This paper is focused on how to apply Landsat Multi-Spectral Scanner (MSS) satellite image of 1973 and Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) satellite image of 2001 to determine the land cover changes of coastal watersheds from 1973 to 2001. GIS and remote sensing are integrated to derive land cover information from Landsat satellite images of 1973 and 2001. The land cover classification is based on supervised classification method in remote sensing software ERDAS IMAGINE. Historical GIS data is used to replace the areas covered by clouds or shadows in the image of 1973 to improve classification accuracy. Then, temporal land cover is utilized to determine land cover change of coastal watersheds in southern Guam. The overall classification accuracies for Landsat MSS image of 1973 and Landsat TM image of 2001 are 82.74% and 90.42%, respectively. The overall classification of Landsat MSS image is particularly satisfactory considering its coarse spatial resolution and relatively bad data quality because of lots of clouds and shadows in the image. Watershed land cover change in southern Guam is affected greatly by anthropogenic activities. However, natural forces also affect land cover in space and time. Land cover information and change in watersheds can be applied for watershed management and planning, and environmental modeling and assessment. Based on spatio-temporal land cover information, the interaction behavior between human and environment may be evaluated. The findings in this research will be useful to similar research in other tropical islands.

  6. Heat flow in the Izu-Ogasawara (Bonin)-Mariana arc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamazaki, T. (Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan))

    1992-04-27

    New heat flow data of 218 points obtained from 1984 to 1989 in the Izu-Ogasawara(Bonin)-Mariana Arc and their interpretation are presented. The purpose of the measurements is to evaluate the potential of hydrothermal activity and to increase an understanding of the tectonics in this region. The Sumisu Rift shows high and variable heat flow values, which suggests the existence of hydrothermal circulation. The Nishinoshima Trough is bounded on the west by a steep fault scarp, and heat flow is higher in the trough than to the west of the scarp. This contrast was considered to reflect difference in crustal thickness caused by old rifting. Local high heat flow associated with an intrusive body is found in the trough. The Mariana Trough north of 22{degree}N, which is currently in a rifting stage, shows thermal asymmetry. In the Mariana Trough south of 22{degree}N, which has developed to a spreading stage, anomalous temperature profiles suggesting hydrothermal circulation are found near the spreading centers. 44 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Fena Valley Reservoir watershed and water-balance model updates and expansion of watershed modeling to southern Guam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Sarah N.; Hay, Lauren E.

    2017-12-01

    In 2014, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Defense’s Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program, initiated a project to evaluate the potential impacts of projected climate-change on Department of Defense installations that rely on Guam’s water resources. A major task of that project was to develop a watershed model of southern Guam and a water-balance model for the Fena Valley Reservoir. The southern Guam watershed model provides a physically based tool to estimate surface-water availability in southern Guam. The U.S. Geological Survey’s Precipitation Runoff Modeling System, PRMS-IV, was used to construct the watershed model. The PRMS-IV code simulates different parts of the hydrologic cycle based on a set of user-defined modules. The southern Guam watershed model was constructed by updating a watershed model for the Fena Valley watersheds, and expanding the modeled area to include all of southern Guam. The Fena Valley watershed model was combined with a previously developed, but recently updated and recalibrated Fena Valley Reservoir water-balance model.Two important surface-water resources for the U.S. Navy and the citizens of Guam were modeled in this study; the extended model now includes the Ugum River watershed and improves upon the previous model of the Fena Valley watersheds. Surface water from the Ugum River watershed is diverted and treated for drinking water, and the Fena Valley watersheds feed the largest surface-water reservoir on Guam. The southern Guam watershed model performed “very good,” according to the criteria of Moriasi and others (2007), in the Ugum River watershed above Talofofo Falls with monthly Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency statistic values of 0.97 for the calibration period and 0.93 for the verification period (a value of 1.0 represents perfect model fit). In the Fena Valley watershed, monthly simulated streamflow volumes from the watershed model compared reasonably well with the

  8. Diets of the Sympatric Pacific Sheath-Tailed Bat (Emballonura semicaudata rotensis) and Mariana Swiftlet (Aerodramus bartschi) on Aguiguan, Mariana Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdez, Ernest W.; Wiles, Gary J.; O'Shea, Thomas J.

    2011-01-01

    The Pacific sheath-tailed bat (Emballonura semicaudata rotensis) and Mariana swiftlet (Aerodramus bartschi) are two rare insectivorous taxa restricted to the southern Mariana Islands in western Micronesia. It is believed that populations of both have dwindled because of impacts to their food resources. However, there is little information on the food habits of A. bartschi and none exists for E. s. rotensis. In an effort to better understand the feeding habits of both, we investigated their diets using guano analysis. Guano was collected from two roosts in caves during a 2-week period in June and July at the onset of the rainy season. Important orders of insects consumed (percentage volume) by bats roosting at one cave included hymenopterans (64%), coleopterans (10%), lepidopterans (8%), isopterans (8%), and psocopterans (5%), whereas those at a second cave included lepidopterans (45%), hymenopterans (41%), coleopterans (10%), and isopterans (5%). Swiftlets, which roosted in only one of the caves, fed mostly on hymenopterans (88%) and hemipterans (6%). Significant differences existed between the two taxa in several insect orders eaten, with E. s. rotensis consuming more lepidopterans and coleopterans and A. bartschi taking more hymenopterans and hemipterans. Within Hymenoptera, bats fed more on ichneumoideans, whereas swiftlets ate more formicid alates and chalicidoideans. This new information on the feeding habits of E. s. rotensis and A. bartschi provides insight on the complexity of their diets during June and July, and serves as baseline information for future studies and management of their habitat.

  9. CHALLENGES AND ACTIONS REGARDING THE REHABILITATION OF DEGRADED LANDS: CASE STUDY FROM THE PACIFIC ISLAND OF GUAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.H. Golabi

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Severely eroded lands of southern Guam are referred to as BadLands. These are actively eroding areas of very deep, well–drained saprolite derived from tuff and tuff breccia. These badlands are exposed to overland flow, wind and rain causing sever erosion as the result of rapid runoff from the pitted, sloping sites void of vegetation. Through soil removal or sediment transport, erosion also alters the inherent physical and chemical properties of these soils. This alteration resulted in degradation, in turn affecting the environment as well as water quality in the down stream. The on-site damage from erosion is indeed a problem to environmental ecosystem of the island. Sediment lost due to erosion clogs rivers, lakes, and waterways. It reduces the water storage capacity of reservoirs and canals and increases flooding.The challenge facing soil and environmental scientists is to develop conservation and restoration strategies at the farm as well as at the watershed level that address crop production and natural resources protection needs, within a framework of increasing environmental and financial constraints. In our soil conservation program at the College of Natural and Applied Sciences of the University of Guam we have adopted integrated approaches to evaluate a variety of strategies, including the effect of conservation tillage and residue management, crop rotation with leguminous plants (sunnhemp as green manure as well as the use of composted organic wastes as soil amendment for organic matter build up, all for soil rehabilitation and restoration of the badlands in southern Guam. In a companion study we are evaluating the effectiveness of Vetiver technology as a sediment trap to mitigate sediment transport in a typical watershed basin in southern Guam. This paper discusses the methodology as well as up to date data that shows the effect of Vetiver technology on sediment trapping at the watershed level.

  10. Nuclear Bombs and Coral: Guam Coral Core Reveals Operation-Specific Radiocarbon Signals from the Pacific Proving Grounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, A. H.

    2016-12-01

    Radiocarbon (14C) analyses on a coral core extracted from the western Central Pacific (Guam) has revealed a series of early peaks in the marine bomb 14C record. The typical marine bomb 14C signal, one that is phase lagged and attenuated relative to atmospheric bomb 14C, is present in the coral core and is consistent with other North Pacific records. However, 14C levels that are well above what can be explained by air-sea diffusion alone punctuate this pattern. This anomaly has been demonstrated to a limited extent in other coral cores of the Indo-Pacific region, but is unmatched relative to the magnitude and temporal resolution recorded in the Guam coral core. Other records have shown an early Δ14C rise on the order of 40-50‰ above pre-bomb levels, with a subsequent decline before continuing the gradual Δ14C rise that is indicative of air-sea diffusion of 14CO2. The Guam coral Δ14C record provided three strong pulses in 1954-55, 1956-57, and 1958-59 that are superimposed on the pre-bomb to initial Δ14C rise from atmospheric bomb 14C. Each of these peaks can be directly linked to testing of thermonuclear devices in the Pacific Proving Grounds at Eniwetok and Bikini Atoll of the Marshall Islands. The measurable lag in reaching Guam can be tied to ocean surface currents and can be traced to other regional Δ14C records from corals, providing a transport timeline to places as distant as the Indonesian throughflow, Okinawa and Palmyra.

  11. Biology and impacts of Pacific island invasive species. 2. Boiga irregularis, the Brown Tree Snake (Reptilia: Colubridae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodda, Gordon H.; Savidge, Julie A.

    2007-01-01

    The Brown Tree Snake, Boiga irregularis (Merrem, 1802), was accidentally transported to the island of Guam shortly after World War II. Over the following two decades it spread throughout the island with little public or professional recognition of its extent or impacts. This secretive nocturnal arboreal snake occurs in all habitats on Guam, from grasslands to forests. Under the right conditions, it is capable of high rates of reproduction and population growth. The Brown Tree Snake caused the extirpation of 13 of Guam's 22 native breeding birds and contributed to the extirpation of several species of native bats and lizards. Guam's 12 forest birds were especially impacted, with 10 species eliminated and the other two severely reduced. In addition, the snake continues to substantially impact domestic poultry, pets, the island's electrical power infrastructure, and human health. To protect other vulnerable Pacific islands, the U.S. government annually spends several million dollars inspecting cargo outbound from Guam to exclude Brown Tree Snakes. Cargo destinations most at risk are in Micronesia, especially the Northern Mariana Islands, but Guam also has direct air transportation links to Hawai'i that will soon be supplemented with direct ship traffic. Ultimately, all Pacific islands are at risk but especially those obtaining cargo through Guam. ?? 2007 by University of Hawai'i Press. All rights reserved.

  12. 75 FR 61816 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Notice of Request for Extension of Currently Approved...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-06

    ... through Friday, except Federal holidays. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: Preparation and Execution of... Mariana Islands, the Territories of Guam, the Virgin Islands and American Samoa. Frequency: Annually...

  13. Physical Properties and Seismic Structure of Izu-Bonin-Mariana Fore Arc crust: Results From IODP Expedition 352 and Comparison with Oceanic Crust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christeson, G. L.; Morgan, S.; Kodaira, S.; Yamashita, M.

    2015-12-01

    Most of the well-preserved ophiolite complexes are believed to form in supra-subduction zone settings. One of the goals of IODP Expedition 352 was to test the supra-subduction zone ophiolite model by drilling forearc crust at the northern Izu-Bonin-Mariana (IBM) system. IBM forearc drilling successfully cored 1.22 km of volcanic lavas and underlying dikes at four sites. A surprising observation is that basement compressional velocities measured from downhole logging average ~3.0 km/s, compared to values of 5 km/s at similar basement depths at oceanic crust sites 504B and 1256D. Typically there is an inverse relationship in extrusive lavas between velocity and porosity, but downhole logging shows similar porosities for the IBM and oceanic crust sites, despite the large difference in measured compressional velocities. These observations can be explained by a difference in crack morphologies between IBM forearc and oceanic crust, with a smaller fractional area of asperity contact across cracks at EXP 352 sites than at sites 504B and 1256D. Seismic profiles at the IBM forearc image many faults, which may be related to the crack population.

  14. P-wave Velocity Structure Across the Mariana Trench and Implications for Hydration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eimer, M. O.; Wiens, D.; Lizarralde, D.; Cai, C.

    2017-12-01

    Estimates of the water flux at subduction zones remain uncertain, particularly the amount of water brought into the trench by the subducting plate. Normal faulting related to the bending of the incoming plate has been proposed to provide pathways for water to hydrate the crust and upper mantle. A passive and active source seismic experiment spanning both the incoming plate and forearc was conducted in 2012 in central Mariana to examine the role of hydration at subduction zones. The active-source component of the survey used the R/V M.G. Langsethairgun array and 68 short period sensors, including suspended hydrophones, deployed on 4 transects. This study at the Mariana trench offers a comparison to related studies of incoming plate hydration in Middle America, where differing thermal structures related to plate age predict different stability fields for hydrous minerals. The forearc structure is also of interest, since Mariana is characterized by large serpentine seamounts and may have a serpentinized mantle wedge. The velocity structure will also be important for the relocation of earthquakes in the incoming plate, since the seismicity can offer a constraint for the depth extent of these bending faults. We examine the P-wave velocity structure along a 400-km long wide-angle refraction transect perpendicular to the trench and spanning both the forearc and incoming plate. Preliminary results indicate a velocity reduction in the crust and uppermost mantle at the bending region of the incoming plate, relative to the plate's structure away from the trench. This reduction suggests that outer-rise faults extend into the upper mantle and may have promoted serpentinization of that material. Mantle Pn refraction phases are not observed in the forearc, consistent with the ambient noise tomography results that show upper-mantle velocities similar to that of the lower crust. The lack of contrast between the upper mantle and crustal velocities from the ambient noise has been

  15. Fault plane orientations of deep earthquakes in the Izu-Bonin-Marianas subduction zone system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myhill, R.; Warren, L. M.

    2011-12-01

    We present the results of directivity analysis on 45 deep earthquakes within the Izu-Bonin-Marianas subduction zone between 1993 and 2011. The age of the subducting Pacific plate increases from north to south along the trench, from 120 Ma offshore Tokyo to over 150 Ma east of the Mariana Islands. The dip of the deep slab generally increases from north to south, and is steep to overturned beneath the southern Bonin Islands and Marianas. Between 34 and 26 degrees north, a peak in seismicity at 350-450 km depth marks a decrease in dip as the slab approaches the base of the upper mantle. We observe directivity for around 60 percent of the analysed earthquakes, and use the propagation characteristics to find the best fitting rupture vector. In 60-70 percent of cases with well constrained rupture directivity, the best fitting rupture vector allows discrimination of the fault plane and the auxiliary plane of the focal mechanism. The identified fault planes between 100 km and 500 km are predominantly near-horizontal or south-southwest dipping. Rotated into the plane of the slab, the fault plane poles form a single cluster, since the more steeply dipping fault planes are found within more steeply dipping sections of slab. The dominance of near-horizontal fault planes at intermediate depth agrees with results from previous studies of the Tonga and Middle-America subduction zones. However, the presence of a single preferred fault plane orientation for large deep-focus earthquakes has not been previously reported, and contrasts with the situation for deep-focus earthquakes in the Tonga-Kermadec subduction system. Ruptures tend to propagate away from the top surface of the slab. We discuss potential causes of preferred fault plane orientations within subducting slabs in the light of existing available data, and the implications for mechanisms of faulting at great depths within the Earth.

  16. 187Os/188Os of boninites from the Izu-Bonin-Mariana forearc, IODP Exp 352

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niles, D. E.; Nelson, W. R.; Reagan, M. K.; Pearce, J. A.; Godard, M.; Shervais, J. W.

    2016-12-01

    The Izu-Bonin-Mariana (IBM) subduction zone is an ideal laboratory in which to study the evolution of a subduction zone from its initiation to the development of modern-day arc volcanism. Boninite lavas were produced in the IBM forearc region during the early stages of subduction and are thought to have been generated by flux melting the previously depleted mantle wedge. Mariana forearc mantle peridotites record unradiogenic 187Os/188Os signatures (0.1193-0.1273) supporting the existence of variably depleted mantle in this region (Parkinson et al., 1998). In order to understand the connection between the regional mantle, slab-derived fluids, and the generation of boninites, Re-Os isotopic data were measured on subset of boninite-series lavas obtained during IODP Expedition 352. Preliminary age-corrected (48 Ma) 187Os/188Os isotopic data for boninite-series lavas (sites U1439C and U1442A) are unradiogenic to modestly radiogenic (0.1254-0.1390) compared to primitive mantle (0.1296), consistent with Os isotopic data from boninite sands from the Bonin Islands (0.1279-0.1382; Suzuki et al., 2011). The least radiogenic boninites have 187Os/188Os (< 0.1296) values consistent with average MORB mantle recorded globally by abyssal peridotites (0.1238 ± 0.0042; Rudnick & Walker, 2009). However, boninite lavas were not derived from the most refractory ancient mantle recorded by Mariana peridotites. Unradiogenic boninites generally have higher Os abundances (0.043-0.567 ppb), whereas more radiogenic boninites have low Os abundances (0.015-0.036). Due to their low Os abundances, the moderately radiogenic isotopic signatures may be the result of interaction with highly radiogenic seawater or incorporation of radiogenic sediment (e.g. Suzuki et al. 2011). However, the radiogenic values could also be the result of fluid flux from the subducting Pacific plate.

  17. Looking for Larvae Above an Erupting Submarine Volcano, NW Rota-1, Mariana Arc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaulieu, S.; Hanson, M.; Tunnicliffe, V.; Chadwick, W. W., Jr.; Breuer, E. R.

    2016-02-01

    In 2009 the first marine protected areas for deep-sea hydrothermal vents in U.S. waters were established as part of the Volcanic Unit of the Marianas Trench Marine National Monument. In this region, hydrothermal vents are located along the Mariana Arc and back-arc spreading center. In particular hydrothermal vents are located near the summit of NW Rota-1, an active submarine volcano on the Mariana Arc which was erupting between 2003 and 2010 and ceased as of 2014. NW Rota-1 experienced a massive landslide in late 2009, decimating the habitat on the southern side of the volcano. This project looked at zooplankton tow samples taken from the water column above NW Rota-1 in 2010, searching for larvae which have the potential to recolonize the sea floor after such a major disturbance. Samples were sorted in entirety into coarse taxa, and then larvae were removed for DNA barcoding. Overall zooplankton composition was dominated by copepods, ostracods, and chaetognaths, the majority of which are pelagic organisms. Comparatively few larvae of benthic invertebrates were found, but shrimp, gastropod, barnacle, and polychaete larvae did appear in low numbers in the samples. Species-level identification obtained via genetic barcoding will allow for these larvae to be matched to species known to inhabit the benthic communities at NW Rota-1. Identified larvae will give insight into the organisms which can re-colonize the seafloor vent communities after a disturbance such as the 2009 landslide. Communities at hydrothermal vents at other submarine volcanoes in the Monument may act as sources for these larvae, but connectivity in this region of complex topography is unknown. As the microinvertebrate biodiversity in the Monument has yet to be fully characterized, our project also provides an opportunity to better describe both the zooplankton and benthic community composition in this area of the Monument.

  18. Diets of the sympatric pacific sheath-tailed bat (Emballonura semicaudata rotensis) and Mariana Swiftlet (Aerodramus bartscht) on Aguiguan, Mariana Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdez, E.W.; Wiles, G.J.; O'Shea, T.J.

    2011-01-01

    The Pacific sheath-tailed bat (Emballonura semicaudata rotensis) and Mariana swiftlet (Aerodramus bartschi) are two rare insectivorous taxa restricted to the southern Mariana Islands in western Micronesia. It is believed that populations of both have dwindled because of impacts to their food resources. However, there is little information on the food habits of A. bartschi and none exists for E. s. rotensis. In an effort to better understand the feeding habits of both, we investigated their diets using guano analysis. Guano was collected from two roosts in caves during a 2-week period in June and July at the onset of the rainy season. Important orders of insects consumed (percentage volume) by bats roosting at one cave included hymenopterans (64%), coleopterans (10%), lepidopterans (8%), isopterans (8%), and psocopterans (5%), whereas those at a second cave included lepidopterans (45%), hymenopterans (41%), coleopterans (10%), and isopterans (5%). Swiftlets, which roosted in only one of the caves, fed mostly on hymenopterans (88%) and hemipterans (6%). Significant differences existed between the two taxa in several insect orders eaten, with E. s. rotensis consuming more lepidopterans and coleopterans and A. bartschi taking more hymenopterans and hemipterans. Within Hymenoptera, bats fed more on ichneumoideans, whereas swiftlets ate more formicid alates and chalicidoideans. This new information on the feeding habits of E. s. rotensis and A. bartschi provides insight on the complexity of their diets during June and July, and serves as baseline information for future studies and management of their habitat. ?? 2011 by University of Hawai'i Press All rights reserved.

  19. Age-based and reproductive biology of the Pacific Longnose Parrotfish Hipposcarus longiceps from Guam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brett M. Taylor

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The Pacific longnose parrotfish Hipposcarus longiceps (Valenciennes 1840 represents a prime fishery resource throughout much of the tropical Pacific. In this study, we sampled the species from the Guam commercial fishery market across five consecutive years to characterize reproductive and age-based demographic information imperative for informed fishery management. Compared with other parrotfishes, this species was found to be large-bodied, but has only a moderate life span of 10 + years. Hipposcarus longiceps was confirmed as a diandric protogynous hermaphrodite with highly sex-specific growth patterns and an overall mean asymptotic length of 434 mm fork length (FL. Females were estimated to reach median maturity at 329 mm FL (2.4 years and have a median length at female-to-male sex change of 401 mm FL. Life-history trait values derived here were used to update previous models relating life history and vulnerability to overexploitation. We found that enhancement of just one species’ trait values improved model fits considerably, which strengthens the conclusion that life-history traits are a strong determinant of species’ vulnerability in the parrotfishes. This information is an imperative complement to other data sources facilitating formal stock assessment of a key fishery target.

  20. Sociocultural Factors that Affect Chewing Behaviors among Betel Nut Chewers and Ex-Chewers on Guam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Kelle L; Herzog, Thaddeus A

    2015-12-01

    Areca nut (betel nut) is chewed by an estimated 10% of the world's population which is equivalent to about 600 million people. It is classified as a Group 1 carcinogen by the World Health Organization (WHO) and has been linked to various types of oral cancer. Chewing areca predominates in South and South East Asia, East Africa, and the Western Pacific and has important social and cultural implications. The purpose of the pilot study was twofold: (1) to examine sociocultural factors that affect why people on Guam chew betel nut, their chewing behaviors, perceptions of risks, probability of changing behaviors, and methods that could be used to reduce use or quit; and (2) to pilot two surveys (one for chewers and one for ex-chewers) to be used in a larger study in the future. A mixed methods design was employed that included surveys pertaining to their status (chewer or ex-chewer) and in-depth interviews. A total of 30 adults participated in this pilot study: adult betel nut chewers (n = 15) and ex-chewers (n = 15). Chewing betel nut is a learned behavior, embedded within the culture, and is viewed as an important cultural identifier. Socially, chewing is viewed as positive. Chewers stated that they were not as aware of health issues; however, ex-chewers stated health reasons for quitting.

  1. Seismological Imaging of Melt Production Regions Beneath the Backarc Spreading Center and Volcanic Arc, Mariana Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiens, Douglas; Pozgay, Sara; Barklage, Mitchell; Pyle, Moira; Shiobara, Hajime; Sugioka, Hiroko

    2010-05-01

    We image the seismic velocity and attenuation structure of the mantle melt production regions associated with the Mariana Backarc Spreading Center and Mariana Volcanic Arc using data from the Mariana Subduction Factory Imaging Experiment. The passive component of this experiment consisted of 20 broadband seismographs deployed on the island chain and 58 ocean-bottom seismographs from June, 2003 until April, 2004. We obtained the 3D P and S wave velocity structure of the Mariana mantle wedge from a tomographic inversion of body wave arrivals from local earthquakes as well as P and S arrival times from large teleseismic earthquakes determined by multi-channel cross correlation. We also determine the 2-D attenuation structure of the mantle wedge using attenuation tomography based on local and regional earthquake spectra, and a broader-scale, lower resolution 3-D shear velocity structure from inversion of Rayleigh wave phase velocities using a two plane wave array analysis approach. We observe low velocity, high attenuation anomalies in the upper mantle beneath both the arc and backarc spreading center. These anomalies are separated by a higher velocity, lower attenuation region at shallow depths (< 80 km), implying distinct magma production regions for the arc and backarc in the uppermost mantle. The largest magnitude anomaly beneath the backarc spreading center is found at shallower depth (25-50 km) compared to the arc (50-100 km), consistent with melting depths estimated from the geochemistry of arc and backarc basalts (K. Kelley, pers. communication). The velocity and attenuation signature of the backarc spreading center is narrower than the corresponding anomaly found beneath the East Pacific Rise by the MELT experiment, perhaps implying a component of focused upwelling beneath the spreading center. The strong velocity and attenuation anomaly beneath the spreading center contrasts strongly with preliminary MT inversion results showing no conductivity anomaly in the

  2. Testing for multiple invasion routes and source populations for the invasive brown treesnake (Boiga irregularis) on Guam: implications for pest management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richmond, Jonathan Q.; Wood, Dustin A.; Stanford, James W.; Fisher, Robert N.

    2014-01-01

    The brown treesnake (Boiga irregularis) population on the Pacific island of Guam has reached iconic status as one of the most destructive invasive species of modern times, yet no published works have used genetic data to identify a source population. We used DNA sequence data from multiple genetic markers and coalescent-based phylogenetic methods to place the Guam population within the broader phylogeographic context of B. irregularis across its native range and tested whether patterns of genetic variation on the island are consistent with one or multiple introductions from different source populations. We also modeled a series of demographic scenarios that differed in the effective size and duration of a population bottleneck immediately following the invasion on Guam, and measured the fit of these simulations to the observed data using approximate Bayesian computation. Our results exclude the possibility of serial introductions from different source populations, and instead verify a single origin from the Admiralty Archipelago off the north coast of Papua New Guinea. This finding is consistent with the hypothesis thatB. irregularis was accidentally transported to Guam during military relocation efforts at the end of World War II. Demographic model comparisons suggest that multiple snakes were transported to Guam from the source locality, but that fewer than 10 individuals could be responsible for establishing the population. Our results also provide evidence that low genetic diversity stemming from the founder event has not been a hindrance to the ecological success of B. irregularis on Guam, and at the same time offers a unique ‘genetic opening’ to manage snake density using classical biological approaches.

  3. 75 FR 15723 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Draft Revised Recovery Plan for the Mariana Fruit...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-30

    ... Wildlife Service, announce the availability of the Draft Revised Recovery Plan for the Mariana Fruit Bat or... and assistance of a Recovery Team appointed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Section 4(f) of the... life history and ecology, this recovery plan focuses on the first 10 years of the recovery process. As...

  4. Susceptibility of burned black spruce (Picea mariana) forests to non-native plant invasions in interior Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katie V. Spellman; Christa P.H. Mulder; Teresa N. Hollingsworth

    2014-01-01

    As climate rapidly warms at high-latitudes, the boreal forest faces the simultaneous threats of increasing invasive plant abundances and increasing area burned by wildfire. Highly flammable and widespread black spruce (Picea mariana) forest represents a boreal habitat that may be increasingly susceptible to non-native plant invasion. This study assess the role of burn...

  5. A record of spontaneous subduction initiation in the Izu-Bonin-Mariana arc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arculus, Richard J.; Ishizuka, Osamu; Bogus, Kara A.; Gurnis, Michael; Hickey-Vargas, Rosemary; Aljahdali, Mohammed H.; Bandini-Maeder, Alexandre N.; Barth, Andrew P.; Brandl, Philipp A.; Drab, Laureen; Do Monte Guerra, Rodrigo; Hamada, Morihisa; Jiang, Fuqing; Kanayama, Kyoko; Kender, Sev; Kusano, Yuki; Li, He; Loudin, Lorne C.; Maffione, Marco; Marsaglia, Kathleen M.; McCarthy, Anders; Meffre, Sebastién; Morris, Antony; Neuhaus, Martin; Savov, Ivan P.; Sena, Clara; Tepley, Frank J., III; van der Land, Cees; Yogodzinski, Gene M.; Zhang, Zhaohui

    2015-09-01

    The initiation of tectonic plate subduction into the mantle is poorly understood. If subduction is induced by the push of a distant mid-ocean ridge or subducted slab pull, we expect compression and uplift of the overriding plate. In contrast, spontaneous subduction initiation, driven by subsidence of dense lithosphere along faults adjacent to buoyant lithosphere, would result in extension and magmatism. The rock record of subduction initiation is typically obscured by younger deposits, so evaluating these possibilities has proved elusive. Here we analyse the geochemical characteristics of igneous basement rocks and overlying sediments, sampled from the Amami Sankaku Basin in the northwest Philippine Sea. The uppermost basement rocks are areally widespread and supplied via dykes. They are similar in composition and age--as constrained by the biostratigraphy of the overlying sediments--to the 52-48-million-year-old basalts in the adjacent Izu-Bonin-Mariana fore-arc. The geochemical characteristics of the basement lavas indicate that a component of subducted lithosphere was involved in their genesis, and the lavas were derived from mantle source rocks that were more melt-depleted than those tapped at mid-ocean ridges. We propose that the basement lavas formed during the inception of Izu-Bonin-Mariana subduction in a mode consistent with the spontaneous initiation of subduction.

  6. Community Structure Comparisons of Hydrothermal Vent Microbial Mats Along the Mariana Arc and Back-arc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hager, K. W.; Fullerton, H.; Moyer, C. L.

    2015-12-01

    Hydrothermal vents along the Mariana Arc and back-arc represent a hotspot of microbial diversity that has not yet been fully recognized. The Mariana Arc and back-arc contain hydrothermal vents with varied vent effluent chemistry and temperature, which translates to diverse community composition. We have focused on iron-rich sites where the dominant primary producers are iron oxidizing bacteria. Because microbes from these environments have proven elusive in culturing efforts, we performed culture independent analysis among different microbial communities found at these hydrothermal vents. Terminal-restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) and Illumina sequencing of small subunit ribosomal gene amplicons were used to characterize community members and identify samples for shotgun metagenomics. Used in combination, these methods will better elucidate the composition and characteristics of the bacterial communities at these hydrothermal vent systems. The overarching goal of this study is to evaluate and compare taxonomic and metabolic diversity among different communities of microbial mats. We compared communities collected on a fine scale to analyze the bacterial community based on gross mat morphology, geography, and nearby vent effluent chemistry. Taxa richness and evenness are compared with rarefaction curves to visualize diversity. As well as providing a survey of diversity this study also presents a juxtaposition of three methods in which ribosomal small subunit diversity is compared with T-RFLP, next generation amplicon sequencing, and metagenomic shotgun sequencing.

  7. Geoenvironmental cartography and diagnostic applied territorial ordination of the Mariana county

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José F. do P. Filho

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Mariana County, located in the central area of Minas Gerais has confronted several recurrent problems from precarious administration and land use in the last decades. The disrespect of local geological and geomorphological peculiarities, the pressure exercided on the physical environment by the accelerated growth of the population and the lack of public politics of urban planning contributed to the present situation. The complexity of the geological and geomorphological components, associated with varied antropic intervention (inapropriate areas ocupation, deforestation, drainage and landscape alteration, fluvial water polution with effluents and by irregular disposal of solid wastes and debris have contributed for many environment problems, mainly in the urban areas. The initial focus was the county physical environment study, focusing the environment and geological aspects in a scale of 1:50.000, with the main objective to supply subsidies for territorial planning. Later, from analysis of compiled and produced cartographical documents of the physical environment, that support the biotic and antropic life, were evaluated the general land properties, the land use conflicts and the existent impacts, with the objective to define the capacity of the diferents territorial units. A derived thematic map (recommendation land use obtained from cartographical documents was the basis for a final physical environment analysis and proposition of adequate measures of land use and settlement. This study was the base for the the Mariana Environment and Urbanistc Law that was approved by the common council in January of 2004.

  8. Historic impact of watershed change and sedimentation to reefs along west-central Guam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prouty, Nancy G.; Storlazzi, Curt D.; McCutcheon, Amanda L.; Jenson, John W.

    2014-01-01

    Using coral growth parameters (extension, density, calcification rates, and luminescence) and geochemical measurements (barium to calcium rations; Ba/Ca) from coral cores collected in west-central Guam, we provide a historic perspective on sediment input to coral reefs adjacent to the Piti-Asan watershed. The months of August through December are dominated by increased coral Ba/Ca values, corresponding to the rainy season. With river water enriched in barium related to nearshore seawater, coral Ba/Ca ratios are presented as a proxy for input of fine-grained terrigenous sediment to the nearshore environment. The century-long Ba/Ca coral record indicates that the Asan fore reef is within the zone of impact from discharged sediments transported from the Piti-Asan watershed and has experienced increased terrestrial sedimentation since the 1940s. This abrupt shift in sedimentation occurred at the same time as both the sudden denudation of the landscape by military ordinance and the immediate subsequent development of the Asan area through the end of the war, from 1944 through 1945. In response to rapid input of sediment, as determined from coral Ba/Ca values, coral growth rates were reduced for almost two decades, while calcification rates recovered much more quickly. Furthermore, coral luminescence is decoupled from the Ba/Ca record, which is consistent with degradation of soil organic matter through disturbance by forest fires, suggesting a potential index of fire history and degradation of soil organic matter. These patterns were not seen in the cores from nearby reefs associated with watersheds that have not undergone the same degree of landscape denudation. Taken together, these records provide a valuable tool for understanding the compounding effects of land-use change on coral reef health.

  9. Historic impact of watershed change and sedimentation to reefs along west-central Guam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prouty, Nancy G.; Storlazzi, Curt D.; McCutcheon, Amanda L.; Jenson, John W.

    2014-09-01

    Using coral growth parameters (extension, density, calcification rates, and luminescence) and geochemical measurements (barium to calcium rations; Ba/Ca) from coral cores collected in west-central Guam, we provide a historic perspective on sediment input to coral reefs adjacent to the Piti-Asan watershed. The months of August through December are dominated by increased coral Ba/Ca values, corresponding to the rainy season. With river water enriched in barium related to nearshore seawater, coral Ba/Ca ratios are presented as a proxy for input of fine-grained terrigenous sediment to the nearshore environment. The century-long Ba/Ca coral record indicates that the Asan fore reef is within the zone of impact from discharged sediments transported from the Piti-Asan watershed and has experienced increased terrestrial sedimentation since the 1940s. This abrupt shift in sedimentation occurred at the same time as both the sudden denudation of the landscape by military ordinance and the immediate subsequent development of the Asan area through the end of the war, from 1944 through 1945. In response to rapid input of sediment, as determined from coral Ba/Ca values, coral growth rates were reduced for almost two decades, while calcification rates recovered much more quickly. Furthermore, coral luminescence is decoupled from the Ba/Ca record, which is consistent with degradation of soil organic matter through disturbance by forest fires, suggesting a potential index of fire history and degradation of soil organic matter. These patterns were not seen in the cores from nearby reefs associated with watersheds that have not undergone the same degree of landscape denudation. Taken together, these records provide a valuable tool for understanding the compounding effects of land-use change on coral reef health.

  10. HIV Testing Among Transgender Women and Men - 27 States and Guam, 2014-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitasi, Marc A; Oraka, Emeka; Clark, Hollie; Town, Machell; DiNenno, Elizabeth A

    2017-08-25

    Transgender persons are at high risk for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection; in a recent analysis of the results of over nine million CDC funded HIV tests, transgender women* had the highest percentage of confirmed positive results (2.7%) of any gender category (1). Transgender men, † particularly those who have sex with cisgender § men, are also at high risk for infection (2). HIV testing is critical for detecting and treating persons who are infected and delivering preventive services to those who are uninfected. CDC recommends that persons at high risk for HIV infection be screened for HIV at least annually, although transgender persons are not specified in the current recommendations. CDC analyzed data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) to describe HIV testing among transgender women and men and two cisgender comparison groups in 27 states and Guam. After adjusting for demographic characteristics, transgender women and men had a lower prevalence of ever testing and past year testing for HIV (35.6% and 31.6% ever, and 10.0% and 10.2% past year, respectively) compared with cisgender gay and bisexual men (61.8% ever and 21.6% past year) and instead reported testing at levels comparable to cisgender heterosexual men and women (35.2% ever, and 8.6% past year). This finding suggests that transgender women and men might not be sufficiently reached by current HIV testing measures. Tailoring HIV testing activities to overcome the unique barriers faced by transgender women and men might increase rates of testing among these populations.

  11. Identification of kin structure among Guam rail founders: a comparison of pedigrees and DNA profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haig, Susan M.; Ballou, J.D.; Casna, N.J.

    1994-01-01

    Kin structure among founders can have a significant effect on subsequent population structure. Here we use the correlation between DNA profile similarity and relatedness calculated from pedigrees to test hypotheses regarding kin structure among founders to the captive Guam rail (Rallus owstoni) population. Five different pedigrees were generated under the following hypotheses: (i) founders are unrelated; (ii) founders are unrelated except for same-nest chicks; (iii) founders from the same major site are siblings; (iv) founders from the same local site are siblings; and (v) founders are related as defined by a UPGMA cluster analysis of DNA similarity data. Relatedness values from pedigrees 1, 2 and 5 had the highest correlation with DNA similarity but the correlation between relatedness and similarity were not significantly different among pedigrees. Pedigree 5 resulted in the highest correlation overall when using only relatedness values that changed as a result of different founder hypotheses. Thus, founders were assigned relatedness based on pedigree 5 because it had the highest correlations with DNA similarity, was the most conservative approach, and incorporated all field data. The analyses indicated that estimating relatedness using DNA profiles remains problematic, therefore we compared mean kinship, a measure of genetic importance, with mean DNA profile similarity to determine if genetic importance among individuals could be determined via use of DNA profiles alone. The significant correlation suggests this method may provide more information about population structure than was previously thought. Thus, DNA profiles can provide a reasonable explanation for founder relatedness and mean DNA profile similarity may be helpful in determining relative genetic importance of individuals when detailed pedigrees are absent.

  12. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Stratified Random Surveys (StRS) of Coral Demography (Adult and Juvenile Corals) across the Mariana Archipelago since 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The data described here result from benthic coral demographic surveys for two life stages (juveniles, adults) across the Mariana archipelago since 2014. Juvenile...

  13. CRED SVP Drifting Buoy Argos_ID 29103 Data, Pathfinder Reef in the Marianas Archipelago, 200309-200406 (NODC Accession 0067473)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CRED SVP drifter Argos_ID 29103 was deployed in the region of Marianas Archipelago to assess ocean currents and sea surface temperature. SVP drifter data files...

  14. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Stratified Random Surveys (StRS) of Reef Fish, including Benthic Estimate Data of the Mariana Archipelago since 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The stationary point count (SPC) method is used to conduct reef fish surveys in the Hawaiian and Mariana Archipelagos, American Samoa, and the Pacific Remote Island...

  15. Economic costs of electrical system instability and power outages caused by snakes on the Island of Guam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritts, T.H.

    2002-01-01

    The Brown Tree Snake, Boiga irregularis, is an introduced species on Guam where it causes frequent electrical power outages. The snake's high abundance, its propensity for climbing, and use of disturbed habitats all contribute to interruption of Guam's electrical service and the activities that depend on electrical power. Snakes have caused more than 1600 power outages in the 20-yr period of 1978–1997 and most recently nearly 200 outages per year. Single outages spanning the entire island and lasting 8 or more hours are estimated to cost in excess of $3,000,000 in lost productivity, but the costs of outages that involve only parts of the island or those of shorter durations are more difficult to quantify. Costs to the island's economy have exceeded $4.5 M $4.5M"> per year over a 7-yr period without considering repair costs, damage to electrical equipment, and lost revenues. Snakes pose the greatest problem on high voltage transmission lines, on transformers, and inside electrical substations.

  16. Habitat Zone, Cover and Structure Maps of Alamagan, Northern Mariana Archipelago 2001-2003, Derived From IKONOS Imagery

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This project is a cooperative effort between the National Ocean Service, National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science, Center for Coastal Monitoring and Assessment,...

  17. Habitat Zone, Cover and Structure Maps of the Sarigan, Northern Mariana Archipelago 2001-2003, Derived From IKONOS Imagery

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This project is a cooperative effort between the National Ocean Service, National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science, Center for Coastal Monitoring and Assessment,...

  18. Habitat Zone, Cover and Structure Maps of Agrihan Island, Northern Mariana Archipelago 2001-2003, Derived From IKONOS Imagery

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This project is a cooperative effort between the National Ocean Service, National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science, Center for Coastal Monitoring and Assessment,...

  19. Habitat Zone, Cover and Structure Maps of Anatahan, Northern Mariana Archipelago 2001-2003, Derived From IKONOS Imagery

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This project is a cooperative effort between the National Ocean Service, National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science, Center for Coastal Monitoring and Assessment,...

  20. Habitat Zone, Cover and Structure Maps of the Asuncion Island Northern Mariana Archipelago 2001-2003, Derived From IKONOS Imagery

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This project is a cooperative effort between the National Ocean Service, National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science, Center for Coastal Monitoring and Assessment,...

  1. 76 FR 50183 - Western Pacific Fisheries; Approval of a Marine Conservation Plan for the Northern Mariana Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-12

    ... responsible fisheries. (c) Development of a fish marketing plan that includes market identification, transportation, fish products, branding and ecolabeling, and other marketing issues. (d) Enhance fishing...

  2. 78 FR 16257 - Notice of Intent To Prepare the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands Joint Military...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-14

    ... uninterrupted schedule. These RTAs are needed to support ongoing operational requirements, changes to U.S. force.... MARFORPAC, as the Executive Agent, has invited the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA); International...., Dandan Elementary School Cafeteria, Dandan Road, Dandan, Saipan, CNMI 96960 Thursday, April 11, 2013, 4...

  3. Northern Mariana Islands: Garment and Tourist Industries Play a Dominant Role in the Commonwealth’s Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-02-01

    6.330 9.873 11.037 Nonresident worker fee 0.693 0.797 1.705 1.902 2.406 3.575 Corporate income tax 0.060 0.025 0.000 0.000 0.372 0.218 Business gross... corporate income tax returns. Included among the deductible taxes are ordinary state or local taxes paid or accrued during the year; Social Security...directly paid by those manufacturers are incomplete. For example, when paying corporate income tax , some U.S. corporations include the sales

  4. Bathymetric Position Index (BPI) Zones 5m grid derived from gridded bathymetry of Saipan Island, Commonwealth of the Northern Marianas

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — BPI Zones are derived from a focal mean analysis on bathymetry and slope. The bathymetry grid (5 m cell size) is derived from bathymetry from two sources: Multibeam...

  5. Bathymetric Position Index (BPI) Structures 5m grid derived from gridded bathymetry of Saipan Island, Commonwealth of the Northern Marianas

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — BPI Structures are derived from a focal mean analysis on bathymetry and slope. The bathymetry grid (5 m cell size) is derived from two sources: Multibeam bathymetry...

  6. Slope 10 m grid derived from gridded bathymetry of Agrihan Island, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI), USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Slope is derived from gridded (10 m cell size) multibeam bathymetry, collected aboard NOAA Ship Hiialaka'i and R/V AHI. Cell values reflect the maximum rate of...

  7. Slope 10 m grid derived from gridded bathymetry of Pagan Island, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI), USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Slope is derived from gridded (10 m cell size) multibeam bathymetry, collected aboard NOAA Ship Hiialaka'i and R/V AHI. Cell values reflect the maximum rate of...

  8. Slope 10 m grid derived from gridded bathymetry of Guguan Island, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI), USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Slope is derived from gridded (10 m cell size) multibeam bathymetry, collected aboard NOAA Ship Hiialaka'i and R/V AHI. Cell values reflect the maximum rate of...

  9. NCCOS Assessment: Benthic habitat maps of Saipan Lagoon, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (NCEI Accession 0162517)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Highly detailed maps of benthic habitats within the lagoon along the western shore of Saipan were created by NOAA NCCOS. This data collection includes the...

  10. 2007 Reson 8101ER Multibeam Sonar Data from Cruise AHI0703 - Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Reson 8101ER multibeam Data were collected between 23 May - 9 June 2007 aboard NOAA Survey Launch Acoustic Habitat Investigator (AHI) at Maug Islands, Pagan Island,...

  11. Slope 10 m grid derived from gridded bathymetry of Maug Island, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI), USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Slope is derived from gridded (10 m cell size) multibeam bathymetry, collected aboard NOAA Ship Hiialaka'i and R/V AHI. Cell values reflect the maximum rate of...

  12. Slope 10 m grid derived from gridded bathymetry of Asuncion Island, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI), USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Slope is derived from gridded (10 m cell size) multibeam bathymetry collected aboard NOAA Ship Hiialaka'i and R/V AHI. Cell values reflect the maximum rate of change...

  13. Slope 10 m grid derived from gridded bathymetry of Sarigan Island, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI), USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Slope is derived from gridded (10 m cell size) multibeam bathymetry, collected aboard NOAA Ship Hiialaka'i and R/V AHI. Cell values reflect the maximum rate of...

  14. Slope 5 m grid derived from gridded bathymetry of Rota Island, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI), USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Slope is derived from gridded (5 m cell size) multibeam bathymetry, collected aboard NOAA Ship Hiialaka'i and R/V AHI. Cell values reflect the maximum rate of change...

  15. Slope 10 m grid derived from gridded bathymetry of Supply Reef, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI), USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Slope is derived from gridded (10 m cell size) multibeam bathymetry, collected aboard NOAA Ship Hiialaka'i and R/V AHI. Cell values reflect the maximum rate of...

  16. Habitat Zone, Cover and Structure Maps of the Pagan, Northern Mariana Archipelago 2001-2003, Derived From IKONOS Imagery

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This project is a cooperative effort between the National Ocean Service, National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science, Center for Coastal Monitoring and Assessment,...

  17. Rugosity 10 m grid derived from gridded bathymetry of Alamagan Island, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI), USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Rugosity is derived from gridded (10 m cell size) multibeam bathymetry, collected aboard NOAA Ship Hi'ialakai and R/V AHI, using the Benthic Terrain Modeler with...

  18. Rugosity 10 m grid derived from gridded bathymetry of Pagan Island, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI), USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Rugosity is derived from gridded (10 m cell size) multibeam bathymetry, collected aboard NOAA Ship Hiialaka'i and R/V AHI, using the Benthic Terrain Modeler with...

  19. Rugosity 10 m grid derived from gridded bathymetry of Agrihan Island, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI), USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Rugosity is derived from gridded (10 m cell size) multibeam bathymetry, collected aboard NOAA Ship Hiialaka'i and R/V AHI, using the Benthic Terrain Modeler with...

  20. Rugosity 10 m grid derived from gridded bathymetry of Maug Island, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI), USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Rugosity is derived from gridded (10 m cell size) multibeam bathymetry, collected aboard NOAA Ship Hiialaka'i and R/V AHI, using the Benthic Terrain Modeler with...

  1. Rugosity 10 m grid derived from gridded bathymetry of Asuncion Island, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI), USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Rugosity is derived from gridded (10 m cell size) multibeam bathymetry collected aboard NOAA Ship Hiialaka'i and R/V AHI, using the Benthic Terrain Modeler with...

  2. Rugosity 10 m grid derived from gridded bathymetry of Guguan Island, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI), USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Rugosity is derived from gridded (5 m cell size) multibeam bathymetry, collected aboard NOAA Ship Hiialaka'i and R/V AHI, using the Benthic Terrain Modeler with...

  3. Benthic Habitats of the Fallon de Medinilla, Northern Mariana Archipelago 2001-2003, Derived From IKONOS Imagery

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This project is a cooperative effort between the National Ocean Service, National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science, Center for Coastal Monitoring and Assessment,...

  4. Current land bird distribution and trends in population abundance between 1982 and 2012 on Rota, Mariana Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camp, Richard J.; Brinck, Kevin W.; Gorresen, P. Marcos; Amidon, Fred A.; Radley, Paul M.; Berkowitz, S. Paul; Banko, Paul C.

    2015-01-01

    The western Pacific island of Rota is the fourth largest human-inhabited island in the Mariana archipelago and designated an Endemic Bird Area. Between 1982 and 2012, 12 point-transect distance-sampling surveys were conducted to assess bird population status. Surveys did not consistently sample the entire island; thus, we used a ratio estimator to estimate bird abundances in strata not sampled during every survey. Trends in population size were reliably estimated for 11 of 13 bird species, and 7 species declined over the 30-y time series, including the island collared-dove Streptopelia bitorquata, white-throated ground-dove Gallicolumba xanthonura, Mariana fruit-dove Ptilinopus roseicapilla, collared kingfisher Todiramphus chloris orii, Micronesian myzomela Myzomela rubratra, black drongo Dicrurus macrocercus, and Mariana crow Corvus kubaryi. The endangered Mariana crow (x̄  =  81 birds, 95% CI 30–202) declined sharply to fewer than 200 individuals in 2012, down from 1,491 birds in 1982 (95% CI  =  815–3,115). Trends increased for white tern Gygis alba, rufous fantail Rhipidura rufifrons mariae, and Micronesian starling Aplonis opaca. Numbers of the endangered Rota white-eye Zosterops rotensis declined from 1982 to the late 1990s but returned to 1980s levels by 2012, resulting in an overall stable trend. Trends for the yellow bittern Ixobrychus sinensis were inconclusive. Eurasian tree sparrow Passer montanus trends were not assessed; however, their numbers in 1982 and 2012 were similar. Occupancy models of the 2012 survey data revealed general patterns of land cover use and detectability among 12 species that could be reliably modeled. Occupancy was not assessed for the Eurasian tree sparrow because of insufficient detections. Based on the 2012 survey, bird distribution and abundance across Rota revealed three general patterns: 1) range restriction, including Mariana crow, Rota white-eye, and Eurasian tree sparrow; 2) widespread distribution, low

  5. Petrology of the axial ridge of the Mariana Trough backarc spreading center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawkins, J.W.; Lonsdale, P.F.; Macdougall, J.D.; Volpe, A.M.

    1990-01-01

    The axial ridge of the Mariana Trough backarc basin, between 17deg40'N and 18deg30'N rises as much as 1 km above the floor of a 10-15 km wide rift valley. Physiographic segmentation, with minor ridge offsets and overlaps, coincides with a petrologic segmentation seen in trace element and isotope chemistry. Analyses of 239 glass and 40 aphyric basalt samples, collected with ALVIN and by dredging, show that the axial ridge is formed largely of (olivine) hypersthene-normative tholeiitic basalt. About half of these are enriched in both LIL elements and volatiles, but are depleted in HFS elements like other rocks found throughout much of the Mariana Trough. The LIL enrichments distinguish these rocks from N-MORB even though Nd and Sr isotope ratios indicate that much of the crust formed from a source similar to that for N-MORB. In addition to LIL-enriched basalt there is LIL depleted basalts even more closely resembling N-MORB in major and trace elements as well as Sr, Nd and Pb isotopes. Both basalt varieties have higher Al and lower total Fe than MORB at equivalent Mg level. Mg ranges from relatively ''primitive'' (e.g. Mg 65-70) to more highly fractionated (e.g. Mg 45-50). Highest parts of the axial ridge are capped by pinnacles with elongated pillows of basaltic andesite (e.g. 52-56%) SiO 2 . These are due to extreme fractional crystallization of basalts forming the axial ridge. Active hydrothermal vents with chimneys and mats of opaline silica, barite, sphalerite and lesser amounts of pyrite, chalcopyrite and galena formed near these silicic rocks. The vents are surrounded by distinctive vent animals, polychaete worms, crabs and barnacles. Isotope data indicate that the Mariana Trough crust was derived from a heterogeneous source including mantle resembling the MORB-source and an ''arc-source'' component. The latter was depleted in HFS elements in previous melting events and later modified by addition of H 2 O and LIL elements. (orig.)

  6. Mariana Forearc Serpentine Mud Volcanoes Harbor Novel Communities of Extremophilic Archaea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, A. C.; Moyer, C. L.

    2005-12-01

    Since the Eocene (45 Ma) the Pacific Plate has been subducting beneath the Philippine Plate in the western Pacific ocean. This process has given rise to the Mariana Islands. As a direct result of this non-accretionary subduction, the Mariana Island Arc contains a broad forearc zone of serpentinite mud volcanoes located between the island chain and the trench. Forearc faulting, due to high pressure and low temperature build-up, produce slurries of mud and rock that mix with slab derived fluids and rise in conduits. Due to dehydration of the overlying mantle, native rock is converted to serpentinite, which squeezes out at fractures along the sea floor. This results in giant mud volcanoes (~30 km diameter and ~2 km high) that form a chain between 50 and 150 km behind the trench axis. Microbial samples were collected using Jason II from seven mud volcanoes along the length of the forearc and community fingerprinting was applied to genomic DNA using terminal restriction length polymorphism (T-RFLP). The resulting data were compared with traditional clone library and sequence analysis from samples obtained from the southernmost mud volcano, South Chamorro, site 1200, holes D and E, sampled during ODP Leg 195. The dominant archaeal phylotypes found clustered into two groups within the Methanobacteria, a class of anaerobic methanogens and methylotrophs. These phylotypes were detected at three of the seven mud volcanoes sampled and comprised 61% of the archaeal clone library from 1200 E. The first group was most closely related to the order Methanobacteriales, however, these novel phylotypes had similarity values of up to 0.90 at best with some resulting at 0.48. The second novel group of phylotypes were most closely related to order Methanosarcinales, with similarity values in the range of 0.50 to 0.22, indicating a relatively weak association with known phylotypes. At 1200 D, phylotypes associated with non-thermophilic Marine Group I Crenarchaeota were detected

  7. Crustal evolution derived from the Izu-Bonin-Mariana arc velocity images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, N.; Kodaira, S.; Tatsumi, Y.; Miura, S.; Sato, T.; Yamashita, M.; No, T.; Takahashi, T.; Noguchi, N.; Takizawa, K.; Kaiho, Y.; Kaneda, Y.

    2010-12-01

    The Izu-Bonin-Mariana arc is known as one of typical oceanic island arcs, which has developed by subduction between oceanic crusts producing continental materials. Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology has carried out seismic surveys using a multi-channel reflection survey system (MCS) and ocean bottom seismographs (OBSs) in the Izu-Bonin-Mariana (IBM) arc since 2002, and reported these crustal images. As the results, we identified the structural characteristics of whole Izu-Bonin-Mariana arc. Rough structural characteristics are, 1) middle crust with Vp of 6 km/s, 2) upper part of the lower crust with Vp of 6.5-6.8 km/s, 3) lower part of the lower crust with Vp of 6.8-7.5 km/s, and 4) lower mantle velocity beneath the arc crusts. In addition, structural variation along the volcanic front, for example, thickness variation of andesitic layers was imaged and the distributions is consistent with those of rhyolite volcanoes, that is, it suggested that the cause the structural variation is various degree of crustal growth (Kodaira et al., 2007). Moreover, crustal thinning with high velocity lower crust across arc was also imaged, and it is interpreted that such crust has been influenced backarc opening (Takahashi et al., 2009). According to Tatsumi et al. (2008), andesitic middle crust is produced by differentiation of basaltic lower crust and a part of the restites are transformed to the upper mantle. This means that region showing much crustal differentiation has large volume of transformation of dense crustal materials to the mantle. We calculated volume profiles of the lower crust along all seismic lines based on the petrologic model, and compared them with observed real volumes obtained by seismic images. If the real volume of the lower crust is large, it means that the underplating of dense materials to the crustal bottom is dominant rather than transformation of dense materials to the upper mantle. According to obtained profiles to judge if the

  8. Imagen y autoridad en una regencia: los retratos de Mariana de Austria y los límites del poder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercedes LLORENTE

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: Durante los siglos XVI y XVII, la corona española recayó siempre sobre un varón de la Casa de Habsburgo. A pesar del importante papel que jugaron varias mujeres de la familia real como regentes, gobernadoras o virreinas, éstas habían quedado siempre subordinadas a la figura masculina del rey. Tras la muerte de Felipe IV, la regencia de Mariana de Austria, madre de un rey-niño, abrió un período sin precedentes en este sentido en la historia de los Habsburgo españoles.No existiendo antecedentes recientes que poder emplear como referencia, Mariana tuvo que reinventar mucho de sus nuevas funciones y de su imagen y ambas cosas se reflejan en su representación pública, particularmente en sus retratos. Las tipologías del retrato que crean Juan Bautista del Mazo y Carreño Miranda son novedosas en sus soluciones, pero lo son aún más en el tema mismo de los retratos: una mujer, la reina Mariana, en el ejercicio del poder.ABSTRACT: In the 16th and 17th centuries, the Habsburg crown had always rested on a male head, and although various female members of the royal family had played such key political roles such as regents, governors or viceroys, they had always remained subordínate to a male king. After the death of Philip IV the regency of queen Mariana de Austria, mother of a child-king, opens a period in the history of the Spanish Habsburgs, which is unique in this sense.Having no recent model available to use as a reference, queen Mariana saw herself in the need for reinventing much of her new functions and image, which can be perceived in her public depictions and particularly in her portraits. The portrait typologies created by Juan Bautista del Mazo and Carreño de Miranda are new as to the visual formulae they introduce, but more radically so as to the protrait's theme: a woman, Mariana, who acts as a ruler.

  9. Ancient mantle in a modern arc: osmium isotopes in izu-bonin-mariana forearc peridotites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkinson; Hawkesworth; Cohen

    1998-09-25

    Mantle peridotites drilled from the Izu-Bonin-Mariana forearc have unradiogenic 187Os/188Os ratios (0.1193 to 0.1273), which give Proterozoic model ages of 820 to 1230 million years ago. If these peridotites are residues from magmatism during the initiation of subduction 40 to 48 million years ago, then the mantle that melted was much more depleted in incompatible elements than the source of mid-ocean ridge basalts (MORB). This result indicates that osmium isotopes record information about ancient melting events in the convecting upper mantle not recorded by incompatible lithophile isotope tracers. Subduction zones may be a graveyard for ancient depleted mantle material, and portions of the convecting upper mantle may be less radiogenic in osmium isotopes than previously recognized.

  10. Hydrothermal manganese oxide deposits from the Izu-Ogasawara (Bonin)-Mariana Arc and adjacent areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Usui, A.; Nishimura, A. (Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan))

    1992-04-27

    Modern and fossil hydrothermal manganese oxide deposits were discovered from a number of locations in the Izu-Ogasawara(Bonin)-Mariana Arc and adjacent areas during the Hakurei-Maru cruises from 1984 to 1989. This paper describes the occurrence and characteristics of these manganese deposits and their geological significance. It was found that the mineralogical and chemical composition and microstructure of the deposits are typically different from manganese nodules and crusts of hydrogenetic or diagenetic origin. Hardpans, veinlets, sheets, and irregular mass of the hydrothermal manganese deposits often cover a large area of sea bed, which suggests possible high-temperature hydrothermal sulfide deposits in their vicinity. On the other hand, the manganese minerals sometimes occur as substrate of younger hydrogenetic crusts and as nucleus of hydrogenetic nodules, which can provide a geological history of low-temperature hydrothermal activity on the past island arcs. 45 refs., 19 figs., 3 tabs.

  11. El monumento a Mariana Pineda o el culto civil a la revolución moderna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana María Gómez Román

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available La significación que, en la construcción del Estado liberal, se concedió a los proyectos conmemorativos alcanzó en el dedicado a Mariana Pineda en Granada uno de sus desarrollos más expresivos. Resultado de un largo proceso (1836-1873, las fuertes connotaciones ideológicas de la empresa motivaron su carácter intermitente y variable, como reflejo de las contradicciones dominantes sobre el encargo público en esos momentos. Testimonio de un pasado próximo y cercano en la memoria local, a su indiscutible función de exaltación patriótica une el interés de tratarse del único monumento erigido en España en aquel siglo a la memoria de una heroína.

  12. ARMAS NO TERMO DE MARIANA (1707-1736: LEGISLAÇÃO E DIREITO COMUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabella Fátima Oliveira de Sales

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to discuss the features of the legislation - related to the possession and use of weapons - established by the Portuguese Crown in their fields, as well as the influence of these procedures and customary practices of direct in Minas Gerais during the first three decades of the eighteenth century, especially in the Termo de Mariana. This approach allows us to infer issues about the nature of relations established between center and periphery, to the extent that the State created parameters that should be followed by society to maintain the established order, however, the legitimacy of such power was based on ample bargaining with social groups. In this context, one can see how the laws regarding weapons were adapted to the local context. Moreover, this study also contributes to thinking about the environment of violence and conflict that marked the mining region in its first occupations.

  13. Urolithiasis, Urinary Cancer, and Home Drinking Water Source in the United States Territory of Guam, 2006–2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert L. Haddock

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available We reviewed patient records with a first-listed diagnosis of urolithiasis—also known as urinary tract or kidney stone disease, nephrolithiasis—upon discharge from Guam’s sole civilian hospital during 2006 to 2010 and urinary cancer mortality records from the Guam Cancer Registry for 1970 to 2009 to determine the source of municipal water supplied to the patients’ residence. The objective was to investigate a possible relationship between the sources of municipal water supplied to Guam villages and the incidence of urolithiasis and urinary cancer. We analyzed hospital discharge diagnoses of urolithiasis or renal calculi by calculating the incidence of first-mentioned discharge for urolithiasis or renal calculi and comparing rates across demographic or geographic categories while adjusting by age, sex, and ethnicity/race. We reviewed cancer registry records of urinary cancer deaths by patient residence. The annual incidence of hospitalization for urolithiasis was 5.22 per 10,000. Rates adjusted for sex or age exhibited almost no change. The rate of 9.83 per 10,000 among Chamorros was significantly higher (p < 0.05 than the rates among any other ethnic group or race. When villages were grouped by water source, rates of patients discharged with a first-listed diagnosis of urolithiasis, adjusted for ethnicity/race, were similar for villages using either well water (5.44 per 10,000 or mixed source water (5.39 per 10,000, and significantly greater than the rate for villages using exclusively reservoir water (1.35 per 10,000. No statistically significant differences were found between the water source or village of residence and urinary cancer mortality. Some Guam residents living in villages served completely or partly by deep well water high in calcium carbonate may be at increased risk for urolithiasis compared with residents living in villages served by surface waters. Although the risk appears to be highest in villagers of Chamorro

  14. Online Classroom Research and Analysis Activities Using MARGINS-Related Resources for the Izu-Bonin-Mariana Subduction System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, J. G.

    2007-12-01

    Students today have online access to nearly unlimited scientific information in an entirely unfiltered state. As such, they need guidance and training in identifying and assessing high-quality information resources for educational and research use. The extensive research data resources available online for the Izu-Bonin-Mariana (IBM) subduction system that have been developed with MARGINS Program and related NSF funding are an ideal venue for focused Web research exercises that can be tailored to a range of undergraduate geoscience courses. This presentation highlights student web research activities examining: a) The 2003-2005 eruptions of Anatahan Volcano in the Mariana volcanic arc. MARGINS-supported geophysical research teams were in the region when the eruption initiated, permitting a unique "event response" data collection and analysis process, with preliminary results presented online at websites linked to the MARGINS homepage, and ultimately published in a special issue of the Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research. In this activity, students will conduct a directed Web surf/search effort for information on and datasets from the Anatahan arc volcano, which they will use in an interpretive study of recent magmatic activity in the Mariana arc. This activity is designed as a homework exercise for use in a junior-senior level Petrology course, but could easily be taken into greater depth for the benefit of graduate-level volcanology or geochemistry offerings. b) Geochemical and mineralogical results from ODP Legs 125 and 195 focused on diapiric serpentinite mud volcanoes, which erupt cold, high pH fluids, serpentine muds, and serpentinized ultramafic clasts at a number of sites in the forearc region of the Mariana subduction zone. The focus of this activity is an examination of the trace element chemistry of the forearc serpentines and their associated upwelling porefluids as a means of understanding the roles of ionic radius, valence, and system

  15. Morphological and hematological studies of Trypanosoma spp. infecting ornamental armored catfish from Guamá River-PA, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Y. Fujimoto

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A total of 281 specimens of freshwater armored ornamental fish species (Leporacanthicus galaxias, Lasiancistrus saetiger, Cochliodon sp., Hypostomus sp., Pseudacanthicus spinosus, Ancistrus sp. and Rineloricaria cf. lanceolata were captured at the hydrological basin of Guamá River, Pará, Brazil. The infection by Trypanosoma spp. was inspected. The morphological and morphometric characterization of the parasites and the hematological parameters were determined. Leporacanthicus galaxias and Pseudacanthicus spinosus presented 100% infection prevalence, and the other species showed a variable prevalence of infection. The parasites showed clearly different morphotypes and dimensions, and probably belong to different species. The hematological response to the infection varied with the host. Cochliodon sp. showed no differences between infected and not infected fish. In other species several modifications on some hematological parameters were found, but apparently without causing disease. It is emphasized the possibility of introduction of the parasites in new environments due to the artificial movements of these ornamental fish.

  16. Development of highly reliable in silico SNP resource and genotyping assay from exome capture and sequencing: an example from black spruce (Picea mariana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavy, Nathalie; Gagnon, France; Deschênes, Astrid; Boyle, Brian; Beaulieu, Jean; Bousquet, Jean

    2016-03-01

    Picea mariana is a widely distributed boreal conifer across Canada and the subject of advanced breeding programmes for which population genomics and genomic selection approaches are being developed. Targeted sequencing was achieved after capturing P. mariana exome with probes designed from the sequenced transcriptome of Picea glauca, a distant relative. A high capture efficiency of 75.9% was reached although spruce has a complex and large genome including gene sequences interspersed by some long introns. The results confirmed the relevance of using probes from congeneric species to perform successfully interspecific exome capture in the genus Picea. A bioinformatics pipeline was developed including stringent criteria that helped detect a set of 97,075 highly reliable in silico SNPs. These SNPs were distributed across 14,909 genes. Part of an Infinium iSelect array was used to estimate the rate of true positives by validating 4267 of the predicted in silico SNPs by genotyping trees from P. mariana populations. The true positive rate was 96.2% for in silico SNPs, compared to a genotyping success rate of 96.7% for a set 1115 P. mariana control SNPs recycled from previous genotyping arrays. These results indicate the high success rate of the genotyping array and the relevance of the selection criteria used to delineate the new P. mariana in silico SNP resource. Furthermore, in silico SNPs were generally of medium to high frequency in natural populations, thus providing high informative value for future population genomics applications. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Stratified Random Surveys (StRS) of Reef Fish, including Benthic Estimate Data of Guam from 2014-09-29 to 2014-10-31 (NCEI Accession 0157592)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The stationary point count (SPC) method is used to conduct reef fish surveys in the Hawaiian and Mariana Archipelagos, American Samoa, and the Pacific Remote Island...

  18. Increased aluminum content in the spinal cord of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and Parkinsonism-dementia of Guam and in the Kii Peninsula of Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wakayama, Ikuro; Yoshida, Sohei [Wakayama Medical Coll. (Japan); Sasajima, Kazuhisa; Takada, Jitsuya; Yoshida, Koichi

    1994-07-01

    Aluminum content in the lumbar spinal cord of patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis(ALS) and Parkinsonism-dementia(PD) in the Kii Peninsula of Japan and in the island of Guam was measured using a particle induced X-ray emission analysis. We demonstrated that aluminum content was increased in the spinal cord of patients with ALS in two foci of the western Pacific, indicating aluminum to be a important factor in the process of spinal motor neuron degeneration. (author).

  19. Increased aluminum content in the spinal cord of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and Parkinsonism-dementia of Guam and in the Kii Peninsula of Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wakayama, Ikuro; Yoshida, Sohei; Sasajima, Kazuhisa; Takada, Jitsuya; Yoshida, Koichi.

    1994-01-01

    Aluminum content in the lumbar spinal cord of patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis(ALS) and Parkinsonism-dementia(PD) in the Kii Peninsula of Japan and in the island of Guam was measured using a particle induced X-ray emission analysis. We demonstrated that aluminum content was increased in the spinal cord of patients with ALS in two foci of the western Pacific, indicating aluminum to be a important factor in the process of spinal motor neuron degeneration. (author)

  20. Colonialism and Sanctity in the Mariana Islands: the soldiers of Gideon (1676-1690

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Coello de la Rosa

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available In this article I analyze the conquest and conversion of the Marianas (1676- 1690 as a discursive reality that turned the islands in a violent theater wherein the chamorros were defined as ruthless warriors (warrior’s ethos, and the Jesuits, on the contrary, as victims of the betrayals and retaliations of their newly converted «children» (martyr’s ethos. The hagiographers elevated their Jesuit martyrs to the category of «moral heroes», turning their deeds into a strong element of cohesion and identity for the missionaries preaching in the archipelago. In addition, the superiors wrote informaciones or memorials in which they stood out the behaviour of the military «heroes» of the colonization. We refer to José de Quiroga y Losada, captain and major sergeant of the garrison, and to the «loyal Indian» don Ignacio de Hineti, Indian sergeant and a «good Christian», whose military expeditions were directed to deal with the «anomaly» of the chamorros’ resistance. After the Second Great War (1683-86, the Jesuits clearly adopted the political and religious leadership in the islands, becoming the founders of a real «missionary state» wherein their martyrs acted as moral referents of the subjugated territories.

  1. The magma plumbing system in the Mariana Trough back-arc basin at 18° N

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Zhiqing; Zhao, Guangtao; Han, Zongzhu; Huang, Bo; Li, Min; Tian, Liyan; Liu, Bo; Bu, Xuejiao

    2018-04-01

    Mafic magmas are common in back-arc basin, once stalled in the crust, these magmas may undergo different evolution. In this paper, compositional and textural variations of plagioclase as well as mineral-melt geothermobarometry are presented for basalts erupted from the central Mariana Trough (CMT). These data reveal crystallization conditions and we attempt a reconstruction of the magma plumbing system of the CMT. Plagioclase megacrysts, phenocrysts, microphenocrysts, microlites, olivine, spinel, and clinopyroxene have been recognized in basalt samples, using BSE images and compositional features. The last three minerals are homogeneous as microphenocrysts. Mineral-melt barometry indicates that plagioclase crystals crystallized and eventually grew into phenocrysts and megacrysts in mush zone with depth of 5-9 km, in which the normal zoning plagioclases crystallized in the interval of various batches of basic magma recharging. Plagioclase megacrysts and phenocrysts were dissolved and/or resorbed, when new basic magmas injected into the mush zone near Moho depth. It is inferred that magma extracted from the mush zone, and adiabatically ascended via different pathways. Some basaltic magmas underwent plagioclase and clinopyroxene microphenocrysts crystallization in low-pressure before eruption. Plagioclase microlites and outermost rims probably crystallized after eruption.

  2. Soil physical, chemical and gas-flux characterization from Picea mariana stands near Erickson Creek, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Jonathan A.; Harden, Jennifer W.; Manies, Kristen L.

    2011-01-01

    Fire is a particularly important control on the carbon (C) balance of the boreal forest, and fire-return intervals and fire severity appear to have increased since the late 1900s in North America. In addition to the immediate release of stored C to the atmosphere through organic-matter combustion, fire also modifies soil conditions, possibly affecting C exchange between terrestrial and atmospheric pools for decades after the burn. The effects of fire on ecosystem C dynamics vary across the landscape, with topographic position and soil drainage functioning as important controls. The data reported here contributed to a larger U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) study, published in the journal Ecosystems by O'Donnell and others (2009). To evaluate the effects of fire and drainage on ecosystem C dynamics, we selected sample sites within the 2003 Erickson Creek fire scar to measure CO2 fluxes and soil C inventories in burned and unburned (control) sites in both upland and lowland black spruce (Picea mariana) forests. The results of this study suggested that although fire can create soil climate conditions which are more conducive to rapid decomposition, rates of C release from soils may be constrained after fire by changes in moisture and (or) substrate quality that impede rates of decomposition. Here, we report detailed site information, methodology, and data (in spreadsheet files) from that study.

  3. Environmental factors affecting large-bodied coral reef fish assemblages in the Mariana Archipelago.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin L Richards

    Full Text Available Large-bodied reef fishes represent an economically and ecologically important segment of the coral reef fish assemblage. Many of these individuals supply the bulk of the reproductive output for their population and have a disproportionate effect on their environment (e.g. as apex predators or bioeroding herbivores. Large-bodied reef fishes also tend to be at greatest risk of overfishing, and their loss can result in a myriad of either cascading (direct or indirect trophic and other effects. While many studies have investigated habitat characteristics affecting populations of small-bodied reef fishes, few have explored the relationship between large-bodied species and their environment. Here, we describe the distribution of the large-bodied reef fishes in the Mariana Archipelago with an emphasis on the environmental factors associated with their distribution. Of the factors considered in this study, a negative association with human population density showed the highest relative influence on the distribution of large-bodied reef fishes; however, depth, water temperature, and distance to deep water also were important. These findings provide new information on the ecology of large-bodied reef fishes can inform discussions concerning essential fish habitat and ecosystem-based management for these species and highlight important knowledge gaps worthy of additional research.

  4. Identification of Free-living and Particle-Associated Microbial Communities Present in Hadal regions of the Mariana Trench

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan eTarn

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Relatively few studies have described the microbial populations present in ultra-deep hadal environments, largely as a result of difficulties associated with sampling. Here we report Illumina-tag V6 16S rRNA sequence-based analyses of the free-living and particle-associated microbial communities recovered from locations within two of the deepest hadal sites on Earth, the Challenger Deep (10,918 meters below surface-mbs and the Sirena Deep (10,667 mbs within the Mariana Trench, as well as one control site (Ulithi Atoll, 761 mbs. Seawater samples were collected using an autonomous lander positioned ~1m above the seafloor. The bacterial populations within the Mariana Trench bottom water samples were dissimilar to other deep-sea microbial communities, though with overlap with those of diffuse flow hydrothermal vents and deep-subsurface locations. Distinct particle-associated and free-living bacterial communities were found to exist. The hadal bacterial populations were also markedly different from one another, indicating the likelihood of different chemical conditions at the two sites. In contrast to the bacteria, the hadal archaeal communities were more similar to other less deep datasets and to each other due to an abundance of cosmopolitan deep-sea taxa. The hadal communities were enriched in thirty four bacterial and four archaeal operational taxonomic units (OTUs including members of the Gammaproteobacteria, Epsilonproteobacteria, Marinimicrobia, Cyanobacteria, Deltaproteobacteria, Gemmatimonadetes, Atribacteria, Spirochaetes, and Euryarchaeota. Sequences matching cultivated piezophiles were notably enriched in the Challenger Deep, especially within the particle-associated fraction, and were found in higher abundances than in other hadal studies, where they were either far less prevalent or missing. Our results indicate the importance of heterotrophy, sulfur-cycling, and methane and hydrogen utilization within the bottom waters of the deeper

  5. Identification of Free-Living and Particle-Associated Microbial Communities Present in Hadal Regions of the Mariana Trench.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarn, Jonathan; Peoples, Logan M; Hardy, Kevin; Cameron, James; Bartlett, Douglas H

    2016-01-01

    Relatively few studies have described the microbial populations present in ultra-deep hadal environments, largely as a result of difficulties associated with sampling. Here we report Illumina-tag V6 16S rRNA sequence-based analyses of the free-living and particle-associated microbial communities recovered from locations within two of the deepest hadal sites on Earth, the Challenger Deep (10,918 meters below surface-mbs) and the Sirena Deep (10,667 mbs) within the Mariana Trench, as well as one control site (Ulithi Atoll, 761 mbs). Seawater samples were collected using an autonomous lander positioned ~1 m above the seafloor. The bacterial populations within the Mariana Trench bottom water samples were dissimilar to other deep-sea microbial communities, though with overlap with those of diffuse flow hydrothermal vents and deep-subsurface locations. Distinct particle-associated and free-living bacterial communities were found to exist. The hadal bacterial populations were also markedly different from one another, indicating the likelihood of different chemical conditions at the two sites. In contrast to the bacteria, the hadal archaeal communities were more similar to other less deep datasets and to each other due to an abundance of cosmopolitan deep-sea taxa. The hadal communities were enriched in 34 bacterial and 4 archaeal operational taxonomic units (OTUs) including members of the Gammaproteobacteria, Epsilonproteobacteria, Marinimicrobia, Cyanobacteria, Deltaproteobacteria, Gemmatimonadetes, Atribacteria, Spirochaetes, and Euryarchaeota. Sequences matching cultivated piezophiles were notably enriched in the Challenger Deep, especially within the particle-associated fraction, and were found in higher abundances than in other hadal studies, where they were either far less prevalent or missing. Our results indicate the importance of heterotrophy, sulfur-cycling, and methane and hydrogen utilization within the bottom waters of the deeper regions of the Mariana Trench

  6. Rb-Sr isochronous of the alkaline volcanoes from the Bonin-Mariana tectonics zone (Pacific Ocean)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Govorov, I.N.; Gerasimov, N.S.; Tatarin, I.A.

    1996-01-01

    Description of petrogeochemical peculiarities of rocks of the Bonin-Mariana tectonic zone (Pacific Ocean) and the results on the dating of the alkaline volcanoes are presented. The established age of the Kadzan volcano equals approximately 138 ± 30 mln years; the initial ratio 87 Sr/ 86 Sr) 0 is equal to 0.70275 ± 0.0047. The age of the Ramapo complex constitutes 4 ± 66 mln years; the initial ratio ( 87 Sr/ 86 Sr) 0 equals 0.70313 ± 0.00045 [ru

  7. [Methodology to prevent mercury exposure among adolescents from goldmine areas in Mariana, state of Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Câmara; Filhote; Lima; Alheira; Martins; Dantas; Luiz

    1996-04-01

    The main objective of this study was to promote the evaluation of an educational method to identify health risks among adolescents exposed to mercury by their work in gold mining production.The project was carried out with adolescents from a public school from the District of Monsenhor Horta, Municipality of Mariana, state of Minas Gerais. Statistical evaluation of the results revealed a significant increase in the amount of correct answers between the first and fifth stage concerning the definition of work accidents and its importance in relation to work-related diseases, accidents on route to and from the work place and violence at work site itself.

  8. Queen Mariana of Austria's Journey to Spain: political divergences and protocol tensions within the house of Habsburg (1648-1649

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Tercero Casado

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Spain’s isolation at the end of the Thirty Year’s War due to the Empire’s separate signature with France and Sweden in the Peace of Westphalia unleashed brief but intense political turmoil between the two Habsburg branches. Although Philip IV and Mariana of Austria’s marriage was ensured, the new Queen’s journey to Spain brought attention to the failure of another engagement between her brother and Emperor’s son, the King of Hungary Ferdinand, and the Infanta Maria Theresa. Given such context, the trip undoubtedly emphasized the tensions between both European powers.

  9. Swimming depth of migrating silver eels Anguilla japonica released at seamounts of the West Mariana Ridge, their estimated spawning sites

    OpenAIRE

    Aoyama, J.; Hissmann, Karen; Yoshinaga, T.; Sasai, S.; Uto, T.; Ueda, H.

    1999-01-01

    Five hormone-treated female Japanese silver eels Anguilla japonica were tagged with ultrasonic transmitters and released by submersible in the West Pacific at seamounts of the West Mariana Ridge, their supposed spawning grounds. Four eels were tracked for 60 to 423 min in the vicinity of the seamounts. They did not settle at the seamounts but swam at a mean speed of 0.37 m s-1 into open water above deep ground. Their mean swimming depth ranged from 81 to 172 m. Experiments suggest that pre-ma...

  10. Transformation of juvenile Izu-Bonin-Mariana oceanic arc into mature continental crust: An example from the Neogene Izu collision zone granitoid plutons, Central Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Satoshi; Tani, Kenichiro

    2017-04-01

    Granitic rocks (sensulato) are major constituents of upper continental crust. Recent reviews reveal that the average composition of Phanerozoic upper continental crust is granodioritic. Although oceanic arcs are regarded as a site producing continental crust material in an oceanic setting, intermediate to felsic igneous rocks occurring in modern oceanic arcs are dominantly tonalitic to trondhjemitic in composition and have lower incompatible element contents than the average upper continental crust. Therefore, juvenile oceanic arcs require additional processes in order to get transformed into mature continental crust enriched in incompatible elements. Neogene granitoid plutons are widely exposed in the Izu Collision Zone in central Japan, where the northern end of the Izu-Bonin-Mariana (IBM) arc (juvenile oceanic arc) has been colliding with the Honshu arc (mature island arc) since Middle Miocene. The plutons in this area are composed of various types of granitoids ranging from tonalite to trondhjemite, granodiorite, monzogranite and granite. Three main granitoid plutons are distributed in this area: Tanzawa plutonic complex, Kofu granitic complex, and Kaikomagatake granitoid pluton. Tanzawa plutonic complex is dominantly composed of tonalite and trondhjemite and characterized by low concentration of incompatible elements and shows geochemical similarity with modern juvenile oceanic arcs. In contrast, Kofu granitic complex and Kaikomagatake granitoid pluton consists mainly of granodiorite, monzogranite and granite and their incompatible element abundances are comparable to the average upper continental crust. Previous petrogenetic studies on these plutons suggested that (1) the Tanzawa plutonic complex formed by lower crustal anatexis of juvenile basaltic rocks occurring in the IBM arc, (2) the Kofu granitic complex formed by anatexis of 'hybrid lower crust' comprising of both basaltic rocks of the IBM arc and metasedimentary rocks of the Honshu arc, and (3) the

  11. Metodologia para prevenir exposição ao mercúrio em adolescentes de garimpos de ouro em Mariana, Minas Gerais, Brasil Methodology to prevent mercury exposure among adolescents from goldmine areas in Mariana, state of Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volney de M. Câmara

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available O principal objetivo deste estudo foi promover a avaliação de uma metodologia educativa para identificar e refletir, criticamente, sobre os riscos à saúde de adolescentes causados pelo trabalho em garimpos de ouro. O projeto foi realizado com adolescentes que estudavam na Escola Estadual Cônego Braga do Distrito de Monsenhor Horta, Município de Mariana, Minas Gerais, Brasil. A avaliação dos resultados através de testes estatísticos revelou um significativo acréscimo de respostas corretas da primeira para a última fase sobre a definição de acidentes de trabalho e sua equiparação com as doenças do trabalho, os acidentes de trajeto e as agressões no local de trabalho.The main objective of this study was to promote the evaluation of an educational method to identify health risks among adolescents exposed to mercury by their work in gold mining production.The project was carried out with adolescents from a public school from the District of Monsenhor Horta, Municipality of Mariana, state of Minas Gerais. Statistical evaluation of the results revealed a significant increase in the amount of correct answers between the first and fifth stage concerning the definition of work accidents and its importance in relation to work-related diseases, accidents on route to and from the work place and violence at work site itself.

  12. Predicting dredging-associated effects to coral reefs in Apra Harbor, Guam - Part 1: Sediment exposure modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gailani, Joseph Z; Lackey, Tahirih C; King, David B; Bryant, Duncan; Kim, Sung-Chan; Shafer, Deborah J

    2016-03-01

    Model studies were conducted to investigate the potential coral reef sediment exposure from dredging associated with proposed development of a deepwater wharf in Apra Harbor, Guam. The Particle Tracking Model (PTM) was applied to quantify the exposure of coral reefs to material suspended by the dredging operations at two alternative sites. Key PTM features include the flexible capability of continuous multiple releases of sediment parcels, control of parcel/substrate interaction, and the ability to efficiently track vast numbers of parcels. This flexibility has facilitated simulating the combined effects of sediment released from clamshell dredging and chiseling within Apra Harbor. Because the rate of material released into the water column by some of the processes is not well understood or known a priori, the modeling approach was to bracket parameters within reasonable ranges to produce a suite of potential results from multiple model runs. Sensitivity analysis to model parameters is used to select the appropriate parameter values for bracketing. Data analysis results include mapping the time series and the maximum values of sedimentation, suspended sediment concentration, and deposition rate. Data were used to quantify various exposure processes that affect coral species in Apra Harbor. The goal of this research is to develop a robust methodology for quantifying and bracketing exposure mechanisms to coral (or other receptors) from dredging operations. These exposure values were utilized in an ecological assessment to predict effects (coral reef impacts) from various dredging scenarios. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Improving Department of Defense Global Distribution Performance Through Network Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    Scheduled MILAIR Local Truck Unknown Ocean Scheduled Truck Other THEATER Central Germany Puerto Rico West Spain Virgin Islands Southeast Turkey Mexico...Seychelles Belgium Guam Kuwait Greenland Northern Mariana Islands Oman North Atlantic Australia Qatar Balkans Singapore United Arab Emirates...Niger 0.00 1.00 5.41 47.00 10.73 233.00 North Atlantic 0.00 18.00 43.84 286.00 56.15 265.00 Northeast 0.00 1.00 5.54 356.00 15.40 381722.00

  14. Narrar la ausencia. Una lectura de Los topos de Félix Bruzzone y de Diario de una Princesa Montonera de Mariana Perez

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Cobas Carral

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes Los topos, by Félix Bruzzone and Diario de una Princesa Montonera, by Mariana Eva Perez to explore the modes of recovery of the recent past ligated with Argentina’s last military dictatorship from the perspective of two “desaparecidos”‘s children.

  15. Genetic variation in carbon isotope discrimination and its relationship to growth under field conditions in full-sib families of Picea mariana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence B. Flanagan; Kurt H. Johnsen

    1995-01-01

    Measurements of the stable carbon isotope composition of leaf tissue were made on Picea mariana (Mill.) B.S.P. trees from four full-sib families grown on three different field sites at the Petawawa National Forestry Institute, Ontario, Canada. The four families chosen exhibited genetic variation for growth characteristics. Genetic...

  16. In-situ Raman microprobe studies of plant cell walls: macromolecular organization and compositional variability in the secondary wall of Picea mariana (Mill.) B.S.P.

    Science.gov (United States)

    U.P. Agarwal; R.H. Atalla

    1986-01-01

    Native-state organization and distribution of cell-wall components in the secondary wall of woody tissue from P. mariana (Black Spruce) have been investigated using polarized Raman microspectroscopy. Evidence for orientation is detected through Raman intensity variations resulting from rotations of the exciting electric vector with respect to cell-wall geometry....

  17. IODP Expedition 351 Izu-Bonin-Mariana Arc Origins: Age model for Site U1438

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Antony; Maffione, Marco; Kender, Sev; Aljahdali, Mohammed; Bandini, Alexandre; Guerra, Rodrigo do Monte

    2015-04-01

    We report preliminary paleomagnetic and paleontological results from International Ocean Discovery Program (IODP) Expedition 351, which recovered an unprecedented ~1.4 km thick volcaniclastic sedimentary record documenting the initiation and subsequent evolution of the Izu-Bonin-Mariana (IBM) intra-oceanic arc-basin system. Magnetostratigraphic and biostratigraphic constraints provide a high-resolution temporal framework for interpretation of this record. Paleomagnetic analyses of archive half core samples provide a continuous record of the geomagnetic field inclination down to 847 mbsf that allows construction of a detailed site magnetostratigraphy that closely matches the Geomagnetic Polarity Timescale (Gradstein et al., 2012). A total of 87 geomagnetic reversals have been recognized in the studied succession, extending back to ~36 Ma. Despite sporadic microfossil occurrences in parts, calcareous nannofossils, planktonic foraminifera and radiolarians each contribute to the age model for the entire Site. All nannofossil marker species for Oligocene to Eocene Zones NP25 to NP19/20 are recognised. Beneath paleomagnetic control (847-1449 mbsf), foraminifera and radiolarians provide the only age control. The most salient features of the age model are that: (i) average linear sedimentation rates during the Plio-Pleistocene range from 1.4 to 2.2 cm/ka; (ii) there was a reduction in sedimentation rates to 0.25 - 0.5 cm/ka throughout the Miocene; and (iii) sedimentation rates sharply increase again in the Oligocene to Late Eocene to a maximum of ~20 cm/ka. These quantitative constraints closely match (non-quantitative) inferences based on the lithostratigraphy of the site, with fine-grained/coarse-grained sediments dominating in periods with low/high sedimentation rates respectively.

  18. Long Term Seismic Observation in Mariana by OBSs : Double Seismic Zone and Upper Mantle Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiobara, H.; Sugioka, H.; Mochizuki, K.; Oki, S.; Kanazawa, T.; Fukao, Y.; Suyehiro, K.

    2005-12-01

    In order to obtain the deep arc structural image of Mariana, a large-scale seismic observation by using 58 long-term ocean bottom seismometers (LTOBS) had been performed from June 2003 until April 2004, which is a part of the MARGINS program funded by the NSF. Prior to this observation, a pilot long-term seismic array observation was conducted in the same area by using 10 LTOBSs from Oct. 2001 until Feb. 2003. At that time, 8 LTOBSs were recovered but one had no data. Recently, 2 LTOBSs, had troubles in the releasing, were recovered by the manned submersible (Shinkai 6500, Jamstec) for the research of the malfunction in July 2005. By using all 9 LTOBS's data, those are about 11 months long, hypocenter determination was performed and more than 3000 local events were found. Even with the 1D velocity structure based on the iasp91 model, double seismic zones and a systematic shift of epicenters between the PDE and this study were observed. To investigate the detail of hypocenter distribution and the 3D velocity structure, the DD inversion (tomoDD: Zhang and Thurber, 2003) was applied for this data set with the 1D structure initial model except for the crust, which has been surveyed by using a dense airgun-OBS system (Takahashi et al., 2003). The result of relocated hypocenters shows clear double seismic zones until about 200 km depth, a high activity area around the fore-arc serpentine sea-mount, the Big Blue, and a lined focuses along the current ridge axis in the back-arc basin, and the result of the tomography shows a image of subducting slab and a low-Vs region below the same sea-mount mentioned. The wedge mantle structure was not clearly resolved due to the inadequate source-receiver coverage, which will be done in the recent experiment.

  19. Spawning sites of the Japanese eel in relation to oceanographic structure and the West Mariana Ridge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoyama, Jun; Watanabe, Shun; Miller, Michael J; Mochioka, Noritaka; Otake, Tsuguo; Yoshinaga, Tatsuki; Tsukamoto, Katsumi

    2014-01-01

    The Japanese eel, Anguilla japonica, spawns within the North Equatorial Current that bifurcates into both northward and southward flows in its westward region, so its spawning location and larval transport dynamics seem important for understanding fluctuations in its recruitment to East Asia. Intensive research efforts determined that Japanese eels spawn along the western side of the West Mariana Ridge during new moon periods, where all oceanic life history stages have been collected, including eggs and spawning adults. However, how the eels decide where to form spawning aggregations is unknown because spawning appears to have occurred at various latitudes. A salinity front formed from tropical rainfall was hypothesized to determine the latitude of its spawning locations, but an exact spawning site was only found once by collecting eggs in May 2009. This study reports on the collections of Japanese eel eggs and preleptocephali during three new moon periods in June 2011 and May and June 2012 at locations indicating that the distribution of lower salinity surface water or salinity fronts influence the latitude of spawning sites along the ridge. A distinct salinity front may concentrate spawning south of the front on the western side of the seamount ridge. It was also suggested that eels may spawn at various latitudes within low-salinity water when the salinity fronts appeared unclear. Eel eggs were distributed within the 150-180 m layer near the top of the thermocline, indicating shallow spawning depths. Using these landmarks for latitude (salinity front), longitude (seamount ridge), and depth (top of the thermocline) to guide the formation of spawning aggregations could facilitate finding mates and help synchronize their spawning.

  20. Enigmatic cranial superstructures among Chamorro ancestors from the Mariana Islands: gross anatomy and microanatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heathcote, Gary M; Bromage, Timothy G; Sava, Vincent J; Hanson, Douglas B; Anderson, Bruce E

    2014-06-01

    This study focuses on the gross anatomy, anatomic relations, microanatomy, and the meaning of three enigmatic, geographically patterned, and quasi-continuous superstructures of the posterior cranium. Collectively known as occipital superstructures (OSSs), these traits are the occipital torus tubercle (TOT), retromastoid process (PR), and posterior supramastoid tubercle (TSP). When present, TOT, PR, and TSP develop at posterior cranial attachment sites of the upper trapezius, superior oblique, and sternocleidomastoid muscles, respectively. Marked expression and co-occurrence of these OSSs are virtually circumscribed within Oceania and reach highest recorded frequencies in protohistoric Chamorros (CHamoru) of the Mariana Islands. Prior to undertaking scanning electron microscopy (SEM) work, our working multifactorial model for OSS development was that early-onset, long-term, and chronic activity-related microtrauma at enthesis sites led to exuberant reactive or reparative responses in a substantial minority of genetically predisposed (and mostly male) individuals. SEM imaging, however, reveals topographic patterning that questions, but does not negate, activity induction of these superstructures. Although OSSs appear macroscopically as relatively large and discrete phenomena, SEM findings reveal a unique, widespread, and seemingly systemic distribution of structures over the occipital surface that have the appearance of OSS microforms. Nevertheless, apparent genetic underpinnings, anatomic relationships with muscle entheses, and positive correlation of OSS development with humeral robusticity continue to suggest that these superstructures have potential to at once bear witness to Chamorro population history and inform osteobiographical constructions of chronic activity patterns in individuals bearing them. Further work is outlined that would illuminate the proximate and ultimate meanings of OSS. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Lateral-delivered organic matter boosts hadal bacterial abundance in the Mariana Trench: A hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, C.; Liu, H.; Lu, F.; Zou, L.; Tian, J.

    2017-12-01

    Hadal trenches are part of the least investigated biosphere on Earth due to the great challenge of sampling. Limited studies on microbiology by far have suggested that the hadalsphere hosts a heterotrophic microbial community that is likely fed by organic matter from surface-sinking biomass or re-suspended and laterally transported sediments. The uniqueness of trench environment and its potential role in global carbon sequestration entitle a detailed study on microbial-driven carbon cycle of the trench system. In this study, we conducted a vertical sampling of the microbial community and measured the environmental factors from the epipelagic zone down to the hadal zone at the Mariana Trench. 16S rRNA gene composition showed high stratification at the first 1000 meters below surface (mbs) but a nearly uniformed microbial community composition was observed at the abyssopelagic and the hadalpelagic water columns. The deep-sea bacteria were generally chemoheterotrophs and the majority of them were similar to those present at the ocean surface, suggesting influence of epipelagic primary production on deep sea bacterial communication at the trench location. Several deep-sea-enriched but surface-depleted bacteria could be characterized by potential degraders of polysaccharides and n-alkanes. Therefore, recalcitrant hydrocarbons or carbohydrates are likely important carbon sources supporting the deep-sea biosphere. In spite of consistent community composition, a remarkable increase in biomass of small-sized microbial aggregates was detected at 8727 mbs. Enhanced CDOM proportions in the trench imply intensified microbial activity in hadal water compared to the above water column, which agree with the notion of possible extra carbon input from lateral transportation of slope material. These observations extend our understanding in carbon cycle driven by metabolically diverse microorganisms at the trench and may shed light on the complexity of hadal biogeochemistry.

  2. Regional-scale input of dispersed and discrete volcanic ash to the Izu-Bonin and Mariana subduction zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scudder, Rachel P.; Murray, Richard W.; Schindlbeck, Julie C.; Kutterolf, Steffen; Hauff, Folkmar; McKinley, Claire C.

    2014-11-01

    We have geochemically and statistically characterized bulk marine sediment and ash layers at Ocean Drilling Program Site 1149 (Izu-Bonin Arc) and Deep Sea Drilling Project Site 52 (Mariana Arc), and have quantified that multiple dispersed ash sources collectively comprise ˜30-35% of the hemipelagic sediment mass entering the Izu-Bonin-Mariana subduction system. Multivariate statistical analyses indicate that the bulk sediment at Site 1149 is a mixture of Chinese Loess, a second compositionally distinct eolian source, a dispersed mafic ash, and a dispersed felsic ash. We interpret the source of these ashes as, respectively, being basalt from the Izu-Bonin Front Arc (IBFA) and rhyolite from the Honshu Arc. Sr-, Nd-, and Pb isotopic analyses of the bulk sediment are consistent with the chemical/statistical-based interpretations. Comparison of the mass accumulation rate of the dispersed ash component to discrete ash layer parameters (thickness, sedimentation rate, and number of layers) suggests that eruption frequency, rather than eruption size, drives the dispersed ash record. At Site 52, the geochemistry and statistical modeling indicates that Chinese Loess, IBFA, dispersed BNN (boninite from Izu-Bonin), and a dispersed felsic ash of unknown origin are the sources. At Site 1149, the ash layers and the dispersed ash are compositionally coupled, whereas at Site 52 they are decoupled in that there are no boninite layers, yet boninite is dispersed within the sediment. Changes in the volcanic and eolian inputs through time indicate strong arc-related and climate-related controls.

  3. Community Structure of Lithotrophically-Driven Hydrothermal Microbial Mats from the Mariana Arc and Back-Arc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin W. Hager

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The Mariana region exhibits a rich array of hydrothermal venting conditions in a complex geological setting, which provides a natural laboratory to study the influence of local environmental conditions on microbial community structure as well as large-scale patterns in microbial biogeography. We used high-throughput amplicon sequencing of the bacterial small subunit (SSU rRNA gene from 22 microbial mats collected from four hydrothermally active locations along the Mariana Arc and back-arc to explore the structure of lithotrophically-based microbial mat communities. The vent effluent was classified as iron- or sulfur-rich corresponding with two distinct community types, dominated by either Zetaproteobacteria or Epsilonproteobacteria, respectively. The Zetaproteobacterial-based communities had the highest richness and diversity, which supports the hypothesis that Zetaproteobacteria function as ecosystem engineers creating a physical habitat within a chemical environment promoting enhanced microbial diversity. Gammaproteobacteria were also high in abundance within the iron-dominated mats and some likely contribute to primary production. In addition, we also compare sampling scale, showing that bulk sampling of microbial mats yields higher diversity than micro-scale sampling. We present a comprehensive analysis and offer new insights into the community structure and diversity of lithotrophically-driven microbial mats from a hydrothermal region associated with high microbial biodiversity. Our study indicates an important functional role of for the Zetaproteobacteria altering the mat habitat and enhancing community interactions and complexity.

  4. Bacterial Community Sstructure and Novel Species of Magnetotactic Bacteria in Sediments from a Seamount in the Mariana Volcanic Arc

    Science.gov (United States)

    PAN, H.; LIU, J.; Zhang, W.; Xiao, T.; Wu, L. F.

    2017-12-01

    Seamounts are unique ecosystems where undersea mountains rise abruptly from the sea floor and interact dynamically with underwater currents, creating peculiar biological habitats with various microbial community structures. Certain bacteria associated with seamounts form conspicuous extracellular iron oxide structures, including encrusted stalks, flattened bifurcating tubes, and filamentous sheaths. To extend knowledge of seamount microorganisms we performed a systematic analysis of the population composition and occurrence of live magnetotactic bacteria (MTB) in sediments of a seamount in the Mariana volcanic arc. Proteobacteria dominated at 13 stations, and were the second in abundance to members of the Firmicutes at a deep station on a steep slope facing the Yap-Mariana trench. We found MTB that synthesize intracellular iron-oxide nanocrystals in biogenic sediments at all 14 stations, at seawater depths ranging from 238 to 2023 m. A novel flagellar apparatus, and the most complex yet reported, was observed in magnetotactic cocci; it comprises one or two bundles of 19 flagella arranged in a 3:4:5:4:3 array. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences identified 16 novel species of MTB specific to this seamount. The geographic properties at the various stations on the seamount appear to be important in shaping the microbial community structure.

  5. Stable isotope compositions of serpentinite seamounts in the Mariana forearc: Serpentinization processes, fluid sources and sulfur metasomatism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alt, J.C.; Shanks, Wayne C.

    2006-01-01

    The Mariana and Izu-Bonin arcs in the western Pacific are characterized by serpentinite seamounts in the forearc that provide unique windows into the mantle wedge. We present stable isotope (O, H, S, and C) data for serpentinites from Conical seamount in the Mariana forearc and S isotope data for Torishima seamount in the Izu-Bonin forearc in order to understand the compositions of fluids and temperatures of serpentinization in the mantle wedge, and to investigate the transport of sulfur from the slab to the mantle wedge. Six serpentine mineral separates have a restricted range of ??18O (6.5-8.5???). Antigorite separates have ??D values of -29.5??? to -45.5??? that reflect serpentinization within the mantle wedge whereas chrysotile has low ??D values (-51.8??? to -84.0???) as the result of re-equilibration with fluids at low temperatures. Fractionation of oxygen isotopes between serpentine and magnetite indicate serpentinization temperatures of 300-375 ??C. Two late cross-fiber chrysotile veins have higher ??18O values of 8.9??? to 10.8??? and formed at lower temperatures (as low as ???100 ??C). Aqueous fluids in equilibrium with serpentine at 300-375 ??C had ??18O = 6.5-9??? and ??D = -4??? to -26???, consistent with sediment dehydration reactions at temperatures arc lavas. ?? 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Benthic Cover Derived from Analysis of Benthic Images Collected during Stratified Random Surveys (StRS) across the Mariana Archipelago from 2014-03-25 to 2014-05-07 (NCEI Accession 0159148)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The data described here result from benthic photo-quadrat surveys conducted along transects at stratified random sites across the Mariana archipelago in 2014 as a...

  7. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Assessing and Monitoring Cryptic Reef Diversity of Colonizing Marine Invertebrates using Autonomous Reef Monitoring Structure (ARMS) Deployed at Coral Reef Sites across the Marianas Archipelago from 2011 to 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Autonomous Reef Monitoring Structures (ARMS) are used to assess and monitor cryptic reef diversity of colonizing marine invertebrates in the Hawaiian and Mariana...

  8. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Stratified Random Surveys (StRS) of Reef Fish, including Benthic Estimate Data of the Mariana Archipelago from 2017-05-03 to 2017-06-20 (NCEI Accession 0166381)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The stationary point count (SPC) method is used to conduct reef fish surveys in the Hawaiian and Mariana Archipelagos, American Samoa, and the Pacific Remote Island...

  9. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Stratified Random Surveys (StRS) of Coral Demography (Adult and Juvenile Corals) across the Mariana Archipelago from 2014-03-25 to 2014-05-07 (NCEI Accession 0159166)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The data described here result from benthic coral demographic surveys for two life stages (juveniles, adults) across the Mariana Archipelago in 2014. Juvenile colony...

  10. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Stratified Random Surveys (StRS) of Coral Demography (Adult and Juvenile Corals) across the Mariana Archipelago from 2017-05-05 to 2017-06-21 (NCEI Accession 0166383)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The data described here result from benthic coral demographic surveys for two life stages (juveniles, adults) across the Mariana archipelago in 2017. Juvenile colony...

  11. Invaded Invaders: Infection of Invasive Brown Treesnakes on Guam by an Exotic Larval Cestode with a Life Cycle Comprised of Non-Native Hosts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elden T Holldorf

    Full Text Available Multiple host introductions to the same non-native environment have the potential to complete life cycles of parasites incidentally transported with them. Our goal was to identify a recently detected parasitic flatworm in the invasive Brown Treesnake (Boiga irregularis on the remote Pacific island of Guam. We considered possible factors influencing parasite transmission, and tested for correlations between infection status and potential indicators of host fitness. We used genetic data from the parasite and information about the native ranges of other possible non-native hosts to hypothesize how it arrived on Guam and how its life cycle may be currently supported.We identified the parasite by comparing larval morphology and mtDNA sequences with other Pseudophyllid tapeworms. We assessed probability of infection in individual snakes using logistic regression and examined different factors influencing presence of parasites in hosts.We identified the parasite as the pseudophyllid cestode Spirometra erinaceieuropaei, with all sampled worms from multiple snakes sharing a single mtDNA haplotype. Infection appears to be limited to the only freshwater watershed on the island, where infection prevalence was high (77.5%. Larger snakes had a higher probability of being infected, consistent with the chronic nature of such infections. While infection status was positively correlated with body condition, infected snakes tended to have lower intra-peritoneal fat body mass, potentially indicating a negative effect on energy stores.We discovered that B. irregularis inhabiting a small area of forested habitat in a freshwater watershed on Guam are often infected by a novel parasite of Asian origin. While further work is needed, this species of Spirometra, itself a non-native species, likely depends on a suite of recently introduced hosts from different parts of the world to complete the life cycle. This baseline study provides little evidence of any effects on host

  12. Conflicto colonial andino y mediación teológica en la crónica de Guamán Poma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Amaya Farías

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available La Nueva corónica y buen gobierno de Felipe Guamán Poma de Ayala representa un documento de protesta muy singular en palabras e imágenes, como defensa de los indígenas maltratados y explotados por el sistema colonial. El cronista como indígena cristiano critica a los funcionarios políticos y religiosos de la colonia, posición que no implica necesariamente la ruptura con el sistema colonial. Para Guamán Poma, lo que amenaza la vida de las culturas indígenas no es la predicación de la salvación ni la forma ideal de vida cristiana, sino las concreciones históricas con las que el cristianismo es transmitido en la Colonia. La mediación teológica que plantea el cronista la formula desde la pregunta por la ruptura y continuidad, por la compatibilidad e incompatibilidad que se presenta entre las religiones andinas y el cristianismo.La nueva corónica y buen gobierno by Felipe Guamán Poma de Ayala represents a document of protest outstanding in words and images for the defense of the oppressed natives. The writer’s own experience as native and Christian is the startingpoint for his citizism of the colonial system. In his opinion the negative influence on the native culture wasn’t caused by the Christian promise of salvation nor by the proclaimed ideal way of Christian living, but by the way Christianity was transformed through the colonial context. The author´s main interest is to raise the question of the interruption and continuance and the compatibility and incompatibility between the native religions and Christianity.

  13. Defense Management: Further Analysis Needed to Identify Guam’s Public Infrastructure Requirements and Costs for DOD’s Realignment Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    47U.S. Department of the Interior Office of Inspector General, Tax Collection Activities Government of Guam: Revitalized Tax...A-11: Planning, Budgeting, and Acquisition of Capital Assets, app . 8 (ver. 3.0 (July 2013). 62GAO-09-3SP, pp. i and 182. DOD’s Cost Estimate to...Capital Assets, app . 8 (V 3.0 July 2013). According to our cost estimating guide, a reliable cost estimate is critical to successfully 64GAO-09-3SP

  14. Predicting dredging-associated effects to coral reefs in Apra Harbor, Guam - Part 2: Potential coral effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Deborah Shafer; McManus, John; Richmond, Robert H; King, David B; Gailani, Joe Z; Lackey, Tahirih C; Bryant, Duncan

    2016-03-01

    Coral reefs are in decline worldwide due to anthropogenic stressors including reductions in water and substratum quality. Dredging results in the mobilization of sediments, which can stress and kill corals via increasing turbidity, tissue damage and burial. The Particle Tracking Model (PTM) was applied to predict the potential impacts of dredging-associated sediment exposure on the coral reef ecosystems of Apra Harbor, Guam. The data were interpreted using maps of bathymetry and coral abundance and distribution in conjunction with impact parameters of suspended sediment concentration (turbidity) and sedimentation using defined coral response thresholds. The results are presented using a "stoplight" model of negligible or limited impacts to coral reefs (green), moderate stress from which some corals would be expected to recover while others would not (yellow) and severe stress resulting in mortality (red). The red conditions for sediment deposition rate and suspended sediment concentration (SSC) were defined as values exceeding 25 mg cm(-2) d(-1) over any 30 day window and >20 mg/l for any 18 days in any 90 day period over a column of water greater than 2 m, respectively. The yellow conditions were defined as values >10 mg cm(-2) d(-1) and <25 mg cm(-2) d(-1) over any 30 day period, and as 20% of 3 months' concentration exceeding 10 mg/l for the deposition and SSC, respectively. The model also incorporates the potential for cumulative effects on the assumption that even sub-lethal stress levels can ultimately lead to mortality in a multi-stressor system. This modeling approach can be applied by resource managers and regulatory agencies to support management decisions related to planning, site selection, damage reduction, and compensatory mitigation. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Scented guide ropes as a method to enhance brown treesnake (Boiga irregularis) trap capture success on Guam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, L.C.; Savidge, J.A.; Rodda, G.H.; Yackel Adams, A.A.

    2011-01-01

    Current methods for controlling the invasive Brown Treesnake (Boiga irregularis) on Guam include a modified minnow trap with a live mouse lure. We investigated the effects on capture success of augmenting these traps with scented guide ropes leading to trap entrances. Initial screening of scent preferences was based on time spent in scented and unscented arms of a Y-maze. Preferences of large and small snakes were scored for six different prey scents (live and carrion gecko, skink, and mouse). Large snakes spent more time in the maze arm scented with live gecko and carrion gecko, whereas small snakes spent more time in the arm scented with carrion mouse and carrion gecko. After the laboratory study, a pilot trapping session was conducted in the field using three treatments (live mouse-scented ropes, carrion gecko-scented ropes, and carrion mouse-scented ropes) and two controls (traps with unscented guide ropes and those with no ropes attached). Contrary to laboratory results, live mouse-scented ropes were most effective. We conducted a second trapping session using live mouse-scented ropes as well as the two controls used in the pilot study. For snakes of below-average to average condition, the number of captures for traps with live mouse-scented ropes was higher than for traps with no ropes. However, for snakes of above-average condition, there were no differences in capture rates between trap treatments. Overall, treatment effects were weaker than latent individual heterogeneity and the influence of snake body size, with large snakes trapped more readily. ?? 2011 Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles.

  16. IODP Expedition 351 Izu-Bonin-Mariana Arc Origins: Preliminary Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishizuka, O.; Arculus, R. J.; Bogus, K.

    2014-12-01

    Understanding how subduction zones initiate and continental crust forms in intraoceanic arcs requires knowledge of the inception and evolution of a representative intraoceanic arc, such as the Izu-Bonin-Mariana (IBM) Arc system. This can be obtained by exploring regions adjacent to an arc, where unequivocal pre-arc crust overlain by undisturbed arc-derived materials exists. IODP Exp. 351 (June-July 2014) specifically targeted evidence for the earliest evolution of the IBM system following inception. Site U1438 (4711 m water depth) is located in the Amami Sankaku Basin (ASB), west of the Kyushu-Palau Ridge (KPR), a paleo-IBM arc. Primary objectives of Exp. 351 were: 1) determine the nature of the crust and mantle pre-existing the IBM arc; 2) identify and model the process of subduction initiation and initial arc crust formation; 3) determine the compositional evolution of the IBM arc during the Paleogene; 4) establish geophysical properties of the ASB. Seismic reflection profiles indicate a ~1.3 km thick sediment layer overlying ~5.5 km thick igneous crust, presumed to be oceanic. This igneous crust seemed likely to be the basement of the IBM arc. Four holes were cored at Site U1438 spanning the entire sediment section and into basement. The cored interval comprises 5 units: uppermost Unit I is hemipelagic sediment with intercalated ash layers, presumably recording explosive volcanism mainly from the Ryukyu and Kyushu arcs; Units II and III host a series of volcaniclastic gravity-flow deposits, likely recording the magmatic history of the IBM Arc from arc initiation until 25 Ma; Siliceous pelagic sediment (Unit IV) underlies these deposits with minimal coarse-grained sediment input and may pre-date arc initiation. Sediment-basement contact occurs at 1461 mbsf. A basaltic lava flow section dominantly composed of plagioclase and clinopyroxene with rare chilled margins continues to the bottom of the Site (1611 mbsf). The expedition successfully recovered pre-IBM Arc

  17. Os vazios institucionais na mineração: um estudo de caso em Mariana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzana Braga Rodrigues

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Resumo: A tragédia do rompimento da barragem de Fundão, considerado como o pior desastre socioambiental do país, ocorrida no município de Mariana, no distrito de Bento Rodrigues, em Minas Gerais, no dia 05 de novembro de 2015, por volta das 16 horas, instiga a investigação científica em várias áreas do conhecimento. Este trabalho busca contribuir para o debate sobre os vazios institucionais nas políticas públicas ambientais que incidem no setor econômico minerário. Associado a este objetivo, propõe uma reflexão numa perspectiva pluridimensional acerca da promoção de um alinhamento estratégico entre os atores que compõem o cenário da extração de minérios, a partir do rompimento da barragem de Fundão. Foi utilizada a análise hermenêutico-dialética e fez-se uma análise qualitativa, a partir de dois níveis de interpretação: o campo das determinações fundamentais (o contexto sócio-histórico e o encontro dos fatos empíricos. Foi realizada uma pesquisa documental. Verificou-se que as atividades minerárias evidenciam a existência de muitos vazios institucionais, desde a concepção de projetos até a sua execução. Evidenciou-se que o sistema jurídico atual não abarca a complexidade que o impacto socioambiental do desastre da barragem de Fundão provocou. A omissão da participação da comunidade local nos processos de licenciamento ambiental da mineração também está associada a vazios institucionais.   Palavras-chave: Mineração; Barragem de rejeito de Fundão; Vazios institucionais; Gestão de impactos sociais.    

  18. Submarine Flood Basalt Eruptions and Flows of Ontong Java Plateau, Nauru Basin and East Mariana Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, P. J.; Trowbridge, S. R.; Zhang, J.; Johnson, A. L.

    2016-12-01

    The preservation of fresh basalt glasses from the submarine Cretaceous Ontong Java Plateau (OJP), Earth's largest LIP, has allowed correlation of precise lava compositions over 100s of km, as well as determination of eruption depths using dissolved H2O and CO2 contents. Low dissolved H2O in glasses shows that H2O in the mantle source is low [1,2], suggesting mantle temperatures are high. Very high dissolved Cl indicates that magmas interacted extensively with brines. The near total absence of vesicles in OJP glasses contrasts sharply with MORB, and suggests that OJP lavas were saturated or undersaturated with CO2 when they were emplaced, in contrast to MORB that are often oversaturated. The lavas likely remained liquid for a longer period of time so that they degassed to equilibrium levels of dissolved CO2 andlost all bubbles. Very precise major and trace element analyses of glasses, uncomplicated by crystals or alteration, show how lavas within and between widely-spaced drill holes could be related. For example, glasses from Sites 1185B and 1186A, which are about 200 km apart, are compositionally identical within precise limits and must have erupted from the same well-mixed magma chamber. They erupted at about the same depth, but 1186A has a corrected basement depth that is >700m deeper. With a slope of 0.3°, this suggests a flow distance >130km. The eruption depths for glasses from East Mariana and Nauru Basins are similar to those of 1185B and 1186A on OJP, even though their reconstructed basement depths are about 2000 m deeper. It suggests that the plateau lavas flowed into the basins. Similarly, eruption depths in Hole 807C are 3040m for Kwaimbaita lavas but are 1110m [1,2] for Singgalo lavas that directly overlie them. It is unlikely that plateau uplift and subsidence accounts for the observed eruption depths. All of these observations are best explained by very large-volume eruptions whose lavas traveled for long distances, up to 100s of km, into deeper

  19. The eruption of Mount Pagan volcano, Mariana Islands, 15 May 1981

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, N.G.; Koyanagi, R.Y.; Sinton, J.M.; Honma, K.T.

    1984-01-01

    A major explosive eruption occurred 15 May 1981 at Mount Pagan Volcano, the larger of two historic eruptive centers on Pagan Island, Mariana Islands. The eruption was preceded by increased numbers of locally felt earthquakes beginning in late March or early April and by new ground cracks, new sublimates, and increased gas emissions. A swarm of felt earthquakes began at 0745h (local time = UCT+10 hours) 15 May, and at 0915 h, closely following a loud sonic boom, a strong plinian column issued from the volcano. The high-altitude ash cloud (at least 13.5 km) travelled south-southeast, but ash and scoria deposits were thickest (> 2 m) in the NW sector of the island because of the prevailing low-altitude southeasterly winds. The early activity of 15 May probably involved magmatic eruption along a fissure system oriented about N10??E. However, the eruption became hydromagmatic, possibly within minutes, and was largely restricted to three long-lived vents. The northernmost of these built a substantial new scoria-ash cinder cone. Flows and air-fall deposits, consisting almost entirely of juvenile material, exceeded 105 ?? 106 m3 in volume (75 ?? 106 m3 of magma) on land and at least 70-100 ?? 606 m3 at sea. An unknown volume was carried away by stratospheric winds. Lithic blocks and juvenile bombs as large as 1 m in diameter were thrown more than 2 km from the summit, and evidence for base-surge was observed in restricted corridors as low as 200 m elevation on the north and south slopes of the volcano. Neither of these events resulted in serious injuries to the 54 residents of the island, nor did the eruption produce serious chemical hazards in their water supply. Weak eruptions occurred during the ensuing month, and some of these were monitored by ground observations, seismic monitoring, and deformation studies. Precursory seismicity and possibly deformation occurred with some of the observed eruptions. More vigorous eruptions were reported by visiting residents in late

  20. Para I Famagu'on-Ta: Fruit and Vegetable Intake, Food Store Environment, and Childhood Overweight/Obesity in the Children's Healthy Living Program on Guam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matanane, Lenora; Fialkowski, Marie Kainoa; Silva, Joshua; Li, Fenfang; Nigg, Claudio; Leon Guerrero, Rachael T; Novotny, Rachel

    2017-08-01

    This cross-sectional study examined the: (1) association between food store environment (FSE), fruit and vegetable (FV) availability and access, and prevalence of early childhood overweight/obesity (COWOB); and (2) influence of young child actual FV intake on the relationship between the FSE and early COWOB prevalence. Anthropometric and socio-demographic data of children (2 to 8 years; N=466) in baseline communities on Guam participating in the Children's Healthy Living (CHL) Program community trial were included. CDC year 2000 growth charts were used to calculate BMI z-scores and categories. FSE factors (fresh FV scores, store type) were assessed using the CX3 Food Availability and Marketing Survey amended for CHL. ArcGIS maps were constructed with geographic coordinates of participant residences and food stores to calculate food store scores within 1 mile of participant's residences. A sub-sample of participants (n = 355) had Food and Activity Log data to calculate FV and energy intakes. Bivariate correlations and logistic regression evaluated associations. Of 111 stores surveyed, 73% were small markets, 16% were convenience stores, and 11% were large grocery/supermarkets. Supermarkets/large grocery stores averaged the highest FV scores. Most participants did not meet FV intake recommendations while nearly half exceeded energy intake recommendations. Living near a small market was negatively correlated with BMI z-score (r = - 0.129, P associations. The high density of small markets may be an opportunity for FSE intervention but further investigation of Guam's FSE influence on health is needed.

  1. Northern Dimension: Participant Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Busygina Irina

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available This article is devoted to the “Northern Dimension” initiative of the EU which also includes North-West Russia, Norway and Iceland. It is noted that the “Northern Dimension” in the theoretical perspective can be considered as part of strategic multi-level interactions between member-states of the EU and Russia. On this basis, the authors analyze implications and effects of the strategic interdependence of all the EU-Russia relation levels.

  2. Northern Dimension: Participant Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Busygina I.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available his article is devoted to the “Northern Dimension” initiative of the EU which also includes North-West Russia, Norway and Iceland. It is noted that the “Northern Dimension” in the theoretical perspective can be considered as part of strategic multi-level interactions between member-states of the EU and Russia. On this basis, the authors analyze implications and effects of the strategic interdependence of all the EU-Russia relation levels.

  3. [Terra Mariana 1186-1888 : albums un komentāri] / Kristīne Ante, Reinis Norkārkls

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ante, Kristīne, 1977-

    2015-01-01

    Arvustus: Terra Mariana 1186-1888 : albums un komentāri = Album und Kommentare = album and comments = album i komentarze = album ja kommentaarid. 2 Bde.Hrsg. von Latvijas Nacionālā bibliotēka in Verbindung mit der Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana. Wiss. Redaktion von Andris Lewans in Zusammenarbeit mit Henrichs Soms, Andris Vilks u.a. (Codices e Vaticanis selecti. Series minor, 16.) Modena 2013

  4. Medicare

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Mariana Islands, Guam, American Samoa, or the U.S. Virgin Islands, we’ll automatically enroll you in Medicare ... enrollment period for people covered under an employer group health plan If you’re 65 or older ...

  5. Regional sulfate-hematite-sulfide zoning in the auriferous Mariana anticline, Quadrilátero Ferrífero of Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabral, Alexandre Raphael; Koglin, Nikola; Strauss, Harald; Brätz, Helene; Kwitko-Ribeiro, Rogerio

    2013-10-01

    The distribution of mineral deposits, characterised as barite deposits, hematite-rich auriferous deposits and auriferous tourmaline-sulfide deposits, displays a regional sulfate-hematite-sulfide zoning along the thrust-delineated limbs of the Mariana anticline, in the south-eastern part of the Quadrilátero Ferrífero of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Cross-cut relationships of barite veins and sulfide lodes indicate that sulfidation occurred in a late-tectonic context, which is here attributed to the collapse of the ˜0.6-Ga Brasiliano thrust front. Reconnaissance S-isotopic data from barite and pyrite (Antônio Pereira barite deposit and its adjacent gold deposit, respectively), and arsenopyrite (Passagem de Mariana gold deposit), suggest a new interpretation for the hydrothermal fluid overprint in the Mariana anticline. The Antônio Pereira barite has Δ33S values that are near zero, constraining the sulfate source to rocks younger than 2.45 Ga. The barite-δ34S values are between +19.6 and +20.8 ‰. The Passagem arsenopyrite and tourmaline have Co/Ni ratios that define a positive linear trend with the Antônio Pereira pyrite. The latter has homogenous δ34S values, between +8.8 and +8.9 ‰, which are compatible with thermochemical reduction of aqueous sulfate with the S-isotopic composition of the Antônio Pereira barite.

  6. Eliminating tobacco-related disparities among Pacific Islanders through leadership and capacity building: promising practices and lessons learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Annette M; Lew, Rod; Lyman, Annabel K; Otto, Caleb; Robles, Rebecca; Cruz, George J

    2013-09-01

    Tobacco remains a major risk factor for premature death and ill health among Pacific Islanders, and tobacco-related disparities persist. Eliminating these disparities requires a comprehensive approach to transform community norms about tobacco use through policy change, as contained in the World Health Organization international Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. Three of the six U.S.-affiliated Pacific Islands-the Federated States of Micronesia, Palau, and the Marshall Islands-are Parties to the Framework; the remaining three territories-American Samoa, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, and Guam-are excluded from the treaty by virtue of U.S. nonratification. Capacity building and leadership development are essential in achieving policy change and health equity within Pacific Islander communities. We describe promising practices from American Samoa, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, the Federated States of Micronesia, Guam, and Palau and highlight some of the key lessons learned in supporting and sustaining the reduction in tobacco use among Pacific Islanders as the first step toward eliminating tobacco-related disparities in these populations.

  7. Northern Ireland gas industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, R S [Belfast City Council Gas Dept.; Asquith, R S; Brown, J M; McKay, G

    1977-07-01

    Throughout Northern Ireland the production of town gas is derived from hydrocarbon feedstocks. In the larger undertakings in Northern Ireland the feedstock is light distillate; a light petroleum feedstock which is a crude gasoline comprised mainly of pentanes, reformed in catalytic plants. The remaining gas undertakings produce a liquefied petroleum gas (LPG)/air mixture using a mixture of either butane or propane and air. The individual gas units and the type of reforming feedstock are shown. A review of the oil-dependence of town gas and electricity production in Northern Ireland has been considered and is mainly responsible for the high fuel prices experienced in the community. A detailed description of the reforming process has been described, and considerable efforts have been made to optimize the process. In spite of substantial economic savings being made on the processing unit, the gas industry is very susceptible to the changes in oil prices which have escalated rapidly in recent years. The difference in gas prices between the United Kingdom and Northern Ireland indicates that North Sea gas would offer major economic benefits to the gas industry in Northern Ireland, which is operating at a substantial loss at the moment. The industrial concerns, which are dependent on gas and therefore paying high fuel costs, suffer in competition with outside companies. The injection of a moderately cheap natural gas supply to the community may encourage industrial expansion and provide work in a high unemployment area. Although substantial costs must be incurred in distribution pipelines and burner conversions if Northern Ireland changes to natural gas, there appears to be a strong case to introduce North Sea gas in the near future.

  8. Northern blotting analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Josefsen, Knud; Nielsen, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    Northern blotting analysis is a classical method for analysis of the size and steady-state level of a specific RNA in a complex sample. In short, the RNA is size-fractionated by gel electrophoresis and transferred by blotting onto a membrane to which the RNA is covalently bound. Then, the membrane...... is analysed by hybridization to one or more specific probes that are labelled for subsequent detection. Northern blotting is relatively simple to perform, inexpensive, and not plagued by artefacts. Recent developments of hybridization membranes and buffers have resulted in increased sensitivity closing...

  9. Chemical-mineralogical study of the ferrosialitic lateritic profiles in the Teneme, Farallones and Cayo Guam sectors in north east Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Njila, Tendai; Diaz Martinez, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    The results of a chemical-mineralogical study on the ferrosialitic lateritic weathering profile are presented. Analysis was done using x Ray Fluorescence and Diffraction. The chemical composition of these profile reflects a typical pattern normally observed within such weathering crusts. The sesquioxides of aluminium, iron are concentrated in the upper parts of the profiles as a result of the leaching of alkalis, alkaline-earth elements, and to a lesser extent, silica. Ferrosialitic lateritic profiles formed on Cretaceous and Paleogene islands arcs consist of secondary minerals such as gibbsite, kaolinite, goethite, hematite and montmorillonite, while those associated with basic and volcanogenic-sedimentary rocks of ophiolitic affinity in Cayo Guam are composed of gibbsite and iron oxides. Brings new chemical-mineralogical information on the ferrosialitic lateritic profiles associated with rocks of oceanic nature in north-eastern Cuba, which will help in the exploration for industrial minerals and rocks and their application in industry. (author) [es

  10. Ultramafic clasts from the South Chamorro serpentine mud volcano reveal a polyphase serpentinization history of the Mariana forearc mantle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahl, Wolf-Achim; Jöns, Niels; Bach, Wolfgang; Klein, Frieder; Alt, Jeffrey C.

    2015-06-01

    Serpentine seamounts located on the outer half of the pervasively fractured Mariana forearc provide an excellent window into the forearc devolatilization processes, which can strongly influence the cycling of volatiles and trace elements in subduction zones. Serpentinized ultramafic clasts recovered from an active mud volcano in the Mariana forearc reveal microstructures, mineral assemblages and compositions that are indicative of a complex polyphase alteration history. Petrologic phase relations and oxygen isotopes suggest that ultramafic clasts were serpentinized at temperatures below 200 °C. Several successive serpentinization events represented by different vein generations with distinct trace element contents can be recognized. Measured in situ Rb/Cs ratios are fairly uniform ranging between 1 and 10, which is consistent with Cs mobilization from sediments at lower temperatures and lends further credence to the low-temperature conditions proposed in models of the thermal structure in forearc settings. Late veins show lower fluid mobile element (FME) concentrations than early veins, suggesting a decreasing influence of fluid discharge from the subducting slab on the composition of the serpentinizing fluids. The continuous microfabric and mineral chemical evolution observed in the ultramafic clasts may have implications as to the origin and nature of the serpentinizing fluids. We hypothesize that opal and smectite dehydration produce quartz-saturated fluids with high FME contents and Rb/Cs between 1 and 4 that cause the early pervasive serpentinization. The partially serpentinized material may then be eroded from the basal plane of the suprasubduction mantle wedge. Serpentinization continued but the interacting fluids did not carry a pronounced sedimentary signature, either because FMEs were no longer released from the slab, or due to an en route loss of FMEs. Late chrysotile veins that document the increased access of fluids in a now fluid-dominated regime are

  11. Philippine Sea Plate inception, evolution, and consumption with special emphasis on the early stages of Izu-Bonin-Mariana subduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lallemand, Serge

    2016-12-01

    We compiled the most relevant data acquired throughout the Philippine Sea Plate (PSP) from the early expeditions to the most recent. We also analyzed the various explanatory models in light of this updated dataset. The following main conclusions are discussed in this study. (1) The Izanagi slab detachment beneath the East Asia margin around 60-55 Ma likely triggered the Oki-Daito plume occurrence, Mesozoic proto-PSP splitting, shortening and then failure across the paleo-transform boundary between the proto-PSP and the Pacific Plate, Izu-Bonin-Mariana subduction initiation and ultimately PSP inception. (2) The initial splitting phase of the composite proto-PSP under the plume influence at ˜54-48 Ma led to the formation of the long-lived West Philippine Basin and short-lived oceanic basins, part of whose crust has been ambiguously called "fore-arc basalts" (FABs). (3) Shortening across the paleo-transform boundary evolved into thrusting within the Pacific Plate at ˜52-50 Ma, allowing it to subduct beneath the newly formed PSP, which was composed of an alternance of thick Mesozoic terranes and thin oceanic lithosphere. (4) The first magmas rising from the shallow mantle corner, after being hydrated by the subducting Pacific crust beneath the young oceanic crust near the upper plate spreading centers at ˜49-48 Ma were boninites. Both the so-called FABs and the boninites formed at a significant distance from the incipient trench, not in a fore-arc position as previously claimed. The magmas erupted for 15 m.y. in some places, probably near the intersections between back-arc spreading centers and the arc. (5) As the Pacific crust reached greater depths and the oceanic basins cooled and thickened at ˜44-45 Ma, the composition of the lavas evolved into high-Mg andesites and then arc tholeiites and calc-alkaline andesites. (6) Tectonic erosion processes removed about 150-200 km of frontal margin during the Neogene, consuming most or all of the Pacific ophiolite

  12. Stable isotope compositions of serpentinite seamounts in the Mariana forearc: Serpentinization processes, fluid sources and sulfur metasomatism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alt, J.C.; Shanks, Wayne C.

    2006-01-01

    The Mariana and Izu-Bonin arcs in the western Pacific are characterized by serpentinite seamounts in the forearc that provide unique windows into the mantle wedge. We present stable isotope (O, H, S, and C) data for serpentinites from Conical seamount in the Mariana forearc and S isotope data for Torishima seamount in the Izu-Bonin forearc in order to understand the compositions of fluids and temperatures of serpentinization in the mantle wedge, and to investigate the transport of sulfur from the slab to the mantle wedge. Six serpentine mineral separates have a restricted range of ??18O (6.5-8.5???). Antigorite separates have ??D values of -29.5??? to -45.5??? that reflect serpentinization within the mantle wedge whereas chrysotile has low ??D values (-51.8??? to -84.0???) as the result of re-equilibration with fluids at low temperatures. Fractionation of oxygen isotopes between serpentine and magnetite indicate serpentinization temperatures of 300-375 ??C. Two late cross-fiber chrysotile veins have higher ??18O values of 8.9??? to 10.8??? and formed at lower temperatures (as low as ???100 ??C). Aqueous fluids in equilibrium with serpentine at 300-375 ??C had ??18O = 6.5-9??? and ??D = -4??? to -26???, consistent with sediment dehydration reactions at temperatures aragonite veins in metabasalt and siltstone clasts within the serpentinite flows have ??18O = 16.7-24.5???, consistent with the serpentinizing fluids at temperatures <250 ??C. ??13C values of 0.1-2.5??? suggest a source in subducting carbonate sediments. The ??34S values of sulfide in serpentinites on Conical Seamount (-6.7??? to 9.8???) result from metasomatism through variable reduction of aqueous sulfate (??34S = 14???) derived from slab sediments. Despite sulfur metasomatism, serpentinites have low sulfur contents (generally < 164 ppm) that reflect the highly depleted nature of the mantle wedge. The serpentinites are mostly enriched in 34S (median ??34Ssulfide = 4.5???), consistent with a 34S

  13. Needle age and season influence photosynthetic temperature response and total annual carbon uptake in mature Picea mariana trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Anna M.; Warren, Jeffrey M.; Hanson, Paul J.; Childs, Joanne; Wullschleger, Stan D.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims The carbon (C) balance of boreal terrestrial ecosystems is sensitive to increasing temperature, but the direction and thresholds of responses are uncertain. Annual C uptake in Picea and other evergreen boreal conifers is dependent on seasonal- and cohort-specific photosynthetic and respiratory temperature response functions, so this study examined the physiological significance of maintaining multiple foliar cohorts for Picea mariana trees within an ombrotrophic bog ecosystem in Minnesota, USA. Methods Measurements were taken on multiple cohorts of needles for photosynthetic capacity, foliar respiration (Rd) and leaf biochemistry and morphology of mature trees from April to October over 4 years. The results were applied to a simple model of canopy photosynthesis in order to simulate annual C uptake by cohort age under ambient and elevated temperature scenarios. Key Results Temperature responses of key photosynthetic parameters [i.e. light-saturated rate of CO2 assimilation (Asat), rate of Rubisco carboxylation (Vcmax) and electron transport rate (Jmax)] were dependent on season and generally less responsive in the developing current-year (Y0) needles compared with 1-year-old (Y1) or 2-year-old (Y2) foliage. Temperature optimums ranged from 18·7 to 23·7, 31·3 to 38·3 and 28·7 to 36·7 °C for Asat, Vcmax and Jmax, respectively. Foliar cohorts differed in their morphology and photosynthetic capacity, which resulted in 64 % of modelled annual stand C uptake from Y1&2 cohorts (LAI 0·67 m2 m−2) and just 36 % from Y0 cohorts (LAI 0·52 m2 m−2). Under warmer climate change scenarios, the contribution of Y0 cohorts was even less; e.g. 31 % of annual C uptake for a modelled 9 °C rise in mean summer temperatures. Results suggest that net annual C uptake by P. mariana could increase under elevated temperature, and become more dependent on older foliar cohorts. Conclusions Collectively, this study illustrates the physiological and

  14. Northern blotting analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Josefsen, Knud; Nielsen, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    is analysed by hybridization to one or more specific probes that are labelled for subsequent detection. Northern blotting is relatively simple to perform, inexpensive, and not plagued by artefacts. Recent developments of hybridization membranes and buffers have resulted in increased sensitivity closing...

  15. insurgencies in northern Uganda

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    International Criminal Court (ICC) investigations into the LRA activities. ... and the rebel movements in northern Uganda, see Human Rights Watch 2003, and ... the ICC, Luis Moreno Ocampo, met at Hotel Intercontinental, Hyde Park, London, ..... expunge criminal liability for war crimes and crimes against humanity, appear.

  16. Mosaic of 10 m gridded multibeam bathymetry and bathymetry derived from multispectral IKONOS satellite imagery of Alamagan Island, Commonwealth of Northern Mariana Islands, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded multibeam bathymetry is integrated with bathymetry derived from multispectral IKONOS satellite data. Gridded (10 m cell size) multibeam bathymetry collected...

  17. Mosaic of 10 m gridded multibeam bathymetry and bathymetry derived from multispectral IKONOS satellite imagery of Asuncion Island, Commonwealth of the Northern Marianas Islands, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded multibeam bathymetry is integrated with bathymetry derived from multpectral IKONOS satellite data. Gridded (10 m cell size) multibeam bathymetry collected...

  18. Mosaic of 5 m gridded multibeam bathymetry and bathymetry derived from multispectral IKONOS satellite imagery of Alamagan Island, Commonwealth of Northern Mariana Islands, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded multibeam bathymetry is integrated with bathymetry derived from multispectral IKONOS satellite data. Gridded (5 m cell size) multibeam bathymetry collected...

  19. Mosaic of 10 m gridded multibeam bathymetry and bathymetry derived from multispectral IKONOS satellite imagery of Maug Island, Commonwealth of the Northern Marianas Islands, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded multibeam bathymetry is integrated with bathymetry derived from multpectral IKONOS satellite data. Gridded (5m and 10 m cell size) multibeam bathymetry...

  20. Mosaic of 5 m gridded multibeam bathymetry and bathymetry derived from multispectral IKONOS satellite imagery of Asuncion Island, Commonwealth of the Northern Marianas Islands, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded multibeam bathymetry is integrated with bathymetry derived from multpectral IKONOS satellite data. Gridded (5 m cell size) multibeam bathymetry collected...

  1. Mosaic of 5 m gridded multibeam bathymetry and bathymetry derived from multispectral IKONOS satellite imagery of Maug Island, Commonwealth of the Northern Marianas Islands, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded multibeam bathymetry is integrated with bathymetry derived from multpectral IKONOS satellite data. Gridded (5m and 10 m cell size) multibeam bathymetry...

  2. CRED Shallow CTD Profiles; Pagan, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands; Cruise: HI0903, Data Date Range: 20090422-20090424 (NODC Accession 0039382).

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CRED shallow Conductivity-Temperature-Depth (CTD) casts are vertical profiles (max 30 meter depth, downcast only) of temperature, conductivity and pressure. Data are...

  3. CRED Shallow CTD Profiles; Alamagan, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands; Cruise: HI0703, Data Date Range: 20070527-20070528 (NODC Accession 0039382).

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CRED shallow Conductivity-Temperature-Depth (CTD) casts are vertical profiles (max 30 meter depth, downcast only) of temperature, conductivity and pressure. Data are...

  4. CRED Shallow CTD Profiles; Tinian, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands; Cruise: HI0902, Data Date Range: 20090411-20090413 (NODC Accession 0039382).

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CRED shallow Conductivity-Temperature-Depth (CTD) casts are vertical profiles (max 30 meter depth, downcast only) of temperature, conductivity and pressure. Data are...

  5. CRED Shallow CTD Profiles; Asuncion Island, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands; Cruise: HA1101_LEGII, Data Date Range: 20110414-20110414. (NODC Accession 0107470)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CRED shallow Conductivity-Temperature-Depth (CTD) casts are vertical profiles (max 30 meter depth, downcast only) of temperature, conductivity and pressure. Data are...

  6. Habitat Zone, Cover and Structure Maps of the Farallon de Pajaros, Northern Mariana Archipelago 2001-2003, Derived From IKONOS Imagery

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This project is a cooperative effort between the National Ocean Service, National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science, Center for Coastal Monitoring and Assessment,...

  7. Habitat Zone, Cover and Structure Maps of the Farallon de Medinilla, Northern Mariana Archipelago 2001-2003, Derived From IKONOS Imagery

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This project is a cooperative effort between the National Ocean Service, National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science, Center for Coastal Monitoring and Assessment,...

  8. CRED Shallow CTD Profiles; Pagan, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands; Cruise: OES0307, Data Date Range: 20030825-20030908 (NODC Accession 0039382).

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CRED shallow Conductivity-Temperature-Depth (CTD) casts are vertical profiles (max 30 meter depth, downcast only) of temperature, conductivity and pressure. Data are...

  9. CRED Shallow CTD Profiles; Rota, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands; Cruise: OES0511, Data Date Range: 20050929-20050930 (NODC Accession 0039382).

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CRED shallow Conductivity-Temperature-Depth (CTD) casts are vertical profiles (max 30 meter depth, downcast only) of temperature, conductivity and pressure. Data are...

  10. CRED Shallow CTD Profiles; Saipan, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands; Cruise: HA1101_LEGIII, Data Date Range: 20110430-20110430. (NODC Accession 0107470)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CRED shallow Conductivity-Temperature-Depth (CTD) casts are vertical profiles (max 30 meter depth, downcast only) of temperature, conductivity and pressure. Data are...

  11. CRED Shallow CTD Profiles; Maug, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands; Cruise: OES0307, Data Date Range: 20030901-20030904 (NODC Accession 0039382).

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CRED shallow Conductivity-Temperature-Depth (CTD) casts are vertical profiles (max 30 meter depth, downcast only) of temperature, conductivity and pressure. Data are...

  12. Bathymetric Position Index (BPI) Structures 10 m grid derived from gridded bathymetry of Supply Reef, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI), USA.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — BPI Structures are derived from two scales of a focal mean analysis on bathymetry and slope. The grid is based on gridded (10 m cell size) multibeam bathymetry,...

  13. CRED Shallow CTD Profiles; Sarigan, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands; Cruise: HI0903, Data Date Range: 20090420-20090421 (NODC Accession 0039382).

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CRED shallow Conductivity-Temperature-Depth (CTD) casts are vertical profiles (max 30 meter depth, downcast only) of temperature, conductivity and pressure. Data are...

  14. CRED Shallow CTD Profiles; Rota, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands; Cruise: HI0702, Data Date Range: 20070515-20070517 (NODC Accession 0039382).

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CRED shallow Conductivity-Temperature-Depth (CTD) casts are vertical profiles (max 30 meter depth, downcast only) of temperature, conductivity and pressure. Data are...

  15. CRED Shallow CTD Profiles; Anatahan, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands; Cruise: OES0511, Data Date Range: 20050922-20050923 (NODC Accession 0039382).

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CRED shallow Conductivity-Temperature-Depth (CTD) casts are vertical profiles (max 30 meter depth, downcast only) of temperature, conductivity and pressure. Data are...

  16. CRED Shallow CTD Profiles; Guguan, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands; Cruise: HI0903, Data Date Range: 20090504-20090505 (NODC Accession 0039382).

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CRED shallow Conductivity-Temperature-Depth (CTD) casts are vertical profiles (max 30 meter depth, downcast only) of temperature, conductivity and pressure. Data are...

  17. CRED Shallow CTD Profiles; Saipan, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands; Cruise: HI0903, Data Date Range: 20090414-20090420 (NODC Accession 0039382).

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CRED shallow Conductivity-Temperature-Depth (CTD) casts are vertical profiles (max 30 meter depth, downcast only) of temperature, conductivity and pressure. Data are...

  18. CRED Shallow CTD Profiles; Agrihan, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands; Cruise: HA1101_LEGII, Data Date Range: 20110420-20110422. (NODC Accession 0107470)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CRED shallow Conductivity-Temperature-Depth (CTD) casts are vertical profiles (max 30 meter depth, downcast only) of temperature, conductivity and pressure. Data are...

  19. CRED Shallow CTD Profiles; Pagan, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands; Cruise: OES0307, Data Date Range: 20030912-20030912 (NODC Accession 0039382).

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CRED shallow Conductivity-Temperature-Depth (CTD) casts are vertical profiles (max 30 meter depth, downcast only) of temperature, conductivity and pressure. Data are...

  20. CRED Shallow CTD Profiles; Farallon de Pajaros, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands; Cruise: OES0307, Data Date Range: 20030830-20030830 (NODC Accession 0039382).

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CRED shallow Conductivity-Temperature-Depth (CTD) casts are vertical profiles (max 30 meter depth, downcast only) of temperature, conductivity and pressure. Data are...

  1. CRED Shallow CTD Profiles; Guguan, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands; Cruise: OES0307, Data Date Range: 20030910-20030911 (NODC Accession 0039382).

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CRED shallow Conductivity-Temperature-Depth (CTD) casts are vertical profiles (max 30 meter depth, downcast only) of temperature, conductivity and pressure. Data are...

  2. CRED Shallow CTD Profiles; Saipan, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands; Cruise: HA1101_LEGII, Data Date Range: 20110407-20110426. (NODC Accession 0107470)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CRED shallow Conductivity-Temperature-Depth (CTD) casts are vertical profiles (max 30 meter depth, downcast only) of temperature, conductivity and pressure. Data are...

  3. CRED Shallow CTD Profiles; Asuncion Island, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands; Cruise: HI0703, Data Date Range: 20070603-20070604 (NODC Accession 0039382).

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CRED shallow Conductivity-Temperature-Depth (CTD) casts are vertical profiles (max 30 meter depth, downcast only) of temperature, conductivity and pressure. Data are...

  4. CRED Shallow CTD Profiles; Tinian, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands; Cruise: OES0307, Data Date Range: 20030822-20030823 (NODC Accession 0039382).

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CRED shallow Conductivity-Temperature-Depth (CTD) casts are vertical profiles (max 30 meter depth, downcast only) of temperature, conductivity and pressure. Data are...

  5. Bathymetric Position Index (BPI) Zones 10 m grid derived from gridded bathymetry of Maug Island, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, USA.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — BPI Zones are derived from a focal mean analysis on bathymetry and slope. The grid is based on gridded (10 m cell size) multibeam bathymetry, collected aboard NOAA...

  6. CRED Shallow CTD Profiles; Agrihan, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands; Cruise: HI0903, Data Date Range: 20090501-20090502 (NODC Accession 0039382).

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CRED shallow Conductivity-Temperature-Depth (CTD) casts are vertical profiles (max 30 meter depth, downcast only) of temperature, conductivity and pressure. Data are...

  7. CRED Shallow CTD Profiles; Saipan, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands; Cruise: HI0702, Data Date Range: 20070519-20070521 (NODC Accession 0039382).

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CRED shallow Conductivity-Temperature-Depth (CTD) casts are vertical profiles (max 30 meter depth, downcast only) of temperature, conductivity and pressure. Data are...

  8. CRED Shallow CTD Profiles; Agrihan, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands; Cruise: HI0703, Data Date Range: 20070528-20070529 (NODC Accession 0039382).

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CRED shallow Conductivity-Temperature-Depth (CTD) casts are vertical profiles (max 30 meter depth, downcast only) of temperature, conductivity and pressure. Data are...

  9. CRED Shallow CTD Profiles; Sarigan, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands; Cruise: HI0703, Data Date Range: 20070525-20070526 (NODC Accession 0039382).

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CRED shallow Conductivity-Temperature-Depth (CTD) casts are vertical profiles (max 30 meter depth, downcast only) of temperature, conductivity and pressure. Data are...

  10. CRED Shallow CTD Profiles; Anatahan, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands; Cruise: HI0703, Data Date Range: 20070527-20070527 (NODC Accession 0039382).

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CRED shallow Conductivity-Temperature-Depth (CTD) casts are vertical profiles (max 30 meter depth, downcast only) of temperature, conductivity and pressure. Data are...

  11. Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI) long-term coral reef monitoring from 2011-10-01 to 2014-09-30 (NCEI Accession 0129268)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Currently, the LTMMP has ~50 long-term monitoring sites across Saipan, Tinian, and Rota that are surveyed on a rotating biennial basis. Three main habitat types are...

  12. Bathymetric Position Index (BPI) Structures 5m grid derived from gridded bathymetry of Tinian Island, Aguijan Island and Tatsumi Bank, Commonwealth of the Northern Marianas

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — BPI Structures are derived from a focal mean analysis on bathymetry and slope. The bathymetry grid (5 m cell size) is derived from bathymetry from three sources:...

  13. Environmental Assessment: Farallon De Medinilla and Tinian Military Lease Areas, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, Integrated Natural Resources Management Plan

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2004-01-01

    ....) and represents an ecosystem-based approach to natural resources management on the MLAs. The INRMP projects were developed in cooperation with the United States Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS...

  14. CRED Shallow CTD Profiles; Rota, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands; Cruise: HA1101_LEGIII, Data Date Range: 20110501-20110502. (NODC Accession 0107470)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CRED shallow Conductivity-Temperature-Depth (CTD) casts are vertical profiles (max 30 meter depth, downcast only) of temperature, conductivity and pressure. Data are...

  15. CRED Shallow CTD Profiles; Farallon de Pajaros, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands; Cruise: HI0903, Data Date Range: 20090427-20090428 (NODC Accession 0039382).

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CRED shallow Conductivity-Temperature-Depth (CTD) casts are vertical profiles (max 30 meter depth, downcast only) of temperature, conductivity and pressure. Data are...

  16. Bathymetric Position Index (BPI) Zones 10 m grid derived from gridded bathymetry of Sarigan Island, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, USA.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — BPI Zones are derived from a focal mean analysis on bathymetry and slope. The grid is based on gridded (10 m cell size) multibeam bathymetry, collected aboard NOAA...

  17. Bathymetric Position Index (BPI) Structures 10 m grid derived from gridded bathymetry of Maug Island, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI), USA.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — BPI Structures are derived from two scales of a focal mean analysis on bathymetry and slope. The grid is based on gridded (10 m cell size) multibeam bathymetry,...

  18. CRED Shallow CTD Profiles; Alamagan, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands; Cruise: HI0903, Data Date Range: 20090503-20090504 (NODC Accession 0039382).

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CRED shallow Conductivity-Temperature-Depth (CTD) casts are vertical profiles (max 30 meter depth, downcast only) of temperature, conductivity and pressure. Data are...

  19. CRED Shallow CTD Profiles; Pagan, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands; Cruise: OES0511, Data Date Range: 20050906-20050908 (NODC Accession 0039382).

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CRED shallow Conductivity-Temperature-Depth (CTD) casts are vertical profiles (max 30 meter depth, downcast only) of temperature, conductivity and pressure. Data are...

  20. CRED Shallow CTD Profiles; Pagan, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands; Cruise: HI0703, Data Date Range: 20070604-20070606 (NODC Accession 0039382).

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CRED shallow Conductivity-Temperature-Depth (CTD) casts are vertical profiles (max 30 meter depth, downcast only) of temperature, conductivity and pressure. Data are...