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Sample records for grown mature sweet

  1. Maturation curves of sweet sorghum genotypes

    Renan Silva e Souza

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Sweet sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench] stands out as a complementary crop to sugarcane Saccharum spp. for the production of ethanol, since it has juicy stems with directly fermentable sugars. Due to this fact, there is a need for the analysis of sweet sorghum properties in order to meet the agro-industry demand. This work aimed to develop and study the maturation curves of seven sweet sorghum cultivars in ten harvest dates. The results showed a significant difference between cultivars and harvest dates for all parameters analysed (p≤0.01. Regarding the sugar content, the cultivars BRS508, XBWS80147 and CMSX629 showed the highest means for the total reducing sugars (TRS and recoverable sugar (RS. In the production of ethanol per tonne of biomass (EP, the cultivars BRS508 and CMSX629 presented the best results.

  2. 78 FR 21520 - Sweet Cherries Grown in Designated Counties in Washington; Decreased Assessment Rate

    2013-04-11

    ...; FV12-923-1 FIR] Sweet Cherries Grown in Designated Counties in Washington; Decreased Assessment Rate... 2012-2013 and subsequent fiscal periods from $0.40 to $0.18 per ton of sweet cherries handled. The Committee locally administers the marketing order for sweet cherries grown in designated counties in...

  3. 78 FR 76031 - Sweet Cherries Grown in Designated Counties in Washington; Decreased Assessment Rate

    2013-12-16

    ... FIR] Sweet Cherries Grown in Designated Counties in Washington; Decreased Assessment Rate AGENCY... subsequent fiscal periods from $0.18 to $0.15 per ton of sweet cherries handled. The Committee locally administers the marketing order for sweet cherries grown in designated counties in Washington. The Committee's...

  4. 77 FR 72683 - Sweet Cherries Grown in Designated Counties in Washington; Decreased Assessment Rate

    2012-12-06

    ...; FV12-923-1 IR] Sweet Cherries Grown in Designated Counties in Washington; Decreased Assessment Rate... (Committee) for the 2012-2013 and subsequent fiscal periods from $0.40 to $0.18 per ton of sweet cherries handled. The Committee locally administers the marketing order which regulates the handling of sweet...

  5. Analysis of Hydraulic Conductance Components in Field Grown, Mature Sweet Cherry Trees Análisis de los Componentes de Conductancia Hidráulica en Árboles Maduros de Cerezo Dulce en Condiciones de Campo

    Ricardo Oyarzún

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available As a necessary step towards understanding soil water extraction and plant water relationships, the components of hydraulic conductance (K of mature sweet cherry (Prunus avium L. trees were evaluated in situ based on a Ohm´s law analog method. In June 2004, K was determined for 10-yr-old ‘Bing’/‘Gisela® 5’ trees, from simultaneous measurements of whole canopy gas exchange and leaf (sunlit and shaded and stem water potentials (Ψ. Leaf water potential of sunlit leaves was lower than shaded leaves, reaching minimum values of ca. -2.3 MPa around 14:00 h (solar time. Average total hydraulic conductance was 60 ± 6 mmol s-1 MPa-1, presenting a slight decreasing trend as the season progressed. The analysis of tree K components showed that it was higher on the stem-leaf pathway (150 ± 50 mmol s-1 MPa-1, compared to the root-stem component (100 ± 20 mmol s-1 MPa-1, which is in agreement with literature reports for other fruit trees. A weak hysteresis pattern in the daily relationship between whole-canopy transpiration (weighted sunlit and shaded leaves vs. Ψ was observed, suggesting that water storage within the tree is not a significant component of sweet cherry water balance.Como un paso necesario para la comprensión de la extracción de agua desde el suelo y las relaciones suelo-agua-planta, los componentes de la conductancia hidráulica (K en árboles adultos de cerezo (Prunus avium L. fue evaluada in situ con un método basado en una analogía de la Ley de Ohm. En Junio de 2004, K fue determinada para árboles ‘Bing’/‘Gisela® 5’ de 10 años de edad, a partir de mediciones simultáneas de intercambio gaseoso del follaje en forma integrada y potenciales hídricos (Ψ de hojas individuales (soleadas y sombreadas y del xilema. Los potenciales hídricos de las hojas soleadas fueron menores que los de las hojas sombreadas, alcanzando valores mínimos de ca. -2.3 MPa alrededor de 14:00 h (hora solar. La conductancia hidr

  6. 75 FR 34345 - Sweet Onions Grown in the Walla Walla Valley of Southeast Washington and Northeast Oregon...

    2010-06-17

    ... advancements in Walla Walla sweet onion production and storage techniques have extended the regular season for... of Walla Walla sweet onions, with an average production of 699 50-pound equivalents per acre. With an...; FV10-956-1 FR] Sweet Onions Grown in the Walla Walla Valley of Southeast Washington and Northeast...

  7. 75 FR 18428 - Sweet Onions Grown in the Walla Walla Valley of Southeast Washington and Northeast Oregon...

    2010-04-12

    ... indicated to the Committee that advancements in Walla Walla sweet onion production and storage techniques... harvested an average of 24 acres of Walla Walla sweet onions, with an average production of 699 50-pound... Service 7 CFR Part 956 [Doc. No. AMS-FV-10-0020; FV10-956-1 PR] Sweet Onions Grown in the Walla Walla...

  8. Assessment of the productivity of sweet potato varieties grown on ...

    The agronomic effectiveness and economic viability of soil amendment with prunings of agro-forestry tree species in sweet potato production on a highly weathered soil of South Eastern Nigeria were assessed in a field study conducted in 2010 and 2011 at the research farm of the National Root Crops Research Institute, ...

  9. PHYSIOLOGICAL MATURATION IN SEEDS OF SWEET SOGHUM FOR FOLIAR FERTILISATION WITH SILICATE

    BRUNO FRANÇA DA TRINDADE LESSA

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate physiological quality in seeds of sweet sorghum grown under semi-arid conditions, and to determine the age of physiological maturity of the seeds as a function of the foliar application of potassium silicate. The experiment was carried out at the Curu Valley Experimental Farm, in Pentecoste in the state of Ceará, during the rainy seasons of 2014 and 2015. The BRS 506 and BRS 511 varieties were used, under foliar fertilisation with potassium silicate at doses of 500, 1000 and 1500 mL.ha -1, in addition to the control lots (with no application; harvesting was at four periods, 30, 37, 44 and 51 days after full bloom (DAB. The percentage and speed of germination were evaluated, together with the accelerated ageing test and seedling growth. The seeds presented greater than 90% germination from 37 DAB, reaching high seedling vigour at 51 DAB. Foliar fertilisation with potassium silicate under the conditions of the experiment resulted in an increase in the physiological quality of the seeds. The BRS 506 and BRS 511 cultivars displayed the highest physiological quality between 49 and 53 DAF.

  10. contents of sweet cherry ( Prunus avium L. ) type grown in Konya ...

    In this research, several physico-chemical properties and mineral contents of one earliest (May 19) sweet cherry type grown in Konya region were determined. The results in terms of chemical properties were total soluble solids, 18.33 mg/100 g; pH, 3.86; color, S41P50E41; texture, 0.25 kg/cm2; and juice yield, 66.28%.

  11. Characterization of Four Popular Sweet Cherry Cultivars Grown in Greece by Volatile Compound and Physicochemical Data Analysis and Sensory Evaluation

    Maria V. Vavoura

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Volatile compounds, physicochemical and sensory attributes of four sweet cherry cultivars (Canada giant, Ferrovia, Lapins and Skeena grown in Northern Greece were determined. Eighteen volatile compounds were identified and semi-quantified in cherries using solid phase micro extraction in combination with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (SPME-GC/MS. Carbonyl compounds were the most abundant in sweet cherry aroma, followed by alcohols, esters and hydrocarbons/terpenes. Cherry cultivars in order of increasing amounts of volatiles were: Lapins < Canada giant < Ferrovia < Skeena. Physicochemical parameters determined included: titratable acidity (TA, pH, total soluble solids (TSS, maturity index (MI and total phenolic content (TPC. TA ranged between 0.21 and 0.28 g malic acid/100 g fresh weight (FW. The pH ranged between 3.81 and 3.96. TSS ranged between 13.00 and 16.00 °Brix. MI ranged between 51.8 and 75.0. TPC ranged between 95.14 and 170.35 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE/100 g FW. Sensory evaluation showed that cherry colour, in order of increasing intensity, was: Canada giant < Ferrovia < Lapins < Skeena. Respective order for cherry firmness was: Canada giant < Lapins ≤ Ferrovia < Skeena and for flavour: Lapins < Canada giant < Skeena ≤ Ferrovia. Correlation of volatiles to physicochemical and sensory attributes showed varying trends.

  12. Mineral composition and biomass partitioning of sweet sorghum grown for bioenergy in the southeastern USA

    Singh, M.P.; Erickson, J.E.; Sollenberger, L.E.; Woodard, K.R.; Vendramini, J.M.B.; Fedenko, J.R.

    2012-01-01

    Biomass yield and tissue mineral composition can affect total energy yield potential, conversion efficiencies and environmental impacts, but relatively few data are available for sweet sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] grown in the southeastern USA. Therefore, a study was conducted at two locations in North and Central Florida on marginal sand soils comparing the effects of planting date (PD) on dry biomass yield and mineral composition of leaf, stem, and grain heads for ‘M-81E’ and ‘Dale’ sweet sorghum cultivars. Overall tissue mineral concentrations were relatively low for sweet sorghum, attributable to low K and Ca concentrations. Ash and mineral concentrations were generally greater for Dale, especially for the early PD. Leaf and grain heads were greater in mineral concentrations compared to stems. Dry biomass yield averaged 19.4 Mg ha −1 and was greater for M-81E and the early PD. Stems accounted for 73% of the total biomass compared to leaves (13%) across all treatments. Total N, P, and K removals averaged 136, 27.6, and 81.4 kg ha −1 , respectively. Overall, leaves removed 30, 23, and 19% of total N, P, and K compared to 34, 34, and 61% by stem, respectively. Considering lower biomass but greater mineral concentrations in leaf and grain heads compared to stems, returning leaf residues and possibly grain heads to the soil have the potential to offset nutrient and energy inputs needed on these marginal soils and enhance the sustainability of sweet sorghum cropping systems.

  13. Evaluation of KTJT-1, an early-maturity of sweet sorghum acquired by carbon ions irradiation

    Dong Xicun; Li Wenjian

    2014-01-01

    Sweet sorghum has the potential of becoming a useful energy crop. An early-maturity mutant of sweet sorghum, KFJT-1, was obtained by carbon ions irradiation of KFJT-CK, a wild plant. In this paper, we evaluate the mutant from the length and fresh weight of radicle and leaves after seed germination, the growth rate at the elongation stage, and the internodal parameters under field trail condition. The results showed that the seedling growth of KFJT-1 was inhibited by carbon ions irradiation, and the leaf length, the fresh weight of radicle and leaves from KFJT-1 decreased by 15.32%, 76.27%, and 27.08% than those of KFJT-CK, respectively. However, the growth rate of KFJT-1 on July 12, July 27 and August 1 increased by 16.19%, 59.28% and 26.87%, respectively, compared with the KFJT-CK. The stalk diameter, total biomass yield and sugar content of KFJT-1 was higher than those of KFJT-CK, despite that the plant height of KFJT-1 was significantly less than KFJT-CK (P<0.05). In addition, KFJT-1 differed from KFJT-CK in the internodal length, weight and sugar content. In conclusion, the early-maturity mutant of KFJT-1 will be a promising variety for sweet sorghum industrialization in Gansu province, China. (authors)

  14. Catalase activity is modulated by calcium and calmodulin in detached mature leaves of sweet potato.

    Afiyanti, Mufidah; Chen, Hsien-Jung

    2014-01-15

    Catalase (CAT) functions as one of the key enzymes in the scavenging of reactive oxygen species and affects the H2O2 homeostasis in plants. In sweet potato, a major catalase isoform was detected, and total catalase activity showed the highest level in mature leaves (L3) compared to immature (L1) and completely yellow, senescent leaves (L5). The major catalase isoform as well as total enzymatic activity were strongly suppressed by ethylene glycol-bis(2-aminoethylether)-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid (EGTA). This inhibition could be specifically and significantly mitigated in mature L3 leaves by exogenous CaCl2, but not MgCl2 or CoCl2. EGTA also inhibited the activity of the catalase isoform in vitro. Furthermore, chlorpromazine (CPZ), a calmodulin (CAM) inhibitor, drastically suppressed the major catalase isoform as well as total enzymatic activity, and this suppression was alleviated by exogenous sweet potato calmodulin (SPCAM) fusion protein in L3 leaves. CPZ also inhibited the activity of the catalase isoform in vitro. Protein blot hybridization showed that both anti-catalase SPCAT1 and anti-calmodulin SPCAM antibodies detect a band at the same position, which corresponds to the activity of the major catalase isoform from unboiled, but not boiled crude protein extract of L3 leaves. An inverse correlation between the major catalase isoform/total enzymatic activity and the H2O2 level was also observed. These data suggest that sweet potato CAT activity is modulated by CaCl2 and SPCAM, and plays an important role in H2O2 homeostasis in mature leaves. Association of SPCAM with the major CAT isoform is required and regulates the in-gel CAT activity band. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  15. Effect of biweekly shoot tip harvests on the growth and yield of Georgia Jet sweet potato grown hydroponically

    Ogbuehi, Cyriacus R.; Loretan, Phil A.; Bonsi, C. K.; Hill, Walter A.; Morris, Carlton E.; Biswas, P. K.; Mortley, Desmond G.

    1989-01-01

    Sweet potato shoot tips have been shown to be a nutritious green vegetable. A study was conducted to determine the effect of biweekly shoot tip harvests on the growth and yield of Georgia Jet sweet potato grown in the greenhouse using the nutrient film technique (NFT). The nutrient solution consisted of a modified half Hoagland solution. Biweekly shoot tip harvests, beginning 42 days after planting, provided substantial amounts of vegetable greens and did not affect the fresh and dry foliage weights or the storage root number and fresh and dry storage root weights at final harvest. The rates of anion and cation uptake were not affected by tip harvests.

  16. Nucleoli from growing oocytes inhibit the maturation of enucleolated, full-grown oocytes in the pig.

    Kyogoku, Hirohisa; Ogushi, Sugako; Miyano, Takashi; Fulka, Josef

    2011-06-01

    In mammals, the nucleolus of full-grown oocyte is essential for embryonic development but not for oocyte maturation. In our study, the role of the growing oocyte nucleolus in oocyte maturation was examined by nucleolus removal and/or transfer into previously enucleolated, growing (around 100 µm in diameter) or full-grown (120 µm) pig oocytes. In the first experiment, the nucleoli were aspirated from growing oocytes whose nucleoli had been compacted by actinomycin D treatment, and the enucleolated oocytes were matured in vitro. Most of non-treated or actinomycin D-treated oocytes did not undergo germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD; 13% and 12%, respectively). However, the GVBD rate of enucleolated, growing oocytes significantly increased to 46%. The low GVBD rate of enucleolated, growing oocytes was restored again by the re-injection of nucleoli from growing oocytes (23%), but not when nucleoli from full-grown oocytes were re-injected into enucleolated, growing oocytes (49%). When enucleolated, full-grown oocytes were injected with nucleoli from growing or full-grown oocytes, the nucleolus in the germinal vesicle was reassembled (73% and 60%, respectively). After maturation, the enucleolated, full-grown oocytes injected with nucleoli from full-grown oocytes matured to metaphase II (56%), whereas injection with growing-oocyte nucleoli reduced this maturation to 21%. These results suggest that the growing-oocyte nucleolus is involved in the oocyte's meiotic arrest, and that the full-grown oocyte nucleolus has lost the ability. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  17. Artificial neural networks employment in the prediction of evapotranspiration of greenhouse-grown sweet pepper

    Héliton Pandorfi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study aimed to investigate the applicability of artificial neural networks (ANNs in the prediction of evapotranspiration of sweet pepper cultivated in a greenhouse. The used data encompass the second crop cycle, from September 2013 to February 2014, constituting 135 days of daily meteorological data, referring to the following variables: temperature and relative air humidity, wind speed and solar radiation (input variables, as well as evapotranspiration (output variable, determined using data obtained by load-cell weighing lysimeter. The recorded data were divided into three sets for training, testing and validation. The ANN learning model recognized the evapotranspiration patterns with acceptable accuracy, with mean square error of 0.005, in comparison to the data recorded in the lysimeter, with coefficient of determination of 0.87, demonstrating the best approximation for the 4-21-1 network architecture, with multilayers, error back-propagation learning algorithm and learning rate of 0.01.

  18. 75 FR 31663 - Sweet Cherries Grown in Designated Counties in Washington; Change in the Handling Regulation

    2010-06-04

    ... producer returns by providing pack differentiation; and benefit producers, handlers, and consumers. DATES... producer returns by providing pack differentiation, and is expected to benefit producers, handlers, and..., and container regulations for any variety or varieties of cherries grown in the production area...

  19. Cloning and expression analysis of cDNAs for ABA 8'-hydroxylase during sweet cherry fruit maturation and under stress conditions.

    Ren, Jie; Sun, Liang; Wu, Jiefang; Zhao, Shengli; Wang, Canlei; Wang, Yanping; Ji, Kai; Leng, Ping

    2010-11-15

    Abscisic acid (ABA) plays a key role in various aspects of plant growth and development, including adaptation to environmental stress and fruit maturation in sweet cherry fruit. In higher plants, the level of ABA is determined by synthesis and catabolism. In order to gain insight into ABA synthesis and catabolism in sweet cherry fruit during maturation and under stress conditions, four cDNAs of PacCYP707A1 -PacCYP707A4 for 8'-hydroxylase, a key enzyme in the oxidative catabolism of ABA, and one cDNA of PacNCED1 for 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase, a key enzyme in the ABA biosynthetic pathway, were isolated from sweet cherry fruit (Prunus avium L.). The timing and pattern of PacNCED1 expression was coincident with that of ABA accumulation, which was correlated to maturation of sweet cherry fruit. All four PacCYP707As were expressed at varying intensities throughout fruit development and appeared to play overlapping roles in ABA catabolism throughout sweet cherry fruit development. The application of ABA enhanced the expression of PacCYP707A1 -PacCYP707A3 as well as PacNCED1, but downregulated the PacCYP707A4 transcript level. Expressions of PacCYP707A1, PacCYP707A3 and PacNCED1 were strongly increased by water stress. No significant differences in PacCYP707A2 and PacCYP707A4 expression were observed between dehydrated and control fruits. The results suggest that endogenous ABA content is modulated by a dynamic balance between biosynthesis and catabolism, which are regulated by PacNCED1 and PacCYP707As transcripts, respectively, during fruit maturation and under stress conditions. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  20. Uptake of three isotopes of plutonium from soil by sweet corn grown in a growth chamber

    Hersloff, L.W.; Corey, J.C.

    1978-01-01

    The use of 237 Pu as a tracer for 238 Pu and 239 Pu was studied in a plant--soil system. Sandy clay--loam soil was spiked with approx. 240 pCi/g of 237 Pu, 14.3 pCi/g of 238 Pu, and 33 pCi/g of 239 Pu in the form of Pu(NO 3 ) 4 . The uptake of these three isotopes of plutonium was measured in the standing vegetation of sweet corn (Zea mays L. var. Silver Queen) after 30 and 50 days of growth. The mean concentrations in the standing crop and the concentration ratios of each isotope decreased from 30 to 50 days. There was an apparent differential availability of the three isotopes: 237 Pu was more available than 238 Pu, which was more available than 239 Pu. The quantity of 237 Pu in the standing crop, on a mass basis, closely approximated that of 238 Pu for both sampling times. Factors influencing these results are discussed

  1. Effects of the genotype and environment interaction on sugar accumulation in sweet sorghum varieties (Sorghum bicolor -{L.}- Moench grown in the lowland tropics of Colombia

    Jaime Humberto Bernal

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Sugar production in sweet sorghums is affected by the environment. Therefore, in this study on the effects of the genotype x environment interaction on sugar accumulation, plant traits associated with the sugar content in the stem were evaluated in ten sorghum genotypes grown in six contrasting environments. The results indicated that the stem dry weight, juice sugar concentration (°Brix, stem sugar content and juice volume were controlled by the genetic constitution of the genotype, with a large environmental contribution to their expression. The results allowed for the identification of the sweet sorghum genotypes that have a high potential for the biofuel agroindustry due to their high sugar contents in the environmental conditions of Palmira, Espinal, Cerete and Codazzi. Humid tropical environments such as Gaitan and Villavicencio were less favorable for the competitive production of sweet sorghums for bioethanol due to their low levels of solar radiation and soil fertility.

  2. Effect of different home-cooking methods on textural and nutritional properties of sweet potato genotypes grown in temperate climate conditions.

    Nicoletto, Carlo; Vianello, Fabio; Sambo, Paolo

    2018-01-01

    The European Union (EU) market for sweet potato is small but is growing considerably and and has increased by 100% over the last 5 years. The cultivation of sweet potato in temperate climate conditions has not considered extensively and could be a new opportunity for the EU market. Healthy and qualitative traits of different sweet potato cultivars grown in temperate climate conditions were evaluated in accordance with four cooking methods. Traditional cultivars showed high hardness and adhesiveness values. The highest concentrations of sugars (especially maltose) and phenolic acids (caffeic and chlorogenic) were found in samples treated by boiling and steaming. High antioxidant activity was found in fried potatoes. Qualitative traits of sweet potatoes treated by microwaves did not report any significant variation compared to the control. Traditional and new sweet potato cultivars can be cultivated in temperate climate conditions and show interesting qualitative properties, especially as a result of the presence of antioxidant compounds. Concerning global quality, colored varieties expressed a better profile than traditional Italian ones and they are suitable for the European market, giving new opportunities for consumers and producers. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Radionuclide concentrations in pinto beans, sweet corn, and zucchini squash grown in Los Alamos Canyon at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    Fresquez, P.R.; Mullen, M.A.; Naranjo, L. Jr.; Armstrong, D.R.

    1997-05-01

    Pinto beans, sweet corn, and zucchini squash (Cucurbita pepo var. black beauty) were grown in a randomized complete-block field/pot experiment at a site that contained the highest observed levels of surface gross gamma radioactivity within Los Alamos Canyon (LAC) at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Soils as well as washed edible and nonedible crop tissues were analyzed for various radionuclides and heavy metals . Most radionuclides, with the exception of 3 H and tot U, in soil from LAC were detected in significantly higher concentrations (p -1 . This dose was below the International Commission on Radiological Protection permissible dose limit (PDL) of 100 mrem y -1 from all pathways; however, the addition of other internal and external exposure route factors may increase the overall dose over the PDL. Also, the risk of an excess cancer fatality, based on 74 mrem y -1 , was 3.7 x 10 -5 (37 in a million), which is above the Environmental Protection Agency's (acceptable) guideline of one in a million. 31 refs., 15 tabs

  4. Comparison of the genetic determinism of two key phenological traits, flowering and maturity dates, in three Prunus species: peach, apricot and sweet cherry.

    Dirlewanger, E; Quero-García, J; Le Dantec, L; Lambert, P; Ruiz, D; Dondini, L; Illa, E; Quilot-Turion, B; Audergon, J-M; Tartarini, S; Letourmy, P; Arús, P

    2012-11-01

    The present study investigates the genetic determinism of flowering and maturity dates, two traits highly affected by global climate change. Flowering and maturity dates were evaluated on five progenies from three Prunus species, peach, apricot and sweet cherry, during 3-8 years. Quantitative trait locus (QTL) detection was performed separately for each year and also by integrating data from all years together. High heritability estimates were obtained for flowering and maturity dates. Several QTLs for flowering and maturity dates were highly stable, detected each year of evaluation, suggesting that they were not affected by climatic variations. For flowering date, major QTLs were detected on linkage groups (LG) 4 for apricot and sweet cherry and on LG6 for peach. QTLs were identified on LG2, LG3, LG4 and LG7 for the three species. For maturity date, a major QTL was detected on LG4 in the three species. Using the peach genome sequence data, candidate genes underlying the major QTLs on LG4 and LG6 were investigated and key genes were identified. Our results provide a basis for the identification of genes involved in flowering and maturity dates that could be used to develop cultivar ideotypes adapted to future climatic conditions.

  5. Evaluation of whorl damage by fall armyworm (Lepidoptera:Noctuidae) on field and greenhouse grown sweet sorghum plants

    The fall armyworm [Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)] is an economically important pest of sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L) Moench]. However, resistance to fall armyworm in sweet sorghum has not been extensively studied. A collection of primarily sweet sorghum accessions were evaluated in t...

  6. Comparison of Stevia plants grown from seeds, cuttings and stem-tip cultures for growth and sweet diterpene glucosides.

    Tamura, Y; Nakamura, S; Fukui, H; Tabata, M

    1984-10-01

    The growth and sweet diterpene glucosides of Stevia plants propagated by stem-tip cultures were compared with those of the control plants propagated by seeds. There was no significant difference between the two groups both in growth and in chemical composition. As for the contents of sweet diterpene glucosides, however, the clonal plants showed significantly smaller variations than the sexually propagated plants; they were almost as homogeneous as the plants propagated by cuttings. These results suggest that the clonal propagation by stem-tip culture is an effective method of obtaining a population of uniform plants for the production of sweet diterpene glucosides.

  7. A dark incubation period is important for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of mature internode explants of sweet orange, grapefruit, citron, and a citrange rootstock.

    Mizuri Marutani-Hert

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Citrus has an extended juvenile phase and trees can take 2-20 years to transition to the adult reproductive phase and produce fruit. For citrus variety development this substantially prolongs the time before adult traits, such as fruit yield and quality, can be evaluated. Methods to transform tissue from mature citrus trees would shorten the evaluation period via the direct production of adult phase transgenic citrus trees. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Factors important for promoting shoot regeneration from internode explants from adult phase citrus trees were identified and included a dark incubation period and the use of the cytokinin zeatin riboside. Transgenic trees were produced from four citrus types including sweet orange, citron, grapefruit, and a trifoliate hybrid using the identified factors and factor settings. SIGNIFICANCE: The critical importance of a dark incubation period for shoot regeneration was established. These results confirm previous reports on the feasibility of transforming mature tissue from sweet orange and are the first to document the transformation of mature tissue from grapefruit, citron, and a trifoliate hybrid.

  8. A dark incubation period is important for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of mature internode explants of sweet orange, grapefruit, citron, and a citrange rootstock.

    Marutani-Hert, Mizuri; Bowman, Kim D; McCollum, Greg T; Mirkov, T Erik; Evens, Terence J; Niedz, Randall P

    2012-01-01

    Citrus has an extended juvenile phase and trees can take 2-20 years to transition to the adult reproductive phase and produce fruit. For citrus variety development this substantially prolongs the time before adult traits, such as fruit yield and quality, can be evaluated. Methods to transform tissue from mature citrus trees would shorten the evaluation period via the direct production of adult phase transgenic citrus trees. Factors important for promoting shoot regeneration from internode explants from adult phase citrus trees were identified and included a dark incubation period and the use of the cytokinin zeatin riboside. Transgenic trees were produced from four citrus types including sweet orange, citron, grapefruit, and a trifoliate hybrid using the identified factors and factor settings. The critical importance of a dark incubation period for shoot regeneration was established. These results confirm previous reports on the feasibility of transforming mature tissue from sweet orange and are the first to document the transformation of mature tissue from grapefruit, citron, and a trifoliate hybrid.

  9. Effects of planting density and bearing-branch composition on the yield of sweet cherry [Prunus avium] grown by hedge-row training

    Tomita, A.; Shinya, K.; Watanabe, K.; Inomata, M.

    2008-01-01

    To improve the yield of sweet cherries (Prunus avium L.) grown by hedge-row training, the following two methods were compared: increased numbers of spurs and bouquet spurs to improve the spur composition and narrowed row intervals to increase planting density. To develop spurs and bouquet spurs, 30 cm long branches were positioned at 30 cm intervals on lateral branches in addition to the conventional spur development from 5 cm current shoots. Although this measure decreased the number of bouquet spurs, it increased the total number of spurs including the conventional short spurs to improve the yield to 1,024 kg/10a from 557 kg/10a using conventional hedge-row training. However, this method decreased solar radiation in the tree crowns thereby lowering fruit quality. In contrast, increasing planting density from 3-m intervals to 2- or 1.5-m intervals did not affect fruit quality. Moreover, in contrast to a yield of 588 kg/10a when row intervals were 3 m, the row intervals narrowed to 2 m and 1.5 m improved the yield to 881 kg/10a and 1,101 kg/10a, respectively. The above results show that decreasing row intervals is an effective method for increasing the yield of sweet cherries grown by hedge-row training without lowering fruit quality

  10. Study of the maturation of grapes (Vitis vinifera L. grown in Dois Vizinhos, Paraná

    Gener Augusto Penso

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The edaphoclimatic conditions in Southwest Parana differ from those in traditional wine-growing regions and have a major influence on the organoleptic characteristics of the grapes. Studies of grape maturation under these conditions may enable us to time the supply of raw materials for the elaboration of differentiated wines. This study aimed to quantify the ripening components of the grape cultivars Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, Tempranillo, and Sangiovese grapes grown in Dois Vizinhos, PR, during the harvest seasons of 2008/2009 and 2011/2012. The grapevines were performed according to the espalier system and grafted on rootstock R110 (‘Cabernet Sauvignon’ and ‘Merlot’ and Paulsen 1103 (‘Tempranillo’ and ‘Sangiovese’. The ripening of the grapes was monitored every ten days from the beginning of ripening (verasion until harvest. The following variables were evaluated: mass and diameter of berries, total soluble solids (TSS, pH, titratable acidity (TTA, total sugars, estimated alcohol content, anthocyanins, and flavanols. Sangiovese berries showed the greatest weight and diameter in the two years. The TSS was higher in the second year of evaluation for Cabernet Sauvignon and Tempranillo grapes. The pH decreased from the first year to the second for all cultivars. There were no significant differences in ATT among the cultivars. A higher content of flavanols was observed during the first growing season of study than during the second. Tempranillo grapes showed the highest concentration of anthocyanins during both growing seasons. Not all cultivars had enough acidity to permit wine stability and guard time. None of the cultivars required the chaptalization of must, presenting good potential of alcohol production.

  11. Morpho-Productive and Chemical Composition of Local and Foreign Sweet Corn Hybrids Grown in the Conditions of Transylvania Plateau

    Luana PĂCURAR

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Sweet corn (Zea mays L. belongs to the Gramineae family, var. rugosa (Bonof convar. Saccharate (Sturt. and can be distinguished from normal corn by presence of one or more mutant genes that affect carbohydrate metabolism in endosperm. Purpose of this research is to compare behavior of sweet corn hybrids created at SCDA Turda, but also foreign hybrids, in terms of quality elements and chemical composition, in conditions of Transylvania plateau, in two localities: Turda and Viişoara. As biological material following domestic sweet corn hybrids were chosen: ‘Prima’, ‘Estival’, ‘Deliciul verii’, ‘Dulcin’, ‘Delicios’, ‘Estival M’ and foreign hybrid ‘Jubilee’. These hybrids were also analyzed in terms of chemical composition. Weight of ‘Estival’ hybrid has the best behavior in both localities; as regards to cobs length, ‘Delicios’ hybrid has registered increases very significant positive, differences between plant height in the two localities confirm significant influence of environment on formation of this important typical qualitative characteristics, highest performances in terms of β-cryptoxanthin and zeaxanthin content, are recorded by ‘Jubilee’ in both localities, ‘Deliciul Verii’ hybrid records significant value for lutein content, also recording an important addition of carbohydrates in Turda, ‘Prima’ and ‘Estival’ hybrids recorded highest values of sucrose in both localities.

  12. Growth, Yield, and Nutritional Responses of Chamber-Grown Sweet Potato to Elevated Carbon Dioxide Levels Expected Across the Next 200 Years

    Czeck, B. C.; Jahren, H.; Deenik, J. L.; Crow, S. E.; Schubert, B.; Stewart, M.

    2012-12-01

    Understanding the effects of increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations on crops will be critical to assuring that sufficient food is available to the world's growing population. Previous work has shown that slightly elevated CO2 levels (CO2 = 550-700 ppm) increase the economic yield of most crops by ~33%, on average. The majority of these studies have focused on rice, wheat, and soybean; however, climate change is expected to have greatest impact on regions of the world that rely heavily on root crops, such as sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas). Sweet potato is cultivated in more than 100 developing countries; it is ranked seventh in world crop statistics and can produce more edible energy per hectare and per day than wheat, rice or cassava. In order to quantify the effect that rising CO2 levels will have on sweet potato, we grew a total of 64 sweet potato plants to maturity in large controlled growth chambers at ambient, 760, 1,140, and 1,520-ppm CO2 levels. At planting, initial measurements (of mass, length, and number of nodes) for each plant were recorded. Throughout the duration of the experiment (90 days) measurements (of stem length, and number of leaves) were recorded every 7 to 14 days. To ensure optimum growing conditions moisture content was monitored using soil tensiometers; temperature, relative humidity and CO2 concentrations were recorded every ten minutes. Half the plants were supplemented with an inorganic fertilizer and the other half with an organic fertilizer to test the effect of nutrient availability on biomass production under elevated CO2 levels. After 3 months of growth, we measured fresh and dry biomass of all above- and below-ground tissues. Results showed a substantial increase in both above- and below-ground biomass at elevated levels of CO2. For the organic treatment, a 43% increase in aboveground dry biomass at the highest CO2 concentration (1520ppm) was found; the inorganic treatment showed a 31% increase. The

  13. Genotypic Variation of Early Maturing Soybean Genotypes for Phosphorus Utilization Efficiency under Field Grown Conditions

    Abaidoo, R. C. [Kwame Nkrumah University of Technology, Kumasi (Ghana); International Institute of Tropical Agriculture, Ibadan (Nigeria); Opoku, A.; Boahen, S. [Kwame Nkrumah University of Technology, Kumasi (Ghana); Dare, M. O. [Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta (Nigeria)

    2013-11-15

    Variability in the utilization of phosphorus (P) by 64 early-maturing soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.) genotypes under low-P soil conditions were evaluated in 2009 and 2010 at Shika, Nigeria. Fifteen phenotypic variables; number of nodules, nodule dry weight, grain yield, plant biomass, total biomass, biomass N and P content, Phosphorus Utilization Index (PUI), shoot P Utilization efficiency (PUIS), grain P Utilization efficiency (PUIG), Harvest Index (HI), Biological N fixed (BNF), total N fixed and N and P uptake were measured. The four clusters revealed by cluster analysis were basically divided along (1) plant biomass and uptake, (2) nutrient acquisition and utilization and (3) nodulation components. Three early maturing genotypes, TGx1842-14E, TGx1912-11F and TGx1913-5F, were identified as having high P utilization index and low P uptake. These genotypes could be a potential source for breeding for P use efficiency in early maturing soybean genotypes. (author)

  14. Mapping of a major QTL for salt tolerance of mature field-grown maize plants based on SNP markers.

    Luo, Meijie; Zhao, Yanxin; Zhang, Ruyang; Xing, Jinfeng; Duan, Minxiao; Li, Jingna; Wang, Naishun; Wang, Wenguang; Zhang, Shasha; Chen, Zhihui; Zhang, Huasheng; Shi, Zi; Song, Wei; Zhao, Jiuran

    2017-08-15

    Salt stress significantly restricts plant growth and production. Maize is an important food and economic crop but is also a salt sensitive crop. Identification of the genetic architecture controlling salt tolerance facilitates breeders to select salt tolerant lines. However, the critical quantitative trait loci (QTLs) responsible for the salt tolerance of field-grown maize plants are still unknown. To map the main genetic factors contributing to salt tolerance in mature maize, a double haploid population (240 individuals) and 1317 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers were employed to produce a genetic linkage map covering 1462.05 cM. Plant height of mature maize cultivated in the saline field (SPH) and plant height-based salt tolerance index (ratio of plant height between saline and control fields, PHI) were used to evaluate salt tolerance of mature maize plants. A major QTL for SPH was detected on Chromosome 1 with the LOD score of 22.4, which explained 31.2% of the phenotypic variation. In addition, the major QTL conditioning PHI was also mapped at the same position on Chromosome 1, and two candidate genes involving in ion homeostasis were identified within the confidence interval of this QTL. The detection of the major QTL in adult maize plant establishes the basis for the map-based cloning of genes associated with salt tolerance and provides a potential target for marker assisted selection in developing maize varieties with salt tolerance.

  15. Reduction of cyanide levels in sweet cassava leaves grown in Busia County, Kenya based on different processing methods

    Ojiambo, O.C.

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz, is the third most important carbohydrate food source around the world and in particular in sub-Sahara Africa. Both the roots and leaves have dual antagonistic contribution of which; one being nutritional value and secondly, contain cyanogenic glycosides. The latter when hydrolyzed by linamarase produces poisonous hydrogen cyanide attributed to among other factors, the methods of processing. Little has been reported on processing methods and information downstream will be great given the toxicity. This report assessed the variation of cyanide levels following different processing methods of leaves of sweet cassava varieties. A number of conditions were varied to mimic affordable and as well sustainable processing methods. Processing prior to boiling for up to 25 minutes involved leaves being pounded and pounded then soaked in water. Determination of cyanide was done using picrate papers and UV-Vis spectrophotometer. The cyanide levels ranged from 576.30 ± 0.32 - 128.34 ± 0.34 mg HCN Equivalence/Kg in raw cassava leaves that significantly reduced up to 88.45% with the processing’s (P< 0.001. Longer duration of boiling cassava leaves with prior processings’ of pounding and that of pounding and soaking is promoted to minimize the risks associated with cyanide poisoning.

  16. Lignification in beech grown at elevated CO2 concentrations: interaction with nutrient availability and leaf maturation

    Blaschke, L; Forstreuter, M.; Sheppard, L. J.; Leith, K.; Murray, M. B.; Polle, A.

    2002-01-01

    Results of a study undertaken to investigate contradictory observations reported in the literature to the effect that growth in elevated carbon dioxide affects ontogeny, are discussed. Results of this study showed that seedlings grown at elevated carbon dioxide had nitrogen concentrations of about 15 per cent lower than seedlings grown in ambient carbon dioxide. Elevated carbon dioxide caused increased growth and biomass production in trees with a medium to high nutrient supply, but had no effect on growth of trees with a low nutrient supply rate. Because elevated carbon dioxide enhanced seedling growth in the high nutrient supply treatments, the total amount of lignin produced per seedling was higher in these treatments. Overall, the results suggest that carbon dioxide availability does not directly affect lignin concentrations, but affects them indirectly through the effects on or an interaction with nitrogen supply and growth. In seedlings, elevated carbon dioxide reduced lignin concentration on a dry mass basis, indicating diminished wood quality in a carbon dioxide-enriched atmosphere. 51 refs., 2 tabs., 5 figs

  17. The Most Distant Mature Galaxy Cluster - Young, but surprisingly grown-up

    2011-03-01

    Astronomers have used an armada of telescopes on the ground and in space, including the Very Large Telescope at ESO's Paranal Observatory in Chile to discover and measure the distance to the most remote mature cluster of galaxies yet found. Although this cluster is seen when the Universe was less than one quarter of its current age it looks surprisingly similar to galaxy clusters in the current Universe. "We have measured the distance to the most distant mature cluster of galaxies ever found", says the lead author of the study in which the observations from ESO's VLT have been used, Raphael Gobat (CEA, Paris). "The surprising thing is that when we look closely at this galaxy cluster it doesn't look young - many of the galaxies have settled down and don't resemble the usual star-forming galaxies seen in the early Universe." Clusters of galaxies are the largest structures in the Universe that are held together by gravity. Astronomers expect these clusters to grow through time and hence that massive clusters would be rare in the early Universe. Although even more distant clusters have been seen, they appear to be young clusters in the process of formation and are not settled mature systems. The international team of astronomers used the powerful VIMOS and FORS2 instruments on ESO's Very Large Telescope (VLT) to measure the distances to some of the blobs in a curious patch of very faint red objects first observed with the Spitzer space telescope. This grouping, named CL J1449+0856 [1], had all the hallmarks of being a very remote cluster of galaxies [2]. The results showed that we are indeed seeing a galaxy cluster as it was when the Universe was about three billion years old - less than one quarter of its current age [3]. Once the team knew the distance to this very rare object they looked carefully at the component galaxies using both the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope and ground-based telescopes, including the VLT. They found evidence suggesting that most of the

  18. Protein and mineral nutrient contents in kernels from 72 sweet almond cultivars and accessions grown in France, Greece and Italy.

    Drogoudi, Pavlina D; Pantelidis, Georgios; Bacchetta, Loretta; De Giorgio, Donato; Duval, Henri; Metzidakis, Ioannis; Spera, Daniella

    2013-03-01

    Almond protein and potassium (K), phosphorus (P), calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg) contents were determined in 72 cultivars and accessions grown in France, Greece and Italy, as part of the networking of European SAFENUT AGRI GEN RES project, which aimed to explore and valorize the almond genetic resources in Europe. Great variation was found in the nutrient content and the amount of nutrient supplied when consuming the recommended daily amount of one serving of almond, among the different genotypes assayed. The variation among the different genotypes was greatest for Ca, followed by the protein content; the latter also exhibited the lowest variation considering the harvest year. Results from a principal component analysis showed that P and Mg were the most discriminant elements for categorizing samples. Cluster analysis showed groups of samples with interesting characteristics for breeding. There was no clear distinction among the different origins of samples. Correlation analyses between weather conditions and the nutrients assayed showed that the mean temperature recorded in the period between March and September was positively correlated with Ca and P only in France, a place where the greatest climatic difference between years was observed.

  19. The possible role of hydroxylation in the detoxification of atrazine in mature vetiver (Chrysopogon zizanioides Nash) grown in hydroponics.

    Marcacci, Sylvie; Raventon, Muriel; Ravanel, Patrick; Schwitzguébel, Jean-Paul

    2005-01-01

    The resistance mechanism of vetiver (Chrysopogon zizanioides) to atrazine was investigated to evaluate its potential for phytoremediation of environment contaminated with the herbicide. Plants known to metabolise atrazine rely on hydroxylation mediated by benzoxazinones, conjugation catalyzed by glutathione-S-transferases and dealkylation probably mediated by cytochromes P450. All three possibilities were explored in mature vetiver grown in hydroponics during this research project. Here we report on the chemical role of benzoxazinones in the transformation of atrazine. Fresh vetiver roots and leaves were cut to extract and study their content in benzoxazinones known to hydroxylate atrazine, such as 2,4-dihydroxy-2H-1,4-benzoxazin-3(4H)-one (DIBOA), 2,4-dihydroxy-7-methoxy-2H-1,4-benzoxazin-3(4H)-one (DIMBOA) and their mono- and di-glucosylated forms. Identification of benzoxazinones was performed by thin layer chromatography (TLC) and comparison of retention factors (Rf) and UV spectra with standards: although some products exhibited the same Rf as standards, UV spectra were different. Furthermore, in vitro hydroxylation of atrazine could not be detected in the presence of vetiver extracts. Finally, vetiver organs exposed to [14C]-atrazine did not produce any significant amount of hydroxylated products, such as hydroxyatrazine (HATR), hydroxy-deethylatrazine (HDEA), and hydroxy-deisopropylatrazine (HDIA). Altogether, these metabolic features suggest that hydroxylation was not a major metabolic pathway of atrazine in vetiver.

  20. Comparison of the Proximate Composition, Total Carotenoids and Total Polyphenol Content of Nine Orange-Fleshed Sweet Potato Varieties Grown in Bangladesh

    Mohammad Khairul Alam

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In an attempt to develop the food composition table for Bangladesh, the nutritional composition of nine varieties of orange-fleshed sweet potato was analyzed together with total carotenoids (TCC and total polyphenol content (TPC. Each variety showed significant variation in different nutrient contents. The quantification of the TCC and TPC was done by spectrophotometric measurement, and the proximate composition was done by the AOAC method. The obtained results showed that total polyphenol content varied from 94.63 to 136.05 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE/100 g fresh weight. Among the selected sweet potatoes, Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute (BARI Sweet Potato 7 (SP7 contained the highest, whereas BARI SP6 contained the lowest amount of total polyphenol content. The obtained results also revealed that total carotenoids content ranged from 0.38 to 7.24 mg/100 g fresh weight. BARI SP8 showed the highest total carotenoids content, whereas BARI SP6 showed the lowest. Total carotenoids content was found to be higher in dark orange-colored flesh varieties than their light-colored counterparts. The results of the study indicated that selected sweet potato varieties are rich in protein and carbohydrate, low in fat, high in polyphenol and carotenoids and, thus, could be a good source of dietary antioxidants to prevent free radical damage, which leads to chronic diseases, and also to prevent vitamin A malnutrition.

  1. Comparison of the Proximate Composition, Total Carotenoids and Total Polyphenol Content of Nine Orange-Fleshed Sweet Potato Varieties Grown in Bangladesh.

    Alam, Mohammad Khairul; Rana, Ziaul Hasan; Islam, Sheikh Nazrul

    2016-09-14

    In an attempt to develop the food composition table for Bangladesh, the nutritional composition of nine varieties of orange-fleshed sweet potato was analyzed together with total carotenoids (TCC) and total polyphenol content (TPC). Each variety showed significant variation in different nutrient contents. The quantification of the TCC and TPC was done by spectrophotometric measurement, and the proximate composition was done by the AOAC method. The obtained results showed that total polyphenol content varied from 94.63 to 136.05 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/100 g fresh weight. Among the selected sweet potatoes, Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute (BARI) Sweet Potato 7 (SP7) contained the highest, whereas BARI SP6 contained the lowest amount of total polyphenol content. The obtained results also revealed that total carotenoids content ranged from 0.38 to 7.24 mg/100 g fresh weight. BARI SP8 showed the highest total carotenoids content, whereas BARI SP6 showed the lowest. Total carotenoids content was found to be higher in dark orange-colored flesh varieties than their light-colored counterparts. The results of the study indicated that selected sweet potato varieties are rich in protein and carbohydrate, low in fat, high in polyphenol and carotenoids and, thus, could be a good source of dietary antioxidants to prevent free radical damage, which leads to chronic diseases, and also to prevent vitamin A malnutrition.

  2. Sweet Conclusion

    Shirley, Britt M.; Wooldridge, Barbara Ross; Camp, Kerri M.

    2012-01-01

    Jen Harrington is the owner and pastry chef of Sweet Conclusion, a bakery in Tampa, Florida. Most of Harrington's business comes from baking wedding cakes, but she has been attempting to attract customers to her retail bakery, where she sells cupcakes, pies, ice cream, and coffee. Nearly four years she opened Sweet Conclusion, the retail part of…

  3. Sweet Play

    Leung, Shuk-kwan S.; Lo, Jane-Jane

    2010-01-01

    This article features Sweet play math, a "math by the month" activity that involves decorating and making sugar cubes. Teachers may want to substitute straws, paper squares, alphabet blocks, or such commercially made manipulatives as Unifix[R] cubes for the real sweets. Given no allergy concerns, teachers and students alike would enjoy some sweet…

  4. Preferential colonization and release of Legionella pneumophila from mature drinking water biofilms grown on copper versus unplasticized polyvinylchloride coupons

    Legionella persistence and amplification in premise drinking water systems is a known contributor to legionellosis outbreaks, especially in the presence of suitable eukaryotic hosts. Here we examined Legionella pneumophila behavior within drinking water biofilms grown on copper ...

  5. Purification and chemical characterisation of a cell wall-associated β-galactosidase from mature sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) fruit.

    Gerardi, Carmela; Blando, Federica; Santino, Angelo

    2012-12-01

    Using four different chromatographic steps, β-galactosidase was purified from the ripe fruit of sweet cherry to apparent electrophoretic homogeneity with approximately 131-fold purification. The Prunus avium β-galactosidase showed an apparent molecular mass of about 100 kDa and consisted of four different active polypeptides with pIs of about 7.9, 7.4, 6.9 and 6.4 as estimated by native IEF and β-galactosidase-activity staining. The active polypeptides were individually excised from the gel and subjected to SDS-PAGE. Each of the four native enzymes showing β-galactosidase activity was composed of two polypeptides with an estimated mass of 54 and 33 kDa. Both of these polypeptides were subjected to N-terminal amino acid sequence analysis. The 54 kDa polypeptide of sweet cherry β-galactosidase showed a 43% identity with the 44 kDa subunit of persimmon and apple β-galactosidases and the 48 kDa subunit of carambola galactosidase I. The sweet cherry β-galactosidase exhibited a strict specificity towards p-nitrophenyl β-D-galactopyranoside, a pH optimum of 4.0 and K(m) and V(max) values of 0.42 mM and 4.12 mmol min(-1) mg(-1) of protein respectively with this substrate. The enzyme was also active towards complex glycans. Taken together the results of this study prompted a role for this class of enzymes on sweet cherry fruit ripening and softening. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. 7 CFR 956.5 - Walla Walla Sweet Onions.

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Walla Walla Sweet Onions. 956.5 Section 956.5... Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SWEET ONIONS GROWN IN THE WALLA WALLA VALLEY OF SOUTHEAST WASHINGTON AND NORTHEAST OREGON Definitions § 956.5 Walla Walla Sweet Onions...

  7. Starch degradation in rumen fluid as influenced by genotype, climatic conditions and maturity stage of maize, grown under controlled conditions

    Ali, M.; Cone, J.W.; Hendriks, W.H.; Struik, P.C.

    2014-01-01

    Starch is the major component of maize kernels, contributing significantly to the feeding value of forage maize when fed to ruminants. The effects of genotype, climatic conditions and maturity stage on starch content in the kernels and on in vitro starch degradability in rumen fluid were

  8. Sweet Marjoram

    Bina, Fatemeh; Rahimi, Roja

    2016-01-01

    Origanum majorana L. commonly known as sweet marjoram has been used for variety of diseases in traditional and folklore medicines, including gastrointestinal, ocular, nasopharyngeal, respiratory, cardiac, rheumatologic, and neurological disorders. Essential oil containing monoterpene hydrocarbons and oxygenated monoterpenes as well as phenolic compounds are chemical constituents isolated and detected in O majorana. Wide range of pharmacological activities including antioxidant, hepatoprotective, cardioprotective, anti-platelet, gastroprotective, antibacterial and antifungal, antiprotozoal, antiatherosclerosis, anti-inflammatory, antimetastatic, antitumor, antiulcer, and anticholinesterase inhibitory activities have been reported from this plant in modern medicine. This article summarizes comprehensive information concerning traditional uses, phytochemistry, and pharmacological activities of sweet marjoram. PMID:27231340

  9. Classes of organic molecules targeted by a methanogenic microbial consortium grown on sedimentary rocks of various maturities

    Margaux eMesle

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Organic-rich shales are populated by methanogenic consortia that are able to degrade the fossilized organic matter into methane gas. To identify the organic fraction effectively degraded, we have sequentially depleted two types of organic-rich rocks, shales and coal, at two different maturities, by successive solvent extractions to remove the most soluble fractions (maltenes and asphaltenes and isolate kerogen. We show the ability of the consortia to produce methane from all rock samples, including those containing the most refractory organic matter, i.e. the kerogen. Shales yielded higher methane production than lignite and coal. Mature rocks yielded more methane than immature rocks. Surprisingly, the efficiency of the consortia was not influenced by the removal of the easily biodegradable fractions contained in the maltenes and asphaltenes. This suggests that one of the limitations of organic matter degradation in situ may be the accessibility of the carbon and energy source. Indeed, bitumen has a colloidal structure that may limit the accessibility to asphaltenes in the bulk rock. Solvent extractions might favor the access to asphaltenes and kerogen by modifying the spatial organization of the molecules in the rock matrix.

  10. Yields of ZP sweet maize hybrids in dependence on sowing densities

    Srdić Jelena

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Sweet maize differs from maize of standard grain quality by many important traits that affect the ear appearance, and especially by traits controlling taste. The ear appearance trait encompasses the kernel row number, configuration, row pattern (direction and arrangement, seed set, kernel width and depth, ear shape and size. The quality of immature kernels is controlled by genes by which sweet maize differs from common maize. In order to obtain high-ranking and high-quality yields, it is necessary to provide the most suitable cropping practices for sweet maize hybrids developed at the Maize Research Institute, Zemun Polje. The adequate sowing density is one of more important elements of correct cropping practices. The objective of the present study was to determine the effect of four sowing densities in four ZP sweet maize hybrids of different FAO maturity groups on ear qualitative traits and yields obtained on chernozem type of soil in Zemun Polje. The observed traits of sweet maize (ear length, kernel row number, number of kernels per row, yield and shelling percentage significantly varied over years. The higher sowing density was the higher yield of sweet maize was, hence the highest ear yield of 9.67 t ha-1 , on the average for all four hybrids, was recorded at the highest sowing density of 70,000 plants ha-1. The highest yield was detected in the hybrid ZP 424su. The highest shelling percentage (67.81% was found in the hybrid ZP 521su at the sowing density of 60,000 plants ha-1. Generally, it can be stated that sweet maize hybrids of a shorter growing season (FAO 400 could be cultivated up to 70,000 plants ha-1, while those of a longer growing season (FAO 500 could be grown up to 60,000 plants ha-1. In such a way, the most favorable parameters of yields and the highest yields can be obtained.

  11. Do sun- versus shade-grown kiwifruits perform differently upon storage? An overview of fruit maturity and nutraceutical properties of whole and fresh-cut produce.

    Landi, Marco; Tardelli, Francesca; Remorini, Damiano; Massai, Rossano; Guidi, Lucia

    2014-05-14

    Fresh-cut produce represents a good method to save about 25% of the kiwifruit not useful to meet the fresh fruit-marketing standard due to improper size and shape. For that reason, fresh-cut kiwifruit has been extensively studied. However, the comprehension of the influence of some aspects of cultivation might further increase the shelf life as well as the nutritional values of that fruit. This study explored the hypothesis that kiwifruits grown fully exposed to sunlight or partially shaded differently perform upon storage as whole fruit and as minimally processed produce. Flesh firmness (FF), total solids soluble (SSC), ascorbate (AAT), flavonoids (TFO), and phenols (TF) contents were evaluated in sliced and whole fruit upon 3 days of storage at 4 °C after 75 days of cold chamber storage at 0 °C. The activities of two enzymes related to the softening process, polygalacturonase (PG) and pectinmethylesterase (PME), were evaluated as well. FF and SSC were constitutively higher in sun-exposed fruit, and those characteristics remained higher during the storage as whole fruit. Greater constitutive content of AAT, TFO, and TP was found in sun-exposed whole fruit, although after cutting the reduction in their content was significantly lower in shaded fruits. PME and PG activities were higher only in whole shaded fruits, whereas no relevant differences occurred after cutting. In summary, sun-exposed fruits were more suitable for the fresh-fruit market, whereas the shaded counterpart displayed a good predisposition for use as fresh-cut produce, maintaining similar fruit maturity properties but higher nutraceutical values when sliced than fruit grown under full sun.

  12. A morel improved growth and suppressed Fusarium infection in sweet corn.

    Yu, Dan; Bu, Fangfang; Hou, Jiaojiao; Kang, Yongxiang; Yu, Zhongdong

    2016-12-01

    A post-fire morel collected from Populus simonii stands in Mt. Qingling was identified as Morchella crassipes Mes-20 by using nuclear ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer phylogeny. It was inoculated into sweet corn to observe colonized roots in purified culture and in greenhouse experiments. The elongation and maturation zones of sweet corn were remarkably colonized at the cortex intercellular and intracellular cells, vessel cells, and around the Casparian strip, forming ectendomycorrhiza-like structures. Colonization was also observed in the zone of cell division proximal to the root cap. Greenhouse assays with sweet corn showed that this morel stimulated the development of the root system and significantly increased the dry root biomass. M. crassipes also significantly reduced the incidence of Fusarium verticillioides in the kernels of mature ears when inoculated into young ears before Fusarium inoculation and prevented Fusarium infection in corn ears compared with that of the control in the greenhouse. When grown under axenic conditions, M. crassipes produced the phytohormones abscisic acid, indole-3-acetic acid, and salicylic acid. The benefits to plants elicited by M. crassipes may result from these phytohormones which may improve the drought resistance, biomass growth and resistance to Fusarium.

  13. Qualidade industrial e maturação de frutos de laranjeira "valência" sobre seis porta-enxertos Industrial quality and maturation of fruits of 'valência' sweet orange trees on six rootstocks

    Pedro Antonio Martins Auler

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar a influência de seis porta-enxertos sobre a maturação e as características físico-químicas de frutos de laranjeira 'Valência', instalou-se um experimento em janeiro de 1994, no município de Nova Esperança-PR. O delineamento experimental foi de blocos ao acaso, com quatro repetições, três plantas úteis por parcela e seis tratamentos, constituídos pelos porta-enxertos: limoeiro 'Cravo' (Citrus limonia, tangerineiras 'Cleópatra' (C. reshni e 'Sunki' (C. sunki, citrangeiro 'Troyer' (Poncirus trifoliata x C. sinensis, tangeleiro 'orlando' (C. tangerina x C. paradisi e laranjeira 'Caipira'(C. sinensis. Avaliou-se a qualidade dos frutos em sete safras e a curva de maturação foi estimada para os anos de 1999 e 2000. Todos os porta-enxertos proporcionaram qualidade aceitável aos frutos da laranjeira 'Valência', com destaque para o citrangeiro 'Troyer' que superou o limoeiro 'Cravo' em rendimento industrial. Em um ano considerado com padrão climático normal, a evolução do índice tecnológico ajustou-se a uma equação de regressão quadrática, proporcionando melhor rendimento industrial quando os frutos foram colhidos no início de novembro, independentemente do porta-enxerto utilizado.In order to evaluate the influence of six rootstocks on the maturation and the physical characteristics and chemical composition of 'Valência' fruits, a research was conducted in a field established in 1994, in Nova Esperança city, state of Paraná, Brazil. A complete randomized block design was used, with four replications, three evaluated trees per plot and six treatments, constituted by the rootstocks: 'Rangpur' lime (Citrus limonia, 'Cleopatra' (C. reshni and 'Sunki' (C. sunki mandarins, 'Troyer' citrange (Poncirus trifoliata x C. sinensis, 'orlando' tangelo (C. tangerina x C. paradisi and 'Caipira' sweet orange (C. sinensis. Fruit quality was evaluated along seven harvesting seasons and the maturation curve was

  14. Quality assessment of flour and bread from sweet potato wheat ...

    This study was to assess the quality of the flour and bread produced from sweet potato wheat composite flour blends. Matured and freshly harvested sweet potato (Ipomea batatas L.) was obtained from a local market in Akure, Nigeria. The tubers were thoroughly washed, peeled, washed again, drained, chipped, oven dried, ...

  15. Molecular characterization of two isolates of sweet potato leaf curl ...

    Jane

    2011-08-17

    Aug 17, 2011 ... related to that of sweet potato leaf curl virus (SPLCV) from United States with nucleotide sequence identity of ... species including Ipomoea indica, are grown orna- mentally all .... and AC4 were closely related to that of SPLCV-.

  16. Productivity and water use by rain-fed early maturing Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) varieties grown at different plant densities in a coastal savannah environment

    Amanor, Emmanuel Nartey

    2016-06-01

    The production of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) under rain-fed conditions at the Kwabenya-Atomic area in the coastal savannah environment is constrained by low and erratic rainfall events. Improving cassava production in the area requires the use of cassava varieties which are efficient in the use of limited soil moisture. The objective of the study was to evaluate the response of two early maturing cassava varieties to three (3) planting densities to TDM, RY, and WUE. The actual evapotranspiration was also partitioned into crop transpiration and soil evaporation using LAI data. The field experiment was conducted at Biotechnology and Nuclear Agriculture Research Institute (BNARI) research farm, Atomic Energy Commission (GAEC), Kwabenya-Atomic in 2015. The split plot design in three replicates was used. The two (2) cassava varieties, Bankye Hemaa and Capevars Bankye, were assigned to the main plots and three (3) planting densities: 10,000, 13,333 and 20,000 plants ha"-1 to the subplots. Plants were sampled each month and moisture in the 120 cm soil profile monitored every two weeks using the neutron probe (CPN 503 Hydroprobe). Soil moisture data were used to estimate actual evapotranspiration (AET) using the water balance approach. Root yield (RY) for Bankye Hemaa and Capevars Bankye, ranged from 2.8 to 15.1 t/ha"-1 for the 10,000 plants ha"-1, 4.2 to 18.1 t/ha"-1 for the 13,333 plants ha"-1 and 5.1 to 21.3 t/ha"-1 for the 20,000 plants ha"-1. Additionally, water use efficiency in term of total dry matter (WUETDM ) for the two cassava varieties ranged from 1.7 to 11.6, 2.3 to 12.8 and 3.7 to 12.4 kg ha"-1 mm"-1 for the 10,000, 13,333 and 20,000 plants ha"-1 planting density, respectively. Bankye Hemaa grown at 20,000 plants ha"-1 produced the highest root yield of 21.3 t/ha"-1 and WUETDM of 12.4 kg ha"-1 mm"-1, because of the comparatively lower soil evaporation which led to increased available soil water for crop use and higher crop transpiration, leading to

  17. Control of sweet potato virus diseases.

    Loebenstein, Gad

    2015-01-01

    Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) is ranked seventh in global food crop production and is the third most important root crop after potato and cassava. Sweet potatoes are vegetative propagated from vines, root slips (sprouts), or tubers. Therefore, virus diseases can be a major constrain, reducing yields markedly, often more than 50%. The main viruses worldwide are Sweet potato feathery mottle virus (SPFMV) and Sweet potato chlorotic stunt virus (SPCSV). Effects on yields by SPFMV or SPCSV alone are minor, or but in complex infection by the two or other viruses yield losses of 50%. The orthodox way of controlling viruses in vegetative propagated crops is by supplying the growers with virus-tested planting material. High-yielding plants are tested for freedom of viruses by PCR, serology, and grafting to sweet potato virus indicator plants. After this, meristem tips are taken from those plants that reacted negative. The meristems were grown into plants which were kept under insect-proof conditions and away from other sweet potato material for distribution to farmers after another cycle of reproduction. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Cultivo de híbridos de pimentão amarelo em fibra da casca de coco Performance of yellow sweet peppers hybrids grown in coconut husk fiber

    Hamilton César de O Charlo

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar a produtividade de cinco híbridos de pimentão amarelo em ambiente protegido, utilizando fibra de casca de coco e fertirrigação. Adotou-se o delineamento em blocos casualizados, com cinco cultivares (Zarco, CLXP 1463, Línea, Matador e Eppo, e quatro repetições, sendo cada parcela constituída por onze plantas. O cultivo de pimentão foi feito em sistema aberto em vasos plásticos de 13 L, transplantando-se uma muda por vaso, as quais foram produzidas em bandejas de poliestireno expandido. Adotou-se o espaçamento de 0,8 m entre fileiras simples, 1,10 m entre fileiras duplas e 0,5 m entre plantas. As plantas foram conduzidas com quatro hastes principais e tutoradas individualmente em forma de "V". A colheita dos frutos foi realizada quando estes atingiam o tamanho ideal e, no mínimo, 70% da coloração amarela. Avaliaram-se o comprimento e o diâmetro médio dos frutos, a relação comprimento/diâmetro, a espessura da polpa, o teor de sólidos solúveis totais, o pH, o número de frutos por planta, a massa total de frutos por planta, o peso médio dos frutos, a produtividade total e comercial, e a classificação dos frutos. O híbrido CLXP 1463 produziu frutos de maior comprimento e diâmetro. Este híbrido apresentou menor número de frutos por planta, porém com maior massa. Para as características espessura da polpa, sólidos solúveis totais e pH não se verificou diferença significativa entre os híbridos. Os híbridos CLXP 1463, Eppo e Matador se mostraram promissores, com produtividades comerciais de 107,61; 102,62 e 95,31 t ha-1, respectivamente. Os híbridos CLXP 1463, Eppo, Línea e Matador apresentaram toda a produção classificada como Extra.The yield of five yellow sweet pepper hybrids was evaluated in protected cultivation, using coconut fiber and fertirrigation. The experiment was arranged in a randomized blocks design, with five cultivars (Zarco, CLX 1463, Línea, Matador and Eppo and four

  19. Effect of Processing Methods on Nutrient Contents of Six Sweet ...

    in rural communities and was often given low priority. Currently ... (p≤0.05) differences between varieties in protein, fat, reducing sugars, carbohydrates, total carotenoids, calcium, iron ... maturity (about 5 months, average maturity rate for ... 630-12) (method. 968.08). ..... processing sweet potato by either boiling, roasting or.

  20. Determination of the watering scheme for naturally grown cane sugar cultures during the maturing period in the north of the Ivory Coast

    Langellier, P.

    1980-01-01

    In order to produce sugar canes of optimum richness at the time of harvesting, it is necessary to determine the duration of the weaning period and the water requirements prior to this period. This problem was studied for a naturally grown cane with a NCo 376 cycle grown in the north of the Ivory coast. Water balances were determined using neutronic and tensiometric methods. It was thus possible to confirm the practical usefulness of tensiometers and to establish a weaning period of one month and a half and to determine a vegetation coefficient K=0.5 [fr

  1. The current incidence of viral disease in korean sweet potatoes and development of multiplex rt-PCR assays for simultaneous detection of eight sweet potato viruses.

    Kwak, Hae-Ryun; Kim, Mi-Kyeong; Shin, Jun-Chul; Lee, Ye-Ji; Seo, Jang-Kyun; Lee, Hyeong-Un; Jung, Mi-Nam; Kim, Sun-Hyung; Choi, Hong-Soo

    2014-12-01

    Sweet potato is grown extensively from tropical to temperate regions and is an important food crop worldwide. In this study, we established detection methods for 17 major sweet potato viruses using single and multiplex RT-PCR assays. To investigate the current incidence of viral diseases, we collected 154 samples of various sweet potato cultivars showing virus-like symptoms from 40 fields in 10 Korean regions, and analyzed them by RT-PCR using specific primers for each of the 17 viruses. Of the 17 possible viruses, we detected eight in our samples. Sweet potato feathery mottle virus (SPFMV) and sweet potato virus C (SPVC) were most commonly detected, infecting approximately 87% and 85% of samples, respectively. Furthermore, Sweet potato symptomless virus 1 (SPSMV-1), Sweet potato virus G (SPVG), Sweet potato leaf curl virus (SPLCV), Sweet potato virus 2 ( SPV2), Sweet potato chlorotic fleck virus (SPCFV), and Sweet potato latent virus (SPLV) were detected in 67%, 58%, 47%, 41%, 31%, and 20% of samples, respectively. This study presents the first documented occurrence of four viruses (SPVC, SPV2, SPCFV, and SPSMV-1) in Korea. Based on the results of our survey, we developed multiplex RT-PCR assays for simple and simultaneous detection of the eight sweet potato viruses we recorded.

  2. The Current Incidence of Viral Disease in Korean Sweet Potatoes and Development of Multiplex RT-PCR Assays for Simultaneous Detection of Eight Sweet Potato Viruses

    Hae-Ryun Kwak

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Sweet potato is grown extensively from tropical to temperate regions and is an important food crop worldwide. In this study, we established detection methods for 17 major sweet potato viruses using single and multiplex RT-PCR assays. To investigate the current incidence of viral diseases, we collected 154 samples of various sweet potato cultivars showing virus-like symptoms from 40 fields in 10 Korean regions, and analyzed them by RT-PCR using specific primers for each of the 17 viruses. Of the 17 possible viruses, we detected eight in our samples. Sweet potato feathery mottle virus (SPFMV and sweet potato virus C (SPVC were most commonly detected, infecting approximately 87% and 85% of samples, respectively. Furthermore, Sweet potato symptomless virus 1 (SPSMV-1, Sweet potato virus G (SPVG, Sweet potato leaf curl virus (SPLCV, Sweet potato virus 2 ( SPV2, Sweet potato chlorotic fleck virus (SPCFV, and Sweet potato latent virus (SPLV were detected in 67%, 58%, 47%, 41%, 31%, and 20% of samples, respectively. This study presents the first documented occurrence of four viruses (SPVC, SPV2, SPCFV, and SPSMV-1 in Korea. Based on the results of our survey, we developed multiplex RT-PCR assays for simple and simultaneous detection of the eight sweet potato viruses we recorded.

  3. Clinicopathologic, Immunohistochemical, and Molecular Features of Histiocytoid Sweet Syndrome.

    Alegría-Landa, Victoria; Rodríguez-Pinilla, Socorro María; Santos-Briz, Angel; Rodríguez-Peralto, José Luis; Alegre, Victor; Cerroni, Lorenzo; Kutzner, Heinz; Requena, Luis

    2017-07-01

    Histiocytoid Sweet syndrome is a rare histopathologic variant of Sweet syndrome. The nature of the histiocytoid infiltrate has generated considerable controversy in the literature. The main goal of this study was to conduct a comprehensive overview of the immunohistochemical phenotype of the infiltrate in histiocytoid Sweet syndrome. We also analyze whether this variant of Sweet syndrome is more frequently associated with hematologic malignancies than classic Sweet syndrome. This is a retrospective case series study of the clinicopathologic, immunohistochemical, and molecular features of 33 patients with a clinicopathologic diagnosis of histiocytoid Sweet syndrome was conducted in the dermatology departments of 5 university hospitals and a private laboratory of dermatopathology. The clinical, histopathological, immunohistochemical, and follow-up features of 33 patients with histiocytoid Sweet syndrome were analyzed. In some cases, cytogenetic studies of the dermal infiltrate were also performed. We compare our findings with those of the literature. The dermal infiltrate from the 33 study patients (20 female; median age, 49 years; age range, 5-93 years; and 13 male; median age, 42 years; age range, 4-76 years) was mainly composed of myeloperoxidase-positive immature myelomonocytic cells with histiocytoid morphology. No cytogenetic anomalies were found in the infiltrate except in 1 case in which neoplastic cells of chronic myelogenous leukemia were intermingled with the cells of histiocytoid Sweet syndrome. Authentic histiocytes were also found in most cases, with a mature immunoprofile, but they appeared to be a minor component of the infiltrate. Histiocytoid Sweet syndrome was not more frequently related with hematologic malignancies than classic neutrophilic Sweet syndrome. The dermal infiltrate of cutaneous lesions of histiocytoid Sweet syndrome is composed mostly of immature cells of myeloid lineage. This infiltrate should not be interpreted as leukemia cutis.

  4. Quantitative trait loci for yield and grain plumpness relative to maturity in three populations of barley (Hordeum vulgare L. grown in a low rain-fall environment.

    Bulti Tesso Obsa

    Full Text Available Identifying yield and grain plumpness QTL that are independent of developmental variation or phenology is of paramount importance for developing widely adapted and stable varieties through the application of marker assisted selection. The current study was designed to dissect the genetic basis of yield performance and grain plumpness in southern Australia using three doubled haploid (DH populations developed from crosses between adapted parents that are similar in maturity and overall plant development. Three interconnected genetic populations, Commander x Fleet (CF, Commander x WI4304 (CW, and Fleet x WI4304 (FW developed from crossing of Australian elite barley genotypes, were used to map QTL controlling yield and grain plumpness. QTL for grain plumpness and yield were analysed using genetic linkage maps made of genotyping-by-sequencing markers and major phenology genes, and field trials at three drought prone environments for two growing seasons. Seventeen QTL were detected for grain plumpness. Eighteen yield QTL explaining from 1.2% to 25.0% of the phenotypic variation were found across populations and environments. Significant QTL x environment interaction was observed for all grain plumpness and yield QTL, except QPlum.FW-4H.1 and QYld.FW-2H.1. Unlike previous yield QTL studies in barley, none of the major developmental genes, including Ppd-H1, Vrn-H1, Vrn-H2 and Vrn-H3, that drive barley adaption significantly affected grain plumpness and yield here. Twenty-two QTL controlled yield or grain plumpness independently of known maturity QTL or genes. Adjustment for maturity effects through co-variance analysis had no major effect on these yield QTL indicating that they control yield per se.

  5. Medieval emergence of sweet melons, Cucumis melo (Cucurbitaceae).

    Paris, Harry S; Amar, Zohar; Lev, Efraim

    2012-07-01

    Sweet melons, Cucumis melo, are a widely grown and highly prized crop. While melons were familiar in antiquity, they were grown mostly for use of the young fruits, which are similar in appearance and taste to cucumbers, C. sativus. The time and place of emergence of sweet melons is obscure, but they are generally thought to have reached Europe from the east near the end of the 15th century. The objective of the present work was to determine where and when truly sweet melons were first developed. Given their large size and sweetness, melons are often confounded with watermelons, Citrullus lanatus, so a list was prepared of the characteristics distinguishing between them. An extensive search of literature from the Roman and medieval periods was conducted and the findings were considered in their context against this list and particularly in regard to the use of the word 'melon' and of adjectives for sweetness and colour. Medieval lexicographies and an illustrated Arabic translation of Dioscorides' herbal suggest that sweet melons were present in Central Asia in the mid-9th century. A travelogue description indicates the presence of sweet melons in Khorasan and Persia by the mid-10th century. Agricultural literature from Andalusia documents the growing of sweet melons, evidently casabas (Inodorous Group), there by the second half of the 11th century, which probably arrived from Central Asia as a consequence of Islamic conquest, trade and agricultural development. Climate and geopolitical boundaries were the likely causes of the delay in the spread of sweet melons into the rest of Europe.

  6. 77 FR 27658 - Common Crop Insurance Regulations; Processing Sweet Corn Crop Insurance Provisions

    2012-05-11

    ... farming operation. For instance, all producers are required to submit an application and acreage report to... price data from third party sources (e.g., Agricultural Marketing Service) for sweet corn grown under..., it was found that the base contract price more accurately reflects the value of processing sweet corn...

  7. Microbial quality and bioactive constituents of sweet peppers from sustainable production systems.

    Marín, Alicia; Gil, María I; Flores, Pilar; Hellín, Pilar; Selma, María V

    2008-12-10

    Integrated, organic, and soil-less production systems are the principal production practices that have emerged to encourage more sustainable agricultural practices and safer edible plants, reducing inputs of plaguicides, pesticides, and fertilizers. Sweet peppers grown commercially under integrated, organic, and soil-less production systems were compared to study the influence of these sustainable production systems on the microbial quality and bioactive constituents (vitamin C, individual and total carotenoids, hydroxycinnamic acids, and flavonoids). The antioxidant composition of peppers was analyzed at green and red maturity stages and at three harvest times (initial, middle, and late season). Irrigation water, manure, and soil were shown to be potential transmission sources of pathogens to the produce. Coliform counts of soil-less peppers were up to 2.9 log units lower than those of organic and integrated peppers. Soil-less green and red peppers showed maximum vitamin C contents of 52 and 80 mg 100 g(-1) fresh weight (fw), respectively, similar to those grown in the organic production system. Moreover, the highest content of total carotenoids was found in the soil-less red peppers, which reached a maximum of 148 mg 100 g(-1) fw, while slightly lower contents were found in integrated and organic red peppers. Hydroxycinnamic acids and flavonoids represented 15 and 85% of the total phenolic content, respectively. Total phenolic content, which ranged from 1.2 to 4.1 mg 100 g(-1) fw, was significantly affected by the harvest time but not by the production system assayed. Soil-less peppers showed similar or even higher concentrations of bioactive compounds (vitamin C, provitamin A, total carotenoid, hydroxycinnamic acids, and flavonoids) than peppers grown under organic and integrated practices. Therefore, in the commercial conditions studied, soil-less culture was a more suitable alternative than organic or integrated practices, because it improved the microbial

  8. Does 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid induce flowering in sweet ...

    Most sweet potato cultivars grown in Zimbabwe are poor in agronomic and quality traits and require improvement through breeding. However, most cultivars rarely flower yet the flowers are crucial in genetic improvements. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of different levels of 2, 4- dichlorophenoxyacetic acid ...

  9. Some physico-chemical properties and mineral contents of sweet ...

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-06-17

    Jun 17, 2009 ... contents of sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) type grown in Konya .... Working conditions of ICP-AES. Instrument: ICP-AES ... The volume of fruit (V) and fruit density (Pt), were determined using the liquid ... These differences can.

  10. Genetics of sweet taste preferences†

    Bachmanov, Alexander A; Bosak, Natalia P; Floriano, Wely B; Inoue, Masashi; Li, Xia; Lin, Cailu; Murovets, Vladimir O; Reed, Danielle R; Zolotarev, Vasily A; Beauchamp, Gary K

    2011-01-01

    Sweet taste is a powerful factor influencing food acceptance. There is considerable variation in sweet taste perception and preferences within and among species. Although learning and homeostatic mechanisms contribute to this variation in sweet taste, much of it is genetically determined. Recent studies have shown that variation in the T1R genes contributes to within- and between-species differences in sweet taste. In addition, our ongoing studies using the mouse model demonstrate that a sign...

  11. A Web Based Sweet Orange Crop Expert System using Rule Based System and Artificial Bee Colony Optimization Algorithm

    Prof.M.S.Prasad Babu,; Mrs.J.Anitha,; K.Hari Krishna

    2010-01-01

    Citrus fruits have a prominent place among popular and exclusively grown tropical and sub-tropical fruits. Their nature ,multifold nutritional and medicinal values have made them so important. Sweet Orange Crop expert advisory system is aimed at a collaborative venture with eminent Agriculture Scientist and Experts in the area of Sweet Orange Plantation with an excellent team of computer Engineers, Programmers and designers. This Expert System contains two main parts one is Sweet Orange Infor...

  12. Kernel compositions of glyphosate-tolerant and corn rootworm-protected MON 88017 sweet corn and insect-protected MON 89034 sweet corn are equivalent to that of conventional sweet corn (Zea mays).

    Curran, Kassie L; Festa, Adam R; Goddard, Scott D; Harrigan, George G; Taylor, Mary L

    2015-03-25

    Monsanto Co. has developed two sweet corn hybrids, MON 88017 and MON 89034, that contain biotechnology-derived (biotech) traits designed to enhance sustainability and improve agronomic practices. MON 88017 confers benefits of glyphosate tolerance and protection against corn rootworm. MON 89034 provides protection against European corn borer and other lepidopteran insect pests. The purpose of this assessment was to compare the kernel compositions of MON 88017 and MON 89034 sweet corn with that of a conventional control that has a genetic background similar to the biotech sweet corn but does not express the biotechnology-derived traits. The sweet corn samples were grown at five replicated sites in the United States during the 2010 growing season and the conventional hybrid and 17 reference hybrids were grown concurrently to provide an estimate of natural variability for all assessed components. The compositional analysis included proximates, fibers, amino acids, sugars, vitamins, minerals, and selected metabolites. Results highlighted that MON 88017 and MON 89034 sweet corns were compositionally equivalent to the conventional control and that levels of the components essential to the desired properties of sweet corn, such as sugars and vitamins, were more affected by growing environment than the biotech traits. In summary, the benefits of biotech traits can be incorporated into sweet corn with no adverse effects on nutritional quality.

  13. Honeybees as an aid in improving labour conditions in sweet bell pepper greenhouses: reduction of pollen allergy

    Steen, van der J.J.M.; Blacquière, T.; Jong, de N.W.; Groot, de H.

    2004-01-01

    Sweet bell pepper is the most important greenhouse vegetable crop in the Netherlands. It is grown on an area of 10,000 hectares, and about 8000 people are working in these greenhouses. One third of these workers sooner or later develop an occupational allergy to the sweet bell pepper pollen. The

  14. Citrus sinensis annotation project (CAP): a comprehensive database for sweet orange genome.

    Wang, Jia; Chen, Dijun; Lei, Yang; Chang, Ji-Wei; Hao, Bao-Hai; Xing, Feng; Li, Sen; Xu, Qiang; Deng, Xiu-Xin; Chen, Ling-Ling

    2014-01-01

    Citrus is one of the most important and widely grown fruit crop with global production ranking firstly among all the fruit crops in the world. Sweet orange accounts for more than half of the Citrus production both in fresh fruit and processed juice. We have sequenced the draft genome of a double-haploid sweet orange (C. sinensis cv. Valencia), and constructed the Citrus sinensis annotation project (CAP) to store and visualize the sequenced genomic and transcriptome data. CAP provides GBrowse-based organization of sweet orange genomic data, which integrates ab initio gene prediction, EST, RNA-seq and RNA-paired end tag (RNA-PET) evidence-based gene annotation. Furthermore, we provide a user-friendly web interface to show the predicted protein-protein interactions (PPIs) and metabolic pathways in sweet orange. CAP provides comprehensive information beneficial to the researchers of sweet orange and other woody plants, which is freely available at http://citrus.hzau.edu.cn/.

  15. Assimilation, partitioning, and nonstructural carbohydrates in sweet compared with grain sorghum

    Vietor, D.M.; Miller, F.R.

    1990-01-01

    Nonstructural carbohydrate concentrations in stems are greater for sweet than grain sorghums [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench]. Knowledge of plant characteristics associated with high nonstructural carbohydrates in sweet sorghum will air efforts to increase nonstructural carbohydrates in grain sorghum stems. This study tested the hypothesis that variation of CO 2 assimilation rate, leaf area, branching at upper nodes, and partitioning of 14 C-labeled assimilate to main stems are associated with variation of stem nonstructural carbohydrates. A sweet (Atlas X Rio) and a grain (ATx623 X RTx5388) hybrid, stages near and after physiological maturity, and defoliation and gibberellic acid (GA 3 ) treatments provided sources of variation for study. Concentrations of nonstructural carbohydrates in lower and upper stems of the sweet hybrid were 1.4 and 2.7 times higher, respectively, than for the grain hybrid, after physiological maturity. Variation in branching, including 14 C-assimilate partitioning to branches, was not consistently associated with hybrid differences in stem nonstructural carbohydrates. Increased recovery (twofold) of 14 C-assimilate in roots and labeled leaves corresponded with lower percentages of 14 C-assimilate and lower concentrations of nonstructural carbohydrates in stems of the grain hybrid. Leaf areas and leaf CO 2 exchange rate were twice as great for the sweet hybrid. Although defoliation of the sweet hybrid minimized leaf area differences between hybrids, the sweet hybrid accumulated twice as much nonstructural carbohydrates in branches after physiological maturity. Greater potentials for CO 2 assimilation and for 14 C-assimilate accumulation in mature stem tissue were associated with higher levels of stem nonstructural carbohydrates in the sweet compared with the grain hybrid

  16. Technical Feasibility and Comprehensive Sustainability Assessment of Sweet Sorghum for Bioethanol Production in China

    Xiaolin Yang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Under dual pressures of energy and environmental security, sweet sorghum is becoming one of the most promising feedstocks for biofuel production. In the present study, the technical feasibility of sweet sorghum production was assessed in eight agricultural regions in China using the Sweet Sorghum Production Technique Maturity Model. Three top typical agricultural zones were then selected for further sustainability assessment of sweet sorghum production: Northeast China (NEC, Huang-Huai-Hai Basin (HHHB and Ganxin Region (GX. Assessment results demonstrated that NEC exhibited the best sustainable production of sweet sorghum, with a degree of technical maturity value of 0.8066, followed by HHHB and GX, with corresponding values of 0.7531 and 0.6594, respectively. Prospective economic profitability analysis indicated that bioethanol production from sweet sorghum was not feasible using current technologies in China. More efforts are needed to dramatically improve feedstock mechanization logistics while developing new bioethanol productive technology to reduce the total cost. This study provides insight and information to guide further technological development toward profitable industrialization and large-scale sweet sorghum bioethanol production.

  17. Lodging markedly reduced the biomass of sweet sorghum via decreasing photosynthesis in saline-alkali field

    Guo, Jian Rong; Fan, Hai; Wang, Bao Shan

    2018-06-01

    Lodging is a serious problem in plant growth, especially in crops growth of the natural habitat. In order to determine the influence of lodging on the growth characters of sweet sorghum, plants grown in natural saline-alkali environment were used to investigate the fresh weight, dry weight, sugar content in the stalks and the photosynthesis index of salt tolerant crop sweet sorghum. Results showed that lodging significantly reduced the growth of sweet sorghum, the fresh weight and dry weight was only 28.3% and 22.5% of the normal plants when lodging occurred after 49 days. Lodging also reduced the stalks sugar content of sweet sorghum, the stalk sugar content of lodged plants was only 45.4% of that in the normal plants, when lodging occurred for 49 days. Lodging reduced the growth and sugar content by reducing the photosynthesis parameters of sweet sorghum grown in the saline-alkali field, thus, affected the accumulation of photosynthate. Interestingly, with the extension of the lodging time, lodging led to a decrease in photosynthetic rate of sweet sorghum mainly due to non-stomatal factors.

  18. Crop load and harvest maturity effects on consumer preferences for apricots.

    Stanley, Jill; Feng, Jinquan; Olsson, Shane

    2015-03-15

    Improving apricot fruit quality delivered to consumers is key to ensuring a successful apricot industry. Previous studies have focused on effects of either soluble solids content (SSC) or fruit firmness on consumer preferences, and results have been equivocal. This study evaluated the effects of crop load and harvest maturity how they affected on fruit SSC and firmness, and on subsequent consumer preferences. SSC of apricots was an important factor only when fruit were firmer than 15 N and not immature. When fruit were softer than 15 N, SSC had little influence on consumer liking. In general, consumers preferred fruit that were grown on trees thinned to approximately 10-20% less than typical commercial crop loads and were harvested in a more mature condition. Consumers also preferred fruit that had a higher sugar/acid ratio or BrimA value, which is the °Brix - k × titratable acidity, where k is a constant that varies between species and cultivars depending on the specific acids and sugars present. High apricot flavour and juiciness were associated with greater sweetness. Management practices that increase fruit SSC and sugar/acid ratio, such as reducing crop load, will improve consumer satisfaction as long as fruit are harvested at an adequate maturity stage and are maintained in storage so that they do not soften too quickly. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. Is the begomovirus, sweet potato leaf curl virus, really seed transmitted in sweetpotato?

    Sweetpotato is one of the major root crops in the world and is also widely grown in the southern United States. Sweet potato leaf curl virus (SPLCV) is a begomovirus posing a serious threat to sweetpotato production worldwide and is primarily transmitted by whitefly (Bemisia tabaci) or through veget...

  20. Fertilizer residence time affects nitrogen uptake efficiency and growth of sweet corn

    Zotarelli, L.; Scholberg, J.M.S.; Dukes, M.D.; Munoz-Carpena, R.

    2008-01-01

    Understanding plant N uptake dynamics is critical for increasing fertilizer N uptake efficiency (FUE) and minimize the risk of N leaching. The objective of this research was to determine the effect of residence time of N fertilizer on N uptake and FUE of sweet corn. Plants were grown in 25 L columns

  1. Hydroponic rescue and regeneration of Aeschynomene, Corchorus species, and Lablab purpureus (L.) sweet genetic resources

    Aeschynomene, Corchorus species, and Lablab purpureus (L. Sweet) have uses ranging from forage, vegetables, nutraceutical, and medicinal. Many of these will not flower nor produce seed when grown under normal field conditions in Griffin or Byron, GA because of juvenility, photoperiod and freeze-sens...

  2. Performance of Sweet Pepper under Protective Structure in Gazipur of Bangladesh

    GMA Halim

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Evaluation of sweet pepper cultivation under different protective structures was made in two consecutive seasons of 2007-08 and 2008-09 at the experimental field of Horticulture Research Center of BARI, Gazipur. One popular commercial capsicum variety California Wonder was included in the study with four protective structures (low height poly tunnel, polytunnel with side open, poly tunnel with side closed and poly house including control (open field. Protective structures had remarkable and significant influence on plant growth and yield of sweet pepper. The plants grown under protective structures had higher plant height compared to that of plants grown in open field. The highest individual fruit weight (65.2g was recorded form the plants grown under poly house condition while it was the lowest from open field grown plant (3.34 g. More than five fruits were harvested when the plants were grown under poly tunnel (side closed or poly house. The maximum fruit yield per plant (334.0g was recorded from poly house, which was 160.4% higher than that of plants grown under open field condition. The second highest yield was recorded from the plants of poly tunnel (212.5 indicating bright scope for sweet pepper cultivation under protective structures.

  3. Fuel ethanol production from sweet sorghum bagasse using microwave irradiation

    Marx, Sanette; Ndaba, Busiswa; Chiyanzu, Idan; Schabort, Corneels

    2014-01-01

    Sweet sorghum is a hardy crop that can be grown on marginal land and can provide both food and energy in an integrated food and energy system. Lignocellulose rich sweet sorghum bagasse (solid left over after starch and juice extraction) can be converted to bioethanol using a variety of technologies. The largest barrier to commercial production of fuel ethanol from lignocellulosic material remains the high processing costs associated with enzymatic hydrolysis and the use of acids and bases in the pretreatment step. In this paper, sweet sorghum bagasse was pretreated and hydrolysed in a single step using microwave irradiation. A total sugar yield of 820 g kg −1 was obtained in a 50 g kg −1 sulphuric acid solution in water, with a power input of 43.2 kJ g −1 of dry biomass (i.e. 20 min at 180 W power setting). An ethanol yield based on total sugar of 480 g kg −1 was obtained after 24 h of fermentation using a mixed culture of organisms. These results show the potential for producing as much as 0.252 m 3  tonne −1 or 33 m 3  ha −1 ethanol using only the lignocellulose part of the stalks, which is high enough to make the process economically attractive. - Highlights: • Different sweet sorghum cultivars were harvested at 3 and 6 months. • Sweet sorghum bagasse was converted to ethanol. • Microwave pretreatment and hydrolysis was done in a single step. • Sugar rich hydrolysates were converted to ethanol using co-fermentation

  4. Post-storage cell wall metabolism in two sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) cultivars displaying different postharvest performance

    Belge, Burcu; Comabella, Eva; Graell i Sarle, Jordi; Lara Ayala, Isabel

    2015-01-01

    The biochemical processes underlying firmness loss of sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) fruit are poorly understood.Studies on cell wall metabolism of sweet cherry have been generally undertaken during on-tree development or at harvest maturity, while published reports on postharvest changes are scarce and fragmentary. In this work, cell wall modifications after storage at 0 ºC were studied in two cherry cultivars ('Celeste' and 'Somerset') displaying different postharvest potential. Firmness wa...

  5. Characterization of Digestion Resistance Sweet Potato Starch ...

    Purpose: To analyze the physicochemical properties and in vitro digestibility of sweet potato starchphosphodiester prepared using sodium trimetaphosphate. Methods: The physicochemical properties of sweet potato starch phosphodiester were analyzed by using infrared spectrometry (IR), differential scanning calorimetry ...

  6. Effect of irradiation on sweet corn preservation

    Fu Junjie

    2002-01-01

    60 Co γ-ray was used to irradiate newly-harvested sweet corn and the results showed that the effects of irradiation on soluble solids, sucrose, starch and total sugar were not significant. The viscosity of starch decreased with the increasing of irradiation dose. The preservation duration of irradiated sweet corn was 7 days longer than that of CK, and the sweet, smell, taste of sweet corn had no abnormal change

  7. Alcoholic fermentation of stored sweet potatoes

    Yutaka, Y; One, H

    1958-01-01

    Sweet potatoes were ground and stored in a ground hold. The stored sweet potatoes gave about 90% fermentation efficiency by the koji process. A lower fermentation efficiency by the amylo process was improved by adding 20 to 30 mg/100 ml of organic N. Inorganic N has no effect in improving the fermentation efficiency of the stored sweet potatoes by the amylo process.

  8. Mutagenesis in sweet potato

    Zhen Hai Rou

    1997-01-01

    Stem explants of cv. 'Gao line 14' were cultured on the MS medium supplemented with 0.01 mg BA+1.0 mg NAA+2.0 mg IAA/l. The calli thus formed were irradiated with 5 Gy from a 60 Co gamma-ray. Irradiated calli were transferred to half-strength MS medium containing 2.0 mg KIN + 2.0 mg IAA/l to induce plant regeneration. An early ripening mutant with high yield and low tuber number was selected among the regenerated plants grown in a field. Embryogenic calli were obtained from stem pieces, stem-tips and leaves on MS medium supplemented with 2,4-D. (author). 1 ref

  9. Mutagenesis in sweet potato

    Rou, Zhen Hai [Horticultural Research Inst., Shanghai Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Shanghai (China)

    1997-07-01

    Stem explants of cv. `Gao line 14` were cultured on the MS medium supplemented with 0.01 mg BA+1.0 mg NAA+2.0 mg IAA/l. The calli thus formed were irradiated with 5 Gy from a {sup 60}Co gamma-ray. Irradiated calli were transferred to half-strength MS medium containing 2.0 mg KIN + 2.0 mg IAA/l to induce plant regeneration. An early ripening mutant with high yield and low tuber number was selected among the regenerated plants grown in a field. Embryogenic calli were obtained from stem pieces, stem-tips and leaves on MS medium supplemented with 2,4-D. (author). 1 ref.

  10. Maturity Models

    Lasrado, Lester Allan; Vatrapu, Ravi

    2016-01-01

    Recent advancements in set theory and readily available software have enabled social science researchers to bridge the variable-centered quantitative and case-based qualitative methodological paradigms in order to analyze multi-dimensional associations beyond the linearity assumptions, aggregate...... effects, unicausal reduction, and case specificity. Based on the developments in set theoretical thinking in social sciences and employing methods like Qualitative Comparative Analysis (QCA), Necessary Condition Analysis (NCA), and set visualization techniques, in this position paper, we propose...... and demonstrate a new approach to maturity models in the domain of Information Systems. This position paper describes the set-theoretical approach to maturity models, presents current results and outlines future research work....

  11. Quantification of the growth response of light quantity of greenhouse grown crops

    Marcelis, L.F.M.; Broekhuijsen, A.G.M.; Nijs, E.M.F.M.; Raaphorst, M.G.M.

    2006-01-01

    Growers have often assumed that a 1% increment in light results in a 1% yield increase. In this study, this rule of thumb has been evaluated for a number of greenhouse grown crops: fruit vegetables (cucumber, tomato, sweet pepper), soil grown vegetables (lettuce, radish), cut flowers (rose,

  12. Analysis of Traits Related to Weed Competitiveness in Sweet Corn (Zea mays L.

    Natalia de Leon

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Weed management in sweet corn can be costly; genetic improvements in sweet corn competitiveness may reduce this expense. Competitive ability can exist as weed suppressive ability (WSA, or crop tolerance (CT. Previous studies in corn have found year of hybrid release, maturity, plant height, leaf angle and leafiness may affect WSA, while hybrid era, maturity, and plant height may affect CT. However, many of these studies were limited to very few genotypes. The objective of this study was to assess the effects of phenomorphological traits on sweet corn competitiveness and the inheritance of these traits. An incomplete half-diallel from seven historic sweet corn inbred lines of varying morphologies was evaluated in a split-block randomized complete block design in three environments. Forage sorghum was interplanted in half of the blocks to act as a model weed. Significant differences among hybrids were generally found for both phenomorphological traits and traits measuring WSA and CT, such as sorghum biomass and yield stability, respectively. Crop plant height was most predictive of WSA and CT. In this set of genotypes, competitive ability may be passed with reasonable fidelity from parent to offspring, suggesting that sweet corn could be bred for competitive ability.

  13. Effect of Excessive Soil Moisture Stress on Sweet Sorghum: Physiological Changes and Productivity

    Zhang, F.; Wang, Y.; Yu, H.; Zhu, K.; Zhang, Z.; Zou, F. L. J.

    2016-01-01

    Sweet sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] is a potential bioenergy feedstock. Research explaining the response of sweet sorghum to excessive soil moisture (EM) stress at different growth stage is limited. To investigate the effect of EM stress on sweet sorghum antioxidant enzymes, osmotic regulation, biomass, quality, and ethanol production, an experiment was conducted in a glasshouse at the National Sorghum Improvement Center, Shenyang, China. Sweet sorghum (cv. LiaoTian1) was studied in four irrigation treatments with a randomized block design method. The results showed that the protective enzyme, particularly the SOD, CAT and APX in it, was significantly affected by EM stress. EM stress deleteriously affected sweet sorghum growth, resulting in a remarkable reduction of aboveground biomass, stalk juice quality, stalk juice yield, and thus, decreased ethanol yield. EM stress also caused significant reduction in plant relative water content, which further decreased stalk juice extraction rate. Sweet sorghum grown under light, medium, and heavy EM treatments displayed 5, 19, and 30% fresh stalk yield reduction, which showed a significant difference compared to control. The estimated juice ethanol yield significantly declined from 1407 ha/sup -1/ (under optimum soil moisture) to 1272, 970, and 734 L ha/sup -1/ respectively. (author)

  14. Mixing Tamiflu with Sweet Liquids

    If your doctor prescribes Tamiflu® capsules for your child and your child cannot swallow them, this podcast describes how to mix the contents of the capsules with a sweet thick liquid so they can be given that way.

  15. Effects of main traits of sweet sorghum irradiated by carbon ions

    Li Wenjian; He Jingyu; Liu Qingfang; Yu Lixia; Dong Xicun

    2009-01-01

    To investigate the influence of carbon ion irradiation on important agronomic characters of sweet sorghum, dry seeds of Sweet Sorghum BJ0601 and BJ0602 were irradiated by 100 MeV/u 12 C +6 ion beam to different doses at Heavy Ion Accelerator National Laboratory in Lanzhou (HIANLL). When matured, the main traits of sweet sorghum were measured. The correlation coefficient of five main agronomic characters, i.e. number of node, plant height, stalk diameter, sugar content and stem weight per plant, were analyzed using the SPSS 13.0 software. The results indicated that the obvious influence of sweet sorghum irradiated by carbon ion beam was observed. In addition, the correlation of main traits was studied. This study may provide rudimental data to select novel variety of sweet sorghum suited for fuel ethanol production. In addition, the average of sugar content of early mutant BJ0601-1 is higher than BJ0601 in M2, and the sugar content of sweet sorghum may be improved by carbon ion beam irradiation. (authors)

  16. Is Sweet Taste Perception Associated with Sweet Food Liking and Intake?

    Jayasinghe, Shakeela N; Kruger, Rozanne; Walsh, Daniel C I; Cao, Guojiao; Rivers, Stacey; Richter, Marilize; Breier, Bernhard H

    2017-07-14

    A range of psychophysical taste measurements are used to characterize an individual's sweet taste perception and to assess links between taste perception and dietary intake. The aims of this study were to investigate the relationship between four different psychophysical measurements of sweet taste perception, and to explore which measures of sweet taste perception relate to sweet food intake. Forty-four women aged 20-40 years were recruited for the study. Four measures of sweet taste perception (detection and recognition thresholds, and sweet taste intensity and hedonic liking of suprathreshold concentrations) were assessed using glucose as the tastant. Dietary measurements included a four-day weighed food record, a sweet food-food frequency questionnaire and a sweet beverage liking questionnaire. Glucose detection and recognition thresholds showed no correlation with suprathreshold taste measurements or any dietary intake measurement. Importantly, sweet taste intensity correlated negatively with total energy and carbohydrate (starch, total sugar, fructose, glucose) intakes, frequency of sweet food intake and sweet beverage liking. Furthermore, sweet hedonic liking correlated positively with total energy and carbohydrate (total sugar, fructose, glucose) intakes. The present study shows a clear link between sweet taste intensity and hedonic liking with sweet food liking, and total energy, carbohydrate and sugar intake.

  17. Molecular Characterization of Five Potyviruses Infecting Korean Sweet Potatoes Based on Analyses of Complete Genome Sequences

    Hae-Ryun Kwak

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Sweet potatoes (Ipomea batatas L. are grown extensively, in tropical and temperate regions, and are important food crops worldwide. In Korea, potyviruses, including Sweet potato feathery mottle virus (SPFMV, Sweet potato virus C (SPVC, Sweet potato virus G (SPVG, Sweet potato virus 2 (SPV2, and Sweet potato latent virus (SPLV, have been detected in sweet potato fields at a high (~95% incidence. In the present work, complete genome sequences of 18 isolates, representing the five potyviruses mentioned above, were compared with previously reported genome sequences. The complete genomes consisted of 10,081 to 10,830 nucleotides, excluding the poly-A tails. Their genomic organizations were typical of the Potyvirus genus, including one target open reading frame coding for a putative polyprotein. Based on phylogenetic analyses and sequence comparisons, the Korean SPFMV isolates belonged to the strains RC and O with >98% nucleotide sequence identity. Korean SPVC isolates had 99% identity to the Japanese isolate SPVC-Bungo and 70% identity to the SPFMV isolates. The Korean SPVG isolates showed 99% identity to the three previously reported SPVG isolates. Korean SPV2 isolates had 97% identity to the SPV2 GWB-2 isolate from the USA. Korean SPLV isolates had a relatively low (88% nucleotide sequence identity with the Taiwanese SPLV-TW isolates, and they were phylogenetically distantly related to SPFMV isolates. Recombination analysis revealed that possible recombination events occurred in the P1, HC-Pro and NIa-NIb regions of SPFMV and SPLV isolates and these regions were identified as hotspots for recombination in the sweet potato potyviruses.

  18. Effect of plant density and mixing ratio on crop yield in sweet corn/mungbean intercropping.

    Sarlak, S; Aghaalikhani, M; Zand, B

    2008-09-01

    In order to evaluate the ear and forage yield of sweet corn (Zea mays L. var. Saccarata) in pure stand and intercropped with mung bean (Vigna radiata L.), a field experiment was conducted at Varamin region on summer 2006. Experiment was carried out in a split plot design based on randomized complete blocks with 4 replications. Plant density with 3 levels [Low (D1), Mean (D2) and High (D3) respecting 6, 8 and 10 m(-2) for sweet corn, cultivar S.C.403 and 10, 20 and 30 m(-2) for mung bean cultivar, Partow] was arranged in main plots and 5 mixing ratios [(P1) = 0/100, (P2) = 25/75, (P3) = 50/50, (P4) = 75/25, (P5) = 100/0% for sweet corn/mung bean, respectively] were arranged in subplots. Quantitative attributes such as plant height, sucker numbers, LER, dry matter distribution in different plant organs were measured in sweet corn economical maturity. Furthermore the yield of cannable ear corn and yield components of sweet corn and mung bean were investigated. Results showed that plant density has not any significant effect on evaluated traits, while the effect of mixing ratio was significant (p ratio of 75/25 (sweet corn/mung bean) could be introduced as the superior mixing ratio; because of it's maximum rate of total sweet corn's biomass, forage yield, yield and yield components of ear corn in intercropping. Regarding to profitability indices of intercropping, the mixing ratio 75/25 (sweet corn/mung bean) in low density (D1P2) which showed the LER = 1.03 and 1.09 for total crop yield before ear harvesting and total forage yield after ear harvest respectively, was better than corn or mung bean monoculture.

  19. Genetic transformation of mature citrus plants.

    Cervera, Magdalena; Juárez, José; Navarro, Luis; Peña, Leandro

    2005-01-01

    Most woody fruit species have long juvenile periods that drastically prolong the time required to analyze mature traits. Evaluation of characteristics related to fruits is a requisite to release any new variety into the market. Because of a decline in regenerative and transformation potential, genetic transformation procedures usually employ juvenile material as the source of plant tissue, therefore resulting in the production of juvenile plants. Direct transformation of mature material could ensure the production of adult transgenic plants, bypassing in this way the juvenile phase. Invigoration of the source adult material, establishment of adequate transformation and regeneration conditions, and acceleration of plant development through grafting allowed us to produce transgenic mature sweet orange trees flowering and bearing fruits in a short time period.

  20. Effects of Plant Density on Sweet and Baby Corn (Hybrid KSC 403 Yield and Yield Components

    H Bavi

    2016-07-01

    GlM procedure. Means of all treatments were comprised using least significant difference (LSD at 5 % probability level. Results and Discussion The effects of plant density on yield components of baby corn was significant. Increasing the plant densities increased the ear number and percentage of non-standard ears. The Highest yield of ear without husk, standard and non-standard were obtained (2649.5, 766.97, and 3043.9 kg.ha-1, respectively with 13 plants.m-2. In sweet corn, increasing plant density from 7 to 13 plants.m-2, decreased row per ear, grain per row and thousand grain weight. Highest grain yield (1232.5 kg ha-1 and green ear (12607.2 kg ha-1 of sweet corn were obtained with plant density of 9.m-2. Conclusions Analysis of correlation showed that in both baby and sweet corn, there were positive and significant correlations between yield and its components. There was the high number of non-standard ears in all experimental treatments. In sweet corn, the standard ear without husk yield has positive and significant correlation with all traits except the percentage of standard ear and sheathed ear weight. In addition, unsuitable climate conditions during silking stage reduced the yield of sweet corn through the high number of aborted florets. Yield of sweet corn yield showed negative and significant correlation with grain row per ear and grain per row. However, increasing the ear number.m-2 increased yield in higher plant densities up to 9 plant.m-2 density. Generally, the baby corn had high yield with good quality in this region, but, standard ear percent of the baby corn of the hybrid KSC 403 was very low. On the other hand, sweet corn grain yield was low due to high air temperatures during pollination and maturity stages.

  1. Beyond maturity

    Tessmer, W.B.

    1990-01-01

    The Nuclear Power Plant Simulator Industry has undergone to decades of evolution in experience, technology and business practices. Link-Miles Simulation Corporation (LMSC) has been contracted to build 68 Full Scope Nuclear Simulators during the 1970's and 1980's. Traditional approaches to design, development and testing have been used to satisfy specifications for initial customer requirements. However, the Industry has matured. All U.S. Nuclear Utilities own, or have under contract, at least one simulator. Other industrial nations have centralized training facilities to satisfy the simulator training needs. The customer of the future is knowledgeable and experienced in the development and service of nuclear simulators. The role of the simulator vendor is changing in order to alter the traditional approach for development. Covenants between the vendors and their customers solidify new complementary roles. This paper presents examples of current simulator project development with recommendations for future endeavors

  2. Mixing Tamiflu with Sweet Liquids

    2009-11-16

    If your doctor prescribes Tamiflu® capsules for your child and your child cannot swallow them, this podcast describes how to mix the contents of the capsules with a sweet thick liquid so they can be given that way.  Created: 11/16/2009 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD).   Date Released: 11/16/2009.

  3. Sweet Spots and Door Stops

    Thompson, Michael; Tsui, Stella; Leung, Chi Fan

    2011-01-01

    A sweet spot is referred to in sport as the perfect place to strike a ball with a racquet or bat. It is the point of contact between bat and ball where maximum results can be produced with minimal effort from the hand of the player. Similar physics can be applied to the less inspiring examples of door stops; the perfect position of a door stop is…

  4. Physiological responses of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L. plants due to different copper concentrations

    Cristina Copstein Cuchiara

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available At low concentrations, Cu is considered as an essential micronutrient for plants and as a constituent and activator of several enzymes. However, when in excess, Cu can negatively affect plant growth and metabolism. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate physiological responses of sweet potato plants at different Cu concentrations by measuring morphological parameters, antioxidant metabolism, stomatal characteristics, and mineral profile. For this purpose, sweet potato plants were grown hydroponically in complete nutrient solution for six days. Then, the plants were transferred to solutions containing different Cu concentrations, 0.041 (control, 0.082, and 0.164 mM, and maintained for nine days. The main effect of increased Cu concentration was observed in the roots. The sweet potato plants grown in 0.082 mM Cu solution showed increased activity of antioxidant enzymes and no changes in growth parameters. However, at a concentration of 0.164 mM, Cu was transported from the roots to the shoots. This concentration altered morpho-anatomical characteristics and activated the antioxidant system because of the stress generated by excess Cu. On the basis of the results, it can be concluded that the sweet potato plants were able to tolerate Cu toxicity until 0.082 mM.

  5. Main viruses in sweet cherry plantations of Central-Western Spain

    Rodrigo Pérez Sánchez

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Sweet cherry trees (Prunus avium L. are susceptible to a range of diseases, but there have been no studies to date about the viral infection of sweet cherry trees in Spain. To determine the phytosanitary status of Spanish sweet cherry plantations, the incidence and leaf symptoms induced by Prune dwarf (PDV, Prunus necrotic ringspot (PNRSV and Apple chlorotic leaf spot (ACLSV viruses were investigated during 2009. Young leaf samples were taken from 350 sweet cherry trees, corresponding to 17 cultivars, and were analysed by double antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (DAS-ELISA. To associate the leaf symptoms with the virus, 50 mature leaves from each infected tree were visually inspected during the summer. The ELISA results revealed that 72 % of sweet cherry trees were infected by at least one of the viruses. PDV occurred in all sampled cultivars and presented the highest infection rate, followed by ACLSV and PNRSV. A high number of trees showed asymptomatic, in both single and mixed infections. The leaf symptoms associated with the viruses involved generalized chlorosis around the midvein (PDV, chlorotic and dark brown necrotic ringspots on both secondary veins and intervein regions (PNRSV, chlorotic and reddish necrotic ringspots (ACLSV and generalized interveinal chlorosis (PDV-PNRSV.

  6. Sweet's syndrome – a comprehensive review of an acute febrile neutrophilic dermatosis

    Cohen Philip R

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Sweet's syndrome (the eponym for acute febrile neutrophilic dermatosis is characterized by a constellation of clinical symptoms, physical features, and pathologic findings which include fever, neutrophilia, tender erythematous skin lesions (papules, nodules, and plaques, and a diffuse infiltrate consisting predominantly of mature neutrophils that are typically located in the upper dermis. Several hundreds cases of Sweet's syndrome have been published. Sweet's syndrome presents in three clinical settings: classical (or idiopathic, malignancy-associated, and drug-induced. Classical Sweet's syndrome (CSS usually presents in women between the age of 30 to 50 years, it is often preceded by an upper respiratory tract infection and may be associated with inflammatory bowel disease and pregnancy. Approximately one-third of patients with CSS experience recurrence of the dermatosis. The malignancy-associated Sweet's syndrome (MASS can occur as a paraneoplastic syndrome in patients with an established cancer or individuals whose Sweet's syndrome-related hematologic dyscrasia or solid tumor was previously undiscovered; MASS is most commonly related to acute myelogenous leukemia. The dermatosis can precede, follow, or appear concurrent with the diagnosis of the patient's cancer. Hence, MASS can be the cutaneous harbinger of either an undiagnosed visceral malignancy in a previously cancer-free individual or an unsuspected cancer recurrence in an oncology patient. Drug-induced Sweet's syndrome (DISS most commonly occurs in patients who have been treated with granulocyte-colony stimulating factor, however, other medications may also be associated with DISS. The pathogenesis of Sweet's syndrome may be multifactorial and still remains to be definitively established. Clinical and laboratory evidence suggests that cytokines have an etiologic role. Systemic corticosteroids are the therapeutic gold standard for Sweet's syndrome. After initiation of treatment

  7. Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L. growing in conditions of southern Slovak republic

    Miroslav Šlosár

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L. belongs to very important crops from aspect of its world production. It is grown in large areas in Asia, on the contrary, sweet potato production in Europe presents minimal part of its total world rate. The sweet potato is less-known crop, grown only on small area in home gardens in Slovak Republic. Tubers of sweet potato are characterized by anti-diabetic, anti-oxidant and anti-proliferative properties due to the presence of valuable health-promoting components, such as carotenoids or vitamin C. The main objective of study was testing of sweet potato growing in conditions of southern Slovak Republic with focus on quantity and quality of its yield. The field trial was realised on land of the Slovak University of Agriculture in Nitra in 2015. Within trial, effect of cultivar and mulching on the selected quantitative (average tuber weight; yield per plant; yield in t.ha-1 and qualitative (total carotenoids; vitamin C parameters were tested. One certified cultivar of sweet potato 'Beauregard' was used as a comparative cultivar. Other two cultivars were marked according to the market place at which were purchased and sequentially used for seedling preparation. Tubers of first un-known cultivar were purchased in the Serbian market (marked as 'Serbian'. Tubers of next sweet potato cultivar were purchased on the market in Zagreb (marked as 'Zagrebian'. Outplating of sweet potato seedlings were realised on the 19th May 2015. The sweet potato was grown by hillock system. Each cultivar was planted in two variants (rows: non-mulching (bare soil and mulching by black non-woven textile. All variants were divided to three replications with 6 plants. Difference between rows was 1.20 m and seedlings were planted in distance of 0.30 m in row. The harvested tubers were classified in two size classes: >150 g (marketable yield and <150 g (non-marketable yield. Total carotenoid content was determined spectrophotometrically. The

  8. Proximate analysis of Sweet Potato Toasted Granules

    Revd Dr Olaleye

    Sweet potato varieties with dark orange flesh have more beta carotene than those with light colored flesh and their increased cultivation is being encouraged in Africa where Vitamin A deficiency is a serious health problem. Sweet potato fries are a common preparation in most African homes. Its leaves are a common side ...

  9. Sweet potato in gluten-free pancakes.

    Gluten-free pancakes were prepared using rice flour, and rice flour replaced with various amounts, at 10, 20, and 40% of sweet potato flour. At 40% sweet potato, the apparent viscosity became comparable to that of the traditional wheat pancake batter. Texture properties of the cooked pancakes, such...

  10. Storage performance of Taiwanese sweet potato cultivars.

    Huang, Che-Lun; Liao, Wayne C; Chan, Chin-Feng; Lai, Yung-Chang

    2014-12-01

    Three sweet potato cultivars (TNG57, TNG66, and TNG73), provided by the Taiwanese Agricultural Research Institute (TARI), were stored at either 15 °C or under ambient conditions (23.8 ~ 28.4 °C and 77.1 ~ 81.0 % of relative humidity). Sweet potato roots were randomly chosen from each replicate and evaluated for measurement of weight loss, sugar content analysis, and sprouting after 0, 14, 24, 48, 56, 70, 84, and 98 days of storage. Fresh sweet potato roots were baked at 200 °C for 60 min then samples were taken for sugar analysis. After 14 days of ambient condition storage, the sprouting percentages for TNG57, TNG66, and TNG73 were 100, 85, and 95 % respectively. When sweet potatoes were stored at 15 °C, the weight loss became less and no sweet potato root sprouted after 14 days of storage. Because manufacturers can store sweet potatoes at 15 °C for almost 2 month without other treatments, the supply capacity shortage in July and September can be reduced. The total sugar content slowly increased along with increasing the storage time. After baking, the total sugar content of sweet potatoes significantly increased due to the formation of maltose. Maltose became the major sugar of baked sweet potatoes. Raw sweet potatoes stored at 15 °C had higher total sugar contents after baking than those stored under ambient conditions. Raw sweet potatoes were recommended to be stored at 15 °C before baking.

  11. Detection of sweet potato virus C, sweet potato virus 2 and sweet potato feathery mottle virus in Portugal.

    Varanda, Carla M R; Santos, Susana J; Oliveira, Mônica D M; Clara, Maria Ivone E; Félix, Maria Rosário F

    2015-06-01

    Field sweet potato plants showing virus-like symptoms, as stunting, leaf distortion, mosaic and chlorosis, were collected in southwest Portugal and tested for the presence of four potyviruses, sweet potato virus C (SPVC), sweet potato virus 2 (SPV2), sweet potato feathery mottle virus (SPFMV), sweet potato virus G (SPVG), and the crinivirus sweet potato chlorotic stunt virus (SPCSV). DsRNA fractions were extracted from symptomatic leaves and used as templates in single and multiplex RT-PCR assays using previously described specific primers for each analyzed virus. The amplified reaction products for SPVC, SPV2 and SPFMV were of expected size, and direct sequencing of PCR products revealed that they correspond to the coat protein gene (CP) and showed 98%, 99% and 99% identity, respectively, to those viruses. Comparison of the CP genomic and amino acid sequences of the Portuguese viral isolates recovered here with those of ten other sequences of isolates obtained in different countries retrieved from the GenBank showed very few differences. The application of the RT-PCR assays revealed for the first time the presence of SPVC and SPFMV in the sweet potato crop in Portugal, the absence of SPVG and SPCSV in tested plants, as well as the occurrence of triple virus infections under field conditions.

  12. 7 CFR 915.332 - Florida avocado maturity regulation.

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Florida avocado maturity regulation. 915.332 Section... SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AVOCADOS GROWN IN SOUTH FLORIDA Container and Pack Regulations § 915.332 Florida avocado maturity regulation. (a...

  13. Morphometric characteristics of sweet chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill. fruits

    Oľga Grygorieva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim of this study was to determine morphometric differences of fruits between selected sweet chestnuts (Castanea sativa Mill.. The 28 genotypes (referred as CS-01 to CS-28 were introduced by seeds from Czech Republic, Carpathians, Kyrgyzstan. Genotypes of sweet chestnut are grow more than 30 years in Forest-Steppe of Ukraine in the M.M. Gryshko National Botanical Garden of NAS of Ukraine. They are well adapted to the climatic and soil conditions. The fruits were collected at the period of their full maturity (September. The population differs in weight, shape, size and color of fruits. Their morphometric parameters were following: weight from 1.70 g (CS-26 to 18.60 g (CS-20, length from 8.07 mm (CS-28 to 33.39 mm (CS-11, width from 16.34 mm (CS-28 to 40.95 mm (CS-11, thickness from 9.02 mm (CS-26 to 28.70 mm (CS-11 and hilum length from 6.62 mm (CS-26 to 31.30 mm (CS-07, hilum width from 6.50 mm (CS-23 to 19.99 mm (CS-07. The shape index of the fruits was found in the range of 0.81 (CS-20 to 0.98 (CS-12. The shape index of the hilum was found in the range of 1.48 (CS-04 to 2.03 (CS-23. The outcome of the research point to the fact that the genepool Ukrainian sweet chestnut is a rich source of genetic diversity and might be used in selection for creation a new genotypes and cultivars. Normal 0 21 false false false EN-GB X-NONE X-NONE Bitter and sweet tasting molecules: It's complicated.

    Di Pizio, Antonella; Ben Shoshan-Galeczki, Yaron; Hayes, John E; Niv, Masha Y

    2018-04-19

    "Bitter" and "sweet" are frequently framed in opposition, both functionally and metaphorically, in regard to affective responses, emotion, and nutrition. This oppositional relationship is complicated by the fact that some molecules are simultaneously bitter and sweet. In some cases, a small chemical modification, or a chirality switch, flips the taste from sweet to bitter. Molecules humans describe as bitter are recognized by a 25-member subfamily of class A G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) known as TAS2Rs. Molecules humans describe as sweet are recognized by a TAS1R2/TAS1R3 heterodimer of class C GPCRs. Here we characterize the chemical space of bitter and sweet molecules: the majority of bitter compounds show higher hydrophobicity compared to sweet compounds, while sweet molecules have a wider range of sizes. Importantly, recent evidence indicates that TAS1Rs and TAS2Rs are not limited to the oral cavity; moreover, some bitterants are pharmacologically promiscuous, with the hERG potassium channel, cytochrome P450 enzymes, and carbonic anhydrases as common off-targets. Further focus on polypharmacology may unravel new physiological roles for tastant molecules. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Sweet Potato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam].

    Song, Guo-qing; Yamaguchi, Ken-ichi

    2006-01-01

    Among the available transformation methods reported on sweet potato, Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation is more successful and desirable. Stem explants have shown to be ideal for the transformation of sweet potato because of their ready availability as explants, the simple transformation process, and high-frequency-regeneration via somatic embryogenesis. Under the two-step kanamycin-hygromycin selection method and using the appropriate explants type (stem explants), the efficiency of transformation can be considerably improved in cv. Beniazuma. The high efficiency in the transformation of stem explants suggests that the transformation protocol described in this chapter warrants testing for routine stable transformation of diverse varieties of sweet potato.

  15. 21 CFR 163.123 - Sweet chocolate.

    2010-04-01

    ... CONSUMPTION CACAO PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cacao Products § 163.123 Sweet chocolate. (a... specified in paragraph (b)(3) of this section are used in the breakfast cocoa, the label shall bear an...

  16. Dissipation rate of acetamiprid in sweet cherries

    Sanja Lazić

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Degradation of acetamiprid in sweet cherry samples was evaluated at several intervals from the product application until the end of the pre-harvest interval. An orchard of sweet cherries located at Stepanovićevo village near Novi Sad was used in this study. Acetamiprid was applied according to the manufacturer’s recommendation for protecting sweet cherries from their most important pests. Sweet cherry fruit samples were collected at eight intervals: immediately after acetamiprid application and 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12 and 14 days after application. The extraction of acetamiprid from sweet cherry samples was performed using a QuEChERS-based method. Determination was carried out using an HPLC-UV diode array detection system (Agilent 1100, United States with an Agilent Zorbax Eclipse C18 column (50 mm × 4.6 mm internal diameter, 1.8 μm particle size. The method was subjected to a thorough validation procedure. The recovery data were obtained by spiking blank sweet cherry samples at three concentration levels (0.1-0.3 mg/ kg, yielding 85.4% average recovery. Precision values expressed as relative standard deviation (RSD were below 1.61% for the intraday precision. Acetamiprid showed linear calibrations from 0.05 to 2.5 μg/ml with correlation coefficient (R2 of 0.995%. The limit of detection and limit of quantification were found to be 5 μg/kg and 14 μg/kg, respectively. The validated method was applied in the analysis of acetamiprid in sweet cherry samples. During the study period, the concentration of acetamiprid decreased from 0.529 mg/kg to 0.111 mg/kg. The content of acetamiprid in sweet cherry samples at the end of the pre-harvest interval was below the maximum permissible level specified by the Serbian and EU MRLs.

  17. Sweet syndrome revealing systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Quinn, N

    2015-02-01

    Sweet Syndrome is an acute inflammatory skin eruption which is rare in children. We report a case of childhood Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) that presented with Sweet syndrome. This case is a unique presentation of a common disorder which provides a new facet for the differential diagnosis of SLE in children. It is also the first paediatric case to be reported in a Caucasian child.

  18. Diversity in chemical composition and yield of essential oil from two Iranian landraces of sweet basil

    Ghasemi Pirbalouti Abdollah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ocimum basilicum L. belongs to the family Lamiaceae is an herb that is extensively cultivated in some countries. Areal parts, especially leaves of sweet basil are widely used to enhance the flavour of foods such as salads, pasta, tomato products, vegetables, pizza, meat, soups, marine foods, confectioneries and other products. Essential oil yield and chemical components of two Iranian landraces of sweet basil including “Purple” and “Green” grown south-central of Iran (Isfahan province were investigated. The hydro-distillated oils were analyzed by GC-MS. The oil yields were obtained from the aerial of Purple with 0.56 ml/100 g dry matter and the aerial of Green with 0.48 ml/100 g dry matter. Results indicated significant differences (p < 0.01 among the aerial for the main constituents in the essential oil from two Iranian landraces of sweet basil. The major constituents of the essential oil from the aerial of Purple landrace were methyl chavicol or estragol (63.32% and linalool (7.96%. The main compositions of the essential oil from the aerial of Green landrace were methyl chavicol (31.82%, geranial (24.60% and neral (22.65%. Genarlly, a comparison of our results with the previous reports suggests differences in the essential oil compositions and oil yield of the plant material could be attributed to genetic diversity in two Iranian landraces of sweet basil.

  19. Improving properties of sweet potato composite flour: Influence of lactic fermentation

    Yuliana, Neti; Nurdjanah, Siti; Setyani, Sri; Novianti, Dini

    2017-06-01

    The use of locally grown crops such as sweet potato as raw material for composite flour is considered advantageous as it reduces the importation of wheat flour. However the use of native sweetpotato flour has drawback properties when applied in the food. This study was aimed to modify sweet potato flour through six methods of lactic fermentation (spontaneous, pickle brine, Lb plantarum, Lc mesentereoides, a mixed of Lb plantarum and Lc mesentereoides, and mixed of Lb plantarum, Lc mesentereoides and yeast) to increase its properties in composite flour. Composite flours were obtained after fermentation of sweet potato slices for 48h in the proportion of 50% sweet potatoes flour and 50% wheat flour. pH, moisture content, swelling power, solubility, and pasting properties were determined for the fermented and unfermented composite flours. The results indicated that the composite fermented flours had better properties than those of non fermented flour. Fermentation increased swelling power, moisture content, meanwhile, solubility, and pH, deacresed. Amylose leaching, however, was not significantly affected by the fermentation process.

  1. Growing sweet sorghum as a source of fermentable sugars for energy

    Gascho, G.J.; Nichols, R.L.; Powell-Gaines, T.

    1984-08-01

    Studies were undertaken on the southern coastal plain (Georgia) of the USA on sweet sorghum to evaluate its potential as a fuel ethanol feedstock. Field experiments were designed over three years to study several aspects of the production of fermentable sugars from sweet sorghum and these included cultivar types, fertility needs, weed control and growth regulation. Wray was the best cultivar, producing a high sugar per hectare. To justify the operation of an ethanol plant, sweet sorghum should be harvested over a period of months, so cultivars were selected for yearly, medium and late maturity, thus ensuring a constant supply of feedstock over a four month period. The fertility needs of sweet sorghum appear to be relatively low and the yield response to applications of N, P, K are given. The best weed control was achieved by treating with Propazine plus Metolacheor. Application of several growth regulators such as Gibberellin didn't significantly increase the yield of sugars. Finally, a method to measure the fermentable sugars was developd using the Technicon Autoanalyser II.

  2. Evapotranspiração máxima do pimentão cultivado em estufa plástica em função de variáveis fenométricas e meteorológicas Maximum evapotranspiration of sweet pepper grown in plastic greenhouse based upon meteorological and fenometrical variables

    Carina R. Pivetta

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se, neste trabalho, estimar a evapotranspiração máxima (ETm do pimentão, em função da evaporação medida no evaporímetro de Piche (Epi exposto à radiação solar, com e sem a inclusão de variáveis meteorológicas e fenométricas pontuais de fácil mensuração. Em uma estufa plástica de 240 m² se realizaram medidas da ETm (em lisímetros de drenagem, Epi, temperatura do ar, déficit de saturação do ar (Di, índice de área foliar (IAF, altura de plantas (AP e número de folhas (NF. Ajustaram-se modelos para estimar a ETm com os dados coletados selecionando-se apenas os que apresentaram parâmetros angulares significativos pelo teste t a 5% de probabilidade de erro e coeficiente de determinação (R² > 0,80. Obtiveram-se os melhores modelos para a estimativa da ETm com os valores da Epi associados a um parâmetro de crescimento das plantas, como IAF, NF e AP. Foi possível estimar a ETm do pimentão com precisão aceitável (R² entre 0,81 e 0,91, para fins de irrigação sob estufa, por meio de modelos que incluíram a Epi e pelo menos uma variável fenométrica, preferencialmente a AP. A inclusão de Di medido às 9 h nos modelos em que se incluíram a Epi e AP ou NF ou IAF, melhorou a estimativa da ETm.The objective of this study was to estimate maximum evapotranspiration (ETm of sweet pepper inside a plastic greenhouse as a function of evaporation measured with "Piche" evaporimeter (Epi exposed to solar radiation, with and without easily measured meteorological and phenologic variables. The experiment was carried out inside a 240 m² plastic greenhouse. Daily ETm (measured with drainage lysimeters, Epi, air temperature, vapor pressure deficit (Di, leaf area index (LAI, plant height (PH, and leaf number (LN were measured. Models were fitted to estimate ETm using data collected on even days of the experimental period, selecting only models with parameters significant at 5% by t test and coefficient of determination (R

  3. Effect of growing conditions at greenhouse on vitamin E content in sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum L. fruits

    Marcin Horbowicz

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The studies on effect of growing conditions on vitamin E content in fruits of two cultivars of sweet pepper (Bendigo F1 and Lamuyo F1 were carried out. The influence of growing substrate type (sphagnum peat or rockwool, Flormin, Poland, season of fruits harvesting (Summer or Autumn and dosages of mineral Iiquid nutrition were investigated. It was found that fruits of sweet pepper grown in rockwool contained more vitamin E than those from sphagnum peat substrate (ring culture, during Summer harvesting„ ln Autumn differences appeared too. but most of them were not statistically proved. The sweet pepper fruits harvested at Summer contained more vitamin E than fruits from Autumn. There were not significant differences among vitamin E level in fruits of the plants cultivated in rockwool at different dosages of fertilizers.

  4. Maturity and maturity models in lean construction

    Claus Nesensohn

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent years there has been an increasing interest in maturity models in management-related disciplines; which reflects a growing recognition that becoming more mature and having a model to guide the route to maturity can help organisations in managing major transformational change. Lean Construction (LC is an increasingly important improvement approach that organisations seek to embed. This study explores how to apply the maturity models to LC. Hence the attitudes, opinions and experiences of key industry informants with high levels of knowledge of LC were investigated. To achieve this, a review of maturity models was conducted, and data for the analysis was collected through a sequential process involving three methods. First a group interview with seven key informants. Second a follow up discussion with the same individuals to investigate some of the issues raised in more depth. Third an online discussion held via LinkedIn in which members shared their views on some of the results. Overall, we found that there is a lack of common understanding as to what maturity means in LC, though there is general agreement that the concept of maturity is a suitable one to reflect the path of evolution for LC within organisations.

  5. Slab replacement maturity guidelines.

    2014-04-01

    This study investigated the use of maturity method to determine early age strength of concrete in slab : replacement application. Specific objectives were (1) to evaluate effects of various factors on the compressive : maturity-strength relationship ...

  6. Sweet eating: a definition and the development of the Dutch Sweet Eating Questionnaire.

    van den Heuvel, Margot; Hörchner, Rogier; Wijtsma, Anneke; Bourhim, Noufissa; Willemsen, Dascha; Mathus-Vliegen, Elisabeth M H

    2011-06-01

    Previous studies have suggested that patients who are defined as so-called sweet eaters have more difficulties to lose weight and to maintain weight loss after both conservative treatment and restrictive bariatric surgery, such as gastric banding. There is, however, no agreement on the definition of sweet eating. Also, a questionnaire to measure sweet eating is not available. Therefore, the aim of our study was to agree on a definition of sweet eating and to construct a valid and reliable questionnaire that might be of help to assess the influence of sweet eating on weight loss after bariatric surgery. A Delphi Study design was chosen to define sweet eating. Based on the Delphi rounds, a questionnaire with self-reported sweets intake was constructed and validated. Nine experts with different scientific backgrounds participated in the Delphi Study which consisted of four rounds. They finally agreed on the definition that sweet eating can be defined as an eating behavior in which at least 50% of daily consumed carbohydrates consist of simple carbohydrates and which can be triggered by emotional factors (i.e., stress). They did not include the intake of artificial sweeteners in the definition. The Dutch Sweet Eating Questionnaire built on the four Delphi rounds was tested in 138 female patients and appeared to be both valid and reliable. A shortcoming of this study is that the results may not be applicable to males and to non-Western populations. The definition and the questionnaire may be useful in future research regarding sweet eating and bariatric surgery outcomes in morbidly obese patients.

  7. An HPLC-MS Characterization of the Changes in Sweet Orange Leaf Metabolite Profile following Infection by the Bacterial Pathogen Canditatus Liberibacter asiaticus

    Huanglonbing1 (HLB) presumably caused by Canditatus Liberibacter asiaticus (Clas) threatens the commercial U.S. citrus crop of an annual value of $3 billion. The earliest significant differences between the metabolomes of leaves from greenhouse-grown sweet orange trees infected with Clas and of heal...

  8. Effects of Moringa oleifera LAM, Leguminous Plants and NPK Fertilizer Comparatively on Orange Fleshed Sweet Potato in Alley Cropping System

    IN Abdullahi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The research work conducted at the Teaching and Research Farm of University of Abuja was aimed at assessing the effect of Moringa oleifera, selected leguminous plants and inorganic fertilizer on the performance of orange fleshed sweet potato in Alley Cropping System. Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD using five treatments with three replications was applied. Data collected include: percentage survival of sweet potato, length per vine (cm, number of leaves per vine, leaf area of sweet potato, weed dry matter (g/m2, yield of sweet potato roots. Highest number of leaves (28 per plant was recorded in the control plot while the plots with NPK fertilizer had the highest length per vine (94.55cm though not significantly (p>0.05 different from others. Higher percent survival (88% of sweet potato was recorded from control plots. Stands grown in Arachis hypogeae plots produced the highest leaf area (0.202m2 while plots in which NPK fertilizer was applied experienced highest weed dry matter (4.083g/m2 although highest root yield (1.2t/ha was recorded from the plots with NPK fertilizer. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v3i3.11061 International Journal of Environment Vol.3(3 2014: 24-35

  9. Nasal Foreign Bodies: A Sweet Experiment.

    Leopard, D C; Williams, R G

    2015-10-01

    It is generally accepted that paediatric intranasal foreign bodies should be removed in the emergency setting. In the case of a difficult to access dissolvable foreign body in an uncooperative child, the question must be raised regarding whether or not a watch and wait strategy is more appropriate. We ask: How long does it take for popular sweets (candy) to dissolve in the human nose? Five popular UK sweets were placed in the right nasal cavity of a 29-year-old male (the author) with no sino-nasal disease. Time taken to dissolve was recorded. All five sweets were completely dissolved in under one hour. A watch and wait strategy in favour of examination under anaesthetic may be a viable option in some cases. Limitations of the study include the age of the participant and size of the sweets. It is also important in practice that the clinician is able to elicit an accurate history regarding the exact nature of the foreign body. It remains prudent to perform an examination under anaesthetic of an uncooperative child with a solid or unknown nasal foreign body. However, if the clinician can be certain the foreign body is a small sugar or chocolate based sweet only, a watch and wait strategy may be a reasonable choice. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Finding your innovation sweet spot.

    Goldenberg, Jacob; Horowitz, Roni; Levav, Amnon; Mazursky, David

    2003-03-01

    Most new product ideas are either uninspired or impractical. So how can developers hit the innovation sweet spot--far enough from existing products to attract real interest but close enough that they are feasible to make and market? They can apply five innovation patterns that manipulate existing components of a product and its immediate environment to come up with something both ingenious and viable, say the authors. The subtraction pattern works by removing product components, particularly those that seem desirable or indispensable. Think of the legless high chair that attaches to the kitchen table. The multiplication pattern makes one or more copies of an existing component, then alters those copies in some important way. For example, the Gillette double-bladed razor features a second blade that cuts whiskers at a slightly different angle. By dividing an existing product into its component parts--the division pattern--you can see something that was an integrated whole in an entirely different light. Think of the modern home stereo--it has modular speakers, tuners, and CD and tape players, which allow users to customize their sound systems. The task unification pattern involves assigning a new task to an existing product element or environmental attribute, thereby unifying two tasks in a single component. An example is the defrosting filament in an automobile windshield that also serves as a radio antenna. Finally, the attribute dependency pattern alters or creates the dependent relationships between a product and its environment. For example, by creating a dependent relationship between lens color and external lighting conditions, eyeglass developers came up with a lens that changes color when exposed to sunlight.

  11. Occurrence of sweet refuse at disposal sites: rainwater retention capacity and potential breeding opportunities for Aedes aegypti.

    Dieng, Hamady; Satho, Tomomitsu; Meli, Nur Khairatun Khadijah Binti; Abang, Fatimah; Nolasco-Hipolito, Cirilo; Hakim, Hafijah; Miake, Fumio; Zuharah, Wan Fatma; Kassim, Nur Faeza A; Ab Majid, Abdul Hafiz; Morales Vargas, Ronald E; Morales, Noppawan P; Noweg, Gabriel Tonga

    2018-05-01

    Nectar is the staple diet of adult mosquitoes in the wild, but its availability is inconsistent and can be affected by rainfall. In urban centers, Aedes vectors commonly use man-made containers as their major habitat; however, they can colonize any items replenished by rainfall. Garbage output has increased significantly in recent years, at a time when collection frequency is reducing. Such garbage usually includes organic components, some of which are sweet and can be fed upon by other animals or become can containers for rainwater. Despite evidence that Aedes larvae can thrive in containers comprised of organic waste material, which can be produced by rodents gnawing on fruits or vegetables, and that adults can survive on sweet waste fluids, the capacity of organic waste materials to accumulate rainwater and act as egg deposition sites has not been examined. It is also unknown for how long sweet extracts can sustain the life of adult vectors. Here, we investigated the abundance of sweet leftovers at garbage sites and the rainwater retention capacity of some organic materials through a field survey and laboratory bioassays. We also examined whether sweet waste fluids impact egg hatching success and longevity of Aedes aegypti. The results of this study indicated that sweet products with leftovers are highly prevalent in garbage. When exposed to rain, food items (BAFrc, banana fruit resembling container; and BSPrc, boiled sweet potato resembling container) and the packaging of sweet foods (SMIc, sweetened condensed milk can) retained water. When provided an opportunity to oviposit in cups containing BAF extract (BAFex), BSP extract (BSPex), and SMI extract (SMIex), eggs were deposited in all media. Egg maturation in the BAFex environment resulted in similar larval eclosion success to that resulting from embryo development in a water milieu. Adults maintained on sweet waste extracts had long lifespans, although shorter than that of their sugar solution (SUS

  12. Diabetes Nutrition: Including Sweets in Your Meal Plan

    Diabetes nutrition: Including sweets in your meal plan Diabetes nutrition focuses on healthy foods, but sweets aren't necessarily ... your meal plan. By Mayo Clinic Staff Diabetes nutrition focuses on healthy foods. But you can eat ...

  13. Determinants of Sweet Potato Value Addition among Smallholder

    sweet potato harvested significantly increased farmers' decision to add value by 0.494 ... (2004), bulkiness and perishability affect post- ..... credit makes it possible for farmers to purchase .... Promotion of the Sweet Potato for the Food Industry.

  14. Agronomic performance of locally adapted sweet potato (Ipomoea ...

    SERVER

    ELISA established that field plants had a higher virus titre compared to the tissue culture regenerated plants. Key words: Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas), tissue culture, ..... Commercial Vegetable Production Guides (CVPG) (2003). Sweet.

  15. Effect of microgravity on stress ethylene and carbon dioxide production in sweet clover (Melilotus alba L.)

    Gallegos, Gregory L.; Odom, William R.; Guikema, James A.

    1995-01-01

    The study of higher plant growth and development in the microgravity (micro-g) environment continues to be a challenge. This is in part a result of the available flight qualified hardware with restrictive closed gas environments. This point is underscored by considering that gas exchange of seedlings grown in microgravity may be further limited owing to a thicker layer of water wicked onto the roots and to the absence of convective mixing. We hypothesized that seedlings grown under such conditions will experience greater hypoxia in microgravity than at Earth gravity, and thus produce greater stress ethylene. We compared flight and ground samples of sweet clover seedlings grown in the Fluid Processing Apparatus (FPA) during STS-57 and found them to contain extremely high levels of carbon dioxide (CO2) and stress ethylene. There were time dependent increases for both gases, and seedling growth was greatly inhibited. We repeated these experiments aboard STS-60 using modified chambers which increased, by fifty fold, the air available to the developing seedlings. Sweet clover seed germination and subsequent seedling growth to eight days within the FPA modified with a gas permeable membrane is not compromised by the microgravity environment.

  16. Sweet Spot Supersymmetry and Composite Messengers

    Ibe, Masahiro; Kitano, Ryuichiro

    2007-01-01

    Sweet spot supersymmetry is a phenomenologically and cosmologically perfect framework to realize a supersymmetric world at short distance. We discuss a class of dynamical models of supersymmetry breaking and its mediation whose low-energy effective description falls into this framework. Hadron fields in the dynamical models play a role of the messengers of the supersymmetry breaking. As is always true in the models of the sweet spot supersymmetry, the messenger scale is predicted to be 10 5 GeV ∼ mess ∼ 10 GeV. Various values of the effective number of messenger fields N mess are possible depending on the choice of the gauge group

  17. 7 CFR 318.13-25 - Sweet potatoes from Hawaii.

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sweet potatoes from Hawaii. 318.13-25 Section 318.13... INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE STATE OF HAWAII AND TERRITORIES QUARANTINE NOTICES Regulated Articles From Hawaii and the Territories § 318.13-25 Sweet potatoes from Hawaii. (a) Sweet potatoes may be...

  18. Enhanced ethanol production from stalk juice of sweet sorghum by ...

    Sweet sorghum (sugar sorghum, Sorghum bicolor) is one kind of non-grain energy crops. As a novel green regenerated high-energy crop with high utility value, high yield of biomass, the sweet sorghum is widely used and developed in China. Stalk juice of sweet sorghum was used as the main substrate for ethanol ...

  19. Proximate analysis of Sweet Potato Toasted Granules | Meludu ...

    Sweet potato is an important root crop in the food system of many African countries. The yield, nutrition and economic potential of sweet potato have been identified as very high. In this study, sweet potato was processed and toasted into granules. The proximate analysis performed on the toasted granules showed protein, ...

  20. ORGANIZATIONAL PROJECT MANAGEMENT MATURITY

    Yana Derenskaya

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The present article is aimed at developing a set of recommendations for achieving a higher level of organizational project maturity at a given enterprise. Methodology. For the purposes of the current research, the available information sources on the components of project management system are analysed; the essence of “organizational maturity” and the existing models of organizational maturity are studied. The method of systemic and structural analysis, as well as the method of logical generalization, are employed in order to study the existing models of organizational maturity, to describe levels of organizational maturity, and finally to develop a set of methodological recommendations for achieving a higher level of organizational project maturity at a given enterprise. The results of the research showed that the core elements of project management system are methodological, organizational, programtechnical, and motivational components. Project management encompasses a wide range of issues connected with organizational structure, project team, communication management, project participants, etc. However, the fundamental basis for developing project management concept within a given enterprise starts with defining its level of organizational maturity. The present paper describes various models of organizational maturity (staged, continuous, petal-shaped and their common types (H. Кеrzner Organizational Maturity Model, Berkeley PM Maturity Model, Organizational Project Management Maturity Model, Portfolio, Program & Project Management Maturity Model. The analysis of available theoretic works showed that the notion “organizational project maturity” refers to the capability of an enterprise to select projects and manage them with the intention of achieving its strategic goals in the most effective way. Importantly, the level of maturity can be improved by means of formalizing the acquired knowledge, regulating project-related activities

  1. Drug versus sweet reward: greater attraction to and preference for sweet versus drug cues.

    Madsen, Heather B; Ahmed, Serge H

    2015-05-01

    Despite the unique ability of addictive drugs to directly activate brain reward circuits, recent evidence suggests that drugs induce reinforcing and incentive effects that are comparable to, or even lower than some nondrug rewards. In particular, when rats have a choice between pressing a lever associated with intravenous cocaine or heroin delivery and another lever associated with sweet water delivery, most respond on the latter. This outcome suggests that sweet water is more reinforcing and attractive than either drug. However, this outcome may also be due to the differential ability of sweet versus drug levers to elicit Pavlovian feeding-like conditioned responses that can cause involuntary lever pressing, such as pawing and biting the lever. To test this hypothesis, rats first underwent Pavlovian conditioning to associate one lever with sweet water (0.2% saccharin) and a different lever with intravenous cocaine (0.25 mg) or heroin (0.01 mg). Choice between these two levers was then assessed under two operant choice procedures: one that permitted the expression of Pavlovian-conditioned lever press responses during choice, the other not. During conditioning, Pavlovian-conditioned lever press responses were considerably higher on the sweet lever than on either drug lever, and slightly greater on the heroin lever than on the cocaine lever. Importantly, though these differences in Pavlovian-conditioned behavior predicted subsequent preference for sweet water during choice, they were not required for its expression. Overall, this study confirms that rats prefer the sweet lever because sweet water is more reinforcing and attractive than cocaine or heroin. © 2014 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  2. Effect of Agromorphological Diversity and Botanical Race on Biochemical Composition in Sweet Grains Sorghum [Sorghum Bicolor (L. Moench] of Burkina Faso

    Nerbéwendé Sawadogo

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench is an under-harvested crop in Burkina Faso. It is grown mainly for its sweet grains in the pasty stage. However, the precocity of the cycle and the sweet grains at pasty stage make it an interesting plant with agro-alimentary potential during the lean season. This study was carried out to identify the main sugars responsible for the sweetness of the grains at the pasty stage and their variation according to the agro-morphological group and the botanical race. Thus, the grains harvested at the pasty stage of fifteen (15 accessions selected according to the agro-morphological group and botanical race were lyophilized and analyzed by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC. The results reveal the presence of four (4 main carbohydrates at pasty stage of grains such as fructose, glucose, sucrose and starch. Analysis of variance revealed that these carbohydrates discriminate significantly the agro-morphological groups and the botanical races. Moreover, with exception of the sucrose, the coefficient of determination (R2 values shows that the agro-morphological group factor has a greater effect on the expression of glucose, fructose and starch than the botanical race. Group III and caudatum race have the highest levels of fructose and would be the sweetest. While group IV and the guinea-bicolor race with the low value of fructose would be the least sweet. Fructose is therefore the main sugar responsible for the sweetness of the pasty grains of sweet grains sorghum.

  3. Sweetness flavour interactions in soft drinks.

    Nahon, D.F.; Roozen, J.P.; Graaf, de C.

    1996-01-01

    Sucrose can be substituted by intense sweeteners to lower the calorie content of soft drinks. Although the sweetness is kept at the same level as much as possible, the flavour of the product often changes. This change could be due to both the mechanism of sensory perception and interactive effects

  4. Sweet and sour taste preferences of children

    Liem, D.G.

    2004-01-01

    In the industrialized countries children have many foods to choose from, both healthy and unhealthy products, these choices mainly depend on children's taste preferences. The present thesis focused on preferences for sweet and sour taste of young children (4- to 12-years of age) living in the US and

  5. ( amala ) made from sweet potato flour ( elubo )

    Describing the sensory characteristics of new or modified products is an integral part of food quality control. Sweet potato amala as an important end product could serve as an avenue for utilization of the crop, however, sensory attributes that will influence and ensure consumer acceptability need to be determined.

  6. Serum release boosts sweetness intensity in gels

    Sala, G.; Stieger, M.A.; Velde, van de F.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the effect of serum release on sweetness intensity in mixed whey protein isolate/gellan gum gels. The impact of gellan gum and sugar concentration on microstructure, permeability, serum release and large deformation properties of the gels was determined. With increasing gellan

  7. Radiation balance in the sweet sorghum crop

    Assis, F.N. de; Mendez, M.E.G.; Martins, S.R.; Verona, L.A.

    1987-01-01

    The fluxes of incident solar radiation, reflected and net radiation were measured during the growing cicle of two fields of sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.), cus. BR-501 and BR-503, maintained under convenient irrigation level. Resultant data allowed to estimate the crop albedo as well as the estimates of Rn. (M.A.C.) [pt

  8. Triggered tremor sweet spots in Alaska

    Gomberg, Joan; Prejean, Stephanie

    2013-01-01

    To better understand what controls fault slip along plate boundaries, we have exploited the abundance of seismic and geodetic data available from the richly varied tectonic environments composing Alaska. A search for tremor triggered by 11 large earthquakes throughout all of seismically monitored Alaska reveals two tremor “sweet spots”—regions where large-amplitude seismic waves repeatedly triggered tremor between 2006 and 2012. The two sweet spots locate in very different tectonic environments—one just trenchward and between the Aleutian islands of Unalaska and Akutan and the other in central mainland Alaska. The Unalaska/Akutan spot corroborates previous evidence that the region is ripe for tremor, perhaps because it is located where plate-interface frictional properties transition between stick-slip and stably sliding in both the dip direction and laterally. The mainland sweet spot coincides with a region of complex and uncertain plate interactions, and where no slow slip events or major crustal faults have been noted previously. Analyses showed that larger triggering wave amplitudes, and perhaps lower frequencies (tremor. However, neither the maximum amplitude in the time domain or in a particular frequency band, nor the geometric relationship of the wavefield to the tremor source faults alone ensures a high probability of triggering. Triggered tremor at the two sweet spots also does not occur during slow slip events visually detectable in GPS data, although slow slip below the detection threshold may have facilitated tremor triggering.

  9. Bioethanol production from dried sweet sorghum stalk

    Almodares, A.; Etemadifar, Z.; Ghoreishi, F.; Yosefi, F. [Biology Dept. Univ. of Isfahan, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], e-mail: aalmodares@yahoo.com

    2012-11-01

    Bioethanol as a renewable transportation fuel has a great potential for energy and clean environment. Among crops sweet sorghum is one of the best feedstock for ethanol production under hot and dry climatic conditions. Because it has higher tolerance to salt and drought comparing to sugarcane and corn that are currently used for bio-fuel production in the world. Generally mills are used to extract the juice from sweet sorghum stalks. Three roller mills extract around nearly 50 percent of the juice and more mills is needed to extract higher percentage of the juice. More over under cold weather the stalks become dry and juice is not extracted from the stalk, therefore reduce harvesting period. In this study stalks were harvested, leaves were stripped from the stalks and the stalks were chopped to nearly 4 mm length and sun dried. The dry stalks were grounded to 60 mesh powder by a mill. Fermentation medium consists of 15-35% (w/w) sweet sorghum powder, micronutrients and active yeast inoculum from 0.5-1% (w/w) by submerge fermentation method. The fermentation time and temperature were 48-72 hours and 30 deg, respectively. The results showed the highest amount of ethanol (14.5 % w/w sorghum) was produced with 10% sweet sorghum powder and 1% of yeast inoculum, three day fermentation at 30 deg.

  10. The sweet spots in human communication.

    Salem, Philip

    2011-07-01

    In baseball, the sweet spot is a special place on a bat where the batter can hit the ball with the most power. It is the place where the performances of the batter and pitcher collide with maximum effect. It is the place where the dynamic tension between opponents leads to transformation. The dynamic tension in all living systems is between similarity and difference. Chaos and complexity scholars recognized this tension as amounts of information. When the amounts of information were high, but not too high, the system moved to the edge of chaos, to the complexity regime, to strange attractors, or to chaos, depending on the model. The sweet spot is that range of relative variety, just the proper mix of similarity and difference, leading to transformation. This essay contains a model of human communication as an emergent social process with its own sweet spots. The essay also includes a description of current literature highlighting tensions between similarity and difference, and there is an exploration of the potential to move from one basin of attraction to another. The primary constraints on finding communication sweet spots are paradigmatic - adopting a process orientation, discovering the proper parameters, bracketing sequences to define initial conditions, and understanding the strengths and weaknesses of various modeling techniques.

  11. Somatic embryogenesis and plant regeneration in tissue cultures of sweet potato (Ipomea batatas Poir.).

    Liu, J R; Cantliffe, D J

    1984-06-01

    Leaf, shoot-tip, stem, and root explants of sweet potato (Ipomea batatas Poir.) gave rise to two kinds of callus on nutrient agar medium containing 0.5 to 2.0 mg/l 2,4-D. One callus, bright- to pale-yellow, was compact and organized, while the other was dull-yellow and friable. The former callus gave rise to numerous globular and heart-shaped embryoids. When transferred onto hormone-free medium, the embryoids readily developed into a torpedo-shape before germination. The plantlets were transplanted to soil where they flowered and formed storage roots at maturity.

  12. The uptake of 131I by some hydroponically grown crops

    Asprer, G.A.; Lansangan, L.M.; de la Paz, L.R.

    1982-01-01

    Biologically labelled vegetables which include kangkong and sweet potato tops were grown hydroponically in a modified Hoagland-Arnon nutrient solution containing radioiodine with 0.5% non-radioactive Nal solution as the medium. The crops considered in this study are commonly eaten by Filipinos. The concentration of the solution as well as the uptake in the plant system were determined at various time intervals. The extent of radioiodine uptake through air-water-plant pathway is one of the parameters needed for calculating the dose that the general populace could be exposed to, due to radioactivity in the environment. (author)

  13. Effects of oxamyl on the citrus nematode, Tylenchulus semipenetrans, and on infection of sweet orange.

    Baines, R C; Small, R H

    1976-04-01

    Foliar sprays of 4 microg/ml oxamyl on sweet orange trees in a greenhouse slightly depressed the number of Tylenchulus semipenetrans larvae obtained from roots and soil, but similar treatments were not effective in two orchards. Soil drench treatments decreased the number of citrus nematode larvae obtained from roots or soil of citrus plants grown itt a greenhouse and in orchards. Exposure to 5-10 microg/ml of oxamyl in water was lethal to only a few second-stage larvae treated 10 days, and many second-stage larvae in 2.0 microg/ml oxamyl recovered motility when transferred to fresh water. Aqueous solutions of 50 and 100 microg/ml of oxamyl were toxic to citrus nematode larvae. Additional observations indicate that oxamyl interfered with hatch of citrus nematode larvae and was nematistatic and/or protected sweet orange roots from infection. Oxamyl degraded at different rates in two soils. The number of citrus nematode larvae that infected and developed on sweet orange roots was increased by an undetermined product of the degradation of oxamyl in soil, water, and possibly within plants. This product apparently was translocated in roots.

  14. Effect of Harvesting Stage on Sweet Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Genotypes in Western Kenya

    Moses Owuor Oyier

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Harvesting stage of sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench cane is an important aspect in the content of sugar for production of industrial alcohol. Four sweet sorghum genotypes were evaluated for harvesting stage in a randomized complete block design. In order to determine sorghum harvest growth stage for bioethanol production, sorghum canes were harvested at intervals of seven days after anthesis. The genotypes were evaluated at different stages of development for maximum production of bioethanol from flowering to physiological maturity. The canes were crushed and juice fermented to produce ethanol. Measurements of chlorophyll were taken at various stages as well as panicles from the harvested canes. Dried kernels at 14% moisture content were also weighed at various stages. Chlorophyll, grain weight, absolute ethanol volume, juice volume, cane yield, and brix showed significant (p=0.05 differences for genotypes as well as the stages of harvesting. Results from this study showed that harvesting sweet sorghum at stages IV and V (104 to 117 days after planting would be appropriate for production of kernels and ethanol. EUSS10 has the highest ethanol potential (1062.78 l ha−1 due to excellent juice volume (22976.9 l ha−1 and EUSS11 (985.26 l ha−1 due to its high brix (16.21.

  15. Cytotoxic triterpenoids isolated from sweet chestnut heartwood (Castanea sativa) and their health benefits implication.

    Pérez, Andy J; Pecio, Łukasz; Kowalczyk, Mariusz; Kontek, Renata; Gajek, Gabriela; Stopinsek, Lidija; Mirt, Ivan; Stochmal, Anna; Oleszek, Wiesław

    2017-11-01

    For centuries wood containers have been used in aging of wines and spirits, due to the pleasant flavors they give to the beverages. Together with oak, sweet chestnut wood (Castanea sativa) have been often used for such purpose. The maturation process involves the transfer of secondary metabolites, mainly phenolics, from the wood to the liquid. At the same time, other metabolites, such as triterpenoids and their glycosides, can also be released. Searching for the extractable triterpenoids from sweet chestnut heartwood (C. sativa), two new ursane-type triterpenoid saponins named chestnoside A (1) and chestnoside B (2), together with two known oleanen-type analogs (3 and 4) were isolated and characterized. The cytotoxicity of isolated compounds was tested against two cancer cell lines (PC3 and MCF-7), and normal lymphocytes. Breast cancer cells (MCF-7) were more affected by tested compounds than prostate cancer cells (PC3). Chestnoside B (2) exhibited the strongest cytotoxicity with an IC 50 of 12.3 μM against MCF-7 cells, lower than those of positive controls, while it was moderately active against normal lymphocytes (IC 50  = 67.2 μM). These results highlight the occurrence of triterpenoid saponins in sweet chestnut heartwood and their potential for the chemoprevention of breast cancer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Prunasin Hydrolases during Fruit Development in Sweet and Bitter Almonds1[C][W][OA

    Sánchez-Pérez, Raquel; Belmonte, Fara Sáez; Borch, Jonas; Dicenta, Federico; Møller, Birger Lindberg; Jørgensen, Kirsten

    2012-01-01

    Amygdalin is a cyanogenic diglucoside and constitutes the bitter component in bitter almond (Prunus dulcis). Amygdalin concentration increases in the course of fruit formation. The monoglucoside prunasin is the precursor of amygdalin. Prunasin may be degraded to hydrogen cyanide, glucose, and benzaldehyde by the action of the β-glucosidase prunasin hydrolase (PH) and mandelonitirile lyase or be glucosylated to form amygdalin. The tissue and cellular localization of PHs was determined during fruit development in two sweet and two bitter almond cultivars using a specific antibody toward PHs. Confocal studies on sections of tegument, nucellus, endosperm, and embryo showed that the localization of the PH proteins is dependent on the stage of fruit development, shifting between apoplast and symplast in opposite patterns in sweet and bitter cultivars. Two different PH genes, Ph691 and Ph692, have been identified in a sweet and a bitter almond cultivar. Both cDNAs are 86% identical on the nucleotide level, and their encoded proteins are 79% identical to each other. In addition, Ph691 and Ph692 display 92% and 86% nucleotide identity to Ph1 from black cherry (Prunus serotina). Both proteins were predicted to contain an amino-terminal signal peptide, with the size of 26 amino acid residues for PH691 and 22 residues for PH692. The PH activity and the localization of the respective proteins in vivo differ between cultivars. This implies that there might be different concentrations of prunasin available in the seed for amygdalin synthesis and that these differences may determine whether the mature almond develops into bitter or sweet. PMID:22353576

  17. Sweet's syndrome complicating ulcerative colitis: a rare association.

    Lopes Caçola, Rute; Soares, Marta; Cardoso, Carla; Furtado, António

    2016-01-20

    Sweet's syndrome (SS) is a neutrophilic dermatosis disorder of unknown aetiology, characterised by acute fever, neutrophilia, painful erythematous papules, nodules and plaques, and an infiltrate consisting predominantly of mature neutrophils in the upper dermis. Classical SS is a rare extra-intestinal manifestation of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). It is more common in Crohn's disease than in ulcerative colitis (UC). There is a predilection for women, and for patients with colonic disease and active IBD. We report the case of a 39-year-old woman with a flare of moderate severity UC treated with mesalazine who presented with a 5-day history of acute fever, painful papules and plaques on forearms and legs, episcleritis and cervical pain. Skin biopsies showed papillary dermis inflammatory cell infiltration composed mainly of neutrophils, without evidence of leukocytoclastic vasculitis or panniculitis, compatible with SS. The patient had an excellent response to systemic corticosteroids. Symptoms promptly improved and skin lesions resolved after 7 weeks. 2016 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  18. The impact of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in mitigating salt-induced adverse effects in sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.).

    Elhindi, Khalid M; El-Din, Ahmed Sharaf; Elgorban, Abdallah M

    2017-01-01

    Salinity is one of the serious abiotic stresses adversely affecting the majority of arable lands worldwide, limiting the crop productivity of most of the economically important crops. Sweet basil ( Osmium basilicum ) plants were grown in a non-saline soil (EC = 0.64 dS m -1 ), in low saline soil (EC = 5 dS m -1 ), and in a high saline soil (EC = 10 dS m -1 ). There were differences between arbuscular mycorrhizal ( Glomus deserticola ) colonized plants (+AMF) and non-colonized plants (-AMF). Mycorrhiza mitigated the reduction of K, P and Ca uptake due to salinity. The balance between K/Na and between Ca/Na was improved in +AMF plants. Growth enhancement by mycorrhiza was independent from plant phosphorus content under high salinity levels. Different growth parameters, salt stress tolerance and accumulation of proline content were investigated, these results showed that the use of mycorrhizal inoculum (AMF) was able to enhance the productivity of sweet basil plants under salinity conditions. Mycorrhizal inoculation significantly increased chlorophyll content and water use efficiency under salinity stress. The sweet basil plants appeared to have high dependency on AMF which improved plant growth, photosynthetic efficiency, gas exchange and water use efficiency under salinity stress. In this study, there was evidence that colonization with AMF can alleviate the detrimental salinity stress influence on the growth and productivity of sweet basil plants.

  19. The impact of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in mitigating salt-induced adverse effects in sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.

    Khalid M. Elhindi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Salinity is one of the serious abiotic stresses adversely affecting the majority of arable lands worldwide, limiting the crop productivity of most of the economically important crops. Sweet basil (Osmium basilicum plants were grown in a non-saline soil (EC = 0.64 dS m−1, in low saline soil (EC = 5 dS m−1, and in a high saline soil (EC = 10 dS m−1. There were differences between arbuscular mycorrhizal (Glomus deserticola colonized plants (+AMF and non-colonized plants (−AMF. Mycorrhiza mitigated the reduction of K, P and Ca uptake due to salinity. The balance between K/Na and between Ca/Na was improved in +AMF plants. Growth enhancement by mycorrhiza was independent from plant phosphorus content under high salinity levels. Different growth parameters, salt stress tolerance and accumulation of proline content were investigated, these results showed that the use of mycorrhizal inoculum (AMF was able to enhance the productivity of sweet basil plants under salinity conditions. Mycorrhizal inoculation significantly increased chlorophyll content and water use efficiency under salinity stress. The sweet basil plants appeared to have high dependency on AMF which improved plant growth, photosynthetic efficiency, gas exchange and water use efficiency under salinity stress. In this study, there was evidence that colonization with AMF can alleviate the detrimental salinity stress influence on the growth and productivity of sweet basil plants.

  20. [Manaca, sweet potato and yam: possible substitutes of wheat in foods for two ethnic population in Venezuelan Amazon].

    Sangronis, Elba; Teixeira, Patricia; Otero, Mariana; Guerra, Marisa; Hidalgo, Glida

    2006-03-01

    In this study, flours from manaca or acai (Euterpe oleracea Mart), sweet potato (Ipomea batatas), and yam (Dioscorea spp.), species grown in the Venezuelan Amazon, were obtained. The proximal composition, water activity (a(w)), Fe, Ca, Zn, Mg, Cu, Na and K content were determined for the flours of manaca, sweet potato and yam. These flours were used as ingredients of products for the inhabitants of the indigenous populations of the Venezuelan Amazon (Piaroa and Hiwi). Two types of products that traditionally contain wheat flour in their formulation (ingredient they know by transculturation) were formulated; an attempt to substitute it totally or partially by the manaca, sweet potato and/or yam flours was made. For the selection of the products to be formulated, the preferences and eating habits of the indigenous communities and ease and simplicity of the preparations to be developed, were considered. The two products formulated were cookies and "small cakes". To decide on the formulation(s) of the final product(s), sensorial evaluations were made in the laboratory and in the indigenous communities Piaroa and Hiwi. High fat content (16%), dietetic fiber (59.7%) and iron (25 mg / 100 g) in manaca or acai flour were remarkable. Two types of cookies and two of "small cakes" were equally accepted by the indigenous communities. Cookies supply a high iron amount (about 24%). The feasibility of substituting the wheat flour by manaca, sweet potato and yam flour in products accepted by two ethnic populations of the Venezuelan Amazon was demonstrated.

  1. THE INFLUENCE OF WEATHER CONDITIONS OF EASTERN POLAND ON SWEET CORN YIELDS AND LENGTH OF GROWING SEASON

    Robert Rosa

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine the effect of weather components (air temperature, precipitation on the growth, yield and the length of the growing season of sweet corn cultivated in eastern Poland. The results come from a field experiment conducted in 2006–2011. Weather conditions in the successive years of the study significantly modified the yield of ears, weight and number of formatted ears, high of plants and the length of the growing season of sweet corn. Good yielding of sweet corn favoured years with moderate air temperatures in July and uniform distribution of precipitation during the growing season. The highest yield of ears was found in 2011, the lowest in the very difficult in terms of weather 2006. The shortest growing season was characterized corn grown in the years 2006 and 2010 with the high air temperatures in July and August, the longest in the years 2009 and 2011, in which the temperatures in the period June-August were the lowest of all the years of research. Irrespective of the year of study, cv ‘Sheba F1’ was formatted eras with higher weight than cv ‘Sweet Nugget F1’.

  2. A triply cloned strain of xylella fastidiosa multiplies and induces symptoms of citrus variegated chlorosis in sweet orange

    Li; Zreik; Fernandes; Miranda; Teixeira; Ayres; Garnier; Bov

    1999-08-01

    Xylella fastidiosa isolate 8.1.b obtained from a sweet orange tree affected by citrus variegated chlorosis in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil, and shown in 1993 to be the causal agent of the disease, was cloned by repeated culture in liquid and on solid PW medium, yielding triply cloned strain 9a5c. The eighth and the 16th passages of strain 9a5c were mechanically inoculated into sweet orange plants. Presence of X. fastidiosa in sweet orange leaves of shoots having grown after inoculation (first-flush shoots) was detected by DAS-ELISA and PCR. Thirty-eight days after inoculation, 70% of the 20 inoculated plants tested positive, and all plants gave strong positive reactions 90 days after inoculation. Symptoms first appeared after 3 months and were conspicuous after 5 months. X. fastidiosa was reisolated from sweet orange leaves, 44 days after inoculation. These results indicate that X. fastidiosa strain 9a5c, derived from pathogenic isolate 8.1.b by triply cloning, is also pathogenic. Strain 9a5c is now used for the X. fastidiosa genome sequencing project undertaken on a large scale in Brazil.http://link. springer-ny.com/link/service/journals/00284/bibs/39n2p106.html

  3. Effect of channel size on sweet potato storage root enlargement in the Tuskegee University hydroponic nutrient film system

    Morris, Carlton E.; Martinez, Edwin; Bonsi, C. K.; Mortley, Desmond G.; Hill, Walter A.; Ogbuehi, Cyriacus R.; Loretan, Phil A.

    1989-01-01

    The potential of the sweet potato as a food source for future long term manned space missions is being evaluated for NASA's Controlled Ecological Life Support Systems (CELSS) program. Sweet potatoes have been successfully grown in a specially designed Tuskegee University nutrient film technique (TU NFT) system. This hydroponic system yielded storage roots as high as 1790 g/plant fresh weight. In order to determine the effect of channel size on the yield of sweet potatoes, the width and depth of the growing channels were varied in two separate experiments. Widths were studied using the rectangular TU NFT channels with widths of 15 cm (6 in), 30 cm (12 in) and 45 cm (18 in). Channel depths of 5 cm (2 in), 10 cm (4 in), and 15 cm (6 in) were studied using a standard NASA fan shaped Biomass Production Chamber (BPC) channel. A comparison of preliminary results indicated that, except for storage root number, the growth and yield of sweet potatoes were not affected by channel width. Storage root yield was affected by channel depth although storage root number and foliage growth were not. Both experiments are being repeated.

  4. Effect of heat treatment to sweet potato flour on dough properties and characteristics of sweet potato-wheat bread.

    Pérez, Isela Carballo; Mu, Tai-Hua; Zhang, Miao; Ji, Lei-Lei

    2017-12-01

    The effect of heat treatment at 90, 100, 110 and 120 ℃ for 20 min to sweet potato flour on dough properties and characteristics of sweet potato-wheat bread was investigated. The lightness (L*) and a* of sweet potato flour samples after heat treatment were increased, while the b* were decreased significantly, as well as the particle size, volume and area mean diameter ( p sweet potato flour was observed, where the number of irregular granules increased as the temperature increased from 90 to 120 ℃. Compared with sweet potato flour samples without heat treatment and with heat treatment at 90, 100 and 120 ℃, the gelatinization temperature and enthalpy change of sweet potato flour at 110 ℃ were the lowest, which were 77.94 ℃ and 3.67 J/g, respectively ( p sweet potato flour increased significantly from 1199 ml without heat treatment to 1214 ml at 90 ℃ ( p sweet potato-wheat bread with sweet potato flour after heat treatment increased significantly, which was the largest at 90 ℃ (2.53 cm 3 /g) ( p sweet potato flour could be potentially used in wheat bread production.

  5. Studies for Somatic Embryogenesis in Sweet Potato

    Bennett, J. Rasheed; Prakash, C. S.

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to improve the somatic embryo (SE) system for plant production of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L(Lam)). Explants isolated from SE-derived sweet potato plants were compared with control (non SE-derived) plants for their competency for SE production. Leaf explants were cultured on Murashige-Skoog (MS) medium with 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (0.2 mg/L) and 6-benzylaminopurine (2.5 mg/L) for 2 weeks in darkness and transferred to MS medium with abscisic acid (2.5 mg/L). Explants isolated from those plants developed through somatic embryogenesis produced new somatic embryos rapidly and in higher frequency than those isolated from control plants They also appeared to grow faster in tissue culture than the control plants. Current studies in the laboratory are examining whether plants derived from a cyclical embryogenesis system (five cycles) would have any further positive impact on the rapidity and frequency of somatic embryo development. More detailed studies using electron microscopy are expected to show the point of origin of the embryos and to allow determination of their quality throughout the cyclical process. This study may facilitate improved plant micropropagation, gene transfer and germplasm conservation in sweet potato.

  6. Elicitor Mixtures Significantly Increase Bioactive Compounds, Antioxidant Activity, and Quality Parameters in Sweet Bell Pepper

    Lina Garcia-Mier

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sweet bell peppers are greatly appreciated for their taste, color, pungency, and aroma. Additionally, they are good sources of bioactive compounds with antioxidant activity, which can be improved by the use of elicitors. Elicitors act as metabolite-inducing factors (MIF by mimic stress conditions. Since plants rarely experience a single stress condition one by one but are more likely to be exposed to simultaneous stresses, it is important to evaluate the effect of elicitors on plant secondary metabolism as mixtures. Jasmonic acid (JA, hydrogen peroxide (HP, and chitosan (CH were applied to fruits and plants of bell pepper as mixtures. Bioactive compounds, antioxidant activity, and quality parameters were evaluated. The assessed elicitor cocktail leads to an increase in the variables evaluated (P ≤ 0.05 when applied to mature fruits after harvest, whereas the lowest values were observed in the treatment applied to immature fruits. Therefore, the application of the elicitor cocktail to harvested mature fruits is recommended in order to improve bioactive compounds and the antioxidant activity of sweet bell peppers.

  7. Maturity of the PWR

    Bacher, P.; Rapin, M.; Aboudarham, L.; Bitsch, D.

    1983-03-01

    Figures illustrating the predominant position of the PWR system are presented. The question is whether on the basis of these figures the PWR can be considered to have reached maturity. The following analysis, based on the French program experience, is an attempt to pinpoint those areas in which industrial maturity of the PWR has been attained, and in which areas a certain evolution can still be expected to take place

  8. Association of Sweet's Syndrome and Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    J. L. Barton

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Sweet's syndrome is an acute febrile neutrophilic dermatosis which usually presents as an idiopathic disorder but can also be drug induced, associated with hematopoetic malignancies and myelodysplastic disorders, and more, infrequently, observed in autoimmune disorders. Sweet's syndrome has been reported in three cases of neonatal lupus, three cases of hydralazine-induced lupus in adults, and in nine pediatric and adult systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE patients. We describe three additional adult cases of Sweet's associated with SLE and provide a focused review on nondrug-induced, nonneonatal SLE and Sweet's. In two of three new cases, as in the majority of prior cases, the skin rash of Sweet's paralleled underlying SLE disease activity. The pathogenesis of Sweet's remains elusive, but evidence suggests that cytokine dysregulation may be central to the clinical and pathological changes in this condition, as well as in SLE. Further research is needed to define the exact relationship between the two conditions.

  9. Sweet and bitter taste perception of women during pregnancy

    Nanou, Evangelia; Brandt, Sarah Østergaard; Weenen, Hugo

    2016-01-01

    and bitterness, respectively. Pregnant women completed also a self-administered questionnaire on changes in sweet and bitter taste perception due to pregnancy. Results: Perceived intensity of sweetness and bitterness was not different between pregnant and nonpregnant women for any of the products. However......Introduction: Changes in sweet and bitter taste perception during pregnancy have been reported in a limited number of studies leading, however, to inconclusive results. The current study aimed to investigate possible differences in perceived intensity and liking of sweetness and bitterness between......, the liking of the least sweet apple + berry juice was significantly higher, and the optimal preferred sugar content was significantly lower in pregnant compared to nonpregnant women. With regards to self-report, pregnant women who reported higher sensitivity in sweet or bitter taste did not have...

  10. Experimental study on bread yeast cultured in sweet sorghum juice

    Wang Jufang; Dong Xicun; Li Wenjian; Xiao Guoqing; Ma Liang; Gao Feng

    2008-01-01

    As a substitute for food supplies, sweet sorghum juice with high grade has demonstrated out- standing advantage in fermentation. To obtain the optimized fermentation conditions, the growth, the bio- mass of bread yeast cultured in sweet sorghum juice and total residual sugar were investigated in the paper. The fermentation was performed and optimized in a 10-100 1 bio-reactor. The results show that the application of sweet sorghum juice in bread yeast production is very potential. (authors)

  11. Molecular mechanisms for sweet-suppressing effect of gymnemic acids.

    Sanematsu, Keisuke; Kusakabe, Yuko; Shigemura, Noriatsu; Hirokawa, Takatsugu; Nakamura, Seiji; Imoto, Toshiaki; Ninomiya, Yuzo

    2014-09-12

    Gymnemic acids are triterpene glycosides that selectively suppress taste responses to various sweet substances in humans but not in mice. This sweet-suppressing effect of gymnemic acids is diminished by rinsing the tongue with γ-cyclodextrin (γ-CD). However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying the sweet-suppressing effect of gymnemic acids and the interaction between gymnemic acids versus sweet taste receptor and/or γ-CD. To investigate whether gymnemic acids directly interact with human (h) sweet receptor hT1R2 + hT1R3, we used the sweet receptor T1R2 + T1R3 assay in transiently transfected HEK293 cells. Similar to previous studies in humans and mice, gymnemic acids (100 μg/ml) inhibited the [Ca(2+)]i responses to sweet compounds in HEK293 cells heterologously expressing hT1R2 + hT1R3 but not in those expressing the mouse (m) sweet receptor mT1R2 + mT1R3. The effect of gymnemic acids rapidly disappeared after rinsing the HEK293 cells with γ-CD. Using mixed species pairings of human and mouse sweet receptor subunits and chimeras, we determined that the transmembrane domain of hT1R3 was mainly required for the sweet-suppressing effect of gymnemic acids. Directed mutagenesis in the transmembrane domain of hT1R3 revealed that the interaction site for gymnemic acids shared the amino acid residues that determined the sensitivity to another sweet antagonist, lactisole. Glucuronic acid, which is the common structure of gymnemic acids, also reduced sensitivity to sweet compounds. In our models, gymnemic acids were predicted to dock to a binding pocket within the transmembrane domain of hT1R3. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  12. Synthetic Hexaploids Derived from Wild Species Related to Sweet Potato

    SHIOTANI, Itaru; KAWASE, Tsuneo; 塩谷, 格; 川瀬, 恒男

    1987-01-01

    The utilization of germplasm of the wild species in sweet-potato breeding has been conducted for the last three decades. Such attempts brought some remarkable achievments in improving root yield, starch content and resistance to the nematodes of sweet potato. Some wild plants in polyploid series may have many genes potentially important for further improvement of the agronomic traits. However, the genomic relationship between the wild relatives and hexaploid sweet potato (2n=6x=90) has been u...

  13. Children's understandings and motivations surrounding novelty sweets: a qualitative study.

    Stewart, Kate F; Fairchild, Ruth M; Jones, Rhiannon J; Hunter, Lindsay; Harris, Carole; Morgan, Maria Z

    2013-11-01

    Novelty sweets resemble or can be used as toys, are brightly coloured, with striking imagery, and sold at pocket money prices. They encourage regular consumption as packaging can be resealed, leading to prolonged exposure of these high-sugar and low pH products to the oral tissues, risk factors for dental caries and erosion, respectively. To determine how children conceptualise novelty sweets and their motivations for buying and consuming them. Focus groups conducted using a brief schedule of open-ended questions, supported by novelty sweets used as prompts in the latter stages. Participants were school children (aged 9-10) from purposively selected state primary schools in Cardiff, UK. Key findings related to the routine nature of sweet eating; familiarity with and availability of novelty sweets; parental awareness and control; lack of awareness of health consequences; and the overall appeal of novelty sweets. Parents reported vagueness regarding consumption habits and permissiveness about any limits they set may have diluted the concept of treats. Flexible permissiveness to sweet buying applied to sweets of all kinds. Parents' reported lack of familiarity with novelty sweets combined with their low cost, easy availability, high sugar content, and acidity give cause for concern. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd, BSPD and IAPD.

  14. Histiocytoid Sweet Syndrome in a Child without Underlying Systemic Disease.

    Yeom, Seung Dohn; Ko, Hye Soo; Moon, Jong Hyuk; Kang, Min Ji; Byun, Ji Won; Choi, Gwang Seong; Shin, Jeonghyun

    2017-10-01

    Sweet syndrome (acute, febrile, neutrophilic dermatosis) is characterized by the acute onset of an eruption of painful nodules or erythematous or violaceous plaques on the limbs, face and neck. These symptoms are accompanied by fever. The diagnostic features include histopathological findings of dermal neutrophilic infiltration without leukocytoclastic vasculitis or peripheral blood leukocytosis. Sweet syndrome is associated with infection, malignancies, autoimmune disease, pregnancy, and drugs. Patients with Sweet syndrome demonstrate a complete and rapid response to systemic steroid administration. Recently, a distinct variant of Sweet syndrome was reported, termed "histiocytoid Sweet syndrome", in which the infiltration of myeloperoxidase-positive histiocytoid mononuclear cells are observed (in contrast to the infiltration of neutrophils). The other clinical features are similar to those of classic Sweet syndrome. Pediatric Sweet syndrome is uncommon, and the histiocytoid type is even rarer. To date, four cases of histiocytoid Sweet syndrome have been reported in children. Herein, we describe a case of histiocytoid Sweet syndrome in an otherwise healthy 10-year-old boy with no underlying systemic disease in whom non-steroidal, anti-inflammatory drug treatment was successful.

  15. Eradication of sweet potato weevil using Co-60 gamma radiation

    Tokunaga, Taizo

    2007-01-01

    Sweet potato weevil which is a harmful insect injuring sweet potatoes was found out at Yoron Island in 1915 for the first time in Kagoshima prefecture, Japan. Here the eradication of sweet potato weevils using cobalt 60 irradiation achieved at Kikai Island is described. The mass-reared male weevils in potatoes are in pasture after sterilized by gamma irradiation. If the sexually sterile male copulates with a wild female, the egg does not incubate. By the repeated sterilization during several generations, the eradication of sweet potato weevils was accomplished. (M.H.)

  16. Light Quality Dependent Changes in Morphology, Antioxidant Capacity, and Volatile Production in Sweet Basil (Ocimum basilicum).

    Carvalho, Sofia D; Schwieterman, Michael L; Abrahan, Carolina E; Colquhoun, Thomas A; Folta, Kevin M

    2016-01-01

    Narrow-bandwidth light treatments may be used to manipulate plant growth, development and metabolism. In this report LED-based light treatments were used to affect yield and metabolic content of sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L. cv "Ceasar") grown in controlled environments. This culinary herb produces an aroma highly appreciated by consumers, primarily composed of terpenes/terpenoids, phenylpropanoids, and fatty-acid- derived volatile molecules. Basil plants were grown under narrow-bandwidth light conditions, and leaf area, height, mass, antioxidant capacity and volatile emissions were measured at various time points. The results indicate reproducible significant differences in specific volatiles, and in biochemical classes of volatiles, compared to greenhouse grown plants. For example, basil plants grown under blue/red/yellow or blue/red/green wavelengths emit higher levels of a subset of monoterpenoid volatiles, while a blue/red/far-red treatment leads to higher levels of most sesquiterpenoid volatile molecules. Specific light treatments increase volatile content, mass, and antioxidant capacity. The results show that narrow-bandwidth illumination can induce discrete suites of volatile classes that affect sensory quality in commercial herbs, and may be a useful tool in improving commercial production.

  17. Economic feasibility of intercropping of chili with sweet gourd

    J Hossain

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A field experiment was conducted at Regional Agricultural Research Station, Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute (BARI, Ishurdi, Pabna during two consecutive years of 2012-2013 and 2013-2014 to find out the suitable combination of intercropping of chili with sweet gourd for increasing the productivity and economic return. The treatments were T1=100% sweet gourd (2m x 2m + 40% chili (50cm x 100cm + 100% recommended fertilizer (RF of chili, T2=100% sweet gourd (2m x 2m + 40% chili (50cm x 100cm + 75% RF of chili, T3=100% sweet gourd (2m x 2m + 40% chili (50cm x 100cm + 50% RF of chili, T4=100% sweet gourd (2m x 2m + 50% chili (50cm x 80cm + 100% RF of chili, T5=100% sweet gourd (2m x 2m + 50% chili (50cm x 80cm + 75% RF of chili, T6=100% sweet gourd (2m x 2m + 50% chili (50cm x 80cm + 50% RF of chili, T7=Sole sweet gourd, T8= Sole chili. The experiment was laid out in a randomized complete block design with three replications. Fruit yield was calculated for sweet gourd and chili in ton per hectare considering the whole plot as harvested area. Results revealed that the yield of both sweet gourd and chili significantly affected by plant population and fertilizer dose in the intercropping systems. The highest equivalent yield of sweet gourd (21.21 t ha-1, land equivalent ratio (1.59, gross return (Tk. 318150.00 ha-1, gross margin (Tk. 237935.00 ha-1 and benefit cost ratio (3.97 were obtained from 100% sweet gourd (2m x 2m + 50% chili (50cm x 80cm + 100% RF of chili (T4. Sole crop of chili (T8 gave the lowest equivalent yield of sweet gourd (7.38 t ha-1, gross return (Tk. 110700.00 ha-1, gross margin (Tk. 37455.00 ha-1 and benefit cost ratio (1.51. Therefore, sweet gourd (100% and chili (50% with recommended fertilizer (100% of chili might be economically profitable for chili with sweet gourd intercropping system.

  18. 75 FR 10442 - Sweet Cherries Grown in Designated Counties in Washington; Change in the Handling Regulation

    2010-03-08

    .... The existing paragraph (e) would be redesignated as paragraph (d), and the introductory sentence of... reported by the National Agricultural Statistics Service, USDA, and 1,500 Washington cherry producers, the... revise the introductory sentence of paragraph (g) to read as follows: Sec. 923.322 Washington cherry...

  19. 78 FR 48283 - Sweet Cherries Grown in Designated Counties in Washington; Decreased Assessment Rate

    2013-08-08

    ... for Committee expenses such as travel, accounting, and compliance; $5,000 for contingency; and $3,900... and data management fees; $27,000 for Committee expenses such as travel, accounting, and compliance... any relevant Federal rules that duplicate, overlap, or conflict with this rule. A small business guide...

  20. 76 FR 46651 - Sweet Cherries Grown in Designated Counties in Washington; Continuance Referendum

    2011-08-03

    ... Specialist, or Gary D. Olson, Regional Manager, Northwest Marketing Field Office, Marketing Order..., or E-mail: [email protected] or GaryD.Olson@ams.usda.gov , respectively. SUPPLEMENTARY... the vote tabulation. Teresa L. Hutchinson and Gary D. Olson of the Northwest Marketing Field Office...

  1. Field Evaluation Of Four Sweet Potato Cultivars For Yield And Sweet ...

    Four sweet potato cultivars (TIS 87/0087, TIS 8441, TIS 2532 OP. 1. 13 and Ex Igbariam) were evaluated for yield and damage of C. puncticollis during the period June to October in 1999 and 2000, respectively. The trials were conducted in a randomized complete block design and replicated three times. Plants were ...

  2. Sweet taste exposure and the subsequent acceptance and preference for sweet taste in the diet

    Appleton, Km; Tuorila, H.; Bertenshaw, Ej; Graaf, De C.; Mela, Dj

    2018-01-01

    Background There are consistent, evidence-based global public health recommendations to reduce intakes of free sugars. However, the corresponding evidence for recommending reduced exposure to sweetness is less clear. Objective Our aim was to identify and review the published evidence investigating

  3. Sweet eating: a definition and the development of the Dutch Sweet Eating Questionnaire

    van den Heuvel, Margot; Hörchner, Rogier; Wijtsma, Anneke; Bourhim, Noufissa; Willemsen, Dascha; Mathus-Vliegen, Elisabeth M. H.

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that patients who are defined as so-called sweet eaters have more difficulties to lose weight and to maintain weight loss after both conservative treatment and restrictive bariatric surgery, such as gastric banding. There is, however, no agreement on the definition of

  4. Screening for sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas (L.)) viruses and their elimination using thermotheraphy-meristem tip culture technique

    Arkorful, E.

    2012-11-01

    Despite its high potential for food security, production of sweet potato is constrained by viruses which reduce yield by 90%. It is therefore essential to screen for, identify and eliminate these viruses in elite clones before dissemination to farmers. In this study, visual symptomatology and PCR-based techniques were used to identify sweet potato viruses. Visual symptomatology revealed virus associated symptoms ranging from vein clearing, interveinal chlorosis, chlorotic spots, upward curling on leaf edges, leaf narrowing and distortion, purpling, blistering, reduction of the leaf blades and general leaf yellowing in all 22 accessions grown on the field. Disease Incidence (DI) significantly (p≤0.05) varied between accessions with US003 having the lowest (20%) while ten accessions had 90% DI at the end of the study. Index of symptom severity of all plants (ISSap) ranged from 1.08±0.09 to 3.67 ±0.11 with VOTCR003 having the lowest suggesting that it is a moderately susceptible accession while VOTCR002 had the highest suggesting that it is susceptible to viral diseases. Contrarily, index of symptom severity of diseased plants (ISSdp) ranged from 2.00±0.25 to 3.75±0.32. The accession VOTCR002 had the highest ISSdp. Visual symptomatology showed that VOTCR002 had the highest DI, ISSap and ISSdp suggesting that it is highly susceptible to viral diseases. Ten severely infected accessions were tested for Sweet Potato leaf curl virus (SPLCV), Sweet Potato chlorotic stunt virus (SPCSV), Sweet potato feathery mottle virus (SPFMV) and Sweet Potato mild mottle virus (SPMMV) using PCR and RT-PCR techniques. RT-PCR did not amplify any of the virus genomes due to prolonged storage enzymes, In contrast, PCR detected SPLCV in 30% of the accessions. Plants infected with SPLCV were grown in the chamber at 35 degrees celsius for 4 weeks followed by meristem top culture. The regenerants were indexed after ten weeks for SPLCV. Fifty two percent (52.385 od the regenerants were

  5. Long Maturity Forward Rates

    Christiansen, Charlotte

    2001-01-01

    The paper aims to improve the knowledge of the empirical properties of the long maturity region of the forward rate curve. Firstly, the theoretical negative correlation between the slope at the long end of the forward rate curve and the term structure variance is recovered empirically and found...... to be statistically significant. Secondly, the expectations hypothesis is analyzed for the long maturity region of the forward rate curve using "forward rate" regressions. The expectations hypothesis is numerically close to being accepted but is statistically rejected. The findings provide mixed support...... for the affine term structure model....

  6. Qualitative attributes and postharvest conservation of green ears of maize grown on different cover crops in organic no-till system

    Luiz Fernando Favarato

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Postharvest quality of sweet maize varies depending on the type of seed, soil, quality of fertilizer, climatic conditions, and stage of maturation. This study aimed to evaluate the post-harvest quality and shelf life of green ears of maize grown on three soil covers in organic no-till sytem. The study was conducted in the municipality of Domingos Martins, ES (20° 22'16.91" S and 41° 03' 41.83" W. The experiment was arranged in a randomized block design with six replications and five treatments, consisting of three cover crops in organic no-till system: black-oat straw, white lupin, oat/lupin intercrop and two systems, organic and conventional, without straw. Maize double hybrid AG-1051 was sown in a spacing of 1.00 x 0.20 m. The variables evaluated included relative percentage of grain, straw and cob, pH, titratable acidity, soluble solids, grain moisture and shelf life. The use of different straws in the organic no-till system does not influence the postharvest quality of green ears. Ears packed in polystyrene trays with plastic film are suitable for marketing until the fifth day of storage at room temperature.

  7. Seed of sweet sorghum: studies on fermentation

    Amaro, F A; Onetto, E; Angeloro, H; Victorio Gugliucci, S

    1961-01-01

    Both the percentage of starch transformed by saccharification with malt and the alcohol fermentation efficiency for four varieties of sweet sorghum is determined, and it is compared with those of a corn sample. Seeds of the varieties with low peel content yield values comparable to those of corn. Seeds of the varieties with high peel content give values lower than those of the low peel content, but, if they are previously peeled, the yield of both, in terms of transformed starch and alcohol produced, is improved, the values approaching those obtained with corn.

  8. Response of 'Nagpur' mandarin, 'Mosambi' sweet orange and 'Kagzi' acid lime to gamma radiation

    Ladaniya, M.S.; Singh, Shyam; Wadhawan, A.K.

    2003-01-01

    The effects of irradiation dose and refrigerated storage conditions on 'Nagpur' mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco), 'Mosambi' sweet orange (Citrus sinensis Osbeck) and 'Kagzi' acid lime (Citrus aurantifolia Swingle) were investigated. Mature fruits of these three species were treated with 0, 0.25, 0.5, 1 and 1.5 kGy radiation. 'Nagpur' mandarin and 'Mosambi' sweet oranges were stored at 6-7 deg. C and 90-95% r.h. for 75 and 90 days, respectively, while 'Kagzi' acid limes were stored at 8±1 deg. C and 90-95% r.h. for 90 days. Physico-chemical parameters, sensory attributes and respiration rate were measured besides losses and disorders. In 'Nagpur' mandarin, radiation dose upto 1.5 kGy did not cause any rind disorder. Radiation treatments did not reduce the extent of decay. Penicillium rot was delayed in fruit treated with 1.5 kGy, while it appeared early in 0 kGy. Irradiation doses were ineffective to control rots due to Botryodiplodia theobromae and Alternaria citri. Doses upto 1.5 kGy did not cause any significant effect on fruit firmness and juice content; however, total soluble solids increased, while titratable acidity and vitamin 'C' content decreased. Texture and flavour scores as recorded after a week, were not affected by irradiation except in 1.5 kGy. In 'Mosambi' sweet orange, radiation treatments caused peel disorder in the form of brown sunken areas after 90 days and reduced fruit firmness, acidity and vitamin C content. The TSS content was higher in treated fruit. Flavour and texture were not affected by the doses of irradiation used. In treated acid limes (mature yellow), weight loss and decay were higher than untreated fruit (0 kGy) although difference was non-significant. Juice, TSS, titratable acidity and vitamin C contents were significantly less in treated fruit than in 0 kGy. Texture and flavour scores were also less in treated fruit than in 0 kGy. The stem-end rind breakdown was higher in untreated fruit than treated ones although difference

  9. Sodium fluxes in sweet pepper exposed to varying sodium concentrations

    Blom-Zandstra, M.; Vogelzang, S.A.; Veen, B.W.

    1998-01-01

    The sodium transport and distribution of sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) under saline conditions were studied after transferring the plants to a sodium-free nutrient solution. Sodium stress up to 60 mM did not affect the growth of sweet pepper, as it appears able to counteract the unfavourable

  10. Tapping the US sweet sorghum collection to identify biofuel germplasm

    The narrow genetic base in sweet sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] breeding programs is limiting the development of new varieties for biofuel production. Therefore, the identification of genetically diverse sweet sorghum germplasm in the U.S. National Plant Germplasm System (NPGS) collection is...

  11. Gender and Relative Economic Efficiency in Sweet Potato Farms of ...

    This study employed the stochastic frontier cost function to measure the level of economic efficiency and its determinants in small-scale sweet potato production in Imo State, Nigeria on gender basis. A multi-stage random sampling technique was used to select 120 sweet potato farmers (64 females and 56 males) in the ...

  12. Profitability of sweet potato production in derived savannah zone of ...

    This study examined profitability of sweet potato production in Odeda Local Government Area, Ogun State, Nigeria. The study was based on primary data collected from 82 sweet potato farmers through multistage sampling technique; analysed using descriptive statistics and budgetary techniques. The result revealed that ...

  13. Functional and pasting properties of cassava and sweet potato ...

    The functional and pasting properties of cassava starch and sweet potato starch mixtures at different ratios were investigated. Starches from four different cassava genotypes ('Adehye', AFS048, 'Bankye Botan' and OFF146) and one local sweet potato were used for the study. The swelling volume and swelling power of ...

  14. ( Coturnix coturnix japonica ) fed processed sweet potato ( Ipomea ...

    A six–week feeding trial was carried out to investigate the effect of processing of sweet potato tuber on growth parameters and carcass values of Japanese quails. Five isonitrogenous (25%CP) diets were compounded. The control diet (A) had zero sweet potato tuber meal. The other four diets (B, C, D and E) contained ...

  15. Evolution and Stress Responses of Gossypium hirsutum SWEET Genes.

    Li, Wei; Ren, Zhongying; Wang, Zhenyu; Sun, Kuan; Pei, Xiaoyu; Liu, Yangai; He, Kunlun; Zhang, Fei; Song, Chengxiang; Zhou, Xiaojian; Zhang, Wensheng; Ma, Xiongfeng; Yang, Daigang

    2018-03-08

    The SWEET (sugars will eventually be exported transporters) proteins are sugar efflux transporters containing the MtN3_saliva domain, which affects plant development as well as responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. These proteins have not been functionally characterized in the tetraploid cotton, Gossypium hirsutum , which is a widely cultivated cotton species. In this study, we comprehensively analyzed the cotton SWEET gene family. A total of 55 putative G. hirsutum SWEET genes were identified. The GhSWEET genes were classified into four clades based on a phylogenetic analysis and on the examination of gene structural features. Moreover, chromosomal localization and an analysis of homologous genes in Gossypium arboreum , Gossypium raimondii , and G. hirsutum suggested that a whole-genome duplication, several tandem duplications, and a polyploidy event contributed to the expansion of the cotton SWEET gene family, especially in Clade III and IV. Analyses of cis -acting regulatory elements in the promoter regions, expression profiles, and artificial selection revealed that the GhSWEET genes were likely involved in cotton developmental processes and responses to diverse stresses. These findings may clarify the evolution of G. hirsutum SWEET gene family and may provide a foundation for future functional studies of SWEET proteins regarding cotton development and responses to abiotic stresses.

  16. Complementation of sweet corn mutants: a method for grouping ...

    for sweet corn are now expanding and the demands are increasing due to ... tropical/tropical regions of India is amongst one of the factors ... Maize endosperm mutant genes that affect quality of sweet corn can ... Thus, the concept of comple-.

  17. Resource Use Efficiency in Sweet Potato Production in Kwara State ...

    This paper examines resource use efficiency in sweet potato production in Offa and Oyun local government areas of Kwara State of Nigeria. Primary data were collected from one hundred sweet potato farmers who were selected from the two local government areas during the 2003/2004 farming season. The data was ...

  18. Idiopathic hypertrophic cranial pachymeningitis associated with Sweet's Syndrome

    Cano, Antonio; Ribes, Ramon; Riva, Andres de la; Rubio, Fernando Lopez; Sanchez, Carmen; Sancho, Jose L.

    2002-01-01

    A case of hypertrophic cranial pachymeningitis associated with Sweet's Syndrome is presented. Both entities have been described in association with several other chronic systemic inflammatory diseases and autoimmune conditions. To our knowledge the coexistence between Sweet's Syndrome and hypertrophic cranial pachymeningitis has not been reported up to date. We suggest a possible autoimmune or dysimmune mechanism in the pathogenesis of these two entities

  19. Grammar Maturity Model

    Zaytsev, V.; Pierantonio, A.; Schätz, B.; Tamzalit, D.

    2014-01-01

    The evolution of a software language (whether modelled by a grammar or a schema or a metamodel) is not limited to development of new versions and dialects. An important dimension of a software language evolution is maturing in the sense of improving the quality of its definition. In this paper, we

  20. Maturing interorganisational information systems

    Plomp, M.G.A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/313946809

    2012-01-01

    This thesis consists of nine chapters, divided over five parts. PART I is an introduction and the last part contains the conclusions. The remaining, intermediate parts are: PART II: Developing a maturity model for chain digitisation. This part contains two related studies concerning the development

  1. Jealousy and Moral Maturity.

    Mathes, Eugene W.; Deuger, Donna J.

    Jealousy may be perceived as either good or bad depending upon the moral maturity of the individual. To investigate this conclusion, a study was conducted testing two hypothesis: a positive relationship exists between conventional moral reasoning (reference to norms and laws) and the endorsement and level of jealousy; and a negative relationship…

  2. Relation of carbohydrate reserves with the forthcoming crop, flower formation and photosynthetic rate, in the alternate bearing Salustiana sweet orange (Citrus sinensis L.)

    Monerri Huguet, Mª Consuelo; Fortunato De Almeida, Ambrosio; Molina Romero, Rosa Victoria; González Nebauer, Sergio; García Luís, Mª Desamparados; Guardiola Barcena, José Luís

    2011-01-01

    [EN] The aim of this work was to assess the relation between carbohydrate levels and flower and fruit production, as well as the role of carbohydrates on CO(2) fixation activity, by analysis of leaves, twigs and roots from the alternate bearing 'Salustiana' cultivar of sweet orange (Citrus sinensis [L.] Osbeck). A heavy crop load (on year) did not affect photosynthesis activity when compared to non-fruiting trees (off year). Fruiting trees accumulated most of the fixed carbon in mature fruits...

  3. ECOLOGICAL FOOTPRINT ANALYSIS OF CANNED SWEET CORN

    Phairat Usubharatana

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available There has been a notable increase in both consumer knowledge and awareness regarding the ecological benefits of green products and services. Manufacturers now pay more attention to green, environmentally friendly production processes. Two significant tools that can facilitate such a goal are life cycle assessment (LCA and ecological footprint (EF. This study aimed to analyse and determine the damage to the environment, focusing on the canned fruit and vegetable processing. Canned sweet corn (340 g was selected for the case study. All inputs and outputs associated with the product system boundary were collected through field surveys. The acquired inventory was then analysed and evaluated using both LCA and EF methodology. The results were converted into an area of biologically productive land and presented as global hectares (gha. The ecological footprint of one can of sweet corn was calculated as 6.51E-04 gha. The three factors with the highest impact on ecological footprint value were the corn kernels used in the process, the packaging and steam, equivalent to 2.93E-04 gha, 1.19E-04 gha and 1.17E-04 gha respectively. To promote the sustainable development, the company should develop new technology or utilize better management techniques to reduce the ecological footprint of canned food production.

  4. Effects of organic fertilisation on sweet orange bearing trees

    Roccuzzo, Giancarlo; Torrisi, Biagio; Canali, Stefano; Intrigliolo, Francesco

    2010-05-01

    In a study realised over a five year period (2001-2006) on orange bearing trees [Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck] cv. ‘Valencia late', grafted on sour orange (C. aurantium L.), four fertiliser treatments were applied: citrus by-products compost (CB), poultry manure (PM), livestock waste compost (LW) and mineral fertiliser (MF), as control. The trees, with the exception of MF treatment, were organically grown since 1994 in the experimental farm of CRA-ACM in Lentini, Sicily, and received the same N input every year. The research objectives were to evaluate the effect of long term repeated organic fertilisers application on i) soil fertility; ii) citrus bearing trees nutritional status by means of leaf analysis and iii) yield and fruit quality, determining parameters currently utilized to evaluate sweet orange production either for fresh consumption and processing. The CB treatment showed significantly higher values of Corg in soil than MF treatment (about 30%). Corg in PM and LW treatments was higher than MF treatment (13% and 20%, respectively), but these differences were not statistically significant either from the control treatment nor from the soil fertilised with CB. Similar trend was showed by the humic and fulvic C being the values of the CB treatment significantly higher than the control. PM and LW treatments had intermediate values, without statistical significance. The long term addition to soil of a quality compost (CB) with high C/N ratio increased the level of nutrients wich usually show low availability for citrus plants (P, Fe, Zn, Mn), as demonstrated by leaf analysis. No significant difference was noticed as far as yield was concerned, whereas CB treatment enhanced some fruit quality parameters.

  5. Graphic Grown Up

    Kim, Ann

    2009-01-01

    It's no secret that children and YAs are clued in to graphic novels (GNs) and that comics-loving adults are positively giddy that this format is getting the recognition it deserves. Still, there is a whole swath of library card-carrying grown-up readers out there with no idea where to start. Splashy movies such as "300" and "Spider-Man" and their…

  6. BitterSweetForest: A random forest based binary classifier to predict bitterness and sweetness of chemical compounds

    Banerjee, Priyanka; Preissner, Robert

    2018-04-01

    Taste of a chemical compounds present in food stimulates us to take in nutrients and avoid poisons. However, the perception of taste greatly depends on the genetic as well as evolutionary perspectives. The aim of this work was the development and validation of a machine learning model based on molecular fingerprints to discriminate between sweet and bitter taste of molecules. BitterSweetForest is the first open access model based on KNIME workflow that provides platform for prediction of bitter and sweet taste of chemical compounds using molecular fingerprints and Random Forest based classifier. The constructed model yielded an accuracy of 95% and an AUC of 0.98 in cross-validation. In independent test set, BitterSweetForest achieved an accuracy of 96 % and an AUC of 0.98 for bitter and sweet taste prediction. The constructed model was further applied to predict the bitter and sweet taste of natural compounds, approved drugs as well as on an acute toxicity compound data set. BitterSweetForest suggests 70% of the natural product space, as bitter and 10 % of the natural product space as sweet with confidence score of 0.60 and above. 77 % of the approved drug set was predicted as bitter and 2% as sweet with a confidence scores of 0.75 and above. Similarly, 75% of the total compounds from acute oral toxicity class were predicted only as bitter with a minimum confidence score of 0.75, revealing toxic compounds are mostly bitter. Furthermore, we applied a Bayesian based feature analysis method to discriminate the most occurring chemical features between sweet and bitter compounds from the feature space of a circular fingerprint.

  7. Fermentation of sweet sorghum syrup to butanol in the presence of natural nutrients and inhibitors

    Sweet sorghum syrups represent a renewable raw material that can be available year-round for production of biofuels and biochemicals. Sweet sorghum sugars have been used as sources for butanol production in the past but most often the studies focused on sweet sorghum juice and not on sweet sorghum s...

  8. 21 CFR 163.153 - Sweet chocolate and vegetable fat coating.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sweet chocolate and vegetable fat coating. 163.153... § 163.153 Sweet chocolate and vegetable fat coating. (a) Description. Sweet chocolate and vegetable fat... requirements for label declaration of ingredients for sweet chocolate in § 163.123, except that one or more...

  9. 7 CFR 457.129 - Fresh market sweet corn crop insurance provisions.

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fresh market sweet corn crop insurance provisions. 457... sweet corn crop insurance provisions. The fresh market sweet corn crop insurance provisions for the 2008... Reinsured Policies Fresh Market Sweet Corn Crop Provisions 1. Definitions Allowable cost.—The dollar amount...

  10. Improving the sweet aftertaste of green tea infusion with tannase.

    Zhang, Ying-Na; Yin, Jun-Feng; Chen, Jian-Xin; Wang, Fang; Du, Qi-Zhen; Jiang, Yong-Wen; Xu, Yong-Quan

    2016-02-01

    The present study aims to improve the sweet aftertaste and overall acceptability of green tea infusion by hydrolyzing (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) and (-)-epicatechin gallate (ECG) with tannase. The results showed that the intensity of the sweet aftertaste and the score of overall acceptability of the green tea infusion significantly increased with the extension of the hydrolyzing treatment. (-)-Epigallocatechin (EGC) and (-)-epicatechin (EC) were found to be the main contributors for the sweet aftertaste, based on a trial compatibility with EGCG, ECG, EGC, and EC monomers, and a synergistic action between EGC and EC to sweet aftertaste was observed. A 2.5:1 (EGC/EC) ratio with a total concentration of 3.5 mmol/L gave the most satisfying sweet aftertaste, and the astringency significantly inhibited the development of the sweet aftertaste. These results can help us to produce a tea beverage with excellent sweet aftertaste by hydrolyzing the green tea infusion with tannase. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Develop of a Sweet Cookie with toasted sesame and ground

    Dr.C. Aldo Hernández-Monzón

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The sweet cookies nutritionally are rich source of energy and they have great acceptance to world level and the sesame (Sésamum indicum it is of the family of the oleaginous ones that possesses a high quantity of protein and fat where 80% belongs to the fatty polinsaturadas fundamentally linoleic acid, it has high content of calcium and the presence iron, magnesium and zinc, what makes it a functional food. This work had as objective to develop a sweet cookie with addition of toastedsesame and ground with good characteristic sensorial and nutritional. The addition of the toasted sesame and ground it was carried out in dose of 10, 15 and 20% to the formulation of a sweet cookie. The sweet cookies were evaluated by seven trained judges to determine the most appropriate dose according to the general impression of obtained quality. The accepted formulation it was determined humidity, proteins, fat, ashy, calcium, iron, and zinc and texture analysis. The best formulation wasthat of 15% sesame for the obtaining of a product with an acceptability of excellent, a percentage of humidity and typical fat of sweet cookies and high content of proteins and calcium as well as appreciable iron content and zinc. The obtained sweet cookie was characterized sensorial to possess a scent and flavor defined to sesame, good crujencia and harmony among its components, very pleasant hardness and the weight and thickness similar to that of other sweet cookies.

  12. The availability of novelty sweets within high school localities.

    Aljawad, A; Morgan, M Z; Rees, J S; Fairchild, R

    2016-06-10

    Background Reducing sugar consumption is a primary focus of current global public health policy. Achieving 5% of total energy from free sugars will be difficult acknowledging the concentration of free sugars in sugar sweetened beverages, confectionery and as hidden sugars in many savoury items. The expansion of the novelty sweet market in the UK has significant implications for children and young adults as they contribute to dental caries, dental erosion and obesity.Objective To identify the most available types of novelty sweets within the high school fringe in Cardiff, UK and to assess their price range and where and how they were displayed in shops.Subjects and methods Shops within a ten minute walking distance around five purposively selected high schools in the Cardiff aea representing different levels of deprivation were visited. Shops in Cardiff city centre and three supermarkets were also visited to identify the most commonly available novelty sweets.Results The ten most popular novelty sweets identified in these scoping visits were (in descending order): Brain Licker, Push Pop, Juicy Drop, Lickedy Lips, Big Baby Pop, Vimto candy spray, Toxic Waste, Tango candy spray, Brain Blasterz Bitz and Mega Mouth candy spray. Novelty sweets were located on low shelves which were accessible to all age-groups in 73% (14 out of 19) of the shops. Novelty sweets were displayed in the checkout area in 37% (seven out of 19) shops. The price of the top ten novelty sweets ranged from 39p to £1.Conclusion A wide range of acidic and sugary novelty sweets were easily accessible and priced within pocket money range. Those personnel involved in delivering dental and wider health education or health promotion need to be aware of recent developments in children's confectionery. The potential effects of these novelty sweets on both general and dental health require further investigation.

  13. Leptin Suppresses Mouse Taste Cell Responses to Sweet Compounds.

    Yoshida, Ryusuke; Noguchi, Kenshi; Shigemura, Noriatsu; Jyotaki, Masafumi; Takahashi, Ichiro; Margolskee, Robert F; Ninomiya, Yuzo

    2015-11-01

    Leptin is known to selectively suppress neural and behavioral responses to sweet-tasting compounds. However, the molecular basis for the effect of leptin on sweet taste is not known. Here, we report that leptin suppresses sweet taste via leptin receptors (Ob-Rb) and KATP channels expressed selectively in sweet-sensitive taste cells. Ob-Rb was more often expressed in taste cells that expressed T1R3 (a sweet receptor component) than in those that expressed glutamate-aspartate transporter (a marker for Type I taste cells) or GAD67 (a marker for Type III taste cells). Systemically administered leptin suppressed taste cell responses to sweet but not to bitter or sour compounds. This effect was blocked by a leptin antagonist and was absent in leptin receptor-deficient db/db mice and mice with diet-induced obesity. Blocking the KATP channel subunit sulfonylurea receptor 1, which was frequently coexpressed with Ob-Rb in T1R3-expressing taste cells, eliminated the effect of leptin on sweet taste. In contrast, activating the KATP channel with diazoxide mimicked the sweet-suppressing effect of leptin. These results indicate that leptin acts via Ob-Rb and KATP channels that are present in T1R3-expressing taste cells to selectively suppress their responses to sweet compounds. © 2015 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.

  14. The productive potentials of sweet sorghum ethanol in China

    Zhang, Caixia; Xie, Gaodi; Li, Shimei; Ge, Liqiang; He, Tingting

    2010-01-01

    As one of the important non-grain energy crops, sweet sorghum has attracted the attention of scientific community and decision makers of the world since decades. But insufficient study has been done about the spatial suitability distribution and ethanol potential of sweet sorghum in China. This paper attempts to probe into the spatial distribution and ethanol potential of sweet sorghum in China by ArcGIS methods. Data used for the analysis include the spatial data of climate, soil, topography and land use, and literatures relevant for sweet sorghum studies. The results show that although sweet sorghum can be planted in the majority of lands in China, the suitable unused lands for large-scale planting (unit area not less than 100 hm 2 ) are only as much as 78.6 x 10 4 hm 2 ; and the productive potentials of ethanol from these lands are 157.1 x 10 4 -294.6 x 10 4 t/year, which can only meet 24.8-46.4% of current demand for E10 (gasoline mixed with 10% ethanol) in China (assumption of the energy efficiency of E10 is equivalent to that of pure petroleum). If all the common grain sorghum at present were replaced by sweet sorghum, the average ethanol yield of 244.0 x 10 4 t/year can be added, and thus the productive potentials of sweet sorghum ethanol can satisfy 63.2-84.9% of current demand for E10 of China. In general, Heilongjiang, Jilin, Inner Mongolia and Liaoning rank the highest in productive potentials of sweet sorghum ethanol, followed by Hebei, Shanxi, Sichuan, and some other provinces. It is suggested that these regions should be regarded as the priority development zones for sweet sorghum ethanol in China.

  15. Unveiling the Sweet Conformations of Ketohexoses

    Bermudez, C.; Pena, I.; Cabezas, C.; Daly, A. M.; Mata, S.; Alonso, J. L.

    2013-06-01

    The conformational behavior of ketohexoses D-Fructose, L-Sorbose, D-Tagatose and D-Psicose has been revealed from their rotational spectra. A broadband microwave spectrometer (CP-FTMW) has been used to rapidly acquire the rotational spectra in the 6 to 12 GHz frequency range. All observed species are stabilized by complicated intramolecular hydrogen-bonding networks. Structural motifs related to the sweetness of ketohexoses are revealed. G. G. Brown, B. C. Dian, K. O. Douglass, S. M. Geyer, S. T. Shipman, B. H. Pate, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 2008, 79, 053103. S. Mata, I. Peña, C. Cabezas, J. C. López, J. L. Alonso, J. Mol. Spectrosc. 2012, 280, 91.

  16. A "Sweet 16" of Rules About Teamwork

    Laufer, Alexander (Editor)

    2002-01-01

    The following "Sweet 16" rules included in this paper derive from a longer paper by APPL Director Dr. Edward Hoffman and myself entitled " 99 Rules for Managing Faster, Better, Cheaper Projects." Our sources consisted mainly of "war stories" told by master project managers in my book Simultaneous Management: Managing Projects in a Dynamic Environment (AMACOM, The American Management Association, 1996). The Simultaneous Management model was a result of 10 years of intensive research and testing conducted with the active participation of master project managers from leading private organizations such as AT&T, DuPont, Exxon, General Motors, IBM, Motorola and Procter & Gamble. In a more recent study, led by Dr. Hoffman, we learned that master project managers in leading public organizations employ most of these rules as well. Both studies, in private and public organizations, found that a dynamic environment calls for dynamic management, and that is especially clear in how successful project managers think about their teams.

  17. Sweet Syndrome: A Review and Update.

    Villarreal-Villarreal, C D; Ocampo-Candiani, J; Villarreal-Martínez, A

    2016-06-01

    Sweet syndrome is the most representative entity of febrile neutrophilic dermatoses. It typically presents in patients with pirexya, neutrophilia, painful tender erytomatous papules, nodules and plaques often distributed asymmetrically. Frequent sites include the face, neck and upper extremities. Affected sites show a characteristical neutrophilic infiltrate in the upper dermis. Its etiology remains elucidated, but it seems that can be mediated by a hypersensitivity reaction in which cytokines, followed by infiltration of neutrophils, may be involved. Systemic corticosteroids are the first-line of treatment in most cases. We present a concise review of the pathogenesis, classification, diagnosis and treatment update of this entity. Copyright © 2015 AEDV. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  18. Cytoskeleton-amyloplast interactions in sweet clover

    Guikema, J. A.; Hilaire, E.; Odom, W. R.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1993-01-01

    The distribution of organelles within columella cells of sweet clover was examined by transmission electron microscopy following growth under static or clinorotating conditions. A developmentally conditioned polarity was observed, with a proximal location of the nucleus and a distal accumulation of the endoplasmic reticulum. This polarity was insensitive to clinorotation. In contrast, clinorotation altered the location of amyloplasts. Application of cytoskeletal poisons (colchicine, cytochalasin D, taxol, and phalloidin), especially during clinorotation, had interesting effects on the maintenance of columella cell polarity, with a profound effect on the extent, location, and structure of the endoplasmic reticulum. The site of cytoskeletal interactions with sedimenting amyloplasts is thought to be the amyloplast envelope. An envelope fraction, having over 17 polypeptides, was isolated using immobilized antibody technology, and will provide a means of assessing the role of specific peptides in cytoskeleton/amyloplast interactions.

  19. Utilization of heavy metal-rich tannery sludge for sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) cultivation.

    Chand, Sukhmal; Singh, Shweta; Singh, Vinay Kumar; Patra, D D

    2015-05-01

    Unlike food crops, essential oil-bearing crops in which the oil is extracted through hydro-distillation can be a suitable crop to be grown in heavy metal-polluted soils as the oil does not carry any heavy metal. In a field experiment conducted at CIMAP, Lucknow, India during 2011 and 2012, influence of six doses of tannery sludge viz 0, 10, 20, 30, 40, and 50 t ha(-1) were tested, taking sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum) as the test crop. Maximum herb yield was obtained with the application of sludge at 20 t ha(-1). While in root, accumulation of Cd and Pb increased significantly up to 20 t ha(-1), Cr accumulation increased with increasing the dose of tannery sludge reaching maximum at 50 t ha(-1). Essential oil yield of basil (Ocimum basilicum) was significantly affected due to sludge application. Quality of essential oil, in term of chemical constituents, however, was marginally influenced due to tannery sludge application.

  20. Yield and fruit quality of four sweet corn hybrids (Zea mays) under conventional and integrated fertilization with vermicompost.

    Lazcano, Cristina; Revilla, Pedro; Malvar, Rosa Ana; Domínguez, Jorge

    2011-05-01

    Vermicompost has been proposed as a valuable fertilizer for sustainable agriculture. The effects of vermicompost on yield and quality of sweet corn were evaluated in this study. In two field trials, sweet corn plants were grown under (i) a conventional fertilization regime with inorganic fertilizer, and integrated fertilization regimes in which 75% of the nutrients were supplied by the inorganic fertilizer and 25% of the nutrients were supplied by either (ii) rabbit manure, or (iii) vermicompost. All three types of fertilization regime were supplied at two doses. Two pairs of nearly isogenic sweet corn hybrids homozygous for sugary1 and shrunken2 mutants were included in the trials to explore fertilizer × genotype interactions. Growth, yield and ear quality of the plants were evaluated in relation to the three fertilization regimes. In general, the integrated regimes yielded the same productivity levels as the conventional treatment. Moreover, both vermicompost and manure produced significant increases in plant growth and marketable yield, and also affected the chemical composition and quality of the marketable ear. Nevertheless, most of the observed effects of the organic fertilizers were genotype-dependent. The results confirm that the use of organic fertilizers such as vermicompost has a positive effect on crop yield and quality. Nevertheless, these effects were not general, indicating the complexity of the organic amendment-plant interactions and the importance of controlling genetic variation when studying the effects of vermicompost on plant growth. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Recurrent Selection and Participatory Plant Breeding for Improvement of Two Organic Open-Pollinated Sweet Corn (Zea mays L. Populations

    Adrienne C. Shelton

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Organic growers face unique challenges when raising sweet corn, and benefit from varieties that maintain high eating quality, germinate consistently, deter insect pests, and resist diseases. Genotype by environment rank changes can occur in the performance of cultivars grown on conventional and organic farms, yet few varieties have been bred specifically for organic systems. The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the changes made to open-pollinated sweet corn populations using recurrent selection and a participatory plant breeding (PPB methodology. From 2008 to 2011, four cycles of two open-pollinated (OP sweet corn populations were selected on a certified organic farm in Minnesota using a modified ear-to-row recurrent selection scheme. Selections were made in collaboration with an organic farmer, with selection criteria based on traits identified by the farmer. In 2012 and 2013, the population cycles were evaluated in a randomized complete block design in two certified organic locations in Wisconsin, with multiple replications in each environment. Significant linear trends were found among cycles of selection for quantitative and qualitative traits, suggesting the changes were due to recurrent selection and PPB methodology for these populations. However, further improvement is necessary to satisfy the requirements for a useful cultivar for organic growers.

  2. People Capability Maturity Model. SM.

    1995-09-01

    tailored so it consumes less time and resources than a traditional software process assessment or CMU/SEI-95-MM-02 People Capability Maturity Model...improved reputation or customer loyalty. CMU/SEI-95-MM-02 People Capability Maturity Model ■ L5-17 Coaching Level 5: Optimizing Activity 1...Maturity Model CMU/SEI-95-MM-62 Carnegie-Mellon University Software Engineering Institute DTIC ELECTE OCT 2 7 1995 People Capability Maturity

  3. In Vitro Conservation of Sweet Potato Genotypes

    Maria de Fátima Arrigoni-Blank

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to develop a protocol for the in vitro conservation of sweet potato genotypes using the slow growth technique. The first experiment was conducted in a 4×5×2 factorial scheme, testing four genotypes (IPB-007, IPB-052, IPB-072, and IPB-137, five concentrations of abscisic acid (ABA (0.0, 1.0, 2.0, 4.0, and 8.0 mg·L−1, and two temperatures (18 and 25°C. The second experiment was conducted in a 4×3×3 factorial scheme at 18°C, testing four genotypes (IPB-007, IPB-052, IPB-072, and IPB-137, three variations of MS salts (50, 75, and 100%, and three concentrations of sucrose (10, 20, and 30 g·L−1. Every three months, we evaluated the survival (%, shoot height, and shoot viability. In vitro conservation of the sweet potato genotypes IPB-052 and IPB-007 was obtained over three and six months, respectively, using MS medium plus 2.0 mg·L−1 of ABA at either 18 or 25°C. Genotypes IPB-072 and IPB-137 can be kept for three and six months, respectively, in MS medium without ABA at 18°C. It is possible to store IPB-052 and IPB-072 for six months and IPB-007 and IPB-137 for nine months using 30 g·L−1 of sucrose and 50% MS salts.

  4. Yellow sweet potato flour: use in sweet bread processing to increase β-carotene content and improve quality

    AMANDA C. NOGUEIRA

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Yellow sweet potato is mostly produced by small farmers, and may be a source of energy and carotenoids in the human diet, but it is a highly perishable crop. To increase its industrial application, yellow sweet potato flour has been produced for use in bakery products. This study aimed to evaluate the technological quality and the carotenoids content in sweet breads produced with the replacement of wheat flour by 0, 3, 6, and 9% yellow sweet potato flour. Breads were characterized by technological parameters and β-carotene levels during nine days of storage. Tukey’s test (p<0.05 was used for comparison between means. The increase in yellow sweet potato flour concentrations in bread led to a decrease of specific volume and firmness, and an increase in water activity, moisture, orange coloring, and carotenoids. During storage, the most significant changes were observed after the fifth day, with a decrease in intensity of the orange color. The β-carotene content was 0.1656 to 0.4715 µg/g in breads with yellow sweet potato flour. This work showed a novel use of yellow sweet potato in breads, which brings benefits to consumers’ health and for the agricultural business.

  5. Yellow sweet potato flour: use in sweet bread processing to increase β-carotene content and improve quality.

    Nogueira, Amanda C; Sehn, Georgia A R; Rebellato, Ana Paula; Coutinho, Janclei P; Godoy, Helena T; Chang, Yoon K; Steel, Caroline J; Clerici, Maria Teresa P S

    2018-01-01

    Yellow sweet potato is mostly produced by small farmers, and may be a source of energy and carotenoids in the human diet, but it is a highly perishable crop. To increase its industrial application, yellow sweet potato flour has been produced for use in bakery products. This study aimed to evaluate the technological quality and the carotenoids content in sweet breads produced with the replacement of wheat flour by 0, 3, 6, and 9% yellow sweet potato flour. Breads were characterized by technological parameters and β-carotene levels during nine days of storage. Tukey's test (p<0.05) was used for comparison between means. The increase in yellow sweet potato flour concentrations in bread led to a decrease of specific volume and firmness, and an increase in water activity, moisture, orange coloring, and carotenoids. During storage, the most significant changes were observed after the fifth day, with a decrease in intensity of the orange color. The β-carotene content was 0.1656 to 0.4715 µg/g in breads with yellow sweet potato flour. This work showed a novel use of yellow sweet potato in breads, which brings benefits to consumers' health and for the agricultural business.

  6. Maturity effects in energy futures

    Serletis, Apostolos (Calgary Univ., AB (CA). Dept. of Economics)

    1992-04-01

    This paper examines the effects of maturity on future price volatility and trading volume for 129 energy futures contracts recently traded in the NYMEX. The results provide support for the maturity effect hypothesis, that is, energy futures prices to become more volatile and trading volume increases as futures contracts approach maturity. (author).

  7. Post-storage cell wall metabolism in two sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) cultivars displaying different postharvest performance.

    Belge, Burcu; Comabella, Eva; Graell, Jordi; Lara, Isabel

    2015-09-01

    The biochemical processes underlying firmness loss of sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) fruit are poorly understood. Studies on cell wall metabolism of sweet cherry have been generally undertaken during on-tree development or at harvest maturity, while published reports on postharvest changes are scarce and fragmentary. In this work, cell wall modifications after storage at 0 ℃ were studied in two cherry cultivars ('Celeste' and 'Somerset') displaying different postharvest potential. Firmness was largely determined by the yields of the Na2CO3- and KOH-soluble fractions, enriched in covalently-bound pectins and in matrix glycans, respectively, and correlated well with ascorbic acid contents. The yields of these two cell wall fractions were correlated inversely with pectinmethylesterase and endo-1,4-β-d-glucanase activities, indicating a relevant role of these two enzymes in postharvest firmness changes in sweet cherry. The amount of solubilised cell wall materials was closely associated to the contents of dehydroascorbic acid, suggesting the possible involvement of oxidative mechanisms in cell wall disassembly. These data may help understanding the evolution of fruit quality during the marketing period, and give hints for the design of suitable management strategies to preserve key attributes. © The Author(s) 2014.

  8. Relationship between Processing Method and the Glycemic Indices of Ten Sweet Potato (Ipomoea batatas Cultivars Commonly Consumed in Jamaica

    Perceval S. Bahado-Singh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effect of different traditional cooking methods on glycemic index (GI and glycemic response of ten Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas cultivars commonly eaten in Jamaica. Matured tubers were cooked by roasting, baking, frying, or boiling then immediately consumed by the ten nondiabetic test subjects (5 males and 5 females; mean age of 27 ± 2 years. The GI varied between 41 ± 5–93 ± 5 for the tubers studied. Samples prepared by boiling had the lowest GI (41 ± 5–50 ± 3, while those processed by baking (82 ± 3–94 ± 3 and roasting (79 ± 4–93 ± 2 had the highest GI values. The study indicates that the glycemic index of Jamaican sweet potatoes varies significantly with the method of preparation and to a lesser extent on intravarietal differences. Consumption of boiled sweet potatoes could minimize postprandial blood glucose spikes and therefore, may prove to be more efficacious in the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  9. Component Analysis of Sweet BV and Clinical Trial on Antibody Titer and Allergic Reactions

    Ki Rok, Kwon; Suk Ho, Choi; Bae Chun Cha

    2006-01-01

    Objectives : The aim of this study was to observe prevention of allergic reactions of Sweet Bee Venom (removing enzyme components from Bee Venom). Methods : Content analysis of Sweet Bee Venom and Bee Venom was rendered using HPLC method and characterization of Anti-Sweet Bee Venom in Rabbit Serum. Clinical observation was conducted for inducement of allergic responses to Sweet BV. Results : 1. Analyzing melittin content using HPLC, Sweet BV contained 34.9% more melittin than Bee venom ...

  10. Síndrome de Sweet asociado a neoplasias Sweet's syndrome associated with neoplasms

    Mariana Franco

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available El síndrome de Sweet fue descrito en el año 1964 por Robert Douglas Sweet, como una entidad a la cual denominó dermatosis neutrofílica febril y aguda. Se caracteriza por cinco rasgos principales: 1 aparición brusca de placas eritemato-dolorosas en cara, cuello y extremidades; 2 fiebre; 3 leucocitosis polimorfonuclear; 4 denso infiltrado dérmico a predominio neutrofilico; 5 rápida respuesta al tratamiento esteroideo. Se puede clasificar en cinco grupos: idiopático, parainflamatorio, paraneoplásico, secundario a drogas y asociado a embarazo. En el 20% de los casos se asocia a enfermedades malignas, representando las hematológicas el 85% y los tumores sólidos el 15% restante. Se presenta una serie de siete casos de síndrome de Sweet asociado a neoplasias, diagnosticados durante el período 2002-2006, de los cuales seis correspondieron a enfermedades oncohematológicas y el restante a tumores sólidos. Como comentario de dicha casuística, se hace hincapié en la importancia del diagnóstico de este síndrome, debido a que puede anunciar la recaída del tumor o la progresión de la enfermedad de base. De esta manera, mediante el uso de métodos de diagnóstico y tratamiento oportunos, se lograría mejorar la calida de vida de estos pacientes. También debe tenerse en cuenta, que los pacientes oncológicos reciben múltiples medicaciones (factor estimulante de colonias, que pueden estar implicadas en la aparición de esta entidad, debiendo ser las mismas descartadas como posibles causas.Sweet's syndrome was described in 1964 by Robert Douglas Sweet, as an entity he named acute febrile neutrophilic dermatosis. It is characterized by five main features: 1 sudden appearance of erythematous and tender plaques on the face, neck and extremities; 2 fever; 3 polymorphonuclear leukocytes; 4 predominantly neutrophilic dense infiltrate in the dermis, and 5 rapid response to steroid therapy. Sweet's syndrome can be classified into five groups

  11. THE STRUCTURE AND YIELD LEVEL OF SWEET CORN DEPENDING ON THE TYPE OF WINTER CATCH CROPS AND WEED CONTROL METHOD

    Robert Rosa

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Organic manuring is suggested to be necessary in sweet corn cultivation. It is not always possible to use farmyard manure due to economic, production or technical reasons. Catch crops used as green manures can be an alternative source of organic matter. The experiment was carried out in central-east Poland (52°06’N, 22°55’E, in years 2008–2011. The successive effect of winter catch crops (hairy vetch, white clover, winter rye, Italian ryegrass, winter turnip rape and the type of weed control on the growth and yielding of sweet corn was examined. The catch crops were sown in early September, incorporated in early May. The effect of the winter catch crops on yield was compared to the effect of FYM at a rate of 30 t·ha-1 and the control without organic manuring. The sweet corn was grown directly after organic fertilization. Three methods of weed control was used: Hw – hand weeding, twice during the growing period, GCM – herbicide Guardian CompleteMix 664 SE, immediately after sowing the seed corn, Z+T – a mixture of herbicides Zeagran 340 SE + Titus 25 WG, in the 3–4 leaf stage sweet corn. The highest yields of biomass were found for winter rye (35.5 t·ha-1 FM and 7.3 t·ha-1 DM, the most of macroelements accumulated winter turnip rape (480.2 kg N+P+K+Ca+Mg·ha-1. Generally, leguminous catch crops had similar to the FYM and better than non-leguminous catch crops yield-forming effect. The highest yield of marketable ears of sweet corn was obtained after FYM (14.4 t·ha-1 and after hairy vetch catch crop (14.0 t·ha-1. A similar yield-forming effect also had white clover and Italian ryegrass. The most of ears from 1 ha was achieved after white clover catch crop (59.3 tausend, similar after FYM and hairy vetch catch crop. The highest kernel yields were found after FYM (10.7 t·ha-1. The yields of kernel after hairy vetch and white clover catch crops were significantly higher than after non-leguminous catch crops. Z+T weed control

  12. Antibody affinity maturation

    Skjødt, Mette Louise

    Yeast surface display is an effective tool for antibody affinity maturation because yeast can be used as an all-in-one workhorse to assemble, display and screen diversified antibody libraries. By employing the natural ability of yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae to efficiently recombine multiple DNA...... laboratory conditions. A particular emphasis was put on using molecular techniques in conjunction with microenvironmental measurements (O2, pH, irradiance), a combination that is rarely found but provides a much more detailed understanding of “cause and effect” in complex natural systems...

  13. Diversity analysis of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas [L.] Lam ...

    aghomotsegin

    2014-02-05

    Feb 5, 2014 ... for genetic diversity assessment on sweet potato germplasm (Jarret et al., 1992; ..... method using arithmetic average (UPGMA) algorithm of. DARwin5.0.158 ..... McKnight Foundation for the additional support. REFERENCES.

  14. Aqueous and ethanolic leaf extracts of Ocimum basilicum (sweet ...

    Chigo Okwuosa

    basilicum (sweet basil) protect against sodium ... arsenite alone, the aqueous extracts plus sodium arsenite, and ethanolic extracts plus sodium ... properties and effects (Aruna and Sivaramakrishnan. 1992 ..... Biotransformation of the pesticide.

  15. Sweet Taste Receptor Signaling Network: Possible Implication for Cognitive Functioning

    Menizibeya O. Welcome

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sweet taste receptors are transmembrane protein network specialized in the transmission of information from special “sweet” molecules into the intracellular domain. These receptors can sense the taste of a range of molecules and transmit the information downstream to several acceptors, modulate cell specific functions and metabolism, and mediate cell-to-cell coupling through paracrine mechanism. Recent reports indicate that sweet taste receptors are widely distributed in the body and serves specific function relative to their localization. Due to their pleiotropic signaling properties and multisubstrate ligand affinity, sweet taste receptors are able to cooperatively bind multiple substances and mediate signaling by other receptors. Based on increasing evidence about the role of these receptors in the initiation and control of absorption and metabolism, and the pivotal role of metabolic (glucose regulation in the central nervous system functioning, we propose a possible implication of sweet taste receptor signaling in modulating cognitive functioning.

  16. Integrated nutrient management for orange-fleshed sweet potato

    ACSS

    and variety, suggesting that the orange-fleshed sweet potato varieties responded similarly to nutrient ... fleshed ones, can help alleviate vitamin A deficiency .... LSD (0.05) for variety (V) mean. = 14.8 .... Information System, Working Paper #2.

  17. Development of an efficient plant regeneration protocol for sweet ...

    UKZN

    2012-10-18

    Oct 18, 2012 ... explants produced highly recalcitrant callus that did not regenerate into ... Key words: Tissue culture, regeneration, sweet potato, genetic transformation. .... sterilized in 5% (v/v) sodium hypochlorite solution for 20 min and.

  18. Allelopathic activity of saponins exctracted from Rhododendron luteum Sweet

    Iryna M. Yezhel

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Article deals with allelopathic activity of saponins exctracted from Rhododendron luteumSweet leaves. Investigations show nonlinear correlation between saponins concetration and growth of the roots of test-cultures.

  19. microbiological quality of re-packaged sweets sold in metropolitan

    DR. AMINU

    retailers of food products, which include sweets, have been implicated ... their microbiological fitness for human consumption. MATERIALS ... wholesome beverage was used to serve as a control. This was ... behaviour of the bacterial isolates.

  20. Taste bud leptin: sweet dampened at initiation site.

    Travers, Susan P; Frank, Marion E

    2015-05-01

    The intriguing observation that leptin decreases sweet-evoked peripheral gustatory responses has aroused much interest (Kawai K, Sugimoto K, Nakashima K, Miura H, Ninomiya Y. 2000. Leptin as a modulator of sweet taste sensitivities in mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 97(20):11044-11049.) due to its implied importance in controlling appetite. The effects of this anorexic hormone, however, appear more conditional than originally believed. In this issue of Chemical Senses, a careful study by Glendinning and colleagues, find no effects of leptin on sweet-evoked chorda tympani responses, whereas an equally careful study by Meredith and colleagues, find decreased release of ATP and increased release of 5-HT from taste buds in response to sweet stimuli. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Effects of sweet potato meal on performance and carcass ...

    Effects of sweet potato meal on performance and carcass characteristics of broiler finisher birds. ... International Journal of Tropical Agriculture and Food Systems ... Feed and water were supplied ad libitum to the experimental birds, while ...

  2. Influence of planting and harvesting dates on sweet potato yield ...

    home

    Two experiments were conducted to study the influence of harvesting date on three sweet potato ... determining whole top yields above ground level. .... plant storage organ (which in this case is the root) prior to harvesting and processing for.

  3. Does 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid induce flowering in sweet ...

    Acer

    2013-12-18

    Dec 18, 2013 ... Friedman's test using Genstat software version 14 (Genstat, 2010). RESULTS AND .... verse to a more longitudinal orientation which leads to lateral cell .... Breeding efforts to develop high-yielding, multiple pest-resistant sweet ...

  4. Digital gene expression analysis based on integrated de novo transcriptome assembly of sweet potato [Ipomoea batatas (L. Lam].

    Xiang Tao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L. [Lam.] ranks among the top six most important food crops in the world. It is widely grown throughout the world with high and stable yield, strong adaptability, rich nutrient content, and multiple uses. However, little is known about the molecular biology of this important non-model organism due to lack of genomic resources. Hence, studies based on high-throughput sequencing technologies are needed to get a comprehensive and integrated genomic resource and better understanding of gene expression patterns in different tissues and at various developmental stages. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Illumina paired-end (PE RNA-Sequencing was performed, and generated 48.7 million of 75 bp PE reads. These reads were de novo assembled into 128,052 transcripts (≥ 100 bp, which correspond to 41.1 million base pairs, by using a combined assembly strategy. Transcripts were annotated by Blast2GO and 51,763 transcripts got BLASTX hits, in which 39,677 transcripts have GO terms and 14,117 have ECs that are associated with 147 KEGG pathways. Furthermore, transcriptome differences of seven tissues were analyzed by using Illumina digital gene expression (DGE tag profiling and numerous differentially and specifically expressed transcripts were identified. Moreover, the expression characteristics of genes involved in viral genomes, starch metabolism and potential stress tolerance and insect resistance were also identified. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The combined de novo transcriptome assembly strategy can be applied to other organisms whose reference genomes are not available. The data provided here represent the most comprehensive and integrated genomic resources for cloning and identifying genes of interest in sweet potato. Characterization of sweet potato transcriptome provides an effective tool for better understanding the molecular mechanisms of cellular processes including development of leaves and storage roots

  5. Influence of Sweetness and Ethanol Content on Mead Acceptability

    Gomes Teresa

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Mead is a traditional alcoholic beverage obtained by fermenting mead wort; however, its production still remains frequently an empirical exercise. Different meads can be produced, depending on fermentation conditions. Nevertheless, to date few studies have been developed on factors that may influence mead quality. The main objective of this work was to study the influence of sweetness and ethanol content on mead acceptability. Different meads were produced with two sweetness levels (sweet and dry meads and three ethanol contents (18, 20, 22% (v/v, adjusted by brandy addition. Afterwards, meads acceptability was evaluated by sensory analysis through a consumers’ panel (n=108 along with chemical analysis by HPLC-RID of glucose, fructose, ethanol, glycerol and acetic acid. The sweet (75 gglucose+fructose/L and dry (23 gglucose+fructose/L meads presented glycerol contents equal to 5.10±0.54 and 5.96±0.95 g/L, respectively, that were desirable since glycerol improves mead quality. Low concentrations of acetic acid were determined (0.46±0.08 and 0.57±0.09 g/L, avoiding the vinegar off-character. Concerning sensory analysis, the alcohol content of mead had no effect on the sensory attributes studied, namely, aroma, sweetness, flavour, alcohol feeling and general appreciation. Regarding sweetness, the “sweet meads” were the most appreciated by the consumers (score of 5.4±2.56, whereas the “dry meads” (score of 2.7±2.23 showed low acceptability. In conclusion, this work revealed that sweetness is a sensory key attribute for mead acceptance by the consumers, whereas ethanol content (18 to 22% (v/v is not.

  6. Cost to deliver sweet sorghum fermentables to a central plant

    Cundiff, J.S.

    1991-01-01

    The major obstacle to a sweet sorghum-for-ethanol industry in the Piedmont of Virginia is the short harvest season of eight weeks. A Piedmont harvesting system is described that will enable the Piedmont to compete with Louisiana in production of sweet sorghum for ethanol. The cost to supply feedstock (up to the point fermentation begins) for a one million GPY ethanol plant was estimated to be $2.35/gal expected ethanol yield. This amount compared favorably with two other options

  7. Síndrome de Sweet associada à policitemia vera

    Moreira,Ângela Puccini; Souza,Flávia Feijó de; Gaspar,Neide Kalil; Quattrino,Ada Lobato; Vilar,Enoi Aparecida Guedes

    2009-01-01

    A síndrome de Sweet pode estar associada a malignidades hematológicas, principalmente, à leucemia mieloide aguda, porém existem poucos relatos demonstrando a associação com a policitemia vera. Relata-se o caso de doente do sexo masculino, de 65 anos, portador de policitemia vera,que evoluiu com aparecimento de síndrome de Sweet na sua forma paraneoplásica.

  8. Sweet samosas: a new food product in the Portuguese market

    Guiné, Raquel

    2012-01-01

    Since in the present times families have much less time to prepare meals or even deserts, and because sweets are always so well accepted to enjoy a moment of pleasure either alone or shared, it was the aim of this academic work to prepare an alternative desert, not at sale in the Portuguese market, and study its acceptance by the consumers. The product selected was sweet samosas, and these were prepared with different filings (apple & cinnamon, chocola...

  9. DRIS norms for 'Valencia' sweet orange on three rootstocks

    Mourão Filho,Francisco de Assis Alves; Azevedo,João Carlos

    2003-01-01

    Diagnosis and Recommendation Integrated System (DRIS) applies nutrient ratios instead of the isolated concentration values of each nutrient in interpretation of tissue analysis. The objectives of this research were to establish adequate DRIS norms for 'Valencia' sweet orange irrigated commercial groves budded on three rootstocks and correlate indexes of nutrition balance with yield. Experiments were conducted in São Paulo State, Brazil. Rootstocks Rangpur lime, Caipira sweet orange, and Ponci...

  10. Determination of phenol in locally grown fruits and vegetable by spectrophotometric method

    Iqbal, M.; Khan, F.A.; Farooqui, Z.H.; Ifrahim, A.F.K.

    2005-01-01

    Spectrophotometric method for the determination of phenol in the sample of locally grown fruits apple, pear, sweet orange and vegetable radish of Quetta, Hyderabad and Nawabshah are described juices from these fruits and vegetable were squeezed, filtered and decolorized with charcoal. The antipyrine dye formed by reaction between phenol and 4-aminoantipyrine was analyzed. The calibration graphs were prepared in the range of 0.5 to 4 ppm of phenol. Phenol in apple, pear and sweet orange was found to be in the range of 1-1.2 ppm and in radish was found to be 0.5 ppm. Possible source of organic pollutant were pointed out and were discussed. Limits of detection of the method was investigated and was found to be 0.2 mu g/ml

  11. Acral manifestations of Sweet syndrome (neutrophilic dermatosis of the hands).

    Wolf, Ronni; Tüzün, Yalçın

    Neutrophilic dermatosis of the hand (NDH) is a rare localized variant of the syndrome, originally described two decades ago by Strutton et al. The lesions of NDH and Sweet syndrome are similar, as indicated in the first report of NDH. Both diagnoses are characterized by an acute onset of fever, leukocytosis, and tender, erythematous infiltrated plaques. There are also bullae and ulceration in NDH, in contrast to Sweet syndrome, in which bullae are quite uncommon, especially at the early stages. Similar to Sweet syndrome, the majority of NDH patients are women (69%). Patients with NDH present with fever, peripheral neutrophilia, leukocytosis, and/or an elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate or C-reactive protein level, but at a significantly lower rate than those in Sweet syndrome (33%). Similar to Sweet syndrome, NDH has been associated with the following conditions: Malignancies (particularly hematological [21%], most common of which is acute myelogenous leukemia, but many other malignancies as well), inflammatory bowel disease (19%), medication and vaccination-related eruptions, bacterial and viral infections, rheumatologic diseases, and others. The clues to the diagnosis of NDH are the same as for Sweet syndrome. Awareness of this diagnosis is important not only to avoid unnecessary medical and surgical therapy and to expediently initiate the administration of steroids for this highly responsive dermatosis, but also to conduct an appropriate workup to exclude associated diseases, especially malignancies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Lipid-Lowering Pharmaceutical Clofibrate Inhibits Human Sweet Taste

    Kochem, Matthew

    2017-01-01

    T1R2-T1R3 is a heteromeric receptor that binds sugars, high potency sweeteners, and sweet taste blockers. In rodents, T1R2-T1R3 is largely responsible for transducing sweet taste perception. T1R2-T1R3 is also expressed in non-taste tissues, and a growing body of evidence suggests that it helps regulate glucose and lipid metabolism. It was previously shown that clofibric acid, a blood lipid-lowering drug, binds T1R2-T1R3 and inhibits its activity in vitro. The purpose of this study was to determine whether clofibric acid inhibits sweetness perception in humans and is, therefore, a T1R2-T1R3 antagonist in vivo. Fourteen participants rated the sweetness intensity of 4 sweeteners (sucrose, sucralose, Na cyclamate, acesulfame K) across a broad range of concentrations. Each sweetener was prepared in solution neat and in mixture with either clofibric acid or lactisole. Clofibric acid inhibited sweetness of every sweetener. Consistent with competitive binding, inhibition by clofibric acid was diminished with increasing sweetener concentration. This study provides in vivo evidence that the lipid-lowering drug clofibric acid inhibits sweetness perception and is, therefore, a T1R carbohydrate receptor inhibitor. Our results are consistent with previous in vitro findings. Given that T1R2-T1R3 may in part regulate glucose and lipid metabolism, future studies should investigate the metabolic effects of T1R inhibition. PMID:27742692

  13. Amelioration of boron toxicity in sweet pepper as affected by calcium management under an elevated CO2 concentration.

    Piñero, María Carmen; Pérez-Jiménez, Margarita; López-Marín, Josefa; Del Amor, Francisco M

    2017-04-01

    We investigated B tolerance in sweet pepper plants (Capsicum annuun L.) under an elevated CO 2 concentration, combined with the application of calcium as a nutrient management amelioration technique. The data show that high B affected the roots more than the aerial parts, since there was an increase in the shoot/root ratio, when plants were grown with high B levels; however, the impact was lessened when the plants were grown at elevated CO 2 , since the root FW reduction caused by excess B was less marked at the high CO 2 concentration (30.9% less). Additionally, the high B concentration affected the membrane permeability of roots, which increased from 39 to 54% at ambient CO 2 concentration, and from 38 to 51% at elevated CO 2 concentration, producing a cation imbalance in plants, which was differentially affected by the CO 2 supply. The Ca surplus in the nutrient solution reduced the nutritional imbalance in sweet pepper plants produced by the high B concentration, at both CO 2 concentrations. The medium B concentration treatment (toxic according to the literature) did not result in any toxic effect. Hence, there is a need to review the literature on critical and toxic B levels taking into account increases in atmospheric CO 2 .

  14. Economic feasibility of producing sweet sorghum as an ethanol feedstock in the southeastern United States

    Linton, Joseph A.; Miller, J. Corey; Little, Randall D.; Petrolia, Daniel R.; Coble, Keith H.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the feasibility of producing sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) as an ethanol feedstock in the southeastern United States through representative counties in Mississippi. We construct enterprise budgets along with estimates of transportation costs to estimate sweet sorghum producers' breakeven costs for producing and delivering sweet sorghum biomass. This breakeven cost for the sweet sorghum producer is used to estimate breakeven costs for the ethanol producer based on wholesale ethanol price, production costs, and transportation and marketing costs. Stochastic models are developed to estimate profits for sweet sorghum and competing crops in two representative counties in Mississippi, with sweet sorghum consistently yielding losses in both counties. -- Highlights: → We examine the economic feasibility of sweet sorghum as an ethanol feedstock. → We construct enterprise budgets along with estimates of transportation costs. → We estimate breakeven costs for producing and delivering sweet sorghum biomass. → Stochastic models determine profits for sweet sorghum in two Mississippi counties.

  15. Taste perception and implicit attitude toward sweet related to body mass index and soft drink supplementation.

    Sartor, Francesco; Donaldson, Lucy F; Markland, David A; Loveday, Helina; Jackson, Matthew J; Kubis, Hans-Peter

    2011-08-01

    These studies examined the differences in sweet taste perception and implicit attitude toward sweet between normal-weight and overweight/obese adults; and tested the effects of soft drink consumption on sweet taste, explicit preference and implicit attitude toward sweet in normal-weight subjects. In study 1, normal-weight (n = 22) and overweight/obese (n = 11) adults were assessed for sweet taste intensity and pleasantness. Implicit attitude toward sweet was assessed by implicit association test (IAT). In study 2, normal-weight, lightly active adults (n = 12) underwent one month soft drink supplementation (≈760 ml/day). This increased their daily carbohydrate intake by 2.1 ± 0.2g/kg body weight. Sweet taste perception, explicit preference and implicit attitudes to sweet were assessed. In both studies salty taste was also assessed as a contrasting perception. Overweight/obese subjects perceived sweet and salty tastes as less intense (-23% and -19%, respectively) and reported higher IAT scores for sweet than normal-weight controls (2.1-fold). The supplementation changed sweet intensity/pleasantness ratings and it increased explicit preference (2.3-fold) for sweet in a subgroup of initial sucrose-dislikers. In conclusion, overweight/obese individuals are more implicitly attracted to sweet. One month of soft drink supplementation changed sweet taste perception of normal-weight subjects. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Correlation between dental maturity and cervical vertebral maturity.

    Chen, Jianwei; Hu, Haikun; Guo, Jing; Liu, Zeping; Liu, Renkai; Li, Fan; Zou, Shujuan

    2010-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the association between dental and skeletal maturity. Digital panoramic radiographs and lateral skull cephalograms of 302 patients (134 boys and 168 girls, ranging from 8 to 16 years of age) were examined. Dental maturity was assessed by calcification stages of the mandibular canines, first and second premolars, and second molars, whereas skeletal maturity was estimated by the cervical vertebral maturation (CVM) stages. The Spearman rank-order correlation coefficient was used to measure the association between CVM stage and dental calcification stage of individual teeth. The mean chronologic age of girls was significantly lower than that of boys in each CVM stage. The Spearman rank-order correlation coefficients between dental maturity and cervical vertebral maturity ranged from 0.391 to 0.582 for girls and from 0.464 to 0.496 for boys (P cervical vertebral maturation stage. The development of the mandibular second molar in females and that of the mandibular canine in males had the strongest correlations with cervical vertebral maturity. Therefore, it is practical to consider the relationship between dental and skeletal maturity when planning orthodontic treatment. Copyright © 2010 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Preliminary investigation into the pressing process of sweet pearl millet and sweet sorghum biomass for ethanol production

    Crepeau, M.; Khelifi, M.; Vanasse, A. [Laval Univ., Quebec City, PQ (Canada). Dept. of Soil Science and Agri-Food Engineering

    2010-07-01

    Corn is the main source for biofuel production in North America. However, both sweet pearl millet and sweet sorghum crops represent an interesting alternative to corn for ethanol production because of their high biomass yield under a wide range of environmental conditions and high concentration of readily fermentable sugars. Coproducts such as pressing residues can be also be utilized so that nothing is lost in the process. However, in order to improve the extraction of juice for ethanol production, the pressing process of this biomass must be optimized. Preliminary experiments were therefore conducted to optimize the juice extraction from sweet pearl millet and sweet sorghum using 2 different presses, notably a screw press and a manually operated hydraulic press. Both types of biomass were either chopped finely or coarsely and were exposed to various pressures with the hydraulic press. The volume of juice extracted from both crops increased linearly with increasing pressure. Sweet sorghum appeared to be a better feedstock for ethanol production because it produced about 0.03 to 0.06 litre of juice per kg of biomass more than sweet pearl millet. Juice extraction was more effective with the screw press, but only a small difference was noted between the 2 chopping modes.

  18. Mature Cystic Renal Teratoma

    Yavuz, Alpaslan; Ceken, Kagan; Alimoglu, Emel; Akkaya, Bahar

    2014-01-01

    Teratomas are rare germline tumors that originate from one or more embryonic germ cell layers. Teratoma of the kidney is extremely rare, and less than 30 cases of primary intrarenal teratomas have been published to date. We report the main radiologic features of an unusual case of mature cystic teratoma arising from the left kidney in a two-year-old boy. A left-sided abdominal mass was detected on physical examination and B-Mod Ultrasound (US) examination revealed a heterogeneous mass with central cystic component. Computed tomography (CT) demonstrated a lobulated, heterogeneous, hypodense mass extending craniocaudally from the splenic hilum to the level of the left iliac fossa. Nephrectomy was performed and a large, fatty mass arising from the left kidney was excised. The final pathologic diagnosis was confirmed as cystic renal teratoma

  19. Aroma compounds in sweet whey powder.

    Mahajan, S S; Goddik, L; Qian, M C

    2004-12-01

    Aroma compounds in sweet whey powder were investigated in this study. Volatiles were isolated by solvent extraction followed by solvent-assisted flavor evaporation. Fractionation was used to separate acidic from nonacidic volatiles. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and gas chromatography/olfactometry were used for the identification of aroma compounds. Osme methodology was applied to assess the relative importance of each aroma compound. The most aroma-intense free fatty acids detected were acetic, propanoic, butanoic, hexanoic, heptanoic, octanoic, decanoic, dodecanoic, and 9-decenoic acids. The most aroma-intense nonacidic compounds detected were hexanal, heptanal, nonanal, phenylacetaldehyde, 1-octen-3-one, methional, 2,6-dimethylpyrazine, 2,5-dimethylpyrazine, 2,3-dimethylpyrazine, 2,3,5-trimethylpyrazine, furfuryl alcohol, p-cresol, 2-acetylpyrrole, maltol, furaneol, and several lactones. This study suggested that the aroma of whey powder could comprise compounds originating from milk, compounds generated by the starter culture during cheese making, and compounds formed during the manufacturing process of whey powder.

  20. Bioactivities of anastasia black (Russian sweet pepper).

    Shirataki, Yoshiaki; Kawase, Masami; Sakagami, Hiroshi; Nakashima, Hideki; Tani, Satoru; Tanaka, Toru; Sohara, Yoshitaka; Schelz, Zsuzsanna; Molnar, Joseph; Motohashi, Noboru

    2005-01-01

    Anastasia Black (Russian sweet pepper) of Capsicum annuum L. var. angulosum Mill. (Solanaceae) was successively extracted with hexane, acetone, methanol and 70% methanol, and the extracts were further separated into a total of twenty-three fractions by silica gel or octadecylsilane (ODS; C18) column chromatography. These extracts and fractions were investigated for their cytotoxicity, anti-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), anti-Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori), urease inhibition and multidrug resistance (MDR) reversal activity. Some fractions of hexane and acetone extracts showed higher cytotoxic activity against three human oral tumor cell lines (squamous cell carcinoma HSC-2, HSC-3, submandibular gland carcinoma HSG) than against three normal human oral cells (gingival fibroblast HGF, pulp cell HPC, periodontal ligament fibroblast HPLF), suggesting a tumor-specific cytotoxic activity. No fractions displayed anti-HIV activity, but some hydrophobic fractions showed higher anti-H. pylori activity, urease inhibition activity and MDR reversal activity. The higher MDR activity of these fractions against MDR gene-transfected L5178 mouse lymphoma T cells may possibly be due to their higher content of carotene or polyphenol. These data suggest that Anastasia Black should be further investigated as a potent supplement for cancer chemotherapy.

  1. Developing maturity grids for assessing organisational capabilities

    Maier, Anja; Moultrie, James; Clarkson, P John

    2009-01-01

    Keyword: Maturity Model,Maturity Grid,Maturity Matrix,Organisational Capabilities,Benchmarking,New Product Development,Perfirmance Assessment......Keyword: Maturity Model,Maturity Grid,Maturity Matrix,Organisational Capabilities,Benchmarking,New Product Development,Perfirmance Assessment...

  2. Modeling non-maturing liabilities

    von Feilitzen, Helena

    2011-01-01

    Non‐maturing liabilities, such as savings accounts, lack both predetermined maturity and reset dates due to the fact that the depositor is free to withdraw funds at any time and that the depository institution is free to change the rate. These attributes complicate the risk management of such products and no standardized solution exists. The problem is important however since non‐maturing liabilities typically make up a considerable part of the funding of a bank. In this report different mode...

  3. Hydrothermally grown zeolite crystals

    Durrani, S.K.; Qureshi, A.H.; Hussain, M.A.; Qazi, N.K.

    2009-01-01

    The aluminium-deficient and ferrosilicate zeolite-type materials were synthesized by hydrothermal process at 150-170 degree C for various periods of time from the mixtures containing colloidal reactive silica, sodium aluminate, sodium hydroxide, iron nitrate and organic templates. Organic polycation templates were used as zeolite crystal shape modifiers to enhance relative growth rates. The template was almost completely removed from the zeolite specimens by calcination at 550 degree C for 8h in air. Simultaneous thermogravimetric (TG) and differential thermal analysis (DTA) was performed to study the removal of water molecules and the amount of organic template cations occluded inside the crystal pore of zeolite framework. The 12-13% weight loss in the range of (140-560 degree C) was associated with removal of the (C/sub 3/H/sub 7/)/sub 4/ N+ cation and water molecules. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis and scanning electron microscope (SEM) techniques were employed to study the structure, morphology and surface features of hydrothermally grown aluminium-deficient and ferrosilicate zeolite-type crystals. In order to elucidate the mode of zeolite crystallization the crystallinity and unit cell parameters of the materials were determined by XRD, which are the function of Al and Fe contents of zeolites. (author)

  4. Sweet Preference Associated with the Risk of Hypercholesterolemia Among Middle-Aged Women in Korea.

    Shin, Yoonjin; Lee, Soojin; Kim, Yangha

    2018-04-05

    Sweet preference has been reported to be associated with various health problems. This study examined the influence of sweet taste preference on the risk of dyslipidemia in Korean middle-aged women. The study selected 3,609 middle-aged women from the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study (KoGES) and classified them into two groups on the basis of whether or not they preferred sweet taste. Dietary intake was analyzed using a semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire. Serum lipid profiles and anthropometric variables were measured. Subjects who preferred the sweet taste had significantly higher intakes of sugar products and sweet drink than those who did not prefer the sweet taste. Subjects who preferred the sweet taste showed higher carbohydrate and fat intake and less fiber intake than those who did not prefer the sweet taste. The serum concentrations of total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol were significantly higher in subjects who preferred the sweet taste than those who did not prefer. Furthermore, subjects who preferred the sweet taste showed a significantly higher odds ratio (OR) for hypercholesterolemia (OR 1.22; 95% CI (1.01-1.45)) and hyper-LDL cholesterolemia (OR 1.33; 95% CI (1.11-1.60)) than those who did not prefer the sweet taste. Our results suggested that preference for sweet taste may increase the consumption of sugar products and sweet drinks, which is partially linked to the risk of hypercholesterolemia and hyper-LDL cholesterolemia in Korean middle-aged women.

  5. Genome-wide identification of the SWEET gene family in wheat.

    Gao, Yue; Wang, Zi Yuan; Kumar, Vikranth; Xu, Xiao Feng; Yuan, De Peng; Zhu, Xiao Feng; Li, Tian Ya; Jia, Baolei; Xuan, Yuan Hu

    2018-02-05

    The SWEET (sugars will eventually be exported transporter) family is a newly characterized group of sugar transporters. In plants, the key roles of SWEETs in phloem transport, nectar secretion, pollen nutrition, stress tolerance, and plant-pathogen interactions have been identified. SWEET family genes have been characterized in many plant species, but a comprehensive analysis of SWEET members has not yet been performed in wheat. Here, 59 wheat SWEETs (hereafter TaSWEETs) were identified through homology searches. Analyses of phylogenetic relationships, numbers of transmembrane helices (TMHs), gene structures, and motifs showed that TaSWEETs carrying 3-7 TMHs could be classified into four clades with 10 different types of motifs. Examination of the expression patterns of 18 SWEET genes revealed that a few are tissue-specific while most are ubiquitously expressed. In addition, the stem rust-mediated expression patterns of SWEET genes were monitored using a stem rust-susceptible cultivar, 'Little Club' (LC). The resulting data showed that the expression of five out of the 18 SWEETs tested was induced following inoculation. In conclusion, we provide the first comprehensive analysis of the wheat SWEET gene family. Information regarding the phylogenetic relationships, gene structures, and expression profiles of SWEET genes in different tissues and following stem rust disease inoculation will be useful in identifying the potential roles of SWEETs in specific developmental and pathogenic processes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. [Super sweet corn hybrids adaptability for industrial processing. I freezing].

    Alfonzo, Braunnier; Camacho, Candelario; Ortiz de Bertorelli, Ligia; De Venanzi, Frank

    2002-09-01

    With the purpose of evaluating adaptability to the freezing process of super sweet corn sh2 hybrids Krispy King, Victor and 324, 100 cobs of each type were frozen at -18 degrees C. After 120 days of storage, their chemical, microbiological and sensorial characteristics were compared with a sweet corn su. Industrial quality of the process of freezing and length and number of rows in cobs were also determined. Results revealed yields above 60% in frozen corns. Length and number of rows in cobs were acceptable. Most of the chemical characteristics of super sweet hybrids were not different from the sweet corn assayed at the 5% significance level. Moisture content and soluble solids of hybrid Victor, as well as total sugars of hybrid 324 were statistically different. All sh2 corns had higher pH values. During freezing, soluble solids concentration, sugars and acids decreased whereas pH increased. Frozen cobs exhibited acceptable microbiological rank, with low activities of mesophiles and total coliforms, absence of psychrophiles and fecal coliforms, and an appreciable amount of molds. In conclusion, sh2 hybrids adapted with no problems to the freezing process, they had lower contents of soluble solids and higher contents of total sugars, which almost doubled the amount of su corn; flavor, texture, sweetness and appearance of kernels were also better. Hybrid Victor was preferred by the evaluating panel and had an outstanding performance due to its yield and sensorial characteristics.

  7. Grown on Novel Microcarriers

    Torsten Falk

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Human retinal pigment epithelial (hRPE cells have been tested as a cell-based therapy for Parkinson’s disease but will require additional study before further clinical trials can be planned. We now show that the long-term survival and neurotrophic potential of hRPE cells can be enhanced by the use of FDA-approved plastic-based microcarriers compared to a gelatin-based microcarrier as used in failed clinical trials. The hRPE cells grown on these plastic-based microcarriers display several important characteristics of hRPE found in vivo: (1 characteristic morphological features, (2 accumulation of melanin pigment, and (3 high levels of production of the neurotrophic factors pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF and vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A. Growth of hRPE cells on plastic-based microcarriers led to sustained levels (>1 ng/ml of PEDF and VEGF-A in conditioned media for two months. We also show that the expression of VEGF-A and PEDF is reciprocally regulated by activation of the GPR143 pathway. GPR143 is activated by L-DOPA (1 μM which decreased VEGF-A secretion as opposed to the previously reported increase in PEDF secretion. The hRPE microcarriers are therefore novel candidate delivery systems for achieving long-term delivery of the neuroprotective factors PEDF and VEGF-A, which could have a value in neurodegenerative conditions such as Parkinson’s disease.

  8. Continuous lactic fermentation of deproteinized sweet whey

    M. Trujillo

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Whey is a major water contaminant due to its high biochemical oxygen demand (BOD, stemming mainly from its lactose (milk sugar content. The objetive of this research was to investigate the conversion of whey into useful, value-added products. Several methods have been developed already, the most important being dehydration, production of drinks, and conversion of the sugar component into organic acids. Lactic acid including its sodium, calcium, iron and antimony salts, is a valuable product in the alimentary industry and is also a raw material in the chemical industry. To maximize lactic acid production we determined the optimal dilution rate (D carrying out eight fermentations, with D = 0.102 h-1, until the acid production was nil (D= 3.0 h-1. Working conditions were 45 ± 0.1 °C, pH 5.6 ± 0.2, and a cell concentration of 30 ± 4.0 g/L, using Lactobacillus bulgaricus, and deproteinized sweet whey as a substrate. Production of lactic acid and sodium lactate was between 0.5 and 24.37 g/L. Stability of production was reached in average after two retention times. Highest productivity was at D= 0.2 h-1 (2.5 g/Lh , where only 30% of the lactose was consumed from the substrate . Highest lactose consumption was found at D= 0.102 h-1 (53.4%, where productivity was nearly maximal (2.49g/Lh, but acid concentration (26.6% was considerably higher than at the corresponding dilution rate D= 0.2 h-1, which was 14.75 g/L.

  9. Gamma-ray effect on sweet potato

    Ferdes, O.; Ciofu, R.; Stroia, L.; Ghering, A.; Ferdes, M.

    1994-01-01

    The paper presents the results on modification occurred in biochemical properties of sweet potato (Ipomea batatus L.) after gamma irradiation. Two varieties, named Victoria Ianb (a white variety) and Portocaliu (a red variety), were selected and acclimatized for the agrometeorological conditions of Romania. The samples consist of roots from both usual and experimental crops. They were irradiated in batch, one week after harvesting, with a ICPR Co-60 gamma-ray source by approx. 370 TBq, dose range 100-500 Gy, dose rate 100±5 Gy/hour, dose uniformity ±5%, temperature 10 o C, 80±5% relative humidity (rh). The irradiation doses received were checked using the Fricke ferrous sulphate dosimeter procedure. The roots were kept two months at relative darkness, 6-11 o C, 60-75% rh and analyzed from time to time (initial, 5, 7, 14, 30 and 60 days). The following parameters are analyzed by conventional methods: total and reducing sugars (in De equivalent, %, on dry weight basis), starch content and the activities of sugar metabolizing enzymes. The red variety had a better behaviour towards irradiation that the white one. The sugar contents (both total and reducing), as well as starch, varied more in the white variety. The sugar metabolizing enzyme activities were influenced by both irradiation and storage conditions. Their activities were maximal at 200 and 300 Gy, and decreased significantly at higher doses. The activities also decreased in time, their variations being higher at lower doses (100 and 200 Gy). The results showed no significant influence of gamma irradiation on storage life. The modifications induced in sugar contents and enzyme activities had maximal effects at 200-300 Gy. (author)

  10. Whose Maturity is it Anyway?

    Lasrado, Lester Allan; Vatrapu, Ravi; Mukkamala, Raghava Rao

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents results from an ongoing empirical study that seeks to understand the influence of different quantitative methods on the design and assessment of maturity models. Although there have been many academic publications on maturity models, there exists a significant lack of understa...

  11. Effect of fertilization on the physiological maturation of sesame seeds

    Erivan Isídio Ferreira

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Fertilization and harvest time may influence the formation and maturation processes, as well as the physiological quality of seeds. This study aimed at evaluating the effect of fertilization on the physiological maturation of sesame seeds. The following variables were evaluated: fruit color, dry mass and water content of fruits and seeds, germination, first germination count, germination speed, emergence and emergence speed. No significant fertilization effect was observed on fruit maturation for water content or dry mass. However, there was significance for these variables in the seeds. The harvest time had a significant effect on water content and dry mass of fruits and seeds. For the variables that evaluated the seed viability and vigor, both the fertilization and harvest time influenced the physiological maturation. The physiological maturity of the sesame seeds, whose plants were grown with and without fertilization, was reached between 52 and 54 days after anthesis, when the fruits were classified as yellow-greenish 7.5 Y 8/6 and yellow to yellow-red 10.R 4/6.

  12. Is there a Sweet Spot in Ethical Trade?

    Lund-Thomsen, Peter; Lindgreen, Adam

    2018-01-01

    We undertake a critical appraisal of the existence of the so- called 'sweet spot' in ethical trade at which the interests of buyers, suppliers, and workers intersect to enable benefits for commercial buyers and suppliers and improvements in the conditions of workers at the base of global production...... networks. In turn, we take the perspectives of three central actors typically involved in ethical trade: buyers/brands, suppliers in the Global South, and workers at the base of these networks. By applying all three perspectives, we theorize about the circumstances in which the sweet spot in ethical trade...... might emerge, reflecting an amended version of Gereffi et al.'s (2005) theory of value chain governance. We conclude that the possibility of identifying a sweet spot in ethical trade improves as we move from market-based transactions toward hierarchical governance in global production networks....

  13. Sweet Spot Size in Virtual Sound Reproduction: A Temporal Analysis

    Lacouture Parodi, Yesenia; Rubak, Per

    2009-01-01

    The influence of head misalignments on the performance of binaural reproduction systems through loudspeakers is often evaluated in the frequency domain. The changes in magnitude give us an idea of how much of the crosstalk is leaked into the direct signal and therefore a sweet spot performance can......-correlation we estimate the interaural time delay and define a sweet spot. The analysis is based on measurements carried out on 21 different loudspeaker configurations, including two- and four-channels arrangements. Results show that closely spaced loudspeakers are more robust to lateral displacements than wider...... span angles. Additionally, the sweet spot as a function of head rotations increases systematically when the loudspeakers are placed at elevated positions....

  14. Safety assessment for genetically modified sweet pepper and tomato

    Chen Zhangliang; Gu Hongya; Li Yi; Su Yilan; Wu Ping; Jiang Zhicheng; Ming Xiaotian; Tian Jinhua; Pan Naisui; Qu Lijia

    2003-01-01

    The coat protein (CP) gene of cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) was cloned from a Chinese CMV isolate, the CaMV promoter and NOS terminator added and the gene construct was transformed into both sweet pepper and tomato plants to confer resistance to CMV. Safety assessments of these genetically modified (GM) plants were conducted. It was found that these two GM products showed no genotoxicity either in vitro or in vivo by the micronucleus test, sperm aberration test and Ames test. Animal feeding studies showed no significant differences in growth, body weight gain, food consumption, hematology, blood biochemical indices, organ weights and histopathology between rats or mice of either sex fed with either GM sweet pepper or tomato diets compared with those with non-GM diets. These results demonstrate that the CMV-resistant sweet pepper and tomato are comparable to the non-GM counterparts in terms of food safety

  15. Sweet proteins – Potential replacement for artificial low calorie sweeteners

    Kant Ravi

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Exponential growth in the number of patients suffering from diseases caused by the consumption of sugar has become a threat to mankind's health. Artificial low calorie sweeteners available in the market may have severe side effects. It takes time to figure out the long term side effects and by the time these are established, they are replaced by a new low calorie sweetener. Saccharine has been used for centuries to sweeten foods and beverages without calories or carbohydrate. It was also used on a large scale during the sugar shortage of the two world wars but was abandoned as soon as it was linked with development of bladder cancer. Naturally occurring sweet and taste modifying proteins are being seen as potential replacements for the currently available artificial low calorie sweeteners. Interaction aspects of sweet proteins and the human sweet taste receptor are being investigated.

  16. Neural network classification of sweet potato embryos

    Molto, Enrique; Harrell, Roy C.

    1993-05-01

    Somatic embryogenesis is a process that allows for the in vitro propagation of thousands of plants in sub-liter size vessels and has been successfully applied to many significant species. The heterogeneity of maturity and quality of embryos produced with this technique requires sorting to obtain a uniform product. An automated harvester is being developed at the University of Florida to sort embryos in vitro at different stages of maturation in a suspension culture. The system utilizes machine vision to characterize embryo morphology and a fluidic based separation device to isolate embryos associated with a pre-defined, targeted morphology. Two different backpropagation neural networks (BNN) were used to classify embryos based on information extracted from the vision system. One network utilized geometric features such as embryo area, length, and symmetry as inputs. The alternative network utilized polar coordinates of an embryo's perimeter with respect to its centroid as inputs. The performances of both techniques were compared with each other and with an embryo classification method based on linear discriminant analysis (LDA). Similar results were obtained with all three techniques. Classification efficiency was improved by reducing the dimension of the feature vector trough a forward stepwise analysis by LDA. In order to enhance the purity of the sample selected as harvestable, a reject to classify option was introduced in the model and analyzed. The best classifier performances (76% overall correct classifications, 75% harvestable objects properly classified, homogeneity improvement ratio 1.5) were obtained using 8 features in a BNN.

  17. Effect of phosphorus sources on phosphorus and nitrogen utilization by three sweet potato cultivars

    Montanez, A.; Zapata, F.; Kumarasinghe, K.S.

    1996-01-01

    A greenhouse experiment was conducted at the FAO/IAEA Agriculture and Biotechnology Laboratory in Seibersdorf, Austria using three sweet potato cultivars, TIS 2, TIS 3053 and TIS 1487. The three sweet potato cultivars were grown at two levels of phosphorus (0 kg P/kg soil and 60 kg P/kg soil). The fertilizer treatments consisted of two sources of phosphorus, Gafza rock Phosphate and triple super phosphate with 14.19 and 19.76% total phosphorus, respectively. 15 N labelled urea was used to study the nitrogen recovery in tubers from the applied nitrogen fertilizer. The results from these preliminary studies indicate that there is considerable genotypic variation among cultivars in the efficiency with which phosphorus and nitrogen are taken up and used to produce biomass. Their response to different sources of phosphorus are also variable. TIS-2 and TIS-1487 have a greater ability to absorb phosphorus from Gafza rock phosphate and produce higher tube yields indicating their greater potential for using alternative sources of natural phosphate fertilizers more effectively. Gafza rock phosphate also increased accumulation of nitrogen in TIS-1487, a characteristic which will place this cultivar at an advantage when growing in soils low in nitrogen. On an overall basis taking into account tuber yield, phosphorus use efficiency, and nitrogen use efficiency, TIS-2 may be considered the better candidate for introduction into soils poor in resources particularly phosphorus. This study was conducted with a limited number of cultivars due to limitation in the availability of germplasma. In spite of this, the differences in their abilities for phosphorus and nitrogen uptake and use are clearly visible which justifies large scale screening experiments using a broader germplasm base, in the future. (author). 14 refs, 1 fig., 3 tabs

  18. Effect of phosphorus sources on phosphorus and nitrogen utilization by three sweet potato cultivars

    Montanez, A; Zapata, F [FAO/IAEA Agriculture and Biotechnology Lab., Seibersdorf (Austria). Soils Science Unit; Kumarasinghe, K S [Joint FAO/IAEA Div. of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture, Vienna (Austria). Soil Fertility, Irrigation and Crop Production Section

    1996-07-01

    A greenhouse experiment was conducted at the FAO/IAEA Agriculture and Biotechnology Laboratory in Seibersdorf, Austria using three sweet potato cultivars, TIS 2, TIS 3053 and TIS 1487. The three sweet potato cultivars were grown at two levels of phosphorus (0 kg P/kg soil and 60 kg P/kg soil). The fertilizer treatments consisted of two sources of phosphorus, Gafza rock Phosphate and triple super phosphate with 14.19 and 19.76% total phosphorus, respectively. {sup 15}N labelled urea was used to study the nitrogen recovery in tubers from the applied nitrogen fertilizer. The results from these preliminary studies indicate that there is considerable genotypic variation among cultivars in the efficiency with which phosphorus and nitrogen are taken up and used to produce biomass. Their response to different sources of phosphorus are also variable. TIS-2 and TIS-1487 have a greater ability to absorb phosphorus from Gafza rock phosphate and produce higher tube yields indicating their greater potential for using alternative sources of natural phosphate fertilizers more effectively. Gafza rock phosphate also increased accumulation of nitrogen in TIS-1487, a characteristic which will place this cultivar at an advantage when growing in soils low in nitrogen. On an overall basis taking into account tuber yield, phosphorus use efficiency, and nitrogen use efficiency, TIS-2 may be considered the better candidate for introduction into soils poor in resources particularly phosphorus. This study was conducted with a limited number of cultivars due to limitation in the availability of germplasma. In spite of this, the differences in their abilities for phosphorus and nitrogen uptake and use are clearly visible which justifies large scale screening experiments using a broader germplasm base, in the future. (author). 14 refs, 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  19. Maturity stages affect the postharvest quality and shelf-life of fruits of strawberry genotypes growing in subtropical regions

    M. Moshiur Rahman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The postharvest changes of five promising strawberry genotypes viz. Sweet Charlie, Festival, Camarosa, FA 008 and BARI Strawberry-1 at ambient temperature were studied under sub tropical region during the winter season (December–April of 2010–2011 and 2011–2012 in Bangladesh. Irrespective of maturity stages percent fruit decay and weight of fruits were noted minimum in Camarosa and maximum in FA 008 up to day 4 of storage. The shelf life of fruits was maximum in Camarosa and minimum in FA 008 and BARI Strawberry-1 regardless of maturity stage throughout the storage period. The TSS, total sugar and ascorbic acid content of fruits were increased with the increase in maturity stage during the storage period. In 1/3rd and 2/3rd maturity stages, the TSS and total sugar content were found the highest in Festival but at full maturity stage those were recorded higher in Camarosa. The titratable acidity was noticed the highest in 1/3rd matured fruits and gradually decreased with the increase in maturity stage as well as storage duration in all the genotypes. Ascorbic acid content of strawberry gradually decreases during the storage period. Fully matured fresh fruits of Festival contained maximum ascorbic acid content while BARI Strawberry-1 contained minimum ascorbic acid that was reduced after 3 days of storage.

  20. The bamboo-eating giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) has a sweet tooth: behavioral and molecular responses to compounds that taste sweet to humans.

    Jiang, Peihua; Josue-Almqvist, Jesusa; Jin, Xuelin; Li, Xia; Brand, Joseph G; Margolskee, Robert F; Reed, Danielle R; Beauchamp, Gary K

    2014-01-01

    A growing body of behavioral and genetic information indicates that taste perception and food sources are highly coordinated across many animal species. For example, sweet taste perception is thought to serve to detect and motivate consumption of simple sugars in plants that provide calories. Supporting this is the observation that most plant-eating mammals examined exhibit functional sweet perception, whereas many obligate carnivores have independently lost function of their sweet taste receptors and exhibit no avidity for simple sugars that humans describe as tasting sweet. As part of a larger effort to compare taste structure/function among species, we examined both the behavioral and the molecular nature of sweet taste in a plant-eating animal that does not consume plants with abundant simple sugars, the giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca). We evaluated two competing hypotheses: as plant-eating mammals, they should have a well-developed sweet taste system; however, as animals that do not normally consume plants with simple sugars, they may have lost sweet taste function, as has occurred in strict carnivores. In behavioral tests, giant pandas avidly consumed most natural sugars and some but not all artificial sweeteners. Cell-based assays revealed similar patterns of sweet receptor responses toward many of the sweeteners. Using mixed pairs of human and giant panda sweet taste receptor units (hT1R2+gpT1R3 and gpT1R2+hT1R3) we identified regions of the sweet receptor that may account for behavioral differences in giant pandas versus humans toward various sugars and artificial sweeteners. Thus, despite the fact that the giant panda's main food, bamboo, is very low in simple sugars, the species has a marked preference for several compounds that taste sweet to humans. We consider possible explanations for retained sweet perception in this species, including the potential extra-oral functions of sweet taste receptors that may be required for animals that consume

  1. dbSWEET: An Integrated Resource for SWEET Superfamily to Understand, Analyze and Predict the Function of Sugar Transporters in Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes.

    Gupta, Ankita; Sankararamakrishnan, Ramasubbu

    2018-04-14

    SWEET (Sweet Will Eventually be Exported Transporter) proteins have been recently discovered and form one of the three major families of sugar transporters. Homologs of SWEET are found in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Bacterial SWEET homologs have three transmembrane segments forming a triple-helical bundle (THB) and the functional form is dimers. Eukaryotic SWEETs have seven transmembrane helical segments forming two THBs with a linker helix. Members of SWEET homologs have been shown to be involved in several important physiological processes in plants. However, not much is known regarding the biological significance of SWEET homologs in prokaryotes and in mammals. We have collected more than 2000 SWEET homologs from both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. For each homolog, we have modeled three different conformational states representing outward open, inward open and occluded states. We have provided details regarding substrate-interacting residues and residues forming the selectivity filter for each SWEET homolog. Several search and analysis options are available. The users can generate a phylogenetic tree and structure-based sequence alignment for selected set of sequences. With no metazoan SWEETs functionally characterized, the features observed in the selectivity filter residues can be used to predict the potential substrates that are likely to be transported across the metazoan SWEETs. We believe that this database will help the researchers to design mutational experiments and simulation studies that will aid to advance our understanding of the physiological role of SWEET homologs. This database is freely available to the scientific community at http://bioinfo.iitk.ac.in/bioinfo/dbSWEET/Home. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Sweet's syndrome in association with common variable immunodeficiency.

    O'Regan, G M

    2009-03-01

    Sweet\\'s syndrome (SS), a rare reactive neutrophilic dermatosis, has been reported to occur in association with a variety of systemic disorders, categorized by von den Diesch into idiopathic, paraneoplastic, pregnancy and parainflammatory subgroups. The parainflammatory group has been well defined, and includes a wide spectrum of infectious triggers and disorders of immune dysregulation. To date, however, no cases of SS have been described in the context of common variable immunodeficiency (CVID). We report a case of paediatric-onset SS, previously reported as idiopathic, with a subsequent diagnosis of CVID.

  3. Sweet Sorghum Crop. Effect of the Compost Application

    Negro, M. J.; Solano, M. L.; Carrasco, J.; Ciria, P.

    1998-01-01

    A 3 year-plot experiments were performed to determined the possible persistence of the positive effects of treating soil with compost. For this purpose, a sweet sorghum bagasse compost has been used. Experiments were achieved with sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor. L. Moench) vr Dale as energy crop. Similar sorghum productivities were obtained both in plots with consecutive compost applications and in plots amended with mineral fertilizers. No residual effect after three years has been detected. It could be due to the low dose of compost application. (Author) 27 refs

  4. Sweet Sorghum Alternative Fuel and Feed Pilot Project

    Slack, Donald C. [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States). Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Dept.; Kaltenbach, C. Colin [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States)

    2013-07-30

    The University of Arizona undertook a “pilot” project to grow sweet sorghum on a field scale (rather than a plot scale), produce juice from the sweet sorghum, deliver the juice to a bio-refinery and process it to fuel-grade ethanol. We also evaluated the bagasse for suitability as a livestock feed and as a fuel. In addition to these objectives we evaluated methods of juice preservation, ligno-cellulosic conversion of the bagasse to fermentable sugars and alternative methods of juice extraction.

  5. Scaling of Sweet-Parker reconnection with secondary islands

    Cassak, P. A.; Shay, M. A.; Drake, J. F.

    2009-01-01

    Sweet-Parker (collisional) magnetic reconnection at high Lundquist number is modified by secondary islands. Daughton et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 065004 (2009)] suggested the Sweet-Parker model governs the fragmented current sheet segments. If true, the reconnection rate would increase by the square root of the number of secondary islands. High Lundquist number resistive magnetohydrodynamic simulations are presented which agree, in a time-averaged sense, with the predicted scaling. This result may have important implications for energy storage before a solar eruption and its subsequent release.

  6. Develop of a Sweet Cookie with toasted sesame and ground

    Dr.C. Aldo Hernández-Monzón; Lic. Dialina García-Pedroso; Ing. Jehannara Calle-Domínguez; MSc.Cira Duarte-García

    2015-01-01

    The sweet cookies nutritionally are rich source of energy and they have great acceptance to world level and the sesame (Sésamum indicum) it is of the family of the oleaginous ones that possesses a high quantity of protein and fat where 80% belongs to the fatty polinsaturadas fundamentally linoleic acid, it has high content of calcium and the presence iron, magnesium and zinc, what makes it a functional food. This work had as objective to develop a sweet cookie with addition of toastedsesame a...

  7. Síndrome de Sweet associada à policitemia vera

    Moreira, Ângela Puccini; Souza, Flávia Feijó de; Gaspar, Neide Kalil; Quattrino, Ada Lobato; Vilar, Enoi Aparecida Guedes

    2009-01-01

    A síndrome de Sweet pode estar associada a malignidades hematológicas, principalmente, à leucemia mieloide aguda, porém existem poucos relatos demonstrando a associação com a policitemia vera. Relata-se o caso de doente do sexo masculino, de 65 anos, portador de policitemia vera,que evoluiu com aparecimento de síndrome de Sweet na sua forma paraneoplásica. Sweet’s syndrome may be associated with hematological malignancies, particularly with acute myelogenous leukemia, but there are few rep...

  8. Sweet's Syndrome associated with Hodgkin's disease: case report

    Miranda, Carolina Villela da Rocha; Filgueiras, Fernanda de Marca; Obadia, Daniel Lago; Gripp, Alexandre Carlos; Alves, Maria de Fátima Scotelaro Guimarães

    2011-01-01

    A síndrome de Sweet é enfermidade cutânea rara e de etiologia pouco esclarecida. Cerca de 20% dos casos são associados a neoplasias hematológicas, sendo raros os casos relacionados à doença de Hodgkin. Relata-se caso de paciente masculino de 57 anos que desenvolveu a síndrome concomitantemente à neoplasia. As doenças foram controladas com o tratamento específico.Sweet's syndrome is a rare cutaneous disease of unknown etiology. About 20% of the cases are associated with hematological neoplasms...

  9. Lipid-Lowering Pharmaceutical Clofibrate Inhibits Human Sweet Taste

    Kochem, Matthew; Breslin, Paul A.S.

    2016-01-01

    T1R2-T1R3 is a heteromeric receptor that binds sugars, high potency sweeteners, and sweet taste blockers. In rodents, T1R2-T1R3 is largely responsible for transducing sweet taste perception. T1R2-T1R3 is also expressed in non-taste tissues, and a growing body of evidence suggests that it helps regulate glucose and lipid metabolism. It was previously shown that clofibric acid, a blood lipid-lowering drug, binds T1R2-T1R3 and inhibits its activity in vitro. The purpose of this study was to dete...

  10. Evaluation of the effects of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam) in broiler diets.

    Pandi, J; Glatz, P; Forder, R; Komolong, B; Chousalkar, K

    2018-02-01

    Cereal grains such as maize and wheat are used extensively in feed formulations for poultry as the primary source of carbohydrates. High cost of these grains in many developing countries necessitates the evaluation of other ingredients that are grown locally. Sweet potato is one such crop. The study was conducted as a proof of concept experiment to test the hypothesis that in the presence and absence of enzyme, sweet potato roots when included in diets of broiler chickens may affect the total metabolisable energy content of the diets which may exert certain influences on dry matter digestibility of these diets as well as impacting on production and certain gut parameters. A total of 120 chicks were raised on a commercial starter feed from day 0 to 19. On day 22, the birds were individually weighed and allocated to 96 single bird metabolism cages to conduct a 7-day classical apparent metabolisable energy (AME) assay. The test diets contained 0% and 25% sweet potato flour (SPF) with and without enzyme supplementation (Rovabio Excel AP T-flex) and replicated 24 times. AME of the control diet with and without enzyme was 14.05 and 13.91 MJ/kg whilst the AME of the SPF diets with and without enzymes were 13.45 and 13.43 MJ/kg respectively. AME of SPF was 12.08 MJ/kg. Birds fed the SPF had significantly reduced end weights (p = .002) and weight gains (p < .001) leading to significantly higher intake (p = .004) and FCRs (p < .001) in birds. These effects in growth parameters highlight the need to balance dietary protein and total amino acids when using SPF in broiler diets and may not be a negative effect of SPF per say as AME and dry matter digestibility of SPF diets were comparable to the control diet. The level of sucrase activity in the jejunum was significantly (p < .001) lower due to enzyme inclusion. Use of SPF in the current study did not negatively influence the activities of the brush border enzymes maltase and sucrase, gut morphology in the jejunum

  11. GREENHOUSE-GROWN CAPE GOOSEBERRY

    /2006 S 4,00. Printed in Uganda. All rights reserved O2006, African Crop Science Society. SHORT COMMINICATION. EFFECT OF GIBBERRELLIC ACID ON GROWTH AND FRUIT YIELD OF. GREENHOUSE-GROWN CAPE GOOSEBERRY.

  12. DMPD: Sweet preferences of MGL: carbohydrate specificity and function. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Full Text Available 18249034 Sweet preferences of MGL: carbohydrate specificity and function. van Vliet....csml) Show Sweet preferences of MGL: carbohydrate specificity and function. PubmedID 18249034 Title Sweet p...references of MGL: carbohydrate specificity and function. Authors van Vliet SJ, S

  13. Identification of widely varying levels of resistance to meloidogyne incognita in sweet sorghum

    Sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) is a potential bioenergy crop that could be incorporated into annual cropping systems in the southern US, where it would likely be rotated with cotton. The desirability of including sweet sorghum in a cotton cropping system will be influenced by sweet sorghum’s host ...

  14. 7 CFR 318.13-24 - Sweet potatoes from Puerto Rico.

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sweet potatoes from Puerto Rico. 318.13-24 Section 318... Articles From Hawaii and the Territories § 318.13-24 Sweet potatoes from Puerto Rico. Sweet potatoes from Puerto Rico may be moved interstate to Atlantic Coast ports north of and including Baltimore, MD, under...

  15. 7 CFR 319.56-44 - Untreated grapefruit, sweet oranges, and tangerines from Mexico for processing.

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Untreated grapefruit, sweet oranges, and tangerines... QUARANTINE NOTICES Fruits and Vegetables § 319.56-44 Untreated grapefruit, sweet oranges, and tangerines from Mexico for processing. Untreated grapefruit (Citrus paradisi), sweet oranges (Citrus sinensis), and...

  16. Component Analysis of Sweet BV and Clinical Trial on Antibody Titer and Allergic Reactions

    Ki Rok, Kwon

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives : The aim of this study was to observe prevention of allergic reactions of Sweet Bee Venom (removing enzyme components from Bee Venom. Methods : Content analysis of Sweet Bee Venom and Bee Venom was rendered using HPLC method and characterization of Anti-Sweet Bee Venom in Rabbit Serum. Clinical observation was conducted for inducement of allergic responses to Sweet BV. Results : 1. Analyzing melittin content using HPLC, Sweet BV contained 34.9% more melittin than Bee venom pharmacopuncture at same concentration. 2. Observing chromatogram of HPLC, removal of the enzyme was successfully rendered on Sweet BV. 3. The anti-serum of Sweet BV showed high titers against melittin and bee venom and relatively low titer against phospholipase A2. 4. After conducting approximately 3,000 cases of Sweet BV administration, not a single case of generalized anaphylatic reaction occurred in clinical observation. 5. Mild compared to the bee venom pharmacopuncture, Sweet BV showed some acute hypersensitive reactions of edema, itchiness, and aching locally. 6. Sweet BV was administered on six patients with previous history of suffering from generalized acute hypersensitive reactions with the bee venom. None of the patients showed allergic reactions with Sweet BV, suggesting it can effectively prevent anaphylatic shock which may occur after the bee venom pharmacopuncture procedure. Conclusion : Summarizing above results, Sweet Bee Venom appears to be an effective measurement against allergic reactions from the bee venom pharmacopuncture especially against anaphylatic shock.

  17. Root uptake and translocation of perfluorinated alkyl acids by three hydroponically grown crops

    Felizeter, S.; McLachlan, M.S.; de Voogt, P.

    2014-01-01

    Tomato, cabbage, and zucchini plants were grown hydroponically in a greenhouse. They were exposed to 14 perfluorinated alkyl acids (PFAAs) at four different concentrations via the nutrient solution. At maturity the plants were harvested, and the roots, stems, leaves, twigs (where applicable), and

  18. Slab replacement maturity guidelines : [summary].

    2014-04-01

    Concrete sets in hours at moderate temperatures, : but the bonds that make concrete strong continue : to mature over days to years. However, for : replacement concrete slabs on highways, it is : crucial that concrete develop enough strength : within ...

  19. SOUL System Maturation, Phase I

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Busek Co. Inc. proposes to advance the maturity of an innovative Spacecraft on Umbilical Line (SOUL) System suitable for a wide variety of applications of interest...

  20. SOUL System Maturation, Phase II

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Busek Co. Inc. proposes to advance the maturity of an innovative Spacecraft on Umbilical Line (SOUL) System suitable for a wide variety of applications of interest...

  1. THE EFFECT OF WINTER CATCH CROPS ON WEED INFESTATION IN SWEET CORN DEPENDING ON THE WEED CONTROL METHODS

    Robert Rosa

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was carried out in east-central Poland (52°06’ N, 22°55’ E over 2008–2011 to study the effect of winter catch crops on the weed infestation, number, and fresh matter of weeds in sweet corn (Zea mays L. var. saccharata. The following winter catch crops were grown: hairy vetch (Vicia villosa Roth., white clover (Trifolium repens L., winter rye (Secale cereale L., Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum L. and winter turnip rape (Brassica rapa var. typica Posp.. The catch crops were sown in early September and incorporated in early May. The effect of the catch crops was compared to the effect of FYM (30 t·ha-1 and control without organic manuring (NOM. Three methods of weed control were used: HW – hand weeding, twice during the growing period, GCM – the herbicide Guardian Complete Mix 664 SE, immediately after sowing of corn seeds, Z+T – a mixture of the herbicides Zeagran 340 SE and Titus 25 WG applied at the 3–4-leaf stage of sweet corn growth. Rye and turnip rape catch crops had least weeds in their fresh matter. Sweet corn following winter catch crops was less infested by weeds than corn following farmyard manure and non-manured corn. Least weeds and their lowest weight were found after SC, BRT and VV. LM and BRT reduced weed species numbers compared with FYM and NOM. The greatest weed species diversity, determined at the corn flowering stage, was determined after SC and FYM. The number and weight of weeds were significantly lower when chemically controlled compared with hand weeding. The best results were observed after a post-emergent application of the mixture Z+T. The weed species diversity on Z+T-treated plots was clearly lower compared with GCM and HW.

  2. Naturally Engineered Maturation of Cardiomyocytes

    Gaetano J. Scuderi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Ischemic heart disease remains one of the most prominent causes of mortalities worldwide with heart transplantation being the gold-standard treatment option. However, due to the major limitations associated with heart transplants, such as an inadequate supply and heart rejection, there remains a significant clinical need for a viable cardiac regenerative therapy to restore native myocardial function. Over the course of the previous several decades, researchers have made prominent advances in the field of cardiac regeneration with the creation of in vitro human pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocyte tissue engineered constructs. However, these engineered constructs exhibit a functionally immature, disorganized, fetal-like phenotype that is not equivalent physiologically to native adult cardiac tissue. Due to this major limitation, many recent studies have investigated approaches to improve pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocyte maturation to close this large functionality gap between engineered and native cardiac tissue. This review integrates the natural developmental mechanisms of cardiomyocyte structural and functional maturation. The variety of ways researchers have attempted to improve cardiomyocyte maturation in vitro by mimicking natural development, known as natural engineering, is readily discussed. The main focus of this review involves the synergistic role of electrical and mechanical stimulation, extracellular matrix interactions, and non-cardiomyocyte interactions in facilitating cardiomyocyte maturation. Overall, even with these current natural engineering approaches, pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes within three-dimensional engineered heart tissue still remain mostly within the early to late fetal stages of cardiomyocyte maturity. Therefore, although the end goal is to achieve adult phenotypic maturity, more emphasis must be placed on elucidating how the in vivo fetal microenvironment drives cardiomyocyte

  3. Maturation of sugar maple seed

    Clayton M., Jr. Carl; Albert G., Jr. Snow; Albert G. Snow

    1971-01-01

    The seeds of a sugar maple tree (Acer saccharum Marsh.) do not mature at the same time every year. And different trees mature their seeds at different times. So time of year is not a reliable measure of when seeds are ripe. Better criteria are needed. In recent studies we have found that moisture content and color are the best criteria for judging when sugar maple...

  4. Nutrient content of biomass components of Hamlin sweet orange trees

    Mattos Jr. Dirceu

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge of the nutrient distribution in trees is important to establish sound nutrient management programs for citrus production. Six-year-old Hamlin orange trees [Citrus sinensis (L. Osb.] on Swingle citrumelo [Poncirus trifoliata (L. Raf. x Citrus paradisi Macfad.] rootstock, grown on a sandy Entisol in Florida were harvested to investigate the macro and micronutrient distributions of biomass components. The biomass of aboveground components of the tree represented the largest proportion of the total. The distribution of the total tree dry weight was: fruit = 30.3%, leaf = 9.7%, twig = 26.1%, trunk = 6.3%, and root = 27.8%. Nutrient concentrations of recent mature leaves were in the adequate to optimal range as suggested by interpretation of leaf analysis in Florida. Concentrations of Ca in older leaves and woody tissues were much greater than those in the other parts of the tree. Concentrations of micronutrients were markedly greater in fibrous root as compared to woody roots. Calcium made up the greatest amount of nutrient in the citrus tree (273.8 g per tree, followed by N and K (234.7 and 181.5 g per tree, respectively. Other macronutrients comprised about 11% of the total nutrient content of trees. The contents of various nutrients in fruits were: N = 1.20, K = 1.54, P = 0.18, Ca = 0.57, Mg = 0.12, S = 0.09, B = 1.63 x 10-3, Cu = 0.39 x 10-3, Fe = 2.1 x 10-3, Mn = 0.38 10-3, and Zn = 0.40 10-3 (kg ton-1. Total contents of N, K, and P in the orchard corresponded to 66.5, 52.0, and 8.3 kg ha-1, respectively, which were equivalent to the amounts applied annually by fertilization.

  5. Crop yield and light/energy efficiency in a closed ecological system: Laboratory Biosphere experiments with wheat and sweet potato.

    Nelson, M; Dempster, W F; Silverstone, S; Alling, A; Allen, J P; van Thillo, M

    2005-01-01

    Two crop growth experiments in the soil-based closed ecological facility, Laboratory Biosphere, were conducted from 2003 to 2004 with candidate space life support crops. Apogee wheat (Utah State University variety) was grown, planted at two densities, 400 and 800 seeds m-2. The lighting regime for the wheat crop was 16 h of light-8 h dark at a total light intensity of around 840 micromoles m-2 s-1 and 48.4 mol m-2 d-1 over 84 days. Average biomass was 1395 g m-2, 16.0 g m-2 d-1 and average seed production was 689 g m-2 and 7.9 g m-2 d-1. The less densely planted side was more productive than the denser planting, with 1634 g m-2 and 18.8 g m-2 d-1 of biomass vs. 1156 g m-2 and 13.3 g m-2 d-1; and a seed harvest of 812.3 g m-2 and 9.3 g m-2 d-1 vs. 566.5 g m-2 and 6.5 g m-2 d-1. Harvest index was 0.49 for the wheat crop. The experiment with sweet potato used TU-82-155 a compact variety developed at Tuskegee University. Light during the sweet potato experiment, on a 18 h on/6 h dark cycle, totaled 5568 total moles of light per square meter in 126 days for the sweet potatoes, or an average of 44.2 mol m-2 d-1. Temperature regime was 28 +/- 3 degrees C day/22 +/- 4 degrees C night. Sweet potato tuber yield was 39.7 kg wet weight, or an average of 7.4 kg m-2, and 7.7 kg dry weight of tubers since dry weight was about 18.6% wet weight. Average per day production was 58.7 g m-2 d-1 wet weight and 11.3 g m-2 d-1. For the wheat, average light efficiency was 0.34 g biomass per mole, and 0.17 g seed per mole. The best area of wheat had an efficiency of light utilization of 0.51 g biomass per mole and 0.22 g seed per mole. For the sweet potato crop, light efficiency per tuber wet weight was 1.33 g mol-1 and 0.34 g dry weight of tuber per mole of light. The best area of tuber production had 1.77 g mol-1 wet weight and 0.34 g mol-1 of light dry weight. The Laboratory Biosphere experiment's light efficiency was somewhat higher than the USU field results but somewhat below

  6. Alcohol or feed product from rotten sweet potatoes

    Ikeda, T

    1956-06-25

    Rotten sweet potatoes were mixed with the same weight of a pressed cake of fermented alcohol mash, and the mixture was cooked and fermented with amylo stock mash under semisolid conditions for five days. The fermented mash was steam-distilled to recover ethanol, and a solid residue was dried to give a nutrient feed product.

  7. Escaping Slavery: "Sweet Clara and the Freedom Quilt."

    Miller, Sue Ann

    This lesson uses the picture book "Sweet Clara and the Freedom Quilt" by Deborah Hopkinson and an interactive website to enhance third- through fifth-grade students' understanding of the Underground Railroad and slavery, development of reading comprehension skills, and application of mapping skills. During three 45-60 minute lessons,…

  8. Impact of transgenic sweet corn silks to two noctuid pests

    Eight Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) transgenic sweet corn hybrids were evaluated (with two controls) for their efficacy against two ear-feeding insects; the corn earworm [Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)], and the fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuid...

  9. 74 agronomic assessment of some sweet potato varieties for ...

    OLUWOLE AKINNAGBE

    2009-05-02

    May 2, 2009 ... All intercropping combinations of sweet potato varieties and .... of a and b. Values of LER greater than 1 are ...... switching from low value crop production to a ... and/or pursuing off-farm employment. .... reflected in higher yield and greater per hectare ...... potentials qualified it for inclusion among the 17 ...

  10. Aqueous and ethanolic leaf extracts of Ocimum basilicum (sweet ...

    We evaluated the effects of aqueous and ethanolic leaf extracts of Ocimum basilicum (sweet basil) on sodium arsenite-induced hepatotoxicity in Wistar rats. We observed that treatment of the animals with the extracts before or just after sodium arsenite administration significantly (p < 0.05) reduced mean liver and serum ...

  11. Comparative efficacy of sweet orange, Citrus sinensis (l) rind ...

    Sweet orange, Citrus sinensis((L.) rind powder and oil were evaluated for the control of maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais(Mot.) under ambient laboratory conditions (28 ± 2o C and 75 ± 20% R.H.). Experiments consisted of exposing adult S. zeamais to both the powder and oil for 42 days. Mortality counts were taken from the ...

  12. Possibilities of sweet potato [ Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam] value chain ...

    Sweet potato is one of the most important food security promoted root crops in the world, especially in sub-Saharan Africa. Unfortunately, the crop is still neglected and underutilized in Benin Republic. To establish baseline data for its better utilization for upgrading its value chain, 10 selected local varieties (01 cream, ...

  13. Protective Effect of Purple Sweet Potato (Ipomoea batatas Linn ...

    Purpose: To evaluate the protective effects of purple sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas Linn, Convolvulaceae) extract (IBE) in stimulated BV-2 microglial cells and its anti-oxidant properties. Methods: Cell viability assessment was performed by 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5- diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay.

  14. Molecular characterization of two isolates of sweet potato leaf curl ...

    Comparison analysis showed that DNA-A sequence of JS1 isolate was closely related to that of sweet potato leaf curl virus (SPLCV) from United States with nucleotide sequence identity of 97.0% and DNA-A of Y338 showed highest sequence identity at 97.8% with an isolate of SPLCV from China. Phylogenetic analysis ...

  15. Repeated-batch ethanol fermentation from sweet sorghum juice by ...

    . It was found that sweet sorghum juice (SSJ) containing 100 g l-1 of total sugar without nutrient supplement could be used as the low-cost IP medium instead of the typical IP medium or yeast extract malt extract (YM) medium. Ethanol ...

  16. Agronomic assessment of some sweet potato varieties for ...

    Field experiments were conducted at the National Root Crops Research Institute sub-station, Otobi, in 2006 and 2007 to assess the suitability of improved sweet potato varieties for intercropping with pigeonpea and also to determine the planting pattern and the productivity of the intercropping system. Intercropping ...

  17. The twisted relation between Pnu and SWEET transporters

    Jähme, Michael; Guskov, Albert; Slotboom, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    The evolutionary relation between sugar and vitamin transporters from the SWEET and Pnu families is un- clear. They have similar 3D structures, but differ in the topology of their secondary structure elements, and lack significant sequence similarity. Here we analyze the structures and sequences of

  18. Agronomic performance of locally adapted sweet potato ( Ipomoea ...

    Tissue culture techniques have opened a new frontier in agricultural science by addressing food security and agricultural production issues. A study was conducted to compare growth and yield characteristics between the tissue culture regenerated and conventionally propagated sweet potato cultivars. Five locally adapted ...

  19. Towards the development of sweet potato-based couscous for ...

    Sweet potato processing and consumption patterns are very limited in Benin. The present study aimed to suggest a new utilization of the crop as food. Roots from a white flesh variety were processed into flour and later into couscous. This couscous was steam-cooked following the same procedure as a wheat-based ...

  20. Inclusion of sweet sorghum flour in bread formulations | Araujo ...

    Sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) has been studied as an additional source of raw material for production or partial replacement of foods due to its high fiber concentration. Its consumption is associated with the prevention of some diseases and nutritional benefits. The aim of this study was to evaluate the partial ...

  1. Quality evaluation of 'gari' produced from cassava and sweet potato ...

    The quality evaluation of gari produced from mixes of cassava (Manihot esculenta, Crantz) and Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) tubers were investigated and reported. This is done to allow for the establishment of the best mixes of cassava and potato tubers to be adopted in the composite gari produced. Gari was produced ...

  2. Assessment of somaclonal variation for salinity tolerance in sweet ...

    Genetic variation is the source for plant breeding. Somaclonal variation is genetic variation induced during tissue culture and also during ordinary growth in vivo, and occurs rather, often in sweet potato. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the degree of somaclonal variation in regeneration via somatic ...

  3. The molluscicidal effects of extracts of Capsicum annuum (Sweet ...

    Extracts of sweet pepper (Capsicum annum), black pepper (Piper nigrum) and scent leaves (Ocimum basilicum) were introduced to fresh water snail samples, the intermediate hosts of schistosomiasis, to test their molluscicidal effects. The materials were extracted using soxhlet extraction. Black pepper (Piper nigrum) was ...

  4. Impacts of transportation on the profitability of sweet potato ...

    Transportation is an essential aspect of agricultural production. However, in many parts of Nigeria, bad transport system is still a problem of rural farmers. Therefore, this study seeks to examine the impacts of transportation on the profitability of sweet potato production in Kwara State. The sampling techniques involved the ...

  5. Effects of feeding sweet potato ( Ipomoea batatas ) leaves on growth ...

    Forty-five (45) weaner rabbits were randomly allotted to five dietary treatments (T) to evaluate the effects of graded levels of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) leaves (SPL) and pelletized concentrate feed (PCF) on growth performance and nutrient digestibility of rabbits. The treatments were: T1 (0% SPL; 100% PCF); T2 (25% ...

  6. Electrochemical evaluation of sweet sorghum fermentable sugar bioenergy feedstock

    Redox active constituents of sorghum, e.g., anthocyanin, flavonoids, and aconitic acid, putatively contribute to its pest resistance. Electrochemical reactivity of sweet sorghum stem juice was evaluated using cyclic voltammetry (CV) for five male (Atlas, Chinese, Dale, Isidomba, N98) and three fema...

  7. Bioavailability of zinc from sweet potato roots and leaves

    Baiden, H.N.; Ercanli-Huffman, F.G.

    1986-01-01

    Bioavailability of zinc from sweet potato (SP) roots and leaves were determined, by extrinsic labeling technique, in rats fed control and zinc deficient diets. Weanling male Sprague Dawley (SD) rats (60-75g) were divided into 4 groups, and fed laboratory chow, a control diet (ad libitum and pair fed) and a zinc deficient diet, for 4 weeks. Each group then was divided into at least 2 sub groups, containing 6 rats, which were intubated with one of 3 tubing solutions extrinsically labeled with 65 Zn; baked sweet potato roots (BSPR), raw sweet potato leaves (RSPL) and cooked sweet potato leaves (CSPL). Five hours after intubation the rats were sacrificed, blood, liver, testes, spleen, heart, brain, thymus and lungs were removed. Feces, urine, and GI tract contents were collected and their 65 Zn activity was determined in a gamma counter. In all treatment groups zinc bioavailability from BSPR, RSPL or CSPL were not significantly different. Zinc deficient rats absorbed significantly more (P 65 Zn (86-90% of the dose), regardless of type of tubing solution than the pairfed or control animals (35-58% of the dose). The highest retention of 65 Zn was found in the liver (12-20% of absorbed dose), GI tract (6-17% of absorbed dose), kidney (2-8% of absorbed dose), and blood (1-5% of absorbed dose). The lowest retention was found in the brain, heart, thymus and testes. (< 1% of absorbed dose)

  8. Sweet Little Gabonese Palm Wine: A Neglected Alcohol | Mavioga ...

    BACKGROUND: During the last ten years, consumption of palm wine, a popular traditional alcoholic beverage, seriously increases in Gabon. This sweet beverage seems to be the main alcohol and the most drunken in low socioeconomic population. OBJECTIVE: To have an idea of it composition and toxicity, 21 samples of ...

  9. Genetic Fingerprinting of Sweet Potato [ Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam ...

    Sweet potato is an important staple crop and many varieties have been released into farmers' fields in Nigeria, but no reliable means in tracking their identity, thus causing multiple naming of these varieties among farmers. The objective of the study is to establish objectively and reliable means of identifying released, local ...

  10. Genetic Fingerprinting of Sweet Potato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam ...

    Prof. Ogunji

    Sweet potato is an important staple crop and many varieties have been released into farmers' fields in Nigeria, ..... Tib 4 is distinct and did not form cluster while ... V. P HP P P W. Tis 2154. 5. DG DG V V. V. 1 NL. V. NP NP P P W. Tib 11. 6. P. P.

  11. Enhanced ethanol production from stalk juice of sweet sorghum by ...

    user

    2012-03-15

    Mar 15, 2012 ... Sweet sorghum (sugar sorghum, Sorghum bicolor) is one kind of non-grain energy ... government that only ''non-grain” materials can be used ... In this work, ... inoculated (10%, v/v) into fermentation medium prepared with the.

  12. Preparation of resistant sweet potato starch by steam explosion ...

    resistant sweet potato starch was identified by Fourier transform infrared ... can potentially be used in food or medicine for diabetic patients. ... were suspended in water (1:3.5, w/v), and ..... No conflict of interest associated with this work.

  13. impacts of transportation on the profitability of sweet potato ...

    FBL

    Also, the size of the farm, cost of transportation, quantity of sweet potato ... does, do the benefits “trickle down” to the poorest members of the community. As a .... the fact that the men were actually the farm owners and heads of households and are ..... will encourage farmers to work harder in the rural areas for increased ...

  14. Genetic Diversity of Local and Introduced Sweet Potato [Ipomoea ...

    This study was therefore conducted to estimate the genetic diversity of 114 Sweet potato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam] accessions obtained from Nigeria, Asia, Latin America and Local collections along with two improved varieties. Accessions were planted in 2012/13 cropping season at Haramaya University, eastern Ethiopia ...

  15. Genetic diversity and population structure of sweet cassava using ...

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the population structure and genetic diversity among 66 sweet cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) traditional accessions collected in Maringa, Parana, Brazil, using microsatellite molecular markers. Population structure was analyzed by means of genetic distances and ...

  16. Time to first fracture affects sweetness of gels

    Sala, G.; Stieger, M.A.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of the breakdown behaviour on sweetness intensity of gelled model foods. Emulsion-filled gelatine/agar gels varying mainly in fracture strain (eF) were used. The fracture strain was modified by changing either the ratio between gelatine and agar

  17. Biochemical response of sweet potato to bemul-wax coating ...

    Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas Linn) tuber is a very nutritious but highly perishable crop that is subject to high wastages due to non-availability of appropriate storage techniques. This work assessed the effectiveness of treating the tubers with calcium chloride dip (CCD), bemul-wax (B-wax) and their combinations ...

  18. Parasitoids attacking fall armyworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in sweet corn habitats

    Fall armyworm larvae, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith), were collected from sweet corn plants (Zea mays L.) in fields located in three south Florida counties. Fields were sampled from 2010 – 2015 during the fall and spring seasons. Larvae were brought back to the laboratory to complete developme...

  19. Possibilities of sweet potato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam] value chain ...

    FAOUZIATH

    2016-03-30

    Mar 30, 2016 ... Key words: Benin, sweet potato, Ipomoea batatas, nutritional composition, orange flesh cultivar, value chain. INTRODUCTION ... largely consumed after processing into garri, traditional flour, lafun, and improved flour. ..... foods give them a role in human health and they can serve as substrates for the ...

  20. Genetic Fingerprinting of Sweet Potato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam ...

    Prof. Ogunji

    at a space of 1m x 1m in a randomized complete block design in two replications. High genetic diversity was observed among the sweet potato genotypes examined. The morphological data revealed three distinctive clusters. In cluster I, purple vine, green petiole and light pink storage root colour were the dominant traits.

  1. Biological hydrogen production from sweet sorghum by thermophilic bacteria

    Claassen, P.A.M.; Vrije, de T.; Budde, M.A.W.; Koukios, E.G.; Gylnos, A.; Reczey, K.

    2004-01-01

    Sweet sorghum cultivation was carried out in South-west Greece. The fresh biomass yield was about 126 t/ha. Stalks weight accounts for 82% of total crop weight while leaves and panicle account for 17% and 1%, respectively. The major components in variety 'Keller' stalks were, based on dry weight,

  2. Inclusion of sweet sorghum flour in bread formulations

    User

    2015-05-13

    May 13, 2015 ... Inclusion of sweet sorghum flour in bread formulations. Veronica Freitas Pires Araujo1, Wellingthon da Silva Guimaraes Junnyor1, Marco Antonio. Pereira da Silva1* ..... Revista Brasileira de Saúde e. Produção Animal.

  3. Identification of Radical Scavengers in Sweet Grass (Hierochloe odorata)

    Pukalskas, A.; Beek, van T.A.; Venskutonis, R.P.; Linssen, J.P.H.; Veldhuizen, van A.; Groot, de Æ.

    2002-01-01

    Extracts from aerial parts of sweet grass (Hierochloe odorata) were active DPPH free radical scavengers, The active compounds were detected in extract fractions using HPLC with on-line radical scavenging detection. After multistep fractionation of the extract, two new natural products possessing

  4. ‘JAFFA’ SWEET ORANGE PLANTS GRAFTED ONTO FIVE ROOTSTOCKS

    ELÍDIO LILIANO CARLOS BACAR

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Low genetic diversity of citrus scion and rootstock cultivars makes the crop more vulnerable to diseases and pests. The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of ‘Jaffa’ sweet orange grafted onto five rootstocks over six harvests in subtropical conditions in the north of Paraná state, Brazil. The experiment used a randomized block design, with six replications and two trees per plot, spaced at 7.0 m x 4.0 m. The rootstocks were: ‘Rangpur’ lime, ‘Cleopatra’ and ‘Sunki’ mandarins, ‘Fepagro C-13’ citrange, and ‘Swingle’ citrumelo. The variables evaluated were vigor, yield, and yield efficiency of the trees as well as the physical and chemical characteristics of the fruits. Data were subjected to analysis of variance, complemented by Scott-Knott test at 5% probability. The smallest tree canopy for ‘Jaffa’ sweet orange plants was induced by the ‘Rangpur’ lime rootstock. The trees had the same cumulative yield performance over six seasons for all rootstocks. The best yield efficiency for ‘Jaffa’ sweet orange trees was provided by ‘Fepagro C-13’ citrange rootstock. With regard to fruit quality, no differences were observed among the rootstocks and the ‘Jaffa’ sweet orange fruits met the standards required by the fresh fruit market and the fruit processing industry.

  5. Effect of sweet orange aroma on experimental anxiety in humans.

    Goes, Tiago Costa; Antunes, Fabrício Dias; Alves, Péricles Barreto; Teixeira-Silva, Flavia

    2012-08-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential anxiolytic effect of sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) aroma in healthy volunteers submitted to an anxiogenic situation. Forty (40) male volunteers were allocated to five different groups for the inhalation of sweet orange essential oil (test aroma: 2.5, 5, or 10 drops), tea tree essential oil (control aroma: 2.5 drops), or water (nonaromatic control: 2.5 drops). Immediately after inhalation, each volunteer was submitted to a model of anxiety, the video-monitored version of the Stroop Color-Word Test (SCWT). Psychologic parameters (state-anxiety, subjective tension, tranquilization, and sedation) and physiologic parameters (heart rate and gastrocnemius electromyogram) were evaluated before the inhalation period and before, during, and after the SCWT. Unlike the control groups, the individuals exposed to the test aroma (2.5 and 10 drops) presented a lack of significant alterations (p>0.05) in state-anxiety, subjective tension and tranquillity levels throughout the anxiogenic situation, revealing an anxiolytic activity of sweet orange essential oil. Physiologic alterations along the test were not prevented in any treatment group, as has previously been observed for diazepam. Although more studies are needed to find out the clinical relevance of aromatherapy for anxiety disorders, the present results indicate an acute anxiolytic activity of sweet orange aroma, giving some scientific support to its use as a tranquilizer by aromatherapists.

  6. Genetic diversity of sweet potatoes collection from Northeastern Brazil

    The sweet potato, Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam has its origin in Tropical America. In Sergipe State (Brazil), its production is very important, and to explore its potential in local agriculture in the State, the Embrapa Coastal Tableland created a collection with 52 accessions located in Umbaúba City. Some accessions were from ...

  7. evaluation of the performance of improved sweet potato (ipomoea

    IKUMOINEIN W. KURO

    combat a widespread vitamin A deficiency that results in blindness and ... and 500,000 ha from China, Nigeria, Uganda and. Tanzania ... healthy plants. Extending this to all of China's sweet ... the country's reliance on cereal imports for livestock feed. In Kwara ..... Center (CIP) Programme Report 1995-1996, Lima, Peru.

  8. 1H NMR metabolic fingerprinting to probe temporal postharvest changes on qualitative attributes and phytochemical profile of sweet cherry fruit

    Vlasios eGoulas

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Sweet cherry fruits (Prunus avium cvs. ‘Canada Giant’, ‘Ferrovia’ were harvested at commercial maturity stage and analyzed at harvest and after maintenance at room temperature (storage at ~ 20°C, shelf life for 1, 2, 4, 6 and 8 days, respectively. Fruit were initially analyzed for respiration rate, qualitative attributes and textural properties: ‘Canada Giant’ fruit were characterized by higher weight losses and stem browning index, being more intense over the late stages of shelf life period; meanwhile ‘Ferrovia’ possessed appreciably better performance even after extended shelf life period. A gradual decrease of respiration rate was monitored in both cultivars, culminated after 8 days at 20°C. The sweet cherry fruit nutraceutical profile was monitored using an array of instrumental techniques (spectrophotometric assays, HPLC, 1H-NMR. Fruit antioxidant capacity was enhanced with the progress of shelf life period, concomitant with the increased levels of total anthocyanin and of phenolic compounds. ‘Ferrovia’ fruit presented higher contents of neochlorogenic acid and p-coumarolquinic acid throughout the shelf life period. We further developed an 1H-NMR method that allows the study of primary and secondary metabolites in a single running, without previous separation and isolation procedures. Diagnostic peaks were located in the aliphatic region for sugars and organic acids, in the aromatic region for phenolic compounds and at 8.2 to 8.6 ppm for anthocyanins. This NMR-based methodology provides a unifying tool for quantitative and qualitative characterization of metabolite changes of sweet cherry fruits; it is also expected to be further exploited for monitoring temporal changes in other fleshy fruits.

  9. 1H NMR Metabolic Fingerprinting to Probe Temporal Postharvest Changes on Qualitative Attributes and Phytochemical Profile of Sweet Cherry Fruit

    Goulas, Vlasios; Minas, Ioannis S.; Kourdoulas, Panayiotis M.; Lazaridou, Athina; Molassiotis, Athanassios N.; Gerothanassis, Ioannis P.; Manganaris, George A.

    2015-01-01

    Sweet cherry fruits (Prunus avium cvs. ‘Canada Giant’, ‘Ferrovia’) were harvested at commercial maturity stage and analyzed at harvest and after maintenance at room temperature (storage at ∼20°C, shelf life) for 1, 2, 4, 6, and 8 days, respectively. Fruit were initially analyzed for respiration rate, qualitative attributes and textural properties: ‘Canada Giant’ fruit were characterized by higher weight losses and stem browning index, being more intense over the late stages of shelf life period; meanwhile ‘Ferrovia’ possessed appreciably better performance even after extended shelf life period. A gradual decrease of respiration rate was monitored in both cultivars, culminated after 8 days at 20°C. The sweet cherry fruit nutraceutical profile was monitored using an array of instrumental techniques (spectrophotometric assays, HPLC, 1H-NMR). Fruit antioxidant capacity was enhanced with the progress of shelf life period, concomitant with the increased levels of total anthocyanin and of phenolic compounds. ‘Ferrovia’ fruit presented higher contents of neochlorogenic acid and p-coumaroylquinic acid throughout the shelf life period. We further developed an 1H-NMR method that allows the study of primary and secondary metabolites in a single running, without previous separation and isolation procedures. Diagnostic peaks were located in the aliphatic region for sugars and organic acids, in the aromatic region for phenolic compounds and at 8.2–8.6 ppm for anthocyanins. This NMR-based methodology provides a unifying tool for quantitative and qualitative characterization of metabolite changes of sweet cherry fruits; it is also expected to be further exploited for monitoring temporal changes in other fleshy fruits. PMID:26617616

  10. (1)H NMR Metabolic Fingerprinting to Probe Temporal Postharvest Changes on Qualitative Attributes and Phytochemical Profile of Sweet Cherry Fruit.

    Goulas, Vlasios; Minas, Ioannis S; Kourdoulas, Panayiotis M; Lazaridou, Athina; Molassiotis, Athanassios N; Gerothanassis, Ioannis P; Manganaris, George A

    2015-01-01

    Sweet cherry fruits (Prunus avium cvs. 'Canada Giant', 'Ferrovia') were harvested at commercial maturity stage and analyzed at harvest and after maintenance at room temperature (storage at ∼20°C, shelf life) for 1, 2, 4, 6, and 8 days, respectively. Fruit were initially analyzed for respiration rate, qualitative attributes and textural properties: 'Canada Giant' fruit were characterized by higher weight losses and stem browning index, being more intense over the late stages of shelf life period; meanwhile 'Ferrovia' possessed appreciably better performance even after extended shelf life period. A gradual decrease of respiration rate was monitored in both cultivars, culminated after 8 days at 20°C. The sweet cherry fruit nutraceutical profile was monitored using an array of instrumental techniques (spectrophotometric assays, HPLC, (1)H-NMR). Fruit antioxidant capacity was enhanced with the progress of shelf life period, concomitant with the increased levels of total anthocyanin and of phenolic compounds. 'Ferrovia' fruit presented higher contents of neochlorogenic acid and p-coumaroylquinic acid throughout the shelf life period. We further developed an (1)H-NMR method that allows the study of primary and secondary metabolites in a single running, without previous separation and isolation procedures. Diagnostic peaks were located in the aliphatic region for sugars and organic acids, in the aromatic region for phenolic compounds and at 8.2-8.6 ppm for anthocyanins. This NMR-based methodology provides a unifying tool for quantitative and qualitative characterization of metabolite changes of sweet cherry fruits; it is also expected to be further exploited for monitoring temporal changes in other fleshy fruits.

  11. An investigative study of indigenous sweet sorghum varieties for bioethanol production: the case of Kenya local sorghum varieties

    Wangai, L.K.; Mbeo, C.O. [Kenya Industrial Research and Development Inst., Nairobi (Kenya); Kamau, C.K. [Kenya Agricurtural Research Inst.(s), Machakos (Kenya)

    2012-11-01

    There are over 500 sorghum genotypes grown locally in Kenya. This study was an investigation and selection of suitable sorghum genotypes for sustainable bio-ethanol production in Kenya. For the study, 500 genotypes of sorghum were planted and grown using the recommended agricultural practices. Random sampling of 230 genotypes was done and the samples analysed for juice and sugar content. The 26 best yielding genotypes were selected and grown again in duplicate for further detailed study. Data on date of flowering, pest resistance, {sup 0}brix, wet and dry weight, plant population, ratooning, grain yield and juice yield and juice sugar content were recorded and analyzed using GENstat. Sampling was done for each genotype when about 50% of the crop had flowered and there after, every 2 weeks until the grains dried. Crushing was done with a three roller mill crusher [8]. The sugar content was measured using a digital refractometer. Sugar yield obtained ranged between 10.3{sup 0}Brix and 19.3{sup 0}Brix and juice yield between 268 litres/hectare and 11390 litres/hectare. Five indigenous sorghum varieties, GBK-007130, GBK-007076, GBK-007102, GBK-007296, GBK-007098 were found to have the highest sugar and juice yields and were considered the most suitable sweet sorghum genotypes among those studied, for bio-ethanol production in Kenya.

  12. The Association between Sweet Taste Function, Anthropometry, and Dietary Intake in Adults.

    Low, Julia Y Q; Lacy, Kathleen E; McBride, Robert; Keast, Russell S J

    2016-04-23

    Variation in ability to detect, recognize, and perceive sweetness may influence food consumption, and eventually chronic nutrition-related conditions such as overweight and obesity. The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between sweet taste function, anthropometry, and dietary intake in adults. Participants' (n = 60; mean age in years = 26, SD = ±7.8) sweet taste function for a range of sweeteners (glucose, fructose, sucrose, sucralose, erythritol, and Rebaudioside A) was assessed by measuring detection and recognition thresholds and sweetness intensity. Height, weight, and waist circumference were also measured, and participants also completed a Food Frequency Questionnaire. There was large inter-individual variation in detection, recognition and sweetness intensity measures. Pearson's correlation coefficient revealed no robust correlations between measures of sweet taste function, anthropometry, and dietary intake, with the exception of suprathreshold intensity, which was moderately correlated with total energy intake (r = 0.23-0.40). One-way analysis of variance revealed no significant differences between the most and least sensitive participants in terms of BMI, waist circumference, and dietary intake for all measures of sweet taste function and sweeteners (all p > 0.01). When stratified into BMI categories, there were no significant differences in any measure of sweet taste function between the normal weight and overweight/obese participants (all p > 0.01). Results show that that sweet taste function is not associated with anthropometry and sweetness intensity measures are the most appropriate measure when assessing links between sweet taste and food consumption.

  13. Effect of levulose containing sweets on blood and salivary glucose levels.

    Subramaniam, Priya; K L, Girish Babu; Gona, Harsha

    2015-06-01

    It is common that many diabetic patients crave for sweets which are normally prohibited. To satisfy their desire to have sweets, alternative sweeteners have been introduced to provide sweetness to some items of their diabetic diet. To (1) assess the effect of sweets containing levulose on glucose levels in blood and saliva, and (2) compare it with effect of sweets containing sucrose on blood and saliva levels of glucose. The study consisted of 20 healthy participants, aged 17-20 years. Two sweet preparations of 36 g each were selected for the study. One preparation was sweetened with levulose (diabetic sweet; Group I) and the other with sucrose (regular sweet; Group II). Blood sugar and salivary glucose levels were estimated before and after the consumption of diabetic and regular sweets. The mean increase in salivary glucose level was lower in Group I than in Group II. Similarly, increase in blood glucose levels in Group I was lower and highly significant. In comparison with regular sweets, consumption of levulose containing sweet resulted in significantly lower blood and salivary glucose levels.

  14. Australian print news media coverage of sweet, non-alcoholic drinks sends mixed health messages.

    Bonfiglioli, Catriona; Hattersley, Libby; King, Lesley

    2011-08-01

    This study aimed to analyse the contribution of Australian print news coverage to the public profile of sweet, non-alcoholic beverages. News media portrayal of health contributes to individuals' decision-making. The focus on sugar-sweetened beverages reflects their contribution to excessive energy intake. One year's coverage of sweet, non-alcoholic beverages by major Australian newspapers was analysed using content and frame analysis. Research questions addressed which sweet drinks are most prominently covered, what makes sweet drinks newsworthy and how are the health aspects of sweet drinks framed? Fruit juice was the most widely covered sweet drink, closely followed by carbonated, sugar-sweetened soft drinks. Overall coverage was positively oriented towards sweet drinks, with fruit juice primarily portrayed as having health benefits. Some coverage mentioned risks of sweet drinks, such as obesity, tooth decay, metabolic syndrome and heart attack. Sweet drinks often enjoy positive coverage, with their health benefits and harms central to their ability to attract journalists' attention. However, the mix of coverage may be contributing to consumer confusion about whether it is safe and/or healthy to consume sweet non-alcoholic drinks. Framing of sweet drinks as healthy may undermine efforts to encourage individuals to avoid excess consumption of energy-dense drinks which offer few or minimal health benefits. © 2011 The Authors. ANZJPH © 2011 Public Health Association of Australia.

  15. Functional and evolution characterization of SWEET sugar transporters in Ananas comosus.

    Guo, Chengying; Li, Huayang; Xia, Xinyao; Liu, Xiuyuan; Yang, Long

    2018-02-05

    Sugars will eventually be exported transporters (SWEETs) are a group of recently identified sugar transporters in plants that play important roles in diverse physiological processes. However, currently, limited information about this gene family is available in pineapple (Ananas comosus). The availability of the recently released pineapple genome sequence provides the opportunity to identify SWEET genes in a Bromeliaceae family member at the genome level. In this study, 39 pineapple SWEET genes were identified in two pineapple cultivars (18 AnfSWEET and 21 AnmSWEET) and further phylogenetically classified into five clades. A phylogenetic analysis revealed distinct evolutionary paths for the SWEET genes of the two pineapple cultivars. The MD2 cultivar might have experienced a different expansion than the F153 cultivar because two additional duplications exist, which separately gave rise to clades III and IV. A gene exon/intron structure analysis showed that the pineapple SWEET genes contained highly conserved exon/intron numbers. An analysis of public RNA-seq data and expression profiling showed that SWEET genes may be involved in fruit development and ripening processes. AnmSWEET5 and AnmSWEET11 were highly expressed in the early stages of pineapple fruit development and then decreased. The study increases the understanding of the roles of SWEET genes in pineapple. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Staffing and Workflow of a Maturing Institutional Repository

    Debora L. Madsen

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Institutional repositories (IRs have become established components of many academic libraries. As an IR matures it will face the challenge of how to scale up its operations to increase the amount and types of content archived. These challenges involve staffing, systems, workflows, and promotion. In the past eight years, Kansas State University's IR (K-REx has grown from a platform for student theses, dissertations, and reports to also include faculty works. The initial workforce of a single faculty member was expanded as a part of a library-wide reorganization, resulting in a cross-departmental team that is better able to accommodate the expansion of the IR. The resultant need to define staff responsibilities and develop resources to manage the workflows has led to the innovations described here, which may prove useful to the greater library community as other IRs mature.

  17. Evaluation of three cultivars of sweet sorghum as feedstocks for ethanol production in the Southeast United States

    Daniel E. Ekefre

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Sweet sorghum has become a promising alternative feedstock for biofuel production because it can be grown under reduced inputs, responds to stress more efficiently than traditional crops, and has large biomass production potential. A three-year field study was conducted to evaluate three cultivars of sweet sorghum as bioenergy crops in the Southeast United States (Fort Valley, Georgia: Dale, M81 E and Theis. Parameters evaluated were: plant density, stalk height, and diameter, number of nodes, biomass yield, juice yield, °Bx, sugar production, and theoretical ethanol yields. Yields were measured at 85, 99, and 113 days after planting. Plant fresh weight was the highest for Theis (1096 g and the lowest for Dale (896 g. M81 E reported the highest stalk dry weight (27 Mg ha−1 and Theis reported the lowest (21 Mg ha−1. Theis ranked the highest °Bx (14.9, whereas M81 E was the lowest (13.2. Juice yield was the greatest for M81 E (10915 L ha−1 and the lowest for Dale (6724 L ha−1. Theoretical conservative sugar yield was the greatest for Theis (13 Mg ha−1 and the lowest for Dale (9 Mg ha−1. Theoretical ethanol yield was the greatest for Theis (7619 L ha−1 and the lowest for Dale (5077 L ha−1.

  18. Origin and emergence of the sweet dessert watermelon, Citrullus lanatus

    Paris, Harry S.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Watermelons, Citrullus species (Cucurbitaceae), are native to Africa and have been cultivated since ancient times. The fruit flesh of wild watermelons is watery, but typically hard-textured, pale-coloured and bland or bitter. The familiar sweet dessert watermelons, C. lanatus, featuring non-bitter, tender, well-coloured flesh, have a narrow genetic base, suggesting that they originated from a series of selection events in a single ancestral population. The objective of the present investigation was to determine where dessert watermelons originated and the time frame during which sweet dessert watermelons emerged. Key Findings Archaeological remains of watermelons, mostly seeds, that date from 5000 years ago have been found in northeastern Africa. An image of a large, striped, oblong fruit on a tray has been found in an Egyptian tomb that dates to at least 4000 years ago. The Greek word pepon, Latin pepo and Hebrew avattiah of the first centuries ce were used for the same large, thick-rinded, wet fruit which, evidently, was the watermelon. Hebrew literature from the end of the second century ce and Latin literature from the beginning of the sixth century ce present watermelons together with three sweet fruits: figs, table grapes and pomegranates. Wild and primitive watermelons have been observed repeatedly in Sudan and neighbouring countries of northeastern Africa. Conclusions The diverse evidence, combined, indicates that northeastern Africa is the centre of origin of the dessert watermelon, that watermelons were domesticated for water and food there over 4000 years ago, and that sweet dessert watermelons emerged in Mediterranean lands by approximately 2000 years ago. Next-generation ancient-DNA sequencing and state-of-the-art genomic analysis offer opportunities to rigorously assess the relationships among ancient and living wild and primitive watermelons from northeastern Africa, modern sweet dessert watermelons and other Citrullus taxa. PMID

  19. Origin and emergence of the sweet dessert watermelon, Citrullus lanatus.

    Paris, Harry S

    2015-08-01

    Watermelons, Citrullus species (Cucurbitaceae), are native to Africa and have been cultivated since ancient times. The fruit flesh of wild watermelons is watery, but typically hard-textured, pale-coloured and bland or bitter. The familiar sweet dessert watermelons, C. lanatus, featuring non-bitter, tender, well-coloured flesh, have a narrow genetic base, suggesting that they originated from a series of selection events in a single ancestral population. The objective of the present investigation was to determine where dessert watermelons originated and the time frame during which sweet dessert watermelons emerged. Archaeological remains of watermelons, mostly seeds, that date from 5000 years ago have been found in northeastern Africa. An image of a large, striped, oblong fruit on a tray has been found in an Egyptian tomb that dates to at least 4000 years ago. The Greek word pepon, Latin pepo and Hebrew avattiah of the first centuries CE were used for the same large, thick-rinded, wet fruit which, evidently, was the watermelon. Hebrew literature from the end of the second century CE and Latin literature from the beginning of the sixth century CE present watermelons together with three sweet fruits: figs, table grapes and pomegranates. Wild and primitive watermelons have been observed repeatedly in Sudan and neighbouring countries of northeastern Africa. The diverse evidence, combined, indicates that northeastern Africa is the centre of origin of the dessert watermelon, that watermelons were domesticated for water and food there over 4000 years ago, and that sweet dessert watermelons emerged in Mediterranean lands by approximately 2000 years ago. Next-generation ancient-DNA sequencing and state-of-the-art genomic analysis offer opportunities to rigorously assess the relationships among ancient and living wild and primitive watermelons from northeastern Africa, modern sweet dessert watermelons and other Citrullus taxa. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University

  20. SWEET CORN FARMING: THE EFFECT OF PRODUCTION FACTOR, EFFICIENCY AND RETURN TO SCALE

    Dwijatenaya I.B.M.A.

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to determine the effect of production factors on the sweet corn production, the efficiency of sweet corn farming, and the return to scale of sweet corn production. The sampling technique was taken by proportionate stratified random sampling method with the sample number of 57 people while the analyzer used was the program of Frointer 4.1c. The results show that the production factors of the land farm, seed, and fertilizer have a positive and significant effect on sweet corn production. On the other hand, labor production factors have a positive but not significant effect on sweet corn production. It also found that technical efficiency, price efficiency, and economic efficiency of sweet corn farming in Muara Wis Sub-district of Kutai Kartanegara Regency are not efficient yet. The return to scale of sweet corn yield has an increasing return to scale condition.

  1. Timing of the inhibitory effect of fruit on return bloom of 'Valencia' sweet orange (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck).

    Martínez-Fuentes, Amparo; Mesejo, Carlos; Reig, Carmina; Agustí, Manuel

    2010-08-30

    In Citrus the inhibitory effect of fruit on flower formation is the main cause of alternate bearing. Although there are some studies reporting the effect on flowering of the time of fruit removal in a well-defined stage of fruit development, few have investigated the effect throughout the entire fruit growth stage from early fruitlet growth to fruit maturity. The objective of this study was to determine the phenological fruit developmental stage at which the fruit begins its inhibitory effect on flowering in sweet orange by manual removal of fruits, and the role of carbohydrates and nitrogen in the process. Fruit exerted its inhibitory effect from the time it was close to reaching its maximum weight, namely 90% of its final size (November) in the present experiments, to bud sprouting (April). The reduction in flowering paralleled the reduction in bud sprouting. This reduction was due to a decrease in the number of generative sprouted buds, whereas mixed-typed shoots were largely independent of the time of fruit removal, and vegetative shoots increased in frequency. The number of leaves and/or flowers per sprouted shoot was not significantly modified by fruit load. In 'Valencia' sweet orange, fruit inhibits flowering from the time it completes its growth. Neither soluble sugar content nor starch accumulation in leaves due to fruit removal was related to flowering intensity, but some kind of imbalance in nitrogen metabolism was observed in trees tending to flower scarcely. Copyright (c) 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Nucleoli from growing oocytes support the development of enucleolated full-grown oocytes in the pig.

    Kyogoku, Hirohisa; Ogushi, Sugako; Miyano, Takashi

    2010-02-01

    Recent research has shown that the maternal nucleolus is essential for embryonic development. The morphology of the nucleolus in growing oocytes differs from that in full-grown oocytes. We determined the ability of nucleoli from growing oocytes to substitute for nucleoli of full-grown oocytes in terms of supporting embryonic development in this study. Growing (around 100 microm in diameter) and full-grown porcine oocytes (120 microm) were collected from small (0.6-1.0 mm) and large antral follicles (4-5 mm), respectively. The nucleolus was aspirated from full-grown oocytes by micromanipulation, and the resulting enucleolated oocytes were matured to metaphase II; the nucleoli originating from full-grown and growing oocytes were then injected into the oocytes. The Chromatin of growing oocytes was aspirated with the nucleolus during the enucleolation process. Growing oocytes were thus treated with actinomycin D to release the chromatin from their nucleoli, and the nucleoli were collected and transferred to the enucleolated and matured full-grown oocytes. After activation by electro-stimulation, nucleoli were formed in pronuclei of sham-operated oocytes. Enucleolated oocytes that had been injected with nucleoli from either full-grown or growing, however, did not form any nucleoli in the pronuclei. No enucleolated oocytes developed to blastocysts, whereas enucleolated oocytes injected with nucleoli from full-grown oocytes (15%) or growing oocytes (18%) developed to blastocysts. These results indicate that the nucleoli from growing oocytes can substitute for nucleoli from full-grown oocytes during early embryonic development. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  3. Development of pitanga nectar with different sweeteners by sensory analysis: ideal pulp dilution, ideal sweetness, and sweetness equivalence

    Mírian Luisa Faria Freitas

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to develop pitanga nectar formulations in which sucrose was replaced with different sweeteners. Consumer tests were conducted with 50 fruit juice consumers, and a just-about-right scale was used to determine the ideal pulp dilution and ideal sweetness with sucrose. Furthermore, the adequate concentrations of six sweeteners were determined to obtain the equivalent sweetness of sucrose using relative to these concentrations the magnitude estimation model with 19 selected assessors. The ideal dilution test resulted in 25% pulp, and the ideal sweetness test, 10% sucrose. Sweetener concentrations to replace sucrose were 0.0160%, 0.0541%, 0.1000%, 0.0999%, 0.0017%, and 0.0360%, respectively, for sucralose, aspartame, stevia 40% rebaudioside A, stevia 95% rebaudioside A, neotame, and a 2:1 cyclamate/saccharin blend. These results can be used to prepare pitanga nectar with different sweeteners and obtain the same sweetness intensity in less caloric products than that of nectar prepared with sucrose.

  4. Sweet taste liking is associated with subjective response to amphetamine in women but not men.

    Weafer, Jessica; Lyon, Nicholas; Hedeker, Donald; de Wit, Harriet

    2017-11-01

    Preference for sweet taste rewards has been linked to the propensity for drug use in both animals and humans. Here, we tested the association between sweet taste liking and sensitivity to amphetamine reward in healthy adults. We hypothesized that sweet likers would report greater euphoria and stimulation following D-amphetamine (20 mg) compared to sweet dislikers. Men (n = 36) and women (n = 34) completed a sweet taste test in which they rated their liking of various concentrations of sucrose and filtered water (0.05, 0.10, 0.21, 0.42, and 0.83 M). Participants who preferred the highest concentration were classified as "sweet likers." All others were classified as "sweet dislikers." They then completed four sessions in which they received D-amphetamine (20 mg) and placebo in alternating order, providing self-report measures of euphoria and stimulation on the Addiction Research Center Inventory (ARCI) at regular intervals. We conducted linear mixed effects models to examine relationships between sweet liking and drug-induced euphoria and stimulation. Sweet likers reported significantly greater amphetamine-induced euphoria than did sweet dislikers among women. By contrast, sweet liking was not associated with amphetamine response in men. No associations with stimulation were observed. The association between sweet preference and amphetamine response in women is consistent with animal studies linking sweet taste preference and drug reward and also fits with observations that individuals who use drugs show a preference for sweet tastes. Whether the sex difference is related to circulating hormones, or other variables, remains to be determined.

  5. The sweet potato IbMYB1 gene as a potential visible marker for sweet potato intragenic vector system.

    Kim, Cha Young; Ahn, Young Ock; Kim, Sun Ha; Kim, Yun-Hee; Lee, Haeng-Soon; Catanach, Andrew S; Jacobs, Jeanne M E; Conner, Anthony J; Kwak, Sang-Soo

    2010-07-01

    MYB transcription factors play important roles in transcriptional regulation of many secondary metabolites including anthocyanins. We cloned the R2R3-MYB type IbMYB1 complementary DNAs from the purple-fleshed sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L. cv Sinzami) and investigated the expression patterns of IbMYB1 gene with IbMYB1a and IbMYB1b splice variants in leaf and root tissues of various sweet potato cultivars by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. The transcripts of IbMYB1 were predominantly expressed in the purple-fleshed storage roots and they were also detectable in the leaf tissues accumulating anthocyanin pigments. In addition, transcript levels of IbMYB1 gene were up-regulated by treatment with methyl jasmonate or salicylic acid in leaf and root tissues of cv. White Star. To set up the intragenic vector system in sweet potato, we first evaluated the utilization of the IbMYB1 gene as a visible selectable marker. The IbMYB1a was transiently expressed in tobacco leaves under the control of a constitutive cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter, a root-specific and sucrose-inducible sporamin promoter, and an oxidative stress-inducible sweet potato anionic peroxidase2 promoter. We also showed that overexpression of IbMYB1a induced massive anthocyanin pigmentation in tobacco leaves and up-regulated the transcript levels of the structural genes in anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway. Furthermore, high-performance liquid chromatography analysis revealed that the expression of IbMYB1a led to production of cyanidin as a major core molecule of anthocyanidins in tobacco leaves. These results suggest that the IbMYB1 gene can be applicable to a visible marker for sweet potato transformation with intragenic vectors, as well as the production of anthocyanin as important nutritive value in other plant species.

  6. Proteome analysis during pod, zygotic and somatic embryo maturation of Theobroma cacao.

    Niemenak, Nicolas; Kaiser, Edward; Maximova, Siela N; Laremore, Tatiana; Guiltinan, Mark J

    2015-05-15

    Two dimensional electrophoresis and nano-LC-MS were performed in order to identify alterations in protein abundance that correlate with maturation of cacao zygotic and somatic embryos. The cacao pod proteome was also characterized during development. The recently published cacao genome sequence was used to create a predicted proteolytic fragment database. Several hundred protein spots were resolved on each tissue analysis, of which 72 variable spots were subjected to MS analysis, resulting in 49 identifications. The identified proteins represent an array of functional categories, including seed storage, stress response, photosynthesis and translation factors. The seed storage protein was strongly accumulated in cacao zygotic embryos compared to their somatic counterpart. However, sucrose treatment (60 g L(-1)) allows up-regulation of storage protein in SE. A high similarity in the profiles of acidic proteins was observed in mature zygotic and somatic embryos. Differential expression in both tissues was observed in proteins having high pI. Several proteins were detected exclusively in fruit tissues, including a chitinase and a 14-3-3 protein. We also identified a novel cacao protein related to known mabinlin type sweet storage proteins. Moreover, the specific presence of thaumatin-like protein, another sweet protein, was also detected in fruit tissue. We discuss our observed correlations between protein expression profiles, developmental stage and stress responses. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  7. Sustaining Exploration in Mature Basins

    Bayo, A.

    2002-01-01

    Exploration is a business like any other business driven by opportunity, resources and expectation of profit. Therefore, exploration will thrive anywhere the opportunities are significant, the resources are available and the outlook for profit (or value creation) is good. To sustain exploration activities anywhere, irrespective of the environment, there must be good understanding of the drivers of these key investment criteria. This paper will examine these investment criteria as they relate to exploration business and address the peculiarity of exploration in mature basin. Mature basins are unique environment that lends themselves a mix of fears, paradigms and realities, particularly with respect to the perception of value. To sustain exploration activities in a mature basin, we need to understand these perceptions relative to the true drivers of profitability. Exploration in the mature basins can be as profitable as exploration in emerging basins if the dynamics of value definition-strategic and fiscal values are understood by operators, regulators and co ventures alike. Some suggestions are made in this presentation on what needs to be done in addressing these dynamic investment parameters and sustaining exploration activities in mature basins

  8. Public Sector IS Maturity Models

    Zinner Henriksen, Helle; Andersen, Kim Normann; Medaglia, Rony

    2011-01-01

    Online applications and processing of tax forms, driver licenses, and construction permits are examples of where policy attention and research have been united in efforts aiming to categorize the maturity level of e-services. Less attention has been attributed to policy areas with continuous online...... citizenpublic interaction, such as in public education. In this paper we use a revised version of the Public Sector Process Rebuilding (PPR) maturity model for mapping 200 websites of public primary schools in Denmark. Findings reveal a much less favorable picture of the digitization of the Danish public sector...... compared to the high ranking it has received in the international benchmark studies. This paper aims at closing the gap between the predominant scope of maturity models and the frequency of citizen-public sector interaction, and calls for increased attention to the activities of government where the scale...

  9. Savoring Sweet: Sugars in Infant and Toddler Feeding.

    Murray, Robert D

    2017-01-01

    During the first years of life, the sweetness of sugars has a capacity to hinder or to help in laying a strong nutritional foundation for food preferences that often extend over a lifetime. Aside from supplying 4 g/kcal of energy, sugars are non-nutritive. However, sugars have a powerful attribute, sweetness, which strongly influences human food preference. A child's first relationship with sweet taste begins even before birth and continues to evolve throughout complementary feeding. The sweetness of breastmilk encourages consumption and soothes the neonate. Conversely, inappropriate introduction of non-milk solids and beverages that are sweet at 0-4 months of age raises the newborn's risk for later obesity and may discourage the acceptance of other bitter or sour foods. Although cereals, fruits, 100% fruit juices, and some grains have naturally occurring sugars that impart sweet flavor notes, there is no clear role for added sugars between 6 and 12 months of age. Yet, 60% of infants are introduced to foods and beverages containing added sugars, threatening diet quality. Pairing foods with naturally occurring sugars, such as fruits, with foods that tend to be resisted initially, such as vegetables, can mask bitterness and promote acceptance. Utilizing the infants' extraordinary capacity for sensory-motor exploration is another strategy to expose them repeatedly to challenging tastes and flavors. The transitional year, as breast milk and infant formula are withdrawn, is a time when nutritional needs are high and diet quality often precarious. Rapid growth, along with brain and cognitive development, demand high-quality nutrition. Snacks are necessary both for energy and valuable nutrients. However, the selection of snack foods often exposes toddlers to items that offer concentrated energy with low nutrient value. Recent trends suggest a rapid fall in added sugars among infants and toddlers. Parenting practices that use small amounts of sugars to promote nutrient

  10. Bicarbonate Transport During Enamel Maturation.

    Yin, Kaifeng; Paine, Michael L

    2017-11-01

    Amelogenesis (tooth enamel formation) is a biomineralization process consisting primarily of two stages (secretory stage and maturation stage) with unique features. During the secretory stage, the inner epithelium of the enamel organ (i.e., the ameloblast cells) synthesizes and secretes enamel matrix proteins (EMPs) into the enamel space. The protein-rich enamel matrix forms a highly organized architecture in a pH-neutral microenvironment. As amelogenesis transitions to maturation stage, EMPs are degraded and internalized by ameloblasts through endosomal-lysosomal pathways. Enamel crystallite formation is initiated early in the secretory stage, however, during maturation stage the more rapid deposition of calcium and phosphate into the enamel space results in a rapid expansion of crystallite length and mineral volume. During maturation-stage amelogenesis, the pH value of enamel varies considerably from slightly above neutral to acidic. Extracellular acid-base balance during enamel maturation is tightly controlled by ameloblast-mediated regulatory networks, which include significant synthesis and movement of bicarbonate ions from both the enamel papillary layer cells and ameloblasts. In this review we summarize the carbonic anhydrases and the carbonate transporters/exchangers involved in pH regulation in maturation-stage amelogenesis. Proteins that have been shown to be instrumental in this process include CA2, CA6, CFTR, AE2, NBCe1, SLC26A1/SAT1, SLC26A3/DRA, SLC26A4/PDS, SLC26A6/PAT1, and SLC26A7/SUT2. In addition, we discuss the association of miRNA regulation with bicarbonate transport in tooth enamel formation.

  11. The genome of cultivated sweet potato contains Agrobacterium T-DNAs with expressed genes: An example of a naturally transgenic food crop.

    Kyndt, Tina; Quispe, Dora; Zhai, Hong; Jarret, Robert; Ghislain, Marc; Liu, Qingchang; Gheysen, Godelieve; Kreuze, Jan F

    2015-05-05

    Agrobacterium rhizogenes and Agrobacterium tumefaciens are plant pathogenic bacteria capable of transferring DNA fragments [transfer DNA (T-DNA)] bearing functional genes into the host plant genome. This naturally occurring mechanism has been adapted by plant biotechnologists to develop genetically modified crops that today are grown on more than 10% of the world's arable land, although their use can result in considerable controversy. While assembling small interfering RNAs, or siRNAs, of sweet potato plants for metagenomic analysis, sequences homologous to T-DNA sequences from Agrobacterium spp. were discovered. Simple and quantitative PCR, Southern blotting, genome walking, and bacterial artificial chromosome library screening and sequencing unambiguously demonstrated that two different T-DNA regions (IbT-DNA1 and IbT-DNA2) are present in the cultivated sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas [L.] Lam.) genome and that these foreign genes are expressed at detectable levels in different tissues of the sweet potato plant. IbT-DNA1 was found to contain four open reading frames (ORFs) homologous to the tryptophan-2-monooxygenase (iaaM), indole-3-acetamide hydrolase (iaaH), C-protein (C-prot), and agrocinopine synthase (Acs) genes of Agrobacterium spp. IbT-DNA1 was detected in all 291 cultigens examined, but not in close wild relatives. IbT-DNA2 contained at least five ORFs with significant homology to the ORF14, ORF17n, rooting locus (Rol)B/RolC, ORF13, and ORF18/ORF17n genes of A. rhizogenes. IbT-DNA2 was detected in 45 of 217 genotypes that included both cultivated and wild species. Our finding, that sweet potato is naturally transgenic while being a widely and traditionally consumed food crop, could affect the current consumer distrust of the safety of transgenic food crops.

  12. Feasibility for improving phytonutrient content in vegetable crops using conventional breeding strategies: case study with carotenoids and tocopherols in sweet corn and broccoli.

    Ibrahim, Khalid E; Juvik, John A

    2009-06-10

    Among vegetables, sweet corn ( Zea mays L.) and broccoli ( Brassica oleracea L. ssp. italica) are important sources of dietary carotenoids and tocopherols. Because medical evidence suggests that carotenoid and tocopherol health-promoting activity acts in a dose-dependent manner, conventional breeding to develop elite sweet corn and broccoli germplasm with enhanced levels of these phytochemicals will potentially promote health among the consuming public. This investigation includes the quantitative analysis of carotenoid and tocopherol contents of 41 corn and 24 broccoli genotypes grown in multiple environments (years and seasons in one location) to partition the variation into genetic, environment, and genotype by environment interaction (GxE) components and measure the phenotypic stability of genotypes for these phytochemicals. The primary carotenoids and tocopherols in corn were lutein and gamma-tocopherol (65 and 73% of total carotenoid and tocopherol, respectively), whereas beta-carotene and alpha-tocopherol were dominant in broccoli (65 and 79% of total carotenoid and tocopherol, respectively). Partitioning of the variance indicated that genetic differences among the genotypes averaged for the primary compounds in corn (lutein, zeaxanthin, and alpha- and gamma-tocopherol) and broccoli (beta-carotene, lutein, and alpha- and gamma-tocopherol) accounted for the largest proportion of the variation (67 and 55% of total phenotypic variation averaged across the phytochemicals in sweet corn and broccoli, respectively). Stability analysis identified several corn (IL451b sh2 and IL2027-8 sh2) and broccoli ('Pirate' and 'Baccus') genotypes with relatively high mean concentrations for the various carotenoids and tocopherols that were comparatively stable across seasons and years. The results of this investigation suggest that sweet corn and broccoli germplasm with enhanced concentrations of carotenoids and tocopherols can be developed using conventional breeding protocols.

  13. Protein concentrations of sweet soysauces from Rhizopus oryzae and R. oligosporus fermentation without moromi fermentation

    NOOR SOESANTI HANDAJANI

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Soy sauce was produce from soybean that fermented with koji/tempeh fungi and thenfermented under salt solution or moromi fermentation. The objectives of this experiment was to compare of protein (total and soluble content of sweet soy sauce that produced from soybean fermented with Rhizopus oryzae and R. oligosporus without moromi fermentation to the sweet soysauce with moromi fermentation one. The total and soluble proteins of sweet soy sauces that produce from soybean without moromi fermentation were higher that sweet soy sauces that produce with moromi fermentation. Soluble protein of sweet soy sauce that produced from soybean fermented with R. oligosporus without moromi fermentation was 8.2% and meet to the highest quality of sweet soy sweet sauce based on Indonesia Industrial Standard. Soluble protein of sweet soy sauce that produced from soybean fermented with R. oryzae without moromi fermentation was 4.1% and meet to the medium quality of sweet soy sweet sauce based on Indonesia Industrial Standard.

  14. TECHNOLOGICAL ADVANCES IN THE OBTAINING OF ETHANOL FROM Sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench

    Sandro Pedroso Cunha

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Replacing the use of gasoline with ethanol in vehicles reduces by 90% CO2 emissions, this justifies the interest in the use of bioethanol as renewable energy. Besides sugar cane, cassava, maize and sugar beet special emphasis is being given to sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench to produce ethanol for its productivity and resistance. The sorghum is grown in Rio Grande do Sul with a production of about 70,000 tons / year. Embrapa has a program to develop cultivars of sorghum from the time the Pro-Alcohol and currently 25 new varieties of sorghum are being evaluated. Several factors are relevant in the optimization of production such as increased productivity and reduced costs in the production of ethanol. This study aimed to survey recent data that will assess production parameters of ethanol from sorghum. Factors such as reducing the risk of bacterial contamination, the means conducive to fermentation processes or grain sorghum stalk through the use of pretreatment of the sample, have been of great importance because it is basically turning cellulosic biomass into fermentable sugars. Superior genotypes of sweet sorghum for ethanol production are of utmost importance, as well as better ways to convert sugars into ethanol. Lignin, toxic against microorganisms, prevents the conversion of lignocellulose into ethanol. The conversion of lignocellulosic ethanol compounds based on the hydrolysis of cellulose producing simple sugars and fermenting those sugars into ethanol through microbiology.

  15. Caffeoylquinic Acids Generated In Vitro in a High-Anthocyanin-Accumulating Sweet potato Cell Line

    Izabela Konczak

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Accumulation of phenolic compounds has been monitored in a suspension culture of anthocyanin-accumulating sweet potato cell line grown under the conditions of modified Murashige and Skoog high-anthocyanin production medium (APM over a period of 24 days. Tissue samples extracted with 15% acetic acid were analysed using HPLC at a detection wavelength of 326 nm. Among others, the following derivatives of caffeoylquinic acids were detected: 4,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid, 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid, 3,4-dicaffeoylquinic acid, and 3,4,5-tricaffeoylquinic acid. Their total amount reached a maximum of 110 mg/gFW between the 4th and the 15th day of culture growth on APM. The major compound of the phenolic mixture was 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid with maximum accumulation level of 80 mg/100 gFW. The potential effects of targeted phenolic compounds on the nutraceutical qualities of in vitro produced anthocyanin-rich extracts are discussed.

  16. Photoprotection by foliar anthocyanins mitigates effects of boron toxicity in sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum).

    Landi, Marco; Guidi, Lucia; Pardossi, Alberto; Tattini, Massimiliano; Gould, Kevin S

    2014-11-01

    Boron (B) toxicity is an important agricultural problem in arid environments. Excess edaphic B compromises photosynthetic efficiency, limits growth and reduces crop yield. However, some purple-leafed cultivars of sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum) exhibit greater tolerance to high B concentrations than do green-leafed cultivars. We hypothesised that foliar anthocyanins protect basil leaf mesophyll from photo-oxidative stress when chloroplast function is compromised by B toxicity. Purple-leafed 'Red Rubin' and green-leafed 'Tigullio' cultivars, grown with high or negligible edaphic B, were given a photoinhibitory light treatment. Possible effects of photoabatement by anthocyanins were simulated by superimposing a purple polycarbonate filter on the green leaves. An ameliorative effect of light filtering on photosynthetic quantum yield and on photo-oxidative load was observed in B-stressed plants. In addition, when green protoplasts from both cultivars were treated with B and illuminated through a screen of anthocyanic protoplasts or a polycarbonate film which approximated cyanidin-3-O-glucoside optical properties, the degree of photoinhibition, hydrogen peroxide production, and malondialdehyde content were reduced. The data provide evidence that anthocyanins exert a photoprotective role in purple-leafed basil mesophyll cells, thereby contributing to improved tolerance to high B concentrations.

  17. Mutated clones of sweet orange cv. pera with late ripening obtained through mutation induction

    Rocha Latado, Rodrigo; Tulmann Neto, Augusto; Ando, Akihiko; Iemma, Antonio Francisco; Pompeu Junior, Jorgino; Figueiredo, Jose Orlando; Pio, Rose Mary; Machado, Marcos Antonio; Namekata, Takao; Ceravolo, Leonardo; Rossi, Antonio Carlos

    2001-01-01

    Sweet orange cv. Pera (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck) harvested from July to November, is the most important cultivar in growing area and consumption in Brazil. To obtain mutants for many characteristics, one-year-old shoots were irradiated at 40 Gy of gamma-rays and the axillary buds were budded. After two cutting-backs, about 7,580 V3M1 plants were obtained. Total of 127 putative mutants were selected from these plants for further examination. The main purpose of this experiment was to obtain late ripening clones which have good fruit quality. These all plants were divided into 15 groups based on the characteristics and random blocks design with 5 replications, including one control plant in each block, was used. The plants were planted 4 X 7 meters and were grown in field condition without artificial irrigation. Ten fruits from each tree were used in evaluating the fruit characteristics such as contents of soluble solid (TSS), acidity, ratio of juice content and skin color, for four years. The data was analyzed by Dunnett test using SAS program. Six clones (9, 10, 16, 21, 58 and 84) were considered as late ripening mutants because they showed lower level of TSS or less ratio of juice content, comparing with the control, in more than one evaluation. The color of the skin of some mutants indicates that they have later ripening characteristics. Other agronomic characteristics are under evaluation in order to see if these mutants can be released as new cultivars

  18. Sweet orange trees grafted on selected rootstocks fertilized with nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium

    Quaggio José Antônio

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The majority of citrus trees in Brazil are grafted on 'Rangpur lime' (Citrus limonia Osb. rootstock. Despite its good horticultural performance, search for disease tolerant rootstock varieties to improve yield and longevity of citrus groves has increased. The objective of this work was to evaluate yield efficiency of sweet oranges on different rootstocks fertilized with N, P, and potassium. Tree growth was affected by rootstock varieties; trees on 'Swingle' citrumelo [Poncirus trifoliata (L. Raf. × C. paradisi Macf.] presented the smallest canopy (13.3 m³ in the fifth year after tree planting compared to those on 'Rangpur lime' and 'Cleopatra' mandarin [C. reshni (Hayata hort. ex Tanaka] grown on the same grove. Although it was observed an overall positive relationship between canopy volume and fruit yield (R² = 0.95**, yield efficiency (kg m-3 was affected by rootstocks, which demonstrated 'Rangpur lime' superiority in relation to Cleopatra. Growth of citrus trees younger than 5-yr-old might be improved by K fertilization rates greater than currently recommended in Brazil, in soils with low K and subjected to nutrient leaching losses.

  19. Biochar potential in intensive cultivation of Capsicum annuum L. (sweet pepper): crop yield and plant protection.

    Kumar, Abhay; Elad, Yigal; Tsechansky, Ludmila; Abrol, Vikas; Lew, Beni; Offenbach, Rivka; Graber, Ellen R

    2018-01-01

    The influence of various biochars on crop yield and disease resistance of Capsicum annuum L. (sweet pepper) under modern, high input, intensive net house cultivation was tested over the course of 2011-2014 in the Arava desert region of Israel. A pot experiment with Lactuca sativa L. (lettuce) grown in the absence of fertilizer employed the 3-year-old field trial soils to determine if biochar treatments contributed to soil intrinsic fertility. Biochar amendments resulted in a significant increase in the number and weight of pepper fruits over 3 years. Concomitant with the increased yield, biochar significantly decreased the severity of powdery mildew (Leveillula taurica) disease and broad mite (Polyphagotarsonemus latus) pest infestation. Biochar additions resulted in increased soil organic matter but did not influence the pH, electrical conductivity or soil or plant mineral nutrients. Intrinsic fertility experiments with lettuce showed that two of the four biochar-treated field soils had significant positive impacts on lettuce fresh weight and total chlorophyll, carotenoid and anthocyanin contents. Biochar-based soil management can enhance the functioning of intensive, commercial, net house production of peppers under the tested conditions, resulting in increased crop yield and plant resistance to disease over several years. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Evaluation of the Effect of Seed Priming and Seedbed on Characteristic of Transplant Sweet Corn (Zea Mays L.

    A Manzari-Tavakkoli

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Corn (Zea mays L. is one of the main cereals in the tropical and temperate regions of the world. Sweet corn obtained from a genetic mutation on chromosome 4 locus SU conventional maize resulting accumulation of sugars and polysaccharides which are soluble in seed endosperm. Unlike other types of corn, sweet corn endosperm contains a lot of sugar to starch, which is called Amylodextrin and it is soluble in water. Producing healthy and uniform plants is one of the requirements of modern agriculture. Considering the unsuitable climatic condition in Iran (arid and semiarid transplantation is one of the requirements for sustainable agriculture particularly in sweet corn production with high water requirement where transplantation is able to save at least 2-3 times of irrigations. Therefore, producing high quality transplants is an important practice for successful seedling establishment. Hence, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of seed priming and substrate types on the characteristics of sweet corn transplants. Materials and Methods This experiment was conducted as factorial based on a completely randomized design with three replications. Treatments were three levels of seeds pretreatment: no priming (p1, hydropriming (p2 and biopriming (p3, and another factor was seedbeds types in seven levels including: vermicompost (b1, perlite (b2, cocopeat(b3, vermicompost+perlite(b4, vermicompost+ cocopeat (b5, perlite+ cocopeat (b6 and vermicompost+ cocopeat +perlite (b7. Biopriming using bioaminopalis biological fertilizer applied on the seeds for 24hours in a solution containing micro-organisms such azotobacter and Pseudomonas. Then the non-primed and the primed seeds were sown in the plastic pots and grown in a greenhouse with average temperature of 22-25° C. Samples were taken three weeks after planting. Results and Discussion Mean emergence time Emergence is shoot elongation and growth leading the shoots out of the

  1. Morphophysiological characteristic analysis demonstrated the potential of sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) in the phytoremediation of cadmium-contaminated soils.

    Jia, Weitao; Lv, Sulian; Feng, Juanjuan; Li, Jihong; Li, Yinxin; Li, Shizhong

    2016-09-01

    Cadmium (Cd) contamination is a worldwide environmental problem, and remediation of Cd pollution is of great significance for food production as well as human health. Here, the responses of sweet sorghum cv. 'M-81E' to cadmium stress were studied for its potential as an energy plant in restoring soils contaminated by cadmium. In hydroponic experiments, the biomass of 'M-81E' showed no obvious change under 10 μM cadmium treatment. Cadmium concentration was the highest in roots of seedlings as well as mature plants, but in agricultural practice, the valuable and harvested parts of sweet sorghum are shoots, so promoting the translocation of cadmium to shoots is of great importance in order to improve its phytoremediation capacity. Further histochemical assays with dithizone staining revealed that cadmium was mainly concentrated in the stele of roots and scattered in intercellular space of caulicles. Moreover, the correlation analysis showed that Cd had a negative relationship with iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), and manganese (Mn) in caulicles and leaves and a positive relationship with Fe in roots. These results implied that cadmium might compete with Fe, Zn, and Mn for the transport binding sites and further prevent their translocation to shoots. In addition, transmission electron microscopic observations showed that under 100 μM cadmium treatment, the structure of chloroplast was impaired and the cell wall of vascular bundle cells in leaves and xylem and phloem cells in roots turned thicker compared to control. In summary, morphophysiological characteristic analysis demonstrated sweet sorghum can absorb cadmium and the growth is not negatively affected by mild level cadmium stress; thus, it is a promising material for the phytoremediation of cadmium-contaminated soils considering its economic benefit. This study also points out potential strategies to improve the phytoremediation capacity of sweet sorghum through genetic modification of transporters and cell wall

  2. Elements and gas enrichment laws of sweet spots in shale gas reservoir: A case study of the Longmaxi Fm in Changning block, Sichuan Basin

    Renfang Pan

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Identification of sweet spot is of great significance in confirming shale gas prospects to realize large-scale economic shale gas development. In this paper, geological characteristics of shale gas reservoirs were compared and analyzed based on abundant data of domestic and foreign shale gas reservoirs. Key elements of sweet spots were illustrated, including net thickness of gas shale, total organic carbon (TOC content, types and maturity (Ro of organic matters, rock matrix and its physical properties (porosity and permeability, and development characteristics of natural fractures. After the data in Changning and Weiyuan blocks, the Sichuan Basin, were analyzed, the geologic laws of shale gas enrichment were summarized based on the economic exploitation characteristics of shale gas and the correlation between the elements. The elements of favorable “sweet spots” of marine shale gas reservoirs in the Changning block and their distribution characteristics were confirmed. Firstly, the quality of gas source rocks is ensured with the continuous thickness of effective gas shale larger than 30 m, TOC > 2.0% and Ro = 2.4–3.5%. Secondly, the quality of reservoir is ensured with the brittle minerals content being 30–69%, the clay mineral content lower than 30% and a single lamination thickness being 0.1–1.0 m. And thirdly, the porosity is higher than 2.0%, the permeability is larger than 50 nD, gas content is higher than 1.45 m3/t, and formation is under normal pressure–overpressure system, which ensures the production modes and capacities. Finally, the primary and secondary elements that control the “sweet spots” of shale gas reservoirs were further analyzed and their restrictive relationships with each other were also discussed.

  3. [Determination of acacetin in Xiangjuganmao Keli (no sweet) by HPLC].

    Bian, Jia-Hong; Qian, Kun; Xu, Xiang; Shen, Jun

    2006-11-01

    To establish a method for the determination of acacetin in Xiangjuganmao Keli (no sweet). Acacetin in powdered herb was extracted by ultrasonator with methanol and was hydrolyzed with hydrochloric acid. Separation was accomplished on an ODS reversed phase column (5 microm, 4.6 x 250 mm) with a mobile phase of methanol-water-acetic acid(350: 150: 2). The detective wavelength was at 340 nm. The method was accurate, the results were stable and reproducible. The linear range of calibration cure was within the concentration of 2.00 - 10.00 microg/ml (r = 0.9998). The average extraction recovery was 99.9% (n = 6), RSD = 0.41% (n = 6). The method is simple, convenient, sensitive, and reproducible for quality control of Xiangjuganmao Keli (no sweet).

  4. Sustaining Milk Production by use Sorghum Silage and Sweet Potato and Sweet Potato Vines

    Ouda, J.O

    2002-01-01

    Dairy sector in Kenya is an important source of rural employment and farm income besides provision of milk consumed in the urban centres. Dairy cattle nutrition and sustenance of production through out the year are constraints to production. Feeding during dry season is a major problem and can be alleviated through cultivation of high yielding fodder crops and feed conservation. The current work evaluated the nutritive value of sorghum silage (SS) and sweet potato vines (SPV) as feeds for dairy production in the dry highlands. On-station work involved performance trial of dairy cattle fed on varying proportions of SS and SPV while on farm work involved demonstration and popularization of sorghum and SPV utilization technology. The dry matter (DM), crude protein, (CP) neutral detergent fibre (NDF) and acid detergent lignin (ADL) contents for SS ranged from 267.3-350.7, 50.0-70.6, 60.8 and 55.0-67.3 g kg - 1 respectively. The corresponding values for SPV were 129.5-190.4, 83.4-179.1, 300.9-383.5 and 61.5-68.0 g kg - 1. Daily milk yield ranged from 3.44 l d - 1 when SS alone was fed to 15 l d - 1 when combination of SS and SPV was fed to dairy cows. Most farmers rationed sorghum and fed as green chop besides SS especially during the dry season. Improvement and sustenance of milk production was observed on-farm, showing that sorghum and SPV utilization technology has generated great potential of enhancing dairy production

  5. Analysis and Evaluation of Cooking Parameters for Sweet Bakery Products

    Giuseppe Vignali; Andrea Volpi

    2013-01-01

    Cooking process is essential for the preparation of sweet bakery products, such as Panettone, a typical Italian seasonal dessert. This study is aimed at evaluating the features of the finished product leaving the oven chamber using the Design of Experiments technique. Four features of the product like “water activity”, “humidity”, “pH” and “sensorial judge” have been explained as functions of independent variables: recipe of the dough, affecting the dough strength and cooking process paramete...

  6. Assessment of the physiological potential of super sweet corn seeds

    Alvarenga,Renata Oliveira; Marcos-Filho,Julio; Timóteo,Tathiana Silva

    2013-01-01

    The assessment of physiological potential is essential in seed quality control programs. This study compared the sensitivity of different procedures for evaluating super sweet corn seed vigor, focusing on the primary root protrusion test. Six seed lots, each of the SWB 551 and SWB 585 hybrids, were used. Seed physiological potential was evaluated by germination and vigor tests (speed of germination, traditional and saturated salt accelerated aging, cold test, seedling length, seedling emergen...

  7. Genetic diversity assessed by microsatellite markers in sweet corn cultivars

    Ana Daniela Lopes

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Information on genetic diversity is essential to the characterization and utilization of germplasm. The genetic diversity of twenty-two sweet corn cultivars (seventeen open-pollinated varieties, OPV, and five hybrids, H was investigated by applying simple sequence repeat markers. A total of 257 primers were tested, of which 160 were found to be usable in terms of high reproducibility for all the samples tested; 45 were polymorphic loci, of which 30 were used to assess the genetic diversity of sweet corn cultivars. We detected a total of 86 alleles using 30 microsatellite primers. The mean polymorphism was 82 %. The highest heterozygosity values (Ho = 0.20 were found in the PR030-Doce Flor da Serra and BR427 III OPVs, whereas the lowest values (0.14 were recorded in the MG161-Branco Doce and Doce Cubano OPVs. The polymorphism information content ranged from 0.19 (Umc2319 to 0.71 (Umc2205. The analysis of molecular variance revealed that most of the genetic variability was concentrated within the cultivars of sweet corn (75 %, with less variability between them (25 %. The consensus tree derived from the neighbor-joining (NJ algorithm using 1,000 bootstrapping replicates revealed seven genetically different groups. Nei’s diversity values varied between 0.103 (Doce do Hawai × CNPH-1 cultivars and 0.645 (Amarelo Doce × Lili cultivars, indicating a narrow genetic basis. The Lili hybrid was the most distant cultivar, as revealed by Principal Coordinates Analysis and the NJ tree. This study on genetic diversity will be useful for planning future studies on sweet corn genetic resources and can complement the breeding programs for this crop.

  8. Trifoliate hybrids as rootstocks for Pêra sweet orange tree

    Jorgino Pompeu Junior

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The Rangpur lime (Citrus limonia has been used as the main rootstock for Pêra sweet orange (C. sinensis trees. However, its susceptibility to citrus blight and citrus sudden death has led to the use of disease-tolerant rootstocks, such as Cleopatra mandarin reshni, Sunki mandarin (C. sunki and Swingle citrumelo (C. paradisi x Poncirus trifoliata, which are more susceptible to drought than the Rangpur lime. These mandarin varieties are also less resistant to root rot caused by Phytophthora, and the Swingle citrumelo showed to be incompatible with the Pêra sweet orange. In search of new rootstock varieties, this study aimed at assessing the fruit precocity and yield, susceptibility to tristeza and blight and occurrence of incompatibility of Pêra sweet orange trees grafted on 12 trifoliate hybrids, on Rangpur lime EEL and Goutou sour orange, without irrigation. Tristeza and blight are endemic in the experimental area. The Sunki x English (1628 and Changsha x English Small (1710 citrandarins and two other selections of Cleopatra x Rubidoux provided the highest cumulative yields, in the first three crops and in the total of six crops evaluated. The Cleopatra x Rubidoux (1660 and Sunki x Benecke (1697 citrandarins induced early yield, while the Cravo x Swingle citromonia and C-13 citrange induced later yield. None of the rootstock varieties caused alternate bearing. Pêra sweet orange trees grafted on Swingle citrumelo, Cleopatra x Swingle (1654 citrandarin and on two selections of Rangpur lime x Carrizo citrange showed bud-union-ring symptoms of incompatibility. None of the plants presented symptoms of tristeza or blight.

  9. Trifoliate hybrids as rootstocks for Pêra sweet orange tree

    Jorgino Pompeu Junior; Silvia Blumer

    2014-01-01

    The Rangpur lime (Citrus limonia) has been used as the main rootstock for Pêra sweet orange (C. sinensis) trees. However, its susceptibility to citrus blight and citrus sudden death has led to the use of disease-tolerant rootstocks, such as Cleopatra mandarin reshni), Sunki mandarin (C. sunki) and Swingle citrumelo (C. paradisi x Poncirus trifoliata), which are more susceptible to drought than the Rangpur lime. These mandarin varieties are also less resistant to root rot caused by Phytophthor...

  10. Motivational Maturity and Helping Behavior

    Haymes, Michael; Green, Logan

    1977-01-01

    Maturity in conative development (type of motivation included in Maslow's needs hierarchy) was found to be predictive of helping behavior in middle class white male college students. The effects of safety and esteem needs were compared, and the acceptance of responsibility was also investigated. (GDC)

  11. Regulators of growth plate maturation

    Emons, Joyce Adriana Mathilde

    2010-01-01

    Estrogen is known to play an important role in longitudinal bone growth and growth plate maturation, but the mechanism by which estrogens exert their effect is not fully understood. In this thesis this role is further explored. Chapter 1 contains a general introduction to longitudinal bone growth

  12. Gamma rays role in the improvement of yield and early maturity in soybean

    Moualla, M.Y.; Ali, N.M.

    1995-01-01

    Seeds from soybean variety glycine max (L) Merr., were irradiated with three doses of gamma rays: 100, 150 and 200 Gray in order to obtain high yielding and early maturity mutants to grown after wheat in a two crop rotation. All the three doses induced morphological and physiological variation and malformation that increased with increasing the dose. Coefficient of variation values were higher in M2 than in their respective values of M3. The results showed no selection efficiency under the non optimal environmental growing conditions with this lack of efficiency being more evident for yield than for early maturity. Using FTAB statistical programme 20 M2 and M3 plant were selected for each character and when evaluated in the following generation, it was clear that selection efficiency was higher for early maturity than for yield; the latter being high yielding and 4 early maturing m 4 mutants were obtained. 3 tabs

  13. Gamma rays role in the improvement of yield and early maturity in soybean

    Moualla, M Y; Ali, N M [Atomic Energy Commission, P.O.Box 6091, Damascus (Syrian Arab Republic)

    1995-10-01

    Seeds from soybean variety glycine max (L) Merr., were irradiated with three doses of gamma rays: 100, 150 and 200 Gray in order to obtain high yielding and early maturity mutants to grown after wheat in a two crop rotation. All the three doses induced morphological and physiological variation and malformation that increased with increasing the dose. Coefficient of variation values were higher in M2 than in their respective values of M3. The results showed no selection efficiency under the non optimal environmental growing conditions with this lack of efficiency being more evident for yield than for early maturity. Using FTAB statistical programme 20 M2 and M3 plant were selected for each character and when evaluated in the following generation, it was clear that selection efficiency was higher for early maturity than for yield; the latter being high yielding and 4 early maturing m 4 mutants were obtained. 3 tabs.

  14. [Perception of sweet and salty flavors in different population groups].

    González Carnero, J; de la Montaña Miguélez, J; Míguez Bernárdez, M

    2002-01-01

    The flavour perceived by humans when eating varies depending on age, gender, habits, emotional status, etc. The present study reflects the changes in the perception of sweet and salt flavours among different population groups depending on age, with an assessment, for each flavour, of the threshold concentration for the detection of these flavours. Triangular discrimination sensorial tests were performed in three groups, with thirty members in each, classified to represent young, adult and elderly age groups. With regard to sweet flavours, the groups of young people and adults distinguished the different sample at 0.1% of sugar for 95% and 99% significance levels, whereas the elderly required the concentration to reach 1% at both levels before they could distinguish the sugar solution from water. In the case of salt flavours, young people are able to detect the different sample at the lowest concentration level, for both levels of significance. Adults significantly distinguished the sample containing 0.05% of salt, at the 95% significance level, whereas the elderly needed a concentration of 0.1% for both levels of significance. Age-dependent variations in response were observed. As age increases, greater concentrations are required in order to distinguish the salt or sweet solutions from the samples containing only water.

  15. Energy analysis of ethanol production from sweet sorghum

    Worley, J.W. (Georgia Univ., Athens, GA (United States). Dept. of Agricultural Engineering); Vaughan, D.H.; Cundiff, J.S. (Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ., Blacksburg, VA (United States). Dept. of Agricultural Engineering)

    1992-01-01

    The Piedmont System is a collection of equipment for efficiently removing the juice from sweet sorghum stalks for the production of ethanol. The concept is to separate the whole stalks into pith and rind-leaf fractions, pass only the pith fraction through a screw press, and thus achieve an improvement in juice-expression efficiency and press capacity. An energy analysis was done for two options of this proposed harvesting/processing system: (Option 1) The juice is evaporated to syrup and used throughout the year to produce ethanol, and the by-products are used as cattle feed. (Option 2) The juice is fermented as it is harvested, and the by-products (along with other cellulosic materials) are used as feedstock for the remainder of the year. Energy ratios (energy output/energy input) of 0.9, 1.1 and 0.8 were found for sweet sorghum Option 1, sweet sorghum Option 2, and corn, respectively, as feedstocks for ethanol. If only liquid fuels are considered, the ratios are increased to 3.5, 7.9 and 4.5. (author).

  16. Selection indices for yield and quality traits in sweet corn

    Asghar, M.J.; Mehdi, S.S.

    2010-01-01

    The efficiency of three selection indices, viz., Smith-Hazel index (SHI), Desired gain index (DGI) and Base Index (BI) was compared for the improvement of an open pollinated sweet corn (Zea mays L. Saccharata) population. The data of genetic studies on various yield and quality traits among S1 families were used to construct these selection indices. Smith-Hazel index was found to be the most efficient in improving the aggregate genotype of yield traits for most of the selection strategies. Base index proved to be more efficient as compared to Smith-Hazel index in the improvement of aggregate genotype for five out of six selection strategies of quality traits. Both smith-hazel and Base indices were found useful for the improvement of sweetness and sweet flavour for all the selection strategies. When selection was confined to eight yield and four quality traits simultaneously, Base index proved to be more efficient as compared to Smith-Hazel index and desired gain index in improving the aggregate genotype for almost all the selection strategies. (author)

  17. The Role of the Sweet Taste Receptor in Enteroendocrine Cells and Pancreatic β-Cells

    Itaru Kojima

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The sweet taste receptor is expressed in taste cells located in taste buds of the tongue. This receptor senses sweet substances in the oral cavity, activates taste cells, and transmits the taste signals to adjacent neurons. The sweet taste receptor is a heterodimer of two G protein-coupled receptors, T1R2 and T1R3. Recent studies have shown that this receptor is also expressed in the extragustatory system, including the gastrointestinal tract, pancreatic β-cells, and glucose-responsive neurons in the brain. In the intestine, the sweet taste receptor regulates secretion of incretin hormones and glucose uptake from the lumen. In β-cells, activation of the sweet taste receptor leads to stimulation of insulin secretion. Collectively, the sweet taste receptor plays an important role in recognition and metabolism of energy sources in the body.

  18. Expression patterns of flowering genes in leaves of 'Pineapple' sweet orange [Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck] and pummelo (Citrus grandis Osbeck).

    Pajon, Melanie; Febres, Vicente J; Moore, Gloria A

    2017-08-30

    In citrus the transition from juvenility to mature phase is marked by the capability of a tree to flower and fruit consistently. The long period of juvenility in citrus severely impedes the use of genetic based strategies to improve fruit quality, disease resistance, and responses to abiotic environmental factors. One of the genes whose expression signals flower development in many plant species is FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT). In this study, gene expression levels of flowering genes CiFT1, CiFT2 and CiFT3 were determined using reverse-transcription quantitative real-time PCR in citrus trees over a 1 year period in Florida. Distinct genotypes of citrus trees of different ages were used. In mature trees of pummelo (Citrus grandis Osbeck) and 'Pineapple' sweet orange (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck) the expression of all three CiFT genes was coordinated and significantly higher in April, after flowering was over, regardless of whether they were in the greenhouse or in the field. Interestingly, immature 'Pineapple' seedlings showed significantly high levels of CiFT3 expression in April and June, while CiFT1 and CiFT2 were highest in June, and hence their expression induction was not simultaneous as in mature plants. In mature citrus trees the induction of CiFTs expression in leaves occurs at the end of spring and after flowering has taken place suggesting it is not associated with dormancy interruption and further flower bud development but is probably involved with shoot apex differentiation and flower bud determination. CiFTs were also seasonally induced in immature seedlings, indicating that additional factors must be suppressing flowering induction and their expression has other functions.

  19. 'I'm actually being the grown-up now': leadership, maturity and professional identity development.

    Miskelly, Philippa; Duncan, Lindsay

    2014-01-01

    This study reports on an evaluation of an in-house nursing and midwifery leadership programme within a New Zealand District Health Board aimed at improving leadership capacity within clinical environments. The programme associated with this study is based on Practice Development concepts which aim to improve patient care and service delivery as well as empower practitioners to foster and support a transformational culture. Mixed methods were used. Evidence indicated participants' self-confidence improved leading to a 'growing up'. This was demonstrated in a number of ways: taking more responsibility for individual clinical practice, undertaking quality and safety roles as well as postgraduate study. These findings can be constructed in terms of linking leadership training with the development of professional identity. This study provides evidence that in-house leadership programmes can provide front-line nurses and midwives with opportunities to enhance their professional identity and expand their skills in a variety of ways. Organisational investment in in-house programmes aimed at leadership skills have the potential to enhance patient care as well as improve the work environment for nurses and midwives. However, in-house programmes should be considered as augmenting rather than replacing tertiary education institutions' leadership courses and qualifications. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. A Study on the Effects of Pulp and Paper Industry Sludge on Sweet Corn Crops Grown in Containers

    Daniela Krasteva – Malinova

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Sludge which are produced from waste-water treatment facilities represent a serious environmental problem in terms of their storage. However, they also represent an organic reserve, biomass rich in macro and micronutrients for soils. Thus, sludge could be used to recover the balance of organic matter in soils. We aimed in the present study to determine the influence of sludge produced from a pulp factory on the development of mays (Zea mays in laboratory conditions.

  1. 78 FR 37150 - Sweet Onions Grown in the Walla Walla Valley of Southeast Washington and Northeast Oregon...

    2013-06-20

    ... Valley of Southeast Washington and Northeast Oregon; Continuance Referendum AGENCY: Agricultural... northeast Oregon, to determine whether they favor continuance of the marketing order regulating the handling...

  2. The bamboo-eating giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca has a sweet tooth: behavioral and molecular responses to compounds that taste sweet to humans.

    Peihua Jiang

    Full Text Available A growing body of behavioral and genetic information indicates that taste perception and food sources are highly coordinated across many animal species. For example, sweet taste perception is thought to serve to detect and motivate consumption of simple sugars in plants that provide calories. Supporting this is the observation that most plant-eating mammals examined exhibit functional sweet perception, whereas many obligate carnivores have independently lost function of their sweet taste receptors and exhibit no avidity for simple sugars that humans describe as tasting sweet. As part of a larger effort to compare taste structure/function among species, we examined both the behavioral and the molecular nature of sweet taste in a plant-eating animal that does not consume plants with abundant simple sugars, the giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca. We evaluated two competing hypotheses: as plant-eating mammals, they should have a well-developed sweet taste system; however, as animals that do not normally consume plants with simple sugars, they may have lost sweet taste function, as has occurred in strict carnivores. In behavioral tests, giant pandas avidly consumed most natural sugars and some but not all artificial sweeteners. Cell-based assays revealed similar patterns of sweet receptor responses toward many of the sweeteners. Using mixed pairs of human and giant panda sweet taste receptor units (hT1R2+gpT1R3 and gpT1R2+hT1R3 we identified regions of the sweet receptor that may account for behavioral differences in giant pandas versus humans toward various sugars and artificial sweeteners. Thus, despite the fact that the giant panda's main food, bamboo, is very low in simple sugars, the species has a marked preference for several compounds that taste sweet to humans. We consider possible explanations for retained sweet perception in this species, including the potential extra-oral functions of sweet taste receptors that may be required for animals

  3. Crohn's Disease Associated with Sweet's Syndrome and Sjögren's Syndrome Treated with Infliximab

    Erina N. Foster

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The association of Crohn's disease (CD and Sweet's syndrome is rare and the presence of Sjögren's syndrome in Crohn's disease is even rarer, with only three reports found in the literature. We describe two cases of Crohn's disease associated with Sweet's syndrome, one of which is the first case of CD and Sweet's concomitantly associated with Sjögren's syndrome. Both cases responded rapidly to Infliximab therapy with complete resolution of the skin lesions.

  4. Expermental Studies of quantitative evaluation using HPLC and safety of Sweet Bee Venom

    Ki Rok Kwon; Ching Seng Chu; Hee Soo Park; Min Ki Kim; Bae Chun Cha; Eun Lee

    2007-01-01

    Objectives : This study was conducted to carry out quantitative evaluation and safety of Sweet Bee Venom. Methods : Content analysis was done using HPLC, measurement of LD50 was conducted intravenous, subcutaneous, and intra-muscular injection to the ICR mice. Results : 1. According to HPLC analysis, removal of the enzymes containing phospholipase A2 was successfully rendered on Sweet Bee Venom. And analyzing melittin content, Sweet Bee Venom contained 12% more melittin than Bee Venom. ...

  5. Characterization of Nitrogen use efficiency in sweet sorghum

    Dweikat, Ismail [University of Nebraska; Clemente, Thomas [University of Nebrask

    2014-09-09

    Sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) has the potential to augment the increasing demand for alternative fuels and for the production of input efficient, environmentally friendly bioenergy crops. Nitrogen (N) and water availability are considered two of the major limiting factors in crop growth. Nitrogen fertilization accounts for about 40% of the total production cost in sorghum. In cereals, including sorghum, the nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) from fertilizer is approximately 33% of the amount applied. There is therefore extensive concern in relation to the N that is not used by the plant, which is lost by leaching of nitrate, denitrification from the soil, and loss of ammonia to the atmosphere, all of which can have deleterious environmental effects. To improve the potential of sweet sorghum as a leading and cost effective bioenergy crop, the enhancement of NUE must be addressed. To this end, we have identified a sorghum line (SanChi San) that displays about 25% increase in NUE over other sorghum lines. As such, the overarching goal of this project is to employ three complementary strategies to enhance the ability of sweet sorghum to become an efficient nitrogen user. To achieve the project goal, we will pursue the following specific objectives: Objective 1: Phenotypic characterization of SanChi San/Ck60 RILs under low and moderate N-availability including biochemical profiles, vegetative growth and seed yield Objective 2: Conduct quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis and marker identification for nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) in a grain sorghum RIL population. Objective 3: Identify novel candidate genes for NUE using proteomic and gene expression profiling comparisons of high- and low-NUE RILs. Candidate genes will be brought into the pipeline for transgenic manipulation of NUE This project will apply the latest genomics resources to discover genes controlling NUE, one of the most complex and economically important traits in cereal crops. As a result of the

  6. Assessment of skeletal maturation using mandibular second molar maturation stages.

    Goyal, S; Goyal, S; Gugnani, N

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between cervical vertebrae maturation and mandibular second molar calcification stages. The study was designed as a retrospective, descriptive and crosssectional research project. Pre-treatment lateral cephalograms and panoramic radiographs of 99 males and 110 females in the age range of 7 to 18 years 7 months were evaluated with Demirjian Index (DI) and cervical vertebrae maturation indicators (CVMI) of Hassel and Farman. A null hypothesis was proposed that there is no relation between CVMI and DI. A highly significant association (Pearson's contingency coefficient 0.713 for males and 0.863 for females) was found between DI and CVMI. In males, the DI stage E corresponded to stage 2 of CVMI (pre-peak of pubertal growth spurt) and DI stages F and G corresponded to stages 3 and 4 of CVMI (peak of pubertal growth spurt). DI stage H was associated with stages 5 and 6 of CVMI (end of pubertal growth spurt). In females, the DI stages C, D corresponded to CVMI stages 1, 2; DI stages E, F with CVMI stages 3, 4; DI stages G, H with CVMI stages 5, 6. Mandibular second molar calcification stages can be used as indicators for assessment of skeletal maturity.

  7. Cervical vertebral maturation as a biologic indicator of skeletal maturity.

    Santiago, Rodrigo César; de Miranda Costa, Luiz Felipe; Vitral, Robert Willer Farinazzo; Fraga, Marcelo Reis; Bolognese, Ana Maria; Maia, Lucianne Cople

    2012-11-01

    To identify and review the literature regarding the reliability of cervical vertebrae maturation (CVM) staging to predict the pubertal spurt. The selection criteria included cross-sectional and longitudinal descriptive studies in humans that evaluated qualitatively or quantitatively the accuracy and reproducibility of the CVM method on lateral cephalometric radiographs, as well as the correlation with a standard method established by hand-wrist radiographs. The searches retrieved 343 unique citations. Twenty-three studies met the inclusion criteria. Six articles had moderate to high scores, while 17 of 23 had low scores. Analysis also showed a moderate to high statistically significant correlation between CVM and hand-wrist maturation methods. There was a moderate to high reproducibility of the CVM method, and only one specific study investigated the accuracy of the CVM index in detecting peak pubertal growth. This systematic review has shown that the studies on CVM method for radiographic assessment of skeletal maturation stages suffer from serious methodological failures. Better-designed studies with adequate accuracy, reproducibility, and correlation analysis, including studies with appropriate sensitivity-specificity analysis, should be performed.

  8. Effects of incorporating nonmodified sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) flour on wheat pasta functional characteristics.

    Saleh, Mohammed; Lee, Youngseung; Obeidat, Hayat

    2017-12-28

    The effects of substituting wheat flour using fractions of blanched or nonblanched sweet potato flour on produced pasta functional characteristics were investigated. The use of sweet potato flour to replace fractions of wheat flour, regardless of blanching treatment, resulted in significant (p pasta water uptake and solid leaching out and freeze-thaw stability of produced pasta. For instance, treatment containing 40% of nonblanched sweet potato flour and held at 55C resulted in 27% point increase in WHC compared to the control. Sweet potato flour was also contributed to the decrease in treatments pasting viscosities and in cooked pasta hardness. Cooked pasta hardness was significantly (p pasta made using fractions of sweet potato were equivalent to or sometimes superior to that of the control sample. Results indicated the possible enhancement of pasta nutritional quality including firmness, cooking loss, and water uptake without impairing consumer acceptability. The use of sweet potato flour in pasta would enhance the nutritional and physicochemical properties of developed pasta and pasta products. Furthermore, since sweet potato is not cultivated most of the year; sweet potato flour pasta would be better utilized in food processing and is expected to enhance sweet potato consumption year around. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Sweet taste in apple: the role of sorbitol, individual sugars, organic acids and volatile compounds

    Aprea, Eugenio; Charles, Mathilde; Endrizzi, Isabella; Laura Corollaro, Maria; Betta, Emanuela; Biasioli, Franco; Gasperi, Flavia

    2017-03-01

    Sweetness is one of the main drivers of consumer preference, and thus is given high priority in apple breeding programmes. Due to the complexity of sweetness evaluation, soluble solid content (SSC) is commonly used as an estimation of this trait. Nevertheless, it has been demonstrated that SSC and sweet taste are poorly correlated. Though individual sugar content may vary greatly between and within apple cultivars, no previous study has tried to investigate the relationship between the amount of individual sugars, or ratios of these, and apple sweetness. In this work, we quantified the major sugars (sucrose, glucose, fructose, xylose) and sorbitol and explored their influence on perceived sweetness in apple; we also related this to malic acid content, SSC and volatile compounds. Our data confirmed that the correlation between sweetness and SSC is weak. We found that sorbitol content correlates (similarly to SSC) with perceived sweetness better than any other single sugar or total sugar content. The single sugars show no differentiable importance in determining apple sweetness. Our predictive model based on partial least squares regression shows that after sorbitol and SSC, the most important contribution to apple sweetness is provided by several volatile compounds, mainly esters and farnesene.

  10. New Insight Into the Diversity of SemiSWEET Sugar Transporters and the Homologs in Prokaryotes

    Baolei Jia

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Sugars will eventually be exported transporters (SWEETs and SemiSWEETs represent a family of sugar transporters in eukaryotes and prokaryotes, respectively. SWEETs contain seven transmembrane helices (TMHs, while SemiSWEETs contain three. The functions of SemiSWEETs are less studied. In this perspective article, we analyzed the diversity and conservation of SemiSWEETs and further proposed the possible functions. 1,922 SemiSWEET homologs were retrieved from the UniProt database, which is not proportional to the sequenced prokaryotic genomes. However, these proteins are very diverse in sequences and can be classified into 19 clusters when >50% sequence identity is required. Moreover, a gene context analysis indicated that several SemiSWEETs are located in the operons that are related to diverse carbohydrate metabolism. Several proteins with seven TMHs can be found in bacteria, and sequence alignment suggested that these proteins in bacteria may be formed by the duplication and fusion. Multiple sequence alignments showed that the amino acids for sugar translocation are still conserved and coevolved, although the sequences show diversity. Among them, the functions of a few amino acids are still not clear. These findings highlight the challenges that exist in SemiSWEETs and provide future researchers the foundation to explore these uncharted areas.

  11. A fragment of alpha-actinin promotes monocyte/macrophage maturation in vitro.

    Luikart, S; Wahl, D; Hinkel, T; Masri, M; Oegema, T

    1999-02-01

    Conditioned media (CM) from cultures of HL-60 myeloid leukemia cells grown on extracellular bone marrow matrix contains a factor that induces macrophage-like maturation of HL-60 cells. This factor was purified from the CM of HL-60 cells grown on bone marrow stroma by ammonium sulfate precipitation, then sequential chromatography on DEAE, affi-gel blue affinity, gel exclusion, and wheat germ affinity columns, followed by C-4 reverse phase HPLC, and SDS-PAGE. The maturation promoting activity of the CM was identified in a single 31 kD protein. Amino acid sequence analysis of four internal tryptic peptides of this protein confirmed significant homology with amino acid residues 48-60, 138-147, 215-220, and 221-236 of human cytoskeletal alpha-actinin. An immunoaffinity purified rabbit polyclonal anti-chicken alpha-actinin inhibited the activity of HL-60 conditioned media. A 27 kD amino-terminal fragment of alpha-actinin produced by thermolysin digestion of chicken gizzard alpha-actinin, but not intact alpha-actinin, had maturation promoting activity on several cell types, including blood monocytes, as measured by lysozyme secretion and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase staining. We conclude that an extracellular alpha-actinin fragment can promote monocyte/macrophage maturation. This represents the first example of a fragment of a cytoskeletal component, which may be released during tissue remodeling and repair, playing a role in phagocyte maturation.

  12. Skin cancer full-grown from scar

    Zikiryakhodjaev, D.Z.; Sanginov, D.R.

    2001-01-01

    In this chapter authors investigate the peculiarities of skin cancer full-grown from scar, the theory of it's descent, quote some statistical data on skin cancer full-grown from scar and variety clinical forms of skin cancer full-grown from scar was shown, quote some methods of treatment

  13. Maturation of the adolescent brain

    Arain M

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Mariam Arain, Maliha Haque, Lina Johal, Puja Mathur, Wynand Nel, Afsha Rais, Ranbir Sandhu, Sushil Sharma Saint James School of Medicine, Kralendijk, Bonaire, The Netherlands Abstract: Adolescence is the developmental epoch during which children become adults – intellectually, physically, hormonally, and socially. Adolescence is a tumultuous time, full of changes and transformations. The pubertal transition to adulthood involves both gonadal and behavioral maturation. Magnetic resonance imaging studies have discovered that myelinogenesis, required for proper insulation and efficient neurocybernetics, continues from childhood and the brain's region-specific neurocircuitry remains structurally and functionally vulnerable to impulsive sex, food, and sleep habits. The maturation of the adolescent brain is also influenced by heredity, environment, and sex hormones (estrogen, progesterone, and testosterone, which play a crucial role in myelination. Furthermore, glutamatergic neurotransmission predominates, whereas gamma-aminobutyric acid neurotransmission remains under construction, and this might be responsible for immature and impulsive behavior and neurobehavioral excitement during adolescent life. The adolescent population is highly vulnerable to driving under the influence of alcohol and social maladjustments due to an immature limbic system and prefrontal cortex. Synaptic plasticity and the release of neurotransmitters may also be influenced by environmental neurotoxins and drugs of abuse including cigarettes, caffeine, and alcohol during adolescence. Adolescents may become involved with offensive crimes, irresponsible behavior, unprotected sex, juvenile courts, or even prison. According to a report by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the major cause of death among the teenage population is due to injury and violence related to sex and substance abuse. Prenatal neglect, cigarette smoking, and alcohol consumption may also

  14. Time indices of multiphasic development in genotypes of sweet cherry are similar from dormancy to cessation of pit growth.

    Gibeaut, David M; Whiting, Matthew D; Einhorn, Todd

    2017-02-01

    The archetypical double sigmoid-shaped growth curve of the sweet cherry drupe (Prunus avium) does not address critical development from eco-dormancy to anthesis and has not been correlated to reproductive bud development. Accurate representation of the growth and development of post-anthesis ovaries is confounded by anthesis timing, fruiting-density and the presence of unfertilized and defective ovaries whose growth differs from those that persist to maturation. These factors were addressed to assess pre-anthesis and full-season growth and development of three sweet cherry cultivars, 'Chelan', 'Bing' and 'Sweetheart', differing primarily in seasonal duration and fruit size. Volume was calculated from photographic measurements of reproductive buds, ovaries and pits at all phases of development. A population of unfertilized ovaries was produced using bee-exclusion netting to enable a statistical comparison with an open pollinated population to detect differences in size and shape between successful and failing fruit growth. Anthesis timing and fruiting-density were manipulated by floral extinction at the spur and whole-tree scales. Developmental time indices were analysed using polynomial curve fitting of log-transformed data supported by Richards and logistic functions of asymptotic growth of the pit and maturing fruit, respectively. Pre-anthesis growth began at the completion of eco-dormancy. A slight decline in relative growth rate (RGR) was observed during bud scale separation approx. -16 d from anthesis (DFA) before resumption of exponential growth to a maximum about 14 DFA. After anthesis, reduced growth of unfertilized or defective ovaries was partly discriminated from successful fruit at 5 DFA and completely at 25 DFA. Time indices of RGR inflections were similar among cultivars when adjusted for anthesis date alone, until the end of pit growth. Asymptotic growth of the pit underpinned the declining growth rate of fruit at the end of the first exponential

  15. The Association between Sweet Taste Function, Anthropometry, and Dietary Intake in Adults

    Julia Y. Q. Low

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Variation in ability to detect, recognize, and perceive sweetness may influence food consumption, and eventually chronic nutrition-related conditions such as overweight and obesity. The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between sweet taste function, anthropometry, and dietary intake in adults. Participants’ (n = 60; mean age in years = 26, SD = ±7.8 sweet taste function for a range of sweeteners (glucose, fructose, sucrose, sucralose, erythritol, and Rebaudioside A was assessed by measuring detection and recognition thresholds and sweetness intensity. Height, weight, and waist circumference were also measured, and participants also completed a Food Frequency Questionnaire. There was large inter-individual variation in detection, recognition and sweetness intensity measures. Pearson’s correlation coefficient revealed no robust correlations between measures of sweet taste function, anthropometry, and dietary intake, with the exception of suprathreshold intensity, which was moderately correlated with total energy intake (r = 0.23–0.40. One-way analysis of variance revealed no significant differences between the most and least sensitive participants in terms of BMI, waist circumference, and dietary intake for all measures of sweet taste function and sweeteners (all p > 0.01. When stratified into BMI categories, there were no significant differences in any measure of sweet taste function between the normal weight and overweight/obese participants (all p > 0.01. Results show that that sweet taste function is not associated with anthropometry and sweetness intensity measures are the most appropriate measure when assessing links between sweet taste and food consumption.

  16. 7 CFR 51.1904 - Maturity classification.

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Maturity classification. 51.1904 Section 51.1904... STANDARDS) United States Consumer Standards for Fresh Tomatoes Size and Maturity Classification § 51.1904 Maturity classification. Tomatoes which are characteristically red when ripe, but are not overripe or soft...

  17. Spring frost vulnerability of sweet cherries under controlled conditions.

    Matzneller, Philipp; Götz, Klaus-P; Chmielewski, Frank-M

    2016-01-01

    Spring frost is a significant production hazard in nearly all temperate fruit-growing regions. Sweet cherries are among the first fruit varieties starting their development in spring and therefore highly susceptible to late frost. Temperatures at which injuries are likely to occur are widely published, but their origin and determination methods are not well documented. In this study, a standardized method was used to investigate critical frost temperatures for the sweet cherry cultivar 'Summit' under controlled conditions. Twigs were sampled at four development stages ("side green," "green tip," "open cluster," "full bloom") and subjected to three frost temperatures (-2.5, -5.0, -10.0 °C). The main advantage of this method, compared to other approaches, was that the exposition period and the time interval required to reach the target temperature were always constant (2 h). Furthermore, then, the twigs were placed in a climate chamber until full bloom, before the examination of the flowers and not further developed buds started. For the first two sampling stages (side green, green tip), the number of buds found in open cluster, "first white," and full bloom at the evaluation date decreased with the strength of the frost treatment. The flower organs showed different levels of cold hardiness and became more vulnerable in more advanced development stages. In this paper, we developed four empirical functions which allow calculating possible frost damages on sweet cherry buds or flowers at the investigated development stages. These equations can help farmers to estimate possible frost damages on cherry buds due to frost events. However, it is necessary to validate the critical temperatures obtained in laboratory with some field observations.

  18. Spring frost vulnerability of sweet cherries under controlled conditions

    Matzneller, Philipp; Götz, Klaus-P.; Chmielewski, Frank-M.

    2016-01-01

    Spring frost is a significant production hazard in nearly all temperate fruit-growing regions. Sweet cherries are among the first fruit varieties starting their development in spring and therefore highly susceptible to late frost. Temperatures at which injuries are likely to occur are widely published, but their origin and determination methods are not well documented. In this study, a standardized method was used to investigate critical frost temperatures for the sweet cherry cultivar `Summit' under controlled conditions. Twigs were sampled at four development stages ("side green," "green tip," "open cluster," "full bloom") and subjected to three frost temperatures (-2.5, -5.0, -10.0 °C). The main advantage of this method, compared to other approaches, was that the exposition period and the time interval required to reach the target temperature were always constant (2 h). Furthermore, then, the twigs were placed in a climate chamber until full bloom, before the examination of the flowers and not further developed buds started. For the first two sampling stages (side green, green tip), the number of buds found in open cluster, "first white," and full bloom at the evaluation date decreased with the strength of the frost treatment. The flower organs showed different levels of cold hardiness and became more vulnerable in more advanced development stages. In this paper, we developed four empirical functions which allow calculating possible frost damages on sweet cherry buds or flowers at the investigated development stages. These equations can help farmers to estimate possible frost damages on cherry buds due to frost events. However, it is necessary to validate the critical temperatures obtained in laboratory with some field observations.

  19. Genetic characterization of early maturing maize hybrids (Zea mays L. obtained by protein and RAPD markers

    Bauer Iva

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of maize germplasm genetic diversity is important for planning breeding programmes, germplasm conservation per se etc. Genetic variability of maize hybrids grown in the fields is also very important because genetic uniformity implies risks of genetic vulnerability to stress factors and can cause great losts in yield. Early maturing maize hybrids are characterized by shorter vegetation period and they are grown in areas with shorter vegetation season. Because of different climatic conditions in these areas lines and hybrids are developed with different features in respect to drought resistance and disease resistance. The objective of our study was to characterize set of early maturing maize hybrids with protein and RAPD markers and to compare this clasification with their pedigree information. RAPD markers gave significantly higher rate of polymorphism than protein markers. Better corelation was found among pedigree information and protein markers.

  20. Embryogenesis in sweet potato, Ipomea batatas (L.) Lam

    Sonnino, A.; Mini, P.

    1997-01-01

    Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam) ranks sixth among the cultivated crops of the world. In fact, it represents a major staple food in many tropical countries. Recently this crop has been proposed as a source of starch for industrial utilization. Somatic embryogenesis could prove useful as an alternative to traditional propagation by cuttings, which is labour intensive and can transmit diseases. Somatic embryos are reported to originate from single cells, so that, if regenerated from mutagenized tissues, should give rise to solid mutants. 2 refs

  1. Land of California?: The ambiguities of sweet home Chicago.

    Kimsey, John

    2005-01-01

    This essay examines some historical questions and cultural constructions surrounding the song Sweet Home Chicago and its composer Robert Johnson. Noting that while the song has enjoyed long life, Johnson's lyric (describing Chicago as a land of California) has not, the essay critiques primitivist readings of Johnson while posing an African American cultural myth-Chicago as promised land of the Great Migration-as the subtext of his puzzling line. Finally, it considers whether mundane-sounding revisions of Johnson's lyric indicate a reduction in Chicago's mythic status, from safe haven to same old place.

  2. Embryogenesis in sweet potato, Ipomea batatas (L.) Lam

    Sonnino, A; Mini, P [ENEA - Technological Innovation Dept., Sector of Biotechnology and Agriculture, Trisaia Research Center, Policoro (Italy)

    1997-12-01

    Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam) ranks sixth among the cultivated crops of the world. In fact, it represents a major staple food in many tropical countries. Recently this crop has been proposed as a source of starch for industrial utilization. Somatic embryogenesis could prove useful as an alternative to traditional propagation by cuttings, which is labour intensive and can transmit diseases. Somatic embryos are reported to originate from single cells, so that, if regenerated from mutagenized tissues, should give rise to solid mutants. 2 refs.

  3. ‘JAFFA’ SWEET ORANGE PLANTS GRAFTED ONTO FIVE ROOTSTOCKS

    ELÍDIO LILIANO CARLOS BACAR; CARMEN SILVIA VIEIRA JANEIRO NEVES; RUI PEREIRA LEITE JUNIOR; INÊS FUMIKO UBUKATA YADA; ZULEIDE HISSANO TAZIMA

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Low genetic diversity of citrus scion and rootstock cultivars makes the crop more vulnerable to diseases and pests. The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of ‘Jaffa’ sweet orange grafted onto five rootstocks over six harvests in subtropical conditions in the north of Paraná state, Brazil. The experiment used a randomized block design, with six replications and two trees per plot, spaced at 7.0 m x 4.0 m. The rootstocks were: ‘Rangpur’ lime, ‘Cleopatra’ and ‘Sunk...

  4. Physicochemical composition and antioxidant activity of several pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) cultivars grown in Spain

    Fernandes, Luana; Pereira, J.A.; Lopéz-Cortés, Isabel; Salazar, Domingo M.; González-Álvarez, Julia; Ramalhosa, Elsa

    2017-01-01

    Nine pomegranate cultivars grown in Spain were selected, and their physicochemical (total soluble solids, pH, titratable acidity, maturity index, monomeric anthocyanin pigment, flavonoids, hydrolyzable tannins, and vitamin C) and antioxidant properties and polyphenolic composition of the juices were compared. A total of 53 polyphenols were identified, showing cultivars different profiles. Of all nine cultivars, Katirbasi had the highest contents of flavonoids, hydrolyzable tannins and vitamin...

  5. Consumption patterns of sweet drinks in a population of Australian children and adolescents (2003-2008)

    Jensen, B. W.; Nichols, M.; Allender, S.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Intake of sweet drinks has previously been associated with the development of overweight and obesity among children and adolescents. The present study aimed to assess the consumption pattern of sweet drinks in a population of children and adolescents in Victoria, Australia. Methods: D...

  6. Effect of dry-heating with pectin on gelatinization properties of sweet ...

    Purpose: To evaluate the effect of dry-heating with pectin at different dry heating temperatures, heating times and pH on the gelatinization properties of sweet potato starch. Methods: The gelatinization properties of sweet potato starch - pectin blend were analyzed using a rapid viscosity analyzer (RVA), differential scanning ...

  7. Sweet potato weevil (Cylas formicarius) incidence in the humid lowlands of Papua New Guinea

    Powell, K.S.; Hartemink, A.E.; Eganae, J.F.; Walo, C.; Poloma, S.

    2001-01-01

    Sweet potato is the main staple crop in PNG and this paper presents a study from the humid lowlands of the Morobe Province. Three experiments were carried out at two locations (Hobu and Unitech) to evaluate the effect of inorganic fertiliser inputs and fallow vegetation on the incidence of sweet

  8. The environment strongly affects estimates of heterosis in hybrid sweet sorghum

    Sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) has potential as a biofuel feedstock but hybrid cultivars are needed to support an industry based on this crop. The purpose of this study was to compare five inbred sweet sorghum lines and 15 hybrids derived from them, and to determine the extent of envir...

  9. Whole-Genome Characterization of Prunus necrotic ringspot virus Infecting Sweet Cherry in China.

    Wang, Jiawei; Zhai, Ying; Zhu, Dongzi; Liu, Weizhen; Pappu, Hanu R; Liu, Qingzhong

    2018-03-01

    Prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV) causes yield loss in most cultivated stone fruits, including sweet cherry. Using a small RNA deep-sequencing approach combined with end-genome sequence cloning, we identified the complete genomes of all three PNRSV strands from PNRSV-infected sweet cherry trees and compared them with those of two previously reported isolates. Copyright © 2018 Wang et al.

  10. Tapping the US historic sweet sorghum collection to identify biofuel germplasm

    Sweet sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] has gained an important role as a viable alternative to fossil fuels and a more profitable option than maize and sugarcane. Nevertheless, the actual narrow genetic base in sweet sorghum breeding programs is limiting the development of new biofuel varietie...

  11. Objective evaluation of the sweet spot size in spatial sound reproduction using elevated loudspeakers

    Lacouture Parodi, Yesenia; Rubak, Per

    2010-01-01

    to the loudspeakers. This paper presents a follow-up evaluation of the performance of the three inversion techniques when the above mentioned conditions are relaxed. A setup to measure the sweet spot of different loudspeaker arrangements is described. The sweet spot was measured for 21 different loudspeaker...

  12. Bio-deterioration of sweet potato (ipomoea batatas lam) in storage ...

    Michael Horsfall

    ABSTRACT: The biodeterioration of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) was investigated at Port. Harcourt, south southern Nigeria. Aspergillus niger, Fusarium oxysporum, Rhizopus stolonifer,. Botryodiplodia theobroma and Penicillium sp. were found to be associated with deteriorating sweet potato tubers and used for ...

  13. Problems, control, and opportunity of starch in the large scale processing of sugarcane and sweet sorghum

    Both sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum) and sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) crops are members of the grass (Poaceae) family, and consist of stalks rich in soluble sugars. The extracted juice from both of these crops contains insoluble starch, with much greater quantities occurring in sweet sorghum. ...

  14. Aroma profile of Garnacha Tintorera-based sweet wines by chromatographic and sensorial analyses.

    Noguerol-Pato, R; González-Álvarez, M; González-Barreiro, C; Cancho-Grande, B; Simal-Gándara, J

    2012-10-15

    The aroma profiles obtained of three Garnacha Tintorera-based wines were studied: a base wine, a naturally sweet wine, and a mixture of naturally sweet wine with other sweet wine obtained by fortification with spirits. The aroma fingerprint was traced by GC-MS analysis of volatile compounds and by sensorial analysis of odours and tastes. Within the volatiles compounds, sotolon (73 μg/L) and acetoin (122 μg/L) were the two main compounds found in naturally sweet wine. With regards to the odorant series, those most dominant for Garnacha Tintorera base wine were floral, fruity and spicy. Instead, the most marked odorant series affected by off-vine drying of the grapes were floral, caramelized and vegetal-wood. Finally, odorant series affected by the switch-off of alcoholic fermentation with ethanol 96% (v/v) fit for human consumption followed by oak barrel aging were caramelized and vegetal-wood. A partial least square test (PLS-2) was used to detect correlations between sets of sensory data (those obtained with mouth and nose) with the ultimate aim of improving our current understanding of the flavour of Garnacha Tintorera red wines, both base and sweet. Based on the sensory dataset analysis, the descriptors with the highest weight for separating base and sweet wines from Garnacha Tintorera were sweetness, dried fruit and caramel (for sweet wines) vs. bitterness, astringency and geranium (for base wines). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. A Clinical Report of Localized Itching After Treatment with Sweet Bee Venom

    Choi Seok-woo

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives : This study is to report the percentage of localized itching which occurred, when we injected to patients with Sweet Bee Venom(Sweet BV. Methods : We investigated 374 patients who had injected with Sweet BV in our clinic from February 15. 2009 to April 30, 2010. We checked the number and percentage of patients who occured localized itching on injection area. Then we analyzed those according to times in treatment, the body parts of injection and treatment dosage. Results and Conclusion : Localized itching was lower by 1.60% in the first treatment with Sweet BV. However localized itching was 12.83% in the whole course of treatment, which showed a similar incidence of 13% in Bee Venom. Therefore it can be interpreted that Sweet BV may help suppress the immune responses such as itching in the initial treatment, but the occurrence of local immune responses of Sweet BV may be similar to that of Bee Venom in continued treatment. We suppose that we should be careful of the occurrence of local immune responses as Bee Venom at least until the fourth treatment in clinical application with Sweet BV, although localized itching did not occur in the first treatment. Also we should be careful of treatment with Sweet BV in body parts, such as wrist, hand, chest and abdominal, because the percentage of localized itching was relatively high in those parts.

  16. Professionals en 'the sweet spot of conflict' : Een etnografische studie onder vliegers

    van der Fluit, M.E.

    2016-01-01

    Professionals and ‘the sweet spot of conflict’. An ethnographic study of pilots. Conflict is a common phenomenon in professional organizations and often results in a power struggle. The objective of this study is to explore how professionals reach the ‘sweet spot of conflict’. When present,

  17. An economic analysis of sweet sorghum cultivation for ethanol production in North China

    Liu, H.; Ren, L.; Spiertz, J.H.J.; Zhu, Y.; Xie, G.H.

    2015-01-01

    Sweet sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] is a promising non-food energy crop. The objective of this study was to determine the economic costs and input sensitivity of sweet sorghum compared to cotton, maize, and sunflower, at two saline-alkali sites in Shandong (Wudi County) and Inner Mongolia

  18. 7 CFR 457.154 - Processing sweet corn crop insurance provisions.

    2010-01-01

    ... policies: Processing Sweet Corn Crop Provisions If a conflict exists among the policy provisions, the order.... Processor. Any business enterprise regularly engaged in canning or freezing processing sweet corn for human... disease control measures or as otherwise limited by the Special Provisions; (5) Wildlife; (6) Earthquake...

  19. SuperSweet--a resource on natural and artificial sweetening agents.

    Ahmed, Jessica; Preissner, Saskia; Dunkel, Mathias; Worth, Catherine L; Eckert, Andreas; Preissner, Robert

    2011-01-01

    A vast number of sweet tasting molecules are known, encompassing small compounds, carbohydrates, d-amino acids and large proteins. Carbohydrates play a particularly big role in human diet. The replacement of sugars in food with artificial sweeteners is common and is a general approach to prevent cavities, obesity and associated diseases such as diabetes and hyperlipidemia. Knowledge about the molecular basis of taste may reveal new strategies to overcome diet-induced diseases. In this context, the design of safe, low-calorie sweeteners is particularly important. Here, we provide a comprehensive collection of carbohydrates, artificial sweeteners and other sweet tasting agents like proteins and peptides. Additionally, structural information and properties such as number of calories, therapeutic annotations and a sweetness-index are stored in SuperSweet. Currently, the database consists of more than 8000 sweet molecules. Moreover, the database provides a modeled 3D structure of the sweet taste receptor and binding poses of the small sweet molecules. These binding poses provide hints for the design of new sweeteners. A user-friendly graphical interface allows similarity searching, visualization of docked sweeteners into the receptor etc. A sweetener classification tree and browsing features allow quick requests to be made to the database. The database is freely available at: http://bioinformatics.charite.de/sweet/.

  20. Pretreatment of sweet sorghum bagasse for hydrogen production by Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus

    Panagiotopoulos, I.A.; Bakker, R.R.; Vrije, de G.J.; Koukios, E.G.; Claassen, P.A.M.

    2010-01-01

    Pretreatment of sweet sorghum bagasse, an energy crop residue, with NaOH for the production of fermentable substrates, was investigated. Optimal conditions for the alkaline pretreatment of sweet sorghum bagasse were realized at 10% NaOH (w/w dry matter). A delignification of 46% was then observed,

  1. Physico-chemical properties of gluten-free pancakes from rice and sweet potato flours.

    Gluten-free pancakes were prepared using rice flour, and rice flour replaced with various amounts, at 10, 20 and 40%, of sweet potato flour. The apparent viscosity of the pancake batter increased with increased sweet potato flour replacement. Texture properties of the cooked pancakes, such as, har...

  2. Patterns of sweetness preference in red wine according to consumer characterisation.

    Sena-Esteves, Maria Madalena; Mota, Mariana; Malfeito-Ferreira, Manuel

    2018-04-01

    The preference for sweet taste in red wine was examined according to consumer categories of age, gender, drinking experience and personality type (Big-5 personality-test). A total of 114 subjects revealed their preferences for sweetness after tasting dry red wine spiked with equal concentrations of glucose and fructose at 2g/L, 4g/L, 8g/L, 16g/L and 32g/L, following an ascending forced choice paired comparison method (2-AFC). The overall preference for sweetness was shown within the range of 4.8 to 21.9g/L, with maximal liking at 8g/L. Three patterns of response to sweetness were observed (sweet dislikers, sweet likers and indifferent to sweet) according to the different categories of consumers. Differences (p>0.05) were not found in sweetness preference among the categories up to 16g/L sugar except for the trait extraversion at 8g/L, where low extraverts showed a higher proportion of responses preferring the sweeter sample. Most significant differences were found only under the highest tasted concentration (32g/L). Females and novices preferred sweeter samples (pconsumers, respectively. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Academic Achievement of High School Students in Relation to Their Anxiety, Emotional Maturity and Social Maturity

    Puar, Surjit Singh

    2013-01-01

    The present study has been designed to investigate the non-cognitive variables like anxiety, emotional maturity and social maturity and their relationship with academic achievement and also to see the locale-wise differences on the basis of their anxiety, emotional maturity and social maturity. The study was conducted over a sample of 400 (200…

  4. Maturity models in supply chain sustainability

    Correia, Elisabete; Carvalho, Helena; Azevedo, Susana G.

    2017-01-01

    A systematic literature review of supply chain maturity models with sustainability concerns is presented. The objective is to give insights into methodological issues related to maturity models, namely the research objectives; the research methods used to develop, validate and test them; the scope...... of maturity levels. The comprehensive review, analysis, and synthesis of the maturity model literature represent an important contribution to the organization of this research area, making possible to clarify some confusion that exists about concepts, approaches and components of maturity models...

  5. Polymorphisms in sweet taste genes (TAS1R2 and GLUT2), sweet liking, and dental caries prevalence in an adult Italian population.

    Robino, Antonietta; Bevilacqua, Lorenzo; Pirastu, Nicola; Situlin, Roberta; Di Lenarda, Roberto; Gasparini, Paolo; Navarra, Chiara Ottavia

    2015-09-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the relationship between sweet taste genes and dental caries prevalence in a large sample of adults. In addition, the association between sweet liking and sugar intake with dental caries was investigated. Caries was measured by the decayed, missing, filled teeth (DMFT) index in 647 Caucasian subjects (285 males and 362 females, aged 18-65 years), coming from six villages in northeastern Italy. Sweet liking was assessed using a 9-point scale, and the mean of the liking given by each individual to specific sweet food and beverages was used to create a sweet liking score. Simple sugar consumption was estimated by a dietary history interview, considering both added sugars and sugar present naturally in foods. Our study confirmed that polymorphisms in TAS1R2 and GLUT2 genes are related to DMFT index. In particular, GG homozygous individuals for rs3935570 in TAS1R2 gene (p value = 0.0117) and GG homozygous individuals for rs1499821 in GLUT2 gene (p value = 0.0273) showed higher DMFT levels compared to both heterozygous and homozygous for the alternative allele. Furthermore, while the relationship sugar intake-DMFT did not achieve statistical significance (p value = 0.075), a significant association was identified between sweet liking and DMFT (p value = 0.004), independent of other variables. Our study showed that sweet taste genetic factors contribute to caries prevalence and highlighted the role of sweet liking as a predictor of caries risk. Therefore, these results may open new perspectives for individual risk identification and implementation of target preventive strategies, such as identifying high-risk patients before caries development.

  6. Sweet taste exposure and the subsequent acceptance and preference for sweet taste in the diet: systematic review of the published literature.

    Appleton, K M; Tuorila, H; Bertenshaw, E J; de Graaf, C; Mela, D J

    2018-03-01

    There are consistent, evidence-based global public health recommendations to reduce intakes of free sugars. However, the corresponding evidence for recommending reduced exposure to sweetness is less clear. Our aim was to identify and review the published evidence investigating the impact of dietary exposure to sweet-tasting foods or beverages on the subsequent generalized acceptance, preference, or choice of sweet foods and beverages in the diet. Systematic searches were conducted to identify all studies testing relations of variation in exposure to sweetness through foods and beverages with subsequent variation in the generalized acceptance, preference, or choice of sweetened foods or beverages, in humans aged >6 mo. Twenty-one studies met our inclusion criteria, comprising 7 population cohort studies involving 2320 children and 14 controlled trials involving 1113 individuals. These studies were heterogeneous in study design, population, exposure, and outcomes measured, and few were explicitly designed to address our research question. The findings from these were inconsistent. We found equivocal evidence from population cohort studies. The evidence from controlled studies suggests that a higher sweet taste exposure tends to lead to reduced preferences for sweetness in the shorter term, but very limited effects were found in the longer term. A small and heterogeneous body of research currently has considered the impact of varying exposure to sweet taste on subsequent generalized sweet taste preferences, and this evidence is equivocal regarding the presence and possible direction of a relation. Future work should focus on adequately powered studies with well-characterized exposures of sufficient duration. This review was registered with PROSPERO as CRD42016051840, 24 November 2016.

  7. The improvement of functional food in yogurt enriched with purple sweet potato (Ipomea batatas var. Ayamurasaki

    F. Afiati

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available he research was conducted to examine the use of purple sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas var. Ayamurasaki to improve functional food of yogurt. This experiment has 2 factors of treatments. The first factor (i was concentration of skim milk, i.e. 0%, 3% and 6%; the second factor (ii was concentration of purple sweet potato, i.e. 0%, 2% and 4% of purple sweet potato. The parameters observed were viability of lactic acid bacteria (LAB, pH, moisture content, protein, fat, carbohydrate, ash and crude fiber and organoleptic. The results showed that there was no interaction between the concentration of skim-milk and the purple sweet potato on total LAB, moisture content and crude fiber. However, the interaction occurred on the levels of fat, protein, carbohydrate and ash. The organoleptic test results that yogurt enriched by 2% purple sweet potato without addition of skim was more preferable by panelist with a value of 3.65.

  8. Chemical and nutritional changes in bitter and sweet lupin seeds (Lupinus albus L.) during bulgur production.

    Yorgancilar, Mustafa; Bilgiçli, Nermin

    2014-07-01

    In this research, bitter and sweet Lupin (Lupinus albus L.) seeds were used in bulgur production. The proximate chemical compositions and the contents of phytic acid, mineral, amino acid and fatty acid of raw material and processed lupin seeds as bulgur were determined. The sensory properties of bulgur samples were also researched. Bulgur process decreased ash, fat and phytic acid content of lupin seeds while significant increase (p sweet lupin bulgurs were found as 18.8% and 21.3%, respectively. Generally sweet lupin seeds/bulgurs showed rich essential amino acids composition than that of bitter seeds/bulgurs. Linoleic and linolenic acid content of the lupin was negatively affected by bulgur process. Bitter lupin bulgur received lower scores in terms of taste, odor and overall acceptability than sweet lupin bulgur in sensory evaluation. Sweet lupin bulgur can be used as new legume-based product with high nutritional and sensorial properties.

  9. Value-added probiotic development by high-solid fermentation of sweet potato with Saccharomyces boulardii.

    Campbell, Carmen; Nanjundaswamy, Ananda K; Njiti, Victor; Xia, Qun; Chukwuma, Franklin

    2017-05-01

    Controlled fermentation of Sweet potato ( Ipomoea batatas ) var. Beauregard by yeast, Saccharomyces boulardii (MAY 796) to enhance the nutritional value of sweet potato was investigated. An average 8.00 × 10 10 Colony Forming Units (CFU)/g of viable cells were obtained over 5-day high-solid fermentation. Yeast cell viability did not change significantly over time at 4°C whereas the number of viable yeast cells reduced significantly at room temperature (25°C), which was approximately 40% in 12 months. Overall, the controlled fermentation of sweet potato by MAY 796 enhanced protein, crude fiber, neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, amino acid, and fatty acid levels. Development of value-added sweet potato has a great potential in animal feed and human nutrition. S. boulardii - fermented sweet potato has great potential as probiotic-enriched animal feed and/or functional food for human nutrition.

  10. Effect of genotype, gelling agent, and auxin on the induction of somatic embryogenesis in sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas Lam.).

    El Abidine Triqui, Zine; Guédira, Abdelkarim; Chlyah, Averil; Chlyah, Hassane; Souvannavong, Vongthip; Haïcour, Robert; Sihachakr, Darasinh

    2008-03-01

    Lateral buds of six cultivars of sweet potato were induced to form embryogenic callus in a culture medium solidified with two types of gelling agents, Agar or Gelrite, and supplemented with various concentrations of auxins, 2,4-D, 2,4,5-T and Picloram. Of the six cultivars screened, only three gave an embryogenic response. Best results with an average of 3.53% embryogenic response were obtained with the medium solidified with Agar, while in Gelrite only 0.45% of lateral buds gave rise to embryogenic callus. The interaction between the genotype and auxins was highly significant; particularly the optimal response was obtained with cv. Zho and 865 yielding 10.7 and 14.7% somatic embryogenesis, respectively, in the medium containing 2,4,5-T or Picloram. The plant conversion was dramatically improved by subculture of the embryogenic callus on the medium with the combination of 1 microM 2,4-D and 1 microM Kinetin or 5 microM ABA alone before transfer of mature embryos onto hormone-free medium. The embryogenic callus of sweet potato and its sustained ability to further regenerate plants have regularly been maintained for several years by frequent subculture in 5 microM 2,4,5-T or the combination of 10 microM 2,4-D and 1 microM BAP or kinetin. The embryo-derived plants seemed apparently genetically stable and similar to the hexaploid parental plants, based on morphological analysis and their ploidy level determined by using flow cytometry.

  11. Twenty-Five Years and Counting of "Sweet Valley": Jessica and Elizabeth in Romance Novels for Young Children?

    Roberts, Sherron Killingsworth

    2010-01-01

    With the 2008 reissue of Francine Pascal's (1983) "Sweet Valley High", the popular cultural icons of twins Jessica and Elizabeth have been revitalized. Jessica and Elizabeth are the much-beloved protagonists in romance novels strategically targeted for young adults in "Sweet Valley High" or "Sweet Valley U", and for first- and second-grade readers…

  12. [Progressive cutaneous and pulmonary lesions without infectious etiology: two cases reports of sweet syndrome with pulmonary involvement].

    Lang, Noémie; Vernez, Maxime; Vollenweider, Peter; Pasche, Antoine

    2014-09-17

    Sweet syndrome is a non infectious febrile disease with a neutrophilic infiltrate of dermis. Extracutaneous involvement can occur. We report two cases of Sweet syndrome with cutaneous and pulmonary involvement and give a short review of the literature of pulmonary involvement in Sweet syndrome.

  13. Un mode révélateur original de la sarcoïdose: syndrome de sweet ...

    Le syndrome de Sweet est une dermatose neutrophilique, le plus souvent idiopathique. L'association d'un syndrome de Sweet et d'une sarcoïdose est rare. Nous rapportons le cas clinique d'un syndrome de Sweet révélant une sarcoïdose. Pan African Medical Journal 2016; 23 ...

  14. Maturity Models Development in IS Research

    Lasrado, Lester Allan; Vatrapu, Ravi; Andersen, Kim Normann

    2015-01-01

    Maturity models are widespread in IS research and in particular, IT practitioner communities. However, theoretically sound, methodologically rigorous and empirically validated maturity models are quite rare. This literature review paper focuses on the challenges faced during the development...... literature reveals that researchers have primarily focused on developing new maturity models pertaining to domain-specific problems and/or new enterprise technologies. We find rampant re-use of the design structure of widely adopted models such as Nolan’s Stage of Growth Model, Crosby’s Grid, and Capability...... Maturity Model (CMM). Only recently have there been some research efforts to standardize maturity model development. We also identify three dominant views of maturity models and provide guidelines for various approaches of constructing maturity models with a standard vocabulary. We finally propose using...

  15. Effects of planting method on agronomic characteristics, yield and yield components of sweet and super sweet corn (Zea mays L. varieties under saline conditions

    F. Faridi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the effects of planting pattern on morphological, Phonological, yield and yield components of sweet and super sweet corn (Zea mays L. varieties under saline conditions, a field experiment was conducted as split plots based on a randomized complete block design with four replications. Planting pattern in 3 levels included one row in ridge, two row in ridge and furrow planting, as a main plot and varieties in 4 levels sweet corn with 2 types (KSc 403 su, Merit and super sweet with two types (Basin, obsession as sub plots. The results showed that planting pattern had significant differences on plant height, ear height, leaf length, leaf width, number of kernel per row, number of rows per ear and 1000-kernel weight. but had no significant effects on the length of tassel, number of leaf/plant, number of leaf per plant above ear, stem diameter, time of anthesis, time of silking, anthesis silking interval ASI, grain yield, biological yield and harvest index. Different varieties had significant effects on the total characteristics studied except number of leaf above ear and stem diameter. Most of the conservable grain yield and harvest index was in Obsession variety (10 kg and 39%, respectively and the least was seen in Basin (4 kg and 20%, respectively. The result showed that use of furrow planting pattern for sweet and super sweet corn in saline conditions can effects result in higher yield.

  16. Influence of variety and harvest maturity on phytochemical content in corn silk.

    Sarepoua, Eakrin; Tangwongchai, Ratchada; Suriharn, Bhalang; Lertrat, Kamol

    2015-02-15

    Corn silk has been used as a traditional herb in Asia. The objective of this study was to evaluate variability in phytochemicals in corn varieties at three maturity stages of corn silk. Ten vegetable corn varieties were evaluated in a completely randomized design with three replications. Data were recorded for total phenolic (TPC), total flavonoids (TFC), total anthocyanin (TAC) and antioxidant activity (AA) by DPPH free-radical-scavenging assays. Differences among corn varieties were observed for all parameters at all maturity stages, and the interactions between maturity stage and corn variety were significant. TPC and TAC were highest at the milky stage, whereas TFC and AA were highest at the silking stage. TPC, TFC and AA were highest in super sweet corn and white corn at the silking stage. PWC5 variety of purple waxy corn at the milky stage had the highest values for all parameters, and it is useful for further development of functional food products. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Evaluation of quality of mango cultivar Tommy Atkins radiated with greater degree of maturity

    Silva, Josenilda M. da, E-mail: jmnilda@cnen.gov.br [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Nordeste (CRCN-NE/CNEN-PE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Santos, Marilia C.G. dos; Maciel, Maria Ines S., E-mail: marines@ufrpe.br [Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco (UFRPE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Villar, Heldio P., E-mail: hpvillar@cnen.gov.br [Escola Politecnica de Pernambuco, Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The effects of ionizing radiation at doses of 0.5 and 1.0 kGy were evaluated in mango cultivar Tommy Atkins when harvested at maturation stage showing yellow flesh and skin color more red than green, representing four degree of maturation at commercial scale. The fruits were stored for 21 days at 12 degree C and sensory evaluated after that period as its external appearance, internal appearance, acidic taste, sweet taste, mellow flavor, aroma, texture and succulence of the flesh, by a team of ten trained judges. Physic chemical analysis of the main characteristics of fruits quality were also performed in the pulp at the end of storage. The results of sensory analysis revealed that the doses used did not damaged the sensory characteristics of mango fruit and that they received a dose of 0.5 kGy showed higher acceptance for most sensory attributes evaluated. The physic chemical characteristics showed no significant differences between the doses, except the amount of ascorbic acid that decreased progressively with increasing doses. Application of this method is viable for mango cultivar Tommy Atkins when taken with a higher degree of maturity and was safe for the external market and sensory acceptable. (author)

  18. Evaluation of quality of mango cultivar Tommy Atkins radiated with greater degree of maturity

    Silva, Josenilda M. da; Santos, Marilia C.G. dos; Maciel, Maria Ines S.; Villar, Heldio P.

    2011-01-01

    The effects of ionizing radiation at doses of 0.5 and 1.0 kGy were evaluated in mango cultivar Tommy Atkins when harvested at maturation stage showing yellow flesh and skin color more red than green, representing four degree of maturation at commercial scale. The fruits were stored for 21 days at 12 degree C and sensory evaluated after that period as its external appearance, internal appearance, acidic taste, sweet taste, mellow flavor, aroma, texture and succulence of the flesh, by a team of ten trained judges. Physic chemical analysis of the main characteristics of fruits quality were also performed in the pulp at the end of storage. The results of sensory analysis revealed that the doses used did not damaged the sensory characteristics of mango fruit and that they received a dose of 0.5 kGy showed higher acceptance for most sensory attributes evaluated. The physic chemical characteristics showed no significant differences between the doses, except the amount of ascorbic acid that decreased progressively with increasing doses. Application of this method is viable for mango cultivar Tommy Atkins when taken with a higher degree of maturity and was safe for the external market and sensory acceptable. (author)

  19. Reaction of sweet pepper to the potato virus y (PVYm

    Echer Márcia de Moraes

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditional sweet pepper cultivars showing susceptibility to the Potato virus Y (PVY are being replaced by resistant hybrids with higher commercial value. Despite of much information about resistance source reaction and their inheritance, there is no knowledge about the genetic background of commercial resistant hybrids. Reaction of sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum L. hybrids to the Potato virus Y (PVYm such as Acuario, Magali R, Nathalie and their respective generations F2 and F3 as well as hybrids Amanda, Corteso W208, CPC-6272, Dagmar, Elisa, Magali, Margarita, Monteiro, Quantum, Vivo W205 was evaluated. Reaction to PVYm was evaluated as resistant or susceptible. Magali R and Nathalie hybrid did not show any mosaic symptoms. Magali R and Nathalie hybrids resistance is due to a single dominant gene indicating resistant versus susceptible parental lines crossing pedigree. Amanda, Acuario, Corteso W208, Dagmar, Elisa, Margarita, Monteiro, Quantum and Vivo W205, considered resistant to PVY, were highly susceptibility to PVY strain m. Hybrids, claimed as resistant to the Pepper mottle virus (PepMoV, were also resistant to PVYm.

  20. SCALING LAW OF RELATIVISTIC SWEET-PARKER-TYPE MAGNETIC RECONNECTION

    Takahashi, Hiroyuki R.; Kudoh, Takahiro; Masada, Youhei; Matsumoto, Jin

    2011-01-01

    Relativistic Sweet-Parker-type magnetic reconnection is investigated by relativistic resistive magnetohydrodynamic (RRMHD) simulations. As an initial setting, we assume anti-parallel magnetic fields and a spatially uniform resistivity. A perturbation imposed on the magnetic fields triggers magnetic reconnection around a current sheet, and the plasma inflows into the reconnection region. The inflows are then heated due to ohmic dissipation in the diffusion region and finally become relativistically hot outflows. The outflows are not accelerated to ultrarelativistic speeds (i.e., Lorentz factor ≅ 1), even when the magnetic energy dominates the thermal and rest mass energies in the inflow region. Most of the magnetic energy in the inflow region is converted into the thermal energy of the outflow during the reconnection process. The energy conversion from magnetic to thermal energy in the diffusion region results in an increase in the plasma inertia. This prevents the outflows from being accelerated to ultrarelativistic speeds. We find that the reconnection rate R obeys the scaling relation R≅S -0.5 , where S is the Lundquist number. This feature is the same as that of non-relativistic reconnection. Our results are consistent with the theoretical predictions of Lyubarsky for Sweet-Parker-type magnetic reconnection.

  1. Inducing salt tolerance in sweet corn by magnetic priming

    Soheil Karimi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluates seed germination and growth of sweet corn under NaCl stress (0, 50, and 100 mM, after exposing the seeds to weak (15 mT or strong (150 mT magnetic fields (MF for different durations (0, 6, 12, and 24 hours. Salinity reduced seed germination and plant growth. MF treatments enhanced rate and percentage of germination and improved plant growth, regardless of salinity. Higher germination rate was obtained by the stronger MF, however, the seedling were more vigorous after priming with 15 mT MF. Proline accumulation was observed in parallel with the loss of plant water content under 100 mM NaCl stress. MF prevented proline accumulation by improving water absorption. Positive correlation between H2O2 accumulation and membrane thermostability (MTI was found after MF treatments, which revealed that MF primed the plant for salinity by H2O2 signaling. However, over-accumulation of H2O2 after prolonged MF exposure adversely affected MTI under severe salt stress. In conclusion, magnetic priming for 6 hours was suggested for enhancing germination and growth of sweet corn under salt stress.

  2. PHYSICOCHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF TUBERS FROM ORGANIC SWEET POTATO ROOTS

    KAMILA DE OLIVEIRA DO NASCIMENTO

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to determine instead at determining chemical composition, nutritional aspects and morphological characteristic of tubers from sweet potato roots (Ipomoea batatas L. of cultivars Rosinha de Verdan, Capivara and orange-fleshed produced under the organic system. The chemical composition of flours from sweet potato (SP roots was different among cultivars. The starch content for SP cultivar ranged from 26-33 % (d. b., and the orange-fleshed roots presented 3182 μg of β-carotene/100 g. The flour yield ob-tained for SPF processing was higher in Rosinha de Verdan (25.40%, and the starch content of roots ranged from 12.48-27.63 % (d.b.. The processing condition modified the starch granular characteristics of the flours and reduced 31% the carotene content and vitamin A value of the orange-fleshed flour. The orange-fleshed flour presented higher levels of carbohydrate, starch and total energy value (TEV than others white fleshed flour. The consumption of serving size of orange-fleshed roots and flour provided higher provitamin A require-ments for children.

  3. Morphological characteristics of BRS 501 sweet sorghum under water stress

    Luciano Rezende Moreira

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench] crop is distinguished from other crops for its tolerance to both water deficit and excess soil moisture, under very dry and/or very hot environmental situations in which the productivity of other cereals becomes uneconomical. This work was conducted to evaluate the effects of irrigation on root conformation at the initial development phase of sweet sorghum. So, BRS 501 cv. was subjected to four irrigation levels based on 80%, 60%, 40% and 20% of the field capacity (CC. The decreased availability of water in the soil negatively affected the majority of the characteristics under evaluation except for the relationship between the root system and the aerial part (SR/PA, average root diameter (DMR and specific root area (ARE. We concluded that the growth of sweet sorghum plants under evaluation is sensible to the decrease of water in the soil, as it is affected by low water availability. This methodology, common to other crops, can be used for saccharine sorghum in order to establish hydric availabilities in new experiments to discriminate the drought-tolerant cultivars.

  4. Maturity group classification and maturity locus genotyping of early-maturing soybean varieties from high-latitude cold regions.

    Jia, Hongchang; Jiang, Bingjun; Wu, Cunxiang; Lu, Wencheng; Hou, Wensheng; Sun, Shi; Yan, Hongrui; Han, Tianfu

    2014-01-01

    With the migration of human beings, advances of agricultural sciences, evolution of planting patterns and global warming, soybeans have expanded to both tropical and high-latitude cold regions (HCRs). Unlike other regions, HCRs have much more significant and diverse photoperiods and temperature conditions over seasons or across latitudes, and HCR soybeans released there show rich diversity in maturity traits. However, HCR soybeans have not been as well classified into maturity groups (MGs) as other places. Therefore, it is necessary to identify MGs in HCRs and to genotype the maturity loci. Local varieties were collected from the northern part of Northeast China and the far-eastern region of Russia. Maturity group reference (MGR) soybeans of MGs MG000, MG00, and MG0 were used as references during field experiments. Both local varieties and MGR soybeans were planted for two years (2010-2011) in Heihe (N 50°15', E 127°27', H 168.5 m), China. The days to VE (emergence), R1 (beginning bloom) and R7 (beginning maturity) were recorded and statistically analyzed. Furthermore, some varieties were further genotyped at four molecularly-identified maturity loci E1, E2, E3 and E4. The HCR varieties were classified into MG0 or even more early-maturing. In Heihe, some varieties matured much earlier than MG000, which is the most early-maturing known MG, and clustered into a separate group. We designated the group as MG0000, following the convention of MGs. HCR soybeans had relatively stable days to beginning bloom from emergence. The HCR varieties diversified into genotypes of E1, E2, E3 and E4. These loci had different effects on maturity. HCRs diversify early-maturing MGs of soybean. MG0000, a new MG that matures much earlier than known MGs, was developed. HCR soybean breeding should focus more on shortening post-flowering reproductive growth. E1, E2, E3, and E4 function differentially.

  5. Interactive Effects of CO2 Concentration and Water Regime on Stable Isotope Signatures, Nitrogen Assimilation and Growth in Sweet Pepper

    María D. Serret

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Sweet pepper is among the most widely cultivated horticultural crops in the Mediterranean basin, being frequently grown hydroponically under cover in combination with CO2 fertilization and water conditions ranging from optimal to suboptimal. The aim of this study is to develop a simple model, based on the analysis of plant stable isotopes in their natural abundance, gas exchange traits and N concentration, to assess sweet pepper growth. Plants were grown in a growth chamber for near 6 weeks. Two [CO2] (400 and 800 μmol mol−1, three water regimes (control and mild and moderate water stress and four genotypes were assayed. For each combination of genotype, [CO2] and water regime five plants were evaluated. Water stress applied caused significant decreases in water potential, net assimilation, stomatal conductance, intercellular to atmospheric [CO2], and significant increases in water use efficiency, leaf chlorophyll content and carbon isotope composition, while the relative water content, the osmotic potential and the content of anthocyanins did change not under stress compared to control conditions support this statement. Nevertheless, water regime affects plant growth via nitrogen assimilation, which is associated with the transpiration stream, particularly at high [CO2], while the lower N concentration caused by rising [CO2] is not associated with stomatal closure. The stable isotope composition of carbon, oxygen, and nitrogen (δ13C, δ18O, and δ15N in plant matter are affected not only by water regime but also by rising [CO2]. Thus, δ18O increased probably as response to decreases in transpiration, while the increase in δ15N may reflect not only a lower stomatal conductance but a higher nitrogen demand in leaves or shifts in nitrogen metabolism associated with decreases in photorespiration. The way that δ13C explains differences in plant growth across water regimes within a given [CO2], seems to be mediated through its direct

  6. The maturity of Nuclear Law

    Martinez Favini, J.A.

    1985-01-01

    The ever-increasing use of atomic energy since 1950 has generated a set of rules called for practical reasons Nuclear Law. This branch of law covers a wide scope of related activities and, specialized studies have apparently foreseen all conceivable hypotheses. The international character of Nuclear Law explains the basic harmony of international legislation. The methods of comparative Law and International Private Law as well as the joint, indepth work of scientists and jurists will bring about steady progress towards legislative unity and prompt solution to conflicts. The expectable revitalization of nuclear-electric programs early in the 21st. century will give rise to a Nuclear juridical community which can already be perceived through the maturity Nuclear Law has reached. (Author) [es

  7. 2-undecanone and 2-tridecanone in field-grown onion.

    Antonious, George F

    2013-01-01

    A field study was conducted to investigate the impact of soil amendments on concentrations of two volatile organic compounds, 2-undecanone and 2-tridecanone, in onion bulbs. The soil in five plots was mixed with sewage sludge, five plots were mixed with yard waste compost, five plots were mixed with laying hen manure each at 15 t acre(-1), and five unamended plots that never received soil amendments were used for comparison purposes. Plots (n = 20) were planted with onion, Allium cepa L. var. Super Star-F1 bulbs. Gas chromatographic/mass spetrometric (GC/MS) analyses of mature onion bulbs crude extracts revealed the presence of two major fragment ions that correspond to 2-undecanone and 2-tridecanone. Soil amended with yard waste compost enhanced 2-undecanone and 2-tridecanone production by 31 and 59%, respectively. Soil amended with chicken manure enhanced 2-undecanone and 2-tridecanone production by 28 and 43%, respectively. Concentrations of 2-undecanone and 2-tridecanone were lowest in onion bulbs of plants grown in sewage sludge and unamended soil, respectively. The increased concentrations of 2-undecanone and 2-tridecanone in onion bulbs may provide a protective character against insect and spider mite attack in field grown onions.

  8. Sweet taste signaling functions as a hypothalamic glucose sensor

    Xueying Ren

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Brain glucosensing is essential for normal body glucose homeostasis and neuronal function. However, the exact signaling mechanisms involved in the neuronal sensing of extracellular glucose levels remain poorly understood. Of particular interest is the identification of candidate membrane molecular sensors allowing neurons to change firing rates independently of intracellular glucose metabolism. Here we describe for the first time the expression of the taste receptor genes Tas1r1, Tas1r2 and Tas1r3, and their associated G-protein genes, in the mammalian brain. Neuronal expression of taste genes was detected in different nutrient-sensing forebrain regions, including the paraventricular and arcuate nuclei of the hypothalamus, the CA fields and dentate gyrus of the hippocampus, the habenula, and cortex. Expression was also observed in the intra-ventricular epithelial cells of the choroid plexus. These same regions were found to express the corresponding gene products that form the heterodimeric T1R2/T1R3 and T1R1/T1R3 sweet and L-amino acid taste G-protein coupled receptors, respectively. These regions were also found to express the taste G-protein α-Gustducin. Moreover, in vivo studies in mice demonstrate that the hypothalamic expression of taste-related genes is regulated by the nutritional state of the animal, with food deprivation significantly increasing expression levels of Tas1r1 and Tas1r2 in hypothalamus, but not in cortex. Furthermore, exposing mouse hypothalamic cells to a low-glucose medium, while maintaining normal L-amino acid concentrations, specifically resulted in higher expression levels of the sweet-associated gene Tas1r2. This latter effect was reversed by adding the non-metabolizable artificial sweetener sucralose to the low-glucose medium, indicating that taste-like signaling in hypothalamic neurons does not require intracellular glucose oxidation. Our findings suggest that the G-protein coupled sweet receptor T1R2/T1R3 is a

  9. Sweet Taste Perception is Associated with Body Mass Index at the Phenotypic and Genotypic Level.

    Hwang, Liang-Dar; Cuellar-Partida, Gabriel; Ong, Jue-Sheng; Breslin, Paul A S; Reed, Danielle R; MacGregor, Stuart; Gharahkhani, Puya; Martin, Nicholas G; Rentería, Miguel E

    2016-10-01

    Investigations on the relationship between sweet taste perception and body mass index (BMI) have been inconclusive. Here, we report a longitudinal analysis using a genetically informative sample of 1,576 adolescent Australian twins to explore the relationship between BMI and sweet taste. First, we estimated the phenotypic correlations between perception scores for four different sweet compounds (glucose, fructose, neohesperidine dihydrochalcone (NHDC), and aspartame) and BMI. Then, we computed the association between adolescent taste perception and BMI in early adulthood (reported 9 years later). Finally, we used twin modeling and polygenic risk prediction analysis to investigate the genetic overlap between BMI and sweet taste perception. Our findings revealed that BMI in early adulthood was significantly associated with each of the sweet perception scores, with the strongest correlation observed in aspartame with r = 0.09 (p = .007). However, only limited evidence of association was observed between sweet taste perception and BMI that was measured at the same time (in adolescence), with the strongest evidence of association observed for glucose with a correlation coefficient of r = 0.06 (p = .029) and for aspartame with r = 0.06 (p = .035). We found a significant (p sweet taste perception in adolescence can be a potential indicator of BMI in early adulthood. This association is further supported by evidence of genetic overlap between the traits, suggesting that some BMI genes may be acting through biological pathways of taste perception.

  10. Crystal structure of the sweet-tasting protein thaumatin II at 1.27 A

    Masuda, Tetsuya; Ohta, Keisuke; Tani, Fumito; Mikami, Bunzo; Kitabatake, Naofumi

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → X-ray crystallographic structure of sweet-tasting protein, thaumatin II, was determined at a resolution of 1.27 A. → The overall structure of thaumatin II is similar to that of thaumatin I, but a slight shift of the Cα atom of G96 in thaumatin II was observed. → The side chain of two critical residues, 67 and 82, for sweetness was modeled in two alternative conformations. → The flexibility and fluctuation of side chains at 67 and 82 seems to be suitable for interaction of thaumatin molecules with sweet receptors. -- Abstract: Thaumatin, an intensely sweet-tasting protein, elicits a sweet taste sensation at 50 nM. Here the X-ray crystallographic structure of one of its variants, thaumatin II, was determined at a resolution of 1.27 A. Overall structure of thaumatin II is similar to thaumatin I, but a slight shift of the Cα atom of G96 in thaumatin II was observed. Furthermore, the side chain of residue 67 in thaumatin II is highly disordered. Since residue 67 is one of two residues critical to the sweetness of thaumatin, the present results suggested that the critical positive charges at positions 67 and 82 are disordered and the flexibility and fluctuation of these side chains would be suitable for interaction of thaumatin molecules with sweet receptors.

  11. Cancer-preventive Properties of an Anthocyanin-enriched Sweet Potato in the APCMIN Mouse Model.

    Asadi, Khalid; Ferguson, Lynnette R; Philpott, Martin; Karunasinghe, Nishi

    2017-09-01

    Anthocyanin-rich foods and preparations have been reported to reduce the risk of life-style related diseases, including cancer. The SL222 sweet potato, a purple-fleshed cultivar developed in New Zealand, accumulates high levels of anthocyanins in its storage root. We examined the chemopreventative properties of the SL222 sweet potato in the C57BL/6J-APC MIN/+ (APC MIN ) mouse, a genetic model of colorectal cancer. APC MIN and C57BL/6J wild-type mice (n=160) were divided into four feeding groups consuming diets containing 10% SL222 sweet potato flesh, 10% SL222 sweet potato skin, or 0.12% ARE (Anthocyanin rich-extract prepared from SL222 sweet potato at a concentration equivalent to the flesh-supplemented diet) or a control diet (AIN-76A) for 18 weeks. At 120 days of age, the mice were anaesthetised, and blood samples were collected before the mice were sacrificed. The intestines were used for adenoma enumeration. The SL222 sweet potato-supplemented diets reduced the adenoma number in the APC MIN mice. These data have significant implications for the use of this sweet potato variant in protection against colorectal cancer.

  12. Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) attenuates diet-induced aortic stiffening independent of changes in body composition.

    Garner, Tyler; Ouyang, An; Berrones, Adam J; Campbell, Marilyn S; Du, Bing; Fleenor, Bradley S

    2017-08-01

    We hypothesized a sweet potato intervention would prevent high-fat (HF) diet-induced aortic stiffness, which would be associated with decreased arterial oxidative stress and increased mitochondrial uncoupling. Young (8-week old) C57BL/6J mice were randomly divided into 4 groups: low fat (LF; 10% fat), HF (60% fat), low-fat sweet potato (LFSP; 10% fat containing 260.3 μg/kcal sweet potato), or high-fat sweet potato diet (HFSP; 60% fat containing 260.3 μg/kcal sweet potato) for 16 weeks. Compared with LF and LFSP, HF- and HFSP-fed mice had increased body mass and percent fat mass with lower percent lean mass (all, P Sweet potato intervention did not influence body composition (all, P > 0.05). Arterial stiffness, assessed by aortic pulse wave velocity and ex vivo mechanical testing of the elastin region elastic modulus (EEM) was greater in HF compared with LF and HFSP animals (all, P sweet potato attenuates diet-induced aortic stiffness independent of body mass and composition, which is associated with a normalization of arterial oxidative stress possibly due to mitochondrial uncoupling.

  13. Sensory description of sweet wines obtained by the winemaking procedures of raisining, botrytisation and fortification.

    González-Álvarez, Mariana; Noguerol-Pato, Raquel; González-Barreiro, Carmen; Cancho-Grande, Beatriz; Simal-Gándara, Jesús

    2014-02-15

    The effect of winemaking procedures on the sensory modification of sweet wines was investigated. Garnacha Tintorera-based sweet wines were obtained by two different processes: by using raisins for vinification to obtain a naturally sweet wine and by using freshly harvested grapes with the stoppage of the fermentation by the addition of alcohol. Eight international sweet wines were also subjected to sensory analysis for comparative description purposes. Wines were described with a sensory profile by 12 trained panellists on 70 sensory attributes by employing the frequency of citation method. Analysis of variance of the descriptive data confirmed the existence of subtle sensory differences among Garnacha Tintorera-based sweet wines depending on the procedure used for their production. Cluster analysis emphasised discriminated attributes between the Garnacha Tintorera-based and the commercial groups of sweet wines for both those obtained by raisining and by fortification. Several kinds of discriminant functions were used to separate groups of sweet wines--obtained by botrytisation, raisining and fortification--to show the key descriptors that contribute to their separation and define the sensory perception of each type of wine. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Production of purple sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L.) juice having high anthocyanin content and antioxidant activity

    Dwiyanti, G.; Siswaningsih, W.; Febrianti, A.

    2018-05-01

    The purpose of the study was to retrieve procedure of production of purple sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L.) juice with the best total anthocyanin and antioxidant activity. Purple sweet potato was processed into purple sweet potato juice through a process of heating with temperature variations of 700C, 800C, and 900C and various duration of heating, which are 5 mins, 10 mins, and 15 mins. The total anthocyanin was determined by using pH differential method. The antioxidant activity was determined by using DPPH (2,2-Diphenyl-l-picrylhydrazyl) method. Total anthocyanin of purple sweet potato juice declined in the range between 215.08 mg/L - 101.86 mg/L. The antioxidant activity of purple sweet potato juice declined in the range between 90.63% - 67.79%. Antioxidant activity and total anthocyanin purple sweet potato juice decreases with increasing temperature and duration of heating. The best characteristics found in purple sweet potato juice were made with warming temperatures of 800C. The product with the highest antioxidant activity, total anthocyanins, and good durability was prepared at 800C heating temperature for 5 mins.

  15. Crystal structure of the sweet-tasting protein thaumatin II at 1.27 A

    Masuda, Tetsuya, E-mail: t2masuda@kais.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Division of Food Science and Biotechnology, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); Department Natural Resources, Graduate School of Global Environmental Studies, Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); Ohta, Keisuke; Tani, Fumito [Division of Food Science and Biotechnology, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); Department Natural Resources, Graduate School of Global Environmental Studies, Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); Mikami, Bunzo [Division of Applied Life Sciences, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); Kitabatake, Naofumi [Division of Food Science and Biotechnology, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); Department Natural Resources, Graduate School of Global Environmental Studies, Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan)

    2011-07-08

    Highlights: {yields} X-ray crystallographic structure of sweet-tasting protein, thaumatin II, was determined at a resolution of 1.27 A. {yields} The overall structure of thaumatin II is similar to that of thaumatin I, but a slight shift of the C{alpha} atom of G96 in thaumatin II was observed. {yields} The side chain of two critical residues, 67 and 82, for sweetness was modeled in two alternative conformations. {yields} The flexibility and fluctuation of side chains at 67 and 82 seems to be suitable for interaction of thaumatin molecules with sweet receptors. -- Abstract: Thaumatin, an intensely sweet-tasting protein, elicits a sweet taste sensation at 50 nM. Here the X-ray crystallographic structure of one of its variants, thaumatin II, was determined at a resolution of 1.27 A. Overall structure of thaumatin II is similar to thaumatin I, but a slight shift of the C{alpha} atom of G96 in thaumatin II was observed. Furthermore, the side chain of residue 67 in thaumatin II is highly disordered. Since residue 67 is one of two residues critical to the sweetness of thaumatin, the present results suggested that the critical positive charges at positions 67 and 82 are disordered and the flexibility and fluctuation of these side chains would be suitable for interaction of thaumatin molecules with sweet receptors.

  16. Heredity of flake- and stripe-variegated traits and their introduction into Japanese day-neutral winter-flowering sweet pea (Lathyrus odoratus L.) cultivars.

    Yagishita, Yoshimi; Hara, Yasuhide; Nakayama, Masayoshi

    2018-01-01

    Sweet pea ( Lathyrus odoratus L.) is a major cut flower in Japan, generally grown in greenhouses in winter to spring. The wild-type sweet pea is a long-day summer-flowering plant. The day-neutral winter-flowering ability, which allows cut-flower production in Japan, is a recessive phenotype that emerged by spontaneous mutation. Although Japanese winter-flowering cultivars and additionally spring-flowering cultivars, which have semi-long-day flowering ability generated by crossing the winter- and summer-flowering cultivars, have superior phenotypes for cut flowers, they have limited variation in color and fragrance. In particular, variegated phenotypes do not appear in modern winter- and spring-flowering cultivars, only in summer-flowering cultivars. We try to expand the phenotypic diversity of Japanese cut flower cultivars. In the processes, we introduced the variegated phenotypes by crossing with summer-flowering cultivars, and succeeded in breeding some excellent cultivars. During breeding, we analyzed the segregation ratios and revealed the heredity of the phenotypes. Here we review the heredity of these variegated phenotypes and winter-flowering phenotypes and their related genes. We also describe how we introduced the trait into winter-flowering cultivars, tracing their pedigrees to show both phenotypes and genotypes of the progeny at each generation. This knowledge is useful for the efficient breeding of new variegated cultivars.

  17. A maturity model for blockchain adoption

    Wang, Huaiqing; Chen, Kun; Xu, Dongming

    2016-01-01

    Background: The rapid development of the blockchain technology and its various applications has rendered it important to understand the guidelines for adopting it. Methods: The comparative analysis method is used to analyze different dimensions of the maturity model, which is mainly based on the commonly used capability maturity model. Results: The blockchain maturity model and its adoption process have been discussed and presented. Conclusions: This study serves as a guide to institutions to...

  18. Reconciling Conflicting Phylogenies in the Origin of Sweet Potato and Dispersal to Polynesia.

    Muñoz-Rodríguez, Pablo; Carruthers, Tom; Wood, John R I; Williams, Bethany R M; Weitemier, Kevin; Kronmiller, Brent; Ellis, David; Anglin, Noelle L; Longway, Lucas; Harris, Stephen A; Rausher, Mark D; Kelly, Steven; Liston, Aaron; Scotland, Robert W

    2018-04-23

    The sweet potato is one of the world's most widely consumed crops, yet its evolutionary history is poorly understood. In this paper, we present a comprehensive phylogenetic study of all species closely related to the sweet potato and address several questions pertaining to the sweet potato that remained unanswered. Our research combined genome skimming and target DNA capture to sequence whole chloroplasts and 605 single-copy nuclear regions from 199 specimens representing the sweet potato and all of its crop wild relatives (CWRs). We present strongly supported nuclear and chloroplast phylogenies demonstrating that the sweet potato had an autopolyploid origin and that Ipomoea trifida is its closest relative, confirming that no other extant species were involved in its origin. Phylogenetic analysis of nuclear and chloroplast genomes shows conflicting topologies regarding the monophyly of the sweet potato. The process of chloroplast capture explains these conflicting patterns, showing that I. trifida had a dual role in the origin of the sweet potato, first as its progenitor and second as the species with which the sweet potato introgressed so one of its lineages could capture an I. trifida chloroplast. In addition, we provide evidence that the sweet potato was present in Polynesia in pre-human times. This, together with several other examples of long-distance dispersal in Ipomoea, negates the need to invoke ancient human-mediated transport as an explanation for its presence in Polynesia. These results have important implications for understanding the origin and evolution of a major global food crop and question the existence of pre-Columbian contacts between Polynesia and the American continent. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The effect of sucralose on flavor sweetness in electronic cigarettes varies between delivery devices.

    Kathryn Rosbrook

    Full Text Available The appeal of sweet electronic cigarette flavors makes it important to identify the chemical compounds that contribute to their sweetness. While volatile chemicals that produce sweet aromas have been identified in e-liquids, there are no published reports of sugars or artificial sweeteners in commercial e-liquids. However, the sweetener sucralose is marketed as an e-liquid additive to commercial flavors. The primary aims of the study were to determine if sucralose is delivered in sufficient concentration in the inhaled aerosol to enhance flavor sweetness, and whether the amount delivered depends on the e-liquid delivery system. Thirty-two adult smokers rated flavor intensity, sweetness, harshness and liking/disliking for 4 commercial flavors with and without sucralose (1% using 2 e-cigarette delivery systems (cartridge and tank. Participants alternately vaped normally or with the nose pinched closed to block perception of volatile flavor components via olfaction. LC/MS was used to measure the concentration of sucralose in the e-liquid aerosols using a device that mimicked vaping. Sweetness and flavor intensity were perceived much more strongly when olfaction was permitted. The contribution of sucralose to sweetness was significant only for the cartridge system, and the chemical analysis showed that the concentration of sucralose in the aerosol was higher when the cartridge was used. Together these findings indicate that future regulation of sweet flavor additives should focus first on the volatile constituents of e-liquids with the recognition that artificial sweeteners may also contribute to flavor sweetness depending upon e-cigarette design.

  20. Study of single dose toxic test of Sweet Bee Venom in Beagle Dogs

    Hye-Chul, Yoon

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives : This study was performed to analyse single dose toxicity of Sweet Bee Venom(Sweet BV extracted from the bee venom in Beagle dogs. Methods : All experiments were conducted under the regulations of Good Laboratory Practice (GLP at Biotoxtech Company, a non-clinical study authorized institution. Male and female Beagle dogs of 5-6 months old were chosen for the pilot study of single dose toxicity of Sweet BV which was administered at the level of 9.0 ㎎/㎏ body weight which is 1300 times higher than the clinical application dosage as the high dosage, followed by 3.0 and 1.0 ㎎/㎏ as midium and low dosage, respectively. Equal amount of excipient(normal saline to the Sweet BV experiment groups was administered as the control group. Results : 1. No mortality was witnessed in all of the experiment groups. 2. Hyperemia and movement disorder were observed around the area of administration in all the experiment groups, and higher occurrence in the higher dosage treatment. 3. For weight measurement, Neither male nor female groups showed significant changes. 4. To verify abnormalities of organs and tissues, thigh muscle which treated with Sweet BV, brain, liver, lung, kidney, and spinal cords were removed and histologocal observation using H-E staining was conducted. In the histologocal observation of thigh muscle, cell infiltration, inflammation, degeneration, necrosis of muscle fiber, and fibrosis were found in both thigh tissue. And the changes depend on the dose of Sweet BV. But the other organs did not showed in any abnormality. 5. The maximum dose of Sweet BV in Beagle dogs were over 9 ㎎/㎏ in this study. Conclusions : The above findings of this study suggest that Sweet BV is a relatively safe treatment medium. Further studies on the toxicity of Sweet BV should be conducted to yield more concrete evidences.

  1. A Set Theoretical Approach to Maturity Models

    Lasrado, Lester; Vatrapu, Ravi; Andersen, Kim Normann

    2016-01-01

    characterized by equifinality, multiple conjunctural causation, and case diversity. We prescribe methodological guidelines consisting of a six-step procedure to systematically apply set theoretic methods to conceptualize, develop, and empirically derive maturity models and provide a demonstration......Maturity Model research in IS has been criticized for the lack of theoretical grounding, methodological rigor, empirical validations, and ignorance of multiple and non-linear paths to maturity. To address these criticisms, this paper proposes a novel set-theoretical approach to maturity models...

  2. Ideal sweetness of mixed juices from Amazon fruits

    Daniela De Grandi Castro Freitas

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Ready-to-drink fruit juices represent a large share of the market and are an important target for product development. The mixture of fruits can bring about improvements to nutritional and sensory aspects of these beverages while making used of the wide variety of exotic fruits from the Amazon region. Therefore, it is necessary to select mixed fruits and determine their ideal sweetness according to consumer acceptance. Consumers in the city of Belém (Brazil evaluated five different concentrations of sugar using the just-about-right scale in two blends selected by preference ranking. For the cupuassu-acerola-açai blend, the optimum concentration of sugar was 9.5 g/100 mL, and for the soursop-camucamu-yellow mombin blend, it was 10.7 g/100 mL.

  3. Characteristics of mutant lines of sweet potato flour

    Aryanti

    2012-01-01

    Research on mutation induction of sweet potato Sari variety has been conducted. Flour mutant lines were obtained from selection of M1V5 tubers irradiated by gamma rays at the dose of 10 Gy. Flour was made by peeling of tubers, then dried, blended and sieved. The quality test of flour have been done by measuring degree of whiteness, proximate, amylose contents, water content, soluble water, swelling power, and flour characteristics. The result of this work showed that flour of C6.26.13 mutant line had higher protein content than the parent plant with concentration of 3.62 % and its amylose content was also higher than the other mutant lines. The soluble water value of mutant lines were significant different compared to the parent plant from 1.82 to 2.25 % and swelling power from 4.28 to 5.55 %. The flour granule of the mutant line was different compared to the parent plant. (author)

  4. Competitiveness of organically grown cereals

    Jaroslav Jánský

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The contribution is aimed at the assessment of recommended crop management practices of chosen cereals for organic farming. To increase competitiveness, these practices are modified depending on soil and climatic conditions, and on a way of production use. Furthermore, impacts of the recommended crop management practices on economics of growing chosen cereals are evaluated and compared with economic results obtained under conventional farming. It is assumed that achieved results will contribute to the increase in proportion of arable crops in the Czech Republic where organic production offer does not meet current demands.When evaluating results of growing individual cereal species in a selective set of organic farms, triticale, spelt and spring barley (in this ranking can be considered as profitable crops. Moreover, triticale and spelt have even higher gross margin under organic farming than under conventional farming (by 62 % in triticale. Oat brings losses, however, it is important for livestock production. Winter wheat seems to be also unprofitable since less grain is produced at lower imputs per hectare and only part of it is produced in quality “bio”, i.e. marketed for higher prices. Rye also brings losses under organic farming, particularly due to lower yields, similarly to the other mentioned cereals. Special cereal species that are still neglected in organic farming systems are of potential use. Durum wheat has vitreous kernels with a high content of quality gluten which is used for pasta production. It can be grown in the maize production area on fertile soils only.

  5. Effects of cysteine protease inhibitors on rabbit cathepsin D maturation

    Samarel, A.M.; Ferguson, A.G.; Decker, R.S.; Lesch, M.

    1989-01-01

    To examine the effects of cysteine protease inhibitors on cathepsin D intracellular transport, proteolytic processing, and secretion, primary cultures of rabbit cardiac fibroblasts were grown to confluence and exposed to media containing leupeptin, E 64, or chloroquine. Cathepsin D maturation was then evaluated in pulse-chase biosynthetic labeling experiments. None of the three agents affected the charge modification of procathepsin D within the Golgi apparatus. However, all three agents interfered with the subsequent proteolytic processing of procathepsin D isoforms to active cathepsin D. Both leupeptin and E 64 caused the intracellular accumulation of large amounts of a Mr 51,000 processing intermediate. Trace amounts of this intermediate were also detected in chloroquine-treated cells. Combined activity assay and radioimmunoassay of cell lysates indicated that this partially processed form of cathepsin D possessed proteolytic activity. Whereas low medium concentrations of leupeptin (10-100 microM) but not E 64 appeared to stimulate procathepsin D secretion, neither agent appeared to have a major effect on the rate of proenzyme secretion at doses required to inhibit proteolytic maturation (1-10 mM). Furthermore, pretreatment of cells with 10 mM leupeptin appeared only to delay, but not prevent, the intracellular transport of cathepsin D to lysosomes. In contrast, chloroquine increased procathepsin D secretion in a dose-dependent manner, diverting the majority of newly synthesized procathepsin D from the intracellular protease(s) responsible for proteolytic processing. These results suggest that cysteine proteases participate in the proteolytic maturation of procathepsin D during the transport of newly synthesized enzyme to lysosomes, but cysteine protease-mediated proteolytic processing is not required for cathepsin D activation or lysosomal translocation

  6. The maturing of microbial ecology.

    Schmidt, Thomas M

    2006-09-01

    A.J. Kluyver and C.B. van Niel introduced many scientists to the exceptional metabolic capacity of microbes and their remarkable ability to adapt to changing environments in The Microbe's Contribution to Biology. Beyond providing an overview of the physiology and adaptability of microbes, the book outlined many of the basic principles for the emerging discipline of microbial ecology. While the study of pure cultures was highlighted, provided a unifying framework for understanding the vast metabolic potential of microbes and their roles in the global cycling of elements, extrapolation from pure cultures to natural environments has often been overshadowed by microbiologists inability to culture many of the microbes seen in natural environments. A combination of genomic approaches is now providing a culture-independent view of the microbial world, revealing a more diverse and dynamic community of microbes than originally anticipated. As methods for determining the diversity of microbial communities become increasingly accessible, a major challenge to microbial ecologists is to link the structure of natural microbial communities with their functions. This article presents several examples from studies of aquatic and terrestrial microbial communities in which culture and culture-independent methods are providing an enhanced appreciation for the microbe's contribution to the evolution and maintenance of life on Earth, and offers some thoughts about the graduate-level educational programs needed to enhance the maturing field of microbial ecology.

  7. Motivational maturity and helping behavior.

    Haymes, M; Green, L

    1977-12-01

    This study was undertaken to examine the independent influences of conative development (the Maslow needs hierarchy) upon behavioral aspects of prosocial orientations. It provides a behavioral demonstration of conative effects in a helping paradigm, among college-age men. A comparison of the conative data across the ages of 15-22 provided a cross-sectional view of conative development itself. Conative maturity was found to be predictive of greater helping among college-age men. Situational demands were demonstrated which tended to mask, but not override, these predispositional influences on helping. The cross-sectional data on conative development point to probable movement to early esteem concerns among high school men who have reached the conative level of love and belonging. On the other hand, the stability across the years of 15-22 of proportion of safety concerns suggests fixation of such concerns in those exhibiting them in high school. Results are discussed in terms of conative growth for development of prosocial orientations.

  8. Smart Grid Interoperability Maturity Model

    Widergren, Steven E.; Levinson, Alex; Mater, J.; Drummond, R.

    2010-04-28

    The integration of automation associated with electricity resources (including transmission and distribution automation and demand-side resources operated by end-users) is key to supporting greater efficiencies and incorporating variable renewable resources and electric vehicles into the power system. The integration problems faced by this community are analogous to those faced in the health industry, emergency services, and other complex communities with many stakeholders. To highlight this issue and encourage communication and the development of a smart grid interoperability community, the GridWise Architecture Council (GWAC) created an Interoperability Context-Setting Framework. This "conceptual model" has been helpful to explain the importance of organizational alignment in addition to technical and informational interface specifications for "smart grid" devices and systems. As a next step to building a community sensitive to interoperability, the GWAC is investigating an interoperability maturity model (IMM) based on work done by others to address similar circumstances. The objective is to create a tool or set of tools that encourages a culture of interoperability in this emerging community. The tools would measure status and progress, analyze gaps, and prioritize efforts to improve the situation.

  9. Antenatal assessment of fetal maturity

    Gerstner, G.; Reinold, E.; Wolf, G.

    1979-01-01

    334 ultrasound-cephalometries and 231 X-ray fetographies were performed for antenatal assessment of fetal maturity as well as for exact estimation of gestational age in women with unknown date of confinement. The accuracy of the predictions was compared. Ultrasound-cephalometry gave best results when performed until the 20th week of gestation. A correct prediction was obtained in 80.4% of cases. After the 20th week of gestation, the accuracy of prediction decreased. Radiology on the contrary gave optimal results at the end of pregnancy. A correct prediction of the date of confinement was obtained in 73.8% of cases, when the X-ray fetography was performed between the 37th and 40th week of gestation. At the end of gestation radiography should be performed, if there is a discrepancy between ultrasound and clinical estimation or if ultrasound-cephalometry was not carried out in early pregnancy - especially if induction of labour is necessary. (author)

  10. Digital Maturity of the Firm's Business Model

    Groskovs, Sergejs; Vemula, Sreekanth

    We propose a digital maturity assessment model as an instrument for researchers and a strategic tool for managers. Existing literature lacks a conceptually clear way to measure the construct of digital maturity at the level of the firms business model. Our proposed instrument thus opens avenues f...

  11. A maturity model for industrial supply chains

    Hameri, A.P.; McKay, K.N.; Wiers, V.C.S.

    2013-01-01

    This article takes an evolutionary view of supply chains to suggest a series of distinct, contextual phases for supply chain execution and what maturity might mean at each phase. For example, what is best practice in a mature industry might not be best practice in a pioneering situation.Three

  12. 7 CFR 1421.101 - Maturity dates.

    2010-01-01

    ... filed and disbursed except, for transferred marketing assistance loan collateral. The maturity date for transferred marketing assistance loan collateral will be the maturity date applicable to the original loan... AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS GRAINS AND SIMILARLY HANDLED COMMODITIES-MARKETING...

  13. Cone and Seed Maturation of Southern Pines

    James P. Barnett

    1976-01-01

    If slightly reduced yields and viability are acceptable, loblolly and slash cone collections can begin 2 to 3 weeks before maturity if the cones are stored before processing. Longleaf(P. palestris Mill.) pine cones should be collected only when mature, as storage decreased germination of seeds from immature cones. Biochemical analyses to determine reducing sugar...

  14. POSTTREATMENT NEUROBLASTOMA MATURATION TO GANGLIONIC CELL TUMOR

    M. V. Ryzhova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Tumor cells can differentiate into more mature forms in undifferentiated or poorly differentiated tumors, such as medulloblastomas with increased nodularity, as well as neuroblastomas. The authors describe 2 cases of neuroblastoma maturation into ganglioneuroblastoma 5 months after chemotherapy in a 2-year-old girl and 3 years after radiotherapy in a 16-year-old girl.

  15. Moving towards maturity in business model definitions

    Nielsen, Christian; Lund, Morten; Bukh, Per Nikolaj

    2014-01-01

    The field of business models has, as is the case with all emerging fields of practice, slowly matured through the development of frameworks, models, concepts and ideas over the last 15 years. New concepts, theories and models typically transcend a series of maturity phases. For the concept of Bus...

  16. Assessing the Harvest Maturity of Brazilian Mangoes

    Pereira, T.; Tijskens, L.M.M.; Vanoli, M.; Rizzolo, A.; Eccher Zerbini, P.C.; Torricelli, A.; Filgueiras, H.; Spinelli, L.

    2010-01-01

    No clear criterion exists to determine the optimum time to harvest mango. Some empirical relations are used to assess maturity, such as shoulder development. Moreover, as a result of the typical growing conditions in tropical climates, a huge variation in maturity and ripeness exists, seriously

  17. Decision-Making Style and Vocational Maturity.

    Phillips, Susan D.; Strohmer, Douglas C.

    1982-01-01

    Examined the relationship between decision-making style, scholastic achievement, and vocational maturity for college students (N=64). Results did not support the hypothesized relationship between rationality and attitudinal and cognitive maturity. Scholastic achievement and lack of dependent decision style were found to be moderately predictive of…

  18. Correlation of Improved Version of Cervical Vertebral Maturation Indicator with Other Growth Maturity Indicators

    Tripti Tikku

    2013-01-01

    Conclusion: The correlation between middle phalanx of 3rd finger (MP3 and cervical vertebral maturation method (CVMI and CVMS was higher as compared to the correlation of either of the cervical vertebral maturation method or MP3 with dental maturation indicator.

  19. Assessing healthcare process maturity: challenges of using a business process maturity model

    Tarhan, A.; Turetken, O.; van den Biggelaar, F.J.H.M.

    2015-01-01

    Doi: 10.4108/icst.pervasivehealth.2015.259105 The quality of healthcare services is influenced by the maturity of healthcare processes used to develop it. A maturity model is an instrument to assess and continually improve organizational processes. In the last decade, a number of maturity models

  20. Sweet cherry softening accompanied with moisture migration and loss during low-temperature storage.

    Zhu, Danshi; Liang, Jieyu; Liu, He; Cao, Xuehui; Ge, Yonghong; Li, Jianrong

    2017-12-18

    Hardness is one of the important qualities influencing consumer appeal and marketing of fresh sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.). Moisture loss is one of the main causative factors of cherry softening. In this work, moisture loss and softening process of sweet cherry during postharvest storage at 0 and 4 °C were studied. In addition, low-field 1 H nuclear magnetic resonance (LF-NMR) was used to analyze water distribution and migration in sweet cherry during storage at 4 °C. Moisture content correlated significantly (p Contents of cytoplasmic (p content increased gradually, and then internal damage occurred. Sweet cherry softening closely correlated with moisture loss during low-temperature storage. LF-NMR is a useful technique to investigate moisture migration of fruits and vegetables. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.