WorldWideScience

Sample records for grp industrial by-products

  1. Industry of petroleum and its by-products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haddad, Antoine

    1989-01-01

    A comprehensive study of petroleum industry and its by-products is presented. Petroleum, since its origin and all steps of its industry including its detection, production and transportation is described. A historical description of the production and formation of fuels under the ground strates through million of years, as well as its chemical composition are presented. A full description of refining petrol and all by-products derived is given. Pictures and tables enhance the explanation

  2. Economical Recovery of By-products in the Mining Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berry, J.B.

    2001-12-05

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Industrial Technologies, Mining Industry of the Future Program, works with the mining industry to further the industry's advances toward environmental and economic goals. Two of these goals are (1) responsible emission and by-product management and (2) low-cost and efficient production (DOE 1998). DOE formed an alliance with the National Mining Association (NMA) to strengthen the basis for research projects conducted to benefit the mining industry. NMA and industry representatives actively participate in this alliance by evaluating project proposals and by recommending research project selection to DOE. Similarly, the National Research Council (NRC) has recently and independently recommended research and technology development opportunities in the mining industry (NRC 2001). The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Colorado School of Mines engineers conducted one such project for DOE regarding by -product recovery from mining process residue. The results of this project include this report on mining industry process residue and waste with opportunity for by-product recovery. The U.S. mineral processing industry produces over 30,000,000 metric tons per year of process residue and waste that may contain hazardous species as well as valuable by-products. This study evaluates the copper, lead, and zinc commodity sectors which generate between 23,300,000 and 24,000,000 metric tons per year. The distribution of residual elements in process residues and wastes varies over wide ranges* because of variations in the original ore content as it is extracted from the earth's crust. In the earth's crust, the elements of interest to mining fall into two general geochemical classifications, lithophiles and chalcophiles** (Cox 1997). Groups of elements are almost always present together in a given geochemical classification, but the relative amounts of each element are unique to a particular ore body. This paper

  3. Fish burger enriched by olive oil industrial by-product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cedola, Annamaria; Cardinali, Angela; Del Nobile, Matteo Alessandro; Conte, Amalia

    2017-07-01

    Oil industry produces large volume of waste, which represents a disposal and a potential environmental pollution problem. Nevertheless, they are also promising sources of compounds that can be recovered and used as valuable substances. The aim of this work is to exploit solid olive by-products, in particular dry olive paste flour (DOPF) coming from Coratina cultivar, to enrich fish burger and enhance the quality characteristics. In particular, the addition of olive by-products leads to an increase of the phenolic content and the antioxidant activity; however, it also provokes a deterioration of sensory quality. Therefore, to balance quality and sensory characteristics of fish burgers, three subsequent phases have been carried out: first, the quality of DOPF in terms of phenolic compounds content and antioxidant activity has been assessed; afterward, DOPF has been properly added to fish burgers and, finally, the formulation of the enriched fish burgers has been optimized in order to improve the sensory quality. Results suggested that the enriched burgers with 10% DOPF showed considerable amounts of polyphenols and antioxidant activity, even though they are not very acceptable from the sensory point of view. Pre-treating DOPF by hydration/extraction with milk, significantly improved the burger sensory quality by reducing the concentration of bitter components.

  4. Agro-industrial by-products as ruminant feed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jayasuriya, M.C.N.

    1986-01-01

    A marked imbalance exists in many parts of the world between the number of ruminants and the availability of good quality fodder. The low feeding value of natural pastures, their seasonality of production, and the increasing cost of feed grain, have increased the dependence of ruminant animals on crop residues and by-products of agriculture for their nutrient requirements. Intensive animal production systems suitable for developed temperate regions have not been successful in the developing tropical countries, where appropriate farming systems for livestock production should have an integrated approach, combining both crop and livestock husbandry. Adoption of nutritional principles with a view to eliminating or reducing imbalances and optimizing rumen function have yielded excellent results, illustrating the future potential of fibrous residues and other agricultural by-products in ruminant feeding systems in developing countries. (author)

  5. The management of steel industry by-products and waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-01-01

    The report considers the management of solid and semi-solid wastes that are reused or disposed of outside steelworks. Headings are: introduction; ironmaking slags (including generation, properties, processing, uses and disposal); (steelmaking slag from hot metal pretreatment, and primary and secondary steelmaking); ironmaking dust and sludges; steelmaking dust and sludges; millscale and sludge from continuous casting and rolling mills; treatment and handling of used oils and greases; refractory waste from refining of metallurgical furnaces and vessels; by-products, waste and wastewater arising from coke oven batteries; treatment of stainless steel waste; characterisation of waste by leaching tests; dumping technology; and conclusions.

  6. Chemical production from industrial by-product gases: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyke, S.E.; Moore, R.H.

    1981-04-01

    The potential for conservation of natural gas is studied and the technical and economic feasibility and the implementation of ventures to produce such chemicals using carbon monoxide and hydrogen from byproduct gases are determined. A survey was performed of potential chemical products and byproduct gas sources. Byproduct gases from the elemental phosphorus and the iron and steel industries were selected for detailed study. Gas sampling, preliminary design, market surveys, and economic analyses were performed for specific sources in the selected industries. The study showed that production of methanol or ammonia from byproduct gas at the sites studied in the elemental phosphorus and the iron and steel industries is technically feasible but not economically viable under current conditions. Several other applications are identified as having the potential for better economics. The survey performed identified a need for an improved method of recovering carbon monoxide from dilute gases. A modest experimental program was directed toward the development of a permselective membrane to fulfill that need. A practical membrane was not developed but further investigation along the same lines is recommended. (MCW)

  7. [Evaluating work intensity in major and auxiliary occupations of by-product coke industry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smagulov, N K; Alpysbayeva, Zh T

    2015-01-01

    The article covers evaluation of work strain in major and auxiliary occupations of by-product coke industry. The study results conclude that occupational activity of by-product coke industry workers, under exposure to occupational hazards, affects the workers' performance. Major occupations workers demonstrate higher level of functional strain of CNS, poor concentration of attention and lower ability to switch over, decreased general performance, vs. the auxiliary occupations workers who demonstrated increased cardiovascular and neuro-muscular strain due to occupational activity.

  8. Mechanical behavior of sustainable building materials using PET waste and industrial by-products

    OpenAIRE

    Juárez, C. A; Mendoza-Rangel, J. M; González, J. R; Rodríguez, J. A; Valdez, P

    2015-01-01

    The building industry is facing the challenge of satisfying a growing demand for housing spaces that can be mitigated by the use of construction materials manufactured with industrial by-products that allow the production of low-cost housing with a low environmental impact. In this research, an alternative building system to manufacture lightweight masonry blocks with polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles and fiber-reinforced panels using binary mixture (Portland cement and fly ash), was s...

  9. Local agro-industrial by-products with potential use in Ghanaian aquaculture: a review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Obirikorang, Kwasi Adu; Amisah, Stephen; Fialor, Simon Cudjoe

    2015-01-01

    plant by-products for use in fish grow-out facilities, particularly in tilapia production, which accounts for over 80 % of aquaculture production. This review thus identifies local agro-industrial byproducts with potential use in fish feeds based on their nutritional composition, total annual production......, competition for and seasonal availability and dynamics of these products as well as prices. The effects of dietary inclusions of these by-products on fish growth and feed utilisation are also reviewed. Based on the published works and other practical information reviewed, these by-products represent huge...... regions of the world where these crops and their resulting by-products are produced in commercial quantities...

  10. Utilization of oleo-chemical industry by-products for biosurfactant production

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Biosurfactants are the surface active compounds produced by micro-organisms. The eco-friendly and biodegradable nature of biosurfactants makes their usage more advantageous over chemical surfactants. Biosurfactants encompass the properties of dropping surface tension, stabilizing emulsions, promoting foaming and are usually non- toxic and biodegradable. Biosurfactants offer advantages over their synthetic counterparts in many applications ranging from environmental, food, and biomedical, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries. The important environmental applications of biosurfactants include bioremediation and dispersion of oil spills, enhanced oil recovery and transfer of crude oil. The emphasis of present review shall be with reference to the commercial production, current developments and future perspectives of a variety of approaches of biosurfactant production from the micro-organisms isolated from various oil- contaminated sites and from the by-products of oleo-chemical industry wastes/ by-products viz. used edible oil, industrial residues, acid oil, deodorizer distillate, soap-stock etc. PMID:24262384

  11. Exploitation of starch industry liquid by-product to produce bioactive peptides from rice hydrolyzed proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dei Piu', Lucilla; Tassoni, Annalisa; Serrazanetti, Diana Isabella; Ferri, Maura; Babini, Elena; Tagliazucchi, Davide; Gianotti, Andrea

    2014-07-15

    Small peptides show higher antioxidant capacity than native proteins and may be absorbed in the intestine without further digestion. In our study, a protein by-product from rice starch industry was hydrolyzed with commercial proteolytic enzymes (Alcalase, Neutrase, Flavourzyme) and microbial whole cells of Bacillus spp. and the released peptides were tested for antioxidant activity. Among enzymes, Alcalase was the most performing, while microbial proteolytic activity was less efficient. Conversely, the antioxidant activity was higher in the samples obtained by microbial hydrolysis and particularly with Bacillus pumilus AG1. The sequences of low molecular weight antioxidant peptides were determined and analyzed for aminoacidic composition. The results obtained so far suggest that the hydrolytic treatment of this industrial by-product, with selected enzymes and microbial systems, can allow its exploitation for the production of functional additives and supplements rich in antioxidant peptides, to be used in new food formulas for human consumption. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Utilization of agro-based industrial by-products for biogas production in Vietnam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ngoc, U.N.; Schnitzer, H. [Graz Univ. of Technology, (Austria). Inst. for Resource Efficient and Sustainable Systems; Berghold, H. [Joanneum Research Inst. for Sustainable Techniques and Systems (Austria)

    2007-07-01

    Due to the rapid rates of urbanization occurring in many countries in the world, the importance of an efficient and effective solid waste management system and the utilization/reuse of waste are more critical than ever before, especially for agricultural residues and agro-based industrial by-products. Over the past decade, the amount of solid waste generated in Vietnam has been increasing steadily. Numbers are predicted to continue to increase as well. There is significant potential to use the large amount of wastes for biogas conversion processes and for further production of commercial energy. This paper presented starts with estimation and analysis of the amounts of organic waste, agricultural residues, and agro-based industrial by-products generated from food industrial processes using general data sources for Vietnam. A laboratory study examined the use of agro-based industrial by-products and agricultural residues from cassava, sweet potato, pineapple residues, organic wastes, manures as input materials for biogas production in the anaerobic process. This paper provided an overview of Vietnam as a country, as well as a general overview of the amount of organic waste generated in the country. It also discussed the fermentation tests that were conducted to find out the potential of biogas production from some residues. It was concluded that a significant portion of waste could be reused as an environmentally sound source of energy. The utilization of agricultural residues and industrial byproducts as input materials for biogas production will not only reduce the quantity of organic waste thrown into landfills, but also reduce the negative impact on the environment. 10 refs., 7 tabs., 7 figs.

  13. Bacterial Cellulose Production from Industrial Waste and by-Product Streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsouko, Erminda; Kourmentza, Constantina; Ladakis, Dimitrios; Kopsahelis, Nikolaos; Mandala, Ioanna; Papanikolaou, Seraphim; Paloukis, Fotis; Alves, Vitor; Koutinas, Apostolis

    2015-07-01

    The utilization of fermentation media derived from waste and by-product streams from biodiesel and confectionery industries could lead to highly efficient production of bacterial cellulose. Batch fermentations with the bacterial strain Komagataeibacter sucrofermentans DSM (Deutsche Sammlung von Mikroorganismen) 15973 were initially carried out in synthetic media using commercial sugars and crude glycerol. The highest bacterial cellulose concentration was achieved when crude glycerol (3.2 g/L) and commercial sucrose (4.9 g/L) were used. The combination of crude glycerol and sunflower meal hydrolysates as the sole fermentation media resulted in bacterial cellulose production of 13.3 g/L. Similar results (13 g/L) were obtained when flour-rich hydrolysates produced from confectionery industry waste streams were used. The properties of bacterial celluloses developed when different fermentation media were used showed water holding capacities of 102-138 g · water/g · dry bacterial cellulose, viscosities of 4.7-9.3 dL/g, degree of polymerization of 1889.1-2672.8, stress at break of 72.3-139.5 MPa and Young's modulus of 0.97-1.64 GPa. This study demonstrated that by-product streams from the biodiesel industry and waste streams from confectionery industries could be used as the sole sources of nutrients for the production of bacterial cellulose with similar properties as those produced with commercial sources of nutrients.

  14. Bacterial Cellulose Production from Industrial Waste and by-Product Streams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erminda Tsouko

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The utilization of fermentation media derived from waste and by-product streams from biodiesel and confectionery industries could lead to highly efficient production of bacterial cellulose. Batch fermentations with the bacterial strain Komagataeibacter sucrofermentans DSM (Deutsche Sammlung von Mikroorganismen 15973 were initially carried out in synthetic media using commercial sugars and crude glycerol. The highest bacterial cellulose concentration was achieved when crude glycerol (3.2 g/L and commercial sucrose (4.9 g/L were used. The combination of crude glycerol and sunflower meal hydrolysates as the sole fermentation media resulted in bacterial cellulose production of 13.3 g/L. Similar results (13 g/L were obtained when flour-rich hydrolysates produced from confectionery industry waste streams were used. The properties of bacterial celluloses developed when different fermentation media were used showed water holding capacities of 102–138 g·water/g·dry bacterial cellulose, viscosities of 4.7–9.3 dL/g, degree of polymerization of 1889.1–2672.8, stress at break of 72.3–139.5 MPa and Young’s modulus of 0.97–1.64 GPa. This study demonstrated that by-product streams from the biodiesel industry and waste streams from confectionery industries could be used as the sole sources of nutrients for the production of bacterial cellulose with similar properties as those produced with commercial sources of nutrients.

  15. Chemical stabilization of cadmium in acidic soil using alkaline agronomic and industrial by-products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yao-Tsung; Hsi, Hsing-Cheng; Hseu, Zeng-Yei; Jheng, Shao-Liang

    2013-01-01

    In situ immobilization of heavy metals using reactive or stabilizing materials is a promising solution for soil remediation. Therefore, four agronomic and industrial by-products [wood biochar (WB), crushed oyster shell (OS), blast furnace slag (BFS), and fluidized-bed crystallized calcium (FBCC)] and CaCO3 were added to acidic soil (Cd = 8.71 mg kg(-1)) at the rates of 1%, 2%, and 4% and incubated for 90 d. Chinese cabbage (Brassica chinensis L.) was then planted in the soil to test the Cd uptake. The elevation in soil pH caused by adding the by-products produced a negative charge on the soil surface, which enhanced Cd adsorption. Consequently, the diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA)-extractable Cd content decreased significantly (P soil. These results from the sequential extraction procedure indicated that Cd converted from the exchangeable fraction to the carbonate or Fe-Mn oxide fraction. The long-term effectiveness of Cd immobilization caused by applying the 4 by-products was much greater than that caused by applying CaCO3. Plant shoot biomass clearly increased because of the by-product soil amendment. Cd concentration in the shoots was soil.

  16. Use of Olive Oil Industrial By-Product for Pasta Enrichment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padalino, Lucia; D'Antuono, Isabella; Durante, Miriana; Conte, Amalia; Cardinali, Angela; Linsalata, Vito; Mita, Giovanni; Logrieco, Antonio F; Del Nobile, Matteo Alessandro

    2018-04-16

    During recent years food industries generally produce a large volume of wastes both solid and liquid, representing a disposal and potential environmental pollution problem. The goal of the study was to optimize, from both sensory and nutritional points of view, the formulation of durum wheat spaghetti enriched with an olive oil industrial by-product, indicated as olive paste. Three consecutive steps were carried out. In the first one, the olive paste was air-dried at low temperature, milled to record olive paste flour and properly analyzed for its biochemical composition. In the second step, the olive paste flour was added to the pasta dough at 10% and 15% ( w / w ). In the last step, different concentrations of transglutaminase were added to enriched pasta (10% olive paste) to further improve the quality. Sensory properties and nutritional content of enriched and control pasta were properly measured. Spaghetti with 10% olive paste flour and 0.6% transglutaminase were considered acceptable to the sensory panel test. Nutritional analyses showed that addition of 10% olive paste flour to pasta considerably increased content of flavonoids and total polyphenols. The proper addition of olive paste flour and transglutaminase for pasta enrichment could represent a starting point to valorize olive oil industrial by-products and produce new healthy food products.

  17. PIXE characterization of by-products resulting from the zinc recycling of industrial cemented carbides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freemantle, C.S.; Sacks, N.; Topic, M.; Pineda-Vargas, C.A.

    2015-01-01

    By-product materials of the widely used zinc recycling process of cemented carbides have been studied. Scanning electron microscopy and micro-PIXE techniques have identified elemental concentrations, distributions and purity of by-product materials from an industrial zinc recycling plant. Cobalt surface enrichment, lamellar microstructures of varying composition, including alternating tungsten carbide (WC) grains and globular cobalt, and regions of excess zinc contamination were found in materials with incomplete zinc penetration. Liquid Co–Zn formation occurred above 72 wt.% Zn at the furnace temperature of 930 °C, and was extracted towards the surface of poorly zinc infiltrated material, primarily by the vacuum used for zinc distillation. Surface enrichment was not observed in material that was zinc infiltrated to the sample center, which was more friable and exhibited more homogeneous porosity and elemental concentrations. The result of incomplete zinc infiltration was an enriched surface zone of up to 60 wt.% Co, compared to an original sample composition of ∼10–15 wt.% Co. The impact on resulting powders could be higher or inhomogeneous cobalt content, as well as unacceptably high zinc concentrations. PIXE has proven it can be a powerful technique for solving industrial problems in the cemented carbide cutting tool industry, by identifying trace elements and their locations (such as Zn to 0.1 wt.% accuracy), as well as the distribution of major elements within WC–Co materials.

  18. PIXE characterization of by-products resulting from the zinc recycling of industrial cemented carbides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freemantle, C.S. [School of Chemical & Metallurgical Engineering and DST-NRF Centre of Excellence in Strong Materials, University of the Witwatersrand, P/Bag 3, Wits 2050 (South Africa); Pilot Tools (Pty) (Ltd), P.O. Box 27420, Benrose 2011 (South Africa); Sacks, N. [School of Chemical & Metallurgical Engineering and DST-NRF Centre of Excellence in Strong Materials, University of the Witwatersrand, P/Bag 3, Wits 2050 (South Africa); Topic, M. [iThemba LABS, National Research Foundation, P.O. Box 722, Somerset West 7129 (South Africa); Pineda-Vargas, C.A. [iThemba LABS, National Research Foundation, P.O. Box 722, Somerset West 7129 (South Africa); Faculty of Health & Wellness Sciences, CPUT, Bellville (South Africa)

    2015-11-15

    By-product materials of the widely used zinc recycling process of cemented carbides have been studied. Scanning electron microscopy and micro-PIXE techniques have identified elemental concentrations, distributions and purity of by-product materials from an industrial zinc recycling plant. Cobalt surface enrichment, lamellar microstructures of varying composition, including alternating tungsten carbide (WC) grains and globular cobalt, and regions of excess zinc contamination were found in materials with incomplete zinc penetration. Liquid Co–Zn formation occurred above 72 wt.% Zn at the furnace temperature of 930 °C, and was extracted towards the surface of poorly zinc infiltrated material, primarily by the vacuum used for zinc distillation. Surface enrichment was not observed in material that was zinc infiltrated to the sample center, which was more friable and exhibited more homogeneous porosity and elemental concentrations. The result of incomplete zinc infiltration was an enriched surface zone of up to 60 wt.% Co, compared to an original sample composition of ∼10–15 wt.% Co. The impact on resulting powders could be higher or inhomogeneous cobalt content, as well as unacceptably high zinc concentrations. PIXE has proven it can be a powerful technique for solving industrial problems in the cemented carbide cutting tool industry, by identifying trace elements and their locations (such as Zn to 0.1 wt.% accuracy), as well as the distribution of major elements within WC–Co materials.

  19. Hygiene of work in main shops of modern coking by-product industry. [USSR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kapitul' skii, V B

    1984-07-01

    The hygiene of working conditions is evaluated and compared for coking by-product industry shops using modern technology and machines with those using obsolete equipment and methods. Most basic factors in contamination of atmosphere of coking, pitch-coking and metal-refining shops are coal and coke dust, carbon monoxide and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, especially carcinogenic benzpyrene. Contamination of air of working zone is determined by details of technology: periodicity or continuity of industrial processes, use of improved equipment for smokeless injection of charge into stoves and of hermetic pipes to remove gas with hydraulically operated caps, position of machines in shops and in coal tar distillation removal of carcinogenic benzpyrene by sulfonation and aeration. In modernized shops of coking by-product industry, illness and loss of work capacity are significantly lower than in plants using obsolete methods and equipment. Measures are presented for hygienic improvement of working conditions; both methods to further increase efficiency of technological processes and methods to protect individual worker on job such as use of respirators, protective clothing, plexiglass shields, shampoos and skin creams. 14 references.

  20. Immobilization of low and intermediate level radioactive liquid wastes using some industrial by-product materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sami, N.M.; EI-Dessouky, M.I.; Abou EI-Nour, F.H.; Abdel-Khalik, M.

    2006-01-01

    Immobilization of low and intermediate level.radioactive liquid wastes in different matrices: ordinary Portland cement and cement mixed with some industrial byproduct: by-pass kiln cement dust, blast furnace slag and ceramic sludge was studied. The effect of these industrial by-product materials on the compressive strength, water immersion, radiation effect and teachability were investigated. The obtained results showed that, these industrial by-product improve the cement pastes where they increase the compressive strength, decrease the leaching rate for radioactive cesium-137 and cobalt-60 ions through the solidified waste forms and increase resistance for y-radiation. It is found that, solidified waste forms of intermediate level liquid waste (ILLW) had high compressive strength values more than those obtained from low level liquid waste (LLLW). The compressive strength increased after immersion in different leachant for one and three months for samples with LLLW higher than those obtained for ILLW. The cumulative fractions released of cesium-137 and cobalt-60 of solidified waste forms of LLLW was lower than those obtained for ILLW

  1. Secondary Creep Response of Hand Lay-Up GRP Composites ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Glass Reinforced Plastics (GRP) composite load bearing components are now in common use, quite often at temperatures above the ambient, where creep behaviour may be significant, as in pressurized industrial containers. This is especially true of those composites produced by the Hand Lay-Up Contact Moulding ...

  2. Extractants to assess zinc phytoavailability in mineral fertilizer and industrial by-products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Prado Cenciani de Souza

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Efficient analytical methods for the quantification of plant-available Zn contained in mineral fertilizers and industrial by-products are fundamental for the control and marketing of these inputs. In this sense, there are some doubts on the part of the scientific community as well as of the fertilizer production sector, whether the extractor requested by the government (Normative Instruction No. 28, called 2nd extractor, which is citric acid 2 % (2 % CA (Brasil, 2007b, is effective in predicting the plant availability of Zn via mineral fertilizers and about the agronomic significance of the required minimal solubility of 60 % compared to the total content (HCl (Brasil, 2007a. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the alternative extractors DTPA, EDTA, neutral ammonium citrate (NAC, buffer solution pH 6.0, 10 % HCl, 10 % sulfuric acid, 1 % acetic acid, water, and hot water to quantify the contents of Zn available for maize and compare them with indices of agronomic efficiency of fertilizers and industrial by-products when applied to dystrophic Clayey Red Latosol and Dystrophic Alic Red Yellow Latosol with medium texture. The rate of Zn applied to the soil was 5 mg kg-1, using the sources zinc sulfate, commercial granular zinc, ash and galvanic sludge, ash and two brass slags. Most Zn was extracted from the sources by DTPA, 10 % HCl, NAC, 1% acetic acid, and 10 % sulfuric acid. Recovery by the extractors 2 % CA, EDTA, water, and hot water was low. The agronomic efficiency index was found to be high when using galvanic sludge (238 % and commercial granular zinc (142 % and lower with brass slag I and II (67 and 27 %, respectively. The sources galvanizing ash and brass ash showed solubility lower than 60 % in 2 % CA, despite agronomic efficiency indices of 78 and 125 %, respectively. The low agronomic efficiency index of industrial by-products such as brass slag I and galvanizing ash can be compensated by higher doses, provided there is no

  3. Opportunities, perspectives and limits in lactic acid production from waste and industrial by-products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mladenović Dragana D.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In line with the goals of sustainable development and environmental protection today great attention is directed towards new technologies for waste and industrial by-products utilization. Waste products represent potentially good raw material for production other valuable products, such as bioethanol, biogas, biodiesel, organic acids, enzymes, microbial biomass, etc. Since the first industrial production to the present, lactic acid has found wide application in food, cosmetic, pharmaceutical and chemical industries. In recent years, the demand for lactic acid has been increasing considerably owing to its potential use as a monomer for the production of poly-lactic acid (PLA polymers which are biodegradable and biocompatible with wide applications. Waste and industrial by-products such are whey, molasses, stillage, waste starch and lignocellulosic materials are a good source of fermentable sugars and many other substances of great importance for the growth of microorganisms, such as proteins, minerals and vitamins. Utilization of waste products for production of lactic acid could help to reduce the total cost of lactic acid production and except the economic viability of the process offers a solution of their disposal. Fermentation process depends on chemical and physical nature of feedstocks and the lactic acid producer. This review describes the characteristics, abilities and limits of microorganisms involved in lactic acid production, as well as the characteristics and types of waste products for lactic acid production. The fermentation methods that have been recently reported to improve lactic acid production are summarized and compared. In order to improve processes and productivity, fed-batch fermentation, fermentation with immobilized cell systems and mixed cultures and opportunities of open (non-sterilized fermentation have been investigated.

  4. Determination of aflatoxins in by-products of industrial processing of cocoa beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copetti, Marina V; Iamanaka, Beatriz T; Pereira, José Luiz; Lemes, Daniel P; Nakano, Felipe; Taniwaki, Marta H

    2012-01-01

    This study has examined the occurrence of aflatoxins in 168 samples of different fractions obtained during the processing of cocoa in manufacturing plants (shell, nibs, mass, butter, cake and powder) using an optimised methodology for cocoa by-products. The method validation was based on selectivity, linearity, limit of detection and recovery. The method was shown to be adequate for use in quantifying the contamination of cocoa by aflatoxins B(1), B(2), G(1) and G(2). Furthermore, the method was easier to use than other methods available in the literature. For aflatoxin extraction from cocoa samples, a methanol-water solution was used, and then immunoaffinity columns were employed for clean-up before the determination by high-performance liquid chromatography. A survey demonstrated a widespread occurrence of aflatoxins in cocoa by-products, although in general the levels of aflatoxins present in the fractions from industrial processing of cocoa were low. A maximum aflatoxin contamination of 13.3 ng g(-1) was found in a nib sample. The lowest contamination levels were found in cocoa butter. Continued monitoring of aflatoxins in cocoa by-products is nevertheless necessary because these toxins have a high toxicity to humans and cocoa is widely consumed by children through cocoa-containing products, like candies.

  5. Liquid by-products from fish canning industry as sustainable sources of ω3 lipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Ana; Paquincha, Diogo; Martins, Florinda; Queirós, Rui P; Saraiva, Jorge A; Švarc-Gajić, Jaroslava; Nastić, Nataša; Delerue-Matos, Cristina; Carvalho, Ana P

    2018-08-01

    Fish canning industry generates large amounts of liquid wastes, which are discarded, after proper treatment to remove the organic load. However, alternative treatment processes may also be designed in order to target the recovery of valuable compounds; with this procedure, these wastewaters are converted into liquid by-products, becoming an additional source of revenue for the company. This study evaluated green and economically sustainable methodologies for the extraction of ω3 lipids from fish canning liquid by-products. Lipids were extracted by processes combining physical and chemical parameters (conventional and pressurized extraction processes), as well as chemical and biological parameters. Furthermore, LCA was applied to evaluate the environmental performance and costs indicators for each process. Results indicated that extraction with high hydrostatic pressure provides the highest amounts of ω3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (3331,5 mg L -1 effluent), apart from presenting the lowest environmental impact and costs. The studied procedures allow to obtain alternative, sustainable and traceable sources of ω3 lipids for further applications in food, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. Additionally, such approach contributes towards the organic depuration of canning liquid effluents, therefore reducing the overall waste treatment costs. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. THE USE OF AGRO INDUSTRIAL BY-PRODUCTS IN THE DIET OF GROWER TURKEYS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Makinde

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to evaluate the response of grower turkeys to diets containing different agro industrial by-products. A total of 120grower turkeys were used for this study. Four experimental diets were formulated and designated as T1, T2, T3, and T4. T1 (control diet contained none of the agro industrial by products used while T2, T3 and T4 contained15% each of Wheat offal, Maize offal, Rice offal respectively. The turkeys were randomly allocated to four experimental treatments of thirty birds per treatment while each treatment was replicated three times (3 with ten (10 birds per pen in a completely randomized design. The result of growth performance revealed that average feed intake, average weight gain and feed conversion ratio of turkeys fed the control and 15% Wheat Offal diets were not significantly different (P>0.05. The result of carcass characteristics and organ weights followed similar trend. Turkeys fed 15% Maize Offal and 15% Rice Offal diets recorded the lowest values (P0.05 in all the haematological parameters and serum biochemical indices measured except PCV which decreased across the treatment groups. It was concluded that 15% wheat offal can be included in the diet of grower turkeys without adverse effect on growth performance, carcass yield and health status of birds. Â

  7. Valorization of Proteins from Co- and By-Products from the Fish and Meat Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aspevik, Tone; Oterhals, Åge; Rønning, Sissel Beate; Altintzoglou, Themistoklis; Wubshet, Sileshi Gizachew; Gildberg, Asbjørn; Afseth, Nils Kristian; Whitaker, Ragnhild Dragøy; Lindberg, Diana

    2017-06-01

    Large volumes of protein-rich residual raw materials, such as heads, bones, carcasses, blood, skin, viscera, hooves and feathers, are created as a result of processing of animals from fisheries, aquaculture, livestock and poultry sectors. These residuals contain proteins and other essential nutrients with potentially bioactive properties, eligible for recycling and upgrading for higher-value products, e.g. for human, pet food and feed purposes. Here, we aim to cover all the important aspects of achieving optimal utilization of proteins in such residual raw materials, identifying those eligible for human consumption as co-products and for feed applications as by-products. Strict legislation regulates the utilization of various animal-based co- and by-products, representing a major hurdle if not addressed properly. Thorough understanding and optimization of all parts of the production chain, including conservation and processing, are important prerequisites for successful upgrading and industrial implementation of such products. This review includes industrially applied technologies such as freezing/cooling, acid preservation, salting, rendering and protein hydrolysis. In this regard, it is important to achieve stable production and quality through all the steps in the manufacturing chain, preferably supported by at- or online quality control points in the actual processing step. If aiming for the human market, knowledge of consumer trends and awareness are important for production and successful introduction of new products and ingredients.

  8. Potential contamination issues arising from the use of biofuel and food industry by-products in animal feed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Granby, Kit; Mortensen, Alicja; Broesboel-Jensen, B.

    2012-01-01

    By-products are secondary or discarded products from manufacturing. Contamination of by-products used for feed may result in carryover to animal food products and hence have impact on either animal health or food safety. Feed by-products from bioethanol production include, for example, 'dried...... distillers grain' (DDG) and 'dried distillers grain with solubles' (DDGS) from generation bioethanol production, C5-molasses from generation bioethanol production and glycerol from biodiesel production. By-products from food industry may comprise discarded or downgraded food and food surplus or secondary...... products such as peels, pulpettes, molasses, whey, mask, oil cakes, etc. Contamination of by-products and possible impacts are presented....

  9. Disposal of by-products in olive oil industry: waste-to-energy solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caputo, Antonio C.; Scacchia, Federica; Pelagagge, Pacifico M.

    2003-01-01

    Olive oil production industry is characterized by relevant amounts of liquid and solid by-products [olive mill wastewater (OMW) and olive husk (OH)], and by economical, technical and organizational constraints that make difficult the adoption of environmentally sustainable waste disposal approaches. In this context, waste treatment technologies aimed at energy recovery represent an interesting alternative. In the paper, a technical and economical analysis of thermal disposal plant solutions with energy recovery has been carried out. The considered plants enable the combined treatment of OMW and OH which, although penalizes the energy recovery, proves to be feasible and profitable in a future legislative scenario when stricter limitation on OMW disposal will force oil producers to bear high disposal costs. Results are compared by using economic performance measures, including revenues from produced energy and avoided disposal costs. A sensitivity and risk analysis is also performed in order to assess the economic profitability of the proposed solutions

  10. Early age shrinkage pattern of concrete on replacement of fine aggregate with industrial by-product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.K. Mishra

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This is an experimental work carried out to investigate early age shrinkage pattern of concrete, prepared, on 50% replacement of industrial by-product (like pond ash and granulated blast furnace slag as fine aggregate using OPC, PPC and PSC as a binder. This is to observe the effect of pond ash and slag as they are having some cementitious properties and effect of cement type is also discussed. All the mixes were prepared keeping in view of pumpable concrete without any super plasticizers. Higher shrinkage value indicates the presence of more bleed water or internal moisture. It is concluded that slag is the best option for fine aggregate replacement for concrete making and durable structure.

  11. Characterization and transformation of an industrial by-product (coated paper sludge into a pozzolanic material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    San José, J. T.

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The effective re-use of industrial by-products calls for an understanding of their chemical, mineralogical and physical characteristics. The by-product used in this study was coated paper industry sludge from a plant whose sole prime material is recycled paper. Due to its high organic and calcium carbonate content and the presence of several clayey materials such as talc and kaolinite, incineration conditions had a significant effect on the mineralogy of such sludge. The present study examined the impact of such conditions on the pozzolanic properties of coated paper sludge. Several temperature intervals ranging from 600 to 750 ºC were studied to determine the conditions yielding the most promising pozzolanic properties.La necesidad de dar un correcto uso a los subproductos industriales requiere del conocimiento de sus características, tanto desde un punto de vista químico como mineralógico y físico. El subproducto utilizado para esta investigación es un lodo de papel estucado procedente de la industria papelera, la cual usa como materias primas un 100% de material reciclado. Debido al alto contenido de materia orgánica y carbonato cálcico y a la presencia de diferentes materiales arcillosos, como el talco y la caolinita, las condiciones de calcinación presentan un papel principal en la mineralogía de este lodo. En el actual trabajo se considera el papel que juegan estas condiciones, tiempo y permanencia en horno, en las propiedades puzolánicas del lodo de papel estucado como material cementante. Por esta razón, se estudiaron diferentes intervalos de temperatura, entre 600 y 750 ºC y 2 horas de permanencia en horno con el objetivo de obtener las mejores propiedades puzolánicas.

  12. Nutrient and dissolved organic carbon removal from natural waters using industrial by-products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendling, Laura A; Douglas, Grant B; Coleman, Shandel; Yuan, Zheng

    2013-01-01

    Attenuation of excess nutrients in wastewater and stormwater is required to safeguard aquatic ecosystems. The use of low-cost, mineral-based industrial by-products with high Ca, Mg, Fe or Al content as a solid phase in constructed wetlands potentially offers a cost-effective wastewater treatment option in areas without centralised water treatment facilities. Our objective was to investigate use of water treatment residuals (WTRs), coal fly ash (CFA), and granular activated carbon (GAC) from biomass combustion in in-situ water treatment schemes to manage dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and nutrients. Both CaO- and CaCO(3)-based WTRs effectively attenuated inorganic N species but exhibited little capacity for organic N removal. The CaO-based WTR demonstrated effective attenuation of DOC and P in column trials, and a high capacity for P sorption in batch experiments. Granular activated carbon proved effective for DOC and dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) removal in column trials, but was ineffective for P attenuation. Only CFA demonstrated effective removal of a broad suite of inorganic and organic nutrients and DOC; however, Se concentrations in column effluents exceeded Australian and New Zealand water quality guideline values. Water treated by filtering through the CaO-based WTR exhibited nutrient ratios characteristic of potential P-limitation with no potential N- or Si-limitation respective to growth of aquatic biota, indicating that treatment of nutrient-rich water using the CaO-based WTR may result in conditions less favourable for cyanobacterial growth and more favourable for growth of diatoms. Results show that selected industrial by-products may mitigate eutrophication through targeted use in nutrient intervention schemes. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Biochars made from agro-industrial by-products remove chlorine and lower water toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzachristas, Andreas; Xirou, Maria; Manariotis, Ioannis D.; Dailianis, Stefanos; Karapanagioti, Hrissi K.

    2016-04-01

    Chlorination is the most common disinfection process for water and treated wastewater. For the industrial use of water in food production, chlorine can add undesired taste and odor to the final product. For this reason, dechlorination is desired for food industries that use municipal tap water. For treated wastewater discharge or reuse, chlorine can be toxic to the receiving aqueous systems and to the irrigated plants. In both the above cases, dechlorination is also required. Traditionally activated carbon has been used as the ideal material for the removal of chlorine. The main mechanisms that describe the interaction between activated carbon and HOCl or OCl- are described by the following equations (AWWA, 1990): HOCl + C* → C*O + H+ + Cl- (1), OCl- + C* → C*O + Cl- (2) Where C* and C*O represent the activated carbon surface and a surface oxide, respectively. The present study proposes the use of agro-industrial by-products for the production of biochars that will be used for dechlorination of tap-water used for food-industry production. Different raw materials such as malt spent rootlets, coffee residue, olive and grape seeds, etc. are used for the production of biochar. Various temperatures and air-to-solid ratios are tested for optimizing biochar production. Batch tests as well as a column test are employed to study the dechlorination efficiency and kinetics of the different raw and biochar materials as well as those of commercial activated carbons. As chlorine concentration increases the removal also increases linearily. After 1 and 24 hours of contact the chlorine relative removal efficiencies for the biochar made from olive seeds are 50 and 77 ± 4%, respectively. It seems that the removal kinetics are faster during the first hour; then, removal continues but with a slower rate. Most of the biochars tested (with 3 mg of solid in 20 mL of chlorine solution at initial concentration Co=1.5 mg/L) demonstrated removal efficiencies with an average of 9.4 ± 0

  14. Biochars made from agro-industrial by-products remove chlorine from water and wastewater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzachristas, Andreas; Manariotis, Ioannis D.; Karapanagioti, Hrissi K.

    2017-04-01

    Chlorination is the most common disinfection process for water and wastewater. For the industrial use of water in food production, chlorine can add undesired taste and odor to the final product. For this reason, dechlorination is desired for food industries that use municipal tap water. For treated wastewater discharge or reuse, chlorine can be toxic to the receiving aqueous systems and to the irrigated plants. In both the above cases, dechlorination is also required. Traditionally activated carbon has been used as the ideal material for the removal of chlorine. The main mechanisms that describe the interaction between activated carbon and HOCl or OCl- are described by the following equations (AWWA, 1990): HOCl + C* → C*O + H+ + Cl- (1), OCl- + C* → C*O + Cl- (2) Where C* and C*O represent the activated carbon surface and a surface oxide, respectively. The present study proposes the use of agro-industrial by-products for the production of biochars that will be used for dechlorination of tap-water used for food-industry production. Different raw materials such as malt spent rootlets, coffee residue, olive and grape seeds, etc. are used for the production of biochar. Various temperatures and air-to-solid ratios are tested for optimizing biochar production. Batch tests as well as a column test are employed to study the dechlorination kinetics of the different raw and biochar materials as well as those of commercial activated carbons. The removal kinetics are faster during the first hour; then, removal continues but with a slower rate. Most of the biochars tested (with 3 mg of solid in 20 mL of chlorine solution at initial concentration Co=1.5 mg/L) demonstrated removal efficiencies with an average of 9.4 ± 0.5 mg/g. For the two commercial activated carbons, removal efficiencies were 11.4 ± 0.2 mg/g. The first-order constant k1 ranged between 0.001 and 0.014 (min-1) for the biosorbents and the biochars and it was equal to 0.017 (min-1) for the commercial

  15. Feruloyl esterases as a tool for the release of phenolic compounds from agro-industrial by-products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benoit, Isabelle; Navarro, David; Marnet, Nathalie; Rakotomanomana, Nnjara; Lesage-Meessen, Laurence; Sigoillot, Jean-Claude; Asther, Marcel; Asther, Michèle

    2006-01-01

    Agro-industrial by-products are a potential source of added-value phenolic acids with promising applications in the food and pharmaceutical industries. Here two purified feruloyl esterases from Aspergillus niger, FAEA and FAEB were tested for their ability to release phenolic acids such as caffeic

  16. Cost-effective production of bacterial cellulose using acidic food industry by-products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revin, Victor; Liyaskina, Elena; Nazarkina, Maria; Bogatyreva, Alena; Shchankin, Mikhail

    2018-03-13

    To reduce the cost of obtaining bacterial cellulose, acidic by-products of the alcohol and dairy industries were used without any pretreatment or addition of other nitrogen sources. Studies have shown that the greatest accumulation of bacterial cellulose (6.19g/L) occurs on wheat thin stillage for 3 days of cultivation under dynamic conditions, which is almost 3 times higher than on standard Hestrin and Schramm medium (2.14g/L). The use of whey as a nutrient medium makes it possible to obtain 5.45g/L bacterial cellulose under similar conditions of cultivation. It is established that the pH of the medium during the growth of Gluconacetobacter sucrofermentans B-11267 depends on the feedstock used and its initial value. By culturing the bacterium on thin stillage and whey, there is a decrease in the acidity of the waste. It is shown that the infrared spectra of bacterial cellulose obtained in a variety of environments have a similar character, but we found differences in the micromorphology and crystallinity of the resulting biopolymer. Copyright © 2018 Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  17. PHYTOAVAILABILITY OF COPPER IN INDUSTRIAL BY-PRODUCTS AND MINERAL FERTILIZERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Prado Cenciani de Souza

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Alternative copper (Cu sources could be used in fertilizer production, although the bioavailability of copper in these materials is unknown. The objective of this study was to evaluate the extractants neutral ammonium citrate (NAC, 2 % citric acid, 1 % acetic acid, 10 % HCl, 10 % H2SO4, buffer solution pH 6.0, DTPA, EDTA, water, and hot water in the quantification of available Cu content in several sources, relating them to the relative agronomic efficiency (RAE of wheat grown in a clayey Latossolo Vermelho eutrófico (Oxisol and Neossolo Quartzarênico (Typic Quartzipsamment. Copper was applied at the rate of 1.5 mg kg-1 as scrap slag, brass slag, Cu ore, granulated copper, and copper sulfate. The extractants 10 % HCl, 10 % H2SO4, and NAC extracted higher Cu concentrations. The RAE values of brass slag and Cu ore were similar to or higher than those of Cu sulfate and granulated Cu. Solubility in the 2nd NAC extractant, officially required for mineral fertilizers with Cu, was lower than 60 % for the scrap slag, Cu ore, and granulated copper sources. This fact indicates that adoption of the NAC extractant may be ineffective for industrial by-products, although no extractant was more efficient in predicting Cu availability for wheat fertilized with the Cu sources tested.

  18. Synthesis of glass-ceramics using glass cullet and vitrified industrial by-products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karamberi, A.; Orkopoulos, K.; Moutsatsou, A. [National Technical University of Athens, Athens (Greece)

    2007-07-01

    This study concerns the recycling of inorganic waste materials for the production of glass-ceramics and the evaluation of the developed physical properties. Four industrial by-products were selected due to their mass production: (I) two high calcium lignite fly ashes, (ii) slag derived from the production of Fe-Ni and, (iii) steel slag. In order to examine the role of the SiO{sub 2} in the crystallization process, glass cullet and Egyptian sand were added. Thermal treatment, at 1450{sup o}C, enables the production of glasses using mixtures of these materials at appropriate proportions. The crystallization was achieved by heating at 900, 950 and 1000{sup o}C. The produced materials were examined concerning their structure by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy (SEM-EDS). The results showed that the crystalline phase is greatly depending on the structure of the raw material and the thermal process, influencing accordingly the hardness of the final products.

  19. Non-protein and agro-industrial by-products utilization by ruminants in Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tareque, A.M.M.

    1987-01-01

    A series of experiments were designed to (1) investigate mixtures of locally available feedstuffs, particularly agro-industrial by-products with or without non-protein nitrogen supplementation as production rations for local and imported breeds of ruminants, (2) formulate rations based on locally available feedstuffs which can be compounded either on a large scale or at the village level for local animals, (3) determine the nutritive value of some non-conventional feedstuffs in terms of their digestibility and their ability to promote microbial synthesis. Rice straw, constituting about 85% of the total available feed dry matter in Bangladesh, is considered a basal, or sometimes the sole, feed for ruminant animals. The efficiency of utilization of rice straw could be improved by adding non-conventional feed resources, such as azolla, banana plant, sweet potato leaves and other legumes and grasses. Rates of growth and feed efficiency by local animals were found to be higher in those fed with urea treated rice straw or bagasse, with or without the addition of concentrates, than in animals fed untreated straw. Rations were also found to be satisfactory when rice straw was fed in combination with urea, legumes such as cowpea hay, azolla and sweet potato leaves or concentrates. It is concluded that the utilization of rice straw by ruminants can be improved by suitable supplementation with non-conventional feed resources. Research is needed to evaluate the use of molasses as a feed ingredient for ruminants in Bangladesh. (author)

  20. Bioavailability of zinc in two zinc sulfate by-products of the galvanizing industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, H M; Boling, S D; Emmert, J L; Baker, D H

    1998-10-01

    Two Zn depletion/repletion assays were conducted with chicks to determine the relative bioavailability (RBV) of Zn from two new by-products of the galvanizing industry. Using a soy concentrate-dextrose diet, slope-ratio methodology was employed to evaluate two different products: Fe-ZnSO4 x H2O with 20.2% Fe and 13.0% Zn, and Zn-FeSO4 x H2O with 14.2% Fe and 20.2% Zn. Feed-grade ZnSO4 x H2O was used as a standard. Weight gain, tibia Zn concentration, and total tibia Zn responded linearly (P 0.10) from the ZnSO4 standard (100%). Slope-ratio calculations based on total tibia Zn established average Zn RBV values of 126% for Fe-ZnSO4 x H2O and 127% for Zn-FeSO4 x H2O, and these values were greater (P < 0.01) than those of the ZnSO4 standard (100%). It is apparent that both mixed sulfate products of Fe and Zn are excellent sources of bioavailable Zn.

  1. Oil cakes - a by-product of agriculture industry as a fortificant in bakery products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behera, Satyabadi; Indumathi, K; Mahadevamma, S; Sudha, M L

    2013-11-01

    Groundnut cake (GNC) and soybean cake (SBC) by-product of agriculture industry had protein and protein digestibility in the range of 42.7-50.5 and 71.3-76.8%, respectively. Polyphenols present in GNC and SBC were cholorogenic acid, syringic acid and p-coumaric acid. The number of bands separated in soybean meal was greater than the bands observed in GNC flour as seen in SDS-PAGE pattern, respectively. SEM of groundnut flour showed distension of protein bodies due to roasting of the oil cakes. The water absorption of wheat flour GNC blends decreased from 59.2 to 57.3% and increased in wheat flour SBC blends from 59.2 to 68.3% with an increase in oil cake from 0 to 20%. With increase in either GNC or SBC, the biscuits became harder. Addition of glycerol monostearate and sodium stearoyl lactylate in combination with 20% blend of GNC/SBC decreased the breaking strength values and increased the sensory parameters of the biscuits. Nutritionally rich biscuits were thus prepared by incorporating GNC/SBC.

  2. Agrochemical characterisation of the solid by-products and residues from the winery and distillery industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustamante, M A; Moral, R; Paredes, C; Pérez-Espinosa, A; Moreno-Caselles, J; Pérez-Murcia, M D

    2008-01-01

    The winery and distillery industry produces a great quantity of residues, whose management and disposal are environmental problems due to their seasonal character and some polluting characteristics. The main solid by-products and residues generated are grape stalk, grape pomace or marc, wine lee, exhausted grape marc and winery sludge. In this study, 87 samples of winery and distillery residues were collected from different Spanish wineries and distilleries. Electrical conductivity, pH, total organic matter, organic carbon, polyphenols and contents of plant nutrients and heavy metals were determined. The purpose of this research was to study the composition of these wastes and to find relationships in order to use easily analysable parameters to estimate their composition. In general, the winery and distillery residues showed low pH (mean values ranged from 3.8 to 6.8) and electrical conductivity values (1.62-6.15 dS m(-1)) and high organic matter (669-920 g kg(-1)) and macronutrient contents, especially in K (11.9-72.8 g kg(-1)). However, a notable polyphenol concentration (1.2-19.0 g kg(-1)) and low micronutrient and heavy metal contents were also observed, some of these properties being incompatible with agricultural requirements. Therefore, conditioning treatments are necessary prior to possible use of these wastes. In all wastes, significant correlations were found between easily determined parameters, such as pH, electrical conductivity and total organic matter, and most of the parameters studied. The regression models obtained are also discussed.

  3. Review and Analysis of Alternatives for the Valorisation of Agro-Industrial Olive Oil By-Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Berbel

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available By-products and waste from olive production (agriculture and the olive oil industry (mills and refineries are an important environmental issue in Mediterranean areas. Industrial waste and by-products contain highly valuable components that can also be phytotoxic. This article reviews recent research on the valorisation of olive by-products under the bioeconomy strategy. The alternatives are classified according to the ‘bioeconomy value pyramid’, which prioritises higher value uses over the current energy and compost valorisation. Special attention is paid to the use of these by-products for animal feed that can be improved by reducing the content of saturated fatty acids (SFAs and increase the polyunsaturated fatty acids amount considered beneficial in response to their use; this makes the food healthier for humans while simultaneously reducing feeding costs and the environmental impact of livestock.

  4. Nutritional diversity of agricultural and agro-industrial by-products for ruminant feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.A.G. Azevêdo

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Fifty-seven by-products were collected from regions throughout Brazil. Chemical composition, in vitro neutral detergent fiber digestibility (IVNDFD, and total digestible nutrients (TDN were determined with the objective of grouping by-products with similar nutritional characteristics. The by-products belonging to group one (G1 presented the highest content of neutral detergent fiber exclusive of ash and nitrogenous compounds [aNDFom(n] and lowest energy content, with 42.5% and 38.8% of IVNDFD and TDN, respectively. A new cluster analysis was carried in order to better characterize G2 by-products, six subgroups (SGs were established (SG1 to SG6. SG1 by-products had the highest and the lowest values for lignin and TDN, respectively. SG2 by-products had the highest aNDFom(n value, with TDN and IVNDFD values greater than 600 and 700g/kg, respectively, and crude protein (CP value below 200g/kg in dry matter (DM. Among all the subgroups, SG3 had the highest TDN (772g/kg and IVNDFD (934g/kg values and the lowest lignin (23g/kg in DM value. The ether extract was what most influenced the hierarchical establishment of residual grouping in SG4. SG5 by-products had the highest concentration of non-fibrous carbohydrate. Different from the other subgroups, SG6 by-products had the highest value of available CP.

  5. Valorization of industrial waste and by-product streams via fermentation for the production of chemicals and biopolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutinas, Apostolis A; Vlysidis, Anestis; Pleissner, Daniel; Kopsahelis, Nikolaos; Lopez Garcia, Isabel; Kookos, Ioannis K; Papanikolaou, Seraphim; Kwan, Tsz Him; Lin, Carol Sze Ki

    2014-04-21

    The transition from a fossil fuel-based economy to a bio-based economy necessitates the exploitation of synergies, scientific innovations and breakthroughs, and step changes in the infrastructure of chemical industry. Sustainable production of chemicals and biopolymers should be dependent entirely on renewable carbon. White biotechnology could provide the necessary tools for the evolution of microbial bioconversion into a key unit operation in future biorefineries. Waste and by-product streams from existing industrial sectors (e.g., food industry, pulp and paper industry, biodiesel and bioethanol production) could be used as renewable resources for both biorefinery development and production of nutrient-complete fermentation feedstocks. This review focuses on the potential of utilizing waste and by-product streams from current industrial activities for the production of chemicals and biopolymers via microbial bioconversion. The first part of this review presents the current status and prospects on fermentative production of important platform chemicals (i.e., selected C2-C6 metabolic products and single cell oil) and biopolymers (i.e., polyhydroxyalkanoates and bacterial cellulose). In the second part, the qualitative and quantitative characteristics of waste and by-product streams from existing industrial sectors are presented. In the third part, the techno-economic aspects of bioconversion processes are critically reviewed. Four case studies showing the potential of case-specific waste and by-product streams for the production of succinic acid and polyhydroxyalkanoates are presented. It is evident that fermentative production of chemicals and biopolymers via refining of waste and by-product streams is a highly important research area with significant prospects for industrial applications.

  6. Protein co-products and by-products of the biodiesel industry for ruminants feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Andrés Botero Carrera

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the experiment was to classify 20 protein co-products and by-products of the biodiesel industry with potential to use in ruminant feeding. The meals evaluated were: cottonseed, canudo-de-pito, crambe, sunflower, castor-oil seeds detoxified with calcium, non-detoxified castor-oil seeds and soybean; and the cakes were: cottonseed, peanut, babassu, crambe, palm oil, sunflower, licuri, macauba seeds, non-detoxified castor-oil seeds, turnip and jatropha. The samples were quantified to determine dry matter (DM, organic matter (OM, crude protein (CP, ether extract (EE, neutral detergent fiber corrected for ash and protein (NDFap, non-fiber carbohydrates (NFC, acid detergent fiber corrected for ash and protein (ADFap, lignin, cutin and starch levels. The CP profile was characterized in fractions A, B1, B2, B3 and C. The in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD, in vitro neutral detergent fiber digestibility (IVNDFD, rumen degradable and undegradable protein, intestinal digestibility, indigestible neutral detergent fiber and undegradable neutral detergent insoluble protein were evaluated. The OM, CP, EE, NDFap, NFC, ADFap, lignin, cutin and starch contents varied from 81.95 to 95.41%, 18.92 to 57.75%, 0.56 to 18.40%, 10.13 to 62.30%, 3.89 to 27.88%, 6.15 to 36.86%, 1.19 to 5.04%, 0 to 17.87% and 0.68 to 14.50%, respectively. The values of fractions A, B1, B2, B3 and C ranged from 5.40 to 43.31%, 0.08 to 37.63%, 16.75 to 79.39%, 1.86 to 59.15% and 0.60 to 11.47%, respectively. Concentrations of IVDMD, IVNDFD, rumen-degradable and undegradable protein, intestinal digestibility, indigestible NDF and undegradable neutral detergent insoluble protein ranged from 31.00 to 95.92%, 55.04 to 97.74%, 41.06 to 97.61%, 2.39 to 58.94, 9.27 to 94.26%, 1.05 to 40.80% and 0.29 to 2.92%, respectively. Some of these products can replace soybean meal, specially the Macauba seeds cake, cottonseed meal and peanut and turnip cakes based on digestive

  7. CONCEPT OF IN-OIL PROJECT BASED ON BIOCONVERSION OF BY-PRODUCTS FROM FOOD PROCESSING INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciech Czekała

    2017-09-01

    The main assumption of the project is based on the introduction of by-products from the food processing industry to feeding with larvae of H. illucens. Biomass of insect larvae will then be processed into products that will be used for feed and energy purposes.

  8. Production of hydrogen from by-products of food industries by rhodospirillaceae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reh, U.

    1983-11-01

    The decomposition of organic substances from food-by-products as whey, beet sugar molasses, cane-sugar-molasses and potato-water by the Rhodospirillaceae Rp. capsulata, Rp. acidophila, Rm. vannielii, Rs. rubrum, and Rs. tenue to hydrogen and carbon dioxide were tested. In a pre-cultivation Lactobacillus bulgaricus converted the sugars of the by-products into lactic acid, which is easier in handling. Rs. rubrum was superior in producing hydrogen from this nutrient. It released from whey up to 56% of the substrate hydrogen, from beet sugar molasses 42%, from cane-sugar-molasses 89% and from potato-water 19%. Out-door-researches were made to evaluate the decrease of hydrogen yield under the influence of weather as well as day and night periods compared to the homogeneous conditions of the laboratory. From 200 m/sup 3/ whey, the daily output of a dairy, 4000 m/sup 3/ hydrogen corresponding to an energy equivalent of 1000 l fuel oil could be produced. To achieve this, 130 000 m/sup 2/ have to be covered with batch fermenters. These results show, that there is nearly no hope to decompose food by-products by Rhodospirillaceae in large scale technology, unless a new processing technology using a flow-fermenter and raising the hydrogen production significantly will be found.

  9. The use of by-products from metallurgical and mineral industries as filler in cement-based materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moosberg, Helena; Lagerblad, Björn; Forssberg, Eric

    2003-02-01

    This investigation has been made in order to make it possible to increase the use of by-products in cement-based materials. Use of by-products requires a screening procedure that will reliably determine their impact on concrete. A test procedure was developed. The most important properties were considered to be strength development, shrinkage, expansion and workability. The methods used were calorimetry, flow table tests, F-shape measurements, measurements of compressive and flexural strength and shrinkage/expansion measurements. Scanning electron microscopy was used to verify some results. Twelve by-products were collected from Swedish metallurgical and mineral industries and classified according to the test procedure. The investigation showed that the test procedure clearly screened out the materials that can be used in the production of concrete from the unsuitable ones.

  10. The Molecular Restructuring of Classical Desserts by Using Food Industry By-Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela PRECUP

    2017-11-01

    The present work focused on achieving a new type of dessert, a “Sweetburger”, by restructuring its molecular components with the aid of molecular gastronomy techniques and using agro-industrial wastes (beetroot and sour cherry pulp and peels, melon pomace. The innovative dessert has been obtained and the bioactive compounds contained in the agro-industrial wastes have been characterized using the HPLC method, Folin-Ciocalteu and spectrophotometry. The total polyphenol content from sour cherries waste was significant, 508,9 mg gallic acid/100 g. The total anthocyanin content from beetroot pulp was 0,117 mg/ 100 g.

  11. Quality evaluation of carbonaceous industrial by-products and its effect on properties of autoclave aerated concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fomina, E. V.; Lesovik, V. S.; Fomin, A. E.; Kozhukhova, N. I.; Lebedev, M. S.

    2018-03-01

    Argillite is a carbonaceous industrial by-product that is a potential source in environmentally friendly and source-saving construction industry. In this research, chemical and mineral composition as well as particle size distribution of argillite were studied and used to develop autoclave aerated concrete as partial substitute of quartz sand. Effect of the argillite as a mineral admixture in autoclave aerated concrete was investigated in terms of compressive and tensile strength, density, heat conductivity etc. The obtained results demonstrated an efficiency of argillite as an energy-saving material in autoclave construction composites.

  12. A review of radiological hazards associated with tin by-product mineral processing industry in the SEATRAD centre member countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Udompornwirat, S.

    1993-01-01

    Radiological hazards associated with the tin by-product mineral processing industry has recently become an issue of concern in the SEATRAD Centre member countries namely, Indonesia, Malaysia and Thailand. The SEATRAD Centre, with the assistance of a United Nations Development Program consultant, carried out an investigation on radioactivity problems at twelve tin by-product mineral processing plants in Malaysia and Thailand. The investigation included a survey of external gamma radiation levels and dust sampling for internal dose estimation as well as characterising the potential sources of radiation exposure in the plants. This paper reviews the nature of the tin by-product mineral processing industry and the general levels of associated radiological hazards. In addition, data provided by the government organisations in the member countries are reviewed. Typical annual effective doses experienced by the industry's workers are estimated on the basis of existing information, and possible measures to reduce exposure are discussed. It is concluded that the estimated median effective dose experienced by the workers is about 18 to 19 mSv per annum. Maximum exposures may exceed 200 mSv per annum. The important exposure pathways are external gamma radiation and internal radiation arising through intake of radioactive dust. 5 refs., 2 tabs., 4 figs

  13. Problems and possible remedies concerning NORM in by-Product gypsum produced by the phosphate industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burnett, W.C.; Hull, C.D

    1996-01-01

    Large quantities (∼ 30 million tons/year) of phosphogypsum are produced as a by-product of fertilizer production in Florida. The sedimentary phosphate rock, used as the raw material for phosphoric acid production, is enriched in uranium and daughter products. Relatively high concentrations of some of these U-series daughters, particularly 226 Ra (av. = 910 Bq.Kg -1 ), prevent use of the by-product gypsum for construction or other purposes. The material is thus stockpiled on huge stacks which are unsightly and a potential threat to the surrounding air and especially groundwater resources. It is estimated that ∼ 10 9 tons of this material will be on Florida stacks by the turn of the century. We have been investigating the detailed radiochemistry of phosphogypsum in the hope that can understanding of how these radionuclides are fixed in the material may lead to cost-effective purification schemes. Our work has focused on the distribution of 226 Ra but has also included 210 Pb and 210 Po (av. = 860 Bq.Kg -1 ) which are also enriched in phosphogypsum. This paper summarizes the problems associated with this material and reviews its radiochemistry as elucidated by sequential extraction and other methodologies. We also present some possible alternatives to long-term storage as a solution to the phosphogypsum problem. (author)

  14. Potential applications of silk sericin, a natural protein from textile industry by-products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aramwit, Pornanong; Siritientong, Tippawan; Srichana, Teerapol

    2012-03-01

    Silk is composed of two major proteins, fibroin (fibrous protein) and sericin (globular, gumming protein). Fibroin has been used in textile manufacturing and for several biomaterial applications, whereas sericin is considered a waste material in the textile industry. Sericin has recently been found to activate the proliferation of several cell-lines and has also shown various biological activities. Sericin can form a gel by itself; however, after mixing with other polymers and cross-linking it can form a film or a scaffold with good characteristics that can be used in the cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries. Sericin is proven to cause no immunological responses, which has resulted in a more acceptable material for biological applications.

  15. Monitoring of metabolites and by-products in a down-scaled industrial lager beer fermentation

    OpenAIRE

    Sjöström, Fredrik

    2013-01-01

    The sugar composition of the wort and how these sugars are utilised by the yeast affects the organoleptic properties of the beer. To monitor the saccharides in the wort before inoculation and during fermentation is important in modern brewing industry. Reducing the duration of the brewing process is valuable and can be achieved by reducing the fermentation time by an increase in temperature. However, this must be done without changing the quality and characteristics of the end product, anothe...

  16. Development of highly microporous activated carbon from the alcoholic beverage industry organic by-products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nieto-Delgado, C.; Terrones, M.; Rangel-Mendez, J.R.

    2011-01-01

    This work has the aim to employ the agave bagasse, a waste from Tequila and Mescal industries, to obtain a product of high commercial value such as activated carbon. The activated carbon production methodology was based on a chemical activation, by using ZnCl 2 and H 3 PO 4 as activating agent and agave bagasse as a natural source of carbon. The activation temperature (150-450 o C), activation time (0-60 min) and weight ratio of activating agent to precursor (0.2-4) were studied. The produced carbon materials were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and nitrogen physisorption at -196 o C. In addition, the activating agent recovery was evaluated. We were able to obtain highly microporous activated carbons with micropore volumes between 0.24 and 1.20 cm 3 /g and a surface area within 300 and 2139 m 2 /g. These results demonstrated the feasibility to treat the industrial wastes of the Tequila and Mescal industries, being this wastes an excellent precursor to produce highly microporous activated carbons that can be processed at low activation temperatures in short times, with the possibility of recycling the activating agent.

  17. Engineering Ashbya gossypii strains for de novo lipid production using industrial by-products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozano-Martínez, Patricia; Buey, Rubén M; Ledesma-Amaro, Rodrigo; Jiménez, Alberto; Revuelta, José Luis

    2017-03-01

    Ashbya gossypii is a filamentous fungus that naturally overproduces riboflavin, and it is currently exploited for the industrial production of this vitamin. The utilization of A. gossypii for biotechnological applications presents important advantages such as the utilization of low-cost culture media, inexpensive downstream processing and a wide range of molecular tools for genetic manipulation, thus making A. gossypii a valuable biotechnological chassis for metabolic engineering. A. gossypii has been shown to accumulate high levels of lipids in oil-based culture media; however, the lipid biosynthesis capacity is rather limited when grown in sugar-based culture media. In this study, by altering the fatty acyl-CoA pool and manipulating the regulation of the main ∆9 desaturase gene, we have obtained A. gossypii strains with significantly increased (up to fourfold) de novo lipid biosynthesis using glucose as the only carbon source in the fermentation broth. Moreover, these strains were efficient biocatalysts for the conversion of carbohydrates from sugarcane molasses to biolipids, able to accumulate lipids up to 25% of its cell dry weight. Our results represent a proof of principle showing the promising potential of A. gossypii as a competitive microorganism for industrial biolipid production using cost-effective feed stocks. © 2016 The Authors. Microbial Biotechnology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Society for Applied Microbiology.

  18. Production of durable and cost effective sewer pipes using petroleum and industrial waste by-products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El Gamal Maisa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Arabian Gulf environment has an adverse impact on concrete structures because of the high ambient temperature, humidity, salt contaminated dust, sea water and underground salts. As an innovative solution, reinforced modified sulfur concrete (MSC pipes are recognized as a durable and economical solution for deterioration of pipelines. This work describes the manufacture and characterization of new MSC based on a cost effective sulfur modification process. Bitumen, a by-product from crude oil refining process was used to modify elemental sulfur and enhance its physical, mechanical properties, and mostly to increase its corrosive resistivity. The study has focused on optimizing the proportions of an offered MSC mixes that are composed of modified sulfur (MS as a binder, crushed sand, dune sand and ladle furnace (LF slag as aggregates, and ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGFBS as a filler. To maximize the physical and mechanical properties of MSC sewer pipes, different mixtures were prepared and investigated. The optimum mix of MSC has a maximum compressive strength of 64 MPa, maximum splitting tensile strength of 4.5 MPa, maximum flexural strength of 21 MP, with a high corrosion resistance in acidic and salty environments.

  19. Potential for methane production from typical Mediterranean agro-industrial by-products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fountoulakis, M.S.; Drakopoulou, S.; Terzakis, S.; Georgaki, E.; Manios, T. [Laboratory of Solid Waste and Wastewater Management, School of Agricultural Technology, Technological Educational Institute of Crete, GR-71004 Iraklio, Crete (Greece)

    2008-02-15

    This work examines the potential for methane production from anaerobic co-digestion of olive mill wastewater and wine-grape residues with slaughterhouse wastewater. Continuous (mesophilic) and batch (mesophilic and thermophilic) experiments were studied, both with the separate types of by-products and with mixtures. Methane yields from olive oil wastewater, winery residues and slaughterhouse wastewater were 108, 147 and 297 L CH{sub 4} kg{sup -1} COD fed respectively. Co-digestion with 50% olive oil wastewater and 50% slaughterhouse wastewater or 50% winery residues gave a methane yield of 184 and 214 L CH{sub 4} kg{sup -1} COD, respectively. Furthermore, the methane yield was 188 L CH{sub 4} kg{sup -1} COD added, co-digesting a mixture of 50% winery residues and slaughterhouse wastewater. Finally, the same mixtures under thermophilic conditions gave methane yields of 282, 301 and 219 L CH{sub 4} kg{sup -1} COD, respectively. These results suggest that methane can be produced very efficiently by co-digesting olive oil wastewater, wine-grape residues and slaughterhouse wastewater. (author)

  20. A Statistical Review of Alternative Zinc and Copper Extraction from Mineral Fertilizers and Industrial By-Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cenciani de Souza, Camila Prado; Aparecida de Abreu, Cleide; Coscione, Aline Renée; Alberto de Andrade, Cristiano; Teixeira, Luiz Antonio Junqueira; Consolini, Flavia

    2018-01-01

    Rapid, accurate, and low-cost alternative analytical methods for micronutrient quantification in fertilizers are fundamental in QC. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether zinc (Zn) and copper (Cu) content in mineral fertilizers and industrial by-products determined by the alternative methods USEPA 3051a, 10% HCl, and 10% H2SO4 are statistically equivalent to the standard method, consisting of hot-plate digestion using concentrated HCl. The commercially marketed Zn and Cu sources in Brazil consisted of oxides, carbonate, and sulfate fertilizers and by-products consisting of galvanizing ash, galvanizing sludge, brass ash, and brass or scrap slag. The contents of sources ranged from 15 to 82% and 10 to 45%, respectively, for Zn and Cu. The Zn and Cu contents refer to the variation of the elements found in the different sources evaluated with the concentrated HCl method as shown in Table 1. A protocol based on the following criteria was used for the statistical analysis assessment of the methods: F-test modified by Graybill, t-test for the mean error, and linear correlation coefficient analysis. In terms of equivalents, 10% HCl extraction was equivalent to the standard method for Zn, and the results of the USEPA 3051a and 10% HCl methods indicated that these methods were equivalents for Cu. Therefore, these methods can be considered viable alternatives to the standard method of determination for Cu and Zn in mineral fertilizers and industrial by-products in future research for their complete validation.

  1. Organic biowastes blend selection for composting industrial eggshell by-product: experimental and statistical mixture design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Micaela A R; Andrade, Sandra R; Martins, Rui C; Quina, Margarida J; Quinta-Ferreira, Rosa M

    2012-01-01

    Composting is one of the technologies recommended for pre-treating industrial eggshells (ES) before its application in soils, for calcium recycling. However, due to the high inorganic content of ES, a mixture of biodegradable materials is required to assure a successful procedure. In this study, an adequate organic blend composition containing potato peel (PP), grass clippings (GC) and wheat straw (WS) was determined by applying the simplex-centroid mixture design method to achieve a desired moisture content, carbon: nitrogen ratio and free air space for effective composting of ES. A blend of 56% PP, 37% GC and 7% WS was selected and tested in a self heating reactor, where 10% (w/w) of ES was incorporated. After 29 days of reactor operation, a dry matter reduction of 46% was achieved and thermophilic temperatures were maintained during 15 days, indicating that the blend selected by statistical approach was adequate for composting of ES.

  2. The heat insulating properties of potato starch extruded with addition of chosen by- products of food industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdybel Ewa

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The study was aimed at determination of time of heat transition through the layer of quince, apple, linen, rose pomace and potato pulp, as well as layer of potato starch and potato starch extruded with addition of above mentioned by-products. Additionally the attempt of creation a heat insulating barrier from researched raw material was made. The heat conductivity of researched materials was dependent on the type of material and its humidity. Extruded potato starch is characterized by smaller heat conductivity than potato starch extruded with addition of pomace. The obtained rigid extruded starch moulders were characterized by higher heat insulating properties than the loose beads. It is possible to use starch and by-products of food industry for production of heat insulating materials.

  3. New ceramics incorporated with industrial by-products as pore formers for sorption of toxic chromium from aqueous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domopoulou, Artemi

    2015-04-01

    The incorporation of secondary resources including various industrial wastes as pore-forming agents into clayey raw material mixtures for the development of tailored porous ceramic microstructures is currently of increasing interest. In the present research, sintered ceramic compacts were developed incorporated with industrial solid by-products as pore formers, and then used as new sorbents for chromium removal from aqueous media. The microstructures obtained were characterized through X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis as well as scanning electron microscopy (SEM) coupled with energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDX). Sorption potential of chromium from synthetic solutions on the porous ceramics was studied by static adsorption experiments as a function of the pore-former percentage in the ceramic matrix as well as the initial heavy metal (chromium) concentration, solution pH and temperature. Kinetic studies were conducted and adsorption isotherms of chromium were determined using the Langmuir equation. Preliminary experimental results concerning the adsorption characteristics of chromium on the ceramic materials produced appear encouraging for their possible beneficial use as new sorbents for the removal of toxic chromium from aqueous media. Keywords: sorbents, ceramics, industrial solid by-products, pore-former, chromium. Acknowledgements: This research has been co-financed by the European Union (European Social Fund - ESF) and Greek national funds through the Operational Program "Education and Lifelong Learning" of the National Strategic Reference Framework (NSRF) - Research Funding Program ARCHIMEDES III: Investing in knowledge society through the European Social Fund.

  4. UTILIZATION OF BY-PRODUCT OF CHEESEMAKING AGRIBUSINESS INDUSTRY FOR DEVELOPMENT OF FOOD PRODUCTS AND REDUCTION OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Lúcia Becker Rohlfes

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The uses of by-products of cheese industry is still not significant in Brazil, since about 15% of liquid whey is used as raw material in food industry technology. The liquid whey has excellent technological properties, making it an alternative to minimize environmental impacts, besides it enables the use of the same nutritional properties in the production of new food products or adding value to the existing ones. The present study aimed to use liquid whey as an ingredient in the formulation of ice cream, hard candies, ham and breads, as well as to evaluate the influence of it in technological characteristics of the products and to quantify the volume of whey used. In order to evaluate the use of liquid whey, the products were developed with partial or total replacement of milk or water by whey, being the substitution accompanied by the determination of centesimal composition, as well as evaluating the visual characteristics of each product. The results show that the preparation of the products under study with substitution of raw milk or water is viable, proving that using liquid whey is a technological possibility of using a by-product considered to be an environmental pollutant. It was concluded that the use of liquid whey in the food industry reduces the environmental impact, since there is a reduction in the volume of whey discharged into the environment.

  5. Isotope aided studies on non-protein nitrogen and agro-industrial by-products utilization by ruminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    This publication reports the results of a five year Co-ordinated Research Programme aimed at (1) evaluating locally available resources, in particular agro-industrial by-products as feeds for ruminant animals and (2) formulating rations using these resources to improve the level of animal production in developing countries. The Programme was executed by the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Isotope and Radiation Applications of Atomic Energy for Food and Agricultural Development and involved 13 participants from 12 countries. The papers published here are those presented by the participants of the Programme at the Final Research Co-ordination Meeting held in Vienna from 24 to 26 March 1986

  6. Chemical and functional properties of the different by-products of artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) from industrial canning processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Cano, Domingo; Pérez-Llamas, Francisca; Frutos, María José; Arnao, Marino B; Espinosa, Cristóbal; López-Jiménez, José Ángel; Castillo, Julián; Zamora, Salvador

    2014-10-01

    In this study, the basic chemical composition and functional properties of six by-product fractions collected from different steps of artichoke industrial processing were evaluated. Fractions differed in thermal treatment, the bract position in the artichoke head and the cutting size. Contents of moisture, ash, protein, fat, dietary fibre, inulin, total phenolics, total flavonoids, caffeoyl derivatives and flavones were analysed. Antioxidant activity values were also determined. All assessed artichoke by-product fractions contained high-dietary fibre (53.6-67.0%) and low fat (2.5-3.7%). Artichoke by-product fractions contained high levels of inulin, especially in the boiled inner bracts (30%). Total phenolic and flavonoid contents and antioxidant activity (153-729 μmol gallic acid equivalents, 6.9-19.2 μmol quercetin equivalents and 85-234 μmol ascorbic acid equivalents per gram of dry matter, respectively) varied widely with the bract positions in the artichoke head and the thermal treatments. The more interesting fractions for use as functional ingredients were those situated closer to the artichoke heart and thermally treated. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Integrated biovalorization of wine and olive mill by-products to produce enzymes of industrial interest and soil amendments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reina, R.; Ullrich, R.; García-Romera, I.; Liers, C.; Aranda, E.

    2016-11-01

    An integral and affordable strategy for the simultaneous production of lignin-modifying and carbohydrate active enzymes and organic amendment, with the aid of a saprobe fungus was developed by using olive oil and wine extraction by-products. The polyporal fungus Trametes versicolor was cultivated in soy or barley media supplemented with dry olive mill residue (DOR) as well as with grape pomace and stalks (GPS) in solid state fermentation (SSF). This strategy led to a 4-fold increase in the activity of laccase, the principal enzyme produced by SFF, in DOR-soy media as compared to controls. T. versicolor managed to secrete lignin-modifying enzymes in GPS, although no stimulative effect was observed. GPS-barley media turned out to be the appropriate medium to elicit most of the carbohydrate active enzymes. The reuse of exhausted solid by-products as amendments after fermentation was also investigated. The water soluble compound polymerization profile of fermented residues was found to correlate with the effect of phytotoxic depletion. The incubation of DOR and GPS with T. versicolor not only reduced its phytotoxicity but also stimulated the plant growth. This study provides a basis for understanding the stimulation and repression of two groups of enzymes of industrial interest in the presence of different carbon and nitrogen sources from by-products, possible enzyme recovery and the final reuse as soil amendments. (Author)

  8. EVALUATION OF NUTRITIVE VALUE AND IN VITRO METHANE PRODUCTION OF FEEDSTUFFS FROM AGRICULTURAL AND FOOD INDUSTRY BY-PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Santoso

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to evaluate the nutrient degradability, in vitro methane (CH4 production ofseveral agricultural and food industry by-products in relation to their chemical composition. Twenty-onesamples of 7 feedstuffs from agricultural and food industry by-products consisted of corn straw, potatostraw, rice straw, cocoa pod, sago waste, rice bran, soybean curd residue were evaluated by an in vitro gasproduction and nutrient degradability. The feedstuffs varied greatly in their crude protein (CP, neutraldetergent fiber (NDF and non-fiber carbohydrate (NFC contents. Crude protein ranged from 1.5 to 21.8%,NDF from 31.6 to 71.1% and NFC from 1.5 to 50.8%. Among the seven feedstuffs, soybean curd residuehad the highest CP content, on the other hand it had the lowest NDF content. Dry matter (DM and organicmatter (OM degradability were highest (P<0.01 in soybean curd residue among the feedstuffs. The CH4production was significantly higher (P<0.01 in rice straw, cocoa pod and corn straw as compared to sagowaste. There was a strong positive correlation (r = 0.60; P<0.01 between NDF concentration and CH4production. However, the total gas productions was negatively correlated (r = -0.75; P<0.01 with NDFcontent. The CH4 production of feedstuff is influenced by NDF content.

  9. Compressive Strength of Longitudinally Stiffened GRP Panels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Böhme, J.; Noury, P.; Riber, Hans Jørgen

    1996-01-01

    A structural analysis of a cross stiffened orthotropic GRP panel subjected to uniaxial compressive loads is carried out. Analytical solutions to the buckling of such structures are proposed and validated by a finite element analysis. Both analytical and finite element approaches confirm an identi...

  10. LIMIT STRESS SPLINE MODELS FOR GRP COMPOSITES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ES OBE

    INTRODUCTION. The strength of any material used in any design is very important in order to evaluate the performance index of a particular project. Plastics are polymers that are viscoelastic in nature, show time dependence response to applied stress (Creep), [1]. GRP mechanical properties are therefore affected by creep.

  11. Which way is the wind blowing for GRP? Materials and processes for manufacturing rotor blades

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bittmann, E. [Werkstoff and Struktur, Herreth (Germany)

    2002-11-01

    The material technology for the production of large-area rotor blades made of glass reinforced plastics (GRP) constitutes an important milestone in development. Customised resin systems, flexible, automated processing methods and high component quality document the progress made in the wind power industry. (orig.)

  12. Beneficial use of industrial by-products for phytoremediation of an arsenic-rich soil from a gold mining area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, G; Ferreira, P A A; Pereira, F G; Curi, N; Rangel, W M; Guilherme, L R G

    2016-08-02

    This study investigated two industrial by-products - red mud (RM) and its mixture with phosphogypsum (RMG), as amendments in an As((5+))-contaminated soil from a gold mining area in Brazil in order to grow three plant species: Brachiaria decumbens, Crotalaria spectabilis, and Stylosanthes cv. Campo Grande. These amendments were applied to reach a soil pH of 6.0. Using RM and RMG increased shoot dry matter (SDM) and root dry matter (RDM) of most plants, with RMG being more effective. Adding RMG increased the SDM of Brachiaria and Crotalaria by 18 and 25% and the RDM by 25 and 12%, respectively. Stylosanthes was sensitive to As toxicity and grew poorly in all treatments. Arsenic concentration in shoots of Brachiaria and Crotalaria decreased by 26% with the use of RMG while As in roots reduced by 11 and 30%, respectively. Also, the activities of the plant oxidative stress enzymes varied following treatments with the by-products. The plants grew in the As-contaminated soil from the gold mining area. Thus, they might be employed for phytoremediation purposes, especially with the use of RMG due to its potential advantage in terms of nutrient supply (Ca(2+) and SO4(2-) from phosphogypsum).

  13. Effects of Medium Temperature and Industrial By-Products on the Key Hardened Properties of High Performance Concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safiuddin, Md; Raman, Sudharshan N; Zain, Muhammad Fauzi Mohd

    2015-12-10

    The aim of the work reported in this article was to investigate the effects of medium temperature and industrial by-products on the key hardened properties of high performance concrete. Four concrete mixes were prepared based on a water-to-binder ratio of 0.35. Two industrial by-products, silica fume and Class F fly ash, were used separately and together with normal portland cement to produce three concrete mixes in addition to the control mix. The properties of both fresh and hardened concretes were examined in the laboratory. The freshly mixed concrete mixes were tested for slump, slump flow, and V-funnel flow. The hardened concretes were tested for compressive strength and dynamic modulus of elasticity after exposing to 20, 35 and 50 °C. In addition, the initial surface absorption and the rate of moisture movement into the concretes were determined at 20 °C. The performance of the concretes in the fresh state was excellent due to their superior deformability and good segregation resistance. In their hardened state, the highest levels of compressive strength and dynamic modulus of elasticity were produced by silica fume concrete. In addition, silica fume concrete showed the lowest level of initial surface absorption and the lowest rate of moisture movement into the interior of concrete. In comparison, the compressive strength, dynamic modulus of elasticity, initial surface absorption, and moisture movement rate of silica fume-fly ash concrete were close to those of silica fume concrete. Moreover, all concretes provided relatively low compressive strength and dynamic modulus of elasticity when they were exposed to 50 °C. However, the effect of increased temperature was less detrimental for silica fume and silica fume-fly ash concretes in comparison with the control concrete.

  14. Effects of Medium Temperature and Industrial By-Products on the Key Hardened Properties of High Performance Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Safiuddin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the work reported in this article was to investigate the effects of medium temperature and industrial by-products on the key hardened properties of high performance concrete. Four concrete mixes were prepared based on a water-to-binder ratio of 0.35. Two industrial by-products, silica fume and Class F fly ash, were used separately and together with normal portland cement to produce three concrete mixes in addition to the control mix. The properties of both fresh and hardened concretes were examined in the laboratory. The freshly mixed concrete mixes were tested for slump, slump flow, and V-funnel flow. The hardened concretes were tested for compressive strength and dynamic modulus of elasticity after exposing to 20, 35 and 50 °C. In addition, the initial surface absorption and the rate of moisture movement into the concretes were determined at 20 °C. The performance of the concretes in the fresh state was excellent due to their superior deformability and good segregation resistance. In their hardened state, the highest levels of compressive strength and dynamic modulus of elasticity were produced by silica fume concrete. In addition, silica fume concrete showed the lowest level of initial surface absorption and the lowest rate of moisture movement into the interior of concrete. In comparison, the compressive strength, dynamic modulus of elasticity, initial surface absorption, and moisture movement rate of silica fume-fly ash concrete were close to those of silica fume concrete. Moreover, all concretes provided relatively low compressive strength and dynamic modulus of elasticity when they were exposed to 50 °C. However, the effect of increased temperature was less detrimental for silica fume and silica fume-fly ash concretes in comparison with the control concrete.

  15. Effects of Medium Temperature and Industrial By-Products on the Key Hardened Properties of High Performance Concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safiuddin, Md.; Raman, Sudharshan N.; Zain, Muhammad Fauzi Mohd.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the work reported in this article was to investigate the effects of medium temperature and industrial by-products on the key hardened properties of high performance concrete. Four concrete mixes were prepared based on a water-to-binder ratio of 0.35. Two industrial by-products, silica fume and Class F fly ash, were used separately and together with normal portland cement to produce three concrete mixes in addition to the control mix. The properties of both fresh and hardened concretes were examined in the laboratory. The freshly mixed concrete mixes were tested for slump, slump flow, and V-funnel flow. The hardened concretes were tested for compressive strength and dynamic modulus of elasticity after exposing to 20, 35 and 50 °C. In addition, the initial surface absorption and the rate of moisture movement into the concretes were determined at 20 °C. The performance of the concretes in the fresh state was excellent due to their superior deformability and good segregation resistance. In their hardened state, the highest levels of compressive strength and dynamic modulus of elasticity were produced by silica fume concrete. In addition, silica fume concrete showed the lowest level of initial surface absorption and the lowest rate of moisture movement into the interior of concrete. In comparison, the compressive strength, dynamic modulus of elasticity, initial surface absorption, and moisture movement rate of silica fume-fly ash concrete were close to those of silica fume concrete. Moreover, all concretes provided relatively low compressive strength and dynamic modulus of elasticity when they were exposed to 50 °C. However, the effect of increased temperature was less detrimental for silica fume and silica fume-fly ash concretes in comparison with the control concrete. PMID:28793732

  16. Synthesis and characterization of pigments of hematite, obtained through a by-product of the siderurgy industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prim, S.R.; Folgueiras, M.V.; Lima, M.A. de

    2009-01-01

    In the ceramic industry of tooting, whose selection is strongly influenced by the visual aspect of the decorated surface, the color becomes one of the most important characteristic for the too tings. With the purpose of seeking new pigments that replace or optimize the already known, news method to synthesis are being researched, such as new pigments system and also the incorporation of new raw materials. In this form, in the present work search to study the possibility of use of a by-product deriving from of the siderurgical industry, that introduces high grades of the Fe 2 O 3 . For that different contests of the residue were added in one matrix of silica in the hape of quartz, and homogenized using conventional milling and high energy milling. The material obtained after heating treatment in temperature that varied between 1050 and 1300 deg C was characterization by x-ray diffractometry, differential thermal analysis and scanning electron microscopy. The results shown the feasibility of the process depend of the control of the variables temperature and condition of milling in the quality of material obtained. (author)

  17. Grp78 promotes the invasion of hepatocellular carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Hongdan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Glucose regulated protein 78 (Grp78 is involved in the invasion and metastasis in many human cancers including gastric cancer, breast cancer, prostate cancer. But the role of Grp78 in the invasion of human hepatocellular carcinoma has not been reported. In this article, we examined if Grp78 was associated with the invasion of hepatocellular carcinoma and explored the possible underlying mechanism. Methods The Grp78 and FAK expression levels in 44 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma were examined using immunohistochemistry. Grp78 overexpressing SMMC7721 cells were established by pcDNA3.1 (+-Grp78 transfection and screened by G418. Grp78 and FAK levels in Grp78 overexpressing cells were down-regulated by siRNA transfection. The invasion status of tumor cells was evaluated by transwell assay in vitro, and chick embryo metastasis model in vivo. Cell spreading was determined by cell spreading assay, and quantitatively measured by Orisis software HUG. Grp78, pY397 FAK, pY576/577 FAK and FAK levels were detected by western blot. RhoA activity was detected by GST pulldown assay. The distribution of actin cytoskeleton was observed by fluorescent staining. Results Grp78 expression levels in 44 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma were negatively correlated with tumor grading, and positively correlated with portal invasion and intra-hepatic invasion. Overexpression of Grp78 in SMMC7721 cells promoted the invasion of cancer cells in vitro and in vivo, and this increase in tumor cell invasion was blocked by Grp78 siRNA knockdown. Our results also revealed that overexpression of Grp78 in SMMC7721 cells accelerated the process of cell spreading and promoted lamellipodia formation. Further analysis showed that overexpression of Grp78 in SMMC7721 cells increased pY397 and pY576/577 levels of FAK. Grp78 siRNA knockdown decreased FAK activation and activity. Our results also revealed that Grp78 overexpression in SMMC7721 cells decreased

  18. Grp78 promotes the invasion of hepatocellular carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su, Rongjian; Li, Zhen; Li, Hongdan; Song, Huijuan; Bao, Cuifen; Wei, Jia; Cheng, Liufang

    2010-01-01

    Glucose regulated protein 78 (Grp78) is involved in the invasion and metastasis in many human cancers including gastric cancer, breast cancer, prostate cancer. But the role of Grp78 in the invasion of human hepatocellular carcinoma has not been reported. In this article, we examined if Grp78 was associated with the invasion of hepatocellular carcinoma and explored the possible underlying mechanism. The Grp78 and FAK expression levels in 44 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma were examined using immunohistochemistry. Grp78 overexpressing SMMC7721 cells were established by pcDNA3.1 (+)-Grp78 transfection and screened by G418. Grp78 and FAK levels in Grp78 overexpressing cells were down-regulated by siRNA transfection. The invasion status of tumor cells was evaluated by transwell assay in vitro, and chick embryo metastasis model in vivo. Cell spreading was determined by cell spreading assay, and quantitatively measured by Orisis software HUG. Grp78, pY397 FAK, pY576/577 FAK and FAK levels were detected by western blot. RhoA activity was detected by GST pulldown assay. The distribution of actin cytoskeleton was observed by fluorescent staining. Grp78 expression levels in 44 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma were negatively correlated with tumor grading, and positively correlated with portal invasion and intra-hepatic invasion. Overexpression of Grp78 in SMMC7721 cells promoted the invasion of cancer cells in vitro and in vivo, and this increase in tumor cell invasion was blocked by Grp78 siRNA knockdown. Our results also revealed that overexpression of Grp78 in SMMC7721 cells accelerated the process of cell spreading and promoted lamellipodia formation. Further analysis showed that overexpression of Grp78 in SMMC7721 cells increased pY397 and pY576/577 levels of FAK. Grp78 siRNA knockdown decreased FAK activation and activity. Our results also revealed that Grp78 overexpression in SMMC7721 cells decreased RhoA-GTP level, and Grp78 siRNA knockdown rescued Rho

  19. Disposal of agro-industrial by-products by organic cultivation of the culinary and medicinal mushroom Hypsizygus marmoreus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akavia, E; Beharav, A; Wasser, S P; Nevo, E

    2009-05-01

    Organic mushroom cultivation is one of the fastest growing segments of agriculture. At the core of the organic philosophy lies a ban on the use of synthetic fertilizers, pesticides and herbicides, in addition to such tenets as animal welfare, energy efficiency, and social justice. Hypsizygus marmoreus (HM) is a highly praised cultivated culinary and medicinal mushroom. The objective of this paper was to assess the suitability of different spawn media and then the potential of various cultivation substrates to support HM mushroom production compatible with organic standards. This objective was met through the setup of a low-cost cultivation infrastructure. First, seven types of spawn media were tested; then we tested 24 substrates made from organic by-products for their biological efficiency (BE) with strain HM 830, using the liquid inoculation method. The best substrate in terms of BE was corn cob with bran and olive press cake, with a BE of 85.6%. The BE of the same composition but without olive press cake was only 67.5%. The next best substrates were cotton straw combinations with a BE of 31.5-53%. The spent mushroom substrate provides a good method for the disposal of solid waste. The guidance provided in this research complies with organic mushroom cultivation standards and can be used to produce certified organic mushrooms. In addition, it allows responsible and beneficial disposal of a large amount of solid agro-industrial waste.

  20. Production of wax esters via microbial oil synthesis from food industry waste and by-product streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadaki, Aikaterini; Mallouchos, Athanasios; Efthymiou, Maria-Nefeli; Gardeli, Chryssavgi; Kopsahelis, Nikolaos; Aguieiras, Erika C G; Freire, Denise M G; Papanikolaou, Seraphim; Koutinas, Apostolis A

    2017-12-01

    The production of wax esters using microbial oils was demonstrated in this study. Microbial oils produced from food waste and by-product streams by three oleaginous yeasts were converted into wax esters via enzymatic catalysis. Palm oil was initially used to evaluate the influence of temperature and enzyme activity on wax ester synthesis catalysed by Novozyme 435 and Lipozyme lipases using cetyl, oleyl and behenyl alcohols. The highest conversion yields (up to 79.6%) were achieved using 4U/g of Novozyme 435 at 70°C. Transesterification of microbial oils to behenyl and cetyl esters was achieved at conversion yields up to 87.3% and 69.1%, respectively. Novozyme 435 was efficiently reused for six and three cycles during palm esters and microbial esters synthesis, respectively. The physicochemical properties of microbial oil derived behenyl esters were comparable to natural waxes. Wax esters from microbial oils have potential applications in cosmetics, chemical and food industries. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. „IN VITRO” EFFECT OF SOME INDUSTRIAL BY-PRODUCTS ON LAVANDULA ANGUSTIFOLIA MILL. EXPLANT GROWTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corneliu Tanase

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available After many studies, it was observed that lavender has many therapeutic effects, such as sedation, activities spasmolytic, antiviral, antibacterial. Thus, given the importance of lavender in different areas of human life, in the present study, we studied the influence of natural products bioregulatoars separated from industrial by-products on some lavender stems explants. These explants were inoculated in vitro on MS nutrient media. In these culture media were added polyphenolic extracts obtained from spruce bark and hemp shives, and evaluated their influence on lavender stems explants. The results obtained were compared with those obtained for the control variant, where MS culture medium was used as standard. It was found that the addition of aqueous extract from spruce bark of concentration of 130 mg GAE / L, in the growth of explants of Lavandula angustifolia Mill, an increase in the elongation of the main stem, number of leaves formed, the amount of photoassimilating pigments synthesized and causes the phenomenon of shoots formation. At a higher concentration of the extract (26 mgGAE/100g values are lower.

  2. Green remediation of contaminated sediment by stabilization/solidification with industrial by-products and CO2 utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Chen, Liang; Tsang, Daniel C W; Li, Jiang-Shan; Yeung, Tiffany L Y; Ding, Shiming; Poon, Chi Sun

    2018-08-01

    Navigational dredging is an excavation of marine/freshwater sediment to maintain channels of sufficient depth for shipping safety. Due to historical inputs of anthropogenic contaminants, sediments are often contaminated by metals/metalloids, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, and other contaminants. Its disposal can present significant environmental and financial burdens. This study developed a novel and green remediation method for contaminated sediment using stabilization/solidification with calcium-rich/low-calcium industrial by-products and CO 2 utilization. The hydration products were evaluated by quantitative X-ray diffraction analysis and thermogravimetric analysis. The incorporation of calcium carbide residue (CCR) facilitated hydration reaction and provided relatively high 7-d strength. In contrast, the addition of Class-F pulverized fly ash (PFA) and ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBS) was beneficial to the 28-d strength development due to supplementary pozzolanic and hydration reactions. The employment of 1-d CO 2 curing was found to promote strength development (98%) and carbon sequestration (4.3wt%), while additional 7-d air curing facilitated cement rehydration and further carbonation in the sediment blocks. The leachability tests indicated that all studied binders, especially CCR binder, effectively immobilized contaminants in the sediments. The calcium-rich CCR and GGBS were regarded as promising candidates for augmenting the efficacy of CO 2 curing, whereas GGBS samples could be applicable as eco-paving blocks in view of their superior 28-d strength. This study presents a new and sustainable way to transform contaminated sediment into value-added materials. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Conversion of by-products from the vegetable oil industry into biodiesel and its use in internal combustion engines: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Piloto-Rodríguez

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel produced from by-products and waste materials can be an economical way of reducing traditional oil consumption and environmental problems. The by-products from the vegetable oil refining industry such as soapstock, acid oil and fatty acid distillates are suitable for producing biodiesel. The present work is a survey related to the use of these by-products to obtain biodiesel, covering not only the traditional and most widely used acid/base catalysis, but also solid and enzymatic catalysis. Details of the techniques are presented and compared. The advantages and drawbacks of the different approaches are mentioned and analyzed. The synthesis and use of by-products from the vegetable oil refining industry are covered in this work. The use of the obtained biodiesel in diesel engines is also included, demonstrating the disparity between the number of papers related to biodiesel production and engine performance assessment.

  4. Study of by-products of agro-food industries which could be used for bio-fuel production (animal fat, used food oils, and wine production by-products). Synthesis of the final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomy, Catherine; Thonier, Gregoire; Gagnepain, Bruno; Mhiri, Tarek

    2015-04-01

    As the Renewable Energy directive proposes the implementation of incentive arrangements for the production of bio-fuels from biomass, this report proposes a synthesis of a study which addressed three by-products of agro-food industry and of catering (collective, traditional, fast) which can help to reach objectives of energy production from biomass: used food oils, rendered animal fat of category 1 and 2, and vinification by-products (grape marc, lees, sludge). The objectives were to quantify, at the French national and regional levels, present resources and uses for these three by-products, non-valorised volumes and thus potentially available volumes for the production of liquid bio-fuels, to identify present actors and their interactions, and to study the potential of local production of liquid bio-fuels. The study comprised a comprehensive analysis of production and valorisation sectors for the three addressed types of by-products, and an identification of recent experiments implemented for the production of liquid bio-fuels. This synthesis states the lessons learned from the study of these three different sectors, and proposes recommendations for further developments

  5. Simulation of rumen fermentation kinetics of by-products from the biodiesel industry with in vitro gas production technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Lopes da Silva

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the rumen fermentation kinetics of 18 by-products from the biodiesel industry exhibiting potential for use in the feeding of ruminants via the in vitro gas production technique. The following feeds were investigated: cottonseed, canudo de pito, crambe, sunflower, castor seed (detoxified with lime and soybean meals and cottonseed, peanut, babassu, crambe, palm kernel, sunflower, licuri nut, macaúba, forage radish and jatropha cakes. The evaluated parameters were total gas production (VfT, gas production from fibrous carbohydrates (VfFC, gas production from non-fibrous carbohydrates (VfNFC, the degradation rate of fibrous carbohydrates (kdFC, the degradation rate of non-fibrous carbohydrates (kdNFC and lag time (lag. The feeds were grouped into six different groups according to rumen fermentation kinetic parameters and adopting an R2 of 0.8. Forage radish cake and the meals of cottonseed, soybean, crambe and sunflower composed the first group, while the cakes of babassu and sunflower formed the second group. Canudo de pito and castor seed meals and the cakes of cottonseed, licuri and jatropha I and II formed the third group. The fourth group was composed by the cakes of crambe, palm kernel and peanut I. The fifth group was formed by peanut cake II, while macauba fruit cake formed the sixth group. The VfNFC and VfFC varied from 16.72 to 200.07 mL and from 53.09 to 242.12 mL, respectively. The mean kdFC and kdNFC values varied from 0.002 to 0.039% h-1and from 0.022 to 0.430% h-1, respectively. The mean lag and VfT varied from 0.0001 to 5.2029 hours and 136.94 to 301.44 mL, respectively. A number of the products exhibited the potential to replace soybean meal, especially the forage radish cake and cottonseed, crambe and sunflower meals.

  6. Olive tree (Olea europaea L.) leaf as a waste by-product of table olive and olive oil industry: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şahin, Selin; Bilgin, Mehmet

    2018-03-01

    Research into finding new uses for by-products of table olive and olive oil industry are of great value not only to the economy but also to the environment where olives are grown and to the human health. Since leaves represent around 10% of the total weight of olives arriving at the mill, it is worth obtaining high added-value compounds from those materials for the preparation of dietary supplements, nutraceuticals, functional food ingredients or cosmeceuticals. In this review article, olive tree (Olea europaea L.) leaf is reviewed as being a potential inexpensive, renewable and abundant source of biophenols. The importance of this agricultural and industrial waste is emphasised by means of describing its availability, nutritional and therapeutic effects and studies conducted on this field. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Volatile composition and enantioselective analysis of chiral terpenoids of nine fruit and vegetable fibres resulting from juice industry by-products

    OpenAIRE

    Marsol i Vall, Alexis; Sgorbini, Barbara; Cagliero, Cecilia; Bicchi, Carlo; Eras i Joli, Jordi; Balcells Fluvià, Mercè

    2017-01-01

    Fruit and vegetable fibres resulting as by-products of the fruit juice industry have won popularity because they can be valorised as food ingredients. In this regard, bioactive compounds have already been studied but little attention has been paid to their remaining volatiles. Considering all the samples, 57 volatiles were identified. Composition greatly differed between citrus and noncitrus fibres. The former presented over 90% of terpenoids, with limonene being the most abundant and ranging...

  8. Pilot-scale anaerobic co-digestion of sewage sludge with agro-industrial by-products for increased biogas production of existing digesters at wastewater treatment plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maragkaki, A E; Fountoulakis, M; Gypakis, A; Kyriakou, A; Lasaridi, K; Manios, T

    2017-01-01

    Due to low degradability of dry solids, most of the digesters at wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) operate at low loading rates resulting in poor biogas yields. In this study, co-digestion of sewage sludge (SS) with olive mill wastewater (OMW), cheese whey (CW) and crude glycerol (CG) was studied in an attempt to improve biogas production of existing digesters at WWTPs. The effect of agro-industrial by-products in biogas production was investigated using a 220L pilot-scale (180L working volume) digester under mesophilic conditions (35°C) with a total feeding volume of 7.5L daily and a 24-day hydraulic retention time. The initial feed was sewage sludge and the bioreactor was operated using this feed for 40days. Each agro-industrial by-product was then added to the feed so that the reactor was fed continuously with 95% sewage sludge and 5% (v/v) of each examined agro-industrial by-product. The experiments showed that a 5% (v/v) addition of OMW, CG or CW to sewage sludge significantly increased biogas production by nearly 220%, 350% and 86% as values of 34.8±3.2L/d, 185.7±15.3L/d and 45.9±3.6L/d respectively, compared to that with sewage sludge alone (375ml daily, 5% v/v in the feed). The average removal of dissolved chemical oxygen demand (d-COD) ranged between 72 and 99% for organic loading rates between 0.9 and 1.5kgVSm -3 d -1 . Reduction in the volatile solids ranged between 25 and 40%. This work suggests that methane can be produced very efficiently by adding a small concentration (5%) of agro-industrial by-products and especially CG in the inlet of digesters treating sewage sludge. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Exploring the Functional Complementation between Grp94 and Hsp90.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin A Maharaj

    Full Text Available Grp94 and Hsp90 are the ER and cytoplasmic paralog members, respectively, of the hsp90 family of molecular chaperones. The structural and biochemical differences between Hsp90 and Grp94 that allow each paralog to efficiently chaperone its particular set of clients are poorly understood. The two paralogs exhibit a high degree of sequence similarity, yet also display significant differences in their quaternary conformations and ATPase activity. In order to identify the structural elements that distinguish Grp94 from Hsp90, we characterized the similarities and differences between the two proteins by testing the ability of Hsp90/Grp94 chimeras to functionally substitute for the wild-type chaperones in vivo. We show that the N-terminal domain or the combination of the second lobe of the Middle domain plus the C-terminal domain of Grp94 can functionally substitute for their yeast Hsp90 counterparts but that the equivalent Hsp90 domains cannot functionally replace their counterparts in Grp94. These results also identify the interface between the Middle and C-terminal domains as an important structural unit within the Hsp90 family.

  10. Apparent metabolizable energy of by-products from the soybean oil industry for broilers: acidulated soapstock, glycerin, lecithin, and their mixture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borsatti, L; Vieira, S L; Stefanello, C; Kindlein, L; Oviedo-Rondón, E O; Angel, C R

    2018-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the AMEn contents of fat by-products from the soybean oil industry for broiler chickens. A total of 390 slow-feathering Cobb × Cobb 500 male broilers were randomly distributed into 13 treatments having 6 replicates of 5 birds each. Birds were fed a common starter diet from placement to 21 d. Experimental corn-soy diets were composed of four fat sources, added at 3 increasing levels each, and were fed from 21 to 28 d. Fat sources utilized were acidulated soybean soapstock (ASS), glycerol (GLY), lecithin (LEC), and a mixture (MIX) containing 85% ASS, 10% GLY and 5% LEC. A 4 × 3 + 1 factorial arrangement was used with 4 by-products (ASS, GLY, LEC, or MIX), 3 inclusion levels and 1 basal diet. Each of the four fat by-product sources was included in the diets as follow: 2% of by-products (98% basal + 2% by-product), 4% (96% basal + 4% by-product), or 6% (94% basal + 6% by-product). Birds were submitted to 94, 96, 98, and 100% of ad libitum feed intake; therefore, the differences in AMEn consumption were only due to the added by-product. Total excreta were collected twice daily for 72 h to determine apparent metabolizable energy contents starting at 25 d. The AMEn intake was regressed against feed intake and the slope was used to estimate AMEn values for each fat source. Linear regression equations (P product were as follow: 7,153X - 451.9 for ASS; 3,916X - 68.2 for GLY; 7,051X - 448.3 for LEC, and 8,515X - 622.3 for MIX. Values of AMEn were 7,153, 3,916, 7,051, and 8,515 kcal/kg DM for ASS, GLY, LEC, and MIX, respectively. The present study generated AMEn for fat by-products data that can be used in poultry feed formulation. It also provides indications that, by adding the 3 by-products in the proportions present in the MIX, considerable economic advantage can be attained. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  11. Nutritional evaluation of elephant-grass silages with different levels of by-products from the cashew juice industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cristina Holanda Ferreira

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study was conducted to evaluate the intake, apparent digestibility (AD, and degradability in situ of elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum Schum silages containing 0, 35.0, 70.0, 105.0, and 140.0 g kg-1 by-product from dried cashew apple (DCBP (as fed basis. A completely randomized design with four replicates was adopted. For the study of degradability in situ, one adult male cattle was used in a completely randomized design with split plots. Intake and AD of dry matter (DM, crude protein (CP, neutral detergent fiber (NDF, acid detergent fiber (ADF, hemicellulose, and cellulose were evaluated, and the digestible energy (DE and nitrogen balance (NB of the silages were determined. The degradability in situ of DM, CP, and NDF was also determined. Addition of DCBP provided an increase in the intakes of DM, CP, NDF, and ADF. No effects of the levels of addition of DCBP were observed on the coefficients of AD of the silages. Regarding NB, positive values were only detected in the treatment with 105.0 g kg-1 DCBP. In the analysis of the degradability in situ, the incubation periods increased the rates of disappearance of DM, CP, and NDF. However, no effect of the levels of DCBP were observed on the effective degradability of DM. The by-product from dried cashew apple can be included at up to 140.0 g kg-1 in silages of elephant grass, but the high contents of acid detergent insoluble nitrogen may compromise the use and availability of nitrogen to the animals.

  12. Field evaluation of the effectiveness of three industrial by-products as organic amendments for phytostabilization of a Pb/Zn mine tailings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shengxiang; Cao, Jianbing; Li, Fengmei; Peng, Xizhu; Peng, Qingjing; Yang, Zhihui; Chai, Liyuan

    2016-01-01

    Although the potential of industrial by-products as organic amendments for phytostabilization has long been recognized, most of the previous studies addressing this issue have been laboratory-based. In this study, a field trial was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of three industrial by-products [sweet sorghum vinasse (SSV), medicinal herb residues (MHR) and spent mushroom compost (SMC)] as organic amendments for phytostabilization of abandoned Pb/Zn mine tailings. Our results showed the following: (i) when compared to the control tailings, the mean concentrations of diethylene-triamine-pentaacetic acid (DTPA)-extractable Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn in SSV, MHR and SMC treatments decreased by 20.8-28.0%, 41.6-49.1%, 17.7-22.7% and 9.5-14.7%, respectively; (ii) the mean values of organic C, ammonium-N and available P in SSV, MHR and SMC treatments increased by 1.7-2.8, 10.8-14.9 and 3.9-5.1 times as compared with the mine tailings; and (iii) the addition of SSV, MHR and SMC significantly enhanced soil respiration and microbial biomass being 1.5-1.8 and 1.3-1.6 fold higher than those in the control tailings. There were no significant differences in soil biochemical properties among the plots amended with these by-products, suggesting that they were almost equally effective in improving the biochemical conditions of the tailings. In addition, the application of these amendments promoted seed germination, seedling growth, and consequently increased the vegetation cover and its biomass. Moreover, concentrations of Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn in above-ground parts of the plants were below the toxicity limit levels for animals. The results obtained in this field study confirmed that the three organic-rich industrial by-products could be used as amendments for phytostabilization of some types of mine tailings.

  13. Extraction of collagen and gelatine from meat industry by-products for food and non food uses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokrejs, Pavel; Langmaier, Ferdinand; Mladek, Milan; Janacova, Dagmar; Kolomaznik, Karel; Vasek, Vladimir

    2009-02-01

    Short tendons of slaughtered cattle, which consist of relatively pure collagen, were cleaned of lipoid substances and non-collagen proteins using a commercial enzymatic preparation. Diluted acetic acid was used to separate the acid-soluble collagen (M(N) approximately 300 kDa) for a yield of around 5%. The residue was extracted with water and the extraction conditions were derived to produce gelatine with a gel rigidity of 350-410 degrees Bloom and a yield of 55-60%. Prolonged extraction time, as well as increased extraction temperature, led to a deterioration in the gelatine quality and, therefore, the residue after aqueous extraction was processed by enzymatic hydrolysis into a collagen hydrolysate of M(N) = 500-1000 Da. Such hydrolysates can be utilized in industry as humectants in cosmetic skin-care preparations or as a secondary industrial raw material for producing surfactants of acylamino-carboxy acid type, which are known for their favourable dermatological effects. Apart from a maximum of 7% lipoid substances the proposed procedure produced no further waste so it may be regarded as a 'clean technology'.

  14. Assessing the efficacy over time of the addition of industrial by-products to remediate contaminated soils at a pilot-plant scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Núñez, Raquel; Rigol, Anna; Vidal, Miquel

    2017-04-01

    The effect of the addition of industrial by-products (gypsum and calcite) on the leaching of As and metals (Cu, Zn, Ni, Pb and Cd) in a soil contaminated by pyritic minerals was monitored over a period of 6 months at a two-pit pilot plant. The contaminated soil was placed in one pit (non-remediated soil), whereas a mixture of the contaminated soil (80% w/w) with gypsum (10% w/w) and calcite (10% w/w) was placed in the other pit (remediated soil). Soil samples and leachates of the two pits were collected at different times. Moreover, the leaching pattern of major and trace elements in the soil samples was assessed at laboratory level through the application of the pH stat leaching test. Addition of the by-products led to an increase in initial soil pH from around 2.0 to 7.5, and it also provoked that the concentration of trace elements in soil extracts obtained from the pH stat leaching test decreased to values lower than quantification limits of inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry and lower than the hazardous waste threshold for soil management. The trace element concentration in the pilot-plant leachates decreased over time in the non-remediated soil, probably due to the formation of more insoluble secondary minerals containing sulphur, but especially decreased in pit of the remediated soil, in agreement with laboratory data. The pH in the remediated soil remained constant over the 6-month period, and the X-ray diffraction analyses confirmed that the phases did not vary over time, thus indicating the efficacy of the addition of the by-products. This finding suggests that soil remediation may be a feasible option for the re-use of non-hazardous industrial by-products.

  15. Bioavailability of iron in cottonseed meal, ferric sulfate, and two ferrous sulfate by-products of the galvanizing industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boling, S D; Edwards, H M; Emmert, J L; Biehl, R R; Baker, D H

    1998-09-01

    Iron depletion-repletion assays were carried out with young chicks to establish Fe bioavailability values for Fe2(SO4)3.7H2O (22.7% Fe), Fe-ZnSO4.H2O (20.2% Fe, 13.0% Zn), Zn-FeSO4.H2O (20.2% Zn, 14.2% Fe), and cottonseed meal (200 mg Fe/kg). Standard hemoglobin response curves were established using feed-grade FeSO4.H2O (28.8% Fe) or reagent-grade FeSO4.7H2O (20.1% Fe) as standards such that relative bioavailability (RBV) could be assessed for the experimental sources of Fe. Weight gain, hemoglobin, and hematocrit responded linearly (P 0.10) from the standard. However, evaluation of all criteria of response (hemoglobin, hematocrit, weight gain) suggested that neither Fe-ZnSO4.H2O nor Zn-FeSO4.H2O had different Fe RBV values than FeSO4.H2O. Standard-curve calculations were used for assessment of Fe RBV in Fe2(SO4)3.7H2O and cottonseed meal, as only a single level of Fe addition was studied for each of these products. Iron RBV in Fe2(SO4)3.7H2O was estimated to be 37%, whereas Fe RBV in cottonseed meal was found to be 56%. Both of these values were lower (P galvanizing industry, are excellent sources of bioavailable Fe, whereas ferric sulfate and cottonseed meal are relatively poor sources of usable Fe.

  16. The effect of essential oil from sage (Salvia officinalis L.) herbal dust (food industry by-product) on the microbiological stability of fresh pork sausages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šojić, B.; Ikonić, P.; Pavlić, B.; Zeković, Z.; Tomović, V.; Kocić-Tanackov, S.; Džinić, N.; Škaljac, S.; Ivić, M.; Jokanović, M.; Tasić, T.

    2017-09-01

    The effect of essential oil obtained from sage (Salvia officinalis L.) herbal dust (a food industry by-product) (SEO), on the pH value, microbiological stability and sensory properties of fresh pork sausages prepared without chemical additives was evaluated during 8 days of aerobic storage at 3±1°C. The addition of SEO significantly (pmeat product. Hence, the results of this study showed significant antimicrobial activity of SEO obtained from sage filter tea processing byproducts and the potential for utilising SEO in fresh pork sausages in order to enhance their stability and safety.

  17. Novel approaches mediated by tailor-made green solvents for the extraction of phenolic compounds from agro-food industrial by-products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, María de Los Ángeles; Espino, Magdalena; Gomez, Federico J V; Silva, María Fernanda

    2018-01-15

    An environmentally friendly method for the phenolic compound extraction from agro-food industrial by-products was developed in order to contribute with their sustainable valorization. A Natural Deep Eutectic Solvent was chemometrically-designed for the first time and compared with traditional solvents in terms of analyte stabilization. The combination of lactic acid, glucose and 15% water (LGH-15) was selected as optimal. A high-efficiency ultrasound-assisted extraction mediated by LGH-15 prior to HPLC-DAD allows the determination of 14 phenols in onion, olive, tomato and pear industrial by-products. NADES synthesis as well as the extraction procedures were optimized by Response Surface Methodology. Thus, phenolic determination in these complex samples was achieved by a simple, non-expensive, eco-friendly and robust system. The application to different matrices demonstrated the versatility of the proposed method. NADES opens interesting perspectives for their potential use as vehicles of bioactive compounds as food additives or pharmaceuticals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Characterization of composting mixtures and compost of rabbit by-products to obtain a quality product and plant proposal for industrial production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, Biagio; Papajova, Ingrid; Tamborrino, Rosanna; Ventrella, Domenico; Vitti, Carolina

    2015-01-01

    In this study we have observed the effects of using rabbit manure and slaughtering by-products in a composting process. Three piles of this material, 4700 kg each, with different amount and C/N ratio, have been investigated and experimental tests were carried out in an industrial horizontal axe reactor using a prototype of turning machine. The composting time lasted 85 days; 2 experimental cycles were conducted: one in Winter and one in Summer. In the Winter test, mesophilic reaction started only in the control mixture (animal manure + slaughtering by-products without straw). It is noteworthy that, the 3 investigated mixtures produced soil amendment by compost with good agronomical potential but with parameters close to the extreme limits of the law. In the Summer test, there was thermophilic fermentation in all mixtures and a better quality compost was obtained, meeting all the agronomic and legislative constraints. For each pile, we examined the progression of fermentation process and thus the plant limitations that did not allow a correct composting process. The results obtained in this study are useful for the development of appropriate mixtures, machines, and plants assuring continuance and reliability in the composting of the biomass coming from rabbit industry.

  19. Effect of Genotype on the Sprouting of Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) Seeds as a Source of Phenolic Compounds from Juice Industry by-Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falcinelli, Beatrice; Marconi, Ombretta; Maranghi, Stefano; Lutts, Stanley; Rosati, Adolfo; Famiani, Franco; Benincasa, Paolo

    2017-12-01

    Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) fruits are used mainly by the juice industry, for which seeds are a by-product to be disposed of, though they could potentially be a source of bioactive compounds. In this work, germination (total germination percentage, G; mean germination time, MGT; time to reach 80% of germination, TG80; seedling shoot length, fresh weight and dry matter), and nutritional value (total phenolics, TP; total flavonoids, TF; total non-tannins, TNT; antioxidant activities) of pomegranate seeds and sprouts were determined on four commercial pomegranate cultivars (Akko, Dente di Cavallo, Mollar de Elche and Wonderful). Seeds were removed from ripe fruits and incubated in plastic trays containing sterile cotton wetted with distilled water. Sprout shoots were harvested when they reached the complete cotyledon expansion, i.e., the ready-to-eat stage. Akko showed the best germination performance (G = 98%; MGT = 14 days after sowing, DAS; TG80 = 16 DAS), followed by Mollar de Elche. Sprouting dramatically increased TP, TF, TNT and antioxidant activity in all genotypes, with the highest values recorded in Mollar de Elche and Dente di Cavallo. Overall, based on germination performance, Akko and Mollar de Elche would be the best cultivars for sprouting. Sprouting pomegranate seeds appears to be a suitable way of utilizing by-products of the juice industry to obtain bioactive compounds.

  20. Efectiveness of GrpMI with fibromyalgia patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torres Serna, Esperanza

    This study attempts to demonstrate the effectiveness of Group Music and Imagery (GrpMI) with women suffering from fibromyalgia (FM). It uses a randomized controlled trial, with a pretest-posttest control group design, and a three month follow-up. The results show statistically or tendentially...... that it is advisable to use music therapy and especially Group Imagery and Music for FM treatment. The results obtained open the way for further research studies focussing on the usefulness of GrpMI in other populations that, like FM sufferers, experience chronic pain....

  1. Characterization of the animal by-product meal industry in Costa Rica: Manufacturing practices through the production chain and food safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiva, A; Granados-Chinchilla, F; Redondo-Solano, M; Arrieta-González, M; Pineda-Salazar, E; Molina, A

    2018-06-01

    Animal by-product rendering establishments are still relevant industries worldwide. Animal by-product meal safety is paramount to protect feed, animals, and the rest of the food chain from unwanted contamination. As microbiological contamination may arise from inadequate processing of slaughterhouse waste and deficiencies in good manufacturing practices within the rendering facilities, we conducted an overall establishment's inspection, including the product in several parts of the process.An evaluation of the Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP) was carried out, which included the location and access (i.e., admission) to the facilities, integrated pest management programs, physical condition of the facilities (e.g., infrastructure), equipments, vehicles and transportation, as well as critical control points (i.e., particle size and temperature set at 50 mm, 133°C at atmospheric pressure for 20 min, respectively) recommended by the OIE and the European Commission. The most sensitive points according to the evaluation are physical structure of the facilities (avg 42.2%), access to the facilities (avg 48.6%), and cleaning procedures (avg 51.4%).Also, indicator microorganisms (Salmonella spp., Clostridium spp., total coliforms, E. coli, E. coli O157:H7) were used to evaluate the safety in different parts of the animal meal production process. There was a prevalence of Salmonella spp. of 12.9, 14.3, and 33.3% in Meat and Bone Meal (MBM), poultry by-products, and fish meal, respectively. However, there were no significant differences (P = 0.73) in the prevalence between the different animal meals, according to the data collected.It was also observed that renderings associated with the poultry industry (i.e., 92.0%) obtained the best ratings overall, which reflects a satisfactory development of this sector and the integration of its production system as a whole.

  2. A biorefinery approach based on fractionation with a cheap industrial by-product for getting value from an invasive woody species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez, Elena; Romaní, Aloia; Alonso, José Luis; Parajó, Juan Carlos; Yáñez, Remedios

    2014-12-01

    Acacia dealbata wood (an invasive species) was subjected to fractionation with glycerol (a cheap industrial by-product), and the resulting solid phase was used as a substrate for enzymatic hydrolysis. Glycerol fractionation allowed an extensive delignification while preserving cellulose in solid phase. The solids from the fractionation stage showed high susceptibility to enzymatic hydrolysis. Solids obtained under selected fractionation conditions (glycerol content of media, 80 wt%; duration, 1h; liquid to solid ratio, 6 g/g; alkaline and neutral washing stages) were subjected to enzymatic saccharification to achieve glucose concentrations up to 85.40 g/L, with almost complete cellulose conversion into glucose. The results confirmed the potential of glycerol as a fractionation agent for biorefineries. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Measurement of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K radioactivity contents in by-product phosphogypsum from phosphate fertilizer industry using gamma ray spectrometric method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demirel, H.; Parmaksiz, A.; Vural, M.; Cakir, I.T.; Demircioglu, B.; Yucel, H.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: Phosphatic fertilizers are produced from the industrial processing of rock phosphate ores which are known to contain naturally occurring radionuclides such as 238 U and its daughter products. A high volume by-product known as phosphogypsum (PG) from the production of phosphoric acid and phosphate fertilizer causes serious storage and environmental problems in phosphoric acid industries. During the phosphoric acid production process, 226 Ra (t 1/2 =1600 y) ends up in PG which has chemical analogous to calcium element. Since the stockpiles of PG near the phosphatic fertilizer plants are huge amounts, the radioactivity contained in PG has measured in view of environmental radioactivity problem. In this work, the natural radioactivity in eighty PG samples taken from a stock near Samsun phosphoric fertilizer plant was measured by a high resolution gamma ray spectrometer. The mean activity of 226 Ra in PG samples has been found to be 546 Bq.kg -1 . However, the activities of 232 Th and 40 K measured in PG samples are negligibly small. In the presented paper, the gamma spectrometric method employed for this work is discussed and the radiological risk impact of radon gas emanation from 226 Ra mainly contained in PG, has been assessed

  4. A circadian clock-regulated toggle switch explains AtGRP7 and AtGRP8 oscillations in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Schmal

    Full Text Available The circadian clock controls many physiological processes in higher plants and causes a large fraction of the genome to be expressed with a 24h rhythm. The transcripts encoding the RNA-binding proteins AtGRP7 (Arabidopsis thaliana Glycine Rich Protein 7 and AtGRP8 oscillate with evening peaks. The circadian clock components CCA1 and LHY negatively affect AtGRP7 expression at the level of transcription. AtGRP7 and AtGRP8, in turn, negatively auto-regulate and reciprocally cross-regulate post-transcriptionally: high protein levels promote the generation of an alternative splice form that is rapidly degraded. This clock-regulated feedback loop has been proposed to act as a molecular slave oscillator in clock output. While mathematical models describing the circadian core oscillator in Arabidopsis thaliana were introduced recently, we propose here the first model of a circadian slave oscillator. We define the slave oscillator in terms of ordinary differential equations and identify the model's parameters by an optimization procedure based on experimental results. The model successfully reproduces the pertinent experimental findings such as waveforms, phases, and half-lives of the time-dependent concentrations. Furthermore, we obtain insights into possible mechanisms underlying the observed experimental dynamics: the negative auto-regulation and reciprocal cross-regulation via alternative splicing could be responsible for the sharply peaking waveforms of the AtGRP7 and AtGRP8 mRNA. Moreover, our results suggest that the AtGRP8 transcript oscillations are subordinated to those of AtGRP7 due to a higher impact of AtGRP7 protein on alternative splicing of its own and of the AtGRP8 pre-mRNA compared to the impact of AtGRP8 protein. Importantly, a bifurcation analysis provides theoretical evidence that the slave oscillator could be a toggle switch, arising from the reciprocal cross-regulation at the post-transcriptional level. In view of this

  5. Expression and clinical significance of Glucose Regulated Proteins GRP78 (BiP) and GRP94 (GP96) in human adenocarcinomas of the esophagus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langer, Rupert; Feith, Marcus; Siewert, Joerg Rüdiger; Wester, Hans-Juergen; Hoefler, Heinz

    2008-01-01

    Glucose regulated proteins (GRPs) are main regulators of cellular homeostasis due to their role as molecular chaperones. Moreover, the functions of GRPs suggest that they also may play important roles in cancer biology. In this study we investigated the glucose regulated proteins GRP78 (BiP) and GRP94 (GP96) in a series of human esophageal adenocarcinomas to determine their implications in cancer progression and prognosis. Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues of primary resected esophageal (Barrett) adenocarcinomas (n = 137) and corresponding normal tissue were investigated. mRNA-gene expression levels of GRP78 and GRP94 were determined by quantitative real-time RT-PCR after mRNA extraction. Protein expression analysis was performed with immunohistochemical staining of the cases, assembled on a tissue micorarray. The results were correlated with pathologic features (pT, pN, G) and overall survival. GRP78 and GRP94 mRNA were expressed in all tumors. The relative gene expression of GRP78 was significantly higher in early cancers (pT1m and pT1sm) as compared to more advanced stages (pT2 and pT3) and normal tissue (p = 0.031). Highly differentiated tumors showed also higher GRP78 mRNA levels compared to moderate and low differentiated tumors (p = 0.035). In addition, patients with higher GRP78 levels tended to show a survival benefit (p = 0.07). GRP94 mRNA-levels showed no association to pathological features or clinical outcome. GRP78 and GRP94 protein expression was detectable by immunohistochemistry in all tumors. There was a significant correlation between a strong GRP78 protein expression and early tumor stages (pT1m and pT1sm, p = 0.038). For GRP94 low to moderate protein expression was significantly associated with earlier tumor stage (p = 0.001) and less lymph node involvement (p = 0.036). Interestingly, the patients with combined strong GRP78 and GRP94 protein expression exclusively showed either early (pT1m or pT1sm) or advanced (pT3) tumor stages and no

  6. Expression and clinical significance of Glucose Regulated Proteins GRP78 (BiP and GRP94 (GP96 in human adenocarcinomas of the esophagus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wester Hans-Juergen

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Glucose regulated proteins (GRPs are main regulators of cellular homeostasis due to their role as molecular chaperones. Moreover, the functions of GRPs suggest that they also may play important roles in cancer biology. In this study we investigated the glucose regulated proteins GRP78 (BiP and GRP94 (GP96 in a series of human esophageal adenocarcinomas to determine their implications in cancer progression and prognosis. Methods Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues of primary resected esophageal (Barrett adenocarcinomas (n = 137 and corresponding normal tissue were investigated. mRNA-gene expression levels of GRP78 and GRP94 were determined by quantitative real-time RT-PCR after mRNA extraction. Protein expression analysis was performed with immunohistochemical staining of the cases, assembled on a tissue micorarray. The results were correlated with pathologic features (pT, pN, G and overall survival. Results GRP78 and GRP94 mRNA were expressed in all tumors. The relative gene expression of GRP78 was significantly higher in early cancers (pT1m and pT1sm as compared to more advanced stages (pT2 and pT3 and normal tissue (p = 0.031. Highly differentiated tumors showed also higher GRP78 mRNA levels compared to moderate and low differentiated tumors (p = 0.035. In addition, patients with higher GRP78 levels tended to show a survival benefit (p = 0.07. GRP94 mRNA-levels showed no association to pathological features or clinical outcome. GRP78 and GRP94 protein expression was detectable by immunohistochemistry in all tumors. There was a significant correlation between a strong GRP78 protein expression and early tumor stages (pT1m and pT1sm, p = 0.038. For GRP94 low to moderate protein expression was significantly associated with earlier tumor stage (p = 0.001 and less lymph node involvement (p = 0.036. Interestingly, the patients with combined strong GRP78 and GRP94 protein expression exclusively showed either early (pT1m or p

  7. RasGRP3 regulates the migration of glioma cells via interaction with Arp3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hae Kyung; Finniss, Susan; Cazacu, Simona; Xiang, Cunli; Poisson, Laila M.; Blumberg, Peter M.; Brodie, Chaya

    2015-01-01

    Glioblastoma (GBM), the most aggressive primary brain tumors, are highly infiltrative. Although GBM express high Ras activity and Ras proteins have been implicated in gliomagenesis, Ras-activating mutations are not frequent in these tumors. RasGRP3, an important signaling protein responsive to diacylglycerol (DAG), increases Ras activation. Here, we examined the expression and functions of RasGRP3 in GBM and glioma cells. RasGRP3 expression was upregulated in GBM specimens and glioma stem cells compared with normal brains and neural stem cells, respectively. RasGRP3 activated Ras and Rap1 in glioma cells and increased cell migration and invasion partially via Ras activation. Using pull-down assay and mass spectroscopy we identified the actin-related protein, Arp3, as a novel interacting protein of RasGRP3. The interaction of RasGRP3 and Arp3 was validated by immunofluorescence staining and co-immunoprecipitation, and PMA, which activates RasGRP3 and induces its translocation to the peri-nuclear region, increased the association of Arp3 and RasGRP3. Arp3 was upregulated in GBM, regulated cell spreading and migration and its silencing partially decreased these effects of RasGRP3 in glioma cells. In summary, RasGRP3 acts as an important integrating signaling protein of the DAG and Ras signaling pathways and actin polymerization and represents an important therapeutic target in GBM. PMID:25682201

  8. STUDY CONCERNING THE PRODUCTION OF BIOMASS PROTEIN BY VALORISATION OF BY-PRODUCTS FROM THE DAIRY INDUSTRY ETUDE CONCERNANT L’OBTENTION DE BIOMASSE PROTEIQUE PAR VALORISATION DES SOUS-PRODUITS DE L’INDUSTRIE LAITIERE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUMINITA GROSU

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The development of the food industry ensures the necessary protein for the population and in this perspective the valorisation of by-products from the dairy industry (whey and buttermilk can be a solution in this direction. Whey is a very important substrate for the biosynthesis of single cell protein by its lactose content which is the main source of fermentable substrate for yeasts. As part of our research, the biomass protein was obtained using whey as source of lactose and other sugars and yeast strains of Candida utilis. The modelling program used is 2nd order system centred with three variables: amount of sugar, amount of nitrogen and quantity of phosphorus. The following parameters have been pursued: biomass content, yield of sugar consumption and protein content. The process conditions are influenced by the addition of different nutrients.

  9. Cell surface GRP78 facilitates hepatoma cells proliferation and migration by activating IGF-IR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Yancun; Chen, Chen; Chen, Jinliang; Zhan, Renhui; Zhang, Qiang; Xu, Xiaoyan; Li, Defang; Li, Minjing

    2017-07-01

    The 78kDa glucose regulated protein (GRP78) is a multifunctional chaperone that is involved in a variety of cellular processes. Insulin like growth factor I receptor (IGF-IR) often aberrant expresses in many types of tumor cells. The IGF-IR signaling plays key roles in carcinogenesis and maintenance of the malignant phenotype. The crosstalk between GRP78 and IGF-IR molecules has not well been illuminated. Here, we demonstrated a reciprocal regulation of GRP78 expression and IGF-IR pathway activation. IGF-I induced GRP78 expression in hepatoma cells. IGF-IR knockdown or IGF-IR inhibitor repressed GRP78 expression. Both phosphatidylinositol 3-kianase (PI3K) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways involved in IGF-I induction of GRP78 expression. Interestingly, treatment of hepatoma cells with IGF-I re-distributes GRP78 from endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to cell surface and promotes its physical interaction with IGF-IR. Also, GRP78 promotes IGF-IR phosphorylation and activation. Blocked of GRP78 by small interfering RNA or inhibition of GRP78 function by (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) blocks IGF-I induced IGF-IR phosphorylation and its downstream signaling. Further, blocked cell surface GRP78 with antibody inhibits IGF-I stimulated cellular proliferation and migration. These data reveal an essential role for the molecular chaperone GRP78 in IGF-IR signaling and implicate the use of GRP78 inhibitors in blocking IGF-IR signaling in hepatoma cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. An integrated bio-process for production of functional biomolecules utilizing raw and by-products from dairy and sugarcane industries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lata, Kusum; Sharma, Manisha; Patel, Satya Narayan; Sangwan, Rajender S; Singh, Sudhir P

    2018-04-21

    The study investigated an integrated bioprocessing of raw and by-products from sugarcane and dairy industries for production of non-digestible prebiotic and functional ingredients. The low-priced feedstock, whey, molasses, table sugar, jaggery, etc., were subjected to transglucosylation reactions catalyzed by dextransucrase from Leuconostoc mesenteroides MTCC 10508. HPLC analysis approximated production of about 11-14 g L -1 trisaccharide i.e. 2-α-D-glucopyranosyl-lactose (4-galactosyl-kojibiose) from the feedstock prepared from table sugar, jaggery, cane molasses and liquid whey, containing about 30 g L -1 sucrose and lactose each. The trisaccharide was hydrolysed into the prebiotic disaccharide, kojibiose, by employing recombinant β-galactosidase from Escherichia coli. The enzyme β-galactosidase achieved about 90% conversion of 2-α-D-glucopyranosyl-lactose into kojibiose. The D-fructose generated by catalytic reactions of dextransucrase was targeted for catalytic transformation into rare sugar, D-allulose (or D-psicose), by treating the samples with Smt3-D-psicose 3-epimerase. The catalytic reactions resulted in the conversion of ~ 25% D-fructose to D-allulose. These bioactive compounds are known to exert a plethora of benefits to human health, and therefore, are preferred ingredients for making functional foods.

  11. Volatile Composition and Enantioselective Analysis of Chiral Terpenoids of Nine Fruit and Vegetable Fibres Resulting from Juice Industry By-Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexis Marsol-Vall

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Fruit and vegetable fibres resulting as by-products of the fruit juice industry have won popularity because they can be valorised as food ingredients. In this regard, bioactive compounds have already been studied but little attention has been paid to their remaining volatiles. Considering all the samples, 57 volatiles were identified. Composition greatly differed between citrus and noncitrus fibres. The former presented over 90% of terpenoids, with limonene being the most abundant and ranging from 52.7% in lemon to 94.0% in tangerine flesh. Noncitrus fibres showed more variable compositions, with the predominant classes being aldehydes in apple (57.5% and peach (69.7%, esters (54.0% in pear, and terpenoids (35.3% in carrot fibres. In addition, enantioselective analysis of some of the chiral terpenoids present in the fibre revealed that the enantiomeric ratio for selected compounds was similar to the corresponding volatile composition of raw fruits and vegetables and some derivatives, with the exception of terpinen-4-ol and α-terpineol, which showed variation, probably due to the drying process. The processing to which fruit residues were submitted produced fibres with low volatile content for noncitrus products. Otherwise, citrus fibres analysed still presented a high volatile composition when compared with noncitrus ones.

  12. Oxidative stability of refined olive and sunflower oils supplemented with lycopene-rich oleoresin from tomato peels industrial by-product, during accelerated shelf-life storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kehili, Mouna; Choura, Sirine; Zammel, Ayachi; Allouche, Noureddine; Sayadi, Sami

    2018-04-25

    Tomato peels by-product from a Tunisian industry was used for the extraction of lycopene-rich oleoresin using hexane solvent maceration. Tomato peels oleoresin, TPO, exhibited competitive free radicals scavenging activity with synthetic antioxidants. The efficacy of TPO in stabilizing refined olive (ROO) and sunflower (RSO) oils was investigated for five months, under accelerated shelf-life, compared to the synthetic antioxidant, butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT). TPO was added to ROO and RSO at four different concentrations, namely 250, 500, 1000 and 2000 µg/g and BHT standard at 200 µg/g. Lipid oxidation was tracked by measuring the peroxide value, acidity, conjugated dienes and trienes. Results suggested the highest efficiency of 250 µg/g and 2000 µg/g of TPO, referring to 5 µg/g and 40 µg/g of lycopene, for the oxidative stabilization of ROO and RSO, respectively. The protective effect of TPO against the primary oxidation of these refined oils was significantly correlated to their lycopene contents. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Experimental study on the shrinkage properties and cracking potential of high strength concrete containing industrial by-products for nuclear power plant concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    KIm, Baek Joong; Yi, Chong Ku

    2017-01-01

    In Korea, attempts have been made to develop high strength concrete for the safety and design life improvement of nuclear power plants. In this study, the cracking potentials of nuclear power plant-high strength concretes (NPP-HSCs) containing industrial by-products with W/B 0.34 and W/B 0.28, which are being reviewed for their application in the construction of containment structures, were evaluated through autogenous shrinkage, unrestrained drying shrinkage, and restrained drying shrinkage experiments. The cracking potentials of the NPP-HSCs with W/B 0.34 and W/B 0.28 were in the order of 0.34FA25 > 0.34FA25BFS25 > 0.34BFS50 > 0.34BFS65SF5 and 0.28FA25SF5 >> 0.28BFS65SF5 > 0.28BFS45SF5 > 0.28 FA20BFS25SF5, respectively. The cracking potentials of the seven mix proportions excluding 0.28FA25SF5 were lower than that of the existing nuclear power plant concrete; thus, the durability of a nuclear power plant against shrinkage cracking could be improved by applying the seven mix proportions with low cracking potentials

  14. Experimental study on the shrinkage properties and cracking potential of high strength concrete containing industrial by-products for nuclear power plant concrete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KIm, Baek Joong; Yi, Chong Ku [School of Civil, Environmental and Architectural Engineering, Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-02-15

    In Korea, attempts have been made to develop high strength concrete for the safety and design life improvement of nuclear power plants. In this study, the cracking potentials of nuclear power plant-high strength concretes (NPP-HSCs) containing industrial by-products with W/B 0.34 and W/B 0.28, which are being reviewed for their application in the construction of containment structures, were evaluated through autogenous shrinkage, unrestrained drying shrinkage, and restrained drying shrinkage experiments. The cracking potentials of the NPP-HSCs with W/B 0.34 and W/B 0.28 were in the order of 0.34FA25 > 0.34FA25BFS25 > 0.34BFS50 > 0.34BFS65SF5 and 0.28FA25SF5 >> 0.28BFS65SF5 > 0.28BFS45SF5 > 0.28 FA20BFS25SF5, respectively. The cracking potentials of the seven mix proportions excluding 0.28FA25SF5 were lower than that of the existing nuclear power plant concrete; thus, the durability of a nuclear power plant against shrinkage cracking could be improved by applying the seven mix proportions with low cracking potentials.

  15. Potential use of gypsum and lime rich industrial by-products for induced reduction of Pb, Zn and Ni leachability in an acid soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez-Jorda, M.P.; Garrido, F.; Garcia-Gonzalez, M.T.

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluates the potential use of four industrial by-products (phosphogypsum (PG), red gypsum (RG), sugar foam (SF), and ashes from biomass combustion (ACB)), applied at two rates in single and combined amendments to reduce the mobility and availability of Pb, Zn and Ni in a metal-spiked acid soil. Leaching experiments were done to estimate leachability indexes and assess their effectiveness. Most of the treatments significantly reduced the metal leachability although only a few were effective for all metals. Based on principal component and cluster analysis, sugar foam (SF) and a mixture of RG and ACB (RG+ACB), both applied at high rate, were selected as first choices to reduce mobility and availability of the three metals. Metal sorption mechanisms involved in the reduction of their leachability were identified using scanning electron microscopy. In the SF-treated samples, the metals were found associated to amorphous Al-hydroxy polymers deposited on phyllosilicates and organic matter particles. In the (RG+ACB)-treated samples, Pb, Zn, and traces of Ni were found associated to Fe/Ti oxide phases with a significant concentration of S, suggesting the formation of metal-sulfate ternary complexes.

  16. RasGRP1, but not RasGRP3, is required for efficient thymic β-selection and ERK activation downstream of CXCR4.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominic P Golec

    Full Text Available T cell development is a highly dynamic process that is driven by interactions between developing thymocytes and the thymic microenvironment. Upon entering the thymus, the earliest thymic progenitors, called CD4(-CD8(- 'double negative' (DN thymocytes, pass through a checkpoint termed "β-selection" before maturing into CD4(+CD8(+ 'double positive' (DP thymocytes. β-selection is an important developmental checkpoint during thymopoiesis where developing DN thymocytes that successfully express the pre-T cell receptor (TCR undergo extensive proliferation and differentiation towards the DP stage. Signals transduced through the pre-TCR, chemokine receptor CXCR4 and Notch are thought to drive β-selection. Additionally, it has long been known that ERK is activated during β-selection; however the pathways regulating ERK activation remain unknown. Here, we performed a detailed analysis of the β-selection events in mice lacking RasGRP1, RasGRP3 and RasGRP1 and 3. We report that RasGRP1 KO and RasGRP1/3 DKO deficient thymi show a partial developmental block at the early DN3 stage of development. Furthermore, DN3 thymocytes from RasGRP1 and RasGRP1/3 double knock-out thymi show significantly reduced proliferation, despite expression of the TCRβ chain. As a result of impaired β-selection, the pool of TCRβ(+ DN4 is significantly diminished, resulting in inefficient DN to DP development. Also, we report that RasGRP1 is required for ERK activation downstream of CXCR4 signaling, which we hypothesize represents a potential mechanism of RasGRP1 regulation of β-selection. Our results demonstrate that RasGRP1 is an important regulator of proliferation and differentiation at the β-selection checkpoint and functions downstream of CXCR4 to activate the Ras/MAPK pathway.

  17. High Level Soluble Expression and ATPase Characterization of Human Heat Shock Protein GRP78.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shuang; Zhang, Hongpeng; Luo, Miao; Chen, Ke; Yang, Wei; Bai, Lei; Huang, Ailong; Wang, Deqiang

    2017-02-01

    Human GRP78 has been shown to promote cancer progression and is regarded as a novel target for anticancer drugs. However, generation of recombinant full-length GRP78 remains challenging. This report demonstrates that E. coli autoinduction is an excellent method for the preparation of active recombinant GRP78 protein. The final yield was approximately 50 mg/liter of autoinduction culture. Gel-filtration experiments confirmed that the chaperone is a monomer. The purified human GRP78 catalyzed the conversion of ATP to ADP without requiring metal ions as cofactors. Three mutants, T38A, T229A, and S300A, exhibited much lower activity than wild-type GRP78, indicating that the active sites of the ATPase are located at the negatively charged cavity. Three mutants in the negatively charged cavity region dramatically reduced GRP78 activity, further confirming the region as the site of ATPase activity.

  18. Tracing the role of endogenous carbon in denitrification using wine industry by-product as an external electron donor: Coupling isotopic tools with mathematical modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrey, R; Rodríguez-Escales, P; Soler, A; Otero, N

    2018-02-01

    Nitrate removal through enhanced biological denitrification (EBD), consisting of the inoculation of an external electron donor, is a feasible solution for the recovery of groundwater quality. In this context, liquid waste from wine industries (wine industry by-products, WIB) may be feasible for use as a reactant to enhance heterotrophic denitrification. To address the feasibility of WIB as electron donor to promote denitrification, as well as to evaluate the role of biomass as a secondary organic C source, a flow-through experiment was carried out. Chemical and isotopic characterization was performed and coupled with mathematical modeling. Complete nitrate attenuation with no nitrite accumulation was successfully achieved after 10 days. Four different C/N molar ratios (7.0, 2.0, 1.0 and 0) were tested. Progressive decrease of the C/N ratio reduced the remaining C in the outflow and favored biomass migration, producing significant changes in dispersivity in the reactor, which favored efficient nitrate degradation. The applied mathematical model described the general trends for nitrate, ethanol, dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) concentrations. This model shows how the biomass present in the system is degraded to dissolved organic C (DOC en ) and becomes the main source of DOC for a C/N ratio between 1.0 and 0. The isotopic model developed for organic and inorganic carbon also describes the general trends of δ 13 C of ethanol, DOC and DIC in the outflow water. The study of the evolution of the isotopic fractionation of organic C using a Rayleigh distillation model shows the shift in the organic carbon source from the WIB to the biomass and is in agreement with the isotopic fractionation values used to calibrate the model. Isotopic fractionations (ε) of C-ethanol and C-DOC en were -1‰ and -5‰ (model) and -3.3‰ and -4.8‰ (Rayleigh), respectively. In addition, an inverse isotopic fractionation of +10‰ was observed for

  19. Antinociceptive and antiedematogenic effect of pecan (Carya illinoensis) nut shell extract in mice: a possible beneficial use for a by-product of the nut industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevisan, Gabriela; Rossato, Mateus F; Hoffmeister, Carin; Müller, Liz G; Pase, Camila; Córdova, Marina M; Rosa, Fernanda; Tonello, Raquel; Hausen, Bruna S; Boligon, Aline A; Moresco, Rafael N; Athayde, Margareth L; Burguer, Marilise E; Santos, Adair R; Ferreira, Juliano

    2014-01-27

    Abstract Background: Interest in pecan (Carya illinoensis) nut shells, a by-product of the nut industry, has increased due to its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities. The goal of this study was to evaluate the antinociceptive and antiedematogenic activity and the mechanisms of the pecan shell aqueous extract (AE). Methods: First, we performed fingerprinting of C. illinoensis AE. The antinociceptive and antiedematogenic effects of AE intragastric (i.g.) administration in mice (male Swiss mice 20-30 g) were evaluated using the acetic acid test or after subcutaneous (s.c.) paw injection of diverse transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) agonists, including hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), allyl isothiocyanate, or cinnamaldehyde. We also observed AE antinociceptive and antiedematogenic effects after carrageenan s.c. paw injection and measured H2O2 production. Moreover, we observed the development of adverse effects after AE i.g. treatment. Results: The high-performance liquid chromatography fingerprinting of AE showed the presence of rutin. AE or rutin i.g. treatment produced antinociception in the acetic acid test and reduced the nociception and edema mediated by H2O2 s.c. hind paw injection or nociception induced by other TRPA1 agonists. Moreover, AE or rutin reduced the hyperalgesia, edema, and H2O2 production induced by carrageenan s.c. paw injection. No motor, gastric, or toxicological alterations were observed after AE administration. Conclusions: Collectively, the present results show that AE and its constituent rutin produced antinociceptive and antiedematogenic action in models of acute and persistent inflammatory nociception and it seems to be related to the inhibition of TRPA1 receptor activation.

  20. Studies on the possibilities of using a by-product resulting during the extraction of the volatile oils from conifer twigs and needles in the leather industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chirita, A.; Toma, A.R.; Cocis, V.

    1979-01-01

    Organic by-products containing 19-40% tannin from the water extraction of volatile oils from spruce bark, twigs, and needles were useful when mixed in a 1:1 ratio with BCF synthetic tannin auxiliary to tan hide, and similar by-products containing 16-31% reducing substances could be used to replace glucose as reducing agent in chrome tanning.

  1. Anaerobic digestion of organic by-products from meat-processing industry. The effect of pre-treatments and co-digestion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luste, S.

    2011-07-01

    Anaerobic digestion is a multi-beneficial biological treatment during which micro-organisms degrade organic material producing biogas (i.e. methane) and stabilised end-product (i.e. digestate). Methane is a versatile renewable energy source and digestate can be used as an organic fertiliser and/or soil improver. Because of the increasing consumption and tightening environment and health legislation, production of organic wastes suitable for anaerobic digestion increases. Animal by-products (ABP) from the meat-processing industry are often rendered (contaminated material), used as feedstock (in fur breeding), or composted. However, ABPs studied could not be utilised in fodder or in animal food production and have currently been rendered or directed to composting, despite being mostly considered unsuitable for composting. Many ABPs are energy-rich, wet and pasty materials and suitable for the anaerobic digestion process. Moreover, suitable pre-treatment to hydrolyse solid materials and/or co-digestion of two or several materials may improve the anaerobic digestion with ultimate goal to increase the methane production, stabilisation and reusability of digestate. The case chosen for more detailed research was that of a middle-sized Finnish meat-processing industry. The aim of the thesis was to evaluate the feasibility of different ABPs presently available for treatment as raw material for anaerobic digestion. Another objective was to enhance the anaerobic digestion process via specific pre-treatments and co-digestion cases with the ultimate aim to increase the methane production and the quality of the digestate. The general goal was to observe the overall process from the perspective of real-circumstances in Finland to rise to needs in practice and to produce exploitable information for adopting sustainable development locally and case-specifically into practice via versatile anaerobic digestion technology. The ABPs studied were highly bio-degradable and especially

  2. Overexpression of molecular chaperons GRP78 and GRP94 in CD44(hi)/CD24(lo) breast cancer stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nami, Babak; Ghasemi-Dizgah, Armin; Vaseghi, Akbar

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer stem cell with CD44(hi)/CD24(lo) phonotype is described having stem cell properties and represented as the main driving factor in breast cancer initiation, growth, metastasis and low response to anti-cancer agents. Glucoseregulated proteins (GRPs) are heat shock protein family chaperons that are charged with regulation of protein machinery and modulation of endoplasmic reticulum homeostasis whose important roles in stem cell development and invasion of various cancers have been demonstrated. Here, we investigated the expression levels of GRP78 and GRP94 in CD44(hi)/CD24(lo) phenotype breast cancer stem cells (BCSCs). MCF7, T-47D and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell lines were used. CD44(hi)/CD24(lo) phenotype cell population were analyzed and sorted by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS). Transcriptional and translational expression of GRP78 and GRP94 were investigated by western blotting and quantitative real time PCR. RESULTS showed different proportion of CD44(hi)/CD24(lo) phenotype cell population in their original bulk cells. The ranking of the cell lines in terms of CD44(hi)/CD24(lo) phenotype cell population was as MCF7hi)/CD24(lo) phenotype cells exhibited higher mRNA and protein expression level of GRP78 and GRP94 compared to their original bulk cells. Our results show a relationship between overexpression of GRP78 and GRP94 and exhibiting CD44hi/CD24lo phenotype in breast cancer cells. We conclude that upregulation of GRPs may be an important factor in the emergence of CD44hi/CD24lo phenotype BCSCs features.

  3. Gla-Rich Protein Is a Potential New Vitamin K Target in Cancer: Evidences for a Direct GRP-Mineral Interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla S. B. Viegas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Gla-rich protein (GRP was described in sturgeon as a new vitamin-K-dependent protein (VKDP with a high density of Gla residues and associated with ectopic calcifications in humans. Although VKDPs function has been related with γ-carboxylation, the Gla status of GRP in humans is still unknown. Here, we investigated the expression of recently identified GRP spliced transcripts, the γ-carboxylation status, and its association with ectopic calcifications, in skin basal cell and breast carcinomas. GRP-F1 was identified as the predominant splice variant expressed in healthy and cancer tissues. Patterns of γ-carboxylated GRP (cGRP/undercarboxylated GRP (ucGRP accumulation in healthy and cancer tissues were determined by immunohistochemistry, using newly developed conformation-specific antibodies. Both GRP protein forms were found colocalized in healthy tissues, while ucGRP was the predominant form associated with tumor cells. Both cGRP and ucGRP found at sites of microcalcifications were shown to have in vitro calcium mineral-binding capacity. The decreased levels of cGRP and predominance of ucGRP in tumor cells suggest that GRP may represent a new target for the anticancer potential of vitamin K. Also, the direct interaction of cGRP and ucGRP with BCP crystals provides a possible mechanism explaining GRP association with pathological mineralization.

  4. Receptors for GRP/bombesin-like peptides in the rat forebrain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolf, S.S.; Moody, T.W.

    1985-01-01

    Binding sites in the rat forebrain were characterized using ( 125 I-Tyr4)bombesin as a receptor probe. Pharmacology experiments indicate that gastrin releasing peptide (GRP) and the GRP fragments GRP as well as Ac-GRP inhibited radiolabeled (Tyr4)bombesin binding with high affinity. Biochemistry experiments indicated that heat, N-ethyl maleimide or trypsin greatly reduced radiolabeled (Tyr4)bombesin binding. Also, autoradiographic studies indicated that highest grain densities were present in the stria terminalis, periventricular and suprachiasmatic nucleus of the hypothalamus, dorsomedial and rhomboid thalamus, dentate gyrus, hippocampus and medial amygdaloid nucleus. The data suggest that CNS protein receptors, which are discretely distributed in the rat forebrain, may mediate the action of endogenous GRP/bombesin-like peptides

  5. Suppress flashover of GRP fire with water mist inside ISO 9705 Room

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Xu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Water mist suppression tests for glass-reinforced polyester (GRP panels were conducted in ISO 9705 room. GRP panels covered part of the room and a wood crib fire was used as fire source to ignite GRP fire. A four-nozzle water mist suppression equipment was used inside test room on the time of flashover. Heat release rate of the combustion inside the room, room temperature, surface temperature of GRP panels, total heat flux to wall, ceiling and floor in specific positions were measured. Gas concentration of O2, CO, and CO2 was also measured in the corner of the room at two different levels. A thermal image video was used to record the suppression procedure inside room. Test results show that the water mist system is efficient in suppressing the flashover of GRP fire and cooling the room within short time.

  6. Second Generation Grp94-Selective Inhibitors Provide Opportunities for the Inhibition of Metastatic Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crowley, Vincent M. [Department of Medicinal Chemistry, The University of Kansas, 1251 Wescoe Hall Dr. Malott 4070 Lawrence KS 66045 USA; Huard, Dustin J. E. [School of Chemistry & Biochemistry, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta GA 30332 USA; Lieberman, Raquel L. [School of Chemistry & Biochemistry, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta GA 30332 USA; Blagg, Brian S. J. [Warren Family Research Center for Drug Discovery and Development, and Department of Chemistry & Biochemistry, University of Notre Dame, 305 McCourtney Hall Notre Dame IN 46556 USA

    2017-09-27

    Glucose regulated protein 94 (Grp94) is the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) resident isoform of the 90 kDa heat shock protein (Hsp90) family and its inhibition represents a promising therapeutic target for the treatment of many diseases. Modification of the first generation cis-amide bioisostere imidazole to alter the angle between the resorcinol ring and the benzyl side chain via cis-amide replacements produced compounds with improved Grp94 affinity and selectivity. Structure–activity relationship studies led to the discovery of compound 30, which exhibits 540 nm affinity and 73-fold selectivity towards Grp94. Grp94 is responsible for the maturation and trafficking of proteins associated with cell signaling and motility, including select integrins. The Grp94-selective inhibitor 30 was shown to exhibit potent anti-migratory effects against multiple aggressive and metastatic cancers.

  7. Central ventilatory and cardiovascular actions of trout gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP in the unanesthetized trout

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Claude Le Mével

    2013-07-01

    Gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP, a neuropeptide initially isolated from porcine stomach, shares sequence similarity with bombesin. GRP and its receptors are present in the brains and peripheral tissues of several species of teleost fish, but little is known about the ventilatory and cardiovascular effects of this peptide in these vertebrates. The goal of this study was to compare the central and peripheral actions of picomolar doses of trout GRP on ventilatory and cardiovascular variables in the unanesthetized rainbow trout. Compared to vehicle, intracerebroventricular (ICV injection of GRP (1–50 pmol significantly elevated the ventilation rate (ƒV and the ventilation amplitude (VAMP, and consequently the total ventilation (VTOT. The maximum hyperventilatory effect of GRP (VTOT: +225%, observed at a dose of 50 pmol, was mostly due to its stimulatory action on VAMP (+170% rather than ƒV (+20%. In addition, ICV GRP (50 pmol produced a significant increase in mean dorsal aortic blood pressure (PDA (+35% and in heart rate (ƒH (+25%. Intra-arterial injections of GRP (5–100 pmol were without sustained effect on the ventilatory variables but produced sporadic and transient increases in ventilatory movement at doses of 50 and 100 pmol. At these doses, GRP elevated PDA by +20% but only the 50 pmol dose significantly increased HR (+15%. In conclusion, our study suggests that endogenous GRP within the brain of the trout may act as a potent neurotransmitter and/or neuromodulator in the regulation of cardio-ventilatory functions. In the periphery, endogenous GRP may act as locally-acting and/or circulating neurohormone with an involvement in vasoregulatory mechanisms.

  8. Isthmin targets cell-surface GRP78 and triggers apoptosis via induction of mitochondrial dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, M; Zhang, Y; Yu, V C; Chong, Y-S; Yoshioka, T; Ge, R

    2014-01-01

    Isthmin (ISM) is a secreted 60-kDa protein that potently induces endothelial cell (EC) apoptosis. It suppresses tumor growth and angiogenesis in mice when stably overexpressed in cancer cells. Although αvβ5 integrin serves as a low-affinity receptor for ISM, the mechanism by which ISM mediates antiangiogenesis and apoptosis in ECs remain to be fully resolved. In this work, we report the identification of cell-surface glucose-regulated protein 78 kDa (GRP78) as a high-affinity receptor for ISM (Kd=8.6 nM). We demonstrated that ISM-GRP78 interaction triggers apoptosis not only in activated ECs but also in cancer cells expressing high level of cell-surface GRP78. Normal cells and benign tumor cells tend to express low level of cell-surface GRP78 and are resistant to ISM-induced apoptosis. Upon binding to GRP78, ISM is internalized into ECs through clathrin-dependent endocytosis that is essential for its proapoptotic activity. Once inside the cell, ISM co-targets with GRP78 to mitochondria where it interacts with ADP/ATP carriers on the inner membrane and blocks ATP transport from mitochondria to cytosol, thereby causing apoptosis. Hence, ISM is a novel proapoptotic ligand that targets cell-surface GRP78 to trigger apoptosis by inducing mitochondrial dysfunction. The restricted and high-level expression of cell-surface GRP78 on cancer cells and cancer ECs make them uniquely susceptible to ISM-targeted apoptosis. Indeed, systemic delivery of recombinant ISM potently suppressed subcutaneous 4T1 breast carcinoma and B16 melanoma growth in mice by eliciting apoptosis selectively in the cancer cells and cancer ECs. Together, this work reveals a novel ISM-GRP78 apoptosis pathway and demonstrates the potential of ISM as a cancer-specific and dual-targeting anticancer agent. PMID:24464222

  9. Isthmin targets cell-surface GRP78 and triggers apoptosis via induction of mitochondrial dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, M; Zhang, Y; Yu, V C; Chong, Y-S; Yoshioka, T; Ge, R

    2014-05-01

    Isthmin (ISM) is a secreted 60-kDa protein that potently induces endothelial cell (EC) apoptosis. It suppresses tumor growth and angiogenesis in mice when stably overexpressed in cancer cells. Although αvβ5 integrin serves as a low-affinity receptor for ISM, the mechanism by which ISM mediates antiangiogenesis and apoptosis in ECs remain to be fully resolved. In this work, we report the identification of cell-surface glucose-regulated protein 78 kDa (GRP78) as a high-affinity receptor for ISM (Kd=8.6 nM). We demonstrated that ISM-GRP78 interaction triggers apoptosis not only in activated ECs but also in cancer cells expressing high level of cell-surface GRP78. Normal cells and benign tumor cells tend to express low level of cell-surface GRP78 and are resistant to ISM-induced apoptosis. Upon binding to GRP78, ISM is internalized into ECs through clathrin-dependent endocytosis that is essential for its proapoptotic activity. Once inside the cell, ISM co-targets with GRP78 to mitochondria where it interacts with ADP/ATP carriers on the inner membrane and blocks ATP transport from mitochondria to cytosol, thereby causing apoptosis. Hence, ISM is a novel proapoptotic ligand that targets cell-surface GRP78 to trigger apoptosis by inducing mitochondrial dysfunction. The restricted and high-level expression of cell-surface GRP78 on cancer cells and cancer ECs make them uniquely susceptible to ISM-targeted apoptosis. Indeed, systemic delivery of recombinant ISM potently suppressed subcutaneous 4T1 breast carcinoma and B16 melanoma growth in mice by eliciting apoptosis selectively in the cancer cells and cancer ECs. Together, this work reveals a novel ISM-GRP78 apoptosis pathway and demonstrates the potential of ISM as a cancer-specific and dual-targeting anticancer agent.

  10. RasGRP1 confers the phorbol ester-sensitive phenotype to EL4 lymphoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Shujie; Knoepp, Stewart M; Hallman, Mark A; Meier, Kathryn E

    2007-01-01

    The murine EL4 lymphoma cell line exists in variants that are either sensitive or resistant to the tumor promoter phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA). In sensitive EL4 cells, PMA causes robust Erk mitogen-activated protein kinase activation that results in growth arrest. In resistant cells, PMA induces minimal Erk activation, without growth arrest. PMA stimulates IL-2 production in sensitive, but not resistant, cells. The role of RasGRP1, a PMA-activated guanine nucleotide exchange factor for Ras, in EL4 phenotype was examined. Endogenous RasGRP1 protein is expressed at much higher levels in sensitive than in resistant cells. PMA-induced Ras activation is observed in sensitive cells but not in resistant cells lacking Ras-GRP1. PMA induces down-regulation of RasGRP1 protein in sensitive cells but increases RasGRP1 in resistant cells. Transfection of RasGRP1 into resistant cells enhances PMA-induced Erk activation. In the reverse experiment, introduction of small interfering RNA (siRNA) for RasGRP1 suppresses PMA-induced Ras and Erk activations in sensitive cells. Sensitive cells incubated with siRNA for RasGRP1 exhibit the PMA-resistant phenotype, in that they are able to proliferate in the presence of PMA and do not secrete IL-2 when stimulated with PMA. These studies indicate that the PMA-sensitive phenotype, as previously defined for the EL4 cell line, is conferred by endogenous expression of RasGRP1 protein.

  11. “Gold” Pressed Essential Oil: An Essay on the Volatile Fragment from Citrus Juice Industry By-Products Chemistry and Bioactivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Kapsaski-Kanelli

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Present essay explores the potentials of Citrus juice industry’s by-products as alternative bioactive natural products resources. Four crude Cold Pressed Essential Oils (CPEOs, derived from orange, lemon, grapefruit, and mandarin, were studied. All CPEOs were subjected to water distillation, in order to obtain the volatile fragment, which was further fractionated with respect to distillation period in two parts, concluding to eight samples. These samples along with the four original CPEOs were assessed in relation to their phytochemical content and their repellent and larvicidal properties against Asian Tiger Mosquito. The volatiles recovery rates ranged from 74% to 88% of the CPEO. Limonene presented a significant increase in all samples ranging from 8% to 52% of the respective CPEO’s content and peaked in mandarin’s 2nd volatile fragment which comprised 97% of the essential oil. The refinement process presented clear impacts on both bioassays: a significant increase in larvicidal potency was observed, annotated best by the improvement by 1100% and 1300% of the grapefruit volatile fractions; repellence testing provided only one significant result, the decrease of landings by 50% as a response to mandarin’s second volatile fraction. The applied methodology thus may be considered for the improvement of Citrus juice industry’s by-products chemistry and bioactivity.

  12. Secretion of the endoplasmic reticulum stress protein, GRP78, into the BALF is increased in cigarette smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksoy, Mark O; Kim, Victor; Cornwell, William D; Rogers, Thomas J; Kosmider, Beata; Bahmed, Karim; Barrero, Carlos; Merali, Salim; Shetty, Neena; Kelsen, Steven G

    2017-05-02

    Identification of biomarkers of cigarette smoke -induced lung damage and early COPD is an area of intense interest. Glucose regulated protein of 78 kD (i.e., GRP78), a multi-functional protein which mediates cell responses to oxidant stress, is increased in the lungs of cigarette smokers and in the serum of subjects with COPD. We have suggested that secretion of GRP78 by lung cells may explain the increase in serum GRP78 in COPD. To assess GRP78 secretion by the lung, we assayed GRP78 in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) in chronic smokers and non-smokers. We also directly assessed the acute effect of cigarette smoke material on GRP78 secretion in isolated human airway epithelial cells (HAEC). GRP78 was measured in BALF of smokers (S; n = 13) and non-smokers (NS; n = 11) by Western blotting. GRP78 secretion by HAEC was assessed by comparing its concentration in cell culture medium and cell lysates. Cells were treated for 24 h with either the volatile phase of cigarette smoke (cigarette smoke extract (CSE) or the particulate phase (cigarette smoke condensate (CSC)). GRP78 was present in the BALF of both NS and S but levels were significantly greater in S (p = 0.04). GRP78 was secreted constitutively in HAEC. CSE 15% X 24 h increased GRP78 in cell-conditioned medium without affecting its intracellular concentration. In contrast, CSC X 24 h increased intracellular GRP78 expression but did not affect GRP78 secretion. Brefeldin A, an inhibitor of classical Golgi secretion pathways, did not inhibit GRP78 secretion indicating that non-classical pathways were involved. The present study indicates that GRP78 is increased in BALF in cigarette smokers; that HAEC secrete GRP78; and that GRP78 secretion by HAEC is augmented by cigarette smoke particulates. Enhanced secretion of GRP78 by lung cells makes it a potential biomarker of cigarette smoke-induced lung injury.

  13. BAG3 sensitizes cancer cells exposed to DNA damaging agents via direct interaction with GRP78.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, De-Hui; Zhang, Qiang; Meng, Xin; Zong, Zhi-Hong; Li, Chao; Liu, Bao-Qin; Guan, Yifu; Wang, Hua-Qin

    2013-12-01

    Bcl-2 associated athanogene 3 (BAG3) has a modular structure that contains a BAG domain, a WW domain, a proline-rich (PxxP) domain to mediate potential interactions with chaperons and other proteins that participate in more than one signal transduction. In search for novel interacting partners, the current study identified that 78kDa glucose-regulated protein (GRP78) was a novel partner interacting with BAG3. Interaction between GRP78 and BAG3 was confirmed by coimmunoprecipitation and glutathione S-transferase (GST) pulldown. We also identified that the ATPase domain of GRP78 and BAG domain of BAG3 mediated their interaction. Counterintuitive for a prosurvival protein, BAG3 was found to promote the cytotoxicity of breast cancer MCF7, thyroid cancer FRO and glioma U87 cells subjected to genotoxic stress. In addition, the current study demonstrated that BAG3 interfered with the formation of the antiapoptotic GRP78-procaspase-7 complex, which resulted in an increased genotoxic stress-induced cytotoxicity in cancer cells. Furthermore, overexpression of GRP78 significantly blocked the enhancing effects of BAG3 on activation of caspase-7 and induction of apoptosis by genotoxic stress. Overall, these results suggested that through direct interaction BAG3 could prevent the antiapoptotic effect of GRP78 upon genotoxic stress. © 2013.

  14. Role of microbial inoculation and industrial by-product phosphogypsum in growth and nutrient uptake of maize (Zea mays L.) grown in calcareous soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Enazy, Abdul-Aziz R; Al-Oud, Saud S; Al-Barakah, Fahad N; Usman, Adel Ra

    2017-08-01

    Alkaline soils with high calcium carbonate and low organic matter are deficient in plant nutrient availability. Use of organic and bio-fertilizers has been suggested to improve their properties. Therefore, a greenhouse experiment was conducted to evaluate the integrative role of phosphogypsum (PG; added at 0.0, 10, 30, and 50 g PG kg -1 ), cow manure (CM; added at 50 g kg -1 ) and mixed microbial inoculation (Incl.; Azotobacter chroococcum, and phosphate-solubilizing bacteria Bacillus megaterium var. phosphaticum and Pseudomonas fluorescens) on growth and nutrients (N, P, K, Fe, Mn, Zn and Cu) uptake of maize (Zea mays L.) in calcareous soil. Treatment effects on soil chemical and biological properties and the Cd and Pb availability to maize plants were also investigated. Applying PG decreased soil pH. The soil available P increased when soil was inoculated and/or treated with CM, especially with PG. The total microbial count and dehydrogenase activity were enhanced with PG+CM+Incl. Inoculated soils treated with PG showed significant increases in NPK uptake and maize plant growth. However, the most investigated treatments showed significant decreases in shoot micronutrients. Cd and Pb were not detected in maize shoots. Applying PG with microbial inoculation improved macronutrient uptake and plant growth. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Isolation and characterization of starch from industrial fresh pasta by-product and its potential use in sugar-snap cookie making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellouzi, Soumaya Zouari; Driss, Dorra; Maktouf, Sameh; Neifar, Mohamed; Kobbi, Ameni; Kamoun, Hounaida; Chaabouni, Semia Ellouze; Ghorbel, Raoudha Ellouze

    2015-09-01

    In this paper, starch was extracted from fresh pasta by-product (PS) and its chemical composition and physical and microscopic characteristics were determined. Commercial wheat starch (CS) was used as reference. In general, purity was similar between starches studied. However, others compounds such as protein, lipid and ash were significantly different. PS starch granules had large lenticular-shape (25-33 μm) and small spherical-shape (5-8 μm). The pH and color of PS starch were similar to those reported for CS starch. On the other hand, PS had higher water absorption capacity, viscosity and cooking stability than CS. The gelatinization temperature of PS was similar to that of CS (60 and 61 °C). At high temperature (90 °C) both starches had similar rheological behavior. The results achieved suggest that PS starch has potential for application in food systems requiring high processing temperatures such the manufacture of sugar snap cookie. The effects of PS starch addition on the dough making stage and the final cookie quality were analyzed. Improvements in dough cohesiveness (24 %) and springiness (10 %) were significant relative to those of CS dough. Texture profile analysis confirmed the rheological changes.

  16. Effects of industrial by-product amendments on As, Cd and Tl retention/release in an element-spiked acidic soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguilar-Carrillo, Javier; Barrios, Laura; Garrido, Fernando; Garcia-Gonzalez, Maria Teresa

    2007-01-01

    To asses the efficiency of two by-products (phosphogypsum (PG) and sugar foam (SF), rich in gypsum and calcium carbonate, respectively) in the immobilization of three toxic elements (As, Cd and Tl) in an acidic soil, batch-scale sorption and desorption experiments were conducted after 18 months of in situ amendment application. The Langmuir isotherms applied for sorption studies showed that the estimated maximum sorption capacity of the elements was highest in the SF-treated samples. The amount of element retained and the percentage of extraction after TCLP tests indicated that those samples amended with sugar foam (SF and PG + SF) had the potential to immobilize As, Cd and Tl in an acidic soil with low sorptive capacity. In addition to sorption and desorption experiments, scanning electron microscopy in back-scattered electron mode (SEM-BSE) showed the formation of Al-hydroxy polymers which provides the soil with additional sorption capacity. The three target elements were associated with the Al-hydroxy polymers, probably through direct coordination or the formation of ternary complexes. By means of statistical analysis it has been found that sorption processes of As, Cd and Tl in this soil mainly depend on the treatment, whereas desorption is an element-dependent process

  17. Scientific Committee of the Institute for the Study of Combustible Minerals discusses 'New processes in the coking by-product industry'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lisitskaya, R.K.

    1982-05-01

    This paper summarizes reports presented at the Moscow Institute for the Study of Combustible Minerals on Nov. 18, 1981. Introduction of high power unit aggregates in metallurgy is one characteristic of the new trend. Dinas refractory materials were used for brickwork because of their assumed higher thermal conductivity; comparative evaluations, however, proved that oven wall thermal conductivity for Dinas and other brick is approximately the same. Further Dinas research is planned. Considering coke battery operating conditions the expediency of increasing average coke oven size to 450-460 mm in width is discussed. This is expectd to increase efficiency and overall productivity. Partial and complete briquetting with and without binder was discussed including its positive effects and drawbacks when used on an industrial scale in the USSR. Lack of domestic, highly efficient presses and scarcity of binders, mixers and loaders present particular hindrances. Preference is given to partial briquetting without binder due to shortages or lack of domestic equipment.

  18. Optical monitoring of Disinfection By-product Precursors with Fluorescence Excitation-Emission Mapping (F-EEM): Practical Application Issues for Drinking, Waste and Reuse Water Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmore, A. M.

    2012-12-01

    Drinking water, wastewater and reuse plants must deal with regulations associated with bacterial contamination and halogen disinfection procedures that can generate harmful disinfection by-products (DBPs) including trihalomethanes (THMs), haloacetic acids (HOAAs) and other compounds. The natural fluorescent chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) is regulated as the major DBP precursor. This study outlines the advantages and current limitations associated with optical monitoring of water treatment processes using tcontemporary Fluorescence Excitation-Emission Mapping (F-EEM). The F-EEM method coupled with practical peak indexing and multi-variate analyses is potentially superior in terms of cost, speed and sensitivity over conventional total organic carbon (TOC) meters and specific UV-absorbance (SUVA) measurements. Hence there is strong interest in developing revised environmental regulations around the F-EEM technique instruments which can incidentally simultaneously measure the SUVA and DOC parameters. Importantly, the F-EEM technique, compared to the single-point TOC and SUVA signals can resolve CDOM classes distinguishing those that strongly cause DBPs. The F-EEM DBP prediction method can be applied to surface water sources to evaluate DBP potential as a function of the point sources and reservoir depth profiles. It can also be applied in-line to rapidly adjust DOC removal processes including sedimentation-flocculation, microfiltration, reverse-osmosis, and ozonation. Limitations and interferences for F-EEMs are discussed including those common to SUVA and TOC in contrast to the advantages including that F-EEMs are less prone to interferences from inorganic carbon and metal contaminations and require little if any chemical preparation. In conclusion, the F-EEM method is discussed in terms of not only the DBP problem but also as a means of predicting (concurrent to DBP monitoring) organic membrane fouling in water-reuse and desalination plants.

  19. Steel slag: a waste industrial by-product as an alternative sustainable green building material in construction applications--an attempt for solid waste management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pofale, Arun D; Nadeem, Mohammed

    2012-01-01

    This investigation explores the possibility of utilizing granular slag as an alternative to fine aggregate (natural sand) in construction applications like masonry and plastering. Construction industry utilizes large volume of fine aggregate in all the applications which has resulted into shortage of good quality naturally available fine aggregate. Use of granular slag serves two fold purposes, i.e. waste utilisation as well as alternative eco-friendly green building material for construction. The investigation highlights comparative study of properties with partial and full replacement of fine aggregate (natural sand) by granular slag in cement mortar applications (masonry and plastering). For this purpose, cement mortar mix proportions from 1:3, 1:4, 1:5 & 1:6 by volume were selected for 0, 25, 50, 75 & 100% replacement levels with w/c ratios of 0.60, 0.65, 0.70 & 0.72 respectively. Based on the study results, it could be inferred that replacement of natural sand with granular slag from 25 to 75% increased the packing density of mortar which resulted into reduced w/c ratio, increased strength properties of all mortar mixes. Hence, it could be recommended that the granular slag could be effectively utilized as fine aggregate in masonry and plastering applications in place of conventional cement mortar mixes using natural sand.

  20. Randomized Trial of a Group Music and Imagery Method (GrpMI) for Women with Fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Esperanza; Pedersen, Inge N; Pérez-Fernández, José I

    2018-06-07

    Fibromyalgia (FM) affects about 2-4% of the world population. Patients, mostly women, experience chronic widespread pain, fatigue, stiffness, sleep disturbances, and psychological disorders, especially depression and anxiety. The aim of this study was to examine preliminary efficacy of a Group Music and Imagery (GrpMI) intervention, which included relaxation, music listening, and spontaneous imagery, to improve subjective psychological well-being, functional capacity and health, pain perception, anxiety, and depression in women with FM. Fifty-six women aged 35 to 65 years (M = 51.3) diagnosed with FM were randomly assigned to either GrpMI treatment (n = 33) or control (n = 26) condition. Experimental group participants received 12 weekly GrpMI sessions, and control group participants who did not receive any additional service completed measures at the same time points as the experimental group. Intra-group analyses showed that GrpMI participants had a significant increase in psychological well-being and significant decrease in the impact of FM on functional capacity and health, pain perception, anxiety, and depression post-treatment, with sustained benefit at three-month follow-up for all variables except psychological well-being. Control group participants showed decreases in trait anxiety and depression at post-treatment, with no significant benefit at three-month follow-up. Inter-group analyses showed that compared with control participants, GRpMI participants had significantly higher scores for psychological well-being and lower-state anxiety post-treatment; however, no differences were observed between groups at three-month follow-up. Findings offer preliminary evidence for the benefit of GrpMI to improve well-being and reduce anxiety in women with FM. Findings also suggest that GrpMI may help diminish pain intensity, state depression, and the impact of FM on functional capacity and health, but further studies are needed to establish efficacy.

  1. Adenosine-derived inhibitors of 78 kDa glucose regulated protein (Grp78) ATPase: insights into isoform selectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macias, Alba T; Williamson, Douglas S; Allen, Nicola; Borgognoni, Jenifer; Clay, Alexandra; Daniels, Zoe; Dokurno, Pawel; Drysdale, Martin J; Francis, Geraint L; Graham, Christopher J; Howes, Rob; Matassova, Natalia; Murray, James B; Parsons, Rachel; Shaw, Terry; Surgenor, Allan E; Terry, Lindsey; Wang, Yikang; Wood, Mike; Massey, Andrew J

    2011-06-23

    78 kDa glucose-regulated protein (Grp78) is a heat shock protein (HSP) involved in protein folding that plays a role in cancer cell proliferation. Binding of adenosine-derived inhibitors to Grp78 was characterized by surface plasmon resonance and isothermal titration calorimetry. The most potent compounds were 13 (VER-155008) with K(D) = 80 nM and 14 with K(D) = 60 nM. X-ray crystal structures of Grp78 bound to ATP, ADPnP, and adenosine derivative 10 revealed differences in the binding site between Grp78 and homologous proteins.

  2. Inhibition of GRP78 abrogates radioresistance in oropharyngeal carcinoma cells after EGFR inhibition by cetuximab.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaonan Sun

    Full Text Available The EGFR-specific mAb cetuximab is one of the most effective treatments for oropharyngeal carcinoma, while patient responses to EGFR inhibitors given alone are modest. Combination treatment with radiation can improve the efficacy of treatment through increasing radiosensitivity, while resistance to radiation after administration of cetuximab limits its efficiency. Radiation and drugs can damage the endoplasmic reticulum (ER homeostatic state and result in ER stress (ERS, subsequently causing resistance to radiation and drugs. Whether the ERS pathway is involved in radioresistance after administration of cetuximab has not been reported. Herein, we show that cetuximab could increase the radiosensitivity of FaDu cells but not Detroit562 cells. In addition, cetuximab inhibited the radiation-induced activation of the ERS signalling pathway IRE1α/ATF6-GRP78 in FaDu cells, while this effect was absent in Detroit562 cells. Silencing GRP78 increased the radiosensitivity of oropharyngeal carcinoma cells and inhibited radiation-induced DNA double-strand-break (DSB repair and autophagy. More interestingly, silencing GRP78 abrogated resistance to cetuximab and radiation in Detroit562 cells and had a synergistic effect with cetuximab in increasing the radiosensitivity of FaDu cells. Immunohistochemistry showed that overexpression of both GRP78 and EGFR was associated with a poor prognosis in oropharyngeal carcinoma patients (P<0.05. Overall, the results of this study show that radioresistance after EGFR inhibition by cetuximab is mediated by the ERS signalling pathway IRE1α/ATF6-GRP78. This suppression was consequently unable to inhibit radiation-induced DSB repair and autophagy in oropharyngeal carcinoma cells, which conferred resistance to radiotherapy and cetuximab. These results suggest that the cooperative effects of radiotherapy and cetuximab could be further improved by inhibiting GRP78 in non-responsive oropharyngeal carcinoma patients.

  3. By-products by design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collins, Richard

    2011-01-01

    Full text: Some mining by-products that are currently stockpiled or disposed of could be put to use preventing nutrients from entering river systems, helping reduce the potential for algal blooms. A joint project between CSIRO and the Western Australia (WA) Department of Water investigated a range of spent materials from mining and industry to determine their ability to filter nutrients from natural waters or to treat wastewater. “The largely unexploited by-product materials we generate in Western Australia could be developed as 'designer' contaminant adsorbents,” said CSIRO project leader Dr Grant Douglas. The use of abundant, low-cost wastes generated from mineral processing, in particular, offers a potentially cost- effective and environmentally-friendly strategy for removing nutrients. “The productive use of the by-products also has the potential to reduce the environmental footprint of mining and mineral processing industries by lowering by-product stockpiles,” he said. But the key benefits are in water; not only improving the health of surface waters but, by facilitating reuse, also easing the competition for water resources in an increasingly climate constrained part of the country. Re-use of industrial by-products in WA is currently considered on a case-by-case basis rather than regulated according to established standards. The project aimed to inject some rigour by characterising for the first time the nutrient, trace element uptake and acid neutralising capacity of a range of low-cost by-products (see Fact File). It also underpinned the development of a draft protocol for screening similar by-products in the future. The comprehensive characterisation included identification and procurement, and basic characterisation of by-products included major and trace element geochemistry, mineralogy, radioactivity, geochemical modelling and leachate chemistry and toxicity. These inherent properties and suitability of by-products for potential environmental

  4. Cell surface localization of the 78 kD glucose regulated protein (GRP 78) induced by thapsigargin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delpino, A; Piselli, P; Vismara, D; Vendetti, S; Colizzi, V

    1998-01-01

    In the present study it was found that the synthesis of the 78 kD glucose-regulated protein (GRP 78 or BIP) is vigorously induced in human rabdomiosarcoma cells (TE 671/RD) following both short-term (1 h) and prolonged (18 h) exposure to 100 nM thapsigargin (Tg). Flow cytometric analysis with a specific anti-GRP 78 polyclonal antibody showed that Tg-treated cells express the GRP 78 on the plasma membrane. Cell surface localization of the Tg-induced GRP 78 was confirmed by biotinylation of membrane-exposed proteins and subsequent isolation of the biotin-labelled proteins by streptavidin/agarose affinity chromatography. It was found that a fraction of the Tg-induced GRP 78 is present among the biotin-labelled, surface-exposed, proteins. Conversely, the GRP 78 immunoprecipitated from unfractionated lysates of Tg-treated and biotin-reacted cells was found to be biotinylated. This is the first report demonstrating surface expression of GRP 78 in cells exposed to a specific GRP 78-inducing stimulus.

  5. Oxidative stress and anxiety-like symptoms related to withdrawal of passive cigarette smoke in mice: beneficial effects of pecan nut shells extract, a by-product of the nut industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reckziegel, P; Boufleur, N; Barcelos, R C S; Benvegnú, D M; Pase, C S; Muller, L G; Teixeira, A M; Zanella, R; Prado, A C P; Fett, R; Block, J M; Burger, M E

    2011-09-01

    The present study evaluated the role of pecan nut (Carya illinoensis) shells aqueous extract (AE) against oxidative damage induced by cigarette smoke exposure (CSE) and behavioral parameters of smoking withdrawal. Mice were passively exposed to cigarette smoke for 3 weeks (6, 10, and 14 cigarettes/day) and orally treated with AE (25 g/L). CSE induced lipid peroxidation in brain and red blood cells (RBC), increased catalase (CAT) activity in RBC, and decreased plasma ascorbic acid levels. AE prevented oxidative damage and increased antioxidant defenses of mice exposed to cigarette smoke. In addition, AE reduced the locomotor activity and anxiety symptoms induced by smoking withdrawal, and these behavioral parameters showed a positive correlation with RBC lipid peroxidation. Our results showed the beneficial effects of this by-product of the pecan industry, indicating its usefulness in smoking cessation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Synthesis and characterization of pigments of hematite, obtained through a by-product of the siderurgy industry; Sintese e caracterizacao de pigmento de hematita, obtido atraves de um subproduto da industria siderurgica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prim, S.R.; Folgueiras, M.V.; Lima, M.A. de, E-mail: dem6srp@joinville.udesc.b [Universidade Estadual de Santa Catarina (PGCEM/UDESC), Joinville, SC (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencia e Engenharia de Materiais

    2009-07-01

    In the ceramic industry of tooting, whose selection is strongly influenced by the visual aspect of the decorated surface, the color becomes one of the most important characteristic for the too tings. With the purpose of seeking new pigments that replace or optimize the already known, news method to synthesis are being researched, such as new pigments system and also the incorporation of new raw materials. In this form, in the present work search to study the possibility of use of a by-product deriving from of the siderurgical industry, that introduces high grades of the Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}. For that different contests of the residue were added in one matrix of silica in the hape of quartz, and homogenized using conventional milling and high energy milling. The material obtained after heating treatment in temperature that varied between 1050 and 1300 deg C was characterization by x-ray diffractometry, differential thermal analysis and scanning electron microscopy. The results shown the feasibility of the process depend of the control of the variables temperature and condition of milling in the quality of material obtained. (author)

  7. GRP94 Regulates Circulating Cholesterol Levels through Blockade of PCSK9-Induced LDLR Degradation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve Poirier

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Clearance of circulating low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLc by hepatic LDL receptors (LDLR is central for vascular health. Secreted by hepatocytes, PCSK9 induces the degradation of LDLR, resulting in higher plasma LDLc levels. Still, it remains unknown why LDLR and PCSK9 co-exist within the secretory pathway of hepatocytes without leading to complete degradation of LDLR. Herein, we identified the ER-resident GRP94, and more precisely its client-binding C-terminal domain, as a PCSK9-LDLR inhibitory binding protein. Depletion of GRP94 did not affect calcium homeostasis, induce ER stress, nor did it alter PCSK9 processing or its secretion but greatly increased its capacity to induce LDLR degradation. Accordingly, we found that hepatocyte-specific Grp94-deficient mice have higher plasma LDLc levels correlated with ∼80% reduction in hepatic LDLR protein levels. Thus, we provide evidence that, in physiological conditions, binding of PCSK9 to GRP94 protects LDLR from degradation likely by preventing early binding of PCSK9 to LDLR within the ER.

  8. Targeting HSP70 and GRP78 in canine osteosarcoma cells in combination with doxorubicin chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asling, Jonathan; Morrison, Jodi; Mutsaers, Anthony J

    2016-11-01

    Heat shock proteins (HSPs) are molecular chaperones subdivided into several families based on their molecular weight. Due to their cytoprotective roles, these proteins may help protect cancer cells against chemotherapy-induced cell death. Investigation into the biologic activity of HSPs in a variety of cancers including primary bone tumors, such as osteosarcoma (OSA), is of great interest. Both human and canine OSA tumor samples have aberrant production of HSP70. This study assessed the response of canine OSA cells to inhibition of HSP70 and GRP78 by the ATP-mimetic VER-155008 and whether this treatment strategy could sensitize cells to doxorubicin chemotherapy. Single-agent VER-155008 treatment decreased cellular viability and clonogenic survival and increased apoptosis in canine OSA cell lines. However, combination schedules with doxorubicin after pretreatment with VER-155008 did not improve inhibition of cellular viability, apoptosis, or clonogenic survival. Treatment with VER-155008 prior to chemotherapy resulted in an upregulation of target proteins HSP70 and GRP78 in addition to the co-chaperone proteins Herp, C/EBP homologous transcription protein (CHOP), and BAG-1. The increased GRP78 was more cytoplasmic in location compared to untreated cells. Single-agent treatment also revealed a dose-dependent reduction in activated and total Akt. Based on these results, targeting GRP78 and HSP70 may have biologic activity in canine osteosarcoma. Further studies are required to determine if and how this strategy may impact the response of osteosarcoma cells to chemotherapy.

  9. The endothelial cell receptor GRP78 is required for mucormycosis pathogenesis in diabetic mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mingfu; Spellberg, Brad; Phan, Quynh T.; Fu, Yue; Fu, Yong; Lee, Amy S.; Edwards, John E.; Filler, Scott G.; Ibrahim, Ashraf S.

    2010-01-01

    Mucormycosis is a fungal infection of the sinuses, brain, or lungs that causes a mortality rate of at least 50% despite first-line therapy. Because angioinvasion is a hallmark of mucormycosis infections, we sought to define the endothelial cell receptor(s) for fungi of the order Mucorales (the fungi that cause mucormycosis). Furthermore, since patients with elevated available serum iron, including those with diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA), are uniquely susceptible to mucormycosis, we sought to define the role of iron and glucose in regulating the expression of such a receptor. Here, we have identified glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78) as what we believe to be a novel host receptor that mediates invasion and damage of human endothelial cells by Rhizopus oryzae, the most common etiologic species of Mucorales, but not Candida albicans or Aspergillus fumigatus. Elevated concentrations of glucose and iron, consistent with those seen during DKA, enhanced GRP78 expression and the resulting R. oryzae invasion and damage of endothelial cells in a receptor-dependent manner. Mice with DKA, which have enhanced susceptibility to mucormycosis, exhibited increased expression of GRP78 in sinus, lungs, and brain compared with normal mice. Finally, GRP78-specific immune serum protected mice with DKA from mucormycosis. These results suggest a unique susceptibility of patients with DKA to mucormycosis and provide a foundation for the development of new therapeutic interventions for these deadly infections. PMID:20484814

  10. Targeting GRP75 improves HSP90 inhibitor efficacy by enhancing p53-mediated apoptosis in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiwei Guo

    Full Text Available Heat shock protein 90 (HSP90 inhibitors are potential drugs for cancer therapy. The inhibition of HSP90 on cancer cell growth largely through degrading client proteins, like Akt and p53, therefore, triggering cancer cell apoptosis. Here, we show that the HSP90 inhibitor 17-AAG can induce the expression of GRP75, a member of heat shock protein 70 (HSP70 family, which, in turn, attenuates the anti-growth effect of HSP90 inhibition on cancer cells. Additionally, 17-AAG enhanced binding of GRP75 and p53, resulting in the retention of p53 in the cytoplasm. Blocking GRP75 with its inhibitor MKT-077 potentiated the anti-tumor effects of 17-AAG by disrupting the formation of GRP75-p53 complexes, thereby facilitating translocation of p53 into the nuclei and leading to the induction of apoptosis-related genes. Finally, dual inhibition of HSP90 and GRP75 was found to significantly inhibit tumor growth in a liver cancer xenograft model. In conclusion, the GRP75 inhibitor MKT-077 enhances 17-AAG-induced apoptosis in HCCs and increases p53-mediated inhibition of tumor growth in vivo. Dual targeting of GRP75 and HSP90 may be a useful strategy for the treatment of HCCs.

  11. Hypoxic Preconditioning Promotes the Bioactivities of Mesenchymal Stem Cells via the HIF-1α-GRP78-Akt Axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jun Hee; Yoon, Yeo Min; Lee, Sang Hun

    2017-06-21

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) are ideal materials for stem cell-based therapy. As MSCs reside in hypoxic microenvironments (low oxygen tension of 1% to 7%), several studies have focused on the beneficial effects of hypoxic preconditioning on MSC survival; however, the mechanisms underlying such effects remain unclear. This study aimed to uncover the potential mechanism involving 78-kDa glucose-regulated protein (GRP78) to explain the enhanced MSC bioactivity and survival in hindlimb ischemia. Under hypoxia (2% O₂), the expression of GRP78 was significantly increased via hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α. Hypoxia-induced GRP78 promoted the proliferation and migration potential of MSCs through the HIF-1α-GRP78-Akt signal axis. In a murine hind-limb ischemia model, hypoxic preconditioning enhanced the survival and proliferation of transplanted MSCs through suppression of the cell death signal pathway and augmentation of angiogenic cytokine secretion. These effects were regulated by GRP78. Our findings indicate that hypoxic preconditioning promotes survival, proliferation, and angiogenic cytokine secretion of MSCs via the HIF-1α-GRP78-Akt signal pathway, suggesting that hypoxia-preconditioned MSCs might provide a therapeutic strategy for MSC-based therapies and that GRP78 represents a potential target for the development of functional MSCs.

  12. AAV delivery of GRP78/BiP promotes adaptation of human RPE cell to ER stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaderi, Shima; Ahmadian, Shahin; Soheili, Zahra-Soheila; Ahmadieh, Hamid; Samiei, Shahram; Kheitan, Samira; Pirmardan, Ehsan R

    2018-02-01

    Adeno associated virus (AAV)-mediated gene delivery of GRP78 (78 kDa glucose-regulated protein) attenuates the condition of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and prevents apoptotic loss of photoreceptors in Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) rats. In the current study we overexpressed Grp78 with the help of AAV-2 in primary human retinal pigmented epithelium (hRPE) cell cultures and examined its effect on cell response to ER stress. The purpose of this work was studying potential stimulating effect of GRP78 on adaptation/pro-survival of hRPE cells under ER stress, as an in vitro model for RPE degeneration. To investigate the effect of Grp78 overexpression on unfolded protein response (UPR) markers under ER stress, hRPE primary cultures were transduced by recombinant virus rAAV/Grp78, and treated with ER stressor drug, tunicamycin. Expression changes of four UPR markers including GRP78, PERK, ATF6α, and GADD153/CHOP, were assessed by real-time PCR and western blotting. We found that GRP78 has a great contribution in modulation of UPR markers to favor adaptive response in ER-stressed hRPE cells. In fact, GRP78 overexpression affected adaptation and apoptotic phases of early UPR, through enhancement of two master regulators/ER stress sensors (PERK and ATF6α) and down-regulation of a key pro-apoptotic cascade activator (GADD153/CHOP). Together these findings demonstrate the promoting effect of GRP78 on adaptation/pro-survival of hRPE cells under ER stress. This protein with anti-apoptotic actions in the early UPR and important role in cell fate regulation, can be recruited as a useful candidate for future investigations of RPE degenerative diseases. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Subproduto da indústria de alumínio como amenizante de solos contaminados com cádmio e chumbo Aluminum industry by-product as an amendment for cadmium and lead-contaminated soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enio Tarso de Souza Costa

    2008-12-01

    . This study evaluated the performance of an aluminum industry by-product as soil amendment in Cd- and Pb-contaminated soils. Samples of a sandy (50 g kg-1 clay and a clayey (540 g kg-1 clay soil were mixed with polluted soil (15 % with high Cd and Pb concentrations and then treated with increasing doses: 0, 0.25, 0.50, 1.00, and 2.00 % (dry weight basis - of an Al industry by-product. Additional treatments for comparison purposes consisted of: lime, a silicate by-product and turf, at rates of 0.25, 0.50, and 2.00 % respectively, as well as the non-contaminated soils. Plant and soil parameters were evaluated as follows: i root and shoot dry matter production of Brachiaria decumbens and the respective Cd and Pb concentrations; and, ii soil Cd and Pb concentrations, as well as the pH and the electrolytic conductivity (EC of soil leachates. Cadmium and lead concentrations were measured in both unfiltered and 0.45 µm- filtered leachates, and Cd and Pb amounts in the plant roots and shoots were measured after nitric-perchloric digestion. Metal analysis were performed by either flame or graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Increasing the application rates of the Al industry by-product caused an increase in pH of the leachates and yielded higher EC values in the sandy than in the clayey soil. Unlike Cd, the Pb concentration differed between filtered and non-filtered soil leachates. The Al industry by-product favored the root and shoot dry matter production of B. decumbens and reduced Cd concentrations in the latter (mg kg-1 while the Pb concentration was not significantly altered.

  14. Unique variability of tocopherol composition in various seed oils recovered from by-products of apple industry: rapid and simple determination of all four homologues (α, β, γ and δ) by RP-HPLC/FLD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Górnaś, Paweł

    2015-04-01

    The tocochromanol profile was studied in seed oils recovered from by-products of fruit industry, five dessert and seven crab apple varieties grown in Eastern Europe (Latvia). The seed oils obtained from dessert apples were characterized by higher contents of tocopherols (191.05-379.08 mg/100g oil) when compared to seed oils recovered from crab apples (130.55-202.54 mg/100g oil). The predominant homologues of tocopherol in all the studied samples were α and β over γ and δ. However, seed oils recovered from the apple cultivars 'Antej' and 'Beforest' had a unique profile of four tocopherol homologues (α:β:γ:δ) 91.41:80.55:72.46:79.03 and 114.55:112.84:78.69:73.00 mg/100g oil, respectively. A single dilution of seed oils in 2-propanol facilitated the direct use samples in the DPPH assay as well as injection into the RP-HPLC system containing a PFP (pentafluorophenyl) column, which resulted in a rapid separation of all four tocopherol homologues with excellent repeatability and reproducibility. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Agro-industrial by-products as roughage source for beef cattle: Chemical composition, nutrient digestibility and energy values of ensiled sweet corn cob and husk with different levels of Ipil – Ipil leaves.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sompong Sruamsiri

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was carried out to determine the nutritive value of agro-industrial by-products and nutrient digestibility of ensiled sweet corn cob and husk with different levels of Ipil - Ipil leaves (Leucaena leucocephala. Four native cattle were assigned by Latin Square Design to receive all dietary treatments in four experimental periods i.e. ensiled sweet corn cob and husk (ESCH, ensiled sweet corn cob and husk + 10 % Ipil - Ipil leaves (ESCH + 10% IL, ensiled sweet corn cob and husk + 20% Ipil - Ipil leaves (ESCH + 20% IL and ensiled sweet corn cob and husk + 30% Ipil - Ipil leaves (ESCH + 30% IL, respectively. Total collection method was used to determine the digestibility coefficients. Results showed that digestibility coefficients in ESCH were low (P>0.05 in all the nutrients. Supplementation of Ipil - Ipil leaves in ESCH increased digestibility coefficients. Total digestible nutrients (TDN and digestible energy were higher in the silages supplemented with Ipil - Ipil leaves. Average TDN contents of ESCH, ESCH + 10% IL, 20% IL and 30% IL were 62.78 + 6.14, 70.41 + 4.04, 72.73 + 2.78 and 63.07 + 4.06 %DM, respectively.

  16. Selective Hydrogenolysis of Glycerol and Crude Glycerol (a By-Product or Waste Stream from the Biodiesel Industry to 1,2-Propanediol over B2O3 Promoted Cu/Al2O3 Catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malaya R. Nanda

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The performance of boron oxide (B2O3-promoted Cu/Al2O3 catalyst in the selective hydrogenolysis of glycerol and crude glycerol (a by-product or waste stream from the biodiesel industry to produce 1,2-propanediol (1,2-PDO was investigated. The catalysts were characterized using N2-adsorption-desorption isotherm, Inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES, X-ray diffraction (XRD, ammonia temperature programmed desorption (NH3-TPD, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, temperature programmed reduction (TPR, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM. Incorporation of B2O3 to Cu/Al2O3 was found to enhance the catalytic activity. At the optimum condition (250 °C, 6 MPa H2 pressure, 0.1 h−1 WHSV (weight hourly space velocity, and 5Cu-B/Al2O3 catalyst, 10 wt% aqueous solution of glycerol was converted into 1,2-PDO at 98 ± 2% glycerol conversion and 98 ± 2% selectivity. The effects of temperature, pressure, boron addition amount, and liquid hourly space velocity were studied. Different grades of glycerol (pharmaceutical, technical, or crude glycerol were used in the process to investigate the stability and resistance to deactivation of the selected 5Cu-B/Al2O3 catalyst.

  17. GRP-R expression in breast cancer as target for nuclear imaging and therapy, correlation with ER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalm, S.U.; Melis, M.; Sieuwerts, A.M.; Martens, J.W.M.; Jong, M. de

    2015-01-01

    Full text of publication follows. Introduction: Breast cancer (BC) is a complex and heterogeneous disease: several molecular characteristics reflect subtypes, partly overlapping with therapeutic targets. Examples include the expression of the oestrogen receptor (ER), expressed in approximately 75 % of all breast cancer cases. Currently mammography, MRI, 99m Tc-Sestamibi scintigraphy, and 18 F-FDG PET are commonly used for diagnostic imaging to accurately localize BC. Since it has been reported that the gastrin releasing peptide receptor (GRP-R) is expressed in BC, targeting this receptor with radiolabeled GRP analogues might offer opportunities for SPECT/CT or PET/CT imaging as well as radionuclide therapy in BC. In this study GRP-R expression was determined in human BC specimens and BC cell lines and correlated with ER status. Methods: GRP-R mRNA levels of 90 human breast cancer specimens, with known ER status (48 ER-positive and 42 ER-negative) were determined using qRT-PCR in a Taqman Gene expression assay. Furthermore a panel of 21 BC cell lines characterized for ER expression (13 ER-positive, 8 ER-negative) was analysed for GRP-R expression at the protein level. Internalisation studies were performed with 10-9 M 111 In-AMBA (an receptor-agonist GRP analogue) for 1 hour and 15 minutes at 37 C. degrees. Thirteen of these BC cell lines were also analyzed for GRP-R expression at mRNA level using qRT-PCR. Results: Clinical BC specimens with high GRP-R mRNA level were all ER-positive, resulting in a significant positive correlation (p=0.03). Fifty-two percent of the analyzed BC cell lines showed the ability to internalize 111 In-AMBA, although high variation between cell lines was observed. GRP-R mRNA levels of the BC cell lines significantly correlated with the internalisation rate (p=0.0003), indicating that the amount of internalized 111 In-AMBA is partly determined by the level of receptor expression. However, no correlation was found between ER status and GRP

  18. A new polymorphism in the GRP78 is not associated with HBV invasion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiao; Wang, Yi; Tao, Tao; Li, Dong-Pei; Lan, Fei-Fei; Zhu, Wei; Xie, Dan; Kung, Hsiang-Fu

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To examine the association between -86 bp (T > A) in the glucose-regulated protein 78 gene (GRP78) and hepatitis B virus (HBV) invasion. METHODS: DNA was genotyped for the single-nucleotide polymorphism by polymerase chain reaction followed by sequencing in a sample of 382 unrelated HBV carriers and a total of 350 sex- and age-matched healthy controls. Serological markers for HBV infection were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits or clinical chemistry testing. RESULTS: The distributions of allelotype and genotype in cases were not significantly different from those in controls. In addition, our findings suggested that neither alanine aminotransferase/hepatitis B e antigen nor HBV-DNA were associated with the allele/genotype variation in HBV infected individuals. CONCLUSION: -86 bp T > A polymorphism in GRP78 gene is not related to the clinical risk and acute exacerbation of HBV invasion. PMID:19842229

  19. GRP78 Protein Expression as Prognostic Values in Neoadjuvant Chemoradiotherapy and Laparoscopic Surgery for Locally Advanced Rectal Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hee Yeon; Jung, Ji-Han; Cho, Hyun-Min; Kim, Sung Hwan; Lee, Kang-Moon; Kim, Hyung-Jin; Lee, Jong Hoon; Shim, Byoung Yong

    2015-10-01

    We investigated the relationships between biomarkers related to endoplasmic reticulum stress proteins (glucose-regulated protein of molecular mass 78 [GRP78] and Cripto-1 [teratocarcinoma-derived growth factor 1 protein]), pathologic response, and prognosis in locally advanced rectal cancer. All clinical stage II and III rectal cancer patients received 50.4 Gy over 5.5 weeks, plus 5-fluorouracil (400 mg/m(2)/day) and leucovorin (20 mg/m(2)/day) bolus on days 1 to 5 and 29 to 33, and surgery was performed at 7 to 10 weeks after completion of all therapies. Expression of GRP78 and Cripto-1 proteins was determined by immunohistochemistry and was assessed in 101 patients with rectal cancer treated with neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (CRT). High expression of GRP78 and Cripto-1 proteins was observed in 86 patients (85.1%) and 49 patients (48.5%), respectively. Low expression of GRP78 protein was associated with a significantly high rate of down staging (80.0% vs. 52.3%, respectively; p=0.046) and a significantly low rate of recurrence (0% vs. 33.7%, respectively; p=0.008) compared with high expression of GRP78 protein. Mean recurrence-free survival according to GRP78 expression could not be estimated because the low expression group did not develop recurrence events but showed a significant correlation with time to recurrence, based on the log rank method (p=0.007). GRP78 also showed correlation with overall survival, based on the log rank method (p=0.045). GRP78 expression is a predictive and prognostic factor for down staging, recurrence, and survival in rectal cancer patients treated with 5-fluorouracil and leucovorin neoadjuvant CRT.

  20. Machined GRP laminates for components in heavy electrical engineering and their use at very low temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuchs, H.

    1982-01-01

    Safe and economical components can be produced from machined GRP laminates. Matrix system, fibre reinforcement and elastic properties are described. Onset of damage and long-term properties are given with detailed charting of tests. Application of the laminate studies at stresses of up to half their short-term strength can be made, provided creep strain and its dependence on time and temperature are considered

  1. Role of prostate apoptosis response 4 in translocation of GRP78 from the endoplasmic reticulum to the cell surface of trophoblastic cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Cohen

    Full Text Available Glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78 is an endoplasmic reticulum (ER molecular chaperone that belongs to the heat shock protein 70 family. GRP78 is also present on the cell surface membrane of trophoblastic cells, where it is associated with invasive or fusion properties of these cells. Impaired mechanism of GRP78 relocation from ER to the cell surface was observed in preeclamptic cytotrophoblastic cells (CTB and could take part in the pathogenesis of preeclampsia. In this study, we have investigated whether prostate apoptosis response 4 (Par-4, a protein identified as a partner of GRP78 relocation to the cell surface in prostate cancer cells, is present in trophoblastic cells and is involved in the translocation of GRP78 to the cell surface of CTB. Par-4 is indeed present in trophoblastic cells and its expression correlates with expression of membrane GRP78. Moreover, overexpression of Par-4 led to an increase of cell surface expression of GRP78 and decreased Par-4 gene expression reduced cell surface localization of GRP78 confirming a role of Par-4 in relocation of GRP78 from ER to the cell surface. Accordingly, invasive property was modified in these cells. In conclusion, we show that Par-4 is expressed in trophoblastic cells and is involved in transport of GRP78 to the cell surface and thus regulates invasive property of extravillous CTB.

  2. Role of the Escherichia coli grpE heat shock protein in the initiation of bacteriophage lambda DNA replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osipiuk, J; Zylicz, M

    1991-01-01

    Initiation of replication of lambda DNA requires assembly of the proper nucleoprotein complex consisting of the lambda origin of replication-lambda O-lambda P-dnaB proteins. The dnaJ, dnaK and grpE heat shock proteins destabilize the lambda P-dnaB interaction in this complex permitting dnaB helicase to unwind lambda DNA near ori lambda sequence. First step of this disassembling reaction is the binding of dnaK protein to lambda P protein. In this report we examined the influence of dnaJ and grpE proteins on stability of the lambda P-dnaK complex. Our results show that grpE alone dissociates this complex, but both grpE and dnaJ together do not. These results suggest that, in the presence of grpE protein, dnaK protein has a higher affinity for lambda P protein complexed with dnaJ protein than in the situation where grpE protein is not used.

  3. Reversible thermal transition in GrpE, the nucleotide exchange factor of the DnaK heat-shock system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimshaw, J P; Jelesarov, I; Schönfeld, H J; Christen, P

    2001-03-02

    DnaK, a Hsp70 acting in concert with its co-chaperones DnaJ and GrpE, is essential for Escherichia coli to survive environmental stress, including exposure to elevated temperatures. Here we explored the influence of temperature on the structure of the individual components and the functional properties of the chaperone system. GrpE undergoes extensive but fully reversible conformational changes in the physiologically relevant temperature range (transition midpoint at approximately 48 degrees C), as observed with both circular dichroism measurements and differential scanning calorimetry, whereas no thermal transitions occur in DnaK and DnaJ between 15 degrees C and 48 degrees C. The conformational changes in GrpE appear to be important in controlling the interconversion of T-state DnaK (ATP-liganded, low affinity for polypeptide substrates) and R-state DnaK (ADP-liganded, high affinity for polypeptide substrates). The rate of the T --> R conversion of DnaK due to DnaJ-triggered ATP hydrolysis follows an Arrhenius temperature dependence. In contrast, the rate of the R --> T conversion due to GrpE-catalyzed ADP/ATP exchange increases progressively less with increasing temperature and even decreases at temperatures above approximately 40 degrees C, indicating a temperature-dependent reversible inactivation of GrpE. At heat-shock temperatures, the reversible structural changes of GrpE thus shift DnaK toward its high-affinity R state.

  4. The rs391957 variant cis-regulating oncogene GRP78 expression contributes to the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiao; Zhang, Jinfang; Fan, Wenguo; Wang, Fang; Yao, Hong; Wang, Zifeng; Hou, Shengping; Tian, Yinghong; Fu, Weiming; Xie, Dan; Zhu, Wei; Long, Jun; Wu, Leijie; Zheng, Xuebao; Kung, Hsiangfu; Zhou, Keyuan; Lin, Marie C M; Luo, Hui; Li, Dongpei

    2013-06-01

    Glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78) is one of the most important responders to disease-related stress. We assessed the association of the promoter polymorphisms of GRP78 with risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and GRP78 expression in a Chinese population. We examined 1007 patients undergoing diagnostic HCC and 810 unrelated healthy controls. Mechanisms by which the GRP78 promoter polymorphism modulates HCC risk and GRP78 levels were analyzed. The promoter haplotype and diplotype carrying rs391957 (-415bp) allele G and genotype GG was strongly associated with HCC risk. Luciferase reporter assays indicated that the promoter carrying rs391957 allele G (haplotype GCCd) showed increased activity in HepG2 cells and Hela cells. rs391957 was also shown to increase the affinity of the transcriptional activator Ets-2, the resistance to apoptosis, as well as cell instability in stressful microenvironment. Furthermore, compared with allele A, rs391957 allele G was associated with higher levels of GRP78 mRNA and protein in HCC tissues. These findings provided new insights into the pathogenesis of HCC and an unexpected effect of the interaction between rs391957 and Ets-2 on hepatocarcinogenesis, and especially supported the hypothesis that stress-related and evolutionarily conserved genetic variant(s) influencing transcriptional regulation could predict susceptibilities.

  5. [Functional analysis of Grp and Iris, the gag and env domesticated errantivirus genes, in the Drosophila melanogaster genome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makhnovskii, P A; Kuzmin, I V; Nefedova, L N; Kima, A I

    2016-01-01

    Drosophila melanogaster is the only invertebrate that contains endogenous retroviruses, which are called errantiviruses. Two domesticated genes, Grp and Iris, which originate from errantivirus gag and env, respectively, have been found in the D. melanogaster genome. The functions performed by the genes in Drosophila are still unclear. To identify the functions of domesticated gag and env in the D. melanogaster genome, expression of Iris and Grp was studied in strains differing by the presence or absence of the functional gypsy errantivirus. In addition, the expression levels were measured after injection of gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, which activate different immune response pathways, and exposure to various abiotic stress factors. The presence of functional D. melanogaster retrovirus gypsy was found to increase the Grp expression level in somatic tissues of the carcass, while exerting no effect on the Iris expression level. Activation of the immune response in D. melanogaster by bacteria Bacillus cereus increased the Grp expression level and did not affect Iris expression. As for the effects of abiotic stress factors (oxidative stress, starvation, and heat and cold stress), the Grp expression level increased in response to starvation in D. melanogaster females, and the Iris expression level was downregulated in heat shock and oxidative stress. Based on the findings, Grp was assumed to play a direct role in the immune response in D. melanogaster; Iris is not involved in immune responses, but and apparently performs a cell function that is inhibited in stress.

  6. Consumo e digestibilidade de silagens de capim-elefante com diferentes níveis de subproduto da agroindústria da acerola Intake and digestibilit of elefhant grass silages with the diferent levels of acerola industry by-product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cristina Holanda Ferreira

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Foi objetivo deste trabalho avaliar o consumo e digestibilidade da MS e nutrientes. de silagens de capim-elefante (CE contendo subproduto do processamento da acerola desidratada (SACD. Utilizaram-se 20 ovinos machos nãocastrados, distribuídos em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com cinco níveis de SACD na silagem (0; 3,5; 7; 10,5 e 14% da matéria seca e quatro repetições. Estimaram-se os consumos de matéria seca (MS, celulose, hemicelulose, proteína bruta (PB, fibra em detergente neutro (FDN, fibra em detergente ácido (FDA, bem como os consumos de matéria seca (MSD, proteína bruta (PBD, fibra em detergente neutro (FDND e energia digestível (ED. Foram avaliados também as digestibilidades da MS, PB, FDN, FDA, celulose, hemicelulose e EB, e o balanço de nitrogênio (BN. A adição de SACD, não influenciou o consumo de MS, FDN e FDA em g animal-1 dia-1 e g UTM-1 (unidade de tamanho metabólico = PV0,75, MSD, FDND em g animal-1 dia-1 e ED (0,86 Mcal dia-1. Contudo, a adição de 1% do SACD na ensilagem do capim-elefante resultou em aumento de 1,91 e 0,04 g nos consumos diários de PB e PBD, respectivamente. Com a adição do SACD, não houve alterações na digestibilidade da MS (43%, PB (36,4%, FDN (44,8% e BN (0,22 g dia-1 das silagens. Entretanto, o BN atingiu valores positivos quando foram adicionados 10,5 e 14% do SACD à dieta. O subproduto da acerola desidratado pode ser adicionado em níveis de até 14% da matéria natural na ensilagem de capim-elefante, pois não compromete nem o consumo nem a digestibilidade dos nutrientes em ovinos.The present study aimed to determine de nutritional value of mixed elephant grass silages and increasing levels of dehydrated acerola industry by-product (PAC. Five PAC levels (0; 3.5; 7.0; 10.5 and 14% were evaluated in a digestibility trial with 20 male non-castrated sheep in a randomized experimental design of five treatments (PAC levels and four replications per treatment (sheep. Intake

  7. Isthmin is a novel vascular permeability inducer that functions through cell-surface GRP78-mediated Src activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venugopal, Shruthi; Chen, Mo; Liao, Wupeng; Er, Shi Yin; Wong, Wai-Shiu Fred; Ge, Ruowen

    2015-07-01

    Isthmin (ISM) is a recently identified 60 kDa secreted angiogenesis inhibitor. Two cell-surface receptors for ISM have been defined, the high-affinity glucose-regulated protein 78 kDa (GRP78) and the low-affinity αvβ5 integrin. As αvβ5 integrin plays an important role in pulmonary vascular permeability (VP) and ISM is highly expressed in mouse lung, we sought to clarify the role of ISM in VP. Recombinant ISM (rISM) dose-dependently enhances endothelial monolayer permeability in vitro and local dermal VP when administered intradermally in mice. Systemic rISM administration through intravenous injection leads to profound lung vascular hyperpermeability but not in other organs. Mechanistic investigations using molecular, biochemical approaches and specific chemical inhibitors revealed that ISM-GRP78 interaction triggers a direct interaction between GRP78 and Src, leading to Src activation and subsequent phosphorylation of adherens junction proteins and loss of junctional proteins from inter-endothelial junctions, resulting in enhanced VP. Dynamic studies of Src activation, VP and apoptosis revealed that ISM induces VP directly via Src activation while apoptosis contributes indirectly only after prolonged treatment. Furthermore, ISM is significantly up-regulated in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated mouse lung. Blocking cell-surface GRP78 by systemic infusion of anti-GRP78 antibody significantly attenuates pulmonary vascular hyperpermeability in LPS-induced acute lung injury (ALI) in mice. ISM is a novel VP inducer that functions through cell-surface GRP78-mediated Src activation as well as induction of apoptosis. It induces a direct GRP78-Src interaction, leading to cytoplasmic Src activation. ISM contributes to pulmonary vascular hyperpermeability of LPS-induced ALI in mice. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2015. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. The current status of radiopharmacy laboratories in Turkey, conveniences to good radiopharmacy practice (GRP) and quality management systems (ISO)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atak, I.E.

    2004-01-01

    This study ha been conducted in the Radiopharmacy Laboratories of Nuclear Medicine departments of various hospitals and private nuclear medicine laboratories. A total of 35 laboratories from 7 regions of Turkey have been selected by layered sampling method from 131 Radiopharmacy Laboratories located in 30 different cities. During the study, a GRP investigation list with 67 questions and direct communication technique have been used. The aim was determine the current status of the Radiopharmacy Laboratories in general and the administration of radiopharmaceuticals on patients, and good practices in radiopharmacy and conformance with quality assurance systems. In this respect, questions have been asked to determine a) General status, b) Information level of lab workers regarding to the GRP and ISO concepts (i-Status of lab managers, ii- Responsibilities and knowledge of lab workers and iii- regarding to GRP and ISO-9000), c) Conditions of infrastructure, and lab services and its quality, d) Status of organizations. Results showed that only two of the 35 managers of laboratories were radiopharmacists, the rest were Nuclear Medicine specialists. There were less knowledge on GRP than ISO, the labs holding ISO certificate were in minority even though ISO is known concept, radiopharmacist were more knowledgeable in GRP while nuclear medicine specialists were in ISO, the labs with better GRP knowledge have better infrastructure, the GRP knowledge were better in the university and armed forces hospitals while ISO knowledge and certificates were more in private labs and hospitals, the armed forces hospitals better paraphernalia, practically almost all radiopharmaceutical kits were imported goods and there were important problems in quality control

  9. Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schindler, I.; Wiesenberger, H.

    2001-01-01

    This chapter of the environmental control report deals with the environmental impact of the industry in Austria. It gives a review of the structure and types of the industry, the legal framework and environmental policy of industrial relevance. The environmental situation of the industry in Austria is analyzed in detail, concerning air pollution (SO 2 , NO x , CO 2 , CO, CH 4 , N 2 O, NH 3 , Pb, Cd, Hg, dioxin, furans), waste water, waste management and deposit, energy and water consumption. The state of the art in respect of the IPPC-directives (European Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control Bureau) concerning the best available techniques of the different industry sectors is outlined. The application of European laws and regulations in the Austrian industry is described. (a.n.)

  10. Valor nutritivo das silagens de capim-elefante com diferentes níveis de subprodutos da indústria do suco de caju Nutritive value of elephantgrass silage added by-products from the cashew juice industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cristina Holanda Ferreira

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho foi conduzido com o objetivo de se avaliar o valor nutritivo das silagens de capim-elefante com adição de 0, 12, 24, 36 e 48% de bagaço de caju (subproduto da agroindústria de suco de caju. Utilizou-se o delineamento inteiramente casualizado com quatro repetições. Após 82 dias, os silos foram abertos e coletadas amostras para determinação dos teores de matéria seca (MS, proteína bruta (PB, fibra em detergente neutro (FDN, fibra em detergente ácido (FDA, hemicelulose (HEM, pH e níveis de N-NH3 das silagens. A adição de bagaço de caju (BC diminuiu os valores de pH e N-NH3 e elevou os teores de PB das silagens. Os teores de FDA e HEM não diferiram entre os tratamentos. Concluiu-se que o bagaço de caju melhora o valor nutritivo da silagem e proporciona melhor conservação da massa ensilada.This trial was conducted with the objective of evaluating the nutritive value of the silage of elephantgrass by the addition of 0, 12, 24, 36 and 48% of cashew bagasse (by-product of the cashew juice agro-industry. A completely randomized design with four replicates was used. After 82 days, the silos were opened and samples were collected for determination of dry matter (DM, crude protein (CP, neutral detergent fiber (NDF, acid detergent fiber (ADF, hemicellulose (HEM, pH and levels of N-NH3 of the silage. The addition of the cashew bagasse (BC decreased the pH and N-NH3 values and increased the PB grade of the silage. The level of ADF and HEM did not change in function of different additions. It was concluded that the cashew bagasse improves the nutritive value of the silage and provides better conservation of silage.

  11. The Endoplasmic Reticulum Chaperone GRP78/BiP Modulates Prion Propagation in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kyung-Won; Eun Kim, Gyoung; Morales, Rodrigo; Moda, Fabio; Moreno-Gonzalez, Ines; Concha-Marambio, Luis; Lee, Amy S; Hetz, Claudio; Soto, Claudio

    2017-03-23

    Prion diseases are fatal neurodegenerative disorders affecting several mammalian species, characterized by the accumulation of the misfolded form of the prion protein, which is followed by the induction of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and the activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR). GRP78, also called BiP, is a master regulator of the UPR, reducing ER stress levels and apoptosis due to an enhancement of the cellular folding capacity. Here, we studied the role of GRP78 in prion diseases using several in vivo and in vitro approaches. Our results show that a reduction in the expression of this molecular chaperone accelerates prion pathogenesis in vivo. In addition, we observed that prion replication in cell culture was inversely related to the levels of expression of GRP78 and that both proteins interact in the cellular context. Finally, incubation of PrP Sc with recombinant GRP78 led to the dose-dependent reduction of protease-resistant PrP Sc in vitro. Our results uncover a novel role of GRP78 in reducing prion pathogenesis, suggesting that modulating its levels/activity may offer a novel opportunity for designing therapeutic approaches for these diseases. These findings may also have implications for other diseases involving the accumulation of misfolded proteins.

  12. The interplay between GRP78 expression and Akt activation in human colon cancer cells under celecoxib treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Shaobo; Chang, Weilong; Du, Hansong; Bai, Jie; Sun, Zhenhai; Zhang, Qing; Wang, Hui; Zhu, Guangsheng; Tao, Kaixiong; Long, Yueping

    2015-10-01

    It has been reported previously that celecoxib shows antitumor effects in many types of cancers. Here, we detected its effects on DLD-1 and SW480 (two human colon cancer cell lines) and investigated the dynamic relationship between the 78-kDa glucose-regulatory protein (GRP78) and the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathway. Gene expression was detected by real-time PCR and western blot analysis; the cytotoxicity was determined by the MTT assay and flow cytometry. First, the results showed that celecoxib induced cytotoxicity in a dose-dependent and time-dependent manner. Furthermore, we found the celecoxib-triggered unfolded protein response and the bidirectional regulation of Akt activation in both cell lines. Inhibiting the Akt activation by the PI3K inhibitor LY294002 markedly enhanced GRP78 expression. Besides, silencing the GRP78 expression regulated Akt activation in a time-dependent manner and increased the induction of the C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP) as well as considerably promoted celecoxib-induced apoptosis. In conclusion, these findings provide evidence that under the celecoxib treatment, GRP78 plays a protective role by modulating Akt activation and abrogating CHOP expression. However, Akt activation can provide a feedback loop to inhibit GRP78 expression. These studies can lead to novel therapeutic strategies for human colon cancer.

  13. Modelling of Safety Factors in the Design of GRP Composite Products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Babu, B.J.C.; Prabhakaran, R.T. Durai; Lystrup, Aage

    2010-01-01

    as independent, while in real applications these factors may interact/influence each other. Following the concept developed by the authors, a simple graph theoretic model has been used to determine overall factor of safety. This is described with the help of an example and it has been demonstrated......An attempt has been made in this paper to arrive at the safety factor design of glass fibre reinforced polymer (GRP) composite products using graph theoretic model. In the conventional design and recommendations of the standards, these design factors affecting properties have been considered...

  14. Industrialization

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lucy

    . African states as ... regarded as the most important ingredients that went to add value to land and labour in order for countries ... B. Sutcliffe Industry and Underdevelopment (Massachusetts Addison – Wesley Publishing Company. 1971), pp.

  15. Industrialization

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lucy

    scholar, Walt W. Rostow presented and supported this line of thought in his analysis of ... A Brief Historical Background of Industrialization in Africa ... indicative) The western model allowed for the political economy to be shaped by market.

  16. The role of c-Src in the invasion and metastasis of hepatocellular carcinoma cells induced by association of cell surface GRP78 with activated α2M

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Song; Li, Hongdan; Wang, Qingjun; Su, Chang; Wang, Guan; Song, Huijuan; Zhao, Liang; Luan, Zhidong; Su, Rongjian

    2015-01-01

    Emerging data have suggested that cell surface GRP78 is a multifunctional receptor and has been linked to proliferative and antiapoptotic signaling cascades. Activated α 2− macroglobin (α 2 M*) is a natural circulating ligand of cell surface GRP78. Association of cell surface GRP78 with α 2 M* is involved in the regulation of cell proliferation, survival and apoptosis in human cancers. The invasion and metastasis of HCC cells were examined using transwell and wound healing assay; Cell surface expression of GRP78 was detected by in cell western assay. Translocation of GRP78 from cytosol to cell surface was observed by transfection of GRP78-EGFP plus TRIRC-WGA staining. The levels of Src, phosphor-Src, FAK, phospho-FAK, EGFR, phospho-EGFR, phospho-Cortactin, phospho-Paxillin were determined by western blot. Cell surface expression of GRP78 in HCC tissue samples was observed by immunofluorescence. The distribution of Paxillin and Cortactin in HCC cells was also observed by immunofluorescence. The interaction between GRP78 and Src were detected by far-western blot, co-immunoprecipitation and GST pulldown. GRP78 mRNA was detected by RT-PCR. In the current study, we showed that association of cell surface GRP78 with α 2 M* stimulated the invasion and metastasis of HCC. Cell surface GRP78 could interact directly with c-Src, promoted the phosphorylation of c-Src at Y416. Inhibition of the tyrosine kinase activity of c-Src with PP2 reverted the stimulatory effect caused by association of cell surface GRP78 with α 2 M*. Moreover, association of cell surface GRP78 with α 2 M* facilitates the interaction between EGFR and c-Src and consequently phosphorylated EGFR at Y1101 and Y845, promoting the invasion and metastasis of HCCs. However, inhibition of the tyrosine kinase of c-Src do not affect the interaction between EGFR and Src. c-Src plays a critical role in the invasion and metastasis of HCC induced by association of cell surface GRP78 with α 2 M*. Cell surface GRP

  17. Digestibilidade aparente da energia e nutrientes de coprodutos agroindustriais para tilápia do Nilo Apparent digestibility of the energy and nutrients of agro-industrial by-products for Nile tilapia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Sérgio Oliveira Carvalho

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este estudo determinar os coeficientes de digestibilidade aparente da matéria seca, proteína bruta e da energia bruta dos coprodutos agroindustriais torta de dendê, farelo de algodão, farelo da vagem de algaroba, farelo da folha de mandioca e farelo de cacau para tilápias do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus. Foram utilizados 150 peixes revertidos sexualmente, com peso de 40 ± 2,6g, distribuídos em 10 gaiolas de 60L, instaladas em cinco caixas de polietileno (310L e seis incubadoras de 200L adaptadas para ensaio de digestibilidade, em um delineamento inteiramente casualizado com cinco tratamentos e três repetições. A determinação dos coeficientes de digestibilidade aparente foi realizada pelo método indireto, com a utilização 0,10% de óxido crômico (Cr2O3, como indicador. Os coeficientes de digestibilidade aparente da matéria seca, proteína bruta e energia bruta, foram, respectivamente, 56,63; 75,87 e 66,87 para torta de dendê; 48,31; 80,51 e 39,63 para farelo de algodão; 48,69; 51,61 e 30,48 para farelo da vagem de algaroba; 50,22; 49,83 e 29,29 para farelo da folha de mandioca e 43,87; 38,47 e 23,13 para farelo de cacau.This study was carried out aimed to determine the dry matter, crude protein and gross energy apparent digestibility coefficients of agro-industrial by-products palm kernel cake, cotton seed meal, mesquite pods meal, aerial parts of cassava meal and cocoa meal for Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus. One hundred and fifty sexually reverted fishes, with weight of 40 ± 2.6g were spread across to teen net pens of 60L, installed in five polyethylene boxes (310L and six hatchers adapted for the digestibility trial (200L, in an entirely randomized layout with five treatments and three repetitions. The apparent digestibility coefficients determination was performed by the indirect method, using 0.10% chromic oxide (Cr2O3, as marker. Apparent digestibility coefficients of dry matter, crude protein and

  18. Subprodutos industriais na ensilagem de capim-elefante para cabras leiteiras: consumo, digestibilidade de nutrientes e produção de leite Industrial by-products in elephant grass silage for dairy goats: intake, nutrient digestibility and milk yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jobel Beserra de Oliveira

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi conduzido para avaliar o consumo, a digestibilidade aparente e a produção do leite em cabras alimentadas com silagens de capim-elefante contendo subprodutos industriais. Utilizaram-se oito cabras da raça Saanen, distribuídas em dois quadrados latinos 4 × 4, com 4 períodos de 14 dias (10 dias de adaptação e 4 dias para coleta de dados. Os tratamentos foram: silagem de capim-elefante + concentrado; silagem de capim-elefante com 15% de farelo de mandioca + concentrado; silagem de capim-elefante com 15% de casca de café + concentrado; silagem de capim-elefante com 15% farelo de cacau + concentrado. Os maiores consumos de matéria seca (MS, matéria orgânica (MO, carboidratos totais (CT, carboidratos não-fibrosos (CNF e nutrientes digestíveis totais foram observados entre os animais alimentados com a silagem contendo farelo de mandioca. As silagens com farelo de mandioca ou casca de café promoveram maior consumo de extrato etéreo. Os maiores valores de digestibilidade da MS, MO, EE e CT foram obtidos na dieta contendo silagem de capim-elefante com farelo de mandioca. O valor de digestibilidade dos CNF foi semelhante entre as dietas contendo silagem de capim-elefante com farelo de mandioca, casca de café e farelo de cacau. A digestibilidade de fibra em detergente neutro e de fibra em detergente ácido foi maior para a silagem sem aditivo, com farelo de mandioca ou farelo de cacau. Entre os subprodutos avaliados, o farelo de mandioca é o que promove maiores consumos, digestibilidades dos nutrientes e produção de leite em cabras alimentadas com silagem de capim-elefante.The experiment was carried out to evaluate the intake, apparent digestibility and the milk yield of goats fed elephant grass silages containing industrial by-products. Eight Saanen breed goats were used, distributed in two 4 × 4 Latin squares, with four 14-day periods (ten days of adaptation and four days for data collection. The treatments were

  19. Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernstein, Lenny; Roy, Joyashree; Delhotal, K. Casey; Harnisch, Jochen; Matsuhashi, Ryuji; Price, Lynn; Tanaka, Kanako; Worrell, Ernst; Yamba, Francis; Fengqi, Zhou; de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Gielen, Dolf; Joosen, Suzanne; Konar, Manaswita; Matysek, Anna; Miner, Reid; Okazaki, Teruo; Sanders, Johan; Sheinbaum Parado, Claudia

    2007-12-01

    This chapter addresses past, ongoing, and short (to 2010) and medium-term (to 2030) future actions that can be taken to mitigate GHG emissions from the manufacturing and process industries. Globally, and in most countries, CO{sub 2} accounts for more than 90% of CO{sub 2}-eq GHG emissions from the industrial sector (Price et al., 2006; US EPA, 2006b). These CO{sub 2} emissions arise from three sources: (1) the use of fossil fuels for energy, either directly by industry for heat and power generation or indirectly in the generation of purchased electricity and steam; (2) non-energy uses of fossil fuels in chemical processing and metal smelting; and (3) non-fossil fuel sources, for example cement and lime manufacture. Industrial processes also emit other GHGs, e.g.: (1) Nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) is emitted as a byproduct of adipic acid, nitric acid and caprolactam production; (2) HFC-23 is emitted as a byproduct of HCFC-22 production, a refrigerant, and also used in fluoroplastics manufacture; (3) Perfluorocarbons (PFCs) are emitted as byproducts of aluminium smelting and in semiconductor manufacture; (4) Sulphur hexafluoride (SF{sub 6}) is emitted in the manufacture, use and, decommissioning of gas insulated electrical switchgear, during the production of flat screen panels and semiconductors, from magnesium die casting and other industrial applications; (5) Methane (CH{sub 4}) is emitted as a byproduct of some chemical processes; and (6) CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O can be emitted by food industry waste streams. Many GHG emission mitigation options have been developed for the industrial sector. They fall into three categories: operating procedures, sector-wide technologies and process-specific technologies. A sampling of these options is discussed in Sections 7.2-7.4. The short- and medium-term potential for and cost of all classes of options are discussed in Section 7.5, barriers to the application of these options are addressed in Section 7.6 and the implication of

  20. Joining of hybrid AA6063-6SiCp-3Grp composite and AISI 1030 steel by friction welding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Rajesh Jesudoss Hynes

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Joining of metals and aluminium hybrid metal matrix composites has significant applications in aviation, ship building and automotive industries. In the present work, investigation is carried out on Friction Welding of AISI 1030 steel and hybrid AA6063-6SiCp-3Grpcomposite, that are difficult to weld by fusion welding technique. Silicon carbide and graphite particle reinforced AA6063 matrix hybrid composite was developed successfully using stir casting method and the joining feasibility of AISI1030 steel with AA6063-6SiCp-3Grp hybrid composite was tried out by friction stud welding technique. During friction stage of welding process, the particulates (SiC & Graphite used for reinforcement, tend to increase the viscosity and lead to improper mixing of matrix and reinforcement. This eventually results in lower strength in dissimilar joints. To overcome this difficulty AA1100 interlayer is used while joining hybrid composite to AISI 1030 steel. Experimentation was carried out using Taguchi based design of experiments (DOE technique. Multiple regression methods were applied to understand the relationship between process parameters of the friction stud welding process. Micro structural examination reveals three separate zones namely fully plasticized zone, partially deformed zone and unaffected base material zone. Ultra fine dynamically recrystallized grains of about 341 nm were observed at the fully plasticized zone. EDX analysis confirms the presence of intermetallic compound Fe2Al5 at the joint interface. According to the experimental analysis using DOE, rotational speed and interlayer sheet thickness contribute about 39% and 36% respectively in determining the impact strength of the welded joints. It is found that joining with 0.5 mm interlayer sheet provides efficient joints. Developed regression model could be used to predict the axial shortening distance and impact strength of the welded joint with reasonable accuracy.

  1. Discovery of a novel target for the dysglycemic chromogranin A fragment pancreastatin: interaction with the chaperone GRP78 to influence metabolism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilima Biswas

    Full Text Available RATIONALE: The chromogranin A-derived peptide pancreastatin (PST is a dysglycemic, counter-regulatory peptide for insulin action, especially in liver. Although previous evidence for a PST binding protein has been reported, such a receptor has not been identified or sequenced. METHODS AND RESULTS: We used ligand affinity to purify the PST target, with biotinylated human PST (hCHGA273-301-amide as "bait" and mouse liver homogenate as "prey", and identified GRP78 (a.k.a. "78 kDa Glucose Regulated Protein", HSPA5, BIP as a major interacting partner of PST. GRP78 belongs to the family of heat shock proteins (chaperones, involved in several cellular processes including protein folding and glucose metabolism. We analyzed expression of GRP78 in the absence of PST in a mouse knockout model lacking its precursor CHGA: hepatic transcriptome data revealed global over-expression of not only GRP78 but also other heat shock transcripts (of the "adaptive UPR" in CHGA(-/- mice compared to wild-type (+/+. By contrast, we found a global decline in expression of hepatic pro-apoptotic transcripts in CHGA(-/- mice. GRP78's ATPase enzymatic activity was dose-dependently inhibited by PST (IC50∼5.2 µM. PST also inhibited the up-regulation of GRP78 expression during UPR activation (by tunicamycin in hepatocytes. PST inhibited insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in adipocytes, and increased hepatic expression of G6Pase (the final step in gluconeogenesis/glycogenolysis. In hepatocytes not only PST but also other GRP78-ATPase inhibitors (VER-155008 or ADP increased G6Pase expression. GRP78 over-expression inhibited G6Pase expression in hepatocytes, with partial restoration by GRP78-ATPase inhibitors PST, VER-155008, or ADP. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that an unexpected major hepatic target of PST is the adaptive UPR chaperone GRP78. PST not only binds to GRP78 (in pH-dependent fashion, but also inhibits GRP78's ATPase enzymatic activity, and impairs its biosynthetic

  2. Expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray characterization of the GRP carbohydrate-recognition domain from Homo sapiens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Dongwen; Sun, Jianping; Zhao, Wei; Zhang, Xiao; Shi, Yunyu; Teng, Maikun, E-mail: mkteng@ustc.edu.cn; Niu, Liwen, E-mail: mkteng@ustc.edu.cn [Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at Microscale and School of Life Sciences, University of Science and Technology of China, 96 Jinzhai Road, Hefei, Anhui 230027 (China); Key Laboratory of Structural Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 96 Jinzhai Road, Hefei, Anhui 230027 (China); Dong, Yuhui; Liu, Peng [Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 19B Yuquan Road, Beijing 100039 (China); Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at Microscale and School of Life Sciences, University of Science and Technology of China, 96 Jinzhai Road, Hefei, Anhui 230027 (China)

    2006-05-01

    The CRD domain of GRP from H. sapiens has been expressed, purified and crystallized and X-ray diffraction data have been collected to a resolution of 2.0 Å. Galectins are a family of animal lectins which share similar carbohydrate-recognition domains (CRDs) and an affinity for β-galactosides. A novel human galectin-related protein named GRP (galectin-related protein; previously known as HSPC159) comprises only one conserved CRD with 38 additional N-terminal residues. The C-terminal fragment of human GRP (GRP-C; residues 38–172) containing the CRD has been expressed and purified. The protein was crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method from a solution containing 2% PEG 400 and 2M ammonium sulfate in 100 mM Tris–HCl buffer pH 7.5. Diffraction data were collected to a resolution limit of 2.0 Å at beamline 3W1A of Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility at 100 K. The crystals belong to the monoclinic space group C2, with unit-cell parameters a = 123.07, b = 96.67, c = 61.56 Å, β = 118.72°. The estimated Matthews coefficient was 2.6 Å{sup 3} Da{sup −1}, corresponding to 51.8% solvent content.

  3. Expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray characterization of the GRP carbohydrate-recognition domain from Homo sapiens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Dongwen; Sun, Jianping; Zhao, Wei; Zhang, Xiao; Shi, Yunyu; Teng, Maikun; Niu, Liwen; Dong, Yuhui; Liu, Peng

    2006-01-01

    The CRD domain of GRP from H. sapiens has been expressed, purified and crystallized and X-ray diffraction data have been collected to a resolution of 2.0 Å. Galectins are a family of animal lectins which share similar carbohydrate-recognition domains (CRDs) and an affinity for β-galactosides. A novel human galectin-related protein named GRP (galectin-related protein; previously known as HSPC159) comprises only one conserved CRD with 38 additional N-terminal residues. The C-terminal fragment of human GRP (GRP-C; residues 38–172) containing the CRD has been expressed and purified. The protein was crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method from a solution containing 2% PEG 400 and 2M ammonium sulfate in 100 mM Tris–HCl buffer pH 7.5. Diffraction data were collected to a resolution limit of 2.0 Å at beamline 3W1A of Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility at 100 K. The crystals belong to the monoclinic space group C2, with unit-cell parameters a = 123.07, b = 96.67, c = 61.56 Å, β = 118.72°. The estimated Matthews coefficient was 2.6 Å 3 Da −1 , corresponding to 51.8% solvent content

  4. GRP94: An HSP90-like protein specialized for protein folding and quality control in the endoplasmic reticulum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marzec, Michal; Eletto, Davide; Argon, Yair

    2012-01-01

    Glucose-regulated protein 94 is the HSP90-like protein in the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum and therefore it chaperones secreted and membrane proteins. It has essential functions in development and physiology of multicellular organisms, at least in part because of this unique clientele. GRP94...

  5. Induction of endoplasmic reticulum stress by deletion of Grp78 depletes Apc mutant intestinal epithelial stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Lidth de Jeude, J F; Meijer, B J; Wielenga, M C B; Spaan, C N; Baan, B; Rosekrans, S L; Meisner, S; Shen, Y H; Lee, A S; Paton, J C; Paton, A W; Muncan, V; van den Brink, G R; Heijmans, J

    2017-06-15

    Intestinal epithelial stem cells are highly sensitive to differentiation induced by endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. Colorectal cancer develops from mutated intestinal epithelial stem cells. The most frequent initiating mutation occurs in Apc, which results in hyperactivated Wnt signalling. This causes hyperproliferation and reduced sensitivity to chemotherapy, but whether these mutated stem cells are sensitive to ER stress induced differentiation remains unknown. Here we examined this by generating mice in which both Apc and ER stress repressor chaperone Grp78 can be conditionally deleted from the intestinal epithelium. For molecular studies, we used intestinal organoids derived from these mice. Homozygous loss of Apc alone resulted in crypt elongation, activation of the Wnt signature and accumulation of intestinal epithelial stem cells, as expected. This phenotype was however completely rescued on activation of ER stress by additional deletion of Grp78. In these Apc-Grp78 double mutant animals, stem cells were rapidly lost and repopulation occurred by non-mutant cells that had escaped recombination, suggesting that Apc-Grp78 double mutant stem cells had lost self-renewal capacity. Although in Apc-Grp78 double mutant mice the Wnt signature was lost, these intestines exhibited ubiquitous epithelial presence of nuclear β-catenin. This suggests that ER stress interferes with Wnt signalling downstream of nuclear β-catenin. In conclusion, our findings indicate that ER stress signalling results in loss of Apc mutated intestinal epithelial stem cells by interference with the Wnt signature. In contrast to many known inhibitors of Wnt signalling, ER stress acts downstream of β-catenin. Therefore, ER stress poses a promising target in colorectal cancers, which develop as a result of Wnt activating mutations.

  6. Residues Phe103 and Phe149 are critical for the co-chaperone activity of Bacillus licheniformis GrpE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Min-Guan; Chi, Meng-Chun; Chen, Bo-En; Wang, Tzu-Fan; Lo, Huei-Fen; Lin, Long-Liu

    2015-01-01

    A tryptophan-free Bacillus licheniformis nucleotide exchange factor (BlGrpE) and its Trp mutants (F70W, F103W, F149W, F70/103W, F70/149W, F103/149W and F70/103/149W) were over-expressed and purified to near homogeneity. Simultaneous addition of B. licheniformis DnaJ, NR-peptide and individual variants synergistically stimulated the ATPase activity of a recombinant DnaK (BlDnaK) from the same bacterium by 3.1-14.7-fold, which are significantly lower than the synergistic stimulation (18.9-fold) of BlGrpE. Protein-protein interaction analysis revealed that Trp mutants relevant to amino acid positions 103 and 149 lost the ability to bind BlDnaK. Circular dichroism measurements indicate that F70W displayed a comparable level of secondary structure to that of BlGrpE, and the wild-type protein and the Trp mutants as well all experienced a reversible behavior of thermal denaturation. Guanidine hydrochloride (GdnHCl)-induced unfolding transition for BlGrpE was calculated to be 1.25 M corresponding to ΔG(N-U) of 4.29 kcal/mol, whereas the unfolding transitions of mutant proteins were in the range of 0.77-1.31 M equivalent to ΔG(N-U) of 2.41-4.14 kcal/mol. Taken together, the introduction of tryptophan residue, especially at positions 103 and 149, into the primary structure of BlGrpE has been proven to be detrimental to structural integrity and proper function of the protein. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Preliminary study on removing Cs⁺/Sr²⁺ by activated porous calcium silicate-A by-product from high-alumina fly ash recycling industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Yingying; Wang, Rong; Chen, Mengjun

    2015-01-01

    ¹³⁷Cs⁺/⁹⁰Sr²⁺-containing radioactive wastewater is one of the most important problems that the world has been facing with. A by-product, activated porous calcium silicate, is generated at high levels by the pre-desiliconizing and soda-lime-sintering processes for producing Al₂O₃from high-alumina fly ash. In order to examine if this by-product could be used as an absorbent for removal of ¹³⁷Cs⁺/⁹⁰Sr²⁺ from radioactive wastewater, various parameters, such as pH, adsorbent dose, contact time, and initial concentration, were discussed. Results indicated that the equilibrium reached in about 2 hr. Activated porous calcium silicate was highly pH sensitive and able to remove Cs(+)/Sr²⁺ in a near-neutral environment. The adsorption equilibrium was best described by Freundlich isotherm equations, and the adsorption of Cs⁺/Sr²⁺ was a physical process. The adsorption kinetic data could be better fitted by the pseudo-second-order model, and the adsorption was controlled by multidiffusion. Current study showed that activated porous calcium silicate has a good adsorption of Cs⁺/Sr²⁺ for their removal. However, other characteristics, such as selectivity because of coexisting cations, elution and regeneration, thermal stability, and acid resistance, should be discussed carefully before using it in an actual field.

  8. DiagTest3Grp: An R Package for Analyzing Diagnostic Tests with Three Ordinal Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingqin Luo

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Medical researchers endeavor to identify potentially useful biomarkers to develop marker-based screening assays for disease diagnosis and prevention. Useful summary measures which properly evaluate the discriminative ability of diagnostic markers are critical for this purpose. Literature and existing software, for example, R packages nicely cover summary measures for diagnostic markers used for the binary case (e.g., healthy vs. diseased. An intermediate population at an early disease stage usually exists between the healthy and the fully diseased population in many disease processes. Supporting utilities for three-group diagnostic tests are highly desired and important for identifying patients at the early disease stage for timely treatments. However, application packages which provide summary measures for three ordinal groups are currently lacking. This paper focuses on two summary measures of diagnostic accuracy—volume under the receiver operating characteristic surface and the extended Youden index, with three diagnostic groups. We provide the R package DiagTest3Grp to estimate, under both parametric and nonparametric assumptions, the two summary measures and the associated variances, as well as the optimal cut-points for disease diagnosis. An omnibus test for multiple markers and a Wald test for two markers, on independent or paired samples, are incorporated to compare diagnostic accuracy across biomarkers. Sample size calculation under the normality assumption can be performed in the R package to design future diagnostic studies. A real world application evaluating the diagnostic accuracy of neuropsychological markers for Alzheimer’s disease is used to guide readers through step-by-step implementation of DiagTest3Grp to demonstrate its utility.

  9. Sustainable aggregates production : green applications for aggregate by-products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    Increased emphasis in the construction industry on sustainability and recycling requires production of : aggregate gradations with lower dust (cleaner aggregates) and smaller maximum sizeshence, increased : amount of quarry by-products (QBs). QBs ...

  10. A Histidine pH sensor regulates activation of the Ras-specific guanine nucleotide exchange factor RasGRP1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vercoulen, Yvonne; Kondo, Yasushi; Iwig, Jeffrey S; Janssen, Axel B; White, Katharine A; Amini, Mojtaba; Barber, Diane L; Kuriyan, John; Roose, Jeroen P

    2017-09-27

    RasGRPs are guanine nucleotide exchange factors that are specific for Ras or Rap, and are important regulators of cellular signaling. Aberrant expression or mutation of RasGRPs results in disease. An analysis of RasGRP1 SNP variants led to the conclusion that the charge of His 212 in RasGRP1 alters signaling activity and plasma membrane recruitment, indicating that His 212 is a pH sensor that alters the balance between the inactive and active forms of RasGRP1. To understand the structural basis for this effect we compared the structure of autoinhibited RasGRP1, determined previously, to those of active RasGRP4:H-Ras and RasGRP2:Rap1b complexes. The transition from the autoinhibited to the active form of RasGRP1 involves the rearrangement of an inter-domain linker that displaces inhibitory inter-domain interactions. His 212 is located at the fulcrum of these conformational changes, and structural features in its vicinity are consistent with its function as a pH-dependent switch.

  11. The essential Escherichia coli msgB gene, a multicopy suppressor of a temperature-sensitive allele of the heat shock gene grpE, is identical to dapE.

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, B; Georgopoulos, C; Ang, D

    1992-01-01

    The grpE gene product is one of three Escherichia coli heat shock proteins (DnaK, DnaJ, and GrpE) that are essential for both bacteriophage lambda DNA replication and bacterial growth at all temperatures. In an effort to determine the role of GrpE and to identify other factors that it may interact with, we isolated multicopy suppressors of the grpE280 point mutation, as judged by their ability to reverse the temperature-sensitive phenotype of grpE280. Here we report the characterization of on...

  12. High expression of GRP78/BiP as a novel predictor of favorable outcomes in patients with advanced thymic carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Yosuke; Kaira, Kyoichi; Sakurai, Reiko; Imai, Hisao; Tomizawa, Yoshio; Sunaga, Noriaki; Minato, Koichi; Hisada, Takeshi; Oyama, Tetsunari; Yamada, Masanobu

    2017-10-01

    Glucose-regulated protein (GRP) 78/immunoglobulin heavy chain binding protein (BiP) is a member of the endoplasmic reticulum chaperone family, and its role in various types of human malignancies has recently been investigated. However, the clinicopathological characteristics of GRP78/BiP in advanced thymic carcinoma (ATC) remain unknown. We aimed to examine the relationship between GRP78/BiP expression and the clinical outcomes of ATC patients. Thirty-four patients with ATC receiving combination chemotherapy at three institutions between April 1998 and April 2014 were enrolled in this study. We retrospectively collected patient characteristics such as therapeutic efficacy, pathological findings, and survival data from their medical records. We performed immunohistochemical analysis to evaluate the expression of GRP78/BiP in tumor specimens obtained from surgical resection or biopsy. This study included 21 men (68%) and 13 women (32%) with a median age of 62 years (range 36-75 years). GRP78/BiP overexpression was observed in 65% of the patients (22 of 34 patients). There was no correlation between GRP78/BiP expression and any patient characteristic. Patients with a high level of GRP78/BiP expression had significantly longer overall survival (OS) compared to those with a low level (46.2 vs. 16.8 months, p = 0.04). Multivariate analysis demonstrated that a high level of GRP78/BiP expression was an independent prognostic factor for prolonged OS. Our findings indicate that the overexpression of GRP78/BiP is a novel predictor of favorable outcomes in patients with ATC who receive combination chemotherapy.

  13. Physical exercise alleviates ER stress in obese humans through reduction in the expression and release of GRP78 chaperone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khadir, Abdelkrim; Kavalakatt, Sina; Abubaker, Jehad; Cherian, Preethi; Madhu, Dhanya; Al-Khairi, Irina; Abu-Farha, Mohamed; Warsame, Samia; Elkum, Naser; Dehbi, Mohammed; Tiss, Ali

    2016-09-01

    Perturbation of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) homeostasis has emerged as one of the prominent features of obesity and diabetes. This occurs when the adaptive unfolded protein response (UPR) fails to restore ER function in key metabolic tissues. We previously reported increased inflammation and impaired heat shock response (HSR) in obese human subjects that were restored by physical exercise. Here, we investigated the status of ER stress chaperone; glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78) and its downstream UPR pathways in human obese, and their modulation by a supervised 3-month physical exercise. Subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and blood samples were collected from non-diabetic adult human lean (n=40) and obese (n=40, at baseline and after 3months of physical exercise). Transcriptomic profiling was used as a primary screen to identify differentially expressed genes and it was carried out on SAT samples using the UPR RT(2) Profiler PCR Array. Conventional RT-PCR, immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence, Western blot and ELISA were used to validate the transcriptomic data. Correlation analyses with the physical, clinical and biochemical outcomes were performed using Pearson's rank correlation coefficient. Levels of GRP78 and its three downstream UPR arms; activating transcription factor-6 (ATF6), inositol-requiring enzyme-1α (IRE1α) and protein kinase RNA-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase (PERK) were increased in obese subjects. More interestingly, higher levels of circulating GRP78 protein were found in obese compared to lean subjects which correlated negatively with maximum oxygen uptake (VO2 Max) but positively with high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) and obesity indicators such as BMI, percentage body fat (PBF) and waist circumference. GRP78 increased secretion in obese was further confirmed in vitro using 3T3-L1 preadipocyte cells under ER stress. Finally, we showed that physical exercise significantly attenuated the expression and release of GRP78

  14. Serum GRP78 as a Tumor Marker and Its Prognostic Significance in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancers: A Retrospective Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Ma

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Glucose-regulated protein 78 (78 kDa, GRP78, which is also known as immunoglobulin heavy chain binding protein (BIP, is a major chaperone in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER. The expression and clinical significance of GRP78 in the serum of non-small cell lung cancer patients have not yet been clearly described. The aims of the present study were to investigate the expression of GRP78 in the serum of non-small cell lung cancer patients, the relationships with clinicopathological parameters, and the potential implications for survival. Patients and Methods. A total of 163 peripheral blood samples from non-small cell lung cancer patients were prospectively collected at the Department of Thoracic Surgery, Fudan University Shanghai Cancer, China. Clinical characteristics data, including age, gender, stage, overall survival (OS time, and relapse-free survival (RFS time, were also collected. Serum GRP78 levels were measured using a commercially available ELISA kit. The associations between GRP78 levels and clinicopathological characteristics and survival were examined using Student’s t-test, Kaplan-Meier, or Cox regression analyses. Results. The mean ± standard error (SE value of GRP78 was 326.5 ± 49.77 pg/mL. This level was significantly lower compared with the level in late-stage non-small cell lung cancer patients (1227 ± 223.6, p=0.0001. There were no significant correlations with the clinicopathological parameters. No significant difference was found between high GRP78 expression and low GRP78 expression with regard to RFS (p=0.1585. However, the OS of patients with higher GRP78 expression was significantly poorer (p=0.0334. Conclusions. GRP78 was expressed in non-small cell lung cancer patients and was highly enriched in late-stage lung cancer. GRP78 may have an important role in the carcinogenesis of non-small cell lung cancer and may be a prognostic marker for non-small cell lung cancer.

  15. Repositioning of Verrucosidin, a Purported Inhibitor of Chaperone Protein GRP78, as an Inhibitor of Mitochondrial Electron Transport Chain Complex I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Reyna; Pao, Peng-Wen; Hofman, Florence M.; Chen, Thomas C.; Louie, Stan G.; Pirrung, Michael C.; Schönthal, Axel H.

    2013-01-01

    Verrucosidin (VCD) belongs to a group of fungal metabolites that were identified in screening programs to detect molecules that preferentially kill cancer cells under glucose-deprived conditions. Its mode of action was proposed to involve inhibition of increased GRP78 (glucose regulated protein 78) expression during hypoglycemia. Because GRP78 plays an important role in tumorigenesis, inhibitors such as VCD might harbor cancer therapeutic potential. We therefore sought to characterize VCD’s anticancer activity in vitro. Triple-negative breast cancer cell lines MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-468 were treated with VCD under different conditions known to trigger increased expression of GRP78, and a variety of cellular processes were analyzed. We show that VCD was highly cytotoxic only under hypoglycemic conditions, but not in the presence of normal glucose levels, and VCD blocked GRP78 expression only when glycolysis was impaired (due to hypoglycemia or the presence of the glycolysis inhibitor 2-deoxyglucose), but not when GRP78 was induced by other means (hypoxia, thapsigargin, tunicamycin). However, VCD’s strictly hypoglycemia-specific toxicity was not due to the inhibition of GRP78. Rather, VCD blocked mitochondrial energy production via inhibition of complex I of the electron transport chain. As a result, cellular ATP levels were quickly depleted under hypoglycemic conditions, and common cellular functions, including general protein synthesis, deteriorated and resulted in cell death. Altogether, our study identifies mitochondria as the primary target of VCD. The possibility that other purported GRP78 inhibitors (arctigenin, biguanides, deoxyverrucosidin, efrapeptin, JBIR, piericidin, prunustatin, pyrvinium, rottlerin, valinomycin, versipelostatin) might act in a similar GRP78-independent fashion will be discussed. PMID:23755268

  16. Repositioning of Verrucosidin, a purported inhibitor of chaperone protein GRP78, as an inhibitor of mitochondrial electron transport chain complex I.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simmy Thomas

    Full Text Available Verrucosidin (VCD belongs to a group of fungal metabolites that were identified in screening programs to detect molecules that preferentially kill cancer cells under glucose-deprived conditions. Its mode of action was proposed to involve inhibition of increased GRP78 (glucose regulated protein 78 expression during hypoglycemia. Because GRP78 plays an important role in tumorigenesis, inhibitors such as VCD might harbor cancer therapeutic potential. We therefore sought to characterize VCD's anticancer activity in vitro. Triple-negative breast cancer cell lines MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-468 were treated with VCD under different conditions known to trigger increased expression of GRP78, and a variety of cellular processes were analyzed. We show that VCD was highly cytotoxic only under hypoglycemic conditions, but not in the presence of normal glucose levels, and VCD blocked GRP78 expression only when glycolysis was impaired (due to hypoglycemia or the presence of the glycolysis inhibitor 2-deoxyglucose, but not when GRP78 was induced by other means (hypoxia, thapsigargin, tunicamycin. However, VCD's strictly hypoglycemia-specific toxicity was not due to the inhibition of GRP78. Rather, VCD blocked mitochondrial energy production via inhibition of complex I of the electron transport chain. As a result, cellular ATP levels were quickly depleted under hypoglycemic conditions, and common cellular functions, including general protein synthesis, deteriorated and resulted in cell death. Altogether, our study identifies mitochondria as the primary target of VCD. The possibility that other purported GRP78 inhibitors (arctigenin, biguanides, deoxyverrucosidin, efrapeptin, JBIR, piericidin, prunustatin, pyrvinium, rottlerin, valinomycin, versipelostatin might act in a similar GRP78-independent fashion will be discussed.

  17. AR-12 suppresses dengue virus replication by down-regulation of PI3K/AKT and GRP78.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hsin-Hsin; Chen, Chien-Chin; Lin, Yee-Shin; Chang, Po-Chun; Lu, Zi-Yi; Lin, Chiou-Feng; Chen, Chia-Ling; Chang, Chih-Peng

    2017-06-01

    Dengue virus (DENV) infection has become a public health issue of worldwide concern and is a serious health problem in Taiwan, yet there are no approved effective antiviral drugs to treat DENV. The replication of DENV requires both viral and cellular factors. Targeting host factors may provide a potential antiviral strategy. It has been known that up-regulation of PI3K/AKT signaling and GRP78 by DENV infection supports its replication. AR-12, a celecoxib derivative with no inhibiting activity on cyclooxygenase, shows potent inhibitory activities on both PI3K/AKT signaling and GRP78 expression levels, and recently has been found to block the replication of several hemorrhagic fever viruses. However the efficacy of AR-12 in treating DENV infection is still unclear. Here, we provide evidence to show that AR-12 is able to suppress DENV replication before or after virus infection in cell culture and mice. The antiviral activities of AR-12 are positive against infection of the four different DENV serotypes. AR-12 significantly down-regulates the PI3K/AKT activity and GRP78 expression in DENV infected cells whereas AKT and GRP78 rescue are able to attenuate anti-DENV effect of AR-12. Using a DENV-infected suckling mice model, we further demonstrate that treatment of AR-12 before or after DENV infection reduces virus replication and mice mortality. In conclusion, we uncover the potential efficacy of AR-12 as a novel drug for treating dengue. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Converging Wages, Diverging GRP: Directed Technical Change and Endogenous Growth. Empirical Analysis of Growth Patterns across Kazakh regions

    OpenAIRE

    Alisher Aldashev

    2011-01-01

    The paper analyzes unequal regional development in Kazakhstan. Applying the nonlinear least squares method in presence of spatial correlation we estimate the convergence rate of wages across Kazakh regions for the period 2003-2009. The estimated convergence rate is about 3% which is somewhat higher than estimates obtained for the USA and Europe. At the same time there is slight divergence in the GRP per capita. It is argued that convergence in wages which coincides with divergence in the per ...

  19. Hypoxic Preconditioning Promotes the Bioactivities of Mesenchymal Stem Cells via the HIF-1?-GRP78-Akt Axis

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Jun Hee; Yoon, Yeo Min; Lee, Sang Hun

    2017-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) are ideal materials for stem cell-based therapy. As MSCs reside in hypoxic microenvironments (low oxygen tension of 1% to 7%), several studies have focused on the beneficial effects of hypoxic preconditioning on MSC survival; however, the mechanisms underlying such effects remain unclear. This study aimed to uncover the potential mechanism involving 78-kDa glucose-regulated protein (GRP78) to explain the enhanced MSC bioactivity and survival in hindlimb ischemia. ...

  20. Binding to membrane proteins within the endoplasmic reticulum cannot explain the retention of the glucose-regulated protein GRP78 in Xenopus oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceriotti, A; Colman, A

    1988-03-01

    We have studied the compartmentation and movement of the rat 78-kd glucose-regulated protein (GRP78) and other secretory and membrane proteins in Xenopus oocytes. Full length GRP78, normally found in the lumen of rat endoplasmic reticulum (ER), is localized to a membraneous compartment in oocytes and is not secreted. A truncated GRP78 lacking the C-terminal (KDEL) ER retention signal is secreted, although at a slow rate. When the synthesis of radioactive GRP78 is confined to a polar (animal or vegetal) region of the oocyte and the subsequent movement across the oocyte monitored, we find that both full-length and truncated GRP78 move at similar rates and only slightly slower than a secretory protein, chick ovalbumin. In contrast, a plasma membrane protein (influenza haemagglutinin) and two ER membrane proteins (rotavirus VP10 and a mutant haemagglutinin) remained confined to their site of synthesis. We conclude that the retention of GRP78 in the ER is not due to its tight binding to a membrane-bound receptor.

  1. Avian reovirus S1133-induced apoptosis is associated with Bip/GRP79-mediated Bim translocation to the endoplasmic reticulum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ping-Yuan; Liu, Hung-Jen; Chang, Ching-Dong; Chen, Yo-Chia; Chang, Chi-I; Shih, Wen-Ling

    2015-04-01

    In this study the mechanism of avian reovirus (ARV) S1133-induced pathogenesis was investigated, with a focus on the contribution of ER stress to apoptosis. Our results showed that upregulation of the ER stress response protein, as well as caspase-3 activation, occurred in ARV S1133-infected cultured cells and in SPF White Leghorn chicks organs. Upon infection, Bim was translocated specifically to the ER, but not mitochondria, in the middle to late infectious stages. In addition, ARV S1133 induced JNK phosphorylation and promoted JNK-Bim complex formation, which correlated with the Bim translocation and apoptosis induction that was observed at the same time point. Knockdown of BiP/GRP78 by siRNA and inhibition of BiP/GRP78 using EGCG both abolished the formation of the JNK-Bim complex, caspase-3 activation, and subsequent apoptosis induction by ARV S1133 efficiently. These results suggest that BiP/GRP78 played critical roles and works upstream of JNK-Bim in response to the ARV S1133-mediated apoptosis process.

  2. Inhibition of casein kinase 2 modulates XBP1-GRP78 arm of unfolded protein responses in cultured glial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toru Hosoi

    Full Text Available Stress signals cause abnormal proteins to accumulate in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER. Such stress is known as ER stress, which has been suggested to be involved in neurodegenerative diseases, diabetes, obesity and cancer. ER stress activates the unfolded protein response (UPR to reduce levels of abnormal proteins by inducing the production of chaperon proteins such as GRP78, and to attenuate translation through the phosphorylation of eIF2α. However, excessive stress leads to apoptosis by generating transcription factors such as CHOP. Casein kinase 2 (CK2 is a serine/threonine kinase involved in regulating neoplasia, cell survival and viral infections. In the present study, we investigated a possible linkage between CK2 and ER stress using mouse primary cultured glial cells. 4,5,6,7-tetrabromobenzotriazole (TBB, a CK2-specific inhibitor, attenuated ER stress-induced XBP-1 splicing and subsequent induction of GRP78 expression, but was ineffective against ER stress-induced eIF2α phosphorylation and CHOP expression. Similar results were obtained when endogenous CK2 expression was knocked-down by siRNA. Immunohistochemical analysis suggested that CK2 was present at the ER. These results indicate CK2 to be linked with UPR and to resist ER stress by activating the XBP-1-GRP78 arm of UPR.

  3. Caracterização de subprodutos da industrialização do maracujá-aproveitamento das sementes Characterization of by-products of passion fruit industrialization utilization of seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roseli Aparecida Ferrari

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available O maracujá (Passiflora edulis é originário da América Tropical, muito cultivado no Brasil, rico em vitamina C, cálcio e fósforo. Cascas e sementes de maracujá, provenientes do processo de corte e extração da fruta para obtenção do suco, são ainda, atualmente, em grande parte descartadas. Como este descarte representa inúmeras toneladas, agregar valor a estes subprodutos é de interesse econômico, científico e tecnológico. Neste trabalho, realizou-se um estudo para caracterizar e verificar um melhor aproveitamento das sementes excedentes do processamento do suco do maracujá na alimentação humana. Procedeu-se, para tanto, à separação das partes da fruta, com posterior quantificação gravimétrica. As sementes obtidas foram secas em estufa, e posteriormente moídas para a obtenção de um farelo. O óleo do farelo obtido foi extraído em soxhlet e caracterizado através da metodologia oficial da AOCS (1995. O farelo desengordurado obtido foi também caracterizado por métodos físico-químicos, através da determinação do teor de umidade, proteínas, lipídeos, fibras, cinzas e carboidratos por metodologia oficial AOAC (1984. O óleo extraído das sementes apresentou elevado teor de ácidos graxos insaturados (87,54%, com predominância do ácido linoléico, com índice de iodo de 136,5g I2/100g. O farelo desengordurado obtido apresentou teor da 10,53% de umidade; 15,62% de proteínas; 0,68% de lipídeos; 1,8% de cinzas, um elevado teor de fibras de 58,98 e 12,39% de carboidratos.The passion fruit (Passiflora edulis is originary from Tropical America and has been growing largely in Brazil, being a crop very rich in vitamin C, calcium and phosphorus. Peels and seeds of Passion fruit that come from the cut and extraction process of fruit in order to extract juice are still throw out in large amounts. As such amounts depict lots tons, ascribing values to the by-products is of great economical, scientific and technological

  4. Biokinetics and dosimetry in patients of {sup 99m}Tc-HYNIC-Lys{sup 3}-Bombesin: images of GRP receptors; Biocinetica y dosimetria en humanos de {sup 99m}Tc-HYNIC-Lys{sup 3}-Bombesina: imagenes de receptores GRP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos C, C L [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2007-07-01

    The bombesin (BN) receptor subtype 2 (GRP-r) is expressed in several normal human tissues and is over-expressed in various human tumors including breast, prostate, small cell lung and pancreatic cancer. Recently [{sup 99m}Tc]EDDA/HYNIC-Lys{sup 3}-bombesin ({sup 99m}Tc-HYNIC-BN) was reported as a radiopharmaceutical with high stability in human serum, specific cell GRP-r binding and rapid cell internalization. The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of using {sup 99m}Tc-HYNIC-BN to image GRP-r and to assess the radiopharmaceutical biokinetics and dosimetry in 4 breast cancer patients and in 7 healthy women. Methods: Whole-body images were acquired at 20, 90, 180 min and 24 h after {sup 99m}Tc-HYNIC-BN administration. Regions of interest (ROIs) were drawn around source organs on each time frame. The same set of ROIs was used for all 11 scans and the cpm of each ROI was converted to activity using the conjugate view counting method. The image sequence was used to extrapolate {sup 99m}Tc-HYNIC-BN time-activity curves in each organ in order to calculate the total number of disintegrations (N) that occurred in the source regions, according with MIRD methodology. N data were the input for the OLINDA/EXM code to calculate internal radiation dose estimates. Results: Images showed a rapid radiopharmaceutical blood clearance with renal excretion as predominant route. {sup 99m}Tc-HYNIC-BN exhibited high in vivo affinity for GRP-r over-expression successfully visualized in cancer mammary glands and well differentiated from the ubiquitous GRP-r expression in normal breast, lungs and airways. There was no statistically significant difference (p > 0.05) in the radiation absorbed doses between cancer patients and healthy women. The average equivalent doses (n=11) for a study using 740 MBq were 24.8 +- 8.8 mSv (kidneys), 7.3 +- 1.8 mSv (lungs), 6.5 +- 4.0 mSv (breast) 2.0 +- 0.3 mSv (pancreas), 1.6 +- 0.3 mSv (liver), 1.2 +- 0.2 mSv (ovaries) and 1.0 +- 0.2 mSv (red

  5. Biokinetics and dosimetry of 99m Tc-EDDA/HYNIC-[Lys3]-bombesin in humans: imaging of GRP receptors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos C, C.L.; Ferro F, G.; Murphy, C.A de; Cardena, E.; Pichardo R, P.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: Bombesin (BN) receptor subtype 2 (GRP-r) is over-expressed on various human tumors including breast, prostate, small cell lung and pancreatic cancer. Recently we reported the 99- mTc-EDDA/HYNIC-[Lys 3 ]-Bombesin ( 99m Tc-HYNIC-BN) complex as a new radiopharmaceutical with high stability in human serum, specific cell GRP-receptor binding and rapid internalization. The aim of this study was to evaluate the 99m Tc-HYNIC-BN biokinetics and dosimetry in 5-healthy and 3-breast cancer women. Whole-body images were acquired at 20, 90, 180 min and 24 h after 99m Tc-HYNIC-BN administration. Regions of interest (ROIs) were drawn around source' organs on each time frame. The same set of ROIs was used for all 8 scans and the cpm of each ROI was converted to activity using the conjugate view counting method. The image sequence was used to extrapolate 99m Tc-HYNIC-BN time activity curves in each organ, to calculate the total number of disintegrations (N) that occurred in the source regions. N data were the input for the OLINDA/EXM code to calculate internal radiation dose estimates. Images showed a rapid radiopharmaceutical blood clearance with predominantly renal excretion and minimal hepatobiliary elimination. 99m Tc-HYNIC-BN exhibited high in vivo affinity for GRP-r over-expression successfully visualized in breast cancer lesions and well differentiated from GRP-r expression in lungs and airways with normal GRP-r density (ratio 3:1). The equivalent doses for a study using 370 MBq were 7.38±1.68, 0.59±0.08, 2.07±0.60, 0.58±0.1, 0.75±0.09 and 0.43±0.07 mSv for kidneys, liver, lungs, ovaries, pancreas and red marrow respectively. The effective dose was 1.64±0.25 mSv which is comparable with the doses known for most of the 99m Tc radiopharmaceutical studies in nuclear medicine. (Author)

  6. Biokinetics and dosimetry in patients of 99mTc-HYNIC-Lys3-Bombesin: images of GRP receptors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos C, C. L.

    2007-01-01

    The bombesin (BN) receptor subtype 2 (GRP-r) is expressed in several normal human tissues and is over-expressed in various human tumors including breast, prostate, small cell lung and pancreatic cancer. Recently [ 99m Tc]EDDA/HYNIC-Lys 3 -bombesin ( 99m Tc-HYNIC-BN) was reported as a radiopharmaceutical with high stability in human serum, specific cell GRP-r binding and rapid cell internalization. The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of using 99m Tc-HYNIC-BN to image GRP-r and to assess the radiopharmaceutical biokinetics and dosimetry in 4 breast cancer patients and in 7 healthy women. Methods: Whole-body images were acquired at 20, 90, 180 min and 24 h after 99m Tc-HYNIC-BN administration. Regions of interest (ROIs) were drawn around source organs on each time frame. The same set of ROIs was used for all 11 scans and the cpm of each ROI was converted to activity using the conjugate view counting method. The image sequence was used to extrapolate 99m Tc-HYNIC-BN time-activity curves in each organ in order to calculate the total number of disintegrations (N) that occurred in the source regions, according with MIRD methodology. N data were the input for the OLINDA/EXM code to calculate internal radiation dose estimates. Results: Images showed a rapid radiopharmaceutical blood clearance with renal excretion as predominant route. 99m Tc-HYNIC-BN exhibited high in vivo affinity for GRP-r over-expression successfully visualized in cancer mammary glands and well differentiated from the ubiquitous GRP-r expression in normal breast, lungs and airways. There was no statistically significant difference (p > 0.05) in the radiation absorbed doses between cancer patients and healthy women. The average equivalent doses (n=11) for a study using 740 MBq were 24.8 +- 8.8 mSv (kidneys), 7.3 +- 1.8 mSv (lungs), 6.5 +- 4.0 mSv (breast) 2.0 +- 0.3 mSv (pancreas), 1.6 +- 0.3 mSv (liver), 1.2 +- 0.2 mSv (ovaries) and 1.0 +- 0.2 mSv (red marrow). The mean effective dose

  7. Production of highly unsaturated fatty acids using agro-processing by-products

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Jacobs, A

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The South African agro-processing industry generates millions of tons of cereal derived by-products annually. The by-products from biofuel production are expected to increase these volumes dramatically. Highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFA...

  8. POSSIBILITIES OF THE USE OF GRP PIPING IN THE CONSTRUCTION AND RECONSTRUCTION OF ENGINEERING NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ikitina Irina Nikolaevna

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Today in modern construction new technologies and materials are used for the manufacture of pipelines for water supply and sanitation. They are supposed to operate for at least 50 years. Unlike plastic pipes, fiberglass ones may be made of larger sizes — up to 3700 mm in diameter. They are produced using the technology of optical fiber winding, which is carried out according to modern international standards of quality. The basic raw materials — fiberglass and resin — are produced in Russia, but their production is limited, so they are purchased abroad, which increases the cost of manufacture of this type of piping. However, due to the necessity of laying pipelines of large diameter, which cannot be made with plastic pipes, the manufacture of GRP pipes will increase. The experience of laying and constructing this type of pipelines, for example, in the areas of hot water supply allows concluding that they are able to withstand the temperatures of up to 150 °C, while their weight is four times less than the weight of steel pipes (they are easily installed with the help of small lifting equipment and by a team of six people. It should be noted that the use of fiberglass pipes helps to reduce the costs of system operation, because this type of piping is not subject to corrosion and encrustation of the inner surface, since it has a low level of roughness, which, for example, is 0.013 for a steel pipe, and 0.01 for fiberglass pipe. Thus, it is not necessary to put protective corrosion-resistant coatings and to provide an expensive protection against electrochemical corrosion. Piping made of fiberglass pipes can be designed as underground, above-ground with stacking or raised on poles. It is possible to combine these options.

  9. The 78 kDa glucose-regulated protein (GRP78/BIP) is expressed on the cell membrane, is released into cell culture medium and is also present in human peripheral circulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delpino, Andrea; Castelli, Mauro

    2002-01-01

    In human rabdomiosarcoma cells (TE671/RD) chronic exposure to 500 nM thapsigargin (a powerful inhibitor of the endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPases) resulted in the induction of the stress protein GRP78/BIP. Making use of the surface biotinylation method, followed by the isolation of the GRP78 using ATP-agarose affinity chromatography, it was found that a fraction of the thapsigargin-induced GRP78 is expressed on the cell surface. The presence of GRP78 on the membrane of thapsigargin-treated cells was confirmed by fractionation of cell lysates into a soluble and a membrane fraction, followed by Western blot analysis with an anti-GRP78 antibody. It was also found that conspicuous amounts of GRP78 are present in the culture medium collected from thapsigargin-treated cultures. This extracellular GRP78 originates mostly by an active release from intact cells and does not result solely from the leakage of proteins from dead cells. Moreover, small amounts of circulating, free GRP78 and naturally-occurring anti-GRP78 autoantibodies were detected in the peripheral circulation of healthy human individuals.

  10. Peripheral T-Cell Reactivity to Heat Shock Protein 70 and Its Cofactor GrpE from Tropheryma whipplei Is Reduced in Patients with Classical Whipple's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trotta, Lucia; Weigt, Kathleen; Schinnerling, Katina; Geelhaar-Karsch, Anika; Oelkers, Gerrit; Biagi, Federico; Corazza, Gino Roberto; Allers, Kristina; Schneider, Thomas; Erben, Ulrike; Moos, Verena

    2017-08-01

    Classical Whipple's disease (CWD) is characterized by the lack of specific Th1 response toward Tropheryma whipplei in genetically predisposed individuals. The cofactor GrpE of heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) from T. whipplei was previously identified as a B-cell antigen. We tested the capacity of Hsp70 and GrpE to elicit specific proinflammatory T-cell responses. Peripheral mononuclear cells from CWD patients and healthy donors were stimulated with T. whipplei lysate or recombinant GrpE or Hsp70 before levels of CD40L, CD69, perforin, granzyme B, CD107a, and gamma interferon (IFN-γ) were determined in T cells by flow cytometry. Upon stimulation with total bacterial lysate or recombinant GrpE or Hsp70 of T. whipplei , the proportions of activated effector CD4 + T cells, determined as CD40L + IFN-γ + , were significantly lower in patients with CWD than in healthy controls; CD8 + T cells of untreated CWD patients revealed an enhanced activation toward unspecific stimulation and T. whipplei -specific degranulation, although CD69 + IFN-γ + CD8 + T cells were reduced upon stimulation with T. whipplei lysate and recombinant T. whipplei -derived proteins. Hsp70 and its cofactor GrpE are immunogenic in healthy individuals, eliciting effective responses against T. whipplei to control bacterial spreading. The lack of specific T-cell responses against these T. whipplei -derived proteins may contribute to the pathogenesis of CWD. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  11. Field survey and laboratory tests on composite materials case of GRP (Glass Fiber Reinforced Polyester tubes for water suply

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu Hariga

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In the Moldova land, were made two lines of water adduction, having 6000 m length and 40 m slope, or 1/150 slope. The water supply component tubes were disposed under the plant: The tubes are made of glass – reinforced thermosetting plastics (GRP. After about 180 days of operation, one of the lines showed severe deterioration of the quality pipe components. This paper deals with some laboratory tests in order to detect the failure cases of the pipelines components.

  12. Mango (Mangifera indica L.) by-products and their valuable components: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahurul, M H A; Zaidul, I S M; Ghafoor, Kashif; Al-Juhaimi, Fahad Y; Nyam, Kar-Lin; Norulaini, N A N; Sahena, F; Mohd Omar, A K

    2015-09-15

    The large amount of waste produced by the food industries causes serious environmental problems and also results in economic losses if not utilized effectively. Different research reports have revealed that food industry by-products can be good sources of potentially valuable bioactive compounds. As such, the mango juice industry uses only the edible portions of the mangoes, and a considerable amount of peels and seeds are discarded as industrial waste. These mango by-products come from the tropical or subtropical fruit processing industries. Mango by-products, especially seeds and peels, are considered to be cheap sources of valuable food and nutraceutical ingredients. The main uses of natural food ingredients derived from mango by-products are presented and discussed, and the mainstream sectors of application for these by-products, such as in the food, pharmaceutical, nutraceutical and cosmetic industries, are highlighted. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Selective in vitro targeting of GRP and NMB receptors in human tumours with the new bombesin tracer 177Lu-AMBA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waser, Beatrice; Eltschinger, Veronique; Reubi, Jean C.; Linder, Karen; Nunn, Adrian

    2007-01-01

    To investigate the in vitro binding properties of a novel radiolabelled bombesin analogue, 177 Lu-AMBA, in human neoplastic and non-neoplastic tissues selected for their expression of the bombesin receptor subtypes GRP-R, NMB-R and BRS-3. In vitro receptor autoradiography was performed in cancers expressing the various bombesin receptor subtypes. The novel radioligand 177 Lu-AMBA was used and compared with established bombesin radioligands such as 125 I-Tyr 4 -bombesin and 125 I-[D-Tyr 6 ,β-Ala 11 ,Phe 13 ,Nle 14 ]-bombesin(6-14). In vitro incidence of detection of each of the three bombesin receptor subtypes was evaluated in each tumour. 177 Lu-AMBA identified all GRP-R-expressing tumours, such as prostatic, mammary and renal cell carcinomas as well as gastrointestinal stromal tumours. 177 Lu-AMBA also identified all NMB-expressing tumours, but did not detect BRS-3-expressing tumours or BRS-3-expressing pancreatic islets. GRP-R-expressing peritumoural vessels were heavily labelled with 177 Lu-AMBA. In contrast to the strongly GRP-R-positive mouse pancreas, the human pancreas was not labelled with 177 Lu-AMBA unless chronic pancreatitis was diagnosed. In general, the sensitivity was slightly better with 177 Lu-AMBA than with the conventional bombesin radioligands. The present in vitro study suggests that 177 Lu-AMBA may be a very useful in vivo targeting agent for GRP-R-expressing tumours, NMB-R-expressing tumours and GRP-R-expressing neoangiogenic vessels. (orig.)

  14. Selective in vitro targeting of GRP and NMB receptors in human tumours with the new bombesin tracer {sup 177}Lu-AMBA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waser, Beatrice; Eltschinger, Veronique; Reubi, Jean C. [University of Berne, Division of Cell Biology and Experimental Cancer Research, Institute of Pathology, P.O. Box 62, Bern (Switzerland); Linder, Karen; Nunn, Adrian [Bracco Research USA Inc, Princeton, NJ (United States)

    2007-01-15

    To investigate the in vitro binding properties of a novel radiolabelled bombesin analogue, {sup 177}Lu-AMBA, in human neoplastic and non-neoplastic tissues selected for their expression of the bombesin receptor subtypes GRP-R, NMB-R and BRS-3. In vitro receptor autoradiography was performed in cancers expressing the various bombesin receptor subtypes. The novel radioligand {sup 177}Lu-AMBA was used and compared with established bombesin radioligands such as {sup 125}I-Tyr{sup 4}-bombesin and {sup 125}I-[D-Tyr{sup 6},{beta}-Ala{sup 11},Phe{sup 13},Nle{sup 14}]-bombesin(6-14). In vitro incidence of detection of each of the three bombesin receptor subtypes was evaluated in each tumour. {sup 177}Lu-AMBA identified all GRP-R-expressing tumours, such as prostatic, mammary and renal cell carcinomas as well as gastrointestinal stromal tumours. {sup 177}Lu-AMBA also identified all NMB-expressing tumours, but did not detect BRS-3-expressing tumours or BRS-3-expressing pancreatic islets. GRP-R-expressing peritumoural vessels were heavily labelled with {sup 177}Lu-AMBA. In contrast to the strongly GRP-R-positive mouse pancreas, the human pancreas was not labelled with {sup 177}Lu-AMBA unless chronic pancreatitis was diagnosed. In general, the sensitivity was slightly better with {sup 177}Lu-AMBA than with the conventional bombesin radioligands. The present in vitro study suggests that {sup 177}Lu-AMBA may be a very useful in vivo targeting agent for GRP-R-expressing tumours, NMB-R-expressing tumours and GRP-R-expressing neoangiogenic vessels. (orig.)

  15. Clinical value of Pro-GRP and T lymphocyte subpopulation for the assessment of immune functions of lung cancer patients after DC-CIK biological therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Lijie; Wang, Jing; Chang, Dandan; Lv, Dandan; Li, Haina; Zhang, Heping

    2018-02-01

    The present study investigated the aptness of assessing the levels of progastrin-releasing peptide (Pro-GRP) in addition to the T lymphocyte subpopulation in lung cancer patients prior to and after therapy for determining immune function. A total of 45 patients with lung cancer were recruited and stratified in to a non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and an SCLC group. Prior to and after treatment by combined biological therapy comprising chemotherapy or chemoradiotherapy followed by three cycles of retransformation of autologous dendritic cells-cytokine-induced killer cells (DC-CIK), the peripheral blood was assessed for populations of CD3 + , CD4 + , CD8 + and regulatory T cells (Treg) by flow cytometry, and for the levels of pro-GRP, carcinoembryonic antigen, neuron-specific enolase and Cyfra 21-1. The results revealed that in NSCLC patients, CD8 + T lymphocytes and Treg populations were decreased, and that CD3 + and CD4 + T lymphocytes as well as the CD4 + /CD8 + ratio were increased after therapy; in SCLC patients, CD3 + , CD4 + and CD8 + T lymphocytes were increased, while Treg cells were decreased after treatment compared with those at baseline. In each group, Pro-GRP was decreased compared with that prior to treatment, and in the SCLC group only, an obvious negative correlation was identified between Pro-GRP and the T lymphocyte subpopulation. Furthermore, a significant correlation between Pro-GRP and Tregs was identified in each group. In conclusion, the present study revealed that the immune function of the patients was improved after biological therapy. The results suggested a significant correlation between Pro-GRP and the T lymphocyte subpopulation in SCLC patients. Detection of Pro-GRP may assist the early clinical diagnosis of SCLC and may also be used to assess the immune regulatory function of patients along with the T lymphocyte subpopulation. Biological therapy with retransformed autologous DC-CIK was indicated to enhance the specific elimination

  16. RNAi silenced Dd-grp94 (Dictyostelium discoideum glucose-regulated protein 94 kDa) cell lines in Dictyostelium exhibit marked reduction in growth rate and delay in development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baviskar, Sandhya N; Shields, Malcolm S

    2010-01-01

    Glucose-regulated 94 kDa protein (Grp94) is a resident of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of multicellular eukaryotes. It is a constitutively expressed protein that is overexpressed in certain abnormal conditions of the cell such as depletion of glucose and calcium, and low oxygen and pH. The protein is also implicated in diseased conditions like cancer and Alzheimer's disease. In this study, the consequences of downregulation of Grp94 were investigated at both unicellular and multicellular stages of Dictyostelium discoideum. Previous studies have shown the expression of Dd-Grp94 (Dictyostelium discoideum glucose-regulated 94 kDa protein) in wild-type cells varies during development, and overexpression of Dd-Grp94 leads to abnormal cell shape and inhibition of development (i.e., formation of fruiting bodies). Grp94 is a known calcium binding protein and an efficient calcium buffer. Therefore, in the present study we hypothesized that downregulation of Dd-Grp94 protein would affect Dictyostelium cell structure, growth, and development. We found that Dd-grp94 RNAi recombinants exhibited reduced growth rate, cell size, and a subtle change in cell motility compared to the parental cells. The recombinants also exhibited a delay in development and small fruiting bodies. These results establish that Dd-grp94 plays a crucial role in determining normal cell structure, growth and differentiation.

  17. Continuous high expression of XBP1 and GRP78 is important for the survival of bone marrow cells in CCl4-treated cirrhotic liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marumoto, Yoshio; Terai, Shuji; Urata, Yohei; Matsumoto, Toshihiko; Mizunaga, Yuko; Yamamoto, Naoki; Jin, Haiyan; Fujisawa, Koichi; Murata, Tomoaki; Shinoda, Koh; Nishina, Hiroshi; Sakaida, Isao

    2008-01-01

    We have previously shown that infusion of bone marrow cells (BMC) improves CCl 4 -induced cirrhosis. However, it is unclear why the injected BMC are resistant to CCl 4 damage and subsequently improve the local microenvironment in damaged liver. To analyze the cellular phenomena involved in this process, we studied the damaged liver using electron microscopy. We found that CCl 4 caused rough endoplasmic reticula to swell in hepatocytes. To analyze the gene expression patterns associated with this process, we conducted PCR-selected suppressive subtractive hybridization. We found that expression levels of HSP84, HSP40, and XBP1 differed markedly between control liver and liver infused with BMC. Immunohistochemical staining revealed that expression levels of HSP84 and HSP40 were markedly higher in the early phase of differentiation immediately after BMC infusion, but decreased over time. XBP1 expression remained high during the late phase, and GRP78 expression increased with XBP1 activation. We also found that GFP-positive BMC expressed XBP1 and GRP78. XBP1 and GRP78 are associated with ER stress. Thus, continuous high XBP1 and GRP78 expression might be essential for the survival and proliferation of BMC in a CCl 4 -induced persistent liver damage environment

  18. Comparative Phytonutrient Analysis of Broccoli By-Products: The Potentials for Broccoli By-Product Utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mengpei; Zhang, Lihua; Ser, Suk Lan; Cumming, Jonathan R; Ku, Kang-Mo

    2018-04-13

    The phytonutrient concentrations of broccoli ( Brassica oleracea var. italica) florets, stems, and leaves were compared to evaluate the value of stem and leaf by-products as a source of valuable nutrients. Primary metabolites, including amino acids, organic acids, and sugars, as well as glucosinolates, carotenoids, chlorophylls, vitamins E and K, essential mineral elements, total phenolic content, antioxidant activity, and expression of glucosinolate biosynthesis and hydrolysis genes were quantified from the different broccoli tissues. Broccoli florets had higher concentrations of amino acids, glucoraphanin, and neoglucobrassicin compared to other tissues, whereas leaves were higher in carotenoids, chlorophylls, vitamins E and K, total phenolic content, and antioxidant activity. Leaves were also good sources of calcium and manganese compared to other tissues. Stems had the lowest nitrile formation from glucosinolate. Each tissue exhibited specific core gene expression profiles supporting glucosinolate metabolism, with different gene homologs expressed in florets, stems, and leaves, which suggests that tissue-specific pathways function to support primary and secondary metabolic pathways in broccoli. This comprehensive nutrient and bioactive compound profile represents a useful resource for the evaluation of broccoli by-product utilization in the human diet, and as feedstocks for bioactive compounds for industry.

  19. Comparative Phytonutrient Analysis of Broccoli By-Products: The Potentials for Broccoli By-Product Utilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengpei Liu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The phytonutrient concentrations of broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica florets, stems, and leaves were compared to evaluate the value of stem and leaf by-products as a source of valuable nutrients. Primary metabolites, including amino acids, organic acids, and sugars, as well as glucosinolates, carotenoids, chlorophylls, vitamins E and K, essential mineral elements, total phenolic content, antioxidant activity, and expression of glucosinolate biosynthesis and hydrolysis genes were quantified from the different broccoli tissues. Broccoli florets had higher concentrations of amino acids, glucoraphanin, and neoglucobrassicin compared to other tissues, whereas leaves were higher in carotenoids, chlorophylls, vitamins E and K, total phenolic content, and antioxidant activity. Leaves were also good sources of calcium and manganese compared to other tissues. Stems had the lowest nitrile formation from glucosinolate. Each tissue exhibited specific core gene expression profiles supporting glucosinolate metabolism, with different gene homologs expressed in florets, stems, and leaves, which suggests that tissue-specific pathways function to support primary and secondary metabolic pathways in broccoli. This comprehensive nutrient and bioactive compound profile represents a useful resource for the evaluation of broccoli by-product utilization in the human diet, and as feedstocks for bioactive compounds for industry.

  20. Efficacy of the Group Music and Imagery method (GrpMI) for women suffering from fibromyalgia: A randomized controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Inge Nygaard

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Background: Fibromyalgia (FM) affects about 2-4% of the world population. Patients, mostly women, experience chronic widespread pain, fatigue, stiffness, sleep disturbances, and psychological disorders, especially depression and anxiety. Objective: The aim of this study was to assess...... the efficacy of Group Music and Imagery (GrpMI), including relaxation, music listening and spontaneous imagery, for subjective psychological wellbeing, functional capacity and health, pain perception, anxiety and depression in women with FM. Methods: Fifty-six women aged 35 to 65 (M = 51.3) diagnosed with FM...... groups found a significant increase in psychological wellbeing and a reduction in the rest of the variables, whereas the control groups only showed decreases in trait anxiety and trait depression. No significant differences were observed in the control groups at the follow-up, while the experimental...

  1. Identification of anti-HBV activities in Paeonia suffruticosa Andr. using GRP78 as a drug target on Herbochip®.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Iao-Fai; Huang, Min; Chang, Margaret Dah-Tysr; Yao, Pei-Wun; Chou, Yu-Ting; Ng, Sim-Kun; Tsai, Ying-Lin; Lin, Yu-Chang; Zhang, Yun-Feng; Yang, Xiao-Yuan; Lai, Yiu-Kay

    2017-01-01

    Herbochip ® technology is a high throughput drug screening platform in a reverse screening manner, in which potential chemical leads in herbal extracts are immobilized and drug target proteins can be used as probes for screening process [BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine (2015) 15:146]. While herbal medicines represent an ideal reservoir for drug screenings, here a molecular chaperone GRP78 is demonstrated to serve as a potential target for antiviral drug discovery. We cloned and expressed a truncated but fully functional form of human GRP78 (hGRP78 1-508 ) and used it as a probe for anti-HBV drug screening on herbochips. In vitro cytotoxicity and in vitro anti-HBV activity of the herbal extracts were evaluated by MTT and ELISA assays, respectively. Finally, anti-HBV activity was confirmed by in vivo assay using DHBV DNA levels in DHBV-infected ducklings as a model. Primary screenings using GRP78 on 40 herbochips revealed 11 positives. Four of the positives, namely Dioscorea bulbifera , Lasiosphaera fenzlii , Paeonia suffruticosa and Polygonum cuspidatum were subjected to subsequent assays. None of the above extracts was cytotoxic to AML12 cells, but P. cuspidatum extract (PCE) was found to be cytotoxic to HepG2 2.2.15 cells. Both PCE and P. suffruticosa extract (PSE) suppressed secretion of HBsAg and HBeAg in HepG2 2.2.15 cells. The anti-HBV activity of PSE was further confirmed in vivo. We have demonstrated that GRP78 is a valid probe for anti-HBV drug screening on herbochips. We have also shown that PSE, while being non-cytotoxic, possesses in vitro and in vivo anti-HBV activities. Taken together, our data suggest that PSE may be a potential anti-HBV agent for therapeutic use.

  2. Decreased cell survival and DNA repair capacity after UVC irradiation in association with down-regulation of GRP78/BiP in human RSa cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhai Ling; Kita, Kazuko; Wano, Chieko; Wu Yuping; Sugaya, Shigeru; Suzuki, Nobuo

    2005-01-01

    In contrast to extensive studies on the roles of molecular chaperones, such as heat shock proteins, there are only a few reports about the roles of GRP78/BiP, an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-induced molecular chaperone, in mammalian cell responses to DNA-damaging stresses. To investigate whether GRP78/BiP is involved in resistance to a DNA-damaging agent, UVC (principally 254 nm in wavelength), we established human cells with down-regulation of GRP78/BiP by transfection of human RSa cells with antisense cDNA for GRP78/BiP. We found that the transfected cells showed higher sensitivity to UVC-induced cell death than control cells transfected with the vector alone. In the antisense-cDNA transfected cells, the removal capacities of the two major types of UVC-damaged DNA (thymine dimers and (6-4) photoproducts) in vivo and DNA synthesis activity of whole cell extracts to repair UVC-irradiated plasmids in vitro were remarkably decreased compared with those in the control cells. Furthermore, the antisense-cDNA transfected cells also showed slightly higher sensitivity to cisplatin-induced cell death than the control cells. Cisplatin-induced DNA damage is primarily repaired by nucleotide excision repair, like UVC-induced DNA damage. The present results suggest that GRP78/BiP plays a protective role against UVC-induced cell death possibly via nucleotide excision repair, at least in the human RSa cells tested

  3. Utilization of by-products in ruminant diets in Cyprus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Economides, S.; Hadjipanayiotou, M.

    1987-01-01

    Five experiments were carried out with the objective of studying the nutritive value of crop residues and agro-industrial by-products, either alone or in combination with non-protein nitrogen, and the use of these by-products in ruminant diets. The intake and nutritive value of poor quality roughages and other by-products (cereal straw, peanut hulls and waste paper) were improved considerably by supplements that provide nitrogen (soybean meal or urea) and energy (barley grain). Partial replacement of soybean meal in diets of fattening lambs by urea was possible and dry mature sheep could be maintained on cereal straw diets supplemented with small quantities of barley grain, urea, minerals and vitamins. Silage was made from citrus peels or grape marc and poultry litter. It replaced successfully part of the concentrate mixture in the diets of lactating cows and growing heifers. (author)

  4. The Craterostigma plantagineum glycine-rich protein CpGRP1 interacts with a cell wall-associated protein kinase 1 (CpWAK1) and accumulates in leaf cell walls during dehydration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giarola, Valentino; Krey, Stephanie; von den Driesch, Barbara; Bartels, Dorothea

    2016-04-01

    Craterostigma plantagineum tolerates extreme desiccation. Leaves of this plant shrink and extensively fold during dehydration and expand again during rehydration, preserving their structural integrity. Genes were analysed that may participate in the reversible folding mechanism. Analysis of transcripts abundantly expressed in desiccated leaves identified a gene putatively coding for an apoplastic glycine-rich protein (CpGRP1). We studied the expression, regulation and subcellular localization of CpGRP1 and its ability to interact with a cell wall-associated protein kinase (CpWAK1) to understand the role of CpGRP1 in the cell wall during dehydration. The CpGRP1 protein accumulates in the apoplast of desiccated leaves. Analysis of the promoter revealed that the gene expression is mainly regulated at the transcriptional level, is independent of abscisic acid (ABA) and involves a drought-responsive cis-element (DRE). CpGRP1 interacts with CpWAK1 which is down-regulated in response to dehydration. Our data suggest a role of the CpGRP1-CpWAK1 complex in dehydration-induced morphological changes in the cell wall during dehydration in C. plantagineum. Cell wall pectins and dehydration-induced pectin modifications are predicted to be involved in the activity of the CpGRP1-CpWAK1 complex. © 2015 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  5. Down-regulation of GRP78 is associated with the sensitivity of chemotherapy to VP-16 in small cell lung cancer NCI-H446 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yingyan; Wang, Wei; Wang, Siyan; Wang, Jiarui; Shao, Shujuan; Wang, Qi

    2008-01-01

    Chemotherapy resistance remains a major obstacle for the treatment of small cell lung cancer (SCLC). Glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78), an endoplasmic reticulum chaperone, plays a critical role in chemotherapy resistance in some cancers. However, whether the suppression of the chaperone can enhance the sensitivity of chemotherapy in SCLC is still unclear. The SCLC NCI-H446 cells were divided into three groups: BAPTA-AM→A23187-treated group, A23187-treated group and control-group. Immunofluorescence, western blot and RT-PCR were used to assess the expression of GRP78 at both protein and mRNA levels. Cell apoptosis and the cell cycle distributions of the cells were analyzed by flow cytometry in order to evaluate the therapeutic sensitivity to VP-16. The expression of GRP78 at both protein and mRNA levels in the BAPTA-AM→A23187-treated cells dramatically decreased as compared to that in both A23187-treated and control groups. After treatment by VP-16, the percentage of apoptotic cells in BAPTA-AM→A23187-treated cells were: 33.4 ± 1.01%, 48.2 ± 1.77%, 53.0 ± 1.43%, 56.5 ± 2.13%, respectively, corresponding to the concentrations of BAPTA-AM 10, 15, 25, 40 μM, which was statistically significant high in comparison with the A23187-treated group and untreated-group (7.18 ± 1.03% and 27.8 ± 1.45%, respectively, p < 0.05). The results from analysis of cell cycle distribution showed that there was a significantly decreased in G 1 phase and a dramatically increased in S phase for the BAPTA-AM→A23187-treated cells as compared with the untreated cells. BAPTA-AM is a strong inhibitor of GRP78 in the NCI-H446 cell line, the down-regulation of GRP78 can significantly increase the sensitivity to VP-16. The suppression of GRP78 may offer a new surrogated therapeutic approach to the clinical management of lung cancer

  6. Anaerobic digestion of slaughterhouse by-products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hejnfelt, Anette; Angelidaki, Irini

    2009-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion of animal by-products was investigated in batch and semi-continuously fed, reactor experiments at 55 degrees C and for some experiments also at 37 degrees C. Separate or mixed by-products from pigs were tested. The methane potential measured by batch assays for meat- and bone...... flour, fat, blood, hair, meat, ribs, raw waste were: 225, 497,487, 561, 582, 575, 359, 619 dm(3) kg(-1) respectively, corresponding to 50-100% of the calculated theoretical methane potential. Dilution of the by-products had a positive effect on the specific methane yield with the highest dilutions...... giving the best results. High concentrations of long-chain fatty acids and ammonia in the by-products were found to inhibit the biogas process at concentrations higher than 5 g lipids dm(-3) and 7 gN dm(-3) respectively. Pretreatment (pasteurization: 70 degrees C, sterilization: 133 degrees C, and alkali...

  7. Initiation of lambda DNA replication. The Escherichia coli small heat shock proteins, DnaJ and GrpE, increase DnaK's affinity for the lambda P protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osipiuk, J; Georgopoulos, C; Zylicz, M

    1993-03-05

    It is known that the initiation of bacteriophage lambda replication requires the orderly assembly of the lambda O.lambda P.DnaB helicase protein preprimosomal complex at the ori lambda DNA site. The DnaK, DnaJ, and GrpE heat shock proteins act together to destabilize the lambda P.DnaB complex, thus freeing DnaB and allowing it to unwind lambda DNA near the ori lambda site. The first step of this disassembly reaction is the binding of DnaK to the lambda P protein. In this report, we examined the influence of the DnaJ and GrpE proteins on the stability of the lambda P.DnaK complex. We present evidence for the existence of the following protein-protein complexes: lambda P.DnaK, lambda P.DnaJ, DnaJ.DnaK, DnaK.GrpE, and lambda P.DnaK.GrpE. Our results suggest that the presence of GrpE alone destabilizes the lambda P.DnaK complex, whereas the presence of DnaJ alone stabilizes the lambda P.DnaK complex. Using immunoprecipitation, we show that in the presence of GrpE, DnaK exhibits a higher affinity for the lambda P.DnaJ complex than it does alone. Using cross-linking with glutaraldehyde, we show that oligomeric forms of DnaK exhibit a higher affinity for lambda P than monomeric DnaK. However, in the presence of GrpE, monomeric DnaK can efficiently bind lambda P protein. These findings help explain our previous results, namely that in the GrpE-dependent lambda DNA replication system, the DnaK protein requirement can be reduced up to 10-fold.

  8. Technology for recovery of by-products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Tuy, H.H.

    1983-01-01

    Products of conventional nuclear fuel processing plants are uranium and plutonium, and any other recovered material is considered to be a by-product. Some by-products have been recovered from past nuclear fuel processing operations, either as a normal mode of operation or by special campaigns. Routing recovery over an extended period has been limited to neptunium, but extended campaigns were used at Hanford to recover strontium for radioisotope thermoelectric generators. Krypton is recovered at Idaho Chemical Processing Plant on a campaign basis, and isotope separation of krypton is done at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Past campaigns at Hanford PUREX have recovered cesium, promethium, amercium, cerium, and technetium. Past by-product recovery efforts were usually severely constrained by the status of flowsheet development and availability of existing facilities at the time decisions wee made to recover the by-products. Additional processes were developed to accommodate other unit operations and in response to changes in waste management objectives or user requirements. Now an impressive variety of recovery technology is available for most potential by-products, with varying degrees of demonstration under conditions which satisfy today's environmental protection and waste management constraints

  9. Anaerobic digestion of slaughterhouse by-products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hejnfelt, Anette; Angelidaki, Irini

    2009-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion of animal by-products was investigated in batch and semi-continuously fed, reactor experiments at 55 o C and for some experiments also at 37 o C. Separate or mixed by-products from pigs were tested. The methane potential measured by batch assays for meat- and bone flour, fat, blood, hair, meat, ribs, raw waste were: 225, 497, 487, 561, 582, 575, 359, 619 dm 3 kg -1 respectively, corresponding to 50-100% of the calculated theoretical methane potential. Dilution of the by-products had a positive effect on the specific methane yield with the highest dilutions giving the best results. High concentrations of long-chain fatty acids and ammonia in the by-products were found to inhibit the biogas process at concentrations higher than 5 g lipids dm -3 and 7 g N dm -3 respectively. Pretreatment (pasteurization: 70 o C, sterilization: 133 o C, and alkali hydrolysis (NaOH) had no effect on achieved methane yields. Mesophilic digestion was more stable than thermophilic digestion, and higher methane yield was noticed at high waste concentrations. The lower yield at thermophilic temperature and high waste concentration was due to ammonia inhibition. Co-digestion of 5% pork by-products mixed with pig manure at 37 o C showed 40% higher methane production compared to digestion of manure alone.

  10. Anaerobic digestion of slaughterhouse by-products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hejnfelt, Anette; Angelidaki, Irini [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, DTU, Building 113, DK-2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)

    2009-08-15

    Anaerobic digestion of animal by-products was investigated in batch and semi-continuously fed, reactor experiments at 55 C and for some experiments also at 37 C. Separate or mixed by-products from pigs were tested. The methane potential measured by batch assays for meat- and bone flour, fat, blood, hair, meat, ribs, raw waste were: 225, 497, 487, 561, 582, 575, 359, 619 dm{sup 3} kg{sup -1} respectively, corresponding to 50-100% of the calculated theoretical methane potential. Dilution of the by-products had a positive effect on the specific methane yield with the highest dilutions giving the best results. High concentrations of long-chain fatty acids and ammonia in the by-products were found to inhibit the biogas process at concentrations higher than 5 g lipids dm{sup -3} and 7 g N dm{sup -3} respectively. Pretreatment (pasteurization: 70 C, sterilization: 133 C), and alkali hydrolysis (NaOH) had no effect on achieved methane yields. Mesophilic digestion was more stable than thermophilic digestion, and higher methane yield was noticed at high waste concentrations. The lower yield at thermophilic temperature and high waste concentration was due to ammonia inhibition. Co-digestion of 5% pork by-products mixed with pig manure at 37 C showed 40% higher methane production compared to digestion of manure alone. (author)

  11. Biokinetics and dosimetry of {sup 99m} Tc-EDDA/HYNIC-[Lys{sup 3}]-bombesin in humans: imaging of GRP receptors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos C, C.L.; Ferro F, G. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Murphy, C.A de [INCMNSZ, 14000 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Cardena, E.; Pichardo R, P. [Departamento de Medicina Nuclear, Oncologia Centro Medico Siglo XXI, Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2007-07-01

    Full text: Bombesin (BN) receptor subtype 2 (GRP-r) is over-expressed on various human tumors including breast, prostate, small cell lung and pancreatic cancer. Recently we reported the {sup 99-}mTc-EDDA/HYNIC-[Lys{sup 3}]-Bombesin ({sup 99m}Tc-HYNIC-BN) complex as a new radiopharmaceutical with high stability in human serum, specific cell GRP-receptor binding and rapid internalization. The aim of this study was to evaluate the {sup 99m}Tc-HYNIC-BN biokinetics and dosimetry in 5-healthy and 3-breast cancer women. Whole-body images were acquired at 20, 90, 180 min and 24 h after {sup 99m}Tc-HYNIC-BN administration. Regions of interest (ROIs) were drawn around source' organs on each time frame. The same set of ROIs was used for all 8 scans and the cpm of each ROI was converted to activity using the conjugate view counting method. The image sequence was used to extrapolate {sup 99m}Tc-HYNIC-BN time activity curves in each organ, to calculate the total number of disintegrations (N) that occurred in the source regions. N data were the input for the OLINDA/EXM code to calculate internal radiation dose estimates. Images showed a rapid radiopharmaceutical blood clearance with predominantly renal excretion and minimal hepatobiliary elimination. {sup 99m}Tc-HYNIC-BN exhibited high in vivo affinity for GRP-r over-expression successfully visualized in breast cancer lesions and well differentiated from GRP-r expression in lungs and airways with normal GRP-r density (ratio 3:1). The equivalent doses for a study using 370 MBq were 7.38{+-}1.68, 0.59{+-}0.08, 2.07{+-}0.60, 0.58{+-}0.1, 0.75{+-}0.09 and 0.43{+-}0.07 mSv for kidneys, liver, lungs, ovaries, pancreas and red marrow respectively. The effective dose was 1.64{+-}0.25 mSv which is comparable with the doses known for most of the {sup 99m}Tc radiopharmaceutical studies in nuclear medicine. (Author)

  12. IGCC and PFBC By-Products: Generation, Characteristics, and Management Practices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pflughoeft-Hassett, D.F.

    1997-09-01

    The following report is a compilation of data on by-products/wastes from clean coal technologies, specifically integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) and pressurized fluidized-bed combustion (PFBC). DOE had two objectives in providing this information to EPA: (1) to familiarize EPA with the DOE CCT program, CCT by-products, and the associated efforts by DOE contractors in the area of CCT by-product management and (2) to provide information that will facilitate EPA's effort by complementing similar reports from industry groups, including CIBO (Council of Industrial Boiler Owners) and EEI USWAG (Edison Electric Institute Utility Solid Waste Activities Group). The EERC cooperated and coordinated with DOE CCT contractors and industry groups to provide the most accurate and complete data on IGCC and PFBC by-products, although these technologies are only now being demonstrated on the commercial scale through the DOE CCT program.

  13. Membrane docking geometry of GRP1 PH domain bound to a target lipid bilayer: an EPR site-directed spin-labeling and relaxation study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huai-Chun Chen

    Full Text Available The second messenger lipid PIP(3 (phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-trisphosphate is generated by the lipid kinase PI3K (phosphoinositide-3-kinase in the inner leaflet of the plasma membrane, where it regulates a broad array of cell processes by recruiting multiple signaling proteins containing PIP(3-specific pleckstrin homology (PH domains to the membrane surface. Despite the broad importance of PIP(3-specific PH domains, the membrane docking geometry of a PH domain bound to its target PIP(3 lipid on a bilayer surface has not yet been experimentally determined. The present study employs EPR site-directed spin labeling and relaxation methods to elucidate the membrane docking geometry of GRP1 PH domain bound to bilayer-embedded PIP(3. The model target bilayer contains the neutral background lipid PC and both essential targeting lipids: (i PIP(3 target lipid that provides specificity and affinity, and (ii PS facilitator lipid that enhances the PIP(3 on-rate via an electrostatic search mechanism. The EPR approach measures membrane depth parameters for 18 function-retaining spin labels coupled to the PH domain, and for calibration spin labels coupled to phospholipids. The resulting depth parameters, together with the known high resolution structure of the co-complex between GRP1 PH domain and the PIP(3 headgroup, provide sufficient constraints to define an optimized, self-consistent membrane docking geometry. In this optimized geometry the PH domain engulfs the PIP(3 headgroup with minimal bilayer penetration, yielding the shallowest membrane position yet described for a lipid binding domain. This binding interaction displaces the PIP(3 headgroup from its lowest energy position and orientation in the bilayer, but the headgroup remains within its energetically accessible depth and angular ranges. Finally, the optimized docking geometry explains previous biophysical findings including mutations observed to disrupt membrane binding, and the rapid lateral

  14. GRP1 PH Domain, Like AKT1 PH Domain, Possesses a Sentry Glutamate Residue Essential for Specific Targeting to Plasma Membrane PI(3,4,5)P3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilling, Carissa; Landgraf, Kyle E.; Falke, Joseph J.

    2011-01-01

    During the appearance of the signaling lipid PI(3,4,5)P3, an important subset of pleckstrin homology (PH) domains target signaling proteins to the plasma membrane. To ensure proper pathway regulation, such PI(3,4,5)P3-specific PH domains must exclude the more prevalant, constitutive plasma membrane lipid PI(4,5)P2 and bind the rare PI(3,4,5)P3 target lipid with sufficiently high affinity. Our previous study of the E17K mutant of protein kinase B (AKT1) PH domain, together with evidence from Carpten et al (1), revealed that the native AKT1 E17 residue serves as a sentry glutamate that excludes PI(4,5)P2, thereby playing an essential role in specific PI(3,4,5)P3 targeting (2). The sentry glutamate hypothesis proposes that an analogous sentry glutamate residue is a widespread feature of PI(3,4,5)P3-specific PH domains, and that charge reversal mutation at the sentry glutamate position will yield both increased PI(4,5)P2 affinity and constitutive plasma membrane targeting. To test this hypothesis the present study investigates the E345 residue, a putative sentry glutamate, of General Receptor for Phosphoinositides 1 (GRP1) PH domain. The results show that incorporation of the E345K charge reversal mutation into GRP1 PH domain enhances PI(4,5)P2 affinity 8-fold and yields constitutive plasma membrane targeting in cells, reminiscent of the effects of the E17K mutation in AKT1 PH domain. Hydrolysis of plasma membrane PI(4,5)P2 releases E345K GRP1 PH domain into the cytoplasm and the efficiency of this release increases when target Arf6 binding is disrupted. Overall, the findings provide strong support for the sentry glutamate hypothesis and suggest that the GRP1 E345K mutation will be linked to changes in cell physiology and human pathologies, as demonstrated for AKT1 E17K (1, 3). Analysis of available PH domain structures suggests that a lone glutamate residue (or, in some cases an aspartate) is a common, perhaps ubiquitous, feature of PI(3,4,5)P3-specific binding

  15. Pre-clinical evaluation of eight DOTA coupled gastrin-releasing peptide receptor (GRP-R) ligands for in vivo targeting of receptor-expressing tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Accardo, Antonella; Galli, Filippo; Mansi, Rosalba; Del Pozzo, Luigi; Aurilio, Michela; Morisco, Anna; Ringhieri, Paola; Signore, Alberto; Morelli, Giancarlo; Aloj, Luigi

    2016-12-01

    Overexpression of the gastrin-releasing peptide receptor (GRP-R) has been documented in several human neoplasms such as breast, prostate, and ovarian cancer. There is growing interest in developing radiolabeled peptide-based ligands toward these receptors for the purpose of in vivo imaging and radionuclide therapy of GRP-R-overexpressing tumors. A number of different peptide sequences, isotopes, and labeling methods have been proposed for this purpose. The aim of this work is to perform a direct side-by-side comparison of different GRP-R binding peptides utilizing a single labeling strategy to identify the most suitable peptide sequence. Solid-phase synthesis of eight derivatives (BN1-8) designed based on literature analysis was carried out. Peptides were coupled to the DOTA chelator through a PEG4 spacer at the N-terminus. Derivatives were characterized for serum stability, binding affinity on PC-3 human prostate cancer cells, biodistribution in tumor-bearing mice, and gamma camera imaging at 1, 6, and 24 h after injection. Serum stability was quite variable among the different compounds with half-lives ranging from 16 to 400 min at 37 °C. All compounds tested showed K d values in the nanomolar range with the exception of BN3 that showed no binding. Biodistribution and imaging studies carried out for compounds BN1, BN4, BN7, and BN8 showed targeting of the GRP-R-positive tumors and the pancreas. The BN8 compound (DOTA-PEG-DPhe-Gln-Trp-Ala-Val-NMeGly-His-Sta-Leu-NH2) showed high affinity, the longest serum stability, and the highest target-to-background ratios in biodistribution and imaging experiments among the compounds tested. Our results indicate that the NMeGly for Gly substitution and the Sta-Leu substitution at the C-terminus confer high serum stability while maintaining high receptor affinity, resulting in biodistribution properties that outperform those of the other peptides.

  16. The essential Escherichia coli msgB gene, a multicopy suppressor of a temperature-sensitive allele of the heat shock gene grpE, is identical to dapE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, B; Georgopoulos, C; Ang, D

    1992-08-01

    The grpE gene product is one of three Escherichia coli heat shock proteins (DnaK, DnaJ, and GrpE) that are essential for both bacteriophage lambda DNA replication and bacterial growth at all temperatures. In an effort to determine the role of GrpE and to identify other factors that it may interact with, we isolated multicopy suppressors of the grpE280 point mutation, as judged by their ability to reverse the temperature-sensitive phenotype of grpE280. Here we report the characterization of one of them, designated msgB. The msgB gene maps at approximately 53 min on the E. coli chromosome. The minimal gene possesses an open reading frame that encodes a protein with a predicted size of 41,269 M(r). This open reading frame was confirmed the correct one by direct amino-terminal sequence analysis of the overproduced msgB gene product. Genetic experiments demonstrated that msgB is essential for E. coli growth in the temperature range of 22 to 37 degrees C. Through a sequence homology search, MsgB was shown to be identical to N-succinyl-L-diaminopimelic acid desuccinylase (the dapE gene product), which participates in the diaminopimelic acid-lysine pathway involved in cell wall biosynthesis. Consistent with this finding, the msgB null allele mutant is viable only when the growth medium is supplemented with diaminopimelic acid. These results suggest that GrpE may have a previously unsuspected function(s) in cell wall biosynthesis in E. coli.

  17. Peptides from Fish By-product Protein Hydrolysates and Its Functional Properties: an Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamora-Sillero, Juan; Gharsallaoui, Adem; Prentice, Carlos

    2018-04-01

    The inadequate management of fish processing waste or by-products is one of the major problems that fish industry has to face nowadays. The mismanagement of this raw material leads to economic loss and environmental problems. The demand for the use of these by-products has led to the development of several processes in order to recover biomolecules from fish by-products. An efficient way to add value to fish waste protein is protein hydrolysis. Protein hydrolysates improve the functional properties and allow the release of peptides of different sizes with several bioactivities such as antioxidant, antimicrobial, antihypertensive, anti-inflammatory, or antihyperglycemic among others. This paper reviews different methods for the production of protein hydrolysates as well as current research about several fish by-products protein hydrolysates bioactive properties, aiming the dual objective: adding value to these underutilized by-products and minimizing their negative impact on the environment.

  18. The Potential of Animal By-Products in Food Systems: Production, Prospects and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babatunde O. Alao

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The consumption of animal by-products has continued to witness tremendous growth over the last decade. This is due to its potential to combat protein malnutrition and food insecurity in many countries. Shortly after slaughter, animal by-products are separated into edible or inedible parts. The edible part accounts for 55% of the production while the remaining part is regarded as inedible by-products (IEBPs. These IEBPs can be re-processed into sustainable products for agricultural and industrial uses. The efficient utilization of animal by-products can alleviate the prevailing cost and scarcity of feed materials, which have high competition between animals and humans. This will also aid in reducing environmental pollution in the society. In this regard, proper utilization of animal by-products such as rumen digesta can result in cheaper feed, reduction in competition and lower cost of production. Over the years, the utilization of animal by-products such as rumen digesta as feed in livestock feed has been successfully carried out without any adverse effect on the animals. However, there are emerging gaps that need to be further addressed regarding the food security and sustainability of the products. Therefore, the objective of this review highlights the efficacy and effectiveness of using animal by-products as alternative sources of feed ingredients, and the constraints associated with their production to boost livestock performance in the industry at large.

  19. Mining by-products show potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Douglas, Grant

    2013-01-01

    Full text: Many mining and industrial processes generate wastewater that contains a variety of contaminants, such as metals and metalloids. These must be removed to ensure the wastewater is suitable for reuse or safe discharge to the environment. However, mining wastewater treatment processes have traditionally been difficult due to the large range of different contaminants present, requiring a number of complex steps. In current processes, the mining industry generally adds lime to the wastewater to purify it. While often effective, the key issue with this method has been the volume of sludge that forms and the subsequent problems with dealing with this sludge - either to extract the contained water, which often requires additional treatment, or to find enough space for long-term disposal. This complex practice could end soon thanks to a new treatment solution that utilises hydrotalcites. Developed by CSIRO, the treatment overcomes the complexities of lime-based methods and offers a simpler and more water smart process. The CSIRO team found that hydrotalcites, which are layered minerals consisting of aluminium- and magnesium- rich layers, can simultaneously remove a variety of contaminants in wastewater in a single step. Scientists noticed that hydrotalcites begin to form when aluminium and magnesium are present at an ideal ratio and under conditions during neutralisation of acidic waters. As hydrotalcites form, the contaminants become trapped and are easily removed from the wastewater as a solid. Mining wastewater often contains substantial magnesium and aluminium concentrations. This means that we can create hydrotalcites utilising common contaminants that are already present in the wastewater, by simply adjusting their concentrations and adding alkaline compounds to rapidly increase pH. Initial applications have focussed on treating wastewater generated from the mining and extraction of uranium. A range of contaminants including uranium, rare earth elements

  20. Conversion of the biodiesel by-product glycerol by the non-conventional yeast Pachysolen tannophilus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Xiaoying

    production process. Since the volume of the glycerol by-product has exceeded the current market need, biodiesel producers are looking for new methods for sustainable glycerol management and improving the competitiveness of the biodiesel industries. The EU Commission funded GLYFINERY project is one initiative...

  1. The insulin/IGF signaling regulators cytohesin/GRP-1 and PIP5K/PPK-1 modulate susceptibility to excitotoxicity in C. elegans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazila Tehrani

    Full Text Available During ischemic stroke, malfunction of excitatory amino acid transporters and reduced synaptic clearance causes accumulation of Glutamate (Glu and excessive stimulation of postsynaptic neurons, which can lead to their degeneration by excitotoxicity. The balance between cell death-promoting (neurotoxic and survival-promoting (neuroprotective signaling cascades determines the fate of neurons exposed to the excitotoxic insult. The evolutionary conserved Insulin/IGF Signaling (IIS cascade can participate in this balance, as it controls cell stress resistance in nematodes and mammals. Blocking the IIS cascade allows the transcription factor FoxO3/DAF-16 to accumulate in the nucleus and activate a transcriptional program that protects cells from a range of insults. We study the effect of IIS cascade on neurodegeneration in a C. elegans model of excitotoxicity, where a mutation in a central Glu transporter (glt-3 in a sensitizing background causes Glu-Receptor -dependent neuronal necrosis. We expand our studies on the role of the IIS cascade in determining susceptibility to excitotoxic necrosis by either blocking IIS at the level of PI3K/AGE-1 or stimulating it by removing the inhibitory effect of ZFP-1 on the expression of PDK-1. We further show that the components of the Cytohesin/GRP-1, Arf, and PIP5K/PPK-1 complex, known to regulate PIP2 production and the IIS cascade, modulate nematode excitotoxicity: mutations that are expected to reduce the complex's ability to produce PIP2 and inhibit the IIS cascade protect from excitotoxicity, while overstimulation of PIP2 production enhances neurodegeneration. Our observations therefore affirm the importance of the IIS cascade in determining the susceptibility to necrotic neurodegeneration in nematode excitotoxicity, and demonstrate the ability of Cytohesin/GRP-1, Arf, and PIP5K/PPK-1 complex to modulate neuroprotection.

  2. Walnut (Juglans regia L.): genetic resources, chemistry, by-products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Marcela L; Labuckas, Diana O; Lamarque, Alicia L; Maestri, Damián M

    2010-09-01

    Walnut (Juglans regia L.) is the most widespread tree nut in the world. There is a great diversity of genotypes differing in forestry, productivity, physical and chemical nut traits. Some of them have been evaluated as promising and may serve as germplasm sources for breeding. The nutritional importance of the nut is related to the seed (kernel). It is a nutrient-dense food mainly owing to its oil content (up to 740 g kg(-1) in some commercial varieties), which can be extracted easily by screw pressing and consumed without refining. Walnut oil composition is dominated largely by unsaturated fatty acids (mainly linoleic together with lesser amounts of oleic and linolenic acids). Minor components of walnut oil include tocopherols, phospholipids, sphingolipids, sterols, hydrocarbons and volatile compounds. Phenolic compounds, present at high levels in the seed coat but poorly extracted with the oil, have been extensively characterised and found to possess strong antioxidant properties. The oil extraction residue is rich in proteins (unusually high in arginine, glutamic and aspartic acids) and has been employed in the formulation of various functional food products. This review describes current scientific knowledge concerning walnut genetic resources and composition as well as by-product obtainment and characteristics. Copyright 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Studies on Disinfection By-Products and Drinking Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostad, Colleen E.

    2007-01-01

    Drinking water is disinfected with chemicals to remove pathogens, such as Giardia and Cryptosproridium, and prevent waterborne diseases such as cholera and typhoid. During disinfection, by-products are formed at trace concentrations. Because some of these by-products are suspected carcinogens, drinking water utilities must maintain the effectiveness of the disinfection process while minimizing the formation of by-products.

  4. Okara, a soymilk industry by-product, as a non-meat protein source in reduced fat beef burgers Okara, um sub-produto da indústria de leite de soja, como fonte de proteína não cárnea em hambúrguer bovino com reduzido teor de gordura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Ing Tie Su

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Okara is a by-product generated during the manufacture of soymilk and tofu. Wet okara was added to beef burgers at 0%, 20%, and 25%. The effects of okara on certain physicochemical, textural, and sensory properties of reduced fat beef burgers were investigated. The beef burgers formulated with okara (104.0-106.0 kcal/100 g had 60% less calories than commercial beef burgers (268.8 kcal/100 g. The texture profile analysis showed that the addition of wet okara led to a significant increase in hardness (p Okara é o subproduto gerado na fabricação de leite de soja ou tofu. Okara úmido foi adicionado em hambúrguer de carne bovina nas concentrações de 0%, 20% e 25%. A influência da adição de okara em 0%, 20% e 25% sobre certas propriedades físico-químicas, de textura e sensoriais em hambúrgueres bovinos com reduzido teor de gordura foi investigada. Os hambúrgueres formulados com okara (104,0-106,0 kcal/100 g apresentaram 60% menos calorias do que hambúrgueres comerciais de carne bovina (268,8 kcal/100 g. A análise do perfil de textura mostrou que o aumento da concentração de okara foi acompanhado por um aumento de dureza (p < 0,05, com concomitante diminuição dos valores de mastigabilidade, elasticidade e coesividade. Notas sensoriais significativamente mais baixas (p < 0,05 para sabor foram observadas nos hambúrgueres contendo 25% de okara úmido. No entanto, os resultados da análise sensorial mostraram que a suculência, aparência, maciez e aceitabilidade geral dos hambúgueres formulados com okara não diferiram estatisticamente do controle (0% okara. Okara úmido a 20% pode ser utilizado como fonte de proteína não cárnea para a produção de hambúrguer bovino com gordura reduzida sem alterar a sua qualidade sensorial.

  5. Utilization of Food Processing By-products as Dietary, Functional, and Novel Fiber: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Satish Kumar; Bansal, Sangita; Mangal, Manisha; Dixit, Anil Kumar; Gupta, Ram K; Mangal, A K

    2016-07-26

    Fast growing food processing industry in most countries across the world, generates huge quantity of by-products, including pomace, hull, husk, pods, peel, shells, seeds, stems, stalks, bran, washings, pulp refuse, press cakes, etc., which have less use and create considerable environmental pollution. With growing interest in health promoting functional foods, the demand of natural bioactives has increased and exploration for new sources is on the way. Many of the food processing industrial by-products are rich sources of dietary, functional, and novel fibers. These by-products can be directly (or after certain modifications for isolation or purification of fiber) used for the manufacture of various foods, i.e. bread, buns, cake, pasta, noodles, biscuit, ice creams, yogurts, cheese, beverages, milk shakes, instant breakfasts, ice tea, juices, sports drinks, wine, powdered drink, fermented milk products, meat products and meat analogues, synthetic meat, etc. A comprehensive literature survey has been carried on this topic to give an overview in the field dietary fiber from food by-products. In this article, the developments in the definition of fiber, fiber classification, potential sources of dietary fibers in food processing by-products, their uses, functional properties, caloric content, energy values and the labelling regulations have been discussed.

  6. In Vitro Iron Bioavailability of Brazilian Food-Based by-Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiocchetti, Gabriela M; De Nadai Fernandes, Elisabete A; Wawer, Anna A; Fairweather-Tait, Susan; Christides, Tatiana

    2018-05-16

    Background : Iron deficiency is a public health problem in many low- and middle-income countries. Introduction of agro-industrial food by-products, as additional source of nutrients, could help alleviate this micronutrient deficiency, provide alternative sources of nutrients and calories in developed countries, and be a partial solution for disposal of agro-industry by-products. Methods : The aim of this study was to determine iron bioavailability of 5 by-products from Brazilian agro-industry (peels from cucumber, pumpkin, and jackfruit, cupuaçu seed peel, and rice bran), using the in vitro digestion/ Caco-2 cell model; with Caco-2 cell ferritin formation as a surrogate marker of iron bioavailability. Total and dialyzable Fe, macronutrients, the concentrations of iron-uptake inhibitors (phytic acid, tannins, fiber) and their correlation with iron bioavailability were also evaluated. Results : The iron content of all by-products was high, but the concentration of iron and predicted bioavailability were not related. Rice bran and cupuaçu seed peel had the highest amount of phytic acid and tannins, and lowest iron bioavailability. Cucumber peels alone, and with added extrinsic Fe, and pumpkin peels with extrinsic added iron, had the highest iron bioavailability. Conclusion : The results suggest that cucumber and pumpkin peel could be valuable alternative sources of bioavailable Fe to reduce iron deficiency in at-risk populations.

  7. Silage or fresh by-product of peach palm as roughage in the feeding of lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos Cabral, Ícaro; Azevêdo, José Augusto Gomes; de Almeida, Flávio Moreira; Pereira, Luiz Gustavo Ribeiro; de Araújo, Gherman Garcia Leal; Nogueira, Abdon Santos; Souza, Lígia Lins; de Oliveira, Gisele Andrade; de Oliveira Filho, Carlos Alberto Alves

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate intake and apparent digestibility of agro-industrial by-product of peach palm in diets for lambs. Twenty castrated, crossbred Santa Ines lambs, with average age of 150 days and body weight of 22.4 ± 3.4 kg, were distributed in a completely randomized design with four experimental diets composed of the following: fresh by-product of peach palm enriched with urea + ammonia sulfate (FU); fresh peach palm by-product + concentrate (FP); silage of peach palm by-product + concentrate (SP); and silage of peach palm by-product enriched with 15% of cornmeal + concentrate (SPC). Intake was recorded daily, and the digestibility coefficients were estimated with the internal marker indigestible acid detergent fiber (iADF). Diet FU resulted in the lowest intake and digestibility of the nutrients evaluated. Animals receiving diet FP showed higher intakes of dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM), crude protein (CP), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), total digestible nutrients (TDN), and digestible energy (DE) in relation to animals fed diets SP and SPC. Diets SP and SPC showed higher coefficients of digestibility of DM, OM, CP, and NDF than diet FP. Diet SP reduced the intakes of DM, OM, ether extract (EE), non-fibrous carbohydrate (NFC), TDN, and DE and the digestibility coefficients of DM, OM, and NFC as compared with diet SPC. Feedlot lambs fed a diet with fresh peach palm by-product + concentrate (diet FP) have higher nutrient intake.

  8. By-products of Opuntia ficus-indica as a source of antioxidant dietary fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bensadón, Sara; Hervert-Hernández, Deisy; Sáyago-Ayerdi, Sonia G; Goñi, Isabel

    2010-09-01

    Dietary fiber and bioactive compounds are widely used as functional ingredients in processed foods. The market in this field is competitive and the development of new types of quality ingredients for the food industry is on the rise. Opuntia ficus-indica (cactus pear) produces edible tender stems (cladodes) and fruits with a high nutritional value in terms of minerals, protein, dietary fiber and phytochemicals; however, around 20% of fresh weight of cladodes and 45% of fresh weight of fruits are by-products. The objective of this study was therefore to determine the nutritional value of by-products obtained from cladodes and fruits from two varieties of Opuntia ficus-indica, examining their dietary fiber and natural antioxidant compound contents in order to obtain quality ingredients for functional foods and increase the added value of these by-products.

  9. Castanea sativa by-products: a review on added value and sustainable application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braga, Nair; Rodrigues, Francisca; Oliveira, M Beatriz P P

    2015-01-01

    Castanea sativa Mill. is a species of the family Fagaceae abundant in south Europe and Asia. The fruits (chestnut) are an added value resource in producing countries. Chestnut economic value is increasing not only for nutritional qualities but also for the beneficial health effects related with its consumption. During chestnut processing, a large amount of waste material is generated namely inner shell, outer shell and leaves. Studies on chestnut by-products revealed a good profile of bioactive compounds with antioxidant, anticarcinogenic and cardioprotective properties. These agro-industrial wastes, after valorisation, can be used by other industries, such as pharmaceutical, food or cosmetics, generating more profits, reducing pollution costs and improving social, economic and environmental sustainability. The purpose of this review is to provide knowledge about the type of chestnut by-products produced, the studies concerning its chemical composition and biological activity, and also to discuss other possible applications of these materials.

  10. Biological activities of Agave by-products and their possible applications in food and pharmaceuticals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Romero, Julio Cesar; Ayala-Zavala, Jesús Fernando; González-Aguilar, Gustavo Adolfo; Peña-Ramos, Etna Aida; González-Ríos, Humberto

    2018-05-01

    Agave leaves are considered a by-product of alcoholic beverage production (tequila, mezcal and bacanora) because they are discarded during the production process, despite accounting for approximately 50% of the total plant weight. These by-products constitute a potential source of Agave extracts rich in bioactive compounds, such as saponins, phenolic compounds and terpenes, and possess different biological effects, as demonstrated by in vitro and in vivo tests (e.g. antimicrobial, antifungal, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antihypertensive, immunomodulatory, antiparasitic and anticancer activity). Despite their positive results in biological assays, Agave extracts have not been widely evaluated in food systems and pharmaceutical areas, and these fields represent a potential route to improve the usage of Agave plants as food additives and agents for treating medical diseases. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. Olive oil enriched in lycopene from tomato by-product through a co-milling process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendini, Alessandra; Di Lecce, Giuseppe; Valli, Enrico; Barbieri, Sara; Tesini, Federica; Toschi, Tullia Gallina

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this investigation was to produce an olive oil (OO) naturally enriched with antioxidants, recovering carotenoids, in particular lycopene, using an industrial by-product of tomato seeds and skin. For this purpose, a technological process in a low-scale industrial plant to co-mill olives and tomato by-product in de-frosted or freeze-dried forms was applied and studied with respect to control samples. Preliminary results obtained from two different experiments were carried out by 40 kg of cultivar Correggiolo olives and 60 kg of olive blends from different cultivars. In both the experiments, the co-milling showed significant enrichment in carotenoids, especially in lycopene (mean values of 5.4 and 7.2 mg/kg oil from defrosted and freeze-dried by-products, respectively). The experimental results demonstrated the possibility to obtain a new functional food naturally enriched in antioxidant compounds, which might be marketed as "OO dressing enriched in lycopene" or "condiment produced using olives and tomato by-product".

  12. Development and application of graphite-SiO2/Al2O3/Nb2O5-methylene blue (GRP-SiAlNb-MB composite for electrochemical determination of dopamine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana de Fátima Giarola

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper an amperometric sensor based on graphite-SiO2/Al2O3/Nb2O5-methylene blue (GRP-SiAlNb-MB composite has been successfully prepared for dopamine (DA determination in real samples. The electrochemical behavior of DA at the GRP-SiAlNb-MB has been evaluated by employing cyclic voltammetry. The best ratio (m/m of GRP-SiAlNb-MB composite was found to be 1:0.54. Under optimized conditions (pH 7.5 in 0.15 mol L−1 phosphate buffer the amperometry method responds linearly to DA from 5.0 up to 500.0 μmol L−1 (r = 0.995 with limits of detection and quantification of 1.49 and 4.97 μmol L−1, respectively. The developed method was successfully applied for DA determination in real samples of pharmaceutical formulations and can be used for routine quality control analysis of pharmaceutical formulations containing DA. The use of inorganic matrix SiAlNb was found to be very useful to adsorb MB in the composite material with further improvement of the anodic peak current of DA.

  13. Anti-pancreatic cancer activity of ONC212 involves the unfolded protein response (UPR) and is reduced by IGF1-R and GRP78/BIP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lev, Avital; Lulla, Amriti R; Wagner, Jessica; Ralff, Marie D; Kiehl, Joshua B; Zhou, Yan; Benes, Cyril H; Prabhu, Varun V; Oster, Wolfgang; Astsaturov, Igor; Dicker, David T; El-Deiry, Wafik S

    2017-10-10

    Pancreatic cancer is chemo-resistant and metastasizes early with an overall five-year survival of ∼8.2%. First-in-class imipridone ONC201 is a small molecule in clinical trials with anti-cancer activity. ONC212, a fluorinated-ONC201 analogue, shows preclinical efficacy in melanoma and hepatocellular-cancer models. We investigated efficacy of ONC201 and ONC212 against pancreatic cancer cell lines ( N =16 including 9 PDX-cell lines). We demonstrate ONC212 efficacy in 4 in-vivo models including ONC201-resistant tumors. ONC212 is active in pancreatic cancer as single agent or in combination with 5-fluorouracil, irinotecan, oxaliplatin or RTK inhibitor crizotinib. Based on upregulation of pro-survival IGF1-R in some tumors, we found an active combination of ONC212 with inhibitor AG1024, including in vivo . We show a rationale for targeting pancreatic cancer using ONC212 combined with targeting the unfolded-protein response and ER chaperones such as GRP78/BIP. Our results lay the foundation to test imipridones, anti-cancer agents, in pancreatic cancer, that is refractory to most drugs.

  14. By-product mutualism with evolving common enemies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Jaegher, K.J.M.

    2017-01-01

    The common-enemy hypothesis of by-product mutualism states that organisms cooperate when it is in their individual interests to do so, with benefits for other organisms arising as a by-product; in particular, such cooperation is hypothesized to arise when organisms face the common enemy of a

  15. CONSIDERATIONS IN UTILIZING BY-PRODUCT CARBOHYDRATES IN RUMINANT NUTRITION

    Science.gov (United States)

    By-product feeds provide a variety of carbohydrates that can vary greatly in their content, digestibility, and physical effects. Variation in the composition and quality of by-product feeds needs to be evaluated to assess whether the variation poses an acceptable risk for inclusion of small or larg...

  16. Mineral composition of fruit by-products evaluated by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabriela de Matuoka e Chiocchetti; Nadai Fernandes de, E.A.; Macio Arruda Bacchi; Rogerio Augusto Pazim; Silvana Regina Vicino Sarries; Thais Melega Tome

    2013-01-01

    Brazil is one of the largest producers of fruits cropping 40 million tons per year. In agro-food processing, approximately 50 % of raw material is discarded generating large amounts of by-products. The lack of information on the nutritional quality of agroindustrial by-products precludes their potential use in the manufacture of food products accessible to all. In this context, the objective of this work was to investigate the nutritional quality of by-products of the industrial processing of fruits. Samples of bagasse, peel and seeds of several fruits (banana, camu camu, coconut, cupuacu, guava, jackfruit, mango, orange, papaya, pineapple, and soursop) were analysed by neutron activation analysis for the determination of Br, Ca, Co, Cr, Cs, Fe, K, La, Na, Rb, Sc and Zn. In general, higher levels of minerals were found in the by-products rather than in the pulps of fruits. This indicates that the use of the by-products should be encouraged, thereby reducing the economic and environmental impact of waste generated by agroindustrial processing. (author)

  17. Land application uses for dry flue gas desulfurization by-products. Executive summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dick, W.; Bigham, J.; Forster, R.; Hitzhusen, F.; Lal, R.; Stehouwer, R.; Traina, S.; Wolfe, W.; Haefner, R.; Rowe, G.

    1999-01-31

    Flue gas desulfurization (FGD) scrubbing technologies create several types of by-products. This project focused primarily on by-product materials obtained from what are commonly called ''dry scrubbers'' which produce a dry, solid material consisting of excess sorbent, reaction product that contains sulfate and sulfite, and coal fly ash. Prior to this project, dry FGD by-products were generally treated as solid wastes and disposed in landfills. However, landfill sites are becoming scarce and tipping fees are constantly increasing; The major objective of this project was to develop beneficial uses, via recycling, capable of providing economic benefits to both the producer and the end user of the FGD by-product. It is equally important, however, that the environmental impacts be carefully assessed so that the new uses developed are not only technically feasible but socially acceptable. Specific objectives developed for this project were derived over an 18-month period during extensive discussions with personnel from industry, regulatory agencies and research institutions. These were stated as follows: Objective 1: To characterize the material generated by dry FGD processes. Objective 2: To demonstrate the utilization of dry FGD by-product as a soil amendment on agricultural lands and on abandoned and active surface coal mines in Ohio. Objective 3: To demonstrate the use of dry FGD by-product as an engineering material for soil stabilization. Objective 4: To determine the quantities of dry FGD by-product that can be utilized in each of these applications. Objective 5. To determine the environmental and economic impacts of utilizing the material. Objective 6. To calibrate environmental, engineering, and economic models that can be used to determine the applicability and costs of utilizing these processes at other sites.

  18. Effect of UV-C radiation on bioactive compounds of pineapple (Ananas comosus L. Merr.) by-products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Ana; Moldão-Martins, Margarida; Costa, Helena S; Albuquerque, Tânia G; Valente, Ana; Sanches-Silva, Ana

    2015-01-01

    The industrial processing of pineapple generates a high quantity of by-products. To reduce the environmental impact of these by-products and the inherent cost of their treatment, it is important to characterise and valorise these products, converting them into high added value products. Ultra-violet radiation is one of the main sustainable sanitation techniques for fruits. Since this radiation can induce plant stress which can promote the biosynthesis of bioactive compounds, it is important to evaluate its effect in fruits. The amounts of vitamins (C and E) and carotenoids (α-carotene, β-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin, lutein, lycopene, neoxanthin, violaxanthin and zeaxanthin) in pineapple by-products (core and rind) were analysed before and after treatment with UV radiation. All treated and untreated pineapple by-products contained β-carotene as the main carotenoid (rind, 2537-3225 µg; and core, 960-994 µg 100 g(-1) DW). Pineapple rind also contained lutein (288-297 µg 100 g(-1) DW) and α-carotene (89-126 µg 100 g(-1) DW). The results provide evidence of the potential of pineapple by-products as a source of bioactive compounds with antioxidant activity, which can be used by pharmaceutical, cosmetics and food industries. In addition, UV-C was shown to be a treatment that can add nutritional value to pineapple by-products. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. UN-ECE task force: 'by-product utilization from stationary installations'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hackl, A. E.; Zehetner, G.

    1996-09-01

    The task force has concluded as followed: Major sources of by-products considered in this report from stationary installations are large scale firing installations, waste incineration, upgrading processes and utilization in iron and steel, aluminium and copper industry, and the pulp and paper industry. The share of each sector source to the total amount of by-products generated differs significantly in the participating countries. State of the art processes as described in the report take account of the need for integrated pollution prevention and control. In particular the requirements set out in the Convention on Long Range Transboundary Air Pollution can still be satisfied when applying these state of the art processes. The report shows that a number of techniques for avoidance, reduction and/or utilization of by-products are in commercial operation in the branches discussed. They can therefore be considered to be best available. For some special by-products technical processes for the treatment are still in development and are not yet state-of-the-art. The implementation of the already proven techniques varies considerably in the different ECE-countries. This is mainly due to the following circumstances: differences in the design and stringency of legal regulations, availability of landfilling sites, costs of disposal, differences in industrial structure. Problems with by-product utilization originate mainly from: a) from a loss of international competitiveness of the respective industrial sector, if the reduction of the amount of by-products or their utilization leads to higher costs than conventional processes; b) from quality standards for materials which are inadequate for secondary raw materials thus creating acceptance problems of these materials. C) In some cases incineration and/or thermal recycling processes generate PCDD/F. quantities produces may be capable of reduction by means of process modification. If, however PCDD/F is released to the

  20. Exposure Characteristics of Nanoparticles as Process By-products for the Semiconductor Manufacturing Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Kwang-Min; Kim, Jin-Ho; Park, Ju-Hyun; Kim, Kwan-Sick; Bae, Gwi-Nam

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to elucidate the exposure properties of nanoparticles (NPs; semiconductor manufacturing processes. The measurements of airborne NPs were mainly performed around process equipment during fabrication processes and during maintenance. The number concentrations of NPs were measured using a water-based condensation particle counter having a size range of 10-3,000 nm. The chemical composition, size, and shape of NPs were determined by scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy techniques equipped with energy dispersive spectroscopy. The resulting concentrations of NPs ranged from 0.00-11.47 particles/cm(3). The concentration of NPs measured during maintenance showed a tendency to increase, albeit incrementally, compared to that measured during normal conditions (under typical process conditions without maintenance). However, the increment was small. When comparing the mean number concentration and standard deviation (n ± σ) of NPs, the chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) process was the highest (3.45 ± 3.65 particles/cm(3)), and the dry etch (ETCH) process was the lowest (0.11 ± 0.22 particles/cm(3)). The major NPs observed were silica (SiO2) and titania (TiO2) particles, which were mainly spherical agglomerates ranging in size from 25-280 nm. Sampling of semiconductor processes in CMP, chemical vapor deposition, and ETCH reveled NPs were particle size exceeded 100 nm in diffusion, metallization, ion implantation, and wet cleaning/etching process. The results show that the SiO2 and TiO2 are the major NPs present in semiconductor cleanroom environments.

  1. Utilization of agro-industrial by-products by swamp buffalo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jelan, Z.A.; Jalaludin, S.; Vijchulata, P.

    1987-01-01

    A series of studies were conducted to determine the factors affecting the utilization of palm press fibre (PPF) by swamp buffaloes. The nutritive values, fermentation and rumen kinetics, intake and growth responses to a PPF based diet with or without protein and energy supplementation were studied. Palm press fibre was considered a poor quality feed as it is low in crude protein (about 6%) and high in lignin content (about 21%). Dry matter (DM) disappearance from nylon bags at 48 h was low (about 40%) as compared with grass (47%), oaten hay (49%) and lucerne (64%). Sodium hydroxide (8% solution) was most effective as a treating agent as the DM disappearance of PPF from the nylon bags at 48 h was increased by 14%. Dry matter loss from the bags was greater in swamp buffaloes than in cattle. Rumen fluid volume and flow rate were not significantly (P>0.05) increased with fish meal supplementation, but the total dry matter intake (DMI) increased significantly (P<0.05) when 360 g DM/d fish meal was supplemented. Total volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentrations were low in unsupplemented animals and the molar proportions of the VFAs were typical of those seen in the rumen fluid of ruminants fed a fibre based diet. Rumen ammonia-nitrogen was high (40-70 mg/L) in fish meal supplemented animals. When urea treated PPF was supplemented with fish meal and cassava, the animals showed significant increases (P<0.05) in average daily gain and in both total DMI and in the DMI of a basal diet. The study concludes that supplementation with rumen undegradable protein and an energy source are essential to a PPF based diet and that untreated PPF is not a suitable basal diet for swamp buffaloes. (author)

  2. Research of cement mixtures with additions of industrial by-products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papesch, R.; Klus, L.; Svoboda, J.; Zajac, R.

    2017-10-01

    The main goal of the article is the comparison of the possible use of secondary energy products. Used fly ashes, respectively steel dusts in cement mixes derive from production in Moravian-Silesian Region. The research focused on their influence on the chemical and physico-mechanical characteristics of the fresh and solid mixture. The aim was to find suitable formulations for grouting works, highway construction possibly rehabilitation of underground cavities created by mining activities. The introduction is mentioned the history of waste utilization up to current use as a product and the overall state of the problem. The conclusion is an evaluation of possible use in practice, including recommendations to carry out further tests.

  3. Antidiabetic and antioxidant potentials of spent turmeric oleoresin, a by-product from curcumin production industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh V Nampoothiri

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the antidiabetic and antioxidant activity of spent turmeric oleoresin (STO. Methods: Antidiabetic activity of STO evaluated by α - amylase and α - glucosidase enzyme inhibition assays. The antioxidant capacity studied by DPPH. , ABTS., superoxide radical scavenging and metal chelating activity methods. Results: The STO showed good antidiabetic activity by inhibiting key enzymes linked to type 2 diabetes, viz α -glucosidase and α -amylase with an IC50values of 0.71 and 0.16毺 g/mL respectively. The IC50 values for DPPH. and ABTS. assay were 58.1 and 33 毺 g/mL respectively. STO effectively scavenged the superoxide free radical with an IC50 value of 61.5毺 g/mL and showed a moderate iron chelation property. Conclusions: The above study reveals that the spent turmeric oleoresin being wasted at present can be used as antioxidant and antidiabetic agent in food and neutraceutical products.

  4. Nutritional characteristics of by-products originating from the Central European ethanol fuel industry for pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitrayová, S; Brestensky, M; Patrás, P; Heger, J

    2012-12-01

    Chemical composition and nutrient and energy digestibilities were determined in 4 samples of dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) and 1 sample of wet distillers grains (WDG) from 4 ethanol fuel manufacturers. The cereal sources used for ethanol production were wheat (Triticum aestivum; 1 sample), wheat + barley (Hordeum vulgare; 2 samples), and maize (Zea mays; 2 samples). The nutrient contents (expressed as % of DM) were variable, ranging from 30.5 to 39.5 CP, 4.4 to 12.3 fat, 7.5 to 12.9 crude fiber, 2.7 to 7.8 ash, and 0.4 to 0.9 total P. The concentration of Lys ranged from 2.05 to 5.20 g/kg DM. The diets were fed to 6 gilts (39.9 ± 1.9 kg BW) fitted with ileal T-cannulas using a 5 × 6 Youden square. Each experimental period comprised a 5-d adaptation followed by a 2-d collection of urine and feces and 1-d (24 h) collection of ileal digesta. Using acid-insoluble ash as a marker, apparent ileal digestibility (AID) and apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of nutrients and energy and AID of AA were calculated. The ATTD of N ranged from 55.7 to 83.7%. The N retention expressed as percentage of N intake ranged from 10.2 to 32.0. Except for wheat-based DDGS, the AID of N was 66.8%. The ATTD and AID values of NDF were 52.8 and 24.4%, respectively. The concentration of total P in WDG was half of values in DDGS, which likely caused its very low ATTD (1.4%). The ATTD and AID of energy ranged from 58.8 to 73.9% and from 40.6 to 54.1%, respectively. The AID of AA was greatest (P origin is an important determinant of quality.

  5. Evaluating by-products of the Atlantic shellfish industry as alternative feed ingredients for laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langille, M A; Anderson, D M; MacIsaac, J L

    2012-09-01

    A full-cycle laying hen study was conducted to evaluate crab meal (CM) and lobster meal (LM) as feed ingredients for laying hens by assigning four hundred thirty-two 35-wk-old White Leghorns to 1 of 6 diets [control, 2.5% CM, 2.5% LM, 5% CM, 5% LM, and 2.5% CM + 2.5% LM (blend)]. Productive performance and egg parameters were evaluated every 28-d period. Eggs were collected at 67 wk of age from the 5% CM, 5% LM, and blend treatments for analysis of yolk fatty acid composition. At 55 and 67 wk of age, ulnas were collected to determine breaking strength, percent ash, and calcium. Body weights, feed consumption, hen-day production, feed efficiency, and egg quality were not affected (P > 0.05) by treatment. The L* scores of eggs from 5% CM, 5% LM, and blend were lower (P 0.05) any of the bone parameters measured at 55 and 67 wk of age. CM and LM supported similar egg production, feed efficiency, egg yolk color, adequate bone strength, and the incorporation of DHA into egg yolks.

  6. Recycling technology of sugar industry by-products for animal feeding

    OpenAIRE

    Yadira Suárez Rodríguez; Arael Martínez Teruel; Luis B. Ramos Sánchez; María Caridad Julián

    2006-01-01

    En este trabajo se presenta el desarrollo de una tecnología de reciclaje y enriquecimiento proteico mediante fermentación en estado sólido de los subproductos de la industria azucarera para su posterior utilización como alimento animal. A partir de un estudio bibliográfico sobre los aspectos más importantes de las tecnologías actuales de fabricación de alimentos para el consumo animal y las herramientas para el desarrollo de tecnologías de fermentaci ón en medios sólidos se ha desarrollado un...

  7. Compressive strength of a concrete mix for pavement blocks incorporating industrial by-product

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mokoena, Refiloe

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available - reference 3 0 0.26 808 0 1062 344 210 0 - Mix 8 50 0.28 404 404 1062 212 226 0 0 Mix 8A 50 0.28 404 404 1062 212 226 3.10 5 Mix 8B 50 0.28 404 404 1062 212 226 6.21 10 Mix 9 90 0.28 81 727 1062 106 226 0 55 *water:binder ratio where fly ash and cement... was made for the 90% fly ash specimens due to the specimens disintegrating once placed in water. These specimens were therefore cured in heavy duty plastic bags; mixes 3, 6 and 9 were cured in the heavy duty bags before crushing on the appropriate days...

  8. Nutritional Qualities of Agro-Industrial By-Products and Local ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    else

    materials, lack of commercial orientations by the farmers, poor awareness about processed feeds utilization by livestock producers, lack of tax exemptions and ...... determined by chemical composition analysis and an in vitro gas method.

  9. Valorization of Proteins from Co- and By-Products from the Fish and Meat Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Aspevik, Tone; Oterhals, Åge; Rønning, Sissel Beate; Altintzoglou, Themistoklis; Wubshet, Sileshi Gizachhew; Gildberg, Asbjørn; Afseth, Nils Kristian; Whitaker, Ragnhild; Lindberg, Diana

    2017-01-01

    Large volumes of protein-rich residual raw materials, such as heads, bones, carcasses, blood, skin, viscera, hooves and feathers, are created as a result of processing of animals from fisheries, aquaculture, livestock and poultry sectors. These residuals contain proteins and other essential nutrients with potentially bioactive properties, eligible for recycling and upgrading for higher-value products, e.g. for human, pet food and feed purposes. Here, we aim to cover all the important aspects ...

  10. Valorisation of fish by-products against waste management treatments--Comparison of environmental impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Carla; Antelo, Luis T; Franco-Uría, Amaya; Alonso, Antonio A; Pérez-Martín, Ricardo

    2015-12-01

    Reuse and valorisation of fish by-products is a key process for marine resources conservation. Usually, fishmeal and oil processing factories collect the by-products generated by fishing port and industry processing activities, producing an economical benefit to both parts. In the same way, different added-value products can be recovered by the valorisation industries whereas fishing companies save the costs associated with the management of those wastes. However, it is important to estimate the advantages of valorisation processes not only in terms of economic income, but also considering the environmental impacts. This would help to know if the valorisation of a residue provokes higher impact than other waste management options, which means that its advantages are probably not enough for guarantying a sustainable waste reuse. To that purpose, there are several methodologies to evaluate the environmental impacts of processes, including those of waste management, providing different indicators which give information on relevant environmental aspects. In the current study, a comparative environmental assessment between a valorisation process (fishmeal and oil production) and different waste management scenarios (composting, incineration and landfilling) was developed. This comparison is a necessary step for the development and industrial implementation of these processes as the best alternative treatment for fish by-products. The obtained results showed that both valorisation process and waste management treatments presented similar impacts. However, a significant benefit can be achieved through valorisation of fish by-products. Additionally, the implications of the possible presence of pollutants were discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Digestion kinetics of carbohydrate fractions of citrus by-products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lashkari, Saman; Taghizadeh, Akbar

    2015-01-01

    The present experiment was carried out to determine the digestion kinetics of carbohydrate fractions of citrus by-products. Grapefruit pulp (GP), lemon pulp (LE), lime pulp (LI) and orange pulp (OP) were the test feed. Digestion kinetic of whole citrus by-products and neutral detergent fiber (NDF......) fraction and acid detergent fiber (ADF) fractions of citrus by-products were measured using the in vitro gas production technique. Fermentation kinetics of the neutral detergent soluble carbohydrates (NDSC) fraction and hemicelluloses were calculated using a curve subtraction. The fermentation rate...... of whole was the highest for the LE (p by-products lag time was longer for hemicellulose than other carbohydrate fractions. There was no significant difference among potential gas production (A) volumes of whole test feeds (p

  12. Wastes and by-products - alternatives for agricultural use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boles, J.L.; Craft, D.J.; Parker, B.R.

    1994-01-01

    Top address a growing national problem with generation of wastes and by-products, TVA has been involved for several years with developing and commercializing environmentally responsible practices for eliminating, minimizing, or utilizing various wastes/by-products. In many cases, reducing waste generation is impractical, but the wastes/by-products can be converted into other environmentally sound products. In some instances, conversion of safe, value-added agricultural products in the best or only practical alternative. TVA is currently involved with a diversity of projects converting wastes/by-products into safe, economical, and agriculturally beneficial products. Environmental improvement projects have involved poultry litter, cellulosic wastes, used battery acid, ammonium sulfate fines, lead smelting effluents, deep-welled sulfuric acid/ammonium bisulfate solutions, wood ash, waste magnesium ammonium sulfate slurry from recording tape production, and ammunition plant waste sodium nitrate/ammonium nitrate streams

  13. Bioactive compounds from flesh and by-product of fresh-cut watermelon cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarazona-Díaz, Martha Patricia; Viegas, Joana; Moldao-Martins, Margarida; Aguayo, Encarna

    2011-03-30

    The fresh-cut industry produces thousands of tons of waste in non-edible portions that present an environmental and management problem. These by-products could be reused, in particular, to obtain bioactive compounds. In this study, five different fresh-cut watermelon cultivars were assessed for their flesh and by-product bioactive contents. The amount of by-product varied between 31.27 and 40.61% of initial fresh weight (f.w.) depending on the cultivar. Watermelon cultivars were poor sources of total antioxidant, and the content was similar between rind and flesh samples (46.96 vs 43.46 mg ascorbic acid equivalent antioxidant capacity kg(-1) f.w.). However, the rind had a moderate total phenolic content higher than that of the flesh (458 vs 389 mg chlorogenic acid equivalent kg(-1) f.w.) and a much higher content of the amino acid citrulline (3.34 vs 2.33 g kg(-1) f.w.), which has potential bioactive properties. Watermelon rind offers quantitative interest as a natural source of citrulline, particularly Fashion, a dark-skinned, seedless cultivar. More research is required on the efficient extraction of citrulline from watermelon rind and its suitability as an additive to drinks, juices or others products to produce new functional food products with valid health claims. Copyright © 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. LEDGF/p75 Overexpression Attenuates Oxidative Stress-Induced Necrosis and Upregulates the Oxidoreductase ERP57/PDIA3/GRP58 in Prostate Cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anamika Basu

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer (PCa mortality is driven by highly aggressive tumors characterized by metastasis and resistance to therapy, and this aggressiveness is mediated by numerous factors, including activation of stress survival pathways in the pro-inflammatory tumor microenvironment. LEDGF/p75, also known as the DFS70 autoantigen, is a stress transcription co-activator implicated in cancer, HIV-AIDS, and autoimmunity. This protein is targeted by autoantibodies in certain subsets of patients with PCa and inflammatory conditions, as well as in some apparently healthy individuals. LEDGF/p75 is overexpressed in PCa and other cancers, and promotes resistance to chemotherapy-induced cell death via the transactivation of survival proteins. We report in this study that overexpression of LEDGF/p75 in PCa cells attenuates oxidative stress-induced necrosis but not staurosporine-induced apoptosis. This finding was consistent with the observation that while LEDGF/p75 was robustly cleaved in apoptotic cells into a p65 fragment that lacks stress survival activity, it remained relatively intact in necrotic cells. Overexpression of LEDGF/p75 in PCa cells led to the upregulation of transcript and protein levels of the thiol-oxidoreductase ERp57 (also known as GRP58 and PDIA3, whereas its depletion led to ERp57 transcript downregulation. Chromatin immunoprecipitation and transcription reporter assays showed LEDGF/p75 binding to and transactivating the ERp57 promoter, respectively. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed significantly elevated co-expression of these two proteins in clinical prostate tumor tissues. Our results suggest that LEDGF/p75 is not an inhibitor of apoptosis but rather an antagonist of oxidative stress-induced necrosis, and that its overexpression in PCa leads to ERp57 upregulation. These findings are of significance in clarifying the role of the LEDGF/p75 stress survival pathway in PCa.

  15. Potential of chicken by-products as sources of useful biological resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lasekan, Adeseye; Abu Bakar, Fatimah; Hashim, Dzulkifly

    2013-01-01

    By-products from different animal sources are currently being utilised for beneficial purposes. Chicken processing plants all over the world generate large amount of solid by-products in form of heads, legs, bones, viscera and feather. These wastes are often processed into livestock feed, fertilizers and pet foods or totally discarded. Inappropriate disposal of these wastes causes environmental pollution, diseases and loss of useful biological resources like protein, enzymes and lipids. Utilisation methods that make use of these biological components for producing value added products rather than the direct use of the actual waste material might be another viable option for dealing with these wastes. This line of thought has consequently led to researches on these wastes as sources of protein hydrolysates, enzymes and polyunsaturated fatty acids. Due to the multi-applications of protein hydrolysates in various branches of science and industry, and the large body of literature reporting the conversion of animal wastes to hydrolysates, a large section of this review was devoted to this subject. Thus, this review reports the known functional and bioactive properties of hydrolysates derived from chicken by-products as well their utilisation as source of peptone in microbiological media. Methods of producing these hydrolysates including their microbiological safety are discussed. Based on the few references available in the literature, the potential of some chicken by-product as sources of proteases and polyunsaturated fatty acids are pointed out along with some other future applications

  16. Potential of chicken by-products as sources of useful biological resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lasekan, Adeseye [Faculty of Food Science and Technology, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Abu Bakar, Fatimah, E-mail: fatim@putra.upm.edu.my [Faculty of Food Science and Technology, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Halal Products Research Institute, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Hashim, Dzulkifly [Faculty of Food Science and Technology, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Halal Products Research Institute, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2013-03-15

    By-products from different animal sources are currently being utilised for beneficial purposes. Chicken processing plants all over the world generate large amount of solid by-products in form of heads, legs, bones, viscera and feather. These wastes are often processed into livestock feed, fertilizers and pet foods or totally discarded. Inappropriate disposal of these wastes causes environmental pollution, diseases and loss of useful biological resources like protein, enzymes and lipids. Utilisation methods that make use of these biological components for producing value added products rather than the direct use of the actual waste material might be another viable option for dealing with these wastes. This line of thought has consequently led to researches on these wastes as sources of protein hydrolysates, enzymes and polyunsaturated fatty acids. Due to the multi-applications of protein hydrolysates in various branches of science and industry, and the large body of literature reporting the conversion of animal wastes to hydrolysates, a large section of this review was devoted to this subject. Thus, this review reports the known functional and bioactive properties of hydrolysates derived from chicken by-products as well their utilisation as source of peptone in microbiological media. Methods of producing these hydrolysates including their microbiological safety are discussed. Based on the few references available in the literature, the potential of some chicken by-product as sources of proteases and polyunsaturated fatty acids are pointed out along with some other future applications.

  17. The production and utilization of by-product agricultural fertilizer from flue gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frank, N.W.; Hirano, S.

    1992-01-01

    The electron-beam process is one of the most effective methods for removing SO 2 and NO X from industrial flue gases and producing a usable by-product. This paper surveys the potential for production and consumption of alternative, usable, commercial by-products, in conjunction with major reductions in the inventory of emissions of SO 2 and NO X . An examination is made of the important limitations in the annual consumptive use or price of and/or net revenues from commonplace, electric utility, by-product types such as gypsum, sulfuric acid, etc. A principal focus of the work is an analysis and quantification of the major large-scale, growing and profitable markets for utility solid wastes that can be generated in agricultural fertilizer forms, including ammonium sulfate and other compounds that are available through stack-gas cleaning operations at large, coal-fired boilers. Cost study data is arranged to define the impact of commercial by-product yield and revenue on the economics of full scale SO 2 and NO X emission reduction activity. (author)

  18. Adding value to the by-products of cereal processing by fungal production of highly unsaturated fatty acids

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Jacobs, A

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available not only lead to economic losses for the industry, but constitute an environmental hazard. Currently cereal by-products are mainly utilised as animal and fish feeds. This application is limited by the high fibre and low protein levels generally present...

  19. Stillage reflux in food waste ethanol fermentation and its by-product accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Hongzhi; Yang, Jian; Jia, Yan; Wang, Qunhui; Tashiro, Yukihiro; Sonomoto, Kenji

    2016-06-01

    Raw materials and pollution control are key issues for the ethanol fermentation industry. To address these concerns, food waste was selected as fermentation substrate, and stillage reflux was carried out in this study. Reflux was used seven times during fermentation. Corresponding ethanol and reducing sugar were detected. Accumulation of by-products, such as organic acid, sodium chloride, and glycerol, was investigated. Lactic acid was observed to accumulate up to 120g/L, and sodium chloride reached 0.14mol/L. Other by-products did not accumulate. The first five cycles of reflux increased ethanol concentration, which prolonged fermentation time. Further increases in reflux time negatively influenced ethanol fermentation. Single-factor analysis with lactic acid and sodium chloride demonstrated that both factors affected ethanol fermentation, but lactic acid induced more effects. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Natural Bioactive Compounds from Winery By-Products as Health Promoters: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Teixeira

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The relevance of food composition for human health has increased consumers’ interest in the consumption of fruits and vegetables, as well as foods enriched in bioactive compounds and nutraceuticals. This fact has led to a growing attention of suppliers on reuse of agro-industrial wastes rich in healthy plant ingredients. On this matter, grape has been pointed out as a rich source of bioactive compounds. Currently, up to 210 million tons of grapes (Vitis vinifera L. are produced annually, being the 15% of the produced grapes addressed to the wine-making industry. This socio-economic activity generates a large amount of solid waste (up to 30%, w/w of the material used. Winery wastes include biodegradable solids namely stems, skins, and seeds. Bioactive compounds from winery by-products have disclosed interesting health promoting activities both in vitro and in vivo. This is a comprehensive review on the phytochemicals present in winery by-products, extraction techniques, industrial uses, and biological activities demonstrated by their bioactive compounds concerning potential for human health.

  1. Characterization and cardioprotective activity of anthocyanins from Nitraria tangutorum Bobr. by-products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ming; Ma, Jianbin; Bi, Hongtao; Song, Jiayin; Yang, Hongxia; Xia, Zhenghua; Du, Yuzhi; Gao, Tingting; Wei, Lixin

    2017-08-01

    The Nitraria tangutorum Bobr. fruit is an indigenous berry of the shrub belonging to the Zygophyllaceae family which grows at an altitude of over 3000 m in the Tibetan Plateau, and has been used as a native medicinal food for treating weakness of the spleen, stomach syndrome, dyspepsia, neurasthenia, dizziness, etc. for thousands of years. Nowadays, N. tangutorum industrial juice by-products generated from health food production can be a potential low cost source of some unique bioactive ingredients. In a prior study, we established a simultaneous microwave/ultrasonic assisted enzymatic extraction method for extracting antioxidant ingredients from the industrial by-products of N. tangutorum juice. In this study, these ingredients were selectively fractionated by cation-exchange resin chromatography to obtain an anthocyanin fraction namely NJBAE. NJBAE was found to be composed of 16 anthocyanins derived from six anthocyanidins by HPLC-ESI-MS, and has an appreciable cardioprotective effect on doxorubicin-induced injured H9c2 cardiomyocytes. The cardioprotective mechanism research showed that NJBAE could directly scavenge ROS, restrict further generation of ROS, promote the activity of key antioxidase, enhance glutathione redox cycling, then affect the apoptotic signaling changes in a positive way, and finally mediate caspase-dependent cell death pathways. Therefore, NJBAE has great potential to be used for preventing and treating cardiovascular disease in the food, pharmaceutical and other emerging industries.

  2. Natural bioactive compounds from winery by-products as health promoters: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Ana; Baenas, Nieves; Dominguez-Perles, Raul; Barros, Ana; Rosa, Eduardo; Moreno, Diego A; Garcia-Viguera, Cristina

    2014-09-04

    The relevance of food composition for human health has increased consumers' interest in the consumption of fruits and vegetables, as well as foods enriched in bioactive compounds and nutraceuticals. This fact has led to a growing attention of suppliers on reuse of agro-industrial wastes rich in healthy plant ingredients. On this matter, grape has been pointed out as a rich source of bioactive compounds. Currently, up to 210 million tons of grapes (Vitis vinifera L.) are produced annually, being the 15% of the produced grapes addressed to the wine-making industry. This socio-economic activity generates a large amount of solid waste (up to 30%, w/w of the material used). Winery wastes include biodegradable solids namely stems, skins, and seeds. Bioactive compounds from winery by-products have disclosed interesting health promoting activities both in vitro and in vivo. This is a comprehensive review on the phytochemicals present in winery by-products, extraction techniques, industrial uses, and biological activities demonstrated by their bioactive compounds concerning potential for human health.

  3. Self-Healing Capacity of Asphalt Mixtures Including By-Products Both as Aggregates and Heating Inductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vila-Cortavitarte, Marta; Jato-Espino, Daniel; Castro-Fresno, Daniel; Calzada-Pérez, Miguel Á

    2018-05-15

    Major advances have been achieved in the field of self-healing by magnetic induction in which the addition of metallic particles into asphalt mixtures enables repairing their own cracks. This technology has already been proven to increase the life expectancy of roads. Nevertheless, its higher costs in comparison with conventional maintenance caused by the price of virgin metallic particles still makes it unattractive for investment. This research aimed at making this process economically accessible as well as environmentally efficient. To this end, an intense search for suitable industrial by-products to substitute both the virgin metal particles and the natural aggregates forming asphalt mixtures was conducted. The set of by-products used included sand blasting wastes, stainless shot wastes, and polished wastes as metallic particles and other inert by-products as aggregates. The results demonstrated that the by-products were adequately heated, which leads to satisfactory healing ratios in comparison with the reference mixture.

  4. The GRP1 PH domain, like the AKT1 PH domain, possesses a sentry glutamate residue essential for specific targeting to plasma membrane PI(3,4,5)P(3).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilling, Carissa; Landgraf, Kyle E; Falke, Joseph J

    2011-11-15

    During the appearance of the signaling lipid PI(3,4,5)P(3), an important subset of pleckstrin homology (PH) domains target signaling proteins to the plasma membrane. To ensure proper pathway regulation, such PI(3,4,5)P(3)-specific PH domains must exclude the more prevalant, constitutive plasma membrane lipid PI(4,5)P(2) and bind the rare PI(3,4,5)P(3) target lipid with sufficiently high affinity. Our previous study of the E17K mutant of the protein kinase B (AKT1) PH domain, together with evidence from Carpten et al. [Carpten, J. D., et al. (2007) Nature 448, 439-444], revealed that the native AKT1 E17 residue serves as a sentry glutamate that excludes PI(4,5)P(2), thereby playing an essential role in specific PI(3,4,5)P(3) targeting [Landgraf, K. E., et al. (2008) Biochemistry 47, 12260-12269]. The sentry glutamate hypothesis proposes that an analogous sentry glutamate residue is a widespread feature of PI(3,4,5)P(3)-specific PH domains, and that charge reversal mutation at the sentry glutamate position will yield both increased PI(4,5)P(2) affinity and constitutive plasma membrane targeting. To test this hypothesis, we investigated the E345 residue, a putative sentry glutamate, of the general receptor for phosphoinositides 1 (GRP1) PH domain. The results show that incorporation of the E345K charge reversal mutation into the GRP1 PH domain enhances PI(4,5)P(2) affinity 8-fold and yields constitutive plasma membrane targeting in cells, reminiscent of the effects of the E17K mutation in the AKT1 PH domain. Hydrolysis of plasma membrane PI(4,5)P(2) releases the E345K GRP1 PH domain into the cytoplasm, and the efficiency of this release increases when Arf6 binding is disrupted. Overall, the findings provide strong support for the sentry glutamate hypothesis and suggest that the GRP1 E345K mutation will be linked to changes in cell physiology and human pathologies, as demonstrated for AKT1 E17K [Carpten, J. D., et al. (2007) Nature 448, 439-444; Lindhurst, M. J., et al

  5. Testing of CFC replacement fluids for arc-induced toxic by-products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cravey, W.R.; Goerz, D.A.; Hawley-Fedder, R.A.

    1993-06-01

    The authors have developed a unique test-stand for quantifying the generation of perfluoroisobutylene (PFIB) in chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) replacement fluids when they are subjected to high electrical stress/breakdown environments. PFIB is an extremely toxic gas with a threshold limit value of 10 ppbv as set by the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists. They have tested several new fluids from various manufacturers for their potential to generate PFIB. Their goal is to determine breakdown characteristics and quantify toxic by-products of these replacement fluids to determine a safe, usable alternative for present CFC`s.

  6. Biofuels and their by-products: Global economic and environmental implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taheripour, Farzad; Hertel, Thomas W.; Tyner, Wallace E.; Beckman, Jayson F.; Birur, Dileep K.

    2010-01-01

    Recently a number of papers have used general equilibrium models to study the economy-wide and environmental consequences of the first generation of biofuels (FGB). In this paper, we argue that nearly all of these studies have overstated the impacts of FGB on global agricultural and land markets due to the fact that they have ignored the role of biofuel by-products. Feed by-products of FGB, such as dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) and oilseed meals (VOBP), are used in the livestock industry as protein and energy sources. Their presence mitigates the price impacts of biofuel production. More importantly, they reduce the demand for cropland and moderate the indirect land use consequences of FGB. This paper explicitly introduces DDGS and VOBP into a global computational general equilibrium (CGE) model, developed at the Center for Global Trade Analysis at Purdue University, to examine the economic and environmental impacts of regional and international mandate policies designed to stimulate bioenergy production and use. We show that models with and without by-products reveal different portraits of the economic impacts of the US and EU biofuel mandates for the world economy in 2015. While both models demonstrate significant changes in the agricultural production pattern across the world, the model with by-products shows smaller changes in the production of cereal grains and larger changes for oilseeds products in the US and EU, and the reverse for Brazil. Models that omit by-products are found to overstate cropland conversion from US and EU mandates by about 27%. (author)

  7. Classification of $E_{0}$-semigroups by product systems

    CERN Document Server

    Skeide, Michael

    2016-01-01

    In these notes the author presents a complete theory of classification of E_0-semigroups by product systems of correspondences. As an application of his theory, he answers the fundamental question if a Markov semigroup admits a dilation by a cocycle perturbations of noise: It does if and only if it is spatial.

  8. Nutritional Value of Irradiated Animal Feed By-Products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Din Farag, M.D.H.

    1998-01-01

    Animal feed by-products, widely used in animal diets, are sources of disease organisms for animals and for human beings. Salmonella is the principal genus of concern.Radiation treatment (radicidation, radurization) is a promising method of decontamination of feed ingredients. Commercial samples of fish, meat, and blood meals were sealed by heat in polyethylene bags and irradiated at dose levels of 5.0, 10, 20 and 50 kGy. Their chemical analysis were carried out according to A. O. A.C [1] and the total protein efficiency (TPE) of the three animal feed by-products was determined according to Wood ham (2) by using one day old Dokki-4 chicks. Radiation induced an insignificant effect on the chemical constituent of meals. Also, the same trend was observed with TPE of both fish and meat meals. However, irradiation treatments improved TPE values of irradiated blood meal samples. From the results, it could be concluded that irradiation of animal feed by-products up to a dose level of 50 Gy has no adverse effects on the nutritional value of animal feed by-products

  9. MSWI by-products and immobilisates as concrete constituents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Florea, M.V.A.; Quaas, L.C.; Brouwers, H.J.H.; Schmidt, W.; Msinjili, N.S.

    2016-01-01

    Municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) produces a number of by-products: fly ashes, bottom ash and air pollution control residues. All these materials contain certain levels of contaminants, such as heavy metals, chlorides and sulphates among others, which are higher than the accepted limits for

  10. Cocoa Shell: A By-Product with Great Potential for Wide Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panak Balentić, Jelena; Ačkar, Đurđica; Jokić, Stela; Jozinović, Antun; Babić, Jurislav; Miličević, Borislav; Šubarić, Drago; Pavlović, Nika

    2018-06-09

    Solving the problem of large quantities of organic waste, which represents an enormous ecological and financial burden for all aspects of the process industry, is a necessity. Therefore, there is an emerged need to find specific solutions to utilize raw materials as efficiently as possible in the production process. The cocoa shell is a valuable by-product obtained from the chocolate industry. It is rich in protein, dietary fiber, and ash, as well as in some other valuable bioactive compounds, such as methylxanthines and phenolics. This paper gives an overview of published results related to the cocoa shell, mostly on important bioactive compounds and possible applications of the cocoa shell in different areas. The cocoa shell, due to its nutritional value and high-value bioactive compounds, could become a desirable raw material in a large spectrum of functional, pharmaceutical, or cosmetic products, as well as in the production of energy or biofuels in the near future.

  11. Cocoa Shell: A By-Product with Great Potential for Wide Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Panak Balentić

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Solving the problem of large quantities of organic waste, which represents an enormous ecological and financial burden for all aspects of the process industry, is a necessity. Therefore, there is an emerged need to find specific solutions to utilize raw materials as efficiently as possible in the production process. The cocoa shell is a valuable by-product obtained from the chocolate industry. It is rich in protein, dietary fiber, and ash, as well as in some other valuable bioactive compounds, such as methylxanthines and phenolics. This paper gives an overview of published results related to the cocoa shell, mostly on important bioactive compounds and possible applications of the cocoa shell in different areas. The cocoa shell, due to its nutritional value and high-value bioactive compounds, could become a desirable raw material in a large spectrum of functional, pharmaceutical, or cosmetic products, as well as in the production of energy or biofuels in the near future.

  12. Experimental cancer studies of chlorinated by-products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komulainen, Hannu

    2004-01-01

    Chlorinated drinking water contains a number of different by-products formed during the chlorination process from organic matter. The carcinogenicity of only a fraction of them have been evaluated in experimental animals. The focus has been on compounds and groups of compounds that are most abundant in chlorinated drinking water or the in vitro toxicity data have suggested genotoxic potential. From trihalomethanes, chloroform causes liver tumors in mice and female rats and renal tumors in male mice and rats. Tumor formation by chloroform is strongly associated with cytotoxicity and regenerative cell proliferation in tissues and that has been considered to be one determinant of its carcinogenicity. From halogenic acetic acids, dichloroacetic acid (DCA) and trichlotoacetic acid (TCA) are hepatocarcinogenic in mice and DCA in male rats. Their genotoxicity is equivocal and nongenotoxic mechanisms, such as peroxisome proliferation and hypomethylation of DNA in the liver, likely contribute to tumor development. From chlorinated furanones (CHFs), 3-chloro-4-(dichloromethyl)-5-hydroxy-2(5H)-furanone (MX) is a multisite carcinogen in rats (e.g. in thyroid glands and liver) and it has caused DNA damage in vivo. MX may be a complete carcinogen because it also has promoter properties in vitro. Chlorinated drinking water may also contain brominated by-products providing the raw water contains bromide. At least some of them (bromodichloromethane, bromoform) have been shown to be carcinogenic in laboratory animals. Altogether, although several by-products have been shown to have carcinogenic potential in laboratory animals, it not yet possible to state which compounds or groups of by-products cause the cancer risk in chlorinated drinking water. The cellular mechanisms of their effects and these effects at low concentrations are still poorly understood. The few studies with mixtures of these by-products suggest that the mixture effects may be complex and unpredictable (inhibitory

  13. Land application uses for dry FGD by-products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bigham, J.; Dick, W.; Forster, L.; Hitzhusen, F.; McCoy, E.; Stehouwer, R.; Traina, S.; Wolfe, W. (Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States)); Haefner, R. (Geological Survey, Columbus, OH (United States). Water Resources Div.)

    1993-04-01

    The 1990 amendments to the Clean Air Act have spurred the development of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) processes, several of which produce a dry, solid by-product material consisting of excess sorbent, reaction products containing sulfates and sulfites, and coal fly ash. Presently FGD by-product materials are treated as solid wastes and must be landfilled. However, landfill sites are becoming more scarce and tipping fees are constantly increasing. It is, therefore, highly desirable to find beneficial reuses for these materials provided the environmental impacts are minimal and socially acceptable. Phase 1 results of a 4 and 1/2 year study to demonstrate large volume beneficial uses of FGD by-products are reported. The purpose of the Phase 1 portion of the project was to characterize the chemical, physical, mineralogical and engineering properties of the FGD by-product materials obtained from various FGD technologies being developed in the state of Ohio. Phase 1 also involved the collection of baseline economic data related to the beneficial reuse of these FGD materials. A total of 58 samples were collected and analyzed. In summary Phase 1 results revealed that FGD by-product materials are essentially coal fly ash materials diluted with unreacted sorbent and reaction products. High volume beneficial reuses will depend on the economics of their substituting for existing materials for various types of applications (e.g. as an agricultural liming material, soil borrow for highway embankment construction, and reclamation of active and abandoned surface coal mines). Environmental constraints to the beneficial reuse of dry FGD byproduct materials, based on laboratory and leachate studies, seem to be less than for coal fly ash.

  14. Total Content of Phenolics and Antioxidant Activity in Crispbreads with Plant By-product addition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konrade Daiga

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Vegetable processing in food industry results in significant amount of by-products – peel, mark, bark, seeds still rich in bioactive compounds. Apple, carrot and pumpkin peel and mark may be used for production of crispbreads as functional ingredients. The objective of this study is to investigate the stability of total phenolic content (TPC and antioxidant activity after high temperature and short time (HTST extrusion cooking of a wheat and rice-based crispbreads with addition of apple, carrot and pumpkin by-products obtained after juice extraxtion and dried. Raw materials for crispbread production were wheat flour, rice flour, wheat bran (72%, 24% and 4% respectively with addition of microwave–vacuum dried by-product powder in different amount (5%, 10%, 15%, 20%. Extrusion process was performed by using a laboratory singlescrew extruder GÖTTFERT 1 screw Extrusiometer L series (Germany. Total phenolic content (TPC was determined using the Folin Ciocalteu method. Antioxidant activity was evaluated by free radical 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH antioxidant scavenging activity using a modified colorimetric method. Comparing different raw formulations, it was observed that the TPC of the apple by-product flour was significantly higher (p < 0.05 than in carrot and pumpkin flour. TPC in cereal-based crispbread was 36.06±1.15 before extrusion and 13.90±1.01 mg GAEg-1 DW (milligram Gallic acid equivalent per 100 g of dry weight (mg GAE 100 g−1 DW after extrusion. Addition of apple BPF increased TPC in crispbreads to 106.25±2.08, carrot BPF 84.73±3.45 and pumpkin BPF to 108.82±1.04 mg GAEg−1 DW. Antioxidant activity of control sample was 1.07±0.01mg TE (Trolox equivalents g−1 DW but in samples with addition of 20% apple by-products, it reached 3.77±0.02 TE g−1 DW for samples wih 20% carrot by-products reached 2.52±0.03TE g−1 DW and for samples wih 20% pumpkin by-products reached 3.77±0.02 TE g−1 DW.

  15. Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes CECT5344, a cyanide-degrading bacterium with by-product (polyhydroxyalkanoates) formation capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manso Cobos, Isabel; Ibáñez García, María Isabel; de la Peña Moreno, Fernando; Sáez Melero, Lara Paloma; Luque-Almagro, Víctor Manuel; Castillo Rodríguez, Francisco; Roldán Ruiz, María Dolores; Prieto Jiménez, María Auxiliadora; Moreno Vivián, Conrado

    2015-06-10

    Cyanide is one of the most toxic chemicals produced by anthropogenic activities like mining and jewelry industries, which generate wastewater residues with high concentrations of this compound. Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes CECT5344 is a model microorganism to be used in detoxification of industrial wastewaters containing not only free cyanide (CN(-)) but also cyano-derivatives, such as cyanate, nitriles and metal-cyanide complexes. Previous in silico analyses suggested the existence of genes putatively involved in metabolism of short chain length (scl-) and medium chain length (mcl-) polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) located in three different clusters in the genome of this bacterium. PHAs are polyesters considered as an alternative of petroleum-based plastics. Strategies to optimize the bioremediation process in terms of reducing the cost of the production medium are required. In this work, a biological treatment of the jewelry industry cyanide-rich wastewater coupled to PHAs production as by-product has been considered. The functionality of the pha genes from P. pseudoalcaligenes CECT5344 has been demonstrated. Mutant strains defective in each proposed PHA synthases coding genes (Mpha(-), deleted in putative mcl-PHA synthases; Spha(-), deleted in the putative scl-PHA synthase) were generated. The accumulation and monomer composition of scl- or mcl-PHAs in wild type and mutant strains were confirmed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The production of PHAs as by-product while degrading cyanide from the jewelry industry wastewater was analyzed in batch reactor in each strain. The wild type and the mutant strains grew at similar rates when using octanoate as the carbon source and cyanide as the sole nitrogen source. When cyanide was depleted from the medium, both scl-PHAs and mcl-PHAs were detected in the wild-type strain, whereas scl-PHAs or mcl-PHAs were accumulated in Mpha(-) and Spha(-), respectively. The scl-PHAs were identified as homopolymers of 3

  16. Management of dry flue gas desulfurization by-products in underground mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sevim, H.

    1997-06-01

    Disposal of coal combustion by-products (CCBs) in an environmentally sound manner is a major issue facing the coal and utility industries in the US today. Disposal into abandoned sections of underground coal mines may overcome many of the surface disposal problems along with added benefits such as mitigation of subsidence and acid mine drainage. However, many of the abandoned underground coal mines are located far from power plants, requiring long distance hauling of by-products which will significantly contribute to the cost of disposal. For underground disposal to be economically competitive, the transportation and handling cost must be minimized. This requires careful selection of the system and optimal design for efficient operation. The materials handling and system economics research addresses these issues. Transportation and handling technologies for CCBs were investigated from technical, environmental and economic points of view. Five technologies were found promising: (1) Pneumatic Trucks, (2) Pressure Differential Rail Cars, (3) Collapsible Intermodal Containers, (4) Cylindrical Intermodal Tanks, and (5) Coal Hopper Cars with Automatic Retractable Tarping. The first two technologies are currently being utilized in transporting by-products from power plants to disposal sites, whereas the next three are either in development or in conceptualization phases. In this research project, engineering design and cost models were developed for the first four technologies. The engineering design models are in the form of spreadsheets and serve the purpose of determining efficient operating schedules and sizing of system components.

  17. The production and utilization of by-product agricultural fertilizer from flue gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frank, N.W.; Hirano, S.

    1991-01-01

    The electron-beam process is one of the most effective methods for removing SO 2 and NO x from industrial flue gases and producing a usable by-product. This flue gas treatment consists of adding a small amount of ammonia to the flue gas and irradiating the gas by means of an electron beam. This causes reactions which convert SO 2 and NO x to ammonium sulfate and ammonium nitrate. These salts are then collected from the flue gas by conventional collectors, such as a baghouse or electrostatic precipitator. This paper will describe the potential for production of the fertilizer and will analyze the market potential and consumption of the by-product. A principal focus of the work is an analysis and quantification of the major large-scale, growing and profitable markets for utility solid wastes that can be generated in the form of agricultural fertilizer. Cost study data is arranged to define the impact of commercial by-product field and revenue on the economics of full scale SO 2 and NO x emission reduction activity

  18. A high-resolution map of the Grp1 locus on chromosome V of potato harbouring broad-spectrum resistance to the cyst nematode species Globodera pallida and Globodera rostochiensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkers-Tomczak, Anna; Danan, Sarah; van Dijk, Thijs; Beyene, Amelework; Bouwman, Liesbeth; Overmars, Hein; van Eck, Herman; Goverse, Aska; Bakker, Jaap; Bakker, Erin

    2009-06-01

    The Grp1 locus confers broad-spectrum resistance to the potato cyst nematode species Globodera pallida and Globodera rostochiensis and is located in the GP21-GP179 interval on the short arm of chromosome V of potato. A high-resolution map has been developed using the diploid mapping population RHAM026, comprising 1,536 genotypes. The flanking markers GP21 and GP179 have been used to screen the 1,536 genotypes for recombination events. Interval mapping of the resistances to G. pallida Pa2 and G. rostochiensis Ro5 resulted in two nearly identical LOD graphs with the highest LOD score just north of marker TG432. Detailed analysis of the 44 recombinant genotypes showed that G. pallida and G. rostochiensis resistance could not be separated and map to the same location between marker SPUD838 and TG432. It is suggested that the quantitative resistance to both nematode species at the Grp1 locus is mediated by one or more tightly linked R genes that might belong to the NBS-LRR class.

  19. Center for By-Products Utilization (CBU) | College of Engineering & Applied

    Science.gov (United States)

    Electrical Engineering Instructional Laboratories Student Resources Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Academic Programs Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Major Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Minor Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering

  20. Research of Environmental and Economic Interactions of Coke And By-Product Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikhailov, Vladimir; Kiseleva, Tamara; Bugrova, Svetlana; Muromtseva, Alina; Mikhailova, Yana

    2017-11-01

    The issues of showing relations between environmental and economic indicators (further - environmental and economic interactions) of coke and by-product process are considered in the article. The purpose of the study is to reveal the regularities of the functioning of the local environmental and economic system on the basis of revealed spectrum of environmental and economic interactions. A simplified scheme of the environmental and economic system "coke and by-product process - the environment" was developed. The forms of the investigated environmental-economic interactions were visualized and the selective interpretation of the tightness of the established connection was made. The main result of the work is modeling system of environmental and economic interactions that allows increasing the efficiency of local ecological and economic system management and optimizing the "interests" of an industrial enterprise - the source of negative impact on the environment. The results of the survey can be recommended to government authorities and industrial enterprises with a wide range of negative impact forms to support the adoption of effective management decisions aimed at sustainable environmental and economic development of the region or individual municipalities.

  1. A review of lipid extraction from fish processing by-product for use as a biofuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adeoti, Ibraheem A.; Hawboldt, Kelly

    2014-01-01

    Fish processing facilities generate a significant amount of fish by-products that could be an important source of energy, food, or industrial feedstock. While fish oil is a natural source of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (mostly eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)) used in nutritional supplements, the ability to extract, refine, and get to market of these oils may be challenging at processing facilities where there is limited infrastructure and plants are remotely located. Under these conditions, extraction of oil from fish by-product for use as an in-house or regional fuel may be both economically and environmentally be a more sustainable approach. Processes to extract and refine fish oil for fuel are less energy intensive than the processes for nutritional quality oils and do not require the stringent product specifications and approval process as in the food and pharmaceutical industry. Unlike food crops, extraction of oil from fish residue does not negatively impact food production. This paper presents an overview of developments made in fish oil extraction methodologies including physical, chemical and biological processes. - Highlights: • We have reviewed various lipid extraction methods from fish residue. • Low grade fish oils for fuel applications can be beneficial to facility and region. • The environmental impacts and safety issues can be reduced using SFE method

  2. Exploration of avocado by-products as natural sources of bioactive compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremocoldi, Maria Augusta; Rosalen, Pedro Luiz; Franchin, Marcelo; Massarioli, Adna Prado; Denny, Carina; Daiuto, Érica Regina; Paschoal, Jonas Augusto Rizzato; Melo, Priscilla Siqueira

    2018-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and cytotoxic properties and phenolic composition of peel and seed of avocado varieties Hass and Fuerte using green solvents. Ethanol soluble compounds were identified in peel and seed of both varieties using HPLC-MS/MS and quantified using HPLC-DAD. Agro-industrial by-products of both varieties exhibited high radical scavenging activity against synthetic free radicals (DPPH and ABTS) and reactive oxygen species (peroxyl, superoxide, and hypochlorous acid) and high ability to reduce Fe3+ to Fe2+. The main compounds with significant contribution to the antioxidant activity determined by online HPLC-ABTS●+ analyses were procyanidin B2 and epicatechin in the peel and trans-5-O-caffeoyl-D-quinic acid, procyanidin B1, catechin, and epicatechin in the seed. Peel of Fuerte significantly suppressed TNF-α and nitric oxide (NO) release (459.3 pg/mL and 8.5 μM, respectively), possibly because of the high phenolic content and antioxidant activity detected. Avocado agro-industrial by-products can be used for food and pharmaceutical purposes due to their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. PMID:29444125

  3. Utilization of biodiesel by-products for mosquito control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pant, Megha; Sharma, Satyawati; Dubey, Saurabh; Naik, Satya Narayan; Patanjali, Phool Kumar

    2016-03-01

    The current paper has elaborated the efficient utilization of non-edible oil seed cakes (NEOC), by-products of the bio-diesel extraction process to develop a herbal and novel mosquitocidal composition against the Aedes aegypti larvae. The composition consisted of botanical active ingredients, inerts, burning agents and preservatives; where the botanical active ingredients were karanja (Pongamia glabra) cake powder and jatropha (Jatropha curcas) cake powder, products left after the extraction of oil from karanja and jatropha seed. The percentage mortality value recorded for the combination with concentration, karanja cake powder (20%) and jatropha cake powder (20%), 1:1 was 96%. The coil formulations developed from these biodiesel by-products are of low cost, environmentally friendly and are less toxic than the synthetic active ingredients. Copyright © 2015 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Depleted uranium as a by product of nuclear technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orlic, M.

    2000-01-01

    Depleted uranium (DU) has been used during the War in Yugoslavia in the year 1999 by NATO forces, as well as in Bosnia and Gulf War. In Yugoslavia it has been used in two modalities: as ammunition (mostly caliber 30 mm) and as a part of cruise missiles (counterweight penetrator). Total amount of DU in Yugoslavia was about 10 tons. DU is a by product of nuclear technology and represents low-level nuclear waste. Therefore it should be stored. But, because of military application it is in the environment where it could react chemo toxically or radio toxically and so endanger people and animals. This paper contains all relevant technology parameters of DU created as a by product, DU physical and chemical properties, DU ammunition effects, environmental DU transport, and estimation of consequences on people and environment

  5. Water disinfection agents and disinfection by-products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilavský, J.; Barloková, D.; Kapusta, O.; Kunštek, M.

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this work is to describe factors of water quality change in the distribution network and legislative requirements in Slovakia for disinfectants and disinfection byproducts (DBPs). In the experimental part, the time dependence of the application of the chlorine dioxide and sodium hypochlorite on the formation of some by-products of disinfection for drinking water from WTP Hriňová is studied. We monitored trihalomethanes, free chlorine, chlorine dioxide and chlorites.

  6. Irradiated fuel by-product separation research in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burston, M.

    1984-01-01

    Although no decision has been made to reprocess irradiated CANDU fuel, by-product separation research has recently been initiated in Canada because of its potential importance to Canadian research programs in advanced fuel cycles (especially U/Pu cycle development in the near term) and nuclear waste management. In addition, separated by-products could have a significant commercial potential. Demonstrated applications include: heat sources, gamma radiation sources, light sources, new materials for productions of other useful isotopes, etc. For illustrative purposes the calculated market value of by-products currently stored in irradiated CANDU fuel is approximately $210/kgU. Ontario Hydro has initiated a program to study the application of new separation technolgies, such as laser-based techniques and the plasma ion cyclotron resonance separation technique, to either augment and/or supplant the chemical extraction methods. The main goal is to develop new, more economical extraction methods in order to increase the magnitude of the advantages resulting from this approach to reprocessing. (author)

  7. Producing ammonium sulfate from flue gas desulfurization by-products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, I.-Ming; Bruinius, J.A.; Benig, V.; Chou, S.-F.J.; Carty, R.H.

    2005-01-01

    Emission control technologies using flue gas desulfurization (FGD) have been widely adopted by utilities burning high-sulfur fuels. However, these technologies require additional equipment, greater operating expenses, and increased costs for landfill disposal of the solid by-products produced. The financial burdens would be reduced if successful high-volume commercial applications of the FGD solid by-products were developed. In this study, the technical feasibility of producing ammonium sulfate from FGD residues by allowing it to react with ammonium carbonate in an aqueous solution was preliminarily assessed. Reaction temperatures of 60, 70, and 80??C and residence times of 4 and 6 hours were tested to determine the optimal conversion condition and final product evaluations. High yields (up to 83%) of ammonium sulfate with up to 99% purity were achieved under relatively mild conditions. The optimal conversion condition was observed at 60??C and a 4-hour residence time. The results of this study indicate the technical feasibility of producing ammonium sulfate fertilizer from an FGD by-product. Copyright ?? Taylor & Francis Inc.

  8. Bio-cellulose Production by Beijerinckia fluminensis WAUPM53 and Gluconacetobacter xylinus 0416 in Sago By-product Medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voon, W W Y; Muhialdin, B J; Yusof, N L; Rukayadi, Y; Meor Hussin, A S

    2018-06-19

    Bio-cellulose is the microbial extracellular cellulose that is produced by growing several microorganisms on agriculture by-products, and it is used in several food applications. This study aims to utilize sago by-product, coconut water, and the standard medium Hestrin-Schramm as the carbon sources in the culture medium for bio-cellulose production. The bacteria Beijerinkia fluminensis WAUPM53 and Gluconacetobacter xylinus 0416 were selected based on their bio-cellulose production activity. The structure was determined by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy, while the toxicity safety was evaluated by brine shrimp lethality test. The results of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy showed that the bio-cellulose produced by B. fluminensis cultivated in sago by-products was of high quality. The bio-cellulose production by B. fluminensis in the sago by-product medium was slightly higher than that in the coconut water medium and was comparable with the production in the Hestrin-Schramm medium. Brine shrimp lethality test confirmed that the bio-cellulose produced by B. fluminensis in the sago by-product medium has no toxicity, which is safe for applications in the food industry. This is the first study to determine the high potential of sago by-product to be used as a new carbon source for the bio-cellulose production.

  9. L-Serine overproduction with minimization of by-product synthesis by engineered Corynebacterium glutamicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Qinjian; Zhang, Xiaomei; Luo, Yuchang; Guo, Wen; Xu, Guoqiang; Shi, Jinsong; Xu, Zhenghong

    2015-02-01

    The direct fermentative production of L-serine by Corynebacterium glutamicum from sugars is attractive. However, superfluous by-product accumulation and low L-serine productivity limit its industrial production on large scale. This study aimed to investigate metabolic and bioprocess engineering strategies towards eliminating by-products as well as increasing L-serine productivity. Deletion of alaT and avtA encoding the transaminases and introduction of an attenuated mutant of acetohydroxyacid synthase (AHAS) increased both L-serine production level (26.23 g/L) and its productivity (0.27 g/L/h). Compared to the parent strain, the by-products L-alanine and L-valine accumulation in the resulting strain were reduced by 87 % (from 9.80 to 1.23 g/L) and 60 % (from 6.54 to 2.63 g/L), respectively. The modification decreased the metabolic flow towards the branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) and induced to shift it towards L-serine production. Meanwhile, it was found that corn steep liquor (CSL) could stimulate cell growth and increase sucrose consumption rate as well as L-serine productivity. With addition of 2 g/L CSL, the resulting strain showed a significant improvement in the sucrose consumption rate (72 %) and the L-serine productivity (67 %). In fed-batch fermentation, 42.62 g/L of L-serine accumulation was achieved with a productivity of 0.44 g/L/h and yield of 0.21 g/g sucrose, which was the highest production of L-serine from sugars to date. The results demonstrated that combined metabolic and bioprocess engineering strategies could minimize by-product accumulation and improve L-serine productivity.

  10. Optimization of the liquid biofertilizer production in batch fermentation with by-product from MSG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namfon, Panjanapongchai; Ratchanok, Sahaworarak; Chalida, Daengbussade

    2017-03-01

    The long term use of chemical fertilizers destroyed the friability of soil which obviously decreased quantity and quality of crops and especially affect microorganisms living in soils. The bio-fertilizer with microbial consortium is an environmental friendly alternative to solve this bottleneck due to harboring soil microorganisms such as Bacillus sp., Micrococcus sp., Pseudomonas sp., Staphylococcus sp. and Deinococcus sp. produced with natural by-product or waste from industries that is alternative and sustainable such as nutrient-rich (by-product) from Mono Sodium Glutamate (MSG) for producing liquid biofertilizer by batch fermentation. In this work, the concentration of reducing sugar from substrate as main carbon source was evaluated in shake flask with mixed cultures. The optimal conditions were studied comparing with two levels of reducing sugar concentration (10, 20 g/L) and inoculums concentration (10, 20 %v/v) with using (2×2) full factorial design. The results indicated that the by-product from monosodium glutamate is feasible for fermentation and inoculums concentration is mainly influenced the batch fermentation process. Moreover, the combined 20 g/L and 10%v/v were considerably concluded as an optimal condition, of which the concentration of vegetative cells and spores attained at 8.29×109 CFU/mL and 1.97×105 CFU/mL, respectively. Their spores cell yields from reducing sugar (Yx/s) were obtained at 1.22×106 and 3.34×105 CFU/g were markedly different. In conclusion, the liquid Biofertilizer was produced satisfactorily at 20 g/L reducing sugar and 10% v/v inoculums in shake flask culture. Moreover, these results suggested that the by-product from monosodium glutamate is feasible for low-cost substrate in economical scale and environmental-friendly.

  11. Systems evolution of waste and by-product management and bioenergy production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okkonen, L.

    2009-07-01

    Evolutionary economic geography provides an inspiring extension to geographical systems analysis. The objective of this dissertation is to apply the systems approach and theory as an integrative framework of sustainable development, and as a capable analytical tool in the analysis of evolutionary resource management and energy production systems in their geographical contexts. The systems investigated are waste and by-product management and bioenergy production systems located in Finland and Scotland. Industrial ecosystem (IE) indicators are constructed for the analysis of waste and by-product management. They present both direct and indirect environmental, economic and social impacts of local waste management operations. The indicators are further applied in scenarios that dynamise the evolution of systems material and energy flows towards the balanced environmental, economic and social development, i.e. the vision of the industrial ecology. The results indicate that the energy use of waste derived fuels in regional cooperation has much potential in the development towards the optimal roundput model of industrial ecosystem. The business opportunities based on local woodfuels are investigated in the context of Scottish forestry policy. The evolution of institutional environments and arrangements of forest management in the Scottish Highlands enables a new type of rural entrepreneurship. The case study of Finnish heat entrepreneurship constructs a heat energy business model, including both the business architecture for product/service flows and the earning logics. Finally, a synthesis of the evolution of natural resource management systems is presented. The evolution process has many geographical contingent conditions, such as resources, technologies, institutions and organisations. Together with general socio-economic mechanisms, they affect the actors in spatial economic processes and interactions. Realisations of the system evolution are structures of economies

  12. Industrial Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsson, Christer

    2015-01-01

    Industrial engineering is a discipline that is concerned with increasing the effectiveness of (primarily) manufacturing and (occasionally).......Industrial engineering is a discipline that is concerned with increasing the effectiveness of (primarily) manufacturing and (occasionally)....

  13. Farmaceutische industrie

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ros JPM; van der Poel P; Etman EJ; Montfoort JA; LAE

    1995-01-01

    Dit rapport over de farmaceutische industrie is gepubliceerd binnen het Samenwerkingsproject Procesbeschrijvingen Industrie Nederland (SPIN). In het kader van dit project is informatie verzameld over industriele bedrijven of industriele processen ter ondersteuning van het overheidsbeleid op het

  14. Boron availability to plants from coal combustion by-products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kukier, U.; Sumner, M.E.

    1996-01-01

    Agronomic use of coal combustion by-products is often associated with boron (B) excess in amended soils and subsequently in plants. A greenhouse study with corn (Zea mays L.) as test plant was conducted to determine safe application rates of five fly ashes and one flue gas desulfurization gypsum (FDG). All by-products increased soil and corn tissue B concentration, in some cases above toxicity levels which are 5 mg hot water soluble B (hwsB)kg -1 soil and 100 mg B kg -1 in corn tissue. Acceptable application rates varied from 4 to 100 Mg ha -1 for different by-products. Leaching and weathering of a high B fly ash under ponding conditions decreased its B content and that of corn grown in fly ash amended soil, while leaching of the same fly ash under laboratory conditions increased fly ash B availability to corn in comparison to the fresh fly ash. Hot water soluble B in fly ash or FDG amended soil correlated very well with corn tissue B. Hot water soluble B in fly ash amended soil could be predicted based on soil pH and B solubility in ash at different pH values but not so in the case of FDG. Another greenhouse study was conducted to compare the influence of FDG and Ca(OH 2 ) on B concentration in spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) leaves grown in soil amended with the high B fly ash. The Ca(OH) 2 significantly decreased tissue B content, while FDG did not affect B uptake from fly ash amended soil. 41 refs., 6 figs., 5 tabs

  15. Carcinogenic effect of petroleum and its by-products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gimadeev, M M

    1962-01-01

    A review of literature on the carcinogenic effect of petroleum and its by-products are briefly discussed. Many of the products can induce hyperkeratosis, folliculitis, verruca, pulmonary adenoma, skin cancer, etc. Their action is mainly local but they can also be multicentric. Although a number of groups have made chemical analyses of various petroleums and peroleum products, results were generally negative with respect to 3,4-benzypyrene, although 40 to 68 microg/g was found in 1 crude petroleum. At present it appears that much of the carcinogenic action of these materials resides in polycyclic hydrocarbons about which little is known.

  16. Industrial electrification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melvin, J.G.

    1983-03-01

    The technical and economic scope for industrial process electrification in Canada is assessed in the light of increasing costs of combustion fuels relative to electricity. It is concluded that electricity is capable of providing an increasing share of industrial energy, eventually aproaching 100 percent. The relatively low cost of electricity in Canada offers industry the opportunity of a head start in process electrification with consequent advantages in world markets both for industrial products and for electrical process equipment and technology. A method is described to promote the necessary innovation by providing access to technology and financing. The potential growth of electricity demand due to industrial electrification is estimated

  17. By-product mutualism with evolving common enemies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Jaegher, Kris

    2017-05-07

    The common-enemy hypothesis of by-product mutualism states that organisms cooperate when it is in their individual interests to do so, with benefits for other organisms arising as a by-product; in particular, such cooperation is hypothesized to arise when organisms face the common enemy of a sufficiently adverse environment. In an evolutionary game where two defenders can cooperate to defend a common resource, this paper analyzes the common-enemy hypothesis when adversity is endogenous, in that an attacker sets the number of attacks. As a benchmark, we first consider exogenous adversity, where adversity is not subject to evolution. In this case, the common-enemy hypothesis is predicted when the degree of complementarity between defenders' defensive efforts is sufficiently low. When the degree of complementarity is high, the hypothesis is predicted only when cooperation costs are high; when cooperation costs are instead low, a competing hypothesis is predicted, where adversity discourages cooperation. Second, we consider the case of endogenous adversity. In this case, we continue to predict the competing hypothesis for a high degree of complementarity and low cooperation costs. The common-enemy hypothesis, however, only continues to be predicted for the lowest degrees of complementarity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Utilization of Biodiesel By-Products for Biogas Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Kolesárová

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This contribution reviews the possibility of using the by-products from biodiesel production as substrates for anaerobic digestion and production of biogas. The process of biodiesel production is predominantly carried out by catalyzed transesterification. Besides desired methylesters, this reaction provides also few other products, including crude glycerol, oil-pressed cakes, and washing water. Crude glycerol or g-phase is heavier separate liquid phase, composed mainly by glycerol. A couple of studies have demonstrated the possibility of biogas production, using g-phase as a single substrate, and it has also shown a great potential as a cosubstrate by anaerobic treatment of different types of organic waste or energy crops. Oil cakes or oil meals are solid residues obtained after oil extraction from the seeds. Another possible by-product is the washing water from raw biodiesel purification, which is an oily and soapy liquid. All of these materials have been suggested as feasible substrates for anaerobic degradation, although some issues and inhibitory factors have to be considered.

  19. Utilization of Biodiesel By-Products for Biogas Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolesárová, Nina; Hutňan, Miroslav; Bodík, Igor; Špalková, Viera

    2011-01-01

    This contribution reviews the possibility of using the by-products from biodiesel production as substrates for anaerobic digestion and production of biogas. The process of biodiesel production is predominantly carried out by catalyzed transesterification. Besides desired methylesters, this reaction provides also few other products, including crude glycerol, oil-pressed cakes, and washing water. Crude glycerol or g-phase is heavier separate liquid phase, composed mainly by glycerol. A couple of studies have demonstrated the possibility of biogas production, using g-phase as a single substrate, and it has also shown a great potential as a cosubstrate by anaerobic treatment of different types of organic waste or energy crops. Oil cakes or oil meals are solid residues obtained after oil extraction from the seeds. Another possible by-product is the washing water from raw biodiesel purification, which is an oily and soapy liquid. All of these materials have been suggested as feasible substrates for anaerobic degradation, although some issues and inhibitory factors have to be considered. PMID:21403868

  20. Proteomic analysis of processing by-products from canned and fresh tuna: identification of potentially functional food proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanmartín, Esther; Arboleya, Juan Carlos; Iloro, Ibon; Escuredo, Kepa; Elortza, Felix; Moreno, F Javier

    2012-09-15

    Proteomic approaches have been used to identify the main proteins present in processing by-products generated by the canning tuna-industry, as well as in by-products derived from filleting of skeletal red muscle of fresh tuna. Following fractionation by using an ammonium sulphate precipitation method, three proteins (tropomyosin, haemoglobin and the stress-shock protein ubiquitin) were identified in the highly heterogeneous and heat-treated material discarded by the canning-industry. Additionally, this fractionation method was successful to obtain tropomyosin of high purity from the heterogeneous starting material. By-products from skeletal red muscle of fresh tuna were efficiently fractionated to sarcoplasmic and myofibrillar fractions, prior to the identification based mainly on the combined searching of the peptide mass fingerprint (MALDI-TOF) and peptide fragment fingerprinting (MALDI LIFT-TOF/TOF) spectra of fifteen bands separated by 1D SDS-PAGE. Thus, the sarcoplasmic fraction contained myoglobin and several enzymes that are essential for efficient energy production, whereas the myofibrillar fraction had important contractile proteins, such as actin, tropomyosin, myosin or an isoform of the enzyme creatine kinase. Application of proteomic technologies has revealed new knowledge on the composition of important by-products from tuna species, enabling a better evaluation of their potential applications. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Performance Evaluation and Field Application of Porous Vegetation Concrete Made with By-Product Materials for Ecological Restoration Projects

    OpenAIRE

    Hwang-Hee Kim; Chan-Gi Park

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the performance of porous vegetation concrete block made from blast furnace slag cement containing industrial by-products such as blast furnace slag aggregate and powder. The blocks were tested for void ratio, compressive strength and freeze-thaw resistance to determine the optimal mixing ratio for the porous vegetation block. An economic analysis of the mixing ratio showed that the economic efficiency increased when blast furnace slag aggregate and c...

  2. Biomass by-product from crystal sugar production: A comparative study between Ngadirejo and Mauritius sugar mill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunawan; Bantacut, T.; Romli, M.; Noor, E.

    2018-03-01

    Sugarcane has been used as raw material in crystal sugar industry. Sugar cane that contains high sugar will be utilized into crystals sugar. In addition, the productivity of sugarcane is large enough in 2016 approximately 360 713 tons/year. Crystal sugar itself is a daily necessity for its use in the food and beverage industry. Problem that occurs in Indonesia is the energy consumption. The sugar mills supposed to be an independent energy source which means it can produce its own energy by utilization the material that is available in the sugar mills such as by-product (bagasse, molasses, filter cake, etc.), the by product in every production stage are quite a lot in sugar industry especially in Indonesia. In this paper, a comparison between two sugar mills was examined between Ngedirejo sugar mill and Mauritius sugar mill which has the same geological state as Indonesia. The results of comparison between the two sugar factories demonstrated the difference in terms of productivity of the sugar that has been produced and the effectiveness of the production process in a sugar mill seen from the amount of waste and the by product.

  3. Supply chain coordination in industrial symbiosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herczeg, Gabor; Akkerman, Renzo; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    2013-01-01

    Industrial symbiosis (IS) is a form of supply chain cooperation in industrial networks in order to achieve collective benefits by leveraging each other’s by-products and sharing services and utilities. This paper investigates the concept of IS from the perspective of supply chain coordination (SC...

  4. Supply chain collaboration in industrial symbiosis networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herczeg, Gábor; Akkerman, Renzo; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    2018-01-01

    A strategy supporting the development towards a circular economy is industrial symbiosis (IS). It is a form of collaborative supply chain management aiming to make industry more sustainable and achieve collective benefits based on utilization of waste, by-products, and excess utilities between

  5. Clean coal technology. Coal utilisation by-products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-08-15

    The need to remove the bulk of ash contained in flue gas from coal-fired power plants coupled with increasingly strict environmental regulations in the USA result in increased generation of solid materials referred to as coal utilisation by-products, or CUBs. More than 40% of CUBs were sold or reused in the USA in 2004 compared to less than 25% in 1996. A goal of 50% utilization has been established for 2010. The American Coal Ash Association (ACCA) together with the US Department of Energy's Power Plant Improvement Initiative (PPPI) and Clean Coal Power Initiative (CCPI) sponsor a number of projects that promote CUB utilization. Several are mentioned in this report. Report sections are: Executive summary; Introduction; Where do CUBs come from?; Market analysis; DOE-sponsored CUB demonstrations; Examples of best-practice utilization of CUB materials; Factors limiting the use of CUBs; and Conclusions. 14 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs., 14 photos.

  6. Chlorine dioxine DBPs (disinfection by-products in drinking water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Lasagna

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the 1970s it has been well known that, though water for human consumption is generally disinfected before being distributed along the network, the use of chemicals results in the formation of many different Disinfection By-Products (DBPs. In the case of chlorine dioxide, the most important and represented DBPs are chlorite and chlorate: after an introduction concerning the current Italian regulation on this subject, in the experimental part the results of a 7-year minitoring campaign, concerning water of different origin collected from taps in various Italian regions, are shown. The analytical technique used for the determination of chlorite and chlorate was Ion Chromatography. The result obtained are finally discussed.

  7. Nutritional evaluation of irradiated animal protein by-products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Hakeim, N.F.; Hilali, E.A.

    1991-01-01

    Blood, fish and meat-bone meals were irradiated at dose levels of 0, 5, 10, 20 and 50 kGy. Radiation induced an insignificant effect on the chemical composition of meals. Available lysine in irradiated fish meals was reduced by 8,04%. Losses occurred in some amino acids especially the essential ones of the irradiated protein by-products. Isoleucine, phenylalanine and valine were the limiting amino acids in the irradiated blood, fish and meat-bone meal, respectively. At dose levels of 0, 5, 10, 20 and 50 kGy essential amino acids index (EAAI) was 48,24%, 42,89%, 48,38%, 53% and 55,95% for blood meal 37,91%, 39,71%, 41,18% and 37,90% for fish meal and 37,07%, 36,01%, 27,61%, 38,21% and 38,45% for meat-bone meal, respectively. (orig.) [de

  8. Effect of Celebrity Endorsement in Advertising Activities by Product Type

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karasiewicz Grzegorz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article seeks to answer two related questions: are celebrity endorsements more likely to be result in a higher evaluation of the product being advertised than use of an anonymous individual (e.g. a typical consumer; and, if present, do these positive effects vary by product category? To answer these two questions research was conducted on a 237 student sample employing a quasi-experiment consisting of four groups (two product categories and two types of endorsers using data collected through an online survey. The results indicate that celebrity endorsements do have a positive impact on the evaluation of durable goods, but do not affect the evaluation of frequently purchased products. This finding largely confirms the assumptions of the match-up model, the meaning transfer model, and the ELM model.

  9. Characterization of by-products from the Coolside process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, A.S.; Thomas, G.A.; Schram, W.H.; Givens, E.N.; Robertson, J.D.

    1993-01-01

    Coolside is a flexible dry flue gas desulfurization process for removal of SO 2 from coal fired power plants emissions. Hydrated lime is pneumatically injected dry into the power plant duct work on the cool side of the air preheater. The flue gas stream is then humidified to within about 20--30 F of adiabatic saturation by spraying atomized water. A critical component of the Coolside process is the addition of a promoter to the water spray to enhance SO 2 capture efficiency. In general, sodium based compounds have been found to be the most effective promoters, although chloride salts have also been shown to be effective if added during lime hydration. The Coolside technology was successfully demonstrated at the Ohio Edison Edgewater Plant as part of a US DOE supported US EPA demonstration program. The test lasted from July 1989 through February 1990 and had two primary goals. First, to achieve overall SO 2 reductions of 30%, 50%, and 70%. Second, to achieve reliable process operations at 20 and 25 F approach to adiabatic saturation. The demonstration was considered successful. The Coolside solids differ from other dry scrubber wastes in that the residual lime is hydrated and from other low temperature scrubbing wastes in that the sorbent activator, NaOH in this case, introduces significant quantities of sodium compounds in the waste. Sixty-five tons of the waste were collected during the demonstration runs in February 1990 in order to assess the environmental impact of the by-product through a series of field lysimeter and laboratory column leaching studies. In the first phase of this assessment, approximately 400 samples of the by-product material have been analyzed for the major, minor, and trace elements by the ultimate and proximate analysis, X-ray fluorescence, and PIXE/PIGE analysis. The results of these analyses and the unique chemistry of the Coolside solids as a function of processing variables is presented in this paper

  10. Properties and possibilities to use by-product from e-beam installations for partial recycling of ammonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelovski, Y.

    2011-01-01

    Generated by-products from E-beam cleaning systems of industrial waste gases have been studied using different techniques like TG-DTA systems, Electron Microscopy, X-Ray diffraction and IR spectroscopy methods. On the base of the investigations it was found that the composition of the by-product varies depending on the content of pollutants in the waste gases and technological parameters during cleaning process. Size of particles and thermal stability of the by product were determined. Content of ammonium sulphate as a main component, ammonium nitrate and heavy metals content is also determined and discussed. During thermal treatment of the by-product at temperature range 543-663K half of the ammonia is released in the gas phase. Kinetic parameters of the thermal decomposition are determined and it is confirmed that for waste gases containing mainly SO x as a pollutants they are very close to the pure ammonium sulphate. By-product from demonstration E-beam installation at Maritsa-East -2 TPP is used to produce mixed fertilisers using milled Tunisia phosphorites or tribo-activated mixtures of the by-product, Tunisia phosphorite, potassium sulphate and aches from electrostatic precipitators of TPP. It was found that during thermo-tribochemical treatment of selected mixtures different type of fertilisers could be produced, where the soluble forms of Phosphorous may vary, depending on the conditions. During thermal treatment about half of ammonia is released in the gas phase opening a way for partial recycling of ammonia to the cleaning process. Agrochemical tests of the fertilisers on the base of by-product confirm their efficiency. (author)

  11. Properties and possibilities to use by-product from e-beam installations for partial recycling of ammonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pelovski, Y. [University of Chemical Technology and Metallurgy, Sofia (Bulgaria)

    2011-07-01

    Generated by-products from E-beam cleaning systems of industrial waste gases have been studied using different techniques like TG-DTA systems, Electron Microscopy, X-Ray diffraction and IR spectroscopy methods. On the base of the investigations it was found that the composition of the by-product varies depending on the content of pollutants in the waste gases and technological parameters during cleaning process. Size of particles and thermal stability of the by product were determined. Content of ammonium sulphate as a main component, ammonium nitrate and heavy metals content is also determined and discussed. During thermal treatment of the by-product at temperature range 543-663K half of the ammonia is released in the gas phase. Kinetic parameters of the thermal decomposition are determined and it is confirmed that for waste gases containing mainly SO{sub x} as a pollutants they are very close to the pure ammonium sulphate. By-product from demonstration E-beam installation at Maritsa-East -2 TPP is used to produce mixed fertilisers using milled Tunisia phosphorites or tribo-activated mixtures of the by-product, Tunisia phosphorite, potassium sulphate and aches from electrostatic precipitators of TPP. It was found that during thermo-tribochemical treatment of selected mixtures different type of fertilisers could be produced, where the soluble forms of Phosphorous may vary, depending on the conditions. During thermal treatment about half of ammonia is released in the gas phase opening a way for partial recycling of ammonia to the cleaning process. Agrochemical tests of the fertilisers on the base of by-product confirm their efficiency. (author)

  12. Flour production from shrimp by-products and sensory evaluation of flour-based products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Mendes Fernandes

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the production of flour using by-products (cephalothorax obtained from the shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei industry, and to perform a sensory analysis of shrimp flour-based products. Physicochemical and microbiological analyses on fresh cephalothorax and on manufactured flour were performed, as well as the determination of cholesterol content of this flour, and the sensorial evaluation of soup and pastry made with this flour. By the microbiological analyses, no pathogenic microorganism was detected in the samples. Physicochemical analyses of flour showed high levels of protein (50.05% and minerals (20.97%. Shrimp cephalothorax flour showed high levels of cholesterol. The sensory evaluation indicated a good acceptance of the products, with satisfactory acceptability index (81% for soup, and 83% for pastry, which indicates that shrimp cephalothorax in the form of flour has a potential for developing new products.

  13. A Management State of POPs (Persistent Organic Pollutants) and the Measuring Direction - Centered By-Products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jeong Gyu; Lee, Hee Seon [Korea Environment Institute, Seoul (Korea)

    2000-12-01

    The chemical materials, DDT and Dioxin, threaten the human health and take the high toxicity on ecosystem and a living thing. Because the chemical materials remain in environment for a long time due to a slow natural decomposition, they are biologically concentrated through the food cycle in ecosystem and have a characteristic to move a long distance. Owing to such toxicity and the characteristics of chemical materials, the world organization named them as Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) and has been actively progressing the international movement to strictly restrict them since the middle of 1990s. POPs regulation agreement, which is on progress centered in UNEP, is facing to the conclusion of the agreement of 2001 year. An agricultural chemical of organic chlorine among 12 POPs indicated by UNEP has been already prohibited in the domestic use and manufacturing or not registered, so the basic research, including search and monitoring if POPs remain or not, is required afterward. Because Dioxin, Puran, Hexachlorobenzene (HCB) among POPs, which are produced as by-products from all kinds of industrial processes, are not raw materials dislike other POPs, their use and manufacturing cannot be only prohibited by the related law but also they have few substitutes. Therefore, they should be applied by the different regulation from the existing toxic chemicals in order to manage the toxicity of the materials. However, the regulation on by-products among POPs is just in the beginning stage, and even the producing source has not been yet confirmed. This study suggests the necessity of the management on Dioxin, Puran, HCB, by-products among POPs, and presents the measuring direction with grasping the domestic and foreign trend of the regulation on the materials. 70 refs., 2 figs., 56 tabs.

  14. Utilization of tropical crop residues and agroindustrial by-products in animal nutrition. Constraints and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preston, T.R.; Parra, R.

    1983-01-01

    The importance of by-products and crop residues as animal feeds is increasing steadily. This is a consequence of the increasing demand for cereal grains as both human and animal (chiefly poultry) food, and the increasing demand for energy coupled with decreasing availability of fossil fuels. The effects of these two trends are that primary use of land for livestock production (usually grazing systems) will steadily diminish; at the same time, sources of biomass will increase in importance as renewable energy sources, and greater emphasis will be placed on draught animal power. Most by-products and crop residues are fibrous and therefore of only low to moderate nutritive value, or have special physical and chemical characteristics making them difficult to incorporate in conventional ''balanced'' rations. Such feed raw materials may need special processing and/or special forms of supplementation if they are to be used efficiently. It is hypothesized that industrial by-products and crop residues will be more efficiently utilized if they are incorporated in diversified and integrated production systems, i.e. (a) livestock production is integrated with production of cash crops both for food and fuel; (b) different livestock species are utilized in the same enterprise in a complementary way; (c) livestock feeding is based on crop residues (energy) supplemented with protein-rich forages and aquatic plants; and (d) animal wastes are recycled and used for food, fertilizer and fuel. This strategy is particularly suitable for the conditions in (i) tropical countries, whose climate favours high crop/biomass yields per unit area and ease of fermentation of organic wastes, and (ii) family farms, for which diversification means greater opportunity for self-sufficiency and increased possibilities for use of family resources. (author)

  15. Application of Óbidos “Ginginha” by-products in topical formulations: Apreliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabete Maurício

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent years many studies on cherries have revealed that they are rich sources of bioactive compounds, mainly due to their polyphenolic phytochemicals. In this work, by-products of the sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L. used in the Óbidos liquor from Portugal, were evaluated by determination of their total phenolic and anthocyanins contents. The mix samples (leaves and stems and pomace (skins with and without kernels were extracted by maceration using two different extraction methods with different solvents: ethanol and methanol. Overall, significant differences were observed between all the extracts in relation to the solvent used and anthocyanin and phenol contents. Stem and leaf extracts showed a polyphenol concentration higher than those from pomace. For all samples the total phenolic and anthocyanin contents were higher in methanol extracts than in ethanol extracts showing that methanol was the best solvent. For the pomace extracts the samples without kernels (skin samples gave the highest values for both parameters. The tested cherry stems and pomace could be regarded as a promising agro-industrial by-product, being a low-cost polyphenols source, with potential to be added in functional cosmetics formulations. Further studies will be conducted to address their potential use as an antioxidant ingredient.

  16. Extrusion Processing of Raw Food Materials and by-products: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Offiah, Vivian; Kontogiorgos, Vassilis; Falade, Kolawole O

    2018-05-22

    Extrusion technology has rapidly transformed the food industry with its numerous advantages over other processing methods. It offers a platform for processing different products from various food groups by modifying minor or major ingredients and processing conditions. Although cereals occupy a large portion of the extruded foods market, several other types of raw materials have been used. Extrusion processing of various food groups, including cereals and pseudo cereals, roots and tubers, pulses and oilseeds, fruits and vegetables, and animal products, as well as structural and nutritional changes in these food matrices are reviewed. Value addition by extrusion to food processing wastes and by-products from fruits and vegetables, dairy, meat and seafood, cereals and residues from starch, syrup and alcohol production, and oilseed processing are also discussed. Extrusion presents an economical technology for incorporating food processing residues and by-products back into the food stream. In contemporary scenarios, rising demand for extruded products with functional ingredients, attributed to evolving lifestyles and preferences, have led to innovations in the form, texture, color and content of extruded products. Information presented in this review would be of importance to processors and researchers as they seek to enhance nutritional quality and delivery of extruded products.

  17. In vitro inhibitory effects of plant-derived by-products against Cryptosporidium parvum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teichmann Klaus

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Disposal of organic plant wastes and by-products from the food or pharmaceutical industries usually involves high costs. In the present study, 42 samples derived from such by-products were screened in vitro against Cryptosporidium parvum, a protozoan parasite that may contaminate drinking water and cause diarrhoea. The novel bioassay was previously established in the microtitre plate format. Human ileocaecal adenocarcinoma (HCT-8 cell cultures were seeded with C. parvum oocysts and parasite development was monitored by an indirect fluorescent antibody technique (IFAT and microscopic assessment for clusters of secondary infection (CSI. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs and potential detrimental effects on the host cells were determined. An ethanolic extract from olive (Olea europaea pomace, after oil pressing and phenol recovery, reproducibly inhibited C. parvum development (MIC = 250–500 μg mL−1, IC50 = 361 (279–438 μg mL−1, IC90 = 467 (398–615 μg mL−1. Accordingly, tyrosol, hydroxytyrosol, trans-coniferyl alcohol and oleuropein were selected as reference test compounds, but their contributions to the observed activity of the olive pomace extract were insignificant. The established test system proved to be a fast and efficient assay for identifying anti-cryptosporidial activities in biological waste material and comparison with selected reference compounds.

  18. Process industry properties in nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Hualing

    2005-01-01

    In this article the writer has described the definition of process industry, expounded the fact classifying nuclear industry as process industry, compared the differences between process industry and discrete industry, analysed process industry properties in nuclear industry and their important impact, and proposed enhancing research work on regularity of process industry in nuclear industry. (authors)

  19. Lobster processing by-products as valuable bioresource of marine functional ingredients, nutraceuticals, and pharmaceuticals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Trung T; Barber, Andrew R; Corbin, Kendall; Zhang, Wei

    2017-01-01

    . The efficient utilization of LPBs would not only generate significant economic benefits but also reduce the problems of waste management associated with the lobster industry. This comprehensive review highlights the availability of the global LPBs, the key components in LPBs and their current applications, the limitations to the extraction techniques used, and the suggested emerging techniques which may be promising on an industrial scale for the maximized utilization of LPBs. Graphical abstractLobster processing by-product as bioresource of several functional and bioactive compounds used in various value-added products.

  20. Industrial Robots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Dean; Harden, Thomas K.

    Robots are mechanical devices that can be programmed to perform some task of manipulation or locomotion under automatic control. This paper discusses: (1) early developments of the robotics industry in the United States; (2) the present structure of the industry; (3) noneconomic factors related to the use of robots; (4) labor considerations…

  1. Industrial symbiosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sacchi, Romain; Remmen, Arne

    2017-01-01

    This study examines the development of industrial symbiosis through a practical model for physical, organizational, and social interactions in six different cases from around the world. The results provide a framework that can be used by industrial symbiosis practitioners to facilitate the creation...

  2. 2001 Industry Studies: Services Industry

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cervone, Michael

    2001-01-01

    .... has maintained its economic strength in traditional services industries such as transportation, tourism, public utilities, finance and insurance, accounting, engineering, architecture, medical, legal...

  3. Industrial garnet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, D.W.

    2000-01-01

    The state of the global industrial garnet industry in 1999 is discussed. Industrial garnet mined in the U.S., which accounts for approximately one-third of the world's total, is usually a solid-solution of almandine and pyrope. The U.S. is the largest consumer of industrial garnet, using an estimated 47,800 st in 1999 as an abrasive and as a filtration medium in the petroleum industry, filtration plants, aircraft and motor vehicle manufacture, shipbuilding, wood furniture finishing operations, electronic component manufacture, ceramics manufacture, and glass production. Prices for crude concentrates ranged from approximately $50 to $110/st and refined garnet from $50 to $215/st in 1999, depending on type, source, quantity purchased, quality, and application.

  4. Industry honoured

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    CERN has organised a day to thank industry for its exceptional contributions to the LHC project. Lucio Rossi addresses CERN’s industrial partners in the Main Auditorium.The LHC inauguration provided an opportunity for CERN to thank all those who have contributed to transforming this technological dream into reality. Industry has been a major player in this adventure. Over the last decade it has lent its support to CERN’s teams and participating institutes in developing, building and assembling the machine, its experiments and the computing infrastructure. CERN involved its industrial partners in the LHC inauguration by organising a special industry prize-giving day on 20 October. Over 70 firms accepted the invitation. The firms not only made fundamental contributions to the project, but some have also supported LHC events in 2008 and the inauguration ceremony through generous donations, which have been coordinated by Carmen Dell’Erba, who is responsible for secu...

  5. Industrial Waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2011-01-01

    generation rates and material composition as well as determining factors are discussed in this chapter. Characterizing industrial waste is faced with the problem that often only a part of the waste is handled in the municipal waste system, where information is easily accessible. In addition part...... of the industrial waste may in periods, depending on market opportunities and prices, be traded as secondary rawmaterials. Production-specificwaste from primary production, for example steel slag, is not included in the current presentation. In some countries industries must be approved or licensed and as part...... of the system industry has to inform at the planning stage and afterwards in yearly reports on their waste arising and how the waste is managed. If available such information is very helpful in obtaining information about that specific industry. However, in many countries there is very little information...

  6. UTILIZATION OF LOW NOx COAL COMBUSTION BY-PRODUCTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.Y. Hwang; X. Huang; M.G. McKimpson; R.E. Tieder; A.M. Hein; J.M. Gillis; D.C. Popko; K.L. Paxton; Z. Li; X. Liu; X. Song; R.I. Kramer

    1998-12-01

    Low NO{sub x} combustion practices are critical for reducing NO{sub x} emissions from power plants. These low NO{sub x} combustion practices, however, generate high residual carbon contents in the fly ash produced. These high carbon contents threaten utilization of this combustion by-product. This research has successfully developed a separation technology to render fly ash into useful, quality-controlled materials. This technology offers great flexibility and has been shown to be applicable to all of the fly ashes tested (more than 10). The separated materials can be utilized in traditional fly ash applications, such as cement and concrete, as well as in nontraditional applications such as plastic fillers, metal matrix composites, refractories, and carbon adsorbents. Technologies to use beneficiated fly ash in these applications are being successfully developed. In the future, we will continue to refine the separation and utilization technologies to expand the utilization of fly ash. The disposal of more than 31 million tons of fly ash per year is an important environmental issue. With continued development, it will be possible to increase economic, energy and environmental benefits by re-directing more of this fly ash into useful materials.

  7. Torrefaction of residues and by-products from sunflower chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Riva

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The high heterogeneity of some residual biomasses makes rather difficult their energy use and standardisation is a key aspect for these fuel products. Torrefaction is an interesting process used to improve the quality of ligno-cellulosic biomasses and to achieve standardisation. In the present study torrefaction has been employed on residues and by-products deriving from sunflower production chain, in particular sunflower stalks and oil press cake. The thermal behaviour of materials has been studied at first by thermo-gravimetric analysis in order to identify torrefaction temperatures range. Different residence time and torrefaction temperatures have been employed in a bench top torrefaction reactor afterwards. Analyses of raw and torrefied materials have been carried out to assess the influence of the process. As a consequence of torrefaction, the carbon and ash contents increase while the volatilisation range is reduced making the material more stable and standardised. Mass yield, energy yield and energy densification reach values of about 60 %, 80 % and 1.33 for sunflower stalks and 64 %, 85 % and 1.33 for sunflower oil press cake respectively. As highlighted by results, torrefaction is more interesting for sunflower stalks than oil cake and husks because of the different starting characteristics. Untreated oil cake and husks already show a good high heating value and the eventual torrefaction should be mild. On the contrary for sunflower stalks the process is more useful and could be more severe.

  8. Health impact of disinfection by-products in swimming pools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina M. Villanueva

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This article is focused on the epidemiological evidence on the health impacts related to disinfection by-products (DBPs in swimming pools, which is a chemical hazard generated as an undesired consequence to reduce the microbial pathogens. Specific DBPs are carcinogenic, fetotoxic and/or irritant to the airways according to experimental studies. Epidemiological evidence shows that swimming in pools during pregnancy is not associated with an increased risk of reproductive outcomes. An epidemiological study suggested an increased risk of bladder cancer with swimming pool attendance, although evidence is inconclusive. A higher prevalence of respiratory symptoms including asthma is found among swimming pool workers and elite swimmers, although the causality of this association is unclear. The body of evidence in children indicates that asthma is not increased by swimming pool attendance. Overall, the available knowledge suggests that the health benefits of swimming outweigh the potential health risks of chemical contamination. However, the positive effects of swimming should be enhanced by minimising potential risks.

  9. Sampling from stochastic reservoir models constrained by production data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hegstad, Bjoern Kaare

    1997-12-31

    When a petroleum reservoir is evaluated, it is important to forecast future production of oil and gas and to assess forecast uncertainty. This is done by defining a stochastic model for the reservoir characteristics, generating realizations from this model and applying a fluid flow simulator to the realizations. The reservoir characteristics define the geometry of the reservoir, initial saturation, petrophysical properties etc. This thesis discusses how to generate realizations constrained by production data, that is to say, the realizations should reproduce the observed production history of the petroleum reservoir within the uncertainty of these data. The topics discussed are: (1) Theoretical framework, (2) History matching, forecasting and forecasting uncertainty, (3) A three-dimensional test case, (4) Modelling transmissibility multipliers by Markov random fields, (5) Up scaling, (6) The link between model parameters, well observations and production history in a simple test case, (7) Sampling the posterior using optimization in a hierarchical model, (8) A comparison of Rejection Sampling and Metropolis-Hastings algorithm, (9) Stochastic simulation and conditioning by annealing in reservoir description, and (10) Uncertainty assessment in history matching and forecasting. 139 refs., 85 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Blueberry by-product used as an ingredient in the development of functional cookies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Claudia; Tagliani, Camila; Arcia, Patricia; Cozzano, Sonia; Curutchet, Ana

    2018-06-01

    A by-product of blueberry juice industries was used as an ingredient to develop fiber-enriched cookies. The blueberry pomace, once ground and dried, was used as an ingredient in cookie formulation. A control cookie was elaborated as reference. Cookies were analyzed for composition and functional properties. The fiber content obtained in the fiber-enriched cookie allows it to be labeled as "high fiber" in the European Union and as a "source of fiber" in MERCOSUR. The fiber-enriched cookie presented highly increased values on the antioxidant capacity and the polyphenol content when compared against the control cookie. Sensory evaluation was performed. Acceptability of the fiber-enriched cookie reached a value of 5.3 in a nine-point hedonic scale. Further strategies should be necessary in order to achieve an acceptable product. Cookies were subjected to an in vitro digestive process. Results show that the cookies' phytochemicals are bioaccessible and potentially bioavailable. Therefore, eating this type of food would represent an increase in the amount of antioxidants ingested and redound to a health benefit. In addition to improving both nutritional and functional properties of cookies, the present development represents an innovative strategy for a more sustainable growth of fruit juice industries.

  11. Evaluation of grape pomace from red wine by-product as feed for sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra-Rivas, Cristina; Gallardo, Beatriz; Mantecón, Ángel R; Del Álamo-Sanza, María; Manso, Teresa

    2017-04-01

    This work aimed to study the chemical composition and in vitro digestibility of seeds and pulp from grape pomace. In sacco degradability, ruminal fermentation of grape pomace fractions and plasma lipid peroxidation were also studied in sheep fed with or without grape pomace. Seed and pulp fractions of grape pomace had different values for cell walls (523 vs 243 g kg -1 dry matter (DM)), crude protein (CP, 104 vs 138 g kg -1 DM), ether extract (EE, 99.0 vs 31.7 g kg -1 DM), polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA, 69.6 vs 53.3%) and extractable polyphenols (55.0 vs 32.1 g kg -1 DM). The in vitro true digestibility, DM in sacco degradability and CP degradability of seeds and pulp were also different (0.51 vs 0.82, 0.30 vs 0.45 and 0.66 vs 0.39 respectively). The ammonia-N concentration and total volatile fatty acids (VFA) in ruminal liquid were significantly lower and plasma lipid peroxidation was also numerically lower in sheep that consumed grape pomace. The nutritive value of grape pomace varies depending on the proportion of seeds and pulp. The interest of this by-product in sheep feeding could be related to its polyphenol and PUFA content, which could improve meat and milk quality. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Development and characterization of a new encapsulating agent from orange juice by-products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaderides, Kyriakos; Goula, Athanasia M

    2017-10-01

    The replacement of maltodextrins as carriers for the spray drying of sticky and sugar based bioactives is an important development for the food industry. In this work, orange juice industry by-product was used to obtain a high dietary fiber powder to be used as carrier material. This powder was characterized with respect to its physical and chemical properties related to the process of encapsulation by spray drying. Adsorption isotherms of orange waste powder were determined at 30, 45, and 60°C. The data were fitted to several models including two-parameter (BET, Halsey, Smith, and Oswin), three-parameter (GAB), and four-parameter (Peleg) relationships. The GAB model best fitted the experimental data. The isosteric heat of sorption was determined from the equilibrium sorption data using the Clausius-Clapeyron equation. Isosteric heats of sorption were found to decrease exponentially with increasing moisture content. The enthalpy-entropy compensation theory was applied to the sorption isotherms and indicated an enthalpy controlled sorption process. Glass transition temperatures (T g ) of orange waste powder conditioned at various water activities were determined and a strong plasticizing effect of water on T g was found. These data were satisfactory correlated by the Gordon and Taylor model. The critical water activity and moisture content for the orange waste powder were 0.82 and 0.18g water/g solids, respectively, at a storage temperature of 25°C. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The global contribution of energy consumption by product exports from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Erzi; Peng, Chong

    2017-06-01

    This paper presents a model to analyze the mechanism of the global contribution of energy usage by product exports. The theoretical analysis is based on the perspective that contribution estimates should be in relatively smaller sectors in which the production characteristics could be considered, such as the productivity distribution for each sector. Then, we constructed a method to measure the global contribution of energy usage. The simple method to estimate the global contribution is the percentage of goods export volume compared to the GDP as a multiple of total energy consumption, but this method underestimates the global contribution because it ignores the structure of energy consumption and product export in China. According to our measurement method and based on the theoretical analysis, we calculated the global contribution of energy consumption only by industrial manufactured product exports in a smaller sector per industry or manufacturing sector. The results indicated that approximately 42% of the total energy usage in the whole economy for China in 2013 was contributed to foreign regions. Along with the primary products and service export in China, the global contribution of energy consumption for China in 2013 by export was larger than 42% of the total energy usage.

  14. DEVELOPMENT OF ACTIVATED CARBONS FROM COAL COMBUSTION BY-PRODUCTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harold H. Schobert; M. Mercedes Maroto-Valer; Zhe Lu

    2003-09-30

    The increasing role of coal as a source of energy in the 21st century will demand environmental and cost-effective strategies for the use of coal combustion by-products (CCBPs), mainly unburned carbon in fly ash. Unburned carbon is nowadays regarded as a waste product and its fate is mainly disposal, due to the present lack of efficient routes for its utilization. However, unburned carbon is a potential precursor for the production of adsorbent carbons, since it has gone through a devolatilization process while in the combustor, and therefore, only requires to be activated. Accordingly, the principal objective of this work was to characterize and utilize the unburned carbon in fly ash for the production of activated carbons. The unburned carbon samples were collected from different combustion systems, including pulverized utility boilers, a utility cyclone, a stoker, and a fluidized bed combustor. LOI (loss-on-ignition), proximate, ultimate, and petrographic analyses were conducted, and the surface areas of the samples were characterized by N2 adsorption isotherms at 77K. The LOIs of the unburned carbon samples varied between 21.79-84.52%. The proximate analyses showed that all the samples had very low moisture contents (0.17 to 3.39 wt %), while the volatile matter contents varied between 0.45 to 24.82 wt%. The elemental analyses show that all the unburned carbon samples consist mainly of carbon with very little hydrogen, nitrogen, sulfur and oxygen In addition, the potential use of unburned carbon as precursor for activated carbon (AC) was investigated. Activated carbons with specific surface area up to 1075m{sup 2}/g were produced from the unburned carbon. The porosity of the resultant activated carbons was related to the properties of the unburned carbon feedstock and the activation conditions used. It was found that not all the unburned carbon samples are equally suited for activation, and furthermore, their potential as activated carbons precursors could be

  15. Slaughterhouse by-products treatment using anaerobic digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moukazis, Ioannis; Pellera, Frantseska-Maria; Gidarakos, Evangelos

    2018-01-01

    The objective of the present study is to evaluate the use of animal by-products (ABP) as substrates for anaerobic digestion, aiming at methane production. Specifically, four ABP of Category 2 and 3, namely (i) stomach and rumen, (ii) stomach contents, (iii) breasts and reproductive organs and (iv) bladders and intestines with their contents, were selected. The methane potential of each ABP was initially determined, while the feasibility of anaerobic co-digestion of ABP with two agroindustrial waste, i.e. orange peels and olive leaves was also studied. To this purpose, Biochemical Methane Potential (BMP), as well as semi-continuous assays were respectively conducted. In the latter, the effect of the variation in the organic loading rate (OLR) on methane production was investigated. Results obtained from BMP assays showed that the samples containing breasts and reproductive organs, bladders and intestine, and stomach and rumen, had higher methane potentials of 815, 787 and 759 mLCH 4,STP /gVS, respectively. Moreover, according to the results of the semi-continuous assays, maximum methane yields between 253 and 727mLCH 4 /gVS fed were obtained at an OLR of 0.8gVS/L/d. The only case in which methanogenesis inhibition phenomena, due to increased ammonia concentrations, were observed, was the assay being fed with a mixture of breasts and reproductive organs and orange peels, at the highest OLR. This inhibition phenomenon was attributed to an inappropriate C/N ratio. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Utilization of steam treated agricultural by -product as ruminant feed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naeem, M.; Rajput, N.; Lili, Z.; Su, Z.; Rui, Y.; Tian, W.

    2014-01-01

    Shortage of animal food is a burning issue of the recent time, whereas the agricultural by -products are readily available to be used as ruminants feed. However, the low protein and digestibility are the hindrances in utilization of these low quality crop residues as a feed. In order to utilize rice straw as animal feed this study was conducted to investigate the influence of steam explosion treatment on its composition and in vitro degradability. The samples, I (untreated rice straw), II (rice straw exposed to 15.5 kgf/cm/ sub2/ steam pressure for 90 sec) and III (rice straw exposed to 15.5 kgf/cm/sup 2/steam pressure for 120 sec) were prepared. The results revealed that the crude protein (CP), ether extract (EE) and acid detergent lignin (ADL) contents of rice straw were improved after treatment with steam explosion in time dependent manner (P<0.05). The neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid detergent fiber (ADF) and organic matter (OM) were higher, while dry matter (DM) and ash contents were lower (P<0.05) in II as compared to group I and III; however, after increasing the time at same pressure these parameters decreased. Furthermore, group III showed higher concentration of propionate, acetate, butyrate, and total VFA (P<0.05). While, group I exhibited higher concentration of iso-butyrate and iso-valerate (P<0.05). The concentration of valeric acid and acetate to propionate ratio were not affected by steam explosion treatment. Moreover, group III showed the higher in vitro DM degradability, OM degradability, DNDF and gas production (P<0.05); while, lower DADF and pH (P<0.05) compared with groups I and II. These findings suggest that the steam explosion treatment at 15.5 kgf/cm/sup 2/ pressure for 120 sec, may be used to enhance the nutritive value and digestibility of rice straw. (author)

  17. Industrial ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, C K

    1992-01-01

    Industrial ecology addresses issues that will impact future production, use, and disposal technologies; proper use of the concept should reduce significantly the resources devoted to potential remediation in the future. This cradle-to-reincarnation production philosophy includes industrial processes that are environmentally sound and products that are environmentally safe during use and economically recyclable after use without adverse impact on the environment or on the net cost to society. This will require an industry-university-government round table to set the strategy and agenda for progress. PMID:11607254

  18. By-product from decoction process of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. calyces as a source of polyphenols and dietary fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sáyago-Ayerdi, Sonia G; Velázquez-López, Carolina; Montalvo-González, Efigenia; Goñi, Isabel

    2014-03-30

    Dietary fiber (DF) and antioxidant compounds are widely used as functional ingredients. The market in this field is competitive and the search for new types of quality ingredients for the food industry is intensifying. The aim of this study was to evaluate the composition and antioxidant activity of by-products generated during the decoction of calyces of four Mexican Hibiscus sabdariffa L. cultivars ('Criolla', 'China', 'Rosalis' and 'Tecoanapa') in order to assess them as a source of functional ingredients. Some calyx components were partially transferred to the beverage during the decoction process, while most were retained in the decoction residues. These by-products proved to be a good source of DF (407.4-457.0 g kg⁻¹ dry matter) and natural antioxidants (50.7-121.8 µmol Trolox equivalent g⁻¹ dry matter). The decoction process extracted some soluble carbohydrates, ash and some extractable polyphenols. The DF content changed in the dried residues, which could be considered as high-DF materials with a high proportion of soluble DF (∼20% of total DF) and considerable antioxidant capacity. These by-products could be used as an antioxidant DF source. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. Industrial practices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velasquez Torrez, Patricia Irma

    1999-01-01

    This document reports the industrial practices carried out by the author viewing the requirements fulfilled for obtention the academic degree in chemical engineering of the San Andres University - Bolivia

  20. Electronics Industry

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ginter, Michael J; Andersen, James L; Becker, John A; Belliveau, Gerald E; Eppich, Frank J; Awai, Herman T; Hanko, David J; Hughes, Bob; Jones, Douglas; Larson, Kelly J

    2007-01-01

    .... area, New York State, Silicon Valley (California), Taiwan, and China. This approach provides a wide range of perspectives from which to examine the selected industry's current condition, outlook, and challenges...

  1. Industrial radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This Health and Safety Executive Information Sheet on industrial radiography aims to inform directors and managers of industrial radiography companies on the safety precautions necessary to ensure that their personnel do not exceed dose guidelines for exposure to ionizing radiation. The Ionising Radiations Regulations 1985 (IRR85) require that exposure doses for radiographers are kept as low reasonably practicable. Equipment maintenance, and the employment of proper emergency procedures will help to ensure personnel safety. (UK)

  2. Industrial ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mengelle, Ch.

    1999-04-01

    After having given the definition of the term 'ceramics', the author describes the different manufacturing processes of these compounds. These materials are particularly used in the fields of 1)petroleum industry (in primary and secondary reforming units, in carbon black reactors and ethylene furnaces). 2)nuclear industry (for instance UO 2 and PuO 2 as fuels; SiC for encapsulation; boron carbides for control systems..)

  3. Solar Grade Silicon from Agricultural By-products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laine, Richard M

    2012-08-20

    In this project, Mayaterials developed a low cost, low energy and low temperature method of purifying rice hull ash to high purity (5-6Ns) and converting it by carbothermal reduction to solar grade quality silicon (Sipv) using a self-designed and built electric arc furnace (EAF). Outside evaluation of our process by an independent engineering firm confirms that our technology greatly lowers estimated operating expenses (OPEX) to $5/kg and capital expenses (CAPEX) to $24/kg for Sipv production, which is well below best-in-class plants using a Siemens process approach (OPEX of 14/kg and CAPEX of $87/kg, respectively). The primary limiting factor in the widespread use of photovoltaic (PV) cells is the high cost of manufacturing, compared to more traditional sources to reach 6 g Sipv/watt (with averages closer to 8+g/watt). In 2008, the spot price of Sipv rose to $450/kg. While prices have since dropped to a more reasonable $25/kg; this low price level is not sustainable, meaning the longer-term price will likely return to $35/kg. The 6-8 g Si/watt implies that the Sipv used in a module will cost $0.21-0.28/watt for the best producers (45% of the cost of a traditional solar panel), a major improvement from the cost/wafer driven by the $50/kg Si costs of early 2011, but still a major hindrance in fulfilling DOE goal of lowering the cost of solar energy below $1/watt. The solar cell industry has grown by 40% yearly for the past eight years, increasing the demand for Sipv. As such, future solar silicon price spikes are expected in the next few years. Although industry has invested billions of dollars to meet this ever-increasing demand, the technology to produce Sipv remains largely unchanged requiring the energy intensive, and chlorine dependent Siemens process or variations thereof. While huge improvements have been made, current state-of-the-art industrial plant still use 65 kWh/kg of silicon purified. Our technology offers a key distinction to other technologies as it

  4. Mine water treatment with yellowcake by-production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Csicsak, J.; Csoevari, M.; Eberfalvy, J.; Lendvai, Zs.

    2002-01-01

    Mining and milling of uranium ore in Hungary was terminated at the end of 1997. From that time rehabilitation works have been carrying out, which include manly the relocation of different solid wastes, such as waste rocks, heap leached residues, demolishing of former industrial buildings, clean up contaminated sites. Overall rehabilitation of the tailings ponds has also started. At first step the ground water restoration system is under construction, aiming at protecting the drinking water aquifer situated in the immediate vicinity of the tailings ponds. Former mining activity has been carried out also in the vicinity of the drinking water catchment area, for protection of that is compulsory to maintain appropriate depression in the mine in question. This means that mine water has to be pumped out continuously and because of the elevated uranium concentration in mine water, the water has to be treated. Thus the water quality protection is connected with uranium removal from the mine water. Mine water treatment process developed is based on anion-exchange process and removal of the uranium from the eluates with hydrogen peroxide. (author)

  5. Characterisation and enzymic degradation of non-starch polysccharides in lignocellulosic by-products : a study on sunflower meal and palm-kernel meal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duesterhoeft, E.M.

    1993-01-01

    Non-starch polysaccharides (NSP) constitute a potentially valuable part of plant by- products deriving from the food and agricultural industries. Their use for various applications (fuel, feed, food) requires the degradation and modification of the complex plant materials. This can be

  6. Effects of chicken by-product gelatin on the physicochemical properties and texture of chocolate spread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Poliana Fernandes; Lannes, Suzana Caetano da Silva

    2017-10-01

    Chocolate spread has a fat-based formulation and the application of gelatin as a fat replacement is related to the demand for healthier foods. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of gelatin as a by-product from the poultry industry in the fat replacement of chocolate spread. Vegetable fat was replaced (15, 25, 50, 75, and 100%) with gelatin (0.3, 0.5, 0.8, 1.0, and 1.2%) using a central composite rotatable design and the effects were evaluated by a response surface methodology. Formulations with a greater proportion of fat were lighter, of higher volume and lower density. As expected, water activity was intensified in low-fat formulations. The consistency was controlled mainly by the properties of the gelatin phase. The formulations with 50 and 75% fat replacement and 0.5-1.0% gelatin had satisfactory spreadability at 10C. All formulations were spreadable at 20C. Low-fat samples with low gelatin concentrations, at 30C, had very low consistency. Statistically, the properties were significantly influenced by the factors analyzed according to the mathematical models. Although several studies have been conducted on obtaining alternative gelatin sources for mammals, the extracted gelatin from poultry by-product is still little explored and the knowledge on the application in food products, particularly in complex systems such as emulsions, has not been well established. The development of a low-fat food should take into account the complexity of the system involved, such as the emulsion spreads. The incorporation of gelatin in aqueous solution is a challenging task because the physical properties and the rheological behavior can be strongly influenced. Given the nutritional and functional properties of the gelatin and chocolate and its wide acceptability among the consumers, the incorporation of these two ingredients in the development of a new product sets up a promising study. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. By-product of Lavandula latifolia essential oil distillation as source of antioxidants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méndez-Tovar, Inés; Herrero, Baudilio; Pérez-Magariño, Silvia; Pereira, José Alberto; Asensio-S-Manzanera, M Carmen

    2015-06-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the antioxidant properties of Lavandula latifolia waste obtained after essential oil distillation. Samples of 12 wild populations of the Lavandula genus collected between 2009 and 2010 were hydrodistilled and their by-products were analyzed using the Folin-Ciocalteu, free radical scavenging activity (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl), and the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) methods. Rosmarinic acid, apigenin, and luteolin contents were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection. The mean of total phenolic content ranged from 1.89 ± 0.09 mg gallic acid equivalents/g dry weight to 3.54 ± 0.22 mg gallic acid equivalents/g dry weight. The average value of the half maximal effective concentration (EC 50 ) for scavenging activity ranged from 5.09 ± 0.17 mg/mL to 14.30 ± 1.90 mg/mL and the variability of the EC 50 in FRAP ranged from 3.72 ± 0.12 mg/mL to 18.55 ± 0.77 mg/mL. Annual variation was found among this samples and the environmental conditions of 2009 were found to be more favorable. The plants collected from Sedano showed the highest antioxidant power. Our results show that rosmarinic acid and apigenin in L. latifolia contributed to the antioxidant properties of the waste. In conclusion, the by-product of the distillation industry could be valorizing as a source of natural antioxidants. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Rational use of by-products in the processing of turkeys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Antipova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A man's life, his health and work is impossible without full of food. According to the theory of balanced nutrition in the human diet should contain not only proteins, fats and carbohydrates in the required quantity, but also substances such as essential amino acids, vitamins, minerals in certain, beneficial to human proportions. In the organization of proper nutrition the primary role of the meat products. Turkey is the largest after the ostrich poultry are grown in Russia on an industrial scale. Undoubtedly, the leading positions on the market of poultry meat is chicken products, but in recent years Turkey meat is becoming increasingly popular. The processed by-products include liver, heart, gizzard, neck, feet, head, and corals. The highest mass fraction of Turkey offal is the liver, heart, gizzard. It was established experimentally that the output of the liver is of 1.23%, the output of the heart 0,45%, muscular stomach of 1.87%. The article presents data on the study of the chemical composition of the offal of turkeys, fractional composition of proteins, the assessment of the nutritional and biological value of byproducts. The objects of study are: offal (liver, heart, gizzard broiler turkeys received at home as a result of slaughter and primary processing. Despite the fact that Turkey sufficiently studied in terms of nutritional and biological value, however, information information on evaluation of properties of by-products is not enough. However, according to our estimates, they have considerable potential in the development of innovative products for food, feed and medical purposes on the basis of deep processing of all resources.

  9. By-product of Lavandula latifolia essential oil distillation as source of antioxidants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inés Méndez-Tovar

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the antioxidant properties of Lavandula latifolia waste obtained after essential oil distillation. Samples of 12 wild populations of the Lavandula genus collected between 2009 and 2010 were hydrodistilled and their by-products were analyzed using the Folin–Ciocalteu, free radical scavenging activity (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, and the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP methods. Rosmarinic acid, apigenin, and luteolin contents were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography–diode array detection. The mean of total phenolic content ranged from 1.89 ± 0.09 mg gallic acid equivalents/g dry weight to 3.54 ± 0.22 mg gallic acid equivalents/g dry weight. The average value of the half maximal effective concentration (EC50 for scavenging activity ranged from 5.09 ± 0.17 mg/mL to 14.30 ± 1.90 mg/mL and the variability of the EC50 in FRAP ranged from 3.72 ± 0.12 mg/mL to 18.55 ± 0.77 mg/mL. Annual variation was found among this samples and the environmental conditions of 2009 were found to be more favorable. The plants collected from Sedano showed the highest antioxidant power. Our results show that rosmarinic acid and apigenin in L. latifolia contributed to the antioxidant properties of the waste. In conclusion, the by-product of the distillation industry could be valorizing as a source of natural antioxidants.

  10. Evaluation of radical scavenging activity, intestinal cell viability and antifungal activity of Brazilian propolis by-product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Francisco, Lizziane; Pinto, Diana; Rosseto, Hélen; Toledo, Lucas; Santos, Rafaela; Tobaldini-Valério, Flávia; Svidzinski, Terezinha; Bruschi, Marcos; Sarmento, Bruno; Oliveira, M Beatriz P P; Rodrigues, Francisca

    2018-03-01

    Propolis is a natural adhesive resinous compound produced by honeybees to protect hives from bacteria and fungi, being extremely expensive for food industry. During propolis production, a resinous by-product is formed. This resinous waste is currently undervalued and underexploited. Accordingly, in this study the proximate physical and chemical quality, as well as the antioxidant activity, radical scavenging activity and cell viability of this by-product were evaluated and compared with propolis in order to boost new applications in food and pharmaceutical industries. The results revealed that the by-product meets the physical and chemical quality standards expected and showed that the propolis waste contains similar amounts of total phenolic content (TPC) and total flavonoid content (TFC) to propolis. Also, a good scavenging activity against reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS and RNS, respectively) determined by the assays of superoxide anion radical (O 2 - ), hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ), hypochlorous acid (HOCl), nitric oxide (NO) and peroxyl radical (ROO) were determined. Linear positive correlations were established between the TPC of both samples and the antioxidant activity evaluated by three different methods (DPPH, ABTS and FRAP assays). The extracts were also screened for cell viability assays in two different intestinal cell lines (HT29-MTX and Caco-2), showing a viability concentration-dependent. Similarly, the Artemia salina assay, used to assess toxicity, demonstrated the concentration influence on results. Finally, the antifungal activity against ATCC species of Candida was demonstrated. These results suggest that propolis by-product can be used as a new rich source of bioactive compounds for different areas, such as food or pharmaceutical. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Integrated systems for biopolymers and bioenergy production from organic waste and by-products: a review of microbial processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagliano, Giorgia; Ventorino, Valeria; Panico, Antonio; Pepe, Olimpia

    2017-01-01

    Recently, issues concerning the sustainable and harmless disposal of organic solid waste have generated interest in microbial biotechnologies aimed at converting waste materials into bioenergy and biomaterials, thus contributing to a reduction in economic dependence on fossil fuels. To valorize biomass, waste materials derived from agriculture, food processing factories, and municipal organic waste can be used to produce biopolymers, such as biohydrogen and biogas, through different microbial processes. In fact, different bacterial strains can synthesize biopolymers to convert waste materials into valuable intracellular (e.g., polyhydroxyalkanoates) and extracellular (e.g., exopolysaccharides) bioproducts, which are useful for biochemical production. In particular, large numbers of bacteria, including Alcaligenes eutrophus , Alcaligenes latus , Azotobacter vinelandii , Azotobacter chroococcum , Azotobacter beijerincki , methylotrophs, Pseudomonas spp., Bacillus spp., Rhizobium spp., Nocardia spp., and recombinant Escherichia coli , have been successfully used to produce polyhydroxyalkanoates on an industrial scale from different types of organic by-products. Therefore, the development of high-performance microbial strains and the use of by-products and waste as substrates could reasonably make the production costs of biodegradable polymers comparable to those required by petrochemical-derived plastics and promote their use. Many studies have reported use of the same organic substrates as alternative energy sources to produce biogas and biohydrogen through anaerobic digestion as well as dark and photofermentation processes under anaerobic conditions. Therefore, concurrently obtaining bioenergy and biopolymers at a reasonable cost through an integrated system is becoming feasible using by-products and waste as organic carbon sources. An overview of the suitable substrates and microbial strains used in low-cost polyhydroxyalkanoates for biohydrogen and biogas

  12. Industrial gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunter, D.; Jackson, D.; Coeyman, M.

    1993-01-01

    Industrial gas companies have fought hard to boost sales and hold margins in the tough economic climate, and investments are well down from their 1989-'91 peak. But 'our industry is still very strong long term' says Alain Joly, CEO of industry leader L'Air Liquide (AL). By 1994, if a European and Japanese recovery follows through on one in the U.S., 'we could see major [investment] commitments starting again,' he says. 'Noncryogenic production technology is lowering the cost of gas-making possible new applications, oxygen is getting plenty of attention in the environmental area, and hydrogen also fits into the environmental thrust,' says Bob Lovett, executive v.p./gases and equipment with Air Products ampersand Chemicals (AP). Through the 1990's, 'Industrial gases could grow even faster than in the past decade,' he says. Virtually a new generation of new gases applications should become reality by the mid-1990s, says John Campbell, of industry consultants J.R. Campbell ampersand Associates (Lexington, MA). Big new oxygen volumes will be required for powder coal injection in blast furnaces-boosting a steel mill's requirement as much as 40% and coal gasification/combined cycle (CGCC). Increased oil refinery hydroprocessing needs promise hydrogen requirements

  13. Energy industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staszak, Katarzyna; Wieszczycka, Karolina

    2018-04-01

    The potential sources of metals from energy industries are discussed. The discussion is organized based on two main metal-contains wastes from power plants: ashes, slags from combustion process and spent catalysts from selective catalytic NOx reduction process with ammonia, known as SCR. The compositions, methods of metals recovery, based mainly on leaching process, and their further application are presented. Solid coal combustion wastes are sources of various compounds such as silica, alumina, iron oxide, and calcium. In the case of the spent SCR catalysts mainly two metals are considered: vanadium and tungsten - basic components of industrial ones.

  14. Industrial sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ainul Hayati Daud; Hazmimi Kasim

    2010-01-01

    The industrial sector is categorized as related to among others, the provision of technical and engineering services, supply of products, testing and troubleshooting of parts, systems and industrial plants, quality control and assurance as well as manufacturing and processing. A total of 161 entities comprising 47 public agencies and 114 private companies were selected for the study in this sector. The majority of the public agencies, 87 %, operate in Peninsular Malaysia. The remainders were located in Sabah and Sarawak. The findings of the study on both public agencies and private companies are presented in subsequent sections of this chapter. (author)

  15. XYLOOLIGOSACCHARIDES FROM AGRICULTURAL BY-PRODUCTS: CHARACTERISATION, PRODUCTION AND PHYSIOLOGICAL EFFECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Kaprelyants

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The current study is a review of characteristics, production, physiological properties and application of xylooligosaccharides (XOS. XOS are the carbohydrates, their molecules are built from xylose residues linked mainly by в-(1→4-glycoside bonds. Xylan is important for plant cell walls and is widely spread component in agricultural by-products. XOS are products of xylan hydrolytic degradation, and exhibiting the high prebiotic potential. The XOS preparation of wheat and rye bran stimulated the cells accumulation ‑ 1,4∙1010 CFU/cm3 of L. аcidophilus and 9,2∙1010 CFU/cm3 of В. bifidum. A difference in XOS molecules branching causes a wide range of their physiological properties: antioxidant, immunomodulation, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, anticarcinogenic. XOS can reduce high cholesterol level and triglycerides in blood plasma. XOS application reviewed in this article opens new perspectives on its potential use for human consumption. The rich sources of xylan are wheat, rye and barley bran, rice husk, wheat straw, corncobs, cotton stalk. Industrial way of XOS production includes chemical or enzymatic hydrolysis with following purification. Chemical methods are based on hydrothermal pretreatment and acidic or alkali extraction. Obtained oligosaccharides have a wide range of polymerization degree (DP from 2 to 20. Enzymatic methods include fermentation with xylanase that allow controlling the XOS accumulation with certain DP. The different chromatographic purification after hydrolysis is used for analytical purposes. There are anion-exchange, size-exclusion, affinity, size-exclusion high-performance liquid chromatography. In addition, biomethods are preferred for XOS used in food, because such preparations do not contain monosaccharides and furfural as contaminants. XOS are stable in a wide range of temperature and pH, justifying the development of new synbiotics generation. Most widely XOS are used in production of functional

  16. Fermentation Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grady, C. P. L., Jr.; Grady, J. K.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of wastes from the fermentation industry, covering publications of 1976-77. This review focuses on: (1) alcoholic beverage production; (2) pharmaceuticals and biochemicals production; and (3) biomass production. A list of 62 references is also presented. (HM)

  17. Industrial radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aloni, A.; Magal, O.

    1992-02-01

    This publication is meant to be a manual for industrial radiography. As such the manual concentrates on the practical aspects, presenting existing radiographic system and techniques of operation to satisfy specified quality requirements. The manual also reviews the safety aspect of performing radiographic work. (author) systems

  18. Education Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    themes: No Child Left Behind Act reauthorization, international competitiveness, and recruiting and retention of quality teachers. The US education ...industry stakeholders and require difficult choices. A more centralized education system has many advantages , and the US should move in that direction...between math and science skills, innovation and creativity, and international education , as all these areas are integral to future success. Finally

  19. Industrial garnet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, D.W.

    2013-01-01

    Garnet has been used as a gemstone since the Bronze Age. However, garnet’s angular fractures, relatively high hardness and specific gravity, chemical inertness and nontoxicity make it ideal for many industrial applications. It is also free of crystalline silica and can be recycled.

  20. Effect of the activation of a clay-base paper industry by-product on cement matrix behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García, R.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study addresses variations in the calcination temperature (600-750 ºC and kiln time (two to five hours applied to activate coated paper waste and their effect on the rheological, physical and mechanical behaviour of cement matrices containing these active additions.The results obtained showed that the conditions under which kaolinite was activated had a direct effect on the subsequent behaviour of the calcined products. At activating temperatures of over 700 ºC, pozzolanic activity and mechanical strength were observed to be lower, setting time shorter and the mortar less workable.El presente trabajo de investigación aborda la influencia de las condiciones de activación (600-750 ºC y 2-5 horas de permanencia en el horno de los lodos de papel procedente de la fabricación de papel estucado en el comportamiento reológico, físico y mecánico de las matrices de cementos elaboradas con este tipo de adiciones activas.Los resultados obtenidos muestran una influencia directa entre las condiciones de activación de la caolinita y el comportamiento posterior de los productos calcinados. Así, en condiciones de activación superiores a 700 ºC se observa una menor actividad puzolánica, tiempo de fraguado más corto, disminución de la trabajabilidad de los morteros mezcla y resistencia mecánica más baja.

  1. Utilization of by-products from the tequila industry. Part 2: Potential value of Agave tequilana Weber azul leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iñiguez-Covarrubias, G; Díaz-Teres, R; Sanjuan-Dueñas, R; Anzaldo-Hernández, J; Rowell, R M

    2001-04-01

    The leaves of the agave plant are left in the field after harvesting the heads for tequila production. Different types of agave leaves were isolated, classified, and their content in the total plant determined. The usable fractions were collected and their properties determined. Of the total wet weight of the agave plant, 54% corresponds to the agave head, 32% corresponds to materials which could be usable for sugar and fiber production which leaves 14% of the wet plant without apparent utility. The fractions with higher total reducing sugars (TRS) content were the fresh fraction of partially dry leaves stuck to the head and the leaf bases with a TRS content of 16.1% and 13.1%, respectively. The highest TRS concentration (16-28%) is in the agave head which is used for tequila production. The leaves are 90-120 cm long and 8-12 cm wide and contain fiber bundles that are 23-52 cm long and 0.6-13 mm wide. The ultimate fiber length is approximately 1.6 mm with an average width of 25 microns. There are several types of leaf fibers that can be utilized depending on what part of the plant they come from and what product is desired. Agave leaf fibers were pulped using a soda pulping process and the pulp was hand formed into test sheets. Test sheets made from pulped agave leaf fibers had a breaking length comparable to paper made from both pine and eucalyptus fibers, but the tear index and burst index were lower than the other two papers.

  2. Selected properties of biodegradable material produced from thermoplastic starch with by-products of food industry addition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdybel Ewa

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work extrusion process were used to create thermoplastic starch and to mix obtained starch with linen, quince and apple pomace at the same time. Obtained starch beads were formed in shapes. In experimental material was determined thermal conductivity, water absorption and the solubility in water. It is possible to get the biodegradable material produced from thermoplastic starch with an addition of fruit pomace. Adding pomace and glycerine to the biodegradable material made from starch change of susceptibility on water action. In the case of materials containing pomace, glycerine addition decreases the susceptibility on water action compared to the material manufactured with pomace addition but without glycerine. In the material containing pomace, glycerine addition caused the increase of the thermal insulation time compared to the material with pomace but no glycerine in it.

  3. Process economics of renewable biorefineries: butanol and ethanol production in integrated bioprocesses from lignocellulosics and other industrial by-products

    Science.gov (United States)

    This chapter provides process economic details on production of butanol from lignocellulosic biomass and glycerol in integrated bioreactors where numerous unit operations are combined. In order to compare various processes, economic evaluations were performed using SuperPro Designer Software (versio...

  4. EFFECT OF COMPOST FROM BY-PRODUCT OF THE FISHING INDUSTRY ON CROP YIELD AND MICROELEMENT CONTENT IN MAIZE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Radziemska

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A pot experiment was conducted to compare the effects of compost from fish waste with mineral and manure fertilization on the yield and chemical composition of the overground parts of maize (Zea mays L.. The experiment comprised two series: I – composts at a dose of 1 g of compost per pot, and II – composts with 0.5 g of urea. The treatments were conducted on the following types of composts: compost 1: fish waste (80% d.m., sawdust (20% d.m.; compost 2: fish waste (80% d.m., straw (20% d.m.; compost 3: fish waste (80% d.m., bark (20% d.m.; compost 4: fish waste (79.3% d.m., sawdust (19.7% d.m., lignite (1% d.m.; compost 5: fish waste (79.3% d.m., straw (19.7% d.m.; lignite (1% d.m.; compost 6: fish waste (79.3% d.m., bark (19.7% d.m, lignite (1% d.m. The contents of Ni, Zn, Cr, Cu and Cd were determined in an air-acetylene flame using the flame atomic absorption spectrophotometric method. The average crop yield of the overground parts of maize in the series without additional mineral fertilization and with mineral N-fertilization was higher compared to objects without mineral N-fertilization. The highest crop yield was noted in the case of compost containing fish waste and straw with addition of lignite and with bark and lignite. The addition of lignite to the compost mass in the series with mineral N-fertilization had stronger influence on the content of cadmium, chromium, nickel and zinc in the overground parts of maize.

  5. Use of industrial by-products and natural media to adsorb nutrients, metals and organic carbon from drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grace, Maebh A; Healy, Mark G; Clifford, Eoghan

    2015-06-15

    Filtration technology is well established in the water sector but is limited by inability to remove targeted contaminants, found in surface and groundwater, which can be damaging to human health. This study optimises the design of filters by examining the efficacy of seven media (fly ash, bottom ash, Bayer residue, granular blast furnace slag (GBS), pyritic fill, granular activated carbon (GAC) and zeolite), to adsorb nitrate, ammonium, total organic carbon (TOC), aluminium, copper (Cu) and phosphorus. Each medium and contaminant was modelled to a Langmuir, Freundlich or Temkin adsorption isotherm, and the impact of pH and temperature (ranging from 10 °C to 29 °C) on their performance was quantified. As retention time within water filters is important in contaminant removal, kinetic studies were carried out to observe the adsorption behaviour over a 24h period. Fly ash and Bayer residue had good TOC, nutrient and Cu adsorption capacity. Granular blast furnace slag and pyritic fill, previously un-investigated in water treatment, showed adsorption potential for all contaminants. In general, pH or temperature adjustment was not necessary to achieve effective adsorption. Kinetic studies showed that at least 60% of adsorption had occurred after 8h for all media. These media show potential for use in a multifunctional water treatment unit for the targeted treatment of specific contaminants. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Development of a low-cost cement free polymer concrete using industrial by-products and dune sand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail Najif

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Alkali-activated polymer concrete (APC can potentially reduce CO2 emissions associated to concrete production by 84%. The binder in APC herein was synthesized using a combined sodium silicate-sodium hydroxide solution (i.e., alkali activator, alumino-silicate rich precursor (fly ash and slag. Light weight expanded clay and desert dune sand were used as aggregates. An overview of an experimental program was presented, which involved evaluation of fresh and mechanical properties of the produced APC and counterpart mortar (APM. Variables investigated were the fly ash to slag ratio and curing conditions. The curing regimes adopted herein included 24 hours of curing at ambient conditions, 30°C, and 60°C. The experimental program was undertaken in two stages, of these the first stage involved physical and chemical testing of constituent materials and the second stage involved testing or produced APM/APC. Reported were the setting times, workability, compression strength, strength development, flexural strength, tensile splitting strength, and plastic shrinkage strains. Relationship between strength results were investigated and effectiveness of codified predictive equations was evaluated.

  7. Production of α-amylase from Streptomyces sp. SLBA-08 strain using agro-industrial by-products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Édilla Ribeiro dos Santos

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Approximately 1.5 trillion tons are the estimated yearly biomass production, making it an essentially unlimited source of raw material for environmentally friendly and biocompatible products transformed by microorganism, specially fungi and actinomycetes. Several lignocellulosic residues, such as sisal waste and sugarcane bagasse contain starch in their structures which could become important sources for the production of amylases. This study evaluated the production of amylolytic enzymes using Streptomyces sp. SLBA-08 strain, isolated from a semi-arid soil, according to their ability to grow on soluble starch as the sole carbon source. The effect of the carbon source (sisal waste and sugarcane bagasse on α-amylase production was studied using submerged cultivations at 30 ºC. The highest level of α-amylase activity corresponded to 10.1 U. mL-1 and was obtained using sisal waste (2.7% and urea (0.8% in submerged fermentation after 3 days of cultivation. The partial characterization showed the best α-amylase activity at 50ºC and pH 7.0. These results are of great importance for the use of sisal waste as a substrate for biotechnological proposes.

  8. Bioconversion of agro-industrial by-products in rhamnolipids toward applications in enhanced oil recovery and bioremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudiña, Eduardo J; Rodrigues, Ana I; Alves, Eliana; Domingues, M Rosário; Teixeira, José A; Rodrigues, Lígia R

    2015-02-01

    In this work, biosurfactant production by a Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain was optimized using low-cost substrates. The highest biosurfactant production (3.2 g/l) was obtained using a culture medium containing corn steep liquor (10% (v/v)) and molasses (10% (w/v)). The biosurfactant reduced the surface tension of water up to 30 mN/m, and exhibited a high emulsifying activity (E24=60%), with a critical micelle concentration as low as 50 mg/l. The biosurfactant produced in this alternative medium was characterized as a mixture of eight different rhamnolipid congeners, being the most abundant the mono-rhamnolipid Rha-C10-C10. However, using LB medium, nine different rhamnolipid congeners were identified, being the most abundant the di-rhamnolipid Rha-Rha-C10-C10. The rhamnolipid mixture produced in the alternative medium exhibited a better performance in removing oil from contaminated sand when compared with two chemical surfactants, suggesting its potential use as an alternative to traditional chemical surfactants in enhanced oil recovery or bioremediation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Sulfoaluminate-belite cement from low-calcium fly ash and sulfur-rich and other industrial by-products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arjunan, P.; Silsbee, M.R.; Roy, D.M.

    1999-08-01

    The study describes the preparation and characterization of an environmentally friendly cement with performance characteristics similar to those of Portland cement, from a lime kiln bag house dust, a low-calcium fly ash, and a scrubber sludge. Promising preliminary results show the formation of relatively low-temperature phases calcium sulfoaluminate (4CaO{center{underscore}dot}3Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}{center{underscore}dot}SO{sub 3}) and dicalcium silicate (2CaO{center{underscore}dot}SiO{sub 2}) at {approximately} 1,250 C if nodulized raw means used for clinker preparation and at 1,175 C if powdered raw meal is used as compared to the {approximately} 1,500 C sintering temperature required for Portland cement. Phases of the developed cements were predicted using modified Bogue calculations. Isothermal calorimetric measurements indicate the hydration properties of the cements are comparable to ordinary Portland cement. Mechanical properties and microstructural evaluations also were carried out.

  10. Milk production, intake, digestion, blood parameters, and ingestive behavior of cows supplemented with by-products from the biodiesel industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzaga Neto, Severino; Oliveira, Ronaldo Lopes; de Lima, Francisco Helton Sá; de Medeiros, Ariosvaldo Nunes; Bezerra, Leilson Rocha; Viégas, Júlio; do Nascimento, Nilton Guedes; de Freitas Neto, Marcondes Dias

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the intake, digestion, blood parameters, and feeding behavior of crossbred dairy cows (Holstein × Gir) managed on Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. Tanzania-1 and provided supplementation with groundnut cake, sunflower cake, or palm kernel cake (to replace soybean meal). Sixteen cows were randomly assigned in a Latin square design with four treatments and four experimental periods. The consumption of nutrients from the pasture did not vary between experimental treatments. Cows receiving the palm kernel cake supplement had a reduced crude protein, non-fibrous carbohydrate, and total digestible nutrient intake and an increase in the average consumption of ether extract. There was also a reduction in the digestibility of dry matter. The inclusion of supplements in the diet did not influence the average time spent eating, ruminating, or resting. The mean values of respiratory and heart rates showed thermal comfort during the trial period. There was a reduction in blood urea nitrogen with palm kernel cake supplementation, and the values of total protein, albumin, and glucose were also significantly different with this supplement. It is recommended that cakes of groundnut cake and sunflower cake seed be used for a total replacement of soybean meal supplements for lactating cows, but the use of palm kernel cake is not recommended.

  11. Introducing renewable energy and industrial restructuring to reduce GHG emission: Application of a dynamic simulation model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Junnian; Yang, Wei; Higano, Yoshiro; Wang, Xian’en

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Renewable energy development is expanded and introduced into socioeconomic activities. • A dynamic optimization simulation model is developed based on input–output approach. • Regional economic, energy and environmental impacts are assessed dynamically. • Industrial and energy structure is adjusted optimally for GHG emission reduction. - Abstract: Specifying the renewable energy development as new energy industries to be newly introduced into current socioeconomic activities, this study develops a dynamic simulation model with input–output approach to make comprehensive assessment of the impacts on economic development, energy consumption and GHG emission under distinct levels of GHG emission constraints involving targeted GHG emission reduction policies (ERPs) and industrial restructuring. The model is applied to Jilin City to conduct 16 terms of dynamic simulation work with GRP as objective function subject to mass, value and energy balances aided by the extended input–output table with renewable energy industries introduced. Simulation results indicate that achievement of GHG emission reduction target is contributed by renewable energy industries, ERPs and industrial restructuring collectively, which reshape the terminal energy consumption structure with a larger proportion of renewable energy. Wind power, hydropower and biomass combustion power industries account for more in the power generation structure implying better industrial prospects. Mining, chemical, petroleum processing, non-metal, metal and thermal power industries are major targets for industrial restructuring. This method is crucial for understanding the role of renewable energy development in GHG mitigation efforts and other energy-related planning settings, allowing to explore the optimal level for relationships among all socioeconomic activities and facilitate to simultaneous pursuit of economic development, energy utilization and environmental preservation

  12. New advances in the integrated management of food processing by-products in Europe: sustainable exploitation of fruit and cereal processing by-products with the production of new food products (NAMASTE EU).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fava, Fabio; Zanaroli, Giulio; Vannini, Lucia; Guerzoni, Elisabetta; Bordoni, Alessandra; Viaggi, Davide; Robertson, Jim; Waldron, Keith; Bald, Carlos; Esturo, Aintzane; Talens, Clara; Tueros, Itziar; Cebrián, Marta; Sebők, András; Kuti, Tunde; Broeze, Jan; Macias, Marta; Brendle, Hans-Georg

    2013-09-25

    By-products generated every year by the European fruit and cereal processing industry currently exceed several million tons. They are disposed of mainly through landfills and thus are largely unexploited sources of several valuable biobased compounds potentially profitable in the formulation of novel food products. The opportunity to design novel strategies to turn them into added value products and food ingredients via novel and sustainable processes is the main target of recently EC-funded FP7 project NAMASTE-EU. NAMASTE-EU aims at developing new laboratory-scale protocols and processes for the exploitation of citrus processing by-products and wheat bran surpluses via the production of ingredients useful for the formulation of new beverage and food products. Among the main results achieved in the first two years of the project, there are the development and assessment of procedures for the selection, stabilization and the physical/biological treatment of citrus and wheat processing by-products, the obtainment and recovery of some bioactive molecules and ingredients and the development of procedures for assessing the quality of the obtained ingredients and for their exploitation in the preparation of new food products. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Determination of several common disinfection by-products in frozen foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardador, Maria Jose; Gallego, Mercedes

    2018-01-01

    Disinfected water and/or disinfectants are commonly used by the freezing industry in such processes as sanitising, washing, blanching, cooling and transporting the final product. For this reason, disinfection by-products (DBPs) can be expected in frozen foods. This study focused on the presence of DBPs in a wide variety of frozen vegetables, meats and fish. For this purpose, the 14 halogenated DBPs more prevalent in disinfected water were selected (four trihalomethanes, seven haloacetic acids, two haloacetonitriles and trichloronitromethane). Up to seven DBPs were found in vegetables, whereas only four DBPs were present in meats and fish, and at lower concentrations, since their contact with disinfected water is lower than in frozen vegetables. It is important to emphasise that trichloronitromethane (the most abundant nitrogenous DBP in disinfected water) was found for the first time in foods. Finally, it was concluded that the freezing process can keep the compounds stable longer than other preservation processes (viz. sanitising, canning) and, therefore, frozen foods present higher DBP concentrations than other food categories (minimally processed vegetables, or canned vegetables and meats).

  14. Carbohydrate composition of peach palm (Bactris gasipaes Kunth) by-products flours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolanho, Beatriz Cervejeira; Danesi, Eliane Dalva Godoy; Beléia, Adelaide Del Pino

    2015-06-25

    The flours obtained from peach palm by-products are rich in dietary fiber (62-71%) and they can be used as food ingredients. The aim of this work was to investigate the carbohydrate composition of the flours processed from the residual parts (stem and median sheath) of a hearts-of-palm industry. The flours were fractionated, based on their solubility, whose monomeric compounds were determined. The fraction containing mostly cellulose (S5) was the most abundant (26-28%), followed by the sum of fractions (S2, 53, S4) extracted with alkaline solutions (21-22%). The S1 fraction contained the highest percentage of uronic acids, which characterizes the presence of pectin. Xylose and arabinose were found in high proportion in S2 and S3 fractions. The S4 and S5 fractions, rich in glucose, were the main portion of the cell wall material and correspond to the insoluble fraction of the dietary fiber. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Enhancement of sperm motility and viability by turmeric by-product dietary supplementation in roosters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Wenjing; Kanno, Chihiro; Oshima, Eiki; Kuzuma, Yukiko; Kim, Sung Woo; Bai, Hanako; Takahashi, Masashi; Yanagawa, Yojiro; Nagano, Masashi; Wakamatsu, Jun-Ichi; Kawahara, Manabu

    2017-10-01

    Improving sperm motility and viability are major goals to improve efficiency in the poultry industry. In this study, the effects of supplemental dietary turmeric by-product (TBP) from commercial turmeric production on sperm motility, viability, and antioxidative status were examined in domestic fowl. Mature Rhode Island Red roosters were divided into two groups - controls (groupC) without TBP administration and test subjects (groupT) fed a basal diet supplemented with 0.8g of TBP/day in a temperature-controlled rearing facility (Experiment 1) and 1.6g/day under heat stress (Experiment 2) for 4 weeks. In Experiment 1, TBP dietary supplementation increased the sperm motility variables straight-line velocity, curvilinear velocity, and linearity based on a computer-assisted semen analysis, 2 weeks following TBP supplementation. In Experiment 2, using flow cytometry, sperm viability at 3 and 4 weeks following TBP supplementation was greater in Group T than C, and this increase was consistent with a reduction in reactive oxygen species (ROS) production at 2 and 4 weeks. The results of both experiments clearly demonstrate that dietary supplementation with TBP enhanced sperm motility in the controlled-temperature conditions as well as sperm viability, and reduced ROS generation when heat stress prevailed. Considering its potential application in a range of environments, TBP may serve as an economical and potent antioxidant to improve rooster fertility. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Investigation of coal combustion by-product utilization for oyster reef development in Texas bay waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, W.B. Jr.; Ray, S.M.; Landry, A.M. Jr.

    1991-01-01

    Houston Lighting and Power Company (HL and P), Texas A and M University at Galveston and JTM Industries, Inc. initiated research in May 1988 and coordinated it with state and federal resource protection agencies to investigate the use of certain HL and P coal combustion by-products (CCBP) for enhancing and creating oyster reefs. Initial research involved determining and optimum mix design based on compressive strength, leaching potential, biofouling success, and cost. CCBP material was found to exceed compressive strength criterion (300 psi for at sign 14 days) and was not a significant leaching source. Candidate mix designs and oyster shell controls were exposed to hatchery-reared oyster larvae to determine spat setability and biofouling success. Larvae setting on CCBP substrate developed into spat and grew at a rate comparable to that for larvae on controls. Since all candidate mix designs exhibited excellent biofouling, an optimum design was chosen based on strength and material cost factors. Chemical analyses conducted to determine materials did not significantly contribute to the trace element load in oysters. Development of oyster cultch material was initiated with input from commercial 2.5 to 7.6 cm (1 to 3 inch) diameter pellets which are irregularly shaped and rough textured. These pellets greatly enhance water circulation, provide maximum setting potential for oyster larvae, and maximize the surface area to volume potential of the CCBP material

  17. Risk analysis of drinking water microbial contamination versus disinfection by-products (DBPs)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashbolt, Nicholas John

    2004-01-01

    Managing the provision of safe drinking water has a renewed focus in light of the new World Health Organization (WHO) water safety plans. Risk analysis is a necessary component to assist in selecting priority hazards and identifying hazardous scenarios, be they qualitative to quantitative assessments. For any approach, acute diarrhoeal pathogens are often the higher risk issue for municipal water supplies, no matter how health burden is assessed. Furthermore, potential sequellae (myocarditis, diabetes, reactive arthritis and cancers) only further increase the potential health burden of pathogens; despite the enormous uncertainties in determining pathogen exposures and chemical dose-responses within respective microbial and chemical analyses. These interpretations are currently being improved by Bayesian and bootstrapping approaches to estimate parameters for stochastic assessments. A case example, covering the health benefits of ozonation for Cryptosporidium inactivation versus potential cancers from bromate exposures, illustrated the higher risks from a pathogen than one of the most likely disinfection by-products (DBPs). Such analyses help justify the industries long-held view of the benefits of multiple barriers to hazards and that microbial contamination of water supplies pose a clear public health risk when treatment is inadequate. Therefore, efforts to reduce potential health risks from DBP must not compromise pathogen control, despite socio-political issues

  18. Addressing Facts and Gaps in the Phenolics Chemistry of Winery By-Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson F. L. Machado

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Grape and wine phenolics display a noticeable structural diversity, encompassing distinct compounds ranging from simple molecules to oligomers, as well as polymers usually designated as tannins. Since these compounds contribute critically to the organoleptic properties of wines, their analysis and quantification are of primordial importance for winery industry operators. Besides, the occurrence of these compounds has been also extensively described in winery residues, which have been pointed as a valuable source of bioactive phytochemicals presenting potential for the development of new added value products that could fit the current market demands. Therefore, the cumulative knowledge generated during the last decades has allowed the identification of the most promising compounds displaying interesting biological functions, as well as the chemical features responsible for the observed bioactivities. In this regard, the present review explores the scope of the existing knowledge, concerning the compounds found in these winery by-products, as well as the chemical features presumably responsible for the biological functions already identified. Moreover, the present work will hopefully pave the way for further actions to develop new powerful applications to these materials, thus, contributing to more sustainable valorization procedures and the development of newly obtained compounds with enhanced biological properties.

  19. Improvement of color and physiological properties of tuna-processing by-product by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Jong-il; Kim, Hyun-Joo; Kim, Jae-Hun; Song, Beom-Seok; Chun, Byeong-Soo; Ahn, Dong-Hyun; Byun, Myung-Woo; Lee, Ju-Woon

    2009-01-01

    Although the by-products from fishery industry had many nutrients, it is being wasted or only used as bacteria media. In this study, the effect of a gamma irradiation on the cooking drips of Thunnus thynnus (CDT) was investigated to examine the possible use of the cooking drips as a functional material for food and cosmetic composition. Total aerobic bacteria, and yeasts/molds from CDT were detected at the level of 2.79 and 2.58 Log CFU/mL, respectively. But, CDT was efficiently sterilized by a gamma irradiation at a low dose of 1 kGy. The Hunter L* value of the gamma-irradiated ethanol extract of CDT was increased, and the a* and b* values were decreased compared to the non-irradiated extract, showing color improvement. Antioxidant activity of the ethanol extract of CDT was increased by a gamma irradiation depending on the irradiation dose. The increased contents of polyphenolic compounds and proteins in CDT extract by gamma irradiation may be the reason of the increased biological activity. These results suggested that the wasted cooking drips can be successfully used as functional components with gamma irradiation treatment.

  20. Improved concrete properties to resist the saline water using environmental by-product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Anwar

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the influence of using environmental by-product materials (silica fume and fly ash in concrete on the chloride ion permeability of concrete. Nine concrete mixtures were designed to have the same degree of workability and air content with water/cementitious material ratio of 0.4. The studied parameters include the main fresh and hardened concrete properties such as slump, air content, unit weight, compressive strength, tensile strength, flexural strength, static Young's modulus, and dynamic elastic modulus. Concrete samples were kept in water for 28 days, then immersed in artificial sea water for 5 months. The total and soluble chloride contents were measured through the concrete using the potentiometric titration analysis. The obtained test results indicated that the use of ternary systems in concrete improved the different characteristics of the product concrete and showed a significant resistance to chloride penetration. The weights of chloride in mix 9 (10% silica fume and 25% fly ash at depths from the concrete surface to 30 mm were less than the weights of control mix 1 (100% ordinary Portland cement by about 60%. Further, the ternary systems can be used in concrete industry with considerable proportions.

  1. Addressing Facts and Gaps in the Phenolics Chemistry of Winery By-Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Nelson F L; Domínguez-Perles, Raúl

    2017-02-14

    Grape and wine phenolics display a noticeable structural diversity, encompassing distinct compounds ranging from simple molecules to oligomers, as well as polymers usually designated as tannins. Since these compounds contribute critically to the organoleptic properties of wines, their analysis and quantification are of primordial importance for winery industry operators. Besides, the occurrence of these compounds has been also extensively described in winery residues, which have been pointed as a valuable source of bioactive phytochemicals presenting potential for the development of new added value products that could fit the current market demands. Therefore, the cumulative knowledge generated during the last decades has allowed the identification of the most promising compounds displaying interesting biological functions, as well as the chemical features responsible for the observed bioactivities. In this regard, the present review explores the scope of the existing knowledge, concerning the compounds found in these winery by-products, as well as the chemical features presumably responsible for the biological functions already identified. Moreover, the present work will hopefully pave the way for further actions to develop new powerful applications to these materials, thus, contributing to more sustainable valorization procedures and the development of newly obtained compounds with enhanced biological properties.

  2. TREATMENT OF METAL-LADEN HAZARDOUS WASTES WITH ADVANCED CLEAN COAL TECHNOLOGY BY-PRODUCTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James T. Cobb, Jr.

    2003-09-12

    Metal-laden wastes can be stabilized and solidified using advanced clean coal technology by-products (CCTBs)--fluid bed combustor ash and spray drier solids. These utility-generated treatment chemicals are available for purchase through brokers, and commercial applications of this process are being practiced by treaters of metal-laden hazardous waste. A complex of regulations governs this industry, and sensitivities to this complex has discouraged public documentation of treatment of metal-laden hazardous wastes with CCTBs. This report provides a comprehensive public documentation of laboratory studies that show the efficacy of the stabilization and solidification of metal-laden hazardous wastes--such as lead-contaminated soils and sandblast residues--through treatment with CCTBs. It then describes the extensive efforts that were made to obtain the permits allowing a commercial hazardous waste treater to utilize CCTBs as treatment chemicals and to install the equipment required to do so. It concludes with the effect of this lengthy process on the ability of the treatment company to realize the practical, physical outcome of this effort, leading to premature termination of the project.

  3. Rubber industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staszak, Maciej

    2018-03-01

    Following chapter presents short introductory description of rubber and rubber industry. The main problem of rubber industry is the way of the usage of spent tires. Furthermore very important group of problems arise considering the metal and nonmetal additives which are significant component of the vulcanized rubber. The key attention is dedicated to typical ways of rubber usage in utilization and recovery of metals from spent rubber materials concentrating specifically on used tires processing. The method of recovery of rare metals from rubber tires was described. The rubber debris finds widest use in the field of waste metal solutions processing. The environmental pollution caused by metals poses serious threat to humans. Several applications of the use of waste rubber debris to remove metals from environmental waters were described. Moreover, the agriculture usage of waste tire rubber debris is described, presenting systems where the rubber material can be useful as a soil replacement.

  4. Industry Matters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tran, Angie Ngoc; Jeppesen, Søren

    2018-01-01

    This chapter draws on a study investigating what corporate social responsibility (CSR) means to Vietnam’s small- and medium-size enterprise (SME) owner/managers and workers, using Scott’s three-pillar (norms, regulation, cognition) institutional framework. The findings are based on factory visits...... and interviews with 40 managers/owners and 218 workers conducted in two sectors—textile/garment/footwear (TGF) and food/beverage processing (FBP)—around Ho Chi Minh City in 2011. Scott’s framework is useful in highlighting similarities and differences between these two sectors. We found more stringent state...... regulation and greater industry pressure with regard to quality and safety of products than to labour standards in both sectors. Most factories in the TGF sector assembled products for global supply chains and were under pressure by industry norms, while most companies in the FBP sector produced...

  5. Industrious Landscaping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brichet, Nathalia Sofie; Hastrup, Frida

    2018-01-01

    This article has a twofold ambition. It offers a history of landscaping at Søby brown coal beds—a former mining site in western Denmark—and a methodological discussion of how to write such a study. Exploring this specific industrial landscape through a series of projects that have made different...... natural resources appear, we show that even what is recognized as resources shifts over time according to radically different and unpredictable agendas. This indicates that the Søby landscape is fundamentally volatile, as its resourcefulness has been seen interchangeably to shift between the brown coal...... business, inexpensive estates for practically savvy people, pasture for grazing, and recreational forest, among other things. We discuss these rifts in landscape history, motivated by what we refer to as industriousness, to show that, at sites such as Søby, both natural resources and historical...

  6. Industrial vision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Ole

    1998-01-01

    This dissertation is concerned with the introduction of vision-based application s in the ship building industry. The industrial research project is divided into a natural seq uence of developments, from basic theoretical projective image generation via CAD and subpixel analysis to a description...... is present ed, and the variability of the parameters is examined and described. The concept of using CAD together with vision information is based on the fact that all items processed at OSS have an associated complete 3D CAD model that is accessible at all production states. This concept gives numerous...... possibilities for using vision in applications which otherwise would be very difficult to automate. The requirement for low tolerances in production is, despite the huge dimensions of the items involved, extreme. This fact makes great demands on the ability to do robust sub pixel estimation. A new method based...

  7. Industry trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    This section discusses the US energy supply and demand situation including projections for energy use, the clean coal industry (constraints of regulation on investment in new technologies, technology trends, and current pollution control efficiency), opportunities in clean coal technology (Phase 2 requirements of Title 4 of the Clean Air Act, scrubber demand for lime and limestone, and demand for low sulfur coal), and the international market of clean coal technologies

  8. Industrial melanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ford, E B

    1969-01-01

    Certain species of Lepidoptera have undergone a mutation in pigment color from white to black in order to be more concealing when in soot discolored environments in polluted industrial areas in England. In less polluted areas the original white variety continues to prosper. The two forms result from alleles of a color-controlling gene. The black variety is inconspicuous to insects when it settles on trees and rocks which are covered with soot.

  9. Agribusiness Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    sheer enormity of this ultra modernized industry. Hybridized or biotech corn seeds are now nearly impervious to pesticides and herbicides. From...efficient routes of commerce of many thousands of miles - a fresh head of broccoli and lettuce lands in the chilled and computer controlled misting...cumulatively, seemingly minor and insignificant changes in food production methods (i.e. packaged precut lettuce ), society (desire for convenience foods

  10. Industrial garnet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, D.W.

    2007-01-01

    World production of industrial garnet was about 326 kt in 2006, with the U.S. producing about 11 percent of this total. U.S. consumption, imports, and exports were estimated at 74.3 kt, 52.3 kt, and 13.2 kt, respectively. The most important exporters are Australia, China, and India. Although demand is expected to rise over the next 5 years, prices are expected to remain low in the short term.

  11. Determination of phenolic acids in seeds of black cumin, flax, pomegranate and pumpkin and their by-products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krimer-Malešević Vera M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Ten phenolic acids, contained in the seeds of black cumin (Nigella sativa L., flax (Linum usitatissimum L., pomegranate (Punica granatum L. and pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L. and their oil industry by-products, separated into the free, esterified, and insoluble-bound forms, were quantitatively analysed by reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detector. The chromatographic data were interpreted using Principal Component Analysis (PCA. The PCA model with three principal components (PC1-PC2-PC3 fitted well with 12 examined plant samples, allowing their division into groups according to their origin. The total phenolic variables could be represented by two PCs and for the pattern recognition of the analysed samples, 13 phenolic variables are sufficient, including: free, esterified and insoluble-bound forms of gallic and syringic acids, free vanillic, insoluble bound p-coumaric, esterified p-hydroxybenzaldehide, and free and insoluble-bound forms of p-hydroxybenzoic and trans-synapic acids. This might have potential application in simplified screening of phenolic compounds in seeds and their oil industry by-products or in food component analysis or authenticity detection in such plant materials.[Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 46010

  12. Functional properties and dietary fiber characterization of mango processing by-products (Mangifera indica L., cv Ataulfo and Tommy Atkins).

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Magaña, María de Lourdes; García, Hugo S; Bello-Pérez, Luis A; Sáyago-Ayerdi, Sonia G; de Oca, Miguel Mata-Montes

    2013-09-01

    Several reports have focused on utilization of post-harvest residues of crops, while neglecting those residues produced by mango processing. These residues represent a waste of nutrients and a source of environmental contaminants. Such by-products could be valuable sources of dietary fiber (DF), antioxidant compounds, and single carbohydrates. The aim of this study was to evaluate some functional properties (FP), and the content of DF and polyphenols (PP) of the peel and coarse material obtained from residues during the industrial processing of Ataulfo and Tommy Atkins mangoes. The total dietary fiber (TDF) content was about 225 mg/g and 387 mg/g (dry weight) for the coarse material and the peel, respectively, from which soluble dietary fiber represented 23 and 42%, respectively. The main neutral sugar identified was rhamnose, especially in peels; the klason lignin (KL) content was 92 mg/g, which highlights the Ataulfo peel (Ataulfo-P) and the Tommy Atkins peel (Tommy Atkins-P). The extractable PP content in Ataulfo-P was higher than in Tommy-Atkins-P, and interesting data for non-extractable PP were obtained in the residues. FP as swelling, water holding, oil holding, and glucose absorption in the residues was studied, obtaining better functional properties when compared to cellulose fiber. The results show that mango industrial by-products, mainly from the Ataulfo-P variety, could be used as ingredients in food products because of their functional properties as well as their DF and PP content.

  13. The food industry and provincial economies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Greg; Li, Duo

    2004-01-01

    This paper discusses the significance of the food industry for the Zhejiang provincial economy and for provincial economies generally. It is suggested that the strong ties between the food industry and provincial economies in China means that the food industry can be a key influence in the economic development of regional China. Moreover, the geographically diffuse nature of the food industry in China gives the industry a strategic significance in countering regional inequality within and between provinces, a by-product of China's rapid growth over the past 25 years. For these reasons, change in the food industry, whether it has its origins in the introduction of western fast foods, or in environmental, technological or economic trends, not only assumes significance for the health of the Chinese people (as other papers presented to the International Cuisine and Health Workshop at Hangzhou have pointed out), but also for the wealth of the nation and the way that wealth is distributed.

  14. Fermentation Characteristics, Tannin Contents and Ruminal Degradation of Green Tea and Black Tea By-products Ensiled at Different Temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makoto Kondo

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Green and black tea by-products, obtained from ready-made tea industry, were ensiled at 10°C, 20°C, and 30°C. Green tea by-product silage (GTS and black tea by-product silage (BTS were opened at 5, 10, 45 days after ensiling. Fermentation characteristics and nutrient composition, including tannins, were monitored and the silages on day 45 were subjected to in vitro ruminal fermentation to assess anti-nutritive effects of tannins using polyethylene glycol (PEG as a tannin-binding agent. Results showed that the GTS and BTS silages were stable and fermented slightly when ensiled at 10°C. The GTS stored at 20°C and 30°C showed rapid pH decline and high acetic acid concentration. The BTS was fermented gradually with moderate change of pH and acid concentration. Acetic acid was the main acid product of fermentation in both GTS and BTS. The contents of total extractable phenolics and total extractable tannins in both silages were unaffected by storage temperatures, but condensed tannins in GTS were less when stored at high temperature. The GTS showed no PEG response on in vitro gas production, and revealed only a small increase by PEG on NH3-N concentration. Storage temperature of GTS did not affect the extent of PEG response to both gas production and NH3-N concentration. On the other hand, addition of PEG on BTS markedly increased both the gas production and NH3-N concentration at any ensiled temperature. It can be concluded that tannins in both GTS and BTS suppressed rumen fermentation, and tannins in GTS did more weakly than that in BTS. Ensiling temperature for both tea by-products did not affect the tannin’s activity in the rumen.

  15. Industrial goals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, P.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the third seminar on pellet-clad interaction, which held at Aix en Provence (France) from 9-11 march 2004, was to draw a comprehensive picture of current understanding of pellet clad interaction and its impact on the fuel rod under the widest possible conditions. This document provides the summaries of the five sessions: opening and industrial goals, fuel material behaviour in PCI situation, cladding behaviour relevant to PCI, in-pile rod behaviour, modelling of the mechanical interaction between pellet and cladding. (A.L.B.)

  16. Industrial ventilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodfellow, H. D.

    Industrial ventilation design methodology, using computers and using fluid dynamic models, is considered. It is noted that the design of a ventilation system must be incorporated into the plant design and layout at the earliest conceptual stage of the project. A checklist of activities concerning the methodology for the design of a ventilation system for a new facility is given. A flow diagram of the computer ventilation model shows a typical input, the initialization and iteration loop, and the output. The application of the fluid dynamic modeling techniques include external and internal flow fields, and individual sources of heat and contaminants. Major activities for a ventilation field test program are also addressed.

  17. Sugar-Based Ethanol Biorefinery: Ethanol, Succinic Acid and By-Product Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donal F. Day

    2009-03-31

    The work conducted in this project is an extension of the developments itemized in DE-FG-36-04GO14236. This program is designed to help the development of a biorefinery based around a raw sugar mill, which in Louisiana is an underutilized asset. Some technical questions were answered regarding the addition of a biomass to ethanol facility to existing sugar mills. The focus of this work is on developing technology to produce ethanol and valuable by-products from bagasse. Three major areas are addressed, feedstock storage, potential by-products and the technology for producing ethanol from dilute ammonia pre-treated bagasse. Sugar mills normally store bagasse in a simple pile. During the off season there is a natural degradation of the bagasse, due to the composting action of microorganisms in the pile. This has serious implications if bagasse must be stored to operate a bagasse/biorefinery for a 300+ day operating cycle. Deterioration of the fermentables in bagasse was found to be 6.5% per month, on pile storage. This indicates that long term storage of adequate amounts of bagasse for year-round operation is probably not feasible. Lignin from pretreatment seemed to offer a potential source of valuable by-products. Although a wide range of phenolic compounds were present in the effluent from dilute ammonia pretreatment, the concentrations of each (except for benzoic acid) were too low to consider for extraction. The cellulosic hydrolysis system was modified to produce commercially recoverable quantities of cellobiose, which has a small but growing market in the food process industries. A spin-off of this led to the production of a specific oligosaccharide which appears to have both medical and commercial implications as a fungal growth inhibitor. An alternate use of sugars produced from biomass hydrolysis would be to produce succinic acid as a chemical feedstock for other conversions. An organism was developed which can do this bioconversion, but the economics of

  18. Industrial chemistry engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This book on industrial chemistry engineering is divided in two parts. The first part deals with industrial chemistry, inorganic industrial chemistry, organic industrial chemistry, analytical chemistry and practical questions. The last parts explain the chemical industry, a unit parts and thermodynamics in chemical industry and reference. It reveals the test subjects for the industrial chemistry engineering with a written examination and practical skill.

  19. Industrial irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stirling, Andrew

    1995-01-01

    Production lines for rubber gloves would not appear to have much in common with particle physics laboratories, but they both use accelerators. Electron beam irradiation is often used in industry to improve the quality of manufactured goods or to reduce production cost. Products range from computer disks, shrink packaging, tyres, cables, and plastics to hot water pipes. Some products, such as medical goods, cosmetics and certain foodstuffs, are sterilized in this way. In electron beam irradiation, electrons penetrate materials creating showers of low energy electrons. After many collisions these electrons have the correct energy to create chemically active sites. They may either break molecular bonds or activate a site which promotes a new chemical linkage. This industrial irradiation can be exploited in three ways: breaking down a biological molecule usually renders it useless and kills the organism; breaking an organic molecule can change its toxicity or function; and crosslinking a polymer can strengthen it. In addition to traditional gamma irradiation using isotopes, industrial irradiation uses three accelerator configurations, each type defining an energy range, and consequently the electron penetration depth. For energies up to 750 kV, the accelerator consists of a DC potential applied to a simple wire anode and the electrons extracted through a slot in a coaxially mounted cylindrical cathode. In the 1-5 MeV range, the Cockcroft-Walton or Dynamitron( R ) accelerators are normally used. To achieve the high potentials in these DC accelerators, insulating SF6 gas and large dimension vessels separate the anode and cathode; proprietary techniques distinguish the various commercial models available. Above 5 MeV, the size of DC accelerators render them impractical, and more compact radiofrequency-driven linear accelerators are used. Irradiation electron beams are actually 'sprayed' over the product using a magnetic deflection system. Lower energy beams of

  20. Industrial robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakashan, A.; Mukunda, H. S.; Samuel, S. D.; Colaco, J. C.

    1992-11-01

    This paper addresses the design and development of a four degree of freedom industrial manipulator, with three liner axes in the positioning mechanism and one rotary axis in the orientation mechanism. The positioning mechanism joints are driven with dc servo motors fitted with incremental shaft encoders. The rotary joint of the orientation mechanism is driven by a stepping motor. The manipulator is controlled by an IBM 386 PC/AT. Microcomputer based interface cards have been developed for independent joint control. PID controllers for dc motors have been designed. Kinematic modeling, dynamic modeling, and path planning have been carried out to generate the control sequence to accomplish a given task with reference to source and destination state constraints. This project has been sponsored by the Department of Science and Technology, Government of India, New Delhi, and has been executed in collaboration with M/s Larsen & Toubro Ltd, Mysore, India.

  1. Industrial radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    Industrial radiography is a non-destructive testing (NDT) method which allows components to be examined for flaws without interfering with their usefulness. It is one of a number of inspection methods which are commonly used in industry to control the quality of manufactured products and to monitor their performance in service. Because of its involvement in organizing training courses in all the common NDT methods in regional projects in Asia and the Pacific and Latin America and the Caribbean and in many country programmes, the Agency is aware of the importance of standardizing as far as possible the syllabi and training course notes used by the many experts who are involved in presenting the training courses. IAEA-TECDOC-628 ''Training Guidelines in Non-destructive Testing'' presents syllabi which were developed by an Agency executed UNDP project in Latin America and the Caribbean taking into account the developmental work done by the International Committee for Non-destructive Testing. Experience gained from using the radiography syllabi from TECDOC-628 at national and regional radiography training courses in the Agency executed UNDP project in Asia and the Pacific (RAS/86/073) showed that some guidance needed to be given to radiography experts engaged in teaching at these courses on the material which should be covered. The IAEA/UNDP Asia and Pacific Project National NDT Coordinators therefore undertook to prepare Radiography Training Course Notes which could be used by experts to prepare lectures for Level 1,2 and 3 radiography personnel. The notes have been expanded to cover most topics in a more complete manner than that possible at a Level 1, 2 or 3 training course and can now be used as source material for NDT personnel interested in expanding their knowledge of radiography. Refs, figs and tabs

  2. Obtaining of polycrystalline silicon for semiconductor industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukashev, F.; Nauryzbaev, M.; Kolesnikov, B.; Ivanov, Y.

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of the project is to create pilot equipment and optimize the process of obtaining polycrystalline silicon on semi-industrial level. In the past several decades, the historical experience in the developing countries has shown that one of the most promising ways to improve the economy,of a country is to establish semiconductor industry. First of all, the results can help increase defense, national security and create industrial production. The silane method, which has been traditionally' used for obtaining technical and polycrystalline silicon, is to obtain and then to pyrolyzed mono-and poly silanes. Although the traditional methods of obtaining silicon hydrides have specific advantages, such as utilizing by-products, they also have clear shortcomings, i.e. either low output of the ultimate product ( through hydrolysis of Mg 2 Si) or high contents of by-products in it or high contents of dissolving vapors (through decomposing Mg 2 Si in non-water solutions)

  3. Production development and utilization of Zimmer Station wet FGD by-products. Final report. Volume 6, Field study conducted in fulfillment of Phase 3 titled. Use of FGD by-product gypsum enriched with magnesium hydroxide as a soil amendment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bigham, J. M. [Ohio State Univ., Wooster, OH (United States). Ohio Agricultural Research Development Center; Soto, U. I. [Ohio State Univ., Wooster, OH (United States). Ohio Agricultural Research Development Center; Stehouwer, R. C. [Ohio State Univ., Wooster, OH (United States). Ohio Agricultural Research Development Center; Yibirin, H. [Ohio State Univ., Wooster, OH (United States). Ohio Agricultural Research Development Center

    1999-04-30

    A variety of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) technologies have been developed to meet environmental restrictions imposed by the federal Clean Air Act and its amendments. These technologies include wet scrubber systems that dramatically reduce sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions. Although such systems are effective, they also produce large volumes of sludge that must be dewatered, stabilized, and disposed of in landfills. Disposal is an expensive and environmentally questionable process for which suitable alternatives are needed. Wet scrubbing of flue gases with magnesium (Mg)-enhanced lime has the potential to become a leading FGD technology. When combined with aforced oxidation system, the wet sludges resulting from this process can be modified and refined to produce gypsum (CaS04∙2H2O) and magnesium hydroxide [Mg(OH)2] of sufficient purity for beneficial re-use in the construction (wallboard) and pharmaceutical industries. The pilot plant at the CINERGY Zimmer Station near Cincinnati can also produce gypsum by-products formulated to contain varying amounts of Mg(OH)2- Such materials may have value to the agriculture, forestry, and lawn-care industries as soil "conditioners", liming agents, and nutritional supplements capable of supplying calcium (Ca), Mg, and sulfur (S) for plant growth. This report describes three field studies designed to evaluate by-product gypsum and Mg-gypsum from the Zimmer Station power plant as amendments for improving the quality of mine spoils and agricultural soils that were unproductive because of phytotoxic levels of dissolved aluminum (Al) and low pH. The technical literature suggests that gypsum may be more effective than agricultural limestone for ameliorating Al toxicity below the immediate zone of application. Such considerations are important for deep-rooted plant species that attempt to utilize water and nutrients occurring at depth in the spoil/soil.

  4. Hazard Analysis and identification of Critical Control Points of collagen extraction from cod by-products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aalberts, C.H.J.

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the European research project “UTILISATION AND STABILISATION OF BY-PRODUCTS FROM COD SPECIES” (QLK1-CT-2000-01017 QLRT-2001-02829) is to investigate whether collagen from fish by-products could serve as an important raw material in high quality food. Since Atlantic cod is a major

  5. In situ ruminal crude protein degradability of by-products from cereals, oilseeds and animal origin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Habib, G.; Khan, N.A.; Ali, M.; Bezabih, M.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to establish a database on in situ ruminal crude protein (CP) degradability characteristics of by-products from cereal grains, oilseeds and animal origin commonly fed to ruminants in Pakistan and South Asian Countries. The oilseed by-products were soybean meal, sunflower

  6. Effect of using different levels of pistachio by-products silage on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of using different levels of pistachio by-products silage on composition and blood parameters of Holstein dairy cows. ... The goal of this research was to study about the effect of using pistachio hulls silage in cow's nutrition. The initial ... Key words: Dairy cattle's, milk production, pistachio by-product, silage, tannin.

  7. 40 CFR 63.302 - Standards for by-product coke oven batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... batteries. 63.302 Section 63.302 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... National Emission Standards for Coke Oven Batteries § 63.302 Standards for by-product coke oven batteries... oven emissions from each affected existing by-product coke oven battery that exceed any of the...

  8. Improvement in the nutritive quality of cassava and its by-products ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A review of the extent of fermentation of cassava and its by-products was made in order to highlight the role played by fermentation on the bio-conversion of cassava and cassava by-products for improved nutrient quality. The reasons for cassava products fermentation mentioned were synonymous with the reasons ...

  9. Phenolics from Winemaking By-Products Better Decrease VLDL-Cholesterol and Triacylglycerol Levels than Those of Red Wine in Wistar Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Walkia Polliana; Biasoto, Aline Camarão Telles; Marques, Valquíria Fernanda; Dos Santos, Ieda Maria; Magalhães, Kedma; Correa, Luiz Claudio; Negro-Dellacqua, Melissa; Miranda, Maria Spínola; de Camargo, Adriano Costa; Shahidi, Fereidoon

    2017-10-01

    Winemaking by-products account for more than 30% of the grape production, but this inexpensive feedstock has not yet been fully exploited. Accordingly, we evaluated the potential biological activity of winemaking by-products produced with Syrah grapes in comparison with those of the wine produced using the same grape cultivar. Winemaking by-products showed higher contents of total anthocyanins, flavonols, stilbenes, and flavanols than red wine as evaluated by HPLC-DAD-FD (on a dry weight basis). In contrast, red wine was a better source of phenolic acids. However, the contribution of phenolic acids was minor for both samples. Furthermore, equivalent concentration of winemaking by-products (100 mg/kg/d) showed greater biological activity by than that of red wine by decreasing the levels of VLDL-cholesterol and triacylglycerols in Wistar rats. Therefore, this study supports the use of winemaking by-products as an economical source of bioactive phenolics with potential use in the food and nutraceutical industries. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  10. Industrial radiographies

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    The Radiation Protection group wishes to remind CERN staff responsible for contractors performing X-ray inspections on the CERN sites that the firms must apply the legislation in force in their country of origin, in particular with regard to the prevention of risks relating to ionizing radiation. Industrial radiography firms called on to work on the CERN sites must also comply with the rules laid down in CERN's Radiation Safety Manual and be registered in the relevant CERN database. Since CERN is responsible for safety on its own site, a number of additional rules have been laid down for this kind of work, as set out in Radiation Protection Procedure PRP30 https://edms.cern.ch/file/346848/LAST_RELEASED/PRP30.pdf The CERN Staff Member responsible for the contract shall register the company and issue notification that an X-ray inspection is to be performed via the web interface at the following address: http://cern.ch/rp-radio

  11. Training industry needs & Technology Industry needs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klemke, Roland; Kuula, Timo; Helin, Kaj; Wild, Fridolin

    2017-01-01

    This deliverable joins D1.1 (User Industry Needs) and D1.2 (Technology Industry Needs and Affordances) and reports on the outcomes of Tasks T1.1 (Training Industry Assessment) and T1.2 (Technology Industry Assessment). We merged the deliverables for the following reasons: For readability ease we

  12. Liming efficacy and transport in soil of a dry PFBC by-product

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dick, W.A.

    1995-01-01

    The by-products of pressurized fluidized-bed combustion (PFBC) systems are mixtures of coal ash, anhydrite (CaSO 4 ), and unspent alkaline sorbent. Because PFBC by-products are alkaline and contain large concentrations of readily soluble bases (Ca and in some cases Mg) and other essential plant nutrients such as S and K, they have potential use as soil amendments, especially in acidic soils. PFBC by-products (particularly those with large Mg contents) may cause excessively high soluble salt concentrations when applied to soil. This could be detrimental to plant growth and might also impact the release of trace elements from the coal ash component of the by-product. In field experiments on three acidic soils, the liming effectiveness of a PFBC by-product, its effects on corn and alfalfa growth, and its impacts on crop, soil, and water quality were investigated

  13. By-product formation in repetitive PCR amplification of DNA libraries during SELEX.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolle, Fabian; Wilke, Julian; Wengel, Jesper; Mayer, Günter

    2014-01-01

    The selection of nucleic acid aptamers is an increasingly important approach to generate specific ligands binding to virtually any molecule of choice. However, selection-inherent amplification procedures are prone to artificial by-product formation that prohibits the enrichment of target-recognizing aptamers. Little is known about the formation of such by-products when employing nucleic acid libraries as templates. We report on the formation of two different forms of by-products, named ladder- and non-ladder-type observed during repetitive amplification in the course of in vitro selection experiments. Based on sequence information and the amplification behaviour of defined enriched nucleic acid molecules we suppose a molecular mechanism through which these amplification by-products are built. Better understanding of these mechanisms might help to find solutions minimizing by-product formation and improving the success rate of aptamer selection.

  14. Industrial Symbiosis as a Social Process : Developing theory and methods for the longitudinal investigation of social dynamics in the emergence and development of industrial symbiosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W. Spekkink (Wouter)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstractIndustrial symbiosis is a process in which firms in regional industrial systems engage in the exchange of by-products and sharing of utilities and services in order to improve their environmental and economic performance. Industrial symbiosis has a prominent social dimension. To

  15. Recovery of bioactive molecules from chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) by-products through extraction by different solvents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vella, Filomena Monica; Laratta, Bruna; La Cara, Francesco; Morana, Alessandra

    2018-05-01

    The underutilised forest and industrial biomass of Castanea sativa (Mill.) is generally discarded during post-harvest and food processing, with high impact on environmental quality. The searching on alternative sources of natural antioxidants from low-cost supplies, by methods involving environment-friendly techniques, has become a major goal of numerous researches in recent times. The aim of the present study was the set-up of a biomolecules extraction procedure from chestnut leaves, burs and shells and the assessing of their potential antioxidant activity. Boiling water was the best extraction solvent referring to polyphenols from chestnut shells and burs, whereas the most efficient for leaves resulted 60% ethanol at room temperature. Greatest polyphenol contents were 90.35, 60.01 and 17.68 mg gallic acid equivalents g -1 in leaves, burs and shells, respectively. Moreover, flavonoids, tannins and antioxidant activity were assessed on the best extract obtained from each chestnut by-product.

  16. Management of radioactive by-products from the uses of atomic energy in the German Democratic Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    Radioactive by-products arise in the form of spent nuclear fuel, radioactive wastes and effluents from the generation of electricity by nuclear power as well as the production and uses of radionuclides in industry, medicine and research. Their safe management and their disposal without endangering man and the environment have to be ensured. This report presents an overview of the system of central collection and final disposal of low-level and intermediate-level radioactive wastes developed in the GDR by using an abandoned rock salt mine, including the relevant regulations, the licensing procedure and the control activities performed by the plant operator and, independently, by government authorities. It also addresses questions concerning the management of spent nuclear fuel and the decommissioning of nuclear facilities. (author)

  17. Sustainable wine supply chain and entrepreneurship. The exploitation of by-products in a waste management process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Malindretos

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The sustainability issue has been acknowledged as a universal contemporary challenge within an entirely new, unprecedented and irreversible global economic, social, cultural and physical contemporary environment. Critical role plays the interdisciplinary Supply Chain Management (SCM and its advance to sustainable SCM and more recently to green SCM. The field of sustainability in the wine industry appears as a breeding ground for the development of multidisciplinary collaborations, as well as for the application of innovative practices in the framework of entrepreneurship, in both forward and reverse agrifood chains. In such a context, this paper studies the exploitation of the opportunities derived from the wine production and waste management, within the totally new business, economic, social and physical environment. More specifically, it presents a start-up business plan conducted by Agricultural University in collaboration with the Harokopio University of Athens, Greece; it regards a wine waste management company in the island of Crete, Greece, highlighting the transformation of challenges to opportunities for innovation to more efficient use of by-products and wastes. It is noticed that this industry has shown historically exceptional innovative capability and flexibility, for climate privileged quality products in East Mediterranean region. The conclusions and recommendations drawn in this study, provide useful insights and directions for future research that are expected to enrich the available knowhow in the wine industry which is particularly suitable for research on sustainability and in any way, must proceed to commitment for protecting the environment. The empirical case study in the island of Crete is expected to facilitate the attempts to transform the crisis to continuing sustainability performance of wine industry under contemporary world market conditions, along with potential broader managerial implications towards

  18. Integrated Disinfection By-Products Mixtures Research: Concentration by Reverse Osmosis Membrane Techniques of Disinfection By-Products from Water Disinfected by Chlorination and Ozonation/Postchlorination

    Science.gov (United States)

    To conduct the health-effect studies described in subsequent articles in this series, concentrated aqueous mixtures of disinfection by-products were required for the two water treatment trains described in the preceding article (Miltner et al., 2008). To accomplish this, the fini...

  19. Recovery of SO2 and MgO from By-Products of MgO Wet Flue Gas Desulfurization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Liyun; Lu, Xiaofeng; Wang, Quanhai; Guo, Qiang

    2014-11-01

    An industrial demonstration unit using natural gas as a heat source was built to calcine the by-products of MgO wet flue gas desulfurization from power plants; influencing factors on the SO 2 content in calciner gas were comprehensively analyzed; and an advantageous recycling condition of MgO and SO 2 from by-products was summarized. Results showed that the SO 2 content in the calciner gas was increased by more than 10 times under a lower excess air coefficient, a higher feed rate, a lower crystal water in by-products, and a higher feed port position. For the tests conducted under the excess air coefficient above and below one, the effect of the furnace temperature on the SO 2 content in the calciner gas was reversed. Results of activity analysis indicate that particles of MgO generated under the calcination temperature of 900-1,000°C had a high activity. In contrast, due to the slight sintering, MgO generated under the calcination temperature of 1,100°C had a low activity. To recycle SO 2 as well as MgO, a temperature range of 900-927°C for TE103 is proposed. These studies will prompt the desulfurization market diversification, reduce the sulfur's dependence on imports for making sulfuric acid, be meaningful to balance the usage of the natural resource in China, and be regarded as a reference for the development of this technology for other similar developing countries.

  20. Effect of the addition of chia's by-product on the composition of fatty acids in hamburgers through chemometric methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Aloisio H P; Gohara, Aline K; Rotta, Eliza M; Chaves, Marcia A; Silva, Claudia M; Dias, Lucia F; Gomes, Sandra T M; Souza, Nilson E; Matsushita, Makoto

    2015-03-30

    Hamburger is a meat-based food that is easy to prepare and is widely consumed. It can be enriched using different ingredients, such as chia's by-product, which is rich in omega-3. Chemometrics is a very interesting tool to assess the influence of ingredients in the composition of foods. A complete factorial design 2(2) (two factors in two levels) with duplicate was performed to investigate the influence of the factors (1) concentration of textured soy proteins (TSP) and (2) concentration of chia flour partially defatted (CFPD) as a partial replacement for the bovine meat and porcine fat mix in hamburgers. The results of proximal composition, lipid oxidation, fatty acids sums, ratios, and nutritional indexes were used to propose statistical models. The factors TSP and CFPD were significant, and the increased values contributed to improve the composition in fatty acids, crude protein, and ash. Principal components analysis distinguished the samples with a higher content of chia. In desirability analysis, the highest level of TSP and CFPD was described as the optimal region, and it was not necessary to make another experimental point. The addition of chia's by-product is an alternative to increase the α-linolenic contents and to obtain nutritionally balanced food. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Production of FucoPol by Enterobacter A47 using waste tomato paste by-product as sole carbon source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antunes, Sílvia; Freitas, Filomena; Sevrin, Chantal; Grandfils, Christian; Reis, Maria A M

    2017-03-01

    Out-of-specification tomato paste, a by-product from the tomato processing industry, was used as the sole substrate for cultivation of the bacterium Enterobacter A47 and production of FucoPol, a value-added fucose-rich extracellular polysaccharide. Among the different tested fed-batch strategies, pH-stat, DO-stat and continuous substrate feeding, the highest production (8.77gL -1 ) and overall volumetric productivity (2.92gL -1 d -1 ) were obtained with continuous substrate feeding at a constant flow rate of 11gh -1 . The polymer produced had the typical FucoPol composition (37mol% fucose, 27mol% galactose, 23mol% glucose and 12mol% glucuronic acid, with an acyl groups content of 13wt%). The average molecular weight was 4.4×10 6 Da and the polydispersity index was 1.2. This study demonstrated that out-of-specification tomato paste is a suitable low-cost substrate for the production of FucoPol, thus providing a route for the valorization of this by-product into a high-value microbial product. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The utilization of waste by-products for removing silicate from mineral processing wastewater via chemical precipitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jianhua; Sun, Wei; Hu, Yuehua; Gao, Zhiyong; Liu, Runqing; Zhang, Qingpeng; Liu, Hang; Meng, Xiangsong

    2017-11-15

    This study investigates an environmentally friendly technology that utilizes waste by-products (waste acid and waste alkali liquids) to treat mineral processing wastewater. Chemical precipitation is used to remove silicate from scheelite (CaWO 4 ) cleaning flotation wastewater and the waste by-products are used as a substitute for calcium chloride (CaCl 2 ). A series of laboratory experiments is conducted to explain the removal of silicate and the characterization and formation mechanism of calcium silicate. The results show that silicate removal reaches 90% when the Ca:Si molar ratio exceeds 1.0. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) results confirm the characterization and formation of calcium silicate. The pH is the key factor for silicate removal, and the formation of polysilicic acid with a reduction of pH can effectively improve the silicate removal and reduce the usage of calcium. The economic analysis shows that the treatment costs with waste acid (0.63 $/m 3 ) and waste alkali (1.54 $/m 3 ) are lower than that of calcium chloride (2.38 $/m 3 ). The efficient removal of silicate is confirmed by industrial testing at a plant. The results show that silicate removal reaches 85% in the recycled water from tailings dam. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Fruit and vegetable by-products as novel ingredients to improve the nutritional quality of baked goods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Manuel; Martinez, Mario M

    2017-03-31

    The industrial manufacturing of fruits and vegetables generates approximately 50% by-product waste, causing a negative environmental impact and significant expenses. Nevertheless, fruit and vegetable by-products (FVB) are rich nutrients and extranutritional compounds that contribute to bowel health, weight management, lower blood cholesterol levels and improved control of glycemic and insulin responses. Due to the positive influence of FVB fibers and bioactive compounds during the digestion of glycemic carbohydrates, such as starch, baked goods are ideal food systems to accommodate FVB, since most of them have a high glycemic index. Therefore, this is an area of recent interest with critical environmental, economic and health implications worldwide. However, the utilization of FVB in baked goods leads to the loss of acceptability, in many cases caused by a lack of understanding of the physical structure and composition of FVB and their effects on food quality. The objective of this review is to provide a mechanistic understanding of the impact of the physical structure and composition of FVB on common baked goods and their influence on the nutritional and physical quality of the resulting product. This review will support the use of FVB as ideal ingredients while improving the added value of waste streams.

  4. Potential biogas production from agricultural by-products in Sicily. A case study of citrus pulp and olive pomace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Valenti

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Renewable energy sources represent a suitable alternative to conventional fossil fuels, due to the possible advantages in terms of environmental impact reduction. Anaerobic digestion of biomasses could be considered an environmental friendly way to treat and revalorise large amounts of by-products from farming industries because it ensures both pollution control and energy recovery. Therefore, the objective of this study was to define a methodology for evaluating the potential biogas production available from citrus pulp and olive pomace, which are suitable agricultural by-products for biogas production. In the first phase of the study, the spatial distribution of both olive and citrus-producing areas was analysed in Sicily, a geographical area of the Mediterranean basin highly representative of these types of cultivation. Then, a GIS-based model, which had been previously defined and utilised to evaluate the amount of citrus pulp and olive pomace production, was applied to this case study. Based on the results obtained for the different provinces of Sicily, the province of Catania was chosen as the study area of this work since it showed the highest production of both citrus pulp and olive pomace. Therefore, a further analysis regarded the quantification of olive pomace and citrus pulp at municipal level. The results of this analysis showed that the total amount of available citrus pulp and olive pomace corresponded theoretically to about 11,102,469 Nm3/year biogas. Finally, the methodology adopted in this study made it possible to identify suitable areas for the development of new biogas plants by considering both the spatial distribution of the olive and citrus growing areas and the locations of the existing processing industries.

  5. Status of domestic uranium industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chenoweth, W.L.

    1989-01-01

    The domestic uranium industry continues to operate at a reduced level, due to low prices and increased foreign competition. For four years (1984-1987) the Secretary of Energy declared the industry to be nonviable. A similar declaration is expected for 1988. Exploration and development drilling, at the rate of 2 million ft/year, continue in areas of producing mines and recent discoveries, especially in northwestern Arizona, northwestern Nebraska, south Texas, Wyoming, and the Paradox basin of Colorado and Utah. Production of uranium concentrate continues at a rate of 13 to 15 million lb of uranium oxide (U 3 O 8 ) per year. Conventional mining in New Mexico, Arizona, Utah, Colorado, Wyoming, and Texas accounts for approximately 55% of the production. The remaining 45% comes from solution (in situ) mining, from mine water recovery, and as by-products from copper production and the manufacture of phosphoric acid. Solution mining is an important technique in Wyoming, Nebraska, and Texas. By-product production comes from phosphate plants in Florida and Louisiana and a copper mine in Utah. Unmined deposits in areas such as the Grants, New Mexico, district are being investigated for their application to solution mining technology. The discovered uranium resources in the US are quite large, and the potential to discover additional resources is excellent. However, higher prices and a strong market will be necessary for their exploitation

  6. New Trends in Cosmetics: By-Products of Plant Origin and Their Potential Use as Cosmetic Active Ingredients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ani Barbulova

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the amount of waste deriving from industrial processes has increased substantially. Many industries produce different types of disposable by-products, rich in valuable compounds. Their characterization and valorization could not only convert them into high value products with application in diverse biotechnological fields, such as Pharmaceutics, Food or Cosmetics, but would also reduce the waste environmental impact and the related treatment costs. There are many examples of cosmetic active ingredients deriving from fish, meat and dairy products, but in the present review we would like to focus on the potentialities and the current use of compounds and extracts deriving from agronomical disposable wastes in the cosmetic field. These types of products are effective, inexpensive and bio-sustainable, and thus represent a valid alternative to the regular plant derived extracts, more commonly adopted in cosmetic formulations. Moreover, if the waste products come from organic farming, they are certainly an even more valuable source of safe extracts for Cosmetics, since they lack any residual pesticide or potentially toxic chemical.

  7. Biostimulants from food processing by-products: agronomic, quality and metabolic impacts on organic tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou Chehade, Lara; Al Chami, Ziad; De Pascali, Sandra Angelica; Cavoski, Ivana; Fanizzi, Francesco Paolo

    2018-03-01

    Biostimulants have recently gained increased attention due to their multiple benefits for sustainable agriculture. In this study, three food processing by-products - fennel processing residues (FPR), lemon processing residues (LPR) and brewer's spent grain (BSG) - were investigated as potential sources of biostimulants. Their aqueous extracts as individual and associated applications were assessed for their effects on agronomic, quality and metabolic performance of organic tomato in comparison to extract of humic substances (HS) and untreated control (CTRL). Only FPR extracts stimulated shoot growth and tomato dry matter content, whereas all candidates improved tomato yield. FPR and BSG increased fruit mineral content and BSG-FPR-LPR in combination enhanced titratable acidity. FPR-treated fruits had also 20% more vitamin C than CTRL, and higher phenol content was obtained in those of BSG-LPR. Fruit metabolomic profile showed the tendency of all extracts, except BSG-LPR, to increase tomato citric acid and to decrease β-glucose and methanol concentrations. The analysis revealed accordingly the indispensable role of FPR in combined applications for inducing an HS-like response in fruits. The results were indicative of the biostimulant activity of these extracts and demonstrated them, particularly FPR, as promising candidates for enhancing plant productivity and fruit quality. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Biocide by-products in aquatic environments. Annual report, October 1, 1977--September 30, 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, D.R.; Bean, R.M.; Gibson, C.I.

    1979-01-01

    The Biocide By-Products in Aquatic Environments Program is composed of analytical chemistry and biological phases with freshwater and marine biological subdivisions. The objectives of the analytical studies are: to identify those chloroorganic chemical compounds that result from the addition of chlorine to fresh or saltwater; to develop methods for detecting chlorinated organics in the effluents discharged to receiving water bodies from nuclear stations; and to verify laboratory findings through analysis for chlorination by-products in water and biota samples from cooling water bodies of nuclear power stations. The objectives of the biological studies are: to investigate the immediate toxicity of specific chlorination by-products (chloroform in freshwater and bromoform in marine waters); to evaluate the chronic toxicity of chlorination by-products; to follow their pathways of action; and to analyze for bioaccumulation or biomagnification of halogenated hydrocarbons on selected aquatic or marine biota

  9. SHORTER MENSTRUAL CYCLES ASSOCIATED WITH CHLORINATION BY-PRODUCTS IN DRINKING WATER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shorter Menstrual Cycles Associated with Chlorination by-Products in Drinking Water. Gayle Windham, Kirsten Waller, Meredith Anderson, Laura Fenster, Pauline Mendola, Shanna Swan. California Department of Health Services.In previous studies of tap water consumption we...

  10. By-Product Formation in Repetitive PCR Amplification of DNA Libraries during SELEX

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolle, Fabian; Wilke, Julian; Wengel, Jesper

    2014-01-01

    The selection of nucleic acid aptamers is an increasingly important approach to generate specific ligands binding to virtually any molecule of choice. However, selection-inherent amplification procedures are prone to artificial by-product formation that prohibits the enrichment of target-recogniz......The selection of nucleic acid aptamers is an increasingly important approach to generate specific ligands binding to virtually any molecule of choice. However, selection-inherent amplification procedures are prone to artificial by-product formation that prohibits the enrichment of target......-recognizing aptamers. Little is known about the formation of such by-products when employing nucleic acid libraries as templates. We report on the formation of two different forms of by-products, named ladder- and non-ladder-type observed during repetitive amplification in the course of in vitro selection experiments....... Based on sequence information and the amplification behaviour of defined enriched nucleic acid molecules we suppose a molecular mechanism through which these amplification by-products are built. Better understanding of these mechanisms might help to find solutions minimizing by-product formation...

  11. Land application uses for dry flue gas desulfurization by-products: Phase 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dick, W.; Bigham, J.; Forster, R.; Hitzhusen, F.; Lal, R.; Stehouwer, R.; Traina, S.; Wolfe, W.; Haefner, R.; Rowe, G.

    1999-01-31

    New flue gas desulfurization (FGD) scrubbing technologies create a dry, solid by-product material consisting of excess sorbent, reaction product that contains sulfate and sulfite, and coal fly ash. Generally, dry FGD by-products are treated as solid wastes and disposed in landfills. However, landfill sites are becoming scarce and tipping fees are constantly increasing. Provided the environmental impacts are socially and scientifically acceptable, beneficial uses via recycling can provide economic benefits to both the producer and the end user of the FGD. A study titled ''Land Application Uses for Dry Flue Gas Desulfurization By-Products'' was initiated in December, 1990 to develop and demonstrate large volume, beneficial uses of FGD by-products. Phase 1 and Phase 2 reports have been published by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), Palo Alto, CA. Phase 3 objectives were to demonstrate, using field studies, the beneficial uses of FGD by-products (1) as an amendment material on agricultural lands and on abandoned surface coal mine land, (2) as an engineering material for soil stabilization and raid repair, and (3) to assess the environmental and economic impacts of such beneficial uses. Application of dry FGD by-product to three soils in place of agricultural limestone increased alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) and corn (Zea may L.) yields. No detrimental effects on soil and plant quality were observed.

  12. Aqueous chlorination of mefenamic acid: kinetics, transformation by-products and ecotoxicity assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adira Wan Khalit, Wan Nor; Tay, Kheng Soo

    2016-05-18

    Mefenamic acid (Mfe) is one of the most frequently detected nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in the environment. This study investigated the kinetics and the transformation by-products of Mfe during aqueous chlorination. The potential ecotoxicity of the transformation by-products was also evaluated. In the kinetic study, the second-order rate constant (kapp) for the reaction between Mfe and free available chlorine (FAC) was determined at 25 ± 0.1 °C. The result indicated that the degradation of Mfe by FAC is highly pH-dependent. When the pH was increased from 6 to 8, it was found that the kapp for the reaction between Mfe and FAC was decreased from 16.44 to 4.4 M(-1) s(-1). Characterization of the transformation by-products formed during the chlorination of Mfe was carried out using liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight accurate mass spectrometry. Four major transformation by-products were identified. These transformation by-products were mainly formed through hydroxylation, chlorination and oxidation reactions. Ecotoxicity assessment revealed that transformation by-products, particularly monohydroxylated Mfe which is more toxic than Mfe, can be formed during aqueous chlorination.

  13. Detection of undeclared animal by-products in commercial canine canned foods: Comparative analyses by ELISA and PCR-RFLP coupled with slab gel electrophoresis or capillary gel electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Ming-Kun; Shih, Pei-Yin; Wei, Chia-Fong; Vickroy, Thomas W; Chou, Chi-Chung

    2016-03-30

    The potential presence of undeclared animal by-products in pet foods is not subject to routine examination. Previously published methods for species-based identification of animal by-products have not been used routinely owing to inconsistent results. The present study evaluated the utility of several approaches for accurate identification of animal by-products in 11 commercial brands of canine canned foods. Canine canned foods from several countries were analysed by ELISA, PCR-RFLP coupled with slab-gel electrophoresis (SGE) and capillary gel electrophoresis (CGE) to test for evidence of by-products derived from cattle, chicken, sheep or pig. While CGE-based analysis detected all (24) animal-derived by-products that were reported for the 11 test samples, SGE and ELISA detected only 22/24 (92%) and 14/24 (58%) of labelled by-products, respectively. In addition, undeclared animal by-products were found using all three analytical approaches with CGE detecting more positives (19) than SGE (17) or ELISA (5). Significant disparities were evident between the labelled contents and the detected content of animal by-products. CGE-based testing for PCR products appears to provide greater sensitivity and accuracy than either SGE or ELISA-based methods. As testing of commercial products becomes more reliable and mainstream, manufacturers will need to develop more thorough and accurate labelling protocols. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. 9 CFR 355.42 - Marking of mule meat and animal food mule meat by-product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... mule meat by-product. 355.42 Section 355.42 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION... Meat and Animal Food, Mule Meat By-Product § 355.42 Marking of mule meat and animal food mule meat by-product. All mule meat and animal food mule meat by-product inspected under this part shall be marked and...

  15. Recovery, reuse and recycling by the United States wood packaging industry: 1993-2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert J. Bush; Philip A. Araman; E. Bradley Hager

    2007-01-01

    The packaging industry is an important market for wood materials, especially low grade hardwoods. Approximately one-third of U.S. hardwood lumber production is utilized in the production of pallets and containers. The industry recovers significant volumes of pallets and containers from the waste stream for re-use, repair, and recycling. Industry by-products (both wood...

  16. Supply chain collaboration in industrial symbiosis networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herczeg, Gabor; Akkerman, Renzo; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    2018-01-01

    A strategy supporting the development towards a circular economy is industrial symbiosis (IS). It is a form of collaborative supply chain management aiming to make industry more sustainable and achieve collective benefits based on utilization of waste, by-products, and excess utilities between...... economically independent industries. Based on an extensive analysis of published studies on existing IS collaborations and interviews with central stakeholders of a comprehensive IS, this paper investigates IS from a supply chain collaboration perspective. A theoretical framework is built and used to discuss...... how industrial symbiosis pursues sustainability and to identify the main collaboration aspects and performance impacts. This framework is then used in the analysis of selected published cases. Based on this, we derive propositions on the organizational and operational requirements for collaboration...

  17. Improving the environmental performance of biofuels with industrial symbiosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, Michael; Eklund, Mats

    2011-01-01

    In the production of biofuels for transport many critics have argued about the poor energy efficiency and environmental performance of the production industries. Optimism is thus set on the production of second generation biofuels, while first generation biofuels continue to dominate worldwide. Therefore it is interesting to consider how the environmental performance of first generation biofuel industries can be improved. The field of industrial symbiosis offers many possibilities for potential improvements in the biofuel industry and theories from this research field are used in this paper to highlight how environmental performance improvements can be accomplished. This comes in the form of by-product synergies and utility synergies which can improve material and energy handling. Furthermore, the processes and products can gain increased environmental performance improvements by the adaption of a renewable energy system which will act as a utility provider for many industries in a symbiotic network. By-products may thereafter be upcycled through biogas production processes to generate both energy and a bio-fertilizer. A case study of an actual biofuel industrial symbiosis is also reviewed to provide support for these theories. -- Highlights: → By-product and utility synergies may improve the production processes of biofuel industries for reduced energy consumption and improved environmental performance. → Upcycling tenants can make use of wastes to upgrade waste to a valuable product and/or energy source. → Energy systems for biofuel production have a large influence on the performance of biofuel industries.

  18. Multiple Biological Effects of Olive Oil By-products such as Leaves, Stems, Flowers, Olive Milled Waste, Fruit Pulp, and Seeds of the Olive Plant on Skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishikawa, Asuka; Ashour, Ahmed; Zhu, Qinchang; Yasuda, Midori; Ishikawa, Hiroya; Shimizu, Kuniyoshi

    2015-06-01

    As olive oil production increases, so does the amount of olive oil by-products, which can cause environmental problems. Thus, new ways to utilize the by-products are needed. In the present study, five bioactive characteristics of olive oil by-products were assessed, namely their antioxidant, anti-bacterial, anti-melanogenesis, anti-allergic, and collagen-production-promoting activities. First, the extracts of leaves (May and October), stems (May and October), flowers, olive milled waste, fruit pulp and seeds were prepared using two safe solvents, ethanol and water. According to HPLC and LC/MS analysis and Folin-Ciocalteu assay, the ethanol extracts of the leaves (May and October), stems (May and October) and flowers contained oleuropein, and the ethanol extract of the stems showed the highest total phenol content. Oleuropein may contribute to the antioxidant and anti-melanogenesis activities of the leaves, stems, and flowers. However, other active compounds or synergistic effects present in the ethanol extracts are also likely to contribute to the anti-bacterial activity of the leaves and flowers, the anti-melanogenesis activity of some parts, the anti-allergic activity of olive milled waste, and the collagen-production-promoting activity of the leaves, stems, olive milled waste and fruit pulp. This study provides evidence that the by-products of olive oil have the potential to be further developed and used in the skin care industry. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Chemicals Industry Vision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    1996-12-01

    Chemical industry leaders articulated a long-term vision for the industry, its markets, and its technology in the groundbreaking 1996 document Technology Vision 2020 - The U.S. Chemical Industry. (PDF 310 KB).

  20. Land application uses for dry FGD by-products. Phase 2 report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stehouwer, R.; Dick, W.; Bigham, J. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States)] [and others

    1996-03-01

    A study was initiated in December 1990 to demonstrate large volume beneficial uses of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) by-products. A Phase 1 report provided results of an extensive characterization of chemical, physical, mineralogical and engineering properties of 58 dry FGD by-product samples. The Phase 1 report concluded that high volume beneficial reuses will depend on the economics related to their ability to substitute for existing materials for various types of applications (e.g. as an agricultural liming material, soil borrow for highway embankment construction, and reclamation of active and abandoned surface coal mine lands). Phase 2 objectives were (1) to conduct laboratory and greenhouse studies of FGD and soil (spoil) mixtures for agronomic and engineering applications, (2) to initiate field studies related to high volume agronomic and engineering uses, and (3) to develop the basic methodological framework for estimation of the financial and economic costs and benefits to society of several FGD reuse options and to make some preliminary runs of economic models. High volume beneficial reuses of dry FGD by-products have been successfully demonstrated. Adverse environmental impacts have been negligible. Although few sources of dry FGD by-products currently exist in Ohio and the United States there is potential for smaller coal-fired facilities to adopt S0{sub 2} scrubbing technologies that produce dry FGD material. Also much of what we have learned from studies on dry FGD by-products is applicable to the more prevalent wet FGD by-products. The adaptation of the technologies demonstrated in this project seem to be not only limited by economic constraints, but even more so, by the need to create awareness of the market potential of using these FGD by-products.

  1. Land application uses for dry FGD by-products, Phase 1 report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bigham, J.; Dick, W.; Forster, L.; Hitzhusen, F.; McCoy, E.; Stehouwer, R.; Traina, S.; Wolfe, W.

    1993-04-01

    The 1990 amendments to the Clean Air Act have spurred the development of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) processes, several of which produce a dry, solid by-product material consisting of excess sorbent, reaction products containing sulfates and sulfites, and coal fly ash. FGD by-product materials are treated as solid wastes and must be landfilled. It is highly desirable to find beneficial reuses for these materials provided the environmental impacts are minimal and socially acceptable. Phase 1 results of a 4 and 1/2 year study to demonstrate large volume beneficial uses of FGD by-products are reported. The purpose of the Phase 1 portion of the project was to characterize the chemical, physical, mineralogical and engineering properties of the FGD by-product materials obtained from various FGD technologies being developed in the state of Ohio. Phase 1 also involved the collection of baseline economic data related to the beneficial reuse of these FGD materials. A total of 58 samples were collected and analyzed. The results indicated the chemical composition of the FGD by-product materials were dominated by Ca, S, Al, and Si. Many of the elements regulated by the US Environmental Protection Agency reside primarily in the fly ash. Phase 1 results revealed that FGD by-product materials are essentially coal fly ash materials diluted with unreacted sorbent and reaction products. High volume beneficial reuses will depend on the economics of their substituting for existing materials for various types of applications (e.g. as an agricultural liming material, soil borrow for highway embankment construction, and reclamation of active and abandoned surface coal mines). Environmental constraints to the beneficial reuse of dry FGD by-product materials, based on laboratory and leachate studies, seem to be less than for coal fly ash.

  2. Peptide Fractions Obtained from Rice By-Products by Means of an Environment-Friendly Process Show In Vitro Health-Related Bioactivities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferri, Maura; Graen-Heedfeld, Jürgen; Bretz, Karlheinz; Guillon, Fabien; Michelini, Elisa; Calabretta, Maria Maddalena; Lamborghini, Matteo; Gruarin, Nicolò; Roda, Aldo; Kraft, Axel; Tassoni, Annalisa

    2017-01-01

    Recently, the isolation of new health-related bioactive molecules derived from agro-food industrial by-products by means of environment-friendly extraction processes has become of particular interest. In the present study, a protein by-product from the rice starch industry was hydrolysed with five commercial proteolytic enzymes, avoiding the use of solvents or chemicals. The digestion processes were optimised, and the digestates were separated in fractions with four different molecular weight ranges by using a cross-flow membrane filtration technique. Total hydrolysates and fractions were tested in vitro for a wide range of biological activities. For the first time rice-derived peptides were assayed for anti-tyrosinase, anti-inflammatory, cytotoxicity and irritation capacities. Antioxidant and anti-hypertensive activities were also evaluated. Protamex, Alcalase and Neutrase treatments produced peptide fractions with valuable bioactivities without resulting cytotoxic or irritant. Highest levels of bioactivity were detected in Protamex-derived samples, followed by samples treated with Alcalase. Based on the present results, a future direct exploitation of isolated peptide fractions in the nutraceutical, functional food and cosmetic industrial fields may be foreseen.

  3. Peptide Fractions Obtained from Rice By-Products by Means of an Environment-Friendly Process Show In Vitro Health-Related Bioactivities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maura Ferri

    Full Text Available Recently, the isolation of new health-related bioactive molecules derived from agro-food industrial by-products by means of environment-friendly extraction processes has become of particular interest. In the present study, a protein by-product from the rice starch industry was hydrolysed with five commercial proteolytic enzymes, avoiding the use of solvents or chemicals. The digestion processes were optimised, and the digestates were separated in fractions with four different molecular weight ranges by using a cross-flow membrane filtration technique. Total hydrolysates and fractions were tested in vitro for a wide range of biological activities. For the first time rice-derived peptides were assayed for anti-tyrosinase, anti-inflammatory, cytotoxicity and irritation capacities. Antioxidant and anti-hypertensive activities were also evaluated. Protamex, Alcalase and Neutrase treatments produced peptide fractions with valuable bioactivities without resulting cytotoxic or irritant. Highest levels of bioactivity were detected in Protamex-derived samples, followed by samples treated with Alcalase. Based on the present results, a future direct exploitation of isolated peptide fractions in the nutraceutical, functional food and cosmetic industrial fields may be foreseen.

  4. Rheological characterization and stability study of an emulsion made with a dairy by-product enriched with omega-3 fatty acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela María Ormaza ZAPATA

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This study involved a rheological characterization of a W/O emulsion manufactured on a pilot scale using omega-3 fatty acids as part of the oil phase and butter milk as the emulsifier. Polyunsaturated omega-3 fatty acids are essential to prevent cardiovascular diseases, improve pulmonary function and also form part of the neurological structure. Buttermilk is a by-product of the dairy industry and has a high organic load which possesses surfactant properties and constitutes a good substitute for conventional emulsifiers in the food industry. The microstructural nature of the emulsion was characterized from the viscoelastic parameters and mechanical spectra. The linear viscoelastic range was determined, from which the maximum stress that the emulsion could withstand from the processing conditions without altering its microstructure was established. In addition, the storage stability of the emulsion was studied to instrumentally predict the rheological behaviour before sensory destabilization of the emulsion was observed. At the frequencies used, a significant decrease in dynamic viscoelastic parameters was periodically observed (G 'and G'', showing a structural change during storage. Furthermore, a coalescence phenomenon was observed after 18 months. The formulation with added omega-3 fatty acids and buttermilk provided a basis for obtaining a functional food as well as adding value to an industrial by-product.

  5. INDUSTRI KREATIF INDONESIA: PENDEKATAN ANALISIS KINERJA INDUSTRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Kamil

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In 2008, the Department of Commerce of the Republic of Indonesia has launched a creative economic development documents interpreted the 2025 Indonesia became the starting point and guide the development of the creative economy in Indonesia. With the existence of this document, the industry and its stakeholders or other stakeholders can readily develop the creative economy in Indonesia. Economic development in the direction of the creative industries is one manifestation of optimism aspiration to support the Master Plan for the Acceleration and Expansion of Indonesia's Economic Development in realizing the vision of Indonesia are being developed nation. The main objective of this study is the first to analyze the role of the creative industries in Indonesia for labor, value added and productivity, secondly, to analyze the performance trend of the creative industries sector, and third, to analyze the factors affecting the performance of the creative industries sector in Indonesia. Under Indonesia Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC and codes 151-372 (manufacturing industries category identified 18 industry groups belonging to the creative industries, showed that the performance of the national creative industries has been relatively high (in terms of trend analysis of the performance of the industrial creative. Furthermore, regression analysis of panel data (econometrics indicates that company size (SIZE, wages for workers (WAGE and the content of local inputs (LOCAL has a significant impact on the performance of Indonesia's creative industry. Meanwhile, the concentration ratio (CR4 no consequences but have koresi significantly positive effect on the performance of Indonesia’s creative industry.

  6. Effects of an onion by-product on bioactivity and safety markers in healthy rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roldan-Marin, Eduvigis; Krath, Britta; Poulsen, Morten

    2009-01-01

    Onions are excellent sources of bioactive compounds including fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS) and polyphenols. An onion by-product was characterised in order to be developed as a potentially bioactive food ingredient. Our main aim was to investigate whether the potential health and safety effects...... of this onion by-product were shared by either of two derived fractions, an extract containing the onion FOS and polyphenols and a residue fraction containing mainly cell wall materials. We report here on the effects of feeding these products on markers of potential toxicity, protective enzymes and gut...... environment in healthy rats. Rats were fed during 4 weeks with a diet containing the products or a control feed balanced in carbohydrate. The onion by-product and the extract caused anaemia as expected in rodents for Allium products. No other toxicity was observed, including genotoxicity. Glutathione...

  7. By-products of fruits processing as a source of phytochemicals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja Djilas

    Full Text Available The processing of fruits results in high amounts of waste materials such as peels, seeds, stones, and oilseed meals. A disposal of these materials usually represents a problem that is further aggravated by legal restrictions. Thus new aspects concerning the use of these wastes as by-products for further exploitation on the production of food additives or supplements with high nutritional value have gained increasing interest because these are high-value products and their recovery may be economically attractive. It is well known that by-products represent an important source of sugars, minerals, organic acid, dietary fibre and phenolics which have a wide range of action which includes antitumoral, antiviral, antibacterial, cardioprotective and antimutagenic activities. This review discusses the potential of the most important by-products of apple, grape and citrus fruits processing as a source of valuable compounds. The relevance of this topic is illustrated by a number of references.

  8. Water extracts from winery by-products as tobacco defense inducers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benouaret, Razik; Goujon, Eric; Trivella, Aurélien; Richard, Claire; Ledoigt, Gérard; Joubert, Jean-Marie; Mery-Bernardon, Aude; Goupil, Pascale

    2014-10-01

    Water extracts from winery by-products exhibited significant plant defense inducer properties. Experiments were conducted on three marc extracts containing various amounts of polyphenols and anthocyanins. Infiltration of red, white and seed grape marc extracts into tobacco leaves induced hypersensitive reaction-like lesions with cell death evidenced by Evans Blue staining. The infiltration zones and the surrounding areas revealed accumulation of autofluorescent compounds under UV light. Leaf infiltration of the three winery by-product extracts induced defense gene expression. The antimicrobial PR1, β-1,3-glucanase PR2, and chitinase PR3 target genes were upregulated locally in tobacco plants following grape marc extract treatments. The osmotin PR5 transcripts accumulated as well in red marc extract treated-tobacco leaves. Overall, the winery by-product extracts elicited an array of plant defense responses making the grape residues a potential use of high value compounds.

  9. Use of municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash and crop by-product for producing lightweight aggregate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giro-Paloma, J.; Ribas-Manero, V.; Maldonado-Alameda, A.; Formosa, J.; Chimenos, J. M.

    2017-10-01

    Due to the growing amount of residues in Europe, it is mandatory to provide a viable alternative for managing wastes contributing to the efficient use of resources. Besides, it is also essential to move towards a low carbon economy, priority EU by 2050. Among these, it is important to highlight the development of sustainable alternatives capable of incorporating different kind of wastes in their formulations.Municipal Solid Waste Incineration (MSWI) is estimated to increase in Europe, where the accessibility of landfill is restricted. Bottom ash (BA) is the most significant by-product from MSWI as it accounts for 85 - 95 % of the solid product resulting from combustion. BA is a mixture of calcium-rich compounds and others silicates enriched in iron and sodium. In addition, it is categorized as non-hazardous waste which can be revalorized as secondary material in construction or civil engineering fields, previous weathering stabilization during 2 - 3 months. Taking into account the relative proportion of each size fraction and the corresponding material characterization, the content of glass (primary and secondary) is estimated to be around 60 wt%. Furthermore, as a renewable resource and according to waste management European policies, residual agricultural biomass has attracted attention in preparation of advanced materials for various applications, due to their low cost, abundance, and environment friendliness. Among this residual biomass, rice husk is a by-product of rice milling industry which has high content of silica and has been widely used in buildings as natural thermal insulation material.Weathered BA (WBA) with a particle size less than 30 mm was milled under 100 μm, mixed with 2.0 - 5.0 mm rice husk, formed into ball-shaped pellets and sintered by different thermal treatments, which remove the organic matter content generating a large porosity. Physico-chemical analysis and mechanical behavior of the manufactured lightweight aggregates were tested

  10. A brief review on activated carbon derived from agriculture by-product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahya, Mohd Adib; Mansor, Muhammad Humaidi; Zolkarnaini, Wan Amani Auji Wan; Rusli, Nurul Shahnim; Aminuddin, Anisah; Mohamad, Khalidah; Sabhan, Fatin Aina Mohamad; Atik, Arif Abdallah Aboubaker; Ozair, Lailatun Nazirah

    2018-06-01

    A brief review focusing on preparation of the activated carbon derived from agriculture by-products is presented. The physical and chemical activation of activated carbon were also reviewed. The effects of various parameters including types of activating agents, temperature, impregnation ratio, were also discussed. The applications of activated carbon from agricultural by products were briefly reviewed. It is provenly evident in this review, the relatively inexpensive and renewable resources of the agricultural waste were found to be effectively being converted into wealth materials.

  11. Assessment of by-products of bioenergy systems (anaerobic digestion and gasification) as potential crop nutrient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kataki, Sampriti; Hazarika, Samarendra; Baruah, D C

    2017-01-01

    Alternative fertilizer resources have drawn attention in recent times in order to cope up with ever increasing demand for fertilizer. By-products of bioenergy system are considered favourable as organic fertilizer due to their ability to recycle plant nutrients. Present study evaluates fertilizer suitability of by-products of two bioenergy systems viz. 3 types of anaerobic digestion by-products (digestate) from local surplus biomass such as cowdung, Ipomoea carnea:cowdung (60:40) and ricestraw:green gram stover:cowdung (30:30:40) and one gasification by-product (biochar) from rice husk. Digestates were assessed considering 4 different application options of each viz. whole, solid, liquid and ash from solid digestates. Digestate characteristics (organic matter, macronutrients, micronutrients and heavy metal content) were found to be a function of feedstock and processing (solid liquid separation and ashing). Ipomoea carnea based digestates in all application options showed comparatively higher N, P, K, NH 4 + -N, Ca, Mg, S and micro nutrient content than other digestates. Separation concentrated plant nutrients and organic matter in solid digestates, making these suitable both as organic amendments and fertilizer. Separated liquid digestate shared larger fraction of ammonium nitrogen (61-91% of total content), indicating their suitability as readily available N source. However, fertilizer application of liquid digestate may not match crop requirements due to lower total nutrient concentration. Higher electrical conductivity of the liquid digestates (3.4-9.3mScm -1 ) than solid digestates (1.5-2mScm -1 ) may impart phyto-toxic effect upon fertilization due to salinity. In case of by-products with unstable organic fraction i.e. whole and solid digestates of rice straw:green gram stover:cowdung digestates (Humification index 0.7), further processing (stabilization, composting) may be required to maximize their fertilizer benefit. Heavy metal contents of the by-products

  12. From a Music Industry to Sound Industries

    OpenAIRE

    Thor Magnusson

    2013-01-01

    Commodification has been an inherent aspect of music for many centuries. The aggregation of the diverse commodification practices could be described as an "industry," but this is an industry that has always been in a state of transition. New technologies, media formats, and practices appear regularly, requiring swift responses by the incumbent music industry. Although periods of relative stabil- ity have existed, where economic structures become established, the field has always been ch...

  13. A by-product of swine slaughtering as a protein source in broiler diets: effects on performance, composition of excreta, litter quality and on foot pad health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kölln, M; Loi-Brügger, A; Kamphues, J

    2017-06-01

    Foot pad dermatitis (FPD) is of great concern in poultry industry, and dietary strategies are needed to improve foot pad health because of animal welfare and economic reasons. As the main factor for the development of FPD is the DM content of litter (consisting mainly of excreta; Kamphues et al., 2011), there are different dietary approaches to influence this disease pattern. In two consecutive trials, a total of 200 broilers were kept from day 7 until the 35th day of life. They were divided into four groups at each trial and fed with one of four experimental diets, based on wheat and corn mainly, but differing in the protein source: Group 1 was fed a diet with soya bean meal (SBM) as the main protein source, whereas Group 2, Group 3 and Group 4 were assigned to diets with 4, 8 and 12% of a protein-rich (66.7% CP in DM) by-product of swine slaughtering [Swine Protein Meal (SPM); in exchange for SBM]. The inclusion of 12% SPM resulted in a decreased dietary potassium content of about 3 g/kg diet (Group 1 vs. 4). Increasing dietary levels of the by-product (8 and 12%) led to lowered feed intake (Group 1 vs. 4: ~10%) and weight gain (Group 1 vs. Group 4: ~8.5%). Although highest DM contents of excreta and litter were determined in Group 4, foot pad health was not influenced positively as hypothesized. Remarkable was the observed 'stickiness' of excreta when the by-product was included in the diet at increasing levels, presumably due to the high proportion of bones in the by-product. In conclusion, substituting SBM by 4% of the by-product of swine slaughtering in broiler diets did not impair performance parameters, but led to the most favourable foot pad scores in this study. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  14. Petroleum industry of Korea seen from industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, H.P. [SK Co, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-05-01

    The domestic petroleum industry faced with outward opening and exchange crisis is put under the most difficult period so far, and costs reduction and securing international competitive power in software field are emerging as important assignments on which the life and death of national key industries depends not only as a restructuring issue of each petroleum company. Required strategy of petroleum industry to solve this effectively this year must be the thorough revamping through restructuring and reform of management standards not the survival exercise through price competition. For this, each petroleum company and distributor should open a new petroleum industry in which fair rules of the game are developed as well as costs reduction through joint efforts and value creation in overall industry. For this, government should support the domestic petroleum industry to stand up straight as a keeper of domestic energy industry by helping it to arm with international competitive power within a short period of time through overall needed system and legal scheme. It is because nobody can deny that energy industry is the key industry on which national existence is at stake.

  15. Genotype by production environment interaction in the GIFT strain of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khaw, H.L.; Ponzonia, R.W.; Hamzah, A.; Abu-Bakara, K.R.; Bijma, P.

    2012-01-01

    Three discrete generations of GIFT fish (Nile tilapia strain, Oreochromis niloticus; a total of 10,065 fish with pedigree and phenotypic information) were tested in pond and cage culture environments to determine genotype by production environment interaction between both environments in Malaysia.

  16. 12 CFR 7.5004 - Sale of excess electronic capacity and by-products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... bank's needs for banking purposes include: (1) Data processing services; (2) Production and... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sale of excess electronic capacity and by-products. 7.5004 Section 7.5004 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY...

  17. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart C - VOC Content Limits by Product Category

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (weight-percent VOC) Air fresheners: Single-phase 70 Double-phase 30 Liquids/pump sprays 18 Solids/gels 3... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false VOC Content Limits by Product Category 1 Table 1 to Subpart C Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR...

  18. Distillers by-product cattle diets enhance reduced sulfur gas fluxes from feedlot soils and manures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Total reduced sulfur (TRS) emissions from animal feeding operations are a concern with increased feeding of high-sulfur distillers by-products. Three feeding trials were conducted to evaluate feeding wet distillers grain plus solubles (WDGS) on TRS fluxes. Fresh manure was collected three times duri...

  19. By-product mutualism and the ambiguous effects of harsher environments - A game-theoretic model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Jaegher, Kris; Hoyer, Britta

    2016-01-01

    We construct two-player two-strategy game-theoretic models of by-product mutualism, where our focus lies on the way in which the probability of cooperation among players is affected by the degree of adversity facing the players. In our first model, cooperation consists of the production of a public

  20. Transposable elements in cancer as a by-product of stress-induced evolvability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mourier, Tobias; Nielsen, Lars P.; Hansen, Anders Johannes

    2014-01-01

    Transposable elements (TEs) are ubiquitous in eukaryotic genomes. Barbara McClintock's famous notion of TEs acting as controlling elements modifying the genetic response of an organism upon exposure to stressful environments has since been solidly supported in a series of model organisms. This re...... as an evolutionary by-product of organisms' abilities to genetically adapt to environmental stress....

  1. Secondary formation of disinfection by-products by UV treatment of swimming pool water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spiliotopoulou, Aikaterini; Hansen, Kamilla Marie Speht; Andersen, Henrik Rasmus

    2015-01-01

    Formation of disinfection by-products (DBPs) during experimental UV treatment of pool water has previously been reported with little concurrence between laboratory studies, field studies and research groups. In the current study, changes in concentration of seven out of eleven investigated volatile...

  2. Genotoxic Effects in Swimmers Exposed to Disinfection By-products in Indoor Swimming Pool

    Science.gov (United States)

    BACKGROUND: Exposure to disinfection by-products (DBPs) in drinking water has been associated with cancer risk, and a recent study found an increased bladder cancer risk among subjects attending swimming pools. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate whether swimming in pools is associated with ...

  3. Effect of Addition of Moringa Leaf By-Product (Leaf-Waste) on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of incorporation of Moringa leaf fibre (a by-product of leaf processing which contains 24% Crude Fibre by dry weight at 0, 5 and 10 % substitution of wheat flour in cookies was investigated. Three products containing wheat flour: Moringa leaf fibre ratios of 100:0, 95:5, and 90:10 respectively were prepared, and a ...

  4. Utilisation of metallurgical by-products in road construction in the Czech Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kresta, František

    2017-09-01

    Metallurgical by-products, primarily blast furnace slag and steel slag, have ranked among important alternative sources of fill as well as of material for the structural layers in highways. Main hazards of metallurgical by-products are closely connected to their chemical and mineralogical composition and they can be resulted in volume changes. Fears from possible deformations similar to the D47 motorway meant that metallurgical by-products were excluded from several public tenders of road construction. Comparison of blast furnace slag, steel slag and other metallurgical by products parameters allow us to define the most hazardous material as steelworks waste. Linear swelling of steelwork waste achieves more than 40% at 75°C and swelling pressure was higher than 1.5 MPa. Compositional heterogeneity of steelworks waste makes it difficult to establish the long-term behaviour of this material. At the present time we cannot ascertain which maximum values can be reached by deformation and what are the swelling pressures acting on the material while the volume changes are in progress.

  5. Torrefaction of agricultural by-products: Effects of temperature and time on energy yields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agricultural by-products, such as apple, grape, olive, and tomato pomaces as well as almond and walnut shells, were torrefied at different temperatures and times. Torrefaction of biomass involves heating in an inert atmosphere to remove volatile components for improved grindability and increased ene...

  6. Anaerobic co-digestion of by-products from sugar production with cow manure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fang, Cheng; Boe, Kanokwan; Angelidaki, Irini

    2011-01-01

    Sugar beet leaves (SBL), sugar beet top (SBT), sugar beet pulp (SBP) and desugared molasses (DM) are by-products from the sugar production. In the present study we investigated the potential of SBL, SBT and SBP as feedstock for biogas production. The maximum methane potential of SBL, SBT and SBP ......-digesting 50% of SBP with cow manure....

  7. A Multinomial Logit Approach to Estimating Regional Inventories by Product Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence Teeter; Xiaoping Zhou

    1998-01-01

    Current timber inventory projections generally lack information on inventory by product classes. Most models available for inventory projection and linked to supply analyses are limited to projecting aggregate softwood and hardwood. The objective of this research is to develop a methodology to distribute the volume on each FIA survey plot to product classes and...

  8. Effects of heat treatment on antioxidative and anti-inflammatory properties of orange by-products

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study investigated the changes in functional components, antioxidative activities, antibacterial activities, anti-inflammatory activities of orange (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck) by-products (OBP) by heat treatment at 50 and 100 degrees C (hereafter, 50D and 100D extracts, respectively). Optimal...

  9. Glutamic acid production from wheat by-products using enzymatic and acid hydrolysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sari, Y.W.; Alting, A.C.; Floris, R.; Sanders, J.P.M.; Bruins, M.E.

    2014-01-01

    Glutamic acid (Glu) has potential as feedstock for bulk chemicals production. It has also been listed as one of the top twelve chemicals derived from biomass. Large amounts of cheaper Glu can be made available by enabling its production from biomass by-products, such as wheat dried distillers grains

  10. Advice on the disposal of radioactive by-products arising in the use of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beyermann, M.; Goergner, D.

    1989-01-01

    Based on the current legislation in the GDR advice is given on the classification and disposal of radioactive by-products from the utilization of nuclear energy with special emphasis on the different procedures for products which require a disposal licence by the National Board for Atomic Safety and Radiation Protection and those which do not need such an authorization. (author)

  11. Fish by-product meal in diets for commercial laying hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Ferreira Silva

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the increasing levels (0, 1, 2, 3 e 4% of fish by-product meal in diets for laying hens on performance, egg quality and economic analysis. A total of 160 Dekalb White hens with 52-wk old were distributed in a completely randomized design with five treatments and four replicates of eight birds each. The experiment lasted 84 days divided into four periods of 21 days. Estimates of fish by-product meal levels were determined by polynomial regression. Differences (p < 0.05 were detected for all variables of performance, in egg weight, yolk and albumen percentage, yolk and albumen height, feed cost and production cost, in which the inclusion of fish by-product meal in the diets showed better results. It can be concluded that fish by-product meal can be used in diets for hens as alternative feed, with better results in egg production, feed conversion, egg weight, yolk-albumen ratio and a reduction in feed cost and production cost.

  12. CONTROL OF MICROBIAL CONTAMINANTS AND DISINFECTION BY-PRODUCTS (DBPS): COST AND PERFORMANCE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The USEPA is in the process of developing a sophisticated regulatory strategy in an attempt to balance the complex trade-offs in risks associated with controlling disinfectants and disinfection by-products (D/DBPs) in drinking water. EPA first attempted to control DBPs in 1974, w...

  13. Bioenergy by-products as soil amendments? Implications for carbon sequestration and greenhuise gas emissions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cayuela, M.L.; Oenema, O.; Kuikman, P.J.; Bakker, R.R.; Groenigen, van J.W.

    2010-01-01

    An important but little understood aspect of bioenergy production is its overall impact on soil carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) cycling. Increased energy production from biomass will inevitably lead to higher input of its by-products to the soil as amendments or fertilizers. However, it is still unclear

  14. Environmental and personal determinants of the uptake of disinfection by-products during swimming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Font-Ribera, Laia; Kogevinas, Manolis; Schmalz, Christina; Zwiener, Christian; Marco, Esther; Grimalt, Joan O; Liu, Jiaqi; Zhang, Xiangru; Mitch, William; Critelli, Rossana; Naccarati, Alessio; Heederik, Dick; Spithoven, Jack; Arjona, Lourdes; de Bont, Jeroen; Gracia-Lavedan, Esther; Villanueva, Cristina M

    BACKGROUND: Trihalomethanes (THMs) in exhaled breath and trichloroacetic acid (TCAA) in urine are internal dose biomarkers of exposure to disinfection by-products (DBPs) in swimming pools. OBJECTIVE: We assessed how these biomarkers reflect the levels of a battery of DBPs in pool water and

  15. Application of glass recycling by-products in Autoclaved Aerated Concrete

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Straub, Chr.; Florea, M.V.A.; Brouwers, H.J.H.; Schmidt, Wolfram; Msinjili, Nsesheye Susan

    Autoclaved Aerated Concrete (AAC) is a construction material with a large range of applications. In order to generate more sustainable materials, the possibility of the incorporation of by-products and left-over-materials from various processes is investigated. The focus of this research is the

  16. Radioactivity distribution in phosphate products, by-products, effluents, and wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guimond, R.J.; Windham, S.T.

    1975-08-01

    Phosphate rock throughout the world contains uranium in concentrations ranging from a few ppM to a few hundred ppM. In the United States, phosphate rock normally contains between 100 to 150 ppM uranium. Mining and processing of these ores redistributes much of the uranium daughters among the various products, by-products, and wastes. These materials are then widely dispersed throughout the environment. This redistribution may lead to increased exposure of the public to these naturally-occurring radionuclides. In determining the magnitude of the population exposure caused by this redistribution and in developing environmental standards and controls to prevent contamination of the biosphere from these naturally-occurring radionuclides it is necessary to determine the concentrations and total quantities of these radionuclides in the products, by-products, effluents and wastes of phosphate mining and manufacturing. Samples of phosphate ores, products, by-products, effluents, and wastes were obtained and analyzed for their radioactivity content. Quantities of radioactivity entering the environment through various products, by-products, effluents, and wastes were estimated

  17. By-products formation during degradation of isoproturon in aqueous solution. II: Chlorination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascolo, G; Lopez, A; James, H; Fielding, M

    2001-05-01

    After a previous study in which the considered oxidant was ozone (Part I), a laboratory investigation has been carried out to study the degradation of the herbicide isoproturon during its reaction with another oxidant, i.e. chlorine, in aqueous solution (Part II; this paper). The specific aim was to identify the by-products formed. The effects of pH and the presence of bromide ions were studied. Reactions have been carried out at room temperature, in phosphate buffered aqueous solutions, at four pHs (6, 7, 8 and 9). By-products identification was first performed using relatively high initial reagent concentrations which were analytically convenient ([isoproturon] = 40 mg/l, [HClO + ClO-] = 160 mg Cl/l, [Br-] = 80 mg/l). In follow-up studies, the by-products identified during this preliminary step were searched for when using concentration values closer to those actually encountered at real water treatment plants ([isoproturon] = 0.4 and 0.004 mg/l, [HClO + ClO-] = 1.6 mg Cl/l, [Br-] = 0.8 and 0.008 mg/l). Under all of the studied conditions, the results showed that isoproturon is completely degraded and that it decays much faster in the presence of bromide. The pH has a negligible influence when bromide ions are absent. On the contrary, if bromide ions are present, the isoproturon decay is slower at higher pH values. High-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS) analyses have led to the identification of several by-products as a result of simultaneous oxidation and substitution reactions, both occurring on the aromatic ring of the herbicide. However, the more abundant by-products are those resulting from the oxidation of the isoproturon aromatic ring. As far as halogenated by-products are concerned, the higher the bromide ion concentration the higher the ratio of brominated to chlorinated by-products. On the basis of the analytical results, a pathway for isoproturon degradation under the studied conditions is proposed.

  18. improving citric acid production from some carbohydrates by-products using irradiated aspergillus niger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farag, S.S.

    2011-01-01

    Twenty strains of A. niger were isolated from different sources, screened for their capacity to produce citric acid. All the isolated strains were able to produce citric acid in different quantities at different time intervals i.e. 4, 8 and 12 days on indicator medium. The best incubation period for production for all isolates was 12 days. The most potent strains for production were A 1 , A 4 and A 5 , while A 8 , A 1 6, A 18 and A 19 recorded weak production on that medium. Citric acid productivity were obtained by all strains when using different concentrations of four carbohydrate by-products (maize straw, potato peel wastes, sugar beet pulp and molasses) when each used alone without any additions after 12 days incubation and the production enhanced when the fermentation medium amended with the same concentrations of the mentioned substrates. Type and concentration of carbohydrate by-product affect the production of citric acid by A. niger strains under the study. Increasing substrate concentration led to increase in production, the best concentration for production was 25% for all carbohydrate by-products. As recorded with indicator medium, A 1 , A 4 and A 5 are also the most potent strains for production when growing on the four carbohydrate by-products supplemented to the basal medium, while A 8 , A 6 , A 18 and A 19 recorded the weak production with the carbohydrate by-products used.production of the parental isolates A 1 , A 4 and A 5 on indicator medium were: 0.96, 0.95 and 0.99 (mg/ml) respectively after 12 days incubation, while maximum production by the obtaining resulting isolates (Treated by UV irradiation) were: 1.78, 1.70 and 1.73 (mg/ml) from A 4 T 2 (5 min.), A 4 T 1 (10 min.) and A 1 T 1 (5 min.), respectively.

  19. Effects of an onion by-product on bioactivity and safety markers in healthy rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roldán-Marín, Eduvigis; Krath, Britta N; Poulsen, Morten; Binderup, Mona-Lise; Nielsen, Tom H; Hansen, Max; Barri, Thaer; Langkilde, Søren; Cano, M Pilar; Sánchez-Moreno, Concepción; Dragsted, Lars O

    2009-12-01

    Onions are excellent sources of bioactive compounds including fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS) and polyphenols. An onion by-product was characterised in order to be developed as a potentially bioactive food ingredient. Our main aim was to investigate whether the potential health and safety effects of this onion by-product were shared by either of two derived fractions, an extract containing the onion FOS and polyphenols and a residue fraction containing mainly cell wall materials. We report here on the effects of feeding these products on markers of potential toxicity, protective enzymes and gut environment in healthy rats. Rats were fed during 4 weeks with a diet containing the products or a control feed balanced in carbohydrate. The onion by-product and the extract caused anaemia as expected in rodents for Allium products. No other toxicity was observed, including genotoxicity. Glutathione reductase (GR) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx1) activities in erythrocytes increased when rats were fed with the onion extract. Hepatic gene expression of Gr, Gpx1, catalase, 5-aminolevulinate synthase and NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase was not altered in any group of the onion fed rats. By contrast, gamma-glutamate cysteine ligase catalytic subunit gene expression was upregulated but only in rats given the onion residue. The onion by-products as well as the soluble and insoluble fractions had prebiotic effects as evidenced by decreased pH, increased butyrate production and altered gut microbiota enzyme activities. In conclusion, the onion by-products have no in vivo genotoxicity, may support in vivo antioxidative defence and alter the functionality of the rat gut microbiota.

  20. Formation of undesired by-products in deNO{sub x} catalysis by hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radtke, Frank; Koeppel, Rene A; Baiker, Alfons [Department of Chemical Engineering and Industrial Chemistry, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, ETH-Zentrum, Zuerich (Switzerland)

    1995-11-20

    The catalytic performance of Cu/ZSM-5 and {gamma}-alumina in the selective catalytic reduction of nitrogen oxides by alkenes in excess oxygen and the formation of potentially harmful by-products such as hydrogen cyanide, cyanic acid, ammonia, nitrous oxide and carbon monoxide have been studied by means of FT-IR-gas phase analysis. Over Cu/ZSM-5 the reduction activity was strongly influenced by the type of hydrocarbon, while there was no significant difference when starting from NO or NO{sub 2}. In contrast, with {gamma}-alumina NO{sub 2} was reduced more efficiently than NO with both reductants. Water addition strongly suppressed the catalytic activity of {gamma}-alumina. Regarding the formation of undesired by-products, substantial amounts of carbon monoxide were observed in all experiments, independently of the feed composition. The type of catalyst, the use of either NO or NO{sub 2}, the alkene used as a reductant and water strongly influenced t