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Sample records for growth cdse nanoparticles

  1. Study on growth kinetics of hexadecylamine capped CdSe nanoparticles using its electronic properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oluwafemi, S.O., E-mail: tobi_55@yahoo.co [Department of Chemistry, University of Zululand, Private Bag X1001, Kwadlangezwa 3886 (South Africa); Revaprasadu, N. [Department of Chemistry, University of Zululand, Private Bag X1001, Kwadlangezwa 3886 (South Africa)

    2009-05-01

    The growth kinetics of hexadecylamine (HDA) capped CdSe synthesised via a novel, mild, effective, and facile non-organometallic route was studied using its electronic properties. The emission and optical maxima of all the nanoparticles synthesised are blue-shifted as the reaction time increases indicating decrease in particle size. The UV spectra show distinct excitonic features which can be attributed to the first electronic transition [1S{sub 3/2}(h)-1S(e)] occurring in CdSe nanoparticles with band-edge luminescence in their emission spectra. The extinction coefficient was determined for convenient and accurate measurements of the concentration of the nanocrystals. Nucleation is very fast and well separated from particle growth under this reaction condition. Two distinguishable stages of growth were observed: an early stage 0-10 min characterised by fast growth, with narrow size distribution and the late stage characterised by slow growth with slight defocusing of size distribution and large particle sizes. The diameter of the size ranges from 2.2 to 3.0 nm. About 94% of the available monomer concentration was consumed during the growth and the solubility of 3.0 nm CdSe in hexadecylamine is measured to be 9.216x10{sup -7} M{sup 2} at 433 deg. K.

  2. Direct growth of CdSe nanorods on ITO substrates by co-anchoring of ZnO nanoparticles and ethylenediamine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan Shangke; Xu Tingting; Venkatesan, Swaminathan; Qiao Qiquan

    2012-01-01

    To grow CdSe nanorods directly onto indium tin oxide (ITO) substrates, a ZnO buffer layer composed of nanoparticles with diameter of ∼30–40 nm was prepared by spin coating ZnO sol–gel solution onto the ITO substrates. CdSe nanorods were then successfully in situ grown onto ITO substrates with diameter of ∼30–40 nm and length of ∼120–160 nm using solvothermal method in which CdSe·0.5en (en = ethylenediamine) acted as solution precursor. The in situ synthesized CdSe nanorods were conformed and characterized by atomic force microscope and electron microscopy. The mechanism of such in situ CdSe growth was understood as ZnO nanoparticles anchored en onto ITO substrates, while en linked CdSe with ZnO.

  3. Hydrothermal assisted growth of CdSe nanoparticles and study on its dielectric properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamble, Shweta N.; Ghoderao, Karuna P.; Kale, Rohidas B.

    2017-11-01

    In this work, we have synthesized cadmium selenide (CdSe) nanoparticles by using cadmium chloride (CdCl2) as cadmium ion and sodium selenosulfate (Na2SeSO3) as selenium ion sources through a simple, convenient and cost-effective hydrothermal route at 180 °C temperature for 24 h. Aqueous ammonia was employed as a complex reagent to adjust the pH of the solution. Structural analysis of the obtained product was carried out by using x-ray diffractometer, which revealed that the final product has a cubic structure of CdSe with average crystallite size 13.15 nm. The cauliflower-like CdSe nanostructures were confirmed from the scanning electron microscopy and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. EDS analysis indicates that the obtained product has a good elemental stoichiometric ratio. The electron diffraction pattern reveals the polycrystalline nature of CdSe. From UV-visible absorption spectral analysis, the optical energy bandgap of CdSe nanoparticles was found to be 1.90 eV. XPS spectra presented Cd 3d3/2, Cd 3d5/2 and Se 3d3/2 peaks at 411.04, 404.29 and 53.52 eV respectively. The CdSe nanoparticles exhibit photoluminescence with two distinct emission bands at 632 nm and 720 nm. FTIR study was used towards the understanding of the formation mechanism and bonding on the surface of the resulting nanoparticles. The dielectric properties of a pelletized sample of CdSe nanoparticles were carried out at room temperature.

  4. CdSe nanoparticles grown via radiolytic methods in aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Shalini; Rath, M.C.; Singh, A.K.; Mukherjee, T.; Jayakumar, O.D.; Tyagi, A.K.; Sarkar, S.K.

    2011-01-01

    Cadmium selenide, CdSe, nanoparticles have been synthesized in aqueous solution containing equimolar ammoniated CdSO 4 and Na 2 SeSO 3 as the starting materials without any capping agents, using gamma and electron beam irradiation under a reducing condition. The radiolytic processes occurring in water result in the formation of CdSe nanoparticles through the reactions mediated by hydrated electrons, e aq - . TEM measurements revealed that the CdSe nanoparticles were found to exist in agglomerates of dimension of about 100 nm, consisting of primary nanoparticles of dimensions within 5 nm. The as-grown nanoparticles were of cubic crystalline phase as supported by the XRD measurements. These bare CdSe nanoparticles exhibit room temperature ferromagnetic (RTFM) behavior. However, the RTFM behavior was found to be 30% higher in the case of CdSe nanoparticles prepared on electron beam irradiation as compared to those obtained by gamma irradiation, which was attributed to their relatively smaller size (2-3 nm) and disordered structures as compared to those obtained in the later case (3-5 nm). -- Research highlights: → CdSe nanoparticles could be synthesized in aqueous solutions containing equimolar ammoniated CdSO 4 and Na 2 SeSO 3 as the starting materials using gamma and electron beam irradiation under a reducing condition. → CdSe nanoparticles were found to exist in agglomerates of dimension of about 100 nm, consisting of primary nanoparticles of dimensions within 5 nm. → CdSe nanoparticles exhibit room temperature ferromagnetic (RTFM) behavior. → The RTFM behavior was found to be 30% higher in the case of CdSe nanoparticles prepared on electron beam irradiation as compared to those obtained by gamma irradiation.

  5. CdSe nanoparticles grown via radiolytic methods in aqueous solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Shalini [Radiation and Photochemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Rath, M.C., E-mail: madhab@barc.gov.i [Radiation and Photochemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Singh, A.K. [Radiation and Photochemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Mukherjee, T. [Chemistry Group, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Jayakumar, O.D.; Tyagi, A.K. [Chemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Sarkar, S.K. [Radiation and Photochemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085 (India)

    2011-06-15

    Cadmium selenide, CdSe, nanoparticles have been synthesized in aqueous solution containing equimolar ammoniated CdSO{sub 4} and Na{sub 2}SeSO{sub 3} as the starting materials without any capping agents, using gamma and electron beam irradiation under a reducing condition. The radiolytic processes occurring in water result in the formation of CdSe nanoparticles through the reactions mediated by hydrated electrons, e{sub aq}{sup -}. TEM measurements revealed that the CdSe nanoparticles were found to exist in agglomerates of dimension of about 100 nm, consisting of primary nanoparticles of dimensions within 5 nm. The as-grown nanoparticles were of cubic crystalline phase as supported by the XRD measurements. These bare CdSe nanoparticles exhibit room temperature ferromagnetic (RTFM) behavior. However, the RTFM behavior was found to be 30% higher in the case of CdSe nanoparticles prepared on electron beam irradiation as compared to those obtained by gamma irradiation, which was attributed to their relatively smaller size (2-3 nm) and disordered structures as compared to those obtained in the later case (3-5 nm). -- Research highlights: {yields} CdSe nanoparticles could be synthesized in aqueous solutions containing equimolar ammoniated CdSO{sub 4} and Na{sub 2}SeSO{sub 3} as the starting materials using gamma and electron beam irradiation under a reducing condition. {yields} CdSe nanoparticles were found to exist in agglomerates of dimension of about 100 nm, consisting of primary nanoparticles of dimensions within 5 nm. {yields} CdSe nanoparticles exhibit room temperature ferromagnetic (RTFM) behavior. {yields} The RTFM behavior was found to be 30% higher in the case of CdSe nanoparticles prepared on electron beam irradiation as compared to those obtained by gamma irradiation.

  6. 'Green' synthesis of starch capped CdSe nanoparticles at room temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jinhua; Ren Cuiling; Liu Xiaoyan; Hu Zhide; Xue Desheng

    2007-01-01

    The nearly monodisperse starch capped CdSe nanoparticles were successfully synthesized by a simple and 'green' route at room temperature. The as-prepared nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscope (TEM), UV-vis absorption and photoluminescence (PL) spectra. The XRD analysis showed that the starch capped CdSe nanoparticles were of the cubic structure, the average particle size was calculated to be about 3 nm according to the Debye-Scherrer equation. TEM micrographs exhibited that the starch capped CdSe nanoparticles were well dispersed than the uncapped CdSe nanoparticles, the mean particles size of the capped CdSe was about 3 nm in the TEM image, which was in good agreement with the XRD

  7. Ordered CdSe nanoparticles within self-assembled block copolymer domains on surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Shan; Hong, Rui; Emrick, Todd; Walker, Gilbert C

    2007-02-13

    Hierarchical, high-density, ordered patterns were fabricated on Si substrates by self-assembly of CdSe nanoparticles within approximately 20-nm-thick diblock copolymer films in a controlled manner. Surface-modified CdSe nanoparticles formed well-defined structures within microphase-separated polystyrene-b-poly(2-vinylpyridine) (PS-b-P2VP) domains. Trioctylphosphine oxide (TOPO)-coated CdSe nanoparticles were incorporated into PS domains and polyethylene glycol-coated CdSe nanoparticles were located primarily in the P2VP domains. Nearly close-packed CdSe nanoparticles were clearly identified within the highly ordered patterns on Si substrates by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Contact angle measurements together with SEM results indicate that TOPO-CdSe nanoparticles were partially placed at the air/copolymer interface.

  8. Seed-mediated direct growth of CdSe nanoclusters on substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan Shangke; Ebrahim, Shaker; Soliman, Moataz; Qiao Qiquan

    2013-01-01

    Different shapes of CdSe nanostructures were obtained by hydrothermal method with varied Se sources and buffer layers. Hexagonal nanoparticles of CdSe with Wurtzite structure were synthesized from Se powder resource, while CdSe nanoclusters with Wurtzite structure were grown from Na 2 SeO 3 aqueous solution resources at 165 °C using cetyltrimethylammonium bromide as surfactant. Using ZnO nanoparticles as a seed layer, CdSe nanostructures only partially covered the indium tin oxide (ITO) substrates. With ZnO/CdSe quantum dots composite seed layer, CdSe nanostructures fully covered the ITO substrates.

  9. Facile synthesis, growth mechanism, and optical properties of CdSe nanoparticles in self-assembled micellar media and their efficient conjugation with proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehta, S. K., E-mail: skmehta@pu.ac.in; Chaudhary, Savita; Kumar, Sanjay; Singh, Sukhjinder [Panjab University, Department of Chemistry and Centre of Advanced Studies in Chemistry (India)

    2010-06-15

    This article demonstrates the influence of various surfactants of different polarities-anionic, sodium dodecyl sulfate, cationic, hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide and non-ionic, and polyoxyethylene iso-octyl phenyl ether (TX-100)-on the formation of CdSe nanoparticles in aqueous solutions. The surfactant-stabilizing effect has been monitored using transmission electron microscopy. Spectral properties of CdSe nanoparticles have been investigated; the structure of the long-wave edge of the fundamental absorption band of CdSe nanoparticles has been analyzed. It has been shown that the variation of the synthesizing conditions (stabilizer's nature and concentration, CdSe concentration, etc.) allows the tailoring of the CdSe nanoparticle size in the range of 8-17 nm. Lifshitz-Slyrzov-Wagner kinetic analysis has also been performed using the size variation according to ripening temperature and time period. The differences in the stabilization ability of tested substances are discussed with respect to their structure and possible mechanism of the surface interaction with the nanoparticles. The flexible surface chemistry of the CdSe-micelles causes them to be water soluble and allows their further conjugation with protein molecules through electrostatic attraction. The interaction between functionalized CdSe nanoparticles with protein molecules have been investigated using fluorescence spectroscopy.

  10. Molten-droplet synthesis of composite CdSe hollow nanoparticles

    KAUST Repository

    Gullapalli, Sravani; Grider, Jason M.; Bagaria, Hitesh G.; Lee, Kyusung; Cho, Minjung; Colvin, Vicki L.; Jabbour, Ghassan E.; Wong, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Many colloidal synthesis routes are not scalable to high production rates, especially for nanoparticles of complex shape or composition, due to precursor expense and hazards, low yields, and the large number of processing steps. The present work describes a strategy to synthesize hollow nanoparticles (HNPs) out of metal chalcogenides, based on the slow heating of a low-melting-point metal salt, an elemental chalcogen, and an alkylammonium surfactant in octadecene solvent. The synthesis and characterization of CdSe HNPs with an outer diameter of 15.6 ± 3.5 nm and a shell thickness of 5.4 ± 0.9 nm are specifically detailed here. The HNP synthesis is proposed to proceed with the formation of alkylammonium-stabilized nano-sized droplets of molten cadmium salt, which then come into contact with dissolved selenium species to form a CdSe shell at the droplet surface. In a reaction-diffusion mechanism similar to the nanoscale Kirkendall effect it is speculated that the cadmium migrates outwardly through this shell to react with more selenium, causing the CdSe shell to thicken. The proposed CdSe HNP structure comprises a polycrystalline CdSe shell coated with a thin layer of amorphous selenium. Photovoltaic device characterization indicates that HNPs have improved electron transport characteristics compared to standard CdSe quantum dots, possibly due to this selenium layer. The HNPs are colloidally stable in organic solvents even though carboxylate, phosphine, and amine ligands are absent; stability is attributed to octadecene-selenide species bound to the particle surface. This scalable synthesis method presents opportunities to generate hollow nanoparticles with increased structural and compositional variety. © 2012 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  11. Molten-droplet synthesis of composite CdSe hollow nanoparticles

    KAUST Repository

    Gullapalli, Sravani

    2012-11-16

    Many colloidal synthesis routes are not scalable to high production rates, especially for nanoparticles of complex shape or composition, due to precursor expense and hazards, low yields, and the large number of processing steps. The present work describes a strategy to synthesize hollow nanoparticles (HNPs) out of metal chalcogenides, based on the slow heating of a low-melting-point metal salt, an elemental chalcogen, and an alkylammonium surfactant in octadecene solvent. The synthesis and characterization of CdSe HNPs with an outer diameter of 15.6 ± 3.5 nm and a shell thickness of 5.4 ± 0.9 nm are specifically detailed here. The HNP synthesis is proposed to proceed with the formation of alkylammonium-stabilized nano-sized droplets of molten cadmium salt, which then come into contact with dissolved selenium species to form a CdSe shell at the droplet surface. In a reaction-diffusion mechanism similar to the nanoscale Kirkendall effect it is speculated that the cadmium migrates outwardly through this shell to react with more selenium, causing the CdSe shell to thicken. The proposed CdSe HNP structure comprises a polycrystalline CdSe shell coated with a thin layer of amorphous selenium. Photovoltaic device characterization indicates that HNPs have improved electron transport characteristics compared to standard CdSe quantum dots, possibly due to this selenium layer. The HNPs are colloidally stable in organic solvents even though carboxylate, phosphine, and amine ligands are absent; stability is attributed to octadecene-selenide species bound to the particle surface. This scalable synthesis method presents opportunities to generate hollow nanoparticles with increased structural and compositional variety. © 2012 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  12. A study of the conjugation of CdSe nanoparticles with functional polyoxometalates involving aminoacids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutul, T.

    2013-01-01

    CdSe nanoparticles (CdSe NPs) are regarded as nano markers and an important component for biomedical applications. In this study, CdSe NPs and polyoxometalates were synthesized; surface modification with 1-thioglycerol and (β-Ala) was carried out. Polyoxometalates, which cause an inhibitory effect on cancer cells, were conjugated to the nanoparticles. UV- VIS, IR, XRD, and TEM studies were performed to characterize the resulting CdSe NPs, polyoxometalates, and conjugates. (author)

  13. Enhancing Photocatalytic Degradation of Methyl Blue Using PVP-Capped and Uncapped CdSe Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kgobudi Frans Chepape

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Quantum confinement of semiconductor nanoparticles is a potential feature which can be interesting for photocatalysis, and cadmium selenide is one simple type of quantum dot to use in the following photocatalytic degradation of organic dyes. CdSe nanoparticles capped with polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP in various concentration ratios were synthesized by the chemical reduction method and characterized. The transmission electron microscopy (TEM analysis of the samples showed that 50% PVP-capped CdSe nanoparticles were uniformly distributed in size with an average of 2.7 nm and shape which was spherical-like. The photocatalytic degradation of methyl blue (MB in water showed efficiencies of 31% and 48% when using uncapped and 50% PVP-capped CdSe nanoparticles as photocatalysts, respectively. The efficiency of PVP-capped CdSe nanoparticles indicated that a complete green process can be utilized for photocatalytic treatment of water and waste water.

  14. A simple and facile synthesis of MPA capped CdSe and CdSe/CdS core/shell nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukanya, D.; Sagayaraj, P.

    2015-06-01

    II-VI semiconductor nanostructures, in particular, CdSe quantum dots have drawn a lot of attention because of their promising potential applications in biological tagging, photovoltaic, display devices etc. due to their excellent optical properties, high emission quantum yield, size dependent emission wavelength and high photostability. In this paper, we describe the synthesis and properties of mercaptopropionic acid capped CdSe and CdSe/CdS nanoparticles through a simple and efficient co-precipitation method followed by hydrothermal treatment. The growth process, characterization and the optical absorption as a function of wavelength for the synthesized MPA capped CdSe and CdSe/CdS nanoparticles have been determined using X-ray diffraction study (XRD), Ultraviolet-Visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HRTEM).

  15. A simple and facile synthesis of MPA capped CdSe and CdSe/CdS core/shell nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sukanya, D.; Sagayaraj, P.

    2015-01-01

    II-VI semiconductor nanostructures, in particular, CdSe quantum dots have drawn a lot of attention because of their promising potential applications in biological tagging, photovoltaic, display devices etc. due to their excellent optical properties, high emission quantum yield, size dependent emission wavelength and high photostability. In this paper, we describe the synthesis and properties of mercaptopropionic acid capped CdSe and CdSe/CdS nanoparticles through a simple and efficient co-precipitation method followed by hydrothermal treatment. The growth process, characterization and the optical absorption as a function of wavelength for the synthesized MPA capped CdSe and CdSe/CdS nanoparticles have been determined using X-ray diffraction study (XRD), Ultraviolet-Visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HRTEM)

  16. SILAR controlled CdSe nanoparticles sensitized ZnO nanorods photoanode for solar cell application: Electrolyte effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikam, Pratibha R; Baviskar, Prashant K; Majumder, Sutripto; Sali, Jaydeep V; Sankapal, Babasaheb R

    2018-08-15

    Controlled growth of different sizes of cadmium selenide (CdSe) nanoparticles over well aligned ZnO nanorods have been performed using successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) technique at room temperature (27 °C) in order to form nano heterostructure solar cells. Deposition of compact layer of zinc oxide (ZnO) by SILAR technique on fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) coated glass substrate followed by growth of vertically aligned ZnO nanorods array using chemical bath deposition (CBD) at low temperature (SILAR cycles for CdSe and with use of different electrolytes have been recorded as J-V characteristics and the maximum conversion efficiency of 0.63% have been attained with ferro/ferri cyanide electrolyte for 12 cycles CdSe coating over 1-D ZnO nanorods. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Synthesis of Monodisperse CdSe QDs using Controlled Growth Temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noor Razinah Rahmat; Akrajas Ali Umar; Muhammad Yahya; Muhamad Mat Salleh; Mohammad Hafizuddin Jumali

    2011-01-01

    The effect of growth temperatures on size of CdSe quantum dots (QDs) has been investigated. CdSe QDs were synthesized using thermolysis of organometallics precursor route using wet chemical method. The growth temperature was varied from 260-310 degree Celsius with growth period fixed at 60 s. As the growth temperature increased, the monodispersed CdSe QDs with diameter in the range 3-7 nm were obtained. Both absorption and PL spectra of the QDs revealed a strong red-shift supporting the increment size of QDs with the rise of growth temperature. (author)

  18. Quantitative size-dependent structure and strain determination of CdSe nanoparticles using atomic pair distribution function analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masadeh, A S; Bozin, E S; Farrow, C L; Paglia, G; Juhas, P; Billinge, S J. L.; Karkamkar, A; Kanatzidis, M G [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824-1116 (United States); Department of Chemistry, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824-1116 (United States)

    2007-09-15

    The size-dependent structure of CdSe nanoparticles, with diameters ranging from 2 to 4 nm, has been studied using the atomic pair distribution function (PDF) method. The core structure of the measured CdSe nanoparticles can be described in terms of the wurtzite atomic structure with extensive stacking faults. The density of faults in the nanoparticles is {approx}50%. The diameter of the core region was extracted directly from the PDF data and is in good agreement with the diameter obtained from standard characterization methods, suggesting that there is little surface amorphous region. A compressive strain was measured in the Cd-Se bond length that increases with decreasing particle size being 0.5% with respect to bulk CdSe for the 2 nm diameter particles. This study demonstrates the size-dependent quantitative structural information that can be obtained even from very small nanoparticles using the PDF approach.

  19. A Biphasic Ligand Exchange Reaction on Cdse Nanoparticles: Introducing Undergraduates to Functionalizing Nanoparticles for Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemke, Jennifer M.; Franz, Justin

    2016-01-01

    Semiconductor nanoparticles, including cadmium selenide (CdSe) particles, are attractive as light harvesting materials for solar cells. In the undergraduate laboratory, the size-tunable optical and electronic properties can be easily investigated; however, these nanoparticles (NPs) offer another platform for application-based tunability--the NP…

  20. CdSe Nanoparticles with Clean Surfaces: Gas Phase Synthesis and Optical Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Hongwei

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available CdSe nanoparticles (NPs were generated in gas phase with a magnetron plasma gas aggregation cluster beam source. Coagulation-free CdSe nanocrystals with very clean particle surface and interface, as well as a fairly uniform spatial distribution were obtained. The deposited NPs have a good dispersity with a mean diameter of about 4.8nm. A strong photoluminescence band corresponding to the near- band-edge transition of the CdSe NPs was observed. The CdSe NP films show a significant photoconductance induced by laser irradiation. With an applied bias voltage of 10V, the photo- induced current can be as high as 0.4mA under 0.01mW/mm2 405nm laser illumination. Our approach offers an alternative method for CdSe NP synthesis, which has the advantages such as high purity, good process and product control, as well as mass production, as compared to the existing methods.

  1. Au-assisted growth of anisotropic and epitaxial cdse colloidal nanocrystals via in situ dismantling of quantum dots

    KAUST Repository

    Fernà ndez-Altable, Ví ctor; Dalmases, Mariona; Falqui, Andrea; Casu, Alberto; Torruella, Pau; Estradé , Sò nia; Peiró , Francesca; Figuerola, Albert

    2015-01-01

    Metallic nanocrystals have been revealed in the past years as valuable materials for the catalytic growth of semiconductor nanowires. Yet, only low melting point metals like Bi have been reported to successfully assist the growth of elongated CdX (X = S, Se, Te) systems in solution, and the possibility to use plasmonic noble metals has become a challenging task. In this work we show that the growth of anisotropic CdSe nanostructures in solution can also be efficiently catalyzed by colloidal Au nanoparticles, following a preferential crystallographic alignment between the metallic and semiconductor domains. Noteworthy, we report the heterodox use of semiconductor quantum dots as a homogeneous and tunable source of reactive monomer species to the solution. The mechanistic studies reveal that the in situ delivery of these cadmium and chalcogen monomer species and the formation of AuxCdy alloy seeds are both key factors for the epitaxial growth of elongated CdSe domains. The implementation of this method suggests an alternative synthetic approach for the assembly of different semiconductor domains into more complex heterostructures.

  2. Au-assisted growth of anisotropic and epitaxial cdse colloidal nanocrystals via in situ dismantling of quantum dots

    KAUST Repository

    Fernàndez-Altable, Víctor

    2015-03-10

    Metallic nanocrystals have been revealed in the past years as valuable materials for the catalytic growth of semiconductor nanowires. Yet, only low melting point metals like Bi have been reported to successfully assist the growth of elongated CdX (X = S, Se, Te) systems in solution, and the possibility to use plasmonic noble metals has become a challenging task. In this work we show that the growth of anisotropic CdSe nanostructures in solution can also be efficiently catalyzed by colloidal Au nanoparticles, following a preferential crystallographic alignment between the metallic and semiconductor domains. Noteworthy, we report the heterodox use of semiconductor quantum dots as a homogeneous and tunable source of reactive monomer species to the solution. The mechanistic studies reveal that the in situ delivery of these cadmium and chalcogen monomer species and the formation of AuxCdy alloy seeds are both key factors for the epitaxial growth of elongated CdSe domains. The implementation of this method suggests an alternative synthetic approach for the assembly of different semiconductor domains into more complex heterostructures.

  3. Hole transfer from CdSe nanoparticles to TQ1 polymer in hybrid solar cell device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohail, Muhammad; Shah, Zawar Hussain; Saeed, Shomaila; Bibi, Nasreen; Shahbaz, Sadia; Ahmed, Safeer; Shabbir, Saima; Siddiq, Muhammad; Iqbal, Azhar

    2018-05-01

    In view of realizing the economic viability, we fabricate a solar cell device containing low band gap and easily processable polymer 5-yl-8-(thiophene-2,5-diyl)-2,3-bis(3-(octyloxy)phenyl) quinoxaline (TQ1) and CdSe nanoparticles (NPs) and investigate its charge transport properties. When the TQ1 is combined with the CdSe NPs a strong photoluminescence quenching and shortening of photoluminescence lifetime of the TQ1 is observed indicating exciton transfer from TQ1 to the CdSe NPs. The time-resolved photoluminescence further reveals that the exciton transfer from the polymer to CdSe NPs is very efficient (68%) and it occurs in solar cell as compared to polymer only device. These observations suggest the importance of other II-VI semiconductor NPs to achieve higher efficiency for photovoltaic devices containing TQ1 polymer.

  4. Timely resolved measurements on CdSe nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holt, B.E. von

    2006-01-01

    By means of infrared spectroscopy the influence of the organic cover on structure and dynamics of CdSe nanoparticles was studied. First a procedure was developed, which allows to get from the static infrared spectrum informations on the quality of the organic cover and the binding behaviour of the ligands. On qualitatively high-grade and well characterized samples thereafter the dynamics of the lowest-energy electron level 1S e was time-resolvedly meausred in thew visible range. As reference served CdSe TOPO, which was supplemented by samples with the ligands octanthiole, octanic acid, octylamine, naphthoquinone, benzoquinone, and pyridine. The studied nanoparticles had a diameter of 4.86 nm. By means of the excitation-scanning or pump=probe procedure first measurements in the picosecond range were performed. The excitation wavelengths were thereby spectrally confined and so chosen that selectively the transitions 1S 3/2 -1S-e and 1P 3/2 -1P e but not the intermediately lyingt transition 2S 3/2 -1S e were excited. The excitation energies were kept so low that the excitation of several excitons in one crystal could be avoided. The scanning wavelength in the infrared corresponded to the energy difference between the electron levels 1S e and 1P e . The transients in the picosecond range are marked by a steep increasement of the signal, on which a multi-exponential decay follows. The increasement, which reproduces the popiulation of the excited state, isa inependent on the choice of the ligands. The influence of the organic cover is first visible in the different decay times of the excited electron levels. the decay of the measurement signal of CdSe TOPO can be approximatively described by three time constants: a decay constant in the early picosecond region, a time constant around hundert picoseconds, and a time constant of some nanoseconds. At increasing scanning wavelength the decay constants become longer. By directed excitation of the 1S 3/2 -1S e and the 1P 3

  5. Timely resolved measurements on CdSe nanoparticles; Zeitaufgeloeste Messungen an CdSe Nanopartikeln

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holt, B.E. von

    2006-06-06

    By means of infrared spectroscopy the influence of the organic cover on structure and dynamics of CdSe nanoparticles was studied. First a procedure was developed, which allows to get from the static infrared spectrum informations on the quality of the organic cover and the binding behaviour of the ligands. On qualitatively high-grade and well characterized samples thereafter the dynamics of the lowest-energy electron level 1S{sub e} was time-resolvedly meausred in thew visible range. As reference served CdSe TOPO, which was supplemented by samples with the ligands octanthiole, octanic acid, octylamine, naphthoquinone, benzoquinone, and pyridine. The studied nanoparticles had a diameter of 4.86 nm. By means of the excitation-scanning or pump=probe procedure first measurements in the picosecond range were performed. The excitation wavelengths were thereby spectrally confined and so chosen that selectively the transitions 1S{sub 3/2}-1S-e and 1P{sub 3/2}-1P{sub e} but not the intermediately lyingt transition 2S{sub 3/2}-1S{sub e} were excited. The excitation energies were kept so low that the excitation of several excitons in one crystal could be avoided. The scanning wavelength in the infrared corresponded to the energy difference between the electron levels 1S{sub e} and 1P{sub e}. The transients in the picosecond range are marked by a steep increasement of the signal, on which a multi-exponential decay follows. The increasement, which reproduces the popiulation of the excited state, isa inependent on the choice of the ligands. The influence of the organic cover is first visible in the different decay times of the excited electron levels. the decay of the measurement signal of CdSe TOPO can be approximatively described by three time constants: a decay constant in the early picosecond region, a time constant around hundert picoseconds, and a time constant of some nanoseconds. At increasing scanning wavelength the decay constants become longer. By directed excitation

  6. The influence of capping thioalkyl acid on the growth and photoluminescence efficiency of CdTe and CdSe quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aldeek, Fadi; Lambert, Jacques; Balan, Lavinia; Schneider, Raphael

    2008-01-01

    The influence of thioalkyl acid ligand was evaluated during aqueous synthesis at 100 deg. C and under hydrothermal conditions (150 deg. C) of CdTe and CdSe quantum dots (QDs). Experiments performed with 3-mercaptopropionic acid (MPA), 6-mercaptohexanoic acid (MHA) and 11-mercaptoundecanoic acid (MUA) demonstrated that the use of MHA and MUA allowed for the preparation of very small nanoparticles (0.6-2.5 nm) in carrying out the reaction under atmospheric pressure or in an autoclave and that the photophysical properties of QDs were dependent on the ligand and on the synthesis conditions. The influence of various experimental conditions, including the Te-to-Cd ratio, temperature, and precursor concentration, on the growth rate of CdTe or CdSe QDs has been systematically investigated. The fluorescence intensities of CdTe QDs capped with MPA, MHA, or MUA versus pH were also found to be related to the surface coverage of the nanoparticles.

  7. Electrochemiluminescent detection of Pb{sup 2+} by graphene/gold nanoparticles and CdSe quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Liping, E-mail: lipinglu@bjut.edu.cn; Guo, Linqing; Li, Jiao; Kang, Tianfang; Cheng, Shuiyuan

    2016-12-01

    Highlights: • An ECL sensor was fabricated based on the distance dependent between CdSe QDs and gold nanoparticles. • The ssDNA strands rich in G bases adopt the G4 conformation when Pb{sup 2+} is present in detection system. • AuNPs/RGO composite improved the performance of electron transfer of sensor. • The ECL sensor was used to detect Pb{sup 2+} concentration in an actual water sample with high sensitivity and selectivity. - Abstract: A highly sensitive electrochemiluminescent detection method for lead ions (Pb(II)) was fabricated based on the distance-dependent quenching of the electrochemiluminescence from CdSe quantum dots by nanocomposites of graphene and gold nanoparticles. Graphene/gold nanoparticles were electrochemically deposited onto a glassy carbon electrode through the constant potential method. Thiol-labeled DNA was then assembled on the surface of the electrode via gold−sulfur bonding, following which the amino-labeled terminal of the DNA was linked to carboxylated CdSe quantum dots by the formation of amide bonds. The 27-base aptamer was designed with two different domains: the immobilization and detection sequences. The immobilization sequence was paired with 12 complementary bases and immobilized on the gold electrode; the single-stranded detection sequence, rich in G bases, formed a G-quadruplex (G4) structure in the presence of Pb{sup 2+}. The formation of G4 shortens the distance between the CdSe quantum dots and the Au electrode, which decreases the electrochemiluminescent intensity in a linear fashion, proportional to the concentration of Pb(II). The linear range of the sensor was 10{sup −10} to 10{sup −8} mol/L (R = 0.9819) with a detection limit of 10{sup −10} mol/L. This sensor detected Pb(II) in real water samples with satisfactory results.

  8. Enhancing Photocatalytic Degradation of Methyl Blue Using PVP-Capped and Uncapped CdSe Nanoparticles

    OpenAIRE

    Chepape, Kgobudi Frans; Mofokeng, Thapelo Prince; Nyamukamba, Pardon; Mubiayi, Kalenga Pierre; Moloto, Makwena Justice

    2017-01-01

    Quantum confinement of semiconductor nanoparticles is a potential feature which can be interesting for photocatalysis, and cadmium selenide is one simple type of quantum dot to use in the following photocatalytic degradation of organic dyes. CdSe nanoparticles capped with polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) in various concentration ratios were synthesized by the chemical reduction method and characterized. The transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis of the samples showed that 50% PVP-capped Cd...

  9. CdSe nanorod/TiO2 nanoparticle heterojunctions with enhanced solar- and visible-light photocatalytic activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fakher Laatar

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available CdSe nanorods (NRs with an average length of ≈120 nm were prepared by a solvothermal process and associated to TiO2 nanoparticles (Aeroxide® P25 by annealing at 300 °C for 1 h. The content of CdSe NRs in CdSe/TiO2 composites was varied from 0.5 to 5 wt %. The CdSe/TiO2 heterostructured materials were characterized by XRD, TEM, SEM, XPS, UV–visible spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy. TEM images and XRD patterns show that CdSe NRs with wurtzite structure are associated to TiO2 particles. The UV–visible spectra demonstrate that the narrow bandgap of CdSe NRs serves to increase the photoresponse of CdSe/TiO2 composites until ≈725 nm. The CdSe (2 wt %/TiO2 composite exhibits the highest photocatalytic activity for the degradation of rhodamine B in aqueous solution under simulated sunlight or visible light irradiation. The enhancement in photocatalytic activity likely originates from CdSe sensitization of TiO2 and the heterojunction between these materials which facilitates electron transfer from CdSe to TiO2. Due to its high stability (up to ten reuses without any significant loss in activity, the CdSe/TiO2 heterostructured catalysts show high potential for real water decontamination.

  10. Diameter- and current-density-dependent growth orientation of hexagonal CdSe nanowire arrays via electrodeposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Hongyu; Li Xiaohong; Chen Yan; Guo Defeng; Xie Yanwu; Li Wei; Zhang Xiangyi; Liu Baoting

    2009-01-01

    Controlling the growth orientation of semiconductor nanowire arrays is of vital importance for their applications in the fields of nanodevices. In the present work, hexagonal CdSe nanowire arrays with various preferential growth orientations have been successfully yielded by employing the electrodeposition technique using porous alumina as templates (PATs). We demonstrate by experimental and theoretical efforts that the growth orientation of the CdSe nanowires can be effectively manipulated by varying either the nanopore diameter of the PATs or the deposited current density, which has significant effects on the optical properties of the CdSe nanowires. The present study provides an alternative approach to tuning the growth direction of electrodeposited nanowires and thus is of importance for the fabrication of nanodevices with controlled functional properties.

  11. Diameter- and current-density-dependent growth orientation of hexagonal CdSe nanowire arrays via electrodeposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun Hongyu; Li Xiaohong; Chen Yan; Guo Defeng; Xie Yanwu; Li Wei; Zhang Xiangyi [State Key Laboratory of Metastable Materials Science and Technology, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China); Liu Baoting, E-mail: xyzh66@ysu.edu.c [College of Physics Science and Technology, Hebei University, Baoding 071002 (China)

    2009-10-21

    Controlling the growth orientation of semiconductor nanowire arrays is of vital importance for their applications in the fields of nanodevices. In the present work, hexagonal CdSe nanowire arrays with various preferential growth orientations have been successfully yielded by employing the electrodeposition technique using porous alumina as templates (PATs). We demonstrate by experimental and theoretical efforts that the growth orientation of the CdSe nanowires can be effectively manipulated by varying either the nanopore diameter of the PATs or the deposited current density, which has significant effects on the optical properties of the CdSe nanowires. The present study provides an alternative approach to tuning the growth direction of electrodeposited nanowires and thus is of importance for the fabrication of nanodevices with controlled functional properties.

  12. Magnetic study of Fe-doped CdSe nanomaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, Sayantani; Banerjee, Sourish; Sinha, T. P.

    2016-01-01

    Nanoparticles of pure and iron (50 %) doped cadmium selenide (CdSe) have been synthesized by soft chemical route. EDAX analysis supports the inclusion of Fe into CdSe nanoparticles. The average particle size of pure and doped CdSe is found to be ∼50 nm from scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Magnetization of the samples are measured under the field cooled (FC) and zero field cooled (ZFC) modes in the temperature range from 5K to 300K applying a magnetic field of 500Oe. Field dependent magnetization (M-H) measurement indicates presence of room temperature (RT) paramagnetism and low temperature (5K) ferromagnetism of the sample.

  13. Magnetic and dielectric study of Fe-doped CdSe nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Sayantani; Banerjee, Sourish; Bandyopadhyay, Sudipta; Sinha, Tripurari Prasad

    2018-01-01

    Nanoparticles of cadmium selenide (CdSe) and Fe (5% and 10%) doped CdSe have been synthesized by soft chemical route and found to have cubic structure. The magnetic field dependent magnetization measurement of the doped samples indicates the presence of anti-ferromagnetic order. The temperature dependent magnetization (M-T) measurement under zero field cooled and field cooled conditions has also ruled out the presence of ferromagnetic component in the samples at room temperature as well as low temperature. In order to estimate the anti-ferromagnetic coupling among the doped Fe atoms, an M-T measurement at 500 Oe has been carried out, and the Curie-Weiss temperature θ of the samples has been estimated from the inverse of susceptibility versus temperature plots. The dielectric relaxation peaks are observed in the spectra of imaginary part of dielectric constant. The temperature dependent relaxation time is found to obey the Arrhenius law having activation energy 0.4 eV for Fe doped samples. The frequency dependent conductivity spectra are found to obey the power law. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  14. Fingerprint detection and using intercalated CdSe nanoparticles on non-porous surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Algarra, Manuel, E-mail: malgarra67@gmail.com [Centro de Geología da Universidade do Porto, Departamento de Geociências, Ambiente e Ordenamemto do Territorio do Porto, Faculdade de Ciências, Universidade do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre 687, 4169-007 Porto (Portugal); Radotić, Ksenija; Kalauzi, Aleksandar; Mutavdžić, Dragosav; Savić, Aleksandar [Institute for Multidisciplinary Research, University of Belgrade, Kneza Višeslava 1, 11000 Beograd (Serbia); Jiménez-Jiménez, José; Rodríguez-Castellón, Enrique [Departamento de Química Inorgánica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Málaga, Campus de Teatinos s/n, 29071Málaga (Spain); Silva, Joaquim C.G. Esteves da [Centro de Investigação em Química (CIQ-UP). Faculdade de Ciências da Universidade do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre 687, 4169-007 Porto (Portugal); Guerrero-González, Juan José [Policía Científica, Cuerpo Nacional de Policía, Málaga (Spain)

    2014-02-17

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •Fluorescent nanocomposite based on the inclusion of CdSe quantum dots in porous phosphate heterostructures. •Characterized by FTIR, XRD and fluorescence spectroscopies. •Deconvolution of the emission spectra was confirmed by using multivariate curve resolution (MCR) method. •Application for fingerprint detection and analysis on different non-porous surfaces. -- Abstract: A fluorescent nanocomposite based on the inclusion of CdSe quantum dots in porous phosphate heterostructures, functionalized with amino groups (PPH-NH{sub 2}@CdSe), was synthesized, characterized and used for fingerprint detection. The main scopes of this work were first to develop a friendly chemical powder for detecting latent fingerprints, especially in non-porous surfaces; their further intercalation in PPH structure enables not to spread the fluorescent nanoparticles, for that reason very good fluorescent images can be obtained. The fingerprints, obtained on different non-porous surfaces such as iron tweezers, mobile telephone screen and magnetic band of a credit card, treated with this powder emit a pale orange luminescence under ultraviolet excitation. A further image processing consists of contrast enhancement that allows obtaining positive matches according to the information supplied from a police database, and showed to be more effective than that obtained with the non-processed images. Experimental results illustrate the effectiveness of proposed methods.

  15. Fingerprint detection and using intercalated CdSe nanoparticles on non-porous surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Algarra, Manuel; Radotić, Ksenija; Kalauzi, Aleksandar; Mutavdžić, Dragosav; Savić, Aleksandar; Jiménez-Jiménez, José; Rodríguez-Castellón, Enrique; Silva, Joaquim C.G. Esteves da; Guerrero-González, Juan José

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •Fluorescent nanocomposite based on the inclusion of CdSe quantum dots in porous phosphate heterostructures. •Characterized by FTIR, XRD and fluorescence spectroscopies. •Deconvolution of the emission spectra was confirmed by using multivariate curve resolution (MCR) method. •Application for fingerprint detection and analysis on different non-porous surfaces. -- Abstract: A fluorescent nanocomposite based on the inclusion of CdSe quantum dots in porous phosphate heterostructures, functionalized with amino groups (PPH-NH 2 @CdSe), was synthesized, characterized and used for fingerprint detection. The main scopes of this work were first to develop a friendly chemical powder for detecting latent fingerprints, especially in non-porous surfaces; their further intercalation in PPH structure enables not to spread the fluorescent nanoparticles, for that reason very good fluorescent images can be obtained. The fingerprints, obtained on different non-porous surfaces such as iron tweezers, mobile telephone screen and magnetic band of a credit card, treated with this powder emit a pale orange luminescence under ultraviolet excitation. A further image processing consists of contrast enhancement that allows obtaining positive matches according to the information supplied from a police database, and showed to be more effective than that obtained with the non-processed images. Experimental results illustrate the effectiveness of proposed methods

  16. An insight into the optical properties of CdSe quantum dots during their growth in bovine serum albumin solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Avinash; Ahmed, M.; Guleria, A.; Singh, A.K.; Adhikari, S.; Rath, M.C.

    2016-01-01

    Bovine serum albumin (BSA) assisted synthesis of cadmium selenide (CdSe) quantum dots (QDs) exhibits remarkable changes in the optical properties of the QDs as well as BSA during their growth. The growth of these QDs was investigated by recording the UV–visible absorption spectra and room temperature steady state fluorescence at different time intervals after the mixing of the precursors. The growth of these QDs was associated with a quenching of the fluorescence from BSA. The fluorescence from these QDs was found to be associated with several features: (1) a gradual red-shift in its peak position, (2) increase in intensity with an isoemissive point up to few minutes from the time of mixing of the two precursors, and (3) subsequent decrease in intensity reaching a minimum value, which remains almost unchanged thereafter. The decrease and increase in the fluorescence from BSA and CdSe QDs, respectively have been explained on the basis of Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) as well as the simultaneous growth of these QDs. - Highlights: • CdSe quantum dots were synthesized in the presence of bovine serum albumin (BSA). • Fluorescence from BSA was quenched by during the growth of CdSe quantum dots. • There was an energy transfer from BSA to CdSe quantum dots during their growth. • The emission from CdSe quantum dots was associated with a red-shift.

  17. Formation of a Colloidal CdSe and ZnSe Quantum Dots via a Gamma Radiolytic Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aeshah Salem

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Colloidal cadmium selenide (CdSe and zinc selenide (ZnSe quantum dots with a hexagonal structure were synthesized by irradiating an aqueous solution containing metal precursors, poly (vinyl pyrrolidone, isopropyl alcohol, and organic solvents with 1.25-MeV gamma rays at a dose of 120 kGy. The radiolytic processes occurring in water result in the nucleation of particles, which leads to the growth of the quantum dots. The physical properties of the CdSe and ZnSe nanoparticles were measured by various characterization techniques. X-ray diffraction (XRD was used to confirm the nanocrystalline structure, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX was used to estimate the material composition of the samples, transmission electron microscopy (TEM was used to determine the morphologies and average particle size distribution, and UV-visible spectroscopy was used to measure the optical absorption spectra, from which the band gap of the CdSe and ZnSe nanoparticles could be deduced.

  18. Charge separation in contact systems with CdSe quantum dot layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zillner, Elisabeth Franziska

    2013-03-06

    (recombination). The values of QD-ITO distance and trap density, determined with the simulation were consistent with transmission electron microscopy and photoluminescence measurements. The separation and diffusion of charge carriers was limited due to trapping of charge carriers. Smaller interparticle distances led to faster decays in CdSe QD monolayers. However the increase of traps, which resulted in a slower decay dominated and led to longer decay times of SPV transients of modified CdSe QD layers. By deposition of CdSe QDs on CdS a heterojunction was created. The CdS layer served as acceptor for electrons excited in CdSe QDs. Furthermore a CdSe QD/CdTe nanoparticle heterojunction was realized by successive electrophoretic deposition. CdSe QDs acted as electron acceptors, whereas CdTe nanoparticles acted as electron donors. Charge separation was dominated by the CdSe QD/CdTe nanoparticle interphase, as inverted layer stacking of CdSe QDs and CdTe nanoparticles gave an inverted SPV signal.

  19. Charge separation in contact systems with CdSe quantum dot layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zillner, Elisabeth Franziska

    2013-01-01

    (recombination). The values of QD-ITO distance and trap density, determined with the simulation were consistent with transmission electron microscopy and photoluminescence measurements. The separation and diffusion of charge carriers was limited due to trapping of charge carriers. Smaller interparticle distances led to faster decays in CdSe QD monolayers. However the increase of traps, which resulted in a slower decay dominated and led to longer decay times of SPV transients of modified CdSe QD layers. By deposition of CdSe QDs on CdS a heterojunction was created. The CdS layer served as acceptor for electrons excited in CdSe QDs. Furthermore a CdSe QD/CdTe nanoparticle heterojunction was realized by successive electrophoretic deposition. CdSe QDs acted as electron acceptors, whereas CdTe nanoparticles acted as electron donors. Charge separation was dominated by the CdSe QD/CdTe nanoparticle interphase, as inverted layer stacking of CdSe QDs and CdTe nanoparticles gave an inverted SPV signal.

  20. Synthesis of CdSe Quantum Dots Using Fusarium oxysporum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takaaki Yamaguchi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available CdSe quantum dots are often used in industry as fluorescent materials. In this study, CdSe quantum dots were synthesized using Fusarium oxysporum. The cadmium and selenium concentration, pH, and temperature for the culture of F. oxysporum (Fusarium oxysporum were optimized for the synthesis, and the CdSe quantum dots obtained from the mycelial cells of F. oxysporum were observed by transmission electron microscopy. Ultra-thin sections of F. oxysporum showed that the CdSe quantum dots were precipitated in the intracellular space, indicating that cadmium and selenium ions were incorporated into the cell and that the quantum dots were synthesized with intracellular metabolites. To reveal differences in F. oxysporum metabolism, cell extracts of F. oxysporum, before and after CdSe synthesis, were compared using sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE. The results suggested that the amount of superoxide dismutase (SOD decreased after CdSe synthesis. Fluorescence microscopy revealed that cytoplasmic superoxide increased significantly after CdSe synthesis. The accumulation of superoxide may increase the expression of various metabolites that play a role in reducing Se4+ to Se2− and inhibit the aggregation of CdSe to make nanoparticles.

  1. Structural, optical and magnetic properties of cobalt-doped CdSe ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Abstract. Pure and Co-doped CdSe nanoparticles have been synthesized by hydrothermal technique. The ... Keywords. Nanoparticles; dilute magnetic semiconductor; ferromagnetism. ... dium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) was used as a surfactant in.

  2. Structural and optical characterization of electrodeposited CdSe in mesoporous anatase TiO2 for regenerative quantum-dot-sensitized solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sauvage, Frédéric; Davoisne, Carine; Philippe, Laetitia; Elias, Jamil

    2012-01-01

    We investigated CdSe-sensitized TiO 2 solar cells by means of electrodeposition under galvanostatic control. The electrodeposition of CdSe within the mesoporous film of TiO 2 gives rise to a uniform, thickness controlled, conformal layer of nanostructured CdSe particles intimately wrapping the anatase TiO 2 nanoparticles. This technique has the advantage of providing not only a fast method for sensitization ( 2 –CdSe core–shell structure followed by the growth of an assembly of CdSe nanoparticles resembling cauliflowers. This assembly exhibits at its core a mosaic texture with crystallites of about 3 nm in size, in contrast to a shell composed of well-crystallized single crystals between 5 and 10 nm in size. Preliminary results on the photovoltaic performance of such a nanostructured composite of TiO 2 and CdSe show 0.8% power conversion efficiency under A.M.1.5 G conditions—100 mW cm −2 in association with a new regenerative redox couple based on cobalt(+III/+II) polypyridil complex (V oc = 485 mV, J sc = 4.26 mA cm −2 , ff=0.37). (paper)

  3. Synthesis of CdSe nanoparticles and their effect on the antioxidant activity of Spirulina platensis and Porphyridium cruentum cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudic, V.; Cepoi, L.; Rudi, L.; Chiriac, T.; Nicorici, A.; Todosiciuc, A.; Gutsul, T.

    2011-01-01

    Single-crystalline cadmium selenide nanoparticles were obtained using high-temperature solution phase synthesis (HTSPS) synthesis. X-Ray powder diffraction and transmission electron microscopy were used to confirm the crystallinity and morphology of the resulting nanoparticles. To study the action of CdSe on antioxidant activity, we selected two biotechnological important strains of microalgae: cyanobacteria Spirulina platensis and red microalgae Porphyridium cruentum. In the case of Porphyridium cruentum, the obtained results demonstrated an increase in the productivity. For Spirulina platensis, the presence of the compound in the cultivating medium decreased the productivity of cyanobacteria.

  4. Properties of electrospun CdS and CdSe filled poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) nanofibres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mthethwa, T.P. [University of Johannesburg, Department of Chemical Technology, P.O. Box 17011, Doornfontein 2028 (South Africa); Moloto, M.J., E-mail: mmoloto@uj.ac.za [University of Johannesburg, Department of Chemical Technology, P.O. Box 17011, Doornfontein 2028 (South Africa); De Vries, A.; Matabola, K.P. [CSIR Materials Science and Manufacturing, 4 Gomery avenue, Summerstrand, Port Elizabeth 6000 (South Africa)

    2011-04-15

    Graphical abstract: SEM images of CdS/PMMA showing coiling as loading of CdS nanoparticles is increased. Thermal stability is increased with increase in %loading of both CdS and CdSe nanoparticles. Research highlights: {yields} TOPO-capped CdS and HDA-capped CdSe nanoparticles were synthesized and fully characterized. {yields} The nanoparticles were mixed with the polymer, PMMA using electrospinning technique using 2, 5 and 10% weight loadings. {yields} The mixture was spun to produce fibres with optical and thermal properties showing significant change and also the increase in loading causing bending or spiraling. {yields} Both TEM images for nanoparticles and SEM for fibres shows the morphology and sizes of the particles. -- Abstract: Electrospinning technique was used to fabricate poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) fibres incorporating CdS and CdSe quantum dots (nanoparticles). Different nanoparticle loadings (2, 5 and 10 wt% with respect to PMMA) were used and the effect of the quantum dots on the properties of the fibres was studied. The optical properties of the hybrid composite fibres were investigated by photoluminescence and UV-vis spectrophotometry. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction and FTIR spectrophotometry were also used to investigate the morphology and structure of the fibres. The optical studies showed that the size-tunable optical properties can be achieved in the polymer fibres by addition of quantum dots. SEM images showed that the morphologies of the fibres were dependent on the added amounts of quantum dots. A spiral type of morphology was observed with an increase in the concentration of CdS and CdSe nanoparticles. Less beaded structures and bigger diameter fibres were obtained at higher quantum dot concentrations. X-ray diffractometry detected the amorphous peaks of the polymer and even after the quantum dots were added and the FTIR analysis shows that there was no considerable interaction between the quantum dots and the

  5. Properties of electrospun CdS and CdSe filled poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) nanofibres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mthethwa, T.P.; Moloto, M.J.; De Vries, A.; Matabola, K.P.

    2011-01-01

    Graphical abstract: SEM images of CdS/PMMA showing coiling as loading of CdS nanoparticles is increased. Thermal stability is increased with increase in %loading of both CdS and CdSe nanoparticles. Research highlights: → TOPO-capped CdS and HDA-capped CdSe nanoparticles were synthesized and fully characterized. → The nanoparticles were mixed with the polymer, PMMA using electrospinning technique using 2, 5 and 10% weight loadings. → The mixture was spun to produce fibres with optical and thermal properties showing significant change and also the increase in loading causing bending or spiraling. → Both TEM images for nanoparticles and SEM for fibres shows the morphology and sizes of the particles. -- Abstract: Electrospinning technique was used to fabricate poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) fibres incorporating CdS and CdSe quantum dots (nanoparticles). Different nanoparticle loadings (2, 5 and 10 wt% with respect to PMMA) were used and the effect of the quantum dots on the properties of the fibres was studied. The optical properties of the hybrid composite fibres were investigated by photoluminescence and UV-vis spectrophotometry. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction and FTIR spectrophotometry were also used to investigate the morphology and structure of the fibres. The optical studies showed that the size-tunable optical properties can be achieved in the polymer fibres by addition of quantum dots. SEM images showed that the morphologies of the fibres were dependent on the added amounts of quantum dots. A spiral type of morphology was observed with an increase in the concentration of CdS and CdSe nanoparticles. Less beaded structures and bigger diameter fibres were obtained at higher quantum dot concentrations. X-ray diffractometry detected the amorphous peaks of the polymer and even after the quantum dots were added and the FTIR analysis shows that there was no considerable interaction between the quantum dots and the polymer fibres at low

  6. Electrodeposition of epitaxial CdSe on (111) gallium arsenide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cachet, H.; Cortes, R.; Froment, M. [Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris (France). Phys. des Liquides et Electrochimie; Etcheberry, A. [Institut Lavoisier (IREM) UMR CNRS C0173, Universite de Versailles- St Quentin en Yvelynes, 45 Avenue des Etats Unis, 78035, Versailles (France)

    2000-02-21

    Epitaxial growth of CdSe has been achieved on GaAs(111) by electrodeposition from an aqueous electrolyte. The structure of the film corresponds to the cubic modification of CdSe. The quality of epitaxy has been investigated by reflection high energy electron diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction techniques. By XPS measurements the chemistry of the CdSe/GaAs interface and the composition of CdSe are determined. (orig.)

  7. Controllable size reduction of CdSe nanowires through the intermediate formation of Se-coated CdSe nanowires using acid and thermal treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lam, N S [Department of Physics, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China); Wong, K W [Department of Physics, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China); Li, Q [Department of Physics, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China); Zheng, Z [Department of Physics, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China); Lau, W M [Surface Science Western, University of Western Ontario, London, ON, N6A 5B7 (Canada)

    2007-10-17

    Thinning of CdSe nanowires (NWs) with controllable size was achieved by a simple acid treatment and subsequent annealing on thick CdSe NWs synthesized from vapour phase growth. During acid treatment, not only the undesired impurities such as native oxides of Cd and Se could be etched, but surface reactions of CdSe NWs were also observed, resulting in the formation of a layer of elemental Se around a thinner CdSe core. As a result, a heterostructure of Se - CdSe nanostructure formed after acid treatment of CdSe NWs. Upon thermal annealing, the Se shell was effectively removed and thinned stoichiometric single-crystalline CdSe NWs could be obtained. It was observed that NWs could be thinned by up to {approx}60% in diameter by acid treatment and subsequent Se thermal desorption. The degree of thinning was controllable by adjusting the duration of acid treatment. The success of the thinning of CdSe NWs by simple acid treatment and the annealing process reported here opens a new processing route for obtaining stoichiometric CdSe NWs with controllable size reduction and improved aspect ratio. This can undoubtedly broadly improve the range of applications of 1D CdSe nanostructures and allow more exploration of their uni-directional properties. A correction was made to the last paragraph of section 3 on 18 September 2007. The corrected electronic version is identical to the print version.

  8. Controllable size reduction of CdSe nanowires through the intermediate formation of Se-coated CdSe nanowires using acid and thermal treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lam, N S; Wong, K W; Li, Q; Zheng, Z; Lau, W M

    2007-01-01

    Thinning of CdSe nanowires (NWs) with controllable size was achieved by a simple acid treatment and subsequent annealing on thick CdSe NWs synthesized from vapour phase growth. During acid treatment, not only the undesired impurities such as native oxides of Cd and Se could be etched, but surface reactions of CdSe NWs were also observed, resulting in the formation of a layer of elemental Se around a thinner CdSe core. As a result, a heterostructure of Se - CdSe nanostructure formed after acid treatment of CdSe NWs. Upon thermal annealing, the Se shell was effectively removed and thinned stoichiometric single-crystalline CdSe NWs could be obtained. It was observed that NWs could be thinned by up to ∼60% in diameter by acid treatment and subsequent Se thermal desorption. The degree of thinning was controllable by adjusting the duration of acid treatment. The success of the thinning of CdSe NWs by simple acid treatment and the annealing process reported here opens a new processing route for obtaining stoichiometric CdSe NWs with controllable size reduction and improved aspect ratio. This can undoubtedly broadly improve the range of applications of 1D CdSe nanostructures and allow more exploration of their uni-directional properties. A correction was made to the last paragraph of section 3 on 18 September 2007. The corrected electronic version is identical to the print version

  9. Size-selective precipitation in colloidal semiconductor nanocrystals of CdTe and CdSe: a study by UV-VIS spectroscopy; Precipitacao seletiva de tamanhos em nanoparticulas semicondutoras coloidais de CdTe e CdSe: um estudo por espectroscopia UV-VIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viol, Livia Cristina de Souza; Silva, Fernanda Oliveira; Ferreira, Diego Lourenconi; Alves, Jose Luiz Aarestrup; Schiavon, Marco Antonio, E-mail: schiavon@ufsj.edu.b [Universidade Federal de Sao Joao del Rei, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencias Naturais

    2011-07-01

    The post-preparative size-selective precipitation technique was applied in CdTe and CdSe semiconductor nanocrystals prepared via colloidal route in water. The synthesis of CdTe and CdSe nanoparticles and the effect of the post-preparative size-selective precipitation have been characterized mainly by mean of ultraviolet and visible absorption spectroscopy (UV-Vis). It was demonstrated that the size-selective precipitation are able to isolate particles of different sizes and purify the nanoparticles as well. (author)

  10. Green wet chemical route to synthesize capped CdSe quantum dots

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In the present work, we report green synthesis of tartaric acid (TA) and triethanolamine (TEA) capped ... CdSe quantum dots; chemical bath deposition; capping; green chemistry; nanomaterials. 1. .... at high concentration of nanoparticles.

  11. Electrodeposition of nanocrystalline CdSe thin films from dimethyl sulfoxide solution: Nucleation and growth mechanism, structural and optical studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henriquez, R.; Badan, A.; Grez, P.; Munoz, E.; Vera, J.; Dalchiele, E.A.; Marotti, R.E.; Gomez, H.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Electrodeposition of CdSe nanocrystalline semiconductor thin films. → Polycrystalline wurtzite structure with a slight (1010) preferred orientation. → Absorption edge shifts in the optical properties due to quantum confinement effects. - Abstract: Cadmium selenide (CdSe) nanocrystalline semiconductor thin films have been synthesized by electrodeposition at controlled potential based in the electrochemical reduction process of molecular selenium in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) solution. The nucleation and growth mechanism of this process has been studied. The XRD pattern shows a characteristic polycrystalline hexagonal wurtzite structure with a slight (1 0 1 0) crystallographic preferred orientation. The crystallite size of nanocrystalline CdSe thin films can be simply controlled by the electrodeposition potential. A quantum size effect is deduced from the correlation between the band gap energy and the crystallite size.

  12. Photorefractive performance of polymer composite sensitized by CdSe nanoparticles passivated by 1-hexadecylamine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslam, Farzana; Binks, David J.; Rahn, Mark D.; West, David P.; O'Brien, Paul; Pickett, Nigel

    2005-07-01

    The performance of a photorefractive polymer composite sensitized by 1-hexadecylamine capped CdSe nanoparticles is reported. The polymer composite also comprises the charge transporting matrix poly(N-vinylcarbazole) and the electro-optic chromophore 1-(2-ethylhexyloxy)-2,5-dimethyl-4-(4-nitrophenylazo) benzene. At an applied field of 70?V?µ m-1 two beam coupling gain of 13.2?cm-1 was observed, confirming the photorefractive nature of the induced grating. At the same field, a holographic contrast of 9.12×10-4±6×10-6, a photorefractive sensitivity of 5.1×10-4 ±0.2×10-4?cm3?J-1 and a space-charge field rise time of 13±1?s were obtained.

  13. Controlled growth of high-density CdS and CdSe nanorod arrays on selective facets of two-dimensional semiconductor nanoplates

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Xue-Jun; Chen, Junze; Tan, Chaoliang; Zhu, Yihan; Han, Yu; Zhang, Hua

    2016-01-01

    . Here, we report a seeded growth approach for the controlled epitaxial growth of three types of hierarchical one-dimensional (1D)/two-dimensional (2D) nanostructures, where nanorod arrays of II-VI semiconductor CdS or CdSe are grown on the selective

  14. Investigation on the influence of pH on structure and photoelectrochemical properties of CdSe electrolytically deposited into TiO2 nanotube arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xue, Jinbo; Shen, Qianqian; Yang, Fei; Liang, Wei; Liu, Xuguang

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • There-dimensional CdSe-TiO 2 multijunction was fabricated by electrochemical method. • CdSe nanoparticles had a good bonding with the walls of TiO 2 nanotube. • pH value played an important role in the quality of CdSe-TiO 2 interfaces. - Abstract: In this work, we fabricated CdSe/TiO 2 nanotube arrays (NTAs) by electrochemical method. In electrodeposition, the pH value of the electrolyte played an important role in formation of CdSe nanoparticles. As the pH value decreased, more CdSe deposited on TiO 2 NTAs. Scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy characterization shows that the CdSe nanoparticles were uniformly deposited on and into TiO 2 nanotubes when the pH value was 3, and this structure fully utilized the three-dimensional (3D) space of TiO 2 nanotubes to form 3D multijunction heterostructures. According to the photoelectrochemical test, the CdSe/TiO 2 NTAs sample prepared at pH = 3 exhibited maximum photocurrent and open circuit potential. This is because that the deposited CdSe nanoparticles had better bond with the walls of TiO 2 nanotube than the samples deposited at other pH values, which facilitated the propagation and kinetic separation of photogenerated charges

  15. MnFe2O4/CdSe magneto-fluorescent nanocomposite for possible biomedical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandunika, R. K.; Vijayaraghavan, R.; Sahu, Niroj Kumar

    2018-04-01

    Acombined superparamagnetic and fluorescent MnFe2O4/CdSe multifunctional nanocompositehas been prepared by suitable surface functionalizationswith citric acid, polyethyleneimine(PEI) and thioglycolic acid (ThA).and the samples were characterized by XRD, FT-IR, TEM, Zeta Potential, VSM, UV-Vis and PL spectroscopy. MnFe2O4 crystalizes with average size of 38.6 nm whereas CdSe with average size of 2.03 nm. In composite, the CdSe quantum dots (QD) are homogeneously distributed in the matrix of porous MnFe2O4 nanoparticles. Thenanocomposites are well dispersed in aqueous solvent and possess significant magnetic and luminescence properties which may be utilised for magnetic resonance imaging and luminescence tagging of biomolecules.

  16. Electrodeposition of CdSe coatings on ZnO nanowire arrays for extremely thin absorber solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Majidi, Hasti [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Drexel University, 3141 Chestnut St, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Baxter, Jason B., E-mail: jbaxter@drexel.ed [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Drexel University, 3141 Chestnut St, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States)

    2011-02-15

    We report on electrodeposition of CdSe coatings onto ZnO nanowire arrays and determine the effect of processing conditions on material properties such as morphology and microstructure. CdSe-coated ZnO nanowire arrays have potential use in extremely thin absorber (ETA) solar cells, where CdSe absorbs visible light and injects photoexcited electrons into the ZnO nanowires. We show that room-temperature electrodeposition enables growth of CdSe coatings that are highly crystalline, uniform, and conformal with precise control over thickness and microstructure. X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy show nanocrystalline CdSe in both hexagonal and cubic phases with grain size {approx}5 nm. Coating morphology depends on electrodeposition current density. Uniform and conformal coatings were achieved using moderate current densities of {approx}2 mA cm{sup -2} for nanowires with roughness factor of {approx}10, while lower current densities resulted in sparse nucleation and growth of larger, isolated islands. Electrodeposition charge density controls the thickness of the CdSe coating, which was exploited to investigate the evolution of the morphology at early stages of nucleation and growth. UV-vis transmission spectroscopy and photoelectrochemical solar cell measurements demonstrate that CdSe effectively sensitizes ZnO nanowires to visible light.

  17. Electrodeposition of CdSe coatings on ZnO nanowire arrays for extremely thin absorber solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majidi, Hasti; Baxter, Jason B.

    2011-01-01

    We report on electrodeposition of CdSe coatings onto ZnO nanowire arrays and determine the effect of processing conditions on material properties such as morphology and microstructure. CdSe-coated ZnO nanowire arrays have potential use in extremely thin absorber (ETA) solar cells, where CdSe absorbs visible light and injects photoexcited electrons into the ZnO nanowires. We show that room-temperature electrodeposition enables growth of CdSe coatings that are highly crystalline, uniform, and conformal with precise control over thickness and microstructure. X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy show nanocrystalline CdSe in both hexagonal and cubic phases with grain size ∼5 nm. Coating morphology depends on electrodeposition current density. Uniform and conformal coatings were achieved using moderate current densities of ∼2 mA cm -2 for nanowires with roughness factor of ∼10, while lower current densities resulted in sparse nucleation and growth of larger, isolated islands. Electrodeposition charge density controls the thickness of the CdSe coating, which was exploited to investigate the evolution of the morphology at early stages of nucleation and growth. UV-vis transmission spectroscopy and photoelectrochemical solar cell measurements demonstrate that CdSe effectively sensitizes ZnO nanowires to visible light.

  18. AgCl-doped CdSe quantum dots with near-IR photoluminescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotin, Pavel Aleksandrovich; Bubenov, Sergey Sergeevich; Mordvinova, Natalia Evgenievna; Dorofeev, Sergey Gennadievich

    2017-01-01

    We report the synthesis of colloidal CdSe quantum dots doped with a novel Ag precursor: AgCl. The addition of AgCl causes dramatic changes in the morphology of synthesized nanocrystals from spherical nanoparticles to tetrapods and finally to large ellipsoidal nanoparticles. Ellipsoidal nanoparticles possess an intensive near-IR photoluminescence ranging up to 0.9 eV (ca. 1400 nm). In this article, we explain the reasons for the formation of the ellipsoidal nanoparticles as well as the peculiarities of the process. The structure, Ag content, and optical properties of quantum dots are also investigated. The optimal conditions for maximizing both the reaction yield and IR photoluminescence quantum yield are found.

  19. Precipitação seletiva de tamanhos em nanopartículas semicondutoras coloidais de CdTe e CdSe: um estudo por espectroscopia UV-VIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lívia Cristina de Souza Viol

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The post-preparative size-selective precipitation technique was applied in CdTe and CdSe semiconductor nanocrystals prepared via colloidal route in water. The synthesis of CdTe and CdSe nanoparticles and the effect of the post-preparative size-selective precipitation have been characterized mainly by mean of ultraviolet and visible absorption spectroscopy (UV-Vis. It was demonstrated that the size-selective precipitation are able to isolate particles of different sizes and purify the nanoparticles as well.

  20. Anisotropy in CdSe quantum rods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Liang-shi [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2003-01-01

    The size-dependent optical and electronic properties of semiconductor nanocrystals have drawn much attention in the past decade, and have been very well understood for spherical ones. The advent of the synthetic methods to make rod-like CdSe nanocrystals with wurtzite structure has offered us a new opportunity to study their properties as functions of their shape. This dissertation includes three main parts: synthesis of CdSe nanorods with tightly controlled widths and lengths, their optical and dielectric properties, and their large-scale assembly, all of which are either directly or indirectly caused by the uniaxial crystallographic structure of wurtzite CdSe. The hexagonal wurtzite structure is believed to be the primary reason for the growth of CdSe nanorods. It represents itself in the kinetic stabilization of the rod-like particles over the spherical ones in the presence of phosphonic acids. By varying the composition of the surfactant mixture used for synthesis we have achieved tight control of the widths and lengths of the nanorods. The synthesis of monodisperse CdSe nanorods enables us to systematically study their size-dependent properties. For example, room temperature single particle fluorescence spectroscopy has shown that nanorods emit linearly polarized photoluminescence. Theoretical calculations have shown that it is due to the crossing between the two highest occupied electronic levels with increasing aspect ratio. We also measured the permanent electric dipole moment of the nanorods with transient electric birefringence technique. Experimental results on nanorods with different sizes show that the dipole moment is linear to the particle volume, indicating that it originates from the non-centrosymmetric hexagonal lattice. The elongation of the nanocrystals also results in the anisotropic inter-particle interaction. One of the consequences is the formation of liquid crystalline phases when the nanorods are dispersed in solvent to a high enough

  1. Fabrication of CdSe nanocrystals using porous anodic alumina and their optical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laatar, Fakher, E-mail: fakher8laatar@gmail.com [Laboratory of Semiconductors, Nanostructures and Advanced Technology (LSNTA), Center for Research and Technology Energy, Tourist Route Soliman, BP 95, 2050 Hammam-Lif (Tunisia); Science faculty of Bizerte–Carthage University (Tunisia); Hassen, Mohamed [Laboratory of Semiconductors, Nanostructures and Advanced Technology (LSNTA), Center for Research and Technology Energy, Tourist Route Soliman, BP 95, 2050 Hammam-Lif (Tunisia); Higher Institute of Applied Science and Technology of Sousse, City Taffala (Ibn Khaldun), 4003 Sousse (Tunisia); Amri, Chohdi [Laboratory of Semiconductors, Nanostructures and Advanced Technology (LSNTA), Center for Research and Technology Energy, Tourist Route Soliman, BP 95, 2050 Hammam-Lif (Tunisia); Laatar, Fekri [Laboratory of Physical Chemistry of Minerals and Materials Applications, National Research Center for Materials Science, Technopole Borj Cedria (Tunisia); Smida, Alia; Ezzaouia, Hatem [Laboratory of Semiconductors, Nanostructures and Advanced Technology (LSNTA), Center for Research and Technology Energy, Tourist Route Soliman, BP 95, 2050 Hammam-Lif (Tunisia)

    2016-10-15

    estimated from the optical absorbance spectra. Investigations have shown that optical properties of CdSe/PAA nanostructure were influenced by the pores sizes of PAA. It was observed an increase in CdSe NCs size from 2.22 to 2.56 nm when the average pores diameter of PAA increases from 30 to 180 nm. This finding indicates an enhancement in PL intensity and a red-shift in PL emission peaks from 2.35 to 2.14 eV. By applying the quantum confinement model, we demonstrated that the redshift of PL peak is attributed to the change of CdSe NCs size with the pores diameter and that their spectral behaviors are related to the shape and the size distribution of the nanoparticles.

  2. Fabrication of CdSe nanocrystals using porous anodic alumina and their optical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laatar, Fakher; Hassen, Mohamed; Amri, Chohdi; Laatar, Fekri; Smida, Alia; Ezzaouia, Hatem

    2016-01-01

    estimated from the optical absorbance spectra. Investigations have shown that optical properties of CdSe/PAA nanostructure were influenced by the pores sizes of PAA. It was observed an increase in CdSe NCs size from 2.22 to 2.56 nm when the average pores diameter of PAA increases from 30 to 180 nm. This finding indicates an enhancement in PL intensity and a red-shift in PL emission peaks from 2.35 to 2.14 eV. By applying the quantum confinement model, we demonstrated that the redshift of PL peak is attributed to the change of CdSe NCs size with the pores diameter and that their spectral behaviors are related to the shape and the size distribution of the nanoparticles.

  3. Composition-controlled optical properties of colloidal CdSe quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayele, Delele Worku [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Department of Chemistry, Bahir Dar University, Bahir Dar (Ethiopia); Su, Wei-Nien, E-mail: wsu@mail.ntust.edu.tw [Graduate Institute of Applied Science and Technology, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Chou, Hung-Lung [Graduate Institute of Applied Science and Technology, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Pan, Chun-Jern [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Hwang, Bing-Joe, E-mail: bjh@mail.ntust.edu.tw [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); National Synchrotron Radiation Research Center, Hsinchu 300, Taiwan (China)

    2014-12-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The surface of CdSe QDs are modified with cadmium followed by selenium. • The optical properties of CdSe QDs can be controlled by manipulating the composition. • Surface compositional change affects the surface defects or traps and recombination. • The surface trapping state can be controlled by tuning the surface composition. • A change in composition shows a change in the carrier life time. - Abstract: A strategy with respect to band gap engineering by controlling the composition of CdSe quantum dots (QDs) is reported. After the CdSe QDs are prepared, their compositions can be effectively manipulated from 1:1 (Cd:Se) CdSe QDs to Cd-rich and then to Se-rich QDs. To obtain Cd-rich CdSe QDs, Cd was deposited on equimolar CdSe QDs. Further deposition of Se on Cd-rich CdSe QDs produced Se-rich CdSe QDs. The compositions (Cd:Se) of the as-prepared CdSe quantum dots were acquired by Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). By changing the composition, the overall optical properties of the CdSe QDs can be manipulated. It was found that as the composition of the QDs changes from 1:1 (Cd:Se) CdSe to Cd-rich and then Se-rich CdSe, the band gap decreases along with a red shift of UV–vis absorption edges and photoluminescence (PL) peaks. The quantum yield also decreases with surface composition from 1:1 (Cd:Se) CdSe QDs to Cd-rich and then to Se-rich, largely due to the changes in the surface state. Because of the involvement of the surface defect or trapping state, the carrier life time increased from the 1:1 (Cd:Se) CdSe QDs to the Cd-rich to the Se-rich CdSe QDs. We have shown that the optical properties of CdSe QDs can be controlled by manipulating the composition of the surface atoms. This strategy can potentially be extended to other semiconductor nanocrystals to modify their properties.

  4. Composition-controlled optical properties of colloidal CdSe quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayele, Delele Worku; Su, Wei-Nien; Chou, Hung-Lung; Pan, Chun-Jern; Hwang, Bing-Joe

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The surface of CdSe QDs are modified with cadmium followed by selenium. • The optical properties of CdSe QDs can be controlled by manipulating the composition. • Surface compositional change affects the surface defects or traps and recombination. • The surface trapping state can be controlled by tuning the surface composition. • A change in composition shows a change in the carrier life time. - Abstract: A strategy with respect to band gap engineering by controlling the composition of CdSe quantum dots (QDs) is reported. After the CdSe QDs are prepared, their compositions can be effectively manipulated from 1:1 (Cd:Se) CdSe QDs to Cd-rich and then to Se-rich QDs. To obtain Cd-rich CdSe QDs, Cd was deposited on equimolar CdSe QDs. Further deposition of Se on Cd-rich CdSe QDs produced Se-rich CdSe QDs. The compositions (Cd:Se) of the as-prepared CdSe quantum dots were acquired by Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). By changing the composition, the overall optical properties of the CdSe QDs can be manipulated. It was found that as the composition of the QDs changes from 1:1 (Cd:Se) CdSe to Cd-rich and then Se-rich CdSe, the band gap decreases along with a red shift of UV–vis absorption edges and photoluminescence (PL) peaks. The quantum yield also decreases with surface composition from 1:1 (Cd:Se) CdSe QDs to Cd-rich and then to Se-rich, largely due to the changes in the surface state. Because of the involvement of the surface defect or trapping state, the carrier life time increased from the 1:1 (Cd:Se) CdSe QDs to the Cd-rich to the Se-rich CdSe QDs. We have shown that the optical properties of CdSe QDs can be controlled by manipulating the composition of the surface atoms. This strategy can potentially be extended to other semiconductor nanocrystals to modify their properties

  5. Enhanced growth of highly lattice-mismatched CdSe on GaAs substrates by molecular beam epitaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Jyh-Shyang; Tsai, Yu-Hsuan; Wang, Hsiao-Hua; Ke, Han-Xiang; Tong, Shih-Chang; Yang, Chu-Shou; Wu, Chih-Hung; Shen, Ji-Lin

    2013-01-01

    This work demonstrates the improvement of the molecular beam epitaxial growth of zinc-blende CdSe on (0 0 1) GaAs substrate with a large lattice mismatch by introducing a small amount of Te atoms. Exposing the growing surface to Te atoms changes the reflection high-energy electron diffraction pattern from spotty to streaky together with (2 × 1) surface reconstruction, and greatly reduces the full width at half maximum of the X-ray rocking curve and increases the integral intensity of room-temperature photoluminescence by a factor of about nine.

  6. A Suitable Polysulfide Electrolyte for CdSe Quantum Dot-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. K. Jun

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A polysulfide liquid electrolyte is developed for the application in CdSe quantum dot-sensitized solar cells (QDSSCs. A solvent consisting of ethanol and water in the ratio of 8 : 2 by volume has been found as the optimum solvent for preparing the liquid electrolytes. This solvent ratio appears to give higher cell efficiency compared to pure ethanol or water as a solvent. Na2S and S give rise to a good redox couple in the electrolyte for QDSSC operation, and the optimum concentrations required are 0.5 M and 0.1 M, respectively. Addition of guanidine thiocyanate (GuSCN to the electrolyte further enhances the performance. The QDSSC with CdSe sensitized electrode prepared using 7 cycles of successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR produces an efficiency of 1.41% with a fill factor of 44% on using a polysulfide electrolyte of 0.5 M Na2S, 0.1 M S, and 0.05 M GuSCN in ethanol/water (8 : 2 by volume under the illumination of 100 mW/cm2 white light. Inclusion of small amount of TiO2 nanoparticles into the electrolyte helps to stabilize the polysulfide electrolyte and thereby improve the stability of the CdSe QDSSC. The CdSe QDs are also found to be stable in the optimized polysulfide liquid electrolyte.

  7. Optical absorption of CdSe quantum dots on electrodes with different morphology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Witoon Yindeesuk

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available We have studied the optical absorption of CdSe quantum dots (QDs adsorbed on inverse opal TiO2 (IO-TiO2 and nanoparticulate TiO2 (NP-TiO2 electrodes using photoacoustic (PA measurements. The CdSe QDs were grown directly on IO-TiO2 and NP-TiO2 electrodes by a successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR method with different numbers of cycles. The average diameter of the QDs was estimated by applying an effective mass approximation to the PA spectra. The increasing size of the QDs with increasing number of cycles was confirmed by a redshift in the optical absorption spectrum. The average diameter of the CdSe QDs on the IO-TiO2 electrodes was similar to that on the NP-TiO2 ones, indicating that growth is independent of morphology. However, there were more CdSe QDs on the NP-TiO2 electrodes than on the IO-TiO2 ones, indicating that there were different amounts of active sites on each type of electrode. In addition, the Urbach parameter of the exponential optical absorption tail was also estimated from the PA spectrum. The Urbach parameter of CdSe QDs on IO-TiO2 electrodes was higher than that on NP-TiO2 ones, indicating that CdSe QDs on IO-TiO2 electrodes are more disordered states than those on NP-TiO2 electrodes. The Urbach parameter decreases in both cases with the increase of SILAR cycles, and it tended to move toward a constant value.

  8. The influence of CdSe and ZnSe nanoparticles on the optical properties of Sm"3"+ ions in lead borate glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mallur, Saisudha B.; Heidorn, William D.; Fatokun, Stephen O.; Joshi, Krishna D.; Bista, Sandip S.; Babu, Panakkattu K.

    2017-01-01

    The effect of glass composition and the presence of CdSe/ZnSe nanoparticles (NPs) on the optical absorption and fluorescence of Sm-doped lead borate glasses are studied. Three sets of glass samples xPbO:(99.5-x) B_2O_3:0.5Sm_2O_3, x = 29.5–69.5 mol%, xPbO:(96.5-x) B_2O_3:0.5Sm_2O_3: 3CdSe/ZnSe, x = 36.5, and 56.5 mol% are prepared. NPs are grown by annealing these glasses just below the glass transition temperature. Average size of both types of NPs increases with annealing time; however, CdSe NPs grew to a larger size range (2 to 20 nm) compared to ZnSe NPs (1 to 16 nm). We analyzed the hypersensitive transition, intensity parameters, radiative transition probability, stimulated emission cross section (σ_p), and the area ratio of the electric dipole/magnetic dipole transitions of Sm"3"+. The intensity parameters show a minimum at 11 h annealing for 36.5 mol% and a maximum for the same annealing duration in 56.5 mol% PbO containing CdSe NPs. The σ_p for 56.5 mol% of PbO with CdSe NPs is found to be a maximum when the average NP size is around 14 nm. ZnSe NPs containing glasses also show significant changes in σ_p when the average particle size is ~16 nm, for 36.5 mol% PbO. Our results suggest that the optical properties of Sm"3"+ in lead borate glasses are sensitive to its electronic environment which can be modified by varying the base glass composition and/or incorporating large NPs of CdSe/ZnSe. The large σ_p values that we observe for some of the glass compositions make them attractive materials for photonic devices and photovoltaic applications.

  9. Structural and optical properties of CdSe nanosheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solanki, Rekha Garg; Rajaram, P.; Arora, Aman

    2018-04-01

    Nanosheets of CdSe have been synthesized using a solvothermal route using citric acid as an additive. It is found that the citric acid effectively controls the structural and optical properties of CdSe nanostructures. XRD studies confirm the formation of hexagonal wurtzite phase of CdSe. The FESEM micrographs show that the obtained CdSe nanocrystals are in the form of very thin sheets (nanosheets). Optical absorption studies as well as Photoluminescence spectra show that the optical gap is around 1.76 eV which is close to the reported bulk value of 1.74 eV. The prepared CdSe nanosheets because of large surface area may be useful for catalytic activities in medicine, biotechnology and environmental chemistry and in biomedical imaging for in vitro detection of a breast cancer cells.

  10. Optical sensing of triethylamine using CdSe aerogels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao Qinghong; Brock, Stephanie L

    2010-01-01

    The photoluminescence (PL) response of highly porous CdSe aerogels to triethylamine (TEA) is investigated and compared to results from prior studies on single crystals and nanoparticle-polymer composites. As-prepared CdSe aerogels show significant and reversible enhancement of luminescence intensity upon exposure to TEA relative to the intensity in pure argon carrier gas. The enhancement in the PL response is dependent on the concentration and linear over the range of TEA concentration studied (4.7 x 10 3 -75 x 10 3 ppm). The sensing response of previously tested samples exhibits saturation behavior that is modeled using Langmuir adsorption isotherms, yielding adsorption equilibrium constants in the range 300-380 atm -1 . The response is sensitively affected by the surface characteristics of the aerogel; when the wet gels are treated with pyridine prior to aerogel formation, the response to TEA is diminished, and when as-prepared aerogels are heated in a vacuum, no subsequent response is observed. Deactivation is attributed to an increase in surface oxide (SeO 2 ) and decrease in surface Cd 2+ Lewis acid sites. Sensing runs of approximately one hour have little impact on the morphology or crystallinity of the aerogels, but do result in partial removal of residual thiolate ligands left over from the gelation process.

  11. Novel mechanical behaviors of wurtzite CdSe nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, Bing [Shanghai Normal University, Department of Physics (China); Chen, Li [MCPHS University, School of Arts and Sciences (United States); Xie, Yiqun; Feng, Jie; Ye, Xiang, E-mail: yexiang@shnu.edu.cn [Shanghai Normal University, Department of Physics (China)

    2015-09-15

    As an important semiconducting nanomaterial, CdSe nanowires have attracted much attention. Although many studies have been conducted in the electronic and optical properties of CdSe NWs, the mechanical properties of Wurtzite (WZ) CdSe nanowires remain unclear. Using molecular dynamics simulations, we have studied the tensile mechanical properties and behaviors of [0001]-oriented Wurtzite CdSe nanowires. By monitoring the stretching processes of CdSe nanowires, three distinct structures are found: the WZ wire, a body-centered tetragonal structure with four-atom rings (denoted as BCT-4), and a structure that consists of ten-atom rings with two four-atom rings (denoted as TAR-4) which is observed for the first time. Not only the elastic tensile characteristics are highly reversible under unloading, but a reverse transition between TAR-4 and BCT-4 is also observed. The stretching processes also have a strong dependence on temperature. A tubular structure similar to carbon nanotubes is observed at 150 K, a single-atom chain is formed at 300, 350 and 450 K, and a double-atom chain is found at 600 K. Our findings on tensile mechanical properties of WZ CdSe nanowires does not only provide inspiration to future study on other properties of CdSe nanomaterials but also help design and build efficient nanoscale devices.

  12. Assembly of CdSe onto mesoporous TiO{sub 2} films induced by a self-assembled monolayer for quantum dot-sensitized solar cell applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chong, Lai-Wan; Chien, Huei-Ting; Lee, Yuh-Lang [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, No. 1 University Road, Tainan 70101 (China)

    2010-08-01

    A self-assembled monolayer (SAM) of 3-mercaptopropyl-trimethyoxysilane (MPTMS) is pre-assembled onto a mesoporous TiO{sub 2} film and is used as a surface-modified layer to induce the growth of CdSe QDs in the successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) process. Due to the specific interaction of the terminal thiol groups to CdSe, the MPTMS SAM is found to increase the nucleation and growth rates of CdSe in the SILAR process, leading to a well covering and higher uniform CdSe layer which has a superior ability, compared with the electrode without MPTMS, in inhibiting the charge recombination at the electrode/electrolyte interface. Furthermore, the performance of the CdSe-sensitized TiO{sub 2} electrode can further be improved by an additional heat annealing after film deposition, attributable to a better interfacial connection between CdSe and TiO{sub 2}, as well as a better connection among CdSe QDs. The CdSe-sensitized solar cell prepared by the present strategy can achieve an energy conversion efficiency of 2.65% under the illumination of one sun (AM 1.5, 100 mW cm{sup -2}). (author)

  13. Effect of ligand self-assembly on nanostructure and carrier transport behaviour in CdSe quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Kuiying, E-mail: kuiyingli@ysu.edu.cn; Xue, Zhenjie

    2014-11-14

    Adjustment of the nanostructure and carrier behaviour of CdSe quantum dots (QDs) by varying the ligands used during QD synthesis enables the design of specific quantum devices via a self-assembly process of the QD core–shell structure without additional technologies. Surface photovoltaic (SPV) technology supplemented by X-ray diffractometry and infrared absorption spectroscopy were used to probe the characteristics of these QDs. Our study reveals that while CdSe QDs synthesized in the presence of and capped by thioglycolic acid, 3-mercaptopropionic acid, mercaptoethanol or α-thioglycerol ligands display zinc blende nanocrystalline structures, CdSe QDs modified by L-cysteine possess wurtzite nanocrystalline structures, because different end groups in these ligands induce distinctive nucleation and growth mechanisms. Carboxyl end groups in the ligand served to increase the SPV response of the QDs, when illuminated by hν ≥ E{sub g,nano-CdSe}. Increased length of the alkyl chains and side-chain radicals in the ligands partially inhibit photo-generated free charge carrier (FCC) transfer transitions of CdSe QDs illuminated by photon energy of 4.13 to 2.14 eV. The terminal hydroxyl group might better accommodate energy released in the non-radiative de-excitation process of photo-generated FCCs in the ligand's lowest unoccupied molecular orbital in the 300–580 nm wavelength region, when compared with other ligand end groups. - Highlights: • CdSe QDs modified by L-cysteine possess wurtzite nanocrystalline structures. • Carboxyl end groups in the ligand serve to increase the SPV response of CdSe QDs. • Terminal hydroxyl group in the ligand might accommodate non-radiative de-excitation process in CdSe QDs. • Increased length of the alkyl chains and side-chain radicals in the ligands partially inhibit carriers transport of CdSe QDs.

  14. Facile phase transfer of hydrophobic nanoparticles with poly(ethylene glycol) grafted hyperbranched poly(amido amine)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji Minglei; Yang Wuli; Ren Qingguang; Lu Daru

    2009-01-01

    In order to enhance the dispersion ability of hydrophobic nanoparticles in water while maintaining their unique properties, we utilized poly(ethylene glycol) grafted hyperbranched poly(amido amine) (h-PAMAM-g-PEG) to modify three types of hydrophobic nanoparticle, CdSe, Au, and Fe 3 O 4 , and transferred them into water to extend their applications in biology. Considering the large amounts of amino groups in hyperbranched poly(amido amine) (h-PAMAM) polymer, complexation interaction between h-PAMAM-g-PEG copolymer and nanoparticles was achieved and ligand exchange between the copolymers and original small molecules ligands occurred. The transferred nanoparticles could be easily dispersed in water with better stability, and their unique properties, such as fluorescence, surface plasmon resonance, and superparamagnetism, were well maintained in the ligand exchange process. In addition, increasing the number of grafted PEG showed a negative effect on the ligand exchange process. Due to the existence of h-PAMAM-g-PEG ligands, the stabilized nanoparticles have improved stability in aqueous and ionic solutions. In the case of CdSe nanoparticles, the h-PAMAM-g-PEG layer leads to a lower cytotoxicity when compared with bare CdSe particles, and they could be directly used in bioimaging.

  15. Reversible ultrafast melting in bulk CdSe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Wenzhi; He, Feng; Wang, Yaguo

    2016-01-01

    In this work, transient reflectivity changes in bulk CdSe have been measured with two-color femtosecond pump-probe spectroscopy under a wide range of pump fluences. Three regions of reflectivity change with pump fluences have been consistently revealed for excited carrier density, coherent phonon amplitude, and lattice temperature. For laser fluences from 13 to 19.3 mJ/cm 2 , ultrafast melting happens in first several picoseconds. This melting process is purely thermal and reversible. A complete phase transformation in bulk CdSe may be reached when the absorbed laser energy is localized long enough, as observed in nanocrystalline CdSe

  16. Annealing Effect on Photovoltaic Performance of CdSe Quantum-Dots-Sensitized TiO2 Nanorod Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yitan Li

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Large area rutile TiO2 nanorod arrays were grown on F:SnO2 (FTO conductive glass using a hydrothermal method at low temperature. CdSe quantum dots (QDs were deposited onto single-crystalline TiO2 nanorod arrays by a chemical bath deposition (CBD method to make a photoelectrode. The solar cell was assembled using a CdSe-TiO2 nanostructure as the photoanode and polysulfide solution as the electrolyte. The annealing effect on optical and photovoltaic properties of CdSe quantum-dots-sensitized TiO2 nanorod solar cells was studied systematically. A significant change of the morphology and a regular red shift of band gap of CdSe nanoparticles were observed after annealing treatment. At the same time, an improved photovoltaic performance was obtained for quantum-dots-sensitized solar cell using the annealed CdSe-TiO2 nanostructure electrode. The power conversion efficiency improved from 0.59% to 1.45% as a consequence of the annealing effect. This improvement can be explained by considering the changes in the morphology, the crystalline quality, and the optical properties caused by annealing treatment.

  17. Improved polymer thin-film wetting behavior through nanoparticle segregation to interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishnan, R S; Mackay, M E; Duxbury, P M; Hawker, C J; Asokan, Suba; Wong, Michael S; Goyette, Rick; Thiyagarajan, P

    2007-01-01

    We report a systematic study of improved wetting behavior for thin polymer films containing nanoparticles, as a function of nanoparticle size and concentration, the energy of the substrate and the dielectric properties of the nanoparticles. An enthalpy matched system consisting of polystyrene nanoparticles in linear polystyrene is used to show that nanoparticles are uniformly distributed in the film after spin coating and drying. However, on annealing the film above its bulk glass transition temperature these nanoparticles segregate strongly to the solid substrate. We find that for a wide range of film thicknesses and nanoparticle sizes, a substrate coverage of nanoparticles of approximately a monolayer is required for dewetting inhibition. Cadmium selenide quantum dots also inhibit dewetting of polystyrene thin films, again when a monolayer is present. Moreover, TEM microscopy images indicate that CdSe quantum dots segregate primarily to the air interface. Theoretical interpretation of these phenomena suggests that gain of linear chain configurational entropy promotes segregation of nanoparticles to the solid substrate, as occurs for polystyrene nanoparticles; however, for CdSe nanoparticles this is offset by surface energy or enthalpic terms which promote segregation of the nanoparticles to the air interface

  18. Structural and optical properties of nanocrystalline CdSe and Al:CdSe thin films for photoelectrochemical application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gawali, Sanjay A. [Electrochemical Materials Laboratory, Department of Physics, Shivaji University, Kolhapur - 416 004 (India); Bhosale, C.H., E-mail: bhosale_ch@yahoo.com [Electrochemical Materials Laboratory, Department of Physics, Shivaji University, Kolhapur - 416 004 (India)

    2011-10-03

    Highlights: {yields} The CdSe and Al:CdSe thin films have been successfully deposited by SPT. {yields} Hexagonal cubic structured CdSe and Al: CdSe thin films are observed. {yields} Large number of fine grains, Uniform and compact growth morphology. {yields} Hydrophilic surface nature. {yields} Al:CdSe have better PEC performance than CdSe. - Abstract: Nanocrystalline CdSe and Al:CdSe semiconductor thin films have been successfully synthesized onto amorphous and FTO glass substrates by spray pyrolysis technique. Aqueous solutions containing precursors of Cd and Se have been used to obtain good quality films. The optimized films have been characterized for their structural, morphological, wettability and optical properties. X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies show that the films are polycrystalline in nature with hexagonal crystal structure. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) studies show that the film surface is smooth, uniform and compact in nature. Water wettability study reveals that the films are hydrophilic behavior. The formation of CdSe and Al:CdSe thin film were confirmed with the help of FTIR spectroscopy. UV-vis spectrophotometric measurement showed a direct allowed band gap lying in the range 1.673-1.87 eV. Output characteristics were studied by using cell configuration n- CdSe/Al:CdSe |1 M (NaOH + Na{sub 2} + S)|C. An efficient solar cell having a power conversion efficiency of 0.38% at illumination 25 mW cm{sup -2} was fabricated.

  19. The influence of CdSe and ZnSe nanoparticles on the optical properties of Sm{sup 3+} ions in lead borate glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mallur, Saisudha B.; Heidorn, William D.; Fatokun, Stephen O.; Joshi, Krishna D.; Bista, Sandip S.; Babu, Panakkattu K., E-mail: PK-Babu@wiu.edu [Western Illinois University, Department of Physics (United States)

    2017-03-15

    The effect of glass composition and the presence of CdSe/ZnSe nanoparticles (NPs) on the optical absorption and fluorescence of Sm-doped lead borate glasses are studied. Three sets of glass samples xPbO:(99.5-x) B{sub 2}O{sub 3}:0.5Sm{sub 2}O{sub 3}, x = 29.5–69.5 mol%, xPbO:(96.5-x) B{sub 2}O{sub 3}:0.5Sm{sub 2}O{sub 3}: 3CdSe/ZnSe, x = 36.5, and 56.5 mol% are prepared. NPs are grown by annealing these glasses just below the glass transition temperature. Average size of both types of NPs increases with annealing time; however, CdSe NPs grew to a larger size range (2 to 20 nm) compared to ZnSe NPs (1 to 16 nm). We analyzed the hypersensitive transition, intensity parameters, radiative transition probability, stimulated emission cross section (σ{sub p}), and the area ratio of the electric dipole/magnetic dipole transitions of Sm{sup 3+}. The intensity parameters show a minimum at 11 h annealing for 36.5 mol% and a maximum for the same annealing duration in 56.5 mol% PbO containing CdSe NPs. The σ{sub p} for 56.5 mol% of PbO with CdSe NPs is found to be a maximum when the average NP size is around 14 nm. ZnSe NPs containing glasses also show significant changes in σ{sub p} when the average particle size is ~16 nm, for 36.5 mol% PbO. Our results suggest that the optical properties of Sm{sup 3+} in lead borate glasses are sensitive to its electronic environment which can be modified by varying the base glass composition and/or incorporating large NPs of CdSe/ZnSe. The large σ{sub p} values that we observe for some of the glass compositions make them attractive materials for photonic devices and photovoltaic applications.

  20. SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF CdSe COLLOIDAL QUANTUM DOTS IN ORGANIC SOLVENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Geru

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present experimental results on preparation and characterization of colloidal CdSe quantum dots in organic solvent. CdSe QDs were synthesized following a modified literature method. CdSe QDs were isolated by adding acetone to the cooled solution followed by centrifugation. CdSe QDs have been characterized by UV-Vis absorption and photoluminescent (PL spectroscopy. The average CdSe particles size estimated from the UV-Vis absorption spectra was found to be in the range 2.28-2.92 nm which is in good agreement with PL measurements.

  1. Annealing effects on the photoresponse properties of CdSe nanocrystal thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lou Shiyun; Zhou Changhua; Wang Hongzhe; Shen Huaibin; Cheng Gang; Du Zuliang; Zhou, Shaomin; Li Linsong

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → The as-prepared CdSe nanocrystal films were treated at 500 deg. C for 3 h under continuous N 2 . → Annealing process removed the organic capping completely and eliminated oxide on the CdSe surface. → Thermal annealing resulted the increase of the crystallite sizes and necking the NCs. → The photoresponse speed of the CdSe nanocrystal films was improved. - Abstract: The photoresponse properties of the as-prepared and annealed close-packed CdSe nanocrystal (NC) films were investigated under laser illumination by Kelvin probe force microscopy. The annealing process improved the photoresponse speed of the CdSe NC films. The work function of the annealed CdSe NC films changed more rapidly than that of the non-annealed film in air at room temperature. Combined with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements and thermogravimetric analysis, the observed phenomena can be interpreted that annealing process removed the organic capping agents completely and eliminated oxide on the CdSe surface, which formed the tunnel barrier between NCs in the CdSe NC films. Consequently, it improved the separation rate of photoelectric charges and thus provided high speed photoresponse.

  2. Formation and properties of epitaxial CdSe, ZnSe quantum dots. Conventional molecular beam epitaxy and related techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahapatra, Suddhasatta

    2008-01-16

    This thesis systematically investigates three such alternative approaches, along with conventional MBE, with emphasis on the formation-mechanism of QDs, and optimization of their morphological and optical attributes. it is shown here that no distinct 3D islands are formed in MBE growth of CdSe on ZnSe. While CdSe heteroepitaxy occurs in the multilayer-mode at T{sub G}=300 C, a reentrant recovery of the layer-by-layer mode is reported in this thesis, for growth at T{sub G}<{proportional_to}240 C. In the second variant technique, formation of large and distinct islands is demonstrated by deposition of amorphous selenium (a-Se) onto a 2D CdSe epilayer at room temperature and its subsequent desorption at a higher temperature (T{sub D}=230 C). The process steps of the third variant technique, developed in course of this work, are very similar to those of the previous one-the only alteration being the substitution of selenium with tellurium as the cap-forming-material. (orig.)

  3. Photoelectrochemical (PEC) studies on CdSe thin films ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    TECS

    Thin films of CdSe were deposited by potentiostatic mode on different substrates such as ... trodeposited from aqueous acidic baths, but very few ... washed with liquid detergent (labolene) followed by ul- .... increases the ionic mobilities and hence the conductivity ... A PEC cell of configuration, CdSe/1 M polysulphide/.

  4. Synthesis, optical characterization, and size distribution determination by curve resolution methods of water-soluble CdSe quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Calink Indiara do Livramento; Carvalho, Melissa Souza; Raphael, Ellen; Ferrari, Jefferson Luis; Schiavon, Marco Antonio, E-mail: schiavon@ufsj.edu.br [Universidade Federal de Sao Joao del-Rei (UFSJ), MG (Brazil). Grupo de Pesquisa em Quimica de Materiais; Dantas, Clecio [Universidade Estadual do Maranhao (LQCINMETRIA/UEMA), Caxias, MA (Brazil). Lab. de Quimica Computacional Inorganica e Quimiometria

    2016-11-15

    In this work a colloidal approach to synthesize water-soluble CdSe quantum dots (QDs) bearing a surface ligand, such as thioglycolic acid (TGA), 3-mercaptopropionic acid (MPA), glutathione (GSH), or thioglycerol (TGH) was applied. The synthesized material was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), UV-visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis), and fluorescence spectroscopy (PL). Additionally, a comparative study of the optical properties of different CdSe QDs was performed, demonstrating how the surface ligand affected crystal growth. The particles sizes were calculated from a polynomial function that correlates the particle size with the maximum fluorescence position. Curve resolution methods (EFA and MCR-ALS) were employed to decompose a series of fluorescence spectra to investigate the CdSe QDs size distribution and determine the number of fraction with different particle size. The results for the MPA-capped CdSe sample showed only two main fraction with different particle sizes with maximum emission at 642 and 686 nm. The calculated diameters from these maximum emission were, respectively, 2.74 and 3.05 nm. (author)

  5. Interferometric investigation and simulation of refractive index in glass matrixes containing nanoparticles of varying sizes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feeney, Michael Gerard; Ince, Rabia; Yukselici, Mehmet Hikmet; Allahverdi, Cagdas

    2011-07-01

    The relationship between refractive index and nanoparticle radii of cadmium selenide (CdSe) nanoparticles embedded within glass matrixes was investigated experimentally and by simulations. A homemade automated Michelson interferometer arrangement employing a rotating table and a He-Ne laser source at a wavelength of 632.8 nm determined the refractive index versus nanoparticle radii of embedded cadmium selenide (CdSe) nanoparticles. The refractive index was found to decrease linearly with nanoparticle radius increase. However, one sample showed a step increase in refractive index; on spectroscopic analysis, it was found that its resonant wavelength matched that of the He-Ne source wavelength. The simulations showed that two conditions caused the step increase in refractive index: low plasma frequency and matched sample and source resonances. This simple interferometer setup defines a new method of determining the radii of nanoparticles embedded in substrates and enables refractive index tailoring by modification of exact annealing conditions.

  6. Sulforaphane Protects the Liver against CdSe Quantum Dot-Induced Cytotoxicity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Wang

    Full Text Available The potential cytotoxicity of cadmium selenide (CdSe quantum dots (QDs presents a barrier to their use in biomedical imaging or as diagnostic and therapeutic agents. Sulforaphane (SFN is a chemoprotective compound derived from cruciferous vegetables which can up-regulate antioxidant enzymes and induce apoptosis and autophagy. This study reports the effects of SFN on CdSe QD-induced cytotoxicity in immortalised human hepatocytes and in the livers of mice. CdSe QDs induced dose-dependent cell death in hepatocytes with an IC50 = 20.4 μM. Pre-treatment with SFN (5 μM increased cell viability in response to CdSe QDs (20 μM from 49.5 to 89.3%. SFN induced a pro-oxidant effect characterized by depletion of intracellular reduced glutathione during short term exposure (3-6 h, followed by up-regulation of antioxidant enzymes and glutathione levels at 24 h. SFN also caused Nrf2 translocation into the nucleus, up-regulation of antioxidant enzymes and autophagy. siRNA knockdown of Nrf2 suggests that the Nrf2 pathway plays a role in the protection against CdSe QD-induced cell death. Wortmannin inhibition of SFN-induced autophagy significantly suppressed the protective effect of SFN on CdSe QD-induced cell death. Moreover, the role of autophagy in SFN protection against CdSe QD-induced cell death was confirmed using mouse embryonic fibroblasts lacking ATG5. CdSe QDs caused significant liver damage in mice, and this was decreased by SFN treatment. In conclusion, SFN attenuated the cytotoxicity of CdSe QDs in both human hepatocytes and in the mouse liver, and this protection was associated with the induction of Nrf2 pathway and autophagy.

  7. Electrochemical preparation of vertically aligned, hollow CdSe nanotubes and their p-n junction hybrids with electrodeposited Cu2O.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debgupta, Joyashish; Devarapalli, Ramireddy; Rahman, Shakeelur; Shelke, Manjusha V; Pillai, Vijayamohanan K

    2014-08-07

    Vertically aligned, hollow nanotubes of CdSe are grown on fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) coated glass substrates by ZnO nanowire template-assisted electrodeposition technique, followed by selective removal of the ZnO core using NH4OH. A detailed mechanism of nucleation and anisotropic growth kinetics of nanotubes have been studied by a combination of characterization tools such as chronoamperometry, SEM and TEM. Interestingly, "as grown" CdSe nanotubes (CdSe NTs) on FTO coated glass plates behave as n-type semiconductors exhibiting an excellent photo-response (with a generated photocurrent density value of ∼ 470 μA cm(-2)) while in contact with p-type Cu2O (p-type semiconductor, grown separately on FTO plates) because of the formation of a n-p heterojunction (type II). The observed photoresponse is 3 times higher than that of a similar device prepared with electrodeposited CdSe films (not nanotubes) and Cu2O on FTO. This has been attributed to the hollow 1-D nature of CdSe NTs, which provides enhanced inner and outer surface areas for better absorption of light and also assists faster transport of photogenerated charge carriers.

  8. Formation and properties of epitaxial CdSe, ZnSe quantum dots. Conventional molecular beam epitaxy and related techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahapatra, Suddhasatta

    2008-01-01

    This thesis systematically investigates three such alternative approaches, along with conventional MBE, with emphasis on the formation-mechanism of QDs, and optimization of their morphological and optical attributes. it is shown here that no distinct 3D islands are formed in MBE growth of CdSe on ZnSe. While CdSe heteroepitaxy occurs in the multilayer-mode at T G =300 C, a reentrant recovery of the layer-by-layer mode is reported in this thesis, for growth at T G D =230 C). The process steps of the third variant technique, developed in course of this work, are very similar to those of the previous one-the only alteration being the substitution of selenium with tellurium as the cap-forming-material. (orig.)

  9. Controlled growth of high-density CdS and CdSe nanorod arrays on selective facets of two-dimensional semiconductor nanoplates

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Xue-Jun

    2016-03-14

    The rational synthesis of hierarchical three-dimensional nanostructures with specific compositions, morphologies and functionalities is important for applications in a variety of fields ranging from energy conversion and electronics to biotechnology. Here, we report a seeded growth approach for the controlled epitaxial growth of three types of hierarchical one-dimensional (1D)/two-dimensional (2D) nanostructures, where nanorod arrays of II-VI semiconductor CdS or CdSe are grown on the selective facets of hexagonal-shaped nanoplates, either on the two basal facets of the nanoplate, or on one basal facet, or on the two basal facets and six side facets. The seed engineering of 2D hexagonal-shaped nanoplates is the key factor for growth of the three resulting types of 1D/2D nanostructures. The wurtzite- and zinc-blende-type polymorphs of semiconductors are used to determine the facet-selective epitaxial growth of 1D nanorod arrays, resulting in the formation of different hierarchical three-dimensional (3D) nanostructures. © 2016 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  10. L-Cysteine Capped CdSe Quantum Dots Synthesized by Photochemical Route.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Avinash; Kunwar, Amit; Rath, M C

    2018-05-01

    L-cysteine capped CdSe quantum dots were synthesized via photochemical route in aqueous solution under UV photo-irradiation. The as grown CdSe quantum dots exhibit broad fluorescence at room temperature. The CdSe quantum dots were found to be formed only through the reactions of the precursors, i.e., Cd(NH3)2+4 and SeSO2-3 with the photochemically generated 1-hydroxy-2-propyl radicals, (CH3)2COH radicals, which are formed through the process of H atom abstraction by the photoexcited acetone from 2-propanol. L-Cysteine was found to act as a suitable capping agent for the CdSe quantum dots and increases their biocompatability. Cytotoxicty effects of these quantum dots were evaluated in Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) epithelial cells, indicated a significant lower level for the L-cysteine capped CdSe quantum dots as compare to the bare ones.

  11. Electrical and optical properties of spray - deposited CdSe thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bedir, M.; Oeztas, M.; Bakkaloglu, O. F.

    2002-01-01

    The CdSe thin films were developed by using spray-deposition technique at different substrate temperatures of 380C, 400C and, 420C on the glass substrate. All spraying processes involved CdCI 2 (0.05 moles/liter) and SeO 2 (0.05 moles/liter ) and were carried out in atmospheric condition. The CdSe thin film samples were characterized using x-ray diffractometer and optical absorption measurements. The electrical properties of the thin film samples were investigated via Wander Pauw method. XRD patterns indicated that the CdSe thin film samples have a hexagonal structure. The direct band gap of the CdSe thin film samples were determined from optical absorption and spectral response measurements of 1.76 eV. The resistivity of the CdSe thin film samples were found to vary in the range from 5.8x10''5 to 7.32x10''5 Ωcm depending to the substrate temperature

  12. Carrier transport dynamics in Mn-doped CdSe quantum dot sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poudyal, Uma; Maloney, Francis S.; Sapkota, Keshab; Wang, Wenyong

    2017-10-01

    In this work quantum dot sensitized solar cells (QDSSCs) were fabricated with CdSe and Mn-doped CdSe quantum dots (QDs) using the SILAR method. QDSSCs based on Mn-doped CdSe QDs exhibited improved incident photon-to-electron conversion efficiency. Carrier transport dynamics in the QDSSCs were studied using the intensity modulated photocurrent/photovoltage spectroscopy technique, from which transport and recombination time constants could be derived. Compared to CdSe QDSSCs, Mn-CdSe QDSSCs exhibited shorter transport time constant, longer recombination time constant, longer diffusion length, and higher charge collection efficiency. These observations suggested that Mn doping in CdSe QDs could benefit the performance of solar cells based on such nanostructures.

  13. Charge separation and transfer in hybrid type II tunneling structures of CdTe and CdSe nanocrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gross, Dieter Konrad Michael

    2013-11-08

    Closely packed nanocrystal systems have been investigated in this thesis with respect to charge separation by charge carrier tunneling. Clustered and layered samples have been analyzed using PL-measurements and SPV-methods. The most important findings are reviewed in the following. A short outlook is also provided for potential further aspects and application of the presented results. The main purpose of this thesis was to find and quantify electronic tunneling transfer in closely packed self-assembled nanocrystal structures presenting quantum mechanical barriers of about 1 nm width. We successfully used hybrid assemblies of CdTe and CdSe nanocrystals where the expected type II alignment between CdTe and CdSe typically leads to a concentration of electrons in CdSe and holes in CdTe nanocrystals. We were able to prove the charge selectivity of the CdTe-CdSe nanocrystal interface which induces charge separation. We mainly investigated the effects related to the electron transfer from CdTe to CdSe nanocrystals. Closely packing was achieved by two independent methods: the disordered colloidal clustering in solution and the layered assembly on dry glass substrates. Both methods lead to an inter-particle distance of about 1 nm of mainly organic material which acts as a tunneling barrier. PL-spectroscopy was applied. The PL-quenching of the CdTe nanocrystals in hybrid assemblies indicates charge separation by electron transfer from CdTe to CdSe nanocrystals. A maximum quenching rate of up to 1/100 ps was measured leading to a significant global PL-quenching of up to about 70 % for the CdTe nanocrystals. It was shown that charge separation dynamics compete with energy transfer dynamics and that charge separation typically dominates. The quantum confinement effect was used to tune the energetic offset between the CdTe and CdSe nanocrystals. We thus observe a correlation of PL-quenching and offset of the energy states for the electron transfer. The investigated PL

  14. Charge separation and transfer in hybrid type II tunneling structures of CdTe and CdSe nanocrystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gross, Dieter Konrad Michael

    2013-01-01

    Closely packed nanocrystal systems have been investigated in this thesis with respect to charge separation by charge carrier tunneling. Clustered and layered samples have been analyzed using PL-measurements and SPV-methods. The most important findings are reviewed in the following. A short outlook is also provided for potential further aspects and application of the presented results. The main purpose of this thesis was to find and quantify electronic tunneling transfer in closely packed self-assembled nanocrystal structures presenting quantum mechanical barriers of about 1 nm width. We successfully used hybrid assemblies of CdTe and CdSe nanocrystals where the expected type II alignment between CdTe and CdSe typically leads to a concentration of electrons in CdSe and holes in CdTe nanocrystals. We were able to prove the charge selectivity of the CdTe-CdSe nanocrystal interface which induces charge separation. We mainly investigated the effects related to the electron transfer from CdTe to CdSe nanocrystals. Closely packing was achieved by two independent methods: the disordered colloidal clustering in solution and the layered assembly on dry glass substrates. Both methods lead to an inter-particle distance of about 1 nm of mainly organic material which acts as a tunneling barrier. PL-spectroscopy was applied. The PL-quenching of the CdTe nanocrystals in hybrid assemblies indicates charge separation by electron transfer from CdTe to CdSe nanocrystals. A maximum quenching rate of up to 1/100 ps was measured leading to a significant global PL-quenching of up to about 70 % for the CdTe nanocrystals. It was shown that charge separation dynamics compete with energy transfer dynamics and that charge separation typically dominates. The quantum confinement effect was used to tune the energetic offset between the CdTe and CdSe nanocrystals. We thus observe a correlation of PL-quenching and offset of the energy states for the electron transfer. The investigated PL

  15. Effects of Fe nanoparticles on bacterial growth and biosurfactant production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jia; Vipulanandan, Cumaraswamy; Cooper, Tim F.; Vipulanandan, Geethanjali

    2013-01-01

    Environmental conditions can have a major impact on bacterial growth and production of secondary products. In this study, the effect of different concentrations of Fe nanoparticles on the growth of Serratia sp. and on its production of a specific biosurfactant was investigated. The Fe nanoparticles were produced using the foam method, and the needle-shaped nanoparticles were about 30 nm in diameter. It was found that Fe nanoparticles can have either a positive or a negative impact on the bacterial growth and biosurfactant production, depending on their concentration. At 1 mg/L of Fe nanoparticle concentration the bacterial growth increased by 57 % and biosurfactant production increased by 63 %. When the Fe nanoparticle concentration was increased to 1 g/L, the bacterial growth decreased by 77 % and biosurfactant activity was undetectable. The biosurfactant itself was not directly affected by Fe nanoparticles over the range of concentrations studied, indicating that the observed changes in biosurfactant activity resulted indirectly from the effect of nanoparticles on the bacteria. These negative effects with nanoparticle exposures were temporary, demonstrated by the restoration of biosurfactant activity when the bacteria initially exposed to Fe nanoparticles were allowed to regrow in the absence of nanoparticles. Finally, the kinetics of bacterial growth and biosurfactant production were modeled. The model's predictions agreed with the experimental results.

  16. NETWORKS OF NANOPARTICLES IN ORGANIC – INORGANIC COMPOSITES: ALGORITHMIC EXTRACTION AND STATISTICAL ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralf Thiedmann

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The rising global demand in energy and the limited resources in fossil fuels require new technologies in renewable energies like solar cells. Silicon solar cells offer a good efficiency but suffer from high production costs. A promising alternative are polymer solar cells, due to potentially low production costs and high flexibility of the panels. In this paper, the nanostructure of organic–inorganic composites is investigated, which can be used as photoactive layers in hybrid–polymer solar cells. These materials consist of a polymeric (OC1C10-PPV phase with CdSe nanoparticles embedded therein. On the basis of 3D image data with high spatial resolution, gained by electron tomography, an algorithm is developed to automatically extract the CdSe nanoparticles from grayscale images, where we assume them as spheres. The algorithm is based on a modified version of the Hough transform, where a watershed algorithm is used to separate the image data into basins such that each basin contains exactly one nanoparticle. After their extraction, neighboring nanoparticles are connected to form a 3D network that is related to the transport of electrons in polymer solar cells. A detailed statistical analysis of the CdSe network morphology is accomplished, which allows deeper insight into the hopping percolation pathways of electrons.

  17. Optics of colloidal quantum-confined CdSe nanoscrolls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasiliev, R B; Sokolikova, M S [M. V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow (Russian Federation); Vitukhnovskii, A G; Ambrozevich, S A; Selyukov, A S; Lebedev, V S [P N Lebedev Physics Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2015-09-30

    Nanostructures in the form of 1.2-nm-thick colloidal CdSe nanoplatelets rolled into scrolls are investigated. The morphology of these scrolls is analysed and their basic geometric parameters are determined (diameter 29 nm, longitudinal size 100 – 150 nm) by TEM microscopy. Absorption and photoluminescence spectra of these objects are recorded, and the luminescence decay kinetics is studied. It is shown that the optical properties of CdSe nanoscrolls differ significantly from the properties of CdSe quantum dots and that these nanoscrolls are attractive for nanophotonic devices due to large oscillator strengths of the transition, small widths of excitonic peaks and short luminescence decay times. Nanoscrolls can be used to design hybrid organic–inorganic pure-color LEDs with a high luminescence quantum yield and low operating voltages. (optics and technology of nanostructures)

  18. Chip-based magnetic solid phase microextraction coupled with ICP-MS for the determination of Cd and Se in HepG2 cells incubated with CdSe quantum dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiaoxiao; Chen, Beibei; He, Man; Wang, Han; Hu, Bin

    2018-03-01

    The quantification of trace Cd and Se in cells incubated with CdSe quantum dots (QDs) is critical to investigate the cytotoxicity of CdSe QDs. In this work, a miniaturized platform, namely chip-based magnetic solid phase microextraction (MSPME) packing with sulfhydryl group functionalized magnetic nanoparticles, was fabricated and combined with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) for the determination of trace Cd and Se in cells. Under the optimized conditions, the limits of detection (LOD) of the developed chip-based MSPME-ICP-MS system are 2.2 and 21ngL -1 for Cd and Se, respectively. The proposed method is applied successfully to the analysis of total and released small molecular fraction of Cd and Se in Human hepatocellular carcinoma cells (HepG2 cells) incubated with CdSe QDs, and the recoveries for the spiked samples are in the range of 86.0-109%. This method shows great promise to analyze cell samples and the obtained results are instructive to explore the cytotoxicity mechanism of CdSe QDs in cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Effects of Fe nanoparticles on bacterial growth and biosurfactant production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Jia; Vipulanandan, Cumaraswamy, E-mail: cvipulanandan@uh.edu [University of Houston, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering (United States); Cooper, Tim F. [University of Houston, Department of Biology and Biochemistry (United States); Vipulanandan, Geethanjali [University of Houston, Department of Biomedical Engineering (United States)

    2013-01-15

    Environmental conditions can have a major impact on bacterial growth and production of secondary products. In this study, the effect of different concentrations of Fe nanoparticles on the growth of Serratia sp. and on its production of a specific biosurfactant was investigated. The Fe nanoparticles were produced using the foam method, and the needle-shaped nanoparticles were about 30 nm in diameter. It was found that Fe nanoparticles can have either a positive or a negative impact on the bacterial growth and biosurfactant production, depending on their concentration. At 1 mg/L of Fe nanoparticle concentration the bacterial growth increased by 57 % and biosurfactant production increased by 63 %. When the Fe nanoparticle concentration was increased to 1 g/L, the bacterial growth decreased by 77 % and biosurfactant activity was undetectable. The biosurfactant itself was not directly affected by Fe nanoparticles over the range of concentrations studied, indicating that the observed changes in biosurfactant activity resulted indirectly from the effect of nanoparticles on the bacteria. These negative effects with nanoparticle exposures were temporary, demonstrated by the restoration of biosurfactant activity when the bacteria initially exposed to Fe nanoparticles were allowed to regrow in the absence of nanoparticles. Finally, the kinetics of bacterial growth and biosurfactant production were modeled. The model's predictions agreed with the experimental results.

  20. Effects of Fe nanoparticles on bacterial growth and biosurfactant production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Jia; Vipulanandan, Cumaraswamy; Cooper, Tim F.; Vipulanandan, Geethanjali

    2013-01-01

    Environmental conditions can have a major impact on bacterial growth and production of secondary products. In this study, the effect of different concentrations of Fe nanoparticles on the growth of Serratia sp. and on its production of a specific biosurfactant was investigated. The Fe nanoparticles were produced using the foam method, and the needle-shaped nanoparticles were about 30 nm in diameter. It was found that Fe nanoparticles can have either a positive or a negative impact on the bacterial growth and biosurfactant production, depending on their concentration. At 1 mg/L of Fe nanoparticle concentration the bacterial growth increased by 57 % and biosurfactant production increased by 63 %. When the Fe nanoparticle concentration was increased to 1 g/L, the bacterial growth decreased by 77 % and biosurfactant activity was undetectable. The biosurfactant itself was not directly affected by Fe nanoparticles over the range of concentrations studied, indicating that the observed changes in biosurfactant activity resulted indirectly from the effect of nanoparticles on the bacteria. These negative effects with nanoparticle exposures were temporary, demonstrated by the restoration of biosurfactant activity when the bacteria initially exposed to Fe nanoparticles were allowed to regrow in the absence of nanoparticles. Finally, the kinetics of bacterial growth and biosurfactant production were modeled. The model’s predictions agreed with the experimental results.

  1. Stability studies of CdSe nanocrystals in an aqueous environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xi, Lifei; Lek, Jun Yan; Liang, Yen Nan

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, CdSe nanocrystal dissolution in an aqueous solution was studied. It was found that light is a key factor affecting the dissolution of nanocrystals. In the presence of light, the electrons generated from CdSe nanocrystals reduce water to hydrogen and hydroxide ions (OH − ) while photo......-generated holes oxidize CdSe to Cd2 + and elemental Se. The dissolution was accelerated in an acidic medium while moderate alkalinity (pH = 10.3) can slow down the dissolution possibly due to precipitation of nanocrystals. This study has strong implications for the use of these crystals in aqueous environments...

  2. Electrochemiluminescence Biosensor Based on Thioglycolic Acid-Capped CdSe QDs for Sensing Glucose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun-Young Jung

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to detect low level glucose concentration, an electrochemiluminescence (ECL biosensor based on TGA-capped CdSe quantum dots (QDs was fabricated by the immobilization of CdSe QDs after modifying the surface of a glassy carbon electrode (GCE with 4-aminothiophenol diazonium salts by the electrochemical method. For the detection of glucose concentration, glucose oxidase (GOD was immobilized onto the fabricated CdSe QDs-modified electrode. The fabricated ECL biosensor based on TGA-capped CdSe QDs was characterized using a scanning electron microscope (SEM, UV-vis spectrophotometry, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, a fluorescence spectrometer (PL, and cyclic voltammetry (CV. The fabricated ECL biosensor based on TGA-capped CdSe QDs is suitable for the detection of glucose concentrations in real human blood samples.

  3. Influences of CdSe NCs on the photovoltaic parameters of BHJ organic solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ongul, Fatih; Yuksel, Sureyya Aydin; Allahverdi, Cagdas; Bozar, Sinem; Kazici, Mehmet; Gunes, Serap

    2018-04-01

    In this study, the high quality CdSe nanocrystals (NCs) capped with stearic acid were synthesized in a solvent and then purified four times by using the precipitation and redissolution process. The average size of the synthesized CdSe NCs was determined 3.0 nm via transmission electron microscopy (TEM) measurement and their corresponding optical band edge energy was also calculated as 2.1 eV using ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) absorption spectroscopy. The bulk heterojunction (BHJ) hybrid solar cells based on a ternary system including P3HT, PCBM and CdSe NCs at different weight concentrations (0 wt%, 0.1 wt%, 0.5 wt%, 1 wt% and 2 wt%) were fabricated by spin-casting process. The effect of the concentration of CdSe NCs on the photovoltaic parameters of these BHJ organic solar cells was investigated. The surface morphology of the photoactive layer modified by the incorporation of CdSe NCs into P3HT:PCBM matrix was observed with scanning electron microscopy (SEM). It was shown that when the concentration of CdSe NCs increases above 0.1 wt% in this ternary system, the photovoltaic performance of the devices significantly decreases. The power conversion efficiency of the organic photovoltaic (OPV) device was enhanced 20% by incorporating CdSe NCs with 0.1 wt% with respect to those without CdSe NCs.

  4. Controlling the magic and normal sizes of white CdSe quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yu-Sheng; Chung, Shu-Ru

    2017-08-01

    In this study, we have demonstrated a facile chemical route to prepare CdSe QDs with white light emission, and the performance of white CdSe-based white light emitting diode (WLED) is also exploded. An organic oleic acid (OA) is used to form Cd-OA complex first and hexadecylamine (HDA) and 1-octadecene (ODE) is used as surfactants. Meanwhile, by varying the reaction time from 1 s to 60 min, CdSe QDs with white light can be obtained. The result shows that the luminescence spectra compose two obvious emission peaks and entire visible light from 400 to 700 nm, when the reaction time less than 10 min. The wide emission wavelength combine two particle sizes of CdSe, magic and normal, and the magic-CdSe has band-edge and surface-state emission, while normal size only possess band-edge emission. The TEM characterization shows that the two different sizes with diameter of 1.5 nm and 2.7 nm for magic and normal size CdSe QDs can be obtained when the reaction time is 4 min. We can find that the magic size of CdSe is produced when the reaction time is less than 3 min. In the time ranges from 3 to 10 min, two sizes of CdSe QDs are formed, and with QY from 20 to 60 %. Prolong the reaction time to 60 min, only normal size of CdSe QD can be observed due to the Ostwald repining, and its QYs is 8 %. Based on the results we can conclude that the two emission peaks are generated from the coexistence of magic size and normal size CdSe to form the white light QDs, and the QY and emission wavelength of CdSe QDs can be increased with prolonging reaction time. The sample reacts for 2 (QY 30 %), 4 (QY 32 %) and 60 min (QY 8 %) are choosing to mixes with transparent acrylic-based UV curable resin for WLED fabrication. The Commission International d'Eclairage (CIE) chromaticity, color rendering index (CRI), and luminous efficacy for magic, mix, and normal size CdSe are (0.49, 0.44), 81, 1.5 lm/W, (0.35, 0.30), 86, 1.9 lm/W, and (0.39, 0.25), 40, 0.3 lm/W, respectively.

  5. Stability studies of CdSe nanocrystals in an aqueous environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xi Lifei; Lek, Jun Yan; Liang, Yen Nan; Zhou Wenwen; Yan Qingyu; Hu Xiao; Chiang, Freddy Boey Yin; Lam, Yeng Ming [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Nanyang Avenue, 639798 (Singapore); Boothroyd, Chris, E-mail: ymlam@ntu.edu.sg [Center for Electron Nanoscopy, Technical University of Denmark, DK-2800 Kongens Lyngby (Denmark)

    2011-07-08

    In this paper, CdSe nanocrystal dissolution in an aqueous solution was studied. It was found that light is a key factor affecting the dissolution of nanocrystals. In the presence of light, the electrons generated from CdSe nanocrystals reduce water to hydrogen and hydroxide ions (OH{sup -}) while photo-generated holes oxidize CdSe to Cd{sup 2+} and elemental Se. The dissolution was accelerated in an acidic medium while moderate alkalinity (pH = 10.3) can slow down the dissolution possibly due to precipitation of nanocrystals. This study has strong implications for the use of these crystals in aqueous environments (bioimaging and dye-sensitized solar cells).

  6. On the growth of atmospheric nanoparticles by organic vapors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yli-Juuti, T.

    2013-09-01

    Atmospheric aerosol particles affect the visibility, damage human health and influence the Earth's climate by scattering and absorbing radiation and acting as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN). Considerable uncertainties are associated with the estimates of aerosol climatic effects and the extent of these effects depends on the particles size, composition, concentration and location in the atmosphere. Improved knowledge on the processes affecting these properties is of great importance in predicting future climate. Significant fraction of the atmospheric aerosol particles are formed in the atmosphere from trace gases through a phase change, i.e. nucleation. The freshly nucleated secondary aerosol particles are about a nanometer in diameter, and they need to grow tens of nanometers by condensation of vapors before they affect the climate. During the growth, the nanoparticles are subject to coagulational losses, and their survival to CCN sizes is greatly dependent on their growth rate. Therefore, capturing the nanoparticle growth correctly is crucial for representing aerosol effects in climate models. A large fraction of nanoparticle growth in many environments is expected to be due to organic compounds. However a full identification of the compounds and processes involved in the growth is lacking to date. In this thesis the variability in atmospheric nanoparticle growth rates with particle size and ambient conditions was studied based on observations at two locations, a boreal forest and a Central European rural site. The importance of various organic vapor uptake mechanisms and particle phase processes was evaluated, and two nanoparticle growth models were developed to study the effect of acid-base chemistry in the uptake of organic compounds by nanoparticles. Further, the effect of inorganic solutes on the partitioning of organic aerosol constituents between gas and particle phase was studied based on laboratory experiments. Observations of the atmospheric

  7. Chemical bath deposition of Hg doped CdSe thin films and their characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhuse, V.M.

    2005-01-01

    The deliberate addition of Hg in CdSe thin film have been carried out using a simple, modified, chemical bath deposition technique with the objective to study the effect of Hg doping on properties of CdSe thin films. Synthesis was initiated at 278 K temperature using complexed cadmium sulphate, mercuric nitrate and sodium selenosulphate in an aqueous ammonical medium at pH 10. Films were characterized by XRD, SEM, optical absorption, electrical and thermoelectric techniques. The 'as deposited' films were uniform, well adherent, nearly stoichiometric and polycrystalline in a single cubic phase (zinc blende). Crystallite size determined from XRD and SEM was found to increase slightly with addition of Hg. The optical band gap of CdSe remains constant upto 0.05 mol% Hg doping, while it decreases monotonically with further increase in mercury content. Dark dc electrical resistivity and conduction activation energy of CdSe were found to decrease initially upto 0.05 mol% of Hg, thereafter increased for higher values of Hg but remains less than those of CdSe. All the films showed n-type of conductivity. A CdSe film containing 0.05 mol% of Hg showed higher absorption coefficient, and conductivity

  8. Influences of CdSe NCs on the photovoltaic parameters of BHJ organic solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ongul, Fatih; Yuksel, Sureyya Aydin; Allahverdi, Cagdas; Bozar, Sinem; Kazici, Mehmet; Gunes, Serap

    2018-04-05

    In this study, the high quality CdSe nanocrystals (NCs) capped with stearic acid were synthesized in a solvent and then purified four times by using the precipitation and redissolution process. The average size of the synthesized CdSe NCs was determined ~3.0nm via transmission electron microscopy (TEM) measurement and their corresponding optical band edge energy was also calculated as ~2.1eV using ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) absorption spectroscopy. The bulk heterojunction (BHJ) hybrid solar cells based on a ternary system including P3HT, PCBM and CdSe NCs at different weight concentrations (0wt%, 0.1wt%, 0.5wt%, 1wt% and 2wt%) were fabricated by spin-casting process. The effect of the concentration of CdSe NCs on the photovoltaic parameters of these BHJ organic solar cells was investigated. The surface morphology of the photoactive layer modified by the incorporation of CdSe NCs into P3HT:PCBM matrix was observed with scanning electron microscopy (SEM). It was shown that when the concentration of CdSe NCs increases above 0.1wt% in this ternary system, the photovoltaic performance of the devices significantly decreases. The power conversion efficiency of the organic photovoltaic (OPV) device was enhanced ~20% by incorporating CdSe NCs with 0.1wt% with respect to those without CdSe NCs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Loading of atorvastatin and linezolid in β-cyclodextrin–conjugated cadmium selenide/silica nanoparticles: A spectroscopic study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antony, Eva Janet; Shibu, Abhishek [Department of Nanosciences & Technology, Karunya University, Coimbatore 641114, Tamil Nadu (India); Ramasamy, Sivaraj; Paulraj, Mosae Selvakumar [Department of Chemistry, Karunya University, Coimbatore 641114, Tamil Nadu (India); Enoch, Israel V.M.V., E-mail: drisraelenoch@gmail.com [Department of Nanosciences & Technology, Karunya University, Coimbatore 641114, Tamil Nadu (India); Department of Chemistry, Karunya University, Coimbatore 641114, Tamil Nadu (India)

    2016-08-01

    The preparation of β–cyclodextrin–conjugated cadmium selenide–silica nanoparticles, the loading of two drugs viz., Atorvastatin and linezolid in the cyclodextrin cavity, and the fluorescence energy transfer between CdSe/SiO{sub 2} nanoparticles and the drugs encapsulated in the cyclodextrin cavity are reported in this paper. IR spectroscopy, X-ray diffractometry, transmission electron microscopy, and particle size analysis by light–scattering experiment were used as the tools of characterizing the size and the crystal system of the nanoparticles. The nanoparticles fall under hexagonal system. The silica–shell containing CdSe nanoparticles were functionalized by reaction with aminoethylamino–β–cyclodextrin. Fluorescence spectra of the nanoparticles in their free and drug–encapsulated forms were studied. The FÖrster distances between the encapsulated drugs and the CdSe nanoparticles are below 3 nm. The change in the FÖrster resonance energy parameters under physiological conditions may aid in tracking the release of drugs from the cavity of the cyclodextrin. - Highlights: • CdSe/SiO{sub 2} nanoparticles of crystallite size 15 nm are prepared. • β-Cyclodextrin is attached to the surface of the nanoparticles. • Atorvastatin and linezolid get encapsulated in the cyclodextrin cavity. • FRET efficiency between the nanoparticles and the loaded drugs are determined.

  10. Loading of atorvastatin and linezolid in β-cyclodextrin–conjugated cadmium selenide/silica nanoparticles: A spectroscopic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antony, Eva Janet; Shibu, Abhishek; Ramasamy, Sivaraj; Paulraj, Mosae Selvakumar; Enoch, Israel V.M.V.

    2016-01-01

    The preparation of β–cyclodextrin–conjugated cadmium selenide–silica nanoparticles, the loading of two drugs viz., Atorvastatin and linezolid in the cyclodextrin cavity, and the fluorescence energy transfer between CdSe/SiO_2 nanoparticles and the drugs encapsulated in the cyclodextrin cavity are reported in this paper. IR spectroscopy, X-ray diffractometry, transmission electron microscopy, and particle size analysis by light–scattering experiment were used as the tools of characterizing the size and the crystal system of the nanoparticles. The nanoparticles fall under hexagonal system. The silica–shell containing CdSe nanoparticles were functionalized by reaction with aminoethylamino–β–cyclodextrin. Fluorescence spectra of the nanoparticles in their free and drug–encapsulated forms were studied. The FÖrster distances between the encapsulated drugs and the CdSe nanoparticles are below 3 nm. The change in the FÖrster resonance energy parameters under physiological conditions may aid in tracking the release of drugs from the cavity of the cyclodextrin. - Highlights: • CdSe/SiO_2 nanoparticles of crystallite size 15 nm are prepared. • β-Cyclodextrin is attached to the surface of the nanoparticles. • Atorvastatin and linezolid get encapsulated in the cyclodextrin cavity. • FRET efficiency between the nanoparticles and the loaded drugs are determined.

  11. Composition and performance of thin film CdSe electrodeposited from selenosulfite solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szabo, J.P.; Simms, D.; Cocivera, M.

    1985-01-01

    Cathodic electrodeposition of thin film CdSe from aqueous selenosulfite solution has been studied as function of solution composition and electrode potential. The Cd/Se ratio has been analyzed using polarography and Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy. Polarography gives a compostion averaged over the whole film (2cm 2 ) while RBS gives local surface composition (1 mm 2 ). The average Cd/Se ratio is 1.1, but some variation was found to occur across the surface of film (0.82 to 1.2)

  12. Molecular beam epitaxy of CdSe epilayers and quantum wells on ZnTe substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Y.M.; Andre, R.; Kasprzak, J.; Dang, Le Si; Bellet-Amalric, E.

    2007-01-01

    We have grown zinc-blende cadmium selenide (CdSe) epilayers on ZnTe-(0 0 1) substrate by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). By controlling the substrate temperature and beam-equivalent pressure (BEP) ratio, of Se to Cd, we determined the most suitable growth condition based on reflection high-energy electron diffraction (RHEED) pattern. At a substrate temperature of 280 deg. C and a BEP ratio of 3.6, the RHEED pattern showed a V-like feature, indicating a rough surface with facets. As the substrate temperature was increased to 360 deg. C at the same BEP ratio, a V-like RHEED pattern moved to a clear streaky pattern. Moreover when the BEP ratio was increased to 4.8 at 360 deg. C of substrate temperature, a clear (2 x 1) reconstruction of the CdSe layer was observed. A CdSe/CdMgSe single quantum well structure was also grown on ZnTe-(0 0 1) substrate by MBE. The RHEED pattern showed a clear (2 x 1) surface reconstruction during the growth. By photoluminescence measurement, a good optical property of the structure was obtained

  13. Monte Carlo simulation of asymmetrical growth of cube-shaped nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yuanyuan; Xie Huaqing; Wu Zihua; Xing Jiaojiao

    2016-01-01

    We simulated the asymmetrical growth of cube-shaped nanoparticles by applying the Monte Carlo method. The influence of the specific mechanisms on the crystal growth of nanoparticles has been phenomenologically described by efficient growth possibilities along different directions (or crystal faces). The roles of the thermodynamic and kinetic factors have been evaluated in three phenomenological models. The simulation results would benefit the understanding about the cause and manner of the asymmetrical growth of nanoparticles. (paper)

  14. Photoinduced interaction of CdSe quantum dot with coumarins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Kemary, Maged, E-mail: elkemary@sci.kfs.edu.eg [Nanotechnology Center, Faculty of Science, Kafrelsheikh University, 33516 Kafrelsheikh (Egypt); Gaber, Mohamed; El-Sayed, Y.S. [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, University of Tanta, Tanta (Egypt); Gheat, Youssef [Nanotechnology Center, Faculty of Science, Kafrelsheikh University, 33516 Kafrelsheikh (Egypt); Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, University of Tanta, Tanta (Egypt)

    2015-03-15

    Cadmium selenide (CdSe) quantum dots (QDs) were synthesized with a cubic shape having a diameter of ∼5.24 nm. The prepared CdSe QDs were characterized by using UV–visible, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) measurements. The UV–visible absorption spectra indicate that the optical band gap of CdSe QDs is ∼622 nm and the peak shift can mainly be due to the quantum size effects. The fluorescence decay kinetics for the synthesized QDs was followed by time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy, and the spectra were analyzed in regard to a bi-exponential model to identify two lifetime values, that is, shorter-lifetime 1.37 ns (55%) and longer-lifetime 6.58 ns (45%). The interaction of coumarin 152 (C152) and coumarin 153 (C153) with QDs surface brings about further considerable changes in the absorption and fluorescence patterns. The calculated binding constant from fluorescence quenching method matches well with that determined from the absorption spectral changes. The static quenching mechanism was confirmed by large magnitude of K{sub SV} and unaltered fluorescence lifetime. - Highlights: • CdSe QDs were synthesized with a cubic shape having a diameter of ∼5.24 nm. • The UV–visible absorption spectra indicate that the optical band gap of CdSe QDs is ∼622 nm. • Picosecond fluorescence measurements of the QDs suggest bi-exponential function. • The calculated binding constant from fluorescence quenching method matches well with that determined from the absorption spectral changes. • The static quenching mechanism was confirmed by large magnitude of K{sub SV} and unaltered fluorescence lifetime.

  15. Resolving nanoparticle growth mechanisms from size- and time-dependent growth rate analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichelstorfer, Lukas; Stolzenburg, Dominik; Ortega, John; Karl, Thomas; Kokkola, Harri; Laakso, Anton; Lehtinen, Kari E. J.; Smith, James N.; McMurry, Peter H.; Winkler, Paul M.

    2018-01-01

    Atmospheric new particle formation occurs frequently in the global atmosphere and may play a crucial role in climate by affecting cloud properties. The relevance of newly formed nanoparticles depends largely on the dynamics governing their initial formation and growth to sizes where they become important for cloud microphysics. One key to the proper understanding of nanoparticle effects on climate is therefore hidden in the growth mechanisms. In this study we have developed and successfully tested two independent methods based on the aerosol general dynamics equation, allowing detailed retrieval of time- and size-dependent nanoparticle growth rates. Both methods were used to analyze particle formation from two different biogenic precursor vapors in controlled chamber experiments. Our results suggest that growth rates below 10 nm show much more variation than is currently thought and pin down the decisive size range of growth at around 5 nm where in-depth studies of physical and chemical particle properties are needed.

  16. Study on the optical properties of CdSe QDs with different ligands in specific matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Wei; Zou Wei; Du Zhongjie; Li Hangquan; Zhang Chen

    2013-01-01

    Different ligand structures of CdSe quantum dots were designed and synthesized for the specific matrix and the effect of the ligands on the photoluminescence and optical properties were further investigated. Ligand exchange reaction was used to synthesize thioglycolic acid-capped CdSe QDs and the process was characterized by FT-IR and titration. The influence of environmental pH value and storing time on the properties of thioglycolic acid-capped CdSe QDs in aqueous solution were studied by absorption and photoluminescence spectra. It was found that alkaline environment was more beneficial for the application of CdSe QDs. Therefore, the amino ligands with different molecular weight were grafted onto CdSe QDs for improving the compatibility with epoxy matrix and then amino-capped CdSe QDs/epoxy nanocomposites were fabricated. The morphologies and properties of the nanocomposites were characterized by DLS, HR-TEM, UV–Vis spectra, and photoluminescence spectra. As a result, amino ligands with short-molecular chain-capped CdSe QDs/epoxy nanocomposites exhibited good dispersion, high transparency and photoluminescence, and would be suitable for potential application in light-emitting diode device.

  17. AgNPs-3D nanostructure enhanced electrochemiluminescence of CdSe quantum dot coupled with strand displacement amplification for sensitive biosensing of DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiao, Meng; Jie, Guifen; Tan, Lu; Niu, Shuyan

    2017-01-01

    A novel strategy using Ag nanoparticles-3D (AgNPs-3D) nanostructure enhanced electrochemiluminescence (ECL) of CdSe quantum dots (QDs) coupled with strand displacement amplification (SDA) for sensitive biosensing of DNA was successfully designed. The prepared CdSe QDs with intense ECL were assembled on the poly (diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDDA) graphene oxide (GO) nanocomposites modified electrode, then gold nanoparticles (NPs) as the quenching probe was conjugated to the QDs, ECL signal was efficiently quenched. The target DNA induced cycling SDA and generated a large number of DNA s1. The released DNA s1 could open the hairpin DNA with quenching probe. So the presence of low levels of target DNA can potentially result in a significant enhancement of ECL signal. Furthermore, large number of AgNPs were then in situ reduced in the 3D DNA skeleton on the electrode, which dramaticlly enhanced ECL signal of QDs owing to the excellent electrical conductivity, and the much amplified ECL signal change has a quantitative relation with the target DNA. So by combining the AgNPs-3D nanostructure and cycling SDA to achieve greatly amplified detection of DNA, the promising ECL strategy could provide a highly sensitive platform for various biomolecules and has a good prospect for clinical diagnosis in the future. - Graphical abstract: A novel strategy using AgNPs-3D nanostructure enhanced electrochemiluminescence of CdSe quantum dot coupled with DNA strand displacement amplification for sensitive biosensing of DNA was successfully designed, the proposed biosensor can be expected to be an emerging alternative for straightforward nucleic acid detection in complex samples with an easy and rapid way. - Highlights: • AgNPs-3D nanostructure for enhancing ECL signal of CdSe QDs was successfully designed. • A new dual amplification strategy for detection of DNA by using AgNPs-3D nanostructure coupled with SDA was developed. • It is for the first time AgNPs-3D nanostructure

  18. Effect of CdS/Mg-Doped CdSe Cosensitized Photoanode on Quantum Dot Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingxiang Guan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Quantum dots have emerged as a material platform for low-cost high-performance sensitized solar cells. And doping is an effective method to improve the performance of quantum dot sensitized solar cells (QDSSCs. Since Kwak et al. from South Korea proved the incorporation of Mg in the CdSe quantum dots (QDs in 2007, the Mg-doped CdSe QDs have been thoroughly studied. Here we report a new attempt on CdS/Mg-doped CdSe quantum dot cosensitized solar cells (QDCSSC. We analyzed the performance of CdS/Mg-doped CdSe quantum dot cosensitized solar cells via discussing the different doping concentration of Mg and the different SILAR cycles of CdS. And we studied the mechanism of CdS/Mg-doped CdSe QDs in detail for the reason why the energy conversion efficiency had been promoted. It is a significant instruction on the development of Mg-doped CdSe quantum dot sensitized solar cells (QDSSCs.

  19. A novel fluorescent assay for edaravone with aqueous functional CdSe quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Ping; Yan, Zheng-Yu; Xu, Zhi-Ji; Sun, Xiao

    2009-06-01

    Aqueous thiol-capped CdSe QDs with a narrow, symmetric emission were prepared under a low temperature. Based on the fluorescence enhancement of thiol-stabilized CdSe quantum dots (QDs) caused by edaravone, a simple, rapid and specific quantitative method was proposed to the edaravone determination. The concentration dependence of fluorescence intensity followed the binding of edaravone to surface of the thiol-capped CdSe QDs was effectively described by a modified Langmuir-type binding isotherm. Factors affecting the fluorescence detection for edaravone with thiol-stabilized CdSe QDs were studied, such as the effect of pH, reaction time, the concentration of CdSe QDs and so on. Under the optimal conditions, the calibration plot of C/( I - I0) with concentration of edaravone was linear in the range of (1.45-17.42) μg/mL (0.008-0.1 μmol/L) with correlation coefficient of 0.998. The limit of detection (LOD) (3 σ/ κ) was 0.15 μg/mL (0.0009 μmol/mL). Possible interaction mechanism was discussed.

  20. Liquid-liquid interfacial nanoparticle assemblies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emrick, Todd S [South Deerfield, MA; Russell, Thomas P [Amherst, MA; Dinsmore, Anthony [Amherst, MA; Skaff, Habib [Amherst, MA; Lin, Yao [Amherst, MA

    2008-12-30

    Self-assembly of nanoparticles at the interface between two fluids, and methods to control such self-assembly process, e.g., the surface density of particles assembling at the interface; to utilize the assembled nanoparticles and their ligands in fabrication of capsules, where the elastic properties of the capsules can be varied from soft to tough; to develop capsules with well-defined porosities for ultimate use as delivery systems; and to develop chemistries whereby multiple ligands or ligands with multiple functionalities can be attached to the nanoparticles to promote the interfacial segregation and assembly of the nanoparticles. Certain embodiments use cadmium selenide (CdSe) nanoparticles, since the photoluminescence of the particles provides a convenient means by which the spatial location and organization of the particles can be probed. However, the systems and methodologies presented here are general and can, with suitable modification of the chemistries, be adapted to any type of nanoparticle.

  1. A generalized diffusion model for growth of nanoparticles synthesized by colloidal methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Tianlong; Brush, Lucien N; Krishnan, Kannan M

    2014-04-01

    A nanoparticle growth model is developed to predict and guide the syntheses of monodisperse colloidal nanoparticles in the liquid phase. The model, without any a priori assumptions, is based on the Fick's law of diffusion, conservation of mass and the Gibbs-Thomson equation for crystal growth. In the limiting case, this model reduces to the same expression as the currently accepted model that requires the assumption of a diffusion layer around each nanoparticle. The present growth model bridges the two limiting cases of the previous model i.e. complete diffusion controlled and adsorption controlled growth of nanoparticles. Specifically, the results show that a monodispersion of nanoparticles can be obtained both with fast monomer diffusion and with surface reaction under conditions of small diffusivity to surface reaction constant ratio that results is growth 'focusing'. This comprehensive description of nanoparticle growth provides new insights and establishes the required conditions for fabricating monodisperse nanoparticles critical for a wide range of applications. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Air annealing induced transformation of cubic CdSe microspheres into hexagonal nanorods and micro-pyramids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kale, Rohidas B., E-mail: rb_kale@yahoo.co.in [Department of Physics, Institute of Science, Mumbai 400032, M.S. (India); Lu, Shih-Yuan, E-mail: sylu@mx.nthu.edu.tw [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Tsing-Hua University, Hsin-Chu 30013, Taiwan (China)

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • Nanocrystalline CdSe thin films were deposited using inexpensive CBD method. • Air annealing induced structural and interesting morphological transformation. • The as-deposited CdSe thin films showed a blue shift in its optical spectra. • The films showed a red shift in their optical spectra after annealing. - Abstract: CdSe thin films have been deposited onto glass substrates using a chemical bath deposition method at relatively low temperatures (40 °C). The precursors used for the deposition of the thin films are cadmium nitrate hexahydrate, freshly prepared sodium selenosulfate solution and aqueous ammonia solution as a complex as well as pH adjusting reagent. In order to study the influence of air annealing on their physicochemical properties, the as-deposited CdSe thin films were further annealed at 200 °C and 400 °C for 3 h in air atmosphere. Significant changes in the morphology and photonic properties were clearly observed after the thermal annealing of the CdSe thin films. The as-deposited CdSe films grow with the cubic phase that transforms into mixed cubic and hexagonal wurtzite phase with improved crystalline quality of the films after the air annealing. Morphological observation reveals that the as-deposited thin films grow with multilayer that consists of network or mesh like structure, uniformly deposited on the glass substrate over which microspheres are uniformly distributed. After air annealing, CdSe nanorods emerged from the microspheres along with conversion of few microspheres into micro-pyramids. The UV–visible study illustrates that the as-deposited thin film shows blue shifts in its optical spectrum and the spectrum was red-shifted after annealing the CdSe thin films. The band gap of the CdSe thin films were found to be decreased after the thermal treatment.

  3. Investigation of the structural, optical and electrical transport properties of n-doped CdSe thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, H. M.; Abd El-Ghanny, H. A.

    2008-04-01

    Thin films of (CdSe)90(In2O3)10, (CdSe)90(SnO2)10 and (CdSe)90(ZnO)10 have been grown on glass substrates by the electron beam evaporation technique. It has been found that undoped and Sn or In doped CdSe films have two direct transitions corresponding to the energy gaps Eg and Eg+Δ due to spin-orbit splitting of the valence band. The electrical resistivity for n-doped CdSe thin films as a function of light exposure time has been studied. The influence of doping on the structural, optical and electrical characteristics of In doped CdSe films has been investigated in detail. The lattice parameters, grain size and dislocation were determined from x-ray diffraction patterns. The optical transmittance and band gap of these films were determined using a double beam spectrophotometer. The DC conductivity of the films was measured in vacuum using a two-probe technique.

  4. Different growth regimes in InP nanowire growth mediated by Ag nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, D S; Zavarize, M; Tizei, L H G; Walls, M; Ospina, C A; Iikawa, F; Ugarte, D; Cotta, M A

    2017-12-15

    We report on the existence of two different regimes in one-step Ag-seeded InP nanowire growth. The vapor-liquid-solid-mechanism is present at larger In precursor flows and temperatures, ∼500 °C, yielding high aspect ratio and pure wurtzite InP nanowires with a semi-spherical metal particle at the thin apex. Periodic diameter oscillations can be achieved under extreme In supersaturations at this temperature range, showing the presence of a liquid catalyst. However, under lower temperatures and In precursor flows, large diameter InP nanowires with mixed wurtzite/zincblende segments are obtained, similarly to In-assisted growth. Chemical composition analysis suggest that In-rich droplet formation is catalyzed at the substrate surface via Ag nanoparticles; this process might be facilitated by the sulfur contamination detected in these nanoparticles. Furthermore, part of the original Ag nanoparticle remains solid and is embedded inside the actual catalyst, providing an in situ method to switch growth mechanisms upon changing In precursor flow. Nevertheless, our Ag-seeded InP nanowires exhibit overall optical emission spectra consistent with the observed structural properties and similar to Au-catalyzed InP nanowires. We thus show that Ag nanoparticles may be a suitable replacement for Au in InP nanowire growth.

  5. Chemical substitution of Cd ions by Hg in CdSe nanorods and nanodots: Spectroscopic and structural examination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prudnikau, Anatol; Artemyev, Mikhail; Molinari, Michael; Troyon, Michel; Sukhanova, Alyona; Nabiev, Igor; Baranov, Alexandr V.; Cherevkov, Sergey A.; Fedorov, Anatoly V.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We studied cadmium-by-mercury chemical substitution in CdSe nanocrystals. ► Zinc blende CdSe quantum dots can be easily converted to isostructural Cd x Hg 1−x Se. ► Wurtzite CdSe QDs require longer time to convert to a zinc blende Cd x Hg 1−x Se. ► Wurtzite CdSe nanorods transform to nanoheterogeneous luminescent Cd x Hg 1−x Se rods. - Abstract: The chemical substitution of cadmium by mercury in colloidal CdSe quantum dots (QDs) and nanorods has been examined by absorption, photoluminescence and Raman spectroscopy. The crystalline structure of original CdSe QDs used for Cd/Hg substitution (zinc blende versus wurtzite) shows a strong impact on the optical and structural properties of resultant Cd x Hg 1−x Se nanocrystals. Substitution of Cd by Hg in isostructural zinc blende CdSe QDs converts them to ternary Cd x Hg 1−x Se zinc blende nanocrystals with significant NIR emission. Whereas, the wurtzite CdSe QDs transformed first to ternary nanocrystals with almost no emission followed by slow structural reorganization to a NIR-emitting zinc blende Cd x Hg 1−x Se QDs. CdSe nanorods with intrinsic wurtzite structure show unexpectedly intense NIR emission even at early Cd/Hg substitution stage with PL active zinc blende Cd x Hg 1−x Se regions.

  6. Efficient intranuclear gene delivery by CdSe aqueous quantum dots electrostatically-coated with polyethyleneimine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Au, Giang H T; Shih, Wan Y; Shih, Wei-Heng

    2015-01-01

    Quantum dots (QDs) are semiconducting nanoparticles with photoluminescence properties that do not photobleach. Due to these advantages, using QDs for non-viral gene delivery has the additional benefit of being able to track the delivery of the genes in real time as it happens. We investigate the efficacy of mercaptopropionic acid (MPA)-capped CdSe aqueous quantum dots (AQDs) electrostatically complexed with branched polyethyleneimine (PEI) both as a non-viral gene delivery vector and as a fluorescent probe for tracking the delivery of genes into nuclei. The MPA-capped CdSe AQDs that were completely synthesized in water were the model AQDs. A nominal MPA:Cd:Se = 4:3:1 was chosen for optimal photoluminescence and zeta potential. The gene delivery study was carried out in vitro using a human colon cancer cell line, HT29 (ATCC). The model gene was a plasmid DNA (pDNA) that can express red fluorescent protein (RFP). Positively charged branched PEI was employed to provide a proton buffer to the AQDs to allow for endosomal escape. It is shown that by using a PEI-AQD complex with a PEI/AQD molar ratio of 300 and a nominal pDNA/PEI-AQD ratio of 6, we can achieve 75 ± 2.6% RFP expression efficiency with cell vitality remaining at 78 ± 4% of the control. (paper)

  7. Electronic structures and magnetism for carbon doped CdSe: Modified Becke–Johnson density functional calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan, S.W., E-mail: fansw1129@126.com; Song, T.; Huang, X.N.; Yang, L.; Ding, L.J.; Pan, L.Q.

    2016-09-15

    Utilizing the full potential linearized augment plane wave method, the electronic structures and magnetism for carbon doped CdSe are investigated. Calculations show carbon substituting selenium could induce CdSe to be a diluted magnetic semiconductor. Single carbon dopant could induce 2.00 μ{sub B} magnetic moment. Electronic structures show the long-range ferromagnetic coupling mainly originates from the p–d exchange-like p–p coupling interaction. Positive chemical pair interactions indicate carbon dopants would form homogeneous distribution in CdSe host. The formation energy implies the non-equilibrium fabricated technology is necessary during the samples fabricated. - Highlights: • The C{sub Se} defects could induce the CdSe to be typical diluted magnetic semiconductor. • Electronic structures show ferromagnetism come from p-d exchange-like p-p coupling. • Chemical pair interactions indicate C{sub Se} prefer homogenous distribution in CdSe host.

  8. Self-Assembled Monolayers of CdSe Nanocrystals on Doped GaAs Substrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marx, E.; Ginger, D.S.; Walzer, Karsten

    2002-01-01

    This letter reports the self-assembly and analysis of CdSe nanocrystal monolayers on both p- and a-doped GaAs substrates. The self-assembly was performed using a 1,6-hexanedithiol self-assembled monolayer (SAM) to link CdSe nanocrystals to GaAs substrates. Attenuated total reflection Fourier tran...

  9. Microscopic theory of cation exchange in CdSe nanocrystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, Florian D; Spiegel, Leo L; Norris, David J; Erwin, Steven C

    2014-10-10

    Although poorly understood, cation-exchange reactions are increasingly used to dope or transform colloidal semiconductor nanocrystals (quantum dots). We use density-functional theory and kinetic Monte Carlo simulations to develop a microscopic theory that explains structural, optical, and electronic changes observed experimentally in Ag-cation-exchanged CdSe nanocrystals. We find that Coulomb interactions, both between ionized impurities and with the polarized nanocrystal surface, play a key role in cation exchange. Our theory also resolves several experimental puzzles related to photoluminescence and electrical behavior in CdSe nanocrystals doped with Ag.

  10. A new route to produce efficient surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy substrates: gold-decorated CdSe nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, Gobind; Chakraborty, Ritun; Gopalakrishnan, Anisha [Italian Institute of Technology, Nanostructure Division (Italy); Baranov, Dmitry [University of Colorado at Boulder, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry (United States); Di Fabrizio, Enzo [King Abdullah University Science and Technology (KAUST), PSE and BESE Divisions (Saudi Arabia); Krahne, Roman, E-mail: roman.krahne@iit.it [Italian Institute of Technology, Nanostructure Division (Italy)

    2013-05-15

    Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy is a popular tool for the detection of extremely small quantities of target molecules. Au nanoparticles have been very successful in this respect due to local enhancement of the light intensity caused by their plasmon resonance. Furthermore, Au nanoparticles are biocompatible, and target substances can be easily attached to their surface. Here, we demonstrate that Au-decorated CdSe nanowires when employed as SERS substrates lead to an enhancement as large as 10{sup 5} with respect to the flat Au surfaces. In the case of hybrid metal-CdSe nanowires, the Au nucleates preferably on lattice defects at the lateral facets of the nanowires, which leads to a homogeneous distribution of Au nanoparticles on the nanowire, and to an efficient quenching of the nanowire luminescence. Moreover, the size of the Au nanoparticles can be well controlled via the AuCl{sub 3} concentration in the fabrication process. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our SERS substrates with two target substances, namely, cresyl-violet and rhodamine-6G. Au-decorated nanowires can be easily fabricated in large quantities at low cost by wet-chemical synthesis. Furthermore, their deposition onto various substrates, as well as the functionalization of these wires with the target substances, is as straightforward as with the traditional markers.

  11. Resonance Raman spectra of wurtzite and zincblende CdSe nanocrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelley, Anne Myers, E-mail: amkelley@ucmerced.edu [Chemistry and Chemical Biology, School of Natural Sciences, University of California, 5200 North Lake Road, Merced, CA 95343 (United States); Dai, Quanqin; Jiang, Zhong-jie; Baker, Joshua A.; Kelley, David F. [Chemistry and Chemical Biology, School of Natural Sciences, University of California, 5200 North Lake Road, Merced, CA 95343 (United States)

    2013-08-30

    Highlights: ► Very similar resonance Raman spectra of wurtzite and zincblende CdSe nanocrystals. ► First absolute resonance Raman cross-sections reported for CdSe nanocrystals. ► LO overtones suggest slightly stronger electron–phonon coupling in wurtzite form. - Abstract: Resonance Raman spectra and absolute differential Raman cross-sections have been measured for CdSe nanocrystals in both the wurtzite and zincblende crystal forms at four excitation wavelengths from 457.9 to 514.5 nm. The frequency and bandshape of the longitudinal optical (LO) phonon fundamental is essentially identical for both crystal forms at each excitation wavelength. The LO phonon overtone to fundamental intensity ratio appears to be slightly higher for the wurtzite form, which may suggest slightly stronger exciton–phonon coupling from the Fröhlich mechanism in the wurtzite form. The LO fundamental Raman cross-sections are very similar for both crystal forms at each excitation wavelength.

  12. Center for Development of Security Excellence (CDSE) 2013 Year End Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Humphrey Deputy Director, CDSE CDSE STATEMENT Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Nunc bibendum dapibus dui, at porta nunc. In eget...accumsan odio. Donec rutrum varius purus, vitae venenatis urna porttitor eget. Mauris lorem dolor , facilisis eget purus quis, adipiscing tincidunt...ac quam at gravida. Cras a ligula suscipit, lobortis dolor vel, feugiat diam. Proin mattis lectus sit amet pellentesque interdum. Cras porttitor

  13. CdSe quantum dots co-sensitized TiO2 photoelectrodes: particle size dependent properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prabakar, K; Minkyu, S; Inyoung, S; Heeje, K

    2010-01-01

    Cadmium selenide (CdSe) quantum dots (QDs) with different particle sizes have been used as an inorganic co-sensitizer in addition to organic dye for large band gap mesoporous TiO 2 dye sensitized solar cells. The QDs co-sensitized solar cells exhibited overall highest conversion efficiency of 3.65% at 1 sun irradiation for 3.3 nm particle size corresponding to a visible light absorption wavelength of 528 nm. The photovoltaic characteristics of CdSe QDs co-sensitized cells depend on the particle sizes rather than broad spectral light absorption as compared with CdSe QDs alone sensitized and standard dye-sensitized solar cells. Correlation between CdSe QDs adsorption on mesoporous TiO 2 surfaces and photoelectron injection into TiO 2 has been demonstrated. (fast track communication)

  14. Study of the photodissociation of a CdSe nanocrystal beam by means of photoluminescence and Raman scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Orii, T; Onari, S; Kaito, S I; Arai, T

    1997-01-01

    We developed an apparatus that enables us to perform optical measurements of nanocrystals suspended in vacuum. CdSe nanocrystals were produced by a gas evaporation method, and nanocrystal beams were then formed using an inert-gas flow with differential pumping. We measured photoluminescence spectra of the nanocrystal beams with excitations of various photon energies and powers. For a low excitation power, edge emission of the CdSe nanocrystal beam was observed. With increase of the laser power, Raman lines of Se dimers emitted due to the photodissociation of CdSe nanocrystals were observed. It was found that the thresholds of the excitation laser fluence for the photodissociation of CdSe nanocrystals were much smaller than the thresholds of laser fluence for the laser-induced emission of Se atoms from bulk CdSe. The electronic process is dominant in the photodissociation of CdSe nanocrystals whose surfaces are completely free. We suggest that the effective supply of carriers confined in nanocrystals to the su...

  15. Low Temperature Synthesis of CdSe Quantum Dots with Amine Derivative and Their Chemical Kinetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seongmi Hwang,; Youngmin Choi,; Sunho Jeong,; Hakyun Jung,; Chang Gyoun Kim,; Teak-Mo Chung,; Beyong-Hwan Ryu,

    2010-05-01

    The chemical kinetics of growing CdSe nanocrystals was studied in order to investigate the effects of amine capping agents on the size of resulting quantum dots (QDs). CdSe QDs were prepared in phenyl ether, and the amine ligand dependence of QD size was determined. The results show that the size of CdSe nanocrystals can be regulated by controlling reaction rate, with smaller QDs being formed in slower processes. The results of photoluminescence (PL) studies show that the emission wavelengths of the QDs well correlate with particle size. This simple process for forming different-sized QDs, which uses a cheap solvent and various capping agents, has the potential for preparing CdSe nanocrystals more economically.

  16. Probing the interaction of flower-like CdSe nanostructure particles targeted to bovine serum albumin using spectroscopic techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ju Peng; Fan Hai; Liu Tao; Cui Lin; Ai Shiyun

    2011-01-01

    The interaction between flower-like CdSe nanostructure particles (CdSe NP) and bovine serum albumin (BSA) was investigated from a spectroscopic angle under simulative physiological conditions. Under pH 7.4, CdSe NP could effectively quench the intrinsic fluorescence of BSA via static quenching. The binding constant (K A ) was 6.38, 3.27, and 1.90x10 4 M -1 at 298, 304, and 310 K, respectively and the number of binding sites was 1.20. According to the Van't Hoff equation, the thermodynamic parameters (ΔH o =-77.48 kJ mol -1 , ΔS o =-168.17 J mol -1 K -1 ) indicated that hydrogen bonds and van der Waals forces played a major role in stabilizing the BSA-CdSe complex. Besides, UV-vis and circular dichroism (CD) results showed that the addition of CdSe NP changed the secondary structure of BSA and led to a decrease in α-helix. These results suggested that BSA underwent substantial conformational changes induced by flower-like CdSe nanostructure particles. - Highlights: → Estimate the binding of flower-like CdSe NP to BSA by spectroscopic methods. → Hydrogen bonds and van der Waals forces were the major forces. →Addition of CdSe changed the micro-environmentl of BSA. → Decrease in α-helix of BSA secondary structure induced by CdSe.

  17. Comparison study of catalyst nanoparticle formation and carbon nanotube growth: Support effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yunyu; Luo Zhiquan; Li Bin; Ho, Paul S.; Yao Zhen; Shi Li; Bryan, Eugene N.; Nemanich, Robert J.

    2007-01-01

    A comparison study has been conducted on the formation of catalyst nanoparticles on a high surface tension metal and low surface tension oxide for carbon nanotube (CNT) growth via catalytic chemical vapor deposition (CCVD). Silicon dioxide (SiO 2 ) and tantalum have been deposited as supporting layers before deposition of a thin layer of iron catalyst. Iron nanoparticles were formed after thermal annealing. It was found that densities, size distributions, and morphologies of iron nanoparticles were distinctly different on the two supporting layers. In particular, iron nanoparticles revealed a Volmer-Weber growth mode on SiO 2 and a Stranski-Krastanov mode on tantalum. CCVD growth of CNTs was conducted on iron/tantalum and iron/SiO 2 . CNT growth on SiO 2 exhibited a tip growth mode with a slow growth rate of less than 100 nm/min. In contrast, the growth on tantalum followed a base growth mode with a fast growth rate exceeding 1 μm/min. For comparison, plasma enhanced CVD was also employed for CNT growth on SiO 2 and showed a base growth mode with a growth rate greater than 2 μm/min. The enhanced CNT growth rate on tantalum was attributed to the morphologies of iron nanoparticles in combination with the presence of an iron wetting layer. The CNT growth mode was affected by the adhesion between the catalyst and support as well as CVD process

  18. The biotoxicity of hydroxyapatite nanoparticles to the plant growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hao; Liu, Jin-Ku; Wang, Jian-Dong; Lu, Yi; Zhang, Min; Yang, Xiao-Hong; Hong, Dan-Jing

    2014-04-15

    In the present study, hydroxyapatite (HAP) nanoparticles of different particle sizes with high crystallinity and similiar structure were prepared by hydrothermal method. The crystal structure and particle size were characterized by X-ray diffraction pattern (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. Mung bean sprouts were first used as experimental models. Instead of by MTT assay, the cytoxicity of HAP nanoparticles were proved and evaluated by measuring the hypocotyle length of mung bean sprouts in the culture media. The result showed that the inhibition effect to the growth of mung bean sprouts enhanced when HAP nanoparticles existed. Culture media of HAP nanoparticles with different concentrations and particle sizes was prepared to investigate the level of inhibition effect to the growth of mung bean sprouts. The result found that hypocotyl length of mung bean sprouts were the shortest cultured in 5mg/mL culture media in which the HAP nanoparticles were prepared by hydrothermal method for 24h. It was concluded the inhibition effect depended on the amount of intracellular HAP nanoparticles. The nanostructure and Ca(2+) concentration were considered as the main factors to cause cell apoptosis which was the reason of inhibition. The study provided a preliminary perspective about biotoxicity of HAP nanomaterials to the plant growth. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Effects of Au/Fe and Fe nanoparticles on Serratia bacterial growth and production of biosurfactant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Jia; Vipulanandan, Cumaraswamy

    2013-01-01

    The overall objective of this study was to compare the effects of Au/Fe and Fe nanoparticles on the growth and performance of Serratia Jl0300. The nanoparticle effect was quantified not only by the bacterial growth on agar plate after 1 hour interaction with the nanoparticles, but also by its production of a biosurfactant from used vegetable oil. The nanoparticles were prepared using the foam method. The concentrations of the nanoparticles used for the bacterial interaction study were varied from 1 mg/L to 1 g/L. The test results showed that the effect of nanoparticles on the bacterial growth and biosurfactant production varied with nanoparticle type, concentrations, and interaction time with the bacteria. Au/Fe nanoparticles didn't show toxicity to Serratia after short time (1 h) exposure, while during 8 days fermentation Au/Fe nanoparticles inhibited the growth of Serratia as well as the biosurfactant production when the concentration of the nanoparticles was higher than 10 mg/L. Fe nanoparticles showed inhibition effects to bacterial growth both after short time and long time interaction with Serratia, as well as to biosurfactant production when its concentration was higher than 100 mg/L. Based on the trends observed in this study, analytical models have been developed to predict the bacterial growth and biosurfactant production with varying concentrations of nanoparticles. - Highlights: • Modeled the effect of nanoparticles on the bacterial growth and biosurfactant production. • Effects of Au/Fe nonoparticles on Serratia Bacterial Growth and Production of Biosurfactant. • Scanning Electron Micrograph of bacteria-nanoparticles interaction

  20. Effects of Au/Fe and Fe nanoparticles on Serratia bacterial growth and production of biosurfactant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Jia; Vipulanandan, Cumaraswamy, E-mail: cvipulanandan@uh.edu

    2013-10-15

    The overall objective of this study was to compare the effects of Au/Fe and Fe nanoparticles on the growth and performance of Serratia Jl0300. The nanoparticle effect was quantified not only by the bacterial growth on agar plate after 1 hour interaction with the nanoparticles, but also by its production of a biosurfactant from used vegetable oil. The nanoparticles were prepared using the foam method. The concentrations of the nanoparticles used for the bacterial interaction study were varied from 1 mg/L to 1 g/L. The test results showed that the effect of nanoparticles on the bacterial growth and biosurfactant production varied with nanoparticle type, concentrations, and interaction time with the bacteria. Au/Fe nanoparticles didn't show toxicity to Serratia after short time (1 h) exposure, while during 8 days fermentation Au/Fe nanoparticles inhibited the growth of Serratia as well as the biosurfactant production when the concentration of the nanoparticles was higher than 10 mg/L. Fe nanoparticles showed inhibition effects to bacterial growth both after short time and long time interaction with Serratia, as well as to biosurfactant production when its concentration was higher than 100 mg/L. Based on the trends observed in this study, analytical models have been developed to predict the bacterial growth and biosurfactant production with varying concentrations of nanoparticles. - Highlights: • Modeled the effect of nanoparticles on the bacterial growth and biosurfactant production. • Effects of Au/Fe nonoparticles on Serratia Bacterial Growth and Production of Biosurfactant. • Scanning Electron Micrograph of bacteria-nanoparticles interaction.

  1. A new route to produce efficient surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy substrates: Gold-decorated CdSe nanowires

    KAUST Repository

    Das, Gobind

    2013-04-13

    Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy is a popular tool for the detection of extremely small quantities of target molecules. Au nanoparticles have been very successful in this respect due to local enhancement of the light intensity caused by their plasmon resonance. Furthermore, Au nanoparticles are biocompatible, and target substances can be easily attached to their surface. Here, we demonstrate that Au-decorated CdSe nanowires when employed as SERS substrates lead to an enhancement as large as 105 with respect to the flat Au surfaces. In the case of hybrid metal-CdSe nanowires, the Au nucleates preferably on lattice defects at the lateral facets of the nanowires, which leads to a homogeneous distribution of Au nanoparticles on the nanowire, and to an efficient quenching of the nanowire luminescence. Moreover, the size of the Au nanoparticles can be well controlled via the AuCl3 concentration in the fabrication process. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our SERS substrates with two target substances, namely, cresyl-violet and rhodamine-6G. Au-decorated nanowires can be easily fabricated in large quantities at low cost by wet-chemical synthesis. Furthermore, their deposition onto various substrates, as well as the functionalization of these wires with the target substances, is as straightforward as with the traditional markers. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

  2. A new route to produce efficient surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy substrates: Gold-decorated CdSe nanowires

    KAUST Repository

    Das, Gobind; Chakraborty, Ritun; Gopalakrishnan, Anisha; Baranov, Dmitry; Di Fabrizio, Enzo M.; Krahne, Roman

    2013-01-01

    Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy is a popular tool for the detection of extremely small quantities of target molecules. Au nanoparticles have been very successful in this respect due to local enhancement of the light intensity caused by their plasmon resonance. Furthermore, Au nanoparticles are biocompatible, and target substances can be easily attached to their surface. Here, we demonstrate that Au-decorated CdSe nanowires when employed as SERS substrates lead to an enhancement as large as 105 with respect to the flat Au surfaces. In the case of hybrid metal-CdSe nanowires, the Au nucleates preferably on lattice defects at the lateral facets of the nanowires, which leads to a homogeneous distribution of Au nanoparticles on the nanowire, and to an efficient quenching of the nanowire luminescence. Moreover, the size of the Au nanoparticles can be well controlled via the AuCl3 concentration in the fabrication process. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our SERS substrates with two target substances, namely, cresyl-violet and rhodamine-6G. Au-decorated nanowires can be easily fabricated in large quantities at low cost by wet-chemical synthesis. Furthermore, their deposition onto various substrates, as well as the functionalization of these wires with the target substances, is as straightforward as with the traditional markers. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

  3. Surface-enhanced Raman effect in hybrid metal–semiconductor nanoparticle assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lughi, Vanni; Bonifacio, Alois; Barbone, Matteo; Marsich, Lucia; Sergo, Valter

    2013-01-01

    Hybrid metal–semiconductor nanoparticles consisting of silver nanoparticle cores (AgNPs) coated with a layer of CdSe quantum dots (QDs) have been studied by Raman spectroscopy. The hybrid nanoparticles were prepared via electrostatic interaction by mixing aqueous suspensions of QDs and AgNPs, where opposite charges on the AgNPs and QDs surfaces were induced by opportunely selected capping agents. Assemblies of such hybrid nanoparticles show an increased intensity of the Raman spectrum of up to 500 times, when compared to that of the sole QDs. This enhancement is attributed to the SERS effect (Surface-enhanced Raman scattering). Such enhancement of the Raman modes suggests several opportunities for further research, both in imaging and sensing applications.

  4. Transparent high-performance CDSE thin-film solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahawela, P.; Jeedigunta, S.; Vakkalanka, S.; Ferekides, C.S.; Morel, D.L.

    2005-01-01

    Simulations indicate that 25-30% efficiency can be achieved with a four-terminal thin-film tandem structure. The bottom low band gap cell can be CuIn 1-x Ga x Se 2 , and CdSe is proposed as the top cell, as it has an ideal band gap of 1.7 eV. In addition to the efficiency requirements, the top cell must also be transparent to effectively transmit sub band gap light to the bottom cell. We have developed CdSe devices that meet many of the requirements of this tandem structure. High electronic quality CdSe has been deposited on SnO 2 and ZnO, which serve as the transparent n-type contact. The p-type transparent contact is ZnSe/Cu. Voc's of 475 mV have been achieved and can be further improved with better contacts. However, record Jsc's in excess of 17 mA/cm 2 have been achieved. This is close to the target 18 mA/cm 2 to meet the efficiency objectives. Transmission of 80% of the sub band gap radiation has been demonstrated for 2-no. muno. m-thick absorber layers. This is also close to the 85% target to achieve the overall tandem efficiency objectives. Improvement of the contact layers to achieve the Voc target is the final challenge

  5. Phytotoxicity of nanoparticles: Inhibition of seed germination and root growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin Daohui [Department of Environmental Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310028 (China); Department of Plant, Soil and Insect Sciences, University of Massachusetts, Stockbridge Hall, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Xing Baoshan [Department of Plant, Soil and Insect Sciences, University of Massachusetts, Stockbridge Hall, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States)], E-mail: bx@pssci.umass.edu

    2007-11-15

    Plants need to be included to develop a comprehensive toxicity profile for nanoparticles. Effects of five types of nanoparticles (multi-walled carbon nanotube, aluminum, alumina, zinc, and zinc oxide) on seed germination and root growth of six higher plant species (radish, rape, ryegrass, lettuce, corn, and cucumber) were investigated. Seed germination was not affected except for the inhibition of nanoscale zinc (nano-Zn) on ryegrass and zinc oxide (nano-ZnO) on corn at 2000 mg/L. Inhibition on root growth varied greatly among nanoparticles and plants. Suspensions of 2000 mg/L nano-Zn or nano-ZnO practically terminated root elongation of the tested plant species. Fifty percent inhibitory concentrations (IC{sub 50}) of nano-Zn and nano-ZnO were estimated to be near 50 mg/L for radish, and about 20 mg/L for rape and ryegrass. The inhibition occurred during the seed incubation process rather than seed soaking stage. These results are significant in terms of use and disposal of engineered nanoparticles. - Engineered nanoparticles can inhibit the seed germination and root growth.

  6. Phytotoxicity of nanoparticles: Inhibition of seed germination and root growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Daohui; Xing Baoshan

    2007-01-01

    Plants need to be included to develop a comprehensive toxicity profile for nanoparticles. Effects of five types of nanoparticles (multi-walled carbon nanotube, aluminum, alumina, zinc, and zinc oxide) on seed germination and root growth of six higher plant species (radish, rape, ryegrass, lettuce, corn, and cucumber) were investigated. Seed germination was not affected except for the inhibition of nanoscale zinc (nano-Zn) on ryegrass and zinc oxide (nano-ZnO) on corn at 2000 mg/L. Inhibition on root growth varied greatly among nanoparticles and plants. Suspensions of 2000 mg/L nano-Zn or nano-ZnO practically terminated root elongation of the tested plant species. Fifty percent inhibitory concentrations (IC 50 ) of nano-Zn and nano-ZnO were estimated to be near 50 mg/L for radish, and about 20 mg/L for rape and ryegrass. The inhibition occurred during the seed incubation process rather than seed soaking stage. These results are significant in terms of use and disposal of engineered nanoparticles. - Engineered nanoparticles can inhibit the seed germination and root growth

  7. How Does a SILAR CdSe Film Grow? Tuning the Deposition Steps to Suppress Interfacial Charge Recombination in Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Matthew A; Radich, James G; Bunker, Bruce A; Kamat, Prashant V

    2014-05-01

    Successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) is a popular method of depositing the metal chalcogenide semiconductor layer on the mesoscopic metal oxide films for designing quantum-dot-sensitized solar cells (QDSSCs) or extremely thin absorber (ETA) solar cells. While this deposition method exhibits higher loading of the light-absorbing semiconductor layer than direct adsorption of presynthesized colloidal quantum dots, the chemical identity of these nanostructures and the evolution of interfacial structure are poorly understood. We have now analyzed step-by-step SILAR deposition of CdSe films on mesoscopic TiO2 nanoparticle films using X-ray absorption near-edge structure analysis and probed the interfacial structure of these films. The film characteristics interestingly show dependence on the order in which the Cd and Se are deposited, and the CdSe-TiO2 interface is affected only during the first few cycles of deposition. Development of a SeO2 passivation layer in the SILAR-prepared films to form a TiO2/SeO2/CdSe junction facilitates an increase in photocurrents and power conversion efficiencies of quantum dot solar cells when these films are integrated as photoanodes in a photoelectrochemical solar cell.

  8. X-ray investigation of CdSe nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurtulus, Oezguel [Physics Division, Dogus University, Istanbul (Turkey); Li, Zhen [Australian Institute for Bioengineering and Nanotechnology, University of Queensland, Brisbane (Australia); Mews, Alf [Physical Chemistry, University of Hamburg, Hamburg (Germany); Pietsch, Ullrich [Department of Physics, University of Siegen, Siegen (Germany)

    2009-08-15

    CdSe nanowires (NWs) have been prepared by a solution-liquid-solid (SLS) approach using Bi nanocatalysts. Structural characterization has been performed by X-ray powder diffraction providing an admixture of wurtzite and zinc-blende (ZB) structure units separated by different types of stacking faults. The relative contributions of ZB type stacking units within the NWs were determined to be in the order of 3-6% from a set of ratios of reflection intensities appearing in only wurtzite structure to those appearing in both ZB and wurtzite (W) structure. In addition, the anisotropy of domain size within the NWs was evaluated from the evolution of peak broadening for increasing scattering length. The coherence lengths along the growth direction are found to be changing between 16 and 21 nm, smaller than the results obtained from TEM measurement, while the NW diameters are determined to be between 5 and 8 nm which is in good agreement with TEM inspection. (Abstract Copyright [2009], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  9. Size-dependent structure of CdSe nanoclusters formed after ion implantation in MgO

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Huis, MA; van Veen, A; Schut, H; Eijt, SWH; Kooi, BJ; De Hosson, JTM

    The band gap as well as the optical and structural properties of semiconductor CdSe nanoclusters change as a function of the nanocluster size. Embedded CdSe nanoclusters in MgO were created by means of sequential Cd and Se ion implantation followed by thermal annealing. Changes during annealing were

  10. Synthesis of CdSe quantum dots for quantum dot sensitized solar cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Neetu, E-mail: singh.neetu1985@gmail.com; Kapoor, Avinashi [Department of Electronic Science, University of Delhi South Campus, New Delhi-110 021 (India); Kumar, Vinod [Department of Physics, University of the Free State, Bloemfontein, ZA9300 (South Africa); Mehra, R. M. [School of Engineering and Technology, Sharda University, Greater Noida-201 306, U.P. (India)

    2014-04-24

    CdSe Quantum Dots (QDs) of size 0.85 nm were synthesized using chemical route. ZnO based Quantum Dot Sensitized Solar Cell (QDSSC) was fabricated using CdSe QDs as sensitizer. The Pre-synthesized QDs were found to be successfully adsorbed on front ZnO electrode and had potential to replace organic dyes in Dye Sensitized Solar Cells (DSSCs). The efficiency of QDSSC was obtained to be 2.06 % at AM 1.5.

  11. Synthesis and characterization of water-dispersed CdSe/CdS core-shell quantum dots prepared via Layer-by-layer Method capped with carboxylic-functionalized poly(vinyl alcohol)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramanery, Fabio Pereira; Mansur, Alexandra Ancelmo Piscitelli; Mansur, Herman Sander, E-mail: hmansur@demet.ufmg.br [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Metalurgia e Engenharia dos Materiais. Centro de Nanociencia, Nanotecnologia e Inovacao

    2014-08-15

    The main goal of this work was to synthesize CdSe/CdS (core-shell) nanoparticles stabilized by polymer ligand using entirely aqueous colloidal chemistry at room temperature. First, the CdSe core was prepared using precursors and acid-functionalized poly(vinyl alcohol) as the capping ligand. Next, a CdS shell was grown onto the CdSe core via the layer-by-layer technique. The CdS shell was formed by two consecutive monolayers, as estimated by empirical mathematical functions. The nucleation and growth of CdSe quantum dots followed by CdS shell deposition were characterized by UV-vis spectroscopy, photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results indicated a systematic red-shift of the absorption and emission spectra after the deposition of CdS, indicating the shell growth onto the CdSe core. TEM coupled with electron diffraction analysis revealed the presence of CdSe/CdS with an epitaxial shell growth. Therefore, it may be concluded that CdSe/CdS quantum dots with core-shell nanostructure were effectively synthesized.(author)

  12. Optical Epitaxial Growth of Gold Nanoparticle Arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ningfeng; Martínez, Luis Javier; Jaquay, Eric; Nakano, Aiichiro; Povinelli, Michelle L

    2015-09-09

    We use an optical analogue of epitaxial growth to assemble gold nanoparticles into 2D arrays. Particles are attracted to a growth template via optical forces and interact through optical binding. Competition between effects determines the final particle arrangements. We use a Monte Carlo model to design a template that favors growth of hexagonal particle arrays. We experimentally demonstrate growth of a highly stable array of 50 gold particles with 200 nm diameter, spaced by 1.1 μm.

  13. Optimal sample preparation for nanoparticle metrology (statistical size measurements) using atomic force microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoo, Christopher M.; Doan, Trang; Starostin, Natasha; West, Paul E.; Mecartney, Martha L.

    2010-01-01

    Optimal deposition procedures are determined for nanoparticle size characterization by atomic force microscopy (AFM). Accurate nanoparticle size distribution analysis with AFM requires non-agglomerated nanoparticles on a flat substrate. The deposition of polystyrene (100 nm), silica (300 and 100 nm), gold (100 nm), and CdSe quantum dot (2-5 nm) nanoparticles by spin coating was optimized for size distribution measurements by AFM. Factors influencing deposition include spin speed, concentration, solvent, and pH. A comparison using spin coating, static evaporation, and a new fluid cell deposition method for depositing nanoparticles is also made. The fluid cell allows for a more uniform and higher density deposition of nanoparticles on a substrate at laminar flow rates, making nanoparticle size analysis via AFM more efficient and also offers the potential for nanoparticle analysis in liquid environments.

  14. Spatial localization of nanoparticle growth in photoinduced nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnov, Anton A.; Pikulin, Alexander; Bityurin, Nikita

    2018-02-01

    Photoinduced nanocomposites are the polymer materials where the nanoparticles can be generated by the light irradiation. The single atoms of metal are formed due to the photoreduction of the metal-containing precursor added to the polymer matrix. Then the atoms precipitate into the nanoparticles (NPs). Similarly, semiconductor NPs are assembled from the monomer species such as CdS, which can be released due to the photodestruction of the appropriate precursor. We analyze theoretically the possibility of spatial confinement of growing nanoparticles in a domain where the elementary species are generated by a three-dimensionally localized source. It is shown that the effective confinement can be achieved only if the size of the generation domain exceeds some critical spatial scale determined by the parameters of the system. The confinement is provided by the trapping of the diffusing elementary species by the growing nanoparticles. The proposed model considers the irreversible particle growth, typical for the noble metals. Both the nucleation and the particle growth processes are suggested to be diffusion controlled.

  15. Mobility lifetime product in doped and undoped nanocrystalline CdSe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tripathi, S.K.; Al-Kabbi, Alaa S.; Sharma, Kriti; Saini, G.S.S.

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports the effect of doping on the charge transport in nanocrystalline CdSe thin film. The X-ray study confirms that the doping is achieved and the physical properties are improved. The energy resolution of a semiconductor radiation detector depends on the charge transport properties of the semiconductor and the mobility-lifetime (μτ) product is a key figure of merit for the charge transport. μτ product in nanocrystalline CdSe, CdSe:In and CdSe:Zn thin films has been estimated from temperature dependence of the photoconductivity, which increases with increase in temperature and doping. Also, μτ product of electrons in pure and doped nanocrystalline CdSe thin films has been determined by spectral photoconductivity at different applied voltages. Both the μτ and photoconductivity increase linearly with the bias voltage but the wavelength dependence remains qualitatively similar in all samples. The μτ products increase at photon energies > energy gap, which indicates that the recombination process depends on the excitation energy. The doped CdSe thin films have higher drift length in comparison with undoped films which suggest that these thin films can be used in charge collecting devices. - Highlights: • The structure of thin films has been studied using X-ray diffraction. • Spectral dependence of μτ product in pure and doped nc-CdSe thin films is studied. • The mobility-lifetime product shows dependence on temperature and doping type. • The drift length increases linearly with increasing applied field and doping. • The transport properties of nc-CdSe thin films are enhanced with doping

  16. The biotoxicity of hydroxyapatite nanoparticles to the plant growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Hao [Key Laboratory for Advanced Materials, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China); Liu, Jin-Ku, E-mail: jkliu@ecust.edu.cn [Key Laboratory for Advanced Materials, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China); Wang, Jian-Dong; Lu, Yi; Zhang, Min [Key Laboratory for Advanced Materials, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China); Yang, Xiao-Hong, E-mail: yxh6110@yeah.net [Department of Chemistry, Chizhou University, Chizhou 247000 (China); Hong, Dan-Jing [Key Laboratory for Advanced Materials, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China)

    2014-04-01

    Highlights: • Mung bean sprouts were first used as the experimental model to research the cytotoxicity of the HAP nanomaterials. • The biotoxicity depends on the concentration and particle size of HAP nanomaterials. • The biotoxicity mechanism of HAP nanomaterials was discussed. - Abstract: In the present study, hydroxyapatite (HAP) nanoparticles of different particle sizes with high crystallinity and similiar structure were prepared by hydrothermal method. The crystal structure and particle size were characterized by X-ray diffraction pattern (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. Mung bean sprouts were first used as experimental models. Instead of by MTT assay, the cytoxicity of HAP nanoparticles were proved and evaluated by measuring the hypocotyle length of mung bean sprouts in the culture media. The result showed that the inhibition effect to the growth of mung bean sprouts enhanced when HAP nanoparticles existed. Culture media of HAP nanoparticles with different concentrations and particle sizes was prepared to investigate the level of inhibition effect to the growth of mung bean sprouts. The result found that hypocotyl length of mung bean sprouts were the shortest cultured in 5 mg/mL culture media in which the HAP nanoparticles were prepared by hydrothermal method for 24 h. It was concluded the inhibition effect depended on the amount of intracellular HAP nanoparticles. The nanostructure and Ca{sup 2+} concentration were considered as the main factors to cause cell apoptosis which was the reason of inhibition. The study provided a preliminary perspective about biotoxicity of HAP nanomaterials to the plant growth.

  17. The biotoxicity of hydroxyapatite nanoparticles to the plant growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Hao; Liu, Jin-Ku; Wang, Jian-Dong; Lu, Yi; Zhang, Min; Yang, Xiao-Hong; Hong, Dan-Jing

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Mung bean sprouts were first used as the experimental model to research the cytotoxicity of the HAP nanomaterials. • The biotoxicity depends on the concentration and particle size of HAP nanomaterials. • The biotoxicity mechanism of HAP nanomaterials was discussed. - Abstract: In the present study, hydroxyapatite (HAP) nanoparticles of different particle sizes with high crystallinity and similiar structure were prepared by hydrothermal method. The crystal structure and particle size were characterized by X-ray diffraction pattern (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. Mung bean sprouts were first used as experimental models. Instead of by MTT assay, the cytoxicity of HAP nanoparticles were proved and evaluated by measuring the hypocotyle length of mung bean sprouts in the culture media. The result showed that the inhibition effect to the growth of mung bean sprouts enhanced when HAP nanoparticles existed. Culture media of HAP nanoparticles with different concentrations and particle sizes was prepared to investigate the level of inhibition effect to the growth of mung bean sprouts. The result found that hypocotyl length of mung bean sprouts were the shortest cultured in 5 mg/mL culture media in which the HAP nanoparticles were prepared by hydrothermal method for 24 h. It was concluded the inhibition effect depended on the amount of intracellular HAP nanoparticles. The nanostructure and Ca 2+ concentration were considered as the main factors to cause cell apoptosis which was the reason of inhibition. The study provided a preliminary perspective about biotoxicity of HAP nanomaterials to the plant growth

  18. Poly(3-hexylthiophene) - CdSe quantum dot bulk heterojunction solar cells: Influence of the functional end-group of the polymer

    KAUST Repository

    Palaniappan, Kumaranand

    2009-06-23

    The synthesis of H/thiol terminated P3HT from Br/allyl-terminated P3HT precursor was analyzed. The photovoltaic response of blends were prepared of H/thiol terminated P3HT with spherical CdSe quantum dots(QD) and compares the results with regioregular H/Br and Br/aryl-terminated P3HT. Phase segregation was carried by mixing relatively polar pyridine treated CdSe QD with nonpolar P3HT. The experiment revealed that a high loading of CdSe is necessary for an efficient charge transport and different loading ratios of CdSe has been investigated to correlate the photovoltaic response as a function of ration between donor H/thiol-P3ht polymer and acceptor Cdse QD. The results show that H/Br-P3HT, H/thiol- and Br/allyl-terminated P3HT exhibits better performance and Cdse quantum dots were used to obtain results.

  19. Implementing atomic force microscopy (AFM) for studying kinetics of gold nanoparticle's growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Georgiev, P.; Bojinova, A.; Kostova, B.

    2013-01-01

    In a novel experimental approach Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) was applied as a tool for studying the kinetics of gold nanoparticle growth. The gold nanoparticles were obtained by classical Turkevich citrate synthesis at two different temperatures. From the analysis of AFM images during...... the synthesis process the nanoparticle s' sizes were obtained. To demonstrate the applicability and the reliability of the proposed experimental approach we studied the nanoparticles growth at two different temperatures by spectrophotometric measurements and compared them with the results from AFM experimental...

  20. Cathodic deposition of CdSe films from dimethyl formamide solution at optimized temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Datta, J. [Department of Chemistry, Bengal Engineering and Science University, Shibpur, Howrah 711 103, West Bengal (India)]. E-mail: jayati_datta@rediffmail.com; Bhattacharya, C. [Department of Chemistry, Bengal Engineering and Science University, Shibpur, Howrah 711 103, West Bengal (India); Visiting Research Associate, School of Materials Science and Engineering, UNSW (Australia); Bandyopadhyay, S. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, UNSW, Sydney 2052 (Australia)

    2006-12-15

    In the present paper, thin film CdSe compound semiconductors have been electroplated on transparent conducting oxide coated glass substrates from nonaqueous dimethyl formamide bath containing CdCl{sub 2}, KI and Se under controlled temperature ranging from 100 to 140 deg. C. Thickness of the deposited films as obtained through focussed ion beam technique as well as their microstructural and photoelectrochemical properties have been found to depend on temperature. The film growth was therefore optimized at a bath temperature {approx}125 deg. C. The formation of crystallites in the range of 100-150 nm size has been ascertained through atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Energy dispersive analysis of X-rays for the as deposited film confirmed the 1:1 composition of CdSe compound in the matrix exhibiting band-gap energy of 1.74 eV. Microstructural properties of the deposited films have been determined through X-ray diffraction studies, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and electron diffraction pattern analysis. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and current-potential measurements have been performed to characterize the electrochemical behavior of the semiconductor-electrolyte interface. The photo-activity of the films have been recorded in polysulphide solution under illumination and solar conversion efficiency {>=}1% was achieved.

  1. CdSe white quantum dots-based white light-emitting diodes with high color rendering index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yu-Sheng; Hsiao, Chih-Chun; Chung, Shu-Ru

    2016-09-01

    A white light emission CdSe quantum dots (QDs) can be prepared by chemical route under 180°C. An organic oleic acid (OA) is used to react with CdO to form Cd-OA complex. Hexadecylamine (HDA) and 1-Octadecene (ODE) were used as co-surfactants. By controlling the reaction time, a white light emission CdSe QDs can be obtained after reacts for 3 to 10 min. The luminescence spectra compose two obvious emission peaks and entire visible light ranges from 400 to 650 nm. Based on TEM measurement result, spherical morphologies with particle size 2.39+/-0.27 nm can be obtained. The quantum yields (QYs) of white CdSe QD are between 20 and 60 %, which depends on reaction time. A white CdSe QDs were mixed with UV cured gel (OPAS-226) with weight ratios 50.0 wt. %, and putted the mixture into reflective cup (3020, 13 mil) as convert type. The white LEDs have controllable CIE coordinates and correlated color temperature (CCT). The luminous efficacy of the device is less than 3 lm/W, but the color rendering index (CRI) for all devices are higher than 80. Since the luminous efficacy of hybrid devices has a direct dependence on the external QY of the UV-LED as well, the luminous efficacy can be improved by well dispersion of CdSe QDs in UV gel matrix and using optimized LED chips. Therefore, in this study, we provide a new and simple method to prepare high QY of white CdSe QDs and its have a potential to applicate in solid-state lighting.

  2. Scanning tunneling spectroscopy of CdSe nanocrystals covalently bound to GaAs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walzer, K.; Marx, E.; Greenham, N.C.

    2003-01-01

    We present scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and scanning tunneling spectroscopy (STS) measurements of CdSe nanocrystals covalently attached to doped GaAs substrates using monolayers of 1,6-hexanedithiol. STM measurements showed the formation of stable, densely packed, homogeneous monolayers...... of nanocrystals. STS measurements showed rectifying behaviour, with high currents at the opposite sample bias to that previously observed for CdSe nanocrystals adsorbed on Si substrates. We explain the rectifying behaviour by considering the interaction between the electronic states of the nanocrystals...

  3. Size-controlled synthesis of chalcogen and chalcogenide nanoparticles using protic ionic liquids with imidazolium cation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meenatchi, Boominathan; Renuga, Velayutham; Manikandan, Ayyar

    2016-01-01

    Green synthesis of selenium (chalcogen) nanoparticles (SeNPs) has been successfully attained by simple wet chemical method that involves the reaction of six different protic ionic liquids with imidazolium cations and sodium hydrogen selenide (NaHSe) in the presence of poly ethylene glycol-600 (PEG-600) as an additional stabilizer. The obtained SeNPs were characterized using UV spectral (UV), Fourier transform infra-red (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential thermal analysis (DTA), scanning electron microscope (SEM) with energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) and high resolution transmission electron microscope (TEM) analysis. The results illustrate that the synthesized SeNPs are spherical in shape with size ranging 19-24 nm and possess good optical property with greater band gap energy, high thermal stability up to 330 .deg. C, low melting point of 218-220 .deg. C comparing to precursor selenium. Using the synthesized SeNPs, two chalcogenides such as ZnSe and CdSe semiconductor nanoparticles were synthesized and characterized using XRD, SEM with EDX and TEM analysis. The fabricated CdSe and ZnSe nanoparticles appeared like pebble and cluster structure with particle size of 29.97 nm and 22.73 nm respectively.

  4. Size-controlled synthesis of chalcogen and chalcogenide nanoparticles using protic ionic liquids with imidazolium cation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meenatchi, Boominathan [Cauvery College for Women, Tamilnadu (India); Renuga, Velayutham [National College, Tamilnadu (India); Manikandan, Ayyar [Bharath Institute of Higher Education and Research, Bharath University, Tamilnadu (India)

    2016-03-15

    Green synthesis of selenium (chalcogen) nanoparticles (SeNPs) has been successfully attained by simple wet chemical method that involves the reaction of six different protic ionic liquids with imidazolium cations and sodium hydrogen selenide (NaHSe) in the presence of poly ethylene glycol-600 (PEG-600) as an additional stabilizer. The obtained SeNPs were characterized using UV spectral (UV), Fourier transform infra-red (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential thermal analysis (DTA), scanning electron microscope (SEM) with energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) and high resolution transmission electron microscope (TEM) analysis. The results illustrate that the synthesized SeNPs are spherical in shape with size ranging 19-24 nm and possess good optical property with greater band gap energy, high thermal stability up to 330 .deg. C, low melting point of 218-220 .deg. C comparing to precursor selenium. Using the synthesized SeNPs, two chalcogenides such as ZnSe and CdSe semiconductor nanoparticles were synthesized and characterized using XRD, SEM with EDX and TEM analysis. The fabricated CdSe and ZnSe nanoparticles appeared like pebble and cluster structure with particle size of 29.97 nm and 22.73 nm respectively.

  5. Optical properties of P3HT:tributylphosphine oxide-capped CdSe nanocomposites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benchaabane, A. [Faculte des Sciences d' Amiens, Laboratoire de Physique de la Matiere Condensee, Amiens (France); Universite Tunis El-Manar, Laboratoire de Materiaux avances et phenomenes quantiques, Faculte des Sciences de Tunis El Manar, Tunis (Tunisia); Universite Arabe des Sciences, Ecole Superieure d' Ingenieurs et des Etudes Technologiques, Tunis (Tunisia); Ben Hamed, Z.; Kouki, F.; Bouchriha, H. [Universite Tunis El-Manar, Laboratoire de Materiaux avances et phenomenes quantiques, Faculte des Sciences de Tunis El Manar, Tunis (Tunisia); Lahmar, A.; Zellama, K.; Zeinert, A. [Faculte des Sciences d' Amiens, Laboratoire de Physique de la Matiere Condensee, Amiens (France); Sanhoury, M.A. [Laboratoire de Chimie Organique Structurale, Synthese et Etudes Physicochimiques, Tunis (Tunisia)

    2016-08-15

    The optical properties of nanocomposite layers prepared by incorporation of tributylphosphine oxide (TBPO)-capped CdSe nanocrystals (NCs) in a P3HT polymer matrix are studied using different nanocrystal concentrations. Reflection spectra analyzed through Kim oscillator model lead to the determination of optical constants such as refractive index n, extinction coefficient k, dielectric permittivity ε and absorption coefficient α. Using the common Cauchy, Drude-Lorentz, Tauc and single-effective-oscillator theoretical models, we have determined the values of static refractive index n{sub s} and permittivity ε{sub s}, plasma frequency ω{sub p}, carrier density N, optical band gap E{sub g} and oscillator and dispersion energies E{sub 0} and E{sub d}, respectively. It is found that TBPO-capped CdSe NCs concentration affects the optoelectronic parameters of the nanocomposite thin films. Moreover, the disorder of this hybrid system is also studied by the determination of Urbach energy, which increases with TBPO-capped CdSe concentration. (orig.)

  6. Detection of CdSe quantum dot photoluminescence for security label on paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isnaeni,, E-mail: isnaeni@lipi.go.id; Sugiarto, Iyon Titok [Research Center for Physics, Indonesian Institute of Science, Building 442 Puspiptek Serpong, South Tangerang, Banten, Indonesia 15314 (Indonesia); Bilqis, Ratu; Suseno, Jatmiko Endro [Department of Physics, Diponegoro University, Jl. Prof. Soedarto, Tembalang, Semarang, Indonesia 50275 (Indonesia)

    2016-02-08

    CdSe quantum dot has great potential in various applications especially for emitting devices. One example potential application of CdSe quantum dot is security label for anti-counterfeiting. In this work, we present a practical approach of security label on paper using one and two colors of colloidal CdSe quantum dot, which is used as stamping ink on various types of paper. Under ambient condition, quantum dot is almost invisible. The quantum dot security label can be revealed by detecting emission of quantum dot using photoluminescence and cnc machine. The recorded quantum dot emission intensity is then analyzed using home-made program to reveal quantum dot pattern stamp having the word ’RAHASIA’. We found that security label using quantum dot works well on several types of paper. The quantum dot patterns can survive several days and further treatment is required to protect the quantum dot. Oxidation of quantum dot that occurred during this experiment reduced the emission intensity of quantum dot patterns.

  7. Construction of vesicle CdSe nano-semiconductors photocatalysts with improved photocatalytic activity: Enhanced photo induced carriers separation efficiency and mechanism insight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Jiangsu; Ma, Changchang; Huo, Pengwei; Liu, Xinlin; Wei, Maobin; Liu, Yang; Yao, Xin; Ma, Zhongfei; Yan, Yongsheng

    2017-10-01

    Visible-light-driven photocatalysis as a green technology has attracted a lot of attention due to its potential applications in environmental remediation. Vesicle CdSe nano-semiconductor photocatalyst are successfully prepared by a gas template method and characterized by a variety of methods. The vesicle CdSe nano-semiconductors display enhanced photocatalytic performance for the degradation of tetracycline hydrochloride, the photodegradation rate of 78.824% was achieved by vesicle CdSe, which exhibited an increase of 31.779% compared to granular CdSe. Such an exceptional photocatalytic capability can be attributed to the unique structure of the vesicle CdSe nano-semiconductor with enhanced light absorption ability and excellent carrier transport capability. Meanwhile, the large surface area of the vesicle CdSe nano-semiconductor can increase the contact probability between catalyst and target and provide more surface-active centers. The photocatalytic mechanisms are analyzed by active species quenching. It indicates that h + and O 2 - are the main active species which play a major role in catalyzing environmental toxic pollutants. Simultaneously, the vesicle CdSe nano-semiconductor had high efficiency and stability. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Temperature effect on the nucleation and growth of TiO2 colloidal nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza Sasani Ghamsari

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The nucleation and growth of sol-gel derived TiO2 colloidal nanoparticles have been studied using  experiment and theory as well. In this study, the temperature effect on the formation of TiO2 nanoparticles was discussed and some effective parameters such as the supply rate of solute (Q0, the mean volumic growth rate of stable nuclei during the nucleation period (u, the diffusion coefficient of [Ti]+4 ions and the nucleus size were determined. The formation of TiO2 nanoparticles in three different temperatures (60, 70 and 80°C was studied. The obtained results showed that the process temperature has a considerable impact on the nucleation and growth of TiO2 nanoparticles. It can be concluded that  increasing the temperature leads to a decrease of the supersaturation and an increase of the nucleus size, supply rate of monomer, nanoparticles density and growth rate as evident from LaMer diagram.

  9. Electrosynthesis and characterization of Fe doped CdSe thin films from ethylene glycol bath

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pawar, S.M.; Moholkar, A.V.; Rajpure, K.Y.; Bhosale, C.H.

    2007-01-01

    The CdSe and Fe doped CdSe (Fe:CdSe) thin films have been electrodeposited potentiostatically onto the stainless steel and fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) glass substrates, from ethylene glycol bath containing (CH 3 COO) 2 .Cd.2H 2 O, SeO 2 , and FeCl 3 at room temperature. The doping concentration of Fe is optimized by using (photo) electrochemical (PEC) characterization technique. The deposition mechanism and Fe incorporation are studied by cyclic voltammetry. The structural, surface morphological and optical properties of the deposited CdSe and Fe:CdSe thin films have been studied by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and optical absorption techniques respectively. The PEC study shows that Fe:CdSe thin films are more photosensitive than that of undoped CdSe thin films. The X-ray diffraction analysis shows that the films are polycrystalline with hexagonal crystal structure. SEM studies reveal that the films with uniformly distributed grains over the entire surface of the substrate. The complete surface morphology has been changed after doping. Optical absorption study shows the presence of direct transition and a considerable decrease in bandgap, E g from 1.95 to 1.65 eV

  10. Growth kinetics and long-term stability of CdS nanoparticles in aqueous solution under ambient conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mullaugh, Katherine M.; Luther, George W.

    2011-01-01

    The ubiquity of naturally occurring nanoparticles in the aquatic environment is now widely accepted, but a better understanding of the conditions that promote their formation and persistence is needed. Using cadmium sulfide (CdS) as a model metal sulfide species, thiolate-capped CdS nanoparticles were prepared in the laboratory to evaluate how aquatic conditions influence metal sulfide nanoparticle growth and stability. This work examines CdS nanoparticle growth directly in aqueous solution at room temperature by utilizing the size-dependent spectroscopic properties of semiconductors detectable by UV/vis. CdS nanoparticle growth was governed by oriented attachment, a non-classical mechanism of crystallization in which small precursor nanoparticles coalesce to form larger nanoparticle products. Nanoparticle growth was slowed with increasing capping agent and decreasing ionic strength. In addition to examining the short-term (hours) growth of the nanoparticles, a long-term study was conducted in which cysteine-capped CdS nanoparticles were monitored over 3 weeks in solutions of various ionic strengths. The long-term study revealed an apparent shift from small nanoparticles to nanoparticles twice their original size, suggesting nanoparticle growth may continue through oriented attachment over longer time scales. High-ionic strength solutions resulted in salt-induced aggregation and eventual settling of nanoparticles within days, whereas low-ionic strength solutions were stable against settling over the course of the experiment. Sulfide recovery from cysteine-capped CdS nanoparticles as acid volatile sulfide was nearly quantitative after 2 weeks in fully oxygenated water, demonstrating significantly slowed oxidation of sulfide when complexed to Cd(II) within CdS nanoparticles. The nanoparticles were also shown to be resistant to oxidation by Fe(III) (hydr)oxide. This study illustrates that aggregation, rather than chemical oxidation, is likely more important to the

  11. Surface Passivation of CdSe Quantum Dots in All Inorganic Amorphous Solid by Forming Cd1-xZnxSe Shell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Mengling; Liu, Chao; Zhao, Zhiyong; Wang, Jing; Lin, Changgui; Xu, Yinsheng; Heo, Jong; Dai, Shixun; Han, Jianjun; Zhao, Xiujian

    2017-02-07

    CdSe quantum dots (QDs) doped glasses have been widely investigated for optical filters, LED color converter and other optical emitters. Unlike CdSe QDs in solution, it is difficult to passivate the surface defects of CdSe QDs in glass matrix, which strongly suppress its intrinsic emission. In this study, surface passivation of CdSe quantum dots (QDs) by Cd 1-x Zn x Se shell in silicate glass was reported. An increase in the Se/Cd ratio can lead to the partial passivation of the surface states and appearance of the intrinsic emission of CdSe QDs. Optimizing the heat-treatment condition promotes the incorporation of Zn into CdSe QDs and results in the quenching of the defect emission. Formation of CdSe/Cd 1-x Zn x Se core/graded shell QDs is evidenced by the experimental results of TEM and Raman spectroscopy. Realization of the surface passivation and intrinsic emission of II-VI QDs may facilitate the wide applications of QDs doped all inorganic amorphous materials.

  12. Assessing potential harmful effects of CdSe quantum dots by using Drosophila melanogaster as in vivo model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alaraby, Mohamed; Demir, Esref; Hernández, Alba; Marcos, Ricard

    2015-01-01

    Since CdSe QDs are increasingly used in medical and pharmaceutical sciences careful and systematic studies to determine their biosafety are needed. Since in vivo studies produce relevant information complementing in vitro data, we promote the use of Drosophila melanogaster as a suitable in vivo model to detect toxic and genotoxic effects associated with CdSe QD exposure. Taking into account the potential release of cadmium ions, QD effects were compared with those obtained with CdCl 2 . Results showed that CdSe QDs penetrate the intestinal barrier of the larvae reaching the hemolymph, interacting with hemocytes, and inducing dose/time dependent significant genotoxic effects, as determined by the comet assay. Elevated ROS production, QD biodegradation, and significant disturbance in the conserved Hsps, antioxidant and p53 genes were also observed. Overall, QD effects were milder than those induced by CdCl 2 suggesting the role of Cd released ions in the observed harmful effects of Cd based QDs. To reduce the observed side-effects of Cd based QDs biocompatible coats would be required to avoid cadmium's undesirable effects. - Highlights: • CdSe QDs were able to cross the intestinal barrier of Drosophila. • Elevated ROS induction was detected in larval hemocytes. • Changes in the expression of Hsps and p53 genes were observed. • Primary DNA damage was induced by CdSe QDs in hemocytes. • Overall, CdSe QD effects were milder than those induced by CdCl 2

  13. Assessing potential harmful effects of CdSe quantum dots by using Drosophila melanogaster as in vivo model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alaraby, Mohamed [Grup de Mutagènesi, Departament de Genètica i de Microbiologia, Facultat de Biociències, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Campus de Bellaterra, 08193 Cerdanyola del Vallès (Spain); Sohag University, Faculty of Sciences, Zoology Department, 82524-Campus, Sohag (Egypt); Demir, Esref [Akdeniz University, Faculty of Sciences, Department of Biology, 07058-Campus, Antalya (Turkey); Hernández, Alba [Grup de Mutagènesi, Departament de Genètica i de Microbiologia, Facultat de Biociències, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Campus de Bellaterra, 08193 Cerdanyola del Vallès (Spain); CIBER Epidemiología y Salud Pública, ISCIII, Madrid (Spain); Marcos, Ricard, E-mail: ricard.marcos@uab.es [Grup de Mutagènesi, Departament de Genètica i de Microbiologia, Facultat de Biociències, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Campus de Bellaterra, 08193 Cerdanyola del Vallès (Spain); CIBER Epidemiología y Salud Pública, ISCIII, Madrid (Spain)

    2015-10-15

    Since CdSe QDs are increasingly used in medical and pharmaceutical sciences careful and systematic studies to determine their biosafety are needed. Since in vivo studies produce relevant information complementing in vitro data, we promote the use of Drosophila melanogaster as a suitable in vivo model to detect toxic and genotoxic effects associated with CdSe QD exposure. Taking into account the potential release of cadmium ions, QD effects were compared with those obtained with CdCl{sub 2}. Results showed that CdSe QDs penetrate the intestinal barrier of the larvae reaching the hemolymph, interacting with hemocytes, and inducing dose/time dependent significant genotoxic effects, as determined by the comet assay. Elevated ROS production, QD biodegradation, and significant disturbance in the conserved Hsps, antioxidant and p53 genes were also observed. Overall, QD effects were milder than those induced by CdCl{sub 2} suggesting the role of Cd released ions in the observed harmful effects of Cd based QDs. To reduce the observed side-effects of Cd based QDs biocompatible coats would be required to avoid cadmium's undesirable effects. - Highlights: • CdSe QDs were able to cross the intestinal barrier of Drosophila. • Elevated ROS induction was detected in larval hemocytes. • Changes in the expression of Hsps and p53 genes were observed. • Primary DNA damage was induced by CdSe QDs in hemocytes. • Overall, CdSe QD effects were milder than those induced by CdCl{sub 2}.

  14. Enhancement of electron transfer from CdSe core/shell quantum dots to TiO2 films by thermal annealing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shao, Cong; Meng, Xiangdong; Jing, Pengtao; Sun, Mingye; Zhao, Jialong; Li, Haibo

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrated the enhancement of electron transfer from CdSe/ZnS core/shell quantum dots (QDs) to TiO 2 films via thermal annealing by means of steady-state and time-resolved photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. The significant decrease in PL intensities and lifetimes of the QDs on TiO 2 films was clearly observed after thermal annealing at temperature ranging from 100 °C to 300 °C. The obtained rates of electron transfer from CdSe core/shell QDs with red, yellow, and green emissions to TiO 2 films were significantly enhanced from several times to an order of magnitude (from ∼10 7 s −1 to ∼10 8 s −1 ). The improvement in efficiencies of electron transfer in the TiO 2 /CdSe QD systems was also confirmed. The enhancement could be considered to result from the thermal annealing reduced distance between CdSe QDs and TiO 2 films. The experimental results revealed that thermal annealing would play an important role on improving performances of QD based optoelectronic devices. -- Highlights: • Annealing-induced enhancement of electron transfer from CdSe to TiO 2 is reported. • CdSe QDs on TiO 2 and SiO 2 films are annealed at various temperatures. • Steady-state and time-resolved PL spectroscopy of CdSe QDs is studied. • The enhancement is related to the reduced distance between CdSe QDs and TiO 2

  15. White light emission from organic-inorganic hererostructure devices by using CdSe quantum dots as emitting layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Aiwei; Teng Feng; Gao Yinhao; Li Dan; Zhao Suling; Liang Chunjun; Wang Yongsheng

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, white light emission was obtained from organic-inorganic heterostructure devices by using CdSe quantum dots as emitting layer, in which CdSe quantum dots were synthesized via a colloidal chemical approach by using CdO and Se powder as precursors. Photoluminescence of CdSe quantum dots demonstrated a white emission with a full wavelength at half maximum (FWHM) of about 200 nm under ambient conditions, and the white emission could be observed in both multilayer device ITO/PEDOT:PSS/CdSe/BCP/Alq 3 /Al and single-layer device: ITO/PEDOT:PSS/CdSe/Al. The broad emission was attributed to the inhomogeneous broadening. The CIE coordinates of the multilayer device were x=0.35 and y=0.40. The white-light-emitting diodes with CdSe quantum dots as the emitting layer are potentially useful in lighting applications

  16. The synthesis of CdSe quantum dots with carboxyl group and study on their optical characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye, Chen; Park, Sangjoon; Kim, Jongsung

    2009-01-01

    Quantum dots are nanocrystal semiconductors which attract lots of research interests due to their peculiar optical properties. CdSe/ZnS quantum dots have been synthesized via pyrolysis of organometallic reagents. The color of the quantum dot changes from yellow-green to red as their size increases with reaction time. Photoluminescence quantum efficiency of CdSe quantum dots have been enhanced by passivating the surface of CdSe quantum dots with ZnS layers. Quantum dots are nanocrystal semiconductors which attract lots of research interests due to their peculiar optical properties. CdSe/ZnS quantum dots have been synthesized via pyrolysis of organometallic reagents. The color of the quantum dot changes from yellow-green to red as their size increases with reaction time. Photoluminescence quantum efficiency of CdSe quantum dots have been enhanced by passivating the surface of CdSe quantum dots with ZnS layers. (copyright 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  17. Resonant surface-enhanced Raman scattering by optical phonons in a monolayer of CdSe nanocrystals on Au nanocluster arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milekhin, Alexander G., E-mail: milekhin@isp.nsc.ru [A.V. Rzhanov Institute of Semiconductor Physics, pr. Lavrentjeva, 13, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Novosibirsk State University, Pirogov str. 2, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Sveshnikova, Larisa L.; Duda, Tatyana A. [A.V. Rzhanov Institute of Semiconductor Physics, pr. Lavrentjeva, 13, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Rodyakina, Ekaterina E. [A.V. Rzhanov Institute of Semiconductor Physics, pr. Lavrentjeva, 13, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Novosibirsk State University, Pirogov str. 2, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Dzhagan, Volodymyr M. [Semiconductor Physics, Technische Universität Chemnitz, D-09107 Chemnitz (Germany); Sheremet, Evgeniya [Solid Surfaces Analysis, Technische Universität Chemnitz, D-09107 Chemnitz (Germany); Gordan, Ovidiu D. [Semiconductor Physics, Technische Universität Chemnitz, D-09107 Chemnitz (Germany); Himcinschi, Cameliu [Institut für Theoretische Physik, TU Bergakademie Freiberg, 09596 Freiberg (Germany); Latyshev, Alexander V. [A.V. Rzhanov Institute of Semiconductor Physics, pr. Lavrentjeva, 13, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Novosibirsk State University, Pirogov str. 2, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Zahn, Dietrich R.T. [Semiconductor Physics, Technische Universität Chemnitz, D-09107 Chemnitz (Germany)

    2016-05-01

    Highlights: • Regular Au nanocluster and dimer arrays as well as single Au dimers are fabricated. • Resonant SERS by monolayers of CdSe nanocrystals deposited on the Au nanostructures is observed. • LO energy change for CdSe NCs on different single Au dimers indicates SERS by single or a few NCs. - Abstract: Here we present the results on an investigation of resonant Stokes and anti- Stokes surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) by optical phonons in colloidal CdSe nanocrystals (NCs) homogeneously deposited on arrays of Au nanoclusters using the Langmuir–Blodgett technology. The thickness of deposited NCs, determined by transmission and scanning electron microscopy, amounts to approximately 1 monolayer. Special attention is paid to the determination of the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) energy in the arrays of Au nanoclusters as a function of the nanocluster size by means of micro-ellipsometry. SERS by optical phonons in CdSe NCs shows a significant enhancement factor with a maximal value of 2 × 10{sup 3} which depends resonantly on the Au nanocluster size and thus on the LSPR energy. The deposition of CdSe NCs on the arrays of Au nanocluster dimers enabled us to study the polarization dependence of SERS. It was found that a maximal SERS signal is observed for the light polarization along the dimer axis. Finally, SERS by optical phonons was observed for CdSe NCs deposited on the structures with a single Au dimer. A difference of the LO phonon energy is observed for CdSe NCs on different single dimers. This effect is explained as the confinement-induced shift which depends on the CdSe nanocrystal size and indicates quasi-single NC Raman spectra being obtained.

  18. Effect of deposition temperature on the structural and optical properties of CdSe QDs thin films deposited by CBD method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laatar, F.; Harizi, A.; Smida, A.; Hassen, M.; Ezzaouia, H.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Synthesis of CdSe QDs with L-Cysteine capping agent for applications in nanodevices. • The films of CdSe QDs present uniform and good dispersive particles at the surface. • Effect of bath temperature on the structural and optical properties of CdSe QDs thin films. • Investigation of the optical constants and dispersion parameters of CdSe QDs thin films. - Abstract: Cadmium selenide quantum dots (CdSe QDs) thin films were deposited onto glass substrates by a chemical bath deposition (CBD) method at different temperatures from an aqueous solution containing L-Cysteine (L-Cys) as capping agent. The evolution of the surface morphology and elemental composition of the CdSe films were studied by AFM, SEM, and EDX analyses. Structural and optical properties of CdSe thin films were investigated by XRD, UV–vis and PL spectroscopy. The dispersion behavior of the refractive index is described using the single oscillator Wemple-DiDomenico (W-D) model, and the physical dispersion parameters are calculated as a function of deposition temperature. The dispersive optical parameters such as average oscillator energy (E_o), dispersion energy (E_d), and static refractive index (n_o) were found to vary with the deposition temperature. Besides, the electrical free carrier susceptibility (χ_e) and the carrier concentration of the effective mass ratio (N/m*) were evaluated according to the Spitzer-Fan model.

  19. Layer-by-layer assembled porous CdSe films incorporated with plasmonic gold and improved photoelectrochemical behaviors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Aiping; Ren, Qinghua; Yuan, Ming; Xu, Tao; Tan, Manlin; Zhao, Tingyu; Dong, Wenjun; Tang, Weihua

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • A 3D porous CdSe film with plasmonic gold was fabricated by electrodeposition. • A prominent light absorption enhancement of CdSe films was attained by gold plasmon. • The photoelectrochemical response of CdSe was tunable by Au–CdSe bilayer number. • The porous Au–CdSe films had a potential application in energy conversion devices. -- Abstract: A simple method for creating three-dimensional porous wurtzite CdSe films incorporated with plasmonic gold by the electrochemical layer-by-layer assembly was proposed. A prominent enhancement in light absorption of CdSe films was attained by the efficient light scattering of gold plasmons as sub-wavelength antennas and concentrators and the near-field coupling of gold plasmons with the neighboring porous CdSe films. The broadband photocurrent enhancement of Au–CdSe composite systems in the visible light range and the local current maximum between 600 and 700 nm suggested the cooperative action of antenna effects and electromagnetic field enhancement resulting from localized surface plasmon excitation of gold. Furthermore, the photoelectrochemical response of porous Au–CdSe composite films was highly tunable with respect to the number of Au–CdSe bilayer. The optimal short-circuit current and open-circuit potential were obtained in a four-layer Au–CdSe system because the thicker absorber layer with less porous structure might limit the electrolyte diffusion into the hybrid electrode and impose a barrier for electron tunneling and transferring. The highly versatile and tunable properties of assembled porous Au–CdSe composite films demonstrated their potential application in energy conversion devices

  20. Photoluminescence of patterned CdSe quantum dot for anti-counterfeiting label on paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isnaeni,; Yulianto, Nursidik; Suliyanti, Maria Margaretha

    2016-01-01

    We successfully developed a method utilizing colloidal CdSe nanocrystalline quantum dot for anti-counterfeiting label on a piece of glossy paper. We deposited numbers and lines patterns of toluene soluble CdSe quantum dot using rubber stamper on a glossy paper. The width of line pattern was about 1-2 mm with 1-2 mm separation between lines. It required less than one minute for deposited CdSe quantum dot on glossy paper to dry and become invisible by naked eyes. However, patterned quantum dot become visible using long-pass filter glasses upon excitation of UV lamp or blue laser. We characterized photoluminescence of line patterns of quantum dot, and we found that emission boundaries of line patterns were clearly observed. The error of line size and shape were mainly due to defect of the original stamper. The emission peak wavelength of CdSe quantum dot was 629 nm. The emission spectrum of deposited quantum dot has full width at half maximum (FWHM) of 30-40 nm. The spectra similarity between deposited quantum dot and the original quantum dot in solution proved that our stamping method can be simply applied on glossy paper without changing basic optical property of the quantum dot. Further development of this technique is potential for anti-counterfeiting label on very important documents or objects.

  1. Photoluminescence of patterned CdSe quantum dot for anti-counterfeiting label on paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isnaeni,, E-mail: isnaeni@lipi.go.id; Yulianto, Nursidik; Suliyanti, Maria Margaretha [Research Center for Physics, Indonesian Institute of Sciences, Building 442, Kawasan Puspiptek, South Tangerang,Banten 15314 Indonesia (Indonesia)

    2016-03-11

    We successfully developed a method utilizing colloidal CdSe nanocrystalline quantum dot for anti-counterfeiting label on a piece of glossy paper. We deposited numbers and lines patterns of toluene soluble CdSe quantum dot using rubber stamper on a glossy paper. The width of line pattern was about 1-2 mm with 1-2 mm separation between lines. It required less than one minute for deposited CdSe quantum dot on glossy paper to dry and become invisible by naked eyes. However, patterned quantum dot become visible using long-pass filter glasses upon excitation of UV lamp or blue laser. We characterized photoluminescence of line patterns of quantum dot, and we found that emission boundaries of line patterns were clearly observed. The error of line size and shape were mainly due to defect of the original stamper. The emission peak wavelength of CdSe quantum dot was 629 nm. The emission spectrum of deposited quantum dot has full width at half maximum (FWHM) of 30-40 nm. The spectra similarity between deposited quantum dot and the original quantum dot in solution proved that our stamping method can be simply applied on glossy paper without changing basic optical property of the quantum dot. Further development of this technique is potential for anti-counterfeiting label on very important documents or objects.

  2. Studies of interaction of amines with TOPO/TOP capped CdSe quantum dots: Role of crystallite size and oxidation potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Shailesh N.; Sharma, Himani; Singh, Gurmeet; Shivaprasad, S.M.

    2008-01-01

    This work reports the interaction of aliphatic (triethyl amine, butyl amine) and aromatic amines (PPD, aniline) with CdSe quantum dots of varied sizes. The emission properties and lifetime values of CdSe quantum dots were found to be dependent on the oxidation potential of amines and crystallite sizes. Smaller CdSe quantum dots (size ∼5 nm) ensure better surface coverage of amines and hence higher quenching efficiency of amines could be realized as compared to larger CdSe quantum dots (size ∼14 nm). Heterogeneous quenching of amines due to the presence of accessible and inaccessible set of CdSe fluorophores is indicated. PPD owing to its lowest oxidation potential (∼0.26 V) has been found to have higher quenching efficiency as compared to other amines TEA and aniline having oxidation potentials ∼0.66 and >1.0 V, respectively. Butyl amine on the other hand, plays a dual role: its post-addition acts as a quencher for smaller and enhances emission for larger CdSe quantum dots, respectively. The beneficial effect of butyl amine in enhancing emission intensity could be attributed to enhance capping effect and better passivation of surface-traps

  3. Nanocrystal Size-Dependent Efficiency of Quantum Dot Sensitized Solar Cells in the Strongly Coupled CdSe Nanocrystals/TiO2 System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Hyeong Jin; Paik, Taejong; Diroll, Benjamin; Edley, Michael E; Baxter, Jason B; Murray, Christopher B

    2016-06-15

    Light absorption and electron injection are important criteria determining solar energy conversion efficiency. In this research, monodisperse CdSe quantum dots (QDs) are synthesized with five different diameters, and the size-dependent solar energy conversion efficiency of CdSe quantum dot sensitized solar cell (QDSSCs) is investigated by employing the atomic inorganic ligand, S(2-). Absorbance measurements and transmission electron microscopy show that the diameters of the uniform CdSe QDs are 2.5, 3.2, 4.2, 6.4, and 7.8 nm. Larger CdSe QDs generate a larger amount of charge under the irradiation of long wavelength photons, as verified by the absorbance results and the measurements of the external quantum efficiencies. However, the smaller QDs exhibit faster electron injection kinetics from CdSe QDs to TiO2 because of the high energy level of CBCdSe, as verified by time-resolved photoluminescence and internal quantum efficiency results. Importantly, the S(2-) ligand significantly enhances the electronic coupling between the CdSe QDs and TiO2, yielding an enhancement of the charge transfer rate at the interfacial region. As a result, the S(2-) ligand helps improve the new size-dependent solar energy conversion efficiency, showing best performance with 4.2-nm CdSe QDs, whereas conventional ligand, mercaptopropionic acid, does not show any differences in efficiency according to the size of the CdSe QDs. The findings reported herein suggest that the atomic inorganic ligand reinforces the influence of quantum confinement on the solar energy conversion efficiency of QDSSCs.

  4. Effect of deposition temperature on the structural and optical properties of CdSe QDs thin films deposited by CBD method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laatar, F., E-mail: fakher8laatar@gmail.com [Photovoltaic Laboratory, Centre for Research and Technology Energy, Tourist Route Soliman, BP 95, 2050 Hammam-Lif (Tunisia); Harizi, A. [Photovoltaic and Semiconductor Materials Laboratory, Engineering Industrial Department, ENIT, Tunis El Manar University, BP 37, Le Belvédère, 1002 Tunis (Tunisia); Smida, A. [Photovoltaic Laboratory, Centre for Research and Technology Energy, Tourist Route Soliman, BP 95, 2050 Hammam-Lif (Tunisia); Hassen, M. [Photovoltaic Laboratory, Centre for Research and Technology Energy, Tourist Route Soliman, BP 95, 2050 Hammam-Lif (Tunisia); Higher Institute of Applied Science and Technology of Sousse, City Taffala (Ibn Khaldun), 4003 Sousse (Tunisia); Ezzaouia, H. [Photovoltaic Laboratory, Centre for Research and Technology Energy, Tourist Route Soliman, BP 95, 2050 Hammam-Lif (Tunisia)

    2016-06-15

    Highlights: • Synthesis of CdSe QDs with L-Cysteine capping agent for applications in nanodevices. • The films of CdSe QDs present uniform and good dispersive particles at the surface. • Effect of bath temperature on the structural and optical properties of CdSe QDs thin films. • Investigation of the optical constants and dispersion parameters of CdSe QDs thin films. - Abstract: Cadmium selenide quantum dots (CdSe QDs) thin films were deposited onto glass substrates by a chemical bath deposition (CBD) method at different temperatures from an aqueous solution containing L-Cysteine (L-Cys) as capping agent. The evolution of the surface morphology and elemental composition of the CdSe films were studied by AFM, SEM, and EDX analyses. Structural and optical properties of CdSe thin films were investigated by XRD, UV–vis and PL spectroscopy. The dispersion behavior of the refractive index is described using the single oscillator Wemple-DiDomenico (W-D) model, and the physical dispersion parameters are calculated as a function of deposition temperature. The dispersive optical parameters such as average oscillator energy (E{sub o}), dispersion energy (E{sub d}), and static refractive index (n{sub o}) were found to vary with the deposition temperature. Besides, the electrical free carrier susceptibility (χ{sub e}) and the carrier concentration of the effective mass ratio (N/m*) were evaluated according to the Spitzer-Fan model.

  5. Synthesis and analysis of ZnO and CdSe nanoparticles

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Introduction. Semiconductor nanoparticles is a very important topic in the ongoing research ac- ... Zinc oxide is attracting tremendous attention due to its interesting properties like ... Size selective precipitation was carried out using acetone as.

  6. Photoluminescence of colloidal CdSe nano-tetrapods and quantum dots in oxygenic and oxygen-free environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Lijuan [Donghua University, Applied Physics Department, Shanghai (China); Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Physics Department and the Institute of Nano-Science and Technology, Hong Kong (China); Pang, Qi; Ge, Weikun; Wang, Jiannong [Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Physics Department and the Institute of Nano-Science and Technology, Hong Kong (China); Yang, Shihe [Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Chemistry Department and the Institute of Nano-Science and Technology, Hong Kong (China)

    2011-05-15

    The effects of oxygenic versus oxygen-free environments on colloidal CdSe nano-tetrapods and quantum dots (QDs) were studied using both continuous and time-resolved photoluminescence (PL) measurements. The decays of PL intensities for tetrapods and QDs in oxygen-free solution (chloroform) and in air (on silicon) can be well fitted by a bi-exponential function. Based on the emission-energy dependence of carrier lifetimes and the amplitude ratio of the fast-decay component to the slow-decay component, the fast and slow PL decays of CdSe nanocrystals are attributed to the recombination of delocalized carriers in the core states and localized carriers in the surface states, respectively. The PL intensities of CdSe nano-tetrapods and QDs were found to be five times and an order of magnitude higher in air than in vacuum, respectively, which is explained by the passivation of surface defects by the polar gas (oxygen) absorption. The lower enhancement in PL intensities of CdSe nano-tetrapods is explained by the special morphology of the tetrapods. (orig.)

  7. High quality zinc-blende CdSe nanocrystals synthesized in a hexadecylamine-oleic acid-paraffin liquid mixture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Lan, E-mail: lwang322@yahoo.com.cn [Department of Applied Physics, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Department of Physics, Harbin Medical University, Harbin 150081 (China); Sun Xiudong, E-mail: xdsun@hit.edu.cn [Department of Applied Physics, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Liu Wenjing [Department of Astronautic Science and Mechanics, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Liu Bingyi [Laboratory Center for the School of Pharmacy, Harbin Medical University, Harbin 150081 (China)

    2010-03-15

    Safe, common, and low-cost compounds were used as solvents for the non-tri-n-octylphosphine (TOP) synthesis of high quality CdSe nanocrystals (NCs) in open air. In oleic acid-paraffin liquid system, CdSe nanocrystals in the less common zinc-blende (ZB, cubic) crystal structure have been obtained. The effects of adding n-hexadecylamine (HDA) to different solutions were discussed. Stable, highly homogeneous and luminescent CdSe nanocrystals were formed by adding n-hexadecylamine to Cd solution rather than to Se solution. Without any size sorting, the size distribution of the nanocrystals can be readily controlled and the highest photoluminescence (PL) quantum efficiency (QE) of the nanocrystals was up to 20-30%.

  8. High quality zinc-blende CdSe nanocrystals synthesized in a hexadecylamine-oleic acid-paraffin liquid mixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Lan; Sun Xiudong; Liu Wenjing; Liu Bingyi

    2010-01-01

    Safe, common, and low-cost compounds were used as solvents for the non-tri-n-octylphosphine (TOP) synthesis of high quality CdSe nanocrystals (NCs) in open air. In oleic acid-paraffin liquid system, CdSe nanocrystals in the less common zinc-blende (ZB, cubic) crystal structure have been obtained. The effects of adding n-hexadecylamine (HDA) to different solutions were discussed. Stable, highly homogeneous and luminescent CdSe nanocrystals were formed by adding n-hexadecylamine to Cd solution rather than to Se solution. Without any size sorting, the size distribution of the nanocrystals can be readily controlled and the highest photoluminescence (PL) quantum efficiency (QE) of the nanocrystals was up to 20-30%.

  9. Simple and convenient preparation of Au-Pt core-shell nanoparticles on surface via a seed growth method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qian Lei; Sha Yufang; Yang Xiurong

    2006-01-01

    Au-Pt core-shell nanoparticles were prepared on glass surface by a seed growth method. Gold nanoparticles were used as seeds and ascorbic acid-H 2 PtCl 6 solutions as growth solutions to deposit Pt shell on the surface of gold nanoparticles. These core-shell nanoparticles and their growth process were examined by UV-Vis spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy and field-emission environmental scanning electron microscopy and the results indicated that the deposition speed was fast and nanoparticles with obvious core-shell structure could be obtained after 2 min. Moreover, this seed growth method for preparation of the core-shell nanoparticles is simple and convenient compared with other seed growth methods with NH 4 OH as a mild reductant. In addition, electrochemical experiments indicated that these Au-Pt core-shell nanoparticles had similar electrochemical properties to those of the bulk Pt electrode

  10. The processing of CdSe/Polymer nanocomposites via solution organometallic chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khanna, P.K.; Singh, Narendra; Charan, Shobhit; Lonkar, Sunil P.; Reddy, A. Satyanarayana; Patil, Yogesh; Viswanath, A. Kasi

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents in situ preparation of CdSe nanoparticles using poly(vinyl alcohol) [PVA] and polymethylmethacrylate [PMMA] as matrices by use of organoselenium compound. Reaction of cadmium metal salt and 1,2,3-selenadiazole (the source of selenium) enabled formation of CdSe nanoparticles. Use of selenadiazole in the present work with polymer is first of its kind. The radical polymerization of methycrylate monomer with benzoyl peroxide followed by reaction of respective reagents have been successfully employed to synthesize CdSe/PMMA nanocomposite. Similarly, reaction between selenadiazole and cadmium metal salt in aq. PVA yielded polymer coated or mixed CdSe nanoparticles. The UV-vis absorption spectra showed blue shift of about 200 nm with respect to band-gap energy of bulk CdSe, due to size quantization effect in CdSe particles. An emission band was observed at 530 nm in photoluminescence spectrum (PL) of CdSe/PMMA. IR spectra indicated shifts in the values of the polymer functional group due to nanoparticles. X-ray measurement of CdSe/Polymer nano-composites showed broad pattern for cubic CdSe and particle size of CdSe was estimated to be <10 nm. TGA revealed gradual weight loss between 200 and 400 deg. C indicating increased thermal stability of the polymer

  11. Green synthesis of Au nanoparticles using potato extract: stability and growth mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo-López, D. N.; Pal, U.

    2014-08-01

    We report on the synthesis of spherical, well-dispersed colloidal gold nanoparticles of 17.5-23.5 nm average sizes in water using potato extract (PE) both as reducing and stabilizing agent. The effects of PE content and the pH value of the reaction mixture have been studied. Formation and growth dynamics of the Au nanoparticles in the colloids were studied using transmission electron microscopy and UV-Vis optical absorption spectroscopy techniques. While the reductor content and, hence, the nucleation and growth rates of the nanoparticles could be controlled by controlling the PE content in the reaction solution, the stability of the nanoparticles depended strongly on the pH of the reaction mixture. The mechanisms of Au ion reduction and stabilization of Au nanoparticles by potato starch have been discussed. The use of common natural solvent like water and biological reductor like PE in our synthesis process opens up the possibility of synthesizing Au nanoparticles in fully green (environmental friendly) way, and the Au nanoparticles produced in such way should have good biocompatibility.

  12. The effect of Pb addition on the morphology of CdSe quantum dot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Kuk; Cho, Young-Sang; Chung, Kookchae; Choi, Chul-Jin

    2010-08-01

    CdSe quantum dots had been synthesized with a hot injection method. It was shown that the addition of Pb ions in the initial precursor solution changed the morphology of CdSe nanocrystals from slightly prolate ellipsoid to branched rod. Photoluminescence (PL) of the branched nanocrystals showed rapid depression of emission intensity due to the morphological development to the branched nanocrystal induced by Pb addition. Low temperature PL spectrum indicated that the surface recombination of charge carrier resulted in the large depression of emission from the branched nanocrystal.

  13. Size-dependent structure of CdSe nanoclusters formed after ion implantation in MgO

    OpenAIRE

    van Huis, MA; van Veen, A; Schut, H; Eijt, SWH; Kooi, BJ; De Hosson, JTM

    2005-01-01

    The band gap as well as the optical and structural properties of semiconductor CdSe nanoclusters change as a function of the nanocluster size. Embedded CdSe nanoclusters in MgO were created by means of sequential Cd and Se ion implantation followed by thermal annealing. Changes during annealing were monitored using optical absorption and positron annihilation spectroscopy. High-resolution TEM on cross-sections after annealing at a temperature of 1300 K showed that clusters with a size below 5...

  14. Inspection of single CdSe nanowires by use of micro-focused X-ray diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurtulus, Oezguel [Dogus University, Istanbul (Turkey); Li, Zhen [University of Queensland, Brisbane (Australia); Arezki, Bahia; Biermanns, Andreas; Pietsch, Ullrich [University of Siegen (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    The morphology of CdSe nanowires (NW) can easily be controlled by various growth methods. In this study, CdSe NWs are prepared by solution-liquid-solid (SLS) approach providing needle-shaped wires of about 60nm in diameter and several microns in length. To make X-ray single NW inspection possible, the NWs were dispersed in toluene and hexadecylamine, homogenized by centrifugation and finally spin-coated on silicon substrate. SEM images revealed that the NWs are randomly oriented with length axis parallel to the substrate. However, at selected areas, the distance between neighboured NWs is in the order of one micron. These samples were investigated by X-ray diffraction using a 300 nm x 600 nm micro-focus at beamline ID1 of ESRF. Diffraction from 110W/2-20ZB basal plane was selected for single nanowire inspection. In order to measure various single objects subsequently, the sample was laterally scanned through the beam keeping the diffraction angle fixed. It was observed that the individual NWs differ slightly in peak position and peak width. From powder diffraction, it is known that NWs consist of an admixture of a wurtzite (W) and zinc-blende (ZB) structure units and the coherent illumination of sample by the micro-focus enables to visualize these zinc-blende and wurzite units separated by stacking faults.

  15. Colloidal CdSe Quantum Rings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedin, Igor; Talapin, Dmitri V

    2016-08-10

    Semiconductor quantum rings are of great fundamental interest because their non-trivial topology creates novel physical properties. At the same time, toroidal topology is difficult to achieve for colloidal nanocrystals and epitaxially grown semiconductor nanostructures. In this work, we introduce the synthesis of luminescent colloidal CdSe nanorings and nanostructures with double and triple toroidal topology. The nanorings form during controlled etching and rearrangement of two-dimensional nanoplatelets. We discuss a possible mechanism of the transformation of nanoplatelets into nanorings and potential utility of colloidal nanorings for magneto-optical (e.g., Aharonov-Bohm effect) and other applications.

  16. Programmable Self-assembly of Hydrocarbon-capped Nanoparticles: Role of Chain Conformations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waltmann, Curt; Horst, Nathan; Travesset, Alex

    Nanoparticle superlattices (NPS), i.e. crystalline arrangements of nanoparticles, are materials with fascinating structures, which in many cases are not possible to attain from simple atoms or molecules. They also span a wide range of possible applications such as metamaterials, new energy sources, catalysis, and many others. In this talk, we present a theoretical and computational description of the self-assembly of nanoparticles with hydrocarbons as capping ligands. Usually, these systems have been described with hard sphere packing models. In this talk, we show that the conformations of the hydrocarbon chains play a fundamental role in determining the equilibrium phases, including and especially in binary systems. The work of CW was supported by a DOE-SULI internship from May-December 2016, and by NSF, DMR-CMMT 1606336 CDS&E: Design Principles for Ordering Nanoparticles into Super-crystals after January 1st.

  17. Properties of CdSe quantum dots coated with silica fabricated in a facile way

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao Yufeng; Li Wenjiang; He Sailing

    2007-01-01

    High quality quantum dots (QDs) CdSe were prepared using a novel and non-TOP method. Quantum dots of different sizes ranging from 2 to 4 nm could be obtained by removing aliquots of the reaction solution at different time intervals or by adjusting some reaction conditions. The CdSe quantum dots (core) were directly coated with silica (shell) using a microemulsion method. The design and preparation of a model QD/silica was described and characterized using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), UV-vis absorption, photoluminescence and laser confocal scanning microscopy. TEM images confirmed the well-monodispersed QDs and the silica shell around the CdSe core, respectively; laser confocal microscope images, UV-vis absorption and photoluminescence spectra clearly indicated that both the original QDs and the silica-coated QDs had good fluorescence properties. The quantum dots coated with silica shells were stable, water-soluble and less toxic (due to the silica shells), and are anticipated to be used as fluorescent probes for biosensing and imaging applications

  18. Characterization of CdSe polycrystalline films by photoluminescence spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brasil, M.J.S.P.

    1985-01-01

    The characterization of CdSe polycristalline films were done by photoluminescence spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction analysis, diagrams IxV, and efficiency of solar energy conversion for cells done by these films. The experimental data shown strong temperature dependence of annealing, and the optimum temperature around 650 0 C was determined. The films did not present photoluminescence before heat treatment, but the annealed sample spectrum showed fine structures in the excitonic region, crystal phase transformation, enhancement of grain size, and better efficiency of the cell. Measurements of photoluminescence between 2 and 300 K, showed two bands of infrared emission, width and intense enough. The shape, at half-width, and the integrated intensity of one these bands were described by a configuration coordinate model for deep centers. Based on obtained results, some hypothesis about the origin of these bands and its correlation with efficiency of cells done with CdSe polycrystalline films, are proposed. (M.C.K.) [pt

  19. Three-dimensional selective growth of nanoparticles on a polymer microstructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Shaomin; Han, L-H; Chen Shaochen

    2009-01-01

    We demonstrate a new technique for selectively growing gold nanoparticles on a patterned three-dimensional (3D) polymer microstructure. The technique integrates 3D direct writing of heterogeneous microstructures with nanoparticle synthesis. A digital micromirror device is employed as a dynamic mask in the digital projection photopolymerization process to build the heterogeneous microstructure layer by layer. An amine-bearing polyelectrolyte, branched poly(ethylenimine), is selectively attached to the microstructure and acts as both a reducing and a protective agent in the nanoparticle synthesis. Scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy are utilized to analyze the microstructure and the 3D selectivity of the nanoparticle growth.

  20. Structural and optical properties of electron beam evaporated CdSe ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    WINTEC

    ECMS Division, Central Electrochemical Research Institute, Karaikudi 630 006, India. † ... (0 0 2) direction of films has been confirmed by the X-ray diffraction analysis. The films ... CdSe is a direct band gap semiconductor belonging to the.

  1. Preparation of epidermal growth factor (EGF) conjugated iron oxide nanoparticles and their internalization into colon cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Creixell, Mar; Herrera, Adriana P.; Ayala, Vanessa; Latorre-Esteves, Magda; Perez-Torres, Marianela; Torres-Lugo, Madeline; Rinaldi, Carlos

    2010-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF) was conjugated with carboxymethyldextran (CMDx) coated iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles using carbodiimide chemistry to obtain magnetic nanoparticles that target the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). Epidermal growth factor modified magnetic nanoparticles were colloidally stable when suspended in biological buffers such as PBS and cell culture media. Both targeted and non-targeted nanoparticles were incubated with CaCo-2 cancer cells, known to overexpress EGFR. Nanoparticle localization within the cell was visualized by confocal laser scanning microscopy and light microscopy using Prussian blue stain. Results showed that targeted magnetic nanoparticles were rapidly accumulated in both flask-shaped small vesicles and large circular endocytic structures. Internalization patterns suggest that both clathrin-dependent and clathrin-independent receptors mediated endocytosis mechanisms are responsible for nanoparticle internalization.

  2. Block-copolymer assisted synthesis of arrays of metal nanoparticles and their catalytic activities for the growth of SWNTs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhaviripudi, Sreekar; Reina, Alfonso; Qi, Jifa; Kong, Jing; Belcher, Angela M

    2006-01-01

    Block copolymer micellar templates were used for the controlled synthesis of large arrays of mono-metallic (Fe, Co, Ni, Mo) and bi-metallic (Fe-Mo) nanoparticles with average diameters ranging from 1 to 4 nm and the distance between the nanoparticles ranging from 40 to 45 nm. XPS data reveal the presence of mono-metallic nanoparticles in their oxidized states. These uniform arrays of nanoparticles serve as an excellent tool to investigate the catalytic effect of different metal/metal oxide nanoparticles for the growth of carbon nanotubes, and in this work, they were used to investigate the growth of single-walled carbon nanotubes with the chemical vapour deposition (CVD) process, using both ethanol and hydrocarbon (methane + ethylene) gases as carbon sources. The periodicity and the arrangement of nanoparticles were unaffected even at high growth temperatures, indicating that nanoparticle agglomeration on the Si substrate does not take place during growth. AFM and SEM results reveal uniform growth of nanotubes with diameters smaller than the initial size of the catalyst nanoparticles. The Fe, Co and Ni nanoparticles all serve as effective catalysts for nanotube growth with both types of carbon feed stock, and Co and Ni give rise to a relatively higher yield than Fe. The catalytic activity of Fe and bi-metallic Fe-Mo nanoparticles of similar size and identical densities using ethanol CVD are also compared

  3. Gamma-irradiation assisted seeded growth of Ag nanoparticles within PVA matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eisa, Wael H.; Abdel-Moneam, Yasser K.; Shaaban, Yasser; Abdel-Fattah, Atef A.; Abou Zeid, Amira M.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Nucleation and growth must be two completely separated steps. → The amount of zerovalent nuclei can be controlled by varying the irradiation dose. → PVA act as physical barrier to inhibit aggregation or the growth of Ag nanoparticles. - Abstract: Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)/Ag hybrid nanocomposites have been prepared from polymeric film of PVA and silver nitrate (AgNO 3 ). The silver nanoparticles were generated in PVA matrix by the reduction of silver ions with gamma-irradiation. UV-visible spectra showed a single peak at 422 nm, arising from the surface plasmon absorption of silver nanoparticles. The shifting of surface plasmon resonance peak after irradiation reveals that the gamma irradiation can be used as a size controlling agent for the preparation of silver nanoparticles embedded in PVA film. This result was in good agreement with the result obtained from TEM images. The TEM images showed the narrow size distribution of the obtained Ag nanoparticles with average particle size of 30 nm, which decreased to 17 nm with increasing irradiation dose. The X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that silver metal was present in face centered cubic (fcc) crystal structure. These results clearly indicate that monodispersed silver nanoparticles are embedded homogenously in PVA matrix.

  4. Size and temperature dependence of the tensile mechanical properties of zinc blende CdSe nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu, Bing; Chen, Na; Xie, Yiqun; Ye, Xiang; Gu, Xiao

    2013-01-01

    The effect of size and temperature on the tensile mechanical properties of zinc blende CdSe nanowires is investigated by all atoms molecular dynamic simulation. We found the ultimate tensile strength and Young's modulus will decrease as the temperature and size of the nanowire increase. The size and temperature dependence are mainly attributed to surface effect and thermally elongation effect. High reversibility of tensile behavior will make zinc blende CdSe nanowires suitable for building efficient nanodevices.

  5. Mobility activation in thermally deposited CdSe thin films

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Effect of illumination on mobility has been studied from the photocurrent decay characteristics of thermally evaporated CdSe thin films deposited on suitably cleaned glass substrate held at elevated substrate temperatures. The study indicates that the mobilities of the carriers of different trap levels are activated due to the ...

  6. Charge separation and transfer in hybrid type II tunneling structures of CdTe and CdSe nanocrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gross, Dieter Konrad Michael

    2013-11-08

    Closely packed nanocrystal systems have been investigated in this thesis with respect to charge separation by charge carrier tunneling. Clustered and layered samples have been analyzed using PL-measurements and SPV-methods. The most important findings are reviewed in the following. A short outlook is also provided for potential further aspects and application of the presented results. The main purpose of this thesis was to find and quantify electronic tunneling transfer in closely packed self-assembled nanocrystal structures presenting quantum mechanical barriers of about 1 nm width. We successfully used hybrid assemblies of CdTe and CdSe nanocrystals where the expected type II alignment between CdTe and CdSe typically leads to a concentration of electrons in CdSe and holes in CdTe nanocrystals. We were able to prove the charge selectivity of the CdTe-CdSe nanocrystal interface which induces charge separation. We mainly investigated the effects related to the electron transfer from CdTe to CdSe nanocrystals. Closely packing was achieved by two independent methods: the disordered colloidal clustering in solution and the layered assembly on dry glass substrates. Both methods lead to an inter-particle distance of about 1 nm of mainly organic material which acts as a tunneling barrier. PL-spectroscopy was applied. The PL-quenching of the CdTe nanocrystals in hybrid assemblies indicates charge separation by electron transfer from CdTe to CdSe nanocrystals. A maximum quenching rate of up to 1/100 ps was measured leading to a significant global PL-quenching of up to about 70 % for the CdTe nanocrystals. It was shown that charge separation dynamics compete with energy transfer dynamics and that charge separation typically dominates. The quantum confinement effect was used to tune the energetic offset between the CdTe and CdSe nanocrystals. We thus observe a correlation of PL-quenching and offset of the energy states for the electron transfer. The investigated PL

  7. Reassignment of oxygen-related defects in CdTe and CdSe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bastin, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    This thesis reassigns the O_T_e-V_C_d complex in CdTe and the O_S_e-V_C_d complex in CdSe to a sulfur-dioxygen complex SO_2*, and the O_C_d defect in CdSe to a V_C_dH_2 complex using Fourier transformed infrared absorption spectroscopy. The publications of the previous complexes were investigated by theoreticians who performed first-principle calculations of theses complexes. The theoreticians ruled out the assignments and proposed alternative defects, instead. The discrepancy between the experimentally obtained and theoretically proposed defects was the motivation of this work. Two local vibrational modes located at 1096.8 (ν_1) and 1108.3 cm"-"1 (ν_2) previously assigned to an O_T_e-V_C_d complex are detected in CdTe single crystals doped with CdSO_4 powder. Five weaker additional absorption lines accompanying ν_1 and ν_2 could be detected. The relative intensities of the absorption lines match a sulfur-dioxygen complex SO_2* having two configurations labeled ν_1 and ν_2. A binding energy difference of 0.5±0.1 meV between the two configurations and an energy barrier of 53±4 meV separating the two configurations are determined. Uniaxial stress applied to the crystal leads to a splitting of the absorption lines which corresponds to an orthorhombic and monoclinic symmetry for ν_1 and ν_2, respectively. In virgin and oxygen-doped CdSe single crystals, three local vibrational modes located at 1094.1 (γ_1), 1107.5 (γ_2), and 1126.3 cm"-"1 (γ_3) previously attributed to an O_S_e-V_C_d complex could be observed. The signals are accompanied by five weaker additional absorption features in their vicinity. The additional absorption lines are identified as isotope satellites of a sulfur-dioxygen complex SO_2* having three configurations γ_1, γ_2, and γ_3. IR absorption measurements with uniaxial stress applied to the CdSe crystal yield a monoclinic C_1_h symmetry for γ_1 and γ_2. The SO_2* complex is stable up to 600 C. This thesis assigns the ν-lines in

  8. Fabrication of CdSe quantum dots/permutite luminescent materials

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    tosuccinic acid-capped CdSe quantum dots (QDs) were prepared in aqueous solution by using SeO2 as selenium source and NaBH4 as reductant. Secondly, the commercial permutite was treated with acetic acid to induce a partial dealumnization, which can introduce a large number of intracrystal mesopores, and the.

  9. Space charge limited conduction in CdSe thin films

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    of trap limited space charge limited conduction (SCLC) at higher voltage. The transition voltage (Vt ) from ohmic to SCLC is found to be quite independent of ambient temperature as well as intensity of illumination. SCLC is explained on the basis of the exponential trap distribution in CdSe films. Trap depths estimated from.

  10. Bio-templated CdSe quantum dots green synthesis in the functional protein, lysozyme, and biological activity investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Qisui; Li, Song; Liu, Peng; Min, Xinmin

    2012-01-01

    Bifunctional fluorescence (CdSe Quantum Dots) – protein (Lysozyme) nanocomposites were synthesized at room temperature by a protein-directed, solution-phase, green-synthetic method. Fluorescence (FL) and absorption spectra showed that CdSe QDs were prepared successfully with Lyz. The average particle size and crystalline structure of QDs were investigated by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD), respectively. With attenuated total reflection-fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectra and thermogravimetric (TG) analysis, it was confirmed that there is interaction between QDs and amide I, amide II groups in Lyz. FL polarization was measured and FL imaging was done to monitor whether QDs could be responsible for possible changes in the conformation and activity of Lyz. Interestingly, the results showed Lyz still retain the biological activity after formation of QDs, but the secondary structure of the Lyz was changed. And the advantage of this synthesis method is producing excellent fluorescent QDs with specifically biological function. -- Highlights: ► Lysozyme-directed green synthesis of CdSe quantum dots. ► Lysozyme still retain the biological activity after formation of CdSe. ► The method is the production of fluorescent QDs with highly specific and functions.

  11. Generation of 320 mW at 10.20 μm based on CdSe long-wave infrared crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian; Yuan, Ligang; Zhang, Yingwu; Chen, Guo; Cheng, Hongjuan; Gao, Yanzhao

    2018-06-01

    CdSe single crystal, with the sizes of ∼54 mm in diameter and ∼25 mm in length, was grown by a high pressure vertical gradient freeze (HPVGF) technique using (0 0 1)-oriented seed. The CdSe crystal was characterized with transmission spectrophotometer. The transmission spectra showed that the infrared transmission was above 68% and the mean absorption coefficient was 0.041 cm-1 in the range of 2.5-20 μm. Using fabricated CdSe crystal with the dimensions of 6 mm × 10 mm × 44 mm, we demonstrated an optical parametric oscillator (OPO) pumped by a 2.05 μm Ho:YLF laser at a pulse repetition frequency of 5 kHz. Up to 320 mW output was obtained at the idler wavelength of 10.20 μm with a pump power of 18.06 W. 320 mW at 10.20 μm, to our knowledge, was the highest power obtained with a 2.05 μm laser-pumped CdSe OPO.

  12. Nanocatalytic growth of Si nanowires from Ni silicate coated SiC nanoparticles on Si solar cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parida, Bhaskar; Choi, Jaeho; Ji, Hyung Yong; Park, Seungil; Lim, Gyoungho; Kim, Keunjoo

    2013-09-01

    We investigated the nanocatalytic growth of Si nanowires on the microtextured surface of crystalline Si solar cell. 3C-SiC nanoparticles have been used as the base for formation of Ni silicate layer in a catalytic reaction with the Si melt under H2 atmosphere at an annealing temperature of 1100 degrees C. The 10-nm thick Ni film was deposited after the SiC nanoparticles were coated on the microtextured surface of the Si solar cell by electron-beam evaporation. SiC nanoparticles form a eutectic alloy surface of Ni silicate and provide the base for Si supersaturation as well as the Ni-Si alloy layer on Si substrate surface. This bottom reaction mode for the solid-liquid-solid growth mechanism using a SiC nanoparticle base provides more stable growth of nanowires than the top reaction mode growth mechanism in the absence of SiC nanoparticles. Thermally excited Ni nanoparticle forms the eutectic alloy and provides collectively excited electrons at the alloy surface, which reduces the activation energy of the nanocatalytic reaction for formation of nanowires.

  13. Resonant Infrared Matrix-Assisted Pulsed Laser Evaporation Of Inorganic Nanoparticles And Organic/Inorganic Hybrid Nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pate, Ryan; Lantz, Kevin R.; Dhawan, Anuj; Vo-Dinh, Tuan; Stiff-Roberts, Adrienne D.

    2010-10-01

    In this research, resonant infrared matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation (RIR-MAPLE) has been used to deposit different classes of inorganic nanoparticles, including bare, un-encapsulated ZnO and Au nanoparticles, as well as ligand-encapsulated CdSe colloidal quantum dots (CQDs). RIR-MAPLE has been used for thin-film deposition of different organic/inorganic hybrid nanocomposites using some of these inorganic nanoparticles, including CdSe CQD-poly[2-methoxy-5-(2'-ethylhexyloxy)-1,4-(1-cyanovinylene)phenylene] (MEH-CN-PPV) nanocomposites and Au nanoparticle-poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) nanocomposites. The unique contribution of this research is that a technique is demonstrated for the deposition of organic-based thin-films requiring solvents with bond energies that do not have to be resonant with the laser energy. By creating an emulsion of solvent and ice in the target, RIR-MAPLE using a 2.94 μm laser can deposit most material systems because the hydroxyl bonds in the ice component of the emulsion matrix are strongly resonant with the 2.94 μm laser. In this way, the types of materials that can be deposited using RIR-MAPLE has been significantly expanded. Furthermore, materials with different solvent bond energies can be co-deposited without concern for material degradation and without the need to specifically tune the laser energy to each material solvent bond energy, thereby facilitating the realization of organic/inorganic hybrid nanocomposite thin-films. In addition to the structural characterization of the inorganic nanoparticle and hybrid nanocomposite thin-films deposited using this RIR-MAPLE technique, optical characterization is presented to demonstrate the potential of such films for optoelectronic device applications.

  14. Resonant Infrared Matrix-Assisted Pulsed Laser Evaporation Of Inorganic Nanoparticles And Organic/Inorganic Hybrid Nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pate, Ryan; Lantz, Kevin R.; Stiff-Roberts, Adrienne D.; Dhawan, Anuj; Vo-Dinh, Tuan

    2010-01-01

    In this research, resonant infrared matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation (RIR-MAPLE) has been used to deposit different classes of inorganic nanoparticles, including bare, un-encapsulated ZnO and Au nanoparticles, as well as ligand-encapsulated CdSe colloidal quantum dots (CQDs). RIR-MAPLE has been used for thin-film deposition of different organic/inorganic hybrid nanocomposites using some of these inorganic nanoparticles, including CdSe CQD-poly[2-methoxy-5-(2'-ethylhexyloxy )-1,4-(1-cyanovinylene)phenylene](MEH-CN-PPV) nanocomposites and Au nanoparticle-poly(methyl methacrylate)(PMMA) nanocomposites. The unique contribution of this research is that a technique is demonstrated for the deposition of organic-based thin-films requiring solvents with bond energies that do not have to be resonant with the laser energy. By creating an emulsion of solvent and ice in the target, RIR-MAPLE using a 2.94 μm laser can deposit most material systems because the hydroxyl bonds in the ice component of the emulsion matrix are strongly resonant with the 2.94 μm laser. In this way, the types of materials that can be deposited using RIR-MAPLE has been significantly expanded. Furthermore, materials with different solvent bond energies can be co-deposited without concern for material degradation and without the need to specifically tune the laser energy to each material solvent bond energy, thereby facilitating the realization of organic/inorganic hybrid nanocomposite thin-films. In addition to the structural characterization of the inorganic nanoparticle and hybrid nanocomposite thin-films deposited using this RIR-MAPLE technique, optical characterization is presented to demonstrate the potential of such films for optoelectronic device applications.

  15. Cytotoxicity and fluorescence studies of silica-coated CdSe quantum dots for bioimaging applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vibin, Muthunayagam; Vinayakan, Ramachandran; John, Annie; Raji, Vijayamma; Rejiya, Chellappan S.; Vinesh, Naresh S.; Abraham, Annie

    2011-01-01

    The toxicological effects of silica-coated CdSe quantum dots (QDs) were investigated systematically on human cervical cancer cell line. Trioctylphosphine oxide capped CdSe QDs were synthesized and rendered water soluble by overcoating with silica, using aminopropyl silane as silica precursor. The cytotoxicity studies were conducted by exposing cells to freshly synthesized QDs as a function of time (0–72 h) and concentration up to micromolar level by Lactate dehydrogenase assay, MTT [3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-Diphenyltetrazolium Bromide] assay, Neutral red cell viability assay, Trypan blue dye exclusion method and morphological examination of cells using phase contrast microscope. The in vitro analysis results showed that the silica-coated CdSe QDs were nontoxic even at higher loadings. Subsequently the in vivo fluorescence was also demonstrated by intravenous administration of the QDs in Swiss albino mice. The fluorescence images in the cryosections of tissues depicted strong luminescence property of silica-coated QDs under biological conditions. These results confirmed the role of these luminescent materials in biological labeling and imaging applications.

  16. Cytotoxicity and fluorescence studies of silica-coated CdSe quantum dots for bioimaging applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vibin, Muthunayagam [University of Kerala, Department of Biochemistry (India); Vinayakan, Ramachandran [National Institute for Interdisciplinary Science and Technology (CSIR), Photosciences and Photonics (India); John, Annie [Sree Chitra Tirunal Institute of Medical Sciences and Technology, Biomedical Technology Wing (India); Raji, Vijayamma; Rejiya, Chellappan S.; Vinesh, Naresh S.; Abraham, Annie, E-mail: annieab2@yahoo.co.in [University of Kerala, Department of Biochemistry (India)

    2011-06-15

    The toxicological effects of silica-coated CdSe quantum dots (QDs) were investigated systematically on human cervical cancer cell line. Trioctylphosphine oxide capped CdSe QDs were synthesized and rendered water soluble by overcoating with silica, using aminopropyl silane as silica precursor. The cytotoxicity studies were conducted by exposing cells to freshly synthesized QDs as a function of time (0-72 h) and concentration up to micromolar level by Lactate dehydrogenase assay, MTT [3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-Diphenyltetrazolium Bromide] assay, Neutral red cell viability assay, Trypan blue dye exclusion method and morphological examination of cells using phase contrast microscope. The in vitro analysis results showed that the silica-coated CdSe QDs were nontoxic even at higher loadings. Subsequently the in vivo fluorescence was also demonstrated by intravenous administration of the QDs in Swiss albino mice. The fluorescence images in the cryosections of tissues depicted strong luminescence property of silica-coated QDs under biological conditions. These results confirmed the role of these luminescent materials in biological labeling and imaging applications.

  17. Rapid screening of aquatic toxicity of several metal-based nanoparticles using the MetPLATE™ bioassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pokhrel, Lok R.; Silva, Thilini; Dubey, Brajesh; El Badawy, Amro M.; Tolaymat, Thabet M.; Scheuerman, Phillip R.

    2012-01-01

    Current understanding of potential toxicity of engineered nanomaterials to aquatic microorganisms is limited for risk assessment and management. Here we evaluate if the MetPLATE™ test can be used as an effective and rapid screening tool to test for potential aquatic toxicity of various metal-based nanoparticles (NPs). The MetPLATE bioassay is a heavy metal sensitive test based on β-galactosidase activity in Escherichia coli. Five different types of metal-based NPs were screened for toxicity: (1) citrate coated nAg (Citrate-nanosilver), (2) polyvinylpyrrolidone coated nAg (PVP-nAg), (3) uncoated nZnO, (4) uncoated nTiO 2 and (5) 1-Octadecylamine coated CdSe Quantum Dots (CdSe QDs); and compared with their corresponding ionic salt toxicity. Citrate-nAg was further fractionated into clean Citrate-nAg, unclean Citrate-nAg and permeate using a tangential flow filtration (TFF) system to eliminate residual ions and impurities from the stock Citrate-nAg suspension and also to differentiate between ionic- versus nano-specific toxicity. Our results showed that nAg, nZnO and CdSe QDs were less toxic than their corresponding ionic salts tested, while nano- or ionic form of TiO 2 was not toxic as high as 2.5 g L −1 to the MetPLATE™ bacteria. Although coating-dependent toxicity was noticeable between two types of Ag NPs evaluated, particle size and surface charge were not adequate to explain the observed toxicity; hence, the toxicity appeared to be material-specific. Overall, the toxicity followed the trend: CdCl 2 > AgNO 3 > PVP-nAg > unclean Citrate-nAg > clean Citrate-nAg > ZnSO 4 > nZnO > CdSe QDs > nTiO 2 /TiO 2 . These results indicate that an evaluation of β-galactosidase inhibition in MetPLATE™ E. coli can be an important consideration for rapid screening of metal-based NP toxicity, and should facilitate ecological risk assessment of these emerging contaminants. - Highlights: ► MetPLATE bioassay was evaluated as a rapid screening tool for nanotoxicity.

  18. Heterogeneous Nucleation and Growth of Nanoparticles at Environmental Interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Young-Shin; Kim, Doyoon; Neil, Chelsea W

    2016-09-20

    Mineral nucleation is a phase transformation of aqueous components to solids with an accompanying creation of new surfaces. In this evolutional, yet elusive, process, nuclei often form at environmental interfaces, which provide remarkably reactive sites for heterogeneous nucleation and growth. Naturally occurring nucleation processes significantly contribute to the biogeochemical cycles of important components in the Earth's crust, such as iron and manganese oxide minerals and calcium carbonate. However, in recent decades, these cycles have been significantly altered by anthropogenic activities, which affect the aqueous chemistry and equilibrium of both surface and subsurface systems. These alterations can trigger the dissolution of existing minerals and formation of new nanoparticles (i.e., nucleation and growth) and consequently change the porosity and permeability of geomedia in subsurface environments. Newly formed nanoparticles can also actively interact with components in natural and engineered aquatic systems, including those posing a significant hazard such as arsenic. These interactions can bilaterally influence the fate and transport of both newly formed nanoparticles and aqueous components. Due to their importance in natural and engineered processes, heterogeneous nucleation at environmental interfaces has started to receive more attention. However, a lack of time-resolved in situ analyses makes the evaluation of heterogeneous nucleation challenging because the physicochemical properties of both the nuclei and surfaces significantly and dynamically change with time and aqueous chemistry. This Account reviews our in situ kinetic studies of the heterogeneous nucleation and growth behaviors of iron(III) (hydr)oxide, calcium carbonate, and manganese (hydr)oxide minerals in aqueous systems. In particular, we utilized simultaneous small-angle and grazing incidence small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS/GISAXS) to investigate in situ and in real-time the effects of

  19. In-situ follow up of gold nano-particles nucleation-growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abecassis, Benjamin

    2006-01-01

    In this thesis, we assess the formation mechanism of gold nanoparticles in situ in liquid media (homogeneous or in microemulsion) by small angle scattering techniques. The first part details several important concepts which are useful for an appropriate understanding of the rest of the thesis along with an overview of the literature on the subject. We then present results of time resolved synchrotron small angle X ray scattering and UV-visible experiment performed in situ during the formation of gold nanoparticles in organic solvent. We show that it is possible to follow the nucleation and growth of the particles in real time with a time resolution of a few hundreds milliseconds. We show that depending on the chemical nature of the ligand the nucleation and growth can be either simultaneous or separated in time. In the latter case, the growth is limited by surface reaction of the monomer at the particles surface. We also show that when the produced nanoparticles have an average radius larger than 5 nm, they self-assemble into ordered super-lattice which exhibit a cubic face center crystallographic structure. In a third part, by using a combination of complementary techniques we study water/oil/octyl-ammonium-octanoate microemulsions in the reverse micelles part of the phase diagram. The structure of these 'catanionic' microemulsions are revealed as a function of the water content, the temperature and the surface charge. The different observed topologies (sphere, rod-like or connected worm-like) and the phase transitions are compared to a recent theory which takes into account the curvature energy of the surfactant film. Finally, we show that these microemulsions can be used efficiently to synthesise gold nanoparticles. We show that the template effect, often cited to explain the formation of nanoparticles in reverse micelles is in our case not relevant. It is also noteworthy possible to separate and purify the as-produced nanoparticles by slightly

  20. The Effect of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles on Safflower Plant Growth and Physiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Hafizi

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a study of the effect of ZnO nanoparticles on safflower growth and physiology was performed. Each of these elements plays a particular role in the plant life, the presence of these elements is necessary for plant’s life cycle and growth. Zinc deficiency causes the biggest problems in safflower’s production. Considering the importance of nanoparticles in today's world, this research investigated the effect of Zinc oxide nanoparticles on the concentration of guaiacol peroxidase, polypeptide oxidase, dehydrogenase and malondialdehyde in four plant sample groups in greenhouse and laboratory conditions. Results of showed that malondialdehyde enzyme increased with different treatments of various concentrations of Zinc oxide. The enzyme guaiacol oxidase increased at concentrations of 100 mg/L and polyphenol oxide at concentrations of 10 and 500 mg/L and dehydrogenase in 1000 mg/L and decreased in other treatments. In addition to showing the effect of nanoparticles in plants, these findings determine the beneficial concentrations of nanoparticles that have a positive effect on the level of enzymes in plants.

  1. Simple Synthesis and Growth Mechanism of Core/Shell CdSe/SiOx Nanowires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guozhang Dai

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Core-shell-structured CdSe/SiOx nanowires were synthesized on an equilateral triangle Si (111 substrate through a simple one-step thermal evaporation process. SEM, TEM, and XRD investigations confirmed the core-shell structure; that is, the core zone is single crystalline CdSe and the shell zone is SiOx amorphous layer and CdSe core was grown along (001 direction. Two-stage growth process was present to explain the growth mechanism of the core/shell nanwires. The silicon substrate of designed equilateral triangle providing the silicon source is the key factor to form the core-shell nanowires, which is significant for fabrication of nanowire-core sheathed with a silica system. The PL of the product studied at room temperature showed two emission bands around 715 and 560 nm, which originate from the band-band transition of CdSe cores and the amorphous SiOx shells, respectively.

  2. A review on radiation-induced nucleation and growth of colloidal metallic nanoparticles

    OpenAIRE

    Abedini, Alam; Daud, Abdul Razak; Abdul Hamid, Muhammad Azmi; Kamil Othman, Norinsan; Saion, Elias

    2013-01-01

    This review presents an introduction to the synthesis of metallic nanoparticles by radiation-induced method, especially gamma irradiation. This method offers some benefits over the conventional methods because it provides fully reduced and highly pure nanoparticles free from by-products or chemical reducing agents, and is capable of controlling the particle size and structure. The nucleation and growth mechanism of metallic nanoparticles are also discussed. The competition between nucleation ...

  3. Assembly, growth, and catalytic activity of gold nanoparticles in hollow carbon nanofibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Torre, Alessandro; Giménez-López, Maria del Carmen; Fay, Michael W; Rance, Graham A; Solomonsz, William A; Chamberlain, Thomas W; Brown, Paul D; Khlobystov, Andrei N

    2012-03-27

    Graphitized carbon nanofibers (GNFs) act as efficient templates for the growth of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) adsorbed on the interior (and exterior) of the tubular nanostructures. Encapsulated AuNPs are stabilized by interactions with the step-edges of the individual graphitic nanocones, of which GNFs are composed, and their size is limited to approximately 6 nm, while AuNPs adsorbed on the atomically flat graphitic surfaces of the GNF exterior continue their growth to 13 nm and beyond under the same heat treatment conditions. The corrugated structure of the GNF interior imposes a significant barrier for the migration of AuNPs, so that their growth mechanism is restricted to Ostwald ripening. Conversely, nanoparticles adsorbed on smooth GNF exterior surfaces are more likely to migrate and coalesce into larger nanoparticles, as revealed by in situ transmission electron microscopy imaging. The presence of alkyl thiol surfactant within the GNF channels changes the dynamics of the AuNP transformations, as surfactant molecules adsorbed on the surface of the AuNPs diminished the stabilization effect of the step-edges, thus allowing nanoparticles to grow until their diameters reach the internal diameter of the host nanofiber. Nanoparticles thermally evolved within the GNF channel exhibit alignment, perpendicular to the GNF axis due to interactions with the step-edges and parallel to the axis because of graphitic facets of the nanocones. Despite their small size, AuNPs in GNF possess high stability and remain unchanged at temperatures up to 300 °C in ambient atmosphere. Nanoparticles immobilized at the step-edges within GNF are shown to act as effective catalysts promoting the transformation of dimethylphenylsilane to bis(dimethylphenyl)disiloxane with a greater than 10-fold enhancement of selectivity as compared to free-standing or surface-adsorbed nanoparticles. © 2012 American Chemical Society

  4. Reassignment of oxygen-related defects in CdTe and CdSe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bastin, Dirk

    2015-05-22

    This thesis reassigns the O{sub Te}-V{sub Cd} complex in CdTe and the O{sub Se}-V{sub Cd} complex in CdSe to a sulfur-dioxygen complex SO{sub 2}*, and the O{sub Cd} defect in CdSe to a V{sub Cd}H{sub 2} complex using Fourier transformed infrared absorption spectroscopy. The publications of the previous complexes were investigated by theoreticians who performed first-principle calculations of theses complexes. The theoreticians ruled out the assignments and proposed alternative defects, instead. The discrepancy between the experimentally obtained and theoretically proposed defects was the motivation of this work. Two local vibrational modes located at 1096.8 (ν{sub 1}) and 1108.3 cm{sup -1} (ν{sub 2}) previously assigned to an O{sub Te}-V{sub Cd} complex are detected in CdTe single crystals doped with CdSO{sub 4} powder. Five weaker additional absorption lines accompanying ν{sub 1} and ν{sub 2} could be detected. The relative intensities of the absorption lines match a sulfur-dioxygen complex SO{sub 2}* having two configurations labeled ν{sub 1} and ν{sub 2}. A binding energy difference of 0.5±0.1 meV between the two configurations and an energy barrier of 53±4 meV separating the two configurations are determined. Uniaxial stress applied to the crystal leads to a splitting of the absorption lines which corresponds to an orthorhombic and monoclinic symmetry for ν{sub 1} and ν{sub 2}, respectively. In virgin and oxygen-doped CdSe single crystals, three local vibrational modes located at 1094.1 (γ{sub 1}), 1107.5 (γ{sub 2}), and 1126.3 cm{sup -1} (γ{sub 3}) previously attributed to an O{sub Se}-V{sub Cd} complex could be observed. The signals are accompanied by five weaker additional absorption features in their vicinity. The additional absorption lines are identified as isotope satellites of a sulfur-dioxygen complex SO{sub 2}* having three configurations γ{sub 1}, γ{sub 2}, and γ{sub 3}. IR absorption measurements with uniaxial stress applied to the

  5. Size-dependent oscillator strength and quantum efficiency of CdSe quantum dots controlled via the local density of states

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leistikow, M.D.; Johansen, Jeppe; Kettelarij, A.J.

    2009-01-01

    We study experimentally time-resolved emission of colloidal CdSe quantum dots in an environment with a controlled local density of states LDOS. The decay rate is measured versus frequency and as a function of distance to a mirror. We observe a linear relation between the decay rate and the LDOS, ...... with the measured radiative rates. Our results are relevant for applications of CdSe quantum dots in spontaneous emission control and cavity quantum electrodynamics.......We study experimentally time-resolved emission of colloidal CdSe quantum dots in an environment with a controlled local density of states LDOS. The decay rate is measured versus frequency and as a function of distance to a mirror. We observe a linear relation between the decay rate and the LDOS......, allowing us to determine the size-dependent quantum efficiency and oscillator strength. We find that the quantum efficiency decreases with increasing emission energy mostly due to an increase in nonradiative decay. We manage to obtain the oscillator strength of the important class of CdSe quantum dots...

  6. Controlling thin film structure for the dewetting of catalyst nanoparticle arrays for subsequent carbon nanofiber growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Randolph, S J; Fowlkes, J D; Melechko, A V; Klein, K L; III, H M Meyer; Simpson, M L; Rack, P D

    2007-01-01

    Vertically aligned carbon nanofiber (CNF) growth is a catalytic chemical vapor deposition process in which structure and functionality is controlled by the plasma conditions and the properties of the catalyst nanoparticles that template the fiber growth. We have found that the resultant catalyst nanoparticle network that forms by the dewetting of a continuous catalyst thin film is dependent on the initial properties of the thin film. Here we report the ability to tailor the crystallographic texture and composition of the nickel catalyst film and subsequently the nanoparticle template by varying the rf magnetron sputter deposition conditions. After sputtering the Ni catalyst thin films, the films are heated and exposed to an ammonia dc plasma, to chemically reduce the native oxide on the films and induce dewetting of the film to form nanoparticles. Subsequent nanoparticle treatment in an acetylene plasma at high substrate temperature results in CNF growth. Evidence is presented that the texture and composition of the nickel thin film has a significant impact on the structure and composition of the formed nanoparticle, as well as the resultant CNF morphology. Nickel films with a preferred (111) or (100) texture were produced and conditions favoring interfacial silicidation reactions were identified and investigated. Both compositional and structural analysis of the films and nanoparticles indicate that the properties of the as-deposited Ni catalyst film influences the subsequent nanoparticle formation and ultimately the catalytic growth of the carbon nanofibers

  7. Nanoparticle-mediated nonclassical crystal growth of sodium fluorosilicate nanowires and nanoplates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongxia Li

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available We observed nonclassical crystal growth of the sodium fluorosilicate nanowires, nanoplates, and hierarchical structures through self-assembly and aggregation of primary intermediate nanoparticles. Unlike traditional ion-by-ion crystallization, the primary nanoparticles formed first and their subsequent self-assembly, fusion, and crystallization generated various final crystals. These findings offer direct evidences for the aggregation-based crystallization mechanism.

  8. Optical performance evolutions of reductive glutathione coated CdSe quantum dots in different environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Lili; Jiang Jisen

    2011-01-01

    Optical performances of reductive glutathione coated CdSe quantum dots were studied under different ageing conditions. The enhancements of luminescence were obviously occurred for the samples ageing under illumination. The quantum yield of CdSe was enhanced continuously over 44 days at room temperature, and reached as high as 36.6%. O 2 was proved to make a certain contribute to the enhancement. The evolutions of the systems during the ageing time were deduced according to the variations of pH values with ageing time and the XRD results of the samples ageing in air with illumination. We conferred that the reduction of surface defects resulted from the photo-induced decomposition of CdSe quantum dots was the main reason for the enhancement of fluorescence. The production of CdO as a result of the surface reaction with O 2 made contributions to the enhancement for a certain extent. The curves of quantum yield versus ageing time were fitted with a stretched exponential function. It was found that the course of fluorescence enhancement accorded with the dynamics of system with strongly coupled hierarchical degrees of freedom.

  9. Growth of hydroxyapatite on physiologically clotted fibrin capped gold nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sastry, T P; Sundaraseelan, J; Swarnalatha, K; Sobhana, S S Liji; Makheswari, M Uma; Sekar, S; Mandal, A B

    2008-01-01

    The growth of hydroxyapatite (HAp) on physiologically clotted fibrin (PCF)-gold nanoparticles is presented for the first time by employing a wet precipitation method. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy confirmed the characteristic functionalities of PCF and HAp in the PCF-Au-HAp nanocomposite. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images have shown cuboidal nanostructures having a size in the range of 70-300 nm of HAp, whereas 2-50 nm sized particles were visualized in high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Energy-dispersive x-ray (EDX) and x-ray diffraction (XRD) studies have confirmed the presence of HAp. These results show that gold nanoparticles with PCF acted as a matrix for the growth of HAp, and that PCF-Au-HAp nanocomposite is expected to have better osteoinductive properties

  10. Strain distribution of confined Ge/GeO2 core/shell nanoparticles engineered by growth environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Wenyan; Yuan, Cailei; Luo, Xingfang; Yu, Ting; Wang, Gongping

    2016-02-01

    The strain distributions of Ge/GeO2 core/shell nanoparticles confined in different host matrix grown by surface oxidation are investigated. The simulated results by finite element method demonstrated that the strains of the Ge core and the GeO2 shell strongly depend on the growth environments of the nanoparticles. Moreover, it can be found that there is a transformation of the strain on Ge core from tensile to compressive strain during the growth of Ge/GeO2 core/shell nanoparticles. And, the transformation of the strain is closely related with the Young's modulus of surrounding materials of Ge/GeO2 core/shell nanoparticles.

  11. Detection of neurotransmitters by a light scattering technique based on seed-mediated growth of gold nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shang Li; Dong Shaojun

    2008-01-01

    A simple light scattering detection method for neurotransmitters has been developed, based on the growth of gold nanoparticles. Neurotransmitters (dopamine, L-dopa, noradrenaline and adrenaline) can effectively function as active reducing agents for generating gold nanoparticles, which result in enhanced light scattering signals. The strong light scattering of gold nanoparticles then allows the quantitative detection of the neurotransmitters simply by using a common spectrofluorometer. In particular, Au-nanoparticle seeds were added to facilitate the growth of nanoparticles, which was found to enhance the sensing performance greatly. Using this light scattering technique based on the seed-mediated growth of gold nanoparticles, detection limits of 4.4 x 10 -7 M, 3.5 x 10 -7 M, 4.1 x 10 -7 M, and 7.7 x 10 -7 M were achieved for dopamine, L-dopa, noradrenaline and adrenaline, respectively. The present strategy can be extended to detect other biologically important molecules in a very fast, simple and sensitive way, and may have potential applications in a wide range of fields

  12. Detection of neurotransmitters by a light scattering technique based on seed-mediated growth of gold nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shang Li; Dong Shaojun [State Key Laboratory of Electroanalytical Chemistry, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130022 (China)], E-mail: dongsj@ciac.jl.cn

    2008-03-05

    A simple light scattering detection method for neurotransmitters has been developed, based on the growth of gold nanoparticles. Neurotransmitters (dopamine, L-dopa, noradrenaline and adrenaline) can effectively function as active reducing agents for generating gold nanoparticles, which result in enhanced light scattering signals. The strong light scattering of gold nanoparticles then allows the quantitative detection of the neurotransmitters simply by using a common spectrofluorometer. In particular, Au-nanoparticle seeds were added to facilitate the growth of nanoparticles, which was found to enhance the sensing performance greatly. Using this light scattering technique based on the seed-mediated growth of gold nanoparticles, detection limits of 4.4 x 10{sup -7} M, 3.5 x 10{sup -7} M, 4.1 x 10{sup -7} M, and 7.7 x 10{sup -7} M were achieved for dopamine, L-dopa, noradrenaline and adrenaline, respectively. The present strategy can be extended to detect other biologically important molecules in a very fast, simple and sensitive way, and may have potential applications in a wide range of fields.

  13. Chemical role of amines in the colloidal synthesis of CdSe quantum dots and their luminescence properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nose, Katsuhiro; Fujita, Hiroshi; Omata, Takahisa; Otsuka-Yao-Matsuo, Shinya; Nakamura, Hiroyuki; Maeda, Hideaki

    2007-01-01

    The role of organic amines in the colloidal synthesis of CdSe quantum dots (QDs) has been studied. CdSe QDs were synthesized from the source solutions containing 5 vol% of amines having various alkyl chain lengths, stereochemical sizes and electron donation abilities. The role of the additional amines was evaluated on the basis of the photoluminescence (PL) properties such as PL wavelength and intensity of the obtained CdSe QDs. The observed PL spectra were explained by the fact that the amines behaved as capping ligands on the surface of the QDs in the product colloidal solution and complex ligands for cadmium in the source solutions. It was shown that the particle size was controlled by the diffusion process depending on the mass and stereochemical shape of the amines, and the luminescence intensity increased with the increasing electron donation ability and capping density of the amines

  14. Study of the growth of CeO2 nanoparticles onto titanate nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Thalles M. F.; Ferreira, Odair P.; da Costa, Jose A. P.; Fujisawa, Kazunori; Terrones, Mauricio; Viana, Bartolomeu C.

    2015-12-01

    We report the study of the growth of CeO2 nanoparticles on the external walls and Ce4+ intercalation within the titanate nanotubes. The materials were fully characterized by multiple techniques, such as: Raman spectroscopy, infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The ion exchange processes in the titanate nanotubes were carried out using different concentrations of Ce4+ in aqueous solution. Our results indicate that the growth of CeO2 nanoparticles grown mediated by the hydrolysis in the colloidal species of Ce and the attachment onto the titanate nanotubes happened and get it strongly anchored to the titanate nanotube surface by a simple electrostatic interaction between the nanoparticles and titanate nanotubes, which can explain the small size and even distribution of nanoparticles on titanate supports. It was demonstrated that it is possible to control the amount and size of CeO2 nanoparticles onto the nanotube surface, the species of the Ce ions intercalated between the layers of titanate nanotubes, and the materials could be tuned for using in specific catalysis in according with the amount of CeO2 nanoparticles, their oxygen vacancies/defects and the types of Ce species (Ce4+ or Ce3+) present into the nanotubes.

  15. A sensitive electrochemical aptasensor based on water soluble CdSe quantum dots (QDs) for thrombin determination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Yanfen; Han Min [Jiangsu Laboratory of New Power Batteries, Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Biofuctional Materials, College of Chemistry and Materials Science, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 210097 (China); Bai Hongyan [Jiangsu Laboratory of New Power Batteries, Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Biofuctional Materials, College of Chemistry and Materials Science, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 210097 (China); College of Biological and Chemical Engineering, Jiaxing College, Jiaxing 314001 (China); Wu Yong [Jiangsu Laboratory of New Power Batteries, Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Biofuctional Materials, College of Chemistry and Materials Science, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 210097 (China); Dai Zhihui, E-mail: daizhihuii@njnu.edu.cn [Jiangsu Laboratory of New Power Batteries, Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Biofuctional Materials, College of Chemistry and Materials Science, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 210097 (China); Bao Jianchun, E-mail: baojianchun@njnu.edu.cn [Jiangsu Laboratory of New Power Batteries, Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Biofuctional Materials, College of Chemistry and Materials Science, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 210097 (China)

    2011-08-01

    A novel aptamer biosensor with easy operation and good sensitivity, specificity, stability and reproducibility was developed by immobilizing the aptamer on water soluble CdSe quantum dots (QDs) modified on the top of the glassy carbon electrode (GCE). Methylene blue (MB) was intercalated into the aptamer sequence and used as an electrochemical marker. CdSe QDs improved the electrochemical signal because of their larger surface area and ion centers of CdSe QDs may also had a major role on amplifying the signal. The higher ion concentration caused more combination of aptamer which caused larger signal. The thrombin was detected by differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) quantitatively. Under optimal conditions, the two linear ranges were obtained from 3 to 13 {mu}g mL{sup -1} and from 14 to 31 {mu}g mL{sup -1}, respectively. The detection limit was 0.08 {mu}g mL{sup -1} at 3{sigma}. The constructed biosensor had better responses compared with that in the absence of the CdSe QDs immobilizing. The control experiment was also carried out by using BSA, casein and IgG in the absence of thrombin. The results showed that the aptasensor had good specificity, stability and reproducibility to the thrombin. Moreover, the aptasensor could be used for detection of real sample with consistent results in comparison with those obtained by fluorescence method which could provide a promising platform for fabrication of aptamer based biosensors.

  16. Electrodeposition and characterization of CdSe x-Te 1- x semiconducting thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benamar, E.; Rami, M.; Fahoume, M.; Chraibi, F.; Ennaoui, A.

    1999-07-01

    Thin polycrystalline films of cadmium chalcogenides CdSe xTe 1-x ( 0 ≤ x ≤ 1) have been prepared by electrochemical plating on ITO (indium tin oxide) coated glass substrates from an acid sulfate solution at 90 °C. Structural, morphological and compositional studies of the deposited films are reported as a function of the x coefficient. XRD analysis shows that all deposits have a cubic structure with a preferred orientation along the (111) direction. The composition in the films is found to vary linearly with the composition in the solution. The increase in the selenium content x in the CdSe xTe 1-x films decreases the lattice constant and increases the band gap. Nevertheless this latter presents a minimum for x = 0.27.

  17. Twin-assisted growth of nominally stable substrates underneath dewetted Au nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Fang; Xie, Dong Yue; Majdi, Tahereh; Zhu, Guo-zhen

    2016-01-01

    By applying a simple and inexpensive thermal treatment, we synthesized supported gold-oxide nanostructures, which have potential applications to plasmonic devices and biosensors. The regrowth of nominally stable substrates under gold nanoparticles is associated with the appearance of preferential orientations of dewetted nanoparticles and the formation of atomically sharp interfacial monolayers. Steps present at the interfacial monolayer usually occur at defects including the intersection points of twin planes at the interface. They were related to the nucleation and immigration of the interfacial monolayers, prompting the substrate regrowth. Accordingly, we proposed the twin-assisted growth mechanism, which provides insight on the synthesis of gold-oxide nanostructures. - Highlights: • The twin-assisted growth mechanism is proposed for the abnormal regrowth of substrate underneath Au nanoparticles. • The substrate regrowth is related to the steps and ledges that are present at the Au–MgAl_2O_4 interfacial monolayers. • Interfacial steps are detected at defects such as the intersecting points of twin planes at the interface.

  18. Twin-assisted growth of nominally stable substrates underneath dewetted Au nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Fang; Xie, Dong Yue [State Key Laboratory of Metal Matrix Composites, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dongchuan Rd., Shanghai 200240 (China); Majdi, Tahereh [Department of Engineering Physics, McMaster University, 1280 Main St. W., Hamilton, ON L8S 4L7 (Canada); Zhu, Guo-zhen, E-mail: zhugz@sjtu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Metal Matrix Composites, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dongchuan Rd., Shanghai 200240 (China)

    2016-03-15

    By applying a simple and inexpensive thermal treatment, we synthesized supported gold-oxide nanostructures, which have potential applications to plasmonic devices and biosensors. The regrowth of nominally stable substrates under gold nanoparticles is associated with the appearance of preferential orientations of dewetted nanoparticles and the formation of atomically sharp interfacial monolayers. Steps present at the interfacial monolayer usually occur at defects including the intersection points of twin planes at the interface. They were related to the nucleation and immigration of the interfacial monolayers, prompting the substrate regrowth. Accordingly, we proposed the twin-assisted growth mechanism, which provides insight on the synthesis of gold-oxide nanostructures. - Highlights: • The twin-assisted growth mechanism is proposed for the abnormal regrowth of substrate underneath Au nanoparticles. • The substrate regrowth is related to the steps and ledges that are present at the Au–MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} interfacial monolayers. • Interfacial steps are detected at defects such as the intersecting points of twin planes at the interface.

  19. Chemical stability of CdSe quantum dots in seawater and their effects on a marine microalga

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morelli, Elisabetta, E-mail: elisabetta.morelli@pi.ibf.cnr.it [National Research Council - Institute of Biophysics, Section of Pisa, Via Moruzzi, 1, 56124 Pisa (Italy); Cioni, Patrizia [National Research Council - Institute of Biophysics, Section of Pisa, Via Moruzzi, 1, 56124 Pisa (Italy); Posarelli, Mauro [Italian National Agency for New Technologies, Energy and Sustainable Economic Development, Section of Pisa, Via Moruzzi, 1, 56124 Pisa (Italy); Gabellieri, Edi [National Research Council - Institute of Biophysics, Section of Pisa, Via Moruzzi, 1, 56124 Pisa (Italy)

    2012-10-15

    With the increasing use of nanotechnologies, it is expected that nanomaterials end up in natural aquatic systems, from freshwater to the sea. In this work we studied the chemical behaviour of water-soluble CdSe QDs in seawater and their effects on the marine diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum, as a model of a biological receptor in the marine environment. We evaluated QD toxicity in terms of growth rate inhibition, oxidative stress and ROS accumulation. In addition, we used the synthesis of phytochelatins (PCs) as a biomarker of the presence of free Cd{sup 2+} ions released from QDs. The optical and chemical characterization demonstrated the propensity of QDs to aggregate after dispersion in raw seawater. In addition, bare CdSe QDs, lacking the ZnS shell, underwent a salinity-dependent degradation process. Short-term exposure experiments showed that the ease of degradation of QDs in seawater correlated with the synthesis of PCs in P. tricornutum cells. Long-term exposure experiments, carried out with the most stable CdSe/ZnS QDs, showed that algae accumulated Cd, but synthesized negligible amounts of PCs. Since the production of PCs is a specific signal of the presence of bioavailable metal ions, our findings suggest that QDs, associated to P. tricornutum cells, did not release PC-inducing metal species. Our data also showed a gradual decrease in algal growth rate at concentrations of QDs higher than 0.5 nM. Measurements of the activity of the antioxidant enzymes showed that superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities were increased by exposure to [QDs] {>=} 0.5 nM, whereas ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and glutathione reductase (GR) activities were not significantly affected. The increase in SOD and CAT activity can be considered a symptom of oxidative stress induced by an enhanced production of ROS. This hypothesis was confirmed by the concomitant increase in the intracellular ROS concentration.

  20. Zerovalent bismuth nanoparticles inhibit Streptococcus mutans growth and formation of biofilm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernandez-Delgadillo R

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Rene Hernandez-Delgadillo1, Donaji Velasco-Arias2, David Diaz2, Katiushka Arevalo-Niño1, Marianela Garza-Enriquez1, Myriam A De la Garza-Ramos1, Claudio Cabral-Romero11Instituto de Biotecnologia, Centro de Investigacion y Desarrollo en Ciencias de la Salud, CIDICS, Facultad de Odontologia, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, UANL, Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, 2Facultad de Quimica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Distrito Federal, MexicoBackground and methods: Despite continuous efforts, the increasing prevalence of resistance among pathogenic bacteria to common antibiotics has become one of the most significant concerns in modern medicine. Nanostructured materials are used in many fields, including biological sciences and medicine. While some bismuth derivatives has been used in medicine to treat vomiting, nausea, diarrhea, and stomach pain, the biocidal activity of zerovalent bismuth nanoparticles has not yet been studied. The objective of this investigation was to analyze the antimicrobial activity of bismuth nanoparticles against oral bacteria and their antibiofilm capabilities.Results: Our results showed that stable colloidal bismuth nanoparticles had 69% antimicrobial activity against Streptococcus mutans growth and achieved complete inhibition of biofilm formation. These results are similar to those obtained with chlorhexidine, the most commonly used oral antiseptic agent. The minimal inhibitory concentration of bismuth nanoparticles that interfered with S. mutans growth was 0.5 mM.Conclusion: These results suggest that zerovalent bismuth nanoparticles could be an interesting antimicrobial agent to be incorporated into an oral antiseptic preparation.Keywords: zerovalent bismuth nanoparticles, antimicrobial agent, biofilm, Streptococcus mutans

  1. Influence of the solvent environments on the spectral features of CdSe quantum dots with and without ZnS shell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibnaouf, K.H., E-mail: kheo90@gmail.com [Al Imam Mohammad Ibn Saud Islamic University (IMSIU), Physics Department, College of Science, P.O. Box 90905, Riyadh 11623 (Saudi Arabia); Prasad, Saradh; Al Salhi, M.S.; Hamdan, A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, College of Science, King Saud University, P.O. Box 2455, Riyadh 11451 (Saudi Arabia); Research Chair for Laser Diagnosis of Cancer, King Saud University (Saudi Arabia); Zaman, M.B. [CEREM, College of Engineering, King Saud University (Saudi Arabia); Advanced Medical Research Institute of Canada, Sudbury (Canada); El Mir, L. [Al Imam Mohammad Ibn Saud Islamic University (IMSIU), Physics Department, College of Science, P.O. Box 90905, Riyadh 11623 (Saudi Arabia)

    2014-05-01

    The spectral properties of 5 nm size of bare CdSe and (CdSe)ZnS core–shell quantum dots (QDs) have been recorded and investigated under different solvent environments with different polarities and different concentrations. The results showed that the spectral profile of absorption did not change for both quantum dots in different solvents under a wide range of concentrations. On the other hand, the photoluminescence (PL) spectra of (CdSe)ZnS core–shell quantum dots in non-polar solvents showed two bands; the primary around 420 nm and the secondary around 620 nm. In contrast, the PL spectra of bare CdSe in non-polar solvents, showed a very strong band around 590 nm, with a total absence of the primary wavelength band at 420 nm. Under high polar solvent environments, bare CdSe showed a new peak around 420 nm, which was totally absent in non-polar solvent. Therefore, the solvent plays an important role in the PL spectra of bare CdSe and (CdSe)ZnS core–shell quantum dots.

  2. X-ray investigations for determining the aspect ratio in CdSe nanorods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pietsch, Ullrich; Kurtulus, Oezguel [Festkoerperphysik, Universitaet Siegen (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    Semiconductor based 1D nanostructures are of high technological interest due to potential application in 1D conductivity measurements and optical devices. Catalyst assisted solution-liquid-solid synthesis is a new method where nanocrystal catalysts are used to grow CdSe nanorods (NR) from solution. The aim of this study is to investigate CdSe samples prepared with this new method by means of X-ray diffraction. The measurements have been performed at DELTA synchrotron using a beam of wavelength 1.127A and an image plate system. It is found that the CdSe NRs have a crystal structure of wurtzite with an aspect ratio changing between 2 and 10. This is in contradiction with the results obtained from TEM measurements, according to which the lengths of the NRs are in the order of 1 {mu} and the widths are around 20 nm. Presently the results are interpreted by the appearance of stacking faults which separate uniformly stacked AB, AB layers from each other. It is planned to measure an individual NR using a nanofocused X-ray beam. Once an individual NR could be observed, the next step is to measure the powder spectrum using a CCD as a function of the position of the beam spot along the nanorod. Depending on this information, the parameters affecting the structure of the NRs would be clear by making experiments with samples prepared in different conditions.

  3. Mobility activation in thermally deposited CdSe thin films

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    3. Mobility activation in CdSe thin films. The trap depths were calculated by using the following simple decay law. It = Ioexp(–pt),. (1) where p is the probability of escape of an electron from the trap per second and is given by (Randall and Wilkins 1945) p = S exp (–E/kT),. (2) where E is the trap depth for electrons below the ...

  4. Non-injection and one-pot approach to CdSe: Eu3+ hybrid nanocrystals with tunable photoluminescence from green to red

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kong, Lingcan; Chu, Xuefeng; Wang, Chuanxi; Yang, Xiaotian; Zhou, Lei

    2017-01-01

    Europium ion-doped CdSe hybrid nanocrystals (CdSe:Eu 3+ NCs) as a class of new luminescent materials have drawn increasing attention in recent years owing to their remarkable optical properties. In this paper, we report a facile method to prepare CdSe:Eu 3+ NCs using oleic acid (OA) as the capping agent. With this non-injection and one-pot synthesized approach, the formation and surface passivation of CdSe:Eu 3+ NCs are performed simultaneously and result in intrinsic luminescence. The as-prepared CdSe:Eu 3+ NCs are characterized by transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). Their optical properties are also studied by UV–vis and photoluminescence spectra. Moreover, the effects of feed ratios and reaction temperatures on the optical properties are further investigated. The results show that the luminescent spectra of CdSe:Eu 3+ NCs are tunable from green (490 nm) to red (630 nm) and gradually redshift with the increase of the nanoparticle size from 2.5 to 4.4 nm. Upon decoration with 2-thenoyltrifluoroacetone (TTA), the luminescence of europium ion drastically increases and efficient energy transfer from CdSe host to the europium ion is proposed. In addition, an MTT and apoptosis assay show CdSe:Eu 3+ NCs have low cellular toxicity and could be used as fluorescence imaging for human epithelial type 2 (Hep-2) cells. These properties make CdSe:Eu 3+ NCs a potential candidate for biological labeling, immunoassays, and optical sensing.

  5. Fluorescent Silica Nanoparticles in the Detection and Control of the Growth of Pathogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chitra, K.; Annadurai, G.

    2013-01-01

    In this present study the bio conjugated fluorescent silica nanoparticles give an efficient fluorescent-based immunoassay for the detection of pathogen. The synthesized silica nanoparticles were poly dispersed and the size of the silica nanoparticles was in the range of 114-164 nm. The energy dispersive X-ray spectrophotometer showed the presence of silica at 1.8 keV and the selected area diffractometer showed amorphous nature of silica nanoparticles. The FTIR spectrum confirmed the attachment of dye and carboxyl group onto the silica nanoparticles surface. The fluorescent silica nanoparticles showed highly efficient fluorescence and the fluorescent emission of silica nanoparticles occurred at 536 nm. The SEM image showed the aggregation of nanoparticles and bacteria. The growth of the pathogenic E. coli was controlled using silica nanoparticles; therefore silica nanoparticles could be used in food packaging material, biomedical material, and so forth. This work provides a rapid, simple, and accurate method for the detection of pathogen using fluorescent-based immunoassay.

  6. Mammalian cell growth on gold nanoparticle-decorated substrates is influenced by the nanoparticle coating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Rosman

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we study epithelial cell growth on substrates decorated with gold nanorods that are functionalized either with a positively charged cytotoxic surfactant or with a biocompatible polymer exhibiting one of two different end groups, resulting in a neutral or negative surface charge of the particle. Upon observation of cell growth for three days by live cell imaging using optical dark field microscopy, it was found that all particles supported cell adhesion while no directed cell migration and no significant particle internalization occurred. Concerning cell adhesion and spreading as compared to cell growth on bare substrates after 3 days of incubation, a reduction by 45% and 95%, respectively, for the surfactant particle coating was observed, whereas the amino-terminated polymer induced a reduction by 30% and 40%, respectively, which is absent for the carboxy-terminated polymer. Furthermore, interface-sensitive impedance spectroscopy (electric cell–substrate impedance sensing, ECIS was employed in order to investigate the micromotility of cells added to substrates decorated with various amounts of surfactant-coated particles. A surface density of 65 particles/µm2 (which corresponds to 0.5% of surface coverage with nanoparticles diminishes micromotion by 25% as compared to bare substrates after 35 hours of incubation. We conclude that the surface coating of the gold nanorods, which were applied to the basolateral side of the cells, has a recognizable influence on the growth behavior and thus the coating should be carefully selected for biomedical applications of nanoparticles.

  7. Seed Mediated Growth of Gold Nanoparticles Based on Liquid Arc Discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashkarran, Ali Akbar

    2013-01-01

    We report studies on the growth of gold nanoparticles by a seed-mediated approach in solution. The synthetic method is adapted from one we published earlier (Ashkarran et al. Appl. Phys. A 2009, 96, 423). The synthesized gold nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), dynamic light scattering (DLS), UV-Vis spectroscopy, optical imaging and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Optical absorption spectroscopy of the prepared samples at 15 A arc current in HAuCl 4 solution shows a surface plasmon resonance around 520 nm. It is found that sodium citrate acts as a stabilizer and surface capping agent of the colloidal nanoparticles. The intensity of the plasmonic peak of the prepared gold nanoparticles for 1 minute arc duration gradually increases due to seed mediation for up to 6 hours. The formation time of gold nanoparticles at higher seed concentrations is less than that at lower seed concentrations. (plasma technology)

  8. Localized surface plasmon resonance enhanced photoluminescence of CdSe QDs in PMMA matrix on silver colloids with different shapes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Liu; Xu Xiaoliang; Shi Chaoshu; Ming Hai

    2010-01-01

    Localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) enhanced photoluminescences (PL) from CdSe quantum dots (QDs) on worm-like or quasi-spherical silver colloids have been investigated. The shape of silver colloid film is controlled by annealing temperature (200 o C∼350 o C). Strong PL enhancements of CdSe QDs on both as-grown and annealed silver colloid films are observed. The results show that the PL enhancement factor of CdSe QDs on worm-like silver colloid film reaches as high as 15-fold. Moreover, the enhancement factor is 5 times larger than that obtained from the quasi-spherical silver colloids. The superiority of worm-like silver nanostructure on LSPR enhanced photoluminescence is attributed to its larger size, hot spots and multiple dipole resonance modes coupling, which are induced by aggregation effect.

  9. СHIRAL RECOGNITION OF CYSTEINE MOLECULES BY CHIRAL CdSe AND CdS QUANTUM DOTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Mukhina

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Here, we report the investigation of mechanism of chiral molecular recognition of cysteine biomolecules by chiral CdSe and CdS semiconductor nanocrystals. To observe chiral recognition process, we prepared enantioenriched ensembles of the nanocrystals capped with achiral ligand. The enantioenriched samples of intrinsically chiral CdSe quantum dots were prepared by separation of initial racemic mixture of the nanocrystals using chiral phase transfer from chloroform to water driven by L- and D-cysteine. Chiral molecules of cysteine and penicillamine were substituted for achiral molecules of dodecanethiol on the surfaces of CdSe and CdS samples, respectively, via reverse phase transfer from water to chloroform. We estimated an efficiency of the hetero- (d-L or l-D and homocomplexes (l-L formation by comparing the extents of corresponding complexing reactions. Using circular dichroism spectroscopy data we show an ability of nanocrystals enantiomers to discriminate between left-handed and right-handed enantiomers of biomolecules via preferential formation of heterocomplexes. Development of approaches for obtaining chiral nanocrystals via chiral phase transfer offers opportunities for investigation of molecular recognition at the nano/bio interfaces.

  10. Highly luminescent CdSe/ZnSe core-shell quantum dots of one-pot preparation in octadecene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeng, Q.; Kong, X.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, H.

    2008-01-01

    CdSe/ZnSe core-shell quantum dots were synthesized using a new one-pot procedure where the core was prepared in octadecene. A ZnSe shell around a CdSe nanoparticle was formed by the reaction of selenium-richness on the surfaces of CdSe nanoparticles with Zn2+ from the injected zinc stearate

  11. Light-gated single CdSe nanowire transistor: photocurrent saturation and band gap extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yang, E-mail: yangzh08@gmail.com; Chakraborty, Ritun; Kudera, Stefan; Krahne, Roman, E-mail: roman.krahne@iit.it [Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Nanochemistry department (Italy)

    2015-11-15

    CdSe nanowires are popular building blocks for many optoelectronic devices mainly owing to their direct band gap in the visible range of the spectrum. Here we investigate the optoelectronic properties of single CdSe nanowires fabricated by colloidal synthesis, in terms of their photocurrent–voltage characteristics and photoconductivity spectra recorded at 300 and 18 K. The photocurrent is identified as the secondary photocurrent, which gives rise to a photoconductive gain of ∼35. We observe a saturation of the photocurrent beyond a certain voltage bias that can be related to the finite drift velocity of electrons. From the photoconductivity spectra, we determine the band gap energy of the nanowires as ∼1.728 eV, and we resolve low-energy peaks that can be associated with sub-bandgap states.Graphical Abstract.

  12. Barrierless growth of precursor-free, ultrafast laser-fragmented noble metal nanoparticles by colloidal atom clusters - A kinetic in situ study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jendrzej, Sandra; Gökce, Bilal; Amendola, Vincenzo; Barcikowski, Stephan

    2016-02-01

    Unintended post-synthesis growth of noble metal colloids caused by excess amounts of reactants or highly reactive atom clusters represents a fundamental problem in colloidal chemistry, affecting product stability or purity. Hence, quantified kinetics could allow defining nanoparticle size determination in dependence of the time. Here, we investigate in situ the growth kinetics of ps pulsed laser-fragmented platinum nanoparticles in presence of naked atom clusters in water without any influence of reducing agents or surfactants. The nanoparticle growth is investigated for platinum covering a time scale of minutes to 50days after nanoparticle generation, it is also supplemented by results obtained from gold and palladium. Since a minimum atom cluster concentration is exceeded, a significant growth is determined by time resolved UV/Vis spectroscopy, analytical disc centrifugation, zeta potential measurement and transmission electron microscopy. We suggest a decrease of atom cluster concentration over time, since nanoparticles grow at the expense of atom clusters. The growth mechanism during early phase (<1day) of laser-synthesized colloid is kinetically modeled by rapid barrierless coalescence. The prolonged slow nanoparticle growth is kinetically modeled by a combination of coalescence and Lifshitz-Slyozov-Wagner kinetic for Ostwald ripening, validated experimentally by the temperature dependence of Pt nanoparticle size and growth quenching by Iodide anions. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Flexible, High-Speed CdSe Nanocrystal Integrated Circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stinner, F Scott; Lai, Yuming; Straus, Daniel B; Diroll, Benjamin T; Kim, David K; Murray, Christopher B; Kagan, Cherie R

    2015-10-14

    We report large-area, flexible, high-speed analog and digital colloidal CdSe nanocrystal integrated circuits operating at low voltages. Using photolithography and a newly developed process to fabricate vertical interconnect access holes, we scale down device dimensions, reducing parasitic capacitances and increasing the frequency of circuit operation, and scale up device fabrication over 4 in. flexible substrates. We demonstrate amplifiers with ∼7 kHz bandwidth, ring oscillators with <10 μs stage delays, and NAND and NOR logic gates.

  14. Optically enhanced SnO{sub 2}/CdSe core/shell nanostructures grown by sol-gel spin coating method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Vijay, E-mail: vijaynadda83@gmail.com; Goswami, Y. C. [School of Physical Sciences, ITM University, Turari, Gwalior, MP 474001 (India); Rajaram, P. [School of Studies in Physics, Jiwaji University, Gwalior MP 474011 (India)

    2015-08-28

    Synthesis of SnO{sub 2}/CdSe metal oxide/ chalcogenide nanostructures on glass micro slides using ultrasonic sol-gel process followed by spin coating has been reported. Stannous chloride, cadmium chloride and selenium dioxide compounds were used for Sn, Cd and Se precursors respectively. Ethylene glycol was used as complexing agent. The samples were characterized by XRD, SEM, AFM and UV-spectrophotometer. All the peaks shown in diffractograms are identified for SnO{sub 2}. Peak broadening observed in core shell due to stress behavior of CdSe lattice. Scanning electron microscope and AFM exhibits the conversion of cluster in to nanorods structures forms. Atomic force microscope shows the structures in nanorods form and a roughness reduced 1.5194 nm by the deposition of CdSe. Uv Visible spectra shows a new absorption edge in the visible region make them useful for optoelectronic applications.

  15. Non-injection and one-pot approach to CdSe: Eu{sup 3+} hybrid nanocrystals with tunable photoluminescence from green to red

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kong, Lingcan, E-mail: konglingcan2010@163.com [Wuxi Center for Disease Control and Prevention (China); Chu, Xuefeng [Jilin Jianzhu University, Jilin Provincial Key Laboratory of Architectural Electricity & Comprehensive Energy Saving, School of Electrical and Electronic Information Engineering (China); Wang, Chuanxi, E-mail: wangcx@jiangnan.edu.cn [Jiangnan University, China-Australia Joint Research Centre for Functional Molecular Materials, School of Chemical & Material Engineering (China); Yang, Xiaotian [Jilin Jianzhu University, Jilin Provincial Key Laboratory of Architectural Electricity & Comprehensive Energy Saving, School of Electrical and Electronic Information Engineering (China); Zhou, Lei [Wuxi Center for Disease Control and Prevention (China)

    2017-01-15

    Europium ion-doped CdSe hybrid nanocrystals (CdSe:Eu{sup 3+} NCs) as a class of new luminescent materials have drawn increasing attention in recent years owing to their remarkable optical properties. In this paper, we report a facile method to prepare CdSe:Eu{sup 3+} NCs using oleic acid (OA) as the capping agent. With this non-injection and one-pot synthesized approach, the formation and surface passivation of CdSe:Eu{sup 3+} NCs are performed simultaneously and result in intrinsic luminescence. The as-prepared CdSe:Eu{sup 3+} NCs are characterized by transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). Their optical properties are also studied by UV–vis and photoluminescence spectra. Moreover, the effects of feed ratios and reaction temperatures on the optical properties are further investigated. The results show that the luminescent spectra of CdSe:Eu{sup 3+} NCs are tunable from green (490 nm) to red (630 nm) and gradually redshift with the increase of the nanoparticle size from 2.5 to 4.4 nm. Upon decoration with 2-thenoyltrifluoroacetone (TTA), the luminescence of europium ion drastically increases and efficient energy transfer from CdSe host to the europium ion is proposed. In addition, an MTT and apoptosis assay show CdSe:Eu{sup 3+} NCs have low cellular toxicity and could be used as fluorescence imaging for human epithelial type 2 (Hep-2) cells. These properties make CdSe:Eu{sup 3+} NCs a potential candidate for biological labeling, immunoassays, and optical sensing.

  16. Parametric analysis of the growth of colloidal ZnO nanoparticles synthesized in alcoholic medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fonseca, A. S.; Figueira, P. A.; Pereira, A. S.; Santos, R. J.; Trindade, T.; Nunes, M. I.

    2017-01-01

    The growth kinetics of nanosized ZnO was studied considering the influence of different parameters (mixing degree, temperature, alcohol chain length, reactant concentration and Zn/OH ratios) on the synthesis reaction and modelling the outputs using typical kinetic growth models, which were then evaluated by means of a sensitivity analysis. The Zn/OH ratio, the temperature and the alcohol chain length were found to be essential parameters to control the growth of ZnO nanoparticles, whereas zinc acetate concentration (for Zn/OH = 0.625) and the stirring during the ageing stage were shown to not have significant influence on the particle size growth. This last operational parameter was for the first time investigated for nanoparticles synthesized in 1-pentanol, and it is of outmost importance for the implementation of continuous industrial processes for mass production of nanosized ZnO and energy savings in the process. Concerning the nanoparticle growth modelling, the results show a different pattern from the more commonly accepted diffusion-limited Ostwald ripening process, i.e. the Lifshitz–Slyozov–Wagner (LSW) model. Indeed, this study shows that oriented attachment occurs during the early stages whereas for the later stages the particle growth is well represented by the LSW model. This conclusion contributes to clarify some controversy found in the literature regarding the kinetic model which better represents the ZnO NPs’ growth in alcoholic medium.

  17. Parametric analysis of the growth of colloidal ZnO nanoparticles synthesized in alcoholic medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fonseca, A. S. [National Research Centre for the Working Environment (Denmark); Figueira, P. A.; Pereira, A. S. [Universidade de Aveiro, Departamento de Química—CICECO (Portugal); Santos, R. J. [Universidade do Porto, Laboratory of Separation and Reaction Engineering-Laboratory of Catalysis and Materials (LSRE-LCM), Faculdade de Engenharia (Portugal); Trindade, T. [Universidade de Aveiro, Departamento de Química—CICECO (Portugal); Nunes, M. I., E-mail: isanunes@ua.pt [Universidade de Aveiro, Centre for Environmental and Marine Studies (CESAM), Dep. de Ambiente e Ordenamento (Portugal)

    2017-02-15

    The growth kinetics of nanosized ZnO was studied considering the influence of different parameters (mixing degree, temperature, alcohol chain length, reactant concentration and Zn/OH ratios) on the synthesis reaction and modelling the outputs using typical kinetic growth models, which were then evaluated by means of a sensitivity analysis. The Zn/OH ratio, the temperature and the alcohol chain length were found to be essential parameters to control the growth of ZnO nanoparticles, whereas zinc acetate concentration (for Zn/OH = 0.625) and the stirring during the ageing stage were shown to not have significant influence on the particle size growth. This last operational parameter was for the first time investigated for nanoparticles synthesized in 1-pentanol, and it is of outmost importance for the implementation of continuous industrial processes for mass production of nanosized ZnO and energy savings in the process. Concerning the nanoparticle growth modelling, the results show a different pattern from the more commonly accepted diffusion-limited Ostwald ripening process, i.e. the Lifshitz–Slyozov–Wagner (LSW) model. Indeed, this study shows that oriented attachment occurs during the early stages whereas for the later stages the particle growth is well represented by the LSW model. This conclusion contributes to clarify some controversy found in the literature regarding the kinetic model which better represents the ZnO NPs’ growth in alcoholic medium.

  18. Intense Visible Luminescence in CdSe Quantum Dots by Efficiency Surface Passivation with H2O Molecules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyeoung Woo Park

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We have investigated the effect of water (H2O cooling and heat treatment on the luminescence efficiency of core CdSe quantum dots (QDs. The photoluminescence (PL quantum yield of the CdSe QDs was enhanced up to ~85%, and some periodic bright points were observed in wide color ranges during the heat treatment of QDs mixed with H2O. The PL enhancement of QDs could be attributed to the recovery of QDs surface traps by unreacted ligands confined within the hydrophilic H2O molecule containers.

  19. Growth of block copolymer stabilized metal nanoparticles probed simultaneously by in situ XAS and UV-Vis spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, C; Bhattacharyya, D; Jha, S N; Sahoo, N K

    2016-01-01

    The growth of Au and Pt nanoparticles from their respective chloride precursors using block copolymer-based reducers has been studied by simultaneous in situ measurement of XAS and UV-Vis spectroscopy at the energy-dispersive EXAFS beamline (BL-08) at INDUS-2 SRS at RRCAT, Indore, India. While the XANES spectra of the precursor give real-time information on the reduction process, the EXAFS spectra reveal the structure of the clusters formed at the intermediate stages of growth. The growth kinetics of both types of nanoparticles are found to be almost similar and are found to follow three stages, though the first stage of nucleation takes place earlier in the case of Au than in the case of Pt nanoparticles due to the difference in the reduction potential of the respective precursors. The first two stages of the growth of Au and Pt nanoparticles as obtained by in situ XAS measurements could be corroborated by simultaneous in situ measurement of UV-Vis spectroscopy also.

  20. Size-dependent structure of CdSe nanoclusters formed after ion implantation in MgO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huis, M.A. van; Veen, A. van; Schut, H.; Eijt, S.W.H.; Kooi, B.J.; Hosson, J.Th.M. de

    2005-01-01

    The band gap as well as the optical and structural properties of semiconductor CdSe nanoclusters change as a function of the nanocluster size. Embedded CdSe nanoclusters in MgO were created by means of sequential Cd and Se ion implantation followed by thermal annealing. Changes during annealing were monitored using optical absorption and positron annihilation spectroscopy. High-resolution TEM on cross-sections after annealing at a temperature of 1300 K showed that clusters with a size below 5 nm have the high-pressure rock-salt structure and are in a cube-on-cube orientation relation with MgO, whereas clusters larger than 5 nm adopt the stable wurtzite crystal structure and were observed in two different orientation relations with MgO

  1. Epidermal Growth Factor Enhances Cellular Uptake of Polystyrene Nanoparticles by Clathrin-Mediated Endocytosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phuc, Le Thi Minh; Taniguchi, Akiyoshi

    2017-06-19

    The interaction between nanoparticles and cells has been studied extensively, but most research has focused on the effect of various nanoparticle characteristics, such as size, morphology, and surface charge, on the cellular uptake of nanoparticles. In contrast, there have been very few studies to assess the influence of cellular factors, such as growth factor responses, on the cellular uptake efficiency of nanoparticles. The aim of this study was to clarify the effects of epidermal growth factor (EGF) on the uptake efficiency of polystyrene nanoparticles (PS NPs) by A431 cells, a human carcinoma epithelial cell line. The results showed that EGF enhanced the uptake efficiency of A431 cells for PS NPs. In addition, inhibition and localization studies of PS NPs and EGF receptors (EGFRs) indicated that cellular uptake of PS NPs is related to the binding of EGF-EGFR complex and PS NPs. Different pathways are used to enter the cells depending on the presence or absence of EGF. In the presence of EGF, cellular uptake of PS NPs is via clathrin-mediated endocytosis, whereas, in the absence of EGF, uptake of PS NPs does not involve clathrin-mediated endocytosis. Our findings indicate that EGF enhances cellular uptake of PS NPs by clathrin-mediated endocytosis. This result could be important for developing safe nanoparticles and their safe use in medical applications.

  2. Epidermal Growth Factor Enhances Cellular Uptake of Polystyrene Nanoparticles by Clathrin-Mediated Endocytosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Thi Minh Phuc

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The interaction between nanoparticles and cells has been studied extensively, but most research has focused on the effect of various nanoparticle characteristics, such as size, morphology, and surface charge, on the cellular uptake of nanoparticles. In contrast, there have been very few studies to assess the influence of cellular factors, such as growth factor responses, on the cellular uptake efficiency of nanoparticles. The aim of this study was to clarify the effects of epidermal growth factor (EGF on the uptake efficiency of polystyrene nanoparticles (PS NPs by A431 cells, a human carcinoma epithelial cell line. The results showed that EGF enhanced the uptake efficiency of A431 cells for PS NPs. In addition, inhibition and localization studies of PS NPs and EGF receptors (EGFRs indicated that cellular uptake of PS NPs is related to the binding of EGF–EGFR complex and PS NPs. Different pathways are used to enter the cells depending on the presence or absence of EGF. In the presence of EGF, cellular uptake of PS NPs is via clathrin-mediated endocytosis, whereas, in the absence of EGF, uptake of PS NPs does not involve clathrin-mediated endocytosis. Our findings indicate that EGF enhances cellular uptake of PS NPs by clathrin-mediated endocytosis. This result could be important for developing safe nanoparticles and their safe use in medical applications.

  3. Organic-Inorganic Nanostructure Architecture via Directly Capping Fullerenes onto Quantum Dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae Kwan; Kim, Jonggi; Yang, Changduk

    2011-12-01

    A new form of fullerene-capped CdSe nanoparticles (PCBA-capped CdSe NPs), using carboxylate ligands with [60]fullerene capping groups that provides an effective synthetic methodology to attach fullerenes noncovalently to CdSe, is presented for usage in nanotechnology and photoelectric fields. Interestingly, either the internal charge transfer or the energy transfer in the hybrid material contributes to photoluminescence (PL) quenching of the CdSe moieties.

  4. Laser-induced luminescence of multilayer structures based on polyimides and CdSe and CdSe/ZnS nanocrystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chistyakov, A A; Dayneko, S V; Zakharchenko, K V; Kolesnikov, V A; Tedoradze, M G; Mochalov, K E; Oleinikov, V A

    2009-01-01

    Laser-induced luminescence of multilayer structures based on the solids of CdSe and CdSe/ZnS nanocrystals, different organic semiconductors and on the layers of organic semiconductors with embedded nanocrystals has been investigated. Drastic decrease of luminescence quantum yield is observed in the films of CdSe nanocrystals on organic semiconductors compared to those on optical glasses. The luminescence of the nanocrystals in the matrices of organic semiconductors and in multilayer structures is shown to be suppressed. The effects observed are explained by the transfer of photogenerated carriers from the nanocrystals to the molecules of organic semiconductors. The presence of the charge transfer is confirmed by a drastic increase in the conductivity (by 2 – 4 orders of magnitude) and in photovoltaic effect at the presence of CdSe and CdSe/ZnS nanocrystals in the structures under investigation. The prospects of using the multilayer structures for development new materials for solar cells are discussed

  5. Realization and field emission of CdSe nano-tetrapods with different arm lengths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao Lijuan, E-mail: ljzhao@dhu.edu.c [Applied Physics Department, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China); Physics Department and the Institute of Nano-Science and Technology, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay (Hong Kong); Pang Qi [Physics Department and the Institute of Nano-Science and Technology, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay (Hong Kong); Yang Shihe [Chemistry Department and the Institute of Nano-Science and Technology, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay (Hong Kong); Ge Weikun; Wang Jiannong [Physics Department and the Institute of Nano-Science and Technology, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay (Hong Kong)

    2009-08-10

    The arms of CdSe nano-tetrapods can be greatly elongated with the core diameters and arm width unchanged by multiple injections. Room-temperature absorption and photoluminescence (PL) spectra of tetrapods with different arm lengths show that these tetrapods have almost the same core size, which is consistent with the high resolution TEM results. Field emission characteristics show that the onset field required drawing a current density of approx0.1 muAcm{sup -2} from CdSe nano-tetrapods with different arm lengths are 22 Vmum{sup -1}, 9 Vmum{sup -1}, and 4 Vmum{sup -1}, respectively, and the field enhancement factors are determined to be about 218, 554, and 946, respectively. Results show that the longer is the arm of the tetrapods, the lower the turn-on field and the higher the field enhancement factor.

  6. Study of sub band gap absorption of Sn doped CdSe thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaur, Jagdish; Rani, Mamta; Tripathi, S. K.

    2014-01-01

    The nanocrystalline thin films of Sn doped CdSe at different dopants concentration are prepared by thermal evaporation technique on glass substrate at room temperature. The effect of Sn doping on the optical properties of CdSe has been studied. A decrease in band gap value is observed with increase in Sn concentration. Constant photocurrent method (CPM) is used to study the absorption coefficient in the sub band gap region. Urbach energy has been obtained from CPM spectra which are found to increase with amount of Sn dopants. The refractive index data calculated from transmittance is used for the identification of oscillator strength and oscillator energy using single oscillator model which is found to be 7.7 and 2.12 eV, 6.7 and 2.5 eV for CdSe:Sn 1% and CdSe:Sn 5% respectively

  7. Realization and field emission of CdSe nano-tetrapods with different arm lengths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Lijuan; Pang Qi; Yang Shihe; Ge Weikun; Wang Jiannong

    2009-01-01

    The arms of CdSe nano-tetrapods can be greatly elongated with the core diameters and arm width unchanged by multiple injections. Room-temperature absorption and photoluminescence (PL) spectra of tetrapods with different arm lengths show that these tetrapods have almost the same core size, which is consistent with the high resolution TEM results. Field emission characteristics show that the onset field required drawing a current density of ∼0.1 μAcm -2 from CdSe nano-tetrapods with different arm lengths are 22 Vμm -1 , 9 Vμm -1 , and 4 Vμm -1 , respectively, and the field enhancement factors are determined to be about 218, 554, and 946, respectively. Results show that the longer is the arm of the tetrapods, the lower the turn-on field and the higher the field enhancement factor.

  8. Study of sub band gap absorption of Sn doped CdSe thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaur, Jagdish; Rani, Mamta [Department of Physics, Panjab University, Chandigarh- 160014 (India); Tripathi, S. K., E-mail: surya@pu.ac.in [Centre of Advanced Study in Physics, Panjab University, Chandigarh- 160014 (India)

    2014-04-24

    The nanocrystalline thin films of Sn doped CdSe at different dopants concentration are prepared by thermal evaporation technique on glass substrate at room temperature. The effect of Sn doping on the optical properties of CdSe has been studied. A decrease in band gap value is observed with increase in Sn concentration. Constant photocurrent method (CPM) is used to study the absorption coefficient in the sub band gap region. Urbach energy has been obtained from CPM spectra which are found to increase with amount of Sn dopants. The refractive index data calculated from transmittance is used for the identification of oscillator strength and oscillator energy using single oscillator model which is found to be 7.7 and 2.12 eV, 6.7 and 2.5 eV for CdSe:Sn 1% and CdSe:Sn 5% respectively.

  9. Rapid synthesis of CdSe nanocrystals in aqueous solution at room ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Water-soluble thioglycolic acid-capped CdSe nanocrystals (NCs) were prepared in aqueous solu- tion at room temperature. We investigated the ... NCs dispersed in buffer solution (pH = 4⋅0). FTIR spectra were recorded on a ... the theory of acid-base equilibrium, the initial pH value of original solution determines the ...

  10. Blue and green electroluminescence from CdSe nanocrystal quantum-dot-quantum-wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Y. F.; Cao, X. A.

    2014-01-01

    CdS/CdSe/ZnS quantum dot quantum well (QDQW) nanocrystals were synthesized using the successive ion layer adsorption and reaction technique, and their optical properties were tuned by bandgap and strain engineering. 3-monolayer (ML) CdSe QWs emitted blue photoluminescence at 467 nm with a spectral full-width-at-half-maximum of ∼30 nm. With a 3 ML ZnS cladding layer, which also acts as a passivating and strain-compensating layer, the QDQWs acquired a ∼35% quantum yield of the QW emission. Blue and green electroluminescence (EL) was obtained from QDQW light-emitting devices with 3–4.5 ML CdSe QWs. It was found that as the peak blueshifted, the overall EL was increasingly dominated by defect state emission due to poor hole injection into the QDQWs. The weak EL was also attributed to strong field-induced charge separation resulting from the unique QDQW geometry, weakening the oscillator strength of optical transitions

  11. Effects of aluminium oxide nanoparticles on bacterial growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doskocz Nina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Production and wide application of nanomaterials have led to nanotechnology development but their release to environment and the induction of toxic reactions, affects the natural microbial communities. Therefore, studies on the impact of nanoparticles on microorganisms and environment are required and needed. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of aluminium oxide nanoparticles on the growth of Pseudomonas putida. To compare the harmfulness of different forms of aluminium oxide, the ecotoxicity of its macro-forms was also evaluated in the study. Research showed that the exposure to nanoparticles can negatively influence microorganisms. The EC50-16h determined in this study was 0.5 mg/l, and NOEC equaled 0.19 mg/l. Nano-Al2O3 proved to be more toxic to P. putida than aluminium oxide. This indicates that the nano-form of a given substance demonstrates different properties and may constitute a far greater danger for the environment than the same substance in the large form. According to EU and US EPA criteria, nano-Al2O3 proved to be very toxic and highly toxic, respectively. Changes in bacterial communities caused by nanoparticles may affect the normal biological, chemical and nutrient cycle in the ecosystem and the effect triggered by nanomaterials in relation to other organisms is unpredictable.

  12. Investigation of the surface chemical and electronic states of pyridine-capped CdSe nanocrystal films after plasma treatments using H2, O2, and Ar gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Seok-Joo; Kim, Hyuncheol; Park, Hyung-Ho; Lee, Young-Su; Jeon, Hyeongtag; Chang, Ho Jung

    2010-01-01

    Surface chemical bonding and the electronic states of pyridine-capped CdSe nanocrystal films were evaluated using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy before and after plasma treatments using H 2 , O 2 , and Ar gases from the viewpoint of studying the effects of surface capping organic molecules and surface oxidation. Surface capping organic molecules could be removed during the plasma treatment due to the chemical reactivity, ion energy transfer, and vacuum UV (VUV) of the plasma gases. With O 2 plasma treatment, surface capping organic molecules were effectively removed but substantial oxidation of CdSe occurred during the plasma treatment. The valence band maximum energy (E VBM ) of CdSe nanocrystal films mainly depends on the apparent size of pyridine-capped CdSe nanocrystals, which controls the interparticle distance, and also on the oxidation of CdSe nanocrystals. Cd-rich surface in O 2 and H 2 plasma treatments partially would compensate for the decrease in E VBM . After Ar plasma treatment, the smallest value of E VBM resulted from high VUV photon flux, short wavelength, and ion energy transfer. The surface bonding states of CdSe had a strong influence on the electronic structure with the efficient strip of capping molecules as well as different surface oxidations and surface capping molecule contents.

  13. Surface-enhanced Raman scattering by colloidal CdSe nanocrystal submonolayers fabricated by the Langmuir–Blodgett technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander G. Milekhin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We present the results of an investigation of surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS by optical phonons in colloidal CdSe nanocrystals (NCs homogeneously deposited on both arrays of Au nanoclusters and Au dimers using the Langmuir–Blodgett technique. The coverage of the deposited NCs was less than one monolayer, as determined by transmission and scanning electron microscopy. SERS by optical phonons in CdSe nanocrystals showed a significant enhancement that depends resonantly on the Au nanocluster and dimer size, and thus on the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR energy. The deposition of CdSe nanocrystals on the Au dimer nanocluster arrays enabled us to study the polarization dependence of SERS. The maximal SERS signal was observed for light polarization parallel to the dimer axis. The polarization ratio of the SERS signal parallel and perpendicular to the dimer axis was 20. The SERS signal intensity was also investigated as a function of the distance between nanoclusters in a dimer. Here the maximal SERS enhancement was observed for the minimal distance studied (about 10 nm, confirming the formation of SERS “hot spots”.

  14. On the role of Pb0 atoms on the nucleation and growth of PbSe and PbTe nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia-Gutierrez, Domingo I.; Leon-Covian, Lina M. De; Garcia-Gutierrez, Diana F.; Treviño-Gonzalez, M.; Garza-Navarro, M. A.; Sepulveda-Guzman, S.

    2013-01-01

    In this contribution, a nucleation and growth mechanism of PbSe and PbTe nanoparticles are proposed. The formation and growth of PbSe and PbTe nanoparticles during their reaction synthesis were studied and followed using transmission electron microscopy, and their related techniques. In the synthesis method, trioctylphosphine-selenide and telluride were used as the chalcogen precursors, while lead oleate was employed as the lead precursor. Different synthesis conditions were tested to assess the effect of varying the reaction time, lead to chalcogen ratio, reaction temperature, and lead oleate concentration. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized by means of electron diffraction, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, scanning transmission electron microscopy, and electron energy loss spectroscopy, to obtain information related to their morphology, crystal structure, and composition. The experimental results suggest that the growth of the lead chalcogenide nanoparticles greatly relies on the reduction of Pb 2+ ions to Pb 0 atoms at early reaction times; this reduction of the lead precursor is evidenced by the formation of Pb nanoparticles with sizes between 1 and 3 nm under certain synthesis conditions. These Pb nanoparticles gradually disappear as the reaction progresses, suggesting that the reduced Pb 0 atoms are able to contribute to the growth of the PbSe and PbTe nanoparticles, reaching sizes between 8 and 18 nm. The current results contribute to a better understanding of the nucleation and growth mechanisms of lead chalcogenide nanoparticles, which will enable the definition of more efficient synthesis routes of these types of nanostructures.

  15. CdSe-based quantum dot nanostructures: MBE growth, properties and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, S.V.

    2004-01-01

    The paper presents an overview of the recent results of novel CdSe quantum dot (QD) fabrication techniques with the main emphasis on a stressor-controlled self-organization process resulting in nucleation of the optically active up to room temperature real CdSe QDs with a narrower size distribution, a higher density and a high Cd content. The main idea of the stressor-controlled epitaxy is the intentional introduction of a super-strained fractional monolayer of a much higher lattice-mismatch compound - stressor - to create strong local stress fields on the growth surface which govern self-assembling of the main QD material. The studies were performed on a type-II non-common atom CdSe/BeTe system, where CdTe (Δa/a∼14%) and BeSe (Δa/a∼-10%) interface bonds play the role of intrinsic stressors. Both experimental data (growth, structural and optical characterization) and Monte Carlo simulation of the growth process are presented

  16. Organic–Inorganic Nanostructure Architecture via Directly Capping Fullerenes onto Quantum Dots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Jonggi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A new form of fullerene-capped CdSe nanoparticles (PCBA-capped CdSe NPs, using carboxylate ligands with [60]fullerene capping groups that provides an effective synthetic methodology to attach fullerenes noncovalently to CdSe, is presented for usage in nanotechnology and photoelectric fields. Interestingly, either the internal charge transfer or the energy transfer in the hybrid material contributes to photoluminescence (PL quenching of the CdSe moieties.

  17. Nanometric agents in the service of neuroscience: Manipulation of neuronal growth and activity using nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polak, Pazit; Shefi, Orit

    2015-08-01

    Nerve regeneration and recovery could provide great therapeutic benefits for individuals suffering from nerve damage post trauma or degenerative diseases. However, manipulation of nerves presents a huge challenge for neuroscientists and is not yet clinically feasible. In recent years, nanoparticles have emerged as novel effective agents for control of neuronal growth and behavior. Nanoparticles may facilitate the needed nerve manipulation abilities for therapeutic and diagnostic purposes including within the brain. This review aims at presenting the currently available literature regarding the interactions between inorganic nanoparticles and neurons. A wide range of nanoparticles are presented, including gold, iron oxide, cerium oxide, nanotubes and quantum-dots. The nanoparticles enhance neuronal differentiation and survival, direct growth and regulate electrical activity. The studies are summarized in a concise table, arranged by the function and type of nanoparticle. The latest studies present a novel interdisciplinary approach, which could be harnessed for clinical applications in nanomedicine. Nerve regeneration remains the Holy Grail for patients with neuron loss. Nonetheless, this goal has not been realized in clinical setting thus far. In this article, the authors present a comprehensive review on various nanoparticle-based approaches, in both diagnosis and therapy, which should stimulate and generate more research ideas to the advancement in this field. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Inhibited growth of Pseudomonas aeruginosa by dextran- and polyacrylic acid-coated ceria nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Q

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Qi Wang,1 J Manuel Perez,2 Thomas J Webster1,3 1Bioengineering Program, College of Engineering, Northeastern University, Boston, MA, USA; 2Nanoscience Technology Center, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL, USA; 3Department of Chemical Engineering, College of Engineering, Northeastern University, Boston, MA, USA Abstract: Ceria (CeO2 nanoparticles have been widely studied for numerous applications, but only a few recent studies have investigated their potential applications in medicine. Moreover, there have been almost no studies focusing on their possible antibacterial properties, despite the fact that such nanoparticles may reduce reactive oxygen species. In this study, we coated CeO2 nanoparticles with dextran or polyacrylic acid (PAA because of their enhanced biocompatibility properties, minimized toxicity, and reduced clearance by the immune system. For the first time, the coated CeO2 nanoparticles were tested in bacterial assays involving Pseudomonas aeruginosa, one of the most significant bacteria responsible for infecting numerous medical devices. The results showed that CeO2 nanoparticles with either coating significantly inhibited the growth of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, by up to 55.14%, after 24 hours compared with controls (no particles. The inhibition of bacterial growth was concentration dependent. In summary, this study revealed, for the first time, that the characterized dextran- and PAA-coated CeO2 nanoparticles could be potential novel materials for numerous antibacterial applications. Keywords: antibacterial, biomedical applications

  19. Trapping shape-controlled nanoparticle nucleation and growth stages via continuous-flow chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaGrow, Alec P; Besong, Tabot M D; AlYami, Noktan M; Katsiev, Khabiboulakh; Anjum, Dalaver H; Abdelkader, Ahmed; Costa, Pedro M F J; Burlakov, Victor M; Goriely, Alain; Bakr, Osman M

    2017-02-21

    Continuous flow chemistry is used to trap the nucleation and growth stages of platinum-nickel nano-octahedra with second time resolution and high throughputs to probe their properties ex situ. The growth starts from poorly crystalline particles (nucleation) at 5 seconds, to crystalline 1.5 nm particles bounded by the {111}-facets at 7.5 seconds, followed by truncation and further growth to octahedral nanoparticles at 20 seconds.

  20. Trapping shape-controlled nanoparticle nucleation and growth stages via continuous-flow chemistry

    KAUST Repository

    LaGrow, Alec P.; Besong, Tabot M.D.; AlYami, Noktan; Katsiev, Khabiboulakh; Anjum, Dalaver H.; Abdelkader, Ahmed; Da Costa, Pedro M. F. J.; Burlakov, Victor M.; Goriely, Alain; Bakr, Osman

    2017-01-01

    Continuous flow chemistry is used to trap the nucleation and growth stages of platinum-nickel nano-octahedra with second time resolution and high throughputs to probe their properties ex situ. The growth starts from poorly crystalline particles (nucleation) at 5 seconds, to crystalline 1.5 nm particles bounded by the {111}-facets at 7.5 seconds, followed by truncation and further growth to octahedral nanoparticles at 20 seconds.

  1. Trapping shape-controlled nanoparticle nucleation and growth stages via continuous-flow chemistry

    KAUST Repository

    LaGrow, Alec P.

    2017-02-06

    Continuous flow chemistry is used to trap the nucleation and growth stages of platinum-nickel nano-octahedra with second time resolution and high throughputs to probe their properties ex situ. The growth starts from poorly crystalline particles (nucleation) at 5 seconds, to crystalline 1.5 nm particles bounded by the {111}-facets at 7.5 seconds, followed by truncation and further growth to octahedral nanoparticles at 20 seconds.

  2. Direct Observation of Electron-to-Hole Energy Transfer in CdSe Quantum Dots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendry, E.; Koeberg, M.; Wang, F.; Zhang, H.; de Mello Donega, C.; Vanmaekelbergh, D.; Bonn, M.

    2006-01-01

    We independently determine the subpicosecond cooling rates for holes and electrons in CdSe quantum dots. Time-resolved luminescence and terahertz spectroscopy reveal that the rate of hole cooling, following photoexcitation of the quantum dots, depends critically on the electron excess energy. This

  3. Rapid screening of aquatic toxicity of several metal-based nanoparticles using the MetPLATE Trade-Mark-Sign bioassay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pokhrel, Lok R.; Silva, Thilini [Department of Environmental Health, College of Public Health, East Tennessee State University, Johnson City, TN 37614 (United States); Dubey, Brajesh, E-mail: bdubey@uoguelph.ca [Environmental Engineering, School of Engineering, University of Guelph, 50 Stone Road East, Guelph, Ontario (Canada); El Badawy, Amro M. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Tolaymat, Thabet M. [USEPA, Office of Research and Development, National Risk Management Laboratory, 26 West Martin Luther King Drive, Cincinnati, OH 45224 (United States); Scheuerman, Phillip R. [Department of Environmental Health, College of Public Health, East Tennessee State University, Johnson City, TN 37614 (United States)

    2012-06-01

    Current understanding of potential toxicity of engineered nanomaterials to aquatic microorganisms is limited for risk assessment and management. Here we evaluate if the MetPLATE Trade-Mark-Sign test can be used as an effective and rapid screening tool to test for potential aquatic toxicity of various metal-based nanoparticles (NPs). The MetPLATE bioassay is a heavy metal sensitive test based on {beta}-galactosidase activity in Escherichia coli. Five different types of metal-based NPs were screened for toxicity: (1) citrate coated nAg (Citrate-nanosilver), (2) polyvinylpyrrolidone coated nAg (PVP-nAg), (3) uncoated nZnO, (4) uncoated nTiO{sub 2} and (5) 1-Octadecylamine coated CdSe Quantum Dots (CdSe QDs); and compared with their corresponding ionic salt toxicity. Citrate-nAg was further fractionated into clean Citrate-nAg, unclean Citrate-nAg and permeate using a tangential flow filtration (TFF) system to eliminate residual ions and impurities from the stock Citrate-nAg suspension and also to differentiate between ionic- versus nano-specific toxicity. Our results showed that nAg, nZnO and CdSe QDs were less toxic than their corresponding ionic salts tested, while nano- or ionic form of TiO{sub 2} was not toxic as high as 2.5 g L{sup -1} to the MetPLATE Trade-Mark-Sign bacteria. Although coating-dependent toxicity was noticeable between two types of Ag NPs evaluated, particle size and surface charge were not adequate to explain the observed toxicity; hence, the toxicity appeared to be material-specific. Overall, the toxicity followed the trend: CdCl{sub 2} > AgNO{sub 3} > PVP-nAg > unclean Citrate-nAg > clean Citrate-nAg > ZnSO{sub 4} > nZnO > CdSe QDs > nTiO{sub 2}/TiO{sub 2}. These results indicate that an evaluation of {beta}-galactosidase inhibition in MetPLATE Trade-Mark-Sign E. coli can be an important consideration for rapid screening of metal-based NP toxicity, and should facilitate ecological risk assessment of these emerging contaminants. - Highlights

  4. Effect of impurity inhomogeneity of CdS and CdSe monocrystalline semiconductors on electron absorption of piezoactive ultrasonic waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ketis, B.P.; Krivka, I.

    1986-01-01

    Relation of observed anomalies (deviations from predictions of theory for homogeneous piezosemiconductor) of electronic absorption coefficient (EAC) of volume, piezoactive acoustic waves (with 15 MHz frequency) in CdS and CdSe hexagonal crystals with electrical heterogeneity is shown experimentally. Results of electron microanalysis of CdS and CdSe piezosemiconductors confirmed their impurity heterogeneity are presented as well as data of investigations into high-frequency conduction and electronic absorption of ultrasonic waves pointing out to volume nature of impurity and electric heterogeneities of monocrystals investigated. Correlation between EAC anomalies and surface density of impurity aggregates (IA) is noted as well as coincidence of impurity and electrical heterogeneities in CdS and CdSe crystals. In CdS crystals the observed anisotropy of high-frequency conduction and volume radioactive ultrasonic waves EAC is attributed to high density and anisotropy of IA space distribution and shape. To explain EAC anomalies, a crystal is simulated with heterogeneous grid of resistances and condensators

  5. Improved microbial growth inhibition activity of bio-surfactant induced Ag–TiO{sub 2} core shell nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nithyadevi, D. [Department of Nanoscience and Technology, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore 641 046 (India); Kumar, P. Suresh [Thin Film and Nanomaterials Laboratory, Department of Physics, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore 641 046 (India); Mangalaraj, D., E-mail: dmraj800@yahoo.com [Department of Nanoscience and Technology, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore 641 046 (India); Ponpandian, N.; Viswanathan, C. [Department of Nanoscience and Technology, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore 641 046 (India); Meena, P. [Department of Physics, PSGR Krishnammal college for women, Coimbatore 641 004 (India)

    2015-02-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles were synthesized by hydrolysis process and Ag nanoparticles were prepared by using hydrazine reduction method. • Ag–TiO{sub 2} core shell nanoparticles were synthesized by reverse micelle method. • Coatings of TiO{sub 2} shell leads to decrease the usage of silver particles and also it reduces the release of silver ions from the matrix. • Optimum ratio of TiO{sub 2} particles: Ag atoms are needed for better antibacterial activity. • Sodium alginate (Bio-copolymer) induced core shell nanoparticles results 100% cell growth inhibition toward Staphylococcus aureus. - Abstract: Surfactant induced silver–titanium dioxide core shell nanoparticles within the size range of 10–50 nm were applied in the antibacterial agent to inhibit the growth of bacterial cells. The single crystalline silver was located in the core part of the composite powder and the titanium dioxide components were uniformly distributed in the shell part. HRTEM and XRD results indicated that silver was completely covered by titanium dioxide and its crystal structure was not affected after being coated by titanium dioxide. The effect of silver–titanium dioxide nanoparticles in the inhibition of bacterial cell growth was studied by means of disk diffusion method. The inhibition zone results reveal that sodium alginate induced silver–titanium dioxide nanoparticles exhibit 100% more antibacterial activity than that with cetyltrimethylbromide or without surfactant. UV–vis spectroscopic analysis showed a large concentration of silver was rapidly released into phosphate buffer solution (PBS) within a period of 1 day, with a much smaller concentration being released after this 1-day period. It was concluded that sodium alginate induced silver–titanium dioxide core shell nanoparticles could enhance long term cell growth inhibition in comparison with cetyltrimethylbromide or without surfactant. The surfactant mediated core shell

  6. On the role of Pb{sup 0} atoms on the nucleation and growth of PbSe and PbTe nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Gutierrez, Domingo I., E-mail: domingo.garciagt@uanl.edu.mx; Leon-Covian, Lina M. De; Garcia-Gutierrez, Diana F. [Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, UANL, Facultad de Ingenieria Mecanica y Electrica, FIME (Mexico); Trevino-Gonzalez, M. [Centro de Innovacion, Investigacion y Desarrollo en Ingenieria y Tecnologia, CIIDIT, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, UANL (Mexico); Garza-Navarro, M. A.; Sepulveda-Guzman, S. [Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, UANL, Facultad de Ingenieria Mecanica y Electrica, FIME (Mexico)

    2013-05-15

    In this contribution, a nucleation and growth mechanism of PbSe and PbTe nanoparticles are proposed. The formation and growth of PbSe and PbTe nanoparticles during their reaction synthesis were studied and followed using transmission electron microscopy, and their related techniques. In the synthesis method, trioctylphosphine-selenide and telluride were used as the chalcogen precursors, while lead oleate was employed as the lead precursor. Different synthesis conditions were tested to assess the effect of varying the reaction time, lead to chalcogen ratio, reaction temperature, and lead oleate concentration. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized by means of electron diffraction, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, scanning transmission electron microscopy, and electron energy loss spectroscopy, to obtain information related to their morphology, crystal structure, and composition. The experimental results suggest that the growth of the lead chalcogenide nanoparticles greatly relies on the reduction of Pb{sup 2+} ions to Pb{sup 0} atoms at early reaction times; this reduction of the lead precursor is evidenced by the formation of Pb nanoparticles with sizes between 1 and 3 nm under certain synthesis conditions. These Pb nanoparticles gradually disappear as the reaction progresses, suggesting that the reduced Pb{sup 0} atoms are able to contribute to the growth of the PbSe and PbTe nanoparticles, reaching sizes between 8 and 18 nm. The current results contribute to a better understanding of the nucleation and growth mechanisms of lead chalcogenide nanoparticles, which will enable the definition of more efficient synthesis routes of these types of nanostructures.

  7. Tin/Indium nanobundle formation from aggregation or growth of nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Hongjin; Moon, Kyoung-sik; Sun Yangyang; Wong, C. P.; Hua, Fay; Pal, Tarasankar; Pal, Anjali

    2008-01-01

    Shape and size controlled gram level synthesis of tin/indium (SnIn) alloy nanoparticles and nanobundles is reported. Poly(N-vinylpyrrolidone) (PVP) was employed as a capping agent, which could control the growth and structure of the alloy particles under varying conditions. Transmission electron microscopy showed that unique SnIn alloy nanobundles could be synthesized from the bulk materials above a certain concentration of PVP and below this concentration, discrete spherical nanoparticles of variable size were evolved. The morphology and the composition of the as-synthesized SnIn alloy nanobundles were investigated by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The possible mechanisms on the formation of these structures were discussed

  8. Chemical synthesis and characterization of CdSe thin films deposited by SILAR technique for optoelectronic applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.B. Chaudhari

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available CdSe thin films were deposited on the glass substrate by successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR method. Different sets of the film are prepared by changing the number of immersion cycles as 30, 40, 50 and 60. Further the effect of a number of immersion cycles on the characteristic structural, morphological, optical and electrical properties of the films are studied. The XRD studies revealed that the deposited films showed hexagonal structure with most prominent reflection along (1 0 1 plane. Moreover, the peak intensity of (1 0 1 plane is found to be increased as the number of immersion cycles is increased. All the thin films look relatively smooth and homogeneous covering the entire surface area in FESEM image. Optical properties of the CdSe thin films for a different number of immersion cycles were studied, which indicates that the absorbance increases with the increase in the immersion cycles. Furthermore, the optical band-gap in conjunction with the electrical resistivity was found to get decreased with increase in the immersion cycles. A good correlation between the number of immersion cycles and the physical properties indicates a simple method to manipulate the CdSe material properties for optoelectronic applications.

  9. Highly photoluminescent and photostable CdSe quantum dot-nylon hybrid composites for efficient light conversion applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan Ying; Riehle, Frank-Stefan [Freiburg Materials Research Centre (FMF), University of Freiburg, Stefan-Meier-Str. 21, D-79104 Freiburg (Germany); Department of Microsystems Engineering (IMTEK), Georg Koehler Allee 103, University of Freiburg, D-79110 Freiburg (Germany); Nitschke, Roland [Life Imaging Center, Centre of Systems Biology, University of Freiburg Habsburgerstr. 49, D-79104 Freiburg (Germany); Centre for Biological Signalling Studies (BIOSS), University of Freiburg (Germany); Krueger, Michael, E-mail: michael.krueger@fmf.uni-freiburg.de [Freiburg Materials Research Centre (FMF), University of Freiburg, Stefan-Meier-Str. 21, D-79104 Freiburg (Germany); Department of Microsystems Engineering (IMTEK), Georg Koehler Allee 103, University of Freiburg, D-79110 Freiburg (Germany)

    2012-02-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A novel in situ synthesis approach for highly luminescent CdSe core QDs-nylon hybrid materials. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Potential applications for light and energy conversion are demonstrated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Three dimensional structures out of this hybrid material are available. - Abstract: Highly photoluminescent hexadecylamine (HDA) capped core CdSe quantum dots (QDs) with fluorescent quantum yields (QYs) up to 60% were synthesized using a hot injection method and directly incorporated into nylon polymer. For the incorporation of crude CdSe QDs into nylon a simple reproducible and upscalable one pot approach was developed without the need of further purification steps. The photoluminescence (PL) properties of the core QDs and the resulting QD-polymer hybrid composites were investigated and compared. Red emitting hybrid materials exhibit a QY of 60% with a high potential for applications in direct light and energy conversion. The hybrid materials could be successfully utilized as LED conversion layers. By avoiding exposure to oxygen the hybrid films can be kept for a month without detecting a significant decrease in luminescence. Various three dimensional structures are easily available opening doors for further applications such as novel materials for fluorescence standard development in laser scanning microscopy (LSM).

  10. Controlled growth of gold nanoparticles in zeolite L via ion-exchange reactions and thermal reduction processes

    KAUST Repository

    Zeng, Shangjing; Ding, Shuang; Li, Shangyu; Wang, Runwei; Zhang, Zongtao

    2014-01-01

    The growth of gold nanoparticles in zeolite can be controlled using ion-exchange reactions and thermal reduction processes. We produce a number of different sizes of the gold nanoparticles with the particle size increasing with increased temperature

  11. Vectorial electron transfer for improved hydrogen evolution by mercaptopropionic-acid-regulated CdSe quantum-dots-TiO2 -Ni(OH)2 assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Shan; Li, Zhi-Jun; Fan, Xiang-Bing; Li, Jia-Xin; Zhan, Fei; Li, Xu-Bing; Tao, Ye; Tung, Chen-Ho; Wu, Li-Zhu

    2015-02-01

    A visible-light-induced hydrogen evolution system based on a CdSe quantum dots (QDs)-TiO2 -Ni(OH)2 ternary assembly has been constructed under an ambient environment, and a bifunctional molecular linker, mercaptopropionic acid, is used to facilitate the interaction between CdSe QDs and TiO2 . This hydrogen evolution system works effectively in a basic aqueous solution (pH 11.0) to achieve a hydrogen evolution rate of 10.1 mmol g(-1)  h(-1) for the assembly and a turnover frequency of 5140 h(-1) with respect to CdSe QDs (10 h); the latter is comparable with the highest value reported for QD systems in an acidic environment. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray absorption spectroscopy, and control experiments demonstrate that Ni(OH)2 is an efficient hydrogen evolution catalyst. In addition, inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy and the emission decay of the assembly combined with the hydrogen evolution experiments show that TiO2 functions mainly as the electron mediator; the vectorial electron transfer from CdSe QDs to TiO2 and then from TiO2 to Ni(OH)2 enhances the efficiency for hydrogen evolution. The assembly comprises light antenna CdSe QDs, electron mediator TiO2 , and catalytic Ni(OH)2 , which mimics the strategy of photosynthesis exploited in nature and takes us a step further towards artificial photosynthesis. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Maghemite Nanoparticles Acts as Nanozymes, Improving Growth and Abiotic Stress Tolerance in Brassica napus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmqvist, N. G. Martin; Seisenbaeva, Gulaim A.; Svedlindh, Peter; Kessler, Vadim G.

    2017-12-01

    Yttrium doping-stabilized γ-Fe2O3 nanoparticles were studied for its potential to serve as a plant fertilizer and, through enzymatic activity, support drought stress management. Levels of both hydrogen peroxide and lipid peroxidation, after drought, were reduced when γ-Fe2O3 nanoparticles were delivered by irrigation in a nutrient solution to Brassica napus plants grown in soil. Hydrogen peroxide was reduced from 151 to 83 μM g-1 compared to control, and the malondialdehyde formation was reduced from 36 to 26 mM g-1. Growth rate of leaves was enhanced from 33 to 50% growth compared to fully fertilized plants and SPAD-measurements of chlorophyll increased from 47 to 52 suggesting improved agronomic properties by use of γ-Fe2O3 nanoparticles as fertilizer as compared to chelated iron.

  13. Direct assembly of in situ templated CdSe quantum dots via crystalline lamellae structure of polyamide 66

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheval, Nicolas; Brooks, Richard [University of Nottingham, Division of Materials, Mechanics and Structures, Faculty of Engineering (United Kingdom); Fahmi, Amir, E-mail: Amir.Fahmi@hochschule-Rhein-waal.de [Rhein-Waal University of Applied Sciences, Faculty of Technology and Bionics (Germany)

    2012-03-15

    A simple concept is proposed for templating in situ synthesised CdSe quantum dots (QDs) into an organised nano-pattern using the crystalline lamellae structure of polyamide 66 (PA66). The morphology obtained for PA66 and the hybrid material on Si/SiO{sub x} solid substrate was characterised by means of atomic force microscope. Controlling the PA66 concentration in solution and the organic-inorganic interactions are found to be the keys factors to direct the assembly of CdSe QDs along the PA66 linear crystalline structure. This simple approach could be opened a new avenue for a large spectrum of innovative high-tech applications.

  14. Absorption properties of metal-semiconductor hybrid nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaviv, Ehud; Schubert, Olaf; Alves-Santos, Marcelo; Goldoni, Guido; Di Felice, Rosa; Vallée, Fabrice; Del Fatti, Natalia; Banin, Uri; Sönnichsen, Carsten

    2011-06-28

    The optical response of hybrid metal-semiconductor nanoparticles exhibits different behaviors due to the proximity between the disparate materials. For some hybrid systems, such as CdS-Au matchstick-shaped hybrids, the particles essentially retain the optical properties of their original components, with minor changes. Other systems, such as CdSe-Au dumbbell-shaped nanoparticles, exhibit significant change in the optical properties due to strong coupling between the two materials. Here, we study the absorption of these hybrids by comparing experimental results with simulations using the discrete dipole approximation method (DDA) employing dielectric functions of the bare components as inputs. For CdS-Au nanoparticles, the DDA simulation provides insights on the gold tip shape and its interface with the semiconductor, information that is difficult to acquire by experimental means alone. Furthermore, the qualitative agreement between DDA simulations and experimental data for CdS-Au implies that most effects influencing the absorption of this hybrid system are well described by local dielectric functions obtained separately for bare gold and CdS nanoparticles. For dumbbell shaped CdSe-Au, we find a shortcoming of the electrodynamic model, as it does not predict the "washing out" of the optical features of the semiconductor and the metal observed experimentally. The difference between experiment and theory is ascribed to strong interaction of the metal and semiconductor excitations, which spectrally overlap in the CdSe case. The present study exemplifies the employment of theoretical approaches used to describe the optical properties of semiconductors and metal nanoparticles, to achieve better understanding of the behavior of metal-semiconductor hybrid nanoparticles.

  15. Magnetic properties of iron oxide nanoparticles prepared by seeded-growth route

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Espinosa, A.; Muñoz-Noval, A.; García-Hernández, M.; Serrano, A.; Jiménez de la Morena, J.; Figuerola, A.; Quarta, A.; Pellegrino, T.; Wilhelm, C.; García, M. A.

    2013-01-01

    In this work we investigate the magnetic properties of iron oxide nanoparticles obtained by two-step synthesis (seeded-growth route) with sizes that range from 6 to 18 nm. The initial seeds result monocrystalline and exhibit ferromagnetic behavior with low saturation field. The subsequent growth of a shell enhances the anisotropy inducing magnetic frustration, and, consequently, reducing its magnetization. This increase in anisotropy occurs suddenly at a certain size (∼10 nm). Electronic and structural analysis with X-ray absorption spectroscopy indicates a step reduction in the oxidation state as the particle reaches 10 nm size while keeping its overall structure in spite of the magnetic polydispersity. The formation of antiphase magnetic boundaries due to island percolation in the growing shells is hypothesized to be the mechanism responsible of the magnetic behavior, as a direct consequence of the two-step synthesis route of the nanoparticles.

  16. Spatially-resolved luminescence spectroscopy of CdSe quantum dots synthesized in ionic liquid crystal matrices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magaryan, K.A., E-mail: xmagaros@gmail.com [Moscow State Pedagogical University, 29 Malaya Pirogovskaya Str., Moscow 119992 (Russian Federation); Mikhailov, M.A. [Moscow State Pedagogical University, 29 Malaya Pirogovskaya Str., Moscow 119992 (Russian Federation); Karimullin, K.R. [Moscow State Pedagogical University, 29 Malaya Pirogovskaya Str., Moscow 119992 (Russian Federation); Institute for Spectroscopy of RAS, 5 Fizicheskaya Str., Troitsk, Moscow 142190 (Russian Federation); E.K. Zavoyski Kazan Physical-Technical Institute of RAS, 10/7 Sibirski trakt Str., Kazan 420029 (Russian Federation); Knyazev, M.V.; Eremchev, I.Y. [Institute for Spectroscopy of RAS, 5 Fizicheskaya Str., Troitsk, Moscow 142190 (Russian Federation); Naumov, A.V. [Moscow State Pedagogical University, 29 Malaya Pirogovskaya Str., Moscow 119992 (Russian Federation); Institute for Spectroscopy of RAS, 5 Fizicheskaya Str., Troitsk, Moscow 142190 (Russian Federation); Vasilieva, I.A. [Moscow State Pedagogical University, 29 Malaya Pirogovskaya Str., Moscow 119992 (Russian Federation); Klimusheva, G.V. [Institute of Physics, NAS of Ukraine, 46 Prospect Nauki, Kiev 03028 (Ukraine)

    2016-01-15

    The paper is devoted to investigation of luminescence properties of new quantum dot (QD)-doped materials. We studied CdSe QDs (1.8 nm and 2.3 nm) grown inside of a liquid crystalline cadmium alcanoate matrix. Temperature dependence of parameters of fluorescence spectra obtained in a wide temperature range using epi-luminescence microscopy technique was analyzed. Spatially-resolved luminescence images were measured for the areas of the samples of 150×150 µm{sup 2}. Strong correlation between fluorescence spectra and sample structure was observed. - Highlights: • Glassy matrix with CdSe quantum dots inside fabricated in liquid crystalline mesophase. • Study of luminescence properties in a wide range of low temperatures. • Strong dependence of the luminescence spectra on spatial inhomogeneities. • Spatially-resolved luminescence imaging of quantum dots in liquid crystalline matrix.

  17. Spatially-resolved luminescence spectroscopy of CdSe quantum dots synthesized in ionic liquid crystal matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magaryan, K.A.; Mikhailov, M.A.; Karimullin, K.R.; Knyazev, M.V.; Eremchev, I.Y.; Naumov, A.V.; Vasilieva, I.A.; Klimusheva, G.V.

    2016-01-01

    The paper is devoted to investigation of luminescence properties of new quantum dot (QD)-doped materials. We studied CdSe QDs (1.8 nm and 2.3 nm) grown inside of a liquid crystalline cadmium alcanoate matrix. Temperature dependence of parameters of fluorescence spectra obtained in a wide temperature range using epi-luminescence microscopy technique was analyzed. Spatially-resolved luminescence images were measured for the areas of the samples of 150×150 µm 2 . Strong correlation between fluorescence spectra and sample structure was observed. - Highlights: • Glassy matrix with CdSe quantum dots inside fabricated in liquid crystalline mesophase. • Study of luminescence properties in a wide range of low temperatures. • Strong dependence of the luminescence spectra on spatial inhomogeneities. • Spatially-resolved luminescence imaging of quantum dots in liquid crystalline matrix.

  18. Inhibition effects of protein-conjugated amorphous zinc sulfide nanoparticles on tumor cells growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Ying; Wang Huajie; Cao Cui; Sun Yuanyuan; Yang Lin; Wang Baoqing; Zhou Jianguo

    2011-01-01

    In this article, a facile and environmentally friendly method was applied to fabricate BSA-conjugated amorphous zinc sulfide (ZnS) nanoparticles using bovine serum albumin (BSA) as the matrix. Transmission electron microscopy analysis indicated that the stable and well-dispersed nanoparticles with the diameter of 15.9 ± 2.1 nm were successfully prepared. The energy dispersive X-ray, X-ray powder diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectrograph, high resolution transmission electron microscope, and selected area electron diffraction measurements showed that the obtained nanoparticles had the amorphous structure and the coordination occurred between zinc sulfide surfaces and BSA in the nanoparticles. In addition, the inhibition effects of BSA-conjugated amorphous zinc sulfide nanoparticles on tumor cells growth were described in detail by cell viability analysis, optical and electron microscopy methods. The results showed that BSA-conjugated amorphous zinc sulfide nanoparticles could inhibit the metabolism and proliferation of human hepatocellular carcinoma cells, and the inhibition was dose dependent. The half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) was 0.36 mg/mL. Overall, this study suggested that BSA-conjugated amorphous zinc sulfide nanoparticles had the application potential as cytostatic agents and BSA in the nanoparticles could provide the modifiable site for the nanoparticles to improve their bioactivity or to endow them with the target function.

  19. Incorporation of Mn2+ into CdSe quantum dots by chemical bath co-deposition method for photovoltaic enhancement of quantum dot-sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chenguang; Liu, Shaowen; Liu, Xingwei; Deng, Fei; Xiong, Yan; Tsai, Fang-Chang

    2018-03-01

    A photoelectric conversion efficiency (PCE) of 4.9% was obtained under 100 mW cm -2 illumination by quantum-dot-sensitized solar cells (QDSSCs) using a CdS/Mn : CdSe sensitizer. CdS quantum dots (QDs) were deposited on a TiO 2 mesoporous oxide film by successive ionic layer absorption and reaction. Mn 2+ doping into CdSe QDs is an innovative and simple method-chemical bath co-deposition, that is, mixing the Mn ion source with CdSe precursor solution for Mn : CdSe QD deposition. Compared with the CdS/CdSe sensitizer without Mn 2+ incorporation, the PCE was increased from 3.4% to 4.9%. The effects of Mn 2+ doping on the chemical, physical and photovoltaic properties of the QDSSCs were investigated by energy dispersive spectrometry, absorption spectroscopy, photocurrent density-voltage characteristics and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Mn-doped CdSe QDs in QDSSCs can obtain superior light absorption, faster electron transport and slower charge recombination than CdSe QDs.

  20. Comparative investigation of long-wave infrared generation based on ZnGeP{sub 2} and CdSe optical parametric oscillators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bao-Quan, Yao; Gang, Li; Guo-Li, Zhu; Pei-Bei, Meng; You-Lun, Ju; Wang Yue-Zhu, E-mail: yaobq08@hit.edu.cn [National Key Laboratory of Tunable Laser Technology Harbin Institute of Technology Harbin 150001 (China)

    2012-03-15

    Long-wave infrared (IR) generation based on type-II (o{yields}e+o) phase matching ZnGeP{sub 2} (ZGP) and CdSe optical parametric oscillators (OPOs) pumped by a 2.05 {mu}m Tm,Ho:GdVO{sub 4} laser is reported. The comparisons of the bire-fringent walk-off effect and the oscillation threshold between ZGP and CdSe OPOs are performed theoretically and experimentally. For the ZGP OPO, up to 419 mW output at 8.04 {mu}m is obtained at the 8 kHz pump pulse repetition frequency (PRF) with a slope efficiency of 7.6%. This ZGP OPO can be continuously tuned from 7.8 to 8.5 {mu}m. For the CdSe OPO, we demonstrate a 64 mW output at 8.9 {mu}m with a single crystal 28 mm in length. (electromagnetism, optics, acoustics, heat transfer, classical mechanics, and fluid dynamics)

  1. Temporary Charge Carrier Separation Dominates the Photoluminescence Decay Dynamics of Colloidal CdSe Nanoplatelets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rabouw, F.T.; van der Bok, J.C.; Spinicelli, Piernicola; Mahler, B.; Nasilowski, M.; Pedetti, S.; Dubertret, B.; Vanmaekelbergh, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Luminescent colloidal CdSe nanoplatelets with atomically defined thicknesses have recently been developed, and their potential for various applications has been shown. To understand their special properties, experiments have until now focused on the relatively short time scales of at most a few

  2. submitter The effect of acid–base clustering and ions on the growth of atmospheric nano-particles

    CERN Document Server

    Lehtipalo, Katrianne; Kontkanen, Jenni; Schobesberger, Siegfried; Jokinen, Tuija; Sarnela, Nina; Kürten, Andreas; Ehrhart, Sebastian; Franchin, Alessandro; Nieminen, Tuomo; Riccobono, Francesco; Sipilä, Mikko; Yli-Juuti, Taina; Duplissy, Jonathan; Adamov, Alexey; Ahlm, Lars; Almeida, João; Amorim, Antonio; Bianchi, Federico; Breitenlechner, Martin; Dommen, Josef; Downard, Andrew J; Dunne, Eimear M; Flagan, Richard C; Guida, Roberto; Hakala, Jani; Hansel, Armin; Jud, Werner; Kangasluoma, Juha; Kerminen, Veli-Matti; Keskinen, Helmi; Kim, Jaeseok; Kirkby, Jasper; Kupc, Agnieszka; Kupiainen-Määttä, Oona; Laaksonen, Ari; Lawler, Michael J; Leiminger, Markus; Mathot, Serge; Olenius, Tinja; Ortega, Ismael K; Onnela, Antti; Petäjä, Tuukka; Praplan, Arnaud; Rissanen, Matti P; Ruuskanen, Taina; Santos, Filipe D; Schallhart, Simon; Schnitzhofer, Ralf; Simon, Mario; Smith, James N; Tröstl, Jasmin; Tsagkogeorgas, Georgios; Tomé, António; Vaattovaara, Petri; Vehkamäki, Hanna; Vrtala, Aron E; Wagner, Paul E; Williamson, Christina; Wimmer, Daniela; Winkler, Paul M; Virtanen, Annele; Donahue, Neil M; Carslaw, Kenneth S; Baltensperger, Urs; Riipinen, Ilona; Curtius, Joachim; Worsnop, Douglas R; Kulmala, Markku

    2016-01-01

    The growth of freshly formed aerosol particles can be the bottleneck in their survival to cloud condensation nuclei. It is therefore crucial to understand how particles grow in the atmosphere. Insufficient experimental data has impeded a profound understanding of nano-particle growth under atmospheric conditions. Here we study nano-particle growth in the CLOUD (Cosmics Leaving OUtdoors Droplets) chamber, starting from the formation of molecular clusters. We present measured growth rates at sub-3 nm sizes with different atmospherically relevant concentrations of sulphuric acid, water, ammonia and dimethylamine. We find that atmospheric ions and small acid-base clusters, which are not generally accounted for in the measurement of sulphuric acid vapour, can participate in the growth process, leading to enhanced growth rates. The availability of compounds capable of stabilizing sulphuric acid clusters governs the magnitude of these effects and thus the exact growth mechanism. We bring these observations into a ...

  3. Solid-state chemiluminescence assay for ultrasensitive detection of antimony using on-vial immobilization of CdSe quantum dots combined with liquid–liquid–liquid microextraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costas-Mora, Isabel; Romero, Vanesa; Lavilla, Isela; Bendicho, Carlos, E-mail: bendicho@uvigo.es

    2013-07-25

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •Solid-state chemiluminescence based on CdSe QDs was developed. •QDs immobilization in a vial was achieved in a simple and fast way. •Antimony detection was achieved by inhibition of the CdSe QDs/H{sub 2}O{sub 2} CL reaction. •LLLME allowed improving the selectivity and sensitivity of the CL assay. •The capping ligand played a critical role in the selectivity of the CL system. -- Abstract: On-vial immobilized CdSe quantum dots (QDs) are applied for the first time as chemiluminescent probes for the detection of trace metal ions. Among 17 metal ions tested, inhibition of the chemiluminescence when CdSe QDs are oxidized by H{sub 2}O{sub 2} was observed for Sb, Se and Cu. Liquid–liquid–liquid microextraction was implemented in order to improve the selectivity and sensitivity of the chemiluminescent assay. Factors influencing both the CdSe QDs/H{sub 2}O{sub 2} chemiluminescent system and microextraction process were optimized for ultrasensitive detection of Sb(III) and total Sb. In order to investigate the mechanism by which Sb ions inhibit the chemiluminescence of the CdSe QDs/H{sub 2}O{sub 2} system, atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), UV–vis absorption and fluorescence measurements were performed. The selection of the appropriate CdSe QDs capping ligand was found to be a critical issue. Immobilization of QDs caused the chemiluminescence signal to be enhanced by a factor of 100 as compared to experiments carried out with QDs dispersed in the bulk aqueous phase. Under optimized conditions, the detection limit was 6 ng L{sup −1} Sb and the repeatability expressed as relative standard deviation (N = 7) was about 1.3%. An enrichment factor of 95 was achieved within only 3 min of microextraction. Several water samples including drinking, spring, and river waters were analyzed. The proposed method was validated against CRM NWTM-27.2 fortified lake water, and a recovery study was

  4. Nonvolatile flexible organic bistable devices fabricated utilizing CdSe/ZnS nanoparticles embedded in a conducting poly N-vinylcarbazole polymer layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Son, Dong-Ick; Kim, Ji-Hwan; Park, Dong-Hee; Choi, Won Kook; Li, Fushan; Ham, Jung Hun; Kim, Tae Whan

    2008-01-01

    The bistable effects of CdSe/ZnS nanoparticles embedded in a conducting poly N-vinylcarbazole (PVK) polymer layer by using flexible poly-vinylidene difluoride (PVDF) and polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates were investigated. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images revealed that CdSe/ZnS nanoparticles were formed inside the PVK polymer layer. Current-voltage (I-V) measurement on the Al/[CdSe/ZnS nanoparticles+ PVK]/ITO/PVDF and Al/[CdSe/ZnS nanoparticles+ PVK ]/ITO/PET structures at 300 K showed a nonvolatile electrical bistability behavior with a flat-band voltage shift due to the existence of the CdSe/ZnS nanoparticles, indicative of trapping, storing and emission of charges in the electronic states of the CdSe nanoparticles. A bistable behavior for the fabricated organic bistable device (OBD) structures is described on the basis of the I-V results. These results indicate that OBDs fabricated by embedding inorganic CdSe/ZnS nanoparticles in a conducting polymer matrix on flexible substrates are prospects for potential applications in flexible nonvolatile flash memory devices

  5. Characterization of size, anisotropy, and density heterogeneity of nanoparticles by sedimentation velocity

    KAUST Repository

    Demeler, Borries

    2014-08-05

    A critical problem in materials science is the accurate characterization of the size dependent properties of colloidal inorganic nanocrystals. Due to the intrinsic polydispersity present during synthesis, dispersions of such materials exhibit simultaneous heterogeneity in density ρ, molar mass M, and particle diameter d. The density increments ∂ρ/∂d and ∂ρ/∂M of these nanoparticles, if known, can then provide important information about crystal growth and particle size distributions. For most classes of nanocrystals, a mixture of surfactants is added during synthesis to control their shape, size, and optical properties. However, it remains a challenge to accurately determine the amount of passivating ligand bound to the particle surface post synthesis. The presence of the ligand shell hampers an accurate determination of the nanocrystal diameter. Using CdSe and PbS semiconductor nanocrystals, and the ultrastable silver nanoparticle (M4Ag 44(p-MBA)30), as model systems, we describe a Custom Grid method implemented in UltraScan-III for the characterization of nanoparticles and macromolecules using sedimentation velocity analytical ultracentrifugation. We show that multiple parametrizations are possible, and that the Custom Grid method can be generalized to provide high resolution composition information for mixtures of solutes that are heterogeneous in two out of three parameters. For such cases, our method can simultaneously resolve arbitrary two-dimensional distributions of hydrodynamic parameters when a third property can be held constant. For example, this method extracts partial specific volume and molar mass from sedimentation velocity data for cases where the anisotropy can be held constant, or provides anisotropy and partial specific volume if the molar mass is known. © 2014 American Chemical Society.

  6. Designing Selectivity in Metal-Semiconductor Nanocrystals: Synthesis, Characterization, and Self-Assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlopoulos, Nicholas George

    in the CdSe core, whereas NR length had a profound effect. This work indicated that longer NRs resulted in poor exciton localization efficiencies owing to ultrafast trapping of photoexcited excitons generated in the CdS NR. The third chapter describes the synthesis of Au-tipped CdSe NRs and studies of the effects of selective metal nanoparticle deposition on the band edge energetics of these model photocatalytic systems. Previous studies had demonstrated ultrafast localization of photoexcited electrons in Au nanoparticles (AuNP) (and PtNP) deposited at the termini of CdSe and CdSe CdS NR constructs. Also, for similar systems, the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) had been studied, for which it was found that noble metal nanoparticle tips were necessary to extract photoexcited electrons from the NR constructs and drive catalytic reactions. However, in these studies, energetic trap states, generally ascribed to surface defects on the NC surface, are often cited as contributing to loss of catalytic efficiency. Through a combination of ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy and waveguide based spectroelectrochemistry on films of 40 nm long CdSe NRs before and after AuNP functionalization, we found that metal deposition resulted in the formation of mid-gap energy states, which were assigned as metal-semiconductor interface states. The fourth chapter transitions from NR constructs to highly absorbing CdSe CdS TP materials, for which a single zincblende (ZB) CdSe NC is used to seed the growth of four identical CdS arms. These arms act as highly efficient light absorbers, resulting in absorption cross sections an order of magnitude greater than for comparable NR systems. In the past, many studies have been published on the striking properties of TP nanocrystals, such as dual wavelength fluorescence, multiple exciton generation, and inherent self-assembly owing to their unique geometry. Nonetheless, these materials have not been exploited for photocatalysis, primarily owing

  7. Gold nanoparticle growth control - Implementing novel wet chemistry method on silicon substrate

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Ameer, Ammar; Katsiev, Habib; Sinatra, Lutfan; Hussein, Irshad; Bakr, Osman

    2013-01-01

    Controlling particle size, shape, nucleation, and self-assembly on surfaces are some of the main challenges facing electronic device fabrication. In this work, growth of gold nanoparticles over a wide range of sizes was investigated by using a novel

  8. Controlled growth of gold nanoparticles in zeolite L via ion-exchange reactions and thermal reduction processes

    KAUST Repository

    Zeng, Shangjing

    2014-09-01

    The growth of gold nanoparticles in zeolite can be controlled using ion-exchange reactions and thermal reduction processes. We produce a number of different sizes of the gold nanoparticles with the particle size increasing with increased temperature of the final heat treatment. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

  9. Optical and opto-electronic characterization of semiconducting nanostructures; Optische und optoelektronische Charakterisierung von halbleitenden Nanostrukturen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Offer, Matthias

    2011-10-12

    In the present thesis, the photoluminescence (PL) of cadmium selenide nanoparticles and doped gallium arsenide nanowires are investigated. Furthermore, in GaAs nanowires, with a distinct pn-junction in the direction of growth, electroluminescence (EL) is demonstrated and analyzed for the fist time. Using PL spectroscopy, the excitonic states of individual CdSe nanoparticles are studied. Sharp emission lines, which can be assigned to different excitonic transitions, can be observed. At a sample temperature of T{approx_equal}10 K, line widths of {delta}E{sub FWHM} {<=}8 meV are found. Additionally, it is demonstrated that, apart from the main line, phonon replica of the LO and 2LO-phonon can be observed. An exciton in an ionized nanoparticle has the electronic structure of a trion. In silicon, the recombination of a trion in CdSe nanoparticles, while optically allowed, will not be detected visually because faster non-radiative Auger processes dominate (off-state). However, this work shows that, on a coated aluminium alloy substrate, the trions of single CdSe nanoparticles are observable. This observation is due to the reduction of the optical lifetime and is caused by surface plasmons. Instead of the commonly occurring off-state, a jump-like and discrete red shift of the emission energy of {delta}E {approx}24 meV is observed. This emission line can also be attributed to a negative trion. In addition, p- and n-doped GaAs nanowires are characterized using spatially resolved PL spectroscopy. The intrinsic stump of the nanowire shows the typical PL of GaAs. Through doping of the GaAs nanowire, there is a recognizable shift in the emission energy. This shift can be attributed to increasing dopant concentration. By analyzing the line shape, information regarding the distribution and concentration of the dopant can be found. Using these findings, the PL of a single GaAs nanowire with a distinct pn-junction in the direction of growth is examined. This observation shows that

  10. Optical and opto-electronic characterization of semiconducting nanostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Offer, Matthias

    2011-01-01

    In the present thesis, the photoluminescence (PL) of cadmium selenide nanoparticles and doped gallium arsenide nanowires are investigated. Furthermore, in GaAs nanowires, with a distinct pn-junction in the direction of growth, electroluminescence (EL) is demonstrated and analyzed for the fist time. Using PL spectroscopy, the excitonic states of individual CdSe nanoparticles are studied. Sharp emission lines, which can be assigned to different excitonic transitions, can be observed. At a sample temperature of T≅10 K, line widths of ΔE FWHM ≤8 meV are found. Additionally, it is demonstrated that, apart from the main line, phonon replica of the LO and 2LO-phonon can be observed. An exciton in an ionized nanoparticle has the electronic structure of a trion. In silicon, the recombination of a trion in CdSe nanoparticles, while optically allowed, will not be detected visually because faster non-radiative Auger processes dominate (off-state). However, this work shows that, on a coated aluminium alloy substrate, the trions of single CdSe nanoparticles are observable. This observation is due to the reduction of the optical lifetime and is caused by surface plasmons. Instead of the commonly occurring off-state, a jump-like and discrete red shift of the emission energy of ΔE ∼24 meV is observed. This emission line can also be attributed to a negative trion. In addition, p- and n-doped GaAs nanowires are characterized using spatially resolved PL spectroscopy. The intrinsic stump of the nanowire shows the typical PL of GaAs. Through doping of the GaAs nanowire, there is a recognizable shift in the emission energy. This shift can be attributed to increasing dopant concentration. By analyzing the line shape, information regarding the distribution and concentration of the dopant can be found. Using these findings, the PL of a single GaAs nanowire with a distinct pn-junction in the direction of growth is examined. This observation shows that a compensated region develops

  11. Electron microscopy and positron annihilation study of CdSe nanoclusters embedded in MgO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huis, M.A. van; Veen, A. van; Schut, H.; Eijt, S.W.H.; Kooi, B.J.; Hosson, J.Th.M. de

    2004-01-01

    CdSe nanoclusters are created in MgO by means of co-implantation of 280 keV, 1 x 10 16 Cd ions cm -2 and 210 keV, 1 x 10 16 Se ions cm -2 in single crystals of MgO(0 0 1) and subsequent thermal annealing at a temperature of 1300 K. The structural properties and the orientation relationship between the CdSe and the MgO are investigated using cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy (XTEM). The crystal structure of the nanoclusters depends on their size. The smallest nanoclusters with a size below 5 nm have the cubic rocksalt crystal structure. The larger nanoclusters have a different (most likely the cubic sphalerite) crystal structure. The defect evolution in the sample after ion implantation and during thermal annealing is investigated using Doppler broadening positron beam analysis (PBA). The defect evolution in samples co-implanted with Cd and Se is compared to the defect evolution in samples implanted with only Cd or only Se ions

  12. Electron microscopy and positron annihilation study of CdSe nanoclusters embedded in MgO

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Huis, M. A.; van Veen, A.; Schut, H.; Eijt, S. W. H.; Kooi, B. J.; De Hosson, J. Th. M.

    2004-06-01

    CdSe nanoclusters are created in MgO by means of co-implantation of 280 keV, 1 × 10 16 Cd ions cm -2 and 210 keV, 1 × 10 16 Se ions cm -2 in single crystals of MgO(0 0 1) and subsequent thermal annealing at a temperature of 1300 K. The structural properties and the orientation relationship between the CdSe and the MgO are investigated using cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy (XTEM). The crystal structure of the nanoclusters depends on their size. The smallest nanoclusters with a size below 5 nm have the cubic rocksalt crystal structure. The larger nanoclusters have a different (most likely the cubic sphalerite) crystal structure. The defect evolution in the sample after ion implantation and during thermal annealing is investigated using Doppler broadening positron beam analysis (PBA). The defect evolution in samples co-implanted with Cd and Se is compared to the defect evolution in samples implanted with only Cd or only Se ions.

  13. Directed emission of CdSe nanoplatelets originating from strongly anisotropic 2D electronic structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Riccardo; Heckmann, Jan; Prudnikau, Anatol V.; Antanovich, Artsiom; Mikhailov, Aleksandr; Owschimikow, Nina; Artemyev, Mikhail; Climente, Juan I.; Woggon, Ulrike; Grosse, Nicolai B.; Achtstein, Alexander W.

    2017-12-01

    Intrinsically directional light emitters are potentially important for applications in photonics including lasing and energy-efficient display technology. Here, we propose a new route to overcome intrinsic efficiency limitations in light-emitting devices by studying a CdSe nanoplatelets monolayer that exhibits strongly anisotropic, directed photoluminescence. Analysis of the two-dimensional k-space distribution reveals the underlying internal transition dipole distribution. The observed directed emission is related to the anisotropy of the electronic Bloch states governing the exciton transition dipole moment and forming a bright plane. The strongly directed emission perpendicular to the platelet is further enhanced by the optical local density of states and local fields. In contrast to the emission directionality, the off-resonant absorption into the energetically higher 2D-continuum of states is isotropic. These contrasting optical properties make the oriented CdSe nanoplatelets, or superstructures of parallel-oriented platelets, an interesting and potentially useful class of semiconductor-based emitters.

  14. Plasmonic colorimetric sensors based on etching and growth of noble metal nanoparticles: Strategies and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhiyang; Wang, Han; Chen, Zhaopeng; Wang, Xiaoyan; Choo, Jaebum; Chen, Lingxin

    2018-08-30

    Plasmonic colorimetric sensors have emerged as a powerful tool in chemical and biological sensing applications due to the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) extinction in the visible range. Among the plasmonic sensors, the most famous sensing mode is the "aggregation" plasmonic colorimetric sensor which is based on plasmon coupling due to nanoparticle aggregation. Herein, this review focuses on the newly-developing plasmonic colorimetric sensing mode - the etching or the growth of metal nanoparticles induces plasmon changes, namely, "non-aggregation" plasmonic colorimetric sensor. This type of sensors has attracted increasing interest because of their exciting properties of high sensitivity, multi-color changes, and applicability to make a test strip. Of particular interest, the test strip by immobilization of nanoparticles on the substrate can avoid the influence of nanoparticle auto-aggregation and increase the simplicity in storage and use. Although there are many excellent reviews available that describe the advance of plasmonic sensors, limited attention has been paid to the plasmonic colorimetric sensors based on etching or growth of metal nanoparticles. This review highlights recent progress on strategies and application of "non-aggregation" plasmonic colorimetric sensors. We also provide some personal insights into current challenges associated with "non-aggregation" plasmonic colorimetric sensors and propose future research directions. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Synthesis of ZnO/CdSe hierarchical heterostructure with improved visible photocatalytic efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Yao; Xu, Fang; Guo, Defu; Gao, Zhiyong; Wu, Dapeng; Jiang, Kai

    2013-01-01

    ZnO/CdSe hierarchical heterostructure was prepared using pompon-like ZnO as substrate materials, and hexagonal CdSe nanoparticles were dispersed on the ZnO plates. The hybrid ZnO/CdSe samples were intensively investigated by XRD, SEM, TEM, HRTEM, PL and UV–vis absorption spectrum. The photocatalytic experiments confirm that ZnO/CdSe heterostructure exhibits improved photocatalytic efficiency compared to pure ZnO under visible light irradiation. CdSe nanoparticles are believed to serve as photosensitizers to extend the absorption spectrum to visible light region. In addition, the incorporation of CdSe can suppress the recombination of photogenerated electron-hole pairs, which contributes to the enhancement of photocatalytic efficiency.

  16. Bismuth oxide aqueous colloidal nanoparticles inhibit Candida albicans growth and biofilm formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernandez-Delgadillo R

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Rene Hernandez-Delgadillo,1 Donaji Velasco-Arias,3 Juan Jose Martinez-Sanmiguel,2 David Diaz,3 Inti Zumeta-Dube,3 Katiushka Arevalo-Niño,1 Claudio Cabral-Romero2 1Facultad de Ciencias Biológicas, Instituto de Biotecnologia, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, UANL, Monterrey, Mexico; 2Facultad de Odontología, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, UANL, Monterrey, México; 3Facultad de Quimica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, UNAM, Distrito Federal, México Abstract: Multiresistance among microorganisms to common antimicrobials has become one of the most significant concerns in modern medicine. Nanomaterials are a new alternative to successfully treat the multiresistant microorganisms. Nanostructured materials are used in many fields, including biological sciences and medicine. Recently, it was demonstrated that the bactericidal activity of zero-valent bismuth colloidal nanoparticles inhibited the growth of Streptococcus mutans; however the antimycotic potential of bismuth nanostructured derivatives has not yet been studied. The main objective of this investigation was to analyze the fungicidal activity of bismuth oxide nanoparticles against Candida albicans, and their antibiofilm capabilities. Our results showed that aqueous colloidal bismuth oxide nanoparticles displayed antimicrobial activity against C. albicans growth (reducing colony size by 85% and a complete inhibition of biofilm formation. These results are better than those obtained with chlorhexidine, nystatin, and terbinafine, the most effective oral antiseptic and commercial antifungal agents. In this work, we also compared the antimycotic activities of bulk bismuth oxide and bismuth nitrate, the precursor metallic salt. These results suggest that bismuth oxide colloidal nanoparticles could be a very interesting candidate as a fungicidal agent to be incorporated into an oral antiseptic. Additionally, we determined the minimum inhibitory concentration for the synthesized

  17. Surface modification of PLGA nanoparticles to deliver nitric oxide to inhibit Escherichia coli growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reger, Nina A. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Duquesne University, Pittsburgh, PA 15282 (United States); Meng, Wilson S. [Division of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Duquesne University, Pittsburgh, PA 15282 (United States); Gawalt, Ellen S., E-mail: gawalte@duq.edu [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Duquesne University, Pittsburgh, PA 15282 (United States); McGowan Institute for Regenerative Medicine, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15219 (United States)

    2017-04-15

    Highlights: • Thin film functionalized PLGA nanoparticles were modified to release nitric oxide from an s-nitrosothiol donor. • The nitric oxide modified nanoparticles were bacteriostatic against Escherichia coli. • The nitric oxide modified nanoparticles increased the effectiveness of tetracycline against Escherichia coli. • The modified nitric oxide nanoparticles did not exhibit cytotoxic effects against fibroblasts. - Abstract: Polymer nanoparticles consisting of poly (DL-lactic-co-glycolic acid) were surface functionalized to deliver nitric oxide. These biodegradable and biocompatible nanoparticles were modified with an S-nitrosothiol molecule, S-nitrosocysteamine, as the nitric oxide delivery molecule. S-nitrosocysteamine was covalently immobilized on the nanoparticle surface using small organic molecule linkers and carbodiimide coupling. Nanoparticle size, zeta potential, and morphology were determined using dynamic light scattering and scanning electron microscopy, respectively. Subsequent attachment of the S-nitrosothiol resulted in a nitric oxide release of 37.1 ± 1.1 nmol per milligram of nanoparticles under physiological conditions. This low concentration of nitric oxide reduced Escherichia coli culture growth by 31.8%, indicating that the nitric oxide donor was effective at releasing nitric oxide even after attachment to the nanoparticle surface. Combining the nitric oxide modified nanoparticles with tetracycline, a commonly prescribed antibiotic for E. coli infections, increased the effectiveness of the antibiotic by 87.8%, which allows for lower doses of antibiotics to be used in order to achieve the same effect. The functionalized nanoparticles were not cytotoxic to mouse fibroblasts.

  18. Surface modification of PLGA nanoparticles to deliver nitric oxide to inhibit Escherichia coli growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reger, Nina A.; Meng, Wilson S.; Gawalt, Ellen S.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Thin film functionalized PLGA nanoparticles were modified to release nitric oxide from an s-nitrosothiol donor. • The nitric oxide modified nanoparticles were bacteriostatic against Escherichia coli. • The nitric oxide modified nanoparticles increased the effectiveness of tetracycline against Escherichia coli. • The modified nitric oxide nanoparticles did not exhibit cytotoxic effects against fibroblasts. - Abstract: Polymer nanoparticles consisting of poly (DL-lactic-co-glycolic acid) were surface functionalized to deliver nitric oxide. These biodegradable and biocompatible nanoparticles were modified with an S-nitrosothiol molecule, S-nitrosocysteamine, as the nitric oxide delivery molecule. S-nitrosocysteamine was covalently immobilized on the nanoparticle surface using small organic molecule linkers and carbodiimide coupling. Nanoparticle size, zeta potential, and morphology were determined using dynamic light scattering and scanning electron microscopy, respectively. Subsequent attachment of the S-nitrosothiol resulted in a nitric oxide release of 37.1 ± 1.1 nmol per milligram of nanoparticles under physiological conditions. This low concentration of nitric oxide reduced Escherichia coli culture growth by 31.8%, indicating that the nitric oxide donor was effective at releasing nitric oxide even after attachment to the nanoparticle surface. Combining the nitric oxide modified nanoparticles with tetracycline, a commonly prescribed antibiotic for E. coli infections, increased the effectiveness of the antibiotic by 87.8%, which allows for lower doses of antibiotics to be used in order to achieve the same effect. The functionalized nanoparticles were not cytotoxic to mouse fibroblasts.

  19. Influence of CdTe sub-monolayer stressor on CdSe quantum dot self-assembling in ZnSe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sedova, I.V.; Lyublinskaya, O.G.; Sorokin, S.V.; Sitnikova, A.A.; Solnyshkov, D.D.; Rykhova, O.V.; Toropov, A.A.; Ivanov, S.V.

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports on the attempt to apply the stressor-controlled quantum dot (QD) fabrication technique to the conventional CdSe/ZnSe nanostructures. Super-strained CdTe fractional monolayer (Δa/a∝14% for CdTe/ZnSe) grown on top of the Te-stabilized ZnSe surface prior to deposition of the QD material (CdSe) has been used as a stressor which is expected to affect size, composition and density of CdSe QDs. The grown structures are studied by X-ray diffraction, transmission-electron microscopy, photoluminescence (PL) and PL excitation in comparison with conventional CdSe/ZnSe QDs obtained by a modified migration enhanced epitaxy technique. (copyright 2006 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  20. Architectural Growth of Cu Nanoparticles Through Electrodeposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Ching-Yuan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Cu particles with different architectures such as pyramid, cube, and multipod have been successfully fabricated on the surface of Au films, which is the polycrystalline Au substrate with (111 domains, using the electrodeposition technique in the presence of the surface-capping reagents of dodecylbenzene sulfonic acid and poly(vinylpyrrolidone. Further, the growth evolution of pyramidal Cu nanoparticles was observed for the first time. We believe that our method might open new possibilities for fabricating nanomaterials of non-noble transition metals with various novel architectures, which can then potentially be utilized in applications such as biosensors, catalysis, photovoltaic cells, and electronic nanodevices.

  1. ToF-SIMS study of growth behavior in all-nanoparticle multilayer films using a novel indicator layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, B.-J.; Yin, Y.-S.; Ling, Y.-C.

    2008-01-01

    All-nanoparticle multilayer films found novel applications in the areas of photonics, catalysis, sensors, and biomaterials. The assembly of nanoparticles into conformal and uniform films with precise control over chemical and physical properties poses a significant challenge. Using time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS), we have investigated the growth behavior in all-nanoparticle multilayer films using a novel indicator layer. The all-nanoparticle multilayer films were prepared by dipping the polyester substrate with electrostatic charges alternatively into solutions containing three different types of nanoparticles (TiO 2 , Al 2 O 3 , and SiO 2 ). Upon the deposition of each layer, ToF-SIMS was employed to determine the surface chemical composition of intermediate products. The intermixing extent of TiO 2 indicator layer was used to reveal the stratification of each layer. Combining with zeta-potential measurements, the solvation and deposition of the under-layer species in the aqueous environment during fresh layer formation was proposed as a plausible cause for mutilayers not stratified into well-defined layers but displaying a nonlinear growth behavior.

  2. In situ observation of electron-beam-induced dewetting of CdSe thin film embedded in SiO2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabrim, Zacarias Eduardo; Kjelstrup-Hansen, Jakob; Fichtner, Paulo F. P.

    In this work we show the dewetting process of the CdSe thin films induced by electron beam irradiation. A multilayer heterostructure of SiO2/CdSe/SiO2 was made by a magnetron sputtering process. A plan-view (PV) sample was irradiated with 200 kV electrons in the TEM with two current densities: 0.......33 A.cm2 and 1.0 A.cm2 and at 80 kV with 0.37 A.cm2. The dewetting of the CdSe film is inferred by a number of micrographs taken during the irradiation. The microstructural changes were analyzed under the assumption of being induced by ballistic collision effects in the absence of sample heating....

  3. Optical and electrical effects of plasmonic nanoparticles in high-efficiency hybrid solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Wei-Fei; Chen, Xiaoqiang; Yang, Xi; Wang, Ling; Shi, Ye; Shi, Minmin; Li, Han-Ying; Jen, Alex K-Y; Chen, Jun-Wu; Cao, Yong; Chen, Hong-Zheng

    2013-10-28

    Plasmonics have been proven to be an effective way to harness more incident light to achieve high efficiency in photovoltaic devices. Herein, we explore the possibility that plasmonics can be utilized to enhance light trapping and power conversion efficiency (PCE) for polymer-quantum dot (QD) hybrid solar cells (HSCs). Based on a low band-gap polymer poly[2,6-(4,4-bis-(2-ethylhexyl)-4H-cyclopenta[2,1-b;3,4-b']-dithiophene)-alt-4,7-(2,1,3-benzothiadiazole)] (PCPDTBT) and a CdSe QD bulk-heterojunction (BHJ) system, gold nanoparticles were doped at different locations of the devices. Successfully, an improved PCE of 3.20 ± 0.22% and 3.16 ± 0.15% was achieved by doping the hole transporting layer and the active layer, respectively, which are among the highest values reported for CdSe QD based HSCs. A detailed study of processing, characterization, microscopy, and device fabrication is conducted to understand the underlying mechanism for the enhanced device performance. The success of this work provides a simple and generally applicable approach to enhance light harnessing of polymer-QD hybrid solar cells.

  4. Feasibility Study on the Use of the Seeding Growth Technique in Producing a Highly Stable Gold Nanoparticle Colloidal System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Han Tan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Stable colloidal gold nanoparticles (Au NPs are synthesized successfully using a seeding growth technique. The size of the nanoparticles is determined using transmission electron microscopy (TEM, and it is observed that the size of the nanoparticles ranges from 7 to 30 nm. The TEM images and optical absorption spectra of the Au NPs reveal that the suspension is well dispersed and consistent with the particle size. The feasibility of the seeding growth technique is investigated using Turbiscan Classic MA 2000 screening stability tester. Based on the peak thickness kinetics and mean value kinetics, the backscattered light profiles indicate that the suspension is highly stable without particle sedimentation as well as negligible agglomeration. In addition, the Au NPs are proven to remain stable over a period of 2 months. Particle sedimentation eventually occurs due to the weight of nanoparticles. It is concluded that the seeding growth technique is feasible in synthesizing stable Au NPs. Controlling the stability, size and shape of Au NPs are technologically important because of the strong correlation between these parameters and the optical, electrical, and catalytic properties of the nanoparticles.

  5. The Role of Intrinsic and Surface States on the Emission Properties of Colloidal CdSe and CdSe/ZnS Quantum Dots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morello Giovanni

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractTime Resolved Photoluminescence (TRPL measurements on the picosecond time scale (temporal resolution of 17 ps on colloidal CdSe and CdSe/ZnS Quantum Dots (QDs were performed. Transient PL spectra reveal three emission peaks with different lifetimes (60 ps, 460 ps and 9–10 ns, from the bluest to the reddest peak. By considering the characteristic decay times and by comparing the energetic separations among the states with those theoretically expected, we attribute the two higher energy peaks to ± 1Uand ± 1L bright states of the fine structure picture of spherical CdSe QDs, and the third one to surface states emission. We show that the contribution of surface emission to the PL results to be different for the two samples studied (67% in the CdSe QDs and 32% in CdSe/ZnS QDs, confirming the decisive role of the ZnS shell in the improvement of the surface passivation.

  6. Using reduced graphene oxide-Ca:CdSe nanocomposite to enhance photoelectrochemical activity of gold nanoparticles functionalized tungsten oxide for highly sensitive prostate specific antigen detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xueping; Xu, Rui; Sun, Xu; Wang, Yaoguang; Ren, Xiang; Du, Bin; Wu, Dan; Wei, Qin

    2017-10-15

    An ultrasensitive sandwich-type photoelectrochemical (PEC) immunosensor was constructed for the detection of prostate specific antigen (PSA). In this work, Au-nanoparticle-loaded tungsten oxide (WO 3 -Au) hybrid composites was applied as PEC sensing platform, while Ca ions doped CdSe equipped on the conducting framework of reduced graphene oxide (rGO-Ca:CdSe) nanocomposites were employed as the signal amplification probe. As for WO 3 -Au, massive Au nanoparticles were formed on the surface of WO 3 without any additional reducing agent, providing a novel nanocarriers for anchoring plenty of the primary antibodies due to the large specific surface area and good biocompatibility by chemical bonding between Au nanoparticles and -NH 2 of antibodies. Besides, the incorporation of the rGO and the doping of Ca ions could improve the conductivity and hinder the recombination of electron-hole pairs of CdSe nanoparticles effectively, thereby enhancing the photocurrent conversion efficiency. Based on the sandwich immunoreaction, the primary antibody was immobilized onto WO 3 -Au substrate, after the formed rGO-Ca:CdSe labels were captured onto the electrode surface via the specific antibody-antigen interaction, the photocurrent intensity could be further enhanced due to the sensitization effect. Under the optimal conditions, the proposed PEC immunosensor shows a linear relationship between photocurrent variation and the logarithm of PSA concentration in the wide range of 5pgmL -1 to 50ngmL -1 with a low detection limit of 2.6pgmL -1 (S/N=3). Moreover, it also presented good stability and acceptable specificity, indicating the potential applications in clinical diagnostics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Growth of Ag micro/nanoparticles using stress migration from multilayered metallic structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Yebo; Li, Yuan; Saka, Masumi

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A multilayered metallic structure was proposed to fabricate Ag micro/nanoparticles via stress migration. • Both ductile Pt and brittle TiN films can be used as the passivation layer by providing pathways for atomic migration. • The diameter of the formed Ag particle can be controlled using different material for passivation layer and changing the heating temperature. - Abstract: A multilayered metallic structure, consisting of Cu foil and subsequently deposited Ag thin film covered with a passivation layer, was proposed to fabricate Ag micro/nanoparticles by stress migration. With employing a ductile Pt or brittle TiN thin film as passivation, Ag micro/nanoparticles were successfully fabricated by annealing the corresponding multilayered structure. The relationship between characteristics (average diameter, number and volume) of the formed Ag micro/nanoparticles and the annealing temperature was discussed. On this basis, the growth mechanism was developed, which indicates that the dimension of Ag particles was mainly dominated by the different pathways for the migration of diffused Ag atoms in the passivation layers of Pt and TiN and the annealing temperature

  8. Nanoparticle growth by particle-phase chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apsokardu, Michael J.; Johnston, Murray V.

    2018-02-01

    The ability of particle-phase chemistry to alter the molecular composition and enhance the growth rate of nanoparticles in the 2-100 nm diameter range is investigated through the use of a kinetic growth model. The molecular components included are sulfuric acid, ammonia, water, a non-volatile organic compound, and a semi-volatile organic compound. Molecular composition and growth rate are compared for particles that grow by partitioning alone vs. those that grow by a combination of partitioning and an accretion reaction in the particle phase between two organic molecules. Particle-phase chemistry causes a change in molecular composition that is particle diameter dependent, and when the reaction involves semi-volatile molecules, the particles grow faster than by partitioning alone. These effects are most pronounced for particles larger than about 20 nm in diameter. The modeling results provide a fundamental basis for understanding recent experimental measurements of the molecular composition of secondary organic aerosol showing that accretion reaction product formation increases linearly with increasing aerosol volume-to-surface-area. They also allow initial estimates of the reaction rate constants for these systems. For secondary aerosol produced by either OH oxidation of the cyclic dimethylsiloxane (D5) or ozonolysis of β-pinene, oligomerization rate constants on the order of 10-3 to 10-1 M-1 s-1 are needed to explain the experimental results. These values are consistent with previously measured rate constants for reactions of hydroperoxides and/or peroxyacids in the condensed phase.

  9. Ex situ formation of metal selenide quantum dots using bacterially derived selenide precursors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fellowes, J W; Pattrick, R A D; Lloyd, J R; Charnock, J M; Coker, V S; Mosselmans, J F W; Weng, T-C; Pearce, C I

    2013-01-01

    Luminescent quantum dots were synthesized using bacterially derived selenide (Se II− ) as the precursor. Biogenic Se II− was produced by the reduction of Se IV by Veillonella atypica and compared directly against borohydride-reduced Se IV for the production of glutathione-stabilized CdSe and β-mercaptoethanol-stabilized ZnSe nanoparticles by aqueous synthesis. Biological Se II− formed smaller, narrower size distributed QDs under the same conditions. The growth kinetics of biologically sourced CdSe phases were slower. The proteins isolated from filter sterilized biogenic Se II− included a methylmalonyl-CoA decarboxylase previously characterized in the closely related Veillonella parvula. XAS analysis of the glutathione-capped CdSe at the S K-edge suggested that sulfur from the glutathione was structurally incorporated within the CdSe. A novel synchrotron based XAS technique was also developed to follow the nucleation of biological and inorganic selenide phases, and showed that biogenic Se II− is more stable and more resistant to beam-induced oxidative damage than its inorganic counterpart. The bacterial production of quantum dot precursors offers an alternative, ‘green’ synthesis technique that negates the requirement of expensive, toxic chemicals and suggests a possible link to the exploitation of selenium contaminated waste streams. (paper)

  10. Ex Situ Formation of Metal Selenide Quantum Dots Using Bacterially Derived Selenide Precursors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fellowes, Jonathan W.; Pattrick, Richard; Lloyd, Jon; Charnock, John M.; Coker, Victoria S.; Mosselmans, JFW; Weng, Tsu-Chien; Pearce, Carolyn I.

    2013-04-12

    Luminescent quantum dots were synthesized using bacterially derived selenide (SeII-) as the precursor. Biogenic SeII- was produced by the reduction of Se-IV by Veillonella atypica and compared directly against borohydride-reduced Se-IV for the production of glutathione-stabilized CdSe and beta-mercaptoethanol-stabilized ZnSe nanoparticles by aqueous synthesis. Biological SeII- formed smaller, narrower size distributed QDs under the same conditions. The growth kinetics of biologically sourced CdSe phases were slower. The proteins isolated from filter sterilized biogenic SeII- included a methylmalonyl-CoA decarboxylase previously characterized in the closely related Veillonella parvula. XAS analysis of the glutathione-capped CdSe at the S K-edge suggested that sulfur from the glutathione was structurally incorporated within the CdSe. A novel synchrotron based XAS technique was also developed to follow the nucleation of biological and inorganic selenide phases, and showed that biogenic SeII- is more stable and more resistant to beam-induced oxidative damage than its inorganic counterpart. The bacterial production of quantum dot precursors offers an alternative, 'green' synthesis technique that negates the requirement of expensive, toxic chemicals and suggests a possible link to the exploitation of selenium contaminated waste streams.

  11. Quantum-dot-sensitized solar cells fabricated by the combined process of the direct attachment of colloidal CdSe quantum dots having a ZnS glue layer and spray pyrolysis deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Sang Hyuk; Lee, Yong Hui; Seok, Sang Il; Kim, Sung Woo; Kim, Sang-Wook

    2010-12-07

    We were able to attach CdSe quantum dots (QDs) having a ZnS inorganic glue layer directly to a mesoporous TiO(2) (mp-TiO(2)) surface by spray coating and thermal annealing. Quantum-dot-sensitized solar cells based on CdSe QDs having ZnS as the inorganic glue layer could easily transport generated charge carriers because of the intimate bonding between CdSe and mp-TiO(2). The application of spray pyrolysis deposition (SPD) to obtain additional CdSe layers improved the performance characteristics to V(oc) = 0.45 V, J(sc) = 10.7 mA/cm(2), fill factor = 35.8%, and power conversion efficiency = 1.7%. Furthermore, ZnS post-treatment improved the device performance to V(oc) = 0.57 V, J(sc) = 11.2 mA/cm(2), fill factor = 35.4%, and power conversion efficiency = 2.2%.

  12. Electron microscopy and positron annihilation study of CdSe nanoclusters embedded in MgO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huis, M.A. van E-mail: vanhuis@iri.tudelft.nl; Veen, A. van; Schut, H.; Eijt, S.W.H.; Kooi, B.J.; Hosson, J.Th.M. de

    2004-06-01

    CdSe nanoclusters are created in MgO by means of co-implantation of 280 keV, 1 x 10{sup 16} Cd ions cm{sup -2} and 210 keV, 1 x 10{sup 16} Se ions cm{sup -2} in single crystals of MgO(0 0 1) and subsequent thermal annealing at a temperature of 1300 K. The structural properties and the orientation relationship between the CdSe and the MgO are investigated using cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy (XTEM). The crystal structure of the nanoclusters depends on their size. The smallest nanoclusters with a size below 5 nm have the cubic rocksalt crystal structure. The larger nanoclusters have a different (most likely the cubic sphalerite) crystal structure. The defect evolution in the sample after ion implantation and during thermal annealing is investigated using Doppler broadening positron beam analysis (PBA). The defect evolution in samples co-implanted with Cd and Se is compared to the defect evolution in samples implanted with only Cd or only Se ions.

  13. Nonlinear spectroscopy of the bound exciton states in CdSe single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lisitsa, M.P.; Onishchenko, N.A.; Stolyarenko, A.V.; Ananchenko, V.V.; Polishchuk, S.V.

    1989-01-01

    The study is devoted to the pulsed laser radiation effect on the time-resolved variations of free and bound exciton bands region at the helium temperature. A gradual disappearance of the bound I 2 exciton state is observed with increase of the excitation intensity I in CdSe transmission spectra. This phenomenon is explained by the fact that despite of the shorter life of I 2 excitons as compared to the free ones, the concentration of the centres on which they localize is rather low (≤10 16 cm -3 ) while the evolution of the light-generated electron-hole pairs is such as the most probable recombination through the bound excitons. The transmission spectrum kinetics is studied. The intensity limitation of the laser pulse transmitted through the crystal in the region of the exciton ground state region is shown to be related with two-photon absorption (TPA) in which the exciton state is an intermediate level. The calculation results are in good agreement with the experiment. The estimations show the giant TPA coefficient of ∼10 3 cm/MW. The evolution of photoexcited nonequilibrium electron-hole pairs is studied. The possibility of using CdSe single crystals as spectrum-selective limiters of the laser pulses is shown. (author)

  14. Hyperbranched polyether hybrid nanospheres with CdSe quantum dots incorporated for selective detection of nitric oxide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Shuiping; Jin, Lanming; Chronakis, Ioannis S.

    2014-01-01

    In this work, hybrid nanosphere vehicles consisting of cadmium selenide quantum dots (CdSe QDs) were synthesized for nitric oxide (NO) donating and real-time detecting. The nanospheres with QDs being encapsulation have spherical outline with dimension of ~127 nm. The fluorescence properties...

  15. Effect of chemically and biologically synthesized Ag nanoparticles on the algae growth inhibition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anna, Mražiková; Oksana, Velgosová; Jana, Kavuličová

    2017-12-01

    Over the past few years green methods for preparation of silver nanoparticles has become necessary due to its friendly influence on ecosystem. In the present work antimicrobial properties of biologically synthesized silver nanoparticles (Bio-AgNPs) using green algae extract and chemically synthesized silver nanoparticles (Chem-AgNPs) using sodium citrate against algae Parachlorella kessleri is investigated. Both used Bio-AgNPs and Chem-AgNPs exhibit long-term stability as demonstrated by UV-vis spectroscopy measurements. The results revealed stronger toxic effects of Bio-AgNPs on agar plates what was confirmed clear inhibition zone around wells impregnated with Bio-AgNPs. On the other hand Bio-AgNPs were confirmed to be less toxic in aquatic environments for the growths of green algae P. kessleri comparing to Chem-AgNPs.

  16. Nucleation, aggregative growth and detachment of metal nanoparticles during electrodeposition at electrode surfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lai, Stanley; Lazenby, R.A.; Kirkman, P.M.; Unwin, P.R.

    2015-01-01

    The nucleation and growth of metal nanoparticles (NPs) on surfaces is of considerable interest with regard to creating functional interfaces with myriad applications. Yet, key features of these processes remain elusive and are undergoing revision. Here, the mechanism of the electrodeposition of

  17. Laser printing of nanoparticle toner enables digital control of micropatterned carbon nanotube growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polsen, Erik S; Stevens, Adam G; Hart, A John

    2013-05-01

    Commercialization of materials utilizing patterned carbon nanotube (CNT) forests, such as hierarchical composite structures, dry adhesives, and contact probe arrays, will require catalyst patterning techniques that do not rely on cleanroom photolithography. We demonstrate the large scale patterning of CNT growth catalyst via adaptation of a laser-based electrostatic printing process that uses magnetic ink character recognition (MICR) toner. The MICR toner contains iron oxide nanoparticles that serve as the catalyst for CNT growth, which are printed onto a flexible polymer (polyimide) and then transferred to a rigid substrate (silicon or alumina) under heat and mechanical pressure. Then, the substrate is processed for CNT growth under an atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition (CVD) recipe. This process enables digital control of patterned CNT growth via the laser intensity, which controls the CNT density; and via the grayscale level, which controls the pixelation of the image into arrays of micropillars. Moreover, virtually any pattern can be designed using standard software (e.g., MS Word, AutoCAD, etc.) and printed on demand. Using a standard office printer, we realize isolated CNT microstructures as small as 140 μm and isolated catalyst ″pixels″ as small as 70 μm (one grayscale dot) and determine that individual toner microparticles result in features of approximately 5-10 μm . We demonstrate that grayscale CNT patterns can function as dry adhesives and that large-area catalyst patterns can be printed directly onto metal foils or transferred to ceramic plates. Laser printing therefore shows promise to enable high-speed micropatterning of nanoparticle-containing thin films under ambient conditions, possibly for a wide variety of nanostructures by engineering of toners containing nanoparticles of desired composition, size, and shape.

  18. Glutamate decarboxylase-derived IDDM autoantigens displayed on self-assembled protein nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Hyoung; Ahn, Ji-Young; Sim, Sang Jun; Lee, Jeewon

    2005-01-01

    The recombinant ferritin heavy chain (FTN-H) formed self-assembled spherical nanoparticles with the size comparable to native one. We tried to express the GAD65 COOH-terminal fragments, i.e., 448-585 (GAD65 448-585 ), 487-585 (GAD65 487-585 ), and 512-585 (GAD65 512-585 ) amino acid fragments, using FTN-H as N-terminus fusion expression partner in Escherichia coli. All of recombinant fusion proteins (FTN-H::GAD65 448-585 , FTN-H::GAD65 487-585 , and FTN-H::GAD65 512-585 ) also formed spherical nanoparticles due probably to the self-assembly function of the fused ferritin heavy chain. The antigenic epitopes within GAD65 448-585 , GAD65 487-585 , and GAD65 512-585 against insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) marker (autoantibodies against GAD65) were localized at the surface of the spherical protein nanoparticles so that anti-GAD65 Ab could recognize them. Protein nanoparticles like FTN-H seem to provide distinct advantages over other inorganic nanoparticles (e.g., Au, Ag, CdSe, etc.) in that through the bacterial synthesis, the active capture probes can be located at the nanoparticle surface with constant orientation/conformation via covalent cross-linking without complex chemistry. Also it is possible for the protein nanoparticles to have uniform particle size, which is rarely achieved in the chemical synthesis of inorganic nanoparticles. Thus, the recombinant ferritin particles can be used as a three-dimensional (spherical) and nanometer-scale probe structure that is a key component in ultra-sensitive protein chip for detecting protein-small molecule interactions and protein-protein interactions

  19. Fluorometric immunoassay for human serum albumin based on its inhibitory effect on the immunoaggregation of quantum dots with silver nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marukhyan, Seda S.; Gasparyan, Vardan K.

    2017-02-01

    Quantitative determination of HSA was conducted by competitive immunoassay. Inhibition of aggregation of antibody conjugated quantum dots (QD) with albumin conjugated silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) in the presence of HSA was conducted. If antibody-loaded CdSe QDs aggregate with HSA-coated silver nanoparticles the distance between the two kinds of nanoparticles will be reduced enough to cause fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET). In this case the yellow fluorescence of the Ab-QDs is quenched. However if HSA (antigen) is added to the Ab-QDs their surface will be blocked and they cannot aggregate any longer with the HSA-AgNPs. Hence, fluorescence will not be quenched. The drop of the intensity of fluorescence (peaking at 570 nm) is inversely correlated with the concentration of HSA in the sample. The method allows to determine HSA in the 30-600 ng·mL-1 concentration range.

  20. Growth of ordered silver nanoparticles in silica film mesostructured with a triblock copolymer PEO-PPO-PEO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bois, L.; Chassagneux, F.; Parola, S.; Bessueille, F.; Battie, Y.; Destouches, N.; Boukenter, A.; Moncoffre, N.; Toulhoat, N.

    2009-01-01

    Elaboration of mesostructured silica films with a triblock copolymer polyethylene oxide-polypropylene oxide-polyethylene oxide, (PEO-PPO-PEO) and controlled growth of silver nanoparticles in the mesostructure are described. The films are characterized using UV-visible optical absorption spectroscopy, TEM, AFM, SEM, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS). Organized arrays of spherical silver nanoparticles with diameter between 5 and 8 nm have been obtained by NaBH 4 reduction. The size and the repartition of silver nanoparticles are controlled by the film mesostructure. The localization of silver nanoparticles exclusively in the upper-side part of the silica-block copolymer film is evidenced by RBS experiment. On the other hand, by using a thermal method, 40 nm long silver sticks can be obtained, by diffusion and coalescence of spherical particles in the silica-block copolymer layer. In this case, migration of silver particles toward the glass substrate-film interface is shown by the RBS experiment. - Graphical abstract: Growth of silver nanoparticles in a mesostructured block copolymer F127-silica film is performed either by a chemical route involving NaBH 4 reduction or by a thermal method. An array of spherical silver nanoparticles with 10 nm diameter on the upper-side of the mesostructured film or silver sticks long of 40 nm with a preferential orientation are obtained according to the method used. a: TEM image of the Fag5SiNB sample illustrating the silver nanoparticles array obtained by the chemical process; b: HR-TEM image of the Fag20Sid2 sample illustrating the silver nanosticks obtained by the thermal process.

  1. Sequential electrochemical oxidation and site-selective growth of nanoparticles onto AFM probes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haitao; Tian, Tian; Zhang, Yong; Pan, Zhiqiang; Wang, Yong; Xiao, Zhongdang

    2008-08-19

    In this work, we reported an approach for the site-selective growth of nanoparticle onto the tip apex of an atomic force microscopy (AFM) probe. The silicon AFM probe was first coated with a self-assembled monolayer (SAM) of octadecyltrichlorosilane (OTS) through a chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method. Subsequently, COOH groups were selectively generated at the tip apex of silicon AFM probes by applying an appropriate bias voltage between the tip and a flat gold electrode. The transformation of methyl to carboxylic groups at the tip apex of the AFM probe was investigated through measuring the capillary force before and after electrochemical oxidation. To prepare the nanoparticle terminated AFM probe, the oxidized AFM probe was then immersed in an aqueous solution containing positive metal ions, for example, Ag+, to bind positive metal ions to the oxidized area (COOH terminated area), followed by chemical reduction with aqueous NaBH 4 and further development (if desired) to give a metal nanoparticle-modified AFM probe. The formation of a metal nanoparticle at the tip apex of the AFM probe was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDXA).

  2. Nanoparticle growth by particle-phase chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. J. Apsokardu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The ability of particle-phase chemistry to alter the molecular composition and enhance the growth rate of nanoparticles in the 2–100 nm diameter range is investigated through the use of a kinetic growth model. The molecular components included are sulfuric acid, ammonia, water, a non-volatile organic compound, and a semi-volatile organic compound. Molecular composition and growth rate are compared for particles that grow by partitioning alone vs. those that grow by a combination of partitioning and an accretion reaction in the particle phase between two organic molecules. Particle-phase chemistry causes a change in molecular composition that is particle diameter dependent, and when the reaction involves semi-volatile molecules, the particles grow faster than by partitioning alone. These effects are most pronounced for particles larger than about 20 nm in diameter. The modeling results provide a fundamental basis for understanding recent experimental measurements of the molecular composition of secondary organic aerosol showing that accretion reaction product formation increases linearly with increasing aerosol volume-to-surface-area. They also allow initial estimates of the reaction rate constants for these systems. For secondary aerosol produced by either OH oxidation of the cyclic dimethylsiloxane (D5 or ozonolysis of β-pinene, oligomerization rate constants on the order of 10−3 to 10−1 M−1 s−1 are needed to explain the experimental results. These values are consistent with previously measured rate constants for reactions of hydroperoxides and/or peroxyacids in the condensed phase.

  3. Determination of band structure parameters and the quasi-particle gap of CdSe quantum dots by cyclic voltammetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inamdar, Shaukatali N; Ingole, Pravin P; Haram, Santosh K

    2008-12-01

    Band structure parameters such as the conduction band edge, the valence band edge and the quasi-particle gap of diffusing CdSe quantum dots (Q-dots) of various sizes were determined using cyclic voltammetry. These parameters are strongly dependent on the size of the Q-dots. The results obtained from voltammetric measurements are compared to spectroscopic and theoretical data. The fit obtained to the reported calculations based on the semi-empirical pseudopotential method (SEPM)-especially in the strong size-confinement region, is the best reported so far, according to our knowledge. For the smallest CdSe Q-dots, the difference between the quasi-particle gap and the optical band gap gives the electron-hole Coulombic interaction energy (J(e1,h1)). Interband states seen in the photoluminescence spectra were verified with cyclic voltammetry measurements.

  4. Effects of aluminum oxide nanoparticles on the growth, development, and microRNA expression of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caitlin E Burklew

    Full Text Available Nanoparticles are a class of newly emerging environmental pollutions. To date, few experiments have been conducted to investigate the effect nanoparticles may have on plant growth and development. It is important to study the effects nanoparticles have on plants because they are stationary organisms that cannot move away from environmental stresses like animals can, therefore they must overcome these stresses by molecular routes such as altering gene expression. microRNAs (miRNA are a newly discovered, endogenous class of post-transcriptional gene regulators that function to alter gene expression by either targeting mRNAs for degradation or inhibiting mRNAs translating into proteins. miRNAs have been shown to mediate abiotic stress responses such as drought and salinity in plants by altering gene expression, however no study has been performed on the effect of nanoparticles on the miRNA expression profile; therefore our aim in this study was to classify if certain miRNAs play a role in plant response to Al(2O(3 nanoparticle stress. In this study, we exposed tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum plants (an important cash crop as well as a model organism to 0%, 0.1%, 0.5%, and 1% Al(2O(3 nanoparticles and found that as exposure to the nanoparticles increased, the average root length, the average biomass, and the leaf count of the seedlings significantly decreased. We also found that miR395, miR397, miR398, and miR399 showed an extreme increase in expression during exposure to 1% Al(2O(3 nanoparticles as compared to the other treatments and the control, therefore these miRNAs may play a key role in mediating plant stress responses to nanoparticle stress in the environment. The results of this study show that Al(2O(3 nanoparticles have a negative effect on the growth and development of tobacco seedlings and that miRNAs may play a role in the ability of plants to withstand stress to Al(2O(3 nanoparticles in the environment.

  5. Effects of aluminum oxide nanoparticles on the growth, development, and microRNA expression of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burklew, Caitlin E; Ashlock, Jordan; Winfrey, William B; Zhang, Baohong

    2012-01-01

    Nanoparticles are a class of newly emerging environmental pollutions. To date, few experiments have been conducted to investigate the effect nanoparticles may have on plant growth and development. It is important to study the effects nanoparticles have on plants because they are stationary organisms that cannot move away from environmental stresses like animals can, therefore they must overcome these stresses by molecular routes such as altering gene expression. microRNAs (miRNA) are a newly discovered, endogenous class of post-transcriptional gene regulators that function to alter gene expression by either targeting mRNAs for degradation or inhibiting mRNAs translating into proteins. miRNAs have been shown to mediate abiotic stress responses such as drought and salinity in plants by altering gene expression, however no study has been performed on the effect of nanoparticles on the miRNA expression profile; therefore our aim in this study was to classify if certain miRNAs play a role in plant response to Al(2)O(3) nanoparticle stress. In this study, we exposed tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) plants (an important cash crop as well as a model organism) to 0%, 0.1%, 0.5%, and 1% Al(2)O(3) nanoparticles and found that as exposure to the nanoparticles increased, the average root length, the average biomass, and the leaf count of the seedlings significantly decreased. We also found that miR395, miR397, miR398, and miR399 showed an extreme increase in expression during exposure to 1% Al(2)O(3) nanoparticles as compared to the other treatments and the control, therefore these miRNAs may play a key role in mediating plant stress responses to nanoparticle stress in the environment. The results of this study show that Al(2)O(3) nanoparticles have a negative effect on the growth and development of tobacco seedlings and that miRNAs may play a role in the ability of plants to withstand stress to Al(2)O(3) nanoparticles in the environment.

  6. Development of automatic combinatorial system for synthesis of nanoparticles using microreactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, Kosuke; Maeda, Hideaki [Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Engineering Sciences, Kyushu University, 6-1 Kasuga-koen, Kasuga, Fukuoka, 816-8580 (Japan); Orimoto, Yuuichi; Yamashita, Kenichi; Uehara, Masato; Nakamura, Hiroyuki [Measurement Solution Research Center, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 807-1, Shuku, Tosu, Saga, 841-0052 (Japan); Furuya, Takeshi, E-mail: maeda-h@aist.go.jp [Nanosystem Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba, Ibaraki, 305-8565 (Japan)

    2011-10-29

    In this study, automatic system for combinatorial synthesis of nanoparticles (NPs) was developed and optimization of reaction parameter for NPs synthesis was performed. Microreactor was employed for kinetic control constantly. Programmable equipments were employed for additional speed up and used a microreactor. Six reaction condition parameters were systematically combined to produce CdSe synthesis condition sets. Reaction conditions of 3404 experimental sets were synthesized and characterized in 1 month. As a result of some multivariate analyses using the numerous and complicated data, we found as follows: 1) neural network is an effective method to analyze data from combinatorial synthesis, 2) weighting evaluation method was effective to find the condition for balanced NP properties.

  7. Electron microscopy and positron annihilation study of CdSe nanoclusters embedded in MgO

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Huis, M.A.; van Veen, A.; Schut, H.; Eijt, S.W.H.; Kooi, B.J.; de Hosson, J.T.M.

    CdSe nanoclusters are created in MgO by means of co-implantation of 280 keV, 1 x 10(16) Cd ions cm(-2) and 210 keV, 1 x 10(16) Se ions cm(-2) in single crystals of MgO(001) and subsequent thermal annealing at a temperature of 1300 K, The structural properties and the orientation relationship between

  8. Colloidal nanoparticle size control: experimental and kinetic modeling investigation of the ligand-metal binding role in controlling the nucleation and growth kinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozaffari, Saeed; Li, Wenhui; Thompson, Coogan; Ivanov, Sergei; Seifert, Soenke; Lee, Byeongdu; Kovarik, Libor; Karim, Ayman M

    2017-09-21

    Despite the major advancements in colloidal metal nanoparticles synthesis, a quantitative mechanistic treatment of the ligand's role in controlling their size remains elusive. We report a methodology that combines in situ small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and kinetic modeling to quantitatively capture the role of ligand-metal binding (with the metal precursor and the nanoparticle surface) in controlling the synthesis kinetics. We demonstrate that accurate extraction of the kinetic rate constants requires using both, the size and number of particles obtained from in situ SAXS to decouple the contributions of particle nucleation and growth to the total metal reduction. Using Pd acetate and trioctylphosphine in different solvents, our results reveal that the binding of ligands with both the metal precursor and nanoparticle surface play a key role in controlling the rates of nucleation and growth and consequently the final size. We show that the solvent can affect the metal-ligand binding and consequently ligand coverage on the nanoparticles surface which has a strong effect on the growth rate and final size (1.4 nm in toluene and 4.3 nm in pyridine). The proposed kinetic model quantitatively predicts the effects of varying the metal concentration and ligand/metal ratio on nanoparticle size for our work and literature reports. More importantly, we demonstrate that the final size is exclusively determined by the nucleation and growth kinetics at early times and not how they change with time. Specifically, the nanoparticle size in this work and many literature reports can be predicted using a single, model independent kinetic descriptor, (growth-to-nucleation rate ratio) 1/3 , despite the different metals and synthetic conditions. The proposed model and kinetic descriptor could serve as powerful tools for the design of colloidal nanoparticles with specific sizes.

  9. Turning “on” and “off” nucleation and growth: Microwave assisted synthesis of CdS clusters and nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrer, Edmy; Nater, Sariann; Rivera, Daniel; Colon, Jean Marie; Zayas, Francisco; Gonzalez, Miguel; Castro, Miguel E.

    2012-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: ► Cadmium acetate and DMSO were employed as ion precursors. ► New approach to controlled CdS nanoparticle synthesis. ► CdS clusters and nanoparticles synthesis achieved using microwave irradiation. ► Microwave irradiation turns on and off nanoparticle growth. ► The formation of clusters, embryos and nanoparticles studied with optical spectroscopy. -- Abstract: We report here on the formation of CdS NP from the microwave assisted reaction of Cd(CH 3 CO 2 ) 2 with dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO). DMSO serves as the solvent and a controlled source of sulfide ions to form (CdS) 1≤n≤5 clusters at the early stages of the process. The clusters grow into CdS nanoparticles, with diameters that range from 1.6 nm up to over 250 nm, with microwave heating. The time dependence of the onset of light absorption and absorbance are consistent with a concurrent nucleation and growth processes. The formation of clusters and nuclei and their subsequent reactions is controlled by turning on and off the energy supply consistent with an energy barrier to the formation of CdS nanostructures.

  10. Turning “on” and “off” nucleation and growth: Microwave assisted synthesis of CdS clusters and nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrer, Edmy; Nater, Sariann; Rivera, Daniel; Colon, Jean Marie; Zayas, Francisco; Gonzalez, Miguel [Chemical Imaging Center, Department of Chemistry, The University of Puerto Rico at Mayaguez, Mayaguez, PR 00680 (United States); Castro, Miguel E., E-mail: miguel.castro2@upr.edu [Chemical Imaging Center, Department of Chemistry, The University of Puerto Rico at Mayaguez, Mayaguez, PR 00680 (United States)

    2012-11-15

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: ► Cadmium acetate and DMSO were employed as ion precursors. ► New approach to controlled CdS nanoparticle synthesis. ► CdS clusters and nanoparticles synthesis achieved using microwave irradiation. ► Microwave irradiation turns on and off nanoparticle growth. ► The formation of clusters, embryos and nanoparticles studied with optical spectroscopy. -- Abstract: We report here on the formation of CdS NP from the microwave assisted reaction of Cd(CH{sub 3}CO{sub 2}){sub 2} with dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO). DMSO serves as the solvent and a controlled source of sulfide ions to form (CdS){sub 1≤n≤5} clusters at the early stages of the process. The clusters grow into CdS nanoparticles, with diameters that range from 1.6 nm up to over 250 nm, with microwave heating. The time dependence of the onset of light absorption and absorbance are consistent with a concurrent nucleation and growth processes. The formation of clusters and nuclei and their subsequent reactions is controlled by turning on and off the energy supply consistent with an energy barrier to the formation of CdS nanostructures.

  11. Effect of different densities of silver nanoparticles on neuronal growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nissan, Ifat [Bar-Ilan University, Department of Chemistry (Israel); Schori, Hadas [Bar-Ilan University, Faculty of Engineering (Israel); Lipovsky, Anat [Bar-Ilan University, Department of Chemistry (Israel); Alon, Noa [Bar-Ilan University, Faculty of Engineering (Israel); Gedanken, Aharon, E-mail: gedanken@biu.ac.il [Bar-Ilan University, Department of Chemistry (Israel); Shefi, Orit, E-mail: orit.shefi@biu.ac.il [Bar-Ilan University, Faculty of Engineering (Israel)

    2016-08-15

    Nerve regeneration has become a subject of great interest, and much effort is devoted to the design and manufacturing of effective biomaterials. In this paper, we report the capability of surfaces coated with silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) to serve as platforms for nerve regeneration. We fabricated substrates coated with silver nanoparticles at different densities using sonochemistry, and grew neuroblastoma cells on the AgNPs. The effect of the different densities on the development of the neurites during the initiation and elongation growth phases was studied. We found that the AgNPs function as favorable anchoring sites for the neuroblastoma cells, significantly enhancing neurite outgrowth. One of the main goals of this study is to test whether the enhanced growth of the neurites is due to the mere presence of AgNPs or whether their topography also plays a vital role. We found that this phenomenon was repeated for all the tested densities, with a maximal effect for the substrates that are coated with 45 NPs/μm{sup 2}. We also studied the amount of reactive oxygen spices (ROS) in the presence of AgNPs as indicator of cell activation. Our results, combined with the well-known antibacterial effects of AgNPs, suggest that substrates coated with AgNP are attractive nanomaterials—with dual activity—for neuronal repair studies and therapeutics.Graphical Abstract.

  12. Improved performance of colloidal CdSe quantum dot-sensitized solar cells by hybrid passivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jing; Xu, Bo; Yuan, Chunze; Chen, Hong; Sun, Junliang; Sun, Licheng; Agren, Hans

    2014-11-12

    A hybrid passivation strategy is employed to modify the surface of colloidal CdSe quantum dots (QDs) for quantum dot-sensitized solar cells (QDSCs), by using mercaptopropionic acid (MPA) and iodide anions through a ligand exchange reaction in solution. This is found to be an effective way to improve the performance of QDSCs based on colloidal QDs. The results show that MPA can increase the coverage of the QDs on TiO2 electrodes and facilitate the hole extraction from the photoxidized QDs, and simultaneously, that the iodide anions can remedy the surface defects of the CdSe QDs and thus reduce the recombination loss in the device. This hybrid passivation treatment leads to a significant enhancement of the power conversion efficiency of the QDSCs by 41%. Furthermore, an optimal ratio of iodide ions to MPA was determined for favorable hybrid passivation; results show that excessive iodine anions are detrimental to the loading of the QDs. This study demonstrates that the improvement in QDSC performance can be realized by using a combination of different functional ligands to passivate the QDs, and that ligand exchange in solution can be an effective approach to introduce different ligands.

  13. Comparison of three empirical force fields for phonon calculations in CdSe quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelley, Anne Myers [Chemistry and Chemical Biology, University of California, Merced, 5200 North Lake Road, Merced, California 95343 (United States)

    2016-06-07

    Three empirical interatomic force fields are parametrized using structural, elastic, and phonon dispersion data for bulk CdSe and their predictions are then compared for the structures and phonons of CdSe quantum dots having average diameters of ~2.8 and ~5.2 nm (~410 and ~2630 atoms, respectively). The three force fields include one that contains only two-body interactions (Lennard-Jones plus Coulomb), a Tersoff-type force field that contains both two-body and three-body interactions but no Coulombic terms, and a Stillinger-Weber type force field that contains Coulombic interactions plus two-body and three-body terms. While all three force fields predict nearly identical peak frequencies for the strongly Raman-active “longitudinal optical” phonon in the quantum dots, the predictions for the width of the Raman peak, the peak frequency and width of the infrared absorption peak, and the degree of disorder in the structure are very different. The three force fields also give very different predictions for the variation in phonon frequency with radial position (core versus surface). The Stillinger-Weber plus Coulomb type force field gives the best overall agreement with available experimental data.

  14. Chiral-Selective Growth of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes on Lattice-Mismatched Epitaxial Cobalt Nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    He, Maoshuai; Jiang, Hua; Liu, Bilu

    2013-01-01

    Controlling chirality in growth of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) is important for exploiting their practical applications. For long it has been conceptually conceived that the structural control of SWNTs is potentially achievable by fabricating nanoparticle catalysts with proper structures......-resolution environmental transmission electron microscope at a low CO pressure was recorded. We achieved highly preferential growth of semiconducting SWNTs (~90%) with an exceptionally large population of (6, 5) tubes (53%) in an ambient CO atmosphere. Particularly, we also demonstrated high enrichment in (7, 6) and (9, 4......) at a low growth temperature. These findings open new perspectives both for structural control of SWNTs and for elucidating the growth mechanisms....

  15. Structural and electrical properties of polycrystalline CdSe thin films, before and after irradiation with 6 MeV accelerated electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ion, L.; Antohe, V.A.; Tazlaoanu, C.; Antohe, S.; Scarlat, F.

    2004-01-01

    Structural and electrical properties of polycrystalline CdSe thin films irradiated with high-energy electrons are analyzed. The samples were prepared by vacuum deposition of CdSe powder onto optical glass substrate. Their structure and the temperature dependence of the electrical resistance were determined, both before and after irradiation with 6 MeV electrons at fluencies up to 10 16 electrons/cm 2 . There were no measurable changes in the crystalline structure of the films after irradiation. Electrical properties are controlled by the defect level of donor type, possibly a selenium vacancy, with two ionizing states having ionization energies of about 0.40 eV and 0.22 eV, respectively. The major effect of the irradiation is to increase significantly the concentration of these defects. (authors)

  16. Effect of Cationic Surfactant Head Groups on Synthesis, Growth and Agglomeration Behavior of ZnS Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehta SK

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Colloidal nanodispersions of ZnS have been prepared using aqueous micellar solution of two cationic surfactants of trimethylammonium/pyridinium series with different head groups i.e., cetyltrimethylammonium chloride (CTAC and cetyltrimethylpyridinium chloride (CPyC. The role of these surfactants in controlling size, agglomeration behavior and photophysical properties of ZnS nanoparticles has been discussed. UV–visible spectroscopy has been carried out for determination of optical band gap and size of ZnS nanoparticles. Transmission electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering were used to measure sizes and size distribution of ZnS nanoparticles. Powder X-ray analysis (Powder XRD reveals the cubic structure of nanocrystallite in powdered sample. The photoluminescence emission band exhibits red shift for ZnS nanoparticles in CTAC compared to those in CPyC. The aggregation behavior in two surfactants has been compared using turbidity measurements after redispersing the nanoparticles in water. In situ evolution and growth of ZnS nanoparticles in two different surfactants have been compared through time-dependent absorption behavior and UV irradiation studies. Electrical conductivity measurements reveal that CPyC micelles better stabilize the nanoparticles than that of CTAC.

  17. Addition of selenium nanoparticles to electrospun silk scaffolds improves mammalian cell activity while reducing bacterial growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanley Chung

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Silk possesses many beneficial wound healing properties, and electrospun scaffolds are especially applicable for skin applications, due to their smaller interstices and higher surface areas compared to non-electrospun equivalents. However, purified silk promotes microbial growth. In contrast, selenium nanoparticles have excellent antibacterial properties and are a novel antimicrobial chemistry. Here, electrospun silk scaffolds were doped with selenium nanoparticles to impart antibacterial properties to the silk scaffolds. Results showed significantly improved bacterial inhibition and improvement in human dermal fibroblast metabolic activity. These results suggest that the addition of selenium nanoparticles to electrospun silk is a promising approach to improve wound healing with reduced infection, without relying on antibiotics.

  18. Growth of polymer nanoparticles in microemulsion polymerization initiated with γ ray

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Xiangling; Ge Xuewu; Ye Qiang; Zhang Zhicheng; Zuo Ju; Niu Aizhen; Zhang Manwei

    1999-01-01

    In microemulsion polymerization of styrene, butyl acrylate and methyl methacrylate initiated with gamma ray, growth of polymer nanoparticles was observed with photon correlation spectroscopy, and the conversion curve was recorded with a dilatometer. There is some similarity in the growth of polymer particles. The size of polymer particles rapidly increases up to their maximum at the early stage. With the increase of conversion, the large particles supply their monomer to newly formed particles and become smaller. In all these three microemulsion polymerizations, the evidence of continuous nucleation was observed. When monomer is styrene or butyl acrylate, a plateau of polymerization rate emerges. When monomer is methyl methacrylate, no plateau of polymerization is observed

  19. Optimization of charge transfer and transport processes at the CdSe quantum dots/TiO2 nanorod interface by TiO2 interlayer passivation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaramillo-Quintero, O A; Rincon, M E; Triana, M A

    2017-01-01

    Surface trap states hinder charge transfer and transport properties in TiO 2 nanorods (NRs), limiting its application on optoelectronic devices. Here, we study the interfacial processes between rutile TiO 2 NR and CdSe quantum dots (QDs) using TiO 2 interlayer passivation treatments. Anatase or rutile TiO 2 thin layers were deposited on an NR surface by two wet-chemical deposition treatments. Reduced interfacial charge recombination between NRs and CdSe QDs was observed by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy with the introduction of TiO 2 thin film interlayers compared to bare TiO 2 NRs. These results can be ascribed to in-gap trap state passivation of the TiO 2 NR surface, which led to an increase in open circuit voltage. Moreover, the rutile thin layer was more efficient than anatase to promote a higher photo-excited electron transfer from CdSe QDs to TiO 2 NRs due to a large driving force for charge injection, as confirmed by surface photovoltage spectroscopy. (paper)

  20. Rate constant of free electrons and holes recombination in thin films CdSe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radychev, N.A.; Novikov, G.F.

    2006-01-01

    Destruction kinetics of electrons generated in thin films CdSe by laser impulse (wave length is 337 nm, period of impulse - 8 nc) is studied by the method of microwave photoconductivity (36 GHz) at 295 K. Model of the process was suggested using the analysis of kinetics of photo-responses decay, and it allowed determination of rate constant of recombination of free electrons and holes in cadmium selenide - (4-6)x10 -11 cm 3 s -1 [ru

  1. Morphology of CdSe films prepared by chemical bath deposition: The role of substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simurda, M.; Nemec, P.; Formanek, P.; Nemec, I.; Nemcova, Y.; Maly, P.

    2006-01-01

    We combine optical spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy to study the growth and the structural morphology of CdSe films prepared by chemical bath deposition (CBD) on two considerably different substrates. The films grown on glass are compact and strongly adherent to the substrate. On the contrary, the films deposited on carbon-coated glass (with approx. 20 nm thick amorphous carbon layer) are only loosely adherent to the substrate. Using transmission electron microscopy we revealed that even though the films grown on both substrates are assembled from closely spaced nanocrystals with diameter of about 5 nm, the films morphology on the sub-micrometer scale is considerably different in the two cases. While the films deposited on glass are rather compact, the films prepared on carbon layer have high porosity and are formed by interconnected spheres which size is dependent on the duration of deposition (e.g. 155 nm for 6 h and 350 nm for 24 h). This shows that the choice of the substrate for CBD has a stronger influence on the sub-micrometer film morphology than on the properties of individual nanocrystals forming the film

  2. Electroluminescence of colloidal quasi-two-dimensional semiconducting CdSe nanostructures in a hybrid light-emitting diode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selyukov, A. S., E-mail: vslebedev.mobile@gmail.com; Vitukhnovskii, A. G.; Lebedev, V. S.; Vashchenko, A. A. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Lebedev Physical Institute (Russian Federation); Vasiliev, R. B.; Sokolikova, M. S. [Moscow State University (Russian Federation)

    2015-04-15

    We report on the results of studying quasi-two-dimensional nanostructures synthesized here in the form of semiconducting CdSe nanoplatelets with a characteristic longitudinal size of 20–70 nm and a thick-ness of a few atomic layers. Their morphology is studied using TEM and AFM and X-ray diffraction analysis; the crystal structure and sizes are determined. At room and cryogenic temperatures, the spectra and kinetics of the photoluminescence of such structures (quantum wells) are investigated. A hybrid light-emitting diode operating on the basis of CdSe nanoplatelets as a plane active element (emitter) is developed using the organic materials TAZ and TPD to form electron and hole transport layers, respectively. The spectral and current-voltage characteristics of the constructed device with a radiation wavelength λ = 515 nm are obtained. The device triggering voltage is 5.5 V (visible glow). The use of quasi-two-dimensional structures of this type is promising for hybrid light-emitting diodes with pure color and low operating voltages.

  3. Electroluminescence of colloidal quasi-two-dimensional semiconducting CdSe nanostructures in a hybrid light-emitting diode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selyukov, A. S.; Vitukhnovskii, A. G.; Lebedev, V. S.; Vashchenko, A. A.; Vasiliev, R. B.; Sokolikova, M. S.

    2015-01-01

    We report on the results of studying quasi-two-dimensional nanostructures synthesized here in the form of semiconducting CdSe nanoplatelets with a characteristic longitudinal size of 20–70 nm and a thick-ness of a few atomic layers. Their morphology is studied using TEM and AFM and X-ray diffraction analysis; the crystal structure and sizes are determined. At room and cryogenic temperatures, the spectra and kinetics of the photoluminescence of such structures (quantum wells) are investigated. A hybrid light-emitting diode operating on the basis of CdSe nanoplatelets as a plane active element (emitter) is developed using the organic materials TAZ and TPD to form electron and hole transport layers, respectively. The spectral and current-voltage characteristics of the constructed device with a radiation wavelength λ = 515 nm are obtained. The device triggering voltage is 5.5 V (visible glow). The use of quasi-two-dimensional structures of this type is promising for hybrid light-emitting diodes with pure color and low operating voltages

  4. Interfacial passivation of CdS layer to CdSe quantum dots-sensitized electrodeposited ZnO nanowire thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Jingbo; Sun, Chuanzhen; Bai, Shouli; Luo, Ruixian; Chen, Aifan; Sun, Lina; Lin, Yuan

    2013-01-01

    ZnO porous thin films with nanowire structure were deposited by the one-step electrochemical deposition method. And a CdS layer was coated on the as-deposited ZnO nanowire thin films by successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method to passivate surface states. Then the films were further sensitized by CdSe quantum dots (QDs) to serve as a photoanode for fabricating quantum dots-sensitized solar cells (QDSSCs). The effect of the CdS interfacial passivation layer on the performance of the QDSSCs was systematically investigated by varying the SILAR cycle number and heating the passivation layer. The amorphous CdS layer with an optimized thickness can effectively suppress the recombination of the injected electrons with holes on QDs and the redox electrolyte. The newly formed CdS layer on the surface of the ZnO nanowire thin film obviously prolongs the electron lifetime in the passivated ZnO nanoporous thin film because of the lower surface trap density in the ZnO nanowires after CdS deposition, which is favorable to the higher short-circuit photocurrent density (J sc ). For the CdSe QDs-sensitized ZnO nanoporous thin film with the interfacial passivation layer, the J sc and conversion efficiency can reach a maximum of 8.36 mA cm −2 and 2.36%, respectively. The conversion efficiency was improved by 83.47% compared with that of the cell based on the CdSe QDs-sensitized ZnO nanoporous thin film without CdS interfacial passivation (0.39%)

  5. Current matching using CdSe quantum dots to enhance the power conversion efficiency of InGaP/GaAs/Ge tandem solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ya-Ju; Yao, Yung-Chi; Tsai, Meng-Tsan; Liu, An-Fan; Yang, Min-De; Lai, Jiun-Tsuen

    2013-11-04

    A III-V multi-junction tandem solar cell is the most efficient photovoltaic structure that offers an extremely high power conversion efficiency. Current mismatching between each subcell of the device, however, is a significant challenge that causes the experimental value of the power conversion efficiency to deviate from the theoretical value. In this work, we explore a promising strategy using CdSe quantum dots (QDs) to enhance the photocurrent of the limited subcell to match with those of the other subcells and to enhance the power conversion efficiency of InGaP/GaAs/Ge tandem solar cells. The underlying mechanism of the enhancement can be attributed to the QD's unique capacity for photon conversion that tailors the incident spectrum of solar light; the enhanced efficiency of the device is therefore strongly dependent on the QD's dimensions. As a result, by appropriately selecting and spreading 7 mg/mL of CdSe QDs with diameters of 4.2 nm upon the InGaP/GaAs/Ge solar cell, the power conversion efficiency shows an enhancement of 10.39% compared to the cell's counterpart without integrating CdSe QDs.

  6. Investigation of Combination Effect of Magnesium Oxide and Iron Oxide Nanoparticles on the Growth And Morphology of the Bacteria Staphylococcus Aureus and Escherichia Coli in Juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mahdi torabi zarchi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Nanoparticles (NPs are one of the antibacterial substances, among them nanoparticles type MgO and Fe2O3 are less toxic to mammalian cells. So, the aim of this study was investigation of combination effects of iron oxide and magnesium oxide nanoparticles on the growth of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli (E.coli to achieve the optimum combination of nanoparticles inhibit the growth of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli in food (juice. Methods: In this experimental research, the effect of MgO and Fe2O3 Nanoparticles compound on Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli bacteria in liquid environment was investigated, and then their effect was investigated separately in juices of carrot, pomegranate and apple via colony count approach. Also, scanning electron microscopy was used to characterize the morphological changes of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli after antimicrobial treatments. The results of the research were analyzed using one way ANNOVA. Results: The results of the research indicated that in liquid medium, these nanoparticles lead to reduce the growth of both bacteria. compound of 1.5Mg+0.5Fe2O3 was introduced as the most appropriate antibacterial compounds; Staphylococcus aureus sensitivity to Escherichia coli was higher against nanoparticles. The findings of research about the juices revealed that the combined effect of nanoparticles reduced the growth of both bacteria. the combined effect of Fe2o3 and MgO nanoparticles treatments distorted and damaged the cell membrane, resulting in a leakage of intracellular contents and eventually the death of bacterial cells. Conclusion: Nanoparticles in the allowed concentrations have significant effect on Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli bacteria.

  7. Opto-electrical energy conversion by thin electrolytic CdSe films on Ni substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenis, G. X.; Athanassopoulou, M. D.; Argyropoulos, Th G.; Dervos, C. T.

    2015-02-01

    Thin-films (300 nm) of zinc-blende (cubic structure) CdSe (111) electrolytically deposited on nickel substrates had their surface characteristics investigated by XRD, SEM, and profilometry scans. A metal-CdSe-metal structure was formed by positioning a Au electrode on top of CdSe and the I-V characteristics of the resulting device were investigated in the dark and under low intensities (≤0.2 mW cm-2) of diffused solar radiation. The experimental results show that the illuminated structure is an active device that produces electric power in the 2nd quadrant of the I-V curve. This response may be related to the Ni-to-CdSe interface, where carriers are effectively generated as a result of deep energy level formations, spatially confined in the interfacial region of the depletion layer width of the Ni-CdSe junction. A potential energy diagram is proposed to present the spatially and energetically confined deep-level parameters, the operation principles (carrier generation and transport processes) across the structure and link them to the obtained I-V response. A mathematical modeling based on the Schokley-Read-Hall recombination theory confirms the experimentally obtained current profiles of illuminated junctions. Such opto-electrical tranducers might be implemented in multilayer photovoltaic hetero-structures to enhance their conversion efficiencies and reduce their operating temperatures.

  8. Opto-electrical energy conversion by thin electrolytic CdSe films on Ni substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glenis, G X; Athanassopoulou, M D; Argyropoulos, Th G; Dervos, C T

    2015-01-01

    Thin-films (300 nm) of zinc-blende (cubic structure) CdSe (111) electrolytically deposited on nickel substrates had their surface characteristics investigated by XRD, SEM, and profilometry scans. A metal-CdSe-metal structure was formed by positioning a Au electrode on top of CdSe and the I–V characteristics of the resulting device were investigated in the dark and under low intensities (≤0.2 mW cm −2 ) of diffused solar radiation. The experimental results show that the illuminated structure is an active device that produces electric power in the 2nd quadrant of the I–V curve. This response may be related to the Ni-to-CdSe interface, where carriers are effectively generated as a result of deep energy level formations, spatially confined in the interfacial region of the depletion layer width of the Ni-CdSe junction. A potential energy diagram is proposed to present the spatially and energetically confined deep-level parameters, the operation principles (carrier generation and transport processes) across the structure and link them to the obtained I–V response. A mathematical modeling based on the Schokley-Read-Hall recombination theory confirms the experimentally obtained current profiles of illuminated junctions. Such opto-electrical tranducers might be implemented in multilayer photovoltaic hetero-structures to enhance their conversion efficiencies and reduce their operating temperatures. (paper)

  9. Synthesis, deposition and crystal growth of CZTS nanoparticles onto ceramic tiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Calvet

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The work presents a simple solvothermal method for CZTS nanoparticles preparation using hexadecylamine (HDA as a capping agent. The as-prepared CZTS powder was deposited as ink using Doctor Blade technique onto ceramic tile, as a substrate substituting the typical soda-lime glass. The as-prepared film was thermal treated at different temperatures in order to enhance the thin film crystallinity. CZTS crystal growth onto ceramic tile was obtained successfully for the first time.

  10. Continuous laser irradiation under ambient conditions: A simple way for the space-selective growth of gold nanoparticles inside a silica monolith

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Hamzaoui, Hicham; Bernard, Remy; Chahadih, Abdallah; Chassagneux, Fernand; Bois, Laurence; Capoen, Bruno; Bouazaoui, Mohamed

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Visible continuous laser direct-write gold nanoparticles inside a silica monolith. → The presence of the additive (Na 2 CO 3 ) is not necessary to the growth of gold nanoparticles. → A simple heat treatment leads to precipitation of gold nanoparticles inside the silica matrices with, or without, the additive. → The local precipitation of gold nanoparticles by continuous photo-irradiation occurs following a photo-thermal activated mechanism. -- Abstract: Thanks to the potential and various applications of metal-dielectric nanocomposites, their syntheses constitute an interesting subject in material research. In this work, we demonstrate the achievement of gold nanocrystals growth through a visible and continuous laser irradiation. The in situ and direct space-selective generation of metallic nanoparticles is localized under the surface within transparent silica monoliths. For that purpose, the porous silica monoliths are prepared using a sol-gel route and post-doped with gold precursors before the irradiation. The presence of Au nanoparticles inside the irradiated areas was evidenced using absorption spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction analysis and transmission electron microscopy. The comparison between the results obtained after a laser irradiation and by a simple heat-treatment reveals that the local precipitation of gold nanoparticles by continuous photo-irradiation occurs following a photo-thermal activated mechanism.

  11. Defects in CdSe thin films, induced by high energy electron irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ion, L.; Antohe, S.; Tutuc, D.; Antohe, V.A.; Tazlaoanu, C.

    2004-01-01

    Defects induced in CdSe thin films by high energy electron irradiation are investigated by means of thermally stimulated currents (TSC) spectroscopy. Films were obtained by vacuum deposition from a single source and irradiated with a 5 x 10 13 electrons/cm 2 s -1 beam of 6-MeV energy. It was found that electrical properties of the films are controlled by a deep donor state, located at 0.38 eV below the bottom edge of the conduction band. Parameters of the traps responsible for the recorded TSC peaks were determined. (authors)

  12. CdSe quantum dot in vertical ZnSe nanowire and photonic wire for efficient single-photon emission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cremel, Thibault; Bellet-Amalric, Edith; Cagnon, Laurent

    conformal dielectric coating of Al2O3 on the NW-QDs using Atomic Layer Deposition so that a photonic wire is formed with the CdSe QD deterministically positioned on its axis. The collection enhancement effect is studied by measuring the emission (with pulse excitation, at saturation intensity) of single...

  13. Temperature-Induced Wavelength Shift of Electron-Beam-Pumped Lasers from CdSe, CdS, and ZnO

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvam, Jørn Märcher

    1971-01-01

    Experimental results on the temperature dependence of the laser frequency and threshold pump power are presented in the range from liquid helium to room temperature for electron-beam-pumped CdSe, CdS, and ZnO lasers. A linear shift of the laser frequency at high temperatures and a relatively slow...

  14. Mo-Co catalyst nanoparticles: Comparative study between TiN and Si surfaces for single-walled carbon nanotube growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morant, C., E-mail: c.morant@uam.es [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, C-XII, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Campo, T. [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, C-XII, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Marquez, F. [School of Science and Technology, University of Turabo, 00778-PR (United States); Domingo, C. [Instituto de Estructura de la Materia, CSIC, Serrano 123, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Sanz, J.M.; Elizalde, E. [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, C-XII, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain)

    2012-06-01

    Highly pure single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNT) were synthesized by alcohol catalytic chemical vapor deposition on silicon substrates partially covered by a thin layer of TiN. The TiN coating selectively prevented the growth of carbon nanotubes. Field emission scanning electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy revealed the formation of high purity vertically aligned SWNT in the Si region. X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy and Atomic Force Microscopy indicated that Co nanoparticles are present on the Si regions, and not on the TiN regions. This clearly explains the obtained experimental results: the SWNT only grow where the Co is presented as nanoparticles, i.e. on the Si regions. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWNT) ontained by catalytic chemical vapor-deposition. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Substrate/Co-Mo catalyst behaviour plays a key role in the SWNT growth. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Co nanoparticles (the effective catalyst) have been only observed on the Si region. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer High purity SWNT were spatially confined in specific locations (Si regions). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TiN-coated surfaces, adjacent to a Si oxide region, prevent the growth of SWNT.

  15. Growth of anatase and rutile phase TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles using pulsed laser ablation in liquid: Influence of surfactant addition and ablation time variation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaturvedi, Amita, E-mail: amita-chaturvedi@rrcat.gov.in [Laser Material Processing Division, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore 452013, MP (India); Joshi, M.P. [Laser Material Processing Division, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore 452013, MP (India); Homi Bhabha National Institute, Training School Complex, Anushakti Nagar, Mumbai – 400094 (India); Mondal, P.; Sinha, A.K.; Srivastava, A.K. [Indus Synchrotron Utilization Division, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore 452013, MP (India)

    2017-02-28

    Highlights: • Ablations of Ti metal target were carried out in DI water and in 0.001 M SDS solution for different times using PLAL process. • Different characterization studies have been carried out to confirm the growth of TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles in both the liquid mediums. • Anatase phase TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles were obtained in DI water and rutile phase in 0.001 M SDS aqueous solution. • In surfactant solution, longer time ablation leads depletion of SDS molecules causes growth of anatase phase for 90 min. • Our studies confirmed the role of liquid ambience conditions variation over the different phase formations of nanoparticles. - Abstract: Titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) nanoparticles were grown using nanosecond pulsed laser ablation of Ti target in DI water and in 0.001 M sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) surfactant aqueous solution. Growth was carried out with varying ablation times i. e. 30 min, 60 min and 90 min. The objective of our study was to investigate the influence of variations in liquid ambience conditions on the growth of the nanoparticles in a pulsed laser ablation in liquid (PLAL) process. Size, composition and optical properties of the grown TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles were investigated using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), optical absorption, photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies. The obtained nanoparticles of TiO{sub 2} were found almost spherical in shape and polycrystalline in nature in both the liquid mediums i.e. DI water and aqueous solution of surfactant. Nanoparticles number density was also found to increase with increasing ablation time in both the liquid mediums. However crystalline phase of the grown TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles differs with the change in liquid ambience conditions. Selected area electron diffraction (SAED), PL and XRD studies suggest that DI water ambience is favorable for the growth of anatase phase TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles for all

  16. Bulletin of Materials Science | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Pure and Co-doped CdSe nanoparticles have been synthesized by hydrothermal technique. The synthesized nanoparticles have been characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV–Visible), photoluminescence spectroscopy (PL), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), transmission ...

  17. Hole transport in organic field-effect transistors with active poly(3-hexylthiophene) layer containing CdSe quantum dots

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bielecka, Urszula; Lutsyk, P.; Nyk, M.; Janus, K.; Samoć, M.; Bartkowiak, W.; Nešpůrek, Stanislav

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 31, č. 2 (2013), s. 288-297 ISSN 2083-1331 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 35859 - BIMORE Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : organic transistor * poly(3-hexylthiophene) * CdSe Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 0.327, year: 2013

  18. Influence of CdSe layer air-baking on physical properties of CdSe-As2Se3 heterostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schauer, F.; Heza, S.; Kosek, F.; Cimpl, Z.

    1980-01-01

    An investigation is made of the influence of the air-baking time on the physical properties of a CdSe layer, which is a part of the heterogeneous structure CdSe-As 2 Se 3 used as a camera tube target. The I-U characteristics, C-U characteristics, the dependence of both the real and imaginary part admittance on frequency, and the photoconductance characteristics are measured. All measurements are carried out on heterostructures prepared with variable air-baking time of the CdSe layer: t =0, 5, 15, 40, and 120 min. The results of measurements contribute to the finding of the optimal production procedure with a minimum baking time of tsub(min) = 15 min. The heterostructures exhibit satisfactory properties. The dark current Isub(d)(U =1 V, T = 300 K) = 10 -10 Acm -2 with a rectification factor g(U = 10 V) = 10 6 and a capacitance C (2 kHz) = 2900 pFcm -2 . (author)

  19. Effect of silver nanoparticles on concentration of silver heavy element and growth indexes in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. negeen)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shams, Gholamabbas; Ranjbar, Morteza; Amiri, Aliasghar

    2013-01-01

    The tremendous progress on nanoparticle research area has been made significant effects on the economy, society, and the environment. Silver nanoparticle is one of the most important particles in these categories. Silver nanoparticles can be converted to the heavy silver metal in water by oxidation. Moreover, in the high amounts of silver concentration, they will be accumulated in different parts of the plant. However, by changing the morphology of the plant, the production will be harmful for human consumptions. In this study, nano-powders with average 50 nm silver particles are mixed with deionized distilled water in a completely randomized design. Seven treatments with various concentrations of suspension silver nanoparticles were prepared and repeated in four different parts of the plant in a regular program of spraying. Samples were analyzed to study the growth indexes and concentration of silver in different parts of the plant. It was observed that with increasing concentration of silver nanoparticles on cucumber, the growth indexes (except pH fruit), and the concentration of silver heavy metal are increased significantly. The incremental concentration had the linear relationship with correlation coefficient 0.95 and an average of 0.617 PPM by increasing of each unit in one thousand concentration of nanosilver. Although, by increasing concentration of silver nanoparticles as spraying form, the plant morphological characteristics were improved, the concentration of silver heavy metal in various plant organs was increased. These results open a new pathway to consider the effect of nanoparticles on plant’s productions for human consumptions.

  20. Effect of silver nanoparticles on concentration of silver heavy element and growth indexes in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. negeen)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shams, Gholamabbas, E-mail: ghs@iaushiraz.net; Ranjbar, Morteza [Shiraz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Department of Physics (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Amiri, Aliasghar [Shiraz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Department of Chemistry (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-05-15

    The tremendous progress on nanoparticle research area has been made significant effects on the economy, society, and the environment. Silver nanoparticle is one of the most important particles in these categories. Silver nanoparticles can be converted to the heavy silver metal in water by oxidation. Moreover, in the high amounts of silver concentration, they will be accumulated in different parts of the plant. However, by changing the morphology of the plant, the production will be harmful for human consumptions. In this study, nano-powders with average 50 nm silver particles are mixed with deionized distilled water in a completely randomized design. Seven treatments with various concentrations of suspension silver nanoparticles were prepared and repeated in four different parts of the plant in a regular program of spraying. Samples were analyzed to study the growth indexes and concentration of silver in different parts of the plant. It was observed that with increasing concentration of silver nanoparticles on cucumber, the growth indexes (except pH fruit), and the concentration of silver heavy metal are increased significantly. The incremental concentration had the linear relationship with correlation coefficient 0.95 and an average of 0.617 PPM by increasing of each unit in one thousand concentration of nanosilver. Although, by increasing concentration of silver nanoparticles as spraying form, the plant morphological characteristics were improved, the concentration of silver heavy metal in various plant organs was increased. These results open a new pathway to consider the effect of nanoparticles on plant's productions for human consumptions.

  1. Effects of Chitosan–PVA and Cu Nanoparticles on the Growth and Antioxidant Capacity of Tomato under Saline Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hipólito Hernández-Hernández

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Chitosan is a natural polymer, which has been used in agriculture to stimulate crop growth. Furthermore, it has been used for the encapsulation of nanoparticles in order to obtain controlled release. In this work, the effect of chitosan–PVA and Cu nanoparticles (Cu NPs absorbed on chitosan–PVA on growth, antioxidant capacity, mineral content, and saline stress in tomato plants was evaluated. The results show that treatments with chitosan–PVA increased tomato growth. Furthermore, chitosan–PVA increased the content of chlorophylls a and b, total chlorophylls, carotenoids, and superoxide dismutase. When chitosan–PVA was mixed with Cu NPs, the mechanism of enzymatic defense of tomato plants was activated. The chitosan–PVA and chitosan–PVA + Cu NPs increased the content of vitamin C and lycopene, respectively. The application of chitosan–PVA and Cu NPs might induce mechanisms of tolerance to salinity.

  2. Millisecond-Timescale Monitoring of PbS Nanoparticle Nucleation and Growth Using Droplet-Based Microfluidics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lignos, Ioannis; Stavrakis, Stavros; Kilaj, Ardita; deMello, Andrew J

    2015-08-26

    The early-time kinetics (conversion of precursor species to PbS crystals, followed by the growth of the formed particles. The growth kinetics of the PbS nanoparticles follow the Lifshitz-Slyozov-Wagner model for Ostwald ripening, allowing direct estimation of the rate constants for the process. In addition, the extraction of absorption spectra of ultrasmall quantum dots is demonstrated for first time in an online manner. The droplet-based microfluidic platform integrated with online spectroscopic analysis provides a new tool for the quantitative extraction of high temperature kinetics for systems with rapid nucleation and growth stages. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Synthesis and Growth Mechanism of Multimetallic Core-Shell and Hollow-Like Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Londono-Calderon, Alejandra

    A thorough control of nanoscale systems is crucial for developing and improving their activity in a variety of application fields. These range from nanocatalysis, plasmonics, nanosensors, nanomedicine, communications, and others. Controlling and understanding the growth and spatial distribution of multi metallic systems allow us to explore the correlation between the characteristics of the nanoparticle (composition, surface chemistry, crystallinity, etc.) and their properties (mechanical, optical, structural, etc.). In this dissertation bimetallic and multi-metallic nanoparticles were obtained by a seed mediated method and galvanic replacement. Combinations of the type core shell of Au Ag, Au Pd and Au Pd-Au Au multi-metallic systems were studied. A galvanic replacement method was used to obtain hollow-like Au/Pt nanoboxes and Au AgM (M = Au, Pd or Pt) yolk-shell structures with voids in the middle shell. Characterization regarding composition, morphology, optical properties and atomic structures was performed. The mechanical properties of Au Pd nanocubes were studied in situ by the use of a TEM-AFM nanomechanical holder. The nanoparticles strengthening mechanism relies on the Au core resistance to the motion of partial dislocations. The catalytic efficiency of core-shell and nanorattles structures were tested with a model reaction for the decomposition of 4-ntp to 4-amp. Yolk-shell systems exhibit an enhancement in the catalytic decomposition rate in comparison with solid and bimetallic system. Finally, the development of an Electrospray assisted Langmuir Blodgett technique was successfully employed for the deposition of nanoparticles monolayer on a substrate. High particle density and coverage of the substrate makes this a promising technique to finely tune nanoparticles self-assembly.

  4. Analysis of the electrodeposition and surface chemistry of CdTe, CdSe, and CdS thin films through substrate-overlayer surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Junsi; Fahrenkrug, Eli; Maldonado, Stephen

    2014-09-02

    The substrate-overlayer approach has been used to acquire surface enhanced Raman spectra (SERS) during and after electrochemical atomic layer deposition (ECALD) of CdSe, CdTe, and CdS thin films. The collected data suggest that SERS measurements performed with off-resonance (i.e. far from the surface plasmonic wavelength of the underlying SERS substrate) laser excitation do not introduce perturbations to the ECALD processes. Spectra acquired in this way afford rapid insight on the quality of the semiconductor film during the course of an ECALD process. For example, SERS data are used to highlight ECALD conditions that yield crystalline CdSe and CdS films. In contrast, SERS measurements with short wavelength laser excitation show evidence of photoelectrochemical effects that were not germane to the intended ECALD process. Using the semiconductor films prepared by ECALD, the substrate-overlayer SERS approach also affords analysis of semiconductor surface adsorbates. Specifically, Raman spectra of benzenethiol adsorbed onto CdSe, CdTe, and CdS films are detailed. Spectral shifts in the vibronic features of adsorbate bonding suggest subtle differences in substrate-adsorbate interactions, highlighting the sensitivity of this methodology.

  5. Improving polymer/nanocrystal hybrid solar cell performance via tuning ligand orientation at CdSe quantum dot surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Weifei; Wang, Ling; Zhang, Yanfang; Ma, Ruisong; Zuo, Lijian; Mai, Jiangquan; Lau, Tsz-Ki; Du, Shixuan; Lu, Xinhui; Shi, Minmin; Li, Hanying; Chen, Hongzheng

    2014-11-12

    Achieving superior solar cell performance based on the colloidal nanocrystals remains challenging due to their complex surface composition. Much attention has been devoted to the development of effective surface modification strategies to enhance electronic coupling between the nanocrystals to promote charge carrier transport. Herein, we aim to attach benzenedithiol ligands onto the surface of CdSe nanocrystals in the "face-on" geometry to minimize the nanocrystal-nanocrystal or polymer-nanocrystal distance. Furthermore, the "electroactive" π-orbitals of the benzenedithiol are expected to further enhance the electronic coupling, which facilitates charge carrier dissociation and transport. The electron mobility of CdSe QD films was improved 20 times by tuning the ligand orientation, and high performance poly[2,6-(4,4-bis(2-ethylhexyl)-4H-cyclopenta[2,1-b;3,4-b']-dithiophene)-alt-4,7-(2,1,3-benzothiadiazole)] (PCPDTBT):CdSe nanocrystal hybrid solar cells were also achieved, showing a highest power conversion efficiency of 4.18%. This research could open up a new pathway to improve further the performance of colloidal nanocrystal based solar cells.

  6. Enhanced bioavailability of nerve growth factor with phytantriol lipid-based crystalline nanoparticles in cochlea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bu M

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Meng Bu,1,2 Jingling Tang,3 Yinghui Wei,4 Yanhui Sun,1 Xinyu Wang,1 Linhua Wu,2 Hongzhuo Liu1 1School of Pharmacy, Shenyang Pharmaceutical University, Shenyang, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Pharmacy, the Second Affiliated Hospital, 3School of Pharmacy, Harbin Medical University, Harbin, People’s Republic of China; 4College of Pharmaceutical Science, Zhejiang Chinese Medical University, Hangzhou, People’s Republic of China Purpose: Supplementation of exogenous nerve growth factor (NGF into the cochlea of deafened animals rescues spiral ganglion cells from degeneration. However, a safe and potent delivery of therapeutic proteins, such as NGF, to spiral ganglion cells remains one of the greatest challenges. This study presents the development of self-assembled cubic lipid-based crystalline nanoparticles to enhance inner ear bioavailability of bioactive NGF via a round window membrane route.Methods: A novel nanocarrier-entrapped NGF was developed based on phytantriol by a liquid precursor dilution, with Pluronic® F127 and propylene glycol as the surfactant and solubilizer, respectively. Upon dilution of the liquid lipid precursors, monodispersed submicron-sized particles with a slight negative charge formed spontaneously.Results: Biological activity of entrapped NGF was assessed using pheochromocytoma cells with NGF-loaded reservoirs to induce significant neuronal outgrowth, similar to that seen in free NGF-treated controls. Finally, a 3.28-fold increase in inner ear bioavailability was observed after administration of phytantriol lipid-based crystalline nanoparticles as compared to free drug, contributing to an enhanced drug permeability of the round window membrane. Conclusion: Data presented here demonstrate the potential of lipid-based crystalline nanoparticles to improve the outcomes of patients bearing cochlear implants. Keywords: nerve growth factor, lipid-based crystalline nanoparticles, PC12 cells, inner ear drug

  7. Influence of TiO2 Nanoparticles on Growth and Phenolic Compounds Production in Photosynthetic Microorganisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mattia Comotto

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (pure anatase and 15% N doped anatase on the growth of Chlorella vulgaris, Haematococcus pluvialis, and Arthrospira platensis was investigated. Results showed that pure anatase can lead to a significant growth inhibition of C. vulgaris and A. platensis (17.0 and 74.1%, resp., while for H. pluvialis the nanoparticles do not cause a significant inhibition. Since in these stress conditions photosynthetic microorganisms can produce antioxidant compounds in order to prevent cell damages, we evaluated the polyphenols content either inside the cells or released in the medium. Although results did not show a significant difference in C. vulgaris, the phenolic concentrations of two other microorganisms were statistically affected by the presence of titanium dioxide. In particular, 15% N doped anatase resulted in a higher production of extracellular antioxidant compounds, reaching the concentration of 65.2 and 68.0 mg gDB-1 for H. pluvialis and A. platensis, respectively.

  8. In-situ synthesis of Ag nanoparticles by electron beam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gong, Jiangfeng; Liu, Hongwei; Jiang, Yuwen; Yang, Shaoguang; Liao, Xiaozhou; Liu, Zongwen; Ringer, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Ag nanoparticles were synthesized by electron beam irradiation in the transmission electron microscope chamber at room temperature and the growth mechanism was explored in detail. The sizes of the Ag nanoparticles are controlled by the electron beam current density. Two nanoparticle growth stages were identified. The first growth stage was dominated by the discharging effect, while the second stage was controlled by the heating effect. The nanoparticle synthesis method should be applicable to the synthesis of other metallic nanoparticles. - Highlights: • Ag nanoparticles were synthesized by electron beam irradiation in the transmission electron microscope chamber. • The sizes of the Ag nanoparticles are controlled by the electron beam current density. • The growth mechanism was studied, two growth stages were confirmed. • The first growth stage was dominated by the discharging effect, and the second stage was controlled by the heating effect.

  9. Structural, optical and electrical characterization of vacuum-evaporated nanocrystalline CdSe thin films for photosensor applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Vipin; Sharma, D.K.; Sharma, Kapil [Krishna Institute of Engineering and Technology, Department of Physics, Ghaziabad (India); Dwivedi, D.K. [M.M.M University of Technology, Department of Physics, Gorakhpur (India)

    2016-11-15

    II-VI nanocrystalline semiconductors offer a wide range of applications in electronics, optoelectronics and photonics. Thin films of CdSe were deposited onto ultra-clean glass substrates by vacuum evaporation method. The as-deposited films were annealed in vacuum at 350 K. The structural, elemental, morphological, optical and electrical investigations of annealed films were carried out. The X-ray diffraction pattern of the films shows that films were polycrystalline in nature having hexagonal structure with preferential orientation of grains along (002) plane. SEM image indicates that the films were uniform and well covered to the glass substrate. EDAX analysis confirms the stoichiometric composition of the film. Raman spectra were used to observe the characteristic vibrational modes of CdSe. The energy band gap of these films was obtained by absorption spectra. The films were found to have a direct type of transition of band gap occurring at 1.75 eV. The dark electrical conductivity and photoconductivity reveals that the films were semiconducting in nature indicating the suitability of these films for photosensor applications. The Hall effect measurement reveals that the films have n-type electrical conductivity. (orig.)

  10. Control of cancer growth using single input autonomous fuzzy Nano-particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahimeh Razmi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a single input fuzzy controller is applied on autonomous drug-encapsulated nanoparticles (ADENPs to restrict the cancer growth. The proposed ADENPs, swarmly release the drug in local cancerous tissue and effectively decreases the destruction of normal tissue. The amount of released drug is defined considering to feed backed values of tumor growth rate and the used drug. Some significant characteristics of Nano particles compared to Nano-robots is their ability to recognize the cancerous tissue from the normal one and their simple structure. Nano particles became an attractive topic in Nano science and many efforts have been done to manufacture these particles. Simulation results show that the proposed controlling method not only decreases the cancerous tissue effectively but also reduces the side effects of drug impressively.

  11. Metal Nanoparticle Catalysts for Carbon Nanotube Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Benjamin F.

    2003-01-01

    Work this summer involved and new and unique process for producing the metal nanoparticle catalysts needed for carbon nanotube (CNT) growth. There are many applications attributed to CNT's, and their properties have deemed them to be a hot spot in research today. Many groups have demonstrated the versatility in CNT's by exploring a wide spectrum of roles that these nanotubes are able to fill. A short list of such promising applications are: nanoscaled electronic circuitry, storage media, chemical sensors, microscope enhancement, and coating reinforcement. Different methods have been used to grow these CNT's. Some examples are laser ablation, flame synthesis, or furnace synthesis. Every single approach requires the presence of a metal catalyst (Fe, Co, and Ni are among the best) that is small enough to produce a CNT. Herein lies the uniqueness of this work. Microemulsions (containing inverse micelles) were used to generate these metal particles for subsequent CNT growth. The goal of this summer work was basically to accomplish as much preliminary work as possible. I strived to pinpoint which variable (experimental process, metal product, substrate, method of application, CVD conditions, etc.) was the determining factor in the results. The resulting SEM images were sufficient for the appropriate comparisons to be made. The future work of this project consists of the optimization of the more promising experimental procedures and further exploration onto what exactly dictated the results.

  12. Broad spectral photocurrent enhancement in Au-decorated CdSe nanowires

    KAUST Repository

    Chakraborty, Ritun; Greullet, Fanny; George, Chandramohan; Baranov, Dmitry; Di Fabrizio, Enzo M.; Krahne, Roman

    2013-01-01

    Metal-semiconductor hybrid nanostructures promise improved photoconductive performance due to plasmonic properties of the metal portions and intrinsic electric fields at the metal-semiconductor interface that possibly enhance charge separation. Here we report gold decorated CdSe nanowires as a novel functional material and investigate the influence of gold decoration on the lateral facets on the photoconductive properties. Gold decorated nanowires show typically an at least ten-fold higher photocurrent as compared to their bare counterparts. Interestingly, the photocurrent enhancement is wavelength independent, although the plasmon resonance related to the gold particles appears in the absorption spectra. Our experiments show that light scattering and Schottky fields associated with the metal-semiconductor interface are at the origin of the photocurrent enhancement. © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  13. Ultrasonic attenuation of CdSe at low temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, B.J., E-mail: braulio@ula.v [Centro de Estudios de Semiconductores, Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Los Andes Apartado de Correos No.1, La Hechicera, Merida 5251 (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Calderon, E.; Bracho, D.B. [Centro de Estudios de Semiconductores, Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Los Andes Apartado de Correos No.1, La Hechicera, Merida 5251 (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Perez, J.F. [Laboratorio de Instrumentacion Cientifica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Los Andes Apartado de Correos No.1, La Hechicera, Merida 5251 (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of)

    2010-08-01

    The ultrasonic attenuation of a single crystal of CdSe has been investigated over the temperature range from 1.2 to 300 K at frequencies of 10, 30 and 90 MHz. We report here the temperature dependence of the attenuation in the range 1.2-30 K for piezoactive and non-piezoactive acoustic waves. A temperature-induced relaxation for two piezoactive waves, which scale with frequency towards higher temperatures, was found. A modified Hutson and White model with a new parameter {gamma} is proposed to explain the relaxation maxima of our data and others in the literature. In this model the parameter {gamma}, which seems to be closely related to the compensation, takes into account the impurities-sound wave piezoelectric coupling. By inverting the proposed expression for the sound attenuation to obtain the electrical conductivity from the relaxation, it is found that impurity conductivity of the hopping type is the dominant conduction process at low temperatures.

  14. Ultrasonic attenuation of CdSe at low temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, B.J.; Calderon, E.; Bracho, D.B.; Perez, J.F.

    2010-01-01

    The ultrasonic attenuation of a single crystal of CdSe has been investigated over the temperature range from 1.2 to 300 K at frequencies of 10, 30 and 90 MHz. We report here the temperature dependence of the attenuation in the range 1.2-30 K for piezoactive and non-piezoactive acoustic waves. A temperature-induced relaxation for two piezoactive waves, which scale with frequency towards higher temperatures, was found. A modified Hutson and White model with a new parameter γ is proposed to explain the relaxation maxima of our data and others in the literature. In this model the parameter γ, which seems to be closely related to the compensation, takes into account the impurities-sound wave piezoelectric coupling. By inverting the proposed expression for the sound attenuation to obtain the electrical conductivity from the relaxation, it is found that impurity conductivity of the hopping type is the dominant conduction process at low temperatures.

  15. ZnO Nanoparticles Affect Bacillus subtilis Cell Growth and Biofilm Formation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Huang Hsueh

    Full Text Available Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs are an important antimicrobial additive in many industrial applications. However, mass-produced ZnO NPs are ultimately disposed of in the environment, which can threaten soil-dwelling microorganisms that play important roles in biodegradation, nutrient recycling, plant protection, and ecological balance. This study sought to understand how ZnO NPs affect Bacillus subtilis, a plant-beneficial bacterium ubiquitously found in soil. The impact of ZnO NPs on B. subtilis growth, FtsZ ring formation, cytosolic protein activity, and biofilm formation were assessed, and our results show that B. subtilis growth is inhibited by high concentrations of ZnO NPs (≥ 50 ppm, with cells exhibiting a prolonged lag phase and delayed medial FtsZ ring formation. RedoxSensor and Phag-GFP fluorescence data further show that at ZnO-NP concentrations above 50 ppm, B. subtilis reductase activity, membrane stability, and protein expression all decrease. SDS-PAGE Stains-All staining results and FT-IR data further demonstrate that ZnO NPs negatively affect exopolysaccharide production. Moreover, it was found that B. subtilis biofilm surface structures became smooth under ZnO-NP concentrations of only 5-10 ppm, with concentrations ≤ 25 ppm significantly reducing biofilm formation activity. XANES and EXAFS spectra analysis further confirmed the presence of ZnO in co-cultured B. subtilis cells, which suggests penetration of cell membranes by either ZnO NPs or toxic Zn+ ions from ionized ZnO NPs, the latter of which may be deionized to ZnO within bacterial cells. Together, these results demonstrate that ZnO NPs can affect B. subtilis viability through the inhibition of cell growth, cytosolic protein expression, and biofilm formation, and suggest that future ZnO-NP waste management strategies would do well to mitigate the potential environmental impact engendered by the disposal of these nanoparticles.

  16. Influence of nanoparticle addition on the formation and growth of intermetallic compounds (IMCs) in Cu/Sn–Ag–Cu/Cu solder joint during different thermal conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ting Tan, Ai; Wen Tan, Ai; Yusof, Farazila

    2015-01-01

    Nanocomposite lead-free solders are gaining prominence as replacements for conventional lead-free solders such as Sn–Ag–Cu solder in the electronic packaging industry. They are fabricated by adding nanoparticles such as metallic and ceramic particles into conventional lead-free solder. It is reported that the addition of such nanoparticles could strengthen the solder matrix, refine the intermetallic compounds (IMCs) formed and suppress the growth of IMCs when the joint is subjected to different thermal conditions such as thermal aging and thermal cycling. In this paper, we first review the fundamental studies on the formation and growth of IMCs in lead-free solder joints. Subsequently, we discuss the effect of the addition of nanoparticles on IMC formation and their growth under several thermal conditions. Finally, an outlook on the future growth of research in the fabrication of nanocomposite solder is provided. (review)

  17. Performances of some low-cost counter electrode materials in CdS and CdSe quantum dot-sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Hieng Kiat; Careem, Mohamed Abdul; Arof, Abdul Kariem

    2014-02-10

    Different counter electrode (CE) materials based on carbon and Cu2S were prepared for the application in CdS and CdSe quantum dot-sensitized solar cells (QDSSCs). The CEs were prepared using low-cost and facile methods. Platinum was used as the reference CE material to compare the performances of the other materials. While carbon-based materials produced the best solar cell performance in CdS QDSSCs, platinum and Cu2S were superior in CdSe QDSSCs. Different CE materials have different performance in the two types of QDSSCs employed due to the different type of sensitizers and composition of polysulfide electrolytes used. The poor performance of QDSSCs with some CE materials is largely due to the lower photocurrent density and open-circuit voltage. The electrochemical impedance spectroscopy performed on the cells showed that the poor-performing QDSSCs had higher charge-transfer resistances and CPE values at their CE/electrolyte interfaces.

  18. Transmission electron microscopy investigations of the CdSe based quantum structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roventa, E.

    2006-09-22

    In this work, the structural morphology of the active region of the ZnSe laser diode: quaternary CdZnSSe quantum well or CdSe quantum dots embedded in CdSe/ZnSSe superlattices is investigated using Transmission Electron Microscopy. The conventional as well as high resolution imaging studies indicated that the degradation of the ZnSe laser diodes is connected with the formation of extended defects in the optical active region leading to a local strain relaxation of the quantum well. Furthermore the outdiffusion of Cd from the quantum well occurs predominantly where the defects are located. The chemical composition and ordering phenomena in CdSe/ZnSSe supperlattices were also investigated, employing a series of five-fold structures with different spacer layer thickness and a ten-fold structure. The composition in the CdSe/ZnSSe superlattice was determined to a certain extent using different techniques. Generally, the encountered difficulties regarding the accuracy of the obtained values are correlated with the complexity of the investigated system and with the available experimental methods used. Regarding the alignment of the dots, experimental results support a strain driven ordering process, in which the strain fields from buried dots lead to heterogeneous nucleation conditions for the dots in the subsequently deposited layers. An increased ordering with subsequent stacking of the dot layers is was also found. An anisotropy of the lateral alignment of the CdSe dots was also observed in two different left angle 110 right angle zone axes. The similar plan-view images shows that the preferential alignment of the dots does not follow low-index crystallographic directions. However, it is assumed that this is attributed to the anisotropic elastic strain distribution combined with surface diffusion. (orig.)

  19. Transmission electron microscopy investigations of the CdSe based quantum structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roventa, E.

    2006-01-01

    In this work, the structural morphology of the active region of the ZnSe laser diode: quaternary CdZnSSe quantum well or CdSe quantum dots embedded in CdSe/ZnSSe superlattices is investigated using Transmission Electron Microscopy. The conventional as well as high resolution imaging studies indicated that the degradation of the ZnSe laser diodes is connected with the formation of extended defects in the optical active region leading to a local strain relaxation of the quantum well. Furthermore the outdiffusion of Cd from the quantum well occurs predominantly where the defects are located. The chemical composition and ordering phenomena in CdSe/ZnSSe supperlattices were also investigated, employing a series of five-fold structures with different spacer layer thickness and a ten-fold structure. The composition in the CdSe/ZnSSe superlattice was determined to a certain extent using different techniques. Generally, the encountered difficulties regarding the accuracy of the obtained values are correlated with the complexity of the investigated system and with the available experimental methods used. Regarding the alignment of the dots, experimental results support a strain driven ordering process, in which the strain fields from buried dots lead to heterogeneous nucleation conditions for the dots in the subsequently deposited layers. An increased ordering with subsequent stacking of the dot layers is was also found. An anisotropy of the lateral alignment of the CdSe dots was also observed in two different left angle 110 right angle zone axes. The similar plan-view images shows that the preferential alignment of the dots does not follow low-index crystallographic directions. However, it is assumed that this is attributed to the anisotropic elastic strain distribution combined with surface diffusion. (orig.)

  20. Green synthesis of water soluble semiconductor nanocrystals and their applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying

    II-VI semiconductor nanomaterials, e.g. CdSe and CdTe, have attracted great attention over the past decades due to their fascinating optical and electrical properties. The research presented here focuses on aqueous semiconductor nanomaterials. The work can be generally divided into three parts: synthesis, property study and application. The synthetic work is devoted to develop new methods to prepare shape- and structure-controlled II-VI semiconductor nanocrystals including nanoparticles and nanowires. CdSe and CdSe CdS semiconductor nanocrystals have been synthesized using sodium citrate as a stabilizer. Upon prolonged illumination with visible light, photoluminescence quantum yield of those quantum dots can be enhanced up to 5000%. The primary reason for luminescence enhancement is considered to be the removing of specific surface states (photocorrosion) and the smoothing of the CdSe core surface (photoannealing). CdTe nanowires are prepared through self-organization of stabilizer-depleted CdTe nanoparticles. The dipolar-dipolar attraction is believed to be the driving force of nanowire formation. The rich surface chemistry of CdTe nanowire is reflected by the formation of silica shell with different morphologies when nanowires with different capping ligands are used. Te and Se nanowires are prepared by chemical decomposition of CdTe and CdSe nanoparticles in presence of an external chemical stimulus, EDTA. These results not only provide a new example of NP→NW transformation, but also lead to a better understanding of the molecular process occurring in the stabilizer-depleted nanoparticles. The applications of those semiconductor materials are primarily based on the construction of nano-structured ultrathin films with desirable functions by using layer-by-layer technique (LBL). We demonstrate that light-induced micro-scale multicolor luminescent patterns can be obtained on photoactivable CdSe/CdS nanoparticles thin films by combining the advantages of LBL as

  1. In-Situ Synchrotron Radiation Study of Formation and Growth of Crystalline CexZr1-xO2 Nanoparticles Synthesized in Supercritical Water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tyrsted, Christoffer; Becker-Christensen, Jacob; Hald, Peter

    2010-01-01

    -zirconia system, the growth of ceria and zirconia nanoparticles is fundamentally different under supercritical water conditions. For comparison, ex situ synthesis has also been performed using an in-house supercritical flow reactor. The resulting samples were analyzed using PXRD, small-angle X-ray scattering......In situ synchrotron powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) measurements have been conducted to follow the nucleation and growth of crystalline CexZr1-xO2 nanoparticles synthesized in supercritical water with a full substitution variation (x = 0, 0.2, 0.5, 0.8, and 1.0). Direction-dependent growth curves...... are determined and described using reaction kinetic models. A distinct change in growth kinetics is observed with increasing cerium content. For x = 0.8 and 1.0 (high cerium content), the growth is initially limited by the surface reaction kinetics; however, at a size of ∼6 nm, the growth changes and becomes...

  2. Growth and characterization of GaAs-GaSb III-V pseudo-binary nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schamp, C.T. [Cerium Laboratories, Austin, TX 78741 (United States); Jesser, W.A. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, 116 Engineer' s Way, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States)

    2008-07-01

    The GaAs-GaSb pseudo-binary materials system presents an interesting challenge for growth because of 1) the existence of a miscibility gap in the solid-solid portion of the equilibrium phase diagram, and 2) the large differences in vapor pressure between the column III element, Ga, and the column V elements, As and Sb. To overcome these challenges in the growth of GaAs, GaSb, and Ga{sub 50}As{sub x}Sb{sub 50-x} alloy nanoparticles, single- and dual-target pulsed laser deposition (PLD) techniques were implemented using an Nd:YAG laser operated with a harmonic generator to utilize the second harmonic wavelength (532 nm) and a combination of the fundamental and the second harmonic wavelengths (1064 nm+532 nm). The nanoparticles were collected on amorphous carbon films for subsequent characterization by transmission electron microscopy. The analysis shows that single phase GaAs-rich Ga{sub 50}As{sub x}Sb{sub 50-x} (28>x>50) nanoparticles and nanocrystalline films have been formed through dual-target, single-wavelength (532 nm) pulsed laser ablation. Interestingly, through the ablation of the single component targets, two-phase particles were also found to form. These two phase particles resemble ''nano-ice cream cones'' with solid cones of either GaAs or GaSb with a spherical ''ice cream'' ball of Ga located at the wide portion of the cone, which is either an amorphous phase or liquid phase. Through an analysis by STEM-EDX spectroscopy, these particles are found to be consistant with this model. (copyright 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  3. Iron-reducing bacteria accumulate ferric oxyhydroxide nanoparticle aggregates that may support planktonic growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luef, Birgit; Fakra, Sirine C; Csencsits, Roseann; Wrighton, Kelly C; Williams, Kenneth H; Wilkins, Michael J; Downing, Kenneth H; Long, Philip E; Comolli, Luis R; Banfield, Jillian F

    2013-02-01

    Iron-reducing bacteria (FeRB) play key roles in anaerobic metal and carbon cycling and carry out biogeochemical transformations that can be harnessed for environmental bioremediation. A subset of FeRB require direct contact with Fe(III)-bearing minerals for dissimilatory growth, yet these bacteria must move between mineral particles. Furthermore, they proliferate in planktonic consortia during biostimulation experiments. Thus, a key question is how such organisms can sustain growth under these conditions. Here we characterized planktonic microbial communities sampled from an aquifer in Rifle, Colorado, USA, close to the peak of iron reduction following in situ acetate amendment. Samples were cryo-plunged on site and subsequently examined using correlated two- and three-dimensional cryogenic transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM) and scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM). The outer membranes of most cells were decorated with aggregates up to 150 nm in diameter composed of ∼3 nm wide amorphous, Fe-rich nanoparticles. Fluorescent in situ hybridization of lineage-specific probes applied to rRNA of cells subsequently imaged via cryo-TEM identified Geobacter spp., a well-studied group of FeRB. STXM results at the Fe L(2,3) absorption edges indicate that nanoparticle aggregates contain a variable mixture of Fe(II)-Fe(III), and are generally enriched in Fe(III). Geobacter bemidjiensis cultivated anaerobically in the laboratory on acetate and hydrous ferric oxyhydroxides also accumulated mixed-valence nanoparticle aggregates. In field-collected samples, FeRB with a wide variety of morphologies were associated with nano-aggregates, indicating that cell surface Fe(III) accumulation may be a general mechanism by which FeRB can grow while in planktonic suspension.

  4. Graphene oxide based CdSe photocatalysts: Synthesis, characterization and comparative photocatalytic efficiency of rhodamine B and industrial dye

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, Trisha; Lee, Jeong-Ho; Meng, Ze-Da; Ullah, Kefayat; Park, Chong-Yeon; Nikam, Vikram; Oh, Won-Chun

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► CdSe–graphene is synthesized by hydrothermal method. ► Three molar solutions of CdSe were used making three different composites. ► RhB and Texbrite MST-L were used as sample dye solutions. ► Texbrite MST-L is photo degraded in visible light. ► UV-spectroscopic analysis was done to measure degradation. - Abstract: CdSe–graphene composites were prepared using simple “hydrothermal method” where the graphene surface was modified using different molar solutions of cadmium selenide (CdSe) in aqueous media. The characterization of CdSe–graphene composites were studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX), scanning electron microscope (SEM), and with transmission electron microscope (TEM). The catalytic activities of CdSe-composites were evaluated by degradation of rhodamine B (RhB) and commercial industrial dye “Texbrite MST-L (TXT-MST)” with fixed concentration. The degradation was observed by the decrease in the absorbance peak studied by UV spectrophotometer. The decrease in the dye concentration indicated catalytic degradation effect by CdSe–graphene composites

  5. Poly(3-hexylthiophene) - CdSe quantum dot bulk heterojunction solar cells: Influence of the functional end-group of the polymer

    KAUST Repository

    Palaniappan, Kumaranand; Murphy, John W.; Khanam, Nadia; Horvath, Julius; Alshareef, Husam N.; Quevedo-Ló pez, Manuel Angel Quevedo; Biewer, Michael C.; Park, Seongyong; Kim, Moon; Gnade, Bruce E.; Stefan, Mihaela C.

    2009-01-01

    The synthesis of H/thiol terminated P3HT from Br/allyl-terminated P3HT precursor was analyzed. The photovoltaic response of blends were prepared of H/thiol terminated P3HT with spherical CdSe quantum dots(QD) and compares the results

  6. Quantum chemistry of the minimal CdSe clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ping; Tretiak, Sergei; Masunov, Artëm E.; Ivanov, Sergei

    2008-08-01

    Colloidal quantum dots are semiconductor nanocrystals (NCs) which have stimulated a great deal of research and have attracted technical interest in recent years due to their chemical stability and the tunability of photophysical properties. While internal structure of large quantum dots is similar to bulk, their surface structure and passivating role of capping ligands (surfactants) are not fully understood to date. We apply ab initio wavefunction methods, density functional theory, and semiempirical approaches to study the passivation effects of substituted phosphine and amine ligands on the minimal cluster Cd2Se2, which is also used to benchmark different computational methods versus high level ab initio techniques. Full geometry optimization of Cd2Se2 at different theory levels and ligand coverage is used to understand the affinities of various ligands and the impact of ligands on cluster structure. Most possible bonding patterns between ligands and surface Cd/Se atoms are considered, including a ligand coordinated to Se atoms. The degree of passivation of Cd and Se atoms (one or two ligands attached to one atom) is also studied. The results suggest that B3LYP/LANL2DZ level of theory is appropriate for the system modeling, whereas frequently used semiempirical methods (such as AM1 and PM3) produce unphysical results. The use of hydrogen atom for modeling of the cluster passivating ligands is found to yield unphysical results as well. Hence, the surface termination of II-VI semiconductor NCs with hydrogen atoms often used in computational models should probably be avoided. Basis set superposition error, zero-point energy, and thermal corrections, as well as solvent effects simulated with polarized continuum model are found to produce minor variations on the ligand binding energies. The effects of Cd-Se complex structure on both the electronic band gap (highest occupied molecular orbital-lowest unoccupied molecular orbital energy difference) and ligand binding

  7. Influence of nanoparticle addition on the formation and growth of intermetallic compounds (IMCs) in Cu/Sn–Ag–Cu/Cu solder joint during different thermal conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting Tan, Ai; Wen Tan, Ai; Yusof, Farazila

    2015-01-01

    Nanocomposite lead-free solders are gaining prominence as replacements for conventional lead-free solders such as Sn–Ag–Cu solder in the electronic packaging industry. They are fabricated by adding nanoparticles such as metallic and ceramic particles into conventional lead-free solder. It is reported that the addition of such nanoparticles could strengthen the solder matrix, refine the intermetallic compounds (IMCs) formed and suppress the growth of IMCs when the joint is subjected to different thermal conditions such as thermal aging and thermal cycling. In this paper, we first review the fundamental studies on the formation and growth of IMCs in lead-free solder joints. Subsequently, we discuss the effect of the addition of nanoparticles on IMC formation and their growth under several thermal conditions. Finally, an outlook on the future growth of research in the fabrication of nanocomposite solder is provided. PMID:27877786

  8. Exciton fine structure in CdSe nanoclusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leung, K.; Pokrant, S.; Whaley, K.B.

    1998-01-01

    The fine structure in the CdSe nanocrystal absorption spectrum is computed by incorporating two-particle electron-hole interactions and spin-orbit coupling into a tight-binding model, with an expansion in electron-hole single-particle states. The exchange interaction and spin-orbit coupling give rise to dark, low-lying states that are predominantly triplet in character, as well as to a manifold of exciton states that are sensitive to the nanocrystal shape. Near the band gap, the exciton degeneracies are in qualitative agreement with the effective mass approximation (EMA). However, instead of the infinite lifetimes for dark states characteristic of the EMA, we obtain finite radiative lifetimes for the dark states. In particular, for the lowest, predominantly triplet, states we obtain radiative lifetimes of microseconds, in qualitative agreement with the experimental measured lifetimes. The resonant Stokes shifts obtained from the splitting between the lowest dark and bright states are also in good agreement with experimental values for larger crystallites. Higher-lying states exhibit significantly more complex behavior than predicted by EMA, due to extensive mixing of electron-hole pair states. copyright 1998 The American Physical Society

  9. In Situ Visualization of the Growth and Fluctuations of Nanoparticle Superlattice in Liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, Zihao; Shen, Bonan; Chen, Qian

    We use liquid phase transmission electron microscopy to image and understand the crystal growth front and interfacial fluctuation of a nanoparticle superlattice. With single particle resolution and hundreds of nanoscale building blocks in view, we are able to identify the interface between ordered lattice and disordered structure and visualize the kinetics of single building block attachment at the lattice growth front. The spatial interfacial fluctuation profiles support the capillary wave theory, from which we derive a surface stiffness value consistent with scaling analysis. Our experiments demonstrate the potential of extending model study on collective systems to nanoscale with single particle resolution and testing fundamental theories of condensed matter at a length scale linking atoms and micron-sized colloids.

  10. Enhancement of the photoluminescence in CdSe quantum dot–polyvinyl alcohol composite by light irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borkovska, L., E-mail: bork@isp.kiev.ua [V. Lashkaryov Institute of Semiconductor Physics, NAS of Ukraine, pr. Nauky 41, 03028 Kyiv (Ukraine); Korsunska, N.; Stara, T.; Gudymenko, O.; Venger, Ye. [V. Lashkaryov Institute of Semiconductor Physics, NAS of Ukraine, pr. Nauky 41, 03028 Kyiv (Ukraine); Stroyuk, O.; Raevska, O. [L. Pysarzhevsky Institute of Physical Chemistry, NAS of Ukraine, pr. Nauky 31, 03028 Kyiv (Ukraine); Kryshtab, T., E-mail: kryshtab@gmail.com [Instituto Politécnico Nacional – ESFM, Av. IPN, Ed.9 U.P.A.L.M., 07738 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2013-09-15

    The effect of photo-induced enhancement (more than a tenfold) of room temperature deep-trap photoluminescence (PL) in CdSe quantum dots (QDs) embedded in polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) film has been found and investigated by the PL and X-ray diffraction methods. The effect is observed under illumination of the QD/PVA composite with LED's light of 409 or 470 nm at elevated temperatures and is shown to be caused by an increase of the activation energy of thermal quenching of defect-related PL. It is shown that thermal annealing of the composite by itself stimulates polymer crystallization and produces a small increase in the intensity of both the band-edge and defect-related PL bands of CdSe QDs. It is found that the effect of illumination decreases when the annealing temperature increases from 90 °C to 120 °C because thermal annealing at 120 °C per se results in strong enhancement of room temperature deep-trap PL. The effect of photo-induced enhancement of defect-related PL is found to be irreversible and is assumed to be related to the change of QD surface defect passivation or surface defect rearrangement. This is ascribed to partial destruction of PVA matrix as a result of interaction of QD/PVA interface with photocarriers generated in the QDs due to LED's light absorption.

  11. Controlled in situ growth of tunable plasmonic self-assembled nanoparticle arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verre, R; Fleischer, K; McGilp, J F; Fox, D; Behan, G; Zhang, H; Shvets, I V

    2012-01-01

    Self-assembled silver nanoparticle (NP) arrays were produced by deposition at glancing angles on transparent stepped Al 2 O 3 templates. The evolution of the plasmonic resonances has been monitored using reflection anisotropy spectroscopy (RAS) during growth. It is demonstrated that the morphology of the array can be tailored by changing the template structure, resulting in a large tunability of the optical resonances. In order to extract detailed information on the origin of the measured dichroic response of the system, a model based on dipolar interactions has been developed and the effect of tarnishing and morphological dispersion addressed. (paper)

  12. Control of carbon nanotube growth using cobalt nanoparticles as catalyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huh, Yoon; Green, Malcolm L.H.; Kim, Young Heon; Lee, Jeong Yong; Lee, Cheol Jin

    2005-01-01

    We have controllably grown carbon nanotubes using uniformly distributed cobalt nanoparticles as catalyst. Cobalt nanoparticles with a uniform size were synthesized by chemical reaction and colloidal solutions including the cobalt nanoparticles were prepared. The cobalt nanoparticles were uniformly distributed on silicon substrates by a spin-coating method. Carbon nanotubes with a uniform diameter were synthesized on the cobalt nanoparticles by thermal chemical vapor deposition of acetylene gas. The density and vertical alignment of carbon nanotubes could be controlled by adjusting the density of cobalt (Co) nanoparticles

  13. Assessment of antifungal effects of copper nanoparticles on the growth of the fungus Saprolegnia sp. on white fish (Rutilus frisii kutum eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pegah Kalatehjari

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate the in-vitro effects of copper nanoparticles on the growth of the fungus Saprolegnia sp. isolated from white fish (Rutilus frisii kutum eggs. The antifungal effects were measured by determining the minimum lethal concentration of copper nanoparticles on Saprolegnia sp. in yeast extract glucose chloramphenicol (YGC agar at 25 °C. Saprolegnia grown in YGC agar without added copper nanoparticles served as negative controls. Our study showed that copper nanoparticles at a minimum concentration of 10 ppm have antifungal effects on Saprolegnia sp. The antifungal effects of copper nanoparticles are positively correlated to both concentration and time of exposure. This study showed that the antifungal properties of copper nanoparticles make it a good alternative to malachite green, which is carcinogenic.

  14. Adsorption behavior and current-voltage characteristics of CdSe nanocrystals on hydrogen-passivated silicon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walzer, Karsten; Quaade, Ulrich; Ginger, D.S.

    2002-01-01

    Using scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy we have studied both the geometric distribution and the conduction properties of organic shell capped CdSe nanocrystals adsorbed on hydrogen-passivated Si(100). At submonolayer concentrations, the nanocrystal distribution on the surface was found...... found that the current through the MIS junction is limited by the nanocrystals only in one bias direction, while in the other bias direction the current is limited by the semiconducting substrate. This property may be of relevance for the construction of hybrid electronic devices combining semiconductor...

  15. Hydroxyapatite nanoparticles inhibit the growth of human glioma cells in vitro and in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chu SH

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Sheng-Hua Chu,1 Dong-Fu Feng,1 Yan-Bin Ma,1 Zhi-Qiang Li21Department of Neurosurgery, No 3 People's Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China; 2Department of Neurosurgery, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan, ChinaAbstract: Hydroxyapatite nanoparticles (nano-HAPs have been reported to exhibit antitumor effects on various human cancers, but the effects of nano-HAPs on human glioma cells remain unclear. The aim of this study was to explore the inhibitory effect of nano-HAPs on the growth of human glioma U251 and SHG44 cells in vitro and in vivo. Nano-HAPs could inhibit the growth of U251 and SHG44 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner, according to methyl thiazoletetrazolium assay and flow cytometry. Treated with 120 mg/L and 240 mg/L nano-HAPs for 48 hours, typical apoptotic morphological changes were noted under Hoechst staining and transmission electron microscopy. The tumor growth of cells was inhibited after the injection in vivo, and the related side effects significantly decreased in the nano-HAP-and-drug combination group. Because of the function of nano-HAPs, the expression of c-Met, SATB1, Ki-67, and bcl-2 protein decreased, and the expression of SLC22A18 and caspase-3 protein decreased noticeably. The findings indicate that nano-HAPs have an evident inhibitory action and induce apoptosis of human glioma cells in vitro and in vivo. In a drug combination, they can significantly reduce the adverse reaction related to the chemotherapeutic drug 1,3-bis(2-chloroethyl-1-nitrosourea (BCNU.Keywords: glioma, hydroxyapatite nanoparticles, growth mechanism

  16. Controllable fabrication and characterization of biocompatible core-shell particles and hollow capsules as drug carrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Lingyun; Gong, Xinglong; Xuan, Shouhu; Zhang, Hong; Gong, Xiuqing; Jiang, Wanquan; Chen, Zuyao

    2006-10-01

    SiO 2@CdSe core-shell particles were fabricated by controllable deposition CdSe nanoparticles on silica colloidal spheres. Step-wise coating process was tracked by the TEM and XRD measurements. In addition, SiO 2@CdSe/polypyrrole(PPy) multi-composite particles were synthesized based on the as-prepared SiO 2@CdSe particles by cationic polymerization. The direct electrochemistry of myoglobin (Mb) could be performed by immobilizing Mb on the surface of SiO 2@CdSe particles. Immobilized with Mb, SiO 2@CdSe/PPy-Mb also displayed good bioelectrochemical activity. It confirmed the good biocompatible property of the materials with protein. CdSe hollow capsules were further obtained as the removal of the cores of SiO 2@CdSe spheres. Hollow and porous character of CdSe sub-meter size capsules made them becoming hopeful candidates as drug carriers. Doxorubicin, a typical an antineoplastic drug, was introduced into the capsules. A good sustained drug release behavior of the loading capsules was discovered via performing a release test in the PBS buffer (pH 7.4) solution at 310 k. Furthermore, SiO 2@CdSe/PPy could be converted to various smart hollow capsules via selectively removal of their relevant components.

  17. Growth of two-dimensional arrays of uncapped gold nanoparticles ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    These nanoparticles have been prepared without using any kind of capping agent. Analysis by TEM showed discrete Au nanoparticles of 4 nm average diameter. AFM analysis also showed similar result. The TEM studies showed that these nanoparticles formed self-assembled coherent patterns with dimensions exceeding ...

  18. Unravelling Thiol’s Role in Directing Asymmetric Growth of Au Nanorod–Au Nanoparticle Dimers

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Jianfeng

    2015-12-15

    Asymmetric nanocrystals have practical significance in nanotechnologies but present fundamental synthetic challenges. Thiol ligands have proven effective in breaking the symmetric growth of metallic nanocrystals but their exact roles in the synthesis remain elusive. Here, we synthesized an unprecedented Au nanorod-Au nanoparticle (AuNR-AuNP) dimer structure with the assistance of a thiol ligand. On the basis of our experimental observations, we unraveled for the first time that the thiol could cause an inhomogeneous distribution of surface strains on the seed crystals as well as a modulated reduction rate of metal precursors, which jointly induced the asymmetric growth of monometallic dimers. © 2015 American Chemical Society.

  19. Flexible, Photopatterned, Colloidal CdSe Semiconductor Nanocrystal Integrated Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stinner, F. Scott

    As semiconductor manufacturing pushes towards smaller and faster transistors, a parallel goal exists to create transistors which are not nearly as small. These transistors are not intended to match the performance of traditional crystalline semiconductors; they are designed to be significantly lower in cost and manufactured using methods that can make them physically flexible for applications where form is more important than speed. One of the developing technologies for this application is semiconductor nanocrystals. We first explore methods to develop CdSe nanocrystal semiconducting "inks" into large-scale, high-speed integrated circuits. We demonstrate photopatterned transistors with mobilities of 10 cm2/Vs on Kapton substrates. We develop new methods for vertical interconnect access holes to demonstrate multi-device integrated circuits including inverting amplifiers with 7 kHz bandwidths, ring oscillators with NFC) link. The device draws its power from the NFC transmitter common on smartphones and eliminates the need for a fixed battery. This allows for the mass deployment of flexible, interactive displays on product packaging.

  20. Layer-by-layer assembled composite films of side-functionalized poly(3-hexylthiophene) and CdSe nanocrystals: electrochemical, spectroelectrochemical and photovoltaic properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Girolamo, Julia; Reiss, Peter; Zagorska, Malgorzata; de Bettignies, Remi; Bailly, Severine; Mevellec, Jean-Yves; Lefrant, Serge; Travers, Jean-Pierre; Pron, Adam

    2008-01-01

    Regioregular poly(3-hexylthiophene) containing one diaminopyrimidine side group per ten repeat units (P3HT-co-P3(ODAP)HT) can form molecular composites with 1-(6-mercaptohexyl)thymine capped CdSe nanocrystals (CdSe(MHT)) via hydrogen bonds directed molecular recognition. Here we report complementary

  1. Structural, optical, and photoluminescence characterization of electron beam evaporated ZnS/CdSe nanoparticles thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, S. H.; Ali, H. M.

    2011-01-01

    Structural, optical, and photoluminescence investigations of ZnS capped with CdSe films prepared by electron beam evaporation are presented. X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that the ZnS/CdSe nanoparticles films contain cubic cadmium selenide and hexagonal zinc sulfide crystals and the ZnS grain sizes increased with increasing ZnS thickness. The refractive index was evaluated in terms of envelope method, which has been suggested by Swanepoel in the transparent region. The refractive index values were found to increase with increasing ZnS thickness. However, the optical band gap and the extinction coefficient were decreased with increasing ZnS thickness. Photoluminescence (PL) investigations revealed the presence of two broad emission bands. The ZnS thickness significantly influenced the PL intensities.

  2. Moderating effect of ammonia on particle growth and stability of quasi-monodisperse silver nanoparticles synthesized by the Turkevich method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorup, Luiz F; Longo, Elson; Leite, Edson R; Camargo, Emerson R

    2011-08-15

    A new method to stabilize silver nanoparticles by the addition of ammonia is proposed. Colloidal dispersions of silver nanoparticles were synthesized by the Turkevich method using sodium citrate to reduce silver nitrate at high pH and at 90 °C. After approximately 12 min, a diluted ammonia solution was added to the reaction flask to form soluble diamine silver (I) complexes that played an important growth moderating role, making it possible to stabilize metallic silver nanoparticles with sizes as small as 1.6 nm after 17 min of reaction. Colloidal dispersions were characterized by UV-visible absorption spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and transmission electronic microscopy. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Growth of metal micro and/or nanoparticles utilizing arc-discharge immersed in liquid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rebollo P, B.; Gallardo G, G.; Ortega M, N.; Daniel P, G. [Instituto Tecnologico Superior de Irapuato, Km 12.5 Carretera Irapuato-Silao, 36821 Irapuato, Guanajuato (Mexico); Sampedro, M. P.; Zenteno M, B. [Benemerita Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, Facultad de Ingenieria, Ciudad Universitaria, 72590 Puebla, Puebla (Mexico); Bravo B, C. F. [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Laboratorio de Pruebas de Equipos y Materiales, Irapuato, Guanajuato (Mexico); Hernandez C, D. [Universidad Autonoma de Chiapas, Facultad de Ingenieria, 29050 Tuxtla Gutierrez, Chiapas (Mexico); Jimenez S, S., E-mail: mpstraviata@hotmail.com [Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados, Laboratorio de Investigacion en Materiales, 76230 Santiago de Queretaro, Queretaro (Mexico)

    2014-07-01

    In this paper, we present results on the metal microcrystals and nanoparticles of Al, Cu and Al-Cu composite growth by arc-discharge with the system immersed in distilled water, under different conditions and varying the current from 50 to 150 A with constant voltage (27 V). These structures are characterized using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy and UV-Vis spectroscopy. Our results demonstrate that metal micro and nano structures can be prepared at low cost with high quality. (Author)

  4. Fabrication of fluorescence-based biosensors from functionalized CdSe and CdTe quantum dots for pesticide detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chi Tran, Thi Kim; Vu, Duc Chinh; Thuy Ung, Thi Dieu; Nguyen, Hai Yen; Nguyen, Ngoc Hai; Dao, Tran Cao; Pham, Thu Nga; Nguyen, Quang Liem

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the results on the fabrication of highly sensitive fluorescence biosensors for pesticide detection. The biosensors are actually constructed from the complex of quantum dots (QDs), acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and acetylthiocholine (ATCh). The biosensor activity is based on the change of luminescence from CdSe and CdTe QDs with pH, while the pH is changed with the hydrolysis rate of ATCh catalyzed by the enzyme AChE, whose activity is specifically inhibited by pesticides. Two kinds of QDs were used to fabricate our biosensors: (i) CdSe QDs synthesized in high-boiling non-polar organic solvent and then functionalized by shelling with two monolayers (2-ML) of ZnSe and eight monolayers (8-ML) of ZnS and finally capped with 3-mercaptopropionic acid (MPA) to become water soluble; and (ii) CdTe QDs synthesized in aqueous phase then shelled with CdS. For normal checks the fabricated biosensors could detect parathion methyl (PM) pesticide at very low contents of ppm with the threshold as low as 0.05 ppm. The dynamic range from 0.05 ppm to 1 ppm for the pesticide detection could be expandable by increasing the AChE amount in the biosensor. (paper)

  5. Effect of annealing temperature on the crystalline quality and phase transformation of chemically deposited CdSe films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zapata-Torres, M.; Chale-Lara, F.; Caballero-Briones, F.; Calzadilla, O.

    2005-01-01

    Polycrystalline CdSe thin films were grown on glass substrates by chemical bath deposition at 50 C. The samples were annealed in air atmosphere at different temperatures and characterized by X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy. It was found that the as-grown films have cubic structure. These samples maintain their cubic structure for annealing temperatures between 60 C and 300 C. For annealing temperatures higher than 300 C we obtain a mixture of cubic and hexagonal phases. The analysis made by X-ray diffraction and Raman dispersion show that the samples annealed at temperatures under the phase-transition temperature increase their crystalline quality. In order to determinate the temperature for the complete transition of the cubic phase, we used the precipitated material obtained during the grown of the CdSe films. This material was annealed on air atmosphere between 300 C and 500 C with 50 intervals. The samples were measured by X-ray diffraction. The samples maintained the cubic structure if the annealing temperature is under 300 C. For temperatures between 300 C and 450 C we found a mixture of cubic and hexagonal phase. For an annealing temperature of 500 C we obtain only the hexagonal phase. (copyright 2005 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  6. Photochemical induced growth and aggregation of metal nanoparticles in diode-array spectrophotometer via excited dimethyl-sulfoxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zidki, Tomer; Cohen, Haim; Meyerstein, Dan

    2010-10-21

    Ag(0) and Au(0) nanoparticles suspended in dilute aqueous solutions containing (CH(3))(2)SO are photochemically unstable. The light source of a diode-array spectrophotometer induces, within less than a minute, particle growth and aggregation. The results indicate that this process is triggered by UV light absorption by the (CH(3))(2)SO.

  7. Gold nanoparticle growth control - Implementing novel wet chemistry method on silicon substrate

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Ameer, Ammar

    2013-04-01

    Controlling particle size, shape, nucleation, and self-assembly on surfaces are some of the main challenges facing electronic device fabrication. In this work, growth of gold nanoparticles over a wide range of sizes was investigated by using a novel wet chemical method, where potassium iodide is used as the reducing solution and gold chloride as the metal precursor, on silicon substrates. Four parameters were studied: soaking time, solution temperature, concentration of the solution of gold chloride, and surface pre-treatment of the substrate. Synthesized nanoparticles were then characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The precise control of the location and order of the grown gold overlayer was achieved by using focused ion beam (FIB) patterning of a silicon surface, pre-treated with potassium iodide. By varying the soaking time and temperature, different particle sizes and shapes were obtained. Flat geometrical shapes and spherical shapes were observed. We believe, that the method described in this work is potentially a straightforward and efficient way to fabricate gold contacts for microelectronics. © 2013 IEEE.

  8. Effects of hematite and ferrihydrite nanoparticles on germination and growth of maize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolaza Pariona

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Engineered iron oxide nanoparticles (IO-NPs have been used extensively for environmental remediation. It may cause the release IO-NPs to the environment affecting the functions of ecosystems. Plants are an important component of ecosystems and can be used for the evaluation of overall fate, transport and exposure pathways of IO-NPs in the environment. In this work, the effects of engineered ferrihydrite and hematite NPs on the germination and growth of maize are studied. The germination and growth of maize were done with treatments at different concentrations of hematite and ferrihydrite NPs, namely 1, 2, 4, and 6 g/L. Biological indicators of toxicity or stress in maize seedlings were not observed in treatments with engineered hematite and ferrihydrite NPs. In contrast, the NPs treatments increased the growth of maize and the chlorophyll content, except for hematite NPs at 6 g/L, where non-significant effects were found. The translocation of engineered ferrihydrite and hematite NPs in maize stems was demonstrated using confocal laser scanning microscopy.

  9. TECHNICAL REPORT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ADAMS, RICHARD D., PhD.

    2011-04-06

    Cadmium selenide nanoparticles and nanoclusters were prepared and added to polymer solar cells to improve their photon capture ability. These nanoparticles did exhibit some beneficial effects on the photon conversion efficiencies of selected polymer solar cells. Ternary bulk heterojunction systems based on composites of methyl viologen-doped, CdSe nanoparticles blended with poly (3-hexothiopene) (P3HT) and 6, 6-phenyl C{sub 61}-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) were also tested. It was found that the devices with methyl viologen-doped CdSe nanoparticles do produce more photocurrent in a region surrounding the absorption peak of the particles (560 to 660nm) when compared to pristine P3HT:PCBM devices. Gold nanorods were also prepared and tested in some solar cells. These nanorods did produce a very small enhancement in photon absorbance, but the observed increase the photon conversion efficiency was not sufficient to make the effort worthwhile. Our goals were (1) to prepare cadmium sulfide and cadmium selenide clusters and nanoparticles to be tested as photon absorbers to enhance the photon conversion efficiency of polymer solar polymer solar cells and (2) to prepare gold and silver nanorods to be added to polymer solar cells to enhance their photon capture capability. The cadmium sulfide and cadmium selenide nanoparticles and some new nanoclusters were prepared. The cadmium selenide nanoparticles were also tested in solar cells and did exhibit some positive effects when they were combined with certain co-absorbing polymers. Due to solubility problems that were not solved in the available time, the new nanoclusters were not tested in solar cells. Ternary bulk heterojunction systems based on composites of methyl viologen doped, CdSe nanoparticles blended with poly (3-hexothiopene) (P3HT) and 6, 6-phenyl C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) have been examined in detail. The methyl viologen was added to promote charge separation of the initially formed excitons. It was

  10. Biosynthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles using leaf extract of Calotropis gigantea: characterization and its evaluation on tree seedling growth in nursery stage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhuri, Sadhan Kumar; Malodia, Lalit

    2017-11-01

    Green synthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles was carried out using Calotropis leaf extract with zinc acetate salt in the presence of 2 M NaOH. The combination of 200 mM zinc acetate salt and 15 ml of leaf extract was ideal for the synthesis of less than 20 nm size of highly monodisperse crystalline nanoparticles. Synthesized nanoparticles were characterized through UV-Vis spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering (DLS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), EDX (energy dispersive X-ray), and AFM (atomic force microscopy). Effects of biogenic zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles on growth and development of tree seedlings in nursery stage were studied in open-air trenches. The UV-Vis absorption maxima showed peak near 350 nm, which is characteristic of ZnO nanoparticles. DLS data showed that single peak is at 11 nm (100%) and Polydispersity Index is 0.245. XRD analysis showed that these are highly crystalline ZnO nanoparticles having an average size of 10 nm. FTIR spectra were recorded to identify the biomolecules involved in the synthesis process, which showed absorption bands at 4307, 3390, 2825, 871, 439, and 420 cm-1. SEM images showed that the particles were spherical in nature. The presence of zinc and oxygen was confirmed by EDX and the atomic % of zinc and oxygen were 33.31 and 68.69, respectively. 2D and 3D images of ZnO nanoparticles were obtained by AFM studies, which indicated that these are monodisperse having size ranges between 1.5 and 8.5 nm. Significant enhancement of growth was observed in Neem ( Azadirachta indica), Karanj ( Pongamia pinnata), and Milkwood-pine ( Alstonia scholaris) seedlings in foliar spraying ZnO nanoparticles to nursery stage of tree seedlings. Out of the three treated saplings, Alstonia scholaris showed maximum height development.

  11. A Comparative Study Between the Antibacterial Effect of Nisin and Nisin-Loaded Chitosan/Alginate Nanoparticles on the Growth of Staphylococcus aureus in Raw and Pasteurized Milk Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zohri, Maryam; Alavidjeh, Mohammad Shafiee; Haririan, Ismaeil; Ardestani, Mehdi Shafiee; Ebrahimi, Seyed Esmaeil Sadat; Sani, Hadi Tarighati; Sadjadi, Seyed Kazem

    2010-12-01

    that of free nisin (2 mg/mL). Evaluation of the kinetic of the growth of S. aureus based on the total counts in the raw and pasteurized milks revealed that the nisin-loaded nanoparticles were able to inhibit more effectively the growth of S. aureus than free nisin during longer incubation periods. In other words, the decrease in the population of S. aureus for free nisin and the nisin-loaded nanoparticles in pasteurized milk was the same after 24 h of incubation while lessening in the growth of S. aureus was more marked for the nisin-loaded nanoparticles than the samples containing only free nisin after 48 h of incubation. Although the same growth reduction profile in S. aureus was noticed for free nisin and the nisin-loaded nanoparticles in the raw milk up to 14 h of incubation, after this time the nisin-loaded nanoparticles showed higher growth inhibition than free nisin. Since, generally, naked nisin has greater interactions with the ingredients present in milk samples in comparison with the protected nisin. Therefore, it is concluded that the antibacterial activity of nisin naturally decreases more during longer times of incubation than the protected nisin with the chitosan/alginate nanoparticles. Consequently, this protection increases and keeps antibacterial efficiency of nisin in comparison with free nisin during longer times of storage. These results can pave the way for further research and use of these nanoparticles as new antimicrobial agents in various realms of dairy products.

  12. Photoinduced transformations of optical properties of CdSe and Ag-In-S nanocrystals embedded in the films of polyvinyl alcohol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetyana Kryshtab

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The results of investigation of photostability of the composites of CdSe and Ag-In-S nanocrystals (NCs embedded in the films of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA are presented. The films were studied by photoluminescence (PL, optical absorption, micro-Raman and X-ray diffraction methods. It is found that heating of the films to 100 °C promotes PVA crystallization and stimulates an increase of the PL intensity for the NCs of both types. The latter effect is ascribed mainly to the improvement of NC surface passivation by functional groups of PVA. The illumination with the 409-nm LED’s light enhances PL intensity for CdSe NCs and decreases it for Ag-In-S NCs as well as results in the darkening of the films. The color of the Ag-In-S-PVA film restores with time, while the change of the optical properties of the CdSe-PVA composite is irreversible. The possible mechanisms of the revealed effects, such as structural transformations at NC/PVA interface as well as the formation of new light-absorbing species are discussed.

  13. Radiative Properties of Carriers in Cdse-Cds Core-Shell Heterostructured Nanocrystals of Various Geometries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, S.; Dong, L.; Popov, S.; Friberg, A. T.

    2013-07-01

    We report a model on core-shell heterostructured nanocrystals with CdSe as the core and CdS as the shell. The model is based on one-band Schrödinger equation. Three different geometries, nanodot, nanorod, and nanobone, are implemented. The carrier localization regimes with these structures are simulated, compared, and analyzed. Based on the electron and hole wave functions, the carrier overlap integral that has a great impact on stimulated emission is further investigated numerically by a novel approach. Furthermore, the relation between the nanocrystal size and electron-hole recombination energy is also examined.

  14. Growth factor choice is critical for successful functionalization of nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josephine ePinkernelle

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Nanoparticles (NPs show new characteristics compared to the corresponding bulk material. These nanoscale properties make them interesting for various applications in biomedicine and life sciences. One field of application is the use of magnetic NPs to support regeneration in the nervous system. Drug delivery requires a functionalization of NPs with bio-functional molecules. In our study, we functionalized self-made PEI-coated iron oxide NPs with nerve growth factor (NGF and glial cell-line derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF. Next, we tested the bio-functionality of NGF in a rat pheochromocytoma cell line (PC12 and the bio-functionality of GDNF in an organotypic spinal cord culture. Covalent binding of NGF to PEI-NPs impaired bio-functionality of NGF, but non-covalent approach differentiated PC12 cells reliably. Non-covalent binding of GDNF showed a satisfying bio-functionality of GDNF:PEI-NPs, but turned out to be instable in conjugation to the PEI-NPs. Taken together, our study showed the importance of assessing bio-functionality and binding stability of functionalized growth factors using proper biological models. It also shows that successful functionalization of magnetic NPs with growth factors is dependent on the used binding chemistry and that it is hardly predictable. For use as therapeutics, functionalization strategies have to be reproducible and future studies are needed.

  15. Round-shape gold nanoparticles: effect of particle size and concentration on Arabidopsis thaliana root growth

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Siegel, J.; Záruba, K.; Švorčík, V.; Kroumanová, Kristýna; Burketová, Lenka; Martinec, Jan

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 13, APR 10 (2018), č. článku 95. ISSN 1556-276X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA17-10907S; GA ČR(CZ) GBP108/12/G108 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : Arabidopsis thaliana * Concentration * Gold nanoparticles * Root growth * Size Subject RIV: JJ - Other Materials OBOR OECD: Plant sciences, botany Impact factor: 2.833, year: 2016

  16. Do SiO 2 and carbon-doped SiO 2 nanoparticles melt? Insights from QM/MD simulations and ramifications regarding carbon nanotube growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Alister J.; Chandrakumar, K. R. S.; Irle, Stephan; Morokuma, Keiji

    2011-05-01

    Quantum chemical molecular dynamics (QM/MD) simulations of pristine and carbon-doped SiO 2 nanoparticles have been performed between 1000 and 3000 K. At temperatures above 1600 K, pristine nanoparticle SiO 2 decomposes rapidly, primarily forming SiO. Similarly, carbon-doped nanoparticle SiO 2 decomposes at temperatures above 2000 K, primarily forming SiO and CO. Analysis of the physical states of these pristine and carbon-doped SiO 2 nanoparticles indicate that they remain in the solid phase throughout decomposition. This process is therefore one of sublimation, as the liquid phase is never entered. Ramifications of these observations with respect to presently debated mechanisms of carbon nanotube growth on SiO 2 nanoparticles will be discussed.

  17. The role of catalytic nanoparticle pretreatment on the growth of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes by hot-filament chemical vapor deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ki-Hwan; Gohier, Aurélien; Bourée, Jean Eric; Châtelet, Marc; Cojocaru, Costel-Sorin, E-mail: costel-sorin.cojocaru@polytechnique.edu

    2015-01-30

    The effect of atomic hydrogen assisted pre-treatment on the growth of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes using hot-filament chemical vapor deposition was investigated. Iron nanoparticle catalysts were formed on an aluminum oxide support layer by spraying of iron chloride salt solutions as catalyst precursor. It is found that pre-treatment time and process temperature tune the density as well as the shape and the structure of the grown carbon nanotubes. An optimum pre-treatment time can be found for the growth of long and well aligned carbon nanotubes, densely packed to each other. To provide insight on this behavior, the iron catalytic nanoparticles formed after the atomic hydrogen assisted pre-treatment were analyzed by atomic force microscopy. The relations between the size and the density of the as-formed catalyst and the as-grown carbon nanotube's structure and density are discussed. - Highlights: • Effect of the atomic hydrogen assisted pre-treatment on the growth of VACNT using hot-filament CVD. • Pre-treatment time and process temperature tune the density, the shape and the structure of the CNTs. • Correlations between size and density of the as-formed catalyst and the CNT’s structure and density. • Carbon nanotubes synthesized at low temperature down to 500 °C using spayed iron chloride salts. • Density of the CNT carpet adjusted by catalytic nanoparticle engineering.

  18. Molecular beam epitaxial growth of oriented and uniform Ge{sub 2}Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 5} nanoparticles with compact dimensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Beining; Sun, Yu; Wu, Jie; Yuan, Long; Wu, Xiaofeng; Huang, Keke; Feng, Shouhua, E-mail: shfeng@jlu.edu.cn [Jilin University, State Key Laboratory of Inorganic Synthesis and Preparative Chemistry, College of Chemistry (China)

    2017-02-15

    The scaling-down of phase change memory cell is critical to achieve high-performance and high-density memory devices. Herein, we report that Ge{sub 2}Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 5} nanoparticles along the [1 1 1] direction were synthesized without templates or etching in a molecular beam epitaxy system. Under non-stoichiometric Ge:Sb:Te beam ratio condition, the growth of high-density Ge{sub 2}Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 5} nanoparticles was achieved by Zn-doping. The average diameter of the nanoparticles is 8 nm, and the full width at half maximum of the size distribution is 2.7 nm. Our results suggest that the size and shape modifications of Ge{sub 2}Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 5} nanoparticles could be induced by Zn-doping which influences the nucleation in the growth process. In addition, the bonding states of Zn and Te verified by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy proved that Zn atoms located in the Ge{sub 2}Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 5} matrix. This approach exemplified here can be applied to the sub-20 nm phase change memory devices and may also be extendable to be served in the design and development of more materials with phase transitions.

  19. In situ growth of Ag nanoparticles on α-Ag2WO4 under electron irradiation: probing the physical principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    San-Miguel, Miguel A.; da Silva, Edison Z.; Zannetti, Sonia M.; Cilense, Mario; Fabbro, Maria T.; Gracia, Lourdes; Andrés, Juan; Longo, Elson

    2016-06-01

    Exploiting the plasmonic behavior of Ag nanoparticles grown on α-Ag2WO4 is a widely employed strategy to produce efficient photocatalysts, ozone sensors, and bactericides. However, a description of the atomic and electronic structure of the semiconductor sites irradiated by electrons is still not available. Such a description is of great importance to understand the mechanisms underlying these physical processes and to improve the design of silver nanoparticles to enhance their activities. Motivated by this, we studied the growth of silver nanoparticles to investigate this novel class of phenomena using both transmission electron microscopy and field emission scanning electron microscopy. A theoretical framework based on density functional theory calculations (DFT), together with experimental analysis and measurements, were developed to examine the changes in the local geometrical and electronic structure of the materials. The physical principles for the formation of Ag nanoparticles on α-Ag2WO4 by electron beam irradiation are described. Quantum mechanical calculations based on DFT show that the (001) of α-Ag2WO4 displays Ag atoms with different coordination numbers. Some of them are able to diffuse out of the surface with a very low energy barrier (less than 0.1 eV), thus, initiating the growth of metallic Ag nanostructures and leaving Ag vacancies in the bulk material. These processes increase the structural disorder of α-Ag2WO4 as well as its electrical resistance as observed in the experimental measurements.

  20. Selective growth of gold onto copper indium sulfide selenide nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Witt, Elena; Parisi, Juergen; Kolny-Olesiak, Joanna [Oldenburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Physics, Energy and Semiconductor Research

    2013-05-15

    Hybrid nanostructures are interesting materials for numerous applications in chemistry, physics, and biology, due to their novel properties and multiple functionalities. Here, we present a synthesis of metal-semiconductor hybrid nanostructures composed of nontoxic I-III-VI semiconductor nanoparticles and gold. Copper indium sulfide selenide (CuInSSe) nanocrystals with zinc blende structure and trigonal pyramidal shape, capped with dodecanethiol, serve as an original semiconductor part of a new hybrid nanostructure. Metallic gold nanocrystals selectively grow onto vertexes of these CuInSSe pyramids. The hybrid nanostructures were studied by transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray analysis, X-ray diffraction, and UV-Vis-absorption spectroscopy, which allowed us conclusions about their growth mechanism. Hybrid nanocrystals are generated by replacement of a sacrificial domain in the CuInSSe part. At the same time, small selenium nanocrystals form that stay attached to the remaining CuInSSe/Au particles. Additionally, we compare the synthesis and properties of CuInSSe-based hybrid nanostructures with those of copper indium disulfide (CuInS{sub 2}). CuInS{sub 2}/Au nanostructures grow by a different mechanism (surface growth) and do not show any selectivity. (orig.)

  1. Chitosan-coated doxorubicin nano-particles drug delivery system inhibits cell growth of liver cancer via p53/PRC1 pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Bai-Liang; Zheng, Ru; Ruan, Xiao-Jiao; Zheng, Zhi-Hai; Cai, Hua-Jie

    2018-01-01

    Nano-particles have been widely used in target-specific drug delivery system and showed advantages in cancers treatment. This study aims to evaluate the effect of chitosan coated doxorubicin nano-particles drug delivery system in liver cancer. The chitosan nano-particles were prepared by using the ionic gelation method. The characterizations of the nano-particles were determined by transmission electron microscopy. The cytotoxicity was detected by MTT assay, and the endocytosis, cell apoptosis and cell cycle were examined by flow cytometry. The protein level was analyzed with western blot. The dual luciferase reporter assay was performed to assess the interaction between p53 and the promoter of PRC1, and chromatin immune-precipitation was used to verify the binding between them. The FA-CS-DOX nano-particles were irregular and spherical particles around 30-40 nm, with uniform size and no adhesion. No significant difference was noted in doxorubicin release rate between CS-DOX and FA-CS-DOX. FA-CS-DOX nano-particles showed stronger cytotoxicity than CS-DOX. FA-CS-DOX nano-particles promoted the apoptosis and arrested cell cycle at G2/M phase, and they up-regulated p53. FA-CS-DOX nano-particles inhibited cell survival through p53/PRC1 pathway. Chitosan-coated doxorubicin nano-particles drug delivery system inhibits cell growth of liver cancer by promoting apoptosis and arresting cell cycle at G2/M phase through p53/PRC1 pathway. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Influence of silver nanoparticles on growth and health of broiler chickens after infection with Campylobacter jejuni

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vadalasetty, Krishna Prasad; Lauridsen, Charlotte; Engberg, Ricarda Margarete

    2018-01-01

    Background Silver nanoparticles (AgNP) have gained much attention in recent years due to their biomedical applications, especially as antimicrobial agents. AgNP may be used in poultry production as an alternative to the use of antibiotic growth promoter. However, little is known about the impact...

  3. Nanoparticles of nickel oxide: growth and organization on zinc-substituted anionic clay matrix by one-pot route at room temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carja, Gabriela; Nakajima, Akira; Dranca, Cristian; Okada, Kiyoshi

    2010-01-01

    A room temperature nanocarving strategy is developed for the fabrication of nanoparticles of nickel oxide on zinc-substituted anionic clay matrix (Ni/ZnLDH). It is based on the growth and organization of nanoparticles of nickel oxide which occur during the structural reconstruction of the layered structure of the anionic clay in NiSO 4 aqueous solution. No organic compounds are used during the fabrication. The described material was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), IR spectroscopy (FTIR), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Results show that the nickel-clay nanoarchitecture consists of small nanoparticles of nickel oxide (average size 7 nm) deposited on the larger nanoparticles (average size 90 nm) of zinc-substituted clay. The optical properties of the new nickel-zinc formulation are studied by UV-Vis.

  4. Nanoparticles of nickel oxide: growth and organization on zinc-substituted anionic clay matrix by one-pot route at room temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carja, Gabriela; Nakajima, Akira; Dranca, Cristian; Okada, Kiyoshi

    2010-10-01

    A room temperature nanocarving strategy is developed for the fabrication of nanoparticles of nickel oxide on zinc-substituted anionic clay matrix (Ni/ZnLDH). It is based on the growth and organization of nanoparticles of nickel oxide which occur during the structural reconstruction of the layered structure of the anionic clay in NiSO4 aqueous solution. No organic compounds are used during the fabrication. The described material was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), IR spectroscopy (FTIR), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Results show that the nickel-clay nanoarchitecture consists of small nanoparticles of nickel oxide (average size 7 nm) deposited on the larger nanoparticles (average size 90 nm) of zinc-substituted clay. The optical properties of the new nickel-zinc formulation are studied by UV-Vis.

  5. Precipitation and growth of zinc sulfide nanoparticles in the presence of thiol-containing natural organic ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Boris L T; Hsu-Kim, Heileen

    2008-10-01

    In sulfidic aquatic systems, metal sulfides can control the mobility and bioavailability of trace metal pollutants such as zinc, mercury, and silver. Nanoparticles of ZnS and other metal sulfides are known to exist in oxic and anoxic waters. However, the processes that lead to their persistence in the aquatic environment are relatively unknown. The objective of this study was to evaluate the importance of dissolved natural organics in stabilizing nanoparticulate ZnS that precipitates under environmentally relevant conditions. Precipitation and growth of ZnS particles were investigated in the presence of dissolved humic acid and low-molecular weight organic acids that are prevalent in sediment porewater. Dynamic light scattering was used to monitor the hydrodynamic diameter of particles precipitating in laboratory solutions. Zn speciation was also measured by filtering the ZnS solutions (precipitation experiments and not to the dissolved organic ligands. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and electron microscopy were used to confirm that amorphous particles containing Zn and S were precipitating in the suspensions. Observed growth rates of ZnS particles varied by orders of magnitude, depending on the type and concentration of organic ligand in solution. In the presence of humic acid and thiol-containing ligands (cysteine, glutathione, and thioglycolate), observed growth rates decreased by 1-3 orders of magnitude relative to controls without the ligands. In contrast, growth rates of the particles were consistently within 1 order of magnitude of the ligand-free control when oxygen- and amine-containing ligands (oxalate, serine, and glycolate) were present Furthermore, particle growth rates decreased with an increase in thiol concentration and increased with NaNO3 electrolyte concentration. These studies suggest that specific surface interactions with thiol-containing organics may be one factor that contributes to the persistence of naturally occurring and anthropogenic

  6. Influence of calcium phosphate nanoparticles, Piriformospora indica and Glomus mosseae on growth of Zea mays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rane, Mansi; Bawskar, Manisha; Rathod, Dnyaneshwar; Nagaonkar, Dipali; Rai, Mahendra

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (G. mosseae) and endosymbiont (P. indica) colonized Zea mays were treated with calcium phosphate nanoparticles (CaPNPs) and evaluated for their plant growth promotion efficiency. It was observed that CaPNPs in combination with both G. mosseae and P. indica are more potent plant growth promoter than independent combinations of CaPNPs + G. mosseae, CaPNPs + P. indica or CaPNPs alone. The fluorimetric studies of treated plants revealed that CaPNPs alone and in combination with P. indica can enhance vitality of Zea mays by improving chlorophyll a content and performance index of treated plants. Hence, we conclude that CaPNPs exhibit synergistic growth promotion, root proliferation and vitality improvement properties along with endosymbiotic and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, which after further field trials can be developed as a cost-effective nanofertilizer with pronounced efficiency. (paper)

  7. Tuning and synthesis of semiconductor nanostructures by mechanical compression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan, Hongyou; Li, Binsong

    2015-11-17

    A mechanical compression method can be used to tune semiconductor nanoparticle lattice structure and synthesize new semiconductor nanostructures including nanorods, nanowires, nanosheets, and other three-dimensional interconnected structures. II-VI or IV-VI compound semiconductor nanoparticle assemblies can be used as starting materials, including CdSe, CdTe, ZnSe, ZnS, PbSe, and PbS.

  8. Synthesis and characterization of Gd-doped magnetite nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Honghu; Malik, Vikash; Mallapragada, Surya; Akinc, Mufit

    2017-01-01

    Synthesis of magnetite nanoparticles has attracted increasing interest due to their importance in biomedical and technological applications. Tunable magnetic properties of magnetite nanoparticles to meet specific requirements will greatly expand the spectrum of applications. Tremendous efforts have been devoted to studying and controlling the size, shape and magnetic properties of magnetite nanoparticles. Here we investigate gadolinium (Gd) doping to influence the growth process as well as magnetic properties of magnetite nanocrystals via a simple co-precipitation method under mild conditions in aqueous media. Gd doping was found to affect the growth process leading to synthesis of controllable particle sizes under the conditions tested (0–10 at% Gd"3"+). Typically, undoped and 5 at% Gd-doped magnetite nanoparticles were found to have crystal sizes of about 18 and 44 nm, respectively, supported by X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. Our results showed that Gd-doped nanoparticles retained the magnetite crystal structure, with Gd"3"+ randomly incorporated in the crystal lattice, probably in the octahedral sites. The composition of 5 at% Gd-doped magnetite was Fe_(_3_−_x_)Gd_xO_4 (x=0.085±0.002), as determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. 5 at% Gd-doped nanoparticles exhibited ferrimagnetic properties with small coercivity (~65 Oe) and slightly decreased magnetization at 260 K in contrast to the undoped, superparamagnetic magnetite nanoparticles. Templation by the bacterial biomineralization protein Mms6 did not appear to affect the growth of the Gd-doped magnetite particles synthesized by this method. - Highlights: • Gd-doped magnetite nanoparticles are synthesized via aqueous co-precipitation method under mild conditions. • Gd doping affects growth of magnetite nanoparticles leading to tunable particle size. • Gd-doped magnetite nanoparticles exhibit ferrimagnetic properties.

  9. Comparison of anti-angiogenic properties of pristine carbon nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wierzbicki, Mateusz; Sawosz, Ewa; Grodzik, Marta

    2013-01-01

    nanomaterials on blood vessel development. Diamond nanoparticles, graphite nanoparticles, graphene nanosheets, multi-wall nanotubes and C60 fullerenes were evaluated for their angiogenic activities using the in ovo chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane model. Diamond nanoparticles and multi-wall nanotubes...... showed the greatest anti-angiogenic properties. Interestingly, fullerene exhibited the opposite effect, increasing blood vessel development, while graphite nanoparticles and graphene had no effect. Subsequently, protein levels of pro-angiogenic growth factor receptors were analysed, showing that diamond...... nanoparticles decreased the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor. These results provide new insights into the biological activity of carbon nanomaterials and emphasise the potential use of multi-wall nanotubes and diamond nanoparticles in anti-angiogenic tumour therapy....

  10. AUTHOR INDEX

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    711. Ansari K F. Synthesis and biological activity of some heterocyclic .... π–π stacking interactions: Hydrothermal syntheses ... Synthesis and characterization of CdS and CdSe nanoparticles prepared from novel intramolecularly stabilized ...

  11. Phase discrimination in CdSe structures by means of Raman scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cusco, R.; Artus, L.; Consonni, V.; Bellet-Amalric, E.; Andre, R.

    2017-01-01

    Raman spectra of epitaxial layers of CdSe grown by molecular beam epitaxy have been measured for the cubic (zincblende) and hexagonal (wurtzite) phases. The Raman spectra are examined in the light of density functional calculations for these two highly similar structures. Characteristic Raman frequencies and spectral features associated with the different symmetry are discussed and reliable criteria for phase discrimination based on Raman spectroscopy are proposed. Although LO frequencies are virtually identical in both structures and may be affected by size effects, the observation of a low energy E 2 mode at 33 cm -1 unambiguously identifies the wurtzite structure and can be used as a specific fingerprint to distinguish between these two phases in CdSe-based nanostructures. The slightly lower LO frequency measured in the zincblende epitaxial layer is ascribed to residual tensile strain. (copyright 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  12. Phase discrimination in CdSe structures by means of Raman scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cusco, R.; Artus, L. [Institut Jaume Almera (ICTJA-CSIC), Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Lluis Sole i Sabaris s.n., 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Consonni, V. [Universite Grenoble Alpes and CNRS, LMGP, 38016 Grenoble (France); Bellet-Amalric, E. [Universite Grenoble Alpes and CEA, INAC-PHEILQS, Nanophysique et Semiconducteurs Group, 38000 Grenoble (France); Andre, R. [Universite Grenoble Alpes and CNRS, Institut Neel, Nanophysique et Semiconducteurs Group, 38000 Grenoble (France)

    2017-05-15

    Raman spectra of epitaxial layers of CdSe grown by molecular beam epitaxy have been measured for the cubic (zincblende) and hexagonal (wurtzite) phases. The Raman spectra are examined in the light of density functional calculations for these two highly similar structures. Characteristic Raman frequencies and spectral features associated with the different symmetry are discussed and reliable criteria for phase discrimination based on Raman spectroscopy are proposed. Although LO frequencies are virtually identical in both structures and may be affected by size effects, the observation of a low energy E{sub 2} mode at 33 cm{sup -1} unambiguously identifies the wurtzite structure and can be used as a specific fingerprint to distinguish between these two phases in CdSe-based nanostructures. The slightly lower LO frequency measured in the zincblende epitaxial layer is ascribed to residual tensile strain. (copyright 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  13. Nonactivated titanium-dioxide nanoparticles promote the growth of Chlamydia trachomatis and decrease the antimicrobial activity of silver nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdanov, A; Janovák, L; Lantos, I; Endrész, V; Sebők, D; Szabó, T; Dékány, I; Deák, J; Rázga, Z; Burián, K; Virok, D P

    2017-11-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis and herpes simplex virus (HSV) are the most prevalent bacterial and viral sexually transmitted infections. Due to the chronic nature of their infections, they are able to interact with titanium-dioxide (TiO 2 ) nanoparticles (NPs) applied as food additives or drug delivery vehicles. The aim of this study was to describe the interactions of these two prevalent pathogens with the TiO 2 NPs. Chlamydia trachomatis and HSV-2 were treated with nonactivated TiO 2 NPs, silver NPs and silver decorated TiO 2 NPs before infection of HeLa and Vero cells. Their intracellular growth was monitored by quantitative PCR. Unexpectedly, the TiO 2 NPs (100 μg ml -1 ) increased the growth of C. trachomatis by approximately fourfold, while the HSV-2 replication was not affected. Addition of TiO 2 to silver NPs decreased their antimicrobial activity against C. trachomatis up to 27·92-fold. In summary, nonactivated TiO 2 NPs could increase the replication of C. trachomatis and decrease the antimicrobial activity of silver NPs. The food industry or drug delivery use of TiO 2 NPs could enhance the growth of certain intracellular pathogens and potentially worsen disease symptoms, a feature that should be further investigated. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  14. Effects of increasing number of rings on the ion sensing ability of CdSe quantum dots: a theoretical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Pragati; Kakkar, Rita

    2018-04-01

    A computational study on the structural and electronic properties of a special class of artificial atoms, known as quantum dots, has been carried out. These are semiconductors with unique optical and electronic properties and have been widely used in various applications, such as bio-sensing, bio-imaging, and so on. We have considered quantum dots belonging to II-VI types of semiconductors, due to their wide band gap, possession of large exciton binding energies and unique optical and electronic properties. We have studied their applications as chemical ion sensors by beginning with the study of the ion sensing ability of (CdSe) n ( n = 3, 6, 9 which are in the size range of 0.24, 0.49, 0.74 nm, respectively) quantum dots for cations of the zinc triad, namely Zn2+, Cd2+, Hg2+, and various anions of biological and environmental importance, and studied the effect of increasing number of rings on their ion sensing ability. The various structural, electronic, and optical properties, their interaction energies, and charge transfer on interaction with metal ions and anions have been calculated and reported. Our studies indicate that the CdSe quantum dots can be employed as sensors for both divalent cations and anions, but they can sense cations better than anions.

  15. Growth mechanism and magnetism in carbothermal synthesized Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles from solution combustion precursors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xuanli [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing, 100083 China (China); Qin, Mingli, E-mail: qinml@mater.ustb.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing, 100083 China (China); Cao, Zhiqin [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing, 100083 China (China); School of Materials Science and Engineering, Pan Zhihua University, Pan Zhihua, 617000 China (China); Jia, Baorui; Gu, Yueru; Qu, Xuanhui [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing, 100083 China (China); Volinsky, Alex A. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of South Florida, Tampa, 33620 (United States)

    2016-12-15

    Magnetic Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles were prepared by carbothermal reduction using solution combustion synthesis precursors derived from ferric nitrate (oxidizer), glycine (fuel) and glucose (carbon source) mixed solution. In this paper, the growth mechanism and magnetism in Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles were investigated by adjusting the glucose content in precursor and the heat temperature in carbothermal process. The products were analyzed by X-ray diffraction, Field emission scanning electron microscopy, Infrared adsorption method and Vibrating sample magnetometry. The results revealed that the more amount of glucose, the earlier Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} phase generated as temperature increasing. Depending on glucose content and thermal temperature, the average grain size of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles varied from 19.9 nm to 48 nm and saturation magnetization changed from 21.2 emu/g to 71.77 emu/g, which indicated that the saturation magnetization of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles fell off as the average grain size decreasing. These results were crucial not only from the application stand-point, but more importantly leaded to a new platform for further studies of high quality magnetic Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} particles at nanoscale. - Highlights: • Solution combustion. • Carbothermal. • Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles. • Magnetic properties.

  16. Optical properties and the use of CdSe quantum dot for biolabeling applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tran Hong Nhung; Nguyen Thi Van; Vu Xuan Hoa; Pham Minh Tan; Tong Kim Thuan; Tran Thi Thu Thuy; Jean Claude Brochon; Patrick Tauc

    2008-01-01

    The quantum dots CdSe type Qtracker 565 and 605 of Quantum Dot Company have been investigated by size, chemical structure and optical properties. The Qtracker 605 QDs were introduced into Lipomyces Starkeyi yeast cells. It was found that for the young cells (36 h of culture), the labeling QDs are mainly located in vacuoles, and the emission remains narrow with the maximum is clearly around 605 nm. For age cells (96 h of culture), the labeling QDs are concentrated in the cell cytoplasm, the emission is broaden with the maximum shifted to 580 nm. The live cell image was still observed after two months of introduction. The Qtracker 605 QDs were also successfully introduced into mouse blood cancerous cells. (author)

  17. Controlled synthesis of PbS-Au nanostar-nanoparticle heterodimers and cap-like Au nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Nana; Li, Lianshan; Huang, Teng; Qi, Limin

    2010-11-01

    Uniform PbS-Au nanostar-nanoparticle heterodimers consisting of one Au nanoparticle grown on one horn of a well-defined six-horn PbS nanostar were prepared using the PbS nanostars as growth substrates for the selective deposition of Au nanoparticles. The size of the Au nanoparticles on the horns of the PbS nanostars could be readily adjusted by changing the PbS concentration for the deposition of Au nanoparticles. An optimum cetyltrimethylammonium bromide concentration and temperature were essential for the selective deposition of uniform Au nanoparticles on single horns of the PbS nanostars. Unusual PbS-Au nanoframe-nanoparticle heterodimers were obtained by etching the PbS-Au nanostar-nanoparticle heterodimers with oxalic acid while novel cap-like Au nanoparticles were obtained by etching with hydrochloric acid. The obtained heterodimeric nanostructures and cap-like nanoparticles are promising candidates for anisotropic nanoscale building blocks for the controllable assembly of useful, complex architectures.

  18. The Effect of Alumina and Magnesia Supported Germanium Nanoparticles on the Growth of Carbon Nanotubes in the Chemical Vapor Deposition Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghazaleh Allaedini

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of alumina and magnesia supported germanium (Ge nanoparticles on the synthesis of carbon nanotubes (CNTs using the chemical vapor deposition (CVD method in atmospheric pressure was investigated. The TEM micrographs confirmed the formation of carbon nanotubes, and the field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM analysis suggested a tip-growth mechanism for the grown carbon nanotubes. The X-ray diffraction (XRD pattern indicated a graphitic nature of the carbon nanotubes. The obtained CNTs using Ge nanoparticles supported by MgO resulted in a higher degree of graphitization than the CNTs obtained using Ge nanoparticles supported by Al2O3. Raman spectroscopy analysis of the CNTs confirmed the presence of radial breathing modes (RBM, which verified the formation of CNTs. High frequency Raman analysis demonstrated that the degree of graphitization of the synthesized CNTs using magnesia supported Ge nanoparticles is higher than that of the alumina supported Ge nanoparticles with the values of (ID/IG ratios equal to 0.45 and 0.73, respectively.

  19. Quantifying engineered nanomaterial toxicity: comparison of common cytotoxicity and gene expression measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald H. Atha

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background When evaluating the toxicity of engineered nanomaterials (ENMS it is important to use multiple bioassays based on different mechanisms of action. In this regard we evaluated the use of gene expression and common cytotoxicity measurements using as test materials, two selected nanoparticles with known differences in toxicity, 5 nm mercaptoundecanoic acid (MUA-capped InP and CdSe quantum dots (QDs. We tested the effects of these QDs at concentrations ranging from 0.5 to 160 µg/mL on cultured normal human bronchial epithelial (NHBE cells using four common cytotoxicity assays: the dichlorofluorescein assay for reactive oxygen species (ROS, the lactate dehydrogenase assay for membrane viability (LDH, the mitochondrial dehydrogenase assay for mitochondrial function, and the Comet assay for DNA strand breaks. Results The cytotoxicity assays showed similar trends when exposed to nanoparticles for 24 h at 80 µg/mL with a threefold increase in ROS with exposure to CdSe QDs compared to an insignificant change in ROS levels after exposure to InP QDs, a twofold increase in the LDH necrosis assay in NHBE cells with exposure to CdSe QDs compared to a 50% decrease for InP QDs, a 60% decrease in the mitochondrial function assay upon exposure to CdSe QDs compared to a minimal increase in the case of InP and significant DNA strand breaks after exposure to CdSe QDs compared to no significant DNA strand breaks with InP. High-throughput quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR data for cells exposed for 6 h at a concentration of 80 µg/mL were consistent with the cytotoxicity assays showing major differences in DNA damage, DNA repair and mitochondrial function gene regulatory responses to the CdSe and InP QDs. The BRCA2, CYP1A1, CYP1B1, CDK1, SFN and VEGFA genes were observed to be upregulated specifically from increased CdSe exposure and suggests their possible utility as biomarkers for toxicity. Conclusions This study can

  20. Formulating CdSe quantum dots for white light-emitting diodes with high color rendering index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Fei; Li, Wan-Nan; Fu, Shao-Yun; Xiao, Hong-Mei

    2015-01-01

    Generation of white light using CdSe quantum dots (QDs) alone presents exciting possibilities for solid state lighting technology. In this work, Cd(Ac) 2 ·2H 2 O and Na 2 SeSO 3 are used as precursors to synthesize CdSe-QDs with an average diameter ranging from 2.77 to 4.65 nm at the low temperature from 60 to 180 °C. Smaller CdSe-QDs with an average diameter of 2.29 nm are got by an oxidation etching process using H 2 O 2 as oxidant. The structural and optical properties of these QDs are investigated and proper formulation of CdSe QDs with various sizes is carefully designed to achieve white light with a high color rendering index (CRI). It is observed for the first time that the as-prepared white light-emitting diodes from single CdSe-QDs show the Commission Inernationale del’Eclairage coordinate (CIE) of (0.30,0.34) very close to that (0.33,0.33) of pure white light and a high CRI of 84. Owing to these advantages, the as-prepared white light-emitting diodes from a single compound are promising for lighting applications. - Highlights: • CdSe-quantum dots (QDs) with a continuously changing size from 2.31 to 4.74 nm are prepared. • The obtained CdSe-QDs emit lights with tunable colors in the whole visible range. • The obtained mixture sample generates white light with a high color rendering index of 84. • The sample yields white light with the CIE coordinate (0.30, 0.34) very close to that of pure white light

  1. Excitons in semiconducting quantum filaments of CdS and CdSe with dielectric barriers

    CERN Document Server

    Dneprovskij, V S; Shalygina, O A; Lyaskovskij, V L; Mulyarov, E A; Gavrilov, S A; Masumoto, I

    2002-01-01

    The peculiarities of the luminescence spectra obtained by different polarization and intensity of the pumping excitation and luminescence kinetics of the CdS and CdSe nanocrystals are explained by the exciton transitions in the semiconducting quantum threads with dielectric barriers. The exciton transition energies correspond to the calculated ones with an account of both their dimensional quantization and the effect of the excitons dielectric intensification. It is shown that the excitons transition energies do not change by the change in the quantum threads diameter within the wide range, while the increase in the one-dimensional forbidden zone width of quantum thread by the decrease in its diameter is compensated through the decrease in the excitons binding energy

  2. Phase- and shape-controlled hydrothermal synthesis of CdS nanoparticles, and oriented attachment growth of its hierarchical architectures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yali; Hu, Pengfei; Jia, Dianzeng

    2013-01-01

    Hydrothermal strategies were successfully used to control the phases and morphologies of CdS nanocrystals. In the absence of an external direction-controlling process, the hexagonal and cubic phase well-defined leaf- and flower-like CdS nanocrystals were controlled obtained via adjusting the reaction duration or the concentration of surfactant. Oriented attachment growth modes were suggested for the formation of CdS superstructures, which was clarified through the tracing of temporal evolution of CdS nanoparticles. The CdS superstructures were structured by primary building nanoparticles, and held excellent visible emission with a peak in the green regions. This strategy is very helpful for studying the phase and morphology controlled fabrication of sulfides nanocrystals.

  3. Introduction to nanotheranostics

    CERN Document Server

    Tamil Selvan, Subramanian

    2016-01-01

    This book offers readers an introduction to the current status of nanoparticles and other nanomaterials that have potential applications in theranostics. Above all, it highlights the diagnostic and therapeutic applications of metallic (e.g. Au, Ag), semiconducting quantum dots (e.g. CdSe, CdTe), magnetic (e.g. Fe3O4, FePt, Co), and multifunctional (combination of two or three) nanoparticles. .

  4. Z-Contrast STEM Imaging and EELS of CdSe Nanocrystals: Towards the Analysis of Individual Nanocrystal Surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erwin, M.; Kadavanich, A.V.; Kippeny, T.; Pennycook, S.J.; Rosenthal, S.J.

    1999-01-01

    We have applied Atomic Number Contract Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy (Z-Contrast STEM) and STEM/EELS (Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy) towards the study of colloidal CdSe semiconductor nanocrystals embedded in MEH-PPV polymer films. Unlike the case of conventional phase-contrast High Resolution TEM, Z-Contrast images are direct projections of the atomic structure. Hence they can be interpreted without the need for sophisticated image simulation and the image intensity is a direct measure of the thickness of a nanocrystal. Our thickness measurements are in agreement with the predicted faceted shape of these nanocrystals. Our unique 1.3A resolution STEM has successfully resolve3d the sublattice structure of these CdSe nanocrystals. In [010] projection (the polar axis in the image plane) we can distinguish Se atom columns from Cd columns. Consequently we can study the effects of lattice polarity on the nanocrystal morphology. Furthermore, since the STEM technique does not rely on diffraction, it is superbly suited to the study of non-periodic detail, such as the surface structure of the nanocrystals. EELS measurements on individual nanocrystals indicate a significant amount (equivalet to 0.5-1 surface monolayers) of oxygen on the nanocrystals, despite processing in an inert atmosphere. Spatially resolved measurements at 7A resolution suggest a surface oxide layer. However, the uncertainty in the measurement precludes definitive assignment at this time. The source of the oxygen is under investigation as well

  5. Use of Soybean Lecithin in Shape Controlled Synthesis of Gold Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayres, Benjamin Robert

    The work presented in this dissertation is a composite of experiments in the growth of gold nanoparticles with specific optical properties of interest. The goal is to synthesize these gold nanoparticles using soybean extract for not only shape control, but for propensity as a biocompatible delivery system. The optical properties of these nanoparticles has found great application in coloring glass during the Roman empire and, over the centuries, has grown into its own research field in applications of nanoparticulate materials. Many of the current functions include use in biological systems as biosensors and therapeutic applications, thus making biocompatibility a necessity. Current use of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide leads to rod-shaped gold nanoparticles, however, the stability of these gold nanoparticles does not endure for extended periods of time in aqueous media. In my research, two important components were found to be necessary for stable, anisotropic growth of gold nanoparticles. In the first experiments, it was found that bromide played a key role in shape control. Bromide exchange on the gold atoms led to specific packing of the growing crystals, allowing for two-dimensional growth of gold nanoparticles. It was also discerned that soybean lecithin contained ligands that blocked specific gold facets leading to prismatic gold nanoparticle growth. These gold nanoprisms give a near infrared plasmon absorption similar to that of rod-shaped gold nanoparticles. These gold nanoprisms are discovered to be extremely stable in aqueous media and remain soluble for extended periods of time, far longer than that of gold nanoparticles grown using cetyltrimethylammonium bromide. Since soy lecithin has a plethora of compounds present, it became necessary to discover which compound was responsible for the shape control of the gold nanoprisms in order to optimize the synthesis and allow for a maximum yield of the gold nanoprisms. Many of these components were identified

  6. Surface defect assisted broad spectra emission from CdSe quantum dots for white LED application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel, Boni; Mathew, S.; Anand, V. R.; Correya, Adrine Antony; Nampoori, V. P. N.; Mujeeb, A.

    2018-02-01

    This paper reports, broadband photoluminescence from CdSe quantum dots (QDs) under the excitation of 403 nm using fluorimeter and 403 nm CW laser excitation. The broad spectrum obtained from the colloidal quantum dots was ranges from 450 nm to 800 nm. The broadness of the spectra was attributed to the merging of band edge and defect driven emissions from the QDs. Six different sizes of particles were prepared via kinetic growth method by using CdO and elemental Se as sources of Cd and Se respectively. The particle sizes were measured from TEM images. The size dependent effect on broad emission was also studied and the defect state emission was found to be predominant in very small QDs. The defect driven emission was also observed to be redshifted, similar to the band edge emission, due to quantum confinement effect. The emission corresponding to different laser power was also studied and a linear relation was obtained. In order to study the colour characteristics of the emission, CIE chromaticity coordinate, CRI and CCT of the prepared samples were measured. It is observed that, these values were tunable by the addition of suitable intensity of blue light from the excitation source to yield white light of various colour temperatures. The broad photoluminescence spectrum of the QDs, were compared with that of a commercially available white LED. It was found that the prepared QDs are good alternatives for the phosphor in phosphor converted white LEDs, to provide good spectral tunability.

  7. Role of polymer matrix on photo-sensitivity of CdSe polymer nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Ramneek; Tripathi, S. K.

    2018-04-01

    This paper reports the effect of three different polymer matrices (PVP, PMMA and PVK) and Ag doping on the photo-sensitivity of CdSe polymer nanocomposites. The results reveal that the photoconductivity is high for linear chain polymer nanocomposites as compared to aromatic ones with decreasing trend as: CdSe-PMMA > CdSe-PVP > CdSe-PVK. The large substituents or branches along the polymer backbone hinder the stacking sequences in CdSe-PVK nanocomposites resulting in lowest photoconductivity. On contrary, CdSe-PVK nanocomposite exhibit highest photosensitivity. The reason behind it is the low value of dark conductivity in CdSe-PVK nanocomposite and photoconductive PVK matrix. With Ag doping, no considerable effect on the value of photosensitivity has been observed. The obtained results indicate that the photo-conducting properties of these polymer nanocomposites can be tuned by using different polymer matrices.

  8. Kinetics of cesium lead halide perovskite nanoparticle growth; focusing and de-focusing of size distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koolyk, Miriam; Amgar, Daniel; Aharon, Sigalit; Etgar, Lioz

    2016-03-01

    In this work we study the kinetics of cesium lead halide perovskite nanoparticle (NP) growth; the focusing and de-focusing of the NP size distribution. Cesium lead halide perovskite NPs are considered to be attractive materials for optoelectronic applications. Understanding the kinetics of the formation of these all-inorganic perovskite NPs is critical for reproducibly and reliably generating large amounts of uniformly sized NPs. Here we investigate different growth durations for CsPbI3 and CsPbBr3 NPs, tracking their growth by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and size distribution analysis. As a result, we are able to provide a detailed model for the kinetics of their growth. It was observed that the CsPbI3 NPs exhibit focusing of the size distribution in the first 20 seconds of growth, followed by de-focusing over longer growth durations, while the CsPbBr3 NPs show de-focusing of the size distribution starting from the beginning of the growth. The monomer concentration is depleted faster in the case of CsPbBr3 than in the case of CsPbI3, due to faster diffusion of the monomers, which increases the critical radius and results in de-focusing of the population. Accordingly, focusing is not observed within 40 seconds of growth in the case of CsPbBr3. This study provides important knowledge on how to achieve a narrow size distribution of cesium lead halide perovskite NPs when generating large amounts of these promising, highly luminescent NPs.In this work we study the kinetics of cesium lead halide perovskite nanoparticle (NP) growth; the focusing and de-focusing of the NP size distribution. Cesium lead halide perovskite NPs are considered to be attractive materials for optoelectronic applications. Understanding the kinetics of the formation of these all-inorganic perovskite NPs is critical for reproducibly and reliably generating large amounts of uniformly sized NPs. Here we investigate different growth durations for CsPbI3 and CsPbBr3 NPs, tracking

  9. Real time X-ray scattering study of the formation of ZnS nanoparticles using synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rath, T.; Novák, J.; Amenitsch, H.; Pein, A.; Maier, E.; Haas, W.; Hofer, F.; Trimmel, G.

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the growth of ZnS nanoparticles by a real-time simultaneous small and wide angle X-ray scattering (SAXS, WAXS) study using synchrotron radiation. Zinc chloride and elemental sulfur were dissolved in oleylamine. The formation of nanoparticles was induced by heating to 170 °C and 215 °C. The influence of temperature, reaction time, and sulfur concentration was investigated. After a short phase of rapid growth, saturation in size and a slower growth is observed depending on the temperature. The final size of the nanoparticles ranges between 2 and 6 nm for the investigated growth conditions and increases with the reaction temperature and sulfur concentration. SAXS analysis allows for determination of the size of the nanoparticles and proves also the existence of an organized layer of oleylamine molecules covering the nanoparticles' surfaces, which, however, appears only for diameters of the nanoparticles larger than approximately 2.8 nm. The investigation of the measured structure factor of the nanoparticle assemblies showed that the distance of an attractive interaction is 2.5 nm, which was interpreted as a consequence of the ordered oleylamine surface layer. - Highlights: • ZnS nanoparticle growth is investigated by real-time simultaneous SAXS and WAXS measurements. • Nanoparticle growth can be divided into two growth phases. • Higher reaction temperature or higher surplus of sulfur leads to larger nanoparticles. • Post-growth ex situ XRD and TEM measurements confirm results of the in situ study. • Nanoparticles are surrounded by a 2.6 nm thick ordered shell of oleylamine

  10. Synthesis of parallel and antiparallel core-shell triangular nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharjee, Gourab; Satpati, Biswarup

    2018-04-01

    Core-shell triangular nanoparticles were synthesized by seed mediated growth. Using triangular gold (Au) nanoparticle as template, we have grown silver (Ag) shellto get core-shell nanoparticle. Here by changing the chemistry we have grown two types of core-shell structures where core and shell is having same symmetry and also having opposite symmetry. Both core and core-shell nanoparticles were characterized using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) to know the crystal structure and composition of these synthesized core-shell nanoparticles. From diffraction pattern analysis and energy filtered TEM (EFTEM) we have confirmed the crystal facet in core is responsible for such two dimensional growth of core-shell nanostructures.

  11. Structure and Ultrafast Dynamics of White-Light-Emitting CdSe Nanocrystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowers, Michael J.; McBride, James; Garrett, Maria Danielle; Sammons, Jessica A.; Dukes, Albert; Schreuder, Michael A.; Watt, Tony L.; Lupini, Andrew R.; Pennycook, Stephen J.; Rosenthal, Sandra

    2009-01-01

    White-light emission from ultrasmall CdSe nanocrystals offers an alternative approach to the realization of solid-state lighting as an appealing technology for consumers. Unfortunately, their extremely small size limits the feasibility of traditional methods for nanocrystal characterization. This paper reports the first images of their structure, which were obtained using aberration-corrected atomic number contrast scanning transmission electron microscopy (Z-STEM). With subangstrom resolution, Z-STEM is one of the few available methods that can be used to directly image the nanocrystal's structure. The initial images suggest that they are crystalline and approximately four lattice planes in diameter. In addition to the structure, for the first time, the exciton dynamics were measured at different wavelengths of the white-light spectrum using ultrafast fluorescence upconversion spectroscopy. The data suggest that a myriad of trap states are responsible for the broad-spectrum emission. It is hoped that the information presented here will provide a foundation for the future development and improvement of white-light-emitting nanocrystals.

  12. Intelligent hydrophilic nanoparticles fabricated via alkaline hydrolysis of crosslinked polyacrylonitrile nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Y.; Wu, Q.; Zhang, H.; Zhao, J.

    2013-01-01

    Crosslinked polyacrylonitrile (PAN) nanolatex, with an average hydrodynamic diameter of 84 nm and a polydispersity index of 0.06, was successfully synthesized at a high monomer concentration and low surfactant content via a modified emulsion polymerization. Three measurements were adopted to control the nucleation and growth processes. Taking advantage of the chemical activity of nitrile groups, intelligent hydrophilic polymeric nanoparticles were fabricated via simple alkaline hydrolysis treatment of the crosslinked PAN nanolatex. Dynamic light scattering, electrophoretic light scattering, FT-IR spectroscopy, elemental analysis, and TEM observations were used to monitor the changes in the composition, structure, and morphology of the nanoparticles during the hydrolysis process. The sizes, chemical composition, morphology, and pH-responsive behavior of the intelligent hydrophilic nanoparticles could be adjusted by simply changing the hydrolysis time. As the hydrolysis was prolonged, the following nanoparticles could be obtained, crosslinked PAN nanoparticles with hydrophilic surfaces, amphiphilic nanoparticles with a hydrophobic PAN core and a hydrophilic polymeric shell composed of acrylamide and acrylic acid units, or carboxylic polyacrylamide nanoparticles. These modified nanoparticles all display good hydrophilicity, good biocompatibility, pH-sensitivity, as well as carboxyl functional groups, and thus are ideal candidates for various biomedical applications

  13. Intelligent hydrophilic nanoparticles fabricated via alkaline hydrolysis of crosslinked polyacrylonitrile nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Y., E-mail: zhyw@dhu.edu.cn; Wu, Q.; Zhang, H.; Zhao, J. [Donghua University, State Key Laboratory for Modification of Chemical Fibers and Polymer Materials, College of Material Science and Engineering, Chemical Fibers Research Institute (China)

    2013-07-15

    Crosslinked polyacrylonitrile (PAN) nanolatex, with an average hydrodynamic diameter of 84 nm and a polydispersity index of 0.06, was successfully synthesized at a high monomer concentration and low surfactant content via a modified emulsion polymerization. Three measurements were adopted to control the nucleation and growth processes. Taking advantage of the chemical activity of nitrile groups, intelligent hydrophilic polymeric nanoparticles were fabricated via simple alkaline hydrolysis treatment of the crosslinked PAN nanolatex. Dynamic light scattering, electrophoretic light scattering, FT-IR spectroscopy, elemental analysis, and TEM observations were used to monitor the changes in the composition, structure, and morphology of the nanoparticles during the hydrolysis process. The sizes, chemical composition, morphology, and pH-responsive behavior of the intelligent hydrophilic nanoparticles could be adjusted by simply changing the hydrolysis time. As the hydrolysis was prolonged, the following nanoparticles could be obtained, crosslinked PAN nanoparticles with hydrophilic surfaces, amphiphilic nanoparticles with a hydrophobic PAN core and a hydrophilic polymeric shell composed of acrylamide and acrylic acid units, or carboxylic polyacrylamide nanoparticles. These modified nanoparticles all display good hydrophilicity, good biocompatibility, pH-sensitivity, as well as carboxyl functional groups, and thus are ideal candidates for various biomedical applications.

  14. Direct observation of two-step crystallization in nanoparticle superlattice formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jungwon; Zheng, Haimei; Lee, Won Chul; Geissler, Phillip L.; Rabani, Eran; Alivisatos, A. Paul

    2011-10-06

    Direct imaging of nanoparticle solutions by liquid phase transmission electron microscopy has enabled unique in-situ studies of nanoparticle motion and growth. In the present work, we report on real-time formation of two-dimensional nanoparticle arrays in the very low diffusive limit, where nanoparticles are mainly driven by capillary forces and solvent fluctuations. We find that superlattice formation appears to be segregated into multiple regimes. Initially, the solvent front drags the nanoparticles, condensing them into an amorphous agglomerate. Subsequently, the nanoparticle crystallization into an array is driven by local fluctuations. Following the crystallization event, superlattice growth can also occur via the addition of individual nanoparticles drawn from outlying regions by different solvent fronts. The dragging mechanism is consistent with simulations based on a coarse-grained lattice gas model at the same limit.

  15. Growth, characterization and estimation of lattice strain and size in CdS nanoparticles: X-ray peak profile analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solanki, Rekha Garg; Rajaram, Poolla; Bajpai, P. K.

    2018-05-01

    This work is based on the growth, characterization and estimation of lattice strain and crystallite size in CdS nanoparticles by X-ray peak profile analysis. The CdS nanoparticles were synthesized by a non-aqueous solvothermal method and were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Raman and UV-visible spectroscopy. XRD confirms that the CdS nanoparticles have the hexagonal structure. The Williamson-Hall (W-H) method was used to study the X-ray peak profile analysis. The strain-size plot (SSP) was used to study the individual contributions of crystallite size and lattice strain from the X-rays peaks. The physical parameters such as strain, stress and energy density values were calculated using various models namely, isotropic strain model, anisotropic strain model and uniform deformation energy density model. The particle size was estimated from the TEM images to be in the range of 20-40 nm. The Raman spectrum shows the characteristic optical 1LO and 2LO vibrational modes of CdS. UV-visible absorption studies show that the band gap of the CdS nanoparticles is 2.48 eV. The results show that the crystallite size estimated from Scherrer's formula, W-H plots, SSP and the particle size calculated by TEM images are approximately similar.

  16. Bacterial Interactions with CdSe Quantum Dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, P.; Nadeau, J. L.; Kumar, A.; Clarke, S.; Priester, J. H.; Stucky, G. D.

    2007-12-01

    Cadmium selenide quantum dots (QDs) are semiconductor nanoparticles that are manufactured for biomedical imaging, photovoltaics, and other applications. While metallic nanoparticles can be made biotically by bacteria and fungi, and thus occur in nature, the fate of either natural or engineered QDs and relationships to nanoparticle size, conjugate and biotic conditions are mostly unknown. Working with several different bacterial strains and QDs of different sizes and conjugate chemistries, including QDs synthesized by a Fusarium fungal strain, we show that QDs can enter cells through specfic receptor-mediated processes, that QDs are broken down by bacteria during cell association, and that toxicity to cells is much like that imposed by Cd(II) ions. The mechanisms of entry and toxicity are not fully understood, but preliminary evidence suggests that electron transfer between cells and QDs occurs. Also, cell membranes are compromised, indicating oxidative stress is occurring. Results with planktonic and biofilm bacteria are similar, but differently, biofilms tend to accumulate Cd(II) associated with QD treatments.

  17. Polymeric nanoparticle-based delivery of microRNA-199a-3p inhibits proliferation and growth of osteosarcoma cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang L

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Linlin Zhang,1,2,* Arun K lyer,3,4,* Xiaoqian Yang,1 Eisuke Kobayashi,1 Yuqi Guo,1,2 Henry Mankin,1 Francis J Hornicek,1 Mansoor M Amiji,3 Zhenfeng Duan1 1Sarcoma Biology Laboratory, Center for Sarcoma and Connective Tissue Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, USA; 2Department of Pathology, The Third Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, People’s Republic of China; 3Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of Pharmacy, Northeastern University, Boston, Massachusetts, USA; 4Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Eugene Applebaum College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI, USA *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Our prior screening of microRNAs (miRs identified that miR-199a-3p expression is reduced in osteosarcoma cells, one of the most common types of bone tumor. miR-199a-3p exhibited functions of tumor cell growth inhibition, suggesting the potential application of miR-199a-3p as an anticancer agent. In the study reported here, we designed and developed a lipid-modified dextran-based polymeric nanoparticle platform for encapsulation of miRs, and determined the efficiency and efficacy of delivering miR-199a-3p into osteosarcoma cells. In addition, another potent miR, let-7a, which also displayed tumor suppressive ability, was selected as a candidate miR for evaluation. Fluorescence microscopy studies and real-time polymerase chain reaction results showed that dextran nanoparticles could deliver both miR-199a-3p and let-7a into osteosarcoma cell lines (KHOS and U-2OS successfully. Western blotting analysis and 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT assays demonstrated that dextran nanoparticles loaded with miRs could efficiently downregulate the expression of target proteins and effectively inhibit the growth and proliferation of osteosarcoma cells. These results demonstrate that a lipid-modified dextran

  18. Engineering of magnetic DNA nanoparticles for tumor-targeted therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosseinkhani, Hossein; Chen Yiru; He Wenjie; Hong Poda; Yu, Dah-Shyong; Domb, Abraham J.

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to engineer novel targeted delivery system composed of magnetic DNA nanoparticles to be effective as an efficient targeted gene therapy vehicle for tumor therapy. A polysaccharide, dextran, was chosen as the vector of plasmid DNA-encoded NK4 that acts as an HGF-antagonist and anti-angiogenic regulator for inhibitions of tumor growth, invasion, and metastasis. Spermine (Sm) was chemically introduced to the hydroxyl groups of dextran to obtain dextran-Sm. When Fe 2+ solution was added to the mixture of dextran-Sm and a plasmid DNA, homogenous DNA nanoparticles were formed via chemical metal coordination bonding with average size of 230 nm. Characterization of DNA nanoparticles was performed via dynamic light scattering measurement, electrophoretic light scattering measurement, as well as transmission electron microscope. DNA nanoparticles effectively condensed plasmid DNA into nanoparticles and enhanced the stability of DNA, while significantly improved transfection efficiency in vitro and tumor accumulation in vivo. In addition, magnetic DNA nanoparticles exhibited high efficiency in antitumor therapy with regards to tumor growth as well as survival of animals evaluated in the presence of external magnetic field. We conclude that the magnetic properties of these DNA nanoparticles would enhance the tracking of non-viral gene delivery systems when administrated in vivo in a test model. These findings suggest that DNA nanoparticles effectively deliver DNA to tumor and thereby inhibiting tumor growth.

  19. Engineering of magnetic DNA nanoparticles for tumor-targeted therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosseinkhani, Hossein, E-mail: hosseinkhani@yahoo.com [Graduate Institute of Biomedical Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology (Taiwan Tech) (China); Chen Yiru [National Yang-Ming University, Department of Biomedical Engineering (China); He Wenjie; Hong Poda [Graduate Institute of Biomedical Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology (Taiwan Tech) (China); Yu, Dah-Shyong [Nanomedicine Research Center, National Defense Medical Center (China); Domb, Abraham J. [Institute of Drug Research, The Center for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, School of Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Hebrew University of Jerusalem (Israel)

    2013-01-15

    This study aims to engineer novel targeted delivery system composed of magnetic DNA nanoparticles to be effective as an efficient targeted gene therapy vehicle for tumor therapy. A polysaccharide, dextran, was chosen as the vector of plasmid DNA-encoded NK4 that acts as an HGF-antagonist and anti-angiogenic regulator for inhibitions of tumor growth, invasion, and metastasis. Spermine (Sm) was chemically introduced to the hydroxyl groups of dextran to obtain dextran-Sm. When Fe{sup 2+} solution was added to the mixture of dextran-Sm and a plasmid DNA, homogenous DNA nanoparticles were formed via chemical metal coordination bonding with average size of 230 nm. Characterization of DNA nanoparticles was performed via dynamic light scattering measurement, electrophoretic light scattering measurement, as well as transmission electron microscope. DNA nanoparticles effectively condensed plasmid DNA into nanoparticles and enhanced the stability of DNA, while significantly improved transfection efficiency in vitro and tumor accumulation in vivo. In addition, magnetic DNA nanoparticles exhibited high efficiency in antitumor therapy with regards to tumor growth as well as survival of animals evaluated in the presence of external magnetic field. We conclude that the magnetic properties of these DNA nanoparticles would enhance the tracking of non-viral gene delivery systems when administrated in vivo in a test model. These findings suggest that DNA nanoparticles effectively deliver DNA to tumor and thereby inhibiting tumor growth.

  20. UV-Vis Ratiometric Resonance Synchronous Spectroscopy for Determination of Nanoparticle and Molecular Optical Cross Sections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nettles, Charles B; Zhou, Yadong; Zou, Shengli; Zhang, Dongmao

    2016-03-01

    Demonstrated herein is a UV-vis Ratiometric Resonance Synchronous Spectroscopic (R2S2, pronounced as "R-two-S-two" for simplicity) technique where the R2S2 spectrum is obtained by dividing the resonance synchronous spectrum of a NP-containing solution by the solvent resonance synchronous spectrum. Combined with conventional UV-vis measurements, this R2S2 method enables experimental quantification of the absolute optical cross sections for a wide range of molecular and nanoparticle (NP) materials that range optically from pure photon absorbers or scatterers to simultaneous photon absorbers and scatterers, simultaneous photon absorbers and emitters, and all the way to simultaneous photon absorbers, scatterers, and emitters in the UV-vis wavelength region. Example applications of this R2S2 method were demonstrated for quantifying the Rayleigh scattering cross sections of solvents including water and toluene, absorption and resonance light scattering cross sections for plasmonic gold nanoparticles, and absorption, scattering, and on-resonance fluorescence cross sections for semiconductor quantum dots (Qdots). On-resonance fluorescence quantum yields were quantified for the model molecular fluorophore Eosin Y and fluorescent Qdots CdSe and CdSe/ZnS. The insights and methodology presented in this work should be of broad significance in physical and biological science research that involves photon/matter interactions.

  1. Dislocation-induced nanoparticle decoration on a GaN nanowire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bing; Yuan, Fang; Liu, Qingyun; Huang, Nan; Qiu, Jianhang; Staedler, Thorsten; Liu, Baodan; Jiang, Xin

    2015-02-04

    GaN nanowires with homoepitaxial decorated GaN nanoparticles on their surface along the radial direction have been synthesized by means of a chemical vapor deposition method. The growth of GaN nanowires is catalyzed by Au particles via the vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) mechanism. Screw dislocations are generated along the radial direction of the nanowires under slight Zn doping. In contrast to the metal-catalyst-assisted VLS growth, GaN nanoparticles are found to prefer to nucleate and grow at these dislocation sites. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) analysis demonstrates that the GaN nanoparticles possess two types of epitaxial orientation with respect to the corresponding GaN nanowire: (I) [1̅21̅0]np//[1̅21̅0]nw, (0001)np//(0001)nw; (II) [1̅21̅3]np//[12̅10]nw, (101̅0)np//(101̅0)nw. An increased Ga signal in the energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) profile lines of the nanowires suggests GaN nanoparticle growth at the edge surface of the wires. All the crystallographic results confirm the importance of the dislocations with respect to the homoepitaxial growth of the GaN nanoparticles. Here, screw dislocations situated on the (0001) plane provide the self-step source to enable nucleation of the GaN nanoparticles.

  2. Research in Korea on Gas Phase Synthesis and Control of Nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Mansoo

    2001-01-01

    Research activity into the gas phase synthesis of nanoparticles has witnessed rapid growth on a worldwide basis, which is also reflected by Korean research efforts. Nanoparticle research is inherently a multi-disciplinary activity involving both science and engineering. In this paper, the recent studies undertaken in Korea on the gas phase synthesis and control of nanoparticles are reviewed. Studies on the synthesis of various kinds of nanoparticles are first discussed with a focus on the different types of reactors used. Recent experimental and theoretical studies and newly developed methods of measuring and modeling nanoparticle growth are also reviewed

  3. Poly(glycidyl methacrylate) grafted CdSe quantum dots by surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization: Novel synthesis, characterization, properties, and cytotoxicity studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bach, Long Giang; Islam, Md. Rafiqul [Department of Imaging System Engineering, Pukyong National University, Busan 608-737 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Doh Chang [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, KAIST Institute for the Nanocentury (KINC), Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Kwon Taek, E-mail: ktlim@pknu.ac.kr [Department of Imaging System Engineering, Pukyong National University, Busan 608-737 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    A novel approach for the synthesis of poly(glycidyl methacrylate) grafted CdSe quantum dot (QDs) (PGMA-g-CdSe) was developed. The PGMA-g-CdSe nanohybrids were synthesized by the surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization of glycidyl methacrylate from the surface of the strategic initiator, CdSe-BrIB QDs prepared by the interaction of 2-bromoisobutyryl bromide (BrIB) and CdSe-OH QDs. The structure, morphology, and optical property of the PGMA-g-CdSe nanohybrids were analyzed by FT-IR, XPS, TGA, XRD, TEM, and PL. The as-synthesized PGMA-g-CdSe nanohybrids having multi-epoxide groups were employed for the direct coupling of biotin via ring-opening reaction of the epoxide groups to afford the Biotin-f-PGMA-g-CdSe nanobioconjugate. The covalent immobilization of biotin onto PGMA-g-CdSe was confirmed by FT-IR, XPS, and EDX. Biocompatibility and imaging properties of the Biotin-f-PGMA-g-CdSe were investigated by MTT bioassay and PL analysis, respectively. The cell viability study suggested that the biocompatibility was significantly enhanced by the functionalization of CdSe QDs by biotin and PGMA.

  4. Poly(glycidyl methacrylate) grafted CdSe quantum dots by surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization: Novel synthesis, characterization, properties, and cytotoxicity studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bach, Long Giang; Islam, Md. Rafiqul; Lee, Doh Chang; Lim, Kwon Taek

    2013-01-01

    A novel approach for the synthesis of poly(glycidyl methacrylate) grafted CdSe quantum dot (QDs) (PGMA-g-CdSe) was developed. The PGMA-g-CdSe nanohybrids were synthesized by the surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization of glycidyl methacrylate from the surface of the strategic initiator, CdSe-BrIB QDs prepared by the interaction of 2-bromoisobutyryl bromide (BrIB) and CdSe-OH QDs. The structure, morphology, and optical property of the PGMA-g-CdSe nanohybrids were analyzed by FT-IR, XPS, TGA, XRD, TEM, and PL. The as-synthesized PGMA-g-CdSe nanohybrids having multi-epoxide groups were employed for the direct coupling of biotin via ring-opening reaction of the epoxide groups to afford the Biotin-f-PGMA-g-CdSe nanobioconjugate. The covalent immobilization of biotin onto PGMA-g-CdSe was confirmed by FT-IR, XPS, and EDX. Biocompatibility and imaging properties of the Biotin-f-PGMA-g-CdSe were investigated by MTT bioas