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Sample records for growth technique final

  1. Improved techniques for the growth of optical-quality CdGeAs/sub 2/. Final report, December 1, 1976-December 31, 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feigelson, R.S.; Route, R.K.

    1978-06-01

    The ternary chalcopyrite compound CdGeAs/sub 2/ is one of the most efficient nonlinear infrared materials known. With transparency extending from 2.3 ..mu..m to 18 ..mu..m and a damage threshold exceeding 40 Mw/cm/sup 2/, it has a large number of potential applications, including doubling of the 10.6 ..mu..m CO/sub 2/ laser and continuous phase-matched mixing throughout its transparent region. It is also potentially suitable for certain acousto-optic applications consistent with its 4 2m space group symmetry. However, the growth of high optical quality, uncracked crystals of this material has been difficult. Polycrystallinity, cracking, and variable optical transparency were consistent problems. In this section we describe experiments carried out to eliminate (or control) polycrystallinity and cracking during the melt growth of this material.

  2. Oscillating-Crucible Technique for Silicon Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daud, T.; Dumas, K. A.; Kim, K. M.; Schwuttke, G. H.; Smetana, P.

    1984-01-01

    Technique yields better mixing of impurities and superior qualiity crystals. Accellerated motion stirs melt which reduces temperature gradients and decreases boundary layer for diffusion of impurities near growing surface. Results better mixing of impurities into melt, decrease in tendency for dendritic growth or cellular growth and crystals with low dislocation density. Applied with success to solution growth and Czochralski growth, resulting in large crystals of superior quality.

  3. Techniques for freeing deposited canisters. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalbantner, P.; Sjoeblom, R.

    2000-06-01

    Four different techniques for removal of the bentonite buffer around a deposited canister have been identified, studied and evaluated: mechanical, hydrodynamical, thermal, and electrical techniques. Different techniques to determine the position of the canister in the buffer have also been studied: mechanical, electromagnetic, thermal and acoustic techniques. The mechanical techniques studied are full-face boring, milling and core-drilling. It is expected that the bentonite can be machined relatively easily. It is assessed that cooling by means of flushing water over the outer surfaces of the tools is not feasible in view of the tendency of bentonite to form a gel. The mechanical techniques are characterized by the potential of damaging the canister, a high degree of complexity, and high requirements of energy/power input. The generated byproduct is solid and cannot be removed by means of flushing. Removal is assessed to be simplest in conjunction with full-face boring and most difficult when coredrilling is applied. The hydrodynamical techniques comprise high-pressure hydrodynamic techniques, where pressures above and below 100 bar, and low pressure hydrodynamical techniques (< 10 bar) are separated. At pressures above 100 bar, a water jet with a diameter of approximately a millimetre cuts through the material. If desired, sand can be added to the jet. At pressures below 100 bar the jet has a diameter of one or a few centimetres. The liquid contains a few percent of salt, which is essential for the efficiency of the process. The flushing is important not only because it removes the modified bentonite but also because it frees previously unaffected bentonite and thereby makes it accessible to chemical modification. All of the hydrodynamical techniques are applicable for freeing the end surface as well as the mantle surface. The degree of complexity and the requirement on energy/power decrease with a decrease in pressure. A significant potential for damaging the

  4. Final height and intrauterine growth retardation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tauber, Maïthé

    2017-06-01

    Approximately 10% of small for gestational age (SGA) children maintain a small body size throughout childhood and often into adult life with a decreased pubertal spurt. Growth hormone (GH) therapy increases short-term growth in a dose-dependent manner and adult height had now been well documented. Shorter children might benefit from a higher dose at start (50μg/kg/day). The response to GH treatment was similar for both preterm and term short SGA groups and the effect of GH treatment on adult height showed a wide variation in growth response. As a whole, mean adult height is higher than -2 SDS in 60% of patients and 70% reached an adult height in their target height with better results with higher doses and combined GnRH analog therapy in those who were short at onset of puberty. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  5. Growth techniques for monolithic YBCO solenoidal magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scruggs, S.J.; Putman, P.T.; Fang, H.; Alessandrini, M.; Salama, K.

    2006-01-01

    The possibility of growing large single domain YBCO solenoids by the use of a large seed has been investigated. There are two known methods for producing a similar solenoid. This first is a conventional top seeded melt growth process followed by a post processing machining step to create the bore. The second involves using multiple seeds spaced around the magnet bore. The appeal of the new technique lies in decreasing processing time compared to the single seed technique, while avoiding alignment problems found in the multiple seeding technique. By avoiding these problems, larger diameter monoliths can be produced. Large diameter monoliths are beneficial because the maximum magnetic field produced by a trapped field magnet is proportional to the radius of the sample. Furthermore, the availability of trapped field magnets with large diameter could enable their use in applications that traditionally have been considered to require wound electromagnets, such as beam bending magnets for particle accelerators or electric propulsion. A comparison of YBCO solenoids grown by the use of a large seed and grown by the use of two small seeds simulating multiple seeding is made. Trapped field measurements as well as microstructure evaluation were used in characterization of each solenoid. Results indicate that high quality growth occurs only in the vicinity of the seeds for the multiple seeded sample, while the sample with the large seeded exhibited high quality growth throughout the entire sample

  6. Motivating and Evaluating Growth in Ballet Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Julie Hammond

    2012-01-01

    In teaching young dancers ballet, the utilization of effective assessments in partnership with supportive and creative teaching strategies can transform not only the learning experience, but the dancer as well. In this article, the author shares a "growth grade rubric" that specifically addresses three areas in ballet training: (1) skills and…

  7. System study of alternative waste management techniques: Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    This report summarizes the important results achieved in conjunction with the Research and Development Priority ''Alternative Waste Management Techniques'' sponsored by the Federal Ministry of Research and Technology from 1981 to 1984. The subject of these studies was solely ''direct disposal'' of spent fuel elements. For this purpose a reference concept was selected from a variety of possible processes and engineered in detailed form by firms in the nuclear industry. Those who worked on the engineering concepts consider this waste management method technically feasible. Several disposal casks have been fabricated. The basic licensability of direct disposal can be evaluated on the basis of the documentation developed by the companies. The direct disposal method was compared with the ''integrated waste management concept'' using reference fuel cycles with respect to the following criteria: radiological safety and nuclear material safeguards and, in addition, economic and energy-policy aspects. It was found that with respect to radiological safety, including the long-term safety of the final repository, there are no significant differences between the two fuel cycles with and without reprocessing. With respect to the nuclear material safeguards of a final repository containing spent fuel elements, there are still a number of unanswered questions. From an economic standpoint, direct disposal will be more economical in the foreseeable future than integrated waste management. Quantification of the effects of one or the other waste management method on the national economy is not necessarily possible. Reprocessing is supported primarily by technological and energy-policy considerations. On the basis of the results, the conclusion is reached that reprocessing should be pursued further, but that at the same time direct disposal should be developed to the point of practical maturity

  8. Advanced Beta Dosimetry Techniques.Final Scientific/Technical Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David M. Hamby, PhD

    2006-01-01

    Final report describing NEER research on Advanced Beta Dosimetry Techniques. The research funded by this NEER grant establishes the framework for a detailed understanding of the challenges in beta dosimetry, especially in the presence of a mixed radiation field. The work also stimulated the thinking of the research group which will lead to new concepts in digital signal processing to allow collection of detection signals and real-time analysis such that simultaneous beta and gamma spectroscopy can take place. The work described herein (with detail in the many publications that came out of this research) was conducted in a manner that provided dissertation and thesis topics for three students, one of which was completely funded by this grant. The overall benefit of the work came in the form of a dramatic shift in signal processing that is normally conducted in pulse shape analysis. Analog signal processing was shown not to be feasible for this type of work and that digital signal processing was a must. This, in turn, led the research team to a new understanding of pulse analysis, one in which expands the state-of-the-art in simultaneous beta and gamma spectroscopy with a single detector

  9. Advanced crystal growth techniques for thallium bromide semiconductor radiation detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Amlan; Becla, Piotr; Guguschev, Christo; Motakef, Shariar

    2018-02-01

    Thallium Bromide (TlBr) is a promising room-temperature radiation detector candidate with excellent charge transport properties. Currently, Travelling Molten Zone (TMZ) technique is widely used for growth of semiconductor-grade TlBr crystals. However, there are several challenges associated with this type of crystal growth process including lower yield, high thermal stress, and low crystal uniformity. To overcome these shortcomings of the current technique, several different crystal growth techniques have been implemented in this study. These include: Vertical Bridgman (VB), Physical Vapor Transport (PVT), Edge-defined Film-fed Growth (EFG), and Czochralski Growth (Cz). Techniques based on melt pulling (EFG and Cz) were demonstrated for the first time for semiconductor grade TlBr material. The viability of each process along with the associated challenges for TlBr growth has been discussed. The purity of the TlBr crystals along with its crystalline and electronic properties were analyzed and correlated with the growth techniques. Uncorrected 662 keV energy resolutions around 2% were obtained from 5 mm x 5 mm x 10 mm TlBr devices with virtual Frisch-grid configuration.

  10. Techniques for information extraction from compressed GPS traces : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-31

    Developing techniques for extracting information requires a good understanding of methods used to compress the traces. Many techniques for compressing trace data : consisting of position (i.e., latitude/longitude) and time values have been developed....

  11. Acquisition of Single Crystal Growth and Characterization Equipment. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maple, M. Brian; Zocco, Diego A.

    2008-01-01

    Final Report for DOE Grant No. DE-FG02-04ER46178 'Acquisition of Single Crystal Growth and Characterization Equipment'. There is growing concern in the condensed matter community that the need for quality crystal growth and materials preparation laboratories is not being met in the United States. It has been suggested that there are too many researchers performing measurements on too few materials. As a result, many user facilities are not being used optimally. The number of proficient crystal growers is too small. In addition, insufficient attention is being paid to the enterprise of finding new and interesting materials, which is the driving force behind much of condensed matter research and, ultimately, technology. While a detailed assessment of this situation is clearly needed, enough evidence of a problem already exists to compel a general consensus that the situation must be addressed promptly. This final report describes the work carried out during the last four years in our group, in which a state-of-the-art single crystal growth and characterization facility was established for the study of novel oxides and intermetallic compounds of rare earth, actinide and transition metal elements. Research emphasis is on the physics of superconducting (SC), magnetic, heavy fermion (HF), non-Fermi liquid (NFL) and other types of strongly correlated electron phenomena in bulk single crystals. Properties of these materials are being studied as a function of concentration of chemical constituents, temperature, pressure, and magnetic field, which provide information about the electronic, lattice, and magnetic excitations at the root of various strongly correlated electron phenomena. Most importantly, the facility makes possible the investigation of material properties that can only be achieved in high quality bulk single crystals, including magnetic and transport phenomena, studies of the effects of disorder, properties in the clean limit, and spectroscopic and scattering

  12. Analysis of value added services on GDP Growth Rate using Data Mining Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas KUNDA

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The growth of Information Technology has spawned large amount of databases and huge data in numerous areas. The research in databases and information technology has given rise to an approach to store and manipulate this data for further decision making. In this paper certain data mining techniques were adopted to analyze the data that shows relevance with desired attributes. Regression technique was adopted to help us find out the influence of Agriculture, Service and Manufacturing on the performance of gross domestic product (GDP. Trend and time series technique was applied to the data to help us find out what trend of GDP with respect to service, agriculture and manufacturing sector for the past decade has been. Finally Correlation was also used to help us analyze the relationship among the variables (service, agriculture and manufacturing sector. From the three techniques analyzed, service value added variable was the most prominent variable which showed the strong influence on GDP growth rate.

  13. A robust economic technique for crosswell seismic profiling. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardage, B.A.; Simmons, J.L. Jr.

    1998-01-01

    The objective of this research program was to investigate a novel way to acquire crosswell tomographic data, that being to use a standard surface-positioned seismic energy source stationed inline with two wells that have downhole receiver arrays. This field technique differs from the traditional way that crosswell tomography is done, which requires that a downhole receiver array be in one well and that a downhole seismic source be in a second well. The purpose of the research effort was to evaluate the relative merits of the potential advantages and pitfalls of surface-source crosswell tomography, which some also refer to as twin-receiver-well crosswell tomography. The principal findings were: (1) surface-source crosswell tomography is a viable technology and can be used in appropriate reservoir conditions, (2) raypath modeling should be done to determine if the targeted interwell space is properly illuminated by surface-generated wavefields before proceeding to collect surface-source tomographic data, (3) crosswell data generated by a surface-based source are subject to a greater range of traveltime errors than are data generated by a downhole source, primarily due to shot statics caused by variable weathered layers, and (4) the accuracy and reliability of the interwell tomogram increase as more independent velocity information (sonic logs, velocity checkshots, vertical seismic profiles, downhole-source crosswell data) is available to constrain the inversion. The surface-source approach to crosswell tomography was evaluated by recording twin-receiver well data at the Texaco Borehole Test Site in Humble, Texas.

  14. Growth rates of breeder reactor fuel. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ott, K.O.

    1979-01-01

    During the contract period, a consistent formalism for the definition of the growth rates (and thus the doubling time) of breeder reactor fuel has been developed. This formalism was then extended to symbiotic operation of breeder and converter reactors. Further, an estimation prescription for the growth rate has been developed which is based upon the breeding worth factors. The characteristics of this definition have been investigated, which led to an additional integral concept, the breeding bonus

  15. NUMERICAL TECHNIQUES TO SOLVE CONDENSATIONAL AND DISSOLUTIONAL GROWTH EQUATIONS WHEN GROWTH IS COUPLED TO REVERSIBLE REACTIONS (R823186)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noniterative, unconditionally stable numerical techniques for solving condensational anddissolutional growth equations are given. Growth solutions are compared to Gear-code solutions forthree cases when growth is coupled to reversible equilibrium chemistry. In all cases, ...

  16. Growth and Final Height Among Children With Phenylketonuria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiele, Alena G; Gausche, Ruth; Lindenberg, Cornelia; Beger, Christoph; Arelin, Maria; Rohde, Carmen; Mütze, Ulrike; Weigel, Johannes F; Mohnike, Klaus; Baerwald, Christoph; Scholz, Markus; Kiess, Wieland; Pfäffle, Roland; Beblo, Skadi

    2017-11-01

    Growth is an important criterion to evaluate health in childhood and adolescence, especially in patients depending on special dietary treatment. Phenylketonuria (PKU) is the most common inherited disease of amino acid metabolism. Patients with PKU depend on a special phenylalanine-restricted diet, low in natural protein. The study aimed to evaluate growth, growth rate, and target height in 224 patients with PKU. Retrospective, longitudinal analysis of standardized, yearly measurements of height, weight, and calculated growth rate (SD score [SDS]) of patients with PKU aged 0 to 18 years were conducted by using the national computerized CrescNet database. Inclusion was restricted to patients carried to term with a confirmed diagnosis of PKU or mild hyperphenylalaninemia determined by newborn screening and early treatment initiation. From birth to adulthood, patients with PKU were significantly shorter than healthy German children (height SDS at 18 years: -0.882 ± 0.108, P < .001). They missed their target height by 3 cm by adulthood (women: P = .02) and 5 cm (men: P = .01). In patients receiving casein hydrolysate during childhood, this was more pronounced compared with patients receiving amino acid mixtures ( P < .001). Growth rate was significantly reduced during their first 2 years of life and in puberty (growth rate SDS: -1.1 to -0.5 m/year, P < .001 and -0.5; P < .02). Early diagnosed, treated, and continuously monitored patients with PKU showed reduced height from birth onward. During the last 2 decades, this phenomenon attenuated, probably because of advances in PKU therapy related to protein supplements and special low-protein foods. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  17. Growth of large detector crystals. CRADA final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boatner, L.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Samuelson, S. [Deltronic Crystal Industries, Dover, NJ (United States)

    1997-06-18

    In the course of a collaborative research effort between L.A. Boatner of Oak Ridge National Laboratory and Prof. Alex Lempicki of the Department of Chemistry of Boston University, a new highly efficient and very fast scintillator for the detection of gamma-rays was discovered. This new scintillator consists of a single crystal of lutetium orthophosphate (LuPO{sub 4}) to which a small percentage of trivalent cerium is added as an activator ion. The new lutetium orthophosphate-cerium scintillator was found to be superior in performance to bismuth germanium oxide--a material that is currently widely used as a gamma-ray detector in a variety of medical, scientific, and technical applications. Single crystals of LuPO{sub 4} and related rare-earth orthophosphates had been grown for a number of years in the ORNL Solid State Division prior to the discovery of the efficient gamma-ray-scintillation response of LuPO{sub 4}:Ce. The high-temperature-solvent (flux-growth) method used for the growth of these crystals was capable of producing crystals in sizes that were adequate for research purposes but that were inadequate for commercial-scale production and widespread application. The CRADA between ORNL and Deltronic Crystal Industries of Dover, NJ was undertaken for the purpose of investigating alternate approaches, such as top-seeded-solution growth, to the growth of LuPO{sub 4}:Ce scintillator crystals in sizes significantly larger than those obtainable through the application of standard flux-growth methods and, therefore, suitable for commercial sales and applications.

  18. Body growth considerations in age-specific dosimetry. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eckerman, K.F.

    1993-09-30

    This report describes the manner in which the age-specific dosimetric calculations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) addressed changes in organ size that occur with age. The approach involves an interpolation of dosimetric information derived for six reference individuals using the inverse of the total body mass as the interpolation variable. An alternative formulation is investigated that employs a functional representation of the organ mass as a function of age in conjunction with an explicit formulation of the dosimetric factors in terms of organ mass. Using an exponential-logistic growth function as suggested by Walker, this report demonstrates, through application to the dosimetry of radioiodines in the thyroid, that the alternative formulation can be formulated and implemented. Although either approach provides a workable basis for age-specific dosimetry, it is clear that the functional representation of organ growth has some attractive features. However, without question, the major difficulty is the quality and quantity of data available to address the age- and gender-specific parameters in the dosimetric formulations.

  19. Growth and evaluation of lanthanoids orthoniobates single crystals processed by a miniature pedestal growth technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Octaviano, E.S.; Reyes Ardila, D.; Andrade, L.H.C.; Siu Li, M.; Andreeta, J.P.

    2004-01-01

    Optimized conditions for the growth of lanthanoids orthoniobates (LnNbO 4 , Ln=lanthanide elements) single crystal minirods by a floating zone technique were investigated. Adequate atmospheres and pulling to feeding speed ratios to grow these materials were determined. Emphasis is given to the study of LaNbO 4 because of their more favorable growth conditions and crystalline quality. This material can be efficiently doped with rare earth elements such as erbium. It grows with high crystallinity and its preferential growth direction is [110]. A preliminary evaluation of optical properties of Er 3+ -doped LaNbO 4 single crystal under the Judd-Ofelt formalism indicates spectral parameters Ω t close and even larger than for Er 3+ ions in YVO 4 . (copyright 2004 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  20. Growth techniques used to develop CDS/CDTE thin film solar cells ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Growth techniques used to develop CDS/CDTE thin film solar cells: a review. ... Techniques such as molecular beam epitaxy (MBE), metal organic chemical vapour deposition (MOCVD) called melt growth or Bridgman are well known as high quality semiconductor growth techniques. One of the limitations of these ...

  1. Nuclear techniques in the coal industry. Proceedings of a final research co-ordination meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-11-01

    With the aim of promoting advanced research and facilitating a more extensive application of nuclear techniques for environmental protection in the exploration and exploitation of coal, the IAEA established the present co-ordinated research programme (CRP) in 1989. This report includes an assessment of the current status and trends in nuclear techniques in the coal industry and the results obtained by the participants at the CRP. Proceedings of the final CRP on ''Nuclear Techniques in Exploration and Exploitation of Coal: On-line and Bulk Analysis and Evaluation of Potential Environmental Pollutants in Coal and Coke'', was held in Krakow, Poland, from 9 to 12 May 1994. Refs, figs, tabs

  2. Understanding and predicting metallic whisker growth and its effects on reliability : LDRD final report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael, Joseph Richard; Grant, Richard P.; Rodriguez, Mark Andrew; Pillars, Jamin; Susan, Donald Francis; McKenzie, Bonnie Beth; Yelton, William Graham

    2012-01-01

    Tin (Sn) whiskers are conductive Sn filaments that grow from Sn-plated surfaces, such as surface finishes on electronic packages. The phenomenon of Sn whiskering has become a concern in recent years due to requirements for lead (Pb)-free soldering and surface finishes in commercial electronics. Pure Sn finishes are more prone to whisker growth than their Sn-Pb counterparts and high profile failures due to whisker formation (causing short circuits) in space applications have been documented. At Sandia, Sn whiskers are of interest due to increased use of Pb-free commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) parts and possible future requirements for Pb-free solders and surface finishes in high-reliability microelectronics. Lead-free solders and surface finishes are currently being used or considered for several Sandia applications. Despite the long history of Sn whisker research and the recently renewed interest in this topic, a comprehensive understanding of whisker growth remains elusive. This report describes recent research on characterization of Sn whiskers with the aim of understanding the underlying whisker growth mechanism(s). The report is divided into four sections and an Appendix. In Section 1, the Sn plating process is summarized. Specifically, the Sn plating parameters that were successful in producing samples with whiskers will be reviewed. In Section 2, the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of Sn whiskers and time-lapse SEM studies of whisker growth will be discussed. This discussion includes the characterization of straight as well as kinked whiskers. In Section 3, a detailed discussion is given of SEM/EBSD (electron backscatter diffraction) techniques developed to determine the crystallography of Sn whiskers. In Section 4, these SEM/EBSD methods are employed to determine the crystallography of Sn whiskers, with a statistically significant number of whiskers analyzed. This is the largest study of Sn whisker crystallography ever reported. This section includes a

  3. Growth hormone treatment improves final height and nutritional status of children with chronic kidney disease and growth deceleration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bizzarri, C; Lonero, A; Delvecchio, M; Cavallo, L; Faienza, M F; Giordano, M; Dello Strologo, L; Cappa, M

    2018-03-01

    Growth retardation is a common complication of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in children. Treatment with recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) has been used to help short children with CKD to attain a height more in keeping with their age group, but the scientific evidence regarding the effect of rhGH on final height is scarce. Final heights of children with CKD receiving rhGH treatment (cases) were compared with final heights of a matched cohort of children with CKD that did not receive rhGH therapy (controls). Sixty-eight rhGH-treated cases (44 boys) were compared with 92 untreated controls (60 boys). Mean duration of rhGH therapy was 4.2 ± 0.9 years; rhGH dose was 0.3 ± 0.07 mg/kg/week. Height SDS at baseline was lower in rhGH-treated patients than in controls (-2.00 ± 1.02 versus -0.96 ± 1.11, p growth deceleration of children with CKD, and ultimately to improve their final height, reducing the difference with target height.

  4. Mic it! microphones, microphone techniques, and their impact on the final mix

    CERN Document Server

    Corbett, Ian

    2014-01-01

    Capture great sound in the first place, and spend less time ""fixing it in the mix"" with Ian Corbett's Mic It! Microphones, Microphone Techniques, and Their Impact on the Final Mix. With his expert guidance, you'll quickly understand essential audio concepts as they relate to microphones and mic techniques, and learn how to apply them to your recording situation. Whether you only ever buy one microphone, are equipping a studio on a budget, or have a vast selection of great mics to use, you'll learn to better use whatever tools you have. Mic It! gives you the background to design and discover

  5. A robust seeding technique for the growth of single grain (RE)BCO and (RE)BCO–Ag bulk superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namburi, Devendra K.; Shi, Yunhua; Dennis, Anthony R.; Durrell, John H.; Cardwell, David A.

    2018-04-01

    Bulk, single grains of RE–Ba–Cu–O [(RE)BCO] high temperature superconductors have significant potential for a wide range of applications, including trapped field magnets, energy storage flywheels, superconducting mixers and magnetic separators. One of the main challenges in the production of these materials by the so-called top seeded melt growth technique is the reliable seeding of large, single grains, which are required for high field applications. A chemically aggressive liquid phase comprising of BaCuO2 and CuO is generated during the single grain growth process, which comes into direct contact with the seed crystal either instantaneously or via infiltration through a buffer pellet, if employed in the process. This can cause either partial or complete melting of the seed, leading subsequently to growth failure. Here, the underlying mechanisms of seed crystal melting and the role of seed porosity in the single grain growth process are investigated. We identify seed porosity as a key limitation in the reliable and successful fabrication of large grain (RE)BCO bulk superconductors for the first time, and propose the use of Mg-doped NdBCO generic seeds fabricated via the infiltration growth technique to reduce the effects of seed porosity on the melt growth process. Finally, we demonstrate that the use of such seeds leads to better resistance to melting during the single grain growth process, and therefore to a more reliable fabrication technique.

  6. Equivalence of the final stretch and crack tip opening angle criteria for plane strain crack growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, E.

    1981-01-01

    The equivalence of the final stretch and crack tip opening angle criteria, as applied to the Dugdale-Bilby-Cottrell-Swinden type model for Mode I plane strain crack growth, is demonstrated. This equivalence is independent of the plastic zone size, geometrical parameters, and the stress distribution within the fracture process zone, if the yield stress is sufficiently low and the crack growth resistance is sufficiently high. The results therefore provide further support for the viability of crack tip opening angle as a crack growth chracterizing parameter. 7 refs

  7. Magnet alignment tolerances in the SLC final focus system determined by Lie algebra techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmermann, F.

    1995-01-01

    Using Lie algebra techniques, static alignment tolerances are derived for all quadrupole and sextupole magnets in the 1994 SLC final focus. Three different effects are identified which limit the tolerable quadrupole misalignment. The largest amplitude of an offset-compensating closed orbit bump and the maximum allowed displacement between beam orbit and magnet center are evaluated for each sextupole. Multiparticle tracking supplements and confirms the analytical results. (orig.)

  8. Growth pattern and final height of very preterm vs. very low birth weight infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hollanders, J.J.; Pal, S.M. van der; Dommelen, P. van; Rotteveel, J.; Finken, M.J.J.

    2017-01-01

    BackgroundBoth very preterm (VP; i.e., gestational age <32 weeks) and very low birth weight (VLBW; i.e., birth weight <1,500 g) are used as inclusion criteria by studies on preterm birth. We aimed to quantify the impact of these entities on postnatal growth until final height.MethodsSubjects born VP

  9. Growth velocity and final height in elite female rhythmic and artistic gymnasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgopoulos, Neoklis A; Theodoropoulou, Anastasia; Roupas, Nikolaos A; Rottstein, Loredana; Tsekouras, Athanasios; Mylonas, Panagiotis; Vagenakis, George A; Koukkou, Eftychia; Armeni, Anastasia K; Sakellaropoulos, George; Leglise, Michel; Vagenakis, Apostolos G; Markou, Kostas B

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the impact of intensive training on adult final height in elite female rhythmic and artistic gymnasts. The study included 215 rhythmic gymnasts (RG) and 113 artistic gymnasts (AG). AG were below the 50th percentile, while RG were taller than average. Final adult height was lower than target height in AG, while in RG, it exceeded target height. AG started training earlier than RG (p<0.001) and reported lower intensity of training (p<0.001). RG were taller than AG, with higher target height, greater Δ final height-target height and lower body fat and BMI (p<0.001). Using multiple regression analysis, the main factors influencing final height were weight SDS (p<0.001), target height SDS (p<0.001) and age of menarche (p<0.001) for RG, and weight SDS (p<0.001) and target height SDS (p<0.001) for AG. In both elite female RG and AG, genetic predisposition to final height was not disrupted and remained the main force of growth. Although in elite RG genetic predisposition for growth was fully preserved, in elite female AG final adult height falls shorter than genetically determined target height, though within the standard error of prediction.

  10. The transport phenomena during the growth of ZnTe crystal by the temperature gradient solution growth technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Liying; Jie, Wanqi; Wang, Tao; Zhou, Boru; Yang, Fan

    2017-03-01

    A numerical model is developed to simulate the temperature field, the thermosolutal convection, the solute segregation and the growth interface morphology during the growth of ZnTe crystal from Te rich solution by the temperature gradient solution growth (TGSG) technique. Effects of the temperature gradient on the transport phenomena, the growth interface morphology and the growth rate are examined. The influences of the latent heat and the thermal conductivity of ZnTe crystal on the transport phenomena and the growth interface are also discussed. We find that the mass transfer of ZnTe in the solution is very slow because of the low diffusion coefficient and the lack of mixing in the lower part of the solution. During the growth, dilute solution with high density and low growth temperature accumulates in the central region of the growth interface, making the growth interface change into two distinct parts. The inner part is very concave, while the outer part is relatively flat. Growth conditions in front of the two parts of the growth interface are different. The crystalline quality of the inner part of the ingot is predicted to be worse than that of the outer part. High temperature gradient can significantly increase the growth rate, and avoid the diffusion controlled growth to some extent.

  11. Final cutting of shelterwood. Harvesting techniques and effects on the Picea abies regeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gloede, Dan

    2001-01-01

    During the last decade, environmental and biological aspects have grown increasingly important in forestry. At the same time conventional planting after clear-cutting has failed on many sites with a high ground water table, abundant competitive vegetation and frequent frosts. Therefore, on these sites the use of the shelterwood system for regeneration of Norway spruce (Picea abies [L.] Karst.) has increased in Sweden. The main objective of the thesis is to study if it is possible to final-cut shelterwoods at acceptable harvesting costs, logging damage and release effects in the regeneration. Final cutting of three shelterwoods (180-200 m 3 /ha) in Sweden were carried out with single- and double-grip harvester systems in 1-1.5 m high regeneration (6 400-26 700 seedlings/ha). In a fourth shelterwood (140-165 m 3 /ha), also situated in Sweden, conventional felling with a single-grip harvester was compared with a more concentrated felling according to a method named 'tossing the caber', where the trees were felled top-end first over the 1.2-1.3 m high regeneration (9 530-11 780 seedlings/ha) and into the striproad. No differences in productivity and cost between single- and double-grip harvesters in final cutting of shelterwood were found. Despite few stems/ha and extensive regeneration the harvesting cost was considered low (33.5 SEK/m 3 ). Approximately one third of the seedlings suffered mortal logging damage, which was considered acceptable. No differences between conventional felling and the tossing the caber method were found regarding productivity, cost and damage to the regeneration. However, tossing the caber may be a more productive alternative in final cutting of pine-dominated shelterwood or seed tree stands. Seedling growth and survival after shelterwood removal was not influenced by the choice of harvester system. Seedling height and vitality were found to be good estimators of post-release survival and growth which, in total, was found to be acceptable

  12. Analysis of higher order optical aberrations in the SLC final focus using Lie Algebra techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, N.J.; Irwin, J.; Woodley, M.

    1993-04-01

    The SLC final focus system is designed to have an overall demagnification of 30:1, with a β at the interaction point (β*) of 5 mm, and an energy band pass of ∼0.4%. Strong sextupole pairs are used to cancel the large chromaticity which accrues primarily from the final triplet. Third-order aberrations limit the performance of the system, the dominating terms being U 1266 and U 3466 terms (in the notation of K. Brown). Using Lie Algebra techniques, it is possible to analytically calculate the soave of these terms in addition to understanding their origin. Analytical calculations (using Lie Algebra packages developed in the Mathematica language) are presented of the bandwidth and minimum spot size as a function of divergence at the interaction point (IP). Comparisons of the analytical results from the Lie Algebra maps and results from particle tracking (TURTLE) are also presented

  13. Measurement of the Top Quark Mass Using the Matrix Element Technique in Dilepton Final States

    CERN Document Server

    Abazov, Victor Mukhamedovich

    2016-08-18

    We present a measurement of the top quark mass in ppbar collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 1.96 TeV at the Fermilab Tevatron collider. The data were collected by the D0 experiment corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 9.7 fb-1. The matrix element technique is applied to ttbar events in the final state containing leptons (electrons or muons) with high transverse momenta and at least two jets. The calibration of the jet energy scale determined in the lepton + jets final state of ttbar decays is applied to jet energies. This correction provides a substantial reduction in systematic uncertainties. We obtain a top quark mass of mt = 173.93 +- 1.84 GeV.

  14. Final-impression techniques and materials for making complete and removable partial dentures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaraman, Srinivasan; Singh, Balendra P; Ramanathan, Balasubramanian; Pazhaniappan Pillai, Murukan; MacDonald, Laura; Kirubakaran, Richard

    2018-04-04

    Endentulism is relatively common and is often treated with the provision of complete or partial removable dentures. Clinicians make final impressions of complete dentures (CD) and removable partial dentures (RPD) using different techniques and materials. Applying the correct impression technique and material, based on an individual's oral condition, improves the quality of the prosthesis, which may improve quality of life. To assess the effects of different final-impression techniques and materials used to make complete dentures, for retention, stability, comfort, and quality of life in completely edentulous people.To assess the effects of different final-impression techniques and materials used to make removable partial dentures, for stability, comfort, overextension, and quality of life in partially edentulous people. Cochrane Oral Health's Information Specialist searched the following databases: Cochrane Oral Health's Trials Register (to 22 November 2017), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (Cochrane Register of Studies, to 22 November 2017), MEDLINE Ovid (1946 to 22 November 2017), and Embase Ovid (21 December 2015 to 22 November 2017). The US National Institutes of Health Trials Registry (ClinicalTrials.gov) and the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform were searched for ongoing trials. No restrictions were placed on language or publication status when searching the electronic databases, however the search of Embase was restricted by date due to the Cochrane Centralised Search Project to identify all clinical trials and add them to CENTRAL. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing different final-impression techniques and materials for treating people with complete dentures (CD) and removable partial dentures (RPD). For CD, we included trials that compared different materials or different techniques or both. In RPD for tooth-supported conditions, we included trials comparing the

  15. Final Report: "Collaborative Project. Understanding the Chemical Processes That Affect Growth Rates of Freshly Nucleated Particles"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, James N. [NCAR, Boulder, CO (United States); McMurry, Peter H. [NCAR, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2015-11-12

    This final technical report describes our research activities that have, as the ultimate goal, the development of a model that explains growth rates of freshly nucleated particles. The research activities, which combine field observations with laboratory experiments, explore the relationship between concentrations of gas-phase species that contribute to growth and the rates at which those species are taken up. We also describe measurements of the chemical composition of freshly nucleated particles in a variety of locales, as well as properties (especially hygroscopicity) that influence their effects on climate. Our measurements include a self-organized, DOE-ARM funded project at the Southern Great Plains site, the New Particle Formation Study (NPFS), which took place during spring 2013. NPFS data are available to the research community on the ARM data archive, providing a unique suite observations of trace gas and aerosols that are associated with the formation and growth of atmospheric aerosol particles.

  16. Effect of different weed management techniques on growth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The weed management techniques included slashing at 8-weekly intervals, mulching alone, glyphosate + slashing, glyphosate + mulching, glyphosate alone and a weed-free control. Glyphosate + mulching proved to have the greatest positive influence on plant height, plant girth, leaf area and number of leaves throughout ...

  17. Growth trajectory and pubertal tempo from birth till final height in a girl with Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siew, Jia Xuan; Yap, Fabian

    2018-01-01

    Growth anomaly is a prominent feature in Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome (WHS), a rare congenital disorder caused by variable deletion of chromosome 4p. While growth charts have been developed for WHS patients 0-4 years of age and growth data available for Japanese WHS patients 0-17 years, information on pubertal growth and final height among WHS children remain lacking. Growth hormone (GH) therapy has been reported in two GH-sufficient children with WHS, allowing for pre-puberty catch up growth; however, pubertal growth and final height information was also unavailable. We describe the complete growth journey of a GH-sufficient girl with WHS from birth until final height (FH), in relation to her mid parental height (MPH) and target range (TR). Her growth trajectory and pubertal changes during childhood, when she was treated with growth hormone (GH) from 3 years 8 months old till 6 months post-menarche at age 11 years was fully detailed. Pubertal growth characteristics and FH information in WHS is lacking.While pre-pubertal growth may be improved by GH, GH therapy may not translate to improvement in FH in WHS patients.Longitudinal growth, puberty and FH data of more WHS patients may improve the understanding of growth in its various phases (infancy/childhood/puberty).

  18. Response to growth hormone treatment and final height after cranial or craniospinal irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sulmont, V.; Brauner, R.; Fontoura, M.; Rappaport, R.

    1990-01-01

    Growth hormone (GH) deficiency (GHD) induced by cranial irradiation has become a frequent indication of hGH substitutive therapy. This study analyses the growth response to hGH therapy and the factors involved in the decrease in growth velocity observed after cranial irradiation. One hundred children given cranial radiation for pathology distant from the hypothalamo-pituitary area were studied. Fifty-six of them received hGH therapy for GHD resulting in decreased growth velocity. The initial annual height gain in the cranial-irradiated group was comparable to that of patients treated for idiopathic GHD; additional spinal irradiation significantly reduced the growth response. Twenty-eight hGH-treated patients reached final heights which were compared to those of 2 untreated irradiated groups, one with GHD (n=27) and the other with normal GH secretion (n=17). The height SD score changes observed in hGH therapy were +0.3 in the cranial (n=10) and -1.2 SD in the craniospinal (n=18) groups. GH deficiency had contributed to a mean height loss of 1 SD and spinal irradiation to a loss of 1.4SD. The small effect of hGH therapy on final height is probably linked to the small bone age retardation at onset of hGH therapy and to the fact that irradiated children entered puberty at a younger age in terms of chronological age and bone age than the idiopathic GHD patients. These data suggest that the results of gGH therapy in irradiated children might be improved with higher and more fractionated hGH doses and, in some patients, by delaying puberty using luteinizing hormone releasing hormone analogs

  19. Final heights of boys with normal growth hormone responses to provocative tests following priming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonc, E Nazli; Kandemir, Nurgun; Ozon, Alev; Alikasifoglu, Ayfer

    2008-10-01

    Priming with sex steroids prior to growth hormone (GH) stimulation tests for the diagnosis of GH deficiency is still debatable. We analyzed the auxological data of boys with growth retardation who had normal GH responses to stimulation tests only after priming to establish the validity of priming in the diagnosis of GH deficiency. We also analyzed the effect of different protocols for priming and their efficiency in the diagnosis of GH deficiency. Fifty boys with growth retardation who failed to respond to unprimed GH stimulation tests but responded normally to primed tests were included in the study. Thirty-one of 50 boys responded to GH stimulation tests after single low dose testosterone, 11/50 boys after single conventional dose, and 8/50 boys with multiple-dose testosterone. The study group was followed till final height; height velocity, final height and height SDS were compared to parental and mid-parental heights to determine whether or not the children achieved their height potential. Mean final height SDS of the study group (-1.27 +/- 0.72 SDS) was similar to mid-parental (-1.38 +/- 0.72 SDS) (p = 0.249) and maternal height SDS (-1.26 +/- 1.05 SDS) (p = 0.941), whereas it was greater than the paternal height SDS (-1.7 +/- 0.86) (p = 0.001). The final height SDS of the study group was correlated to maternal, paternal and mid-parental height SDS. Height velocity after the test was greater than the previous height velocity. Final height SDS of the boys who responded to the GH stimulation tests with different priming protocols were compared and found to be similar. Normal responders in primed GH tests grow normally to their target height, suggesting that priming might be a valuable method in the assessment of GH status. Use of priming in the GH stimulation tests of peripubertal boys with decreased growth rate may help avoid unnecessary GH therapy. Multiple-dose testing might exclude GHD in a patient population who failed to respond to a single dose of

  20. Linear growth and final height characteristics in adolescent females with anorexia nervosa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalit Modan-Moses

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Growth retardation is an established complication of anorexia nervosa (AN. However, findings concerning final height of AN patients are inconsistent. The aim of this study was to assess these phenomena in female adolescent inpatients with AN. METHODS: We retrospectively studied all 211 female adolescent AN patients hospitalized in an inpatient eating disorders department from 1/1/1987 to 31/12/99. Height and weight were assessed at admission and thereafter routinely during hospitalization and follow-up. Final height was measured in 69 patients 2-10 years after discharge. Pre-morbid height data was available in 29 patients. RESULTS: Patients' height standard deviation scores (SDS on admission (-0.285±1.0 and discharge (-0.271±1.02 were significantly (p<0.001 lower than expected in normal adolescents. Patients admitted at age ≤13 years, or less than 1 year after menarche, were more severely growth-impaired than patients admitted at an older age, (p = 0.03. Final height SDS, available for 69 patients, was -0.258±1.04, significantly lower than expected in a normal population (p = 0.04, and was more severely compromised in patients who were admitted less than 1 year from their menarche. In a subgroup of 29 patients with complete growth data (pre-morbid, admission, discharge, and final adult height, the pre-morbid height SDS was not significantly different from the expected (-0.11±1.1, whereas heights at the other time points were significantly (p = 0.001 lower (-0.56±1.2, -0.52±1.2, and -0.6±1.2, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that whereas the premorbid height of female adolescent AN patients is normal, linear growth retardation is a prominent feature of their illness. Weight restoration is associated with catch-up growth, but complete catch-up is often not achieved.

  1. Boosting Higgs pair production in the [Formula: see text] final state with multivariate techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behr, J Katharina; Bortoletto, Daniela; Frost, James A; Hartland, Nathan P; Issever, Cigdem; Rojo, Juan

    2016-01-01

    The measurement of Higgs pair production will be a cornerstone of the LHC program in the coming years. Double Higgs production provides a crucial window upon the mechanism of electroweak symmetry breaking and has a unique sensitivity to the Higgs trilinear coupling. We study the feasibility of a measurement of Higgs pair production in the [Formula: see text] final state at the LHC. Our analysis is based on a combination of traditional cut-based methods with state-of-the-art multivariate techniques. We account for all relevant backgrounds, including the contributions from light and charm jet mis-identification, which are ultimately comparable in size to the irreducible 4 b QCD background. We demonstrate the robustness of our analysis strategy in a high pileup environment. For an integrated luminosity of [Formula: see text] ab[Formula: see text], a signal significance of [Formula: see text] is obtained, indicating that the [Formula: see text] final state alone could allow for the observation of double Higgs production at the High Luminosity LHC.

  2. The effect of posterior distraction on vertebral growth in immature pigs: an experimental simulation of growing rod technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Güney; Huri, Gazi; Demirkran, Gökhan; Dağloğlu, Kenan; Ozkan, Cenk; Alanay, Ahmet; Acaroglu, Emre; Yazici, Muharrem

    2010-04-01

    Experimental study. The aim of this study is to evaluate the vertebral body growth under distraction forces in immature pigs treated with growing rod (GR) technique. Distraction forces applied on growth plate of appendicular skeleton stimulate longitudinal growth. However, the effect of distraction forces on axial skeletal growth has not been fully investigated yet. Twelve 10-week-old domestic pigs were used in this experimental model to simulate GR technique. Four of them were lost during postoperative period because of deep wound infection. Cranially T12-L1 and caudally L4-L5 vertebrae were instrumented by pedicle screws bilaterally, while L2 and L3 were skipped. Distraction between pedicle screws was applied at index surgery. The rods were then lengthened twice in a month interval. All subjects were evaluated with anteroposterior and lateral spinal radiograph before surgery, after surgery, and at the final follow-up. The vertebral body heights of distracted segments (HD = L2 and L3) and control segments (HC = T9, T10 and T11) were measured. Average vertebral body heights and the increase percentage in the vertebral body heights were compared among control segments and distracted segments. The preoperative vertebral body height was similar in 2 groups (preHC: 10.81 mm, n = 19, preHD: 11.27 mm, n = 16, P > 0.05). At the final follow-up, the average vertebral body height in distraction group was significantly higher than the control group (postHC: 17.03 mm, postHD: 18.58 mm, P < 0.05). The increase percentage in vertebral body height was higher in distracted segments, but there was no statistically significant difference between the 2 groups. The vertebral growth continues during GR instrumentation. Distraction forces might stimulate also apophyseal growth of axial skeleton.

  3. Rumen microbial growth estimation using in vitro radiophosphorous incorporation technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bueno, Ives Claudio da Silva; Machado, Mariana de Carvalho; Cabral Filho, Sergio Lucio Salomon; Gobbo, Sarita Priscila; Vitti, Dorinha Miriam Silber Schmidt; Abdalla, Adibe Luiz [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)

    2002-07-01

    Rumen microorganisms are able to transform low biological value nitrogen of feed stuff into high quality protein. To determine how much microbial protein that process forms, radiomarkers can be used. Radiophosphorous has been used to mark microbial protein, as element P is present in all rumen microorganisms (as phospholipids) and the P:N ratio of rumen biomass is quite constant. The aim of this work was to estimate microbial synthesis from feedstuff commonly used in ruminant nutrition in Brazil. Tested feeds were fresh alfalfa, raw sugarcane bagasse, rice hulls, rice meal, soybean meal, wheat meal, Tifton hay, leucaena, dehydrated citrus pulp, wet brewers' grains and cottonseed meal. {sup 32} P-labelled phosphate solution was used as marker for microbial protein. Results showed the diversity of feeds by distinct quantities of nitrogen incorporated into microbial mass. Low nutrient availability feeds (sugarcane bagasse and rice hulls) promoted the lowest values of incorporated nitrogen. Nitrogen incorporation showed positive relationship (r=0.56; P=0.06) with the rate of degradation and negative relationship (r=-0.59; P<0.05) with fiber content of feeds. The results highlight that easier fermentable feeds (higher rates of degradation) and/or with lower fiber contents promote a more efficient microbial growth and better performance for the host animal. (author)

  4. Time-series animation techniques for visualizing urban growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acevedo, W.; Masuoka, P.

    1997-01-01

    Time-series animation is a visually intuitive way to display urban growth. Animations of landuse change for the Baltimore-Washington region were generated by showing a series of images one after the other in sequential order. Before creating an animation, various issues which will affect the appearance of the animation should be considered, including the number of original data frames to use, the optimal animation display speed, the number of intermediate frames to create between the known frames, and the output media on which the animations will be displayed. To create new frames between the known years of data, the change in each theme (i.e. urban development, water bodies, transportation routes) must be characterized and an algorithm developed to create the in-between frames. Example time-series animations were created using a temporal GIS database of the Baltimore-Washington area. Creating the animations involved generating raster images of the urban development, water bodies, and principal transportation routes; overlaying the raster images on a background image; and importing the frames to a movie file. Three-dimensional perspective animations were created by draping each image over digital elevation data prior to importing the frames to a movie file. ?? 1997 Elsevier Science Ltd.

  5. Impact of self-administered relaxation and guided imagery techniques during final trimester and birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gedde-Dahl, Merete; Fors, Egil A

    2012-02-01

    The objective of this study was to test if and how self-administered practice of relaxation techniques, positive affirmation and guided imagery, in the final part of pregnancy had an impact on giving birth. Further to see if the use of a simple method, a CD with a booklet, with no previous training or specific support of the participants (neither required nor delivered), affected the birth experience. Outcome measures were monitored both during and after delivery: During delivery, pain and anxiety were measured at different stages of birth. Post-delivery Wellbeing (Edmonton Scale 0-10, where 10 is the worst possible feeling of Wellbeing), pain, anxiety, Apgar score, duration of birth, complications and anesthesia/analgesic were recorded. Those in the CD-intervention group also reported how many times they had practiced the techniques. The study employed a randomized controlled trial. Results show that the CD-intervention group had a significantly better score on total Wellbeing, as measured by the ESAS (0-10) Edmonton Scale. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Final adult height in long-term growth hormone-treated achondroplasia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Daisuke; Namba, Noriyuki; Hanioka, Yuki; Ueyama, Kaoru; Sakamoto, Natsuko; Nakano, Yukako; Izui, Masafumi; Nagamatsu, Yuiko; Kashiwagi, Hiroko; Yamamuro, Miho; Ishiura, Yoshihito; Ogitani, Ayako; Seino, Yoshiki

    2017-07-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the gain in final height of achondroplasia (ACH) patients with long-term growth hormone (GH) treatment. We analyzed medical data of 22 adult patients (8 males and 14 females) treated with GH at a dose of 0.05 mg/kg/day. Optionally, tibial lengthening (TL) was performed with the Ilizalov method in 15 patients and TL as well as femoral lengthening (FL) in 6 patients. Concomitant gonadal suppression therapy with buserelin acetate was applied in 13 patients. The mean treatment periods with GH were 10.7 ± 4.0 and 9.3 ± 2.5 years for males and females, respectively. GH treatment augmented the final height +0.60 ± 0.52 SD (+3.5 cm) and +0.51 ± 1.29 SD (+2.8 cm) in males and females compared to non-treated ACH patients, respectively. Final height of ACH patients that underwent GH and TL increased +1.72 ± 0.72 SD (+10.0 cm) and +1.95 ± 1.34 SD (+9.8 cm) in males and females, respectively. GH, TL, and FL increased their final height +2.97 SD (+17.2 cm) and +3.41 ± 1.63 SD (+17.3 cm) in males and females, respectively. Gonadal suppression therapy had no impact on final height. Long-term GH treatment contributes to 2.6 and 2.1% of final adult height in male and female ACH patients, respectively.

  7. Response to long-term growth hormone therapy in patients affected by RASopathies and growth hormone deficiency: Patterns of growth, puberty and final height data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamburrino, Federica; Gibertoni, Dino; Rossi, Cesare; Scarano, Emanuela; Perri, Annamaria; Montanari, Francesca; Fantini, Maria Pia; Pession, Andrea; Tartaglia, Marco; Mazzanti, Laura

    2015-11-01

    RASopathies are developmental disorders caused by heterozygous germline mutations in genes encoding proteins in the RAS-MAPK signaling pathway. Reduced growth is a common feature. Several studies generated data on growth, final height (FH), and height velocity (HV) after growth hormone (GH) treatment in patients with these disorders, particularly in Noonan syndrome, the most common RASopathy. These studies, however, refer to heterogeneous cohorts in terms of molecular information, GH status, age at start and length of therapy, and GH dosage. This work reports growth data in 88 patients affected by RASopathies with molecularly confirmed diagnosis, together with statistics on body proportions, pubertal pattern, and FH in 33, including 16 treated with GH therapy for proven GH deficiency. Thirty-three patients showed GH deficiency after pharmacological tests, and were GH-treated for an average period of 6.8 ± 4.8 years. Before starting therapy, HV was -2.6 ± 1.3 SDS, and mean basal IGF1 levels were -2.0 ± 1.1 SDS. Long-term GH therapy, starting early during childhood, resulted in a positive height response compared with untreated patients (1.3 SDS in terms of height-gain), normalizing FH for Ranke standards but not for general population and Target Height. Pubertal timing negatively affected pubertal growth spurt and FH, with IGF1 standardized score increased from -2.43 to -0.27 SDS. During GH treatment, no significant change in bone age velocity, body proportions, or cardiovascular function was observed. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Estimating Crop Growth Stage by Combining Meteorological and Remote Sensing Based Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champagne, C.; Alavi-Shoushtari, N.; Davidson, A. M.; Chipanshi, A.; Zhang, Y.; Shang, J.

    2016-12-01

    Estimations of seeding, harvest and phenological growth stage of crops are important sources of information for monitoring crop progress and crop yield forecasting. Growth stage has been traditionally estimated at the regional level through surveys, which rely on field staff to collect the information. Automated techniques to estimate growth stage have included agrometeorological approaches that use temperature and day length information to estimate accumulated heat and photoperiod, with thresholds used to determine when these stages are most likely. These approaches however, are crop and hybrid dependent, and can give widely varying results depending on the method used, particularly if the seeding date is unknown. Methods to estimate growth stage from remote sensing have progressed greatly in the past decade, with time series information from the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) the most common approach. Time series NDVI provide information on growth stage through a variety of techniques, including fitting functions to a series of measured NDVI values or smoothing these values and using thresholds to detect changes in slope that are indicative of rapidly increasing or decreasing `greeness' in the vegetation cover. The key limitations of these techniques for agriculture are frequent cloud cover in optical data that lead to errors in estimating local features in the time series function, and the incongruity between changes in greenness and traditional agricultural growth stages. There is great potential to combine both meteorological approaches and remote sensing to overcome the limitations of each technique. This research will examine the accuracy of both meteorological and remote sensing approaches over several agricultural sites in Canada, and look at the potential to integrate these techniques to provide improved estimates of crop growth stage for common field crops.

  9. The use of an image registration technique in the urban growth monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parada, N. D. J. (Principal Investigator); Foresti, C.; Deoliveira, M. D. L. N.; Niero, M.; Parreira, E. M. D. M. F.

    1984-01-01

    The use of an image registration program in the studies of urban growth is described. This program permits a quick identification of growing areas with the overlap of the same scene in different periods, and with the use of adequate filters. The city of Brasilia, Brazil, is selected for the test area. The dynamics of Brasilia urban growth are analyzed with the overlap of scenes dated June 1973, 1978 and 1983. The results showed the utilization of the image registration technique for the monitoring of dynamic urban growth.

  10. A thin-layer liquid culture technique for the growth of Helicobacter pylori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, Jung-Soo; Park, Kyung-Chul; Song, Jae-Young; Kim, Dong-Hyun; Lee, Kyung-Ja; Kwon, Young-Cheol; Kim, Jung-Min; Kim, Kyung-Mi; Youn, Hee-Shang; Kang, Hyung-Lyun; Baik, Seung-Chul; Lee, Woo-Kon; Cho, Myung-Je; Rhee, Kwang-Ho

    2010-08-01

    Several attempts have been successful in liquid cultivation of Helicobaccter pylori. However, there is a need to improve the growth of H. pylori in liquid media in order to get affluent growth and a simple approach for examining bacterial properties. We introduce here a thin-layer liquid culture technique for the growth of H. pylori. A thin-layer liquid culture system was established by adding liquid media to a 90-mm diameter Petri dish. Optimal conditions for bacterial growth were investigated and then viability, growth curve, and released proteins were examined. Maximal growth of H. pylori was obtained by adding 3 mL of brucella broth supplemented with 10% horse to a Petri dish. H. pylori grew in both DMEM and RPMI-1640 supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum and 0.5% yeast extract. Serum-free RPMI-1640 supported the growth of H. pylori when supplemented with dimethyl-beta-cyclodextrin (200 microg/mL) and 1% yeast extract. Under optimal growth, H. pylori grew exponentially for 28 hours, reaching a density of 3.4 OD(600) with a generation time of 3.3 hours. After 24 hours, cultures at a cell density of 1.0 OD(600) contained 1.3 +/- 0.1 x 10(9 )CFU/mL. gamma-Glutamyl transpeptidase, nuclease, superoxide dismutase, and urease were not detected in culture supernatants at 24 hours in thin-layer liquid culture, but were present at 48 hours, whereas alcohol dehydrogenase, alkylhydroperoxide reductase, catalase, and vacuolating cytotoxin were detected at 24 hours. Thin-layer liquid culture technique is feasible, and can serve as a versatile liquid culture technique for investigating bacterial properties of H. pylori.

  11. Application of modern fluorescence techniques in studying growth, viability and phosphatase production of phytoplankton

    OpenAIRE

    RYCHTECKÝ, Pavel

    2014-01-01

    In this thesis, the modern fluorescence techniques (PDMPO, SYTOX Green and FLEA) coupled with image cytometry were employed to study phytoplankton growth, viability and production of extracellular phosphatases. Seasonal studies at the Římov Reservoir and the Lipno Reservoir were conducted, as well as laboratory experiments.

  12. Development of low-cost silicon crystal growth techniques for terrestrial photovoltaic solar energy conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoutendyk, J. A.

    1976-01-01

    Because of the growing need for new sources of electrical energy, photovoltaic solar energy conversion is being developed. Photovoltaic devices are now being produced mainly from silicon wafers obtained from the slicing and polishing of cylindrically shaped single crystal ingots. Inherently high-cost processes now being used must either be eliminated or modified to provide low-cost crystalline silicon. Basic to this pursuit is the development of new or modified methods of crystal growth and, if necessary, crystal cutting. If silicon could be grown in a form requiring no cutting, a significant cost saving would potentially be realized. Therefore, several techniques for growth in the form of ribbons or sheets are being explored. In addition, novel techniques for low-cost ingot growth and cutting are under investigation.

  13. Radiometric assay of bacterial growth: analysis of factors determining system performance and optimization of assay technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boonkitticharoen, V.; Ehrhardt, J.C.; Kirchner, P.T.

    1987-01-01

    A quantitative technique for the measurement of 14 CO 2 released from a bacterial culture was evaluated. The technique uses liquid scintillation counting to record 14 CO 2 accumulation on a fluor-impregnated filter paper within a double-chambered scintillation vial that also houses the bacterial growth medium. We have successfully identified and corrected the major causes for a variably low detection efficiency, and also established the optimum mixture of reagents for the detection system. Incorporation of Triton X-100 into the scintillation fluid used for the detector reduced the variability between identical assays in a single batch from 50% to 5%, and, in conjunction with an increase in the scintillator concentration, raised the counting efficiency from 30% to 70-88%. The response of the improved detector is linear over a wide range of count-rates. Another significant modification was the interchange of growth and detector chambers. Overall, a 40-fold increase in count-rate during the exponential phase of bacterial growth was obtained by improving 14 CO 2 detection efficiency, increasing the rate of 14 CO 2 transfer from liquid to gas phases and enlarging the growth supporting capacity of the detector system. The minimum detection time for bacterial growth was shortened and the exponential phase of bacterial proliferation was lengthened by at least 2 hr. High counting efficiency, precision, and linearity make the improved detector a sensitive and reliable tool for radiometry of bacterial growth and metabolism

  14. Effect of nutritional rehabilitation on acquired growth hormone resistance in malnourished children using radioisotopic technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Nabarawy, F.S.; Nour Eldin, A.M.

    2003-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to clarify the influence of nutrition on growth hormone resistance in children who were suffering from prologed protein energy malnutrition (PEM). The plasma levels of glucose and serum levels of insulin, free triiodothyronine (FT 3 ), free teraiodothyronine (FT 4 ), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), growth hormone (GH), insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and insulin like growth factor binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) were analyzed by radioisotopic techniques in 7 children with marasmus (mean age 5.29 1.01) and 14 children with unexplained short stature (stunted) (mean age 6.21 1.72) before and after nutritional rehabilitation. At the basal condition of laboratory investigations, the GH level was significantly higher in the two malnourished groups compared to control (P< 0.01), whereas, plasma glucose levels and insulin concentrations did not differ significantly between the two malnourished groups and the control

  15. Development of Techniques for Spent Fuel Assay – Differential Dieaway Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swinhoe, Martyn Thomas [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Goodsell, Alison [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Ianakiev, Kiril Dimitrov [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Iliev, Metodi [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Desimone, David J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Rael, Carlos D. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Henzl, Vladimir [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Polk, Paul John [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-07-28

    This report summarizes the work done under a DNDO R&D funded project on the development of the differential dieaway method to measure plutonium in spent fuel. There are large amounts of plutonium that are contained in spent fuel assemblies, and currently there is no way to make quantitative non-destructive assay. This has led NA24 under the Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI) to establish a multi-year program to investigate, develop and implement measurement techniques for spent fuel. The techniques which are being experimentally tested by the existing NGSI project do not include any pulsed neutron active techniques. The present work covers the active neutron differential dieaway technique and has advanced the state of knowledge of this technique as well as produced a design for a practical active neutron interrogation instrument for spent fuel. Monte Carlo results from the NGSI effort show that much higher accuracy (1-2%) for the Pu content in spent fuel assemblies can be obtained with active neutron interrogation techniques than passive techniques, and this would allow their use for nuclear material accountancy independently of any information from the operator. The main purpose of this work was to develop an active neutron interrogation technique for spent nuclear fuel.

  16. Enhancement of nondestructive evaluation techniques for magnetic and nonmagnetic structural components (Final report for doctoral fellowship)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Zhenmao

    2000-03-01

    In this report, research works performed in the Structural Safety Engineering Group of OEC/JNC are summarized as the final report of the doctoral fellowship. The main objective of this study is for the enhancement of the nondestructive evaluation techniques for structural components of both magnetic and nonmagnetic material. Studies in three topics have been carried out aiming at the quantitative evaluation of crack with the eddy current testing and the validation of a natural magnetic field based NDE method for detecting mechanical damages in a paramagnetic material. In the first part of the study, an approach to the reconstruction of the natural crack was proposed and implemented with an idealized crack model for its validation. In the second part, the correlation of the natural magnetization and the mechanical damages in the SUS304 stainless steel was investigated by using an experimental approach. In part 3, an inverse method of the measured magnetic fields is proposed for the reconstruction of magnetic charges in the inspected material by using an optimization method and wavelet. As the first work, an approach to the reconstruction of an idealized natural crack of non-vanishing conductivity is proposed with use of signals of eddy current testing. Two numerical models are introduced at first for modeling the natural crack in order to represented it with a set of crack parameters. A method for the rapid prediction of the eddy current testing signals coming from these idealized cracks is given then by extending a knowledge based fast forward solver to the case of a non-vanishing conductivity. Based on this fast forward solver, the inverse algorithm of conjugate gradient method is updated to identify the crack parameters. Several examples are presented finally as a validation of the proposed strategy. The results show that both the two numerical models can give reasonable reconstruction results for signal of low noise. The model concerning the touch of crack

  17. NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Thin Film Growth Techniques for Low-Dimensional Structures

    CERN Document Server

    Parkin, S; Dobson, P; Neave, J; Arrott, A

    1987-01-01

    This work represents the account of a NATO Advanced Research Workshop on "Thin Film Growth Techniques for Low Dimensional Structures", held at the University of Sussex, Brighton, England from 15-19 Sept. 1986. The objective of the workshop was to review the problems of the growth and characterisation of thin semiconductor and metal layers. Recent advances in deposition techniques have made it possible to design new material which is based on ultra-thin layers and this is now posing challenges for scientists, technologists and engineers in the assessment and utilisation of such new material. Molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) has become well established as a method for growing thin single crystal layers of semiconductors. Until recently, MBE was confined to the growth of III-V compounds and alloys, but now it is being used for group IV semiconductors and II-VI compounds. Examples of such work are given in this volume. MBE has one major advantage over other crystal growth techniques in that the structure of the growi...

  18. Novel growth techniques of group-IV based semiconductors on insulator for next-generation electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyao, Masanobu; Sadoh, Taizoh

    2017-05-01

    Recent progress in the crystal growth of group-IV-based semiconductor-on-insulators is reviewed from physical and technological viewpoints. Liquid-phase growth based on SiGe-mixing-triggered rapid-melting growth enables formation of hybrid (100) (110) (111)-orientation Ge-on-insulator (GOI) structures, which show defect-free GOI with very high carrier mobility (˜1040 cm2 V-1 s-1). Additionally, SiGe mixed-crystals with laterally uniform composition were obtained by eliminating segregation phenomena during the melt-back process. Low-temperature solid-phase growth has been explored by combining this process with ion-beam irradiation, additional doping of group-IV elements, metal induced lateral crystallization with/without electric field, and metal-induced layer exchange crystallization. These efforts have enabled crystal growth on insulators below 400 °C, achieving high carrier mobility (160-320 cm2 V-1 s-1). Moreover, orientation-controlled SiGe and Ge films on insulators have been obtained below the softening temperatures of conventional plastic films (˜300 °C). Detailed characterization provides an understanding of physical phenomena behind these crystal growth techniques. Applying these methods when fabricating next-generation electronics is also discussed.

  19. Growth characteristics of Dayak Borneo yam (Dioscorea hispida and detoxification techniques as alternative food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RUDITO

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Rudito, Suwarto, Azkiyah L, Witono Y, Saragih B, Arung ET. 2017. Growth characteristics of Dayak Borneo yam (Dioscorea hispida and detoxification techniques as alternative food. Pros Sem Nas Masy Biodiv Indon 3: 99-103. Finding of local food sources to enhance food security areas. This study focuses on the characteristics of growth Dayak Borneo yam observation, toxic substances and detoxification techniques development of non nutritional. The objective of the research was to find out a more concrete picture, as well as comparing it with Java yam non nutritional components as a basis for further exploration of alternative food. Observations indicate that the plant growth of Dayak Borneo yam had specific characteristics, and can be grown in intercropping with other crops. Yam tubers have negative image due to the toxins contained by this commodity, as well as technology management (detoxification and processing of yam products that have not been controlled by the community. But based on the results of physical and chemical detoxification, indicates that the Dayak Borneo yam can be exploited further as food. Dayak Borneo yam need to be developed modification process in raw materials of Dayak Borneo yam as modified starch through fermentation techniques which also intended to obtain intermediate product from which Dayak Borneo yam has a larger functionality as a food ingredient.

  20. Process acceptance and adjustment techniques for Swiss automatic screw machine parts. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robb, J.M.

    1976-01-01

    Product tolerance requirements for small, cylindrical, piece parts produced on swiss automatic screw machines have progressed to the reliability limits of inspection equipment. The miniature size, configuration, and tolerance requirements (plus or minus 0.0001 in.) (0.00254 mm) of these parts preclude the use of screening techniques to accept product or adjust processes during setup and production runs; therefore, existing means of product acceptance and process adjustment must be refined or new techniques must be developed. The purpose of this endeavor has been to determine benefits gained through the implementation of a process acceptance technique (PAT) to swiss automatic screw machine processes. PAT is a statistical approach developed for the purpose of accepting product and centering processes for parts produced by selected, controlled processes. Through this endeavor a determination has been made of the conditions under which PAT can benefit a controlled process and some specific types of screw machine processes upon which PAT could be applied. However, it was also determined that PAT, if used indiscriminately, may become a record keeping burden when applied to more than one dimension at a given machining operation

  1. Imaging transport phenomena during lysozyme protein crystal growth by the hanging drop technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sethia Gupta, Anamika; Gupta, Rajive; Panigrahi, P. K.; Muralidhar, K.

    2013-06-01

    The present study reports the transport process that occurs during the growth of lysozyme protein crystals by the hanging drop technique. A rainbow schlieren technique has been employed for imaging changes in salt concentration. A one dimensional color filter is used to record the deflection of the light beam. An optical microscope and an X-ray crystallography unit are used to characterize the size, tetragonal shape and Bravais lattice constants of the grown crystals. A parametric study on the effect of drop composition, drop size, reservoir height and number of drops on the crystal size and quality is reported. Changes in refractive index are not large enough to create a meaningful schlieren image in the air gap between the drop and the reservoir. However, condensation of fresh water over the reservoir solution creates large changes in the concentration of NaCl, giving rise to clear color patterns in the schlieren images. These have been analyzed to obtain salt concentration profiles near the free surface of the reservoir solution as a function of time. The diffusion of fresh water into the reservoir solution at the early stages of crystal growth followed by the mass flux of salt from the bulk solution towards the free surface has been recorded. The overall crystal growth process can be classified into two regimes, as demarcated by the changes in slope of salt concentration within the reservoir. The salt concentration in the reservoir equilibrates at long times when the crystallization process is complete. Thus, transport processes in the reservoir emerge as the route to monitor protein crystal growth in the hanging drop configuration. Results show that crystal growth rate is faster for a higher lysozyme concentration, smaller drops, and larger reservoir heights.

  2. Novel technique for coal pyrolysis and hydrogenation product analysis. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pfefferle, L.D.; Boyle, J.

    1993-03-15

    A microjet reactor coupled to a VUV photoionization time-of-flight mass spectrometer has been used to obtain species measurements during high temperature pyrolysis and oxidation of a wide range of hydrocarbon compounds ranging from allene and acetylene to cyclohexane, benzene and toluene. Initial work focused on calibration of the technique, optimization of ion collection and detection and characterization of limitations. Using the optimized technique with 118 nm photoionization, intermediate species profiles were obtained for analysis of the hydrocarbon pyrolysis and oxidation mechanisms. The ``soft`` ionization, yielding predominantly molecular ions, allowed the study of reaction pathways in these high temperature systems where both sampling and detection challenges are severe. Work has focused on the pyrolysis and oxidative pyrolysis of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbon mixtures representative of coal pyrolysis and hydropyrolysis products. The detailed mass spectra obtained during pyrolysis and oxidation of hydrocarbon mixtures is especially important because of the complex nature of the product mixture even at short residence times and low primary reactant conversions. The combustion community has advanced detailed modeling of pyrolysis and oxidation to the C4 hydrocarbon level but in general above that size uncertainties in rate constant and thermodynamic data do not allow us to a priori predict products from mixed hydrocarbon pyrolyses using a detailed chemistry model. For pyrolysis of mixtures of coal-derived liquid fractions with a large range of compound structures and molecular weights in the hundreds of amu the modeling challenge is severe. Lumped models are possible from stable product data.

  3. Application of geo-spatial techniques and cellular automata for modelling urban growth of a heterogeneous urban fringe

    OpenAIRE

    Mahesh Kumar Jat; Mahender Choudhary; Ankita Saxena

    2017-01-01

    Urban growth monitoring and assessment are essential for the sustainable natural resources planning & optimum utilization and reducing the risk of problems arising from unplanned urban growth like pollution, urban heat island and ecological disturbances. Cellular Automata (CA) based modelling techniques have become popular in recent past for simulating the urban growth. Present study is aimed to evaluate the performance of the CA based SLEUTH model in simulating the urban growth of a complex ...

  4. Arabidopsis ORGAN SIZE RELATED1 regulates organ growth and final organ size in orchestration with ARGOS and ARL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Guanping; Qin, Zhixiang; Yan, Jingzhou; Zhang, Xiaoran; Hu, Yuxin

    2011-08-01

    • The growth of a plant organ to its characteristic size is regulated by an elaborate developmental program involving both internal and external signals. Here, we identify a novel Arabidopsis gene, ORGAN SIZE RELATED1 (OSR1), that is involved in regulation of organ growth and overall organ size. • A combination of genetic, cytological and molecular approaches was used to characterize the expression profile, subcellular localization and roles of OSR1 during organ growth. • Ectopic expression of OSR1 in Arabidopsis resulted in enlarged organs, as a consequence of increases in both cell number and cell size. OSR1 shares a conserved OSR domain with ARGOS and ARGOS-LIKE (ARL), which is sufficient for their functions in promoting organ growth. OSR1 is a plant hormone-responsive gene and appears to act redundantly with ARGOS and ARL during organ growth. The OSR proteins are localized to the endoplasmic reticulum. • Our results suggest that three co-evolved members of the OSR family may act coordinately to orchestrate growth signals and cell proliferation and expansion, thereby affecting organ growth and final organ size. © 2011 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2011 New Phytologist Trust.

  5. Kinetics of Pd2Si layer growth measured by an x-ray diffraction technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coulman, B.; Chen, H.

    1986-01-01

    An x-ray diffraction approach has been developed for determination of the kinetics of growth of Pd 2 Si layers. Epitaxial Pd 2 Si films were grown on Si(111) substrates over a temperature range of 160-222 0 C by a solid-state reaction between the substrates and the Pd overlayers. The parabolic rate equation was verified and rate constants showed Arrhenius behavior with an activation energy E/sub a/ = 1.06 eV and prefactor k 0 = 7 x 10 -4 cm 2 /s. The low value of E/sub a/ suggests a short-circuit diffusion mechanism. It is reasonable to expect that impurities and microstructure may play important roles in the growth process. Impurity levels in the specimens were evaluated by analytic techniques suited to thin-film study: Rutherford backscattering spectrometry, secondary ion mass spectrometry, and Auger electron spectrometry. No impurities were present at concentrations approaching 1 at. %. Some O, C, and F were detected at the Pd 2 Si/Si interfaces. The annealing ambient was the major source of further contamination. Upon emergence of the growth interface through the sample surface (some Pd 2 Si on surface), impurity pickup was detected. Interfacial roughness was indicated by all the techniques to be on the order of 20 nm

  6. Synthesis of Ag-coated polystyrene colloids by an improved surface seeding and shell growth technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Chungui; Wang Enbo; Kang Zhenhui; Mao Baodong; Zhang Chao; Lan Yang; Wang Chunlei; Song Yanli

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, an improved surface seeding and shell growth technique was developed to prepare Ag-polystyrene core shell composite. Polyethyleneimine (PEI) could act as the linker between Ag ions (Ag nanoparticles) and polystyrene (PS) colloids and the reducing agent in the formation of Ag nanoparticles. Due to the multi-functional characteristic of PEI, Ag seeds formed in-situ and were immobilized on the surface of PEI-modified PS colloids and no free Ag clusters coexist with the Ag 'seeding' PS colloids in the system. Then, the additional agents could be added into the resulting dispersions straightly to produce a thick Ag nanoshell. The Ag nanoshell with controllable thickness was formed on the surface of PS by the 'one-pot' surface seeding and shell growth method. The Ag-coverage increased gradually with the increasing of mass ratio of AgNO 3 /PS. The optical properties of the Ag-PS colloids could be tailored by changing the coverage of Ag. - Graphical abstract: An improved surface seeding and shell growth technique was developed to prepare Ag-polystyrene core shell composite. The optical properties of the Ag-PS colloids could be tailored by changing the coverage of Ag. Display Omitted

  7. Biodesulfurization techniques: Application of selected microorganisms for organic sulfur removal from coals. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elmore, B.B.

    1993-08-01

    As an alternative to post-combustion desulfurization of coal and pre-combustion desulfurization using physicochemical techniques, the microbial desulfurization of coal may be accomplished through the use of microbial cultures that, in an application of various microbial species, may remove both the pyritic and organic fractions of sulfur found in coal. Organisms have been isolated that readily depyritize coal but often at prohibitively low rates of desulfurization. Microbes have also been isolated that may potentially remove the organic-sulfur fraction present in coal (showing promise when acting on organic sulfur model compounds such as dibenzothiophene). The isolation and study of microorganisms demonstrating a potential for removing organic sulfur from coal has been undertaken in this project. Additionally, the organisms and mechanisms by which coal is microbially depyritized has been investigated. Three cultures were isolated that grew on dibenzothiophene (DBT), a model organic-sulfur compound, as the sole sulfur source. These cultures (UMX3, UMX9, and IGTS8) also grew on coal samples as the sole sulfur source. Numerous techniques for pretreating and ``cotreating`` coal for depyritization were also evaluated for the ability to improve the rate or extent of microbial depyritization. These include prewashing the coal with various solvents and adding surfactants to the culture broth. Using a bituminous coal containing 0.61% (w/w) pyrite washed with organic solvents at low slurry concentrations (2% w/v), the extent of depyritization was increased approximately 25% in two weeks as compared to controls. At slurry concentrations of 20% w/v, a tetrachloroethylene treatment of the coal followed by depyritization with Thiobacillus ferrooxidans increased both the rate and extent of depyritization by approximately 10%.

  8. Impact of bone harvesting techniques on cell viability and the release of growth factors of autografts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miron, Richard J; Gruber, Reinhard; Hedbom, Erik; Saulacic, Nikola; Zhang, Yufeng; Sculean, Anton; Bosshardt, Dieter D; Buser, Daniel

    2013-08-01

    Autogenous bone grafts obtained by different harvesting techniques behave differently during the process of graft consolidation; the underlying reasons are however not fully understood. One theory is that harvesting techniques have an impact on the number and activity of the transplanted cells which contribute to the process of graft consolidation. To test this assumption, porcine bone grafts were harvested with four different surgical procedures: bone mill, piezosurgery, bone drilling (bone slurry), and bone scraper. After determining cell viability, the release of molecules affecting bone formation and resorption was assessed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and immunoassay. The mitogenic and osteogenic activity of the conditioned media was evaluated in a bioassay with isolated bone cells. Cell viability and the release of molecules affecting bone formation were higher in samples harvested by bone mill and bone scraper when compared with samples prepared by bone drilling and piezosurgery. The harvesting procedure also affected gene expression, for example, bone mill and bone scraper samples revealed significantly higher expression of growth factors such as bone morphogenetic protein-2 and vascular endothelial growth factor compared with the two other modalities. Receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B ligand expression was lowest in bone scraper samples. These data can provide a scientific basis to better understand the impact of harvesting techniques on the number and activity of transplanted cells, which might contribute to the therapeutic outcome of the augmentation procedure. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Monitoring bacterial growth using tunable resistive pulse sensing with a pore-based technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Allen C S; Loo, Jacky F C; Yu, Samuel; Kong, S K; Chan, Ting-Fung

    2014-01-01

    A novel bacterial growth monitoring method using a tunable resistive pulse sensor (TRPS) system is introduced in this study for accurate and sensitive measurement of cell size and cell concentration simultaneously. Two model bacterial strains, Bacillus subtilis str.168 (BSU168) and Escherichia coli str.DH5α (DH5α), were chosen for benchmarking the growth-monitoring performance of the system. Results showed that the technique of TRPS is sensitive and accurate relative to widely used methods, with a lower detection limit of cell concentration measurement of 5 × 10⁵ cells/ml; at the same time, the mean coefficient of variation from TRPS was within 2 %. The growth of BSU168 and DH5α in liquid cultures was studied by TRPS, optical density (OD), and colony plating. Compared to OD measurement, TRPS-measured concentration correlates better with colony plating (R = 0.85 vs. R = 0.72), which is often regarded as the gold standard of cell concentration determination. General agreement was also observed by comparing TRPS-derived cell volume measurements and those determined from microscopy. We have demonstrated that TRPS is a reliable method for bacterial growth monitoring, where the study of both cell volume and cell concentration are needed to provide further details about the physical aspects of cell dynamics in real time.

  10. Growth kinetics of protein single crystals in the gel acupuncture technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Ruiz, Juan Manuel; Moreno, Abel

    1997-07-01

    The growth of single crystals of tetragonal HEW lysozyme and thaumatin I into glass capillaries was monitored by time lapse video-microscopy. The crystals were obtained by unidirectional transport of the precipitating agent through capillaries of internal diameter ranging from 0.2 to 1.2 mm, using the gel acupuncture technique. For crystals growing from true protein solutions, the measured average growth rates varies with capillary diameter from 1.7 to 3.7 Å/s for thaumatin and from 2.8 to 22 Å/s for lysozyme. The measured average growth rates for crystals growing into gelled protein solutions were 1.8 Å/s for thaumatin and 2.5 Å/s for lysozyme. The trend in the variation of the growth rate with time is similar and suggests that, for capillaries with internal radius lower than 0.8 mm, diffusion dominates the global mass transport control. However, the existence of convection rolls near the crystal-solution interface and close to zones with high density gradient cannot be discarded.

  11. Aluminum Gallium Nitride Alloys Grown via Metalorganic Vapor-Phase Epitaxy Using a Digital Growth Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodak, L. E.; Korakakis, D.

    2011-04-01

    This work investigates the use of a digital growth technique as a viable method for achieving high-quality aluminum gallium nitride (Al x Ga1- x N) films via metalorganic vapor-phase epitaxy. Digital alloys are superlattice structures with period thicknesses of a few monolayers. Alloys with an AlN mole fraction ranging from 0.1 to 0.9 were grown by adjusting the thickness of the AlN layer in the superlattice. High-resolution x-ray diffraction was used to determine the superlattice period and c-lattice parameter of the structure, while reciprocal-space mapping was used to determine the a-lattice parameter and evaluate growth coherency. A comparison of the measured lattice parameter with both the nominal value and also the underlying buffer layer is discussed.

  12. Treatment techniques for removing natural radionuclides from drinking water. Final report of the TENAWA project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Annanmaeki, M.; Turtiainen, T.

    2000-01-01

    TENAWA project (Treatment Techniques for Removing Natural Radionuclides from Drinking Water) was carried out on a cost-shared basic with the European Commission (CEC) under the supervision of Directorate-General XII, Radiation Protection Unit. TENAWA project was started because in several European countries ground water supplies may contain high amounts of natural radionuclides. During the project both laboratory and field research was performed in order to test the applicability of different equipment and techniques for removing natural radionuclides from drinking water. The measurable objectives of the project were: to give recommendations on the most suitable methods for removing radon ( 222 Rn), uranium ( 238,234 U), radium ( 226 , 228 Ra), lead ( 210 Pb) and polonium ( 210 Po) from drinking water of different qualities (i.e. soft, hard, iron-, manganese- and humus-rich, acidic) to test commercially available equipment for its ability to remove radionuclides; to find new materials, absorbents and membranes effective in the removal of radionuclides and to issue guidelines for the treatment and disposal of radioactive wastes produced in water treatment. Radon could be removed efficiently (>95%) from domestic water supplies by both aeration and granular activated carbon (GAC) filtration. Defects in technical reliability or radon removal efficiency were observed in some aerators. The significant drawback of GAC filtration was the elevated gamma dose rates (up to 120 μSv/h) near the filter and the radioactivity of spent GAC. Aeration was found to be a suitable method for removing radon at waterworks, too. The removal efficiencies at waterworks where the aeration process was designed to remove radon or carbon dioxide were 67-99%. If the aeration process was properly designed, removal efficiencies higher than 95% could be attained. Uranium could best be removed (>95%) with strong basic anion exchange resins and radium by applying strong acidic cation exchange resins

  13. Treatment techniques for removing natural radionuclides from drinking water. Final report of the TENAWA project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Annanmaeki, M.; Turtiainen, T. [eds.

    2000-01-01

    TENAWA project (Treatment Techniques for Removing Natural Radionuclides from Drinking Water) was carried out on a cost-shared basic with the European Commission (CEC) under the supervision of Directorate-General XII, Radiation Protection Unit. TENAWA project was started because in several European countries ground water supplies may contain high amounts of natural radionuclides. During the project both laboratory and field research was performed in order to test the applicability of different equipment and techniques for removing natural radionuclides from drinking water. The measurable objectives of the project were: to give recommendations on the most suitable methods for removing radon ({sup 222}Rn), uranium ({sup 238,234}U), radium ({sup 226}, {sup 228}Ra), lead ({sup 210}Pb) and polonium ({sup 210}Po) from drinking water of different qualities (i.e. soft, hard, iron-, manganese- and humus-rich, acidic) to test commercially available equipment for its ability to remove radionuclides; to find new materials, absorbents and membranes effective in the removal of radionuclides and to issue guidelines for the treatment and disposal of radioactive wastes produced in water treatment. Radon could be removed efficiently (>95%) from domestic water supplies by both aeration and granular activated carbon (GAC) filtration. Defects in technical reliability or radon removal efficiency were observed in some aerators. The significant drawback of GAC filtration was the elevated gamma dose rates (up to 120 {mu}Sv/h) near the filter and the radioactivity of spent GAC. Aeration was found to be a suitable method for removing radon at waterworks, too. The removal efficiencies at waterworks where the aeration process was designed to remove radon or carbon dioxide were 67-99%. If the aeration process was properly designed, removal efficiencies higher than 95% could be attained. Uranium could best be removed (>95%) with strong basic anion exchange resins and radium by applying strong

  14. Evaluation of salt tolerance in wheat genotypes using growth and carbon isotopes discrimination technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirazi, M.U.; Khan, M.A.; Mujtaba, S.M.; Shereen, A.

    2015-01-01

    Studies were conducted in green house to select suitable salt tolerant wheat genotypes on the basis of growth performance and carbon isotopes discrimination (CID) technique. Nine newly developed double haploids (DH) wheat genotypes were tested under gravel culture, along with salt tolerant (LU-26s) and high yielding (Sarsabz) checks. The crop was irrigated by non-saline (control) and saline (12dS/m) water and raised up to maturity, growth parameters (i.e. plant height, plant biomass, productive tillers, spike length, number of spiklets/spike, number of grains / spike, grain weight/ spike and grain yield/ 15 plants) were recorded after harvesting. Plant samples (straw) were collected and were analyzed for carbon isotopic ratio (C12/ C13) from IAEA laboratories Vienna Austria. The data showed that there was significant decrease in all the growth parameters due to salinity. On the basis of performance in different growth parameters it was found that wheat genotypes V3-DH, V9-DH, V10-DH, V13-DH, and LU-26s had good response at 12dSm-1, thus can be categorized as better performing genotypes. Studies on carbon isotopes discrimination (CID) showed a decreasing trend under salinity. Mean CID values were 20.86 and 17.49 under two environments (non saline and saline, respectively), showing an overall 19% decrease under salinity. Generally the wheat genotypes having higher grain yield also had high carbon isotopes discrimination (CID). The relationship between grain yield and CID was positive (R2 = 0.695). The genotypes V10-DH, V13-DH with lower decrease in CID (i.e. 1.2 and 11.0%, respectively), also had high grain yield under salinity. Therefore the studies suggest that we can include CID technique as one of the selection criteria for salt tolerance. (author)

  15. Friction of self-lubricating surfaces by ion beam techniques. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharya, R.S.; Rai, A.K.

    1992-05-01

    UES, Inc. conducted a research and development program designed to establish conditions for ion implantation/mixing of suitable additives into the surfaces of bulk ceramics and metals for obtaining self-lubricating low friction and wear characteristics. The substrates considered were ZrO{sub 2}, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}, steel and Ni-base superalloy. The lubricant additives chosen were BaF{sub 2}/CaF{sub 2}Ag, MoS{sub 2}, WS{sub 2}and B{sub 2}O{sub 3}. The initial tasks of the program were to synthesis these lubricant compounds by co-implantation of constituent elements if sufficient beams of desired elements were obtained. The final tasks were to investigate high energy (MeV) ion mixing of deposited coatings as well as to investigate ion beam assisted deposition using low energy ion beams. It was shown that MoS{sub 2} can be synthesized by co-implantation of Mo{sup +} and S{sup +} in ceramic materials with appropriate choice of energies to obtain nearly overlapping depth profiles. The sliding life of DC magnetron sputtered MoS{sub 2} films of thicknesses {approximately}7500{Angstrom} on ceramic materials such as sapphire, Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} and ZrO{sub 3} were improved by ten to thousand fold after 2 Mev Ag{sup +} ion mixing. Ion beam assisted deposition (IBAD) and ion beam mixing were utilized to fabricate self-lubricating coatings of CaF{sub 2}/Ag and BaF/CaF{sub 2}/Ag composites.

  16. Formation of resonances with final state photons in two photon interactions, and development of calorimetric techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mir, R.

    1986-07-01

    In this thesis, resonances produced in two photon interactions were investigated with the TASSO detector at PETRA. The η ' and A 2 resonances were studied in a final state of charged pions and low energy photons. The couplings of these resonances to γγ were measured: Γ γγ (η ' (958)) 5.1±0.4(stat.)±0.65(syst.) Kev, Γ γγ (A 2 (1320)) 0.90±0.27(stat.)±0.16(syst.) Kev. A search for ι(1460) and η c (2980) was initiated. Upper limits on the γγ widths of these resonances times their branching ratio to the decay channel were obtained: Γ γγ (ι→γγ) x B(ι→ρ 0 γ) γγ (η c →γγ) x B(η c →η ' π + π - ) < 2.6 keV (95% C.L.). A proportional tubes electromagnetic calorimeter operating in the proportional mode was constructed. Tower readout was incorporated. The calorimeter gave an energy resolution of σ/E = 19%/√E. Large surface, thin Gap Chambers (TGC), were developed and constructed for the OPAL hadron pole-tip-calorimeter. The TGC operate in a high gain mode. They provide large signals for both pad and strip readout, without the need for amplification. To form a hadron calorimeter, ten chambers were interlaced with 8 cm thick iron slabs between them. An energy resolution of: σ/E = 105%/√E was obtained

  17. Effectiveness of different final irrigation techniques and placement of endodontic sealer into dentinal tubules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kauhanna Vianna de Oliveira

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The aim of this study was to compare two irrigation techniques and four devices for endodontic sealer placement into the dentinal tubules. Ninety-nine single-rooted human teeth were instrumented and allocated to either the control (CO (n=11 or experimental groups according to the irrigation method: syringe and NaveTip needle (NT (n=44, and EndoActivator (EA (n=44. These groups were subdivided according to sealer placement into K-File (KF, lentulo spiral (LS, Easy Clean (EC, and EndoActivator (EA subgroups. Moreover, the distances of 5 mm and 2 mm from the apex were analyzed. The teeth were obturated with AH Plus and GuttaCore X3. Analyses were performed by scanning electron microscopy associated to cathodoluminescence. The percentage and maximum depth of sealer penetration were measured. Data were evaluated by three-way analysis of variance (ANOVA and Games-Howell test (p<0.05. EA was superior to NT in percentage of sealer penetration. EC was significantly superior to EA (subgroup for sealer penetration, and both improved the percentage of sealer penetration when compared to LS. Better sealer penetration was observed at the distance of 5 mm from the apex. Sealer penetration into the dentinal tubules was significantly improved by sonic irrigant activation.

  18. Testing of pyrite flotation techniques on selected Ohio coals: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnold, B. J.; Torak, E. R.

    1989-05-01

    The project was conceived to demonstrate the combining of conventional physical coal cleaning with emerging advanced physical coal cleaning technologies in a cost-effective manner. The objectives of the program were to demonstrate that conventional coal cleaning followed by advanced coal cleaning of a crushed mid-gravity portion of the run-of-mine coal would produce a clean coal, suitable for use as a thermal coal, having a lower ash content and a lower sulfur dioxide emission potential than a coal cleaned only be current conventional cleaning technologies. As part of this program a number of advanced flotation techniques were tested to determine the feasibility of including them in the design of their Advanced Coal Preparation Facility. The program consisted of testing the Pittsburgh seam, the Middle Kittanning seam, and the Meigs Creek seam coals in the pilot flotation circuit at EPRI's Coal Quality Development Center (CQDC) in Homer City, Pennsylvania. This report contains all the data from OCDO's pilot flotation test program at the CQDC and the test data from the Middle Kittanning and Meigs Creek reverse flotation tests. 13 figs., 40 tabs.

  19. Effectiveness of different final irrigation techniques and placement of endodontic sealer into dentinal tubules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Kauhanna Vianna de; Silva, Bruno Marques da; Leonardi, Denise Piotto; Crozeta, Bruno Monguilhott; Sousa-Neto, Manoel Damião de; Baratto-Filho, Flares; Gabardo, Marilisa Carneiro Leão

    2017-12-18

    The aim of this study was to compare two irrigation techniques and four devices for endodontic sealer placement into the dentinal tubules. Ninety-nine single-rooted human teeth were instrumented and allocated to either the control (CO) (n=11) or experimental groups according to the irrigation method: syringe and NaveTip needle (NT) (n=44), and EndoActivator (EA) (n=44). These groups were subdivided according to sealer placement into K-File (KF), lentulo spiral (LS), Easy Clean (EC), and EndoActivator (EA) subgroups. Moreover, the distances of 5 mm and 2 mm from the apex were analyzed. The teeth were obturated with AH Plus and GuttaCore X3. Analyses were performed by scanning electron microscopy associated to cathodoluminescence. The percentage and maximum depth of sealer penetration were measured. Data were evaluated by three-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Games-Howell test (ppenetration. EC was significantly superior to EA (subgroup) for sealer penetration, and both improved the percentage of sealer penetration when compared to LS. Better sealer penetration was observed at the distance of 5 mm from the apex. Sealer penetration into the dentinal tubules was significantly improved by sonic irrigant activation.

  20. 76 FR 6455 - Final Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS) for the Growth, Realignment, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-04

    ... alternative, the Army would retain its aviation force structure at its current levels, configurations, and.... The primary environmental issues evaluated include impacts to air quality, soil, airspace, cultural... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Department of the Army Final Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement...

  1. Use of isotope techniques in lake dynamics investigations. Proceedings of a final research co-ordination meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-03-01

    The Co-ordinated Research Programme (CRP) on the Use of Isotope Techniques in Lake Dynamics Investigations was launched with the aim of assessing the potential of environmental isotope techniques in studying the dynamics of surface water bodies and related problems such as: dynamics of solutes; sediment focusing; establishment of water balance components; vulnerability to pollution. The CRP enabled a number of isotope and geochemical studies to be carried out on small and large water bodies, with the general aim of understanding of the dynamics of these systems under the growing anthropogenic influence. This publication is a compilation of the papers presented at the final Research Co-ordination Meeting (RCM) held in Rehovot, Israel, from 10 to 13 March 1997. Individual contributions have been indexed separately

  2. How will e-commerce growth impact our transportation network? Final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-01

    The steady growth in online retailing continues to rattle long-established business models and the shopping patterns of consumers (who are also taxpayers, voters, and drivers). Those consumers are increasingly choosing shorter delivery cyclesoptin...

  3. Final Project Report: Imaging Fault Zones Using a Novel Elastic Reverse-Time Migration Imaging Technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Lianjie [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Chen, Ting [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Tan, Sirui [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Lin, Youzuo [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Gao, Kai [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-05-10

    Imaging fault zones and fractures is crucial for geothermal operators, providing important information for reservoir evaluation and management strategies. However, there are no existing techniques available for directly and clearly imaging fault zones, particularly for steeply dipping faults and fracture zones. In this project, we developed novel acoustic- and elastic-waveform inversion methods for high-resolution velocity model building. In addition, we developed acoustic and elastic reverse-time migration methods for high-resolution subsurface imaging of complex subsurface structures and steeply-dipping fault/fracture zones. We first evaluated and verified the improved capabilities of our newly developed seismic inversion and migration imaging methods using synthetic seismic data. Our numerical tests verified that our new methods directly image subsurface fracture/fault zones using surface seismic reflection data. We then applied our novel seismic inversion and migration imaging methods to a field 3D surface seismic dataset acquired at the Soda Lake geothermal field using Vibroseis sources. Our migration images of the Soda Lake geothermal field obtained using our seismic inversion and migration imaging algorithms revealed several possible fault/fracture zones. AltaRock Energy, Inc. is working with Cyrq Energy, Inc. to refine the geologic interpretation at the Soda Lake geothermal field. Trenton Cladouhos, Senior Vice President R&D of AltaRock, was very interested in our imaging results of 3D surface seismic data from the Soda Lake geothermal field. He planed to perform detailed interpretation of our images in collaboration with James Faulds and Holly McLachlan of University of Nevada at Reno. Using our high-resolution seismic inversion and migration imaging results can help determine the optimal locations to drill wells for geothermal energy production and reduce the risk of geothermal exploration.

  4. Advancements in sensing and perception using structured lighting techniques :an LDRD final report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novick, David Keith; Padilla, Denise D.; Davidson, Patrick A. Jr. (.; .); Carlson, Jeffrey J.

    2005-09-01

    This report summarizes the analytical and experimental efforts for the Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project entitled ''Advancements in Sensing and Perception using Structured Lighting Techniques''. There is an ever-increasing need for robust, autonomous ground vehicles for counterterrorism and defense missions. Although there has been nearly 30 years of government-sponsored research, it is undisputed that significant advancements in sensing and perception are necessary. We developed an innovative, advanced sensing technology for national security missions serving the Department of Energy, the Department of Defense, and other government agencies. The principal goal of this project was to develop an eye-safe, robust, low-cost, lightweight, 3D structured lighting sensor for use in broad daylight outdoor applications. The market for this technology is wide open due to the unavailability of such a sensor. Currently available laser scanners are slow, bulky and heavy, expensive, fragile, short-range, sensitive to vibration (highly problematic for moving platforms), and unreliable for outdoor use in bright sunlight conditions. Eye-safety issues are a primary concern for currently available laser-based sensors. Passive, stereo-imaging sensors are available for 3D sensing but suffer from several limitations : computationally intensive, require a lighted environment (natural or man-made light source), and don't work for many scenes or regions lacking texture or with ambiguous texture. Our approach leveraged from the advanced capabilities of modern CCD camera technology and Center 6600's expertise in 3D world modeling, mapping, and analysis, using structured lighting. We have a diverse customer base for indoor mapping applications and this research extends our current technology's lifecycle and opens a new market base for outdoor 3D mapping. Applications include precision mapping, autonomous navigation, dexterous

  5. Enhancement of heat transfer in Czochralski growth of silicon crystals with a chemical cooling technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Junling; Liu, Lijun; Zhao, Wenhan

    2017-06-01

    The cost of producing single-crystalline silicon with the Czochralski method can be reduced by promoting the crystal size and/or crystal pulling rate. However, more latent heat of solidification needs to be released from the melt-crystal (m-c) interface during the crystal growth process. In this study, the C-CO2 chemical endothermic reaction is proposed as a novel and efficient cooling technique to solve this problem. Compared with the conventional gas cooling method, C-CO2 endothermic reaction method can significantly enhance the heat transfer in the crystal at the m-c interface. It was found that the heat transfer is more enhanced with a chemical reaction of smaller activation energy, and the m-c interface becomes flatter. The influence of the carbon concentration in the chemical reactive gas flow on the heat removal in the crystal at the m-c interface is also investigated. The cooling effect is significantly increased with the increase in the carbon concentration when it is small. However, when the carbon concentration in the reactive gas is high, the cooling effect just increases slightly. The research demonstrates that the proposed chemical endothermic reaction is a promising cooling technique to be applied in CZ-Si crystal growth with large size/high pulling rate.

  6. An object localization optimization technique in medical images using plant growth simulation algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharjee, Deblina; Paul, Anand; Kim, Jeong Hong; Kim, Mucheol

    2016-01-01

    The analysis of leukocyte images has drawn interest from fields of both medicine and computer vision for quite some time where different techniques have been applied to automate the process of manual analysis and classification of such images. Manual analysis of blood samples to identify leukocytes is time-consuming and susceptible to error due to the different morphological features of the cells. In this article, the nature-inspired plant growth simulation algorithm has been applied to optimize the image processing technique of object localization of medical images of leukocytes. This paper presents a random bionic algorithm for the automated detection of white blood cells embedded in cluttered smear and stained images of blood samples that uses a fitness function that matches the resemblances of the generated candidate solution to an actual leukocyte. The set of candidate solutions evolves via successive iterations as the proposed algorithm proceeds, guaranteeing their fit with the actual leukocytes outlined in the edge map of the image. The higher precision and sensitivity of the proposed scheme from the existing methods is validated with the experimental results of blood cell images. The proposed method reduces the feasible sets of growth points in each iteration, thereby reducing the required run time of load flow, objective function evaluation, thus reaching the goal state in minimum time and within the desired constraints.

  7. Si submonolayer and monolayer digital growth operation techniques using Si 2H 6 as atomically controlled growth nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suda, Yoshiyuki; Hosoya, Naoyuki; Miki, Kazushi

    2003-06-01

    We have previously proposed a Si sub-atomic layer epitaxy (SALE) method with which Si digital epitaxy from non-cracked Si 2H 6 is realized at a growth rate of ˜0.63 ML/cycle by repeating submonolayer Si saturation adsorption and adatom migration induced by surface thermal excitation. By the use of thermally-cracked Si 2H 6 in gas phase, the Si saturation coverage on Si(0 0 1) approaches ˜1 ML and Si atomic layer epitaxy on Ge(0 0 1) has also been achieved (thermally-cracked hydride molecule (TCH)-atomic layer epitaxy (ALE)) in the initial ALE cycles. The adsorption mechanisms are analyzed by scanning tunneling microscope (STM) and hydrogen temperature-programmed desorption (TPD) techniques together with the Si coverage measurement and :SiH 2 production rate analysis. The results are systematically understood and :SiH 2 produced through gas-phase Si 2H 6 thermal cracking nearly self-limitedly adsorbs on Si(0 0 1) by ˜1 ML. From the STM image analysis, the :SiH 2 is interpreted to orderly adsorb on each of the two dangling bonds of the dimer.

  8. Crystal growth of YVO[sub 4] using the LHPG technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erdei, S. (Materials Research Lab., Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park (United States)); Ainger, F.W. (Materials Research Lab., Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park (United States))

    1993-03-01

    A laser heated pedestal growth (LHPG) technique utilizing a 50 W CO[sub 2] laser source was employed for the growth of YVO[sub 4]. A growth method where only a small volume of the substance is melted was selected, since vanadium oxides vaporize readily at the melting point of YVO[sub 4] (1810 C). The feed and seed rods were prepared from ceramics made from different Y[sub 2]O[sub 3]-V[sub 2]O[sub 5] compositions synthesized by both solid state and wet chemical methods. The congruent melting composition (CMC) was determined to be 49.3 mol% V[sub 2]O[sub 5]-50.7 mol% Y[sub 2]O[sub 3]. Two phases in addition to YVO[sub 4] were observed and found to be Y[sub 8]V[sub 2]O[sub 17] and a black crystalline YVO[sub 4-x] (0 < x < 1) which can be deduced from the Y[sub 2]O[sub 3]-V[sub 2]O[sub 5]-V[sub 2]O[sub 3] ternary phase diagram. The occurrence of these phases can be minimized by reducing the length of the float zone and using ceramic rods rich in V[sub 2]O[sub 5]. (orig.)

  9. From knemometry to final adult height: inhaled corticosteroids and their effect on growth in childhood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vreede, Ilja; Haarman, Eric G.; Sprikkelman, Aline B.; van Aalderen, Wim M.

    2013-01-01

    Growth impairment in children with asthma, as a consequence of inhaled corticosteroids (ICS), is a major issue. Adverse systemic effects of ICS have been reviewed extensively, but no clinically relevant effects are reported if they are used in an appropriate dose as advocated in most guidelines.

  10. Genetic engineering technology for the improvement of the sterile insect technique. Proceedings of a final research co-ordination meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    Since the beginning of the joint FAO/IAEA programme on the research and development of insect pest control methodology, emphasis has been placed on the basic and applied aspects of implementing the sterile insect technique (SIT). Special emphasis has always been directed at the assembly of technological progress into workable systems that can be implemented in developing countries. The general intention is to solve problems associated with insect pests that have an adverse impact on production of food and fibre. For several insect species SIT has proven to be a powerful method for control. This includes the New World screwworm fly (Cochliomyia hominivorox), the Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata), the melon fly (Bactrocera cucurbitae), the Queensland fruit fly (Bactrocera tryoni) and one tsetse fly species (Glossina austeni). Improvements of the SIT are possible, especially through the use of molecular techniques. The final report of the Co-ordinated Research Programme on ''Genetic Engineering Technology for the Improvement of the Sterile Insect Technique'' highlights the progress made towards the development of transformation systems for non-drosophilid insects and the research aimed at the identification and engineering of potential target genes or traits

  11. Final kissing balloon inflation for coronary bifurcation lesions treated with single-stent technique : A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, G; Ke, X; Huang, Z-B; Wang, L-C; Huang, Z-N; Guo, Y; Long, M; Liao, X-X

    2017-11-27

    The efficacy of final kissing balloon (FKB) inflation in one-stent techniques for bifurcation lesions is controversial. The goal of the present study was to investigate the impact of FKB on long-term clinical outcomes in one-stent strategies. A literature search of the PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Library databases was undertaken through August 2017. The primary outcome was major adverse cardiac events (MACE), defined as the composite of cardiac death, myocardial infarction, and target lesion revascularization. Overall hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using the random-effects model. Ten studies comprising 7364 patients treated with a one-stent technique were included in the analysis. Overall, FKB did not demonstrate a significant reduction in MACE compared with non-FKB in both randomized trials (HR: 1.13; 95% CI: 0.65-1.98) and observational studies (HR: 0.86; 95% CI: 0.61-1.20). The risk of cardiac death (HR: 0.89; 95% CI: 0.53-1.49), myocardial infarction (HR: 0.76; 95% CI: 0.53-1.09), and target lesion revascularization (HR: 0.96; 95% CI: 0.74-1.23) was also similar in both groups. FKB may not be mandatory and a selective FKB strategy might be more justified in one-stent techniques for bifurcation lesions.

  12. Final Report. "Collaborative Project. Contributions of organic compounds to the growth of freshly nucleated atmospheric nanoparticles"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, James N [Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States)

    2015-12-23

    This is the final technical report for the portion of the project that took place at the National Center for Atmospheric Research, which covers approximately the first year of the three-year project. During this time we focused primarily on analysis and modeling of DOE-funded observations as well as preparation for laboratory studies of individual processes that contribute to atmospheric new particle formation.

  13. Growth of second phase particles in a copper--beryllium alloy. Final technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bunch, R.; Wells, R.; Mukherjee, A.K.

    1977-01-01

    Growth of second phase particles from a solid solution of copper-beryllium was studied to determine this alloy's suitability for acoustic emission testing. Optical and Scanning Electron microscopes were used to study the microstructure. Micro and macro hardness tests were also performed. A hardness curve for aging at 550 0 F was determined. Microscopic examination revealed the presence of large inclusions which make this alloy unsuitable for the acoustic tests envisioned

  14. Controlling Initial and Final Radii to Achieve a Low-Complexity Sphere Decoding Technique in MIMO Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Eshagh Hosseini

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to apply sphere decoding algorithm in multiple-input multiple-output communication systems and to make it feasible for real-time applications, its computational complexity should be decreased. To achieve this goal, this paper provides some useful insights into the effect of initial and the final sphere radii and estimating them effortlessly. It also discusses practical ways of initiating the algorithm properly and terminating it before the normal end of the process as well as the cost of these methods. Besides, a novel algorithm is introduced which utilizes the presented techniques according to a threshold factor which is defined in terms of the number of transmit antennas and the noise variance. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm offers a desirable performance and reasonable complexity satisfying practical constraints.

  15. Blending online techniques with traditional face to face teaching methods to deliver final year undergraduate radiology learning content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howlett, David; Vincent, Tim; Watson, Gillian; Owens, Emma; Webb, Richard; Gainsborough, Nicola; Fairclough, Jil; Taylor, Nick; Miles, Ken; Cohen, Jon; Vincent, Richard

    2011-06-01

    To review the initial experience of blending a variety of online educational techniques with traditional face to face or contact-based teaching methods to deliver final year undergraduate radiology content at a UK Medical School. The Brighton and Sussex Medical School opened in 2003 and offers a 5-year undergraduate programme, with the final 5 spent in several regional centres. Year 5 involves several core clinical specialities with onsite radiology teaching provided at regional centres in the form of small-group tutorials, imaging seminars and also a one-day course. An online educational module was introduced in 2007 to facilitate equitable delivery of the year 5 curriculum between the regional centres and to support students on placement. This module had a strong radiological emphasis, with a combination of imaging integrated into clinical cases to reflect everyday practice and also dedicated radiology cases. For the second cohort of year 5 students in 2008 two additional online media-rich initiatives were introduced, to complement the online module, comprising imaging tutorials and an online case discussion room. In the first year for the 2007/2008 cohort, 490 cases were written, edited and delivered via the Medical School managed learning environment as part of the online module. 253 cases contained a form of image media, of which 195 cases had a radiological component with a total of 325 radiology images. Important aspects of radiology practice (e.g. consent, patient safety, contrast toxicity, ionising radiation) were also covered. There were 274,000 student hits on cases the first year, with students completing a mean of 169 cases each. High levels of student satisfaction were recorded in relation to the online module and also additional online radiology teaching initiatives. Online educational techniques can be effectively blended with other forms of teaching to allow successful undergraduate delivery of radiology. Efficient IT links and good image quality

  16. Blending online techniques with traditional face to face teaching methods to deliver final year undergraduate radiology learning content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howlett, David; Vincent, Tim; Watson, Gillian; Owens, Emma; Webb, Richard; Gainsborough, Nicola; Fairclough, Jil; Taylor, Nick; Miles, Ken; Cohen, Jon; Vincent, Richard

    2011-01-01

    Aim: To review the initial experience of blending a variety of online educational techniques with traditional face to face or contact-based teaching methods to deliver final year undergraduate radiology content at a UK Medical School. Materials and methods: The Brighton and Sussex Medical School opened in 2003 and offers a 5-year undergraduate programme, with the final 5 spent in several regional centres. Year 5 involves several core clinical specialities with onsite radiology teaching provided at regional centres in the form of small-group tutorials, imaging seminars and also a one-day course. An online educational module was introduced in 2007 to facilitate equitable delivery of the year 5 curriculum between the regional centres and to support students on placement. This module had a strong radiological emphasis, with a combination of imaging integrated into clinical cases to reflect everyday practice and also dedicated radiology cases. For the second cohort of year 5 students in 2008 two additional online media-rich initiatives were introduced, to complement the online module, comprising imaging tutorials and an online case discussion room. Results: In the first year for the 2007/2008 cohort, 490 cases were written, edited and delivered via the Medical School managed learning environment as part of the online module. 253 cases contained a form of image media, of which 195 cases had a radiological component with a total of 325 radiology images. Important aspects of radiology practice (e.g. consent, patient safety, contrast toxicity, ionising radiation) were also covered. There were 274,000 student hits on cases the first year, with students completing a mean of 169 cases each. High levels of student satisfaction were recorded in relation to the online module and also additional online radiology teaching initiatives. Conclusion: Online educational techniques can be effectively blended with other forms of teaching to allow successful undergraduate delivery of

  17. Blending online techniques with traditional face to face teaching methods to deliver final year undergraduate radiology learning content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howlett, David, E-mail: david.howlett@esht.nhs.uk [Department of Radiology, Eastbourne District General Hospital, Kings Drive, Eastbourne, East Sussex BN21 2UD (United Kingdom); Vincent, Tim [Department of IT, Brighton and Sussex Medical School (BSMS) (United Kingdom); Watson, Gillian; Owens, Emma [Department of Radiology, Eastbourne District General Hospital, Kings Drive, Eastbourne, East Sussex BN21 2UD (United Kingdom); Webb, Richard; Gainsborough, Nicola [Department of Medicine, Royal Sussex County Hospital, Brighton (United Kingdom); Fairclough, Jil [Department of IT, Brighton and Sussex Medical School (BSMS) (United Kingdom); Taylor, Nick [Department of Medical Illustration, Eastbourne District General Hospital (United Kingdom); Miles, Ken [Department of Imaging, BSMS (United Kingdom); Cohen, Jon [Department of Infectious Diseases, BSMS (United Kingdom); Vincent, Richard [Department of Cardiology, BSMS (United Kingdom)

    2011-06-15

    Aim: To review the initial experience of blending a variety of online educational techniques with traditional face to face or contact-based teaching methods to deliver final year undergraduate radiology content at a UK Medical School. Materials and methods: The Brighton and Sussex Medical School opened in 2003 and offers a 5-year undergraduate programme, with the final 5 spent in several regional centres. Year 5 involves several core clinical specialities with onsite radiology teaching provided at regional centres in the form of small-group tutorials, imaging seminars and also a one-day course. An online educational module was introduced in 2007 to facilitate equitable delivery of the year 5 curriculum between the regional centres and to support students on placement. This module had a strong radiological emphasis, with a combination of imaging integrated into clinical cases to reflect everyday practice and also dedicated radiology cases. For the second cohort of year 5 students in 2008 two additional online media-rich initiatives were introduced, to complement the online module, comprising imaging tutorials and an online case discussion room. Results: In the first year for the 2007/2008 cohort, 490 cases were written, edited and delivered via the Medical School managed learning environment as part of the online module. 253 cases contained a form of image media, of which 195 cases had a radiological component with a total of 325 radiology images. Important aspects of radiology practice (e.g. consent, patient safety, contrast toxicity, ionising radiation) were also covered. There were 274,000 student hits on cases the first year, with students completing a mean of 169 cases each. High levels of student satisfaction were recorded in relation to the online module and also additional online radiology teaching initiatives. Conclusion: Online educational techniques can be effectively blended with other forms of teaching to allow successful undergraduate delivery of

  18. Automatic diameter control system applied to the laser heated pedestal growth technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreeta M.R.B.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available We described an automatic diameter control system (ADC, for the laser heated pedestal growth technique, that reduces the diameter fluctuations in oxide fibers grown from unreacted and non-sinterized pedestals, to less than 2% of the average fiber diameter, and diminishes the average diameter fluctuation, over the entire length of the fiber, to less than 1%. The ADC apparatus is based on an artificial vision system that controls the pulling speed and the height of the molten zone within a precision of 30 mum. We also show that this system can be used for periodic in situ axial doping the fiber. Pure and Cr3+ doped LaAlO3 and pure LiNbO3 were usedas model materials.

  19. Multivariate analysis of the cleaning efficacy of different final irrigation techniques in the canal and isthmus of mandibular posterior teeth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeon-Jee Yoo

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives The aim of this study was to compare the cleaning efficacy of different final irrigation regimens in canal and isthmus of mandibular molars, and to evaluate the influence of related variables on cleaning efficacy of the irrigation systems. Materials and Methods Mesial root canals from 60 mandibular molars were prepared and divided into 4 experimental groups according to the final irrigation technique: Group C, syringe irrigation; Group U, ultrasonics activation; Group SC, VPro StreamClean irrigation; Group EV, EndoVac irrigation. Cross-sections at 1, 3 and 5 mm levels from the apex were examined to calculate remaining debris area in the canal and isthmus spaces. Statistical analysis was completed by using Kruskal-Wallis test and Mann-Whitney U test for comparison among groups, and multivariate linear analysis to identify the significant variables (regular replenishment of irrigant, vapor lock management, and ultrasonic activation of irrigant affecting the cleaning efficacy of the experimental groups. Results Group SC and EV showed significantly higher canal cleanliness values than group C and U at 1 mm level (p < 0.05, and higher isthmus cleanliness values than group U at 3 mm and all levels of group C (p < 0.05. Multivariate linear regression analysis demonstrated that all variables had independent positive correlation at 1 mm level of canal and at all levels of isthmus with statistical significances. Conclusions Both VPro StreamClean and EndoVac system showed favorable result as final irrigation regimens for cleaning debris in the complicated root canal system having curved canal and/or isthmus. The debridement of the isthmi significantly depends on the variables rather than the canals.

  20. Electric-Loading Enhanced Kinetics in Oxide Ceramics: Pore Migration, Sintering and Grain Growth: Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, I-Wei [Univ. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States). Dept. of Materials Science & Engineering

    2018-02-02

    Solid oxide fuel cells and solid oxide electrolysis cells rely on solid electrolytes in which a large ionic current dominates. This project was initiated to investigate microstructural changes in such devices under electrochemical forces, because nominally insignificant processes may couple to the large ionic current to yield non-equilibrium phenomena that alter the microstructure. Our studies had focused on yttria-stabilized cubic zirconia (YSZ) widely used in these devices. The experiments have revealed enhanced grain growth at higher temperatures, pore and gas bubble migration at all temperatures, and the latter also lead to enhanced sintering of highly porous ceramics into fully dense ceramics at unprecedentedly low temperatures. These results have shed light on kinetic processes that fall completely outside the realm of classical ceramic processing. Other fast-oxygen oxide ceramics closely related to, and often used in conjunction with zirconia ceramics, have also be investigated, as are closely related scientific problems in zirconia ceramics. These include crystal structures, defects, diffusion kinetics, oxygen potentials, low temperature sintering, flash sintering, and coarsening theory, and all have resulted in greater clarity in scientific understanding. The knowledge is leveraged to provide new insight to electrode kinetics and near-electrode mixed conductivity and to new materials. In the following areas, our research has resulted in completely new knowledge that defines the state-of-the-art of the field. (a) Electrical current driven non-equilibrium phenomena, (b) Enhanced grain growth under electrochemically reducing conditions, (c) Development of oxygen potential polarization in electrically loaded electrolyte, (d) Low temperature sintering and grain growth, and (e) Structure, defects and cation kinetics of fluorite-structured oxides. Our research has also contributed to synthesis of new energy-relevant electrochemical materials and new understanding

  1. Stomatal- and growth responses in willow to deficits in water- and nitrogen supply. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stadenberg, I. [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dep. for Production Ecology

    2002-02-01

    The two plants, grown with an [N] of 100 mg per litre and subjected to a decrease in N-supply decreased their leaf relative growth rate from 22% per day to 13% per day within 2 days. Stomatal conductance did not change significantly after the decrease in N-supply. Xylem samples did not show any significant changes in its composition of mineral nutrient elements after decreased N-supply. The three plants, grown with an [N] of 50 mg per litre and subjected to a decrease in N-supply, significantly decreased leaf relative growth rate from 18.5 % to 9 % per day within 2 days. Stomatal conductance did not change significantly after the decrease in N-supply. Xylem sap samples showed a significant decrease in [K] (74 mg/l to 42 mg/l) and [S] (11 mg/l to 3.2 mg/l) within 2 days after decreased N-supply. The four plants subjected to root drying decreased their leaf relative growth rate slightly but not significantly during the drying period. Xylem samples showed a significant decrease in S-concentration (11 mg/l to 1.3 mg/l) and [NO{sub 3}] (8.0 mg/l to 1.0 mg/l), while [Fe] increased significantly (0.065 mg/l to 0.14 mg/l). Stomatal conductance is known to decrease when plants are subjected to drying of part of the root system. This was shown for Salix dasyclados in a recent publication.

  2. Growth and location of bacterial colonies within dairy foods using microscopy techniques: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cian D. Hickey

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The growth, location and distribution of bacterial colonies in dairy products are important factors for the ripening and flavor development of cheeses, yogurts and soured creams. Starter, non-starter, spoilage and pathogenic bacteria all become entrapped in the developing casein matrix of dairy foods. In order to visualize these bacterial colonies and the environments surrounding them, microscopy techniques are used. The use of various microscopy methods allow for the rapid detection, enumeration and distribution of starter, non-starter and pathogenic bacteria in dairy foods. Confocal laser scanning microscopy is extensively utilised to identify bacteria location via the use of fluorescent dyes. Further study is needed in relation to the development of micro- gradients and localized ripening parameters in dairy products due to the location of bacteria at the protein-fat interface. Development in the area of bacterial discrimination using microscopy techniques and fluorescent dyes/tags is needed as the benefits of rapidly identifying spoilage/pathogenic bacteria early in product manufacture would be of huge benefit in relation to both safety and financial concerns.

  3. Portfolio management: Finding growth opportunities in a restructured electricity marketplace. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staley, J.; Patterson, A.; Gardner, T.

    1997-12-01

    Energy services companies are rapidly creating a wide array of new products and services for their customers. To penetrate the marketplace most effectively, however, these new offerings should be integrated into cohesive portfolios that meet the needs of key customer segments. This report explores the techniques of portfolio management and describes how this tool can help bring greater balance and focus to an energy provider's product and service portfolios. Portfolio management provides a process for initiating, overseeing, and exiting from diverse investments on the basis of not only the merits of each individual investment, but also the merits of those investments in combination. The principles of portfolio management can be applied to various types of investments, including those involving lines of business, new product initiatives, and project commitments. With the rapid transition to a more competitive environment, these types of market-oriented investments are receiving greater scrutiny in the energy services industry. Accordingly, portfolio management techniques are becoming increasingly important business tools. The project team considers three different categories of portfolio management within the context of the energy services industry. Passive portfolio management focuses on choosing the combination of products/services that will provide the most favorable trade-off of risk and return for a given risk tolerance. Balanced portfolio management provides a more aggressive set of techniques that look broadly at a company's multiple objectives and assist in deploying resources to achieve balance along multiple dimensions. Strategic portfolio management goes even further by helping to define a set of synergistic offerings that reinforce one another and the company's strategic direction. In this report the team also documents case studies of companies that profited from their portfolio management efforts and presents a project design for developing and

  4. Growth in Biofuels Markets: Long Term Environmental and Socioeconomic Impacts (Final Report)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seth D. Meyer; Nicholas Kalaitzandonakes

    2010-12-02

    Over the last several years increasing energy and petroleum prices have propelled biofuels and the feedstocks used to produce them, to the forefront of alternative energy production. This growth has increased the linkages between energy and agricultural markets and these changes around the world are having a significant effect on agricultural markets as biofuels begin to play a more substantial role in meeting the world's energy needs. Biofuels are alternatively seen as a means to reduce carbon emissions, increase energy independence, support rural development and to raise farm income. However, concern has arisen that the new demand for traditional commodities or alternative commodities which compete for land can lead to higher food prices and the environmental effects from expanding crop acreage may result in uncertain changes in carbon emissions as land is converted both in the US and abroad. While a number of studies examine changes in land use and consumption from changes in biofuels policies many lack effective policy representation or complete coverage of land types which may be diverted in to energy feedstock production. Many of these biofuels and renewable energy induced land use changes are likely to occur in developing countries with at-risk consumers and on environmentally sensitive lands. Our research has improved the well known FAPRI-MU modeling system which represents US agricultural markets and policies in great detail and added a new model of land use and commodity markets for major commodity producers, consumers and trade dependent and food insecure countries as well as a rest of the world aggregate. The international modules include traditional annual crop lands and include perennial crop land, pasture land, forest land and other land uses from which land may be drawn in to biofuels or renewable energy feedstock production. Changes in calorie consumption in food insecure countries from changes in renewable energy policy can also be examined

  5. Shock-Driven Hydrodynamic Instability Growth Near Phase Boundaries and Material Property Transitions: Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peralta, Pedro [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States); Fortin, Elizabeth [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States); Opie, Saul [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States); Gautam, Sudrishti [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States); Gopalakrishnan, Ashish [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States); Lynch, Jenna [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States); Chen, Yan [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States); Loomis, Eric [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-03-01

    Activities for this grant included: 1) Development of dynamic impact experiments to probe strength and phase transition influence on dynamic deformation, 2) development of modern strength and phase aware simulation capabilities, 3) and post-processing of experimental data with simulation and closed form analytical techniques. Two different dynamic experiments were developed to probe material strengths in solid metals (largely copper and iron in this effort). In the first experiment a flyer plate impacts a flat target with an opposite rippled surface that is partially supported by a weaker window material. Post mortem analysis of the target sample showed a strong and repeatable residual plastic deformation dependence on grain orientation. Yield strengths for strain rates near 105 s-1 and plastic strains near ~50% were estimated to be around 180 to 240 MPa, varying in this range with grain orientation. Unfortunately dynamic real-time measurements were difficult with this setup due to diagnostic laser scattering; hence, an additional experimental setup was developed to complement these results. In the second set of experiments a rippled surface was ablated by a controlled laser pulsed, which launched a rippled shock front to an opposite initially flat diagnostic surface that was monitored in real-time with spatially resolved velocimetry techniques, e.g., line VISAR in addition to Transient Imaging Displacement Interferometry (TIDI) displacement measurements. This setup limited the displacements at the diagnostic surface to a reasonable level for TIDI measurements (~ less than one micrometer). These experiments coupled with analytical and numerical solutions provided evidence that viscous and elastic deviatoric strength affect shock front perturbation evolution in clearly different ways. Particularly, normalized shock front perturbation amplitudes evolve with viscosity (η) and perturbation wavelength (λ) as η/λ, such that increasing viscosity

  6. Growth rate anisotropy and absorption studies on β-BaB 2O 4 single crystals grown by the top-seeded solution growth technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, Rajeev; Ganesamoorthy, S.; Bhaumik, Indranil; Karnal, A. K.; Wadhawan, V. K.

    2007-03-01

    Beta barium borate (β-BaB2O4; BBO) single crystals have been grown from Na2O flux by the TSSG technique and the observed growth rate anisotropy is reported. The symmetrical conoscopic interference pattern on the c-cut plate confirmed strain-free and optical homogeneity of the crystals. The observed growth habits of as-grown crystals are explained using crystal growth theories. The relative growth rate along different crystallographic directions of BBO can be described by R[100] = R[010] > R[001]. The absorption measurements show a nearly 9 nm shift in fundamental absorption edges in X and Z cut samples. Band gap energies measured were 6.45 and 6.2 eV along the X and Z directions, respectively. The absorption spectra near the fundamental absorption edges (AE) follow Urbach's rule.

  7. Impact of long term pesticide usage on soil properties using radiotracer techniques. Proceedings of a final research coordination meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-11-01

    An important activity of the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) is to assist Member States to ensure that, as far as possible, pesticides are used effectively and safely. To this end, FAO has published Guidelines for the Registration and Control of Pesticides, which forms the basis of most national pesticide registration schemes. Among the recommendations is that data should be provided to show that a candidate pesticide has no unacceptable effects on non-target organisms. Soil micro-flora and fauna, because of their central role in maintaining soil fertility, are highly ranked in this context. Concern has been expressed that the data normally presented may not be adequate to predict the effects on soil micro-organisms of repeated, heavy, multiple applications of pesticides that are common in monocultures of crops, such as cotton, maize and rice. Evaluation of the effects of such pesticide regimes requires studies of a range of soil microbial activities, some of which require the use of 14 C-labelled pesticides. Therefore, the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture organised a Co-ordinated Research project to assess whether or not there is a need to extend the data requirements for pesticide registration to cover such extreme agricultural practices. This TECDOC summarises the outcome of this programme and includes papers presented at the final Research Co-ordination meeting held in Hangzhou, China, 24-28 May 1999

  8. Mechanistic study of the accelerated crucible rotation technique applied to vertical Bridgman growth of cadmium zinc telluride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divecha, Mia S.; Derby, Jeffrey J.

    2017-08-01

    With cadmium zinc telluride's (CZT) success as a gamma and x-ray detector material, there is need for high-quality, monocrystalline CZT in large volumes. Bridgman and gradient freeze growth methods have consistently produced material containing significant amounts of micron-sized, tellurium-rich inclusions, which are detrimental to device performance. These inclusions are believed to arise from a morphological instability of the growth interface driven by constitutional undercooling. Repeatedly rotating the crucible back and forth via the accelerated crucible rotation technique (ACRT) has been shown to reduce the size and number of inclusions. Via numerical techniques, we analyze the impact of two different applied temperature gradients, 10 K/cm and 30 K/cm, on the flow, temperature, tellurium distribution, and undercooling during growth with and without applied ACRT. Under growth without rotation, a higher axial thermal gradient results in stronger thermal-buoyancy driven flows, faster interface growth velocity, greater tellurium segregation, and stronger undercooling. ACRT improves the stability of the growth interfaces for both systems; however, contrary to conventional wisdom, the case of the shallow thermal gradient is predicted to exhibit a more stable growth interface, which may result in fewer inclusions and higher quality material.

  9. Control of interface shape during high melting sesquioxide crystal growth by HEM technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Kaiwei; Zheng, Lili; Zhang, Hui

    2018-02-01

    During crystal growth in heat exchanger method (HEM) system, the shape of the growth interface changes with the proceeding of the growth process, which limits the crystal size and reduces the quality of the crystal. In this paper, a modified HEM system is proposed to control the interface shape for growth of sesquioxide crystals. Numerical simulation is performed to predict heat transfer, melt flow and interface shape during growth of high melting sesquioxide crystals by the heat exchanger method. The results show that a flat or slightly convex interface shape is beneficial to reduce the solute pileup in front of the melt/crystal interface and decrease the radial temperature gradient inside the crystal during growth of sesquioxide crystals. The interface shape can be controlled by adjusting the gap size d and lower resistance heater power during growth. The growth rate and the melt/crystal interface position can be obtained by two measured temperatures.

  10. Evaluation of growth conditions and DNA extraction techniques used in the molecular analysis of dermatophytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnat, S; Nowakiewicz, A; Ziółkowska, G; Trościańczyk, A; Majer-Dziedzic, B; Zięba, P

    2017-05-01

    Recent molecular methods for diagnosis of superficial mycoses have determined the need for a rapid and easy method of extracting DNA. The aim of study was to determine growth conditions and techniques of DNA extraction for Microsporum canis, Trichophyton mentagrophytes and T. verrucosum. Samples were prepared of each of the DNA extraction methods (phenol-chloroform, CTAB and four different kits) for all of the incubation periods (4, 7 and 10 days) of the cultures on the solid and in the liquid medium. The highest DNA concentrations were obtained using the phenol-chloroform method. The concentration of DNA extracted with the CTAB method accounted for 62·21%, for kits it corresponded from 35·53 to 15·41%. The analysis of the DNA weight yield revealed the highest isolation efficiency of the phenol-chloroform method, 1 mg of mycelium yielded 223·8 μg DNA. Lower DNA yield (by 39·32%) was obtained with the CTAB method; in the case of kits by 68·46-85·32%. In most of the techniques, the DNA yield on the solid medium was higher. In summary, the highest DNA yield was noted in the 7-day cultures and extraction with the phenol-chloroform method. Importantly, the type of culture was not relevant for the diagnostic result. Most mycoses are caused by fungi that reside in nature. The severity of the infection depends on the pathogenic attributes, socioeconomic factors and local environmental conditions. Recent diagnosis increasingly relies on not only the clinical features. Molecular identifications have determined the need for a rapid and easy method of extracting DNA. Usually two factors have to be considered: maximize the DNA yield and ensure that the extracted DNA is susceptible to enzymatic reactions. These data suggest that phenol-chloroform methods and a 7-day culture period may be useful for validation and constitute the first step of molecular diagnosis of dermatophytes. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  11. Improved growth media and culture techniques for genetic analysis and assessment of biomass utilization by Caldicellulosiruptor bescii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farkas, Joel; Chung, Daehwan; Cha, Minseok; Copeland, Jennifer; Grayeski, Philip; Westpheling, Janet

    2013-01-01

    Methods for efficient growth and manipulation of relatively uncharacterized bacteria facilitate their study and are essential for genetic manipulation. We report new growth media and culture techniques for Caldicellulosiruptor bescii, the most thermophilic cellulolytic bacterium known. A low osmolarity defined growth medium (LOD) was developed that avoids problems associated with precipitates that form in previously reported media allowing the monitoring of culture density by optical density at 680 nm (OD(680)) and more efficient DNA transformation by electroporation. This is a defined minimal medium and does not support growth when a carbon source is omitted, making it suitable for selection of nutritional markers as well as the study of biomass utilization by C. bescii. A low osmolarity complex growth medium (LOC) was developed that dramatically improves growth and culture viability during storage, making it a better medium for routine growth and passaging of C. bescii. Both media contain significantly lower solute concentration than previously published media, allowing for flexibility in developing more specialized media types while avoiding the issues of growth inhibition and cell lysis due to osmotic stress. Plating on LOD medium solidified by agar results in ~1,000-fold greater plating efficiency than previously reported and allows the isolation of discrete colonies. These new media represent a significant advance for both genetic manipulation and the study of biomass utilization in C. bescii, and may be applied broadly across the Caldicellulosiruptor genus.

  12. Decommissioning techniques for research reactors. Final report of a co-ordinated research project 1997-2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-02-01

    In its international role, the IAEA is faced with a wide variety of national situations and different availability of technical, human and financial resources. While it is recognised that nuclear decommissioning is a mature industry in some developed countries, and may soon become a routine activity, the situation is by no means so clear in other countries. In addition, transfer of technologies and know-how from developed to developing countries is not a spontaneous, straightforward process, and will take time and considerable effort. As mandated by its own statute and Member States' requests, the IAEA continues to respond to its Member States by monitoring technological progress, ensuring development of safer and more efficient strategies and fostering international information exchange. Previous co-ordinated research projects (CRP) conducted respectively from 1984 to 1987, and from 1989 to 1993, investigated the overall domain of decommissioning. In those CRPs no distinction was made between decommissioning activities carried out at nuclear power plants, research reactors or nuclear fuel cycle facilities. With technological progress and experience gained, it became clear that decommissioning of research reactors had certain specific characteristics which needed a dedicated approach. In addition, a large number of research reactors reached a state of permanent shutdown in the 1990s and were candidates for prompt decommissioning. With the progressive ageing of research reactors, many more of these units will soon become redundant worldwide and require decommissioning. Within this context, a CRP on Decommissioning Techniques for Research Reactors was launched and conducted by the IAEA from 1997 to 2001 in order to prepare for eventual decommissioning. Concluding reports that summarized the work undertaken under the aegis of the CRP were presented at the third and final Research Co-ordination Meeting held in Kendal, United Kingdom, 14-18 May 2001, and are collected

  13. Monitoring deforestation and urbanization growth in rawal watershed area using remote sensing and gis techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saeed, M.A.; Ashraf, A.

    2011-01-01

    The Rawal watershed in Pothwar region of Pakistan has undergone significant changes in its environmental conditions and landuse activities due to numerous socio-economic and natural factors. These ultimately influence the livelihood of the inhabitants of the area. The connected environmental changes are resulting in accelerated land degradation, deforestation, and landslides. In the present study, spatio-temporal behaviour of landuse/landcover in the Rawal watershed area was investigated using Remote Sensing (RS) and Geographical Information System (GIS) techniques. Satellite image data of LANDSAT ETM+ of 1992, 2000 and 2010 periods were processed and analyzed for detecting land use change and identifying risk prone locations in the watershed area. The study results revealed significant changes in the coverage of conifer forest (34 % decrease), scrub forest (29 % decrease) and settlement (231 % increase) during the decade 1992-2010. The rate of decline in conifer class is about 19 ha/annum while that of scrub class is 223 ha/annum. In both the cases, the rates of decrease were higher during the period 1992-2000 than the period 2000-2010. The Agriculture land has shown an increase of about 1.8% while built-up land had increased almost four folds, i.e. from 2.6 % in 1992 to 8.7 % in 2010. The growth in urbanization may result in further loss of forest cover in the watershed area. The findings of the study could help in developing effective strategies for future resource management and conservation, as well as for controlling land degradation in the watershed area. (author)

  14. Coordinated research programme on the application of isotope techniques to investigate groundwater pollution final research coordination meeting and consultants' meeting. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, B.; Chilton, J.; Travi, Y.; Gerardo-Abaya, J.

    1998-02-01

    This document summarizes the IAEA Coordinated Research Programme (CRP) on the Application of Isotope Techniques to Investigate Groundwater Pollution. Summaries of 16 completed investigations are given. The completed investigations resulted to the application of 18 O, 2 H, 3 H, 13 C, 14 C, 34 S, 15 N and boron isotopes integrated to some extend with the classical hydrological tools. These studies have broadly confirmed the use of isotope techniques on two main ways: a) to assist in the interpretation of groundwater flow systems; b) to act as tracers of the origin and pathways of ta range of groundwater pollutants. Several important aspects have become clear in the CRP: it is advisable not to rely on single isotopes, but to combine where possible the use of more than one, particularly oxygen with nitrogen and sulfur; it is essential to integrate isotope techniques with conventional hydrochemistry; trace elements have an important role to play in an integrated approach to the interpretation of contamination sources and pathways. This CRP should be regarded as a stepping stone, considering that the magnitude of the problem of groundwater pollution is enormous in global terms. In order to have an impact on the understanding of groundwater pollution, the need is seen for follow-up by several CRPs targeted at specific areas or problems. Of priorities are: a) urban waste, both human and industrial; b) the origin of saline groundwater; and c) nitrate in groundwater in both agricultural and urban areas

  15. Applying a particle filtering technique for canola crop growth stage estimation in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Abhijit; Tan, Weikai; Li, Yifeng; McNairn, Heather; Jiao, Xianfeng; Hosseini, Mehdi

    2017-10-01

    Accurate crop growth stage estimation is important in precision agriculture as it facilitates improved crop management, pest and disease mitigation and resource planning. Earth observation imagery, specifically Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data, can provide field level growth estimates while covering regional scales. In this paper, RADARSAT-2 quad polarization and TerraSAR-X dual polarization SAR data and ground truth growth stage data are used to model the influence of canola growth stages on SAR imagery extracted parameters. The details of the growth stage modeling work are provided, including a) the development of a new crop growth stage indicator that is continuous and suitable as the state variable in the dynamic estimation procedure; b) a selection procedure for SAR polarimetric parameters that is sensitive to both linear and nonlinear dependency between variables; and c) procedures for compensation of SAR polarimetric parameters for different beam modes. The data was collected over three crop growth seasons in Manitoba, Canada, and the growth model provides the foundation of a novel dynamic filtering framework for real-time estimation of canola growth stages using the multi-sensor and multi-mode SAR data. A description of the dynamic filtering framework that uses particle filter as the estimator is also provided in this paper.

  16. Application of a cycle jump technique for acceleration of fatigue crack growth simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moslemian, Ramin; Karlsson, A.M.; Berggreen, Christian

    2010-01-01

    A method for accelerated simulation of fatigue crack growth in a bimaterial interface is proposed. To simulate fatigue crack growth in a bimaterial interface a routine is developed in the commercial finite element code ANSYS and a method to accelerate the simulation is implemented. The proposed...

  17. Stimulation of methane oxidation potential and effects on vegetation growth by bottom ash addition in a landfill final evapotranspiration cover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Gil Won; Ho, Adrian; Kim, Pil Joo; Kim, Sang Yoon

    2016-09-01

    The landfilling of municipal solid waste is a significant source of atmospheric methane (CH4), contributing up to 20% of total anthropogenic CH4 emissions. The evapotranspiration (ET) cover system, an alternative final cover system in waste landfills, has been considered to be a promising way to mitigate CH4 emissions, as well as to prevent water infiltration using vegetation on landfill cover soils. In our previous studies, bottom ash from coal-fired power plants was selected among several industrial residues (blast furnace slag, bottom ash, construction waste, steel manufacture slag, stone powder sludge, and waste gypsum) as the best additive for ET cover systems, with the highest mechanical performance achieved for a 35% (wtwt(-1)) bottom ash content in soil. In this study, to evaluate the field applicability of bottom ash mixed soil as ET cover, four sets of lysimeters (height 1.2m×width 2m×length 6m) were constructed in 2007, and four different treatments were installed: (i) soil+bottom ash (35% wtwt(-1)) (SB); (ii) soil+compost (2% wtwt(-1), approximately corresponding to 40Mgha(-1) in arable field scale) (SC); (iii) soil+bottom ash+compost (SBC); and (iv) soil only as the control (S). The effects of bottom ash mixing in ET cover soil on CH4 oxidation potential and vegetation growth were evaluated in a pilot ET cover system in the 5th year after installation by pilot experiments using the treatments. Our results showed that soil properties were significantly improved by bottom ash mixing, resulting in higher plant growth. Bottom ash addition significantly increased the CH4 oxidation potential of the ET cover soil, mainly due to improved organic matter and available copper concentration, enhancing methanotrophic abundances in soil amended with bottom ash. Conclusively, bottom ash could be a good alternative as a soil additive in the ET cover system to improve vegetation growth and mitigate CH4 emission impact in the waste landfill system. Copyright © 2016

  18. Labelling techniques of biomolecules for targeted radiotherapy. Final report of a co-ordinated research project 1998-2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-07-01

    optimization of radiolabelling techniques with beta emitting radioisotopes, including quality control procedures and evaluation of the labelled products in in vitro and in vivo models. Biomolecule carriers that were considered for investigation included somatostatin analogues like lanreotide, Tyr-octreotide, ior-P1394 and vasointestinal peptide (VIP), as well as anti-CEA monoclonal antibody. Using either the bifunctional chelate approach or direct reductive exposure of -SH groups, labelling of these biomolecules with therapeutic radionuclides was pursued. Through these attempts it was expected to identify one or two agents with high radiochemical purity and labelling efficiency for further evaluation. Promising agents would be selected for further investigation using biodistribution studies in animals and uptake in tumour bearing animals. Fifteen selected research institutes from Argentina, Austria, Brazil, Cuba, Greece, Finland, Hungary, India, Italy, Mexico, Pakistan, Peoples Republic of China, Romania, Thailand and Uruguay with recognized expertise in the field of therapeutic radionuclides and radiopharmaceutical research were selected to participate in the CRP. The first research co-ordination meeting to plan the work and define the research protocols to be investigated was held in Milan, Italy in July 1998. At this meeting it was decided to concentrate the efforts on two radionuclides, 188Re and 90Y, which are produced by generator systems and result in carrier free products; lanreotide was selected as a model peptide. Synthesis of the bifunctional chelating agent DOTA was also recommended for the labelling of biomolecules with 90Y. The development of the corresponding coupling techniques, optimization of protocols for direct and indirect labelling of lanreotide and anti-carcino embryonic antigen (CEA) monoclonal antibody and in vitro evaluation in cell lines and membrane receptors were also included in the work plan for the following period. IgG labelled with 131I and

  19. Basic theory of diameter control in Czochralski growth using the melt-weighing technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansen, T.H.

    1986-04-01

    The unconfined crystal growth in the Czochralski configuration is recognized as a process which is quite dependent upon successful control of the shape determining conditions. In the paper attention is focused on the meniscus region, and its relevance to the crystal diameter behaviour is discussed. The dynamic stability of the configuration is analyzed according to the Surek criterion. In contrast to earlier zeroth order arguments, the system is shown to be inherently stable at normal growth conditions if the thermal impedance of the meniscus is taken into account. General difficulties associated with small diameter growth are pointed out. Reference is made to various growth monitoring arrangements, and the melt-weighing method is described in detail. Assuming uniform growth with a flat interface, the exact relation between the force experienced by a weighing cell and the growth parameters during both stationary and non-stationary conditions is derived. Growth at a constant angle is analyzed, and a new procedure for deriving the crystal diameter is suggested

  20. Application of geo-spatial techniques and cellular automata for modelling urban growth of a heterogeneous urban fringe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahesh Kumar Jat

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Urban growth monitoring and assessment are essential for the sustainable natural resources planning & optimum utilization and reducing the risk of problems arising from unplanned urban growth like pollution, urban heat island and ecological disturbances. Cellular Automata (CA based modelling techniques have become popular in recent past for simulating the urban growth. Present study is aimed to evaluate the performance of the CA based SLEUTH model in simulating the urban growth of a complex and relatively more heterogeneous urban area, Ajmer city of Rajasthan (India which is quite different as compared to areas where SLEUTH has been tested in developed countries. Seven multispectral satellite imageries spanning over 21 years have been processed and used for SLEUTH parameterisation. Results of urban growth predicted by SLEUTH has been compared with other methods of land use/land cover extraction. The study has been proved to be successful in giving significant insight into issues contributing uncertainties in forecasting of urban growth of heterogeneous urban areas.

  1. Study on growth techniques and macro defects of large-size Nd:YAG laser crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quan, Jiliang; Yang, Xin; Yang, Mingming; Ma, Decai; Huang, Jinqiang; Zhu, Yunzhong; Wang, Biao

    2018-02-01

    Large-size neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd:YAG) single crystals were grown by the Czochralski method. The extinction ratio and wavefront distortion of the crystal were tested to determine the optical homogeneity. Moreover, under different growth conditions, the macro defects of inclusion, striations, and cracking in the as-grown Nd:YAG crystals were analyzed. Specifically, the inclusion defects were characterized using scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy. The stresses of growth striations and cracking were studied via a parallel plane polariscope. These results demonstrate that improper growth parameters and temperature fields can enhance defects significantly. Thus, by adjusting the growth parameters and optimizing the thermal environment, high-optical-quality Nd:YAG crystals with a diameter of 80 mm and a total length of 400 mm have been obtained successfully.

  2. Applications of Optical Interferometer Techniques for Precision Measurements of Changes in Temperature, Growth and Refractive Index of Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rami Reddy Bommareddi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Optical metrology techniques used to measure changes in thickness; temperature and refractive index are surveyed. Optical heterodyne detection principle and its applications for precision measurements of changes in thickness and temperature are discussed. Theoretical formulations are developed to estimate crystal growth rate, surface roughness and laser cooling/heating of solids. Applications of Michelson and Mach-Zehnder interferometers to measure temperature changes in laser heating of solids are described. A Mach-Zehnder interferometer is used to measure refractive index and concentration variations of solutions in crystal growth experiments. Additionally, fluorescence lifetime sensing and fluorescence ratio method are described for temperature measurement. For all the above techniques, uncertainty calculations are included.

  3. Analysis of the accelerated crucible rotation technique applied to the gradient freeze growth of cadmium zinc telluride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divecha, Mia S.; Derby, Jeffrey J.

    2017-06-01

    We employ finite-element modeling to assess the effects of the accelerated crucible rotation technique (ACRT) on cadmium zinc telluride (CZT) crystals grown from a gradient freeze system. Via consideration of tellurium segregation and transport, we show, for the first time, that steady growth from a tellurium-rich melt produces persistent undercooling in front of the growth interface, likely leading to morphological instability. The application of ACRT rearranges melt flows and tellurium transport but, in contrast to conventional wisdom, does not altogether eliminate undercooling of the melt. Rather, a much more complicated picture arises, where spatio-temporal realignment of undercooled melt may act to locally suppress instability. A better understanding of these mechanisms and quantification of their overall effects will allow for future growth optimization.

  4. Utilization of γ-irradiation technique on plant mutation breeding and plant growth regulation in Tokyo Metropolitan Isotope Research Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suda, Hirokatsu

    1997-01-01

    During about 30-years, we have developed γ-irradiation technique and breeding back pruning method for the study of mutation breeding of ornamental plants. As a result, we have made a wide variety of new mutant lines in chrysanthemum, narcissus, begonia rex, begonia iron cross, winter daphne, zelkova, sweet-scented oleander, abelia, kobus, and have obtained 7 plant patents. By the use of γ-irradiation to plant mutation breeding, we often observed that plants irradiated by low dose of γ-rays showed superior or inferior growth than the of non-irradiated plants. Now, we established the irradiation conditions of γ-rays for mutation breeding and growth of regulation in narcissus, tulip, Enkianthus perulatus Schneid., komatsuna, moyashi, african violet. In most cases, irradiation dose rate is suggested to be a more important factor to induce plant growth regulators than irradiation dose. (author)

  5. Feasibility Study on the Use of the Seeding Growth Technique in Producing a Highly Stable Gold Nanoparticle Colloidal System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Han Tan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Stable colloidal gold nanoparticles (Au NPs are synthesized successfully using a seeding growth technique. The size of the nanoparticles is determined using transmission electron microscopy (TEM, and it is observed that the size of the nanoparticles ranges from 7 to 30 nm. The TEM images and optical absorption spectra of the Au NPs reveal that the suspension is well dispersed and consistent with the particle size. The feasibility of the seeding growth technique is investigated using Turbiscan Classic MA 2000 screening stability tester. Based on the peak thickness kinetics and mean value kinetics, the backscattered light profiles indicate that the suspension is highly stable without particle sedimentation as well as negligible agglomeration. In addition, the Au NPs are proven to remain stable over a period of 2 months. Particle sedimentation eventually occurs due to the weight of nanoparticles. It is concluded that the seeding growth technique is feasible in synthesizing stable Au NPs. Controlling the stability, size and shape of Au NPs are technologically important because of the strong correlation between these parameters and the optical, electrical, and catalytic properties of the nanoparticles.

  6. Electrospinning: A versatile technique for making of 1D growth of nanostructured nanofibers and its applications: An experimental approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Jyoti V.; Mali, Sawanta S.; Kamble, Archana S.; Hong, Chang K.; Kim, Jin H.; Patil, Pramod S.

    2017-11-01

    One dimensional (1D) metal oxide nanostructures (1D-MONS) play a key role in the development of functional devices including energy conversion, energy storage and environmental devices. They are also used for some important biomedical products like wound dressings, filter media, drug delivery and tissue engineering. The electrospinning (ES) is the versatile technique for making of 1D growth of nanostructured nanofibers, an experimental approach and its applications. The present review is focused on the 1D growth of nanostructured nanofibers in different applications like dye sensitized solar cells, perovskite solar cells, fuel cells, lithium ion batteries, redox flow batteries, supercapacitor, photocatalytic, and gas sensors based on ZnO, TiO2, MnO2, WO3, V2O5, NiO, SnO2, Fe2O3 etc. metal oxides, their composites and carbon. This review article presents an introduction to various types of ES techniques and their technical details. Also, the advantages and disadvantages of each ES technique are summarized. The various technical details such as preparative parameters, post-deposition methods, applied electric field, solution feed rate and a distance between a tip to the collector are the key factors in order to obtain exotic 1D nanostructured materials. Also, the lucid literature survey on the growth of nanostructures of various metal oxides and application in different fields are covered in this review. Further, the future perspectives has also been discussed.

  7. Reference materials for microanalytical nuclear techniques. Final report of a co-ordinated research project 1994-1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-06-01

    A significant problem in the use of solid- and small-sample techniques is a general lack in suitable certified reference materials (CRM). Essentially, no CRM are certified for the small sample sizes typically used. Direct utilization of most existing CRM in solid sampling analysis procedures, typically 1 mg sample size, is often difficult or even impossible because trace components may not be sufficiently homogeneously distributed in the sample or their homogeneous distribution has not been tested. To explore the production, characterization and use of CRM for determinations with sample sizes much smaller than currently used, the Coordinated Research Program focused on selection of biological and environmental materials suitable for microanalytical techniques, definition of specifications for suitable CRM, evaluation of existing CRM for use with microanalytical techniques, evaluation of requirements for sample pre-treatment, evaluation of analytical techniques and research on development of techniques to be used in characterizing the homogeneity and chemical composition of small samples, and application of analytical techniques to the characterization of candidate reference materials for use with microanalytical techniques

  8. Growth Factor Inhibiting PKC Sensor in E-coli Environment Using Classification Technique and ANN Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. K. BASAK

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Protein kinease C plays an important role in angiogenesis and apoptosis in cancer. During the phase of angiogenesis the growth factor is up regulated where as during apoptosis the growth factor is down regulated. For down regulation of growth factor the pH environment of intra-cellular fluid has a specific range in the alkaline medium. Protein kinease C along with E-coli through interaction of Selenometabolite is able to maintain that alkaline environment for the apoptosis of the cancer cell with inhibition of the growth factor related to antioxidant/oxidant ratio. The present paper through implementation of Artificial Neural Network and Decision Tree has focused on metastasis linked with Capacitance Relaxation phenomena and down regulation of growth factor (VGEF. In this paper a distributed neural network has been applied to a data mining problem for classification of cancer stages inorder to have proper diagnosis of patient with PKC sensor. The Network was trained off line using 270 patterns each of 6 inputs. Using the weight obtained during training, fresh patterns were tested for accuracy in diagnosis linked with the stages of cancer.

  9. Analysis of Incremental Growth in Image Steganography Techniques for Various Parameters

    OpenAIRE

    Rajkumar Yadav

    2011-01-01

    Data hiding techniques are getting very large support from research community during the last two decades. Steganography is the widely used technique during the last few years for data hiding. Steganography is the art and science of hiding the data in some cover media like image file, audio file, video file, text file etc. Out of the various cover media available image file is the most widely used cover media. There are many techniques that are widely used for image steganagraphy during the l...

  10. Site characterization techniques used in environmental restoration activities. Final report of a co-ordinated research project 1995-1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-05-01

    The objective of this CRP was to promote the exchange of information on the practical experience gained by the Member States in characterization of radioactively contaminated sites. Special emphasis was placed on the development of methods and techniques for the optimization of radiological characterization. In particular, the scope included: definition of a strategy for site characterization; sampling and measurement techniques; data management, including statistical analysis and deterministic radionuclide migration modelling; and post-cleanup radiological surveys and assurance of compliance with release criteria

  11. Advanced imaging techniques for the study of plant growth and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sozzani, Rosangela; Busch, Wolfgang; Spalding, Edgar P; Benfey, Philip N

    2014-05-01

    A variety of imaging methodologies are being used to collect data for quantitative studies of plant growth and development from living plants. Multi-level data, from macroscopic to molecular, and from weeks to seconds, can be acquired. Furthermore, advances in parallelized and automated image acquisition enable the throughput to capture images from large populations of plants under specific growth conditions. Image-processing capabilities allow for 3D or 4D reconstruction of image data and automated quantification of biological features. These advances facilitate the integration of imaging data with genome-wide molecular data to enable systems-level modeling. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. [Treatment of juvenile scoliosis: Increasing the lengthening interval with the growing rod technique should not necessarily compromise thoracic growth].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizones, J; Rodríguez-López, T; Zúñiga, L; Sánchez-Mariscal, F; Álvarez-González, P; Izquierdo, E

    2014-01-01

    Serial lengthening with growing rods is recommended every six months for the treatment of early onset scoliosis. The objective of this study was to evaluate the longitudinal growth of the thorax and control of the deformity in a series of patients with juvenile scoliosis when time intervals were increased between lengthenings. Retrospective study of eight patients. The following variables were measured: the Cobb angle, the apical vertebral translation, the coronal balance, thoracic T1-L1 length, thoracic T5-T12 kyphosis, the proximal junctional kyphosis (PJK) angle, and the lumbar lordosis. Complications were recorded. Five idiopathic and three syndromic scoliosis cases (mean age 9.4 ± 1.5 years) were evaluated. The initial surgery was followed by with an average of two distractions per patient. The mean time between distractions was 15.7 months. The final coronal main curve correction was 58%. Apical translation and coronal balance were improved and maintained after the surgeries. The thoracic (T1-L1) preoperative length was 20.8 cm, the postoperative length was 24.4 cm, and the final length was 26 cm. At the end of follow-up, the average growth of the thorax was 5.2 cm. The preoperative (T5-T12) kyphosis was 33.5°, and final 32.1°. The change in the PJK angle was 2.5° at the end of follow-up. Most complications were related to instrumentation. Two superficial wound infections were encountered. For less severe juvenile scoliosis patients treated with growing rods, spacing out lengthenings over more than a year can decrease the number of surgeries, while still controlling the deformity and allowing longitudinal thoracic growth. Copyright © 2014 SECOT. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  13. Comparison between two meshless methods based on collocation technique for the numerical solution of four-species tumor growth model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehghan, Mehdi; Mohammadi, Vahid

    2017-03-01

    As is said in [27], the tumor-growth model is the incorporation of nutrient within the mixture as opposed to being modeled with an auxiliary reaction-diffusion equation. The formulation involves systems of highly nonlinear partial differential equations of surface effects through diffuse-interface models [27]. Simulations of this practical model using numerical methods can be applied for evaluating it. The present paper investigates the solution of the tumor growth model with meshless techniques. Meshless methods are applied based on the collocation technique which employ multiquadrics (MQ) radial basis function (RBFs) and generalized moving least squares (GMLS) procedures. The main advantages of these choices come back to the natural behavior of meshless approaches. As well as, a method based on meshless approach can be applied easily for finding the solution of partial differential equations in high-dimension using any distributions of points on regular and irregular domains. The present paper involves a time-dependent system of partial differential equations that describes four-species tumor growth model. To overcome the time variable, two procedures will be used. One of them is a semi-implicit finite difference method based on Crank-Nicolson scheme and another one is based on explicit Runge-Kutta time integration. The first case gives a linear system of algebraic equations which will be solved at each time-step. The second case will be efficient but conditionally stable. The obtained numerical results are reported to confirm the ability of these techniques for solving the two and three-dimensional tumor-growth equations.

  14. Joint application of AI techniques, PRA and disturbance analysis methodology to problems in the maintenance and design of nuclear power plants. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okrent, D.

    1989-03-01

    This final report summarizes the accomplishments of a two year research project entitled ``Joint Application of Artificial Intelligence Techniques, Probabilistic Risk Analysis, and Disturbance Analysis Methodology to Problems in the Maintenance and Design of Nuclear Power Plants. The objective of this project is to develop and apply appropriate combinations of techniques from artificial intelligence, (AI), reliability and risk analysis and disturbance analysis to well-defined programmatic problems of nuclear power plants. Reactor operations issues were added to those of design and maintenance as the project progressed.

  15. Survival and growth responses of Jatropha curcas L. to three restoration techniques on degraded soils in Burkina Faso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François Wenemi Kagambèga

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Land degradation is a major problem in the Sahelian countries. Erosion control through establishment of vegetation cover is at important strategy to reverse the trend. Our research objective was to analyse the e-ffects of three restoration techniques on Jatropha curcas L. seedlings growth and survivorship. Were conducted two separate field trials, involving the sowing and planting of J. curcas, in which several different soil restoration techniques were applied. The trial was monitored using a ran-domized block study design over a period of two years. The design included ten different treatments, six in the sowing trial and four in the planting trial, each with three replicates. In the first experiment, growth rate was found to be significantly higher in the Sub-Soiling treatment, that received additional organic matter than other treatments. However, overall survival rate was low (18%. In the second experiment, the Half-moon treatment yielded a significantly higher growth both in height (df = 3, F = 56.74, p < 0.05 and diameter (df = 3, F = 31.76, p < 0.05 and survival rate compared to those of the other treatments (df = 3, F = 50.4, p < 0.05. In conclusion, planting seedlings produced a greater survival rate than sowing seeds. Among tested the soil restoration and water conservation techniques the Half-moon technique was found as the most effective. This is recommended to be used for improving the revegetation of J. curcas in the future. 

  16. Characterization of ceramics and semiconductors using nuclear techniques. Final report of a co-ordinated research project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-03-01

    With the aim of promoting research and facilitating more extensive application of nuclear techniques for material development, the IAEA established in 1994 a Co-ordinated Research Project (CRP) on Characterization of Ceramics and Semiconductors using Nuclear Techniques. This publication reviews and summarizes recent developments in this field and includes an assessment of the current status and trends in nuclear techniques in characterization of inorganic materials of technological importance. The TECDOC presents new achievements on ceramic superconductor behaviour under neutron induced defects, optimization of structure of mineral gels,m low temperature preparation of fine particles of ferrites, crystal luminescence of ceramic composites with improved plastic properties, thin film defects and detoxification of asbestos. The investigation of chemical composition, phase transitions and magnetic properties of ferrites by Moessbauer spectroscopy is largely developed. The document includes 18 individual contributions, each of them has been indexed and provided with an abstract

  17. In Situ Determination of Thermal Profiles during Czochralski Silicon Crystal Growth by an Eddy Current Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choe, Kwang Su.

    An eddy current testing method was developed to continuously monitor crystal growth process and determine thermal profiles in situ during Czochralski silicon crystal growth. The work was motivated by the need to improve the quality of the crystal by controlling thermal gradients and annealing history over the growth cycle. The experimental concept is to monitor intrinsic electrical conductivities of the growing crystal and deduce temperature values from them. The experiments were performed in a resistance-heated Czochralski puller with a 203 mm (8 inch) diameter crucible containing 6.5 kg melt. The silicon crystals being grown were about 80 mm in diameter and monitored by an encircling sensor operating at three different test frequencies (86, 53 and 19 kHz). A one-dimensional analytical solution was employed to translate the detected signals into electrical conductivities. In terms of experiments, the effects of changes in growth condition, which is defined by crystal and crucible rotation rates, crucible position, pull rate, and hot-zone configuration, were investigated. Under a given steady-state condition, the thermal profile was usually stable over the entire length of crystal growth. The profile shifted significantly, however, when the crucible rotation rate was kept too high. As a direct evidence to the effects of melt flow on heat transfer process, a thermal gradient minimum was observed about the crystal/crucible rotation combination of 20/-10 rpm cw. The thermal gradient reduction was still most pronounced when the pull rate or the radiant heat loss to the environment was decreased: a nearly flat axial thermal gradient was achieved when either the pull rate was halved or the height of the exposed crucible wall was effectively doubled. Under these conditions, the average axial thermal gradient along the surface of the crystal was about 4-5 ^{rm o}C/mm. Regardless of growth condition, the three-frequency data revealed radial thermal gradients much larger

  18. Growth and characterization of organometallic L-alanine cadmium chloride single crystal by slow evaporation technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bright, K.C.; Freeda, T.H.

    2010-01-01

    Single crystals of L-alanine cadmium chloride (LACC), an organometallic nonlinear optical material, have been grown by the slow evaporation technique. The grown crystals were subjected to various characterization techniques, such as single crystal and powder XRD, FTIR, UV-vis and TGA-DTA. The mechanical properties of the crystals show that this material belongs to the category of hard materials. Second harmonic generation was confirmed by the Kurtz and Perry powder technique. Electrical parameters, such as dielectric constant, dielectric loss, ac and dc conductivity and their corresponding activation energies have been studied. The low dielectric constant and dielectric loss suggest that this material is a good candidate for micro-electronic applications.

  19. ZnO nanofiber (NFs) growth from ZnO nanowires (NWs) by controlling growth temperature on flexible Teflon substrate by CBD technique for UV photodetector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farhat, O. F.; Halim, M. M.; Ahmed, Naser M.; Qaeed, M. A.

    2016-12-01

    In this study, ZnO nanofibers (ZnO NFs) were successfully grown for the first time on Teflon substrates using CBD technique. The well-aligned ZnO nanorods (ZnO NRs) were transformed to ZnO nanofibers (NFs) by varying growth temperature and growth time. The high intensity and distinct growth orientation of peaks observed in the XRD spectra of the NFs indicate high crystal quality. The field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) revealed high density of small diameter sized and long ZnO nanofibers (NFs) that are distributed in random directions. Raman analyses revealed a high E2 (high) peak at 436 nm, which indicates the wurtzite structure of ZnO. A flexible ZnO nanofiber (NFs)-based metal-semiconductor-metal UV detector was fabricated and analyzed for photo response and sensitivity under low power illumination (375 nm, 1.5 mW/cm2). The results showed a sensitivity of 4045% which can be considered a relatively high response and baseline recovery for UV detection.

  20. Normal growth spurt and final height despite low levels of all forms of circulating insulin-like growth factor-I in a patient with acid-labile subunit deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Domené, Horacio M; Martínez, Alicia S; Frystyk, Jan

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In a recently described patient with acid-labile subunit (ALS) deficiency, the inability to form ternary complexes resulted in a marked reduction in circulating total insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I, whereas skeletal growth was only marginally affected. To further study the role...... of circulating versus locally produced IGF-I in skeletal growth in this patient, we now describe in detail growth changes and their relationship with several components of the circulating IGF system. DESIGN AND METHODS: We followed growth and development up to the final height in a patient with complete ALS...... and pubertal onset. Six months of GH treatment had no effect on growth. At the age of 19.3 years, he spontaneously completed puberty and had a normal growth spurt for a late adolescent (peak height velocity of 8.4 cm/year). A normal final height was attained at 21.3 years (167.5 cm; -0.78 SDS). During as well...

  1. In vitro techniques for selection of radiation induced mutations adapted to adverse environmental conditions. Proceedings of a final research co-ordination meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-06-01

    The ever increasing human population and dwindling land and water resources worldwide make it essential to produce more food, fibre and fodder from less and less land. During the last century, plant breeding contributed remarkably to increasing food by producing varieties which give higher yield, have improved quality and nutrition, and resist diseases and pests. Nearly 50% of the increase in food production in Asia during the last fifty years can be attributed to the high yielding, short height varieties of rice and wheat, the remaining to the improved agronomic inputs and management. Many crops, such as cassava, potato, pineapple, sweet potato, sugarcane, banana and plantain are major food crops, and others such as sugarcane and pineapple are important to the economies of many developing countries. One of the solutions to have a sustainable and secure food production is to breed varieties which are tolerant of stress conditions during their growth and development. Hence a Co-ordinated Research Project on In vitro Techniques for Selection of Radiation Induced Mutations Adapted to Adverse Environmental Conditions was initiated and focused primarily on the improvement of vegetatively propagated plants. Since the inception of this project, several participating scientists established the optimal dose requirement for in vitro cultured material. Investigations were carried out on the effect of radiation to alter traits which affect survival under stress conditions and high temperature stress in potato, pineapple, sweet potato and garlic. The possibility to change traits such as tolerance to saline and water logged soils in sugarcane and gene regulation for salinity tolerance were studied. The limited number of available reports suggest that callus cultures are much more sensitive to radiation treatment and require much lower doses (2 to 5 Gy) than stem cuttings or seeds, and that relatively higher doses (15 to 20 Gy) cause necrosis or loss of regenerative capacity. The

  2. Growth of cluster assembled ZnO film by nanocluster beam deposition technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halder, Nilanjan [Department of Physics, Manipal University Jaipur, Jaipur-303007 (India)

    2015-06-24

    ZnO is considered as one of the most promising material for optoelectronic devices. The present work emphasizes production of cluster assembled ZnO films by a UHV nanocluster beam deposition technique where the nanoclusters were produced in a laser vaporization cluster source. The microstructural and the optical properties of the ZnO nanocluster film deposited were investigated. As the wet chemical processes are not compatible with current solid state methods of device fabrication, therefore alternative UHV technique described in the paper is the need of the hour.

  3. Development of innovative techniques and principles that may be used as models to improve plant performance. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanna, Wayne W.; Burton, Glenn W.

    2000-06-25

    We developed fundamental methods and techniques for transferring germplasm from wild to cultivated species. Germplasm transferred included diverse cytoplasms, new genes for pest resistance, genes controlling dry matter yield and apomixis. Some of the germplasm has been shown to be valuable in plant breeding and has been incorporated into commercial cultivators.

  4. Monte Carlo Techniques for the Comprehensive Modeling of Isotopic Inventories in Future Nuclear Systems and Fuel Cycles. Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paul P.H. Wilson

    2005-01-01

    The development of Monte Carlo techniques for isotopic inventory analysis has been explored in order to facilitate the modeling of systems with flowing streams of material through varying neutron irradiation environments. This represents a novel application of Monte Carlo methods to a field that has traditionally relied on deterministic solutions to systems of first-order differential equations. The Monte Carlo techniques were based largely on the known modeling techniques of Monte Carlo radiation transport, but with important differences, particularly in the area of variance reduction and efficiency measurement. The software that was developed to implement and test these methods now provides a basis for validating approximate modeling techniques that are available to deterministic methodologies. The Monte Carlo methods have been shown to be effective in reproducing the solutions of simple problems that are possible using both stochastic and deterministic methods. The Monte Carlo methods are also effective for tracking flows of materials through complex systems including the ability to model removal of individual elements or isotopes in the system. Computational performance is best for flows that have characteristic times that are large fractions of the system lifetime. As the characteristic times become short, leading to thousands or millions of passes through the system, the computational performance drops significantly. Further research is underway to determine modeling techniques to improve performance within this range of problems. This report describes the technical development of Monte Carlo techniques for isotopic inventory analysis. The primary motivation for this solution methodology is the ability to model systems of flowing material being exposed to varying and stochastically varying radiation environments. The methodology was developed in three stages: analog methods which model each atom with true reaction probabilities (Section 2), non-analog methods

  5. Monitoring Escherichia coli growth in M63 media by ultrasonic noninvasive methods and correlation with spectrophotometric and HPLC techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierra, Carlos; Elvira, Luis; García, José L; Resa, Pablo; Galán, Beatriz

    2010-01-01

    A low-intensity ultrasonic technique (that is noninvasive, nondestructive, and online) has been developed to monitor the growth of Escherichia coli in glucose minimal media under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Ultrasonic time of flight (TOF) variations were correlated with microorganism growth and the disappearance of nutrients and their subsequent conversion into different metabolites. Spectrophotometric growth data and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis of released and consumed metabolites were compared with the ultrasonic data demonstrating that the ultrasound device presented can provide supplementary real-time noninvasive information about the metabolic processes taking place in the culture. A semiempirical model under aerobic conditions was developed to explain the TOF variations as a function of the glucose concentration and was modified to take into account the growth inhibition due to the initial glucose concentration. The inhibition effect was obtained by fitting HPLC measurements to the logistic function of Boltzmann. Under aerobic and anaerobic culture conditions, the metabolic processes were correlated with TOF experimental variations through a theoretical approach based on ultrasonic propagation in ternary mixtures.

  6. Growth of InAs Quantum Dots on Germanium Substrate Using Metal Organic Chemical Vapor Deposition Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tyagi Renu

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Self-assembled InAs quantum dots (QDs were grown on germanium substrates by metal organic chemical vapor deposition technique. Effects of growth temperature and InAs coverage on the size, density, and height of quantum dots were investigated. Growth temperature was varied from 400 to 450 °C and InAs coverage was varied between 1.40 and 2.35 monolayers (MLs. The surface morphology and structural characteristics of the quantum dots analyzed by atomic force microscope revealed that the density of the InAs quantum dots first increased and then decreased with the amount of InAs coverage; whereas density decreased with increase in growth temperature. It was observed that the size and height of InAs quantum dots increased with increase in both temperature and InAs coverage. The density of QDs was effectively controlled by growth temperature and InAs coverage on GaAs buffer layer.

  7. In situ applications of X ray fluorescence techniques. Final report of a coordinated research project 2000-2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-09-01

    In 2000 the IAEA initiated a Coordinated Research Project (CRP) on In Situ Applications of XRF Techniques as one of the elements of the project on Nuclear Instruments for Specific Applications, the major objective of which is to assist Member States in the development of nuclear instruments and software for special applications such as the characterization of materials. An overall objective of the CRP was to assist laboratories in Member States in such areas as environmental pollution monitoring, mineral exploration, the preservation of cultural heritage, the control of industrial processes and the optimization of analytical methodologies for these applications using field-portable X ray fluorescence (FPXRF). Although a significant amount of work has been undertaken in the development of FPXRF techniques, there is little consensus on the best approach for any particular application. The most important aspect before FPXRF techniques can be applied successfully is, therefore, the development of a clear FPXRF methodology. Because of the wide range of problems to which FPXRF can be applied, these procedures must be comprehensive and cover many applications involving the analysis of samples such as rocks, soils, air particulates or liquid samples. The specific research objectives of the CRP included the development and optimization of sampling methodologies for in situ XRF measurements, the improvement in the analytical performance of FPXRF based on the study of mineralogical effects, surface irregularity effects, heterogeneity and the influence of moisture content, the development and validation of quantitative and/or semi-quantitative procedures to be applied for in situ XRF analysis and development of complete operating procedures for selected in situ applications, including relevant quality assurance. The CRP covered a period of four years (2000?2003). Twelve laboratories from both developed and developing Member States and the IAEA?s Laboratories participated

  8. Side-by-side comparison of techniques for analyzing organic acids, total organic carbon, and anions. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byers, W.A.; Richards, J.; Silva, H.; Miller, M.R.; Palino, G.F.; Wall, P.S.

    1986-09-01

    The objective of this project was to compare the organic acids sampling and analysis methods of Westinghouse and NWT Corporation. Sampling was performed at three sites, chosen to represent units with high, intermediate and low levels of organic contamination. To check the precision of each method, concurrent sampling was employed. To check the accuracy of each method, additions of standard organic solutions were made at one of the sites. Inorganic anions were also analyzed at each site by each contractor. Theoretical values of cation conductivity were calculated from organic and inorganic analytical data and compared to values measured onsite at the time of sampling. Total organic carbon (TOC) analyses were performed to evaluate different instruments and sampling techniques, as well as provide additional information on the relationship between TOC and organic acids concentrations. It was concluded that either of the organic acid sampling/analysis techniques used by the contractors can produce reliable results. TOC samples lose organics content with storage time and should be analyzed no later than one week after they are taken; if at all possible, they should be stored in a refrigerated condition. State-of-the art techniques for TOC sampling and analysis can produce results varying by 20 to 50 ppB for levels in the range of 50 to 120 ppB; any proposed limits for TOC should be reviewed in that light. Results of anion analyses are quite sensitive to sampling and analytical techniques. Reasonable agreement between calculated and measured values of cation conductivity suggests that both contractors had accurately determined all major anionic species

  9. Monitoring Prostate Tumor Growth in an Orthotopic Mouse Model Using Three-Dimensional Ultrasound Imaging Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Ni

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer (CaP is the most commonly diagnosed and the second leading cause of death from cancer in males in USA. Prostate orthotopic mouse model has been widely used to study human CaP in preclinical settings. Measurement of changes in tumor size obtained from noninvasive diagnostic images is a standard method for monitoring responses to anticancer modalities. This article reports for the first time the usage of a three-dimensional (3D ultrasound system equipped with photoacoustic (PA imaging in monitoring longitudinal prostate tumor growth in a PC-3 orthotopic NODSCID mouse model (n = 8. Two-dimensional and 3D modes of ultrasound show great ability in accurately depicting the size and shape of prostate tumors. PA function on two-dimensional and 3D images showed average oxygen saturation and average hemoglobin concentration of the tumor. Results showed a good fit in representative exponential tumor growth curves (n = 3; r2 = 0.948, 0.955, and 0.953, respectively and a good correlation of tumor volume measurements performed in vivo with autopsy (n = 8, r = 0.95, P < .001. The application of 3D ultrasound imaging proved to be a useful imaging modality in monitoring tumor growth in an orthotopic mouse model, with advantages such as high contrast, uncomplicated protocols, economical equipment, and nonharmfulness to animals. PA mode also enabled display of blood oxygenation surrounding the tumor and tumor vasculature and angiogenesis, making 3D ultrasound imaging an ideal tool for preclinical cancer research.

  10. Final report of the FAO/IAEA co-ordinated research project on the use of nuclear and related techniques for evaluating the agronomic effectiveness of phosphate fertilisers, in particular rock phosphates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zapata, F.

    1999-02-01

    Soils in developing countries are often deficient in available P, and therefore require inputs of P fertiliser for optimum plant growth and production of food and fibre. Due to economic considerations, the cost of applying imported or locally produced water-soluble P fertilisers is often more expensive than utilising indigenous phosphate rock. Phosphate rocks show large differences in their suitability for direct application and several factors influence their capability to supply phosphorus to crops. Therefore, quantifying the P availability of soils amended with phosphate rocks in a variety of crop management and environmental conditions in developing countries is imperative for making recommendations on the best type and rate of P fertiliser sources for maximum agronomic and economic benefits. P-32 isotope techniques are very useful for such studies. The background situation of phosphate research and the topics to be investigated using isotope techniques were critically examined in a Consultants Meeting held at the IAEA Headquarters, Vienna, Austria, from 10 to 12 May 1993. For detailed information please refer to IAEA Report CT-1112. Based on the recommendations of this Consultants' Meeting, the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture with the generous support of the French Government decided to implement the Co-ordinated Research Project (CRP) on 'The Use of Nuclear and Related Techniques for Evaluating the Agronomic Effectiveness of Phosphate Fertilisers, in particular Rock Phosphates'. This final report describes the Fourth and Final RCM of the CRP which was held in Vienna, 16-20 November 1998. It also contains a full description of the project and the conclusions and recommendations of the CRP. The programme of the meeting, list of participants, summaries submitted by the participants and list of publications are included as annexes

  11. Diagnostic Ultrasound of Diffuse-Nodu lar Pleural Mesotheliomas — Echosemiotics, Growth Characteristics, and Scanning Techniques

    OpenAIRE

    D.V. Safonov; А.А. Sozinova

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the investigation was the optimization of chest ultrasound technique in the diagnosis of diffuse-nodular pleural mesotheliomas, development and systematization of their ultrasound semiotics. Materials and Methods. We studied the ultrasonic picture of 32 mesotheliomas (31 malignant), among them 30 — diffuse-nodular, 2 — focal. Results. There were developed the assessment criteria of diffuse-nodular mesothelioma echosemiotics: significant (over 15 mm) diffuse thickening of co...

  12. Growth and characterization of 4-chloro-3-nitrobenzophenone single crystals using vertical Bridgman technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aravinth, K., E-mail: anandcgc@gmail.com; Babu, G. Anandha, E-mail: anandcgc@gmail.com; Ramasamy, P., E-mail: anandcgc@gmail.com [Centre for Crystal Growth, SSN College of Engineering, Kalavakkam -603110, Tamilnadu (India)

    2014-04-24

    4-chloro-3-nitrobenzophenone (4C3N) has been grown by using vertical Bridgman technique. The grown crystal was confirmed by Powder X-ray diffraction analysis. The crystalline perfection of the grown crystal was examined by high-resolution X-ray diffraction study. The fluorescence spectra of grown 4C3N single crystals exhibit emission peak at 575 nm. The micro hardness measurements were used to analyze the mechanical property of the grown crystal.

  13. Effect of Different Concentrations of Growth Regulators on Gardenia jasminoides cv. Veitchii Micropropagation by Tissue Culture Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. R. Abdullah

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Micropropagation techniques were set up for Gardenia jasminoides c.v. veitchi. Many plantlets were obtained by culturing shoot cuttings in MS nutrient media, 30 g/L Sucrose, 7 g/L Agar Agar, and different concentrations of BAP and IAA. The best concentration was 1mg /L BAP with 0.5 mg/L IAA. This concentration gave the best sprout growth suitable for rooting in primary and secondary culture by reculturing the stuck cutting every 6 weeks and for many times. We also obtained a high rooting percentage up to 98 % of natural rooting in rooting media different from propagation media by reducing mineral salt concentration to half, Sucrose to 20gm/L, and 2gm/L active charcoal, and 1mg/L IAA. Plantlets were transferred to greenhous and subjected for hardening. This technique gave 22 plantlets from one cutting in one year.

  14. Effectiveness of four different final irrigation activation techniques on smear layer removal in curved root canals : a scanning electron microscopy study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puneet Ahuja

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of apical negative pressure (ANP, manual dynamic agitation (MDA, passive ultrasonic irrigation (PUI and needle irrigation (NI as final irrigation activation techniques for smear layer removal in curved root canals.Mesiobuccal root canals of 80 freshly extracted maxillary first molars with curvatures ranging between 25° and 35° were used. A glide path with #08-15 K files was established before cleaning and shaping with Mtwo rotary instruments (VDW, Munich, Germany up to size 35/0.04 taper. During instrumentation, 1 ml of 2.5% NaOCl was used at each change of file. Samples were divided into 4 equal groups (n=20 according to the final irrigation activation technique: group 1, apical negative pressure (ANP (EndoVac; group 2, manual dynamic agitation (MDA; group 3, passive ultrasonic irrigation (PUI; and group 4, needle irrigation (NI. Root canals were split longitudinally and subjected to scanning electron microscopy. The presence of smear layer at coronal, middle and apical levels was evaluated by superimposing 300-μm square grid over the obtained photomicrographs using a four-score scale with X1,000 magnification.Amongst all the groups tested, ANP showed the overall best smear layer removal efficacy (p < 0.05. Removal of smear layer was least effective with the NI technique.ANP (EndoVac system can be used as the final irrigation activation technique for effective smear layer removal in curved root canals.

  15. Effects of ractopamine hydrochloride on growth performance, carcass characteristics, and physiological response to different handling techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagenmaier, J A; Reinhardt, C D; Ritter, M J; Calvo-Lorenzo, M S; Vogel, G J; Guthrie, C A; Siemens, M G; Lechtenberg, K F; Rezac, D J; Thomson, D U

    2017-05-01

    Feedlot cattle ( = 128; BW = 549 ± 60 kg) were used to evaluate the effects of ractopamine hydrochloride (RAC) on growth performance, physiological response to handling, and mobility during shipment for slaughter in a study utilizing a split-plot design with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments: 1) diet (CON [no β-adrenergic agonist] vs. RAC [400 mg·animal·d ractopamine hydrochloride for 28 d]) and 2) handling intensity (HI; low-stress handling [LSH; cattle moved at a walking pace with no electric prod use] vs. high-stress handling [HSH; cattle moved at a minimum of a trot and an electric prod applied while in the alley for posthandling restraint and during loading for shipment to the abattoir]). Cattle fed RAC tended to have greater ADG and G:F ( = 0.06), and had greater HCW and LM area ( = 0.04). The HI treatments were applied on the day after the 28-d growth performance period. Blood samples were collected before HI treatment (baseline), after HI treatments (POSTHAND), after transport to the abattoir (POSTTRANS), and during exsanguination at slaughter. A diet × HI interaction ( = 0.01) was observed in the change in cortisol from baseline to POSTTRANS, and there tended ( ≤ 0.07) to be diet × HI interactions for the change in epinephrine from baseline to POSTHAND and for the change in creatine kinase (CK) from baseline to POSTTRANS. Feeding RAC and HSH both increased the change from baseline to POSTHAND in norepinephrine and pH ( ≤ 0.05). The HSH cattle also had greater changes from baseline to POSTHAND in blood HCO, base excess, partial pressure of CO, lactate, cortisol, and glucose ( ≤ 0.01). Ractopamine and HSH both produced greater increases in CK concentrations from baseline to slaughter ( < 0.01). Mobility was not affected by RAC at the feedlot or following an average 6-h lairage ( ≥ 0.43). This study confirms RAC improves growth performance and suggests metabolic acidosis, a precursor to fatigued cattle syndrome, develops in cattle

  16. Retinue of the beans roots growth by using neutron radiography technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jesus, Selma Parente de; Crispim, Verginia Reis

    2002-01-01

    Agricultural practices frequently cause the development of a soil compacted layer below the surface. These compacted layers restrict the root penetration into deeper layers of soil, in search for water. It is proposed to monitor, using Non Destructive Test, the roots growth due to the planting of standard seeds in different agricultural soils, in function of their compactness and humidity. It will be used the neutrons beams derived from an irradiation channel called J-9 of the Reactor Argonauta (IEN/CNEN), so that the neutron radiographic images of the soil-plant system can be obtained. Each root can be evaluated for its ability to penetrate into compacted soil layers; this fact would mean an optimization of agricultural harvests. (author)

  17. Simple visualization techniques for die casting part and die design. Final report, July 1, 1995--September 30, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, R.A.; Lu, S.C.; Rebello, A.B.

    1998-05-01

    The objective of this work was to develop and test die casting design evaluation techniques based on the visualization of geometric data that is related to potential defects of problems. Specifically, thickness information is used to provide insight into potential thermal problems in the part and die. Distance from the gate and a special type of animation of the fill pattern is used to provide an assessment of gate, vent and overflow locations. Techniques have been developed to convert part design information in the form of STL files to a volume-based representation called a voxel model. The use of STL files makes the process CAD system independent. Once in voxel form, methods that were developed in this work are used to identify thick regions in the part, thin regions in the part and/or die, distance from user specified entry locations (gates), and the qualitative depiction of the fill pattern. The methods were tested with a prototype implementation on the UNIX platform. The results of comparisons with numerical simulation and field reported defects were surprisingly good. The fill-related methods were also compared against short-shots and a water analog study using high speed video. The report contains the results of the testing plus detailed background material on the construction of voxel models, the methods used for displaying results, and the computational geometric reasoning methods used to create die casting-related information from the voxel model for display to the user.

  18. Simple visualization techniques for die casting part and die design. Final report, July 1, 1995--September 30, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, R.A.; Lu, S.C.; Rebello, A.B.

    1998-05-01

    The objective of this work was to develop and test die casting design evaluation techniques based on the visualization of geometric data that is related to potential defects of problems. Specifically, thickness information is used to provide insight into potential thermal problems in the part and die. Distance from the gate and a special type of animation of the fill pattern is used to provide an assessment of gate, vent and overflow locations. Techniques have been developed to convert part design information in the form of STL files to a volume-based representation called a voxel model. The use of STL files makes the process CAD system independent. Once in voxel form, methods that were developed in this work are used to identify thick regions in the part, thin regions in the part and/or die, distance from user specified entry locations (gates), and the qualitative depiction of the fill pattern. The methods were tested with a prototype implementation on the UNIX platform. The results of comparisons with numerical simulation and field reported defects were surprisingly good. The fill-related methods were also compared against short-shots and a water analog study using high speed video. The report contains the results of the testing plus detailed background material on the construction of voxel models, the methods used for displaying results, and the computational geometric reasoning methods used to create die casting-related information form the voxel model for display to the user.

  19. Variational techniques for reactor physics calculations of heterogeneous reactor cores. Final report for April 15, 1993--April 14, 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wojtowicz, G.M.; Holloway, J.P.

    1995-06-01

    Variational coarse mesh techniques are developed for the solution of the one group neutron transport equation in one-dimensional reactor lattices. In contrast to conventional nodal lattice applications which discretize diffusion theory and use node homogenized cross sections, the authors retain the spatial dependence of the cross sections and instead employ an alternative flux representation. The initial form of this flux representation (trial function) for the angular flux was inspired by the leading order solution in the asymptotic expansion of the angular flux--namely, the slow modulation of a periodic pin cell flux. The authors called the variational technique based on this form of trial function the Spectral Element Asymptotic Method (SEAM); it is capable of achieving order of magnitude reductions of eigenvalue and pointwise scalar flux errors as compared with diffusion theory. A different trial function can be developed based on the leading order and first order correction terms in the asymptotic expansion of the angular flux. SuperSEAM, the method based on this new trial function, allows the neutron transport equation to be cast into a form whose solution has much slower spatial variation than the SEAM solution; thus, the SuperSEAM result can be accurately described with fewer variables. SuperSEAM is therefore capable of achieving the same high degree of accuracy as SEAM at a cost comparable with homogenized nodal diffusion theory

  20. A randomized controlled trial comparing two techniques for unilateral cleft lip and palate: Growth and speech outcomes during mixed dentition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganesh, Praveen; Murthy, Jyotsna; Ulaghanathan, Navitha; Savitha, V H

    2015-07-01

    To study the growth and speech outcomes in children who were operated on for unilateral cleft lip and palate (UCLP) by a single surgeon using two different treatment protocols. A total of 200 consecutive patients with nonsyndromic UCLP were randomly allocated to two different treatment protocols. Of the 200 patients, 179 completed the protocol. However, only 85 patients presented for follow-up during the mixed dentition period (7-10 years of age). The following treatment protocol was followed. Protocol 1 consisted of the vomer flap (VF), whereby patients underwent primary lip nose repair and vomer flap for hard palate single-layer closure, followed by soft palate repair 6 months later; Protocol 2 consisted of the two-flap technique (TF), whereby the cleft palate (CP) was repaired by two-flap technique after primary lip and nose repair. GOSLON Yardstick scores for dental arch relation, and speech outcomes based on universal reporting parameters, were noted. A total of 40 patients in the VF group and 45 in the TF group completed the treatment protocols. The GOSLON scores showed marginally better outcomes in the VF group compared to the TF group. Statistically significant differences were found only in two speech parameters, with better outcomes in the TF group. Our results showed marginally better growth outcome in the VF group compared to the TF group. However, the speech outcomes were better in the TF group. Copyright © 2015 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Growth, surface treatment and characterization of polycrystalline lead iodide thick films prepared using close space deposition technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Xinghua; Sun, Hui; Yang, Dingyu; Zheng, Xiaolin

    2012-01-01

    Lead iodide (PbI 2 ) polycrystalline thick films were fabricated on glass substrates with a conductive indium–tin-oxide layer using a close space deposition technique. The morphology of the as-deposited PbI 2 films is typically and highly oriented polycrystalline structure, made up of microcrystal platelets upright on the substrate plane. Two techniques including the surface mechanical cutting and after-growth cadmium telluride coating were employed to improve the films′ surface properties. It was shown that both of the film surface treatment methods markedly decreased the dark current of PbI 2 films. The photo-to-dark current ratio of about 2.05 under 241 Am γ-ray source with activity of 2.78 μCi irradiation was obtained from the film treated using both surface cutting and after-growth CdTe coating. Charge transport characteristics of these films were measured and the hole mobility 7.7×10 −2 –1.67×10 −1 cm 2 /V s was estimated.

  2. Breathing adapted radiotherapy: final clinic results of the program for the support to costly innovating techniques (Stic) of 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giraud, P.; Giraud, P.; Morvan, E.; Djadi-Prat, J.; Rosenwald, J.C.; Carrere, M.O.

    2010-01-01

    The authors report the comparison, from a clinic point of view, between breathing adapted conformational radiotherapy (BART) and conventional conformational radiotherapy, in the case of lung and breast cancers. The assessment comprised a clinic examination, a thoracic radiography, breathing functional tests, a thoracic scanography at different moments (3, 6, 12, 18 and 24 months), and dosimetric criteria for tumour target volumes and the different thoracic organs at risk. Data have been collected among more than six hundred patients. Breathing adapted techniques allow acute and late toxicity to be reduced, notably for the lung, heart and oesophagus during a lung irradiation. They are less interesting for mammary irradiation, but could be important for a radiotherapy of the left breast. Short communication

  3. Multiparticle imaging technique for two-phase fluid flows using pulsed laser speckle velocimetry. Final report, September 1988--November 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hassan, T.A.

    1992-12-01

    The practical use of Pulsed Laser Velocimetry (PLV) requires the use of fast, reliable computer-based methods for tracking numerous particles suspended in a fluid flow. Two methods for performing tracking are presented. One method tracks a particle through multiple sequential images (minimum of four required) by prediction and verification of particle displacement and direction. The other method, requiring only two sequential images uses a dynamic, binary, spatial, cross-correlation technique. The algorithms are tested on computer-generated synthetic data and experimental data which was obtained with traditional PLV methods. This allowed error analysis and testing of the algorithms on real engineering flows. A novel method is proposed which eliminates tedious, undersirable, manual, operator assistance in removing erroneous vectors. This method uses an iterative process involving an interpolated field produced from the most reliable vectors. Methods are developed to allow fast analysis and presentation of sets of PLV image data. Experimental investigation of a two-phase, horizontal, stratified, flow regime was performed to determine the interface drag force, and correspondingly, the drag coefficient. A horizontal, stratified flow test facility using water and air was constructed to allow interface shear measurements with PLV techniques. The experimentally obtained local drag measurements were compared with theoretical results given by conventional interfacial drag theory. Close agreement was shown when local conditions near the interface were similar to space-averaged conditions. However, theory based on macroscopic, space-averaged flow behavior was shown to give incorrect results if the local gas velocity near the interface as unstable, transient, and dissimilar from the average gas velocity through the test facility.

  4. Detection of neurotransmitters by a light scattering technique based on seed-mediated growth of gold nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shang Li; Dong Shaojun [State Key Laboratory of Electroanalytical Chemistry, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130022 (China)], E-mail: dongsj@ciac.jl.cn

    2008-03-05

    A simple light scattering detection method for neurotransmitters has been developed, based on the growth of gold nanoparticles. Neurotransmitters (dopamine, L-dopa, noradrenaline and adrenaline) can effectively function as active reducing agents for generating gold nanoparticles, which result in enhanced light scattering signals. The strong light scattering of gold nanoparticles then allows the quantitative detection of the neurotransmitters simply by using a common spectrofluorometer. In particular, Au-nanoparticle seeds were added to facilitate the growth of nanoparticles, which was found to enhance the sensing performance greatly. Using this light scattering technique based on the seed-mediated growth of gold nanoparticles, detection limits of 4.4 x 10{sup -7} M, 3.5 x 10{sup -7} M, 4.1 x 10{sup -7} M, and 7.7 x 10{sup -7} M were achieved for dopamine, L-dopa, noradrenaline and adrenaline, respectively. The present strategy can be extended to detect other biologically important molecules in a very fast, simple and sensitive way, and may have potential applications in a wide range of fields.

  5. Detection of neurotransmitters by a light scattering technique based on seed-mediated growth of gold nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shang Li; Dong Shaojun

    2008-01-01

    A simple light scattering detection method for neurotransmitters has been developed, based on the growth of gold nanoparticles. Neurotransmitters (dopamine, L-dopa, noradrenaline and adrenaline) can effectively function as active reducing agents for generating gold nanoparticles, which result in enhanced light scattering signals. The strong light scattering of gold nanoparticles then allows the quantitative detection of the neurotransmitters simply by using a common spectrofluorometer. In particular, Au-nanoparticle seeds were added to facilitate the growth of nanoparticles, which was found to enhance the sensing performance greatly. Using this light scattering technique based on the seed-mediated growth of gold nanoparticles, detection limits of 4.4 x 10 -7 M, 3.5 x 10 -7 M, 4.1 x 10 -7 M, and 7.7 x 10 -7 M were achieved for dopamine, L-dopa, noradrenaline and adrenaline, respectively. The present strategy can be extended to detect other biologically important molecules in a very fast, simple and sensitive way, and may have potential applications in a wide range of fields

  6. Experimental observation of the influence of furnace temperature profile on convection and segregation in the vertical Bridgman crystal growth technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neugebauer, G. T.; Wilcox, William R.

    1992-01-01

    Azulene-doped naphthalene was directionally solidified during the vertical Bridgman-Stockbarger technique. Doping homogeneity and convection were determined as a function of the temperature profile in the furnace and the freezing rate. Convection velocities were two orders of magnitude lower when the temperature increased with height. Rarely was the convection pattern axisymmetric, even though the temperature varied less than 0.1 K around the circumference of the growth ampoule. Correspondingly the cross sectional variation in azulene concentration tended to be asymmetric, especially when the temperature increased with height. This cross sectional variation changed dramatically along the ingot, reflecting changes in convection presumably due to the decreasing height of the melt. Although there was large scatter and irreproducibility in the cross sectional variation in doping, this variation tended to be least when the growth rate was low and the convection was vigorous. It is expected that compositional variations would also be small at high growth rates with weak convection and flat interfaces, although this was not investigated in the present experiments. Neither rotation of the ampoule nor deliberate introduction of thermal asymmetries during solidification had a significant influence on cross sectional variations in doping. It is predicted that slow directional solidification under microgravity conditions could produce greater inhomogeneities than on Earth. Combined use of microgravity and magnetic fields would be required to achieve homogeneity when it is necessary to freeze slowly in order to avoid constitutional supercooling.

  7. Application of plant growth regulators, a simple technique for improving the establishment success of plant cuttings in coastal dune restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balestri, Elena; Vallerini, Flavia; Castelli, Alberto; Lardicci, Claudio

    2012-03-01

    Exogenous application of plant growth regulators (PGRs) may be an effective technique for increasing the rooting ability and the growth of vegetative fragments (cuttings) of plants used in dune restoration programs. Various concentrations (0, 50 and 100 mg l-1) of two auxins, alpha-naphtaleneacetic acid (NAA) and indole-3-butyric acid (IBA), and two cytokinins, 6-furfurylaminopurine (Kinetin) and 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP), were applied separately to cuttings of two widely used species for restoration, Ammophila arenaria and Sporobuls virginicus. Root development and production of new buds in cuttings were examined under laboratory conditions one month after application. Cuttings were also examined one year after transplanting into a sandy substratum under natural conditions, to test for possible long term effects of PGRs on plant establishment success and growth. The response of the two study species to PGRs differed substantially. In A. arenaria the auxin NAA at 100 mg l-1 reduced the time for root initiation and increased the rooting capacity of cuttings, while the cytokinin Kinetin at 50 mg l-1 facilitated root growth. No auxin had effect on rooting or growth of S. virginicus cuttings, but treatment with 100 mg l-1 Kinetin resulted in higher rooting success than the control. One year after planting, the cuttings of A. arenaria treated with 100 mg l-1 NAA showed a higher establishment success (90% vs. 55%) and produced more culms and longer roots than the control; those treated with cytokinins did not differ in the establishment success from the control, but had longer roots, more culms and rhizomes. On the other hand, the cuttings of S. virginicus treated with 100 mg l-1 Kinetin showed a higher establishment success (75% vs. 35%) and had more culms than the control. Therefore, in restoration activities that involved A. arenaria, a pre-treatment of cuttings with NAA would be beneficial, as it allows the production of a higher number of well-developed plants with

  8. Growth and characterization studies of ZnS thin films prepared by single source evaporation technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maligi, Anantha Sunil; Jampana, Nagaraju; Gowravaram, Mohan Rao

    2017-05-01

    Zinc sulfide thin films are deposited on glass substrates using thermal evaporation technique. Effect of thickness on the properties of as-deposited ZnS films is studied. ZnS films exhibited cubic structure with preferential orientation along (111) plane. All the films exhibited n-type conductivity with resistivity ranging in the order of 105 to 106 Ω-cm. The transmittance in the visible region is in the range of 80 to 89% and the band gap of the material varied from 3.65 to 3.52 eV. The as-deposited films can be used as window layer for fabrication of hetero-junction solar cell.

  9. Associated callus culture technique for in vitro growth of rust fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. Kuvalekar

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Uromyces hobsoni, a rust fungus, infects Jasminum officinale var. grandiflorum. The infection frequently leads to malformations in tissues, mainly leaves and stems. Disease progression can be assessed morphologically by observing the extent of malformation and occurrence of sporulation. The rust fungi, in general, are obligate parasites, and need a living host to complete their life cycle. The difficulty of in vitro propagation of rust fungi has been a major obstacle in their detailed biochemical and molecular analysis. In this paper, we report successful in vitro culture of rust fungi with induction of callus from infected leaves of host plants which contain initial differentiated structures like haustoria and intercellular hyphae. This ‘associated callus culture’ technique has opened new paths for studying host-pathogen interactions of rust fungi.

  10. Characterization of TiO2 Thin Films on Glass Substrate Growth Using DC Sputtering Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agus Santoso; Tjipto Sujitno; Sayono

    2002-01-01

    It has been fabricated and characterization a TiO 2 thin films deposited on glass substrate using DC sputtering technique. Fabrication of TiO 2 thin films were carried out at electrode voltage 4 kV, sputtering current 5 mA, vacuum pressure 5 x 10 -4 torr, deposition time 150 minutes, and temperature of the substrate were varied from 150 -350 o C, while as a gas sputter was argon. The results was tested their micro structure using SEM, and crystal structure using XRD and found that the crystal structure of TiO 2 powder before deposited on glass substrate was rutile and anatase with orientation (110) and (200) for anatase and (100) and (111) rutile structure. While the crystal structure which deposited at temperature 150 o C and deposition time 2.5 hours was anatase with orientation (001) and (200). (author)

  11. Growth and characterization of ZnO thin films prepared by electrodeposition technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fahoume, M.; Maghfoul, O.; Aggour, M. [L.P.M.C., Faculte des Sciences, Universite Ibn Tofail, BP. 133-14000 Kenitra (Morocco); Hartiti, B. [L.P.M.A.E.R., Faculte des Sciences et Techniques, B.P. 146 Mohammedia (Morocco); Chraibi, F.; Ennaoui, A. [L.P.M., Faculte des Sciences, Universite Mohammed V, BP.1014 Rabat (Morocco)

    2006-06-15

    ZnO thin films were deposited on either indium tin oxide-coated glass or copper substrate by the electrodeposition process, using zinc chloride and flowing air as precursors. The effect of pH on the structural and morphological ZnO films was studied and the optimum deposition conditions have been outlined. The kinetics of the growth of the films have been investigated. We note that the rate of deposition of ZnO in an acidic solution was larger than in a basic solution. The structure of the films was studied using X-ray diffractometry (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The surface morphology and thickness of the films were determined using scanning electron microscopy. The X-ray diffraction analysis shows that the films are polycrystalline with hexagonal crystal structure (zincite) at pH 4. The optical transmittance of ZnO decreases with varying film thickness. The optical energy bandgap was found to be 3.26eV. (author)

  12. The effect of different final irrigant activation techniques on the bond strength of an epoxy resin-based endodontic sealer: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topçuoğlu, Hüseyin Sinan; Tuncay, Öznur; Demirbuga, Sezer; Dinçer, Asiye Nur; Arslan, Hakan

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate whether or not different final irrigation activation techniques affect the bond strength of an epoxy resin-based endodontic sealer (AH Plus; Dentsply DeTrey, Konstanz, Germany) to the root canal walls of different root thirds. Eighty single-rooted human mandibular premolars were prepared by using the ProTaper system (Dentsply Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland) to size F4, and a final irrigation regimen using 3% sodium hypochlorite and 17% EDTA was performed. The specimens were randomly divided into 4 groups (n = 20) according to the final irrigation activation technique used as follows: no activation (control), manual dynamic activation (MDA), CanalBrush (Coltene Whaledent, Altststten, Switzerland) activation, and ultrasonic activation. Five specimens from each group were prepared for scanning electron microscopic observation to assess the smear layer removal after the final irrigation procedures. All remaining roots were then obturated with gutta-percha and AH Plus sealer. A push-out test was used to measure the bond strength between the root canal dentin and AH Plus sealer. The data obtained from the push-out test were analyzed using 2-way analysis of variance and Tukey post hoc tests. The bond strength values mostly decreased in the coronoapical direction (P < .001). In the coronal and middle thirds, ultrasonic activiation showed a higher bond strength than other groups (P < .05). In the apical third, MDA displayed the highest bond strength to root dentin (P < .05). The majority of specimens exhibited cohesive failures. The bond strength of AH Plus sealer to root canal dentin may improve with ultrasonic activation in the coronal and middle thirds and MDA in the apical third. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. The utility of ultrasonographic bone age determination in detecting growth disturbances; a comparative study with the conventional radiographic technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hajalioghli, Parisa; Tarzamni, Mohammad Kazem; Arami, Sara [Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Department of Radiology, Imam Reza Teaching Hospital, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Fouladi, Daniel Fadaei [Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Neurosciences Research Center, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Imam Reza Teaching Hospital, Neurosciences Research Center, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ghojazadeh, Morteza [Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-09-15

    To test whether the conventional radiographic technique in determining bone age abnormalities can be replaced by ultrasonography. A total of 54 Caucasian subjects up to 7 years of age with clinically suspected growth problems underwent left hand and wrist radiographic and ultrasonographic bone age estimations with the use of the Greulich-Pyle atlas. The ultrasonographic scans targeted the ossification centers in the radius and ulna distal epiphysis, carpal bones, epiphyses of the first and third metacarpals, and epiphysis of the middle phalanx, as described in previous reports. The degree of agreement between the two sets of data, as well as the accuracy of the ultrasonographic method in detecting radiographically suggested bone age abnormities, was examined. The mean chronological age, radiographic bone age, and ultrasonographic bone age (all in months) were 41.96 ± 22.25, 26.68 ± 14.08, and 26.71 ± 13.50 in 28 boys and 43.62 ± 24.63, 30.12 ± 17.69, and 31.27 ± 18.06 in 26 girls, respectively. According to the Bland-Altman plot there was high agreement between the results of the two methods with only three outliers. The deviations in bone age from the chronological age taken by the two techniques had the same sign in all patients. Supposing radiography to be the method of reference, the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of sonography in detecting growth abnormalities were all 100 % in males and 90.9, 100, 100, and 93.8 %, respectively, in females. The conventional radiographic technique for determining bone age abnormalities could be replaced by ultrasonography. (orig.)

  14. DETECTION OF MENDELIAN AND GENOTYPE FREQUENCY OF GROWTH HORMONE GENE IN ONGOLE CROSSBRED CATTLE MATED BY THE ARTIFICIAL INSEMINATION TECHNIQUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Paputungan

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to detect the Mendelian mode inheritance of growth hormone (GH and to establish genotype frequency of GH gene in Ongole-crossbred cattle mated by the artificial insemination (AI technique. Total of 76 blood samples were collected from Ongole-crossbred cows and bulls (G0, and their progenies (G1 at the Tumaratas AI service center in North Sulawesi province, Indonesia. All blood samples were screened for the presence of GH locus using a PCR-RFLP method involving restricted enzyme Msp1 on 1.2 % of agarose gel. Data were analyzed using statistical program function in Excel XP. The results showed that GH locus using alleles of Msp1+ and Msp1- enzyme restriction in Ongole-crossbred cows and bulls was inherited to their Ongole-crossbred progenies following the Mendelian mode inheritance. This Mendelian inheritance generated by AI technique was not under genetic equilibrium for the Msp1 genotype frequencies in groups of G0 and G1. The breeding program using genotypes of bulls and cows (G0 for generating the genotype of GH Msp1 enzyme restriction by AI technique should be maintained to increase these various allele dispersion rates for breeding under genetic equilibrium of the Ongole-crossbred cattle population.

  15. DETECTION OF MENDELIAN AND GENOTYPE FREQUENCY OF GROWTH HORMONE GENE IN ONGOLE CROSSBRED CATTLE MATED BY THE ARTIFICIAL INSEMINATION TECHNIQUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Paputungan

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to detect the Mendelian mode inheritance of growth hormone(GH and to establish genotype frequency of GH gene in Ongole-crossbred cattle mated by the artificialinsemination (AI technique. Total of 76 blood samples were collected from Ongole-crossbred cows andbulls (G0, and their progenies (G1 at the Tumaratas AI service center in North Sulawesi province,Indonesia. All blood samples were screened for the presence of GH locus using a PCR-RFLP methodinvolving restricted enzyme Msp1 on 1.2 % of agarose gel. Data were analyzed using statistical programfunction in Excel XP. The results showed that GH locus using alleles of Msp1+ and Msp1- enzymerestriction in Ongole-crossbred cows and bulls was inherited to their Ongole-crossbred progeniesfollowing the Mendelian mode inheritance. This Mendelian inheritance generated by AI technique wasnot under genetic equilibrium for the Msp1 genotype frequencies in groups of G0 and G1. The breedingprogram using genotypes of bulls and cows (G0 for generating the genotype of GH Msp1 enzymerestriction by AI technique should be maintained to increase these various allele dispersion rates forbreeding under genetic equilibrium of the Ongole-crossbred cattle population.

  16. New Programs Utilizing Light Scattering and Flow Imaging Techniques for Macromolecular Crystal Growth and Fluid Dynamics Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    Dr. Phil Segre, a physicist by training, is a recent addition to the Biotech group, SD46, having joined NASA in August of 2000. Over the past two years he has been developing a laboratory for the study of macromolecular and protein crystal growth. The main apparatus for this work is a Dynamic Light Scattering apparatus, DLS, which is capable of making highly precise measurements of size distributions of both protein solutions and protein crystals. With Drs. Chernov and Thomas (USRA), he has begun a collaboration studying the affects of protein impurities on protein crystal growth and subsequent crystal quality. One of the hypotheses behind the differences between Earth and space grown protein crystals is that the absorption of harmful impurities is reduced in space due to the absence of convective flows. Using DLS measurements we are examining crystal growth with varying amounts of impurities and testing whether there is a strong physical basis behind this hypothesis. With Dr. Joe Ng of UAH he has been collaborating on a project to examine the folding/unfolding dynamics of large RNA complexes. A detailed understanding of this process is necessary for the handling of RNA in biotech applications, and the DLS instrument gives details and results beyond that of other instruments. With Prof. Jim McClymer of the University of Maine (summer faculty visitor to NASA in 2001, 2002), we have been studying the crystallization process in model colloidal suspensions whose behavior in some cases can mimic that of much smaller protein solutions. An understanding of the self-assembly of colloids is the first step in the process of engineering novel materials for photonic and light switching applications. Finally, he has begun an investigation into the physics of particle sedimentation. In addition to the DLS instrument he also has an instrument (called PIV) that can measure flow fields of fluids. The applications are to the dynamics of protein crystal motions both on earth and in

  17. Reversal of Growth of Utilization of Interventional Techniques in Managing Chronic Pain in Medicare Population Post Affordable Care Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manchikanti, Laxmaiah; Soin, Amol; Mann, Dharam P; Bakshi, Sanjay; Pampati, Vidyasagar; Hirsch, Joshua A

    2017-11-01

    Over the past 2 decades, the increase in the utilization of interventional techniques has been a cause for concern. Despite multiple regulations to reduce utilization of interventional techniques, growth patterns continued through 2009. A declining trend was observed in a previous evaluation; however, a comparative analysis of utilization patterns of interventional techniques has not been performed showing utilization before and after the enactment of the Affordable Care Act (ACA). Our aim is to assess patterns of utilization and variables of interventional techniques in chronic pain management in the fee-for-service (FFS) Medicare population, with a comparative analysis of pre- and post-ACA. Utilization patterns and variables of interventional techniques were assessed from 2000 to 2009 and from 2009 to 2016 in the FFS Medicare population of the United States in managing chronic pain. The master data from the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) physician/supplier procedure summary from 2000 to 2016 was utilized to assess overall utilization and comparative utilization at various time periods. The analysis of Medicare data from 2000 to 2016 showed an overall decrease in utilization of interventional techniques 0.6% per year from 2009 to 2016, whereas from 2000 to 2009, there was an increase of 11.8% per year per 100,000 individuals of the Medicare population. In addition, the United States experienced an increase of 0.7% per year of population growth, 3.2% of those 65 years or older and a 3% annual increase in Medicare participation from 2009 to 2016. Further analysis also showed a 1.7% annual decrease in the rate of utilization of epidural and adhesiolysis procedures per 100,000 individuals of the Medicare population, with a 2.2% decrease for disc procedures and other types of nerve blocks, whereas there was an increase of 0.8% annually for facet joint interventions and sacroiliac joint blocks from 2009 to 2016. Epidural and adhesiolysis procedures

  18. Stimulation of methane oxidation potential and effects on vegetation growth by bottom ash addition in a landfill final evapotranspiration cover

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kim, G.W.; Ho, A.; Kim, P.J.; Kim, Sang Yun

    2016-01-01

    The landfilling of municipal solid waste is a significant source of atmospheric methane (CH4), contributing up to 20% of total anthropogenic CH4 emissions. The evapotranspiration (ET) cover system, an alternative final cover system in waste landfills, has been considered to be a promising way to

  19. Growth and physiological responses to surgical and gastric radio transmitter implantation techniques in subyearling chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinelli, Theresa L.; Hansel, H.C.; Shively, R.S.

    1998-01-01

    We examined the effects of surgical and gastric transmitter implantation techniques on the growth, general physiology and behavior of 230 subyearling chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, Walbaum) (100 mm-154 mm fork length). The transmitter weighed 1.3 g in air (0.9 g in water) and comprised, on average, 6% of the body weight of the fish (in air). Individuals were randomly assigned to an experimental group (control, surgical or gastric) and a sampling period (day 5 or day 21). Relative growth rate was expressed as% body weight gained/day. General condition was assessed by necropsy. Physiological response variables included hematocrit, leucocrit and plasma protein concentration. The mean relative growth rates of control, surgical and gastric fish were not significantly different at day 5. By day 21, the gastric group had a significantly lower relative growth rate (1.3%) as compared to the surgical group (1.8%) and the control group (1.9%) (P = 0.0001). Mean hematocrit values were significantly lower in the surgical (41.8%) and gastric (42.2%) groups as compared to controls (47.3%) at day 5 (P = 0.01), but all were within normal range for salmonids. No significant differences in hematocrit values were detected at day 21. Leucocrit values for all groups were ??? 1% in 99% of the fish. Both tagged groups had significantly lower mean plasma protein levels as compared to controls at day 5 (P = 0.001) and day 21 (P = 0.0001). At day 21 the gastric group (64.4 g 100 m1-1) had significantly lower mean plasma protein levels than the surgical group (68.8 g 100 ml-1) (P = 0.0001). Necropsies showed decreasing condition of gastrically tagged fish over time, and increasing condition of surgical fish. Paired releases of surgically and gastrically implanted yearling chinook salmon in the lower Columbia River in spring, 1996 revealed few significant differences in migration behavior through two reservoirs. We conclude that gastrically implanted fish show decreased growth and

  20. Structural characterization of selective area growth GaN nanowires by non-destructive optical and electrical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Secco, Eleonora; Minj, Albert; Garro, Núria; Cantarero, Andrés; Colchero, Jaime; Urban, Arne; Oppo, Carla Ivana; Malindretos, Joerg; Rizzi, Angela

    2015-01-01

    The growth selectivity and structural quality of GaN nanowires obtained by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy on pre-patterned GaN(0001) templates are investigated by means of non-destructive techniques. Optimum control over the nanowire arrangement and size requires a pitch between the mask apertures below twice the diffusion length of Ga atoms. Lower pitches, however, seem to slightly diminish the structural quality of the material, as revealed by the increase of the Raman peak linewidths. The photoluminescence spectra of the nanowires show a considerable presence of basal plane stacking faults, whose density increases for decreasing nanowire diameter. The capabilities of Kelvin probe force microscopy for imaging these kind of defects are also demonstrated. (paper)

  1. Structural characterization of selective area growth GaN nanowires by non-destructive optical and electrical techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secco, Eleonora; Minj, Albert; Garro, Núria; Cantarero, Andrés; Colchero, Jaime; Urban, Arne; Ivana Oppo, Carla; Malindretos, Joerg; Rizzi, Angela

    2015-08-01

    The growth selectivity and structural quality of GaN nanowires obtained by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy on pre-patterned GaN(0001) templates are investigated by means of non-destructive techniques. Optimum control over the nanowire arrangement and size requires a pitch between the mask apertures below twice the diffusion length of Ga atoms. Lower pitches, however, seem to slightly diminish the structural quality of the material, as revealed by the increase of the Raman peak linewidths. The photoluminescence spectra of the nanowires show a considerable presence of basal plane stacking faults, whose density increases for decreasing nanowire diameter. The capabilities of Kelvin probe force microscopy for imaging these kind of defects are also demonstrated.

  2. Preferential orientation growth of ITO thin film on quartz substrate with ZnO buffer layer by magnetron sputtering technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Wenhan; Yang, Jingjing; Xiong, Chao; Zhao, Yu; Zhu, Xifang

    2017-07-01

    In order to improve the photoelectric transformation efficiency of thin-film solar cells, one plausible method was to improve the transparent conductive oxides (TCO) material property. In-doped tin oxide (ITO) was an important TCO material which was used as a front contact layer in thin-film solar cell. Using magnetron sputtering deposition technique, we prepared preferential orientation ITO thin films on quartz substrate. XRD and SEM measurements were used to characterize the crystalline structure and morphology of ITO thin films. The key step was adding a ZnO thin film buffer layer before ITO deposition. ZnO thin film buffer layer increases the nucleation center numbers and results in the (222) preferential orientation growth of ITO thin films.

  3. USE OF MOLECULAR BIOLOGICAL TECHNIQUES TO EVALUATE EFFECT OF ENDOGENOUS HORMONES AND A XENOBIOTIC PESTICIDE ON GROWTH OF SHEEPSHEAD MINNOW

    Science.gov (United States)

    We have developed a teleost model to screen physiological effects of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) on somatic growth. Growth is largely controlled by the endocrine system via the growth-hormone releasing hormone (GRF) - growth hormone (GH) - insulin-like growth factor (IG...

  4. Effects of Growth Hormone (GH) Therapy Withdrawal on Glucose Metabolism in Not Confirmed GH Deficient Adolescents at Final Height

    OpenAIRE

    Prodam, Flavia; Savastio, Silvia; Genoni, Giulia; Babu, Deepak; Giordano, Mara; Ricotti, Roberta; Aimaretti, Gianluca; Bona, Gianni; Bellone, Simonetta

    2014-01-01

    CONTEXT OBJECTIVE: Growth hormone deficiency (GHD) is associated with insulin resistance and diabetes, in particular after treatment in children and adults with pre-existing metabolic risk factors. Our aims were. i) to evaluate the effect on glucose metabolism of rhGH treatment and withdrawal in not confirmed GHD adolescents at the achievement of adult height; ii) to investigate the impact of GH receptor gene genomic deletion of exon 3 (d3GHR). DESIGN SETTING: We performed a longitudinal stud...

  5. The application of isotope techniques to the assessment of aquifer systems in major urban areas. Final report of a co-ordinated research project 1997-2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-07-01

    Aquifer systems in most urban areas have been impacted to varying degrees by sustained exploitation and the future availability of water is being threatened by depleting aquifers or water quality degradation. Improved methods for the assessment and management of groundwater resources in major urban areas, therefore, are issues of high priority for most countries. The IAEA has, over last four decades, co-ordinated the development, adaptation, and testing of isotope techniques for hydrological applications. A number of techniques and methodologies that are now established for water resources management are potentially useful for characterizing the short and long term changes resulting from the extensive use of aquifers in and near urban areas. The application of isotope techniques in urban hydrology was the focus of this co-ordinated research project (CRP). This report provides the final results of the CRP, and is expected to be of interest to scientists, managers and planners involved in water resources assessment in urban areas. This publication contains seven individual reports, each of them was indexed separately

  6. Nodulation control of crack fertilization technique reduced the growth inhibition of soybean caused by short-term waterlogging at early vegetative stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koji Yamane

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Waterlogging is the constraint for soybean growth and yield, because soybean is often cultivated in upland fields converted from paddy in Japan. However, efficient cultivation techniques for alleviating the adverse effects have not been developed. We have proposed the new soybean cultivation technique named crack fertilization which enables yield increase due to enhancing new root growth and N acquisition by increasing nodulation. Waterlogging induces N deficiency due to the suppression of nutrient uptake by the inhibition of root growth and nodule activity. Thus, it is hypothesized that crack fertilization would be effective to alleviate the inhibition of soybean growth and yield. The soybean cultivar of Sachiyutaka was planted in 1/5000 a Wagner pots and root boxes. Two separate waterlogging treatments were imposed to soybean plants at different growth stages, V1 and R4, and crack fertilization was done at V3. After these treatments, soybean plants were sampled at R5 in 2012 and 2013 experiments, respectively. Waterlogging at V1 and R4 inhibited the growth and yield of soybean and nodule growth, and the decreases in physiological parameters of soybean such as photosynthesis, chlorophyll content, and xylem sap exudation rate were observed. The adverse effects of waterlogging at V1 were alleviated by crack fertilization at V3, whereas crack fertilization could not alleviate the adverse effects of waterlogging at R4. Thus, crack fertilization after waterlogging at early vegetative stage would be the cultivation technique that enables to alleviate the adverse effects.

  7. Comparative Evaluation of Two Final Irrigation Techniques for the Removal of Precipitate Formed by the Interaction between Sodium Hypochlorite and Chlorhexidine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metri, Malasiddappa; Hegde, Swaroop; Dinesh, K; Indiresha, H N; Nagaraj, Shruthi; Bhandi, Shilpa H

    2015-11-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of two final irrigation techniques for the removal of precipitate formed by the interaction between sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) and chlorhexidine (CHX). Sixty freshly extracted human maxillary incisor teeth were taken and randomly divided into three groups, containing 20 teeth each. Group 1 (control group), were irrigated with 5 ml of 2.5% NaOCl and a final flush with 5 ml of 2% chlorhexidine. Group 2 were irrigated with 5 ml of 2.5% NaOCl and 5 ml of 2% chlorhexidine followed by 5 ml of saline and agitated with F-files. Group 3 were irrigated with 5 ml of 2.5% NaOCl and 5 ml of 2% chlorhexidine followed by 5 ml of 15% citric acid and passively agitated with ultrasonics. A thin longitudinal groove was made along the buccal and lingual aspect of the root using diamond disks and split with chisel and mallet. Both halves of the split tooth will be examined under stereomicroscope. Results were tabulated and analyzed statistically using analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Mann-Whitney U test. There was a significant difference between the mean values (p chlorhexidine irrigation protocol has been practiced since from many years to achieve good results. However, it has adverse effect in the form of precipitate and which is considered to be a carcinogenic in nature, hence this precipitate should be removed.

  8. Effects of Sputtering Parameters on AlN Film Growth on Flexible Hastelloy Tapes by Two-Step Deposition Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Bin; Gong, Dongdong; Zhang, Wanli; Jiang, Jianying; Shu, Lin; Zhang, Yahui

    2016-08-10

    AlN thin films were deposited on flexible Hastelloy tapes and Si (100) substrate by middle-frequency magnetron sputtering. A layer of Y₂O₃ films was used as a buffer layer for the Hastelloy tapes. A two-step deposition technique was used to prepare the AlN films. The effects of deposition parameters such as sputtering power, N₂/Ar flow rate and sputtering pressure on the microstructure of the AlN thin films were systematically investigated. The results show that the dependency of the full width at half maximum (FWHM) of AlN/Y₂O₃/Hastelloy on the sputtering parameters is similar to that of AlN/Si (100). The FWHM of the AlN (002) peak of the prepared AlN films decreases with increasing sputtering power. The FWHM decreases with the increase of the N₂/Ar flow rate or sputtering pressure, and increases with the further increase of the N₂/Ar flow rate or sputtering pressure. The FWHM of the AlN/Y₂O₃/Hastelloy prepared under optimized parameters is only 3.7° and its root mean square (RMS) roughness is 5.46 nm. Based on the experimental results, the growth mechanism of AlN thin films prepared by the two-step deposition process was explored. This work would assist us in understanding the AlN film's growth mechanism of the two-step deposition process, preparing highly c-axis-oriented AlN films on flexible metal tapes and developing flexible surface acoustic wave (SAW) sensors from an application perspective.

  9. Growth of tin oxide thin films composed of nanoparticles on hydrophilic and hydrophobic glass substrates by spray pyrolysis technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paloly, Abdul Rasheed; Satheesh, M. [Nano Functional Materials Lab, Department of Physics, Cochin University of Science and Technology, Kochi 682022, Kerala (India); Martínez-Tomás, M. Carmen; Muñoz-Sanjosé, Vicente [Departamento de Física Aplicada y Electromagnetismo, Universitat de Valencia, c/Dr Moliner 50, Burjassot, Valencia 46100 (Spain); Rajappan Achary, Sreekumar [Nano Functional Materials Lab, Department of Physics, Cochin University of Science and Technology, Kochi 682022, Kerala (India); Bushiri, M. Junaid, E-mail: junaidbushiri@gmail.com [Nano Functional Materials Lab, Department of Physics, Cochin University of Science and Technology, Kochi 682022, Kerala (India)

    2015-12-01

    Highlights: • SnO{sub 2} thin films were grown on hydrophilic and hydrophobic glass substrates. • Samples on hydrophobic substrates are having comparatively larger lattice volume. • Films on hydrophobic substrates have larger particles and low density distribution. • Substrate dependent photoluminescence emission is observed and studied. • SnO{sub 2} thin films grown over hydrophobic substrates may find potential applications. - Abstract: In this paper, we have demonstrated the growth of tin oxide (SnO{sub 2}) thin films composed of nanoparticles on hydrophobic (siliconized) and hydrophilic (non-siliconized) glass substrates by using the spray pyrolysis technique. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis confirmed the formation of SnO{sub 2} thin films with tetragonal rutile-phase structure. Average particle size of nanoparticles was determined to be in the range of 3–4 nm measured from the front view images obtained by a field emission gun scanning electron microscope (FESEM), while the size of nanoparticle clusters, when present, were in the range of 11–20 nm. Surface morphology of SnO{sub 2} films grown over hydrophobic substrates revealed larger isolated particles which are less crowded compared to the highly crowded and agglomerated smaller particles in films on hydrophilic substrates. Blue shift in the band gap is observed in samples in which the average particle size is slightly larger than the exciton Bohr radius. Photoluminescence (PL) analysis of samples grown over hydrophobic substrates exhibited an intense defect level emission and a weak near band edge emission. The enhanced visible emission from these SnO{sub 2} thin films is attributed to lattice defects formed during the film growth due to the mismatch between the film and the hydrophobic substrate surface.

  10. Growth of multiferroic Gd1-xYxMnO3 single crystals by optical floating zone technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarguna, R.M.; Ganesamoorthy, S.; Sridharan, V.; Subramanian, N.

    2014-01-01

    Rare earth manganites RMnO 3 with distorted perovskite structure are excellent multiferroic materials. The discovery of magnetic spin driven ferroelectricity in orthorhombic manganites (TbMnO 3 ) has sparked a surge in research into understanding the fundamental mechanism of multiferroic behavior. These systems fall under the category of type-2 multiferroics, the change of spatially modulated magnetic moment from sinusoidal to cycloidal gives rise to electric polarization. The magnetic structure depends upon the Mn-O-Mn bond angle. GdMnO 3 shows multiferroic properties only in the presence of applied magnetic field. When a magnetic field is applied along the b-axis, GdMnO 3 enters a ferroelectric state with an electric polarisation along the c-axis. By altering the Mn-O-Mn angle it is expected that GdMnO 3 will show multiferroic property even in the absence of magnetic field like TbMnO 3 . To alter the Mn-O-Mn bond angle GdMnO 3 was substituted with Y having lower ionic radius at Gd site. The effect of Y doping at the rare-earth site in GdMnO 3 investigated on polycrystalline samples of Gd 1-x Y x MnO 3 demonstrated a magneto-electric coupling in x=0.1-0.4. Single crystals are expected to give much amplified signal in respect of ferroelectric and magnetic properties. In this work we have grown Y substituted Gd 1-x Y x MnO 3 (x = 0.2, 0.3 and 0.4) by optical floating zone technique under different gas atmosphere. Growth rate of 1-2 mm/h yielded crack free crystals. Quality of the crystals was checked using Laue diffraction. Effect of growth rate and atmosphere pressure will be presented in this talk. (author)

  11. Isotope and geochemical techniques applied to geothermal investigations. Proceedings of the final research co-ordination meeting held in Dumaguete City, Philippines, 12-15 October 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-02-01

    In the last ten years, geothermal energy has emerged as an alternative source of energy for electrical and non-electrical uses. In some of these countries geothermal energy contributed up to 40% of the national power requirement. In others, it is being widely used in agriculture, aquaculture, air conditioning, kiln and fruit drying, pulp and paper industry, greenhouses and food processing. The Co-ordinated Research Programme (CRP) on the Application of Isotope and Geochemical Techniques to Geothermal Exploration in the Middle East, Asia, the Pacific and Africa aimed at integrating isotope techniques with traditional geochemical and hydrological methods in understanding the characteristics of geothermal systems. It involved isotopic and chemical surveys of hot to cold springs, wells and rivers in exploration areas as well as in exploited reservoirs where problems such as return of injected wastewaters are experienced. This publication is a compilation of the scientific papers presented at the final Research Co-ordination Meeting, held in Dumaguete City, Philippines, from 12 to 15 October 1993. Refs, figs and tabs

  12. Search for narrow resonances in dijet final states at $\\sqrt{s}= $ 8 TeV with the novel CMS technique of data scouting

    CERN Document Server

    Khachatryan, Vardan; Tumasyan, Armen; Adam, Wolfgang; Aşılar, Ece; Bergauer, Thomas; Brandstetter, Johannes; Brondolin, Erica; Dragicevic, Marko; Erö, Janos; Flechl, Martin; Friedl, Markus; Fruehwirth, Rudolf; Ghete, Vasile Mihai; Hartl, Christian; Hörmann, Natascha; Hrubec, Josef; Jeitler, Manfred; König, Axel; Krätschmer, Ilse; Liko, Dietrich; Matsushita, Takashi; Mikulec, Ivan; Rabady, Dinyar; Rad, Navid; Rahbaran, Babak; Rohringer, Herbert; Schieck, Jochen; Strauss, Josef; Treberer-Treberspurg, Wolfgang; Waltenberger, Wolfgang; Wulz, Claudia-Elisabeth; Mossolov, Vladimir; Shumeiko, Nikolai; Suarez Gonzalez, Juan; Alderweireldt, Sara; De Wolf, Eddi A; Janssen, Xavier; Knutsson, Albert; Lauwers, Jasper; Van De Klundert, Merijn; Van Haevermaet, Hans; Van Mechelen, Pierre; Van Remortel, Nick; Van Spilbeeck, Alex; Abu Zeid, Shimaa; Blekman, Freya; D'Hondt, Jorgen; Daci, Nadir; De Bruyn, Isabelle; Deroover, Kevin; Heracleous, Natalie; Lowette, Steven; Moortgat, Seth; Moreels, Lieselotte; Olbrechts, Annik; Python, Quentin; Tavernier, Stefaan; Van Doninck, Walter; Van Mulders, Petra; Van Parijs, Isis; Brun, Hugues; Caillol, Cécile; Clerbaux, Barbara; De Lentdecker, Gilles; Delannoy, Hugo; Fasanella, Giuseppe; Favart, Laurent; Goldouzian, Reza; Grebenyuk, Anastasia; Karapostoli, Georgia; Lenzi, Thomas; Léonard, Alexandre; Luetic, Jelena; Maerschalk, Thierry; Marinov, Andrey; Randle-conde, Aidan; Seva, Tomislav; Vander Velde, Catherine; Vanlaer, Pascal; Yonamine, Ryo; Zenoni, Florian; Zhang, Fengwangdong; Cimmino, Anna; Cornelis, Tom; Dobur, Didar; Fagot, Alexis; Garcia, Guillaume; Gul, Muhammad; Mccartin, Joseph; Poyraz, Deniz; Salva Diblen, Sinem; Schöfbeck, Robert; Tytgat, Michael; Van Driessche, Ward; Yazgan, Efe; Zaganidis, Nicolas; Beluffi, Camille; Bondu, Olivier; Brochet, Sébastien; Bruno, Giacomo; Caudron, Adrien; Ceard, Ludivine; De Visscher, Simon; Delaere, Christophe; Delcourt, Martin; Forthomme, Laurent; Francois, Brieuc; Giammanco, Andrea; Jafari, Abideh; Jez, Pavel; Komm, Matthias; Lemaitre, Vincent; Magitteri, Alessio; Mertens, Alexandre; Musich, Marco; Nuttens, Claude; Piotrzkowski, Krzysztof; Quertenmont, Loic; Selvaggi, Michele; Vidal Marono, Miguel; Wertz, Sébastien; Beliy, Nikita; Aldá Júnior, Walter Luiz; Alves, Fábio Lúcio; Alves, Gilvan; Brito, Lucas; Correa Martins Junior, Marcos; Hensel, Carsten; Moraes, Arthur; Pol, Maria Elena; Rebello Teles, Patricia; Belchior Batista Das Chagas, Ewerton; Carvalho, Wagner; Chinellato, Jose; Custódio, Analu; Melo Da Costa, Eliza; Da Silveira, Gustavo Gil; De Jesus Damiao, Dilson; De Oliveira Martins, Carley; Fonseca De Souza, Sandro; Huertas Guativa, Lina Milena; Malbouisson, Helena; Matos Figueiredo, Diego; Mora Herrera, Clemencia; Mundim, Luiz; Nogima, Helio; Prado Da Silva, Wanda Lucia; Santoro, Alberto; Sznajder, Andre; Tonelli Manganote, Edmilson José; Vilela Pereira, Antonio; Ahuja, Sudha; Bernardes, Cesar Augusto; Dogra, Sunil; Tomei, Thiago; De Moraes Gregores, Eduardo; Mercadante, Pedro G; Moon, Chang-Seong; Novaes, Sergio F; Padula, Sandra; Romero Abad, David; Ruiz Vargas, José Cupertino; Aleksandrov, Aleksandar; Hadjiiska, Roumyana; Iaydjiev, Plamen; Rodozov, Mircho; Stoykova, Stefka; Sultanov, Georgi; Vutova, Mariana; Dimitrov, Anton; Glushkov, Ivan; Litov, Leander; Pavlov, Borislav; Petkov, Peicho; Fang, Wenxing; Ahmad, Muhammad; Bian, Jian-Guo; Chen, Guo-Ming; Chen, He-Sheng; Chen, Mingshui; Chen, Ye; Cheng, Tongguang; Du, Ran; Jiang, Chun-Hua; Leggat, Duncan; Liu, Zhenan; Romeo, Francesco; Shaheen, Sarmad Masood; Spiezia, Aniello; Tao, Junquan; Wang, Chunjie; Wang, Zheng; Zhang, Huaqiao; Zhao, Jingzhou; Asawatangtrakuldee, Chayanit; Ban, Yong; Li, Qiang; Liu, Shuai; Mao, Yajun; Qian, Si-Jin; Wang, Dayong; Xu, Zijun; Avila, Carlos; Cabrera, Andrés; Chaparro Sierra, Luisa Fernanda; Florez, Carlos; Gomez, Juan Pablo; González Hernández, Carlos Felipe; Ruiz Alvarez, José David; Sanabria, Juan Carlos; Godinovic, Nikola; Lelas, Damir; Puljak, Ivica; Ribeiro Cipriano, Pedro M; Antunovic, Zeljko; Kovac, Marko; Brigljevic, Vuko; Ferencek, Dinko; Kadija, Kreso; Micanovic, Sasa; Sudic, Lucija; Attikis, Alexandros; Mavromanolakis, Georgios; Mousa, Jehad; Nicolaou, Charalambos; Ptochos, Fotios; Razis, Panos A; Rykaczewski, Hans; Finger, Miroslav; Finger Jr, Michael; Carrera Jarrin, Edgar; Elgammal, Sherif; Mohamed, Amr; Mohammed, Yasser; Salama, Elsayed; Calpas, Betty; Kadastik, Mario; Murumaa, Marion; Perrini, Lucia; Raidal, Martti; Tiko, Andres; Veelken, Christian; Eerola, Paula; Pekkanen, Juska; Voutilainen, Mikko; Härkönen, Jaakko; Karimäki, Veikko; Kinnunen, Ritva; Lampén, Tapio; Lassila-Perini, Kati; Lehti, Sami; Lindén, Tomas; Luukka, Panja-Riina; Peltola, Timo; Tuominiemi, Jorma; Tuovinen, Esa; Wendland, Lauri; Talvitie, Joonas; Tuuva, Tuure; Besancon, Marc; Couderc, Fabrice; Dejardin, Marc; Denegri, Daniel; Fabbro, Bernard; Faure, Jean-Louis; Favaro, Carlotta; Ferri, Federico; Ganjour, Serguei; Ghosh, Saranya; Givernaud, Alain; Gras, Philippe; Hamel de Monchenault, Gautier; Jarry, Patrick; Kucher, Inna; Locci, Elizabeth; Machet, Martina; Malcles, Julie; Rander, John; Rosowsky, André; Titov, Maksym; Zghiche, Amina; Abdulsalam, Abdulla; Antropov, Iurii; Baffioni, Stephanie; Beaudette, Florian; Busson, Philippe; Cadamuro, Luca; Chapon, Emilien; Charlot, Claude; Davignon, Olivier; Granier de Cassagnac, Raphael; Jo, Mihee; Lisniak, Stanislav; Miné, Philippe; Naranjo, Ivo Nicolas; Nguyen, Matthew; Ochando, Christophe; Ortona, Giacomo; Paganini, Pascal; Pigard, Philipp; Regnard, Simon; Salerno, Roberto; Sirois, Yves; Strebler, Thomas; Yilmaz, Yetkin; Zabi, Alexandre; Agram, Jean-Laurent; Andrea, Jeremy; Aubin, Alexandre; Bloch, Daniel; Brom, Jean-Marie; Buttignol, Michael; Chabert, Eric Christian; Chanon, Nicolas; Collard, Caroline; Conte, Eric; Coubez, Xavier; Fontaine, Jean-Charles; Gelé, Denis; Goerlach, Ulrich; Le Bihan, Anne-Catherine; Merlin, Jeremie Alexandre; Skovpen, Kirill; Van Hove, Pierre; Gadrat, Sébastien; Beauceron, Stephanie; Bernet, Colin; Boudoul, Gaelle; Bouvier, Elvire; Carrillo Montoya, Camilo Andres; Chierici, Roberto; Contardo, Didier; Courbon, Benoit; Depasse, Pierre; El Mamouni, Houmani; Fan, Jiawei; Fay, Jean; Gascon, Susan; Gouzevitch, Maxime; Grenier, Gérald; Ille, Bernard; Lagarde, Francois; Laktineh, Imad Baptiste; Lethuillier, Morgan; Mirabito, Laurent; Pequegnot, Anne-Laure; Perries, Stephane; Popov, Andrey; Sabes, David; Sordini, Viola; Vander Donckt, Muriel; Verdier, Patrice; Viret, Sébastien; Toriashvili, Tengizi; Lomidze, David; Autermann, Christian; Beranek, Sarah; Feld, Lutz; Heister, Arno; Kiesel, Maximilian Knut; Klein, Katja; Lipinski, Martin; Ostapchuk, Andrey; Preuten, Marius; Raupach, Frank; Schael, Stefan; Schomakers, Christian; Schulte, Jan-Frederik; Schulz, Johannes; Verlage, Tobias; Weber, Hendrik; Zhukov, Valery; Brodski, Michael; Dietz-Laursonn, Erik; Duchardt, Deborah; Endres, Matthias; Erdmann, Martin; Erdweg, Sören; Esch, Thomas; Fischer, Robert; Güth, Andreas; Hebbeker, Thomas; Heidemann, Carsten; Hoepfner, Kerstin; Knutzen, Simon; Merschmeyer, Markus; Meyer, Arnd; Millet, Philipp; Mukherjee, Swagata; Olschewski, Mark; Padeken, Klaas; Papacz, Paul; Pook, Tobias; Radziej, Markus; Reithler, Hans; Rieger, Marcel; Scheuch, Florian; Sonnenschein, Lars; Teyssier, Daniel; Thüer, Sebastian; Cherepanov, Vladimir; Erdogan, Yusuf; Flügge, Günter; Hoehle, Felix; Kargoll, Bastian; Kress, Thomas; Künsken, Andreas; Lingemann, Joschka; Nehrkorn, Alexander; Nowack, Andreas; Nugent, Ian Michael; Pistone, Claudia; Pooth, Oliver; Stahl, Achim; Aldaya Martin, Maria; Asin, Ivan; Beernaert, Kelly; Behnke, Olaf; Behrens, Ulf; Bin Anuar, Afiq Aizuddin; Borras, Kerstin; Campbell, Alan; Connor, Patrick; Contreras-Campana, Christian; Costanza, Francesco; Diez Pardos, Carmen; Dolinska, Ganna; Eckerlin, Guenter; Eckstein, Doris; Eichhorn, Thomas; Gallo, Elisabetta; Garay Garcia, Jasone; Geiser, Achim; Gizhko, Andrii; Grados Luyando, Juan Manuel; Gunnellini, Paolo; Harb, Ali; Hauk, Johannes; Hempel, Maria; Jung, Hannes; Kalogeropoulos, Alexis; Karacheban, Olena; Kasemann, Matthias; Keaveney, James; Kieseler, Jan; Kleinwort, Claus; Korol, Ievgen; Lange, Wolfgang; Lelek, Aleksandra; Leonard, Jessica; Lipka, Katerina; Lobanov, Artur; Lohmann, Wolfgang; Mankel, Rainer; Melzer-Pellmann, Isabell-Alissandra; Meyer, Andreas Bernhard; Mittag, Gregor; Mnich, Joachim; Mussgiller, Andreas; Ntomari, Eleni; Pitzl, Daniel; Placakyte, Ringaile; Raspereza, Alexei; Roland, Benoit; Sahin, Mehmet Özgür; Saxena, Pooja; Schoerner-Sadenius, Thomas; Seitz, Claudia; Spannagel, Simon; Stefaniuk, Nazar; Trippkewitz, Karim Damun; Van Onsem, Gerrit Patrick; Walsh, Roberval; Wissing, Christoph; Blobel, Volker; Centis Vignali, Matteo; Draeger, Arne-Rasmus; Dreyer, Torben; Erfle, Joachim; Garutti, Erika; Goebel, Kristin; Gonzalez, Daniel; Görner, Martin; Haller, Johannes; Hoffmann, Malte; Höing, Rebekka Sophie; Junkes, Alexandra; Klanner, Robert; Kogler, Roman; Kovalchuk, Nataliia; Lapsien, Tobias; Lenz, Teresa; Marchesini, Ivan; Marconi, Daniele; Meyer, Mareike; Niedziela, Marek; Nowatschin, Dominik; Ott, Jochen; Pantaleo, Felice; Peiffer, Thomas; Perieanu, Adrian; Pietsch, Niklas; Poehlsen, Jennifer; Sander, Christian; Scharf, Christian; Schleper, Peter; Schlieckau, Eike; Schmidt, Alexander; Schumann, Svenja; Schwandt, Joern; Stadie, Hartmut; Steinbrück, Georg; Stober, Fred-Markus Helmut; Stöver, Marc; Tholen, Heiner; Troendle, Daniel; Usai, Emanuele; Vanelderen, Lukas; Vanhoefer, Annika; Vormwald, Benedikt; Barth, Christian; Baus, Colin; Berger, Joram; Butz, Erik; Chwalek, Thorsten; Colombo, Fabio; De Boer, Wim; Dierlamm, Alexander; Fink, Simon; Friese, Raphael; Giffels, Manuel; Gilbert, Andrew; Haitz, Dominik; Hartmann, Frank; Heindl, Stefan Michael; Husemann, Ulrich; Katkov, Igor; Kornmayer, Andreas; Lobelle Pardo, Patricia; Maier, Benedikt; Mildner, Hannes; Mozer, Matthias Ulrich; Müller, Thomas; Müller, Thomas; Plagge, Michael; Quast, Gunter; Rabbertz, Klaus; Röcker, Steffen; Roscher, Frank; Schröder, Matthias; Sieber, Georg; Simonis, Hans-Jürgen; Ulrich, Ralf; Wagner-Kuhr, Jeannine; Wayand, Stefan; Weber, Marc; Weiler, Thomas; Williamson, Shawn; Wöhrmann, Clemens; Wolf, Roger; Anagnostou, Georgios; Daskalakis, Georgios; Geralis, Theodoros; Giakoumopoulou, Viktoria Athina; Kyriakis, Aristotelis; Loukas, Demetrios; Topsis-Giotis, Iasonas; Agapitos, Antonis; Kesisoglou, Stilianos; Panagiotou, Apostolos; Saoulidou, Niki; Tziaferi, Eirini; Evangelou, Ioannis; Flouris, Giannis; Foudas, Costas; Kokkas, Panagiotis; Loukas, Nikitas; Manthos, Nikolaos; Papadopoulos, Ioannis; Paradas, Evangelos; Filipovic, Nicolas; Bencze, Gyorgy; Hajdu, Csaba; Hidas, Pàl; Horvath, Dezso; Sikler, Ferenc; Veszpremi, Viktor; Vesztergombi, Gyorgy; Zsigmond, Anna Julia; Beni, Noemi; Czellar, Sandor; Karancsi, János; Molnar, Jozsef; Szillasi, Zoltan; Bartók, Márton; Makovec, Alajos; Raics, Peter; Trocsanyi, Zoltan Laszlo; Ujvari, Balazs; Bahinipati, Seema; Choudhury, Somnath; Mal, Prolay; Mandal, Koushik; Nayak, Aruna; Sahoo, Deepak Kumar; Sahoo, Niladribihari; Swain, Sanjay Kumar; Bansal, Sunil; Beri, Suman Bala; Bhatnagar, Vipin; Chawla, Ridhi; Gupta, Ruchi; Bhawandeep, Bhawandeep; Kalsi, Amandeep Kaur; Kaur, Anterpreet; Kaur, Manjit; Kumar, Ramandeep; Mehta, Ankita; Mittal, Monika; Singh, Jasbir; Walia, Genius; Kumar, Ashok; Bhardwaj, Ashutosh; Choudhary, Brajesh C; Garg, Rocky Bala; Keshri, Sumit; Kumar, Ajay; Malhotra, Shivali; Naimuddin, Md; Nishu, Nishu; Ranjan, Kirti; Sharma, Ramkrishna; Sharma, Varun; Bhattacharya, Rajarshi; Bhattacharya, Satyaki; Chatterjee, Kalyanmoy; Dey, Sourav; Dutt, Suneel; Dutta, Suchandra; Ghosh, Shamik; Majumdar, Nayana; Modak, Atanu; Mondal, Kuntal; Mukhopadhyay, Supratik; Nandan, Saswati; Purohit, Arnab; Roy, Ashim; Roy, Debarati; Roy Chowdhury, Suvankar; Sarkar, Subir; Sharan, Manoj; Thakur, Shalini; Behera, Prafulla Kumar; Chudasama, Ruchi; Dutta, Dipanwita; Jha, Vishwajeet; Kumar, Vineet; Mohanty, Ajit Kumar; Netrakanti, Pawan Kumar; Pant, Lalit Mohan; Shukla, Prashant; Topkar, Anita; Aziz, Tariq; Dugad, Shashikant; Kole, Gouranga; Mahakud, Bibhuprasad; Mitra, Soureek; Mohanty, Gagan Bihari; Sur, Nairit; Sutar, Bajrang; Banerjee, Sudeshna; Bhowmik, Sandeep; Dewanjee, Ram Krishna; Ganguly, Sanmay; Guchait, Monoranjan; Jain, Sandhya; Kumar, Sanjeev; Maity, Manas; Majumder, Gobinda; Mazumdar, Kajari; Parida, Bibhuti; Sarkar, Tanmay; Wickramage, Nadeesha; Chauhan, Shubhanshu; Dube, Sourabh; Kapoor, Anshul; Kothekar, Kunal; Rane, Aditee; Sharma, Seema; Bakhshiansohi, Hamed; Behnamian, Hadi; Chenarani, Shirin; Eskandari Tadavani, Esmaeel; Etesami, Seyed Mohsen; Fahim, Ali; Khakzad, Mohsen; Mohammadi Najafabadi, Mojtaba; Naseri, Mohsen; Paktinat Mehdiabadi, Saeid; Rezaei Hosseinabadi, Ferdos; Safarzadeh, Batool; Zeinali, Maryam; Felcini, Marta; Grunewald, Martin; Abbrescia, Marcello; Calabria, Cesare; Caputo, Claudio; Colaleo, Anna; Creanza, Donato; Cristella, Leonardo; De Filippis, Nicola; De Palma, Mauro; Fiore, Luigi; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Maggi, Giorgio; Maggi, Marcello; Miniello, Giorgia; My, Salvatore; Nuzzo, Salvatore; Pompili, Alexis; Pugliese, Gabriella; Radogna, Raffaella; Ranieri, Antonio; Selvaggi, Giovanna; Silvestris, Lucia; Venditti, Rosamaria; Abbiendi, Giovanni; Battilana, Carlo; Bonacorsi, Daniele; Braibant-Giacomelli, Sylvie; Brigliadori, Luca; Campanini, Renato; Capiluppi, Paolo; Castro, Andrea; Cavallo, Francesca Romana; Chhibra, Simranjit Singh; Codispoti, Giuseppe; Cuffiani, Marco; Dallavalle, Gaetano-Marco; Fabbri, Fabrizio; Fanfani, Alessandra; Fasanella, Daniele; Giacomelli, Paolo; Grandi, Claudio; Guiducci, Luigi; Marcellini, Stefano; Masetti, Gianni; Montanari, Alessandro; Navarria, Francesco; Perrotta, Andrea; Rossi, Antonio; Rovelli, Tiziano; Siroli, Gian Piero; Tosi, Nicolò; Albergo, Sebastiano; Chiorboli, Massimiliano; Costa, Salvatore; Di Mattia, Alessandro; Giordano, Ferdinando; Potenza, Renato; Tricomi, Alessia; Tuve, Cristina; Barbagli, Giuseppe; Ciulli, Vitaliano; Civinini, Carlo; D'Alessandro, Raffaello; Focardi, Ettore; Gori, Valentina; Lenzi, Piergiulio; Meschini, Marco; Paoletti, Simone; Sguazzoni, Giacomo; Viliani, Lorenzo; Benussi, Luigi; Bianco, Stefano; Fabbri, Franco; Piccolo, Davide; Primavera, Federica; Calvelli, Valerio; Ferro, Fabrizio; Lo Vetere, Maurizio; Monge, Maria Roberta; Robutti, Enrico; Tosi, Silvano; Brianza, Luca; Dinardo, Mauro Emanuele; Fiorendi, Sara; Gennai, Simone; Ghezzi, Alessio; Govoni, Pietro; Malvezzi, Sandra; Manzoni, Riccardo Andrea; Marzocchi, Badder; Menasce, Dario; Moroni, Luigi; Paganoni, Marco; Pedrini, Daniele; Pigazzini, Simone; Ragazzi, Stefano; Tabarelli de Fatis, Tommaso; Buontempo, Salvatore; Cavallo, Nicola; De Nardo, Guglielmo; Di Guida, Salvatore; Esposito, Marco; Fabozzi, Francesco; Iorio, Alberto Orso Maria; Lanza, Giuseppe; Lista, Luca; Meola, Sabino; Merola, Mario; Paolucci, Pierluigi; Sciacca, Crisostomo; Thyssen, Filip; Azzi, Patrizia; Bacchetta, Nicola; Benato, Lisa; Bisello, Dario; Boletti, Alessio; Carlin, Roberto; Carvalho Antunes De Oliveira, Alexandra; Checchia, Paolo; Dall'Osso, Martino; De Castro Manzano, Pablo; Dorigo, Tommaso; Dosselli, Umberto; Gasparini, Fabrizio; Gasparini, Ugo; Gozzelino, Andrea; Lacaprara, Stefano; Margoni, Martino; Meneguzzo, Anna Teresa; Pazzini, Jacopo; Pozzobon, Nicola; Ronchese, Paolo; Simonetto, Franco; Torassa, Ezio; Tosi, Mia; Zanetti, Marco; Zotto, Pierluigi; Zucchetta, Alberto; Zumerle, Gianni; Braghieri, Alessandro; Magnani, Alice; Montagna, Paolo; Ratti, Sergio P; Re, Valerio; Riccardi, Cristina; Salvini, Paola; Vai, Ilaria; Vitulo, Paolo; Alunni Solestizi, Luisa; Bilei, Gian Mario; Ciangottini, Diego; Fanò, Livio; Lariccia, Paolo; Leonardi, Roberto; Mantovani, Giancarlo; Menichelli, Mauro; Saha, Anirban; Santocchia, Attilio; Androsov, Konstantin; Azzurri, Paolo; Bagliesi, Giuseppe; Bernardini, Jacopo; Boccali, Tommaso; Castaldi, Rino; Ciocci, Maria Agnese; Dell'Orso, Roberto; Donato, Silvio; Fedi, Giacomo; Giassi, Alessandro; Grippo, Maria Teresa; Ligabue, Franco; Lomtadze, Teimuraz; Martini, Luca; Messineo, Alberto; Palla, Fabrizio; Rizzi, Andrea; Savoy-Navarro, Aurore; Spagnolo, Paolo; Tenchini, Roberto; Tonelli, Guido; Venturi, Andrea; Verdini, Piero Giorgio; Barone, Luciano; Cavallari, Francesca; Cipriani, Marco; D'imperio, Giulia; Del Re, Daniele; Diemoz, Marcella; Gelli, Simone; Jorda, Clara; Longo, Egidio; Margaroli, Fabrizio; Meridiani, Paolo; Organtini, Giovanni; Paramatti, Riccardo; Preiato, Federico; Rahatlou, Shahram; Rovelli, Chiara; Santanastasio, Francesco; Amapane, Nicola; Arcidiacono, Roberta; Argiro, Stefano; Arneodo, Michele; Bartosik, Nazar; Bellan, Riccardo; Biino, Cristina; Cartiglia, Nicolo; Costa, Marco; Covarelli, Roberto; Degano, Alessandro; Demaria, Natale; Finco, Linda; Kiani, Bilal; Mariotti, Chiara; Maselli, Silvia; Migliore, Ernesto; Monaco, Vincenzo; Monteil, Ennio; Obertino, Maria Margherita; Pacher, Luca; Pastrone, Nadia; Pelliccioni, Mario; Pinna Angioni, Gian Luca; Ravera, Fabio; Romero, Alessandra; Ruspa, Marta; Sacchi, Roberto; Shchelina, Ksenia; Sola, Valentina; Solano, Ada; Staiano, Amedeo; Traczyk, Piotr; Belforte, Stefano; Candelise, Vieri; Casarsa, Massimo; Cossutti, Fabio; Della Ricca, Giuseppe; La Licata, Chiara; Schizzi, Andrea; Zanetti, Anna; Kim, Dong Hee; Kim, Gui Nyun; Kim, Min Suk; Lee, Sangeun; Lee, Seh Wook; Oh, Young Do; Sekmen, Sezen; Son, Dong-Chul; Yang, Yu Chul; Kim, Hyunsoo; Lee, Ari; Brochero Cifuentes, Javier Andres; Kim, Tae Jeong; Cho, Sungwoong; Choi, Suyong; Go, Yeonju; Gyun, Dooyeon; Ha, Seungkyu; Hong, Byung-Sik; Jo, Youngkwon; Kim, Yongsun; Lee, Byounghoon; Lee, Kisoo; Lee, Kyong Sei; Lee, Songkyo; Lim, Jaehoon; Park, Sung Keun; Roh, Youn; Almond, John; Kim, Junho; Oh, Sung Bin; Seo, Seon-hee; Yang, Unki; Yoo, Hwi Dong; Yu, Geum Bong; Choi, Minkyoo; Kim, Hyunchul; Kim, Hyunyong; Kim, Ji Hyun; Lee, Jason Sang Hun; Park, Inkyu; Ryu, Geonmo; Ryu, Min Sang; Choi, Young-Il; Goh, Junghwan; Kim, Donghyun; Kwon, Eunhyang; Lee, Jongseok; Yu, Intae; Dudenas, Vytautas; Juodagalvis, Andrius; Vaitkus, Juozas; Ahmed, Ijaz; Ibrahim, Zainol Abidin; Komaragiri, Jyothsna Rani; Md Ali, Mohd Adli Bin; Mohamad Idris, Faridah; Wan Abdullah, Wan Ahmad Tajuddin; Yusli, Mohd Nizam; Zolkapli, Zukhaimira; Casimiro Linares, Edgar; Castilla-Valdez, Heriberto; De La Cruz-Burelo, Eduard; Heredia-De La Cruz, Ivan; Hernandez-Almada, Alberto; Lopez-Fernandez, Ricardo; Mejia Guisao, Jhovanny; Sánchez Hernández, Alberto; Carrillo Moreno, Salvador; Vazquez Valencia, Fabiola; Pedraza, Isabel; Salazar Ibarguen, Humberto Antonio; Uribe Estrada, Cecilia; Morelos Pineda, Antonio; Krofcheck, David; Butler, Philip H; Ahmad, Ashfaq; Ahmad, Muhammad; Hassan, Qamar; Hoorani, Hafeez R; Khan, Wajid Ali; Qazi, Shamona; Shoaib, Muhammad; Waqas, Muhammad; Bialkowska, Helena; Bluj, Michal; Boimska, Bożena; Frueboes, Tomasz; Górski, Maciej; Kazana, Malgorzata; Nawrocki, Krzysztof; Romanowska-Rybinska, Katarzyna; Szleper, Michal; Zalewski, Piotr; Bunkowski, Karol; Byszuk, Adrian; Doroba, Krzysztof; Kalinowski, Artur; Konecki, Marcin; Krolikowski, Jan; Misiura, Maciej; Olszewski, Michal; Walczak, Marek; Bargassa, Pedrame; Beirão Da Cruz E Silva, Cristóvão; Di Francesco, Agostino; Faccioli, Pietro; Ferreira Parracho, Pedro Guilherme; Gallinaro, Michele; Hollar, Jonathan; Leonardo, Nuno; Lloret Iglesias, Lara; Nemallapudi, Mythra Varun; Rodrigues Antunes, Joao; Seixas, Joao; Toldaiev, Oleksii; Vadruccio, Daniele; Varela, Joao; Vischia, Pietro; Bunin, Pavel; Gavrilenko, Mikhail; Golutvin, Igor; Gorbounov, Nikolai; Gorbunov, Ilya; Karjavin, Vladimir; Kozlov, Guennady; Lanev, Alexander; Malakhov, Alexander; Matveev, Viktor; Moisenz, Petr; Palichik, Vladimir; Perelygin, Victor; Savina, Maria; Shmatov, Sergey; Shulha, Siarhei; Skatchkov, Nikolai; Smirnov, Vitaly; Zarubin, Anatoli; Chtchipounov, Leonid; Golovtsov, Victor; Ivanov, Yury; Kim, Victor; Kuznetsova, Ekaterina; Murzin, Victor; Oreshkin, Vadim; Sulimov, Valentin; Vorobyev, Alexey; Andreev, Yuri; Dermenev, Alexander; Gninenko, Sergei; Golubev, Nikolai; Karneyeu, Anton; Kirsanov, Mikhail; Krasnikov, Nikolai; Pashenkov, Anatoli; Tlisov, Danila; Toropin, Alexander; Epshteyn, Vladimir; Gavrilov, Vladimir; Lychkovskaya, Natalia; Popov, Vladimir; Pozdnyakov, Ivan; Safronov, Grigory; Spiridonov, Alexander; Toms, Maria; Vlasov, Evgueni; Zhokin, Alexander; Chadeeva, Marina; Danilov, Mikhail; Zhemchugov, Evgenii; Andreev, Vladimir; Azarkin, Maksim; Dremin, Igor; Kirakosyan, Martin; Leonidov, Andrey; Rusakov, Sergey V; Terkulov, Adel; Baskakov, Alexey; Belyaev, Andrey; Boos, Edouard; Dubinin, Mikhail; Dudko, Lev; Ershov, Alexander; Gribushin, Andrey; Klyukhin, Vyacheslav; Kodolova, Olga; Lokhtin, Igor; Miagkov, Igor; Obraztsov, Stepan; Petrushanko, Sergey; Savrin, Viktor; Snigirev, Alexander; Azhgirey, Igor; Bayshev, Igor; Bitioukov, Sergei; Elumakhov, Dmitry; Kachanov, Vassili; Kalinin, Alexey; Konstantinov, Dmitri; Krychkine, Victor; Petrov, Vladimir; Ryutin, Roman; Sobol, Andrei; Troshin, Sergey; Tyurin, Nikolay; Uzunian, Andrey; Volkov, Alexey; Adzic, Petar; Cirkovic, Predrag; Devetak, Damir; Milosevic, Jovan; Rekovic, Vladimir; Alcaraz Maestre, Juan; Calvo, Enrique; Cerrada, Marcos; Chamizo Llatas, Maria; Colino, Nicanor; De La Cruz, Begona; Delgado Peris, Antonio; Escalante Del Valle, Alberto; Fernandez Bedoya, Cristina; Fernández Ramos, Juan Pablo; Flix, Jose; Fouz, Maria Cruz; Garcia-Abia, Pablo; Gonzalez Lopez, Oscar; Goy Lopez, Silvia; Hernandez, Jose M; Josa, Maria Isabel; Navarro De Martino, Eduardo; Pérez-Calero Yzquierdo, Antonio María; Puerta Pelayo, Jesus; Quintario Olmeda, Adrián; Redondo, Ignacio; Romero, Luciano; Senghi Soares, Mara; de Trocóniz, Jorge F; Missiroli, Marino; Moran, Dermot; Cuevas, Javier; Fernandez Menendez, Javier; Gonzalez Caballero, Isidro; Palencia Cortezon, Enrique; Sanchez Cruz, Sergio; Vizan Garcia, Jesus Manuel; Cabrillo, Iban Jose; Calderon, Alicia; Castiñeiras De Saa, Juan Ramon; Curras, Esteban; Fernandez, Marcos; Garcia-Ferrero, Juan; Gomez, Gervasio; Lopez Virto, Amparo; Marco, Jesus; Martinez Rivero, Celso; Matorras, Francisco; Piedra Gomez, Jonatan; Rodrigo, Teresa; Ruiz-Jimeno, Alberto; Scodellaro, Luca; Trevisani, Nicolò; Vila, Ivan; Vilar Cortabitarte, Rocio; Abbaneo, Duccio; Auffray, Etiennette; Auzinger, Georg; Bachtis, Michail; Baillon, Paul; Ball, Austin; Barney, David; Bloch, Philippe; Bocci, Andrea; Bonato, Alessio; Botta, Cristina; Camporesi, Tiziano; Castello, Roberto; Cepeda, Maria; Cerminara, Gianluca; D'Alfonso, Mariarosaria; D'Enterria, David; Dabrowski, Anne; Daponte, Vincenzo; David Tinoco Mendes, Andre; De Gruttola, Michele; De Guio, Federico; De Roeck, Albert; Di Marco, Emanuele; Dobson, Marc; Dordevic, Milos; Dorney, Brian; Du Pree, Tristan; Duggan, Daniel; Dünser, Marc; Dupont, Niels; Elliott-Peisert, Anna; Fartoukh, Stephane; Franzoni, Giovanni; Fulcher, Jonathan; Funk, Wolfgang; Gigi, Dominique; Gill, Karl; Girone, Maria; Glege, Frank; Gundacker, Stefan; Guthoff, Moritz; Hammer, Josef; Harris, Philip; Hegeman, Jeroen; Innocente, Vincenzo; Janot, Patrick; Kirschenmann, Henning; Knünz, Valentin; Kortelainen, Matti J; Kousouris, Konstantinos; Krammer, Manfred; Lecoq, Paul; Lourenco, Carlos; Lucchini, Marco Toliman; Magini, Nicolo; Malgeri, Luca; Mannelli, Marcello; Martelli, Arabella; Meijers, Frans; Mersi, Stefano; Meschi, Emilio; Moortgat, Filip; Morovic, Srecko; Mulders, Martijn; Neugebauer, Hannes; Orfanelli, Styliani; Orsini, Luciano; Pape, Luc; Perez, Emmanuelle; Peruzzi, Marco; Petrilli, Achille; Petrucciani, Giovanni; Pfeiffer, Andreas; Pierini, Maurizio; Racz, Attila; Reis, Thomas; Rolandi, Gigi; Rovere, Marco; Ruan, Manqi; Sakulin, Hannes; Sauvan, Jean-Baptiste; Schäfer, Christoph; Schwick, Christoph; Seidel, Markus; Sharma, Archana; Silva, Pedro; Simon, Michal; Sphicas, Paraskevas; Steggemann, Jan; Stoye, Markus; Takahashi, Yuta; Treille, Daniel; Triossi, Andrea; Tsirou, Andromachi; Veckalns, Viesturs; Veres, Gabor Istvan; Wardle, Nicholas; Zagoździńska, Agnieszka; Zeuner, Wolfram Dietrich; Bertl, Willi; Deiters, Konrad; Erdmann, Wolfram; Horisberger, Roland; Ingram, Quentin; Kaestli, Hans-Christian; Kotlinski, Danek; Langenegger, Urs; Rohe, Tilman; Bachmair, Felix; Bäni, Lukas; Bianchini, Lorenzo; Casal, Bruno; Dissertori, Günther; Dittmar, Michael; Donegà, Mauro; Eller, Philipp; Grab, Christoph; Heidegger, Constantin; Hits, Dmitry; Hoss, Jan; Kasieczka, Gregor; Lecomte, Pierre; Lustermann, Werner; Mangano, Boris; Marionneau, Matthieu; Martinez Ruiz del Arbol, Pablo; Masciovecchio, Mario; Meinhard, Maren Tabea; Meister, Daniel; Micheli, Francesco; Musella, Pasquale; Nessi-Tedaldi, Francesca; Pandolfi, Francesco; Pata, Joosep; Pauss, Felicitas; Perrin, Gaël; Perrozzi, Luca; Quittnat, Milena; Rossini, Marco; Schönenberger, Myriam; Starodumov, Andrei; Takahashi, Maiko; Tavolaro, Vittorio Raoul; Theofilatos, Konstantinos; Wallny, Rainer; Aarrestad, Thea Klaeboe; Amsler, Claude; Caminada, Lea; Canelli, Maria Florencia; Chiochia, Vincenzo; De Cosa, Annapaola; Galloni, Camilla; Hinzmann, Andreas; Hreus, Tomas; Kilminster, Benjamin; Lange, Clemens; Ngadiuba, Jennifer; Pinna, Deborah; Rauco, Giorgia; Robmann, Peter; Salerno, Daniel; 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Chen, Yi; Duarte, Javier; Mott, Alexander; Newman, Harvey B; Pena, Cristian; Spiropulu, Maria; Vlimant, Jean-Roch; Xie, Si; Zhu, Ren-Yuan; Andrews, Michael Benjamin; Azzolini, Virginia; Calamba, Aristotle; Carlson, Benjamin; Ferguson, Thomas; Paulini, Manfred; Russ, James; Sun, Menglei; Vogel, Helmut; Vorobiev, Igor; Cumalat, John Perry; Ford, William T; Jensen, Frank; Johnson, Andrew; Krohn, Michael; Mulholland, Troy; Stenson, Kevin; Wagner, Stephen Robert; Alexander, James; Chaves, Jorge; Chu, Jennifer; Dittmer, Susan; Mirman, Nathan; Nicolas Kaufman, Gala; Patterson, Juliet Ritchie; Rinkevicius, Aurelijus; Ryd, Anders; Skinnari, Louise; Sun, Werner; Tan, Shao Min; Tao, Zhengcheng; Thom, Julia; Tucker, Jordan; Wittich, Peter; Winn, Dave; Abdullin, Salavat; Albrow, Michael; Apollinari, Giorgio; Banerjee, Sunanda; Bauerdick, Lothar AT; Beretvas, Andrew; Berryhill, Jeffrey; Bhat, Pushpalatha C; Bolla, Gino; Burkett, Kevin; Butler, Joel Nathan; Cheung, Harry; Chlebana, Frank; Cihangir, Selcuk; 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Redjimi, Radia; Roberts, Jay; Rorie, Jamal; Tu, Zhoudunming; Zabel, James; Betchart, Burton; Bodek, Arie; de Barbaro, Pawel; Demina, Regina; Duh, Yi-ting; Ferbel, Thomas; Galanti, Mario; Garcia-Bellido, Aran; Han, Jiyeon; Hindrichs, Otto; Khukhunaishvili, Aleko; Lo, Kin Ho; Tan, Ping; Verzetti, Mauro; Chou, John Paul; Contreras-Campana, Emmanuel; Gershtein, Yuri; Gómez Espinosa, Tirso Alejandro; Halkiadakis, Eva; Heindl, Maximilian; Hidas, Dean; Hughes, Elliot; Kaplan, Steven; Kunnawalkam Elayavalli, Raghav; Kyriacou, Savvas; Lath, Amitabh; Nash, Kevin; Saka, Halil; Salur, Sevil; Schnetzer, Steve; Sheffield, David; Somalwar, Sunil; Stone, Robert; Thomas, Scott; Thomassen, Peter; Walker, Matthew; Foerster, Mark; Heideman, Joseph; Riley, Grant; Rose, Keith; Spanier, Stefan; Thapa, Krishna; Bouhali, Othmane; Castaneda Hernandez, Alfredo; Celik, Ali; Dalchenko, Mykhailo; De Mattia, Marco; Delgado, Andrea; Dildick, Sven; Eusebi, Ricardo; Gilmore, Jason; Huang, Tao; Juska, Evaldas; Kamon, Teruki; Krutelyov, Vyacheslav; Mueller, Ryan; Pakhotin, Yuriy; Patel, Rishi; Perloff, Alexx; Perniè, Luca; Rathjens, Denis; Rose, Anthony; Safonov, Alexei; Tatarinov, Aysen; Ulmer, Keith; Akchurin, Nural; Cowden, Christopher; Damgov, Jordan; Dragoiu, Cosmin; Dudero, Phillip Russell; Faulkner, James; Kunori, Shuichi; Lamichhane, Kamal; Lee, Sung Won; Libeiro, Terence; Undleeb, Sonaina; Volobouev, Igor; Wang, Zhixing; Delannoy, Andrés G; Greene, Senta; Gurrola, Alfredo; Janjam, Ravi; Johns, Willard; Maguire, Charles; Melo, Andrew; Ni, Hong; Sheldon, Paul; Tuo, Shengquan; Velkovska, Julia; Xu, Qiao; Arenton, Michael Wayne; Barria, Patrizia; Cox, Bradley; Goodell, Joseph; Hirosky, Robert; Ledovskoy, Alexander; Li, Hengne; Neu, Christopher; Sinthuprasith, Tutanon; Sun, Xin; Wang, Yanchu; Wolfe, Evan; Xia, Fan; Clarke, Christopher; Harr, Robert; Karchin, Paul Edmund; Lamichhane, Pramod; Sturdy, Jared; Belknap, Donald; Dasu, Sridhara; Dodd, Laura; Duric, Senka; Gomber, Bhawna; Grothe, Monika; Herndon, Matthew; Hervé, Alain; Klabbers, Pamela; Lanaro, Armando; Levine, Aaron; Long, Kenneth; Loveless, Richard; Ojalvo, Isabel; Perry, Thomas; Pierro, Giuseppe Antonio; Polese, Giovanni; Ruggles, Tyler; Savin, Alexander; Sharma, Archana; Smith, Nicholas; Smith, Wesley H; Taylor, Devin; Verwilligen, Piet; Woods, Nathaniel

    2016-07-14

    A search for narrow resonances decaying into dijet final states is performed on data from proton-proton collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 8 TeV, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 18.8 fb$^{-1}$. The data were collected with the CMS detector using a novel technique called data scouting, in which the information associated with these selected events is much reduced, permitting collection of larger data samples. This technique enables CMS to record events containing jets at a rate of 1 kHz, by collecting the data from the high-level-trigger system. In this way, the sensitivity to low-mass resonances is increased significantly, allowing previously inaccessible couplings of new resonances to quarks and gluons to be probed. The resulting dijet mass distribution yields no evidence of narrow resonances. Upper limits are presented on the resonance cross sections as a function of mass, and compared with a variety of models predicting narrow resonances. The limits are translated into upper limits on th...

  13. ON THE CAUSAL LINKS BETWEEN FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT AND ECONOMIC GROWTH IN NIGERIA, 1970-2008: AN APPLICATION OF GRANGER CAUSLITY AND CO-INTEGRATION TECHNIQUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullahi USMAN

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the causal links between foreign direct investment and economic growth in Nigeria during the period 1970-2008. The authors employed the Granger causality and Johansen co-integration techniques to analyze the relationship and direction of causality between the variables. The Johansen co-integration statistic indicates that the variables are co-integrated, and the granger causality statistic reveals a unidirectional causality running from foreign direct investment to economic growth.

  14. Growth hormone therapy of Turner syndrome: the impact of age of estrogen replacement on final height. Genentech, Inc., Collaborative Study Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernausek, S D; Attie, K M; Cara, J F; Rosenfeld, R G; Frane, J

    2000-07-01

    Clinical trials of recombinant human GH therapy in Turner syndrome that began more than a decade ago show that GH accelerates the linear growth rate. Several studies indicate that final height is also improved, although the magnitude of the increase has been debated. The age at which feminization is induced could be an important factor in determining the patient's ultimate growth response. To test this, 60 patients from a large (n = 117), previously unreported, clinical trial of GH treatment were randomly assigned to begin conjugated estrogens at either 12 or 15 yr of age. The 60 patients were all less than 11 yr of age at entry (mean, 9.5 yr) and received 0.375 mg/kg x week of GH for nearly 6 yr on a daily or three times weekly regimen. Height gain was calculated by comparing the study patients' final or near final heights to their pretreatment projected heights as well as to those of a separate set of age-matched, historical control patients. Patients in whom estrogen treatment was delayed until age 15 yr gained an average of 8.4 +/- 4.3 cm over their projected height, whereas those starting estrogen at 12 yr gained only 5.1 +/- 3.6 cm, on the average (P < 0.01). Analysis of the interval data showed that growth was stimulated for approximately 2 yr after estrogen initiation, but then declined in association with bone age advancement. Patients who were older than 11 yr at entry (n = 57) all initiated estrogen 1 yr after beginning GH and showed a mean gain in adult height of 4.7 cm, similar to those given estrogen at age 12 yr. Multivariate analysis revealed that the number of years of GH therapy before estrogen treatment was a strong factor in predicting height gained, indicating that the timing of estrogen introduction is an important determinant of final height in this cohort of GH-treated patients with Turner syndrome matched for baseline age and other characteristics.

  15. Top-seed solution growth and characterization of AlSb single crystals for gamma-ray detectors. Final report, 1 October 1994 - 30 September 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witt, A.F.; Becla, P.; Counterman, C.; DiFrancesco, J.; Landahl, G.; Morse, K.; Sanchez, J.

    1996-01-01

    The ultimate objective of the conducted research is to ascertain the potential of AlSb (in single crystal form) for application as γ-detector material operating at room temperature. To this end approaches to crystal growth were to be developed which permit control of growth parameters affecting critical application specific properties of AlSb. The research was focused on exploration of the effectiveness of the Czochralski method and on the development of methods and procedures leading to AlSb crystals with low free carrier concentration and a high mobility-lifetime product. Conventional melt growth of AlSb by the Czochralski technique (from stoichiometric charges) generally yielded material with high net carrier concentrations and low mobility-lifetime products. Significant improvement in crystal properties was achieved, when operating with non-stoichiometric melts, containing Sb in excess at levels of 3 to 10 mol%, further improvements were obtained when changing ambient argon pressure from atmospheric to 300 psi, and using high purity alumina crucibles which were inductively heated with a graphite susceptor CVD coated with silicon-carbide. Initial efforts to reduce evaporative loss of Sb through application of the LEC technique (liquid encapsulated Czochralski) with conventional encapsulants (B 2 O 3 , LiF, CaF 2 ) failed because of their interaction with the crucible and the AlSb melt. Compensation techniques (based on extrinsic doping) were found to lead to the desired reduction of free carriers in AlSb. Such material, however, exhibits a significant decrease of charge carrier mobility and lifetime. Early termination of this research program prevented optimization of critical materials properties in AlSb and precluded at this time a realistic assessment of the potential of this material for solid state detector applications

  16. Immediate Implant Placement of a Single Central Incisor Using a CAD/CAM Crown-Root Form Technique: Provisional to Final Restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vafiadis, Dean; Goldstein, Gary; Garber, David; Lambrakos, Anthony; Kowalski, Bj

    2017-02-01

    Preserving soft and hard tissues after extraction and implant placement is crucial for anterior esthetics. This technique will show how the information gathered from a cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) scan of the maxillary left central incisor and an intra-oral digital impression can be merged to fabricate a CAD/CAM crown-root matrix to be used as an immediate provisional restoration that mimics the natural anatomy. Due to trauma, a left central incisor appeared to be fractured and was scheduled for extraction and implant placement. The crown-root configuration captured by the CBCT scan was merged with the digital files from an intra-oral digital impression. A CAD/CAM crown-root matrix was fabricated. Because the matrix shell was fabricated with the exact anatomy of the natural tooth, it replicated the position and three dimensional anatomy of the soft and hard tissue. It was connected to the implant with a customized provisional abutment. A digital impression of a coded healing abutment was made to fabricate the final implant abutment and final restoration. Throughout the treatment time and 36 months after completion, the thickness of tissue, emergence profile, and adjacent papilla was analyzed by clinical evaluation and photography and seemed to be maintained. The use of a pre-operative intra-oral digital scan of the clinical crown-root architecture and the CBCT scan of the bone/root anatomy, can be used together to fabricate a CAD/CAM crown-root form provisional matrix. This digital design helps in the preservation of the 3D tissue topography, as well as the final restoration. The preservation of soft and hard tissue after extraction and implant placement has always been paramount for ideal anterior implant esthetics. Using the information from digital files from CBCT scans and intra-oral scans may help the clinician identify critical anatomical features that can be replicated in the provisional and final CAD/CAM restoration. (J Esthet Restor Dent 29

  17. A Comparative Study of Three Different Chemical Vapor Deposition Techniques of Carbon Nanotube Growth on Diamond Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betty T. Quinton

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper compares between the methods of growing carbon nanotubes (CNTs on diamond substrates and evaluates the quality of the CNTs and the interfacial strength. One potential application for these materials is a heat sink/spreader for high-power electronic devices. The CNTs and diamond substrates have a significantly higher specific thermal conductivity than traditional heat sink/spreader materials making them good replacement candidates. Only limited research has been performed on these CNT/diamond structures and their suitability of different growth methods. This study investigates three potential chemical vapor deposition (CVD techniques for growing CNTs on diamond: thermal CVD (T-CVD, microwave plasma-enhanced CVD (MPE-CVD, and floating catalyst thermal CVD (FCT-CVD. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (TEM were used to analyze the morphology and topology of the CNTs. Raman spectroscopy was used to assess the quality of the CNTs by determining the ID/IG peak intensity ratios. Additionally, the CNT/diamond samples were sonicated for qualitative comparisons of the durability of the CNT forests. T-CVD provided the largest diameter tubes, with catalysts residing mainly at the CNT/diamond interface. The MPE-CVD process yielded non uniform defective CNTs, and FCT-CVD resulted in the smallest diameter CNTs with catalyst particles imbedded throughout the length of the nanotubes.

  18. In Vitro Growth of Human Keratinocytes and Oral Cancer Cells into Microtissues: An Aerosol-Based Microencapsulation Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wai Yean Leong

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Cells encapsulation is a micro-technology widely applied in cell and tissue research, tissue transplantation, and regenerative medicine. In this paper, we proposed a growth of microtissue model for the human keratinocytes (HaCaT cell line and an oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC cell line (ORL-48 based on a simple aerosol microencapsulation technique. At an extrusion rate of 20 μL/min and air flow rate of 0.3 L/min programmed in the aerosol system, HaCaT and ORL-48 cells in alginate microcapsules were encapsulated in microcapsules with a diameter ranging from 200 to 300 μm. Both cell lines were successfully grown into microtissues in the microcapsules of alginate within 16 days of culture. The microtissues were characterized by using a live/dead cell viability assay, field emission-scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM, fluorescence staining, and cell re-plating experiments. The microtissues of both cell types were viable after being extracted from the alginate membrane using alginate lyase. However, the microtissues of HaCaT and ORL-48 demonstrated differences in both nucleus size and morphology. The microtissues with re-associated cells in spheroids are potentially useful as a cell model for pharmacological studies.

  19. Effects of growth hormone (GH) therapy withdrawal on glucose metabolism in not confirmed GH deficient adolescents at final height.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prodam, Flavia; Savastio, Silvia; Genoni, Giulia; Babu, Deepak; Giordano, Mara; Ricotti, Roberta; Aimaretti, Gianluca; Bona, Gianni; Bellone, Simonetta

    2014-01-01

    Growth hormone deficiency (GHD) is associated with insulin resistance and diabetes, in particular after treatment in children and adults with pre-existing metabolic risk factors. Our aims were. i) to evaluate the effect on glucose metabolism of rhGH treatment and withdrawal in not confirmed GHD adolescents at the achievement of adult height; ii) to investigate the impact of GH receptor gene genomic deletion of exon 3 (d3GHR). We performed a longitudinal study (1 year) in a tertiary care center. 23 GHD adolescent were followed in the last year of rhGH treatment (T0), 6 (T6) and 12 (T12) months after rhGH withdrawal with fasting and post-OGTT evaluations. 40 healthy adolescents were used as controls. HOMA-IR, HOMA%β, insulinogenic (INS) and disposition (DI) indexes were calculated. GHR genotypes were determined by multiplex PCR. In the group as a whole, fasting insulin (pd3GHR allele is associated with lower glucose levels and higher HOMA-β and DI after rhGH withdrawal. Screening for the d3GHR in the pediatric age may help physicians to follow and phenotype GHD patients also by a metabolic point of view.

  20. Is There a Purchase Limit on Regional Growth? A Quasi-experimental Evaluation of Investment Grants Using Matching Techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitze, Timo Friedel; Paloyo, Alfredo R.; Alecke, Björn

    2015-01-01

    growth associated with a maximum subsidy level beyond which financial support does not generate further labor-productivity growth. In other words, there is a “purchase limit” on regional growth. Although the matching approach is very appealing due to its methodological rigor and didactical clarity...

  1. Effects of growth hormone (GH therapy withdrawal on glucose metabolism in not confirmed GH deficient adolescents at final height.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavia Prodam

    Full Text Available CONTEXT OBJECTIVE: Growth hormone deficiency (GHD is associated with insulin resistance and diabetes, in particular after treatment in children and adults with pre-existing metabolic risk factors. Our aims were. i to evaluate the effect on glucose metabolism of rhGH treatment and withdrawal in not confirmed GHD adolescents at the achievement of adult height; ii to investigate the impact of GH receptor gene genomic deletion of exon 3 (d3GHR. DESIGN SETTING: We performed a longitudinal study (1 year in a tertiary care center. METHODS: 23 GHD adolescent were followed in the last year of rhGH treatment (T0, 6 (T6 and 12 (T12 months after rhGH withdrawal with fasting and post-OGTT evaluations. 40 healthy adolescents were used as controls. HOMA-IR, HOMA%β, insulinogenic (INS and disposition (DI indexes were calculated. GHR genotypes were determined by multiplex PCR. RESULTS: In the group as a whole, fasting insulin (p<0.05, HOMA-IR (p<0.05, insulin and glucose levels during OGTT (p<0.01 progressively decreased from T0 to T12 becoming similar to controls. During rhGH, a compensatory insulin secretion with a stable DI was recorded, and, then, HOMAβ and INS decreased at T6 and T12 (p<0.05. By evaluating the GHR genotype, nDel GHD showed a decrease from T0 to T12 in HOMA-IR, HOMAβ, INS (p<0.05 and DI. Del GHD showed a gradual increase in DI (p<0.05 and INS with a stable HOMA-IR and higher HDL-cholesterol (p<0.01. CONCLUSIONS: In not confirmed GHD adolescents the fasting deterioration in glucose homeostasis during rhGH is efficaciously coupled with a compensatory insulin secretion and activity at OGTT. The presence of at least one d3GHR allele is associated with lower glucose levels and higher HOMA-β and DI after rhGH withdrawal. Screening for the d3GHR in the pediatric age may help physicians to follow and phenotype GHD patients also by a metabolic point of view.

  2. A study of the growth for the microalga Chlorella vulgaris by photo-bio-calorimetry and other on-line and off-line techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Patino, R.; Janssen, M.G.J.; Stockar, von U.

    2007-01-01

    Calorimetry and other on-line techniques are used for the first time as complement to the traditional off-line methods in order to follow the growth of the green Chlorella vulgaris microalgae. A 2-L photo-bio-reactor was adapted from a commercial calorimeter used previously to study heterotrophic

  3. Growth, mechanical, and magnetic study of SmFeO{sub 3} single crystal grown by optical floating zone technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babu, P. Ramesh [Centre for Crystal Growth, VIT University, Vellore, Tamil Nadu (India); Bhaumik, Indranil [Crystal Growth Laboratory, Laser Materials Development and Devices Division, RRCAT, Indore (India); Ganesamoorthy, S. [Material Science Group, IGCAR, Kalpakkam, Tamil Nadu (India); Kalainathan, S., E-mail: kalainathan@yahoo.com [Centre for Crystal Growth, VIT University, Vellore, Tamil Nadu (India); Bhatt, R.; Karnal, A.K.; Gupta, P.K. [Crystal Growth Laboratory, Laser Materials Development and Devices Division, RRCAT, Indore (India)

    2016-08-15

    Single crystals of Samarium orthoferrite (SmFeO{sub 3}) have been grown by the optical floating zone technique. The growth parameters to yield good quality crystals are 5 mm/h for pulling and 30–40 rpm for rotation. The mechanical behavior of the grown crystal has been investigated. Rosette pattern has been observed around the indentation and the microhardness has been found to decreases non-linearly with the applied load. For load higher than 1.96 N there is a transition from palmqvist to median crack due to plastic deformation of the crystal. The hardness parameters like fracture toughness, brittleness index, and yield strength have also been calculated for palmqvist and median cracks occurring on the crystal surface. The magnetic investigations revealed that a magnetic transition in the range of 300–180 K. Above 180 K, the magnetization decreases as Sm and Fe sublattices have opposite spins. At high temperature, two anomalies are observed, one due to near spin reorientation (T{sub SR} = 480 K) and the other is AFM to paramagnetic transitions (T{sub N} = 670 K). The M–H curves exhibit a shape change with temperature due to the emergence and enlargement of multi-domain state of the SmFeO{sub 3} crystals. Bloch parameter (3.28 × 10{sup −5} K{sup −3/2}) has also been evaluated. - Highlights: • SmFeO{sub 3} single crystals have been grown by OFZ technique in air. • The microhardness has been found to decreases non-linearly with the applied load. • At 472 K, spin reorientation occurs in Fe sublattice. • The M–H curves exhibit a shape change with temperature due to the emergence and enlargement of multi-domain state. • Bloch 3/2-law holds good for SmFeO{sub 3} (B-parameter as 3.28 × 10{sup −5} K{sup −3/2}).

  4. In-situ growth mode control of AlN on SiC substrate by sublimation closed space technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dojima, Daichi; Ashida, Koji; Kaneko, Tadaaki

    2018-02-01

    For the growth of AlN single crystal with large diameter and low dislocation density on SiC substrate by physical vapor transport (PVT), a dislocation blocking buffer layer (DBBL) has been simply developed by optimizing the AlN growth parameters such as temperature gradient (ΔT), substrate temperature (Tsub), and N2 partial pressure (PN2) at the initial growth stage. Increase in ΔT resulted in the formation of an abrupt AlN/SiC interface due to the suppression of inhomogeneous thermal decomposition at the interface and the subsequent AlN unstable island growth. The well-defined AlN/SiC interface played an important role in controlling the two kinds of different AlN growth mode in-situ as functions of Tsub and PN2. One is a continuous step-flow growth mode, and the other is a discontinuous platelet-like growth. The discontinuous AlN layer, consisting of thin AlN platelets and air-gaps inserted between the two adjacent platelets, acted as the DBBL. By introducing the DBBL at the initial growth stage, followed by the step-flow growth, continuous AlN layer with dislocation density of 1.7 × 106 cm-2 was achieved at a total growth thickness of 60 μm, which is two orders of magnitude lower than the previously reported value.

  5. Growth Hormone (GH) Retesting and Final Adult Height in Childhood-Onset GH Deficiency (CO-GHD): Experiences from King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wacharasindhu, Suttipong; Aroonparkmongkol, Suphab; Sahakitrungrueng, Taninee; Supornsilchai, Vichit

    2015-06-01

    Evaluate GHstatus in CO-GHD subjects after completion of linear growth, and report the auxological outcomes of rhGH treatment. Twenty-four CO-GHD subjects (14 with IGHD and 10 with MPHD), treated with rhGH for a period of 6.6 ± 3.1 years were re-evaluated for their capacity of GH secretion by performing insulin tolerance test (ITT). Ht SDS at final height was compared with Ht SDS at the start of the treatment and MPH SDS. Thirty-eight percent (9 in 24) of CO-GHD subjects had normal GH secretion on retesting. All subjects were diagnosed as isolated GHD during childhood. In contrast, all MPHD subjects during childhood period had GH insufficiency on retesting. GH insufficient subjects had higher total cholesterol level than those with GH sufficiency (214 ± 51 vs. 1 74 ± 36 mg/mL, p = 0.03). rhGH treatment significantly increased Ht SDS of -2.0 ± 1.1 at the start of the treatment to -0.6 ± 1.3 at the end of the treatment (p GH retesting (p GH retesting is recommended in subjects with IGHD during the childhood period. However rhGH treatment can enhance the final height in both GH sufficient and insufficient subjects on retesting.

  6. Development of a shortleaf pine individual-tree growth equation using non-linear mixed modeling techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakra B. Budhathoki; Thomas B. Lynch; James M. Guldin

    2010-01-01

    Nonlinear mixed-modeling methods were used to estimate parameters in an individual-tree basal area growth model for shortleaf pine (Pinus echinata Mill.). Shortleaf pine individual-tree growth data were available from over 200 permanently established 0.2-acre fixed-radius plots located in naturally-occurring even-aged shortleaf pine forests on the...

  7. Growth effects after whole-tree harvest in final cut of Scots pine and Norway spruce forest. Final report; Tillvaexteffekternas storlek och uthaallighet efter skogsbraensleuttag i slutavverkning av tall och gran. Slutrapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valinger, E. [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Umeaa (Sweden). Dept. of Silviculture

    2001-12-01

    during the 24-years period. There was a clear indication of positive influence of slash left after clear-cutting, i.e. tops, branches, and needles, on future biomass growth. The positive response in volume growth can be between 20% during a whole rotation period and a gain of just 3 years growth. When whole-tree harvesting techniques are used, some kind of replacement of removed nutrients, e.g. fertilisation, must take place to maintain site productivity on sites like the presented.

  8. Searches for heavy resonances in all-jet final states with top quarks using jet substructure techniques with the CMS experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usai, Emanuele

    2017-12-01

    While the Standard Model is very successful in describing subnuclear phenomena, it is not a complete theory of particle physics. Several new theories have been developed to address its issues. Many extensions of the Standard Model predict the existence of high-mass resonances. In some cases these resonances have an enhanced coupling to third generation quarks or to a hypothetical new generation of heavy non-chiral quarks. This thesis describes two searches for new phenomena compatible with these theories, in particular a search is presented for resonant top-antitop production, and the first search for heavy resonances decaying to a top quark and a heavy top quark partner T is shown. The searches target the all-jets decay channels and use data collected by the CMS Experiment at the CERN LHC between 2012 and 2015 at a center-of-mass energy of 8 TeV and 13 TeV. Due to the high mass of the resonances considered, the final state particles have a high Lorentz-boost. To reconstruct the hadronic decay of the top quarks and W bosons, jet substructure techniques such as top quark and W boson tagging algorithms, and boosted b jet identification are employed. These algorithms are studied with a particular focus on their validation and performance assessment. No signs of physics beyond the Standard Model are observed, but stringent limits are placed on the production of heavy resonances decaying to top-antitop quark pairs or a top quark and a heavy T quark.

  9. Use of novel DNA fingerprinting techniques for the detection and characterization of genetic variation in vegetatively propagated crops. Proceedings of a final research co-ordination meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-10-01

    Vegetative propagated crops, such as banana and platain, sweet potato, yam, sugarcane and cassava, represent important sources of food in the developing countries. Although some of these crops may produce seeds, they must for practical purposes be propagated vegetatively. As normal plant breeding strategies based on genetic hybridization are of limited value or not applicable to such crops, it is necessary to assess the genetic diversity already existing in these crops and to design breeding strategies accordingly. If the existing genetic variation is shown to be too narrow for breeding purposes, one promising possibility for the introduction of genetic variability is the use of mutations induced by radiation or chemical mutagens. This CRP focused on: the detection of genetic diversity induced by mutagenic treatment or in vitro culture; the development of crop-specific markers; and increasing co-operation between molecular biologists in advanced laboratories and plant breeders and molecular biologists in the developing countries. The success of this CRP is evidenced by the introduction and application of new molecular methods by laboratories in developing countries, specially for the analysis of local crop genetic diversity. These exciting preliminary results show the potential for applications in crop improvement but much work remains to be done. Many of the vegetatively propagated species are ''orphan crops'', under-investigated on the international level. The development of new uses of transgenesis for the development of edible vaccines should not be overlooked. The challenge that remains is in the application of these new tools for practical end-user oriented improvements in vegetatively propagated crops. The present publication summarizes the third and final Research Co-ordination Meeting on the Use of Novel DNA Fingerprinting Techniques for the Detection and Characterization of Genetic Variation in Vegetatively Propagated Crops

  10. Searches for heavy resonances in all-jet final states with top quarks using jet substructure techniques with the CMS experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Usai, Emanuele

    2017-12-15

    While the Standard Model is very successful in describing subnuclear phenomena, it is not a complete theory of particle physics. Several new theories have been developed to address its issues. Many extensions of the Standard Model predict the existence of high-mass resonances. In some cases these resonances have an enhanced coupling to third generation quarks or to a hypothetical new generation of heavy non-chiral quarks. This thesis describes two searches for new phenomena compatible with these theories, in particular a search is presented for resonant top-antitop production, and the first search for heavy resonances decaying to a top quark and a heavy top quark partner T is shown. The searches target the all-jets decay channels and use data collected by the CMS Experiment at the CERN LHC between 2012 and 2015 at a center-of-mass energy of 8 TeV and 13 TeV. Due to the high mass of the resonances considered, the final state particles have a high Lorentz-boost. To reconstruct the hadronic decay of the top quarks and W bosons, jet substructure techniques such as top quark and W boson tagging algorithms, and boosted b jet identification are employed. These algorithms are studied with a particular focus on their validation and performance assessment. No signs of physics beyond the Standard Model are observed, but stringent limits are placed on the production of heavy resonances decaying to top-antitop quark pairs or a top quark and a heavy T quark.

  11. In silico comparison of the reproducibility of full-arch implant provisional restorations to final restoration between a 3D Scan/CAD/CAM technique and the conventional method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mino, Takuya; Maekawa, Kenji; Ueda, Akihiro; Higuchi, Shizuo; Sejima, Junichi; Takeuchi, Tetsuo; Hara, Emilio Satoshi; Kimura-Ono, Aya; Sonoyama, Wataru; Kuboki, Takuo

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this article was to investigate the accuracy in the reproducibility of full-arch implant provisional restorations to final restorations between a 3D Scan/CAD/CAM technique and the conventional method. We fabricated two final restorations for rehabilitation of maxillary and mandibular complete edentulous area and performed a computer-based comparative analysis of the accuracy in the reproducibility of the provisional restoration to final restoration between a 3D scanning and CAD/CAM (Scan/CAD/CAM) technique and the conventional silicone-mold transfer technique. Final restorations fabricated either by the conventional or Scan/CAD/CAM method were successfully installed in the patient. The total concave/convex volume discrepancy observed with the Scan/CAD/CAM technique was 503.50mm(3) and 338.15 mm(3) for maxillary and mandibular implant-supported prostheses (ISPs), respectively. On the other hand, total concave/convex volume discrepancy observed with the conventional method was markedly high (1106.84 mm(3) and 771.23 mm(3) for maxillary and mandibular ISPs, respectively). The results of the present report suggest that Scan/CAD/CAM method enables a more precise and accurate transfer of provisional restorations to final restorations compared to the conventional method. Copyright © 2014 Japan Prosthodontic Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. EBSP studies of growth rates during recrystallization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul Jensen, D.

    1996-01-01

    . The potential of the EBSP technique for both these types of measurements is illustrated for recrystallization of heavily deformed aluminium. It is discussed how these approaches apply to grain growth. Finally, new possibilities for in-situ grain growth studies by 3D mapping of orientations in the bulk...

  13. The influence of alternative plant propagation and stand establishment techniques on survival and growth of eastern cottonwood (Populus deltoides Bartr.) clones.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaczmarek, Donald J.; et. al.,

    2014-02-09

    Four eastern cottonwood clones, including standard operational clone ST66 and three advanced clonal selections were produced and included in a test utilizing five different plant propagation methods. Despite relatively large first-year growth differences among clones, all clones demonstrated similar responses to the treatments and clone 9 cutting treatment interactions were generally non-significant. The effects of changing cutting lengths are consistent with previous studies which indicated the potential for increased plant survival and growth with increased cutting lengths. Differences in stored carbohydrate reserves alone do not appear to completely control first-year growth and development of cuttings. First-year growth of 51 cm long cuttings planted 30.5 cm deep was greater than the same cuttings planted 48 cm deep. Stem form of plants derived from whip-tip propagation did not differ from plants derived from standard, unrooted cuttings. This propagation method offers the potential of far greater production capacity from a cutting orchard and rapid bulk-up of new or limited clones. Stand uniformity assessments suggest that surviving trees of each individual cutting treatment exhibit similar levels of growth variation. Optimization of plantation establishment techniques has the potential to increase growth of young Populus plantations.

  14. Spatio-temporal landscape modeling of urban growth patterns in Dhanbad Urban Agglomeration, India using geoinformatics techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanhaiya Lal

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The study deals with the quantification of urban sprawl and land transformation of Dhanbad Urban Agglomeration (DUA using geoinformatics and gradient modeling during last four decades (1972–2011. Various multi-temporal satellite images viz., MSS (1972, ETM+ (1999, 2011 and digital elevation model (CARTOSAT I, 2006 were used to analyse the urban expansion, land transformation, growth directions, and spatial segregations within the urban landscape to develop an understanding the nature of built-up growth in DUA. The urban area increased from 10.33 km2 to 46.70 km2 (352.08% along with high rate of population growth (160.07% during 1972–2011 exhibiting population densification in DUA. The study reveals that coal mining based city faced significant land use transformation converting vegetation (−41.33% into built-up land (352.08% exhibiting loss of productive lands for the expansion of impervious surface. The per year urban growth exhibited increasing urban growth from 0.4 km2/year to 1.51 km2/year during 1972–1999 and 1999–2011 periods with overall growth of 332.73%. The built-up growth on varied elevation zones exhibits that the elevation zones 150–200 m is the most preferred (79.01% for urban development with high growth (541.74%. The gradient modeling represents that the percentage of land (built-up gradually increased from 3.48% to 15.74% during 1972–2011. The result exhibited that the major growth took place in south-west direction followed by south direction in haphazard manner during 1971–99 period, whereas predominant built-up development was observed in north, south and south-west direction during 1999–2011 period, majorly within the municipal limits. The study provides an analytical method to evaluate the built-up growth patterns of an urban milieu combining geoinformatics and landscape matrix. The built-up growth in DUA indicates urgent imposition of building bylaws along with zoning (land use, height and density

  15. Growth of silicone-immobilized bacteria on polycarbonate membrane filters, a technique to study microcolony formation under anaerobic conditions.

    OpenAIRE

    Højberg, O; Binnerup, S J; Sørensen, J

    1997-01-01

    A technique was developed to study microcolony formation by silicone-immobilized bacteria on polycarbonate membrane filters under anaerobic conditions. A sudden shift to anaerobiosis was obtained by submerging the filters in medium which was depleted for oxygen by a pure culture of bacteria. The technique was used to demonstrate that preinduction of nitrate reductase under low-oxygen conditions was necessary for nonfermenting, nitrate-respiring bacteria, e.g., Pseudomonas spp., to cope with a...

  16. A Comparative Study of Three Different Chemical Vapor Deposition Techniques of Carbon Nanotube Growth on Diamond Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    investigated and documented on common electronic substrates such as sil- icon , but no work seems to have been reported on spe- cialty substrates such as CVD...J. Petry, L. Brunke et al., “Growth of high-quality carbon nanotubes on free-standing diamond substrates,” Car- bon , vol. 48, no. 9, pp. 2442–2446

  17. Data for spatial analysis of growth anomaly lesions on Montipora capitata coral colonies using 3D reconstruction techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John H.R. Burns

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Ten annotated 3D reconstructions of Montipora capitata coral colonies contain x,y,z coordinates for all growth anomaly (GA lesions affecting these corals. The 3D reconstructions are available as Virtual Reality Modeling Language (VRML files, and the GA lesions coordinates are in accompanying text files. The VRML models and GA lesion coordinates can be spatially analyzed using Matlab. Matlab scripts are provided for three spatial statistical procedures in order to assess clustering of the GA lesions across the coral colony surfaces in a 3D framework: Ripley׳s K, Moran׳s I, and the Kolmogorov–Smirnov test. Please see the research article, “Investigating the spatial distribution of Growth Anomalies affecting Montipora capitata corals in a 3-dimensional framework” (J.H.R. Burns, T. Alexandrov, E. Ovchinnikova, R.D. Gates, M. Takabayashi, 2016 [1], for further interpretation and discussion of the data.

  18. Data for spatial analysis of growth anomaly lesions onMontipora capitatacoral colonies using 3D reconstruction techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, John H R; Alexandrov, Theodore; Ovchinnikova, Katya; Gates, Ruth D; Takabayashi, Misaki

    2016-12-01

    Ten annotated 3D reconstructions of Montipora capitata coral colonies contain x,y,z coordinates for all growth anomaly (GA) lesions affecting these corals. The 3D reconstructions are available as Virtual Reality Modeling Language (VRML) files, and the GA lesions coordinates are in accompanying text files. The VRML models and GA lesion coordinates can be spatially analyzed using Matlab. Matlab scripts are provided for three spatial statistical procedures in order to assess clustering of the GA lesions across the coral colony surfaces in a 3D framework: Ripley׳s K, Moran׳s I, and the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. Please see the research article, "Investigating the spatial distribution of Growth Anomalies affecting Montipora capitata corals in a 3-dimensional framework" (J.H.R. Burns, T. Alexandrov, E. Ovchinnikova, R.D. Gates, M. Takabayashi, 2016) [1], for further interpretation and discussion of the data.

  19. Report on the behalf of the Special Commission in charge of the examination, in the perspective of a final reading, of the bill project related to energy transition for a green growth (T.A. 519). N 3004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bareigts, Ericka; Battistel, Marie-Noelle; Buis, Sabine; Baupin, Denis; Plisson, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    This report contains the various amendments introduced by the French Senate before the final reading by the French National Assembly of the bill project on energy transition for a green growth. It also reports the discussion of the Commission in charge of the examination of these amendments with, for some of them, a wider discussion about their acceptance or rejection

  20. A template-free sol-gel technique for controlled growth of ZnO nanorod arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, N.; Zhu, M.W.; Gao, L.J.; Gong, J.; Sun, C.; Jiang, X.

    2011-01-01

    The growth of ZnO nanorod arrays via a template-free sol-gel process was investigated. The nanorod is single-crystalline wurtzite structure with [0 0 0 1] growth direction determined by the transmission electron microscope. The aligned ZnO arrays were obtained directly on the glass substrates by adjusting the temperatures and the withdrawal speeds, without seed-layer or template assistant. A thicker oriented ZnO nanorod arrays was obtained at proper experimental conditions by adding dip-coating layers. Room temperature photoluminescence spectrum exhibits an intensive UV emission with a weak broad green emission as well as a blue double-peak emission located at 451 and 468 nm, respectively. Further investigation results show that the difference in the alignment of nanorods ascribes to the different orientations of the nanoparticles-packed film formed prior to nanorods on the substrate. Well ordered ZnO nanorods are formed from this film with good c-axis orientation. Our study is expected to pave a way for direct growth of oriented nanorods by low-cost solution approaches.

  1. Growth of CdTe on Si(100) surface by ionized cluster beam technique: Experimental and molecular dynamics simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araghi, Houshang, E-mail: araghi@aut.ac.ir [Department of Physics, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Zabihi, Zabiholah [Department of Physics, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Nayebi, Payman [Department of Physics, College of Technical and Engineering, Saveh Branch, Islamic Azad University, Saveh (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ehsani, Mohammad Mahdi [Department of Physics, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    II–VI semiconductor CdTe was grown on the Si(100) substrate surface by the ionized cluster beam (ICB) technique. In the ICB method, when vapors of solid materials such as CdTe were ejected through a nozzle of a heated crucible into a vacuum region, nanoclusters were created by an adiabatic expansion phenomenon. The clusters thus obtained were partially ionized by electron bombardment and then accelerated onto the silicon substrate at 473 K by high potentials. The cluster size was determined using a retarding field energy analyzer. The results of X-ray diffraction measurements indicate the cubic zinc blende (ZB) crystalline structure of the CdTe thin film on the silicon substrate. The CdTe thin film prepared by the ICB method had high crystalline quality. The microscopic processes involved in the ICB deposition technique, such as impact and coalescence processes, have been studied in detail by molecular dynamics (MD) simulation.

  2. Atmospheric-pressure epitaxial growth technique of a multiple quantum well by mist chemical vapor deposition based on Leidenfrost droplets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaharamura, Toshiyuki; Dang, Giang T.; Nitta, Noriko

    2016-10-01

    A multiple quantum well α-Fe2O3/α-Ga2O3 with parallel and coherent formation of uniform and highly single-crystalline layers on a sapphire substrate has been fabricated by open-air atmospheric-pressure solution-processed mist chemical vapor deposition (Mist CVD). This report demonstrates that complicated structures with atomic-level control can be fabricated even in non-vacuum conditions by the Mist CVD. This can be achieved via the precise control of the precursor flow and ambient temperature combined with the formation of mist droplets of the special Leidenfrost state, which increased the atomic migration length by 108 times more than that of traditional vacuum techniques. This work could be a milestone in the transformation from vacuum to non-vacuum thin film deposition techniques towards a green and sustainable industry.

  3. Growth of silicone-immobilized bacteria on polycarbonate membrane filters, a technique to study microcolony formation under anaerobic conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højberg, Ole; Binnerup, S. J.; Sørensen, Jan

    1997-01-01

    A technique was developed to study microcolony formation by silicone- immobilized bacteria on polycarbonate membrane filters under anaerobic conditions. A sudden shift to anaerobiosis was obtained by submerging the filters in medium which was depleted for oxygen by a pure culture of bacteria....... The technique was used to demonstrate that preinduction of nitrate reductase under low-oxygen conditions was necessary for nonfermenting, nitrate-respiring bacteria, e.g., Pseudomonas spp., to cope with a sudden lack of oxygen. In contrast, nitrate-respiring, fermenting bacteria, e.g., Bacillus and Escherichia...... spp, formed microcolonies under anaerobic conditions with or without the presence of nitrate and irrespective of aerobic or anaerobic preculture conditions....

  4. An automated technique for most-probable-number (MPN) analysis of densities of phagotrophic protists with lux-AB labelled bacteria as growth medium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekelund, Flemming; Christensen, Søren; Rønn, Regin

    1999-01-01

    An automated modification of the most-probable-number (MPN) technique has been developed for enumeration of phagotrophic protozoa. The method is based on detection of prey depletion in micro titre plates rather than on presence of protozoa. A transconjugant Pseudomonas fluorescens DR54 labelled...... with a luxAB gene cassette was constructed, and used as growth medium for the protozoa in the micro titre plates. The transconjugant produced high amounts of luciferase which was stable and allowed detection for at least 8 weeks. Dilution series of protozoan cultures and soil suspensions were inoculated...

  5. Magnetic and Structural Properties of Barium Hexaferrite BaFe12O19 from Various Growth Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis A. Vinnik

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Barium hexaferrite powder samples with grains in the μm-range were obtained from solid-state sintering, and crystals with sizes up to 5 mm grown from PbO, Na2CO3, and BaB2O4 fluxes, respectively. Carbonate and borate fluxes provide the largest and structurally best crystals at significantly lower growth temperatures of 1533 K compared to flux-free synthesis (1623 K. The maximum synthesis temperature can be further reduced by the application of PbO-containing fluxes (down to 1223 K upon use of 80 at % PbO, however, Pb-substituted crystals Ba1–xPbxFe12O19 with Pb contents in the range of 0.23(2 ≤ x ≤ 0.80(2 form, depending on growth temperature and flux PbO content. The degree of Pb-substitution has only a minor influence on unit cell and magnetic parameters, although the values for Curie temperature, saturation magnetization, as well as the coercivity of these samples are significantly reduced in comparison with those from samples obtained from the other fluxes. Due to the lowest level of impurities, the samples from carbonate flux show superior quality compared to materials obtained using other methods.

  6. A scoping study of intelligent databases: Potential applications of artificial intelligence techniques in a demand-side management database: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howard, H.C.; Pachavis, N.L.; Talukdar, S.N.; Fenves, S.J.; Rehak, D.R.

    1986-11-01

    Aggregate databases of demand-side management (DSM) information are approaching a third stage of evolution. The first readily-available compilations of DSM information were in printed form. In the second (and current) stage of the development of DSM databases, the techniques of conventional database management systems (DBMSs) are being used to provide on-line reference databases. With the development of artificial intelligence (AI) techniques for information retrieval and extraction, it is now becoming possible to construct intelligent databases of DSM information. This report examines the available artificial intelligence techniques in the areas of database management and information retrieval for their applicability to the development of an intelligent information center for demand-side management. 53 refs., 3 figs.

  7. Ion beam techniques for the analysis of light elements in thin films, including depth profiling. Final report of a co-ordinated research project 2000-2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-10-01

    This publication highlights the achievements of a Coordinated Research Project (CRP) to promote the potential of accelerator-based nuclear techniques of analysis for light elements in thin films. The objectives of this CRP were to develop a coordinated research effort between accelerator laboratories and materials science research groups in order to assist and promote the development of quality assurance methods, to evaluate databases of parameters needed for quantitative analysis, and to develop and apply techniques to selected problems concerning the surface modification of materials and production of thin films. Through various case studies, this publication assesses and demonstrates the effectiveness of accelerator-based nuclear techniques for analysis to provide valuable data and knowledge not readily accessible using other methods

  8. Growth modulation and remodeling by means of posterior tethering technique for correction of early-onset scoliosis with thoracolumbar kyphosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Alaaeldin A; Aker, Loai; Hanbali, Yahia; Sbaih, Aesha; Nazzal, Zaher

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the role of the non-fusion instrumented procedure with compression adjunct to lengthening by distraction in facilitating spinal modulation of the wedged peak vertebra, in patients with congenital thoracolumbar kyphosis/kyphoscoliosis according to the Hueter-Volkmann law. The authors seek to address the progressive modulation of the most wedged vertebra by analyzing the subjects' pre-operative and latest follow-up sagittal radiograph. Ongoing data collection of 14 peak wedged vertebra modulation during surgical management of 13 patients with Type I congenital thoracolumbar kyphosis (5 patients) or kyphoscoliosis (8 patients). Age at initial surgery averaged 58.6 months, with mean follow-up of 55.6 months (24-78). All were done with hybrid rib construct with clawing fashion through a single posterior approach with at least 4 lengthenings. Two vertebral bodies were selected, the peaked deformed vertebrae within the instrumentation compression level (WICL) and the vertebrae nearest but outside the instrumentation compression process (OICL). Anterior vertebral body height (AVBH) and posterior vertebral body height (PVBH) were measured in both vertebral bodies. Regarding measured vertebrae (WICL), average preoperative AVBH/PVBH ratio significantly increased from 0.54 to 0.77 in the final follow-up. Regarding measured vertebrae (OICL), the average preoperative AVBH/PVBH ratio increased from 0.76 to 0.79 in the final follow-up. Modulation can be confirmed in the most deformed vertebrae (WICL) as the difference between the change in AVBH/PVBH ratio between vertebrae (OICL) and (WICL) was statistically significant (P modulation (WICL) in comparison with the (OICL). This calls for further studies on the impact of surgical correction of EOS on modulation of the vertebrae.

  9. Growth of segmented gold nanorods with nanogaps by the electrochemical wet etching technique for single-electron transistor applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, Nguyen Van; Kumar, Sanjeev; Kim, Gil-Ho

    2009-03-01

    The growth of multisegment nanorods comprising gold (Au) and sacrificial silver (Ag) segments (Au-Ag-Au or Au-Ag-Au-Ag-Au) using the electrochemical wet etching method is reported. The nanorods were fabricated using an alumina template of thickness 100 µm and pore size of 200 nm. A variety of nanorods from single to seven segments comprising alternate Au and Ag segments were fabricated with better control of growth rate. The multisegment nanorods were selectively etched by removing the Ag segments to create gaps in the fabricated nanorods. A careful investigation led to the creation of a wide variety of nanogaps in the fabricated multisegment nanorods. The size of the nanogap was controlled by the passage of current through the electrochemical process, and size below 10 nm was achievable at exchanged charges of ~1 mC. A further lowering in the size of nanogaps was achieved by diluting the silver plating solution and a segmented nanorod with nanogap (Au-nanogap-Au) of 3.8 nm at exchanged charges of 0.2 mC was successfully created. In addition, segmented nanorods with two or more nanogaps (Au-nanogap-Au-nanogap-Ag) placed symmetrically and asymmetrically on either side of the central Au segments were also created. A prototype of a single-electron transistor device based on segmented nanorods with two nanogaps is proposed. The results obtained could form the basis for the realization of quantum tunneling devices where the barrier thickness is very critical and demands values less than 5 nm. The encouraging results show the promise of multisegment nanorods for fabricating devices working at the de Broglie wavelength such as single-electron transistors.

  10. ACRT technique for the single crystal growth of the heavy fermion compound YbRh{sub 2}Si{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Witt, Sebastian; Kliemt, Kristin; Butzke, Constantin; Krellner, Cornelius [Goethe University Frankfurt, 60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    In the heavy fermion compound YbRh{sub 2}Si{sub 2} the antiferromagnetic ordering below 70 mK close to a quantum critical point is well-studied. Beneath the magnetic ordering a new phase transition was found recently at 2 mK. It is necessary to prepare large and high-quality single crystals for studying the nature of this new phase transition. Besides the optimization of the single crystal growth it is important to investigate single crystals with different isotopes at this phase transition. Here, we report the crystal growth of YbRh{sub 2}Si{sub 2} with the accelerated crucible rotation technique (ACRT). ACRT shows for other compounds, e.g. YAG (yttrium aluminum garnet, Y{sub 3}Al{sub 5}O{sub 12}), that this technique can reduce flux impurities and enhance the yield of larger crystals. We also report the attempt to receive metallic isotopes of ytterbium with metallothermic reduction. Crystals with different isotopes of silicon and ytterbium can be used for NMR measurements to investigate the underlying phenomena of quantum criticality in more detail.

  11. Effects of Surface Modification of Nanodiamond Particles for Nucleation Enhancement during Its Film Growth by Microwave Plasma Jet Chemical Vapour Deposition Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chii-Ruey Lin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The seedings of the substrate with a suspension of nanodiamond particles (NDPs were widely used as nucleation seeds to enhance the growth of nanostructured diamond films. The formation of agglomerates in the suspension of NDPs, however, may have adverse impact on the initial growth period. Therefore, this paper was aimed at the surface modification of the NDPs to enhance the diamond nucleation for the growth of nanocrystalline diamond films which could be used in photovoltaic applications. Hydrogen plasma, thermal, and surfactant treatment techniques were employed to improve the dispersion characteristics of detonation nanodiamond particles in aqueous media. The seeding of silicon substrate was then carried out with an optimized spin-coating method. The results of both Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and dynamic light scattering measurements demonstrated that plasma treated diamond nanoparticles possessed polar surface functional groups and attained high dispersion in methanol. The nanocrystalline diamond films deposited by microwave plasma jet chemical vapour deposition exhibited extremely fine grain and high smooth surfaces (~6.4 nm rms on the whole film. These results indeed open up a prospect of nanocrystalline diamond films in solar cell applications.

  12. Self-limiting growth of anatase TiO{sub 2}: A comparison of two deposition techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubala, Nicholas G. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO 80401 (United States); Wolden, Colin A., E-mail: cwolden@mines.ed [Department of Chemical Engineering, Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO 80401 (United States)

    2010-09-30

    Self-limiting deposition of titanium dioxide thin films was accomplished using pulsed plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) and plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition (PEALD) at low temperatures (T < 200 {sup o}C) using TiCl{sub 4} and O{sub 2}. TiCl{sub 4} is shown to be inert with molecular oxygen at process conditions, making it a suitable precursor for these processes. The deposition kinetics were examined as a function of TiCl{sub 4} exposure and substrate temperature. The quality of the anatase films produced by the two techniques was nominally identical. The key distinctions are found in precursor utilization and conformality. Pulsed PECVD requires 20 times less TiCl{sub 4}, while PEALD must be used to uniformly coat complex topographies.

  13. Biomass of Eucalyptus grandis coffs harbour, by growth-ring identification using the gamma-ray attenuation technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rezende, M.A.

    1984-01-01

    Samples of 13-year old Eucalyptus grandis were analysed using the gamma-ray attenuation technique. The density was obtained through the profile, and it was then possible to determine the mean density for each annual ring of the samples. The period from formation of two consecutive late-wood rings, i.e., two high density peaks, was considered as one year of tree life. An attempt was made to determine the annual increments at breast-heigh diameter, per height unit, based on volume, mass and energy, trying to estimate the cutting age for each of these elements and the relationship between them. Emphasis was also put on the importance with which density variations, and core to cork calorific value, should be considered when determining the cutting age. (M.A.C.) [pt

  14. Effects of material growth technique and Mg doping on Er3+ photoluminescence in Er-implanted GaN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, S.; Henry, R. L.; Wickenden, A. E.; Koleske, D. D.; Rhee, S. J.; White, J. O.; Myoung, J. M.; Kim, K.; Li, X.; Coleman, J. J.

    2001-01-01

    Photoluminescence (PL) and photoluminescence excitation (PLE) spectroscopies have been carried out at 6 K on the ∼1540 nm 4 I 13/2 - 4 I 15/2 emissions of Er 3+ in Er-implanted and annealed GaN. These studies revealed the existence of multiple Er 3+ centers and associated PL spectra in Er-implanted GaN films grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition, hydride vapor phase epitaxy, and molecular beam epitaxy. The results demonstrate that the multiple Er 3+ PL centers and below-gap defect-related absorption bands by which they are selectively excited are universal features of Er-implanted GaN grown by different techniques. It is suggested that implantation-induced defects common to all the GaN samples are responsible for the Er site distortions that give rise to the distinctive, selectively excited Er 3+ PL spectra. The investigations of selectively excited Er 3+ PL and PLE spectra have also been extended to Er-implanted samples of Mg-doped GaN grown by various techniques. In each of these samples, the so-called violet-pumped Er 3+ PL band and its associated broad violet PLE band are significantly enhanced relative to the PL and PLE of the other selectively excited Er 3+ PL centers. More importantly, the violet-pumped Er 3+ PL spectrum dominates the above-gap excited Er 3+ PL spectrum of Er-implanted Mg-doped GaN, whereas it was unobservable under above-gap excitation in Er-implanted undoped GaN. These results confirm the hypothesis that appropriate codopants can increase the efficiency of trap-mediated above-gap excitation of Er 3+ emission in Er-implanted GaN. [copyright] 2001 American Institute of Physics

  15. Changes in Growth, Genomic DNA, Protein Profiles in Wheat Plant Using Physiological and RAPD-PCR Techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Tarras, A.

    2002-01-01

    Wheat is the major winter cereal crop in the world. The total cultivated area of this crop in Egypt is about two million feddans. Soil salinity represent a serious problem to agriculture in arid and semi-arid in the world. Mexico wheat (Triticum vulgar var. Ycora rojo) was imported in 1999 for cultivation. Mexico wheat was exposed to gamma rays (cobalt 60) from 10 to 80 Krad The unirradiated and irradiated wheat were cultivated in the presence of 0, 5000,10000 and 20000 mg/L of salt solution and 16 hour light /25 degree C. The previous treatment was repeated in combination with 5, 10 mg/l ABA and 10, 20 mg/l GA3 separately. Different accessed parameters were used for evaluation, these parameters were: germination percentage, length of shoots and roots, pigment contents (chl. a,b and a/b carotenoids and total pigments), total protein patterns and RAPD, PCR techniques. The results showed that both of radiation and salinity reduced the percentage of germination. Soaking grains in GA3 considerably increased the shoot and root lengths. Highest value of carotenoids obtained act as a defense mechanism against harmful salinity action. Also, the seedling exposed to 80 Krad and treated with ABA (5 or 10 mg/l) can survive during the experimental period, while plants treated with 10 and 20 mg/l GA3 and exposed to 80 Krad can not survive. At low radiation doses (10 and 20 Krad) there was no difference in the number and density of bands of the total protein patterns, while in the RAPD, PCR technique in presence and/or absence of DNA band in unirradiated and irradiated wheat seeds were observed

  16. Benchmark Analysis for Condition Monitoring Test Techniques of Aged Low Voltage Cables in Nuclear Power Plants. Final Results of a Coordinated Research Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-10-01

    This publication provides information and guidelines on how to monitor the performance of insulation and jacket materials of existing cables and establish a programme of cable degradation monitoring and ageing management for operating reactors and the next generation of nuclear facilities. This research was done through a coordinated research project (CRP) with participants from 17 Member States. This group of experts compiled the current knowledge in a report together with areas of future research and development to cover aging mechanisms and means to identify and manage the consequences of aging. They established a benchmarking programme using cable samples aged under thermal and/or radiation conditions, and tested before and after ageing by various methods and organizations. In particular, 12 types of cable insulation or jacket material were tested, each using 14 different condition monitoring techniques. Condition monitoring techniques yield usable and traceable results. Techniques such as elongation at break, indenter modulus, oxidation induction time and oxidation induction temperature were found to work reasonably well for degradation trending of all materials. However, other condition monitoring techniques, such as insulation resistance, were only partially successful on some cables and other methods like ultrasonic or Tan δ were either unsuccessful or failed to provide reliable information to qualify the method for degradation trending or ageing assessment of cables. The electrical in situ tests did not show great promise for cable degradation trending or ageing assessment, although these methods are known to be very effective for finding and locating faults in cable insulation material. In particular, electrical methods such as insulation resistance and reflectometry techniques are known to be rather effective for locating insulation damage, hot spots or other faults in essentially all cable types. The advantage of electrical methods is that they can be

  17. Material control in nuclear fuel fabrication facilities. Part II. Accountability, instrumntation, and measurement techniques in fuel fabrication facilities, P.O.1236909. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borgonovi, G.M.; McCartin, T.J.; McDaniel, T.; Miller, C.L.; Nguyen, T.

    1978-12-01

    This report describes the measurement techniques, the instrumentation, and the procedures used in accountability and control of nuclear materials, as they apply to fuel fabrication facilities. Some of the material included has appeared elswhere and it has been summarized. An extensive bibliography is included. A spcific example of application of the accountability methods to a model fuel fabrication facility which is based on the Westinghouse Anderson design

  18. A Search for WIMP Dark Matter Using an Optimized Chi-square Technique on the Final Data from the Cryogenic Dark Matter Search Experiment (CDMS II)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manungu Kiveni, Joseph [Syracuse Univ., NY (United States)

    2012-12-01

    This dissertation describes the results of a WIMP search using CDMS II data sets accumulated at the Soudan Underground Laboratory in Minnesota. Results from the original analysis of these data were published in 2009; two events were observed in the signal region with an expected leakage of 0.9 events. Further investigation revealed an issue with the ionization-pulse reconstruction algorithm leading to a software upgrade and a subsequent reanalysis of the data. As part of the reanalysis, I performed an advanced discrimination technique to better distinguish (potential) signal events from backgrounds using a 5-dimensional chi-square method. This dataanalysis technique combines the event information recorded for each WIMP-search event to derive a backgrounddiscrimination parameter capable of reducing the expected background to less than one event, while maintaining high efficiency for signal events. Furthermore, optimizing the cut positions of this 5-dimensional chi-square parameter for the 14 viable germanium detectors yields an improved expected sensitivity to WIMP interactions relative to previous CDMS results. This dissertation describes my improved (and optimized) discrimination technique and the results obtained from a blind application to the reanalyzed CDMS II WIMP-search data.

  19. The change of radiation doses to the patient when switching from conventional technique to digital technique without films in barium enema and IVU examinations. Final report SSI research project P933

    CERN Document Server

    Sjöholm, B

    2003-01-01

    X-ray examinations of the colon (barium enema) and the kidneys (IVU) are combined with rather high radiation doses to the patients when using analogue technique with film-screen systems. It is therefore of great interest to see if the change from analogue to digital technique involves a reduction of doses. Barium enema and IVU examinations were monitored with DAP-meters before and after the X-ray department changed to digital techniques. For IVU also the change from storage phosphor plates to a Direct Digital detector is included. The study comprises between 53 and 87 patients for each modality of the two examinations. A considerable dose reduction was observed. In barium enema the overview images with large field sizes were omitted when using digital technique. On the other hand the number of spot images was increased from 6 to 22. The fluoroscopy time was increased from 4 minutes to 6 minutes. The DAP value was reduced from 54,3 Gy cm sup 2 to 21,9 Gy cm sup 2. For IVU a dose reduction from 44,5 Gy cm sup 2...

  20. The growth of benzophenone crystals by Sankaranarayanan–Ramasamy (SR) method and slow evaporation solution technique (SEST): A comparative investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senthil Pandian, M.; Boopathi, K.; Ramasamy, P.; Bhagavannarayana, G.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Benzophenone single crystal was grown by Sankaranarayanan–Ramasamy method which has the sizes of 1060 mm length and 55 mm diameter for the first time. ► The conventional and SR-grown benzophenone crystals were characterized and compared using HRXRD, etching, laser damage threshold, microhardness, UV-transmittance, birefringence and dielectric analysis. ► The SR-grown benzophenone crystal has higher LDT, microhardness, transparency, dielectric permittivity, birefringence and lower FWHM, EPD, dielectric loss than the crystal grown by conventional method. ► The probable reason for higher crystalline perfection in SR-grown crystal was discussed. -- Abstract: Longest unidirectional〈1 0 0〉 benzophenone (BP) crystal having dimension of 1060 mm length and 55 mm diameter was grown by Sankaranarayanan–Ramasamy method. The growth rate was measured by monitoring the elevation of the crystal–solution interface at different temperatures. The high resolution X-ray diffraction and etching measurements indicate that the unidirectional grown benzophenone crystal has good crystalline perfection and less density of defects. The optical damage threshold of SEST and SR grown BP crystals has been investigated and found that the SR grown benzophenone crystal has higher laser damage threshold value than the conventional method grown crystal. Microhardness measurement shows that crystals grown by SR method have a higher mechanical stability than the crystals grown by SEST method. Dielectric permittivity and birefringence are high in SR grown crystal compared to SEST grown BP crystal. The UV–vis-NIR results show that SR method grown crystal exhibits 7% higher transmittance as against crystals grown by conventional method.

  1. Case studies in the application of probabilistic safety assessment techniques to radiation sources. Final report of a coordinated research project 2001-2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-04-01

    Radiation sources are used worldwide in many industrial and medical applications. In general, the safety record associated with their use has been very good. However, accidents involving these sources have occasionally resulted in unplanned exposures to individuals. When assessed prospectively, this type of exposure is termed a 'potential exposure'. The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) has recommended the assessment of potential exposures that may result from radiation sources and has suggested that probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) techniques may be used in this process. Also, Paragraph 2.13 of the International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources (BSS) requires that the authorization process for radiation sources include an assessment of all exposures, including potential exposures, which may result from the use of a radiation source. In light of the ICRP's work described above, and the possibility that PSA techniques could be used in exposure assessments that are required by the BSS, the IAEA initiated a coordinated research project (CRP) to study the benefits and limitations of the application of PSA techniques to radiation sources. The results of this CRP are presented in this publication. It should be noted that these results are based solely on the work performed, and the conclusions drawn, by the research teams involved in this CRP. It is intended that international organizations involved in radiation protection will review the information in this report and will take account of it during the development of guidance and requirements related to the assessment of potential exposures from radiation sources. Also, it is anticipated that the risk insights obtained through the studies will be considered by medical practitioners, facility staff and management, equipment designers, and regulators in their safety management and risk evaluation activities. A draft

  2. Magnetically applied pressure-shear : a new technique for direct strength measurement at high pressure (final report for LDRD project 117856).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamppa, Derek C.; Haill, Thomas A.; Alexander, C. Scott; Asay, James Russell

    2010-09-01

    A new experimental technique to measure material shear strength at high pressures has been developed for use on magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) drive pulsed power platforms. By applying an external static magnetic field to the sample region, the MHD drive directly induces a shear stress wave in addition to the usual longitudinal stress wave. Strength is probed by passing this shear wave through a sample material where the transmissible shear stress is limited to the sample strength. The magnitude of the transmitted shear wave is measured via a transverse VISAR system from which the sample strength is determined.

  3. A simple technique for direct growth of Au into a nanoporous alumina layer on conductive glass as a reusable SERS substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Jiajie [Chemicobiology and Functional Materials Institute, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094 (China); Shen, Muzhong [School of Engineering, AnHui Agricultural University, Hefei 230036 (China); Liu, Siyu; Li, Feng [Chemicobiology and Functional Materials Institute, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094 (China); Sun, Dongping, E-mail: sundpe301@163.com [School of Engineering, AnHui Agricultural University, Hefei 230036 (China); Wang, Tianhe, E-mail: thwang56@126.com [Chemicobiology and Functional Materials Institute, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094 (China)

    2017-06-01

    Graphical abstract: A simple technique for direct growth of gold nanoparticles (GNPs) into a nanostructured porous alumina layer on conductive glass slide (PAOCG). Gold was uniformly distributed in porous alumina layer. Au/PAOCG can serve as a portable, durable and reusable SERS substrate. - Highlights: • A simple method of producing nanoporous alumina layer on conductive glasses. • A facile technique for direct growth of gold nanoparticles (GNPs) into PAOCG. • It presents a general protocol for preparation of (MNPs) on conductive glasses. • Au/PAOCG exhibits high SERS sensitivity and excellent reusability. - Abstract: In this paper, we describe a simple technique for direct growth of gold nanoparticles (GNPs) into a nanostructured porous alumina layer on conductive glass slide (PAOCG). PAOCG was attached firmly with a small piece of steel and was then immersed in a HAuCl{sub 4} solution. Electro-induced electrons from steel were employed to reduce AuCl{sub 4}{sup −} on PAOCG. The galvanic replacement reaction (GRR) was adopted as the fundamental mechanism for reducing metal precursors. This mechanism was further studied by open circuit potential-time (OCP-t) experiment and the result demonstrated that steel induced the continuous proceeding of this reaction. This strategy presents a simple and general protocol for preparation of metal nanoparticles (MNPs) on conductive glass substrates. The SERS properties of Au/PAOCG were investigated using aqueous crystal violet (CV) and 4-mercaptopyridine (4-Mpy) as probe molecules. Au/PAOCG allowed as low as 10{sup −9} M CV and 10{sup −8} M 4-Mpy to be detected. The reusability of this substrate was achieved by measuring the SERS spectrum of the probe molecules followed with a 400 °C heat treatment for 10 min to remove the residuals. This substrate could be reused for at least ten cycles without any significantly reduced SERS performance. Therefore, this surface can serve as a portable, durable and reusable SERS

  4. Evaluation of energy efficient techniques in the wood working and wood processing industry. Final report THERMIE - Action no. DIS-0059-95-DE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eichhammer, W.; Digutsch, O.; Frey, G. v. [and others

    1997-05-01

    With the entrance of Austria, Finland and Sweden in the European Union beginning of 1995 the pattern of industrial energy consumption has changed considerably in some branches which are large energy consumers in the Northern countries. The wood working and wood processing industry is one of those branches. It comprises the preparation of wood from primary processing in sawmills up to the production of finished products, and is highly energy-intensive although to a somewhat smaller extent than the large energy consumers such as the iron and steel production or glass manufacturing. It can further be assumed that official statistics underestimate the real importance of the energy consumption in the wood sector because most official statistics do not indicate waste wood as a fuel. Waste wood is a renewable fuel and has as such not the same impact in terms of CO{sub 2}-emissions as fossil fuels. Nevertheless, renewable energy sources should be also used efficiently because they can replace fossil fuels for other purposes. The objective of this study on the wood sector were to analyse and summarise the present status of energy consumption in the fifteen countries of the EU and the two EFTA countries Norway and Switzerland, to evaluate present day energy technology in the wood industry, and to investigate existing application barriers to these techniques in order to inform, support and to motivate small and medium-sized companies in particular, thus simulating the wide spread use of such techniques. (orig./SR)

  5. Co-ordinated research project on comparative international studies of osteoporosis using isotope techniques. Report on the final research co-ordination meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    In 1994, the International Atomic Energy Agency started the five-year Co-ordinated Research Project (CRP) on Comparative International Studies of Osteoporosis Using Isotope Techniques. The objectives of this study were: To harmonize the techniques of measuring BMD within the participating countries and to obtain data that can be compared between the different study groups (countries); To determine whether early adult PBM varies between populations over the age range from 15 to 50 years. In other words, to determine the age of peak bone mass in selected populations from developing countries; To explore environmental and nutritional contributions to any determined differences. Further information about the purpose and scope of the CRP may be found in the report of the Advisory Group Meeting (AGM) held in 19921 and other reports of this CRP. The fourth Research Co-ordination Meeting (RCM) for participants of the CRP, which is the subject of the present report, was held at the University of Sheffield Medical School; WHO Collaborating Center for Metabolic Bone Diseases in Sheffield, UK from 28 Feb. to 3 March 2000

  6. The use of multigrid techniques in the solution of the Elrod algorithm for a dynamically loaded journal bearing. M.S. Thesis. Final Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Claudia M.

    1988-01-01

    A numerical solution to a theoretical model of vapor cavitation in a dynamically loaded journal bearing is developed, utilizing a multigrid iterative technique. The code is compared with a presently existing direct solution in terms of computational time and accuracy. The model is based on the Elrod algorithm, a control volume approach to the Reynolds equation which mimics the Jakobssen-Floberg and Olsson cavitation theory. Besides accounting for a moving cavitation boundary and conservation of mass at the boundary, it also conserves mass within the cavitated region via liquid striations. The mixed nature of the equations (elliptic in the full film zone and nonelliptic in the cavitated zone) coupled with the dynamic aspects of the problem create interesting difficulties for the present solution approach. Emphasis is placed on the methods found to eliminate solution instabilities. Excellent results are obtained for both accuracy and reduction of computational time.

  7. Positron lifetime measurements as a non-destructive technique to monitor fatigue damage. Final report, January 1, 1971--June 30, 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byrne, J.G.

    1978-06-01

    Positron studies were applied successfully to cyclic fatigue in steel and copper and have shown a capability to nondestructively detect fatigue softening and fatigue hardening. In the case of elastic high cycle fatigue in initially soft steel the fatigue hardening is identified with point defects. For cyclic plastic range, high cycle fatigue cyclic hardening and softening are correlated with changes in dislocation substructure. Positron measurements during the pulse annealing of copper single crystals following electron irradiation at 77 0 K have revealed the formation of multi-vacancy complexes which constitute the precursors of radiation induced voids. Positron studies have been applied to hydrogen embrittlement in 4340 steel and more recently in nickel. The technique can non-destructively detect hydrogen embrittlement and gage its extent. U.S. Patent No. 4064438 was issued on this basis

  8. Integration of advanced geoscience and engineering techniques to quantify interwell heterogeneity in reservoir models. Final report, September 29, 1993--September 30, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, W.W.; Buckley, J.S.; Ouenes, A.

    1997-05-01

    The goal of this three-year project was to provide a quantitative definition of reservoir heterogeneity. This objective was accomplished through the integration of geologic, geophysical, and engineering databases into a multi-disciplinary understanding of reservoir architecture and associated fluid-rock and fluid-fluid interactions. This interdisciplinary effort integrated geological and geophysical data with engineering and petrophysical results through reservoir simulation to quantify reservoir architecture and the dynamics of fluid-rock and fluid-fluid interactions. An improved reservoir description allows greater accuracy and confidence during simulation and modeling as steps toward gaining greater recovery efficiency from existing reservoirs. A field laboratory, the Sulimar Queen Unit, was available for the field research. Several members of the PRRC staff participated in the development of improved reservoir description by integration of the field and laboratory data as well as in the development of quantitative reservoir models to aid performance predictions. Subcontractors from Stanford University and the University of Texas at Austin (UT) collaborated in the research and participated in the design and interpretation of field tests. The three-year project was initiated in September 1993 and led to the development and application of various reservoir description methodologies. A new approach for visualizing production data graphically was developed and implemented on the Internet. Using production data and old gamma rays logs, a black oil reservoir model that honors both primary and secondary performance was developed. The old gamma ray logs were used after applying a resealing technique, which was crucial for the success of the project. In addition to the gamma ray logs, the development of the reservoir model benefitted from an inverse Drill Stem Test (DST) technique which provided initial estimates of the reservoir permeability at different wells.

  9. Fourth and final research co-ordination meeting for the coordinated research project on 'Comparative international studies of osteoporosis using isotopic techniques'. Summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iyengar, G.V.; Mokhtar, N.

    2002-01-01

    In 1994, the International Atomic Energy Agency started the five-year Co-ordinated Research Project (CRP) on Comparative International Studies of Osteoporosis Using Isotope Techniques. The objectives of this study were: To harmonize the techniques of measuring BMD within the participating countries and to obtain data that can be compared between the different study groups (countries); To determine whether early adult PBM varies between populations over the age range from 15 to 50 years. In other words, to determine the age of peak bone mass in selected populations from developing countries; To explore environmental and nutritional contributions to any determined differences. Further information about the purpose and scope of the CRP may be found in the report of the Advisory Group Meeting (AGM) held in 19921 and other reports of this CRP. Since the last RCM held in 1998, the CRP participants have gathered up more data on BMD. Indeed 3488 subjects 15-50 years) have been recruited for the purpose of this project and have been stratified equally by sex and age into six -year age bands. Most of the participants have also completed collecting data on dietary intake, medical history, physical exercise, and lifestyle, as suggested in the VrHO questionnaire. Some participants have analyzed trace elements in a number of bone samples as well. One of the most important purposes of this CRP is to obtain harmonized data on BMD that is comparable from one study group to another. To ensure this quality insurance, the densitometers in each center were cross calibrated using a European Spine Phantom (ESP). Further-more, day-to-day control of DEXA machines was managed by each individual center. The fourth Research Co-ordination Meeting (RCM) for participants of the CRP, which is the subject of the present report, was held at the University of Sheffield Medical School; WHO Collaborating Center for Metabolic Bone Diseases in Sheffield, UK from 28 Feb. to 3 March 2000

  10. Knowledge Based Systems: A Critical Survey of Major Concepts, Issues, and Techniques. M.S. Thesis Final Report, 1 Jul. 1985 - 31 Dec. 1987

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominick, Wayne D. (Editor); Kavi, Srinu

    1984-01-01

    This Working Paper Series entry presents a detailed survey of knowledge based systems. After being in a relatively dormant state for many years, only recently is Artificial Intelligence (AI) - that branch of computer science that attempts to have machines emulate intelligent behavior - accomplishing practical results. Most of these results can be attributed to the design and use of Knowledge-Based Systems, KBSs (or ecpert systems) - problem solving computer programs that can reach a level of performance comparable to that of a human expert in some specialized problem domain. These systems can act as a consultant for various requirements like medical diagnosis, military threat analysis, project risk assessment, etc. These systems possess knowledge to enable them to make intelligent desisions. They are, however, not meant to replace the human specialists in any particular domain. A critical survey of recent work in interactive KBSs is reported. A case study (MYCIN) of a KBS, a list of existing KBSs, and an introduction to the Japanese Fifth Generation Computer Project are provided as appendices. Finally, an extensive set of KBS-related references is provided at the end of the report.

  11. To what degree does the missing-data technique influence the estimated growth in learning strategies over time? A tutorial example of sensitivity analysis for longitudinal data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coertjens, Liesje; Donche, Vincent; De Maeyer, Sven; Vanthournout, Gert; Van Petegem, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Longitudinal data is almost always burdened with missing data. However, in educational and psychological research, there is a large discrepancy between methodological suggestions and research practice. The former suggests applying sensitivity analysis in order to the robustness of the results in terms of varying assumptions regarding the mechanism generating the missing data. However, in research practice, participants with missing data are usually discarded by relying on listwise deletion. To help bridge the gap between methodological recommendations and applied research in the educational and psychological domain, this study provides a tutorial example of sensitivity analysis for latent growth analysis. The example data concern students' changes in learning strategies during higher education. One cohort of students in a Belgian university college was asked to complete the Inventory of Learning Styles-Short Version, in three measurement waves. A substantial number of students did not participate on each occasion. Change over time in student learning strategies was assessed using eight missing data techniques, which assume different mechanisms for missingness. The results indicated that, for some learning strategy subscales, growth estimates differed between the models. Guidelines in terms of reporting the results from sensitivity analysis are synthesised and applied to the results from the tutorial example.

  12. Growth and Characterization of Detector-Grade Cd0.9Zn0.1Te Crystals by the Traveling Heater Method with the Accelerated Crucible Rotation Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Boru; Jie, Wanqi; Wang, Tao; Xu, Yadong; Yang, Fan; Yin, Liying; Zhang, Binbin; Nan, Ruihua

    2018-02-01

    The accelerated crucible rotation technique has been applied in the traveling heater method process for the growth of CdZnTe:In (CZT:In) ingots. Full single crystalline wafers with a diameter of 53 mm were obtained under optimized growth conditions. The crystalline quality and the photoelectric properties of the CZT crystals were characterized using infrared transmission microscopy, infrared transmittance spectra, current-voltage (I-V) analysis and gamma ray radiation response measurements. The CZT crystals show no Te inclusions over 3 μm in size and those smaller than 3 μm have a density of 105 cm-3. The resistivity of the crystals reaches 3.92 × 1010 Ω/cm-1 by fitting the I-V curve. The mobility-lifetime ( μτ) product of the electrons is 4.12 × 10-3 cm2/V. Based on the CZT crystals, planar configuration and quasi-hemispherical configuration detectors were fabricated and show a resolution of 3.67% at 241Am@59.5 keV and 1.95% at 137Cs@662 keV, respectively, which indicates a superior detection performance.

  13. Genetic improvement of under-utilized and neglected crops in low income food deficit countries through irradiation and related techniques. Proceedings of a final research coordination meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-11-01

    The majority of the world's food is produced from only a few crops, and yet many neglected and under-utilized crops are extremely important for food production in low income food deficit countries (LIFDCs). As the human population grows at an alarming rate in LIFDCs, food availability has declined and is also affected due to environmental factors, lack of improvement of local crop species, erosion of genetic diversity and dependence on a few crop species for food supply. Neglected crops are traditionally grown by farmers in their centres of origin or centres of diversity, where they are still important for the subsistence of local communities, and maintained by socio-cultural preferences and traditional uses. These crops remain inadequately characterised and, until very recently, have been largely ignored by research and conservation. Farmers are losing these crops because they are less competitive with improved major crop species. Radiation-induced mutation techniques have successfully been used that benefited the most genetic improvement of 'major crops' and their know-how have a great potential for enhancing the use of under-utilized and neglected species and speeding up their domestication and crop improvement. The FAO/IAEA efforts on genetic improvement of under-utilized and neglected species play a strategic role in complementing the work that is being carried out worldwide in their promotion. This CRP entitled Genetic Improvement of Under-utilized and Neglected Crops in LIFDCs through Irradiation and Related Techniques was initiated in 1998 with an overall objective to improve food security, enhance nutritional balance, and promote sustainable agriculture in LIFDCs. Specific objectives addressed major constraints to productivity of neglected and under-utilized crops by genetic improvement with radiation-induced mutations and biotechnology in order to enhance economic viability and sustain crop species diversity, and in future to benefit small farmers. This

  14. Radioimmunoassay and related techniques to improve artificial insemination programmes for cattle reared under tropical and sub-tropical conditions. Proceedings of a final research co-ordination meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-05-01

    Artificial insemination (AI) is widely used for improvement of cattle production in developed countries. Its use in developing countries is less widespread and the results obtained are far from satisfactory. Under tropical small-farm conditions, a number of socio-economic, organizational, biological and technical factors make the service more difficult to provide and also less efficient. If the major constraints can be identified and overcome, this technology would become more widely adopted and contribute to an increased production of milk and meat, leading to better food security and poverty alleviation. The Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture therefore convened a consultants meeting in May 1994 to advise on the applicability of radioimmunoassay (RIA) for measuring progesterone in milk of dairy cattle to identify the major causes of conception failure and reproductive wastage when AI is used under the conditions prevailing in developing countries. The consultants recommended the initiation of a co-ordinated research project (CRP) on this topic, and developed a comprehensive technical document including the sampling protocol and the range of information that needs to be recorded in order to obtain conclusive results. A five year CRP on the ''Use of RIA and Related Techniques to Identify Ways of Improving Artificial Insemination Programmes for Cattle Reared Under Tropical and Sub-Tropical Conditions'' was initiated in early 1995. The CRP resulted in the development and standardization of methodologies and protocols, including the computer software program termed AIDA (Artificial Insemination Database Application), to determine current status and identify constraints. These methodologies and protocols are now being applied on a wider scale in Member States through regional TC projects in Asia and Africa and country TC projects in Latin America. Contributing to the wider application of progesterone RIA for field level problem solving

  15. Experimental techniques; Techniques experimentales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roussel-Chomaz, P. [GANIL CNRS/IN2P3, CEA/DSM, 14 - Caen (France)

    2007-07-01

    This lecture presents the experimental techniques, developed in the last 10 or 15 years, in order to perform a new class of experiments with exotic nuclei, where the reactions induced by these nuclei allow to get information on their structure. A brief review of the secondary beams production methods will be given, with some examples of facilities in operation or under project. The important developments performed recently on cryogenic targets will be presented. The different detection systems will be reviewed, both the beam detectors before the targets, and the many kind of detectors necessary to detect all outgoing particles after the reaction: magnetic spectrometer for the heavy fragment, detection systems for the target recoil nucleus, {gamma} detectors. Finally, several typical examples of experiments will be detailed, in order to illustrate the use of each detector either alone, or in coincidence with others. (author)

  16. Preparation of redispersible liposomal dry powder using an ultrasonic spray freeze-drying technique for transdermal delivery of human epithelial growth factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Fei; Guo, Shiyan; Gan, Yong; Zhang, Xinxin

    2014-01-01

    In this work, an ultrasonic spray freeze-drying (USFD) technique was used to prepare a stable liposomal dry powder for transdermal delivery of recombinant human epithelial growth factor (rhEGF). Morphology, particle size, entrapment efficiency, in vitro release, and skin permeability were systematically compared between rhEGF liposomal dry powder prepared using USFD and that prepared using a conventional lyophilization process. Porous and spherical particles with high specific area were produced under USFD conditions. USFD effectively avoided formation of ice crystals, disruption of the bilayer structure, and drug leakage during the liposome drying process, and maintained the stability of the rhEGF liposomal formulation during storage. The reconstituted rhEGF liposomes prepared from USFD powder did not show significant changes in morphology, particle size, entrapment efficiency, or in vitro release characteristics compared with those of rhEGF liposomes before drying. Moreover, the rhEGF liposomal powder prepared with USFD exhibited excellent enhanced penetration in ex vivo mouse skin compared with that for powder prepared via conventional lyophilization. The results suggest that ultrasonic USFD is a promising technique for the production of stable protein-loaded liposomal dry powder for application to the skin.

  17. Co-ordinated research project on health impact of mercury cycling in contaminated environments studied by nuclear techniques. Report on the final research co-ordination meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    Mercury is a global pollutant because of its ability to undergo long distance transport into the atmosphere. In view of these global concerns the IAEA has organised a CRP to elucidate the biological, chemical, and physical factors, which influence the transformations of Hg and its compounds in the ecosystem and the dynamics of the mercury recycling. Under the title 'Health impacts of mercury cycling in contaminated environments studied by nuclear techniques' the CRP was started in October 1999 and concluded in February 2004. This report provides an overview of the various activities performed under the CRP by the various participants. The overall achievements are summarized and those aspects that require a further deeper look are also pointed out. The individual country reports are also given which detail on the progress made by the respective participants, during the CRP period. It is hoped that the results would encourage further research activities on these and related issues in the respective countries with the CRP participant as a catalyst to further these studies

  18. Dosimetry for radiation processing. Final report of the co-ordinated research project on characterization and evaluation of high dose dosimetry techniques for quality assurance in radiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-06-01

    In many Member States the use of large cobalt-60 gamma ray facilities and electron beam accelerators with beam energies from about 0.1 to 10 MeV for industrial processing continues to increase. For these processes, quality assurance relies on the application of well established dosimetry systems and procedures. This is especially the case for health regulated processes, such as the radiation sterilization of health care products, and the irradiation of food to eliminate pathogenic organisms or to control insect pests. A co-ordinated research project (CRP) was initiated by the IAEA in June 1995. Research contracts and research agreements in areas of high dose dosimetry were initiated to meet these challenges. The major goals of this CRP were to investigate the parameters that influence the response of dosimeters and to develop reference and transfer dosimetry techniques, especially for electron beams of energy less than 4 MeV and for high energy X ray sources (up to 5 MV). These will help to unify the radiation measurements performed by different radiation processing facilities and other high dose dosimetry users in Member States and encourage efforts to obtain traceability to primary and secondary standards laboratories. It will also aim to strengthen and expand the present International Dose Assurance Service (IDAS) provided by the IAEA

  19. Development and validation of three-dimensional CFD techniques for reactor safety applications. Final report; Entwicklung und Validierung dreidimensionaler CFD Verfahren fuer Anwendungen in der Reaktorsicherheit. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchholz, Sebastian; Palazzo, Simone; Papukchiev, Angel; Scheurer Martina

    2016-12-15

    The overall goal of the project RS 1506 ''Development and Validation of Three Dimensional CFD Methods for Reactor Safety Applications'' is the validation of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) software for the simulation of three -dimensional thermo-hydraulic heat and fluid flow phenomena in nuclear reactors. For this purpose a wide spectrum of validation and test cases was selected covering fluid flow and heat transfer phenomena in the downcomer and in the core of pressurized water reactors. In addition, the coupling of the system code ATHLET with the CFD code ANSYS CFX was further developed and validated. The first choice were UPTF experiments where turbulent single- and two-phase flows were investigated in a 1:1 scaled model of a German KONVOI reactor. The scope of the CFD calculations covers thermal mixing and stratification including condensation in single- and two-phase flows. In the complex core region, the flow in a fuel assembly with spacer grid was simulated as defined in the OECD/NEA Benchmark MATIS-H. Good agreement are achieved when the geometrical and physical boundary conditions were reproduced as realistic as possible. This includes, in particular, the consideration of heat transfer to walls. The influence of wall modelling on CFD results was investigated on the TALL-3D T01 experiment. In this case, the dynamic three dimensional fluid flow and heat transfer phenomena were simulated in a Generation IV liquid metal cooled reactor. Concurrently to the validation work, the coupling of the system code ATHLET with the ANSYS CFX software was optimized and expanded for two-phase flows. Different coupling approaches were investigated, in order to overcome the large difference between CPU-time requirements of system and CFD codes. Finally, the coupled simulation system was validated by applying it to the simulation of the PSI double T-junction experiment, the LBE-flow in the MYRRA Spallation experiment and a demonstration test case

  20. Automation for tsetse mass rearing for use in sterile insect technique programmes. Final report of a co-ordinated research project 1995-2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-05-01

    The rearing of tsetse flies for the sterile insect technique has been a laborious procedure in the past. The purpose of this co-ordinated research project (CRP) 'Automation for tsetse mass rearing for use in sterile insect technique programmes' was to develop appropriate semiautomated procedures to simplify the rearing, reduce the cost and standardize the product. Two main objectives were accomplished. The first was to simplify the handling of adults at emergence. This was achieved by allowing the adults to emerge directly into the production cages. Selection of the appropriate environmental conditions and timing allowed the manipulation of the emergence pattern to achieve the desired ratio of four females to one male with minimal un-emerged females remaining mixed with the male pupae. Tests demonstrated that putting the sexes together at emergence, leaving the males in the production cages, and using a ratio of 4:1 (3:1 for a few species) did not adversely affect pupal production. This has resulted in a standardized system for the self stocking of production cages. The second was to reduce the labour involved in feeding the flies. Three distinct systems were developed and tested in sequence. The first tsetse production unit (TPU 1) was a fully automated system, but the fly survival and fecundity were unacceptably low. From this a simpler TPU 2 was developed and tested, where 63 large cages were held on a frame that could be moved as a single unit to the feeding location. TPU 2 was tested in various locations, and found to satisfy the basic requirements, and the adoption of Plexiglas pupal collection slopes resolved much of the problem due to light distribution. However the cage holding frame was heavy and difficult to position on the feeding frame and the movement disturbed the flies. TPU 2 was superseded by TPU 3, in which the cages remain stationary at all times, and the blood is brought to the flies. The blood feeding system is mounted on rails to make it

  1. Final Progress Report: Collaborative Research: Decadal-to-Centennial Climate & Climate Change Studies with Enhanced Variable and Uniform Resolution GCMs Using Advanced Numerical Techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox-Rabinovitz, M; Cote, J

    2009-06-05

    The joint U.S-Canadian project has been devoted to: (a) decadal climate studies using developed state-of-the-art GCMs (General Circulation Models) with enhanced variable and uniform resolution; (b) development and implementation of advanced numerical techniques; (c) research in parallel computing and associated numerical methods; (d) atmospheric chemistry experiments related to climate issues; (e) validation of regional climate modeling strategies for nested- and stretched-grid models. The variable-resolution stretched-grid (SG) GCMs produce accurate and cost-efficient regional climate simulations with mesoscale resolution. The advantage of the stretched grid approach is that it allows us to preserve the high quality of both global and regional circulations while providing consistent interactions between global and regional scales and phenomena. The major accomplishment for the project has been the successful international SGMIP-1 and SGMIP-2 (Stretched-Grid Model Intercomparison Project, phase-1 and phase-2) based on this research developments and activities. The SGMIP provides unique high-resolution regional and global multi-model ensembles beneficial for regional climate modeling and broader modeling community. The U.S SGMIP simulations have been produced using SciDAC ORNL supercomputers. Collaborations with other international participants M. Deque (Meteo-France) and J. McGregor (CSIRO, Australia) and their centers and groups have been beneficial for the strong joint effort, especially for the SGMIP activities. The WMO/WCRP/WGNE endorsed the SGMIP activities in 2004-2008. This project reflects a trend in the modeling and broader communities to move towards regional and sub-regional assessments and applications important for the U.S. and Canadian public, business and policy decision makers, as well as for international collaborations on regional, and especially climate related issues.

  2. Spatial and temporal mapping of 10B distrubtion in vivo using nuclear reactor-based prompt gamma neutron activation analysis and image reconstruction techniques. Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacquelyn Yanch

    2006-01-01

    This project involved the development of a method for in vivo prompt gamma neutron activation analysis for the investigation of Boron-10 distribution in a rabbit knee. The overall objective of this work was a robust approach for rapid screening of new 10 B-labelled compounds to determine their suitability for use in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis via Boron Neutron Capture Synovectomy (BNCS). For BNCS it is essential to obtain a compound showing high uptake levels in the synovium and long residence time in the joints. Previously the in vivo uptake behavior of potential compounds was evaluated in the arthritic knee joints of rabbits via extensive dissection studies. These studies are very labor-intensive and involve sacrificing large numbers of animals. An in vivo 10 B screening approach was developed to provide initial evaluation of potential compounds. Only those compounds showing positive uptake and retention characteristics will be evaluated further via dissection studies. No further studies will be performed with compounds showing rapid clearance and/or low synovial uptake. Two approaches to in vivo screening were investigated using both simulation methods and experimentation. Both make use of neutron beams generated at the MIT Research Reactor. The first, Transmission Computed Tomography (TCT) was developed and tested but was eventually rejected due to very limited spatial resolution using existing reactor beams. The second, in vivo prompt gamma neutron activation analysis (IVPGNAA) was much more promising. IVPGNAA was developed using computer simulation and physical measurement coupled with image reconstruction techniques. The method was tested in arthritic New Zealand rabbits previously injected intra-articularly with three boron labeled compounds and shown to be effective in providing information regarding uptake level and residence time of 10 B in the joint

  3. Phipps Bend technical coordination and growth management pilot program: final report for fiscal year 1979. Report for 30 Sep 78-29 Sep 79

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez, R.Y.; Patillo, L.

    1979-01-01

    Specifically, the report explains the purpose and role of the Phipps Bend Energy Growth Coordination Committee's socio-economic impact mitigation program, subsequent to Tennessee Valley Authority's development of a nuclear energy power plant in Hawkins County, Tennessee. The committee has selected seven areas for mitigation purposes. Law enforcement; solid waste; Greene County; recreation; emergency services; industrial development; and medical services. This report provides follow up information on each of the delineated areas with recommendations for improvement

  4. Final Report for Project 13-4791: New Mechanistic Models of Creep-Fatigue Crack Growth Interactions for Advanced High Temperature Reactor Components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruzic, Jamie J [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States); Univ. of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW (Australia); Siegmund, Thomas [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States); Tomar, Vikas

    2018-03-20

    This project developed and validated a novel, multi-scale, mechanism-based model to quantitatively predict creep-fatigue crack growth and failure for Ni-based Alloy 617 at 800°C. Alloy 617 is a target material for intermediate heat exchangers in Generation IV very high temperature reactor designs, and it is envisioned that this model will aid in the design of safe, long lasting nuclear power plants. The technical effectiveness of the model was shown by demonstrating that experimentally observed crack growth rates can be predicted under both steady state and overload crack growth conditions. Feasibility was considered by incorporating our model into a commercially available finite element method code, ABAQUS, that is commonly used by design engineers. While the focus of the project was specifically on an alloy targeted for Generation IV nuclear reactors, the benefits to the public are expected to be wide reaching. Indeed, creep-fatigue failure is a design consideration for a wide range of high temperature mechanical systems that rely on Ni-based alloys, including industrial gas power turbines, advanced ultra-super critical steam turbines, and aerospace turbine engines. It is envisioned that this new model can be adapted to a wide range of engineering applications.

  5. Controllable electrochemical growth protection system based on pH variation. Final report; Steuerbares elektrochemisches Bewuchsschutzsystem auf der Basis von pH-Aenderungen. Endbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandrock, S.; Scharf, E.M.; Reiter, K.; Neumann, H.G.; Guenther, E.; Franz, A.

    2003-10-01

    Preventing growth on ships is an economic as well as an ecological necessity. The current state of the art is to use antifoulings containing organotin compounds or copper for this purpose. What makes antifoulings effective are their heavy metal components. However, these also pose a formidable hazard to the marine ecosystem. This has led IMO to issue restrictive regulations aimed in particular at the organotin component. Alternative antifoulings based on silicone are only suitable for relatively fast going vessels. The purpose of the present project was to develop to market maturity a new, environmentally acceptable growth protection strategy that had already been tested at a small scale. The action principle of this protection consists in a discontinuous current induced pH change on the surface to be protected. [German] Nach gegenwaertigem Stand der Technik erfolgt die aus wirtschaftlichen und oekologischen Gruenden unverzichtbare Verhinderung von Bewuchs an Schiffen durch organozinn- bzw. kupferhaltige Unterwasseranstriche (Antifoulings). Von den Schwermetallen, auf denen das Wirkprinzip beruht, gehen erhebliche Gefahren fuer das marine Oekosystem aus. Die IMO hat deshalb speziell bezueglich des Organozinns bereits entsprechende restriktive Regelungen beschlossen. Alternative, silikonhaltige Anstriche sind nur fuer relativ schnell fahrende Schiffstypen geeignet. Im Rahmen des Projekts soll eine neue umweltvertraegliche Bewuchsschutzstrategie, die in kleinem Massstab bereits erprobt wurde, zur Praxisreife gefuehrt werden. Das Wirkprinzip besteht hier in einer diskontinuierlichen strominduzierten pH-Aenderung auf der zu schuetzenden Oberflaeche. (orig.)

  6. A simple technique for direct growth of Au into a nanoporous alumina layer on conductive glass as a reusable SERS substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jiajie; Shen, Muzhong; Liu, Siyu; Li, Feng; Sun, Dongping; Wang, Tianhe

    2017-06-01

    In this paper, we describe a simple technique for direct growth of gold nanoparticles (GNPs) into a nanostructured porous alumina layer on conductive glass slide (PAOCG). PAOCG was attached firmly with a small piece of steel and was then immersed in a HAuCl4 solution. Electro-induced electrons from steel were employed to reduce AuCl4- on PAOCG. The galvanic replacement reaction (GRR) was adopted as the fundamental mechanism for reducing metal precursors. This mechanism was further studied by open circuit potential-time (OCP-t) experiment and the result demonstrated that steel induced the continuous proceeding of this reaction. This strategy presents a simple and general protocol for preparation of metal nanoparticles (MNPs) on conductive glass substrates. The SERS properties of Au/PAOCG were investigated using aqueous crystal violet (CV) and 4-mercaptopyridine (4-Mpy) as probe molecules. Au/PAOCG allowed as low as 10-9 M CV and 10-8 M 4-Mpy to be detected. The reusability of this substrate was achieved by measuring the SERS spectrum of the probe molecules followed with a 400 °C heat treatment for 10 min to remove the residuals. This substrate could be reused for at least ten cycles without any significantly reduced SERS performance. Therefore, this surface can serve as a portable, durable and reusable SERS substrate and has a potential for commercial applications.

  7. Co-ordinated research project on isotopic evaluations in infant growth monitoring - a collaboration with WHO (partly RCA). Report on the second and final research co-ordination meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    through establishment of a standardised protocol. The participating countries in this CRP were Bangladesh, Brazil, Chile and Pakistan for the measurement of growth and breast-milk intake. These countries, currently undergoing nutritional transition, all have active programmes for the promotion of breast-feeding. Results of the studies from Brazil, Chile and Pakistan were discussed during this final Research Coordination Meeting (RCM). Technological aspects of the measurements, with a view to future applications, were also discussed

  8. Review of sediment stabilisation techniques. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-31

    The best sites for tidal power schemes are found in estuaries with high tidal ranges which have complex ecosystems and include a wide and diverse range of habitats. If the tidal power is to be developed, therefore, it is important to determine the likely effect on the environment and any ameliorative measures which may be necessary. One possible change is likely to be the erosion of material from the bed or shoreline of the estuary, and possibly the adjacent coast. This is of particular concern if intertidal sandflats, mudflats and saltmarsh are affected, as these are important wildlife habitats. Moreover, largescale movement of sediments would be undesirable. Results of a desk study of methods of preventing the erosion of sediment deposits in or near an estuary in the conditions that may occur following the construction of a tidal power barrage are presented. (author).

  9. Advanced radioactive waste compaction techniques: Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volodzko, M.; McGrath, R.N.; Kinsman, J.F.; Palo, W.J.

    1988-08-01

    The purpose of this test program is to provide definitive information on the volume reduction capabilities of conventional compactors used in the nuclear industry for the treatment of dry active waste and the effects of preshredding on compaction. The test program presents comprehensive data on compacted densities of dry active waste collected at five facilities generating this waste and using conventional compactors. Waste materials presently classified as ''non-compactable'' which would lend themselves to preshredding and compaction are identified. An ALARA evaluation of shredding operations and an economic evaluation of preshredding prior to compaction are also presented. 32 figs., 72 tabs

  10. Growth of high T{sub c} superconducting fibers using a miniaturized laser-heated float zone process. Final technical report, January 15, 1989--December 31, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feigelson, R.S.; Route, R.K.; DeMattei, R.C.

    1995-04-01

    This report summarizes a four year program on the use of the laser-heated pedestral growth (LHPG) process for the preparation of long, flexible fibers of the high T{sub c} copper-oxide ceramic superconductors having wire-like morphology. The major question addressed was whether the LHPG method could produce high T{sub c} fibers of Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub 8} (2212) in lengths long enough for use as superconducting wires. Cold-pressing and sintering methods were developed to prepare uniform, single phase ceramic feedstock. Phase equilibrium studies revealed the relationship between thermal gradients, interface shape and phases produced by the LHPG process during incongruent solidification. The highest critical current densities over measured in bulk samples of Bi-2212 material, 60,000 A/cm{sup 2} at 68K, were achieved in single crystal and/or highly grain-oriented fibers. The first ever flexible, multi-cm fibers ({le}100 {mu}m in diameter) were prepared. Fibers diameters were ultimately reduced to 25 {mu}m (1 cm in length), and we were able to grow them up to 14 cm in length (100 {mu}m diameter). These fibers could be bent in radii less than 5 cm, but max. growth rates of {approximately}10 mm/hr did not permit them to be grown long enough for prototype motor windings. Superconducting Bi-2212 grain-aligned ribbons were grown for the first time by the LHPG method using platinum guide wires.

  11. Epitaxial growth of hybrid nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Chaoliang; Chen, Junze; Wu, Xue-Jun; Zhang, Hua

    2018-02-01

    Hybrid nanostructures are a class of materials that are typically composed of two or more different components, in which each component has at least one dimension on the nanoscale. The rational design and controlled synthesis of hybrid nanostructures are of great importance in enabling the fine tuning of their properties and functions. Epitaxial growth is a promising approach to the controlled synthesis of hybrid nanostructures with desired structures, crystal phases, exposed facets and/or interfaces. This Review provides a critical summary of the state of the art in the field of epitaxial growth of hybrid nanostructures. We discuss the historical development, architectures and compositions, epitaxy methods, characterization techniques and advantages of epitaxial hybrid nanostructures. Finally, we provide insight into future research directions in this area, which include the epitaxial growth of hybrid nanostructures from a wider range of materials, the study of the underlying mechanism and determining the role of epitaxial growth in influencing the properties and application performance of hybrid nanostructures.

  12. Aseptic technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bykowski, Tomasz; Stevenson, Brian

    2008-11-01

    This chapter describes common laboratory procedures that can reduce the risk of culture contaminations (sepsis), collectively referred as "aseptic technique." Two major strategies of aseptic work are described: using a Bunsen burner and a laminar flow hood. Both methods are presented in the form of general protocols applicable to a variety of laboratory tasks such as pipetting and dispensing aliquots, preparing growth media, and inoculating, passaging, and spreading microorganisms on petri dishes. Copyright 2008 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  13. A comparative study between detached leaf and plastic growth pouches techniques on the infection of pseudocercospora leaf spot disease of cowpea cultivars (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) in northeast Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinsiri, N; Laohasiriwong, S

    2009-03-01

    This glasshouse experiment was carried out in the 2004 at the Department of Agricultural Production, Faculty of Technology, Mahasarakham University, Mahasarakham 4400, Northeast Thailand to compare amounts of infection of Pseudocercospora leaf spot disease in leaves of cowpea cultivars being screened between detached leaf and plastic growth pouches techniques. The experiment was laid in a factorial arranged in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with four replications. KVC7, IT81D-1228-14-1 and KKU25 cowpea cultivars were used as factor A, detached leaf and plastic growth pouches techniques were used as factor B and four levels of the concentrations of the spores of the disease, i.e., 0, l x 10(4), 5 x 10(4) and 1 x 10(5) of disease forming units mL(-1) of distilled water were used as factor C. The results showed that KVC7 and IT81D-1228-14-1 cultivars possessed immune and high resistant properties against the disease, respectively, whereas KKU25 cultivar ranked as a susceptible cultivar. Detached leaf technique gave higher amount of infection of the disease than plastic growth pouches technique and the differences were highly significant. A plentiful amount of Infected disease was attained with an inoculation rate of l x 10(5) forming units mL(-1) of distilled water, which was considered too high and the most appropriate concentrations for use lie on both concentrations, i.e., 1 x 10(4) and 5 x 10(4) forming units mL(-1) of distilled water. An interaction among factors AxBxC was severely found with KKU25 cultivar, particularly on day 28 after inoculation, whilst other two cultivars gave a minute amount of disease incidences (%) where detached leaf technique gave much higher disease incidences than plastic growth pouches technique, thus detached leaf technique should be of higher advantages.

  14. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeTar, Carleton [P.I.

    2012-12-10

    This document constitutes the Final Report for award DE-FC02-06ER41446 as required by the Office of Science. It summarizes accomplishments and provides copies of scientific publications with significant contribution from this award.

  15. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gurney, Kevin R. [Arizona Univ., Mesa, AZ (United States)

    2015-01-12

    This document constitutes the final report under DOE grant DE-FG-08ER64649. The organization of this document is as follows: first, I will review the original scope of the proposed research. Second, I will present the current draft of a paper nearing submission to Nature Climate Change on the initial results of this funded effort. Finally, I will present the last phase of the research under this grant which has supported a Ph.D. student. To that end, I will present the graduate student’s proposed research, a portion of which is completed and reflected in the paper nearing submission. This final work phase will be completed in the next 12 months. This final workphase will likely result in 1-2 additional publications and we consider the results (as exemplified by the current paper) high quality. The continuing results will acknowledge the funding provided by DOE grant DE-FG-08ER64649.

  16. Final Report: Imaging of Buried Nanoscale Optically Active Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Appelbaum, Ian

    2011-07-05

    This is a final report covering work done at University of Maryland to develop a Ballistic Electron Emission Luminescence (BEEL) microscope. This technique was intended to examine the carrier transport and photon emission in deeply buried optically-active layers and thereby provide a means for materials science to unmask the detailed consequences of experimentally controllable growth parameters, such as quantum dot size, statistics and orientation, and defect density and charge recombination pathways.

  17. Finally a breakthrough?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paldam, Martin; Doucouliagos, Hristos

    2015-01-01

    The authors have previously surveyed the AEL, aid (empirical) effectiveness literature, using the technique of meta-analysis. We reached the result that the small positive effect of aid on growth found in the average study is mostly a publication selection bias. This present study concentrates on...

  18. Narrative Finality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armine Kotin Mortimer

    1981-01-01

    Full Text Available The cloturai device of narration as salvation represents the lack of finality in three novels. In De Beauvoir's Tous les hommes sont mortels an immortal character turns his story to account, but the novel makes a mockery of the historical sense by which men define themselves. In the closing pages of Butor's La Modification , the hero plans to write a book to save himself. Through the thrice-considered portrayal of the Paris-Rome relationship, the ending shows the reader how to bring about closure, but this collective critique written by readers will always be a future book. Simon's La Bataille de Pharsale , the most radical attempt to destroy finality, is an infinite text. No new text can be written. This extreme of perversion guarantees bliss (jouissance . If the ending of De Beauvoir's novel transfers the burden of non-final world onto a new victim, Butor's non-finality lies in the deferral to a future writing, while Simon's writer is stuck in a writing loop, in which writing has become its own end and hence can have no end. The deconstructive and tragic form of contemporary novels proclaims the loss of belief in a finality inherent in the written text, to the profit of writing itself.

  19. Final Report on investigations of the influence of helium concentration and implantation rate on cavity nucleation and growth during neutron irradiation of Fe and EUROFER 97

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eldrup, M.; Singh, B.N.; Golubov, S.

    2010-09-01

    Model have been carried out for neutron irradiation with and without prior He implantation and for different implantation rates for comparison with the experimental results. Further, the purpose was to evaluate the role of helium in cavity nucleation and growth during 14 MeV neutron irradiation in a fusion reactor. Calculations were carried out for the experimental temperatures of 323 K and 623 K, i.e. below and above the recovery stage V. In general, the calculations agree qualitatively with the experimental observations and in some cases quantitatively. In this way the calculations give an experimentally supported detailed insight into the evolution of the cavity microstructure under different conditions. (author)

  20. Final Report on investigations of the influence of helium concentration and implantation rate on cavity nucleation and growth during neutron irradiation of Fe and EUROFER 97

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eldrup, M.; Singh, B.N. (Risoe DTU, Materials Research Div., Roskilde (Denmark)); Golubov, S. (Materials Science and Technology Div., Oak Ridge National Lab., Oak Ridge (United States))

    2010-09-15

    framework of the Production Bias Model have been carried out for neutron irradiation with and without prior He implantation and for different implantation rates for comparison with the experimental results. Further, the purpose was to evaluate the role of helium in cavity nucleation and growth during 14 MeV neutron irradiation in a fusion reactor. Calculations were carried out for the experimental temperatures of 323 K and 623 K, i.e. below and above the recovery stage V. In general, the calculations agree qualitatively with the experimental observations and in some cases quantitatively. In this way the calculations give an experimentally supported detailed insight into the evolution of the cavity microstructure under different conditions. (author)

  1. A technique to identify annual growth rings in Eucalyptus grandis using annual measurements of diameter at breast height and gamma ray densitometry

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Naidoo, Sasha

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available of radial variation in wood density within the context of the growth history of a compartment (by means of annual PSP data), it was possible to corroborate the estimation of annual growth rings on density profiles of E. grandis, especially closer to the bark-end....

  2. Final Report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiselberg, Per; Brohus, Henrik; Nielsen, Peter V.

    This final report for the Hybrid Ventilation Centre at Aalborg University describes the activities and research achievement in the project period from August 2001 to August 2006. The report summarises the work performed and the results achieved with reference to articles and reports published...

  3. Using 15N-glycine trace technique to observe the influence of growth hormone on the rate of whole body protein metabolism in dwarfism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Jingchuan; Wu Zhen; Wu Jizong

    1993-01-01

    The changes of whole body protein metabolism was studied using one oral dose 15 N-glycine. Urine 15 N excretion 24 hours before and after injected growth hormone (GH) was measured in 9 cases of dwarfism. The results showed that in children with growth hormone deficiency (CHD) with low nitrogen balance, rate of protein syntheses and 15 N retention capability were significantly increased after treatment with GH. Children with constitutional growth delay (CGD) with normal parameters of nitrogen balance showed no difference before and after treatment of GH. It was concluded that 15 N trace might be a supplementary tool for the diagnosis and differential diagnosis of dwarfism

  4. Search for pair production of vector-like T and B quarks in single-lepton final states using boosted jet substructure techniques at $\\sqrt{s} = $ 13 TeV

    CERN Document Server

    Sirunyan, A.M.; CMS Collaboration; Adam, Wolfgang; Ambrogi, Federico; Asilar, Ece; Bergauer, Thomas; Brandstetter, Johannes; Brondolin, Erica; Dragicevic, Marko; Erö, Janos; Flechl, Martin; Friedl, Markus; Fruehwirth, Rudolf; Ghete, Vasile Mihai; Grossmann, Johannes; Hrubec, Josef; Jeitler, Manfred; König, Axel; Krammer, Natascha; Krätschmer, Ilse; Liko, Dietrich; Madlener, Thomas; Mikulec, Ivan; Pree, Elias; Rabady, Dinyar; Rad, Navid; Rohringer, Herbert; Schieck, Jochen; Schöfbeck, Robert; Spanring, Markus; Spitzbart, Daniel; Strauss, Josef; Waltenberger, Wolfgang; Wittmann, Johannes; Wulz, Claudia-Elisabeth; Zarucki, Mateusz; Chekhovsky, Vladimir; Mossolov, Vladimir; Suarez Gonzalez, Juan; De Wolf, Eddi A; Di Croce, Davide; Janssen, Xavier; Lauwers, Jasper; Van De Klundert, Merijn; Van Haevermaet, Hans; Van Mechelen, Pierre; Van Remortel, Nick; Van Spilbeeck, Alex; Abu Zeid, Shimaa; Blekman, Freya; D'Hondt, Jorgen; De Bruyn, Isabelle; De Clercq, Jarne; Deroover, Kevin; Flouris, Giannis; Lontkovskyi, Denys; Lowette, Steven; Moortgat, Seth; Moreels, Lieselotte; Olbrechts, Annik; Python, Quentin; Skovpen, Kirill; Tavernier, Stefaan; Van Doninck, Walter; Van Mulders, Petra; Van Parijs, Isis; Brun, Hugues; Clerbaux, Barbara; De Lentdecker, Gilles; Delannoy, Hugo; Fasanella, Giuseppe; Favart, Laurent; Goldouzian, Reza; Grebenyuk, Anastasia; Karapostoli, Georgia; Lenzi, Thomas; Luetic, Jelena; Maerschalk, Thierry; Marinov, Andrey; Randle-conde, Aidan; Seva, Tomislav; Vander Velde, Catherine; Vanlaer, Pascal; Vannerom, David; Yonamine, Ryo; Zenoni, Florian; Zhang, Fengwangdong; Cimmino, Anna; Cornelis, Tom; Dobur, Didar; Fagot, Alexis; Gul, Muhammad; Khvastunov, Illia; Poyraz, Deniz; Roskas, Christos; Salva Diblen, Sinem; Tytgat, Michael; Verbeke, Willem; Zaganidis, Nicolas; Bakhshiansohi, Hamed; Bondu, Olivier; Brochet, Sébastien; Bruno, Giacomo; Caudron, Adrien; De Visscher, Simon; Delaere, Christophe; Delcourt, Martin; Francois, Brieuc; Giammanco, Andrea; Jafari, Abideh; Komm, Matthias; Krintiras, Georgios; Lemaitre, Vincent; Magitteri, Alessio; Mertens, Alexandre; Musich, Marco; Piotrzkowski, Krzysztof; Quertenmont, Loic; Vidal Marono, Miguel; Wertz, Sébastien; Beliy, Nikita; Aldá Júnior, Walter Luiz; Alves, Fábio Lúcio; Alves, Gilvan; Brito, Lucas; Correa Martins Junior, Marcos; Hensel, Carsten; Moraes, Arthur; Pol, Maria Elena; Rebello Teles, Patricia; Belchior Batista Das Chagas, Ewerton; Carvalho, Wagner; Chinellato, Jose; Custódio, Analu; Melo Da Costa, Eliza; Da Silveira, Gustavo Gil; De Jesus Damiao, Dilson; Fonseca De Souza, Sandro; Huertas Guativa, Lina Milena; Malbouisson, Helena; Melo De Almeida, Miqueias; Mora Herrera, Clemencia; Mundim, Luiz; Nogima, Helio; Santoro, Alberto; Sznajder, Andre; Tonelli Manganote, Edmilson José; Torres Da Silva De Araujo, Felipe; Vilela Pereira, Antonio; Ahuja, Sudha; Bernardes, Cesar Augusto; Tomei, Thiago; De Moraes Gregores, Eduardo; Mercadante, Pedro G; Moon, Chang-Seong; Novaes, Sergio F; Padula, Sandra; Romero Abad, David; Ruiz Vargas, José Cupertino; Aleksandrov, Aleksandar; Hadjiiska, Roumyana; Iaydjiev, Plamen; Misheva, Milena; Rodozov, Mircho; Shopova, Mariana; Stoykova, Stefka; Sultanov, Georgi; Dimitrov, Anton; Glushkov, Ivan; Litov, Leander; Pavlov, Borislav; Petkov, Peicho; Fang, Wenxing; Gao, Xuyang; Ahmad, Muhammad; Bian, Jian-Guo; Chen, Guo-Ming; Chen, He-Sheng; Chen, Mingshui; Chen, Ye; Jiang, Chun-Hua; Leggat, Duncan; Liu, Zhenan; Romeo, Francesco; Shaheen, Sarmad Masood; Spiezia, Aniello; Tao, Junquan; Wang, Chunjie; Wang, Zheng; Yazgan, Efe; Zhang, Huaqiao; Zhao, Jingzhou; Ban, Yong; Chen, Geng; Li, Qiang; Liu, Shuai; Mao, Yajun; Qian, Si-Jin; Wang, Dayong; Xu, Zijun; Avila, Carlos; Cabrera, Andrés; Chaparro Sierra, Luisa Fernanda; Florez, Carlos; González Hernández, Carlos Felipe; Ruiz Alvarez, José David; Courbon, Benoit; Godinovic, Nikola; Lelas, Damir; Puljak, Ivica; Ribeiro Cipriano, Pedro M; Sculac, Toni; Antunovic, Zeljko; Kovac, Marko; Brigljevic, Vuko; Ferencek, Dinko; Kadija, Kreso; Mesic, Benjamin; Susa, Tatjana; Ather, Mohsan Waseem; Attikis, Alexandros; Mavromanolakis, Georgios; Mousa, Jehad; Nicolaou, Charalambos; Ptochos, Fotios; Razis, Panos A; Rykaczewski, Hans; Finger, Miroslav; Finger Jr, Michael; Carrera Jarrin, Edgar; Abdelalim, Ahmed Ali; Mohammed, Yasser; Salama, Elsayed; Dewanjee, Ram Krishna; Kadastik, Mario; Perrini, Lucia; Raidal, Martti; Tiko, Andres; Veelken, Christian; Eerola, Paula; Pekkanen, Juska; Voutilainen, Mikko; Härkönen, Jaakko; Jarvinen, Terhi; Karimäki, Veikko; Kinnunen, Ritva; Lampén, Tapio; Lassila-Perini, Kati; Lehti, Sami; Lindén, Tomas; Luukka, Panja-Riina; Tuominen, Eija; Tuominiemi, Jorma; Tuovinen, Esa; Talvitie, Joonas; Tuuva, Tuure; Besancon, Marc; Couderc, Fabrice; Dejardin, Marc; Denegri, Daniel; Faure, Jean-Louis; Ferri, Federico; Ganjour, Serguei; Ghosh, Saranya; Givernaud, Alain; Gras, Philippe; Hamel de Monchenault, Gautier; Jarry, Patrick; Kucher, Inna; Locci, Elizabeth; Machet, Martina; Malcles, Julie; Negro, Giulia; Rander, John; Rosowsky, André; Sahin, Mehmet Özgür; Titov, Maksym; Abdulsalam, Abdulla; Antropov, Iurii; Baffioni, Stephanie; Beaudette, Florian; Busson, Philippe; Cadamuro, Luca; Charlot, Claude; Davignon, Olivier; Granier de Cassagnac, Raphael; Jo, Mihee; Lisniak, Stanislav; Lobanov, Artur; Martin Blanco, Javier; Nguyen, Matthew; Ochando, Christophe; Ortona, Giacomo; Paganini, Pascal; Pigard, Philipp; Regnard, Simon; Salerno, Roberto; Sauvan, Jean-Baptiste; Sirois, Yves; Stahl Leiton, Andre Govinda; Strebler, Thomas; Yilmaz, Yetkin; Zabi, Alexandre; Zghiche, Amina; Agram, Jean-Laurent; Andrea, Jeremy; Bloch, Daniel; Brom, Jean-Marie; Buttignol, Michael; Chabert, Eric Christian; Chanon, Nicolas; Collard, Caroline; Conte, Eric; Coubez, Xavier; Fontaine, Jean-Charles; Gelé, Denis; Goerlach, Ulrich; Jansová, Markéta; Le Bihan, Anne-Catherine; Van Hove, Pierre; Gadrat, Sébastien; Beauceron, Stephanie; Bernet, Colin; Boudoul, Gaelle; Chierici, Roberto; Contardo, Didier; Depasse, Pierre; El Mamouni, Houmani; Fay, Jean; Finco, Linda; Gascon, Susan; Gouzevitch, Maxime; Grenier, Gérald; Ille, Bernard; Lagarde, Francois; Laktineh, Imad Baptiste; Lethuillier, Morgan; Mirabito, Laurent; Pequegnot, Anne-Laure; Perries, Stephane; Popov, Andrey; Sordini, Viola; Vander Donckt, Muriel; Viret, Sébastien; Khvedelidze, Arsen; Bagaturia, Iuri; Autermann, Christian; Beranek, Sarah; Feld, Lutz; Kiesel, Maximilian Knut; Klein, Katja; Lipinski, Martin; Preuten, Marius; Schomakers, Christian; Schulz, Johannes; Verlage, Tobias; Albert, Andreas; Brodski, Michael; Dietz-Laursonn, Erik; Duchardt, Deborah; Endres, Matthias; Erdmann, Martin; Erdweg, Sören; Esch, Thomas; Fischer, Robert; Güth, Andreas; Hamer, Matthias; Hebbeker, Thomas; Heidemann, Carsten; Hoepfner, Kerstin; Knutzen, Simon; Merschmeyer, Markus; Meyer, Arnd; Millet, Philipp; Mukherjee, Swagata; Olschewski, Mark; Padeken, Klaas; Pook, Tobias; Radziej, Markus; Reithler, Hans; Rieger, Marcel; Scheuch, Florian; Teyssier, Daniel; Thüer, Sebastian; Flügge, Günter; Kargoll, Bastian; Kress, Thomas; Künsken, Andreas; Lingemann, Joschka; Müller, Thomas; Nehrkorn, Alexander; Nowack, Andreas; Pistone, Claudia; Pooth, Oliver; Stahl, Achim; Aldaya Martin, Maria; Arndt, Till; Asawatangtrakuldee, Chayanit; Beernaert, Kelly; Behnke, Olaf; Behrens, Ulf; Bin Anuar, Afiq Aizuddin; Borras, Kerstin; Botta, Valeria; Campbell, Alan; Connor, Patrick; Contreras-Campana, Christian; Costanza, Francesco; Diez Pardos, Carmen; Eckerlin, Guenter; Eckstein, Doris; Eichhorn, Thomas; Eren, Engin; Gallo, Elisabetta; Garay Garcia, Jasone; Geiser, Achim; Gizhko, Andrii; Grados Luyando, Juan Manuel; Grohsjean, Alexander; Gunnellini, Paolo; Harb, Ali; Hauk, Johannes; Hempel, Maria; Jung, Hannes; Kalogeropoulos, Alexis; Kasemann, Matthias; Keaveney, James; Kleinwort, Claus; Korol, Ievgen; Krücker, Dirk; Lange, Wolfgang; Lelek, Aleksandra; Lenz, Teresa; Leonard, Jessica; Lipka, Katerina; Lohmann, Wolfgang; Mankel, Rainer; Melzer-Pellmann, Isabell-Alissandra; Meyer, Andreas Bernhard; Mittag, Gregor; Mnich, Joachim; Mussgiller, Andreas; Ntomari, Eleni; Pitzl, Daniel; Placakyte, Ringaile; Raspereza, Alexei; Roland, Benoit; Savitskyi, Mykola; Saxena, Pooja; Shevchenko, Rostyslav; Spannagel, Simon; Stefaniuk, Nazar; Van Onsem, Gerrit Patrick; Walsh, Roberval; Wen, Yiwen; Wichmann, Katarzyna; Wissing, Christoph; Zenaiev, Oleksandr; Bein, Samuel; Blobel, Volker; Centis Vignali, Matteo; Draeger, Arne-Rasmus; Dreyer, Torben; Garutti, Erika; Gonzalez, Daniel; Haller, Johannes; Hoffmann, Malte; Junkes, Alexandra; Karavdina, Anastasia; Klanner, Robert; Kogler, Roman; Kovalchuk, Nataliia; Kurz, Simon; Lapsien, Tobias; Marchesini, Ivan; Marconi, Daniele; Meyer, Mareike; Niedziela, Marek; Nowatschin, Dominik; Pantaleo, Felice; Peiffer, Thomas; Perieanu, Adrian; Scharf, Christian; Schleper, Peter; Schmidt, Alexander; Schumann, Svenja; Schwandt, Joern; Sonneveld, Jory; Stadie, Hartmut; Steinbrück, Georg; Stober, Fred-Markus Helmut; Stöver, Marc; Tholen, Heiner; Troendle, Daniel; Usai, Emanuele; Vanelderen, Lukas; Vanhoefer, Annika; Vormwald, Benedikt; Akbiyik, Melike; Barth, Christian; Baur, Sebastian; Butz, Erik; Caspart, René; Chwalek, Thorsten; Colombo, Fabio; De Boer, Wim; Dierlamm, Alexander; Freund, Benedikt; Friese, Raphael; Giffels, Manuel; Gilbert, Andrew; Haitz, Dominik; Hartmann, Frank; Heindl, Stefan Michael; Husemann, Ulrich; Kassel, Florian; Kudella, Simon; Mildner, Hannes; Mozer, Matthias Ulrich; Müller, Thomas; Plagge, Michael; Quast, Gunter; Rabbertz, Klaus; Schröder, Matthias; Shvetsov, Ivan; Sieber, Georg; Simonis, Hans-Jürgen; Ulrich, Ralf; Wayand, Stefan; Weber, Marc; Weiler, Thomas; Williamson, Shawn; Wöhrmann, Clemens; Wolf, Roger; Anagnostou, Georgios; Daskalakis, Georgios; Geralis, Theodoros; Giakoumopoulou, Viktoria Athina; Kyriakis, Aristotelis; Loukas, Demetrios; Topsis-Giotis, Iasonas; Kesisoglou, Stilianos; Panagiotou, Apostolos; Saoulidou, Niki; Evangelou, Ioannis; Foudas, Costas; Kokkas, Panagiotis; Manthos, Nikolaos; Papadopoulos, Ioannis; Paradas, Evangelos; Strologas, John; Triantis, Frixos A; Csanad, Mate; Filipovic, Nicolas; Pasztor, Gabriella; Bencze, Gyorgy; Hajdu, Csaba; Horvath, Dezso; Hunyadi, Ádám; Sikler, Ferenc; Veszpremi, Viktor; Vesztergombi, Gyorgy; Zsigmond, Anna Julia; Beni, Noemi; Czellar, Sandor; Karancsi, János; Makovec, Alajos; Molnar, Jozsef; Szillasi, Zoltan; Bartók, Márton; Raics, Peter; Trocsanyi, Zoltan Laszlo; Ujvari, Balazs; Choudhury, Somnath; Komaragiri, Jyothsna Rani; Bahinipati, Seema; Bhowmik, Sandeep; Mal, Prolay; Mandal, Koushik; Nayak, Aruna; Sahoo, Deepak Kumar; Sahoo, Niladribihari; Swain, Sanjay Kumar; Bansal, Sunil; Beri, Suman Bala; Bhatnagar, Vipin; Bhawandeep, Bhawandeep; Chawla, Ridhi; Dhingra, Nitish; Kalsi, Amandeep Kaur; Kaur, Anterpreet; Kaur, Manjit; Kumar, Ramandeep; Kumari, Priyanka; Mehta, Ankita; Singh, Jasbir; Walia, Genius; Kumar, Ashok; Shah, Aashaq; Bhardwaj, Ashutosh; Chauhan, Sushil; Choudhary, Brajesh C; Garg, Rocky Bala; Keshri, Sumit; Kumar, Ajay; Malhotra, Shivali; Naimuddin, Md; Ranjan, Kirti; Sharma, Ramkrishna; Sharma, Varun; Bhardwaj, Rishika; Bhattacharya, Rajarshi; Bhattacharya, Satyaki; Dey, Sourav; Dutt, Suneel; Dutta, Suchandra; Ghosh, Shamik; Majumdar, Nayana; Modak, Atanu; Mondal, Kuntal; Mukhopadhyay, Supratik; Nandan, Saswati; Purohit, Arnab; Roy, Ashim; Roy, Debarati; Roy Chowdhury, Suvankar; Sarkar, Subir; Sharan, Manoj; Thakur, Shalini; Behera, Prafulla Kumar; Chudasama, Ruchi; Dutta, Dipanwita; Jha, Vishwajeet; Kumar, Vineet; Mohanty, Ajit Kumar; Netrakanti, Pawan Kumar; Pant, Lalit Mohan; Shukla, Prashant; Topkar, Anita; Aziz, Tariq; Dugad, Shashikant; Mahakud, Bibhuprasad; Mitra, Soureek; Mohanty, Gagan Bihari; Parida, Bibhuti; Sur, Nairit; Sutar, Bajrang; Banerjee, Sudeshna; Bhattacharya, Soham; Chatterjee, Suman; Das, Pallabi; Guchait, Monoranjan; Jain, Sandhya; Kumar, Sanjeev; Maity, Manas; Majumder, Gobinda; Mazumdar, Kajari; Sarkar, Tanmay; Wickramage, Nadeesha; Chauhan, Shubhanshu; Dube, Sourabh; Hegde, Vinay; Kapoor, Anshul; Kothekar, Kunal; Pandey, Shubham; Rane, Aditee; Sharma, Seema; Chenarani, Shirin; Eskandari Tadavani, Esmaeel; Etesami, Seyed Mohsen; Khakzad, Mohsen; Mohammadi Najafabadi, Mojtaba; Naseri, Mohsen; Paktinat Mehdiabadi, Saeid; Rezaei Hosseinabadi, Ferdos; Safarzadeh, Batool; Zeinali, Maryam; Felcini, Marta; Grunewald, Martin; Abbrescia, Marcello; Calabria, Cesare; Caputo, Claudio; Colaleo, Anna; Creanza, Donato; Cristella, Leonardo; De Filippis, Nicola; De Palma, Mauro; Errico, Filippo; Fiore, Luigi; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Maggi, Giorgio; Maggi, Marcello; Miniello, Giorgia; My, Salvatore; Nuzzo, Salvatore; Pompili, Alexis; Pugliese, Gabriella; Radogna, Raffaella; Ranieri, Antonio; Selvaggi, Giovanna; Sharma, Archana; Silvestris, Lucia; Venditti, Rosamaria; Verwilligen, Piet; Abbiendi, Giovanni; Battilana, Carlo; Bonacorsi, Daniele; Braibant-Giacomelli, Sylvie; Brigliadori, Luca; Campanini, Renato; Capiluppi, Paolo; Castro, Andrea; Cavallo, Francesca Romana; Chhibra, Simranjit Singh; Codispoti, Giuseppe; Cuffiani, Marco; Dallavalle, Gaetano-Marco; Fabbri, Fabrizio; Fanfani, Alessandra; Fasanella, Daniele; Giacomelli, Paolo; Guiducci, Luigi; Marcellini, Stefano; Masetti, Gianni; Navarria, Francesco; Perrotta, Andrea; Rossi, Antonio; Rovelli, Tiziano; Siroli, Gian Piero; Tosi, Nicolò; Albergo, Sebastiano; Costa, Salvatore; Di Mattia, Alessandro; Giordano, Ferdinando; Potenza, Renato; Tricomi, Alessia; Tuve, Cristina; Barbagli, Giuseppe; Chatterjee, Kalyanmoy; Ciulli, Vitaliano; Civinini, Carlo; D'Alessandro, Raffaello; Focardi, Ettore; Lenzi, Piergiulio; Meschini, Marco; Paoletti, Simone; Russo, Lorenzo; Sguazzoni, Giacomo; Strom, Derek; Viliani, Lorenzo; Benussi, Luigi; Bianco, Stefano; Fabbri, Franco; Piccolo, Davide; Primavera, Federica; Calvelli, Valerio; Ferro, Fabrizio; Robutti, Enrico; Tosi, Silvano; Brianza, Luca; Brivio, Francesco; Ciriolo, Vincenzo; Dinardo, Mauro Emanuele; Fiorendi, Sara; Gennai, Simone; Ghezzi, Alessio; Govoni, Pietro; Malberti, Martina; Malvezzi, Sandra; Manzoni, Riccardo Andrea; Menasce, Dario; Moroni, Luigi; Paganoni, Marco; Pauwels, Kristof; Pedrini, Daniele; Pigazzini, Simone; Ragazzi, Stefano; Tabarelli de Fatis, Tommaso; Buontempo, Salvatore; Cavallo, Nicola; Di Guida, Salvatore; Fabozzi, Francesco; Fienga, Francesco; Iorio, Alberto Orso Maria; Khan, Wajid Ali; Lista, Luca; Meola, Sabino; Paolucci, Pierluigi; Sciacca, Crisostomo; Thyssen, Filip; Azzi, Patrizia; Bacchetta, Nicola; Benato, Lisa; Boletti, Alessio; Carlin, Roberto; Carvalho Antunes De Oliveira, Alexandra; Checchia, Paolo; Dall'Osso, Martino; De Castro Manzano, Pablo; Dorigo, Tommaso; Dosselli, Umberto; Gasparini, Ugo; Gozzelino, Andrea; Lacaprara, Stefano; Margoni, Martino; Meneguzzo, Anna Teresa; Pozzobon, Nicola; Ronchese, Paolo; Rossin, Roberto; Sgaravatto, Massimo; Simonetto, Franco; Torassa, Ezio; Ventura, Sandro; Zanetti, Marco; Zotto, Pierluigi; Zumerle, Gianni; Braghieri, Alessandro; Fallavollita, Francesco; Magnani, Alice; Montagna, Paolo; Ratti, Sergio P; Re, Valerio; Ressegotti, Martina; Riccardi, Cristina; Salvini, Paola; Vai, Ilaria; Vitulo, Paolo; Alunni Solestizi, Luisa; Bilei, Gian Mario; Ciangottini, Diego; Fanò, Livio; Lariccia, Paolo; Leonardi, Roberto; Mantovani, Giancarlo; Mariani, Valentina; Menichelli, Mauro; Saha, Anirban; Santocchia, Attilio; Spiga, Daniele; Androsov, Konstantin; Azzurri, Paolo; Bagliesi, Giuseppe; Bernardini, Jacopo; Boccali, Tommaso; Borrello, Laura; Castaldi, Rino; Ciocci, Maria Agnese; Dell'Orso, Roberto; Fedi, Giacomo; Giannini, Leonardo; Giassi, Alessandro; Grippo, Maria Teresa; Ligabue, Franco; Lomtadze, Teimuraz; Manca, Elisabetta; Mandorli, Giulio; Martini, Luca; Messineo, Alberto; Palla, Fabrizio; Rizzi, Andrea; Savoy-Navarro, Aurore; Spagnolo, Paolo; Tenchini, Roberto; Tonelli, Guido; Venturi, Andrea; Verdini, Piero Giorgio; Barone, Luciano; Cavallari, Francesca; Cipriani, Marco; Del Re, Daniele; Diemoz, Marcella; Gelli, Simone; Longo, Egidio; Margaroli, Fabrizio; Marzocchi, Badder; Meridiani, Paolo; Organtini, Giovanni; Paramatti, Riccardo; Preiato, Federico; Rahatlou, Shahram; Rovelli, Chiara; Santanastasio, Francesco; Amapane, Nicola; Arcidiacono, Roberta; Argiro, Stefano; Arneodo, Michele; Bartosik, Nazar; Bellan, Riccardo; Biino, Cristina; Cartiglia, Nicolo; Cenna, Francesca; Costa, Marco; Covarelli, Roberto; Degano, Alessandro; Demaria, Natale; Kiani, Bilal; Mariotti, Chiara; Maselli, Silvia; Migliore, Ernesto; Monaco, Vincenzo; Monteil, Ennio; Monteno, Marco; Obertino, Maria Margherita; Pacher, Luca; Pastrone, Nadia; Pelliccioni, Mario; Pinna Angioni, Gian Luca; Ravera, Fabio; Romero, Alessandra; Ruspa, Marta; Sacchi, Roberto; Shchelina, Ksenia; Sola, Valentina; Solano, Ada; Staiano, Amedeo; Traczyk, Piotr; Belforte, Stefano; Casarsa, Massimo; Cossutti, Fabio; Della Ricca, Giuseppe; Zanetti, Anna; Kim, Dong Hee; Kim, Gui Nyun; Kim, Min Suk; Lee, Jeongeun; Lee, Sangeun; Lee, Seh Wook; Oh, Young Do; Sekmen, Sezen; Son, Dong-Chul; Yang, Yu Chul; Lee, Ari; Kim, Hyunchul; Moon, Dong Ho; Oh, Geonhee; Brochero Cifuentes, Javier Andres; Goh, Junghwan; Kim, Tae Jeong; Cho, Sungwoong; Choi, Suyong; Go, Yeonju; Gyun, Dooyeon; Ha, Seungkyu; Hong, Byung-Sik; Jo, Youngkwon; Kim, Yongsun; Lee, Kisoo; Lee, Kyong Sei; Lee, Songkyo; Lim, Jaehoon; Park, Sung Keun; Roh, Youn; Almond, John; Kim, Junho; Kim, Jae Sung; Lee, Haneol; Lee, Kyeongpil; Nam, Kyungwook; Oh, Sung Bin; Radburn-Smith, Benjamin Charles; Seo, Seon-hee; Yang, Unki; Yoo, Hwi Dong; Yu, Geum Bong; Choi, Minkyoo; Kim, Hyunyong; Kim, Ji Hyun; Lee, Jason Sang Hun; Park, Inkyu; Ryu, Geonmo; Choi, Young-Il; Hwang, Chanwook; Lee, Jongseok; Yu, Intae; Dudenas, Vytautas; Juodagalvis, Andrius; Vaitkus, Juozas; Ahmed, Ijaz; Ibrahim, Zainol Abidin; Md Ali, Mohd Adli Bin; Mohamad Idris, Faridah; Wan Abdullah, Wan Ahmad Tajuddin; Yusli, Mohd Nizam; Zolkapli, Zukhaimira; Castilla-Valdez, Heriberto; De La Cruz-Burelo, Eduard; Heredia-De La Cruz, Ivan; Lopez-Fernandez, Ricardo; Mejia Guisao, Jhovanny; Sánchez Hernández, Alberto; Carrillo Moreno, Salvador; Oropeza Barrera, Cristina; Vazquez Valencia, Fabiola; Pedraza, Isabel; Salazar Ibarguen, Humberto Antonio; Uribe Estrada, Cecilia; Morelos Pineda, Antonio; Krofcheck, David; Butler, Philip H; Ahmad, Ashfaq; Ahmad, Muhammad; Hassan, Qamar; Hoorani, Hafeez R; Saddique, Asif; Shah, Mehar Ali; Shoaib, Muhammad; Waqas, Muhammad; Bialkowska, Helena; Bluj, Michal; Boimska, Bozena; Frueboes, Tomasz; Górski, Maciej; Kazana, Malgorzata; Nawrocki, Krzysztof; Romanowska-Rybinska, Katarzyna; Szleper, Michal; Zalewski, Piotr; Bunkowski, Karol; Byszuk, Adrian; Doroba, Krzysztof; Kalinowski, Artur; Konecki, Marcin; Krolikowski, Jan; Misiura, Maciej; Olszewski, Michal; Pyskir, Andrzej; Walczak, Marek; Bargassa, Pedrame; Beirão Da Cruz E Silva, Cristóvão; Calpas, Betty; Di Francesco, Agostino; Faccioli, Pietro; Gallinaro, Michele; Hollar, Jonathan; Leonardo, Nuno; Lloret Iglesias, Lara; Nemallapudi, Mythra Varun; Seixas, Joao; Toldaiev, Oleksii; Vadruccio, Daniele; Varela, Joao; Afanasiev, Serguei; Bunin, Pavel; Gavrilenko, Mikhail; Golutvin, Igor; Gorbunov, Ilya; Kamenev, Alexey; Karjavin, Vladimir; Lanev, Alexander; Malakhov, Alexander; Matveev, Viktor; Palichik, Vladimir; Perelygin, Victor; Shmatov, Sergey; Shulha, Siarhei; Skatchkov, Nikolai; Smirnov, Vitaly; Voytishin, Nikolay; Zarubin, Anatoli; Ivanov, Yury; Kim, Victor; Kuznetsova, Ekaterina; Levchenko, Petr; Murzin, Victor; Oreshkin, Vadim; Smirnov, Igor; Sulimov, Valentin; Uvarov, Lev; Vavilov, Sergey; Vorobyev, Alexey; Andreev, Yuri; Dermenev, Alexander; Gninenko, Sergei; Golubev, Nikolai; Karneyeu, Anton; Kirsanov, Mikhail; Krasnikov, Nikolai; Pashenkov, Anatoli; Tlisov, Danila; Toropin, Alexander; Epshteyn, Vladimir; Gavrilov, Vladimir; Lychkovskaya, Natalia; Popov, Vladimir; Pozdnyakov, Ivan; Safronov, Grigory; Spiridonov, Alexander; Stepennov, Anton; Toms, Maria; Vlasov, Evgueni; Zhokin, Alexander; Aushev, Tagir; Bylinkin, Alexander; Chistov, Ruslan; Danilov, Mikhail; Parygin, Pavel; Philippov, Dmitry; Polikarpov, Sergey; Tarkovskii, Evgenii; Andreev, Vladimir; Azarkin, Maksim; Dremin, Igor; Kirakosyan, Martin; Terkulov, Adel; Baskakov, Alexey; Belyaev, Andrey; Boos, Edouard; Bunichev, Viacheslav; Dubinin, Mikhail; Dudko, Lev; Ershov, Alexander; Gribushin, Andrey; Klyukhin, Vyacheslav; Kodolova, Olga; Lokhtin, Igor; Miagkov, Igor; Obraztsov, Stepan; Perfilov, Maxim; Savrin, Viktor; Blinov, Vladimir; Skovpen, Yuri; Shtol, Dmitry; Azhgirey, Igor; Bayshev, Igor; Bitioukov, Sergei; Elumakhov, Dmitry; Kachanov, Vassili; Kalinin, Alexey; Konstantinov, Dmitri; Krychkine, Victor; Petrov, Vladimir; Ryutin, Roman; Sobol, Andrei; Troshin, Sergey; Tyurin, Nikolay; Uzunian, Andrey; Volkov, Alexey; Adzic, Petar; Cirkovic, Predrag; Devetak, Damir; Dordevic, Milos; Milosevic, Jovan; Rekovic, Vladimir; Alcaraz Maestre, Juan; Barrio Luna, Mar; Cerrada, Marcos; Colino, Nicanor; De La Cruz, Begona; Delgado Peris, Antonio; Escalante Del Valle, Alberto; Fernandez Bedoya, Cristina; Fernández Ramos, Juan Pablo; Flix, Jose; Fouz, Maria Cruz; Garcia-Abia, Pablo; Gonzalez Lopez, Oscar; Goy Lopez, Silvia; Hernandez, Jose M; Josa, Maria Isabel; Pérez-Calero Yzquierdo, Antonio María; Puerta Pelayo, Jesus; Quintario Olmeda, Adrián; Redondo, Ignacio; Romero, Luciano; Senghi Soares, Mara; Álvarez Fernández, Adrian; de Trocóniz, Jorge F; Missiroli, Marino; Moran, Dermot; Cuevas, Javier; Erice, Carlos; Fernandez Menendez, Javier; Gonzalez Caballero, Isidro; González Fernández, Juan Rodrigo; Palencia Cortezon, Enrique; Sanchez Cruz, Sergio; Suárez Andrés, Ignacio; Vischia, Pietro; Vizan Garcia, Jesus Manuel; Cabrillo, Iban Jose; Calderon, Alicia; Chazin Quero, Barbara; Curras, Esteban; Fernandez, Marcos; Garcia-Ferrero, Juan; Gomez, Gervasio; Lopez Virto, Amparo; Marco, Jesus; Martinez Rivero, Celso; Martinez Ruiz del Arbol, Pablo; Matorras, Francisco; Piedra Gomez, Jonatan; Rodrigo, Teresa; Ruiz-Jimeno, Alberto; Scodellaro, Luca; Trevisani, Nicolò; Vila, Ivan; Vilar Cortabitarte, Rocio; Abbaneo, Duccio; Auffray, Etiennette; Baillon, Paul; Ball, Austin; Barney, David; Bianco, Michele; Bloch, Philippe; Bocci, Andrea; Botta, Cristina; Camporesi, Tiziano; Castello, Roberto; Cepeda, Maria; Cerminara, Gianluca; Chapon, Emilien; Chen, Yi; D'Enterria, David; Dabrowski, Anne; Daponte, Vincenzo; David Tinoco Mendes, Andre; De Gruttola, Michele; De Roeck, Albert; Di Marco, Emanuele; Dobson, Marc; Dorney, Brian; Du Pree, Tristan; Dünser, Marc; Dupont, Niels; Elliott-Peisert, Anna; Everaerts, Pieter; Franzoni, Giovanni; Fulcher, Jonathan; Funk, Wolfgang; Gigi, Dominique; Gill, Karl; Glege, Frank; Gulhan, Doga; Gundacker, Stefan; Guthoff, Moritz; Harris, Philip; Hegeman, Jeroen; Innocente, Vincenzo; Janot, Patrick; Karacheban, Olena; Kieseler, Jan; Kirschenmann, Henning; Knünz, Valentin; Kornmayer, Andreas; Kortelainen, Matti J; Lange, Clemens; Lecoq, Paul; Lourenco, Carlos; Lucchini, Marco Toliman; Malgeri, Luca; Mannelli, Marcello; Martelli, Arabella; Meijers, Frans; Merlin, Jeremie Alexandre; Mersi, Stefano; Meschi, Emilio; Milenovic, Predrag; Moortgat, Filip; Mulders, Martijn; Neugebauer, Hannes; Orfanelli, Styliani; Orsini, Luciano; Pape, Luc; Perez, Emmanuel; Peruzzi, Marco; Petrilli, Achille; Petrucciani, Giovanni; Pfeiffer, Andreas; Pierini, Maurizio; Racz, Attila; Reis, Thomas; Rolandi, Gigi; Rovere, Marco; Sakulin, Hannes; Schäfer, Christoph; Schwick, Christoph; Seidel, Markus; Selvaggi, Michele; Sharma, Archana; Silva, Pedro; Sphicas, Paraskevas; Steggemann, Jan; Stoye, Markus; Tosi, Mia; Treille, Daniel; Triossi, Andrea; Tsirou, Andromachi; Veckalns, Viesturs; Veres, Gabor Istvan; Verweij, Marta; Wardle, Nicholas; Zeuner, Wolfram Dietrich; Bertl, Willi; Deiters, Konrad; Erdmann, Wolfram; Horisberger, Roland; Ingram, Quentin; Kaestli, Hans-Christian; Kotlinski, Danek; Langenegger, Urs; Rohe, Tilman; Wiederkehr, Stephan Albert; Bachmair, Felix; Bäni, Lukas; Berger, Pirmin; Bianchini, Lorenzo; Casal, Bruno; Dissertori, Günther; Dittmar, Michael; Donegà, Mauro; Grab, Christoph; Heidegger, Constantin; Hits, Dmitry; Hoss, Jan; Kasieczka, Gregor; Klijnsma, Thomas; Lustermann, Werner; Mangano, Boris; Marionneau, Matthieu; Meinhard, Maren Tabea; Meister, Daniel; Micheli, Francesco; Musella, Pasquale; Nessi-Tedaldi, Francesca; Pandolfi, Francesco; Pata, Joosep; Pauss, Felicitas; Perrin, Gaël; Perrozzi, Luca; Quittnat, Milena; Rossini, Marco; Schönenberger, Myriam; Shchutska, Lesya; Starodumov, Andrei; Tavolaro, Vittorio Raoul; Theofilatos, Konstantinos; Vesterbacka Olsson, Minna Leonora; Wallny, Rainer; Zagozdzinska, Agnieszka; Zhu, De Hua; Aarrestad, Thea Klaeboe; Amsler, Claude; Caminada, Lea; Canelli, Maria Florencia; De Cosa, Annapaola; Donato, Silvio; Galloni, Camilla; Hinzmann, Andreas; Hreus, Tomas; Kilminster, Benjamin; Ngadiuba, Jennifer; Pinna, Deborah; Rauco, Giorgia; Robmann, Peter; Salerno, Daniel; Seitz, Claudia; Zucchetta, Alberto; Candelise, Vieri; Doan, Thi Hien; Jain, Shilpi; Khurana, Raman; Konyushikhin, Maxim; Kuo, Chia-Ming; Lin, Willis; Pozdnyakov, Andrey; Yu, Shin-Shan; Kumar, Arun; Chang, Paoti; Chao, Yuan; Chen, Kai-Feng; Chen, Po-Hsun; Fiori, Francesco; Hou, George Wei-Shu; Hsiung, Yee; Liu, Yueh-Feng; Lu, Rong-Shyang; Miñano Moya, Mercedes; Paganis, Efstathios; Psallidas, Andreas; Tsai, Jui-fa; Asavapibhop, Burin; Kovitanggoon, Kittikul; Singh, Gurpreet; Srimanobhas, Norraphat; Adiguzel, Aytul; Boran, Fatma; Damarseckin, Serdal; Demiroglu, Zuhal Seyma; Dozen, Candan; Eskut, Eda; Girgis, Semiray; Gokbulut, Gul; Guler, Yalcin; Hos, Ilknur; Kangal, Evrim Ersin; Kara, Ozgun; Kayis Topaksu, Aysel; Kiminsu, Ugur; Oglakci, Mehmet; Onengut, Gulsen; Ozdemir, Kadri; Ozturk, Sertac; Polatoz, Ayse; Tali, Bayram; Turkcapar, Semra; Zorbakir, Ibrahim Soner; Zorbilmez, Caglar; Bilin, Bugra; Karapinar, Guler; Ocalan, Kadir; Yalvac, Metin; Zeyrek, Mehmet; Gülmez, Erhan; Kaya, Mithat; Kaya, Ozlem; Tekten, Sevgi; Yetkin, Elif Asli; Nazlim Agaras, Merve; Atay, Serhat; Cakir, Altan; Cankocak, Kerem; Grynyov, Boris; Levchuk, Leonid; Sorokin, Pavel; Aggleton, Robin; Ball, Fionn; Beck, Lana; Brooke, James John; Burns, Douglas; Clement, Emyr; Cussans, David; Flacher, Henning; Goldstein, Joel; Grimes, Mark; Heath, Greg P; Heath, Helen F; Jacob, Jeson; Kreczko, Lukasz; Lucas, Chris; Newbold, Dave M; Paramesvaran, Sudarshan; Poll, Anthony; Sakuma, Tai; Seif El Nasr-storey, Sarah; Smith, Dominic; Smith, Vincent J; Bell, Ken W; Belyaev, Alexander; Brew, Christopher; Brown, Robert M; Calligaris, Luigi; Cieri, Davide; Cockerill, David JA; Coughlan, John A; Harder, Kristian; Harper, Sam; Olaiya, Emmanuel; Petyt, David; Shepherd-Themistocleous, Claire; Thea, Alessandro; Tomalin, Ian R; Williams, Thomas; Baber, Mark; Bainbridge, Robert; Breeze, Shane; Buchmuller, Oliver; Bundock, Aaron; Casasso, Stefano; Citron, Matthew; Colling, David; Corpe, Louie; Dauncey, Paul; Davies, Gavin; De Wit, Adinda; Della Negra, Michel; Di Maria, Riccardo; Dunne, Patrick; Elwood, Adam; Futyan, David; Haddad, Yacine; Hall, Geoffrey; Iles, Gregory; James, Thomas; Lane, Rebecca; Laner, Christian; Lyons, Louis; Magnan, Anne-Marie; Malik, Sarah; Mastrolorenzo, Luca; Matsushita, Takashi; Nash, Jordan; Nikitenko, Alexander; Pela, Joao; Pesaresi, Mark; Raymond, David Mark; Richards, Alexander; Rose, Andrew; Scott, Edward; Seez, Christopher; Shtipliyski, Antoni; Summers, Sioni; Tapper, Alexander; Uchida, Kirika; Vazquez Acosta, Monica; Virdee, Tejinder; Winterbottom, Daniel; Wright, Jack; Zenz, Seth Conrad; Cole, Joanne; Hobson, Peter R; Khan, Akram; Kyberd, Paul; Reid, Ivan; Symonds, Philip; Teodorescu, Liliana; Turner, Mark; Borzou, Ahmad; Call, Kenneth; Dittmann, Jay; Hatakeyama, Kenichi; Liu, Hongxuan; Pastika, Nathaniel; Bartek, Rachel; Dominguez, Aaron; Buccilli, Andrew; Cooper, Seth; Henderson, Conor; Rumerio, Paolo; West, Christopher; Arcaro, Daniel; Avetisyan, Aram; Bose, Tulika; Gastler, Daniel; Rankin, Dylan; Richardson, Clint; Rohlf, James; Sulak, Lawrence; Zou, David; Benelli, Gabriele; Cutts, David; Garabedian, Alex; Hakala, John; Heintz, Ulrich; Hogan, Julie Managan; Kwok, Ka Hei Martin; Laird, Edward; Landsberg, Greg; Mao, Zaixing; Narain, Meenakshi; Piperov, Stefan; Sagir, Sinan; Syarif, Rizki; Yu, David; Band, Reyer; Brainerd, Christopher; Burns, Dustin; Calderon De La Barca Sanchez, Manuel; Chertok, Maxwell; Conway, John; Conway, Rylan; Cox, Peter Timothy; Erbacher, Robin; Flores, Chad; Funk, Garrett; Gardner, Michael; Ko, Winston; Lander, Richard; Mclean, Christine; Mulhearn, Michael; Pellett, Dave; Pilot, Justin; Shalhout, Shalhout; Shi, Mengyao; Smith, John; Squires, Michael; Stolp, Dustin; Tos, Kyle; Tripathi, Mani; Wang, Zhangqier; Bachtis, Michail; Bravo, Cameron; Cousins, Robert; Dasgupta, Abhigyan; Florent, Alice; Hauser, Jay; Ignatenko, Mikhail; Mccoll, Nickolas; Saltzberg, David; Schnaible, Christian; Valuev, Vyacheslav; Bouvier, Elvire; Burt, Kira; Clare, Robert; Ellison, John Anthony; Gary, J William; Ghiasi Shirazi, Seyyed Mohammad Amin; Hanson, Gail; Heilman, Jesse; Jandir, Pawandeep; Kennedy, Elizabeth; Lacroix, Florent; Long, Owen Rosser; Olmedo Negrete, Manuel; Paneva, Mirena Ivova; Shrinivas, Amithabh; Si, Weinan; Wei, Hua; Wimpenny, Stephen; Yates, Brent; Branson, James G; Cittolin, Sergio; Derdzinski, Mark; Hashemi, Bobak; Holzner, André; Klein, Daniel; Kole, Gouranga; Krutelyov, Vyacheslav; Letts, James; Macneill, Ian; Masciovecchio, Mario; Olivito, Dominick; Padhi, Sanjay; Pieri, Marco; Sani, Matteo; Sharma, Vivek; Simon, Sean; Tadel, Matevz; Vartak, Adish; Wasserbaech, Steven; Wood, John; Würthwein, Frank; Yagil, Avraham; Zevi Della Porta, Giovanni; Amin, Nick; Bhandari, Rohan; Bradmiller-Feld, John; Campagnari, Claudio; Dishaw, Adam; Dutta, Valentina; Franco Sevilla, Manuel; George, Christopher; Golf, Frank; Gouskos, Loukas; Gran, Jason; Heller, Ryan; Incandela, Joe; Mullin, Sam Daniel; Ovcharova, Ana; Qu, Huilin; Richman, Jeffrey; Stuart, David; Suarez, Indara; Yoo, Jaehyeok; Anderson, Dustin; Bendavid, Joshua; Bornheim, Adolf; Lawhorn, Jay Mathew; Newman, Harvey B; Nguyen, Thong; Pena, Cristian; Spiropulu, Maria; Vlimant, Jean-Roch; Xie, Si; Zhang, Zhicai; Zhu, Ren-Yuan; Andrews, Michael Benjamin; Ferguson, Thomas; Mudholkar, Tanmay; Paulini, Manfred; Russ, James; Sun, Menglei; Vogel, Helmut; Vorobiev, Igor; Weinberg, Marc; Cumalat, John Perry; Ford, William T; Jensen, Frank; Johnson, Andrew; Krohn, Michael; Leontsinis, Stefanos; Mulholland, Troy; Stenson, Kevin; Wagner, Stephen Robert; Alexander, James; Chaves, Jorge; Chu, Jennifer; Dittmer, Susan; Mcdermott, Kevin; Mirman, Nathan; Patterson, Juliet Ritchie; Rinkevicius, Aurelijus; Ryd, Anders; Skinnari, Louise; Soffi, Livia; Tan, Shao Min; Tao, Zhengcheng; Thom, Julia; Tucker, Jordan; Wittich, Peter; Zientek, Margaret; Abdullin, Salavat; Albrow, Michael; Apollinari, Giorgio; Apresyan, Artur; Apyan, Aram; Banerjee, Sunanda; Bauerdick, Lothar AT; Beretvas, Andrew; Berryhill, Jeffrey; Bhat, Pushpalatha C; Bolla, Gino; Burkett, Kevin; Butler, Joel Nathan; Canepa, Anadi; Cerati, Giuseppe Benedetto; Cheung, Harry; Chlebana, Frank; Cremonesi, Matteo; Duarte, Javier; Elvira, Victor Daniel; Freeman, Jim; Gecse, Zoltan; Gottschalk, Erik; Gray, Lindsey; Green, Dan; Grünendahl, Stefan; Gutsche, Oliver; Harris, Robert M; Hasegawa, Satoshi; Hirschauer, James; Hu, Zhen; Jayatilaka, Bodhitha; Jindariani, Sergo; Johnson, Marvin; Joshi, Umesh; Klima, Boaz; Kreis, Benjamin; Lammel, Stephan; Lincoln, Don; Lipton, Ron; Liu, Miaoyuan; Liu, Tiehui; Lopes De Sá, Rafael; Lykken, Joseph; Maeshima, Kaori; Magini, Nicolo; Marraffino, John Michael; Maruyama, Sho; Mason, David; McBride, Patricia; Merkel, Petra; Mrenna, Stephen; Nahn, Steve; O'Dell, Vivian; Pedro, Kevin; Prokofyev, Oleg; Rakness, Gregory; Ristori, Luciano; Schneider, Basil; Sexton-Kennedy, Elizabeth; Soha, Aron; Spalding, William J; Spiegel, Leonard; Stoynev, Stoyan; Strait, James; Strobbe, Nadja; Taylor, Lucas; Tkaczyk, Slawek; Tran, Nhan Viet; Uplegger, Lorenzo; Vaandering, Eric Wayne; Vernieri, Caterina; Verzocchi, Marco; Vidal, Richard; Wang, Michael; Weber, Hannsjoerg Artur; Whitbeck, Andrew; Acosta, Darin; Avery, Paul; Bortignon, Pierluigi; Brinkerhoff, Andrew; Carnes, Andrew; Carver, Matthew; Curry, David; Das, Souvik; Field, Richard D; Furic, Ivan-Kresimir; Konigsberg, Jacobo; Korytov, Andrey; Kotov, Khristian; Ma, Peisen; Matchev, Konstantin; Mei, Hualin; Mitselmakher, Guenakh; Rank, Douglas; Sperka, David; Terentyev, Nikolay; Thomas, Laurent; Wang, Jian; Wang, Sean-Jiun; Yelton, John; Joshi, Yagya Raj; Linn, Stephan; Markowitz, Pete; Martinez, German; Rodriguez, Jorge Luis; Ackert, Andrew; Adams, Todd; Askew, Andrew; Hagopian, Sharon; Hagopian, Vasken; Johnson, Kurtis F; Kolberg, Ted; Perry, Thomas; Prosper, Harrison; Santra, Arka; Yohay, Rachel; Baarmand, Marc M; Bhopatkar, Vallary; Colafranceschi, Stefano; Hohlmann, Marcus; Noonan, Daniel; Roy, Titas; Yumiceva, Francisco; Adams, Mark Raymond; Apanasevich, Leonard; Berry, Douglas; Betts, Russell Richard; Cavanaugh, Richard; Chen, Xuan; Evdokimov, Olga; Gerber, Cecilia Elena; Hangal, Dhanush Anil; Hofman, David Jonathan; Jung, Kurt; Kamin, Jason; Sandoval Gonzalez, Irving Daniel; Tonjes, Marguerite; Trauger, Hallie; Varelas, Nikos; Wang, Hui; Wu, Zhenbin; Zhang, Jingyu; Bilki, Burak; Clarida, Warren; Dilsiz, Kamuran; Durgut, Süleyman; Gandrajula, Reddy Pratap; Haytmyradov, Maksat; Khristenko, Viktor; Merlo, Jean-Pierre; Mermerkaya, Hamit; Mestvirishvili, Alexi; Moeller, Anthony; Nachtman, Jane; Ogul, Hasan; Onel, Yasar; Ozok, Ferhat; Penzo, Aldo; Snyder, Christina; Tiras, Emrah; Wetzel, James; Yi, Kai; Blumenfeld, Barry; Cocoros, Alice; Eminizer, Nicholas; Fehling, David; Feng, Lei; Gritsan, Andrei; Maksimovic, Petar; Roskes, Jeffrey; Sarica, Ulascan; Swartz, Morris; Xiao, Meng; You, Can; Al-bataineh, Ayman; Baringer, Philip; Bean, Alice; Boren, Samuel; Bowen, James; Castle, James; Khalil, Sadia; Kropivnitskaya, Anna; Majumder, Devdatta; Mcbrayer, William; Murray, Michael; Royon, Christophe; Sanders, Stephen; Schmitz, Erich; Stringer, Robert; Tapia Takaki, Daniel; Wang, Quan; Ivanov, Andrew; Kaadze, Ketino; Maravin, Yurii; Mohammadi, Abdollah; Saini, Lovedeep Kaur; Skhirtladze, Nikoloz; Toda, Sachiko; Rebassoo, Finn; Wright, Douglas; Anelli, Christopher; Baden, Drew; Baron, Owen; Belloni, Alberto; Calvert, Brian; Eno, Sarah Catherine; Ferraioli, Charles; Hadley, Nicholas John; Jabeen, Shabnam; Jeng, Geng-Yuan; Kellogg, Richard G; Kunkle, Joshua; Mignerey, Alice; Ricci-Tam, Francesca; Shin, Young Ho; Skuja, Andris; Tonwar, Suresh C; Abercrombie, Daniel; Allen, Brandon; Azzolini, Virginia; Barbieri, Richard; Baty, Austin; Bi, Ran; Brandt, Stephanie; Busza, Wit; Cali, Ivan Amos; D'Alfonso, Mariarosaria; Demiragli, Zeynep; Gomez Ceballos, Guillelmo; Goncharov, Maxim; Hsu, Dylan; Iiyama, Yutaro; Innocenti, Gian Michele; Klute, Markus; Kovalskyi, Dmytro; Lai, Yue Shi; Lee, Yen-Jie; Levin, Andrew; Luckey, Paul David; Maier, Benedikt; Marini, Andrea Carlo; Mcginn, Christopher; Mironov, Camelia; Narayanan, Siddharth; Niu, Xinmei; Paus, Christoph; Roland, Christof; Roland, Gunther; Salfeld-Nebgen, Jakob; Stephans, George; Tatar, Kaya; Velicanu, Dragos; Wang, Jing; Wang, Ta-Wei; Wyslouch, Bolek; Benvenuti, Alberto; Chatterjee, Rajdeep Mohan; Evans, Andrew; Hansen, Peter; Kalafut, Sean; Kubota, Yuichi; Lesko, Zachary; Mans, Jeremy; Nourbakhsh, Shervin; Ruckstuhl, Nicole; Rusack, Roger; Turkewitz, Jared; Acosta, John Gabriel; Oliveros, Sandra; Avdeeva, Ekaterina; Bloom, Kenneth; Claes, Daniel R; Fangmeier, Caleb; Gonzalez Suarez, Rebeca; Kamalieddin, Rami; Kravchenko, Ilya; Monroy, Jose; Siado, Joaquin Emilo; Snow, Gregory R; Stieger, Benjamin; Alyari, Maral; Dolen, James; Godshalk, Andrew; Harrington, Charles; Iashvili, Ia; Nguyen, Duong; Parker, Ashley; Rappoccio, Salvatore; Roozbahani, Bahareh; Alverson, George; Barberis, Emanuela; Hortiangtham, Apichart; Massironi, Andrea; Morse, David Michael; Nash, David; Orimoto, Toyoko; Teixeira De Lima, Rafael; Trocino, Daniele; Wang, Ren-Jie; Wood, Darien; Bhattacharya, Saptaparna; Charaf, Otman; Hahn, Kristan Allan; Mucia, Nicholas; Odell, Nathaniel; Pollack, Brian; Schmitt, Michael Henry; Sung, Kevin; Trovato, Marco; Velasco, Mayda; Dev, Nabarun; Hildreth, Michael; Hurtado Anampa, Kenyi; Jessop, Colin; Karmgard, Daniel John; Kellams, Nathan; Lannon, Kevin; Loukas, Nikitas; Marinelli, Nancy; Meng, Fanbo; Mueller, Charles; Musienko, Yuri; Planer, Michael; Reinsvold, Allison; Ruchti, Randy; Smith, Geoffrey; Taroni, Silvia; Wayne, Mitchell; Wolf, Matthias; Woodard, Anna; Alimena, Juliette; Antonelli, Louis; Bylsma, Ben; Durkin, Lloyd Stanley; Flowers, Sean; Francis, Brian; Hart, Andrew; Hill, Christopher; Ji, Weifeng; Liu, Bingxuan; Luo, Wuming; Puigh, Darren; Winer, Brian L; Wulsin, Howard Wells; Benaglia, Andrea; Cooperstein, Stephane; Driga, Olga; Elmer, Peter; Hardenbrook, Joshua; Hebda, Philip; Lange, David; Luo, Jingyu; Marlow, Daniel; Mei, Kelvin; Ojalvo, Isabel; Olsen, James; Palmer, Christopher; Piroué, Pierre; Stickland, David; Svyatkovskiy, Alexey; Tully, Christopher; Malik, Sudhir; Norberg, Scarlet; Barker, Anthony; Barnes, Virgil E; Folgueras, Santiago; Gutay, Laszlo; Jha, Manoj; Jones, Matthew; Jung, Andreas Werner; Khatiwada, Ajeeta; Miller, David Harry; Neumeister, Norbert; Schulte, Jan-Frederik; Sun, Jian; Wang, Fuqiang; Xie, Wei; Cheng, Tongguang; Parashar, Neeti; Stupak, John; Adair, Antony; Akgun, Bora; Chen, Zhenyu; Ecklund, Karl Matthew; Geurts, Frank JM; Guilbaud, Maxime; Li, Wei; Michlin, Benjamin; Northup, Michael; Padley, Brian Paul; Roberts, Jay; Rorie, Jamal; Tu, Zhoudunming; Zabel, James; Bodek, Arie; de Barbaro, Pawel; Demina, Regina; Duh, Yi-ting; Ferbel, Thomas; Galanti, Mario; Garcia-Bellido, Aran; Han, Jiyeon; Hindrichs, Otto; Khukhunaishvili, Aleko; Lo, Kin Ho; Tan, Ping; Verzetti, Mauro; Ciesielski, Robert; Goulianos, Konstantin; Mesropian, Christina; Agapitos, Antonis; Chou, John Paul; Gershtein, Yuri; Gómez Espinosa, Tirso Alejandro; Halkiadakis, Eva; Heindl, Maximilian; Hughes, Elliot; Kaplan, Steven; Kunnawalkam Elayavalli, Raghav; Kyriacou, Savvas; Lath, Amitabh; Montalvo, Roy; Nash, Kevin; Osherson, Marc; Saka, Halil; Salur, Sevil; Schnetzer, Steve; Sheffield, David; Somalwar, Sunil; Stone, Robert; Thomas, Scott; Thomassen, Peter; Walker, Matthew; Foerster, Mark; Heideman, Joseph; Riley, Grant; Rose, Keith; Spanier, Stefan; Thapa, Krishna; Bouhali, Othmane; Castaneda Hernandez, Alfredo; Celik, Ali; Dalchenko, Mykhailo; De Mattia, Marco; Delgado, Andrea; Dildick, Sven; Eusebi, Ricardo; Gilmore, Jason; Huang, Tao; Kamon, Teruki; Mueller, Ryan; Pakhotin, Yuriy; Patel, Rishi; Perloff, Alexx; Perniè, Luca; Rathjens, Denis; Safonov, Alexei; Tatarinov, Aysen; Ulmer, Keith; Akchurin, Nural; Damgov, Jordan; De Guio, Federico; Dudero, Phillip Russell; Faulkner, James; Gurpinar, Emine; Kunori, Shuichi; Lamichhane, Kamal; Lee, Sung Won; Libeiro, Terence; Peltola, Timo; Undleeb, Sonaina; Volobouev, Igor; Wang, Zhixing; Greene, Senta; Gurrola, Alfredo; Janjam, Ravi; Johns, Willard; Maguire, Charles; Melo, Andrew; Ni, Hong; Sheldon, Paul; Tuo, Shengquan; Velkovska, Julia; Xu, Qiao; Arenton, Michael Wayne; Barria, Patrizia; Cox, Bradley; Hirosky, Robert; Ledovskoy, Alexander; Li, Hengne; Neu, Christopher; Sinthuprasith, Tutanon; Sun, Xin; Wang, Yanchu; Wolfe, Evan; Xia, Fan; Clarke, Christopher; Harr, Robert; Karchin, Paul Edmund; Sturdy, Jared; Zaleski, Shawn; Buchanan, James; Caillol, Cécile; Dasu, Sridhara; Dodd, Laura; Duric, Senka; Gomber, Bhawna; Grothe, Monika; Herndon, Matthew; Hervé, Alain; Hussain, Usama; Klabbers, Pamela; Lanaro, Armando; Levine, Aaron; Long, Kenneth; Loveless, Richard; Pierro, Giuseppe Antonio; Polese, Giovanni; Ruggles, Tyler; Savin, Alexander; Smith, Nicholas; Smith, Wesley H; Taylor, Devin; Woods, Nathaniel

    2017-11-15

    A search for pair production of massive vector-like T and B quarks in proton-proton collisions at $\\sqrt{s} = $ 13 TeV is presented. The data set was collected in 2015 by the CMS experiment at the LHC and corresponds to an integrated luminosity of up to 2.6 fb$^{-1}$. The T and B quarks are assumed to decay through three possible channels into a heavy boson (either a W, Z or Higgs boson) and a third generation quark. This search is performed in final states with one charged lepton and several jets, exploiting techniques to identify W or Higgs bosons decaying hadronically with large transverse momenta. No excess over the predicted standard model background is observed. Upper limits at 95% confidence level on the T quark pair production cross section are set that exclude T quark masses below 860 GeV in the singlet, and below 830 GeV in the doublet branching fraction scenario. For other branching fraction combinations with $\\mathcal{B}(\\mathrm{ t }\\mathrm{ H }) + \\mathcal{B}(\\mathrm{ b }\\mathrm{ W }) \\geq $ 0.4,...

  5. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stinis, Panos [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-08-07

    This is the final report for the work conducted at the University of Minnesota (during the period 12/01/12-09/18/14) by PI Panos Stinis as part of the "Collaboratory on Mathematics for Mesoscopic Modeling of Materials" (CM4). CM4 is a multi-institution DOE-funded project whose aim is to conduct basic and applied research in the emerging field of mesoscopic modeling of materials.

  6. Applicability of a 'marker-technique' to support the examination of crack growth behaviour in brittle and ductile Ni-alloys at 500 and 750 C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwarze, D.; Schubert, F.

    1999-12-01

    The crack growth behaviour of materials for application in turbines at temperatures of 500- 750 C has been investigated. The creep and fatigue service loadings of a real turbine disc were simulated by introducing hold-times. The materials tested were the superalloy PM N18, Inconel 617 and the intermetallic phase β-NiAl of nominally stoichiometric composition. The crack growth tests were conducted in air and in vacuum (10 -5 mbar) to assess the influence of the test atmosphere. One of the main objectives was to develop a marker method and its application, as support for the crack growth tests carried out. The width of the marker required for the marker bands could be chosen through the number of stress cycles or the crack growth increment in the marker-cycle. At 500 C, the crack surfaces of the CT specimens of Inconel 617 and PM N18 exhibited mixed fractures with trans- and intercrystalline regions. The fracture development could be divided into three, classical parts. At his temperature for both alloys the K I concept for the evaluation of the crack growth may be used. The RCT specimens of the intermetallic phase β-NiAl fractured in a completely brittle manner with no measurable time to failure. At 500 C, Inconel 617 and especially PM N18 were well suited to the use of the marker method. Measurements of the distances between the marker bands gave a good estimate of the crack growth rates. At the higher test temperature of 750 C, the crack growth rates and the proportion of intercrystalline fracture increased for Inconel 617 and PM N18. In all three materials, the formation of pores and dimpled fracture was observed, especially at high ΔK I values, and the coarse-grained β-NiAl exhibited higher crack growth rates than the fine-grained material. For this temperature the evaluation of the crack growth experiments should be by the K I concept for PM N18 and for Inconel 617 the C * concept is recommended. At the higher test temperature, the increased plasticity of

  7. Nucleation and diffusion during growth of ternary Co1-xNixSi2 thin films studied by complementary techniques in real time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeets, D.; Demeulemeester, J.; De Keyser, K.; Deduytsche, D.; Detavernier, C.; Comrie, C. M.; Theron, C. C.; Lavoie, C.; Vantomme, A.

    2008-11-01

    The growth kinetics of ternary Co1-xNixSi2 thin films was studied in real time. The "Kissinger" method was applied to the results of ramped sheet resistance measurements to extract the apparent activation energy for the growth process. By simultaneously acquiring sheet resistance, x-ray diffraction and laser light scattering data on one hand and combining resistance measurements and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry on the other hand, we could distinguish between the initial, nucleation controlled thin film growth, and the subsequent diffusion controlled growth. The apparent activation energy for the initial growth decreases with increasing Ni concentration as a result of a lower nucleation barrier for the ternary disilicide. The markedly different microstructure of the ternary Co1-xNixSi2 films with respect to pure CoSi2 layers lies at the origin of a lower activation energy for the diffusion controlled growth of the ternary films. Despite the low activation energy, these films grow at a much slower rate than CoSi2 films due to the large grain size and consequently lower density of grain boundary diffusion paths. These results explain the unexpected high thermal budget required for the formation of low resistivity Co1-xNixSi2 thin films.

  8. Conclusiones finales

    OpenAIRE

    Guerrero Gaitán, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    La investigación realizada permite extraer las siguientes conclusiones finales que serán agrupadas según los principales problemas abordados: 1. En relación a las cláusulas que impiden una adecuada transferencia de tecnología, en la presente investigación se demuestra: Primero. Que las cláusulas más frecuentes recogidas en los contratos internacionales de transferencia de tecnología son: la fijación de precios, las restricciones a la investigación y adaptación de la tecnología objeto del cont...

  9. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R Paul Drake

    2004-01-12

    OAK-B135 This is the final report from the project Hydrodynamics by High-Energy-Density Plasma Flow and Hydrodynamics and Radiation Hydrodynamics with Astrophysical Applications. This project supported a group at the University of Michigan in the invention, design, performance, and analysis of experiments using high-energy-density research facilities. The experiments explored compressible nonlinear hydrodynamics, in particular at decelerating interfaces, and the radiation hydrodynamics of strong shock waves. It has application to supernovae, astrophysical jets, shock-cloud interactions, and radiative shock waves.

  10. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooke, Stephen

    2014-08-31

    Uranium-containing and thorium-containing compounds have been produced using a laser ablation source. Spectral transitions from these compounds in the 6 GHz to 18 GHz frequency region have been recorded using advanced techniques in Fourier transform microwave spectroscopy. The pure rotational spectrum of thorium (II) oxide is particularly strong and rotational transitions have been observed in highly excited vibrational states. These measurements have allowed a further characterization of the molecules potential energy well.

  11. Use of nuclear and related techniques in studies of agroecological effects resulting from the use of persistent pesticides in Central America. Report of a final research co-ordination meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-09-01

    The use of pesticides for the control of pests of agriculture and vectors of human and animal diseases in the countries of Central America is the highest per capita and one of the most intense in the world. There are reports of acute toxicity and chronic effects among farm workers. There are also reports that pesticide residues in food frequently exceed the Codex Alimentarius Commission's maximum residue levels (MRLs) and shipments of foodstuffs have been rejected by importing countries due to the presence of excessive residues of pesticides. Pesticides are also implicated in the contamination of continental and coastal waters. The indiscriminate use of pesticides would be expected to also aggravate pest problems by adversely affecting populations of beneficial arthropods and causing the development of resistance in pest populations. The Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture initiated a co-ordinated research project in 1992 to generate information on residues of pesticides in the environment, their persistence under local conditions and effect on local species of beneficial arthropods in agricultural and adjacent areas in the countries of Central America. Such information could be used in the implementation of legislation to control the distribution and use of pesticides and the development and application of integrated pest management programmes. Scientists from Costa Rica, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, Panama and the United States of America participated in this project. This TECDOC reports on the accomplishments of the project and includes the papers presented at the final Research Co-ordination Meeting held in Panama City, Panama, 20-24 April 1998

  12. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jarillo-Herrero, Pablo [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2017-02-07

    This is the final report of our research program on electronic transport experiments on Topological Insulator (TI) devices, funded by the DOE Office of Basic Energy Sciences. TI-based electronic devices are attractive as platforms for spintronic applications, and for detection of emergent properties such as Majorana excitations , electron-hole condensates , and the topological magneto-electric effect . Most theoretical proposals envision geometries consisting of a planar TI device integrated with materials of distinctly different physical phases (such as ferromagnets and superconductors). Experimental realization of physics tied to the surface states is a challenge due to the ubiquitous presence of bulk carriers in most TI compounds as well as degradation during device fabrication.

  13. Co-ordinated research project on use of isotopic techniques to examine the significance of infection and other insults in early childhood to diarrhoea morbidity, mal-assimilation and failure to thrive. Report on the final research co-ordination meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori has been recognized as a major etiologic factor in the development of chronic gastritis and peptic ulcer disease in adults and children. The infection has been linked to the development of gastric cancer, and in 1994 was classified as a group 1 carcinogen by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. The prevalence of H. pylori infection is inversely correlated to the socio-economic development and to unsatisfactory prevailing sanitary conditions. In developing countries, up to 90% of the adult population is colonized with this agent. In contrast, its prevalence in developed countries is lower, ranging from 25 to 50%. H. pylori colonization has been considered a public health problem, since its highest incidence occurs during the first few years of life, when children are growing and developing rapidly. The acquisition of the infection occurs mainly in early childhood, especially in developing countries, but the age at which it is acquired remains unknown. Infection with H. pylori during early infancy could be the initial step of a reaction which facilitates enteric infection in childhood leading to recurrent diarrhoea, malnutrition and growth failure. Micronutrient deficiencies resulting from these conditions may in turn facilitate malnutrition, immunological dysfunction and the persistence of infection. The 13 C-urea breath test ( 13 C-UBT), which has been used extensively in developed countries, is a technique that is non invasive, reliable, comparatively cheap and without risk to patients. It is also convenient for use in field-based settings; it is currently considered the 'gold standard' against which all other techniques are compared. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), initiated the current Coordinated Research Project (CRP) with the principal objective of promoting the use of the 13 C-urea breath test technique in the participating countries to study the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori and its impact on health and

  14. Elimination of V-shaped pits in InGaN/GaN/AlN/GaN heterostructure by metal modulation growth technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Apurba; Bag, Ankush; Mukhopadhyay, Partha; Ghosh, Saptarsi; Biswas, Dhrubes

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, we have demonstrated the growth process of higher Indium content indium gallium nitride (InGaN) epitaxial layer of InGaN/GaN/AlN/GaN heterostructure without any V-shaped pits formation on the growth surface. The epitaxial InGaN with In fraction of 16%, 22% and 26% has been grown by using metal modulation growth scheme. The direct growth of relaxed InGaN structures with In content of 16% and 22% on GaN/AlN/GaN periodic layer shows higher density of V-shaped pits on the surface, as the InGaN epilayer is experienced to higher lattice relaxation and threading dislocation density. But for the 26% In mole heterostructure, the V pits are mitigated by varying the Indium fraction from 16% to 26% via 22% in bottom to top direction of the structure. The FESEM images have also confirmed the absence of any pits formation in 26% In content InGaN heterostructure, which is due to the lesser lattice relaxation and threading dislocation density. The different contents of Indium are confirmed by room temperature photoluminescence and XRD measurements.

  15. The influence of alternative plant propagation and stand establishment techniques on survival and growth of eastern cottonwood (Populus deltoids Bartr.) clones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald J. Kaczmarek; Randall Rousseau; Jeff A. Wright; Brian Wachelka

    2014-01-01

    Four eastern cottonwood clones, including standard operational clone ST66 and three advanced clonal selections were produced and included in a test utilizing five different plant propagation methods. Despite relatively large first-year growth differences among clones, all clones demonstrated similar responses to the treatments and clone × cutting treatment interactions...

  16. Surface science techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Bracco, Gianangelo

    2013-01-01

    The book describes the experimental techniques employed to study surfaces and interfaces. The emphasis is on the experimental method. Therefore all chapters start with an introduction of the scientific problem, the theory necessary to understand how the technique works and how to understand the results. Descriptions of real experimental setups, experimental results at different systems are given to show both the strength and the limits of the technique. In a final part the new developments and possible extensions of the techniques are presented. The included techniques provide microscopic as well as macroscopic information. They cover most of the techniques used in surface science.

  17. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollingsworth, Jeff

    2014-07-31

    The purpose of this project was to develop tools and techniques to improve the ability of computational scientists to investigate and correct problems (bugs) in their programs. Specifically, the University of Maryland component of this project focused on the problems associated with the finite number of bits available in a computer to represent numeric values. In large scale scientific computation, numbers are frequently added to and multiplied with each other billions of times. Thus even small errors due to the representation of numbers can accumulate into big errors. However, using too many bits to represent a number results in additional computation, memory, and energy costs. Thus it is critical to find the right size for numbers. This project focused on several aspects of this general problem. First, we developed a tool to look for cancelations, the catastrophic loss of precision in numbers due to the addition of two numbers whose actual values are close to each other, but whose representation in a computer is identical or nearly so. Second, we developed a suite of tools to allow programmers to identify exactly how much precision is required for each operation in their program. This tool allows programmers to both verify that enough precision is available, but more importantly find cases where extra precision could be eliminated to allow the program to use less memory, computer time, or energy. These tools use advanced binary modification techniques to allow the analysis of actual optimized code. The system, called Craft, has been applied to a number of benchmarks and real applications.

  18. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Webb, Robert C. [Texas A& M University; Kamon, Teruki [Texas A& M University; Toback, David [Texas A& M University; Safonov, Alexei [Texas A& M University; Dutta, Bhaskar [Texas A& M University; Dimitri, Nanopoulos [Texas A& M University; Pope, Christopher [Texas A& M University; White, James [Texas A& M University

    2013-11-18

    Overview The High Energy Physics Group at Texas A&M University is submitting this final report for our grant number DE-FG02-95ER40917. This grant has supported our wide range of research activities for over a decade. The reports contained here summarize the latest work done by our research team. Task A (Collider Physics Program): CMS & CDF Profs. T. Kamon, A. Safonov, and D. Toback co-lead the Texas A&M (TAMU) collider program focusing on CDF and CMS experiments. Task D: Particle Physics Theory Our particle physics theory task is the combined effort of Profs. B. Dutta, D. Nanopoulos, and C. Pope. Task E (Underground Physics): LUX & NEXT Profs. R. Webb and J. White(deceased) lead the Xenon-based underground research program consisting of two main thrusts: the first, participation in the LUX two-phase xenon dark matter search experiment and the second, detector R&D primarily aimed at developing future detectors for underground physics (e.g. NEXT and LZ).

  19. A novel pre-sintering technique for the growth of Y-Ba-Cu-O superconducting single grains from raw metal oxides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiawei; Shi, Yun-Hua; Dennis, Anthony R.; Namburi, Devendra Kumar; Durrell, John H.; Yang, Wanmin; Cardwell, David A.

    2017-09-01

    Most established top seeded melt growth (TSMG) processes of bulk, single grain Y-Ba-Cu-O (YBCO) superconductors are performed using a mixture of pre-reacted precursor powders. Here we report the successful growth of large, single grain YBCO samples by TSMG with good superconducting properties from a simple precursor composition consisting of a sintered mixture of the raw oxides. The elimination of the requirement to synthesize precursor powders in a separate process prior to melt processing has the potential to reduce significantly the cost of bulk superconductors, which is essential for their commercial exploitation. The growth morphology, microstructure, trapped magnetic field and critical current density, J c, at different positions within the sample and maximum levitation force of the YBCO single grains fabricated by this process are reported. Measurements of the superconducting properties show that the trapped filed can reach 0.45 T and that a zero field J c of 2.5 × 104 A cm-2 can be achieved in these samples. These values are comparable to those observed in samples fabricated using pre-reacted, high purity commercial oxide precursor powders. The experimental results are discussed and the possibility of further improving the melt process using raw oxides is outlined.

  20. Research on oligochitosan production by gamma radiation degradation techniques in pilot scale for application in disease control and growth performance of chickens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tran Thi Thuy; Nguyen Duy Hang; Nguyen Tan Man; Nguyen Trong Hoanh Phong; Pham Thi Sam; Nguyen Tuong Ly Lan; Le Hai; Le Huu Tu; Pham Thi Le Ha; Phan Van Anh

    2015-01-01

    Degradation of chitosan to prepare the low molecular weight chitosan has been carried out by gamma irradiation of chitosan in H 2 O 2 solution. The effects of radiation dose, dose rate, ratio of CTS:H 2 O and H 2 O 2 concentration to the degrading efficiency of chitosan have been investigated. The obtained results showed the chitosan molecular weight reduced with the increase of radiation dose. Chitosan was irradiated at radiation dose 10 kGy in the presence of H 2 O 2 1% its molecular weight achieved 45 kDa. The effect of irradiated chitosan on the growth development and the survival ratio of breeding chickens in the process were also studied. The results shown that low molecular weight chitosan supplement in diets had positive effect of the resistant ability, growth performance and reduced chick mortality. With supplement ratio of 100 mg/kg diets, chitosan 45 kDa had positive affect on growth performance of chicks, the weight of chickens increased 6% and survival ratio was 94.8% while the normal survival ratio was only 92.6%. (author)

  1. Modeling the effects of the vertical temperature gradient in the furnace in an edge-defined film-fed growth technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epure, S.; Braescu, L.; Balint, St.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, the mathematical model for the growth of cylindrical bars described elsewhere is considered. Using MathCAD 11 Enterprise Edition and mathematical tools, the asymptotically stable steady-states (r*, h*) of the nonlinear system of differential equations which governs the evolution of the bar radius r=r(t) and the meniscus height h=h(t), for different values of the pulling rate v, the melt temperature T 0 at the meniscus basis and the vertical temperature gradient k in the furnace, respectively, are found. For a given k, the range of the stable growth regions in the (v, T 0 ) plane (i.e. those couples (v, T 0 ) for which (r*, h*) has physical sense) are determined. The effects of the changes of the vertical temperature gradient k are investigated and it is shown that if v and T 0 are constant, and k increases, then the bar radius r increases and the meniscus height h decreases. Numerical results are given for the silicon bar grown in an edge-defined film-fed growth (E.F.G.) system with a die radius r 0e =20(cmx10 -2 )

  2. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. K. Blasie; W.F. DeGrado; J.G. Saven; M.J. Therien

    2012-05-24

    The overall objective is to create robust artificial protein modules as scaffolds to control both (a) the conformation of novel cofactors incorporated into the modules thereby making the modules possess a desired functionality and (b) the organization of these functional modules into ordered macroscopic ensembles, whose macroscopic materials properties derive from the designed microscopic function of the modules. We focus on two specific types of cofactors for imparting functionality in this project; primarily nonlinear optical (NLO) chromophores designed to exhibit extraordinary molecular hyperpolarizabilities, as well as donor-bridge-acceptor cofactors designed to exhibit highly efficient, 'through-bonds' light-induced electron transfer (LIET) over nano-scale distances. The ensembles range from 2-D to 3-D, designed to possess the degree of orientational and positional order necessary to optimize their macroscopic response, the latter ranging from liquid-crystalline or glass-like to long-range periodic. Computational techniques, firmly based in statistical thermodynamics, are utilized for the design the artificial protein modules, based on robust {alpha}-helical bundle motifs, necessarily incorporating the desired conformation, location, and environment of the cofactor. Importantly, this design approach also includes optimization of the interactions between the modules to promote their organization into ordered macroscopic ensembles in 2-D and 3-D via either directed-assembly or self-assembly. When long-range periodic order is required, the design can be optimized to result a specified lattice symmetry. The structure and functionality of the individual modules are fully characterized at the microscopic level, as well as that of the ensembles at the macroscopic level, employing modern experimental physical-chemical and computational techniques. These include, for example, multi-dimensional NMR, various pump-probe transient spectroscopies to ultrafast time

  3. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gentile, Thomas R.

    2014-03-14

    We propose to extend the technique of polarized neutron scattering into new domains by continued development and application of polarized 3He spin-filters. These devices are particularly relevant to the Spallation Neutron Source, as the polarizing monochromators historically used at reactor sources will usually not be suitable polarizers, and wide-angle polarization analysis will be essential. With prior support from the Office of Science, we have developed neutron spin-filters based on the large spin dependence of the cross section for neutron capture by 3He, and applied these devices to a small angle neutron scattering spectrometer (SANS), polarized neutron reflectometers, a thermal energy single crystal diffractometer (SCD), and a thermal energy triple-axis instrument. Our developments have been adopted for application on the magnetism reflectometer at the SNS and for the NIST Center for Neutron Research (NCNR) 3He user capability. Results from both these programs are emerging. We have made significant progress in the past grant period on wide-angle polarization analysis. We have also performed several studies relevant to continuous optical pumping, including collaboration on experiments that have revealed neutron beam effects on spin filters that are continuously pumped by spin-exchange optical pumping. We contributed to an experiment on a neutron interferometer, in which the successful results obtained are directly related to both 3He cell technology and high accuracy 3He -based neutron polarimetry. Implementation of wide-angle polarization analysis will continue to be key thrust for our work in this new proposal. We will also focus on continuous optical pumping and the fundamental issues that determine the achievable 3He polarization. This project will be carried out by a collaboration involving scientists at NIST, Indiana University, Hamilton College, and the Univ. of Wisconsin who are experts in 3He polarization techniques, and materials scientists from the

  4. Clustering economies based on multiple criteria decision making techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansour Momeni

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available One of the primary concerns on many countries is to determine different important factors affecting economic growth. In this paper, we study some factors such as unemployment rate, inflation ratio, population growth, average annual income, etc to cluster different countries. The proposed model of this paper uses analytical hierarchy process (AHP to prioritize the criteria and then uses a K-mean technique to cluster 59 countries based on the ranked criteria into four groups. The first group includes countries with high standards such as Germany and Japan. In the second cluster, there are some developing countries with relatively good economic growth such as Saudi Arabia and Iran. The third cluster belongs to countries with faster rates of growth compared with the countries located in the second group such as China, India and Mexico. Finally, the fourth cluster includes countries with relatively very low rates of growth such as Jordan, Mali, Niger, etc.

  5. An automated technique for most-probable-number (MPN) analysis of densities of phagotrophic protists with lux-AB labelled bacteria as growth medium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekelund, Flemming; Christensen, Søren; Rønn, Regin

    1999-01-01

    An automated modification of the most-probable-number (MPN) technique has been developed for enumeration of phagotrophic protozoa. The method is based on detection of prey depletion in micro titre plates rather than on presence of protozoa. A transconjugant Pseudomonas fluorescens DR54 labelled...... into micro titre plates amended with a suspension of the transconjugant. After 45 days measurement of light emission allowed detection of individual wells in the titre plates, where protozoan grazing had removed the inoculated bacteria....

  6. FINAL REPORT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juergen Eckert; Anthony K. Cheetham (Principal Investigator)

    2011-03-11

    Hydrogen storage systems based on the readily reversible adsorption of H{sub 2} in porous materials have a number of very attractive properties with the potential to provide superior performance among candidate materials currently being investigated were it not for the fact that the interaction of H{sub 2} with the host material is too weak to permit viable operation at room temperature. Our study has delineated in quantitative detail the structural elements which we believe to be the essential ingredients for the future synthesis of porous materials, where guest-host interactions are intermediate between those found in the carbons and the metal hydrides, i.e. between physisorption and chemisorption, which will result in H{sub 2} binding energies required for room temperature operation. The ability to produce porous materials with much improved hydrogen binding energies depends critically on detailed molecular level analysis of hydrogen binding in such materials. However, characterization of H{sub 2} sorption is almost exclusively carried by thermodynamic measurements, which give average properties for all the sites occupied by H{sub 2} molecules at a particular loading. We have therefore extensively utilized the most powerful of the few molecular level experimental probes available to probe the interactions of hydrogen with porous materials, namely inelastic neutron scattering (INS) spectroscopy of the hindered rotations of the hydrogen molecules adsorbed at various sites, which in turn can be interpreted in a very direct way in by computational studies. This technique can relate spectral signatures of various H{sub 2} molecules adsorbed at binding sites with different degrees of interaction. In the course of this project we have synthesized a rather large number of entirely new hybrid materials, which include structural modifications for improved interactions with adsorbed hydrogen. The results of our systematic studies on many porous materials provide detailed

  7. Pitting growth modelling in buried oil and gas pipelines using statistical techniques; Modelado del crecimiento de picaduras en tuberias enterradas que transportan hidrocarburos utilizando tecnicas estadisticas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velazquez, J. C.; Caleyo, F.; Valorm, A.; Hallen, J. M.

    2011-07-01

    New deterministic and stochastic predictive models are proposed for external pitting corrosion in underground pipelines. The deterministic model takes into consideration the local chemical and physical properties of the soil as well as the pipeline coating to predict the time dependence of pitting depth and rate in a range of soils. This model, based on results from a field study, was used to conduct Monte Carlo simulations that established the probability distribution of pitting depth and growth rate in the studied soils and their evolution over the life of the pipeline. In the last stage of the study, an empirical Markov chain-based stochastic model was developed for predicting the evolution of pitting corrosion depth and rate distributions from the observed properties of the soil. (Author) 18 refs.

  8. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David W. Mazyck; Angela Lindner; CY Wu, Rick Sheahan, Ashok Jain

    2007-06-30

    Nuchar granular activated carbon, perlite, Osmocote slow release ammonium nitrate pellets, and Agrasoke water crystals in a 4:2:1:1 ratio by volume. The biofilter was inoculated with a bacterial culture collected from a Florida pulp and paperboard plant. A non-inoculated biofilter column was also tested. Use of a biological inoculum enriched from biofilm in the pulp and paper process has the potential to enhance the performance of a GAC biofilter. During testing, packing material was removed from the inlet and oulet of the biofilters and analyzed for genetic diversity using molecular techniques. The biofilter inoculated with specifically-enhanced inoculum showed higher bacterial diversity for methylotrophs and all bacteria, as compared to a non-inoculated biofilter. Mixed methylotrophic cultures, selected as potential biofilter inocula, showed increased methanol removal with highest concentrations of nitrogen provided as nitrate.

  9. Pulsed growth techniques in plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy of AlxGa1-xN layers with medium Al content (x=0.4-0.6)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nechaev, D. V.; Brunkov, P. N.; Troshkov, S. I.; Jmerik, V. N.; Ivanov, S. V.

    2015-09-01

    Paper presents the comparative analysis of Metal Modulated Epitaxy (MME) and Droplet Elimination by Thermal Annealing (DETA) techniques in the low-temperature plasma-assisted MBE of thick AlxGa1-xN layers with the medium Al content (x=0.4-0.6) grown under the highly metal-rich conditions. Atomically smooth surface with RMS of about 0.4 nm across the area of 2×2 μm2 has been achieved for AlGaN layers grown at FIII/FN flux ratio of 2.5 and substrate temperature of 700 °C by using DETA. The MME growth of AlGaN epilayers leads to their cracking due to the tensile stress introduced by relaxed GaN interlayers which are formed during the nitrogen exposure of the Ga-enriched AlGaN surface. A new technique based on IR-pyrometry measurements has been developed to monitor in situ metal accumulation and depletion on the growth surface.

  10. Bone tissue engineering scaffolding: computer-aided scaffolding techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thavornyutikarn, Boonlom; Chantarapanich, Nattapon; Sitthiseripratip, Kriskrai; Thouas, George A; Chen, Qizhi

    Tissue engineering is essentially a technique for imitating nature. Natural tissues consist of three components: cells, signalling systems (e.g. growth factors) and extracellular matrix (ECM). The ECM forms a scaffold for its cells. Hence, the engineered tissue construct is an artificial scaffold populated with living cells and signalling molecules. A huge effort has been invested in bone tissue engineering, in which a highly porous scaffold plays a critical role in guiding bone and vascular tissue growth and regeneration in three dimensions. In the last two decades, numerous scaffolding techniques have been developed to fabricate highly interconnective, porous scaffolds for bone tissue engineering applications. This review provides an update on the progress of foaming technology of biomaterials, with a special attention being focused on computer-aided manufacturing (Andrade et al. 2002) techniques. This article starts with a brief introduction of tissue engineering (Bone tissue engineering and scaffolds) and scaffolding materials (Biomaterials used in bone tissue engineering). After a brief reviews on conventional scaffolding techniques (Conventional scaffolding techniques), a number of CAM techniques are reviewed in great detail. For each technique, the structure and mechanical integrity of fabricated scaffolds are discussed in detail. Finally, the advantaged and disadvantage of these techniques are compared (Comparison of scaffolding techniques) and summarised (Summary).

  11. Improving the optical and crystalline properties on CdS thin films growth on small and large area by using CBD technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albor A, M. L.; Flores M, J. M.; Hernandez V, C.; Contreras P, G.; Mejia G, C.; Rueda M, G. [IPN, Escuela Superior de Fisica y Matematicas, Departamento de Fisica, Unidad Profesional Adolfo Lopez Mateos, Zacatenco, 07738 Ciudad de Mexico (Mexico); Gonzalez T, M. A. [IPN, Escuela Superior de Computo, Departamento de Formacion Basica, Unidad Profesional Adolfo Lopez Mateos, 07738 Ciudad de Mexico (Mexico)

    2016-11-01

    CdS polycrystalline thin films have been used as window layer in solar cells; the optical and crystalline quality of the CdS-partner plays and important role in the photovoltaic device performance. CdS thin films were deposited by using Chemical Bath Deposition. The SnO{sub 2}:F substrates used were chemically treated with HCl (0.1 M) and others were thermally annealed in different atmospheres (Ar and O{sub 2}). The physical properties of CdS thin films were influenced by the HCl treatment, position, size and the substrates movement inside the reaction beaker. The CdS samples were deposited in areas of 4 cm{sup 2}, 50 cm{sup 2} and 100 cm{sup 2}. Finally CdS thin films with thickness of 35-300 nm with good optical and crystalline quality on a uniform morphology were obtained. Transmittance values were obtained for all samples about 85-90 % with an average of gap energy of 2.5 eV. The structural characteristics of the samples were determined by the X-ray diffraction patterns, by means of a D-500 Siemens X-ray system. (Author)

  12. Symbiotic N2-Fixation Estimated by the 15N Tracer Technique and Growth of Pueraria phaseoloides (Roxb.) Benth. Inoculated with Bradyrhizobium Strain in Field Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarr, Papa Saliou; Okon, Judith Wase; Begoude, Didier Aime Boyogueno; Araki, Shigeru; Ambang, Zachée; Shibata, Makoto; Funakawa, Shinya

    2016-01-01

    This field experiment was established in Eastern Cameroon to examine the effect of selected rhizobial inoculation on N2-fixation and growth of Pueraria phaseoloides. Treatments consisted of noninoculated and Bradyrhizobium yuanmingense S3-4-inoculated Pueraria with three replications each. Ipomoea batatas as a non-N2-fixing reference was interspersed in each Pueraria plot. All the twelve plots received 2 gN/m2 of 15N ammonium sulfate 10% atom excess. At harvest, dry matter yields and the nitrogen derived from atmospheric N2-fixation (%Ndfa) of inoculated Pueraria were significantly (P < 0.05) higher (81% and 10.83%, resp.) than those of noninoculated Pueraria. The inoculation enhanced nodule dry weight 2.44-fold. Consequently, the harvested N significantly (P < 0.05) increased by 83% in inoculated Pueraria, resulting from the increase in N2-fixation and soil N uptake. A loss of 55 to 60% of the N fertilizer was reported, and 36 to 40% of it was immobilized in soil. Here, we demonstrated that both N2-fixing potential of P. phaseoloides and soil N uptake are improved through field inoculations using efficient bradyrhizobial species. In practice, the inoculation contributes to maximize N input in soils by the cover crop's biomass and represent a good strategy to improve soil fertility for subsequent cultivation. PMID:26904363

  13. [Platelet rich plasma (PRP): potentialities and techniques of extraction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacifici, L; Casella, F; Maggiore, C

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes the various techniques of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) extraction codified in recent years and their use potential is evaluated. PRP is one of the techniques with which at the moment it is attempted to modulate and facilitate the cure of a wound. The use of PRP is based on the theoretical premise that by concentrating platelets the effects of the growth factors (PDGF, TGF-beta, IGF-I and -II) so released will be increased. Marx's original technique is described above all. This prescribes the sampling of a unit of blood (450-500 ml) and the use of a cell separator. We then analysed the technique of Marx and Hannon in which the quantity of blood sampled is reduced to 150 ml, and the two simplified techniques of the Sacchi and Bellanda group. Finally, a new PRP extraction technique is described. We conclude that platelet gel allows access to autologous growth factors which by definition are neither toxic nor immunogenic and are capable of accelerating the normal processes of bone regeneration. PRP can thus be considered a useful instrument for increasing the quality and final quantity of regenerated bone in oral and maxillo-facial surgery operations.

  14. Growth of the [110] oriented TiO2 nanorods on ITO substrates by sputtering technique for dye-sensitized solar cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LIJIAN eMENG

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available TiO2 films have been deposited on ITO substrates by dc reactive magnetron sputtering technique. It has been found that the sputtering pressure is a very important parameter for the structure of the deposited TiO2 films. When the pressure is lower than 1 Pa, the deposited film has a dense structure and shows a preferred orientation along the [101] direction. However, the nanorod structure has been obtained as the sputtering pressure is higher than 1 Pa. These nanorods structure TiO2 film shows a preferred orientation along the [110] direction. The phases of the deposited TiO2 films have been characterized by the x-ray diffraction and the Raman scattering measurements. All the films show an anatase phase and no other phase has been observed. The results of the SEM show that these TiO2 nanorods are perpendicular to the ITO substrate. The TEM measurement shows that the nanorods have a very rough surface. The dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs have been assembled using these TiO2 nanorod films prepared at different sputtering pressures as photoelectrode. And the effect of the sputtering pressure on the properties of the photoelectric conversion of the DSSCs has been studied.

  15. GRAB THE GARB: THE INFLUENCES OF TRANSLATION TECHNIQUES IN THE LUDOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF VIDEO GAME TRANSLATION (A Case Study of Square Enix’s Lightning Returns: Final Fantasy XIII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SF. Luthfie Arguby Purnomo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian deskriptif kualitatif ini bertujuan untuk mengungkapkan tipe teknik penerjemahan dalam terjemahan garb, kostum dengan kekuatan khusus dalam Lightning Returns: Final Fantasy XIII, dan pengaruhnya terhadap aspek ludologi, mekanika game yang dalam hal ini merujuk kepada kekuatan khusus (ability yang terkandung dalam garb yang diterjemahkan. Temuan penelitian menunjukkan bahwa hanya terdapat dua teknik penerjemahan yang digunakan dalam penerjemahan 93 nama garb yaitu pure borrowing (44 data dan adaptasi (49 data. Dari 49 data adaptasi yang diperoleh, 40 adaptasi menunjukkan bahwa adaptasinya mampu mempertahankan aspek ludologi keikuatan khusus garb yang diperoleh dari pemahaman awal mengenai nama garb dan bentuk fisiknya. Sementara itu 9 adaptasi yang lain memberikan pengaruh negatif terhadap aspek ludologi karena putusnya keterkaitan antara makna nama garb dan ability yang dimilikinya. Temuan ini menandakan bahwa dalam penerjemahan video game, pesan yang dialihkan tidak hanya pesan lingustik tetapi juga pesan mekanis atau ludologis yang terdapat dalam elemen video game. Kata kunci: ludologi, teknik penerjemahan, garbs, Lightning Returns: Final Fantasy XIII

  16. Experimental techniques for cement hydration studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Luttge

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Cement hydration kinetics is a complex problem of dissolution, nucleation and growth that is still not well understood, particularly in a quantitative way. While cement systems are unique in certain aspects they are also comparable to natural mineral systems. Therefore, geochemistry and particularly the study of mineral dissolution and growth may be able to provide insight and methods that can be utilized in cement hydration research. Here, we review mainly what is not known or what is currently used and applied in a problematic way. Examples are the typical Avrami approach, the application of Transition State Theory (TST to overall reaction kinetics and the problem of reactive surface area. Finally, we suggest an integrated approach that combines vertical scanning interferometry (VSI with other sophisticated analytical techniques such as atomic force microscopy (AFM and theoretical model calculations based on a stochastic treatment.

  17. Stargate: Energy Management Techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Vijay Raghunathan; Mani Srivastava; Trevor Pering; Roy Want

    2004-01-01

    This poster presents techniques for energy efficient operation of the Stargate wireless platform. In addition to conventional power management techniques such as dynamic voltage and scaling and processor shutdown, the Stargate features several mechanisms for energy efficient operation of the communication subsystem, such as support for hierarchical radios, Bluetooth based remote wakeup, mote based wakeup, etc. Finally, design optimizations including the use of power gating, and provision for ...

  18. Final Scientific EFNUDAT Workshop

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2010-01-01

    The Final Scientific EFNUDAT Workshop - organized by the CERN/EN-STI group on behalf of n_TOF Collaboration - will be held at CERN, Geneva (Switzerland) from 30 August to 2 September 2010 inclusive.EFNUDAT website: http://www.efnudat.euTopics of interest include: Data evaluationCross section measurementsExperimental techniquesUncertainties and covariancesFission propertiesCurrent and future facilities  International Advisory Committee: C. Barreau (CENBG, France)T. Belgya (IKI KFKI, Hungary)E. Gonzalez (CIEMAT, Spain)F. Gunsing (CEA, France)F.-J. Hambsch (IRMM, Belgium)A. Junghans (FZD, Germany)R. Nolte (PTB, Germany)S. Pomp (TSL UU, Sweden) Workshop Organizing Committee: Enrico Chiaveri (Chairman)Marco CalvianiSamuel AndriamonjeEric BerthoumieuxCarlos GuerreroRoberto LositoVasilis Vlachoudis Workshop Assistant: Géraldine Jean

  19. Stardust Final Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Minisci, Edmondo; Summerer, Leopold; McGinty, Peter

    2018-01-01

    Space debris and asteroid impacts pose a very real, very near-term threat to Earth. In order to help study and mitigate these risks, the Stardust program was formed in 2013. This training and research network was devoted to developing and mastering techniques such as removal, deflection, exploitation, and tracking. This book is a collection of many of the topics addressed at the Final Stardust Conference, describing the latest in asteroid monitoring and how engineering efforts can help us reduce space debris. It is a selection of studies bringing together specialists from universities, research institutions, and industry, tasked with the mission of pushing the boundaries of space research with innovative ideas and visionary concepts. Topics covered by the Symposium: Orbital and Attitude Dynamics Modeling Long Term Orbit and Attitude Evolution Particle Cloud Modeling and Simulation Collision and Impact Modelling and Simulation, Re-entry Modeling and Simulation Asteroid Origins and Characterization Orbit and A...

  20. Cosmology Without Finality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahootian, F.

    2009-12-01

    The rapid convergence of advancing sensor technology, computational power, and knowledge discovery techniques over the past decade has brought unprecedented volumes of astronomical data together with unprecedented capabilities of data assimilation and analysis. A key result is that a new, data-driven "observational-inductive'' framework for scientific inquiry is taking shape and proving viable. The anticipated rise in data flow and processing power will have profound effects, e.g., confirmations and disconfirmations of existing theoretical claims both for and against the big bang model. But beyond enabling new discoveries can new data-driven frameworks of scientific inquiry reshape the epistemic ideals of science? The history of physics offers a comparison. The Bohr-Einstein debate over the "completeness'' of quantum mechanics centered on a question of ideals: what counts as science? We briefly examine lessons from that episode and pose questions about their applicability to cosmology. If the history of 20th century physics is any indication, the abandonment of absolutes (e.g., space, time, simultaneity, continuity, determinacy) can produce fundamental changes in understanding. The classical ideal of science, operative in both physics and cosmology, descends from the European Enlightenment. This ideal has for over 200 years guided science to seek the ultimate order of nature, to pursue the absolute theory, the "theory of everything.'' But now that we have new models of scientific inquiry powered by new technologies and driven more by data than by theory, it is time, finally, to relinquish dreams of a "final'' theory.

  1. Optimización del mantenimiento preventivo, utilizando las técnicas de diagnóstico integral. Resultados finales y evaluación económica; Optimization of the Preventive Maintenance Using the Techniques of Integral Diagnosis. Final Results and Economic Evalua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro L Hernández Domínguez

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se obtienen los resultados finales y la evaluación económica de la aplicación de la metodologíaque aporta el diagnóstico integral (DI, presentada por los autores en los artículos anteriores, con la finalidad deintroducir el mantenimiento basado en la condición (MBC como una forma de mejoramiento o perfeccionamientodel mantenimiento preventivo planificado (MPP que se desarrolla en las centrales termoeléctricas (CCTT cubanas. In this paper, the authors obtained the final results and the economic evaluation of the application methodologythat contributes the integral diagnosis (ID, presented by they in a previous articles, with the purpose of introducingthe condition based maintenance (CBM like a form of improvement the Planned Preventive Maintenance(PPM that is developed in the cuban thermoelectric power stations.

  2. Avaliação radiográfica da neoformação óssea induzida pela técnica de erupção ortodôntica forçada Radiological evaluation of bone growth induced by forced orthodontical eruption technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo de Tarso Barbosa Moreira

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available Neste relato de caso a radiografia panorâmica é um elemento de importância como auxiliar no diagnóstico terapêutico inicial e depois como suporte no seguimento do caso até o final do tratamento. O caso aqui apresentado é uma abordagem interdisciplinar entre ortodontia e periodontia, em que uma paciente com doença periodontal avançada foi tratada pela técnica de erupção ortodôntica forçada e teve, ao final do tratamento, sua reabilitação conseguida com crescimento ósseo e gengival num primeiro instante e colocação de implantes e próteses dentárias numa abordagem também inovadora de carregamento protético imediato, ou seja, implantes e dentes colocados com 48 horas de diferença. O resultado alcançado aponta que nossos estudos devem prosseguir, visto que o crescimento ósseo foi conseguido sem a necessidade de enxerto, o tempo do tratamento não superou os 120 dias e que no futuro devemos obter resultados que colaborem para a superação de doenças periodontais graves sem varias etapas cirúrgicas, diminuindo o tempo de tratamento, morbidade e custos para o paciente.In this case report we discuss the importance of panoramic x-ray as an auxiliary tool for the diagnosis, initial treatment and follow-up of patients with periodontal disease. The case presented involved an interdisciplinary approach between orthodontics and periodontics. A female patient with advanced periodontal disease was treated with the forced orthodontical eruption technique that resulted in bone and gingival growth at the end of the treatment. Placement of the implants and dental prostheses was also performed in an innovative approach of immediate prosthetic loading, i.e. implants and teeth placed within a 48 hours interval. These results indicate that our studies should continue since bone growth was obtained without a bone graft, the time of the treatment did not exceed 120 days, and that we may in future obtain further results that will contribute to

  3. Synthetic growth reference charts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermanussen, Michael; Stec, Karol; Aßmann, Christian; Meigen, Christof; Van Buuren, Stef

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To reanalyze the between-population variance in height, weight, and body mass index (BMI), and to provide a globally applicable technique for generating synthetic growth reference charts. Methods: Using a baseline set of 196 female and 197 male growth studies published since 1831, common

  4. Protecting water resources with smart growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-05-01

    Protecting Water Resources with : Smart Growth is intended for audiences already familiar with smart : growth, who now seek specific ideas : on how techniques for smarter growth : can be used to protect their water : resources. This document is one...

  5. IAEA/FAO interregional training course on use of radiation in insect control and entomology with special emphasis on the sterile insect technique. Final report, May 4--June 15, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    The principal focus of the course was the application of Radiation in Entomology to achieve Area Wide Pest Suppression or Eradication. To achieve this objective formal lectures, discussion groups, laboratory exercises and field trips were held covering the details of: (1) principles, programs and research of all aspects of the Sterile Insect Technique; (2) insect biology and control; (3) integrated pest management; (4) population dynamics and models related to the development of SIT and insect population suppression; (5) fundamentals of computers for helping in development of SIT; (6) the importance of economic considerations in formulating area wide pest management programs. The course included tours of local laboratories of the University, USDA, and the State Division of Plant Industry (DPI), and a site visit to a citrus production area in which the pest-free zone concept of pest management for fruit export is utilized.

  6. IAEA/FAO interregional training course on use of radiation in insect control and entomology with special emphasis on the sterile insect technique. Final report, May 4 - June 15, 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The principal focus of the course was the application of Radiation in Entomology to achieve Area Wide Pest Suppression or Eradication. To achieve this objective formal lectures, discussion groups, laboratory exercises and field trips were held covering the details of: (1) principles, programs and research of all aspects of the Sterile Insect Technique; (2) insect biology and control; (3) integrated pest management; (4) population dynamics and models related to the development of SIT and insect population suppression; (5) fundamentals of computers for helping in development of SIT; (6) the importance of economic considerations in formulating area wide pest management programs. The course included tours of local laboratories of the University, USDA, and the State Division of Plant Industry (DPI), and a site visit to a citrus production area in which the pest-free zone concept of pest management for fruit export is utilized

  7. Terminal area automatic navigation, guidance and control research using the Microwave Landing System (MLS). Part 5: Design and development of a Digital Integrated Automatic Landing System (DIALS) for steep final approach using modern control techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halyo, N.

    1983-01-01

    The design and development of a 3-D Digital Integrated Automatic Landing System (DIALS) for the Terminal Configured Vehicle (TCV) Research Aircraft, a B-737-100 is described. The system was designed using sampled data Linear Quadratic Gaussian (LOG) methods, resulting in a direct digital design with a modern control structure which consists of a Kalman filter followed by a control gain matrix, all operating at 10 Hz. DIALS uses Microwave Landing System (MLS) position, body-mounted accelerometers, as well as on-board sensors usually available on commercial aircraft, but does not use inertial platforms. The phases of the final approach considered are the localizer and glideslope capture which may be performed simultaneously, localizer and steep glideslope track or hold, crab/decrab and flare to touchdown. DIALS captures, tracks and flares from steep glideslopes ranging from 2.5 deg to 5.5 deg, selected prior to glideslope capture. Digital Integrated Automatic Landing System is the first modern control design automatic landing system successfully flight tested. The results of an initial nonlinear simulation are presented here.

  8. Dismantling techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiese, E.

    1998-01-01

    Most of the dismantling techniques used in a Decontamination and Dismantlement (D and D) project are taken from conventional demolition practices. Some modifications to the techniques are made to limit exposure to the workers or to lessen the spread of contamination to the work area. When working on a D and D project, it is best to keep the dismantling techniques and tools as simple as possible. The workers will be more efficient and safer using techniques that are familiar to them. Prior experience with the technique or use of mock-ups is the best way to keep workers safe and to keep the project on schedule

  9. Research Development Techniques and Initiatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Barry

    1986-01-01

    The growth and development of research activities at a state psychiatric research and training institute while under the new management of a local medical school is described, and specific techniques and initiatives to enhance research are outlined. (MSE)

  10. Effect of gamma radiation on the growth of Aspergillus Flavus aflatoxins producer and on the use of polymerase chain reaction technique (PCR) in samples of maize grains artificially inoculated

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aquino, Simone

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this present study was to verify the effects of gamma radiation on the growth of Aspergillus flavus Link aflatoxins producer; to demonstrate the application of Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) technique in the diagnostic of A. Flavus, as well to verify the effect of radiation in the profile of DNA bands. Twenty samples of grains maize with 200 g each were individually irradiated with 20 kGy, to eliminate the microbial contamination. In following, the samples were inoculated with an toxigenic A. flavus (1x10 6 spores/ml), incubated for 15 days at 25 deg C with a relative humidity of around 97,5% and irradiated with 0, 2; 5 and 10 kGy. The samples, 5 to each dose of irradiation, were individually analyzed for the number of fungal cells, water activity, viability test (fluorescein diacetate and ethidium bromide), PCR and aflatoxins (AFB) detection. The results showed that the doses used were effective in reducing the number of Colony Forming Units (CFU/g) mainly the doses of 5 and 10 kGy. In addition, the viability test showed a decrease of viable cells with increase of irradiation doses. The reduction of AFB 1 and AFB-2, was more efficient with the use of 2 kGy in comparison with the dose of 5 kGy, while the dose of 10 kGy, degraded the aflatoxins. Thereby, it was observed that AFB2 showed to be more radiosensitive. The use of PCR technique showed the presence of DNA bands, in all samples. (author)

  11. A Review of SnSe: Growth and Thermoelectric Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Van Quang; Kim, Jungdae; Cho, Sunglae

    2018-04-01

    SnSe is a 2D semiconductor with an indirect energy gap of 0.86 - 1 eV; it is widely used in solar cell, optoelectronics, and electronic device applications. Recently, SnSe has been considered as a robust candidate for energy conversion applications due to its high thermoelectric performance ( ZT = 2.6 in p-type and 2.2 in n-type), which is assigned mainly to its anhamornic bonding leading to an ultralow thermal conductivity. In this review, we first discuss the crystalline and electronic structures of SnSe and the source of its p-type characteristic. Then, some typical single crystal and polycrystal growth techniques, as well as an epitaxial thin film growth technique, are outlined. The reported thermoelectric properties of SnSe grown by using each technique are also reviewed. Finally, we will describe some remaining issues concerning the use of SnSe for thermoelectric applications.

  12. Optical and structural characterization of titanium dioxide films growth by the r f-sputtering technique; Caracterizacion optica y estructural de peliculas de dioxido de titanio crecidas por la tecnica de rf-sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Florido C, A.; Calderon, A. [CICATA-IPN, Av. Legaria 694, 11500 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Mendoza A, J.G.; Becerril, M.; Zelaya A, O. [CINVESTAV, A.P. 14-740, 07000 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2007-07-01

    Full text: The elaboration of a series of grown films of TiO on Corning glaze substrates, as well as silicon, by means of the rf-sputtering technique using one power of 160 watts, with the objective of obtaining the anatase phase which one presents better activity for applications in photo catalysis. In the process of growth it was used a temperature in the range from 300 to 600 C and a separation distance among the target and the substrate of 3.5 cm. The used atmosphere was a mixture of argon and oxygen. It was carried out the characterization of the films obtained by means of UV-vis spectrophotometry, and photoluminescence (FL). The microstructure analysis was carried out by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), micro-Raman (MR), and atomic force microscopy (AFM). By means of the diffractographs it was determined the grain size. Our results show that in our films they are present the anatase and rutile phases of the titanium dioxide. The analysis of the results of optical spectra shows a forbidden band of the titanium dioxide around 3.2 eV. (Author)

  13. Innovative clean coal technology: 500 MW demonstration of advanced wall-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions from coal-fired boilers. Final report, Phases 1 - 3B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-01-01

    This report presents the results of a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT) project demonstrating advanced wall-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions from coal-fired boilers. The project was conducted at Georgia Power Company`s Plant Hammond Unit 4 located near Rome, Georgia. The technologies demonstrated at this site include Foster Wheeler Energy Corporation`s advanced overfire air system and Controlled Flow/Split Flame low NOx burner. The primary objective of the demonstration at Hammond Unit 4 was to determine the long-term effects of commercially available wall-fired low NOx combustion technologies on NOx emissions and boiler performance. Short-term tests of each technology were also performed to provide engineering information about emissions and performance trends. A target of achieving fifty percent NOx reduction using combustion modifications was established for the project. Short-term and long-term baseline testing was conducted in an {open_quotes}as-found{close_quotes} condition from November 1989 through March 1990. Following retrofit of the AOFA system during a four-week outage in spring 1990, the AOFA configuration was tested from August 1990 through March 1991. The FWEC CF/SF low NOx burners were then installed during a seven-week outage starting on March 8, 1991 and continuing to May 5, 1991. Following optimization of the LNBs and ancillary combustion equipment by FWEC personnel, LNB testing commenced during July 1991 and continued until January 1992. Testing in the LNB+AOFA configuration was completed during August 1993. This report provides documentation on the design criteria used in the performance of this project as it pertains to the scope involved with the low NOx burners and advanced overfire systems.

  14. Final Progress Report submitted via the DOE Energy Link (E-Link) in June 2009 [Collaborative Research: Decadal-to-Centennial Climate & Climate Change Studies with Enhanced Variable and Uniform Resolution GCMs Using Advanced Numerical Techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox-Rabinovitz, Michael S. [Univ. of Quebec (Canada); Cote, Jean [Univ. of Quebec (Canada)

    2009-10-09

    The joint U.S-Canadian project has been devoted to: (a) decadal climate studies using developed state-of-the-art GCMs (General Circulation Models) with enhanced variable and uniform resolution; (b) development and implementation of advanced numerical techniques; (c) research in parallel computing and associated numerical methods; (d) atmospheric chemistry experiments related to climate issues; (e) validation of regional climate modeling strategies for nested- and stretched-grid models. The variable-resolution stretched-grid (SG) GCMs produce accurate and cost-efficient regional climate simulations with mesoscale resolution. The advantage of the stretched grid approach is that it allows us to preserve the high quality of both global and regional circulations while providing consistent interactions between global and regional scales and phenomena. The major accomplishment for the project has been the successful international SGMIP-1 and SGMIP-2 (Stretched-Grid Model Intercomparison Project, phase-1 and phase-2) based on this research developments and activities. The SGMIP provides unique high-resolution regional and global multi-model ensembles beneficial for regional climate modeling and broader modeling community. The U.S SGMIP simulations have been produced using SciDAC ORNL supercomputers. The results of the successful SGMIP multi-model ensemble simulations of the U.S. climate are available at the SGMIP web site (http://essic.umd.edu/~foxrab/sgmip.html) and through the link to the WMO/WCRP/WGNE web site: http://collaboration.cmc.ec.gc.ca/science/wgne. Collaborations with other international participants M. Deque (Meteo-France) and J. McGregor (CSIRO, Australia) and their centers and groups have been beneficial for the strong joint effort, especially for the SGMIP activities. The WMO/WCRP/WGNE endorsed the SGMIP activities in 2004-2008. This project reflects a trend in the modeling and broader communities to move towards regional and sub-regional assessments and

  15. Tools for measuring academic growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingsbury, G Gage; McCall, Martha; Hauser, Carl

    2009-01-01

    Growth measurement and growth modeling have gained substantial interest in the last few years with the development of new statistical procedures and policy decisions such as the incorporation of growth into No Child Left Behind. The current study investigates the following four aspects of growth measurement: a) issues in the development of vertical scales to measure growth; b) design of instruments to measure academic growth; c) techniques for modeling individual student growth, and d) uses of growth information in a classroom. Measuring growth has always been a daunting task, but the development of measurement tools such as the Rasch model and computerized adaptive testing position us well to obtain high-quality data with which to measure and model the growth of an individual student across a course of study. This growth information, in norm-referenced and standards-referenced form, should enhance educators' ability to enrich student learning.

  16. Emerging optical nanoscopy techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Paul C; Leong-Hoi, Audrey

    2015-01-01

    To face the challenges of modern health care, new imaging techniques with subcellular resolution or detection over wide fields are required. Far field optical nanoscopy presents many new solutions, providing high resolution or detection at high speed. We present a new classification scheme to help appreciate the growing number of optical nanoscopy techniques. We underline an important distinction between superresolution techniques that provide improved resolving power and nanodetection techniques for characterizing unresolved nanostructures. Some of the emerging techniques within these two categories are highlighted with applications in biophysics and medicine. Recent techniques employing wider angle imaging by digital holography and scattering lens microscopy allow superresolution to be achieved for subcellular and even in vivo, imaging without labeling. Nanodetection techniques are divided into four subcategories using contrast, phase, deconvolution, and nanomarkers. Contrast enhancement is illustrated by means of a polarized light-based technique and with strobed phase-contrast microscopy to reveal nanostructures. Very high sensitivity phase measurement using interference microscopy is shown to provide nanometric surface roughness measurement or to reveal internal nanometric structures. Finally, the use of nanomarkers is illustrated with stochastic fluorescence microscopy for mapping intracellular structures. We also present some of the future perspectives of optical nanoscopy. PMID:26491270

  17. Emerging optical nanoscopy techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montgomery PC

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Paul C Montgomery, Audrey Leong-Hoi Laboratoire des Sciences de l'Ingénieur, de l'Informatique et de l'Imagerie (ICube, Unistra-CNRS, Strasbourg, France Abstract: To face the challenges of modern health care, new imaging techniques with subcellular resolution or detection over wide fields are required. Far field optical nanoscopy presents many new solutions, providing high resolution or detection at high speed. We present a new classification scheme to help appreciate the growing number of optical nanoscopy techniques. We underline an important distinction between superresolution techniques that provide improved resolving power and nanodetection techniques for characterizing unresolved nanostructures. Some of the emerging techniques within these two categories are highlighted with applications in biophysics and medicine. Recent techniques employing wider angle imaging by digital holography and scattering lens microscopy allow superresolution to be achieved for subcellular and even in vivo, imaging without labeling. Nanodetection techniques are divided into four subcategories using contrast, phase, deconvolution, and nanomarkers. Contrast enhancement is illustrated by means of a polarized light-based technique and with strobed phase-contrast microscopy to reveal nanostructures. Very high sensitivity phase measurement using interference microscopy is shown to provide nanometric surface roughness measurement or to reveal internal nanometric structures. Finally, the use of nanomarkers is illustrated with stochastic fluorescence microscopy for mapping intracellular structures. We also present some of the future perspectives of optical nanoscopy. Keywords: microscopy, imaging, superresolution, nanodetection, biophysics, medical imaging

  18. Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velasco, Mayda [Northwestern University

    2013-11-01

    This work is focused on the design and construction of novel beam diagnostic and instrumentation for charged particle accelerators required for the next generation of linear colliders. Our main interest is in non-invasive techniques. The Northwestern group of Velasco has been a member of the CLIC Test Facility 3 (CTF3) collaboration since 2003, and the beam instrumentation work is developed mostly at this facility1. This 4 kW electron beam facility has a 25-170 MeV electron LINAC. CTF3 performed a set of dedicated measurements to finalize the development of our RF-Pickup bunch length detectors. The RF-pickup based on mixers was fully commissioned in 2009 and the RF-pickup based on diodes was finished in time for the 2010-11 data taking. The analysis of all the data taken in by the summer of 2010 was finish in time and presented at the main conference of the year, LINAC 2010 in Japan.

  19. Acquired Techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lunde Nielsen, Espen; Halse, Karianne

    2013-01-01

    Acquired Techniques - a Leap into the Archive, at Aarhus School of Architecture. In collaboration with Karianne Halse, James Martin and Mika K. Friis. Following the footsteps of past travelers this is a journey into tools and techniques of the architectural process. The workshop will focus upon...

  20. Cultivo hidropônico de lisianto para flor de corte em sistema de fluxo laminar de nutrientes Hydroponic growth of lisianthus as cut flower under nutrient film technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Alice Antonello Londero Backes

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar as características produtivas e comerciais do cultivo de quatro cultivares de lisianto (Eustoma grandiflorum em três soluções nutritivas em sistema de fluxo laminar de nutrientes (NFT. Utilizou-se o delineamento em blocos casualizados, em esquema fatorial 4x3, com três repetições. Os tratamentos foram compostos de quatro cultivares (Echo Champagne, Mariachi Pure White, Balboa Yellow e Ávila Blue Rim e três soluções nutritivas (Teste, Steiner modificada e Barbosa. O sistema NFT é uma alternativa viável para o cultivo de lisianto nas soluções Barbosa e Teste. A cultivar Echo Champagne foi superior quanto ao ciclo, período em produção, altura da haste floral, número de folhas, diâmetro de botão e produção de massa fresca e seca, enquanto a cultivar Mariachi Pure White se destacou quanto ao período em produção. A cultivar Ávila Blue Rim apresentou maior período de produção, número de flores e produção de massa de matéria fresca e seca, enquanto a cultivar Balboa Yellow apresentou maior período em produção e diâmetro de botão.The objective of this work was to evaluate yield and commercial traits of lisianthus (Eustoma grandiflorum flowers growth in nutrient film technique (NFT. The experimental design was in randomized blocks, in factorial scheme (4x3, with three replicates. The treatments were four cultivars (Echo Champagne, Mariachi Pure White, Balboa Yellow and Ávila Blue Rim and three nutrient solutions (Test, modified Steiner and Barbosa. The NFT system is a feasible alternative for the growth of lisianthus in Barbosa and Test solutions. The cultivar Echo Champagne was superior for cycle, length of production, height of flower stem, number of leaves, diameter of the bud flower and fresh and dry weight production, while the cultivar Mariachi Pure White was superior for length of production. The cultivar Ávila Blue Rim showed good length of production, number of flowers

  1. Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuur, Edward [Northern Arizona Univ., Flagstaff, AZ (United States); Luo, Yiqi [Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States)

    2016-12-01

    This final grant report is a continuation of the final grant report submitted for DE-SC0006982 as the Principle Investigator (Schuur) relocated from the University of Florida to Northern Arizona University. This report summarizes the original project goals, as well as includes new project activities that were completed in the final period of the project.

  2. Growth and N2-fixation of Dhaincha C-3/Sorghum C-4 and Dhaincha C-3/Sunflower C-3 intercropping systems using the 15N and 13C natural abundance method technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurdali, F.

    2007-06-01

    A field experiment on dhaincha C 3 (Sesbania aculeata Pers), sunflower C 3 (Helianthus annuus L.) and sorghum C 4 (Sorghum bicolor L.) plants grown in monocropping and intercropping systems was conducted to evaluate seed yield, dry matter production, total N yield, land equivalent ratio (LER), intraspecific competition for soil N uptake, water use efficiency (WUE) and N 2 -fixation using the 15 N natural abundance technique (δ 15 N ). Moreover, carbon isotope discrimination (Δ13 C ) was determined to assess factors responsible for crop performance variability in the different cropping systems. Intercropping of sesbania/sorghum showed greater efficiency over monocropping in producing dry matter, during the entire growth period, as indicated by the LERs (>1); whereas, the efficiency of producing dry matter in the sesbania /sunflower intercropping was similar to that in the monocropping system (LER=1). Moreover, sorghum plants (C 4 ) was more competitive than sesbania (C 3 ) for soil N uptake; whereas, sesbania seemed to be more competitive than its associated sunflower (C 3 ). N uptake in the mixed stand of sesbania/sorghum was improved due to the increase in soil N uptake by the component sorghum and the higher root nodule activity of component sesbania without affecting the amount of N 2 fixed. In both cropping systems, sesbania plants fixed almost the same amount of N 2 (an average of 105 kg N/ha) although the number of rows in the mixed stand was 2/3 of that in the pure stand. This gives an advantage of the intercropping over sole cropping system with regards to N 2 -fixation. 13 C discrimination in plant materials was found to be affected by plant species and the cropping system. Factors affected Δ13 C in plants grown in the mixed stand relative to solely grown crops are discussed.(author)

  3. Final Focus Test Stand final report

    CERN Document Server

    Jeremie, A; Burrows, P

    2013-01-01

    Future Linear colliders will need particle beam sizes in the nanometre range. The beam also needs to be stable all along the beam line and especially at the Final Focus section. A dedicated Final Focus test stand has been used for this study and is comprised of several sub-parts. First there is the Stabilisation/Isolation system with sensors and actuators stabilizing down to sub-nanometre level. Then the Magnet itself needs to comply with very specific design constraints. In addition to the mechanical items, the beam can be stabilized acting on the trajectory directly and Beam-based controls have been developed and tested on different accelerator facilities.

  4. Acceptance of a reusable self-injection device for recombinant human growth hormone: final data from a questionnaire-based, cross-sectional, international, multicenter, observational study in pediatric patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schnabel D

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Dirk Schnabel,1 Carl-Joachim Partsch,2 Muriel Houang,3 Sarah Ehtisham,4 Helen Johnstone,5 Markus Zabransky,6 Wieland Kiess7 1Pediatric Endocrinology, Center for Chronic Sick Children, Otto-Heubner-Centrum für Kinder- und Jugendmedizin, Charite, University Medicine, Berlin, Germany; 2Endokrinologikum Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany; 3Explorations Fonctionnelles Endocriniennes, Hôpital Armand Trousseau, Paris, France; 4Mediclinic City Hospital, Dubai Healthcare City, Dubai, United Arab Emirates; 5The Newcastle upon Tyne Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Newcastle, UK; 6Sandoz International GmbH, Holzkirchen, 7Department of Women and Child Health, Hospital for Children and Adolescents, University Hospitals, University of Leipzig, Leipzig, Germany Background: A questionnaire-based survey was conducted to assess attitudes toward a reusable self-injection system (SurePal™ among pediatric patients with growth disturbances who were prescribed treatment with Omnitrope® within routine clinical practice.Methods: This was a multicenter, observational study, incorporated into the noninterventional PAtients TReated with Omnitrope® (PATRO Children study. Included subjects, or their caregivers, completed a questionnaire on the following five main areas: attractiveness of SurePal™, training received, using the device, the low drug wastage system, and experience versus other devices used previously (pretreated patients. Responses were based on a 5-point scale, with 2 being the best possible outcome and −2 the worst possible outcome.Results: In total, 550 patients were included in this study (338 from France, 169 from Germany, and 43 from the UK. The mean age ± standard deviation of participants was 10.8±3.5 years; the majority (57% were male and growth hormone treatment naïve (88%. Almost half (49.8% of children prepared their SurePal™ for injection themselves and 45.5% performed injections themselves. As patients progressed into their teens, the majority

  5. Intensity techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Finn

    2008-01-01

    The Handbook of Signal Processing in Acoustics will compile the techniques and applications of signal processing as they are used in the many varied areas of Acoustics. The Handbook will emphasize the interdisciplinary nature of signal processing in acoustics. Each Section of the Handbook...... from different areas, will find the self-contained chapters accessible and will be interested in the similarities and differences between the approaches and techniques used in different areas of acoustics....

  6. Secular trends in growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fudvoye, Julie; Parent, Anne-Simone

    2017-06-01

    Human adult height has been increasing world-wide for a century and a half. The rate of increase depends on time and place of measurement. Final height appears to have reached a plateau in Northern European countries but it is still increasing in southern European countries as well as Japan. While mean birth length has not changed recently in industrialized countries, the secular trend finally observed in adult height mostly originates during the first 2 years of life. Secular trend in growth is a marker of public health and provides insights into the interaction between growth and environment. It has been shown to be affected by income, social status, infections and nutrition. While genetic factors cannot explain such rapid changes in average population height, epigenetic factors could be the link between growth and environment. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  7. Techniques to control and position laser targets. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, T.B.

    1978-06-01

    The purpose of the work was to investigate the potential role of various electrohydrodynamic phenomena in the fabrication of small spherical particles and shells for laser target applications. A number of topics were considered. These included charged droplet levitation, specifically the combined effects of the Rayleigh limit and droplet elongation in the presence of electric fields. Two new levitation schemes for uncharged dielectric particles were studied. A dynamic dielectrophoretic levitation scheme was proposed and unsuccessful attempts were made to observe levitation with it. Another static dielectrophoretic levitation scheme was studied and used extensively. A theory was developed for this type of levitation, and a dielectric constant measurement scheme proposed. A charged droplet generator for the production of single droplets ( 4 /O 2 bubbles in Viscasil silicone fluid were conducted to learn about the possibility of using silane to form SiO 2 microballons from bubbles

  8. Improved techniques for fluid diversion in oil recovery. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seright, R.

    1996-01-01

    This three-year project had two technical objectives. The first objective was to compare the effectiveness of gels in fluid diversion (water shutoff) with those of other types of processes. Several different types of fluid-diversion processes were compared, including those using gels, foams, emulsions, particulates, and microorganisms. The ultimate goals of these comparisons were to (1) establish which of these processes are most effective in a given application and (2) determine whether aspects of one process can be combined with those of other processes to improve performance. Analyses and experiments were performed to verify which materials are the most effective in entering and blocking high-permeability zones. The second objective of the project was to identify the mechanisms by which materials (particularly gels) selectively reduce permeability to water more than to oil. A capacity to reduce water permeability much more than oil or gas permeability is critical to the success of gel treatments in production wells if zones cannot be isolated during gel placement. Topics covered in this report include (1) determination of gel properties in fractures, (2) investigation of schemes to optimize gel placement in fractured systems, (3) an investigation of why some polymers and gels can reduce water permeability more than oil permeability, (4) consideration of whether microorganisms and particulates can exhibit placement properties that are superior to those of gels, and (5) examination of when foams may show placement properties that are superior to those of gels.

  9. Vet Centers. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-02

    The Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) adopts as final an interim final rule that amends its medical regulation that governs Vet Center services. The National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2013 (the 2013 Act) requires Vet Centers to provide readjustment counseling services to broader groups of veterans, members of the Armed Forces, including a member of a reserve component of the Armed Forces, and family members of such veterans and members. This final rule adopts as final the regulatory criteria to conform to the 2013 Act, to include new and revised definitions.

  10. Topical Recombinant Human Epidermal Growth Factor for Oral Mucositis Induced by Intensive Chemotherapy with Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation: Final Analysis of a Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Phase 2 Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Won Kim

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of recombinant human epidermal growth factor (rhEGF oral spray for oral mucositis (OM induced by intensive chemotherapy with hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. In this phase 2 study, patients were randomized to either rhEGF (50 microg/mL or placebo in a 1:1 ratio. The primary endpoint was incidence of National Cancer Institute (NCI grade ≥2 OM. A total of 138 patients were enrolled in this study. In the intention-to-treat analysis, rhEGF did not reduce the incidence of NCI grade ≥2 OM (p = 0.717 nor reduce its duration (p = 0.725. Secondary endpoints including the day of onset and duration of NCI grade ≥2 OM, the incidence of NCI grade ≥3 OM and its duration, and patient-reported quality of life were also similar between the two groups. In the per-protocol analysis, however, the duration of opioid analgesic use was shorter in the rhEGF group (p = 0.036, and recipients in the rhEGF group required a lower cumulative dose of opioid analgesics than those in the placebo group (p = 0.046, among patients with NCI grade ≥2 OM. Adverse events were mild and transient. This study found no evidence to suggest that rhEGF oral spray reduces the incidence of OM. However, further studies are needed to investigate the effect of rhEGF on OM-induced pain reduction after intensive chemotherapy.

  11. Growth Modulation in Achondroplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClure, Philip K; Kilinc, Eray; Birch, John G

    2017-09-01

    Achondroplasia is the most common skeletal dysplasia with a rate of nearly 1/10,000. The development of lower extremity deformity is well documented, and various modes of correction have been reported. There are no reports on the use of growth modulation to correct angular deformity in achondroplasia. Medical Records from 1985 to 2015 were reviewed for the diagnosis of achondroplasia and growth modulation procedures. Patients who had been treated for angular deformity of the legs by growth modulation were identified. A detailed analysis of their medical record and preoperative and final lower extremity radiographs was completed. Four patients underwent growth modulation procedures, all to correct existing varus deformity of the legs. Three of the 4 patients underwent bilateral distal femoral and proximal tibial growth modulation. The remaining patient underwent tibial correction only. Two of the 4 patients had a combined proximal fibular epiphysiodesis. All limbs had some improvement of alignment; however, 1 patient went on to bilateral osteotomies. Only 1 limb corrected to a neutral axis with growth modulation alone at last follow-up, initial implantation was done before 5 years of age. Growth modulation is an effective means for deformity correction in the setting of achondroplasia. However implantation may need to be done earlier than would be typical for patients without achondroplasia. Osteotomy may still be required after growth modulation for incomplete correction.

  12. An Empirical Analysis of the Determinants of Economic Growth in the Western Balkans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fetai Besnik Taip

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to assess the main determinants and the policies that affect economic growth in the Western Balkan over the period 1994 to 2015. It employs techniques such as pooled OLS, fixed and random effects model, and Hausman-Taylor model with instrumental variables (IV. The study shows evidence of conditional convergence, indicating the need for an upward move in the steady state level. The results show that foreign direct investments, gross savings and domestic credit to the private sector have a positive effect on per capita growth. On the other hand, initial level of per capita growth, corruption, unemployment, and general government final consumption, have a negative relationship with per capita growth. The study also shows a puzzling result, that schooling is not a significant factor for growth in Western Balkans. The study also highlights the relevance of attracting more foreign direct investments and reduction in corruption.

  13. Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glasser, Alan H. [Fusion Theory and Computation Inc., Kingston, WA (United States)

    2018-02-02

    Final technical report on DE-SC0016106. This is the final technical report for a portion of the multi-institutional CEMM project. This report is centered around 3 publications and a seminar presentation, which have been submitted to E-Link.

  14. Handbook of laboratory techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Authority in Argentina have laboratories of support to regulations functions on radiological and nuclear safety, safeguards and physical protection, that have a surface of 2950 m 2 in the Ezeiza Atomic Center. The manual describes in seven chapters the different techniques developed and applied in the laboratories along four decades of existence. The chapter 1: Dedicated to the treatment of environmental samples, described the procedures associated with the different types of samples: deposits, waters, sediments, vegetables, milk, fish and diet. The chapter 2: Details 48 radiochemical techniques associated to the measurements of americium 241, carbon 16, strontium 90, iodine 129, plutonium, radium 226, radon, uranium, nickel and actinides. The chapter 3: Describes the measurements techniques of alpha and gamma spectrometry. The different techniques of biological and physical dosimetry are described in the chapters 5 and 6 respectively. The final chapter is dedicated the techniques of external and internal contamination. It s important to emphasize that this manual contains the standardized technologies that the Nuclear Regulatory Authority of Argentina submits regularly to international comparisons

  15. Radionuclide techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alazraki, N.

    1988-01-01

    During approximately 25 years of experience with bone scanning, broad expansions in the clinical impact of radionuclide imaging on disorders of bones, joints, and soft tissues have occurred. This increased impact had its groundwork laid by advances in radiopharmaceuticals and instruments that are used for bone imaging. The progression from /sup 85/Sr- to /sup 99m/Tc-labeled phosphate and phosphonate compounds, coupled with the advance from crude rectilinear scanning techniques to whole body scintillation imaging with large crystal cameras and sophisticated electronics, has encourage use of radionuclide techniques in the evaluation of muscoloskeletal diseases. Many clinical studies have documented the high degree of sensitivity of the bone scan compared with that of the radiograph in detecting osseous and articular abnormalities

  16. Astrophysical techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Kitchin, CR

    2013-01-01

    DetectorsOptical DetectionRadio and Microwave DetectionX-Ray and Gamma-Ray DetectionCosmic Ray DetectorsNeutrino DetectorsGravitational Radiation Dark Matter and Dark Energy Detection ImagingThe Inverse ProblemPhotographyElectronic ImagingScanningInterferometrySpeckle InterferometryOccultationsRadarElectronic ImagesPhotometryPhotometryPhotometersSpectroscopySpectroscopy SpectroscopesOther TechniquesAstrometryPolarimetrySolar StudiesMagnetometryComputers and The Internet.

  17. Presentation Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Froejmark, M.

    1992-10-01

    The report presents a wide, easily understandable description of presentation technique and man-machine communication. General fundamentals for the man-machine interface are illustrated, and the factors that affect the interface are described. A model is presented for describing the operators work situation, based on three different levels in the operators behaviour. The operator reacts routinely in the face of simple, known problems, and reacts in accordance with predetermined plans in the face of more complex, recognizable problems. Deep fundamental knowledge is necessary for truly complex questions. Today's technical status and future development have been studied. In the future, the operator interface will be based on standard software. Functions such as zooming, integration of video pictures, and sound reproduction will become common. Video walls may be expected to come into use in situations in which several persons simultaneously need access to the same information. A summary of the fundamental rules for the design of good picture ergonomics and design requirements for control rooms are included in the report. In conclusion, the report describes a presentation technique within the Distribution Automation and Demand Side Management area and analyses the know-how requirements within Vattenfall. If different systems are integrated, such as geographical information systems and operation monitoring systems, strict demands are made on the expertise of the users for achieving a user-friendly technique which is matched to the needs of the human being. (3 figs.)

  18. Growth Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... problem or disease. The pituitary gland makes growth hormone, which stimulates the growth of bone and other tissues. Children who have too little ... gland tumor, which is not cancer. Too much growth hormone can cause gigantism in children, where their bones and their body grow too much. In adults, ...

  19. Ion beam assisted film growth

    CERN Document Server

    Itoh, T

    2012-01-01

    This volume provides up to date information on the experimental, theoretical and technological aspects of film growth assisted by ion beams.Ion beam assisted film growth is one of the most effective techniques in aiding the growth of high-quality thin solid films in a controlled way. Moreover, ion beams play a dominant role in the reduction of the growth temperature of thin films of high melting point materials. In this way, ion beams make a considerable and complex contribution to film growth. The volume will be essential reading for scientists, engineers and students working in thi

  20. Project orientated planning, scheduling and controlling technique ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the past several years, there has been an explosive growth of management technique to be used for planning and controlling projects. Between 1957 and 1958 such technique received special attention and as a result improved and developed further under various names (CPM, PERT, etc.). The technique is a method ...

  1. Terahertz Techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Bründermann, Erik; Kimmitt, Maurice FitzGerald

    2012-01-01

    Research and development in the terahertz portion of the electromagnetic spectrum has expanded very rapidly during the past fifteen years due to major advances in sources, detectors and instrumentation. Many scientists and engineers are entering the field and this volume offers a comprehensive and integrated treatment of all aspects of terahertz technology. The three authors, who have been active researchers in this region over a number of years, have designed Terahertz Techniques to be both a general introduction to the subject and a definitive reference resource for all those involved in this exciting research area.

  2. Transacsys PLC - Final Results

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    Final results from Transacsys PLC. A subsidary of this company was set up to develop the CERN EDH system into a commercial product but incurred too much financial loss so the project was cancelled (1/2 page).

  3. Final focus nomenclature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erickson, R.

    1986-01-01

    The formal names and common names for all devices in the final focus system of the SLC are listed. The formal names consist of a device type designator, microprocessor designator, and a four-digit unit number

  4. Final focus test beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-03-01

    This report discusses the following: the Final Focus Test Beam Project; optical design; magnets; instrumentation; magnetic measurement and BPM calibration; mechanical alignment and stabilization; vacuum system; power supplies; control system; radiation shielding and personnel protection; infrastructure; and administration

  5. Perforated monolayers. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Regen. Steven L.

    2000-06-01

    This STI is a final report for a DOE-supported program, ''Perforated Monolayers,'' which focused on the fabrication of ultrathin membranes for gas separations based on Langmuir-Blodgett chemistry.

  6. WMO Marine Final Reports

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Final reports of the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) Commission for Marine Meteorology, Commission for Synoptic Meteorology, and Commission for Basic...

  7. Final focus nomenclature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erickson, R.

    1986-08-08

    The formal names and common names for all devices in the final focus system of the SLC are listed. The formal names consist of a device type designator, microprocessor designator, and a four-digit unit number. (LEW)

  8. Growth of dopamine crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patil, Vidya, E-mail: vidya.patil@ruparel.edu; Patki, Mugdha, E-mail: mugdha.patki@ruparel.edu [D. G. Ruparel College, Senapati Bapat Marg, Mahim, Mumbai – 400 016 (India)

    2016-05-06

    Many nonlinear optical (NLO) crystals have been identified as potential candidates in optical and electro-optical devices. Use of NLO organic crystals is expected in photonic applications. Hence organic nonlinear optical materials have been intensely investigated due to their potentially high nonlinearities, and rapid response in electro-optic effect compared to inorganic NLO materials. There are many methods to grow organic crystals such as vapor growth method, melt growth method and solution growth method. Out of these methods, solution growth method is useful in providing constraint free crystal. Single crystals of Dopamine have been grown by evaporating the solvents from aqueous solution. Crystals obtained were of the size of orders of mm. The crystal structure of dopamine was determined using XRD technique. Images of crystals were obtained using FEG SEM Quanta Series under high vacuum and low KV.

  9. Emissions scenario: a final response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruebler, A.; Nakicenovic, N.; Alcamo, J. (and others)

    2004-01-01

    This note is a final response to the debate raised by Mr Castles and Mr Henderson (for brevity, we refer here to the two authors simply as C and H) in this Journal (vol. 14, no. 2 and 3, and no. 4) on the issue of economic growth in developing countries in some of the emissions scenarios published in the IPCC Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (SRES) (Nakicenovic et al., 2000). We first outline areas of agreement and then the remaining areas of disagreement. Two important areas of agreement have emerged from the debate according to our view. First, both parties agree that scenarios assuming a conditional convergence in income levels, i.e., a higher growth in per capita income in poorer countries when compared to countries with higher levels of affluence, are both ''plausible and well attested in economic history'' (C and H, p. 424). Thus, the fundamental, structural characteristic of some of the SRES scenarios contested by C and H are not challenged per se, but rather how fast such trends could unfold in the future. (author)

  10. Emissions scenarios: a final response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruebler, A.; Nakicenovic, N.; Alcamo, J. (and others)

    2004-01-01

    This note is a final response to the debate raised by Mr. Castles and Mr. Henderson (for brevity, we refer here to the two authors simply as C and H) in this Journal (vol 14, no 2 and 3, and no 4) on the issue of economic growth in developing countries in some of the emissions scenarios published in the IPCC Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (SRES) (Nakicenovic et al., 2000). We first outline areas of agreement and then the remaining areas of disagreement. Two important areas of agreement have emerged from the debate according to our view. First, both parties agree that scenarios assuming a conditional convergence in income levels, i.e., a higher growth in per capita income in poorer countries when compared to countries with higher levels of affluence, are both 'plausible and well attested in economic history' (C and H, p. 424). Thus, the fundamental, structural characteristic of some of the SRES scenarios contested by C and H are not challenged per se, but rather how fast such trends could unfold in the future. (author)

  11. Combinatorial techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Sane, Sharad S

    2013-01-01

    This is a basic text on combinatorics that deals with all the three aspects of the discipline: tricks, techniques and theory, and attempts to blend them. The book has several distinctive features. Probability and random variables with their interconnections to permutations are discussed. The theme of parity has been specially included and it covers applications ranging from solving the Nim game to the quadratic reciprocity law. Chapters related to geometry include triangulations and Sperner's theorem, classification of regular polytopes, tilings and an introduction to the Eulcidean Ramsey theory. Material on group actions covers Sylow theory, automorphism groups and a classification of finite subgroups of orthogonal groups. All chapters have a large number of exercises with varying degrees of difficulty, ranging from material suitable for Mathematical Olympiads to research.

  12. Protein crystal growth - Growth kinetics for tetragonal lysozyme crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pusey, M. L.; Snyder, R. S.; Naumann, R.

    1986-01-01

    Results are reported from theoretical and experimental studies of the growth rate of lysozyme as a function of diffusion in earth-gravity conditions. The investigations were carried out to form a comparison database for future studies of protein crystal growth in the microgravity environment of space. A diffusion-convection model is presented for predicting crystal growth rates in the presence of solutal concentration gradients. Techniques used to grow and monitor the growth of hen egg white lysozyme are detailed. The model calculations and experiment data are employed to discuss the effects of transport and interfacial kinetics in the growth of the crystals, which gradually diminished the free energy in the growth solution. Density gradient-driven convection, caused by presence of the gravity field, was a limiting factor in the growth rate.

  13. Food Physics and Radiation Techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szabo, A. S.

    1999-01-01

    In the lecture information is given about food physics, which is a rather new, interdisciplinary field of science, connecting food science and applied physics. The topics of radioactivity of foodstuffs and radiation techniques in the food industry are important parts of food physics. Detailed information will be given about the main fields (e.g. radio stimulation, food preservation) of radiation techniques in the agro-food sector. Finally some special questions of radioactive contamination of foodstuffs in Hungary and applicability of radioanalytical techniques (e.g. INAA) for food investigation will be analyzed and discussed

  14. Food physics and radiation techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szabo, A. S.

    1999-01-01

    In the lecture information is given about food physics, which is a rather new, interdisciplinary field of science, connecting food science and applied physics. The topics of radioactivity of foodstuffs and radiation techniques in the food industry are important parts of food physics detailed information will be given about the main fields (e.g. radio stimulation, food preservation) of radiation techniques in the agro-food sector. Finally some special questions of radioactive contamination of foodstuffs in hungary and applicability of radioanalytical techniques (e.g. Inaa) for food investigation will be analyzed and discussed

  15. Growth of K/sub 3/Li/sub 2/Nb/sub 5/O/sub 15/ and KNbO/sub 3/ ferroelectric fiber crystals by pulling-down technique

    CERN Document Server

    Chani, V I; Fukuda, T

    1998-01-01

    Growth of K/sub 3/Li/sub 2/Nb/sub 5/O/sub 15/ (KLN) and KNbO/sub 3/ (KN) crystals by the micro-pulling-down method is reported. We have systematically studied the growth conditions allowing fabrication of relatively large, macro $9 defects free, and colorless fiber crystals with pulling rate of 0.1-1.0 mm/min. The K/sub 2/O-Nb/sub 2/O/sub 5/- Li/sub 2/O ternary has been studied in the vicinity of stoichiometric compositions of K/sub 3/Li/sub 2/Nb/sub 5/O/sub $9 15/ and KNbO/sub 3/. KLN and KN phase fields have been identified by direct growth experiments. It was found that addition of 1-6 mol.554330f Li/sub 2/O into the KNbO/sub 3/ melt avoids K/sub 4/Nb/sub 6/O/sub 17/ second phase $9 formation and decreases blue coloration of the KN crystals. Growth of Ta-substituted KLN and KN crystals is also reported. (14 refs).

  16. Urban growth management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Gertrud; Alexander Sick Nielsen, Thomas; Grünfelder, Julien

    2011-01-01

    urban growth and curb urban sprawl in a wider sense. Methodology The main methodology of the paper is a desk-research based review of policy options supplemented with field study and interviews in selected cased study regions. This paper consists of two parts. The first part is based on literature...... there are contradictions in the evidence presented in the literature, we believe that it may be safely said that urban growth management policies have an influence on urban growth under certain preconditions including: sufficient time for implementation and continuity of efforts; choice of appropriate policy measures......, and finally urban attractivity policies. Effective regional bodies are needed to deal with urban expansion and peri-urbanisation at a relevant scale; European rural and agricultural policies makes up the main ‘policy complex’ targeting the non-urban area including its land uses; while lastly leverage of urban...

  17. Final Environmental Assessment for Planned Growth Hulrburd Field, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-08-01

    clay lenses and layers of organic debris; typically unfossiliferous Citronelle Formation non-indurated, multi-colored quartz sand with discontinuous... Citronelle Formation. Together, the Pliocene-Recent Sands and the Citronelle Formation make up the Sand & Gravel Aquifer informally referred to as the...deposits are mined from the Pliocene-Recent Sands unit and the Citronelle Formation in the vicinity of Hurlburt Field and southern Okaloosa County

  18. Green growth opportunities in the EU shipbuilding sector. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-04-15

    Trends towards green shipping and green shipbuilding provide new market opportunities for the European shipbuilding and marine equipment sectors. The maritime transport sector is being incentivised to improve its environmental performance as a result of both market driven and regulatory greening trends. Examples of these trends are global regulation on NOx and SO2 emissions of ships, increased energy efficiency of new ships, ballast water management and an increased demand for offshore renewable energy generation. The European shipbuilding and marine equipment sectors have a leading position in high value, high complexity segments. It has a good starting position to contribute to the greening trends. This study identifies market opportunities for the EU shipbuilding industry that follow from greening trends in shipping and other areas. Taking the greening together, the global market potential for the period until 2020 is estimated to be minimally euro 12.5-15.5 bn per year. The study recommends that the EU enhances its cluster support provision, continues the promotion of the shipbuilding and marine equipment sectors as attractive work places, continues promoting the use of market based instruments at IMO level and consider adopting schemes at EU level. This report is built on an extensive market consultation process through in-depth interviews with over 35 stakeholders, complemented with a review of the state of the art literature and a stakeholder workshop. As such it is not a statistical analysis, or an academic or political analysis, but it represents an in-depth insight based on key market actors and industry players.

  19. Industrial technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jabsen, F.S.

    1975-01-01

    An illustrative embodiment of the invention discloses a technique for disassembling a nuclear reactor fuel element without destroying the individual fuel pins and other structural components from which the element is assembled. A traveling bridge and trolley that span a water-filled spent fuel storage pool support a strongback. The strongback is under water and provides a working surface on which the spent fuel element is placed for inspection and for the manipulation that is associated with disassembly and assembly. To remove, in a non-destructive manner, the grids that hold the fuel pins in the proper relative positions within the element, bars are inserted through apertures in the grids with the aid of special tools. These bars are rotated to flex the adjacent grid walls and, in this way relax the physical engagement between protruding portions of the grid walls and the associated fuel pins. With the grid structure so flexed to relax the physical grip on the individual fuel pins, these pins can be withdrawn for inspection or replacement as necessary without imposing a need to destroy fuel element components. (U.S.)

  20. Springer Handbook of Crystal Growth

    CERN Document Server

    Dhanaraj, Govindhan; Prasad, Vishwanath; Dudley, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Over the years, many successful attempts have been made to describe the art and science of crystal growth. Most modern advances in semiconductor and optical devices would not have been possible without the development of many elemental, binary, ternary, and other compound crystals of varying properties and large sizes. The objective of the Springer Handbook of Crystal Growth is to present state-of-the-art knowledge of both bulk and thin-film crystal growth. The goal is to make readers understand the basics of the commonly employed growth processes, materials produced, and defects generated. Almost 100 leading scientists, researchers, and engineers from 22 different countries from academia and industry have been selected to write chapters on the topics of their expertise. They have written 52 chapters on the fundamentals of bulk crystal growth from the melt, solution, and vapor, epitaxial growth, modeling of growth processes and defects, techniques of defect characterization as well as some contemporary specia...

  1. Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John Ross

    2003-04-30

    The Final Technical Report summarizes research accomplishments and Publications in the period of 5/1/99 to 4/30/03 done on the grant. Extensive progress was made in the period covered by this report in the areas of chemical kinetics of non-linear systems; spatial structures, reaction - diffusion systems, and thermodynamic and stochastic theory of electrochemical and general systems.

  2. Regional final energy consumptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    This report comments the differences observed between the French regions and also between these regions and national data in terms of final energy consumption per inhabitant, per GDP unit, and per sector (housing and office building, transport, industry, agriculture). It also comments the evolutions during the last decades, identifies the most recent trends

  3. Deep inelastic final states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girardi, G.

    1980-11-01

    In these lectures we attempt to describe the final states of deep inelastic scattering as given by QCD. In the first section we shall briefly comment on the parton model and give the main properties of decay functions which are of interest for the study of semi-inclusive leptoproduction. The second section is devoted to the QCD approach to single hadron leptoproduction. First we recall basic facts on QCD log's and derive after that the evolution equations for the fragmentation functions. For this purpose we make a short detour in e + e - annihilation. The rest of the section is a study of the factorization of long distance effects associated with the initial and final states. We then show how when one includes next to leading QCD corrections one induces factorization breaking and describe the double moments useful for testing such effects. The next section contains a review on the QCD jets in the hadronic final state. We begin by introducing the notion of infrared safe variable and defining a few useful examples. Distributions in these variables are studied to first order in QCD, with some comments on the resummation of logs encountered in higher orders. Finally the last section is a 'gaullimaufry' of jet studies

  4. The 'final order' problem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teunter, RH; Haneveld, WKK

    1998-01-01

    When the service department of a company selling machines stops producing and supplying spare parts for certain machines, customers are offered an opportunity to place a so-called final order for these spare parts. We focus on one customer with one machine. The customer plans to use this machine up

  5. Rosetta: The Final Furlong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, I. P.; Andrews, D. J.; Barber, S. J.; Sheridan, S.; Morgan, G. H.; Morse, A. D.

    2014-09-01

    By the time of the meeting, the Rosetta spacecraft will have formally arrived at its target comet, and final landing site selection will be in progress. One of the instruments that will be sent down to the surface of the comet is Ptolemy (a GC-MS).

  6. CAFE Project : final report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Weber; R. Carter; C.J. Stanford; A. Weber

    2003-01-01

    textabstract[MAS E-0302] This is the final public report of the CAFE project (ESPRIT 7023). CAFE developed a secure conditional access architecture and implemented a multi-currency electronic purse system based on smart cards and infrared wallets. The electronic purse was tested in user trials at

  7. Njv Magazine 3 final

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    En-Joy

    diseases, including neoplasia (Done, 1996), viral (Buffetaut and Upton, 1997;. Jacopson, 1989), bacterial (Foggin, 1987) mycotic (Jacopson, 1989) and parasitic .... LECLAIR Jr., R and CASTANET, J. A. (1987): Skeletochronological assessment of age and growth in the frog Rana pipiens Schreber. (Amphibia, Anura) from.

  8. Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finlayson-Pitts, Barbara J.

    2014-04-13

    DOE has funded our work in three areas: (1) reactions of sea salt aerosols to form photochemically labile halogen gases that help to drive tropospheric chemistry; (2) oxidation of organics at interfaces and formation of SOA driven by oxides of nitrogen photochemistry; and (3) nucleation and growth of new particles in the troposphere from reactions of methanesulfonic acid with amines.

  9. Dendritic growth forms of borax crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takoo, R.K.; Patel, B.R.; Joshi, M.S.

    1983-01-01

    A variety of dendritic forms of borax grown from solutions by the film formation method is given. The changing growth morphology is followed as a function of concentration and temperature. The initial, intermediate and final growth morphologies are described and discussed. Influence of evaporation rate and supersaturation on the mechanism of growth is assessed. It is suggested that under all crystallization conditions, borax crystals have dendritic form in the initial stages of growth. (author)

  10. Techniques de combustion Combustin Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perthuis E.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available L'efficacité d'un processus de chauffage par flamme est étroitement liée à la maîtrise des techniques de combustion. Le brûleur, organe essentiel de l'équipement de chauffe, doit d'une part assurer une combustion complète pour utiliser au mieux l'énergie potentielle du combustible et, d'autre part, provoquer dans le foyer les conditions aérodynamiques les plus propices oux transferts de chaleur. En s'appuyant sur les études expérimentales effectuées à la Fondation de Recherches Internationales sur les Flammes (FRIF, au Groupe d'Étude des Flammes de Gaz Naturel (GEFGN et à l'Institut Français du Pétrole (IFP et sur des réalisations industrielles, on présente les propriétés essentielles des flammes de diffusion aux combustibles liquides et gazeux obtenues avec ou sans mise en rotation des fluides, et leurs répercussions sur les transferts thermiques. La recherche des températures de combustion élevées conduit à envisager la marche à excès d'air réduit, le réchauffage de l'air ou son enrichissement à l'oxygène. Par quelques exemples, on évoque l'influence de ces paramètres d'exploitation sur l'économie possible en combustible. The efficiency of a flame heating process is closely linked ta the mastery of, combustion techniques. The burner, an essential element in any heating equipment, must provide complete combustion sa as to make optimum use of the potential energy in the fuel while, at the same time, creating the most suitable conditions for heat transfers in the combustion chamber. On the basis of experimental research performed by FRIF, GEFGN and IFP and of industrial achievements, this article describesthe essential properties of diffusion flames fed by liquid and gaseous fuels and produced with or without fluid swirling, and the effects of such flames on heat transfers. The search for high combustion temperatures means that consideration must be given to operating with reduced excess air, heating the air or

  11. Techniques for Wireless Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Gaaloul, Fakhreddine

    2012-05-01

    Switching techniques have been first proposed as a spacial diversity techniques. These techniques have been shown to reduce considerably the processing load while letting multi-antenna systems achieve a specific target performance. In this thesis, we take a different look at the switching schemes by implementing them for different other wireless applications. More specifically, this thesis consists of three main parts, where the first part considers a multiuser environment and an adaptive scheduling algorithm based on the switching with post-selection scheme for statistically independent but non-identically distributed channel conditions. The performance of this switched based scheduler is investigated and a multitude of performance metrics are presented. In a second part, we propose and analyze the performance of three switched-based algorithms for interference reduction in the downlink of over-loaded femtocells. For instance, performance metrics are derived in closed-form and these metrics are used to compare these three proposed schemes. Finally in a third part, a switch based opportunistic channel access scheme is proposed for a cognitive radio system and its performance is analyzed in terms of two new proposed metrics namely the average cognitive radio access and the waiting time duration.

  12. Bacterial growth kinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boonkitticharoen, V.; Ehrhardt, J.C.; Kirchner, P.T.

    1989-01-01

    Quantitative measurement of bacterial growth may be made using a radioassay technique. This method measures, by scintillation counting, the 14 CO 2 derived from the bacterial metabolism of a 14 C-labeled substrate. Mathematical growth models may serve as reliable tools for estimation of the generation rate constant (or slope of the growth curve) and provide a basis for evaluating assay performance. Two models, i.e., exponential and logistic, are proposed. Both models yielded an accurate fit to the data from radioactive measurement of bacterial growth. The exponential model yielded high precision values of the generation rate constant, with an average relative standard deviation of 1.2%. Under most conditions the assay demonstrated no changes in the slopes of growth curves when the number of bacteria per inoculation was changed. However, the radiometric assay by scintillation method had a growth-inhibiting effect on a few strains of bacteria. The source of this problem was thought to be hypersensitivity to trace amounts of toluene remaining on the detector

  13. Growth curves for Laron syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laron, Z; Lilos, P; Klinger, B

    1993-06-01

    Growth curves for children with Laron syndrome were constructed on the basis of repeated measurements made throughout infancy, childhood, and puberty in 24 (10 boys, 14 girls) of the 41 patients with this syndrome investigated in our clinic. Growth retardation was already noted at birth, the birth length ranging from 42 to 46 cm in the 12/20 available measurements. The postnatal growth curves deviated sharply from the normal from infancy on. Both sexes showed no clear pubertal spurt. Girls completed their growth between the age of 16-19 years to a final mean (SD) height of 119 (8.5) cm whereas the boys continued growing beyond the age of 20 years, achieving a final height of 124 (8.5) cm. At all ages the upper to lower body segment ratio was more than 2 SD above the normal mean. These growth curves constitute a model not only for primary, hereditary insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) deficiency (Laron syndrome) but also for untreated secondary IGF-I deficiencies such as growth hormone gene deletion and idiopathic congenital isolated growth hormone deficiency. They should also be useful in the follow up of children with Laron syndrome treated with biosynthetic recombinant IGF-I.

  14. Fatigue crack growth in additive manufactured products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Riemer

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Additive Manufacturing (AM is a new innovative technique that allows the direct fabrication of complex, individual, delicate and high-strength products, based on their 3D data. Selective Laser Melting (SLM is one of the AM processes that generates metallic components layer by layer using powder-bed technique. The irradiation and consequent melting of metallic powder is realised by the laser source. Employing SLM, especially complex and individual products, such as implants or aerospace parts, are well suited for economic production in small batches. The first important issue in this work was to analyse the fatigue crack growth (FCG in titanium alloy Ti-6-4 and stainless steel 316L processed by SLM. As a first step, stress intensity range decreasing tests were performed on SLM samples in their “as-built” condition. The next step was to adopt measures for optimisation of fatigue crack growth performance of SLM parts. For this purpose various heat treatments such as stress relief annealing and hot isostatic pressing (HIP were applied to the CT specimens. Finally, the strong impact of heat treatment on the residual lifetime was demonstrated by numerical fatigue crack growth simulations. For this purpose, the hip joint implant consisting of Ti-6-4 and processed by SLM was taken into account. It was found that residual stresses have a strong influence on the crack growth in Ti-6-4, while the influence of the micro-pores on the threshold values remains low. In contrast the results for 316L show that its fracturemechanical behaviour is not affected by residual stresses, whereas the microstructural features lead to modification in the da/dN-K-data. The second fundamental aim of this work was to demonstrate the possibilities of the SLM process. For that reason, the individually tailored bicycle crank was optimised regarding its weight and local stresses and finally manufactured using the SLM system. The iterative optimisation procedure was based on

  15. Growth theory and 'green growth'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smulders, S.; Toman, M.; Withagen, C.A.A.M.

    2014-01-01

    The relatively new and still amorphous concept of 'green growth' can be understood as a call for balancing longer-term investments in sustaining environmental wealth with nearer-term income growth to reduce poverty. We draw on a large body of economic theory available for providing insights on such

  16. Pre-treatment growth and IGF-I deficiency as main predictors of response to growth hormone therapy in neural models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urszula Smyczyn´ska

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Mathematical models have been applied in prediction of growth hormone treatment effectiveness in children since the end of 1990s. Usually they were multiple linear regression models; however, there are also examples derived by empirical non-linear methods. Proposed solution consists in application of machine learning technique – artificial neural networks – to analyse this problem. This new methodology, contrary to previous ones, allows detection of both linear and non-linear dependencies without assuming their character a priori. The aims of this work included: development of models predicting separately growth during 1st year of treatment and final height as well as identification of important predictors and in-depth analysis of their influence on treatment’s effectiveness. The models were derived on the basis of clinical data of 272 patients treated for at least 1 year, 133 of whom have already attained final height. Starting from models containing 17 and 20 potential predictors, respectively for 1st year and final height model, we were able to reduce their number to 9 and 10. Basing on the final models, IGF-I concentration and earlier growth were indicated as belonging to most important predictors of response to GH therapy, while results of GH secretion tests were automatically excluded as insignificant. Moreover, majority of the dependencies were observed to be non-linear, thus using neural networks seems to be reasonable approach despite it being more complex than previously applied methods.

  17. Geolocation Technologies Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magnoli, D E

    2003-06-02

    This paper is the final report for LL998 In Situ Sensing Subtask 7 (Geo-location) undertaken for NNSA NA-22 enabling technologies R&D for Counterproliferation Detection. A few state-of-the-art resolution parameters are presented for accelerometers, indoor and outdoor GPS (Global Positioning Satellite) systems, and INSs (Inertial Navigation Systems). New technologies are described, including one which has demonstrated the ability to track within a building to a resolution of under a foot.

  18. CMS Is Finally Completed

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    Yet another step in the completion of the Large Hadron Collider was taken yesterday morning, as the final element of the Compact Muon Solenoid was lowered nearly 100 meters bellow ground. After more than eight years of work at the world's most powerful particle accelerator, scientists hope that they will be able to start initial experiments with the LHC until the end of this year.

  19. Catalyst design for carbon nanotube growth using atomistic modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pint, Cary L; Bozzolo, Guillermo; Hauge, Robert

    2008-01-01

    The formation and stability of bimetallic catalyst particles, in the framework of carbon nanotube growth, is studied using the Bozzolo-Ferrante-Smith (BFS) method for alloys. Monte Carlo-Metropolis simulations with the BFS method are utilized in order to predict and study equilibrium configurations for nanoscale catalyst particles which are directly relevant to the catalyst state prior to growth of carbon nanotubes. At the forefront of possible catalyst combinations is the popular Fe-Mo bimetallic catalyst, which we have recently studied experimentally. We explain our experimental results, which indicate that the growth observed is dependent on the order of co-catalyst deposition, in the straightforward interpretation of BFS strain and chemical energy contributions toward the formation of Fe-Mo catalyst prior to growth. We find that the competition between the formation of metastable inner Mo cores and clusters of surface-segregated Mo atoms in Fe-Mo catalyst particles influences catalyst formation, and we investigate the role of Mo concentration and catalyst particle size in this process. Finally, we apply the same modeling approach to other prominent bimetallic catalysts and suggest that this technique can be a powerful tool to understand and manipulate catalyst design for highly efficient carbon nanotube growth

  20. Catarse e Final Feliz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myriam Ávila

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Resumo: É a certeza de que nada mais – ou nada importante – pode acontecer após o final de um conto que permite o acontecimento da catarse. Se na maioria das narrativas existe algum tipo de dénouement, em algumas delas isso acontece de maneira especialmente satisfatória e afirmativa. O conto de fadas é uma dessas formas narrativas onde o efeito catártico é extremo e preenche objetivos específicos, de acordo com Bruno Bettelheim. Hollywood mimetizou essa forma como estratégia de sedução, iniciando a tradição do final feliz no cinema. A partir do conto de fadas Cinderela, em diferentes versões, juntamente com a animação homônima da Disney e ainda duas versões do filme Sabrina, será traçada aqui uma relação entre a catarse e o final feliz nos contos de fada, bem como seu uso pela indústria cultural. Palavras-chave: catarse, contos de fada, Hollywood

  1. The double Laplacian growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loutsenko, I.; Yermolayeva, O.

    2008-06-01

    The dynamics of the idealized Laplacian growth (or the Hele-Shaw problem) can be approximated by the Poiselle flow which in appropriate units takes the form of the Darcy law. In this paper we account for the liquid inertia in the Hele-Shaw problem at zero surface tension limit. The Laplace dynamics for the pressure is extended here with one more for the velocity potential for which we call this growth process the Double Laplacian. The application of the conformal mappings technique leads to doubled dynamics for both the conformal map and the complex potential, which is presented in the paper for the radial and the planar growth. We apply the stability analysis and discuss the integrability for the stated problem. (author)

  2. Njv Magazine 3 final

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    En-Joy

    methods (wet blood mounts, Giemsa stained thin/thick blood smears, and microhematocrit centrifugation technique) can be used to confirm diagnosis in infected goats. Inoculation of laboratory rodents with suspected blood may be indicated in the diagnosis of some trypanosome infections. Immuno- fluorescent antibody ...

  3. Proton sputtering. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finfgeld, C.R.

    1975-01-01

    This research provides sputtering yields as a function of energy for H + and D + on several representative pure metallic elements, in the absence of surface contaminants. The experimental technique and apparatus are described. Data are given for Au, Co, Ta, W, and Mo

  4. Eyelid Growths

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of the Eyelids and Tears Blepharitis Blepharospasm Canaliculitis Chalazion and Stye (Hordeolum) Dacryocystitis Dacryostenosis Entropion and Ectropion ... mimic other eye disorders (such as blepharitis and chalazion ), so a doctor usually biopsies any growths that ...

  5. Schedulability Analysis for Java Finalizers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøgholm, Thomas; Hansen, Rene Rydhof; Ravn, Anders P.

    2010-01-01

    Java finalizers perform clean-up and finalisation of objects at garbage collection time. In real-time Java profiles the use of finalizers is either discouraged (RTSJ, Ravenscar Java) or even disallowed (JSR-302), mainly because of the unpredictability of finalizers and in particular their impact ...... programs. Finally, we extend the SARTS tool for automated schedulability analysis of Java bytecode programs to handle finalizers in a fully automated way.......Java finalizers perform clean-up and finalisation of objects at garbage collection time. In real-time Java profiles the use of finalizers is either discouraged (RTSJ, Ravenscar Java) or even disallowed (JSR-302), mainly because of the unpredictability of finalizers and in particular their impact...... on the schedulability analysis. In this paper we show that a controlled scoped memory model results in a structured and predictable execution of finalizers, more reminiscent of C++ destructors than Java finalizers. Furthermore, we incorporate finalizers into a (conservative) schedulability analysis for Predictable Java...

  6. Adaptive and Parallel Computational Techniques in Materials Science

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Flaherty, Joseph

    1998-01-01

    This Augmentation Award for Science and Engineering Research Training (AASERT) supported research students to work 0 adaptive and parallel computational techniques associated with crystal growth processing...

  7. CO2 emissions, energy consumption and economic growth in China: A panel data analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, S.S.; Zhou, D.Q.; Zhou, P.; Wang, Q.W.

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the causal relationships between carbon dioxide emissions, energy consumption and real economic output using panel cointegration and panel vector error correction modeling techniques based on the panel data for 28 provinces in China over the period 1995-2007. Our empirical results show that CO 2 emissions, energy consumption and economic growth have appeared to be cointegrated. Moreover, there exists bidirectional causality between CO 2 emissions and energy consumption, and also between energy consumption and economic growth. It has also been found that energy consumption and economic growth are the long-run causes for CO 2 emissions and CO 2 emissions and economic growth are the long-run causes for energy consumption. The results indicate that China's CO 2 emissions will not decrease in a long period of time and reducing CO 2 emissions may handicap China's economic growth to some degree. Some policy implications of the empirical results have finally been proposed. - Highlights: → We conduct a panel data analysis of the energy-CO 2 -economy nexus in China. → CO 2 emissions, energy use and economic growth appear to be cointegrated. → There exists bidirectional causality between energy consumption and economic growth. → Energy consumption and economic growth are the long-run causes for CO 2 emissions.

  8. Re-Examining the Finance-Growth Nexus: Empirical Evidence from Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Shabri Abd. Majid

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper empirically examines the short- and long-run relationships between financial development and economic growth during the post-1997 financial crisis in Indonesia by employing a battery of times-series techniques, such as Autoregressive Dis-tributed Lag (ARDL model, vector error correction model (VECM, variance decompositions (VDCs, and impulse-response functions (IRFs. Based on the ARDL (2, 0, 1, 2 model, the study finds that there exists a long-run equilibrium between economic growth and financial depth, share of investment, and inflation. In the long run, inflation is found to be the only variable which significantly (negatively affects economic growth, implying a crucial role of maintaining a low rate of inflation in promoting the economic growth in the country. As for the dynamic causalities among the variables, the study finds the bidirectional causation between economic growth and investment, while the unidirectional causation is only found running from financial depth to investment. The finding of independence between economic growth and financial development supports the view of “the independent hypothesis” of Lucas (1988. Finally, based on VDCs and IRFs, the study documents that the variations in the economic growth respond more to shocks in the price stability (inflation, followed by investment and financial development. Our findings indicate that if policy makers want to promote growth, attention should be focused on long-run policies, i.e., maintaining the low rate of inflation.

  9. [Therapeutic education didactic techniques].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valverde, Maite; Vidal, Mercè; Jansa, Margarida

    2012-10-01

    This article includes an introduction to the role of Therapeutic Education for Diabetes treatment according to the recommendations of the American Diabetes Association (ADA), the Diabetes Education Study Group (DESG) of the "European Association for Study of Diabetes (EASD) and the clinical Practice Guidelines (CPG) of the Spanish Ministry of Health. We analyze theoretical models and the differences between teaching vs. learning as well as current trends (including Internet), that can facilitate meaningful learning of people with diabetes and their families and relatives. We analyze the differences, similarities, advantages and disadvantages of individual and group education. Finally, we describe different educational techniques (metaplan, case method, brainstorming, role playing, games, seminars, autobiography, forums, chats,..) applicable to individual, group or virtual education and its application depending on the learning objective.

  10. The biophysics of neuronal growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franze, Kristian; Guck, Jochen

    2010-01-01

    For a long time, neuroscience has focused on biochemical, molecular biological and electrophysiological aspects of neuronal physiology and pathology. However, there is a growing body of evidence indicating the importance of physical stimuli for neuronal growth and development. In this review we briefly summarize the historical background of neurobiophysics and give an overview over the current understanding of neuronal growth from a physics perspective. We show how biophysics has so far contributed to a better understanding of neuronal growth and discuss current inconsistencies. Finally, we speculate how biophysics may contribute to the successful treatment of lesions to the central nervous system, which have been considered incurable until very recently.

  11. Population growth and economic growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayana, D L

    1984-01-01

    This discussion of the issues relating to the problem posed by population explosion in the developing countries and economic growth in the contemporary world covers the following: predictions of economic and social trends; the Malthusian theory of population; the classical or stationary theory of population; the medical triage model; ecological disaster; the Global 2000 study; the limits to growth; critiques of the Limits to Growth model; nonrenewable resources; food and agriculture; population explosion and stabilization; space and ocean colonization; and the limits perspective. The Limits to Growth model, a general equilibrium anti-growth model, is the gloomiest economic model ever constructed. None of the doomsday models, the Malthusian theory, the classical stationary state, the neo-Malthusian medical triage model, the Global 2000 study, are so far reaching in their consequences. The course of events that followed the publication of the "Limits to Growth" in 1972 in the form of 2 oil shocks, food shock, pollution shock, and price shock seemed to bear out formally the gloomy predictions of the thesis with a remarkable speed. The 12 years of economic experience and the knowledge of resource trends postulate that even if the economic pressures visualized by the model are at work they are neither far reaching nor so drastic. Appropriate action can solve them. There are several limitations to the Limits to Growth model. The central theme of the model, which is overshoot and collapse, is unlikely to be the course of events. The model is too aggregative to be realistic. It exaggerates the ecological disaster arising out of the exponential growth of population and industry. The gross underestimation of renewable resources is a basic flaw of the model. The most critical weakness of the model is its gross underestimation of the historical trend of technological progress and the technological possiblities within industry and agriculture. The model does correctly emphasize

  12. Patterned solid state growth of barium titanate crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugorek, Michael Stephen

    An understanding of microstructure evolution in ceramic materials, including single crystal development and abnormal/enhanced grain growth should enable more controlled final ceramic element structures. In this study, two different approaches were used to control single crystal development in a patterned array. These two methods are: (1) patterned solid state growth in BaTiO 3 ceramics, and (2) metal-mediated single crystal growth in BaTiO 3. With the patterned solid state growth technique, optical photolithography was used to pattern dopants as well as [001] and [110] BaTiO3 single crystal template arrays with a 1000 microm line pattern array with 1000 microm spacings. These patterns were subsequently used to control the matrix grain growth evolution and single crystal development in BaTiO3. It was shown that the growth kinetics can be controlled by a small initial grain size, atmosphere conditions, and the introduction of a dopant at selective areas/interfaces. By using a PO2 of 1x10-5 atm during high temperature heat treatment, the matrix coarsening has been limited (to roughly 2 times the initial grain size), while retaining single crystal boundary motion up to 0.5 mm during growth for dwell times up to 9 h at 1300°C. The longitudinal and lateral growth rates were optimized at 10--15 microm/h at 1300°C in a PO2 of 1x10 -5 atm for single crystal growth with limited matrix coarsening. Using these conditions, a patterned microstructure in BaTiO3 was obtained. With the metal-mediated single crystal growth technique, a novel approach for fabricating 2-2 single crystal/polymer composites with a kerf ceramic) composites were prepared. The piezoelectric and dielectric properties of the composites of the two compositions were measured. The d33 and d31 of the composites were similar to the polycrystalline ceramic of the same composition.

  13. Prometheus Project final report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Randall

    2005-01-01

    This Final Report serves as an executive summary of the Prometheus Project's activities and deliverables from November 2002 through September 2005. It focuses on the challenges from a technical and management perspective, what was different and innovative about this project, and identifies the major options, decisions, and accomplishments of the Project team as a whole. However, the details of the activities performed by DOE NR and its contractors will be documented separately in accordance with closeout requirements of the DOE NR and consistent with agreements between NASA and NR.

  14. B280 Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ulmer, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Loomis, G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Sampson, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2011-09-29

    Lawrence Livermore National Security, LLC (LLNS) has commissioned this independent Structural Condition Assessment as part of its Functional Management Review of the decommissioned Livermore Pool-Type Reactor (LPTR) located in Building 280 at Lawrence Livermore National laboratory (LLNL) for the purpose of addressing a potential management concern regarding the nature and impact of observed cracks in the LPTR shielding structure discovered approximately 8 months earlier. This assessment represents the final report from an initial investigation performed between July 11th and July 15th, 2011. The Exit Briefing presented by the review team at the conclusion of the on-site investigation phase is included as Attachment A.

  15. Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sobecky, Patricia A; Taillefert, Martial

    2013-03-29

    This final technical report describes results and findings from a research project to examine the role of microbial phosphohydrolase enzymes in naturally occurring subsurface microorganisms for the purpose of promoting the immobilization of the radionuclide uranium through the production of insoluble uranium phosphate minerals. The research project investigated the microbial mechanisms and the physical and chemical processes promoting uranium biomineralization and sequestration in oxygenated subsurface soils. Uranium biomineralization under aerobic conditions can provide a secondary biobarrier strategy to immobilize radionuclides should the metal precipitates formed by microbial dissimilatory mechanisms remobilize due to a change in redox state.

  16. CZT DTRA final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voss, L. F. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-02-01

    The objective of the project is to understand the physical origin of electronic noise injected by the electrical contacts in CZT and CdTe, and moreover to understand how it impacts the current- voltage (IV) relationships of these materials. This understanding is critical to enabling the next crucial enhancement in the performance of CZT radiation detectors, as there have recently been impressive advancements in the growth of CZT crystals, particularly at our commercial partner Redlen Technologies. Redlen scientists have successfully reduced the size of the transport-inhibiting tellurium precipitates to be <3 micrometers, such that, with sufficiently high fields, it is possible to achieve resolution of <1% at 662 keV using suitable electrode geometries. In contrast to the excellent progress in crystal growth, practitioners in the field of radiation detection have been fabricating rather routine contacts on CZT for nearly two decades; there is no basic understanding of the semiconductor physics of the contacts, and consequently no breakthrough progress in this area. Our objective is to resolve this inadequacy in CZT diode fabrication on the basis of a science-based study, such that CZT detectors can achieve their full promise in performance as superior contacts will enable use of higher fields with lower leakage current – thereby enhancing the resolution that is possible while eliminating the well-known “tailing” effect suffered by the photopeak. Our approach is to develop methods that reduce or eliminate leakage currents in CZT devices through “engineering” the surfaces with novel treatments and structures. This includes using high density plasma etching, doping via ion implantation and metal diffusion, rapid thermal annealing, amorphous semiconductor and dielectric films, and controlled oxide growth. Using these methods, sources of injected and generated noise at the surface can be eliminated via plasma etching and film deposition or oxide growth, while

  17. Nested Narratives Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Andrew T. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Pattengale, Nicholas D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Forsythe, James C. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Carvey, Bradley John [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-02-01

    In cybersecurity forensics and incident response, the story of what has happened is the most important artifact yet the one least supported by tools and techniques. Existing tools focus on gathering and manipulating low-level data to allow an analyst to investigate exactly what happened on a host system or a network. Higher-level analysis is usually left to whatever ad hoc tools and techniques an individual may have developed. We discuss visual representations of narrative in the context of cybersecurity incidents with an eye toward multi-scale illustration of actions and actors. We envision that this representation could smoothly encompass individual packets on a wire at the lowest level and nation-state-level actors at the highest. We present progress to date, discuss the impact of technical risk on this project and highlight opportunities for future work.

  18. Spectromicroscopy. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-11-01

    The objectives of this project were: (1) to develop a Confocal Hyperspectral Imaging Raman Microscope (CHIRM), and (2) using modern image processing technology, to devise algorithms for hyperspectral microscopic image recovery and enhancement. The first objective involved the development of advanced techniques in confocal microscopy, spectroscopic imaging detection, and imaging processing to produce hyperspectral Raman images. The second objective was to exploit the image detectors together with advanced statistical and data handling techniques, to produce enhanced Raman spectral images and to extract the maximum amount of spectral information in the minimum time with maximum economy. In both cases the objective was to develop instrumentation and software for both diagnostic and research applications, which require maximum sensitivity and minimum complexity and cost. These objectives have been completed on time and with a reduced budget.

  19. 2016 Research Final Presentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koskelo, EliseAnne Corinne [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-08-16

    These are slides which show an example of research at Los Alamos National Laboratory done by E.C. Koskelo to show college professors in the hopes of earning a research position or fellowship position. In summary, this researcher developed a new in-situ technique for the inspection of additively manufactured parts, created an algorithm which can correct "skewed" scans of angular parts/taken at oblique angles, and used AWS to detect hidden defects and thickness changes in aerospace composites.

  20. DOE46168 Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCartney, Martha R. [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States)

    2015-03-15

    The research objectives of this grant were to observe and to quantify nanoscale electrostatic and magnetic fields using the technique of off-axis electron holography. There have been two major areas of activity during the current reporting period, which spans September 2011 through December 2015; i) measurement of the 2D electrostatic potential distributions across complex semiconductor heterojunctions and devices; and ii) investigation of the remanent states and magnetization reversal mechanisms in magnetic thin films and nanostructures.

  1. Communications techniques and equipment: A compilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    This Compilation is devoted to equipment and techniques in the field of communications. It contains three sections. One section is on telemetry, including articles on radar and antennas. The second section describes techniques and equipment for coding and handling data. The third and final section includes descriptions of amplifiers, receivers, and other communications subsystems.

  2. Data analysis techniques for gravitational wave observations

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Data analysis techniques for gravitational wave observations. S V Dhurandhar ... The performance of some of these techniques on real data obtained will be discussed. Finally, some results on ... S V Dhurandhar1. Inter-University Centre for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Post Bag 4, Ganeshkhind, Pune 411 007, India ...

  3. Material Database for Additive Manufacturing Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    TECHNICAL REPORT RDMR-WD-17-64 MATERIAL DATABASE FOR ADDITIVE MANUFACTURING TECHNIQUES Janice C. Booth Weapons Development...Final 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Material Database for Additive Manufacturing Techniques 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR(S) Janice C...ABSTRACT (Maximum 200 Words) This report details material testing and results for a set of materials used in additive manufacturing for the

  4. Results of Final Focus Test Beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walz, Dieter R

    2003-06-13

    The beam experiments of Final Focus Test Beam (FFTB) started in September 1993 at SLAC, and have produced a 1.7 {micro}m x 75 nm spot of 46 GeV electron beam. A number of new techniques involving two nanometer spot-size monitors have been developed. Several beam diagnostic/tuning schemes are applied to achieve and maintain the small spot. This experiment opens the way toward the nanometer world for future linear colliders.

  5. The final cool down

    CERN Multimedia

    Thursday 29th May, the cool-down of the final sector (sector 4-5) of LHC has begun, one week after the start of the cool-down of sector 1-2. It will take five weeks for the sectors to be cooled from room temperature to 5 K and a further two weeks to complete the cool down to 1.9 K and the commissioning of cryogenic instrumentation, as well as to fine tune the cryogenic plants and the cooling loops of cryostats.Nearly a year and half has passed since sector 7-8 was cooled for the first time in January 2007. For Laurent Tavian, AT/CRG Group Leader, reaching the final phase of the cool down is an important milestone, confirming the basic design of the cryogenic system and the ability to operate complete sectors. “All the sectors have to operate at the same time otherwise we cannot inject the beam into the machine. The stability and reliability of the cryogenic system and its utilities are now very important. That will be the new challenge for the coming months,” he explains. The status of the cool down of ...

  6. Final focus system for high intensity beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Henestroza

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available The neutralized transport experiment (NTX at the Heavy Ion Fusion Virtual National Laboratory is exploring the performance of neutralized final-focus systems for high perveance heavy ion beams. The final-focus scenario in a heavy ion fusion driver consists of several large aperture quadrupole magnets followed by a drift section in which the beam space charge is neutralized by a plasma. This beam is required to hit a millimeter-sized target spot at the end of the drift section. The objective of the NTX experiments and associated theory and simulations is to study the various physical mechanisms that determine the final spot size (radius r_{s} at a given distance (f from the end of the last quadrupole. In a fusion driver, f is the standoff distance required to keep the chamber wall and superconducting magnets properly protected. The NTX final quadrupole focusing system produces a converging beam at the entrance to the neutralized drift section where it focuses to a small spot. The final spot is determined by the conditions of the beam entering the quadrupole section, the beam dynamics in the magnetic lattice, and the plasma neutralization dynamics in the drift section. The main issues are the control of emittance growth due to high order fields from magnetic multipoles and image fields. In this paper, we will describe the theoretical and experimental aspects of the beam dynamics in the quadrupole lattice, and how these physical effects influence the final beam size. In particular, we present theoretical and experimental results on the dependence of final spot size on geometric aberrations and perveance.

  7. Effects of La{sup 3+}–Nd{sup 3+} ions and pre-calcination on the growth of hexaferrite nanoparticles prepared by gel to crystallization technique: Non-isothermal crystallization kinetics analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thakur, Ankush [Department of Physics, Jaipur Engineering College and Research Centre, Jaipur (India); Barman, P.B. [Department of Physics and Materials Science, Jaypee University of Information Technology, Waknaghat (India); Singh, R.R., E-mail: raginirajsingh@gmail.com [Department of Physics and Materials Science, Jaypee University of Information Technology, Waknaghat (India)

    2015-04-15

    This is the first report ever on La{sup 3+}–Nd{sup 3+} doped M-type hexaferrite nanoparticles: SrNd{sub x}La{sub y}Fe{sub 12−x−y}O{sub 19} (0 ≤ x ≤ 1) prepared by citrate precursor using the sol–gel technique followed by gel to crystallization. The substitution effects of ions and molar ratio of Fe{sup 3+}/Sr{sup 2+} on the formation of ferrite phase were examined using powder differential thermal analysis (DTA) technique, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (Mid-IR) and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). The present work aim to study the crystallization of binary La{sup 3+}- Nd{sup 3+} doped hexaferrite nanoparticles. DTA technique was employed to investigate the formation of nanocrystalline SrNd{sub 0.4}La{sub 0.4}Fe{sub 11.2}O{sub 19} and revealed that the formation of ferrite phase was occurred in steps and crystallization take place by the means of endothermic reactions. The value of activation energy and crystallization temperature has been obtained from DTA data using different non-isothermal methods. XRD and Mid-IR studies have confirmed the formation of ferrite phase. Through this work an optimum calcination condition was established for the synthesis of single phase hexaferrite nanoparticles even after the substitution of binary rare earth elements. Magnetic properties were determined by using a vibrating sample magnetometer. The magnetic results revealed that the synthesized nanoparticles are suitable for perpendicular recording media due to their high coercivity value. - Highlights: • First report of studies on Nd{sup 3+}–La{sup 3+} doped M-type strontium hexaferrite nanoparticles. • Studied the crystallization of binary (Nd{sup 3+}–La{sup 3+}) doped hexaferrite nanoparticles. • Studied the effects of La{sup 3+}–Nd{sup 3+} & molar ratio of Fe{sup 3+}/Sr{sup 2+} on the formation of ferrite phase. • Established an optimum condition to obtain single phase hexaferrite nanoparticles. • Magnetic

  8. Technical Report: Final

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lueking, Angela D.; Wang, Cheng-Yu

    2014-09-30

    The objective of this work was to develop catalyzed nanoporous materials that have superior hydrogen uptake between 300K and 400K and moderate pressures. Platinum nanoparticles were introduced to both activated carbons (ACs) and microporous metal organic frameworks (MMOFs) in order to dissociate molecular hydrogen into an active hydrogen species that diffuses from the catalyst to weakly chemisorbs to the AC/MMOF support; this combined sequence is referred to as the hydrogen spillover mechanism. For all materials studied, maximum excess hydrogen uptake was 1-1.4 wt% (excess) at 300K, falling short of DOE storage goals (5.5 wt% by 2015). Select Pt/AC materials (after in situ catalyst activation) had high uptake (up to 1.4 wt%) at low pressure which significantly exceeded that expected for physisorption. The uptake was not correlated to size of Pt catalyst, but appeared to be associated with high surface activity of the AC support and the methodology of catalyst doping. Multiple techniques were explored to introduce Pt nanoparticles into MMOFs, but most led to significant structural degradation. Ultimately, a ‘pre-bridge’ (PB) technique was used to introduce Pt/AC catalysts into MMOFs, as the PB technique led to virtually non-detectable changes in structure. At high pressure, hydrogen spillover of ~1 wt% (excess) to a PB-MMOF was very slow (i.e. >80 hours at 70-80 bar), which can be attributed to high diffusion barriers in a complex three-surface domain material (Pt, AC, MMOF) as well as unexpected evidence for mechanical instability of the undoped MMOF precursor. In a low-pressure comparison study of three PB-MMOFs, we found evidence that the doping technique may introduce defects which may contribute to enhanced adsorption at 300K. However, we could not rule out the effect of active Pt sites, as common predictors of adsorption generally favored the materials without Pt. Furthermore, spectroscopic evidence provided definitive evidence of weak hydrogen

  9. Interactive Effects of Growth Regulators, Carbon Sources, pH on Plant Regeneration and Assessment of Genetic Fidelity Using Single Primer Amplification Reaction (SPARS) Techniques in Withania somnifera L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatima, Nigar; Ahmad, Naseem; Ahmad, Iqbal; Anis, Mohammad

    2015-09-01

    An improved and methodical in vitro shoot morphogenic approach through axillary bud multiplication was established in a drug yielding plant, Withania somnifera L. Effects of plant growth regulators [6-benzyladenine (BA), kinetin (Kin), 2-isopentenyladenine (2iP), and thidiazuron (TDZ)] either singly or in combination with α-napthalene acetic acid (NAA), indole-3-butyric acid (IBA), and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) in Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium were tested. The highest regeneration frequency (90 %) with optimum number of shoots (32 ± 0.00)/explant were obtained on MS medium fortified with 2.5 μM 6-benzyladenine (BA) and 0.5 μM NAA and 30 g/l sucrose at pH 5.8. Among the tried TDZ concentrations, 0.5 μM resulted in maximum number of shoots (20.4 ± 0.40)/explant after 4 weeks of exposure. The proliferating shoot cultures established by repeated subculturing of the mother explants on the hormone-free medium produced the highest shoot number (29.4 ± 0.40) with shoot length (6.80 ± 0.12 cm)/explant at fourth subculture passage, which a decline in shoot proliferation was recorded. Different concentrations of NAA were tested for ex vitro rooting of microshoots. The maximum percentage of rooting 100 % with maximum roots (18.3 ± 0.1) was achieved in soilrite when basal portion of the microshoots were treated with 200 μM (NAA) for 15 min per shoot. The plantlets went through hardening phase in a growth chamber, prior to ex vitro transfer. The PCR-based single primer amplification reaction (SPAR) methods which include random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and direct amplification of minisatellite DNA (DAMD) markers has been used for assessment of genetic stability of micropropagated plantlets. No variation was observed in DNA fingerprinting patterns among the micropropagated and the donor plants illustrating their genetic uniformity.

  10. Growth of superconducting Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub 8+{delta}} films by sedimentation deposition and liquid phase sintering and annealing technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manahan, R.L.C. [Condensed Matter Physics Laboratory, National Institute of Physics, University of the Philippines, Llamas Science Hall, Rm. 3122, E. Quirino Street, Diliman, Quezon City 1101 (Philippines)]. E-mail: rcmanahan@nip.upd.edu.ph; Sarmago, R.V. [Condensed Matter Physics Laboratory, National Institute of Physics, University of the Philippines, Llamas Science Hall, Rm. 3122, E. Quirino Street, Diliman, Quezon City 1101 (Philippines)

    2006-10-01

    We report on a technique of growing highly c-axis oriented Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub 8+{delta}} (Bi-2212) thick films on MgO substrate using a combined sedimentation-deposition and liquid phase sintering and annealing process. The temperature profiles employed partial melting followed by rapid cooling to temperature below the melting point. Scanning electron micrographs show that the films have a smooth surface. No evidence of grain boundaries on the film's surface can be seen. The critical temperatures of the samples range from {approx}67 K to {approx}81 K. This method presents a quick and easy preparation for high quality epitaxial Bi-2212 films.

  11. AIPM Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John Mookken

    2006-06-30

    The final AIPM project report consists of six sections. Each section includes information on the original AIPM project and extension work on the high temperature design. The first section (1) provides an overview of the program and highlights the significant targets to meet at the end of the program. The next section (2) summarizes the significant technical accomplishments by the SEMIKRON AIPM team during the course of the project. Greater technical details are provided in a collection of all the quarterly reports which can be found in the appendix. Section three (3) presents some the more significant technical data collected from technology demonstrators. Section four (4) analyzes the manufacturing cost or economic aspects of producing 100,000 units/yr. Section five (5) describes the commercialization efforts of the AIPM technology into the automotive market. The last section (6) recommends follow on work that will build on the efforts and achievements of the AIPM program.

  12. Multimuon final states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crespo, J.-M.

    1980-04-01

    Multimuon final states have been detected by 3 experiments in the interactions of the muon beams of CERN (280 GeV) and FNAL (210 GeV) with heavy targets. For the first time production of J/PSI (3100) by space-like photons has been observed and its dependence on ν, Q 2 and t compared to Vector Dominance and photon-gluon fusion models. Also a clear signal has been seen for 3μ above QED tridents (outside J/PSI mass range) and 2μ events which are well described by charm production. An upper limit for the production of the T by high energy muons has been set

  13. Final Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Josef Michl

    2011-10-31

    In this project we have established guidelines for the design on organic chromophores suitable for producing high triplet yields via singlet fission. We have proven their utility by identifying a chromophore of a structural class that had never been examined for singlet fission before, 1,3-diphenylisobenzofuran, and demonstrating in two independent ways that a thin layer of this material produces a triplet yield of 200% within experimental error. We have also designed a second chromophore of a very different type, again of a structural class that had not been examined for singlet fission before, and found that in a thin layer it produces a 70% triplet yield. Finally, we have enhanced the theoretical understanding of the quantum mechanical nature of the singlet fission process.

  14. Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Lian [West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States)

    2017-03-08

    Our BES supported program integrates molecular beam epitaxy growth with in situ atomic scale imaging using scanning tunneling microscopy/spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy. Aided by density functional theory calculations, we explore enhanced functionalities emerging from the interplay of strain, proximity, and spin-orbit interactions in heterostructures of wide band gap semiconductors, graphene, and Dirac materials, focusing on three thrusts: 1) doping wide bandgap semiconductors and graphene; 2) graphene nanoribbons and graphene-semiconductor heterostructures; and 3) Dirac materials. Our findings and discoveries have led to the publication of one book chapter and twenty-three refereed journal articles, including several in high impact journals such as Nature Communications, Physical Review Letters, and Nano Letters. Highlights of each thrust are provided in the report.

  15. RESTRAT Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeevaert, T.; Bousher, A.; Brendler, V.; Nordlinder, S.; Hedemann Jensen, P.

    1999-01-01

    The RESTRAT project has been carried out by the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN in the framework of the Fourth Radiation Protection Research Framework Programme by the European Commission. The main objective of this project is to develop a methodology for ranking restoration options as a function of site- and contamination characteristics. A manual has been produced in which this methodology is explained and applied to major classes of site restoration cases. In this report a summary is given of the scientific work achieved. The development of the methodology has been based on analyses of existing restoration techniques and contaminated sites and has been structured in following steps: identification of relevant cases, representative for important classes of contaminated sites and characterisation of the sites; characterisation of relevant restoration techniques; development of a risk assessment methodology (model) and application to the example cases; development of the ranking methodology of restoration options and application to the example cases; formulation of conclusions and elaboration of the manual

  16. RESTRAT Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeevaert, T.; Bousher, A.; Brendler, V.; Nordlinder, S.; Hedemann Jensen, P

    1999-08-15

    The RESTRAT project has been carried out by the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN in the framework of the Fourth Radiation Protection Research Framework Programme by the European Commission. The main objective of this project is to develop a methodology for ranking restoration options as a function of site- and contamination characteristics. A manual has been produced in which this methodology is explained and applied to major classes of site restoration cases. In this report a summary is given of the scientific work achieved. The development of the methodology has been based on analyses of existing restoration techniques and contaminated sites and has been structured in following steps: identification of relevant cases, representative for important classes of contaminated sites and characterisation of the sites; characterisation of relevant restoration techniques; development of a risk assessment methodology (model) and application to the example cases; development of the ranking methodology of restoration options and application to the example cases; formulation of conclusions and elaboration of the manual.

  17. Final Report Package_Winnebago

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carolyn Stewart, Director, Red Mountain Energy Partners

    2006-10-31

    The Winnebago Tribe of Nebraska energy options study results will be used to advance the Tribe’s near term energy management objectives. The array of energy options identified allows the Tribe to select those activities that best fit its energy strategies, goals and objectives. During the course of the study, Red Mountain analyzed both energy options and energy organizational alternatives suitable for the Tribe, presented findings to the Tribal Council, and made recommendations regarding each. Work products delivered to the Tribe, and provided in the Final Report included: • A matrix of energy management options applicable to the Tribe, which provided descriptions of particular conservation, efficiency, weatherization, and demand management alternatives. The matrix also provided insight about relative costs of the alternatives, cost/benefit efficacy, ease of implementation, resources for implementing, and observations about each. • A matrix of utility service options applicable to the Tribe, describing each of the four alternatives described above. The matrix also provided insight about key benefits of each option, required resources, costs and timeframe for implementation, funding sources and analysis, and key issues for consideration. • Discussion guides prepared for each meeting between the Energy Committee and Council, and the Tribe’s contractor, Red Mountain Energy Partners, which included preliminary analysis and findings. • A Position Description for the Energy Manager position, which was reviewed by the Tribal HR Department, and used by the Tribe to develop a position posting. • A Utility Code designed for Winnebago to use in establishing its Utility Board, and, ultimately, to provide guidance for the Board’s further development. • A project summary book developed to include all key information, deliverables and utility provider data for the project. Winnebago’s growth trends and expansion plans require the Tribe to play a more active

  18. Emplacement of the final lava dome of the 2009 eruption of Redoubt Volcano, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bull, Katharine F.; Anderson, Steven W.; Diefenbach, Angela K.; Wessels, Rick L.; Henton, Sarah M.

    2013-01-01

    After more than 8 months of precursory activity and over 20 explosions in 12 days, Redoubt Volcano, Alaska began to extrude the fourth and final lava dome of the 2009 eruption on April 4. By July 1 the dome had filled the pre-2009 summit crater and ceased to grow. By means of analysis and annotations of time-lapse webcam imagery, oblique-image photogrammetry techniques and capture and analysis of forward-looking infrared (FLIR) images, we tracked the volume, textural, effusive-style and temperature changes in near-real time over the entire growth period of the dome. The first month of growth (April 4–May 4) produced blocky intermediate- to high-silica andesite lava (59–62.3 wt.% SiO2) that initially formed a round dome, expanding by endogenous growth, breaking the surface crust in radial fractures and annealing them with warmer, fresh lava. On or around May 1, more finely fragmented and scoriaceous andesite lava (59.8–62.2 wt.% SiO2) began to appear at the top of the dome coincident with increased seismicity and gas emissions. The more scoriaceous lava spread radially over the dome surface, while the dome continued to expand from endogenous growth and blocky lava was exposed on the margins and south side of the dome. By mid-June the upper scoriaceous lava had covered 36% of the dome surface area. Vesicularity of the upper scoriaceous lava range from 55 to 66%, some of the highest vesicularity measurements recorded from a lava dome.We suggest that the stability of the final lava dome primarily resulted from sufficient fracturing and clearing of the conduit by preceding explosions that allowed efficient degassing of the magma during effusion. The dome was thus able to grow until it was large enough to exceed the magmastatic pressure in the chamber, effectively shutting off the eruption.

  19. Does tax competition really promote growth?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Köthenbürger, Marko; Lockwood, Ben

    2010-01-01

    This paper considers the relationship between tax competition and growth in an endogenous growth model where there are stochastic shocks to productivity, and capital taxes fund a public good which may be for final consumption or an infrastructure input. Absent stochastic shocks, decentralized tax...

  20. Growth performance, haematological and biochemical study of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A significant difference (P<0.05) was established in the growth parameters determined in the C. gariepinus fingerlings fed with the four frog formulations, namely, final weight, total weight, and mean feed gain, mean weight gain and feed conversion ratio The 40% R. galamensis ration elicited higher growth values than all ...

  1. Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aristos Aristidou Natureworks); Robert Kean (NatureWorks); Tom Schechinger (IronHorse Farms, Mat); Stuart Birrell (Iowa State); Jill Euken (Wallace Foundation & Iowa State)

    2007-10-01

    The two main objectives of this project were: 1) to develop and test technologies to harvest, transport, store, and separate corn stover to supply a clean raw material to the bioproducts industry, and 2) engineer fermentation systems to meet performance targets for lactic acid and ethanol manufacturers. Significant progress was made in testing methods to harvest corn stover in a “single pass” harvest mode (collect corn grain and stover at the same time). This is technically feasible on small scale, but additional equipment refinements will be needed to facilitate cost effective harvest on a larger scale. Transportation models were developed, which indicate that at a corn stover yield of 2.8 tons/acre and purchase price of $35/ton stover, it would be unprofitable to transport stover more than about 25 miles; thus suggesting the development of many regional collection centers. Therefore, collection centers should be located within about 30 miles of the farm, to keep transportation costs to an acceptable level. These collection centers could then potentially do some preprocessing (to fractionate or increase bulk density) and/or ship the biomass by rail or barge to the final customers. Wet storage of stover via ensilage was tested, but no clear economic advantages were evident. Wet storage eliminates fire risk, but increases the complexity of component separation and may result in a small loss of carbohydrate content (fermentation potential). A study of possible supplier-producer relationships, concluded that a “quasi-vertical” integration model would be best suited for new bioproducts industries based on stover. In this model, the relationship would involve a multiyear supply contract (processor with purchase guarantees, producer group with supply guarantees). Price will likely be fixed or calculated based on some formula (possibly a cost plus). Initial quality requirements will be specified (but subject to refinement).Producers would invest in harvest

  2. Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donald L. Phillips; Mark G. Johnson, David T. Tingey

    2003-12-18

    OAK-B135 This study took place at the Nevada Desert FACE (Free Air CO2 Enrichment) Facility at the Nevada Test Site, where effects of elevated atmospheric CO2 on a desert ecosystem are being studied. One hundred sixty-eight minirhizotrons (clear plastic tubes) were installed to a depth of 1m in the soil in the control and elevated CO2 plots. Tubes were installed from a suspended platform to avoid soil compaction and disturbance. Tubes were placed under individuals of two dominant shrub species, Larrea tridentata and Ambrosia dumosa, and along systematic transects across the plots. Specialized video cameras were inserted down the tubes at 4 week intervals to provide images of plant root systems on the upper side of the tube. A ratcheting mechanism assured consistent imaging of the same precise locations during each sampling period. Images were collected every 4 weeks from December 1997 to January 2001, after which the images were too degraded from repeated camera abrasion on the tubes for adequate analysis. Over 100,000 video images were analyzed and the appearance, growth, and disappearance of 23,634 individual fine roots (<2 mm diameter) were tracked over time, totaling 125,679 root observations and measurements. Elevated CO2 did not have an effect on the timing of seasonal patterns of fine root growth or turnover (mortality). There were no consistent effects of elevated CO2 on fine root length standing crop, production, or turnover except standing crop was consistently lower under the elevated CO2 treatment across the community transects. The specific root length (m/g of root dry weight) found to be higher for Larrea and Ambrosia under elevated CO2 treatments. Procedures were developed to translate the length measurements taken from minirhizotron images to biomass estimates per unit soil volume, utilizing these specific root length measurements. While few differences in fine root length were apparent as a result of elevated CO2 treatment, conversion to biomass

  3. LDRD final report :

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brost, Randolph C.; McLendon, William Clarence,

    2013-01-01

    Modeling geospatial information with semantic graphs enables search for sites of interest based on relationships between features, without requiring strong a priori models of feature shape or other intrinsic properties. Geospatial semantic graphs can be constructed from raw sensor data with suitable preprocessing to obtain a discretized representation. This report describes initial work toward extending geospatial semantic graphs to include temporal information, and initial results applying semantic graph techniques to SAR image data. We describe an efficient graph structure that includes geospatial and temporal information, which is designed to support simultaneous spatial and temporal search queries. We also report a preliminary implementation of feature recognition, semantic graph modeling, and graph search based on input SAR data. The report concludes with lessons learned and suggestions for future improvements.

  4. Final Technical Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dennis L.; Eggleston

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this grant was to experimentally investigate asymmetry-induced radial transport in a non-neutral (Penning-Malmberg) plasma trap. These traps provide an excellent platform for transport studies since the plasmas are generally well confined. One can then study transport in a controlled manner: the plasma is perturbed and the resulting transport measured. The focus of this research is the transport produced by applied asymmetric electric fields. The main results of our research concern (1) the theory of asymmetry-induced transport, (2) an absolute comparison of theory predictions with experimental results, (3) the amplitude scaling of the transport, (4) the frequency dependence of the transport, (5) the development of techniques to determine the relative contribution of mobility and diffusion to the transport, and (6) measuring the effect of small axial magnetic variations on the transport

  5. Human Capital as a Binding Constraint to Economic Growth: The Case of Macedonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darko Lazarov

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of the paper is to explore the assumption if the lack of skilled and well-educated workforces (human capital holds a potential of a binding constraint to economic growth of the Macedonian economy. Not neglecting growth econometrics’ insights for the investigation of the relationship between human capital and economic growth, the work is primarily based on a growth diagnostic approach. The empirical techniques used in this paper are: growth accounting decomposition production method; macro and micro assessment of the return rate on investment in human capital; and, comparative benchmark analysis concerns with regard to unemployment distribution according to education and age structure and companies’ perceptions about the quality of workforce. The estimated results indicate an important contribution of human capital to economic growth (its relative contribution in terms of growth rate composition is approximately 22 percent. The macro and micro assessment of the rate of return on investment in human capital shows that the rate of return to higher education is significantly superior to corresponding returns to secondary education. Finally, the international benchmark analysis helps in comparative human capital impact analysis (educational structure of labor force in the wider region. Predominantly, it is based on educational structure, unemployment distribution and the companies’ perception about the quality of the workforce.

  6. How Changes In International Trade Effect African Growth?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adolfo C. Fernández Puente

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The dismal growth performance of Africa in the last decades is one of the main worries of the global economy. In this paper we design an empirical model to explain how the growth rate of the economy is affected by changes in international trade. The main message of the model is that integration enables countries to exchange more varieties of goods and take advantage of some spillovers linked to the export-import process. These predictions are tested using GMM technique in a panel data performed on a sample of 22 countries belonging to the Sub-Sahara region over the period 1970-2002. The estimations suggest that Africa’s growth rates are positively related to a more open attitude and to a greater integration in international markets. However, the empirical analysis also points out the need of a certain degree of “social capacity” to ensure a successful integration. Finally, our results imply that African nations can profit from the economic growth of the OECD countries, as they are the main buyers of the region.

  7. Schedulability Analysis for Java Finalizers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøgholm, Thomas; Hansen, Rene Rydhof; Søndergaard, Hans

    2010-01-01

    Java finalizers perform clean-up and finalisation of objects at garbage collection time. In real-time Java profiles the use of finalizers is either discouraged (RTSJ, Ravenscar Java) or even disallowed (JSR-302), mainly because of the unpredictability of finalizers and in particular their impact...... on the schedulability analysis. In this paper we show that a controlled scoped memory model results in a structured and predictable execution of finalizers, more reminiscent of C++ destructors than Java finalizers. Furthermore, we incorporate finalizers into a (conservative) schedulability analysis for Predictable Java...... programs. Finally, we extend the SARTS tool for automated schedulability analysis of Java bytecode programs to handle finalizers in a fully automated way....

  8. AIMES Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katz, Daniel S [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States). National Center for Supercomputing Applications (NCSA); Jha, Shantenu [Rutgers Univ., New Brunswick, NJ (United States); Weissman, Jon [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Turilli, Matteo [Rutgers Univ., New Brunswick, NJ (United States)

    2017-01-31

    This is the final technical report for the AIMES project. Many important advances in science and engineering are due to large-scale distributed computing. Notwithstanding this reliance, we are still learning how to design and deploy large-scale production Distributed Computing Infrastructures (DCI). This is evidenced by missing design principles for DCI, and an absence of generally acceptable and usable distributed computing abstractions. The AIMES project was conceived against this backdrop, following on the heels of a comprehensive survey of scientific distributed applications. AIMES laid the foundations to address the tripartite challenge of dynamic resource management, integrating information, and portable and interoperable distributed applications. Four abstractions were defined and implemented: skeleton, resource bundle, pilot, and execution strategy. The four abstractions were implemented into software modules and then aggregated into the AIMES middleware. This middleware successfully integrates information across the application layer (skeletons) and resource layer (Bundles), derives a suitable execution strategy for the given skeleton and enacts its execution by means of pilots on one or more resources, depending on the application requirements, and resource availabilities and capabilities.

  9. Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Held, Isaac [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States); Balaji, V. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States); Fueglistaler, Stephan [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States)

    2016-09-19

    We have constructed and analyzed a series of idealized models of tropical convection interacting with large-scale circulations, with 25-50km resolution and with 1-2km cloud resolving resolution to set the stage for rigorous tests of convection closure schemes in high resolution global climate models. Much of the focus has been on the climatology of tropical cyclogenesis in rotating systems and the related problem of the spontaneous aggregation of convection in non-rotating systems. The PI (Held) will be delivering the honorary Bjerknes lecture at the Fall 2016 AGU meeting in December on this work. We have also provided new analyses of long-standing issues related to the interaction between convection and the large-scale circulation: Kelvin waves in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere, water vapor transport into the stratosphere, and upper tropospheric temperature trends. The results of these analyses help to improve our understanding of processes, and provide tests for future high resolution global modeling. Our final goal of testing new convections schemes in next-generation global atmospheric models at GFDL has been left for future work due to the complexity of the idealized model results meant as tests for these models uncovered in this work and to computational resource limitations. 11 papers have been published with support from this grant, 2 are in review, and another major summary paper is in preparation.

  10. Acoustic Separation Technology; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fred Ahrens; Tim Patterson

    2002-01-01

    Today's restrictive environmental regulations encourage paper mills to close their water systems. Closed water systems increase the level of contaminants significantly. Accumulations of solid suspensions are detrimental to both the papermaking process and the final products. To remove these solids, technologies such as flotation using dissolved air (DAF), centrifuging, and screening have been developed. Dissolved Air Flotation systems are commonly used to clarify whitewater. These passive systems use high pressure to dissolve air into whitewater. When the pressure is released, air micro-bubbles form and attach themselves to fibers and particles, which then float to the surface where they are mechanically skimmed off. There is an economic incentive to explore alternatives to the DAF technology to drive down the cost of whitewater processing and minimize the use of chemicals. The installed capital cost for a DAF system is significant and a typical DAF system takes up considerable space. An alternative approach, which is the subject of this project, involves a dual method combining the advantages of chemical flocculation and in-line ultrasonic clarification to efficiently remove flocculated contaminants from a water stream

  11. Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexander Fridman

    2005-06-01

    This DOE project DE-FC36-04GO14052 ''Plasma Pilot Plant Test for Treating VOC Emissions from Wood Products Plants'' was conducted by Drexel University in cooperation with Georgia-Pacific (G-P) and Kurchatov Institute (KI). The objective of this project was to test the Plasma Pilot Plant capabilities in wood industry. The final goal of the project was to replace the current state-of-the-art, regenerative thermal oxidation (RTO) technology by Low-Temperature Plasma Technology (LTPT) in paper and wood industry for Volatile Organic Components (VOC) destruction in High Volume Low Concentration (HVLC) vent emissions. MetPro Corporation joined the team as an industrial partner from the environmental control business and a potential leader for commercialization. Concurrent Technology Corporation (CTC) has a separate contract with DOE for this technology evaluation. They prepared questionnaires for comparison of this technology and RTO, and made this comparison. These data are presented in this report along with the description of the technology itself. Experiments with the pilot plant were performed with average plasma power up to 3.6 kW. Different design of the laboratory and pilot plant pulsed coronas, as well as different analytical methods revealed many new peculiarities of the VOC abatement process. The work reported herein describes the experimental results for the VOCs removal efficiency with respect to energy consumption, residence time, water effect and initial concentration.

  12. Infrared Devices And Techniques (Revision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogalski A.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is to produce an applications-oriented review covering infrared techniques and devices. At the beginning infrared systems fundamentals are presented with emphasis on thermal emission, scene radiation and contrast, cooling techniques, and optics. Special attention is focused on night vision and thermal imaging concepts. Next section concentrates shortly on selected infrared systems and is arranged in order to increase complexity; from image intensifier systems, thermal imaging systems, to space-based systems. In this section are also described active and passive smart weapon seekers. Finally, other important infrared techniques and devices are shortly described, among them being: non-contact thermometers, radiometers, LIDAR, and infrared gas sensors.

  13. High density growth of T7 expression strains with auto-induction option

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Studier, F. William (Stony Brook, NY)

    2010-07-20

    A bacterial growth medium for promoting auto-induction of transcription of cloned DNA in cultures of bacterial cells grown batchwise is disclosed. The transcription is under the control of a lac repressor. Also disclosed is a bacterial growth medium for improving the production of a selenomethionine-containing protein or polypeptide in a bacterial cell, the protein or polypeptide being produced by recombinant DNA techniques from a lac or T7lac promoter, the bacterial cell encoding a vitamin B12-dependent homocysteine methylase. Finally, disclosed is a bacterial growth medium for suppressing auto-induction of expression in cultures of bacterial cells grown batchwise, said transcription being under the control of lac repressor.

  14. Creep crack growth verification testing in alloy 800H tubular components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunter, C.P.; Hurst, R.C.

    1992-01-01

    A method for determining the creep crack growth, CCG, and stress rupture behaviour of Alloy 800H tubular components containing longitudinal notches at 800deg C is described. The presence of the notch is found to systematically weaken the tube, the degree of weaking dependent upon the notch length and depth. The creep crack growth rates, determined from a specially adapted potential drop technique are compared with those obtained from conventional compact tension type specimens. Using the stress intensity factor, K 1 , and the C * parameter as the basis of comparison it is found that the latter gives excellent correlation between the specimen and component behaviour. Finally attention is drawn to the potential dangers of predicting the component creep crack growth behaviour from the data obtained using conventional specimens for a structure sensitive material such as Alloy 800H and conversely to the advantages of the component type CCG tests developed in the present work. (orig.)

  15. Final height in elite male artistic gymnasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgopoulos, Neoklis A; Theodoropoulou, Anastasia; Roupas, Nikolaos D; Armeni, Anastasia K; Koukkou, Eftychia; Leglise, Michel; Markou, Kostas B

    2012-01-01

    Elite male artistic gymnasts (AG) are exposed to high levels of physical and psychological stress during adolescence and experience a significant late maturation in both linear growth and pubertal development. The aim of the present study was to determine the impact of intensive physical training on the adult final height in elite male AG. This study is unique in character, as all variables were measured on the field of competition. The study was prospective and longitudinal; however, the current analysis of data is cross-sectional. Data from 86 elite male AG were obtained during the gymnastics competitions of European and World Championships. Clinical evaluation included height and weight measurements, as well as assessment of pubic hair and genital development according to Tanner's stages of pubertal development. The laboratory investigation included determination of skeletal maturation. All athletes completed a questionnaire that included questions on personal (onset and intensity of training, number of competitions per year) and family data (paternal and maternal heights). Male AG were below the 50th percentile for both final height and weight. Elite male AG had final height standard deviation score (SDS) lower than their genetic predisposition. Final height SDS was correlated positively with target height SDS (r = 0.430, p research project, the International Federation of Gymnastics has increased the age limit for participants in international gymnastics competitions by 1 year.

  16. growth conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Fuchs

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider the obstacle problem {minimize????????I(u=?OG(?udx??among functions??u:O?Rsuch?that???????u|?O=0??and??u=F??a.e. for a given function F?C2(O¯,F|?O<0 and a bounded Lipschitz domain O in Rn. The growth properties of the convex integrand G are described in terms of a N-function A:[0,8?[0,8 with limt?8¯A(tt-2<8. If n=3, we prove, under certain assumptions on G,C1,8-partial regularity for the solution to the above obstacle problem. For the special case where A(t=tln(1+t we obtain C1,a-partial regularity when n=4. One of the main features of the paper is that we do not require any power growth of G.

  17. New Visions on Form and Growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howard, M

    2005-01-01

    It is now nearly 90 years since the publication of D'Arcy Thompson's book On Growth and Form, a classic work that attempted a unification of pattern-forming phenomena in systems ranging from inanimate to living matter. Thompson's book came early in the development of mathematical techniques in biology. His work has had enormous influence in succeeding decades and has helped inspire the rapid growth in the application of theoretical techniques to biological phenomena. Pelce's book New Visions on Form and Growth takes its inspiration and title directly from D'Arcy Thompson. Furthermore, Pelce attempts what could not be achieved in D'Arcy Thompson's time, namely the presentation of a quantitative analysis of pattern forming phenomena. However, it should be emphasised that the vast majority of this book is concerned with inanimate matter, with rather little discussion of biology. The book begins with a presentation of the basic physics, including surface tension, first-order phase transition kinetics and a brief outline of chemical kinetics. With the essential physics established, Pelce then investigates simple growth forms, before showing how these regular geometries are destabilized into more complex forms by instabilities. The problem of velocity selection of growing patterns is then extensively discussed, before the question of (secondary) instabilities of the more complex growth forms is analysed. A chapter on stochastic patterns is also included. For the most part, the book concentrates on a few intensively studied pattern forming systems in physics, particularly viscous fingering in Hele-Shaw cells, the growth of dendrites, electrodeposition, flames, and, in the chapter on stochastic patterns, diffusion-limited aggregation. Only in a rather brief final chapter is a more speculative link made with biological pattern formation and morphogenesis. In general, I found the book to be a useful reference work on the theory of pattern forming systems. However, the

  18. Growth hormone deficiency - children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... childhood. The pediatrician will most often draw the child's growth curve on a growth chart . Children with growth ... Most cases are not preventable. Review your child's growth chart ... child's growth rate, evaluation by a specialist is recommended.

  19. MTX final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hooper, E.B.; Allen, S.L.; Brown, M.D.; Byers, J.A.; Casper, T.A.; Cohen, B.I.; Cohen, R.H.; Fenstermacher, M.E.; Foote, J.H.; Hoshino, K.

    1994-01-01

    The MTX experiment was proposed in 1986 to apply high frequency microwaves generated by a free-electron laser (FEL) to electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH) in a high field, high density tokamak. As the absorption of microwaves at the electron cyclotron resonance requires high frequencies, the opportunity of applying a free-electron laser has appeal as the device is not limited to frequencies in the microwave or long millimeter wavelength regions, in contrast to many other sources. In addition, the FEL is inherently a high power source of microwaves, which would permit single units of 10 MW or more, optimum for reactors. Finally, it was recognized early in the study of the application of the FEL based on the induction linear accelerator, that the nonlinear effects associated with the intense pulses of microwaves naturally generated would offer several unique opportunities to apply ECRH to current drive, MHD control, and other plasma effects. It was consequently decided to adapt the induction accelerator based FEL to heating and controlling the tokamak, and to conduct experiments on the associated physics. To this end, the Alcator C tokamak was moved from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) to the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory where it was installed in Building 431 and operated from March, 1989, until the conclusion of the experiment in October, 1992. The FEL, based on the ETA-11 accelerator and IMP wiggler was brought into operation by the LLNL Electron Beam Group and power injected into the tokamak during an experimental run in the Fall, 1989. Following an upgrade by the MTX group, a second experimental run was made lasting from the Winter, 1992 through the end of the experiment. Significant contributions to the ECRH experiments were made by the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI)

  20. MTX final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hooper, E.B. [ed.; Allen, S.L.; Brown, M.D.; Byers, J.A.; Casper, T.A.; Cohen, B.I.; Cohen, R.H.; Fenstermacher, M.E.; Foote, J.H.; Hoshino, K. [and others

    1994-01-01

    The MTX experiment was proposed in 1986 to apply high frequency microwaves generated by a free-electron laser (FEL) to electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH) in a high field, high density tokamak. As the absorption of microwaves at the electron cyclotron resonance requires high frequencies, the opportunity of applying a free-electron laser has appeal as the device is not limited to frequencies in the microwave or long millimeter wavelength regions, in contrast to many other sources. In addition, the FEL is inherently a high power source of microwaves, which would permit single units of 10 MW or more, optimum for reactors. Finally, it was recognized early in the study of the application of the FEL based on the induction linear accelerator, that the nonlinear effects associated with the intense pulses of microwaves naturally generated would offer several unique opportunities to apply ECRH to current drive, MHD control, and other plasma effects. It was consequently decided to adapt the induction accelerator based FEL to heating and controlling the tokamak, and to conduct experiments on the associated physics. To this end, the Alcator C tokamak was moved from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) to the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory where it was installed in Building 431 and operated from March, 1989, until the conclusion of the experiment in October, 1992. The FEL, based on the ETA-11 accelerator and IMP wiggler was brought into operation by the LLNL Electron Beam Group and power injected into the tokamak during an experimental run in the Fall, 1989. Following an upgrade by the MTX group, a second experimental run was made lasting from the Winter, 1992 through the end of the experiment. Significant contributions to the ECRH experiments were made by the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI).

  1. Final project report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Podzorov, Vitaly [Rutgers Univ., New Brunswick, NJ (United States)

    2012-10-28

    The scope of this project is to investigate fundamental aspects of self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) grown at the surface of organic semiconductors and other electronic materials, recently discovered in our group (Fig. 1) [1]. Understanding the growth mechanism and structure of these SAMs, as well as investigating the effect of SAM-induced high surface conductivity, are the main thrusts of the project. An additional thrust of the project is to find new ways of surface doping or surface gating of novel semiconductors, in which electronic traps at the interface would be passivated. Molecular self assembly is an exciting research area of modern materials science, playing an important role in a variety of emerging applications, such as organic and molecular electronics, bioengineering, sensors and actuators. The current effort in this field has been focused on two experimental platforms: SAMs on metals (e.g., Au) and SAMs on inorganic oxides (e.g., SiO2). We have recently discovered the third platform, molecular self-assembly at the surface of carbon-based electronic materials (organic semiconductors, graphene and CNTs), which opens new opportunities for fundamental research and applications (Fig. 1) [1, 2, 3]. One of the most intriguing aspects of the new discovery is that formation of an FTS self-assembled monolayer on these materials induces a high-density mobile charges, with n up to 1014 cm-2, resulting in a large surface conductivity, σ ≈ 10-5 S·square-1 [1]. The effect is due to an interfacial electron transfer from the semiconductor to the SAM, resulting in a 0.54 V potential drop across the 1.3 nm-thick SAM, as recently revealed by Kelvin probe microscopy in rubrene [4].

  2. A Gestalt Point of View on Facilitating Growth in Counseling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harman, Robert L.

    1975-01-01

    If counselors are to be facilitators of client growth, it would seem essentail that they become familiar with the concept of growth and ways to facilitate it. The author defines growth from a gestalt therapy point of view and provides techniques and examples of ways to facilitate client growth. (Author)

  3. Probing the effect of tip pressure on fungal growth: Application to Aspergillus nidulans

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Bermúdez, Blanca; Li, Qingxuan; Guinea, Gustavo V.; Peñalva, Miguel A.; Plaza, Gustavo R.

    2017-08-01

    The study of fungal cells is of great interest due to their importance as pathogens and as fermenting fungi and for their appropriateness as model organisms. The differential pressure between the hyphal cytoplasm and the bordering medium is essential for the growth process, because the pressure is correlated with the growth rate. Notably, during the invasion of tissues, the external pressure at the tip of the hypha may be different from the pressure in the surrounding medium. We report the use of a method, based on the micropipette-aspiration technique, to study the influence of this external pressure at the hyphal tip. Moreover, this technique makes it possible to study hyphal growth mechanics in the case of very thin hyphae, not accessible to turgor pressure probes. We found a correlation between the local pressure at the tip and the growth rate for the species Arpergillus nidulans. Importantly, the proposed method allows one to measure the pressure at the tip required to arrest the hyphal growth. Determining that pressure could be useful to develop new medical treatments for fungal infections. Finally, we provide a mechanical model for these experiments, taking into account the cytoplasm flow and the wall deformation.

  4. Waste incineration. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egede Rasmussen, Anja

    2004-06-15

    This prepatory thesis is a literature study on the incineration of waste. It deals with the concepts of municipal solid waste, the composition and combustion of it. A main focus is on the European emission regulations and the formation of dioxins, as well as a big effort is put into the treatment of solid residues from municipal solid waste incineration. In the latter area, concepts of treatment, such as physical and chemical separations, solidification and stabilization techniques, thermal methods, and extraction methods have been discussed. Evaluation of possible methods of treatment has been done, but no conclusions made of which is the best. Though, indications exist that especially two methods have shown positive qualities and must be further investigated. These methods are the acid extraction and sulfide stabilization (AES) process and the phosphate stabilization method of WES-PHix. Economic potentials of the two methods have been evaluated, and with the information obtained, it seems that the price for treatment and later landfilling of a material with improved leaching characteristics, will be approximately the same as the presently most used solution of export to Norway. However, more tests, investigations and economic evaluations are necessary in order for support of the findings in this work. (au)

  5. Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magnuson, Timothy S. [Idaho State University

    2013-09-10

    The biochemistry of bacterial proteins involved in redox transformations of metals and minerals is, without dispute, an important area of research. Nevertheless, most studies on bacterial metal transformation have focused not on biochemistry but on genetics and genomics. The objective of this research is to better understand the role of conformation change in electron transfer from cytochromes to minerals, a process that underpins respiratory metal reduction by bacteria in nature and in bioremediation strategies, including reductive immobilization of radioactive contaminants. Our DOE-funded work is specifically focused on answering long-standing questions about the biochemical behavior of these very interesting proteins, and our findings thus far have already made impacts in the fields of environmental microbiology and biogeochemistry. Among the key findings from the project are 1) Successful large-scale production of biomass for protein isolation; 2) Purification of several c-type cytochromes for biochemical study; 3) Characterization of these proteins using spectrophotometric and electrochemical techniques; 4) Examination of protein conformational change and redox activity towards metal oxides using a small mass cytochrome c from Acidiphilium cryptum; 5) Proteomic characterization of A. cryptum biofilms; 6) Training of 2 undergraduate research assistants; 7) Publications and several meeting presentations.

  6. SHIELDS Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jordanova, Vania Koleva [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-10-03

    Predicting variations in the near-Earth space environment that can lead to spacecraft damage and failure, i.e. “space weather”, remains a big space physics challenge. A new capability was developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) to understand, model, and predict Space Hazards Induced near Earth by Large Dynamic Storms, the SHIELDS framework. This framework simulates the dynamics of the Surface Charging Environment (SCE), the hot (keV) electrons representing the source and seed populations for the radiation belts, on both macro- and micro-scale. In addition to using physics-based models (like RAM-SCB, BATS-R-US, and iPIC3D), new data assimilation techniques employing data from LANL instruments on the Van Allen Probes and geosynchronous satellites were developed. An order of magnitude improvement in the accuracy in the simulation of the spacecraft surface charging environment was thus obtained. SHIELDS also includes a post-processing tool designed to calculate the surface charging for specific spacecraft geometry using the Curvilinear Particle-In-Cell (CPIC) code and to evaluate anomalies' relation to SCE dynamics. Such diagnostics is critically important when performing forensic analyses of space-system failures.

  7. Final LDRD report :

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kronawitter, Coleman X.; Antoun, Bonnie R.; Mao, Samuel S.

    2012-01-01

    The distinction between electricity and fuel use in analyses of global power consumption statistics highlights the critical importance of establishing efficient synthesis techniques for solar fuelsthose chemicals whose bond energies are obtained through conversion processes driven by solar energy. Photoelectrochemical (PEC) processes show potential for the production of solar fuels because of their demonstrated versatility in facilitating optoelectronic and chemical conversion processes. Tandem PEC-photovoltaic modular configurations for the generation of hydrogen from water and sunlight (solar water splitting) provide an opportunity to develop a low-cost and efficient energy conversion scheme. The critical component in devices of this type is the PEC photoelectrode, which must be optically absorptive, chemically stable, and possess the required electronic band alignment with the electrochemical scale for its charge carriers to have sufficient potential to drive the hydrogen and oxygen evolution reactions. After many decades of investigation, the primary technological obstacle remains the development of photoelectrode structures capable of efficient conversion of light with visible frequencies, which is abundant in the solar spectrum. Metal oxides represent one of the few material classes that can be made photoactive and remain stable to perform the required functions.

  8. PRIMA-X Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorenz, Daniel [German Research School for Simulation Sciences GmbH, Aachen (Germany); Wolf, Felix [German Research School for Simulation Sciences GmbH, Aachen (Germany)

    2016-02-17

    Darmstadt) starting February 1st, 2015, the project ended at GRS on January 31st, 2015. This report reflects the work accomplished at GRS until then. The work of GRS is expected to be continued at TU Darmstadt. The first main accomplishment of GRS is the design of different thread-level aggregation techniques. We created a prototype capable of aggregating the thread-level information in performance profiles using these techniques. The next step will be the integration of the most promising techniques into the Score-P measurement system and their evaluation. The second main accomplishment is a substantial increase of Score-P’s scalability, achieved by improving the design of the system-tree representation in Score-P’s profile format. We developed a new representation and a distributed algorithm to create the scalable system tree representation. Finally, we developed a lightweight approach to MPI wait-state profiling. Former algorithms either needed piggy-backing, which can cause significant runtime overhead, or tracing, which comes with its own set of scaling challenges. Our approach works with local data only and, thus, is scalable and has very little overhead.

  9. Final Scientific/Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reeder, Richard [Stony Brook Univ., NY (United States); Phillips, Brian [Stony Brook Univ., NY (United States)

    2017-10-18

    A variety of calcifying organisms produce a transient or metastable amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC) precursor phase that is assembled and subsequently transformed into a crystalline biomineral, typically calcite or aragonite. The complex shapes, hierarchical structures, and unique physical properties of the biominerals that result from this calcification pathway have stimulated interest in adapting these concepts for the design and creation of bio-inspired functional materials in the laboratory. ACC also forms as a reactive precursor in diverse inorganic systems and is likely to play a much broader role in calcium carbonate formation. Knowledge of the structure, composition, and behavior of this metastable phase is critical for establishing a structural and mechanistic framework for calcium carbonate formation and its role in biogeochemical processes, including carbon cycling. Minor additives, such as magnesium, phosphorus, and organic macromolecules, are known to play important roles in controlling ACC stability, transformation kinetics, and selection of final crystalline polymorph. Molecular water also occurs in many types of ACC and is thought to play a structural role in its stability and transformation behavior. One of the major challenges that remain unresolved is identification of the structural basis for the role of these minor additives and molecular water. The absence of long-range order in ACC, and other amorphous phases, has posed a challenge for study by techniques commonly used for crystalline solids. Preliminary studies in our group show that the combination of two techniques, synchrotron X-ray-based pair distribution function (PDF) analysis and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy can provide entirely new insight to structural properties of synthetic ACC over length scales that are most relevant for understanding its transformation properties. Building on preliminary experiments, we propose a systematic study of synthesis, structure, and

  10. Growth of III-V nitride materials by MOCVD for device applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eiting, Christopher James

    This dissertation describes an investigation of the growth of gallium nitride (GaN) and aluminum gallium nitride (AlxGa1-x N) semiconductor materials by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) for heterojunction field-effect transistor (HFET) and photodetector device applications. In Chapter I, the III-V nitride material system is discussed, and the current status of growth and device research in this material system is reviewed. Chapter 2 presents a detailed discussion of two important tensor properties of the wurtzite III-V nitrides: elasticity and piezoelectricity. In this discussion, a series of equations are developed that are used throughout this work to calculate properties such as strain, composition, and piezoelectric charge. In Chapter 3, the characterization techniques used to gather