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Sample records for grouper iridovirus electronic

  1. Transcriptome analysis of orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides) spleen in response to Singapore grouper iridovirus

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Huang, Youhua; Huang, Xiaohong; Yan, Yang; Cai, Jia; Ouyang, Zhengliang; Cui, Huachun; Wang, Peiran; Qin, Qiwei

    2011-01-01

    .... coioides infected with Singapore grouper iridovirus (SGIV). Using 454 pyrosequencing, we obtained abundant high-quality ESTs from two spleen-complementary DNA libraries which were constructed from SGIV-infected (V...

  2. Characterization of the VP39 envelope protein from Singapore grouper iridovirus.

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    Zhang, Honglian; Zhou, Sheng; Xia, Liqun; Huang, Xiaohong; Huang, Youhua; Cao, Jianhao; Qin, Qiwei

    2015-12-01

    Singapore grouper iridovirus (SGIV) is a major pathogen that causes heavy economic losses to the grouper aquaculture industry in China and Southeast Asian countries. In the present study, a viral envelope protein, VP39, encoded by SGIV ORF39L, was identified and characterized. SGIV ORF39L was found in all sequenced iridoviruses and is now considered to be a core gene of the family Iridoviridae. ORF39L was classified as a late gene during in vitro infection using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, western blotting, and a drug inhibition analysis. An indirect immunofluorescence assay revealed that the VP39 protein was confined to the cytoplasm, especially at viral assembly sites. Western blot and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight tandem mass spectrometry analyses suggested that VP39 is an envelope protein. Immunogold electron microscopy further confirmed that VP39 is a viral envelope protein. Furthermore, a mouse anti-VP39 polyclonal antibody exhibited SGIV-neutralizing activity in vitro, suggesting that VP39 is involved in SGIV infection. Taken together, the current data suggest that VP39 represents a conserved envelope protein of iridoviruses that contributes to viral infection.

  3. Antiviral function of grouper MDA5 against iridovirus and nodavirus.

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    Huang, Youhua; Yu, Yepin; Yang, Ying; Yang, Min; Zhou, Linli; Huang, Xiaohong; Qin, Qiwei

    2016-07-01

    Melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5 (MDA5) is a critical member of retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I)-like receptor (RLR) family which can recognize viral RNA and enhances antiviral response in host cells. In this study, a MDA5 homolog from orange spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides) (EcMDA5) was cloned, and its roles on grouper virus infection were characterized. The full-length EcMDA5 cDNA encoded a polypeptide of 982 amino acids with 74% identity with MDA5 homolog from rock bream (Oplegnathus fasciatus). Amino acid alignment analysis indicated that EcMDA5 contained three functional domains: two caspase activation and recruitment domain (CARDs), a DEAD box helicase-like (DExDc) domain, a helicase superfamily C-terminal domain (HELICc), and a C-terminal regulatory domain (RD). Upon challenge with Singapore grouper iridovirus (SGIV) or polyinosin-polycytidylic acid (poly I:C), the transcript of EcMDA5 was significantly up-regulated especially at the early stage post-injection. Under fluorescence microscopy, we observed that EcMDA5 mostly localized in the cytoplasm of grouper spleen (GS) cells. Interestingly, during virus infection, the distribution pattern of EcMDA5 was significantly altered in SGIV infected cells, but not in red spotted grouper nervous necrosis virus (RGNNV) infected cells, suggested that EcMDA5 might interact with viral proteins during SGIV infection. The ectopic expression of EcMDA5 in vitro obviously delayed virus infection induced cytopathic effect (CPE) progression and significantly inhibited viral gene transcription of RGNNV and SGIV. Moreover, overexpression of EcMDA5 not only significantly increased interferon (IFN) and IFN-stimulated response element (ISRE) promoter activities in a dose dependent manner, but also enhanced the expression of IRF3, IRF7 and TRAF6. In addition, the transcription level of the proinflammatory factors, including TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-8 were differently altered by EcMDA5 overexpression during SGIV or

  4. Transcriptome analysis of orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides spleen in response to Singapore grouper iridovirus

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    Huang Youhua

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides is an economically important marine fish cultured in China and Southeast Asian countries. The emergence of infectious viral diseases, including iridovirus and betanodavirus, have severely affected food products based on this species, causing heavy economic losses. Limited available information on the genomics of E. coioides has hampered the understanding of the molecular mechanisms that underlie host-virus interactions. In this study, we used a 454 pyrosequencing method to investigate differentially-expressed genes in the spleen of the E. coioides infected with Singapore grouper iridovirus (SGIV. Results Using 454 pyrosequencing, we obtained abundant high-quality ESTs from two spleen-complementary DNA libraries which were constructed from SGIV-infected (V and PBS-injected fish (used as a control: C. A total of 407,027 and 421,141 ESTs were produced in control and SGIV infected libraries, respectively. Among the assembled ESTs, 9,616 (C and 10,426 (V ESTs were successfully matched against known genes in the NCBI non-redundant (nr database with a cut-off E-value above 10-5. Gene ontology (GO analysis indicated that "cell part", "cellular process" and "binding" represented the largest category. Among the 25 clusters of orthologous group (COG categories, the cluster for "translation, ribosomal structure and biogenesis" represented the largest group in the control (185 ESTs and infected (172 ESTs libraries. Further KEGG analysis revealed that pathways, including cellular metabolism and intracellular immune signaling, existed in the control and infected libraries. Comparative expression analysis indicated that certain genes associated with mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK, chemokine, toll-like receptor and RIG-I signaling pathway were alternated in response to SGIV infection. Moreover, changes in the pattern of gene expression were validated by qRT-PCR, including cytokines

  5. THE EFFECTS OF CRUDE RECOMBINANT VIRAL PROTEIN VACCINES AGAINST GROUPER SLEEPY DISEASE IRIDOVIRUS (GSDIV ON HUMPBACK GROUPER (Cromileptes altivelis

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    Ketut Mahardika

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Infection of Megalocytivirus cause serious mass mortality in marine fish in South East Asian countries. The aim of this study was to produce recombinant of GSDIV capsid protein and its protection to humpback grouper Cromileptes altivelis against grouper sleepy disease iridovirus (GSDIV. A major capsid protein (MCP was selected for use as a crude subunit vaccines. This gene target (MCP was inserted to the protein expression system vector of pET SUMO and cloned in cells bacteria Escherichia coli strain BL-21. The MCP was succeded to be induced using 1 mM of IPTG. Results of protein analysis using MALDI TOF-TOF indicated that the MCP has measurement of 49.566 kDa with PI index of 6.00, and contained 453 amino acids. BLAST homology analysis exhibited that the amino acid sequence of the MCP showed high similarity with MCP of Red Sea Bream Iridovirus (RSIV. E. coli expressing MCP protein was inactivated using 0.03% formalin overnight and washed using PBS. The inactivated E. coli as a crude subunit vaccine was then injected intramuscularly to humpback grouper juveniles. Subsequently, the juveniles were challenged tested with GSDIV. The juveniles vaccinated with the MCP recombinant bacteria showed significantly higher survival rates than control those vaccinated with PBS. Thus, the MCP fusion protein is considered as a potential vaccine against GSDIV infections in grouper.

  6. QUANTITATIVE HISTOPATHOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF ENLARGED CELLS DERIVED FROM HUMPBACK GROUPER, Cromileptes altivelis INFECTED WITH GROUPER SLEEPY DISEASE IRIDOVIRUS (GSDIV

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    Indah Mastuti

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Pathognomonic sign of grouper sleepy disease iridovirus (GSDIV was proposed to be the formation of enlarged cells and necrotic cells, in which under electron microscope, it is revealed to be the inclusion body bearing cells (IBCs and necrotic cells containing GSDIV viral particles. Spleen and kidney tissues are the major sites for formation of enlarged cells. This paper described the result of histopatological analysis of enlarged cells found in the spleen and kidney of moribund fish after GSDIV challenge. A pathogenicity test was conducted on fish stocked in two tanks for infected groups and the other two tanks for uninfected control groups (15 fish per tank. The infected groups were injected intramuscularly with 0.1 ml of the viral inoculum. The uninfected groups were injected with the same amount of EMEM-2. The GSDIV-infected humpback grouper began to die after 6 days post infection and all died after 7 dpi, excluding one fish which had survived until the end of experimental infection periods (93% to 100% mortality. All of the diseased fish showed massive formation of enlarged cells in their spleen, head kidney and trunk kidney. The largest number of enlarged cells was observed on head kidneys and subsequently followed by spleens, trunk kidney (2.0-200.3/field of view. This result suggested that the number of enlarged cells in the affected organs was not the direct factor that led to the mortality of fish.

  7. MKK7 confers different activities to viral infection of Singapore grouper iridovirus (SGIV) and nervous necrosis virus (NNV) in grouper.

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    Guo, Minglan; Wei, Jingguang; Zhou, Yongcan; Qin, Qiwei

    2016-10-01

    Mitogen-activated protein kinase 7 (MKK7) is one of the major stress-activated protein kinase (SAPK)-activating kinases in response to environmental or physiological stimuli. Here a MKK7 named as Ec-MKK7 was identified from orange-spotted grouper, Epinephelus coioides. The full-length cDNA of Ec-MKK7 was 1853 bp, with an open reading frame (ORF) of 1272 bp encoding a putative protein of 423 amino acids. A characteristic S-K-A-K-T motif was contained in the domain of dual-specificity protein kinase, mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 7 (PKc_MKK7). Intracellular localization showed that Ec-MKK7 was localized in both the cytoplasm and the nucleus of grouper spleen (GS) and/or grouper brain (EAGB) cells. Moreover, Ec-MKK7 was universally expressed in all examined tissues and showed expression modulation to challenges of lipopolysacchride (LPS), Singapore grouper iridovirus (SGIV) and polyriboinosinic polyribocytidylic acid (poly I:C) in vivo. A gene targeting strategy over-expressing Ec-MKK7 was performed to examine the activities of MKK7 to viral infection in vitro. Our data showed that Ec-MKK7 was involved in the evasion and replication of SGIV but played an antiviral role to the infection of nervous necrosis virus (NNV). All results demonstrated that Ec-MKK7 could play important roles in grouper innate immunity and show distinct functions on virus infection.

  8. DISTRIBUTION ANALYSIS OF ENLARGED CELLS DERIVED FROM GROUPER SLEEPY DISEASE IRIDOVIRUS (GSDIV INFECTED HUMPBACK GROUPER Cromileptes altivelis

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    Indah Mastuti

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Characteristic of Megalocytivirus infection has been known to produce formation of inclusion body bearing cells (IBCs on internals organs of fish predominantly on spleen and kidney. Megalocytivirus that infected grouper is known as Grouper Sleepy Disease Iridovirus (GSDIV. This study was conducted to answer the effect of entry sites of GSDIV on distribution of enlarged cells formed on the internal organs of humpback grouper Cromileptes altivelis. Enlarged cells were observed histologically under the light microscope on spleen, head kidney, trunk kidney, liver, gill, heart, stomach, intestine, muscle and brain. Entry sites were designated to intramuscularly injection, intraperitoneally injection, dipped gill and inoculum added feed. Enlarged cells were formed on spleen, head kidney, trunk kidney, liver, gill, heart, stomach, muscle, except on intestine and brain. All the entry sites resulted in formation of enlarged cells on spleen, head kidney, trunk kidney, liver, heart. Spleen and head kidney were the most frequent observed organ. These results suggested that distribution of enlarged cells were not affected by the entry site of GSDIV.

  9. Immunogenicity and protective effects of inactivated Singapore grouper iridovirus (SGIV) vaccines in orange-spotted grouper, Epinephelus coioides.

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    Ou-yang, Zhengliang; Wang, Peiran; Huang, Xiaohong; Cai, Jia; Huang, Youhua; Wei, Shina; Ji, Huasong; Wei, Jingguang; Zhou, Yongcan; Qin, Qiwei

    2012-10-01

    Vaccination is one of the best methods against viral diseases. In this study, experimental inactivated Singapore grouper iridovirus (SGIV) vaccines were prepared, and immunogenicity and protection against virus infection of the vaccines were investigated in orange-spotted grouper, Epinephelus coioides. Two kinds of vaccines, including β-propiolactone (BPL) inactivated virus at 4°C for 12 h and formalin inactivated virus at 4°C for 12 d, was highly protective against the challenge at 30-day post-vaccination and produced relative percent of survival rates of 91.7% and 100%, respectively. These effective vaccinations induced potent innate immune responses mediated by pro-inflammatory cytokines and type I interferon (IFN)-stimulated genes (ISGs). It is noteworthy that ISGs, such as Mx and ISG15, were up-regulated only in the effective vaccine groups, which suggested that type I IFN system may be the functional basis of early anti-viral immunity. Moreover, effective vaccination also significantly up-regulated of the expression of MHC class I gene and produced substantial amount of specific serum antibody at 4 weeks post-vaccination. Taken together, our results clearly demonstrated that effective vaccination in grouper induced an early, nonspecific antiviral immunity, and later, a specific immune response involving both humoral and cell-mediated immunity.

  10. Selection and characterization of novel DNA aptamers specifically recognized by Singapore grouper iridovirus-infected fish cells.

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    Li, Pengfei; Wei, Shina; Zhou, Lingli; Yang, Min; Yu, Yepin; Wei, Jingguang; Jiang, Guohua; Qin, Qiwei

    2015-11-01

    Singapore grouper iridovirus (SGIV) is a major viral pathogen of grouper aquaculture, and has caused heavy economic losses in China and South-east Asia. In this study, we generated four ssDNA aptamers against SGIV-infected grouper spleen (GS) cells using SELEX (systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment) technology. Four aptamers exhibited high affinity to SGIV-infected GS cells, in particular the Q2 aptamer. Q2 had a binding affinity of 12.09 nM, the highest of the four aptamers. These aptamers also recognized SGIV-infected tissues with high levels of specificity. Protease treatment and flow cytometry analysis of SGIV-infected cells revealed that the target molecules of the Q3, Q4 and Q5 aptamers were trypsin-sensitive proteins, whilst the target molecules of Q2 might be membrane lipids or surface proteins that were not trypsin-sensitive. The generated aptamers appeared to inhibit SGIV infection in vitro. Aptamer Q2 conferred the highest levels of protection against SGIV and was able to inhibit SGIV infection in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, Q2 was efficiently internalized by SGIV-infected GS cells and localized at the viral assembly sites. Our results demonstrated that the four novel aptamers we generated were specific for SGIV-infected cells and could potentially be applied as rapid molecular diagnostic test reagents or therapeutic drugs targeting SGIV.

  11. Medaka haploid embryonic stem cells are susceptible to Singapore grouper iridovirus as well as to other viruses of aquaculture fish species.

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    Yuan, Yongming; Huang, Xiaohong; Zhang, Lei; Zhu, Yi; Huang, Youhua; Qin, Qiwei; Hong, Yunhan

    2013-10-01

    Viral infection is a challenge in high-density aquaculture, as it leads to various diseases and causes massive or even complete loss. The identification and disruption of host factors that viruses utilize for infection offer a novel approach to generate viral-resistant seed stocks for cost-efficient and sustainable aquaculture. Genetic screening in haploid cell cultures represents an ideal tool for host factor identification. We have recently generated haploid embryonic stem (ES) cells in the laboratory fish medaka. Here, we report that HX1, one of the three established medaka haploid ES cell lines, was susceptible to the viruses tested and is thus suitable for genetic screening to identify host factors. HX1 cells displayed a cytopathic effect and massive death upon inoculation with three highly infectious and notifiable fish viruses, namely Singapore grouper iridovirus (SGIV), spring viremia of carp virus (SVCV) and red-spotted grouper nervous necrosis virus (RGNNV). Reverse transcription-PCR and Western blot analyses revealed the expression of virus genes. SGIV infection in HX1 cells elicited a host immune response and apoptosis. Viral replication kinetics were determined from a virus growth curve, and electron microscopy revealed propagation, assembly and release of infectious SGIV particles in HX1 cells. Our results demonstrate that medaka haploid ES cells are susceptible to SGIV, as well as to SVCV and RGNNV, offering a unique opportunity for the identification of host factors by genetic screening.

  12. JNK1 derived from orange-spotted grouper, Epinephelus coioides, involving in the evasion and infection of Singapore grouper iridovirus (SGIV

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    Minglan eGuo

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK regulates cellular responses to various extracellular stimuli, environmental stresses, pathogen infections, and apoptotic agents. Here, a JNK1, Ec-JNK1, was identified from orange-spotted grouper, Epinephelus coioides. Ec-JNK1 has been found involving in the immune response to pathogen challenges in vivo, and the infection of Singapore grouper iridovirus (SGIV and SGIV-induced apoptosis in vitro. SGIV infection activated Ec-JNK1, of which phosphorylation of motif TPY is crucial for its activity. Over-expressing Ec-JNK1 phosphorylated transcription factors c-Jun and promoted the infection and replication of SGIV, while partial inhibition of the phosphorylation of Ec-JNK1 showed the opposite effects by over-expressing the dominant-negative EcJNK1-△183-185 mutant. Interestingly, SGIV enhanced the viral infectivity by activating Ec-JNK1 which in turn drastically inhibited the antiviral responses of type 1 IFN, indicating that Ec-JNK1 could be involved in blocking IFN signaling during SGIV infection. In addition, Ec-JNK1 enhanced the activation of AP-1, p53 and NF-κB, and resulted in increasing the levels of SGIV-induced cell death. The caspase 3-dependent activation correlated with the phosphorylation of Ec-JNK1 and contributed to SGIV-induced apoptosis. Taken together, SGIV modulated the phosphorylation of Ec-JNK1 to inactivate the antiviral signaling, enhance the SGIV-induced apoptosis and activate transcription factors for efficient infection and replication. The positive cooperativity molecular mechanism mediated by Ec-JNK1 contributes to the successful evasion and infection of iridovirus pathogenesis.

  13. JNK1 Derived from Orange-Spotted Grouper, Epinephelus coioides, Involving in the Evasion and Infection of Singapore Grouper Iridovirus (SGIV).

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    Guo, Minglan; Wei, Jingguang; Huang, Xiaohong; Zhou, Yongcan; Yan, Yang; Qin, Qiwei

    2016-01-01

    c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) regulates cellular responses to various extracellular stimuli, environmental stresses, pathogen infections, and apoptotic agents. Here, a JNK1, Ec-JNK1, was identified from orange-spotted grouper, Epinephelus coioides. Ec-JNK1 has been found involving in the immune response to pathogen challenges in vivo, and the infection of Singapore grouper iridovirus (SGIV) and SGIV-induced apoptosis in vitro. SGIV infection activated Ec-JNK1, of which phosphorylation of motif TPY is crucial for its activity. Over-expressing Ec-JNK1 phosphorylated transcription factors c-Jun and promoted the infection and replication of SGIV, while partial inhibition of the phosphorylation of Ec-JNK1 showed the opposite effects by over-expressing the dominant-negative EcJNK1-Δ183-185 mutant. Interestingly, SGIV enhanced the viral infectivity by activating Ec-JNK1 which in turn drastically inhibited the antiviral responses of type 1 IFN, indicating that Ec-JNK1 could be involved in blocking IFN signaling during SGIV infection. In addition, Ec-JNK1 enhanced the activation of AP-1, p53, and NF-κB, and resulted in increasing the levels of SGIV-induced cell death. The caspase 3-dependent activation correlated with the phosphorylation of Ec-JNK1 and contributed to SGIV-induced apoptosis. Taken together, SGIV modulated the phosphorylation of Ec-JNK1 to inactivate the antiviral signaling, enhance the SGIV-induced apoptosis and activate transcription factors for efficient infection and replication. The "positive cooperativity" molecular mechanism mediated by Ec-JNK1 contributes to the successful evasion and infection of iridovirus pathogenesis.

  14. c-Jun N-terminal kinases 3 (JNK3) from orange-spotted grouper, Epinephelus coioides, inhibiting the replication of Singapore grouper iridovirus (SGIV) and SGIV-induced apoptosis.

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    Guo, Minglan; Wei, Jingguang; Zhou, Yongcan; Qin, Qiwei

    2016-12-01

    C-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNKs), a subgroup of serine-threonine protein kinases that activated by phosphorylation, are involve in physiological and pathophysiological processes. JNK3 is one of JNK proteins involved in JNK3 signaling transduction. In the present study, two JNK3 isoforms, Ec-JNK3 X1 and Ec-JNK3 X2, were cloned from orange-spotted grouper, Epinephelus coioides. Both Ec-JNK3 X1 and Ec-JNK3 X2 were mainly expressed in liver, gill, skin, brain and muscle of juvenile grouper. The relative expression of Ec-JNK3 X2 mRNA was much higher in muscle and gill than that of Ec-JNK3 X1. Isoform-specific immune response to challenges was revealed by the expression profiles in vivo. Immunofluorescence staining indicated that JNK3 was localized in the cytoplasm of grouper spleen (GS) cells and shown immune response to SGIV infection in vitro. Over-expressing Ec-JNK3 X1 and/or Ec-JNK3 X2 inhibited the SGIV infection and replication and the SGIV-induced apoptosis. To achieve the antiviral and anti-apoptosis activities, JNK3 promoted the activation of genes ISRE and type I IFN in the antiviral IFN signaling pathway, and inhibited the activation of transcription factors NF-κB and p53 relating to apoptosis, respectively. Ec-JNK3 X2 showed stronger activities in antivirus and anti-apoptosis than that of Ec-JNK3 X1. Our results not only define the characterization of JNK3 but also reveal new immune functions and the molecular mechanisms of JNK3 on iridoviruses infection and the virus-induced apoptosis.

  15. Dietary sodium alginate administration affects fingerling growth and resistance to Streptococcus sp. and iridovirus, and juvenile non-specific immune responses of the orange-spotted grouper, Epinephelus coioides.

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    Yeh, Shinn-Pyng; Chang, Chen-An; Chang, Chi-Yao; Liu, Chun-Hung; Cheng, Winton

    2008-07-01

    The percent weight gain (PWG) and feeding efficiency (FE) of fingerling orange-spotted grouper, Epinephelus coioides, fed diets containing sodium alginate at 1.0 and 2.0 g kg(-1) were calculated on the 2nd, 4th, 6th, and 8th weeks after feeding. Survival rates of the fingerling grouper against Streptococcus sp. and an iridovirus, and non-specific immune parameters such as alternative complement activity (ACH50), lysozyme activity, natural haemagglutination activity, respiratory bursts, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, and phagocytic activity of juvenile grouper were also determined when the fish were fed diets containing sodium alginate at 0.5, 1.0, or 2.0 g kg(-1). The PWG and FE of fish were better when the fish were fed diets containing sodium alginate at 1.0, and 1.0 and 2.0 g kg(-1), respectively. The PWG and FE of fish fed the 0, 1.0 and 2.0 g kg(-1) sodium alginate-containing diets after 8 weeks were 271.0%, 454.4% and 327.8%, and 0.61, 0.72 and 0.68, respectively. Fish fed a diet containing sodium alginate at the level of 2.0 g kg(-1) had a significantly higher survival rate than those fed the control diet after challenge with Streptococcus sp. and an iridovirus causing an increase of survival rate by 25.0% and 16.7%, respectively, compared to the control group. The ACH(50) level of fish fed the sodium alginate-containing diets at 2.0 g kg(-1) was significantly higher than those fed the 1.0 g kg(-1) sodium alginate diet and control diet after 12 days, and had increased to 1.9-fold, compared to those fed the control diet. The lysozyme activity, phagocytic activity, respiratory bursts, and SOD level of fish fed the sodium alginate-containing diets at 1.0 and 2.0 g kg(-1) were significantly higher than those fed the control diet after 12 days, and had increased to 1.97- and 1.68-fold, 1.35- and 1.50-fold, 1.63- and 1.81-fold, and 1.23- and 1.31-fold, respectively, compared to those fed the control diet. We therefore recommend dietary sodium alginate

  16. Complete Genome Sequence of a Giant Sea Perch Iridovirus in Kaohsiung, Taiwan

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    Hong, Jiann-Ruey

    2016-01-01

    We report here the complete genome sequence of a megalocytivirus strain, GSIV-K1, isolated from a farmed giant sea perch (Lates calcarifer) in Kaohsiung, Taiwan. GSIV-K1 causes mortality in farmed marine fish, including giant sea perch and groupers. The genome sequence is nearly identical to the genome of the orange-spotted grouper iridovirus. PMID:27125488

  17. Cloning and Sequence Analysis of Capsid Protein Gene of Iridovirus Indonesian Isolates

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    Murwantoko .

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available generated by an Adobe application 11.5606 Iridovirus was known as agents that caused serious systemic disease in freshwater and marine fishes. The mortality up to 100% of orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides due to iridovirus infection has been reported in Indonesia. The gene encoding capsid protein of iridovirus is supposed to be conserved and has the potency for the development of control methods. The objectives of this study are to clone the gene encoding capsid protein iridovirus and to analyze their sequences. The   spleen tissues of orange-spotted grouper were collected and extracted their DNA. The DNA fragment of capsid protein of iridovirus genes were amplified by PCR using designed primers with the extraction DNA as templates. The amplified DNA fragments were cloned in pBSKSII and sequenced.  The genes encoding capsid protein of iridovirus from Jepara and Bali were successfully amplified and cloned. The Jepara clone (IJP03 contained complete open reading frame (ORF of the gene composed by 1362 bp nucleotides which encoded 453 amino acids. Those Jepara and Bali (IGD01 clones shared 99.8% similarity in nucleotide level and 99.4% at amino acid level. Based on those sequences, Indonesian iridovirus was belonged to genus Megalocystivirus and shared 99,6-99,9% similarity on nucleotide level with DGIV, ISKNV, MCIV, and ALIV Normal 0 36 false false false

  18. Molecular cloning and characterization of c-type lysozyme gene in orange-spotted grouper, Epinephelus coioides.

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    Wei, Shina; Huang, Youhua; Cai, Jia; Huang, Xiaohong; Fu, Jing; Qin, Qiwei

    2012-08-01

    Lysozymes are key proteins of the host innate immune system against pathogen infection. In this study, a c-type lysozyme gene (Ec-lysC) was cloned and characterized from orange-spotted grouper, Epinephelus coioides. The full-length Ec-lysC cDNA is composed of 533 bp and encodes a polypeptide of 144-residue protein with 94% identity to lysC of Kelp grouper, Epinephelus bruneus. The genomic DNA of Ec-lysC consists of 4 exons and 3 introns, with a total length of 1897 bp. Amino acid sequence alignment showed that Ec-lysC possessed conserved catalytic residues (Glu50 and Asp67) and "GSTDYGIFQINS" motif. RT-PCR results showed that Ec-lysC transcript was most abundant in head kidney and less in muscle. The expression of Ec-lysC was differentially up-regulated in head kidney after stimulation with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), Vibrio alginolyticus and Singapore grouper iridovirus (SGIV). Subcellular localization analysis revealed that Ec-lysC was distributed predominantly in the cytoplasm. The recombinant Ec-lysC (rEc-lysC) had lytic activities against Gram-positive bacteria Micrococcus lysodeikticus, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus iniae and Gram-negative bacteria V. alginolyticus. The lysozyme acted on M. lysodeikticus cell walls as shown by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Furthermore, overexpression of Ec-lysC in grouper cells delayed the occurrence of CPE induced by SGIV and inhibited the viral gene transcription significantly. Taken together, Ec-lysC might play an important role in grouper innate immune responses to invasion of bacterial and viral pathogens. C-type lysozyme gene from E. coioides (Ec-lysC) was identified and characterized.

  19. Comparative genomic analysis of the family Iridoviridae: re-annotating and defining the core set of iridovirus genes

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    Upton Chris

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Members of the family Iridoviridae can cause severe diseases resulting in significant economic and environmental losses. Very little is known about how iridoviruses cause disease in their host. In the present study, we describe the re-analysis of the Iridoviridae family of complex DNA viruses using a variety of comparative genomic tools to yield a greater consensus among the annotated sequences of its members. Results A series of genomic sequence comparisons were made among, and between the Ranavirus and Megalocytivirus genera in order to identify novel conserved ORFs. Of these two genera, the Megalocytivirus genomes required the greatest number of altered annotations. Prior to our re-analysis, the Megalocytivirus species orange-spotted grouper iridovirus and rock bream iridovirus shared 99% sequence identity, but only 82 out of 118 potential ORFs were annotated; in contrast, we predict that these species share an identical complement of genes. These annotation changes allowed the redefinition of the group of core genes shared by all iridoviruses. Seven new core genes were identified, bringing the total number to 26. Conclusion Our re-analysis of genomes within the Iridoviridae family provides a unifying framework to understand the biology of these viruses. Further re-defining the core set of iridovirus genes will continue to lead us to a better understanding of the phylogenetic relationships between individual iridoviruses as well as giving us a much deeper understanding of iridovirus replication. In addition, this analysis will provide a better framework for characterizing and annotating currently unclassified iridoviruses.

  20. Complete sequence determination of a novel reptile iridovirus isolated from soft-shelled turtle and evolutionary analysis of Iridoviridae

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    Wang Xiujie

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Soft-shelled turtle iridovirus (STIV is the causative agent of severe systemic diseases in cultured soft-shelled turtles (Trionyx sinensis. To our knowledge, the only molecular information available on STIV mainly concerns the highly conserved STIV major capsid protein. The complete sequence of the STIV genome is not yet available. Therefore, determining the genome sequence of STIV and providing a detailed bioinformatic analysis of its genome content and evolution status will facilitate further understanding of the taxonomic elements of STIV and the molecular mechanisms of reptile iridovirus pathogenesis. Results We determined the complete nucleotide sequence of the STIV genome using 454 Life Science sequencing technology. The STIV genome is 105 890 bp in length with a base composition of 55.1% G+C. Computer assisted analysis revealed that the STIV genome contains 105 potential open reading frames (ORFs, which encode polypeptides ranging from 40 to 1,294 amino acids and 20 microRNA candidates. Among the putative proteins, 20 share homology with the ancestral proteins of the nuclear and cytoplasmic large DNA viruses (NCLDVs. Comparative genomic analysis showed that STIV has the highest degree of sequence conservation and a colinear arrangement of genes with frog virus 3 (FV3, followed by Tiger frog virus (TFV, Ambystoma tigrinum virus (ATV, Singapore grouper iridovirus (SGIV, Grouper iridovirus (GIV and other iridovirus isolates. Phylogenetic analysis based on conserved core genes and complete genome sequence of STIV with other virus genomes was performed. Moreover, analysis of the gene gain-and-loss events in the family Iridoviridae suggested that the genes encoded by iridoviruses have evolved for favoring adaptation to different natural host species. Conclusion This study has provided the complete genome sequence of STIV. Phylogenetic analysis suggested that STIV and FV3 are strains of the same viral species belonging to the

  1. Iridovirus disease in two ornamental tropical freshwater fishes: African lampeye and dwarf gourami.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudthongkong, Chaiwud; Miyata, Masato; Miyazaki, Teruo

    2002-04-05

    Many species of ornamental freshwater fishes are imported into Japan from all over the world. We found African lampeye Aplocheilichthys normani and dwarf gourami Colisa lalia suffering from an iridovirus infection just after being imported by tropical fish wholesalers from Singapore. African lampeye were cultured on the Indonesian Island of Sumatra and dwarf gourami were cultured in Malaysia before export. Diseased fishes displayed distinct histopathological signs of iridovirus infection: systemic appearance of inclusion body-bearing cells, and necrosis of splenocytes and hematopoietic cells. Electron microscopy revealed viral particles (African lampeye:180 to 200 nm in edge to edge diameter; dwarf gourami: 140 to 150 nm in diameter) in an inclusion body within the cytoplasm of inclusion body-bearing cells as well as in the cytoplasm of necrotized cells. Experimental infection with an iridovirus isolate from African lampeye (ALIV) revealed pathogenicity of ALIV to African lampeye and pearl gourami Trichogaster leeri. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) products from ALIV and an iridovirus isolate from dwarf gourami (DGIV) using iridovirus-specific primers were indistinguishable. The nucleotide sequence of PCR products derived from ALIV (696 base pairs) and DGIV (701 base pairs) had 95.3% identity. These results indicate that ALIV and DGIV have a single origin.

  2. Molecular cloning, expression and functional analysis of ISG15 in orange-spotted grouper, Epinephelus coioides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiaohong; Huang, Youhua; Cai, Jia; Wei, Shina; Ouyang, Zhengliang; Qin, Qiwei

    2013-05-01

    Interferon-stimulated gene 15 (ISG15) is an ubiquitin homolog that is significantly induced by type I interferons or viral infections. Groupers, Epinephelus spp. being maricultured in China and Southeast Asian countries, always suffer from virus infection, including iridovirus and nodavirus. To date, the roles of grouper genes, especially interferon related genes in virus infection remained largely unknown. Here, the ISG15 homolog (EcISG15) was cloned from grouper Epinephelus coioides and its immune response to Singapore grouper iridovirus (SGIV) and grouper nervous necrosis virus (GNNV) was investigated. The full-length EcISG15 cDNA was composed of 948 bp and encoded a polypeptide of 155 amino acids with 37-68% identity with the known ISG15 homologs from other fish species. Amino acid alignment analysis indicated that EcISG15 contained two ubiquitin-like (UBL) domains and an Ub-conjugation domain (LRGG). Expressional analysis showed that EcISG15 was dramatically induced by GNNV infection, poly I:C or poly dA-dT treatment, but no obvious changes were observed during SGIV infection. Immunofluorescence assay showed that EcISG15 localized mainly in the cytoplasm of grouper cells in response to poly I:C stimulation or GNNV infection, but not in mock or SGIV infected cells. Western blot analysis indicated that the ISGylation was absent in SGIV-infected cells, but significantly enhanced in GNNV-infected or poly I:C transfected cells, suggesting that EcISG15 might play different roles in SGIV and GNNV infection. Furthermore, overexpression of EcISG15 in vitro inhibited the transcription of GNNV genes significantly. Taken together, the results indicated that fish ISG15 might exert important roles against RNA virus infection.

  3. Invertebrate Iridovirus Modulation of Apoptosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Trevor Williams; Nllesh S. Chitnis; Sh(a)n L. Bilimoria

    2009-01-01

    Programmed cell death (apoptosis) is a key host response to virus infection. Viruses that can modulate host apoptotic responses are likely to gain important opportunities for transmission. Here we review recent studies that demonstrate that particles of Invertebrate iridescent virus 6 (IIV-6) (Iridoviridae, genus Iridovirus), or an IIV-6 virion protein extract, are capable of inducing apoptosis in lepidopteran and coleopteran cells, at concentrations 1000-fold lower than that required to shut-off host macromolecular synthesis. Induction of apoptosis depends on endocytosis of one or more heat-sensitive virion component(s). Studies with a JNK inh ibitor(SP600125) indicated that the JNK signaling pathway is significantly involved in apoptosis in IIV-6 infections of Choristoneurafumiferana ceils. The genome of IIV-6 codes for an inhibitor of apoptosis iap gene (193R) that encodes a protein of 208 aa with 15% identity and 28% similarity in its amino acid sequence to IAP-3 from Cydia pomonella ganulovirus (CpGV). Transcription of IIV-6 iap did not require prior DNA or protein synthesis, indicating that it is an immediate-early class gene. Transient expression and gene knockdown studies have confirmed the functional nature of the IIV-6 iap gene. We present a tentative model for IIV-6 induction and inhibition of apoptosis in insect cells and discuss the potential applications of these findings in insect pest control.

  4. Molecular cloning and characterization of a galectin-1 homolog in orange-spotted grouper, Epinephelus coioides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiuli; Wei, Jingguang; Xu, Meng; Yang, Min; Li, Pingfei; Wei, Shina; Huang, Youhua; Qin, Qiwei

    2016-07-01

    As a member of animal lectin family, galectin has the functions of pathogen recognition, anti-bacteria and anti-virus. In the present study, a galectin-1 homolog (EcGel-1) from grouper (Epinephelus coioides) was cloned and its possible role in fish immunity was analyzed. The full length cDNA of EcGel-1 is 504 bp, including a 408 bp open reading frame (ORF) which encodes 135 amino acids with a molecular mass of 15.19 kDa. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis indicated that EcGel-1 was constitutively expressed in all analyzed tissues of healthy grouper. The expression of EcGel-1 in the spleen of grouper was differentially up-regulated challenged with Singapore grouper iridovirus (SGIV), poly (I:C), and LPS. EcGel-1 was abundantly distributed in the cytoplasm in GS cells. Recombinant EcGel-1(rEcGel-1) protein can make chicken erythrocyte aggregation, and combine with gram negative bacteria and gram positive bacteria in the presence of 2-Mercaptoethanol (β-ME). Taken together, the results showed that EcGel-1 may be an important molecule involved in pathogen recognition and pathogen elimination in the innate immunity of grouper.

  5. Intraerythrocytic iridovirus in central bearded dragons (Pogona vitticeps).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosset, Claire; Wellehan, James F X; Owens, Sean D; McGraw, Sabrina; Gaffney, Patricia M; Foley, Janet; Childress, April L; Yun, Susan; Malm, Kirsten; Groff, Joseph M; Paul-Murphy, Joanne; Weber, E Scott

    2014-05-01

    Three adult central bearded dragons (Pogona vitticeps) originating from a commercial breeding facility presented with clinical signs, including anorexia, dehydration, white multifocal lesions on the dorsal aspect of the tongue, blepharospasm, and weight loss. In 1 of 3 lizards, a marked regenerative anemia was noted, and all 3 bearded dragons had erythrocytic intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies. Nine bearded dragons housed in contact also had identical, but fewer intraerythrocytic inclusions. Inclusion bodies examined by electron microscopy had particles consistent with iridoviruses. Attempts to culture the virus were unsuccessful; however, amplification and sequencing of regions of the viral DNA polymerase by polymerase chain reaction confirmed the presence of an iridovirus. One of the bearded dragons died, while the 2 others showing clinical signs were euthanized. The remaining 9 infected bearded dragons of the teaching colony were also euthanized. Postmortem examination revealed a moderate, multifocal, lymphoplasmacytic or mononuclear adenitis of the tongue in the 3 bearded dragons, and a lymphohistiocytic hepatitis with bacterial granulomas in 2 lizards. © 2014 The Author(s).

  6. RING domain is essential for the antiviral activity of TRIM25 from orange spotted grouper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ying; Huang, Youhua; Yu, Yepin; Yang, Min; Zhou, Sheng; Qin, Qiwei; Huang, Xiaohong

    2016-08-01

    Tripartite motif-containing 25 (TRIM25) has been demonstrated to exert crucial roles in the regulation of innate immune signaling. However, the roles of fish TRIM25 in antiviral immune response still remained uncertain. Here, a novel fish TRIM25 gene from orange spotted grouper (EcTRIM25) was cloned and its roles in grouper virus infection were elucidated. EcTRIM25 encoded a 734-aa protein which shared 68% identity to large yellow croaker (Larimichthys crocea). Amino acid alignment showed that EcTRIM25 contained three conserved domains, including a RING-finger domain, a B box/coiled-coil domain and a SPRY domain. In healthy grouper, the transcript of EcTRIM25 was predominantly detected in skin, spleen and intestine. After stimulation with Singapore grouper iridovirus (SGIV) or poly I:C, the relative expression of EcTRIM25 in grouper spleen was significantly increased at the early stage of injection. Subcellular localization analysis showed that EcTRIM25 distributed throughout the cytoplasm in grouper cells. Notably, the deletion RING domain affected its accurate localization and displayed microtubule like structures or bright aggregates in GS cells. After incubation with SGIV or red spotted grouper nervous necrosis virus (RGNNV), overexpression of full length of EcTRIM25 in vitro significantly decreased the viral gene transcription of SGIV and RGNNV. Consistently, the deletion of RING domain obviously affected the inhibitory effect of EcTRIM25. Furthermore, overexpression of EcTRIM25 significantly increased the expression level of interferon related signaling molecules, including interferon regulatory factor (IRF) 3, interferon-induced 35-kDa protein (IFP35), MXI, IRF7 and myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88), suggesting that the positive regulation of interferon immune response by EcTRIM25 might affected RGNNV replication directly. Meanwhile, the expression levels of pro-inflammation cytokines were differently regulated by the ectopic expression of EcTRIM25

  7. Molecular cloning and characterization of a new G-type lysozyme gene (Ec-lysG) in orange-spotted grouper, Epinephelus coioides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Shina; Huang, Youhua; Huang, Xiaohong; Cai, Jia; Wei, Jingguang; Li, Pengfei; Ouyang, Zhengliang; Qin, Qiwei

    2014-10-01

    Lysozyme acts as an innate immunity molecule against pathogen infection. In this study, a new G-type lysozyme gene with a typical G-type lysozyme domain (designated as Ec-lysG) was cloned and characterized from the orange-spotted grouper, Epinephelus coioides. The full-length Ec-lysG cDNA contains 1419 bp and encodes a 256-residue protein containing a 25-residue signal peptide at the N-terminus. BLAST analysis reveals Ec-lysG shares 64% identity with Siniperca chuatsi, but 63% to another reported G-type lysozyme from orange-spotted grouper (OSG-lysG). The genomic DNA of Ec-lysG contains four exons and three introns, with a total length of 2062 bp. An amino acid sequence alignment showed that Ec-lysG shares the fundamental structural features of G-type lysozyme, including the catalytic residues, substrate binding sites, and soluble lytic transglycosylase domain. Quantitative PCR showed that Ec-lysG transcript is most abundant in the head kidney, and less abundant in the heart. The expression of Ec-lysG was differentially upregulated in the head kidney after stimulation with lipopolysaccharide, Vibrio alginolyticus, and Singapore grouper iridovirus (SGIV). A subcellular localization analysis showed that Ec-lysG is distributed predominantly in the cytoplasm. Recombinant Ec-lysG (rEc-lysG) has optimal activity at pH 7.5 and 35°C. rEc-lysG showed lytic activities against Gram-positive bacterium Streptococcus iniae, Staphylococcus aureus, and Micrococcus lysodeikticus, and the Gram-negative bacterium V. alginolyticus. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed that rEc-lysG acts on M. lysodeikticus cell walls. The overexpression of Ec-lysG in grouper cells did not significantly delay the occurrence of the cytopathic effect (CPE) induced by SGIV, and did not inhibit viral gene transcription. In conclusion, Ec-lysG might be a potent antibacterial protein, with a role in innate immunity.

  8. Cloning, characterization, and expression analysis of a thioredoxin from orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Jingguang; Guo, Minglan; Ji, Huasong; Yan, Yang; Ouyang, Zhengliang; Huang, Xiaohong; Hang, Youhua; Qin, Qiwei

    2012-09-01

    Thioredoxins (TRXs) are a family of small, highly conserved proteins that are essential for the maintenance of cellular homeostasis. In this study, a thioredoxin gene was cloned from orange-spotted grouper, Epinephelus coioides (designated as Ec-TRX). The full-length cDNA of Ec-TRX was comprised of 767bp with a 327bp open reading frame that encodes a putative protein of 108 amino acids. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis revealed that the Ec-TRX mRNA was distributed abundantly in grouper, E. coioides skin and liver, and the expression in liver was up-regulated after viral challenge with Singapore grouper iridovirus (SGIV). Recombinant Ec-TRX (rEc-TRX) was expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) and purified for mouse anti-Ec-TRX serum preparation. The rEc-TRX fusion protein was demonstrated to possess the expected redox activity in enzymatic analysis, and scavenge free radicals and protect supercoiled DNA from oxidative damage induced by a metal-ion catalyzed oxidation reaction. Subcellular localization revealed that Ec-TRX was distributed in both cytoplasm and nucleus. Overexpression of Ec-TRX in grouper spleen (GS) cells could promote the growth of GS cells and inhibit the replication of SGIV. These results suggest that Ec-TRX could function as an important antioxidant in a physiological context, and perhaps is involved in the responses to viral challenge.

  9. Negative regulation of the antiviral response by grouper LGP2 against fish viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yepin; Huang, Youhua; Yang, Ying; Wang, Shaowen; Yang, Min; Huang, Xiaohong; Qin, Qiwei

    2016-09-01

    Laboratory of genetics and physiology 2 (LGP2), a member of RIG-I like receptor (RLR) family, plays crucial roles in modulating cellular antiviral response during viral infection. However, the detailed roles of LGP2 in different virus infection were controversial up to now. Here, we cloned a LGP2 gene from orange-spotted grouper (EcLGP2) and investigated its roles in response to grouper virus infection. EcLGP2 encoded a 678-aa protein which shared 83% identity to sea perch (Lateolabrax japonicas). Amino acid alignment showed that EcLGP2 contained three conserved domains, including a DEAD/DEAH box helicase domain, a helicase superfamily C-terminal domain and a C-terminal domain of RIG-I. In healthy grouper, the transcript of EcLGP2 could be predominantly detected in kidney, gill, fin, spleen and skin. Subcellular localization analysis showed that EcLGP2 distributed throughout the cytoplasm in grouper cells. Notably, the intracellular distribution of EcLGP2 was altered at the late stage of Singapore grouper iridovirus (SGIV) infection, but remained unchanged during red-spotted grouper nervous necrosis virus (RGNNV) infection. Moreover, overexpression of EcLGP2 in vitro significantly enhanced the viral replication of SGIV and RGNNV, evidenced by the acceleration of CPE occurrence and the up-regulation of the viral gene transcription or protein synthesis. Further studies indicated that overexpression of EcLGP2 decreased the expression level of interferon related molecules or effectors, including IRF3, IRF7, ISG15, IFP35, MXI, MXII, and MDA5, suggesting that the negative feedback of interferon immune response by EcLGP2 might contribute to the enhancement of RGNNV infection. Moreover, the expression levels of pro-inflammation cytokines, including IL-8 and TNFα were significantly decreased, but that of IL-6 was increased by the ectopic expression of EcLGP2. Thus, our results will contribute greatly to understanding the roles of fish LGP2 in innate immune response during

  10. Molecular identification of iridoviruses infecting various sturgeon species in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigarré, L; Lesne, M; Lautraite, A; Chesneau, V; Leroux, A; Jamin, M; Boitard, P M; Toffan, A; Prearo, M; Labrut, S; Daniel, P

    2017-01-01

    Iridoviridae are known to cause disease in sturgeons in North America. Here, histological and molecular methods were used to screen for this family of virus in sturgeons from various European farms with low-to-high morbidity. Some histological samples revealed basophilic cells in the gill and labial epithelia, strongly suggesting the accumulation of iridovirus particles. Newly developed generic PCR tests targeting the major capsid protein (MCP) gene of sturgeon iridoviruses identified in North America, namely the white sturgeon iridovirus and the Namao virus (NV), produced positive signals in most samples from four sturgeon species: Russian (Acipenser gueldenstaedtii), Siberian (A. baerii), Adriatic (A. naccarii) and beluga (Huso huso). The sequences of the PCR products were generally highly similar one another, with nucleotide identities greater than 98%. They were also related to (74-88%), although distinct from, American sturgeon iridoviruses. These European viruses were thus considered variants of a single new virus, provisionally named Acipenser iridovirus-European (AcIV-E). Moreover, three samples infected with AcIV-E showed genetic heterogeneity, with the co-existence of two sequences differing by five nucleotides. One of our European samples carried a virus distinct from AcIV-E, but closely related to NV identified in Canada (95%). This study demonstrates the presence of two distinct sturgeon iridoviruses in Europe: a new genotype AcIV-E and an NV-related virus.

  11. Natural invertebrate hosts of iridoviruses (Iridoviridae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Trevor [Instituto de Ecologia A.C., Veracruz (Mexico)]. E-mail: trevor.williams@inecol.edu.mx

    2008-11-15

    Invertebrate iridescent viruses (IIVs) are icosahedral DNA viruses that infect invertebrates, mainly insects and terrestrial isopods, in damp and aquatic habitats. Exhaustive searches of databases resulted in the identification of 79 articles reporting 108 invertebrate species naturally infected by confirmed or putative iridoviruses. Of these, 103 (95%) were arthropods and the remainder were molluscs, an annelid worm and a nematode. Nine species were from marine habitats. Of the 99 non-marine species, 49 were from terrestrial habitats and 50 were aquatic, especially the aquatic stages of Diptera (44 species). The abundance of records from species of Aedes, Ochlerotatus and Psorophora contrasts markedly with a paucity of records from species of Anopheles, Culex and Culiseta. Records from terrestrial isopods are numerous (19 species), although the diversity of IIVs that infect them is mostly unstudied. IIV infections have been reported from every continent, except Antarctica, but there are few records from Africa, southern Asia and Latin America. Most reports describe patent IIV infections as rare whereas inapparent (covert) infection may be common in certain species. The relationship between particle size and iridescent colour of the host is found to be consistent with optical theory in the great majority of cases. Only 24 reported IIVs from insect hosts have partial characterization data and only two have been subjected to complete genome sequencing. I show that the rate of publication on IIVs has slowed from 1990 to the present, and I draw a number of conclusions and suggestions from the host list and make recommendations for future research efforts. (author)

  12. Construction and Characterization of a Recombinant Invertebrate Iridovirus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ozgen, A.; Muratoglu, H.; Demirbag, Z.; Vlak, J.M.; Oers, van M.M.; Nalcacioglu, R.

    2014-01-01

    Chilo iridescent virus (CIV), officially named Insect iridescent virus 6 (IIV6), is the type species of the genus Iridovirus (family Iridoviridae). In this paper we constructed a recombinant CIV, encoding the green fluorescent protein (GFP). This recombinant can be used to investigate viral replicat

  13. Molecular cloning, characterization of one key molecule of teleost innate immunity from orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides): serum amyloid A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Jingguang; Guo, Minglan; Ji, Huasong; Qin, Qiwei

    2013-01-01

    The orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides), a favorite marine food fish, is widely cultured in China and Southeast Asian countries. However, little is known about its acute phase response (APR) caused by viral diseases. Serum amyloid A (SAA) is a major acute phase protein (APP). In this study, a new SAA homologous (EcSAA) gene was cloned from grouper, E. coioides, by rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) PCR. The full-length cDNA sequence of SAA was 508 bp and contained a 363 bp open reading frame (ORF) coding for a protein of 121 aa. Similar to other fish known SAA genes, the EcSAA gene contained four exons and three introns. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis revealed that EcSAA mRNA is predominately expressed in liver and gill of grouper. Furthermore, the expression of EcSAA was differentially up-regulated in liver after infection with Staphyloccocus aureus, Vibrio vulnificus, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Singapore grouper iridovirus (SGIV). Recombinant EcSAA (rEcSAA) was expressed in Escherichia BL21 (DE3) and purified for mouse anti-EcSAA serum preparation. The rEcSAA fusion protein was demonstrated to bind to all tested bacteria and yeast, and inhibit the replication of SGIV. Overexpression of EcSAA in grouper spleen (GS) cells could also inhibit the replication of SGIV. These results suggest that EcSAA may be an important molecule in the innate immunity of grouper.

  14. Characterization of LPS-induced TNFα factor (LITAF) from orange-spotted grouper, Epinephelus coioides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Jia; Huang, Youhua; Wei, Shina; Ouyang, Zhengliang; Huang, Xiaohong; Qin, Qiwei

    2013-12-01

    Lipopolysaccharide-induced TNFα factor (LITAF) is an important transcription factor that mediates cell apoptosis and inflammatory response. In the present study, we cloned and characterized a LITAF gene from orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides) (Ec-LITAF). Ec-LITAF encoded a predicted 142 amino acid protein which shared 74% identity to sablefish (Anoplopoma fimbria) LITAF homolog. Multiple amino acid alignment showed that Ec-LITAF contained a typical LITAF domain with two CXXC motifs. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that Ec-LITAF was closely related to that of sablefish. Ec-LITAF mRNA was widely expressed in different tissues and its expression level in spleen was up-regulated after Singapore grouper iridovirus (SGIV) infection. Subcellular localization analysis revealed that the distribution of Ec-LITAF showed diffuse and aggregated patterns in cytoplasm. Interestingly, the distribution of Ec-LITAF overlayed with a viral LITAF homolog (vLITAF) encoded by SGIV. Overexpression of Ec-LITAF in vitro up-regulated the expression of tumor necrosis factors (TNF1 and TNF2) and TNF receptors (TNFR1 and TNFR2), and the expression of itself initiated apoptosis in fish cells. In addition, overexpression of Ec-LITAF not only accelerated SGIV infection induced CPE and cell death, but also increased viral gene transcription. Taken together, our data suggested that Ec-LITAF might play crucial roles during SGIV replication.

  15. Isolation of an iridovirus from pike-perch Stizostedion lucioperca

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tapiovaara, H.; Olesen, Niels Jørgen; Linden, J.;

    1998-01-01

    (epizootic haematopoietic necrosis) virus, sheatfish iridovirus and cod iridovirus. The pathogenicity of the virus isolate was studied by inoculation into juvenile rainbow trout Oncorhyncus mykiss. Experimental infection under aquarium conditions suggested that the virus is apathogenic to rainbow trout....... The infective virus could be recovered from the viscera of inoculated fish during the first week post-infection, after which the proportion of virus-positive fish declined over time. A small proportion of the fish still carried the virus 24 d post-inoculation.......We have isolated a large virus from pike-perch Stizostedion lucioperca fingerlings with no signs of disease. The biochemical, structural, and serological properties of this newly isolated virus suggest that it belongs to the family Iridoviridae. The virus multiplied and was cytopathogenic...

  16. Molecular clone and characterization of c-Jun N-terminal kinases 2 from orange-spotted grouper, Epinephelus coioides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Minglan; Wei, Jingguang; Zhou, Yongcan; Qin, Qiwei

    2016-02-01

    c-Jun N-terminal kinase 2 (JNK2) is a multifunctional mitogen-activated protein kinases involving in cell differentiation and proliferation, apoptosis, immune response and inflammatory conditions. In this study, we reported a new JNK2 (Ec-JNK2) derived from orange-spotted grouper, Epinephelus coioides. The full-length cDNA of Ec-JNK2 was 1920 bp in size, containing a 174 bp 5'-untranslated region (UTR), 483 bp 3'-UTR, and a 1263 bp open reading frame (ORF), which encoded a putative protein of 420 amino acids. The deduced protein sequence of Ec-JNK2 contained a conserved Thr-Pro-Tyr (TPY) motif in the domain of serine/threonine protein kinase (S-TKc). Ec-JNK2 has been found to involve in the immune response to pathogen challenges in vivo, and the infection of Singapore grouper iridovirus (SGIV) in vitro. Immunofluorescence staining showed that Ec-JNK2 was localized in the cytoplasm of grouper spleen (GS) cells, and moved to the nucleus after infecting with SGIV. Ec-JNK2 distributed in all immune-related tissues examined. After challenging with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), SGIV and polyriboinosinic polyribocytidylic acid (poly I:C), the mRNA expression of Ec-JNK2 was significantly (P orange-spotted grouper. Over-expressing Ec-JNK2 in fathead minnow (FHM) cells increased the SGIV infection and replication, while over-expressing the dominant-negative Ec-JNK2Δ181-183 mutant decreased it. These results indicated that Ec-JNK2 could be an important molecule in the successful infection and evasion of SGIV.

  17. Grouper TRIM13 exerts negative regulation of antiviral immune response against nodavirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Youhua; Yang, Min; Yu, Yepin; Yang, Ying; Zhou, Linli; Huang, Xiaohong; Qin, Qiwei

    2016-08-01

    The tripartite motif (TRIM)-containing proteins have attracted particular attention to their multiple functions in different biological processes. TRIM13, a member of the TRIM family, is a RING domain-containing E3 ubiquitin ligase which plays critical roles in diverse cellular processes including cell death, cancer and antiviral immunity. In this study, a TRIM13 homolog from orange spotted grouper, Epinephelus coioides (EcTRIM13) was cloned and characterized. The full-length of EcTRIM13 cDNA encoded a polypeptide of 399 amino acids which shared 81% identity with TRIM13 homolog from large yellow croaker (Larimichthys crocea). Amino acid alignment analysis showed that EcTRIM13 contained conserved RING finger and B-box domain. Expression patterns analysis indicated that EcTRIM13 was abundant in liver, spleen, kidney, intestine and gill. Moreover, the transcript of EcTRIM13 in grouper spleen was differently regulated after injection with Singapore grouper iridovirus (SGIV) or polyinosin-polycytidylic acid (poly I:C). Under fluorescence microscopy, we observed the tubular structure in wild type EcTRIM13 transfected cells, but the RING domain mutant resulted in the fluorescence distribution was changed and the bright punctate fluorescence was evenly situated throughout the cytoplasm, suggesting that the RING domain was essential for its accurate localization. Overexpression of EcTRIM13 in vitro obviously increased the replication of red spotted grouper nervous necrosis virus (RGNNV), and the enhancing effect of EcTRIM13 on virus replication was affected by the RING domain. Furthermore, the ectopic expression of EcTRIM13 not only negatively regulated the interferon promoter activity induced by interferon regulator factor (IRF) 3, IRF7, and melanoma differentiation-associated protein 5 (MDA5), but also decreased the expression of several interferon related factors. In addition, the overexpression of EcTRIM13 also differently regulated the transcription of pro

  18. Molecular characterization and expression analysis of four isotypes of immunoglobulin light chain genes in orange-spotted grouper, Epinephelus coioides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ming-Shan; Cheng, Chao-An; Lin, Chih-Hung; Lee, Chiou-Yueh; Tseng, Shih-Jou; Tzeng, Chyng-Shyan; Chang, Chi-Yao

    2013-03-01

    To date, many immunoglobulin (Ig) genes have been identified in diverse teleost species, but the contributions of different types of light chain (IgL) to the immune response remain unclear. Screening of a stimulated kidney cDNA library from orange-spotted grouper (Osg, Epinephelus coioides) resulted in the identification of 26 full Ig light chain (OsgIgL) coding sequences. These 26 OsgIgLs encoded peptides from 235 to 248 amino acid residues and could be grouped into five variable (V(L)) and four constant (C(L)) isotypes. The C(L) regions contained three conserved cysteine residues that may participate in intra- or inter-chain disulfide bond formation. The four C(L) isotypes could be sub-grouped into two serological types: κ (C(L)-I, C(L)-II and C(L)-III) and σ (C(L)-IV), by phylogenetic analysis. The OsgIgL genes were found to be expressed in various tissues, with greatest levels of expression observed in the head-kidney and spleen. The major expression type was C(L)-I, which comprised 92% and 91% of total OsgIgL gene expression in the head-kidney and spleen, respectively. Transcription of all four C(L) isotypes was differentially affected in response to various immunostimulators, including lipopolysaccharide (LPS), poly I:C and grouper iridovirus (GIV). Induction of OsgIgL genes in response to immunostimulators was particularly dramatic in the spleen, suggesting this organ holds particular importance for the regulation of OsgIgL expression. Furthermore, vaccination of grouper with formalin-inactivated GIV also induced differential patterns of expression in all four OsgIgL isotypes. In summary, the significant and diverse patterns of transcriptional induction observed for OsgIgL isotypes in the spleen and head-kidney imply that each isotype may have unique roles in the immune response.

  19. Characterization of cathepsin B gene from orange-spotted grouper, Epinephelus coioides involved in SGIV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Shina; Huang, Youhua; Huang, Xiaohong; Cai, Jia; Yan, Yang; Guo, Chuanyu; Qin, Qiwei

    2014-01-01

    The lysosomal cysteine protease cathepsin B of papain family is a key regulator and signaling molecule that involves in various biological processes, such as the regulation of apoptosis and activation of virus. In the present study, cathepsin B gene (Ec-CB) was cloned and characterized from orange-spotted grouper, Epinephelus coioides. The full-length Ec-CB cDNA was composed of 1918 bp and encoded a polypeptide of 330 amino acids with higher identities to cathepsin B of teleosts and mammalians. Ec-CB possessed typical cathepsin B structural features including an N-terminal signal peptide, the propeptide region and the cysteine protease domain which were conserved in other cathepsin B sequences. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that Ec-CB was most closely related to Lutjanus argentimaculatus. RT-PCR analysis showed that Ec-CB transcript was expressed in all the examined tissues which abundant in spleen, kidney and gill. After challenged with Singapore grouper iridovirus (SGIV) stimulation, the mRNA expression of cathepsin B in E. coioides was up-regulated at 24 h post-infection. Subcellular localization analysis revealed that Ec-CB was distributed predominantly in the cytoplasm. When the fish cells (GS or FHM) were treated with the cathepsin B specific inhibitor CA-074Me, the occurrence of CPE induced by SGIV was delayed, and the viral gene transcription was significantly inhibited. Additionally, SGIV-induced typical apoptosis was also inhibited by CA-074Me in FHM cells. Taken together, our results demonstrated that the Ec-CB might play a functional role in SGIV infection.

  20. Identification and characterization of Rab7 from orange-spotted grouper, Epinephelus coioides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Jing; Huang, Youhua; Cai, Jia; Wei, Shina; Ouyang, Zhengliang; Ye, Fuzhou; Huang, Xiaohong; Qin, Qiwei

    2014-01-01

    Rab7 is a small GTPase that regulates vesicular traffic from early to late endosomal stages of the endocytic pathway. During the virus-host co-evolution, host Rab7 was also exploited by virus to complete their life cycle. To date, however, the roles of fish Rab7 in virus infection remained largely unknown. Here, we cloned and characterized a Rab7 gene from grouper, Epinephelus coioides (Ec-Rab7). The full-length Ec-Rab7 cDNA was composed of 1182 bp and encoded a polypeptide of 207 amino acids which shared 99% identity with that from Anoplopoma fimbria or Oreochromis niloticus. Ec-Rab7 contained five conserved domains of Rab GTPase family including GTP-binding or GTPase regions as well as an effector site. RT-PCR analysis revealed that Ec-Rab7 ubiquitously expressed in all detected tissues and its transcript in spleen was up-regulated after challenge with Singapore grouper iridovirus (SGIV). Subcellular localization analysis revealed that Ec-Rab7 was distributed in the cytoplasm as spots and mostly colocalized with lysosomes. Notably, the ectopic expressed Ec-Rab7 partly aggregated into the viral factories in cells infected by SGIV. Furthermore, overexpression of Ec-Rab7 accelerated the occurrence of cytopathic effect (CPE) induced by SGIV infection and promoted viral gene transcription. In addition, far western blotting assay revealed that Ec-Rab7 might interact with viral proteins, including SGIV VP69 and VP101. Taken together, our data suggested that Ec-Rab7 might be potentially involved in SGIV replication.

  1. Molecular cloning and characterization of two types of IκBα orthologues in orange-spotted grouper, Epinephelus coioides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Ren; Huang, Youhua; Huang, Xiaohong; Guan, Liya; Wei, Shina; Zhou, Yongcan; Qin, Qiwei

    2014-05-01

    Inhibitors of kappa B (IκBs) are the members of primary regulators of NF-κB, which can inhibit NF-κB activity by blocking the NF-κB in an inactive state in the cytoplasm. In this study, two types of IκBα orthologues (EcIκBαA and EcIκBαB) from orange-spotted grouper, Epinephelus coioides, were cloned and characterized. EcIκBαA and EcIκBαB encoded putative proteins containing 308 and 318 amino acids, which shared 59% and 53% identity to IκBαA and IκBαB of Danio rerio, respectively. Amino acid sequence alignment showed that both EcIκBαA and EcIκBαB contained a conserved degradation motif DSGLDS in the N-terminal region and a PEST sequence in the C-terminal region. In addition, EcIκBαA and EcIκBαB contained 5 and 6 ankyrin repeats, respectively. The genomic DNA of EcIκBαA and EcIκBαB consisted of 6 exons and 5 introns. Both of their transcripts were widely distributed in different tissues, and the expression levels were different in response to various stimuli, including lipopolysaccharide (LPS), Vibrio alginolyticus and Singapore grouper iridovirus (SGIV). Dual-luciferase reporter assay suggested that both EcIκBαA and EcIκBαB were able to inhibit Ecc-Rel and Ecp65 induced NF-κB promoter activity in grouper spleen (GS) cells. Subcellular localization analysis showed that EcIκBαB was present predominantly in the cytoplasm, while EcIκBαA was distributed throughout both the nucleus and the cytoplasm. Furthermore, overexpression of EcIκBαA and EcIκBαB in GS cells inhibited the viral gene transcriptions of MCP, ORF019 and ORF162 of SGIV. Taken together, our findings suggested that both EcIκBαA and EcIκBαB were involved in grouper innate immunity against virus.

  2. Lack of evidence for an association between Iridovirus and colony collapse disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokarz, Rafal; Firth, Cadhla; Street, Craig; Cox-Foster, Diana L; Lipkin, W Ian

    2011-01-01

    Colony collapse disorder (CCD) is characterized by the unexplained losses of large numbers of adult worker bees (Apis mellifera) from apparently healthy colonies. Although infections, toxins, and other stressors have been associated with the onset of CCD, the pathogenesis of this disorder remains obscure. Recently, a proteomics study implicated a double-stranded DNA virus, invertebrate iridescent virus (Family Iridoviridae) along with a microsporidium (Nosema sp.) as the cause of CCD. We tested the validity of this relationship using two independent methods: (i) we surveyed healthy and CCD colonies from the United States and Israel for the presence of members of the Iridovirus genus and (ii) we reanalyzed metagenomics data previously generated from RNA pools of CCD colonies for the presence of Iridovirus-like sequences. Neither analysis revealed any evidence to suggest the presence of an Iridovirus in healthy or CCD colonies.

  3. Lack of evidence for an association between Iridovirus and colony collapse disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafal Tokarz

    Full Text Available Colony collapse disorder (CCD is characterized by the unexplained losses of large numbers of adult worker bees (Apis mellifera from apparently healthy colonies. Although infections, toxins, and other stressors have been associated with the onset of CCD, the pathogenesis of this disorder remains obscure. Recently, a proteomics study implicated a double-stranded DNA virus, invertebrate iridescent virus (Family Iridoviridae along with a microsporidium (Nosema sp. as the cause of CCD. We tested the validity of this relationship using two independent methods: (i we surveyed healthy and CCD colonies from the United States and Israel for the presence of members of the Iridovirus genus and (ii we reanalyzed metagenomics data previously generated from RNA pools of CCD colonies for the presence of Iridovirus-like sequences. Neither analysis revealed any evidence to suggest the presence of an Iridovirus in healthy or CCD colonies.

  4. Diagnosis of nervous necrosis virus in orange-spotted grouper, Epinephelus coioides, by a rapid and convenient RT-PCR method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MU Yinnan; LIN Kebing; CHEN Xinhua; AO Jingqun

    2013-01-01

    Viral nervous necrosis (VNN) causes high mortality in marine fish, especially in the grouper, worldwide and in China. Since there is no effective vaccine or drug to deal with VNN, early detection and prevention is important to block its outbreak. In this study, a reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was developed for the rapid, convenient, and sensitive detection of the VNN pathogen, nervous necro-sis virus (NNV ), in the grouper. The whole process was completed within 3.5 h from the RNA extraction to PCR product visualization. The detection limit of this method was 200 copies of NNV RNA standard, which corresponded to 200 copies of virus particles. This RT-PCR method was specific to the NNV detection with no cross-reactivity to other fish viral disease pathogens, such as infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV ), infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV ), spring viraemia of carp virus (SVCV ), epizootic haematopoietic necrosis virus (EHNV ), and large yellow croaker iridovirus (LYCIV ). With this method, the orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides) fry from hatcheries with or without incidence of the VN-N epidemic in Fujian Province were detected. The results showed that all or 93%of the fry from the two hatcheries with incidence of the epidemic were diagnosed as positive, while 40%or 25%of fry from the t-wo hatcheries without the VNN epidemic were also detected as NNV positive, indicating that this RT-PCR method can be used for rapid, sensitive detection of NNV infection and applied in the VNN epidemic alert.

  5. Characterization of c-Jun from orange-spotted grouper, Epinephelus coioides involved in SGIV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Shina; Huang, Youhua; Huang, Xiaohong; Qin, Qiwei

    2015-03-01

    The nuclear phosphoprotein c-Jun is a member of the AP1 family of transcription activating complex, can be induced by various extracellular stimuli such as virus infection. In this study, the c-Jun gene (Ec-c-Jun) was cloned from orange-spotted grouper, Epinephelus coioides. The full-length Ec-c-Jun cDNA is composed of 2046 bp and encodes a polypeptide of 328 amino acids with 81% identity of zebrafish. Amino acid alignment analysis indicated that Ec-c-Jun contained three conserved domains including a transactivation domain (TAD), a DNA-binding domain (DBD) and leucine zipper domain (LZD). RT-PCR results showed that Ec-c-Jun transcript was most abundant in spleen, kidney, heart and gill. The expression of Ec-c-Jun was up-regulated after challenged with Singapore grouper iridovirus (SGIV). To investigate the roles of Ec-c-Jun during SGIV infection, we constructed its dominant-negative mutant (DN-Ec-c-Jun) by deleting the major TAD that lacks amino acids 3-122. Fluorescence microscopy observation revealed that Ec-c-Jun and DN-Ec-c-Jun were expressed predominantly in the nucleus in transfected cells. Interestingly, the green fluorescence of Ec-c-Jun was congregated and co-localized with virus assembly sites at the late stage of SGIV infection. However, in DN-Ec-c-Jun transfected cells, no virus assembly sites were observed, and the distribution of fluorescence remained unchanged. Moreover, overexpression of DN-Ec-c-Jun in vitro delayed the occurrence of CPE induced by SGIV infection and inhibited the virus gene transcription. In addition, ectopic expression of DN-Ec-c-Jun was able to inhibit SGIV induced c-Jun/AP1 promoter activity in GS cells. Thus, we proposed that c-Jun transcription factor was essential for SGIV replication in vitro. Our results will contribute to understanding the crucial roles of JNK signaling pathway in fish virus infection.

  6. 77 FR 42688 - Snapper-Grouper Fishery Off the Southern Atlantic States; Snapper-Grouper Management Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-20

    ... 17B to the FMP (75 FR 82280, December 30, 2010). Since then, golden tilefish have been assessed... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 622 RIN 0648-BC03 Snapper-Grouper Fishery Off the Southern Atlantic States; Snapper-Grouper Management Measures AGENCY: National Marine...

  7. Identification of orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides) interferon regulatory factor 3 involved in antiviral immune response against fish RNA virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Youhua; Huang, Xiaohong; Cai, Jia; OuYang, Zhengliang; Wei, Shina; Wei, Jingguang; Qin, Qiwei

    2015-02-01

    Interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3) is an important transcription factor which regulates the expression of interferon (IFN) and IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs) following virus recognition. In this study, a novel IRF3 gene was cloned from grouper Epinephelus coioides (EcIRF3) and its effects against Singapore grouper iridovirus (SGIV) and red spotted grouper nervous necrosis virus (RGNNV) was investigated. The full-length of EcIRF3 cDNA was composed of 2513 bp and encoded a polypeptide of 458 amino acids which shared 82% identity with European seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax). EcIRF3 contained three conserved domains including a DNA-binding domain (DBD), an IRF associated domain (IAD) and a serine-rich domain. Expression profile analysis revealed that EcIRF3 was abundant in head kidney, kidney, spleen and gill. Upon different stimuli in vitro, the transcript of EcIRF3 was significantly up-regulated after RGNNV infection or treatment with polyinosin-polycytidylic acid (poly I:C). During SGIV infection, the increase of the EcIRF3 transcription was only detected at the late stage, suggesting that EcIRF3 was differently regulated by different stimuli. Immune fluorescence assay indicated that the fluorescence signal of EcIRF3 was increased significantly after infection with RGNNV or treatment with poly I:C, but moderately at the late stage of SGIV infection. Reporter gene assay showed that EcIRF3 activated zebrafish type I IFN and type III IFN promoter in vitro. The viral gene transcription and virus production of RGNNV were significantly decreased in EcIRF3 overexpressing cells. However, the ectopic expression of EcIRF3 did not affect the gene transcription and virus production of SGIV. Moreover, the mRNA expression levels of type I IFN and IFN-inducible genes (MxI, ISG15 and ISG56) were increased in RGNNV infected EcIRF3 overexpressing cells compared to empty vector transfected cells. Together, our results demonstrated that IFN immune response mediated by grouper IRF3 was

  8. Transcriptomic analysis of the host response to an iridovirus infection in Chinese giant salamander, Andrias davidianus

    OpenAIRE

    Fan, Yuding; Chang, Ming Xian; Ma, Jie; LaPatra, Scott E.; Hu, Yi Wei; Huang, Lili; Nie, Pin; Zeng, Lingbing

    2015-01-01

    International audience; AbstractThe emergence of an infectious viral disease caused by the Chinese giant salamander iridovirus (GSIV) has led to substantial economic losses. However, no more molecular information is available for the understanding of the mechanisms associated with virus–host interaction. In this study, de novo sequencing was used to obtain abundant high-quality ESTs and investigate differentially-expressed genes in the spleen of Chinese giant salamanders that were either infe...

  9. The historical biogeography of groupers: Clade diversification patterns and processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ka Yan; Craig, Matthew Thomas; Choat, John Howard; van Herwerden, Lynne

    2016-07-01

    Groupers (family Epinephelidae) are a clade of species-rich, biologically diverse reef fishes. Given their ecological variability and widespread distribution across ocean basins, it is important to scrutinize their evolutionary history that underlies present day distributions. This study investigated the patterns and processes by which grouper biodiversity has been generated and what factors have influenced their present day distributions. We reconstructed a robust, time-calibrated molecular phylogeny of Epinephelidae with comprehensive (∼87%) species sampling, whereby diversification rates were estimated and ancestral ranges were reconstructed. Our results indicate that groupers originated in what is now the East Atlantic during the mid-Eocene and diverged successively to form six strongly supported main clades. These clades differ in age (late Oligocene to mid-Miocene), geographic origin (West Atlantic to West Indo-Pacific) and temporal-spatial diversification pattern, ranging from constant rates of diversification to episodes of rapid radiation. Overall, divergence within certain biogeographic regions was most prevalent in groupers, while vicariant divergences were more common in Tropical Atlantic and East Pacific groupers. Our findings reveal that both biological and geographical factors have driven grouper diversification. They also underscore the importance of scrutinizing group-specific patterns to better understand reef fish evolution.

  10. 75 FR 62762 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Socio-Economic Assessment of Snapper Grouper...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-13

    ...-Economic Assessment of Snapper Grouper Fisheries in the U.S. Caribbean AGENCY: National Oceanic and... demographic, cultural, economic, and social information about the snapper-grouper fisheries in the...

  11. Grouper: A Compact, Streamable Triangle Mesh Data Structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luffel, Mark [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States). Visualization and Usability Center (GVU); Gurung, Topraj [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States). Visualization and Usability Center (GVU); Lindstrom, Peter [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Rossignac, Jarek [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States). Visualization and Usability Center (GVU)

    2014-01-01

    Here, we present Grouper: an all-in-one compact file format, random-access data structure, and streamable representation for large triangle meshes. Similarly to the recently published SQuad representation, Grouper represents the geometry and connectivity of a mesh by grouping vertices and triangles into fixed-size records, most of which store two adjacent triangles and a shared vertex. Unlike SQuad, however, Grouper interleaves geometry with connectivity and uses a new connectivity representation to ensure that vertices and triangles can be stored in a coherent order that enables memory-efficient sequential stream processing. We also present a linear-time construction algorithm that allows streaming out Grouper meshes using a small memory footprint while preserving the initial ordering of vertices. In this construction, we show how the problem of assigning vertices and triangles to groups reduces to a well-known NP-hard optimization problem, and present a simple yet effective heuristic solution that performs well in practice. Our array-based Grouper representation also doubles as a triangle mesh data structure that allows direct access to vertices and triangles. Storing only about two integer references per triangle-i.e., less than the three vertex references stored with each triangle in a conventional indexed mesh format-Grouper answers both incidence and adjacency queries in amortized constant time. Our compact representation enables data-parallel processing on multicore computers, instant partitioning and fast transmission for distributed processing, as well as efficient out-of-core access. We demonstrate the versatility and performance benefits of Grouper using a suite of example meshes and processing kernels.

  12. The Molecular Biology of Frog Virus 3 and other Iridoviruses Infecting Cold-Blooded Vertebrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwang H. Yu

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Frog virus 3 (FV3 is the best characterized member of the family Iridoviridae. FV3 study has provided insights into the replication of other family members, and has served as a model of viral transcription, genome replication, and virus-mediated host-shutoff. Although the broad outlines of FV3 replication have been elucidated, the precise roles of most viral proteins remain unknown. Current studies using knock down (KD mediated by antisense morpholino oligonucleotides (asMO and small, interfering RNAs (siRNA, knock out (KO following replacement of the targeted gene with a selectable marker by homologous recombination, ectopic viral gene expression, and recombinant viral proteins have enabled researchers to systematically ascertain replicative- and virulence-related gene functions. In addition, the application of molecular tools to ecological studies is providing novel ways for field biologists to identify potential pathogens, quantify infections, and trace the evolution of ecologically important viral species. In this review, we summarize current studies using not only FV3, but also other iridoviruses infecting ectotherms. As described below, general principles ascertained using FV3 served as a model for the family, and studies utilizing other ranaviruses and megalocytiviruses have confirmed and extended our understanding of iridovirus replication. Collectively, these and future efforts will elucidate molecular events in viral replication, intrinsic and extrinsic factors that contribute to disease outbreaks, and the role of the host immune system in protection from disease.

  13. First complete and productive cell culture model for members of the genus Iridovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Costa, Susan M; Vigerust, David J; Perales-Hull, Marsha R; Lodhi, Sundus A; Viravathana, Polrit; Bilimoria, Shän L

    2012-11-01

    Chilo iridescent virus (CIV; the type strain of the genus Iridovirus) replicates productively in larvae of the boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis. This study focuses on characterizing productive infections of a boll weevil cell line, BRL-AG-3A (AG3A), starting with CIV reared in the waxworm, Galleria mellonella. We show that CIV can be continually and productively passaged to high titer in AG3A cells. The replication of larval-derived CIV in AG3A was analyzed by observing viral DNA replication and restriction endonuclease digestion profiles, morphogenesis, and infectivity using TCID(50) assays with AG3A as an indicator cell line. The data showed that virus passaged in the AG3A host is stable. AG3A cells are more efficient than previously utilized CF-124T cells from Choristoneura fumiferana. This system constitutes a superior model for cellular and molecular studies on CIV; it represents the first complete, productive cell culture model for the replication of CIV or any member of the genus Iridovirus.

  14. Diagnosis of iridovirus disease in spinefoot Siganus fuscescens%褐篮子鱼虹彩病毒病的诊断

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷燕; 戚瑞荣; 唐绍林; 肖洋; 马家好; 王雪鹏

    2014-01-01

    An unknown disease with massive mortality of 80% was studied in spinefoot Siganus fuscescens cultured in sea net cages in Dongshan County, Fujian Province from June to October. The morbid spinefoot from the cage bottom floating to the surface showed the symptoms of black body, rapid movement, and then slowstagnant, finally imbalance, even death. The postmortem examination revealed that morbid spinefoot had obviously swollen spleen and kidney with petechial haemorrhages, devoid of stomach, and bloody intestine. Epidemiological survey showed the disease had obvious infectious, and that no pathogenic bacteria and parasites were found from the organs inclu-ding liver, spleen and kidney. Many enlargement and necrosis cells were histopathologically observed in the liver, spleen and kidney. The specific products with predicted size were obtained from all diseased tissues by the primers designed according to the sequence of OIE. Comparative analysis of nucleotide sequences with the GenBank data-bases using Blast database network service indicated that the putative gene products from infected gobies shared 98. 6% identity with red sea bream iridovirus(RSIV), 97. 4% identity with grouper iridovirus(GIV)and 93. 2% i-dentity with infectious spleen and kidney necrosis virus ( ISKNV) . The phylogenetic tree was constructed based on neighbor-joining analyses of the MCP gene sequences, indicating that the pathogen in present study was a member of genus Megalocytivirus, named as tentative Siganus fuscescens iridovirus ( SFIV) .%对福建省东山县每年6-10月网箱养殖褐篮子鱼Siganus fuscescens暴发的不明原因疾病(死亡率达80%)进行了研究。濒死褐篮子鱼从网箱底层游至水面,主要症状是体色发黑,开始游动快,之后变慢,最后呈现游动失衡状态直至死亡。解剖可见脾脏和肾脏肿大、出血,胃肠空虚,肠道发红。通过对流行病学调查发现,该病具有明显的传染性,从病鱼肝脏、脾

  15. ASPECTS OF LEOPARD CORAL GROUPER (Plectropomus leopardus REPRODUCTION IN INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Retno Andamari

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Leopard coral grouper, Plectropomus leopardus is one of the most economically important finfish fish in Indonesia and the demand for the grouper is rapidly increasing in Asia and the Pacific. Grouper exports from Bali were 1,613 mt in 2001, 2,082 mt in 2002 and 2,861 mt in 2003. Understanding the reproductive biology of fishes is an important component in developing mariculture and in the management of capture fisheries. This study reports on the reproductive biology of 86 coral groupers collected from various locations in Indonesia. The length and weight of these fish were recorded and related to gonad development. There was a strong relationship between length and weight; weight being proportional to the length raised to the power (b value 3.2. As the value of b was greater than 3, this suggests that growth is allometric. Histological analysis 73% of the fish were immature, 19% were in transition from females to males, only 4% were male, and only 2 fish (2% had mature gonads: these were female. The sex of 2 fish could not be determined. From these data it can be seen that the leopard coralgrouper has asynchronous gonad development. The two fish that were mature contained 343,980 and 429,259 oocytes and three distinct sizes of oocytes could be found. This suggests that the grouper is a multiple spawner. If fish are required for brood stock, this study has shown that only those with a length greater than 35 cm in standard length should be taken from the wild.

  16. 75 FR 10693 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Resources of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-09

    ..., Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Resources of the South Atlantic; Trip Limit... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The snapper-grouper fishery of the South Atlantic is managed under the Fishery Management Plan for the Snapper- Grouper Resources of the South Atlantic (FMP). The FMP was prepared by...

  17. 75 FR 51001 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Snapper and Grouper Off the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-18

    ..., and South Atlantic; Snapper and Grouper Off the Southern Atlantic States AGENCY: National Marine... catch and discard mortality within the South Atlantic commercial hook-and-line snapper-grouper fishery... CFR 622 implementing the Fishery Management Plan for the Snapper-Grouper Fishery of the South...

  18. 75 FR 18427 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Fishery of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-12

    ..., Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Fishery of the South Atlantic; Closure AGENCY...-5308, e-mail Catherine.Bruger@noaa.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The snapper-grouper fishery of the South Atlantic is managed under the Fishery Management Plan for the Snapper- Grouper Fishery of...

  19. 77 FR 65356 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Fishery Off the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-26

    ..., Gulf of Mexico and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Fishery Off the Southern Atlantic States; Amendment... Plan (FMP) for the Snapper-Grouper Fishery of the South Atlantic (Amendment 18B) for review, approval... endorsement program for the commercial golden tilefish component of the snapper- grouper fishery;...

  20. 77 FR 8749 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Fishery of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-15

    ..., Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Fishery of the South Atlantic; Closure AGENCY...-824- 5305, email: Catherine.Bruger@noaa.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The snapper-grouper fishery of the South Atlantic is managed under the Fishery Management Plan for the Snapper- Grouper...

  1. Development of an Inactivated Iridovirus Vaccine Against Turbot Viral Reddish Body Syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN Tingjun; HU Xiuzhong; WANG Liyan; GENG Xiaofen; JIANG Guojian; YANG Xiuxia; YU Miaomiao

    2012-01-01

    Turbot (Scophthalmus maximus L.) reddish body iridovirus (TRBIV) was propagated in turbot fin cells (TF cells) and inactivated as the TRBIV vaccine with its protection efficiency evaluated in this study.TF cells were cultured in 10% bovine calf serum (BCS)-containing MEM medium (pH7.0) at 22 ℃,in which TRBIV propagated to a titer as high as 105.6 TCID50 mL-1.The TRBIV was inactivated with 0.1% formalin and formulated with 0.5% aluminum hydroxide.The inactivated vaccine caused neither cytopathogenic effect (CPE) on TF cells nor pathogenic effect on turbots.After being administered with the vaccine twice via muscle injection,the turbot developed high-tittered TRBIV neutralizing antibodies in a dose-dependent manner.The vaccine protected the turbot from dying with an immunoprotection rate of 83.3% as was determined via subcutaneous vaccination in the laboratory and 90.5% via bath vaccination in turbot farms,respectively.The inactivated vaccine was very immunogenic,efficiently preventing turbot from death.It holds the potential of being applied in aquaculture.

  2. Development of an inactivated iridovirus vaccine against turbot viral reddish body syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Tingjun; Hu, Xiuzhong; Wang, Liyan; Geng, Xiaofen; Jiang, Guojian; Yang, Xiuxia; Yu, Miaomiao

    2012-03-01

    Turbot ( Scophthalmus maximus L.) reddish body iridovirus (TRBIV) was propagated in turbot fin cells (TF cells) and inactivated as the TRBIV vaccine with its protection efficiency evaluated in this study. TF cells were cultured in 10% bovine calf serum (BCS)-containing MEM medium (pH7.0) at 22°C, in which TRBIV propagated to a titer as high as 105.6 TCID50 mL-1. The TRBIV was inactivated with 0.1% formalin and formulated with 0.5% aluminum hydroxide. The inactivated vaccine caused neither cytopathogenic effect (CPE) on TF cells nor pathogenic effect on turbots. After being administered with the vaccine twice via muscle injection, the turbot developed high-tittered TRBIV neutralizing antibodies in a dose-dependent manner. The vaccine protected the turbot from dying with an immunoprotection rate of 83.3% as was determined via subcutaneous vaccination in the laboratory and 90.5% via bath vaccination in turbot farms, respectively. The inactivated vaccine was very immunogenic, efficiently preventing turbot from death. It holds the potential of being applied in aquaculture.

  3. 77 FR 53776 - Snapper-Grouper Fishery of the South Atlantic; Accountability Measures and Commercial Closures...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-04

    ... Region FMP published March 16, 2010 (77 FR 15916). In part, the final rule for the Comprehensive ACL... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 622 RIN 0648-XC132 Snapper-Grouper Fishery of the South Atlantic; Accountability Measures and Commercial Closures for Two Snapper-Grouper...

  4. Advances in the study on nutrient requirements of grouper (Epinephelus sp.): a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Zhi; Liu, Yongjian; Mai, Kangsen; Tian, Lixia

    2005-04-01

    The paper reviews the recent advances in studying grouper nutrition requirement for the development of cost-effective and environmentally friendly artificial diets. It consists of seven parts: protein and amino acid, lipid and essential fatty acid, carbohydrate, vitamin, mineral, alternative protein source, broodstock and larval nutrition. The review provides some basic information for further investigation of nutrient requirements of groupers.

  5. Advances in the Study on Nutrient Requirements of Grouper (Epinephelus sp. ): a Review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO Zhi; LIU Yongjian; MAI Kangsen; TIAN Lixia

    2005-01-01

    The paper reviews the recent advances in studying grouper nutrition requirement for the development of cost-effective and environmentally friendly artificial diets. It consists of seven parts: protein and amino acid, lipid and essential fatty acid, carbohydrate, vitamin, mineral, alternative protein source, broodstock and larval nutrition. The review provides some basic information for further investigation of nutrient requirements of groupers.

  6. Ecology and conservation of dusky grouper (Epinephelidae in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Vinicius Condini

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The dusky grouper Epinephelus marginatus has a broad global distribution and is currently listed as an endangered species at the IUCN Red List. This species has large commercial and ecological importance, but only at the last decade the first studies were carried out on its bioecology at its southernmost distribution limit in Southwestern Atlantic. This region is largely formed by sand bottoms, where the occurrence of reefs and rocks are scarce. Rocky bottoms occur in the neritic region (along 20 to 30 m isobaths and in the jetties in the littoral region, and in both areas the dusky grouper occur frequently. Our studies showed that immature individuals (mean: 4 yrs of dusky groupers inhabiting rocky jetties in the littoral region represents an important economical incoming for artisanal fishermen, whereas adults (mean: 8 yrs are mostly caught at offshore banks 15-25 m deep by coastal fisheries. Microscopic analyses of gonads of littoral and neritic individuals suggest that the littoral region is a growing nursery area and the neritic is a reproductive site. Feeding ecology studies based on stomach content and stable isotopes showed that the species has an important role as top predators in both regions. Future studies on the residence time of immature individuals in the littoral using telemetry are fundamental to further understand the ecology of this endangered species in the Southwestern Atlantic and to help its fishing management and conservation.

  7. Anti-apoptotic genes Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL overexpression can block iridovirus serine/threonine kinase-induced Bax/mitochondria-mediated cell death in GF-1 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reshi, Latif; Wang, Hua-Ven; Hui, Cho-Fat; Su, Yu-Chin; Hong, Jiann-Ruey

    2017-02-01

    Although serine/threonine (ST) kinase is known to induce host cell death in GF-1 cells, it remains unclear how ST kinase induces mitochondrial function loss. In the present study, we addressed the issue of mitochondrial function loss by determining whether the Bcl-2 family members Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL can prevent ST kinase-induced cell death activity via interacting with the pro-apoptotic gene Bax. Grouper fin cells (GF-1) carrying EGFP-Bal-xL and EGFP-Bcl-2 fused genes were selected, established in cell culture, and used to examine the involvement of Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL overexpression in protection of GF-1 cells from the effects of the giant sea perch iridovirus (GSIV) ST kinase gene. Using the TUNEL assay, we found that EGFP-Bcl-2 and EGFP-Bcl-xL reduced GSIV ST kinase-induced apoptosis to 20% all at 24 h and 48 h post-transfection (pt). Also, Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL substantially reduced the percentage of cells with GSIV ST kinase-induced loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψps) at 24 and 48 hpt, respectively, and this reduction correlated with a 30% and 50% enhancement of host cell viability at 24 and 48 hpt as compared with vector control. Moreover, analysis of the effect of Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL interaction with Bax targeted to mitochondria during ST kinase expression at 48 hpt found that Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL also interacted with Bax to block cytochrome c release. Finally, Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL overexpression caused blockage of ST kinase function at 48 hpt, which was correlated with preventing caspase-9 and -3 cleavage and activation, thereby blocking downstream death signaling events. Taken together, our results suggest that the ST kinase-induced Bax/mitochondria-mediated cell death pathway can be blocked by the interaction of Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL with Bax to inhibit cytochrome c release during MMP loss. This rescue activity also correlated with inhibition of caspase-9 and -3 activation, thereby enhancing cell viability. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Iridovirus infections among Missouri River sturgeon: initial characterization, transmission, and evidence for establishment of a carrier state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurobe, T; MacConnell, E; Hudson, C; McDowell, T S; Mardones, F O; Hedrick, R P

    2011-03-01

    Iridovirus infections of the integument were associated with disease and mortality among hatchery-reared populations of juvenile pallid sturgeon Scaphirhynchus albus and shovelnose sturgeon S. platorynchus from the Missouri River. Virus-infected cells in the integument of fins and body were greatly enlarged, possessed pleomorphic and eccentric nuclei, and exhibited an amphophilic to eosinophilic staining of the cytoplasm in hematoxylin-and-eosin-stained sections. Virus particles found in the host cell cytoplasm were composed of an outer hexagonal capsid measuring 254 nm in diameter and surrounding a dense nucleoid. Despite numerous attempts, the virus could not be propagated on routine cell lines used in fish viral diagnostics or from established cell lines from white sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus, pallid sturgeon, or shovelnose sturgeon. Bath exposures of healthy juvenile pallid sturgeon to a crude extract or a 0.45-microm-filtered extract from the fins of infected fish resulted in transmission of the virus and mortality. At water temperatures of 15 degrees C, the first deaths occurred at approximately 1 month; mortality peaked between 50 and 60 d postexposure, after which surviving fish recovered. Presence of the virus was confirmed among dead and moribund pallid sturgeon by both histology and detection of viral DNA by polymerase chain reaction methods. Feeding of infected tissues and cohabitation with virus-infected shovelnose sturgeon also resulted in successful virus transmission to juvenile pallid sturgeon. Virus infections among experimentally exposed pallid sturgeon that recovered from clinical episodes persisted for at least 8.5 months, and these apparently healthy fish transmitted the virus and disease to juvenile pallid sturgeon by cohabitation. The newly described Missouri River sturgeon iridovirus (MRSIV) as found in pallid sturgeon and shovelnose sturgeon shares many properties with a group of iridoviruses associated with serious skin and gill

  9. Transmission of white sturgeon iridovirus in Kootenai River white sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drennan, John D; LaPatra, Scott E; Siple, Jack T; Ireland, Sue; Cain, Kenneth D

    2006-06-12

    It is thought that white sturgeon iridovirus (WSIV) is transmitted vertically from adult white sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus to progeny, and that wild adults are carriers of this virus. Based on this assumption, egg disinfection trials were initiated using wild Kootenai River white sturgeon. Over 2 consecutive years, post-fertilized eggs were disinfected with iodine at concentrations ranging from 0 to 400 ppm. Eggs were incubated and progeny were reared on either de-chlorinated municipal or Kootenai River water. Juvenile sturgeon (mean weight 3.0 g) from these treatment groups were then subjected to a density stress (15 or 20 g(-1)) to manifest WSIV disease in individuals harboring the virus. In Year 1, mortality in all groups ranged from 6 to 37% and the use of municipal water was shown to significantly improve survival. However, WSIV infection was not detected in fish from any of the treatment groups or controls, and therefore did not contribute to the observed mortality. In Year 2, all treatment and control groups reared on Kootenai River water tested positive for WSIV infection and exhibited mortality ranging from 59 to 94%, but fish from groups reared on municipal water did not test positive for WSIV infection. This shows that that vertical transmission did not occur in this study. Horizontal transmission played a significant role in WSIV infection, but the lack of infection in Year 1 suggests a cyclic occurrence of the virus in the Kootenai River system. Although survival tended to be better in iodine-treated groups, the effects of iodine treatment in relation to WSIV transmission remain unknown. An important finding is that not all wild white sturgeon broodstock yield WSIV-positive progeny.

  10. Effects of iridovirus-like agent on the cell-mediated immunity in sheatfish (Silurus glanis)--an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siwicki, A K; Pozet, F; Morand, M; Volatier, C; Terech-Majewska, E

    1999-09-01

    An iridovirus-like agent was tested for the first time in vitro on cell-mediated immunity in sheatfish (Silurus glanis). The influence of the iridovirus-like agent on pronephric macrophage metabolism was examined at two temperatures, 20 and 30 degrees C, by studying the respiratory burst activity stimulated by phorbol myristate acetate as well as the proliferative ability of lymphocytes stimulated by concanavalin A (ConA) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) measured by MTT assay. The results showed that the iridovirus-like agent decreased the macrophage activity at incubation temperatures of 20 and 30 degrees C. The highest inhibitory effect was observed at 30 degrees C. The proliferative ability of pronephric lymphocytes had a similar pattern. The results showed that applying a virus at the same time or after the mitogen at 20 and 30 degrees C decreased the lymphocyte proliferation that was stimulated by either ConA or LPS. The highest suppressive effect was observed when virus was applied 14 h after the mitogen. This preliminary in vitro study demonstrated a strong suppressive influence of the iridovirus-like agent on pronephric macrophage and lymphocyte activity in sheatfish.

  11. Large outbreaks of ciguatera after consumption of brown marbled grouper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Thomas Y K

    2014-07-11

    Brown marbled grouper (Epinephelus fuscoguttatus) is an apex predator from coral reefs of the Indo-Pacific region. All five published case series of ciguatera after consumption of brown marbled grouper were reviewed to characterize the types, severity and chronicity of ciguatera symptoms associated with its consumption. Three of these case series were from large outbreaks affecting over 100-200 subjects who had eaten this reef fish served at banquets. Affected subjects generally developed a combination of gastrointestinal, neurological and, less commonly, cardiovascular symptoms. Gastrointestinal symptoms occurred early and generally subsided in 1-2 days. Some neurological symptoms (e.g., paresthesia of four limbs) could last for weeks or months. Sinus bradycardia and hypotension occurred early, but could be severe and prolonged, necessitating the timely use of intravenous fluids, atropine and dopamine. Other cardiovascular and neurological features included atrial ectopics, ventricular ectopics, dyspnea, chest tightness, PR interval >0.2 s, ST segment changes, polymyositis and coma. Concomitant alcohol consumption was associated with a much higher risk of developing bradycardia, hypotension and altered skin sensation. The public should realize that consumption of the high-risk fish (especially the ciguatoxin-rich parts and together with alcohol use) and repeated ciguatoxin exposures will result in more severe and chronic illness.

  12. Restricted grouper reproductive migrations support community-based management

    KAUST Repository

    Waldie, Peter A.

    2016-03-09

    Conservation commonly requires trade-offs between social and ecological goals. For tropical small-scale fisheries, spatial scales of socially appropriate management are generally small—the median no-take locally managed marine area (LMMA) area throughout the Pacific is less than 1 km2. This is of particular concern for large coral reef fishes, such as many species of grouper, which migrate to aggregations to spawn. Current data suggest that the catchment areas (i.e. total area from which individuals are drawn) of such aggregations are at spatial scales that preclude effective community-based management with no-take LMMAs. We used acoustic telemetry and tag-returns to examine reproductive migrations and catchment areas of the grouper Epinephelus fuscoguttatus at a spawning aggregation in Papua New Guinea. Protection of the resultant catchment area of approximately 16 km2 using a no-take LMMA is socially untenable here and throughout much of the Pacific region. However, we found that spawning migrations were skewed towards shorter distances. Consequently, expanding the current 0.2 km2 no-take LMMA to 1–2 km2 would protect approximately 30–50% of the spawning population throughout the non-spawning season. Contrasting with current knowledge, our results demonstrate that species with moderate reproductive migrations can be managed at scales congruous with spatially restricted management tools.

  13. Restricted grouper reproductive migrations support community-based management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldie, Peter A; Almany, Glenn R; Sinclair-Taylor, Tane H; Hamilton, Richard J; Potuku, Tapas; Priest, Mark A; Rhodes, Kevin L; Robinson, Jan; Cinner, Joshua E; Berumen, Michael L

    2016-03-01

    Conservation commonly requires trade-offs between social and ecological goals. For tropical small-scale fisheries, spatial scales of socially appropriate management are generally small-the median no-take locally managed marine area (LMMA) area throughout the Pacific is less than 1 km(2). This is of particular concern for large coral reef fishes, such as many species of grouper, which migrate to aggregations to spawn. Current data suggest that the catchment areas (i.e. total area from which individuals are drawn) of such aggregations are at spatial scales that preclude effective community-based management with no-take LMMAs. We used acoustic telemetry and tag-returns to examine reproductive migrations and catchment areas of the grouper Epinephelus fuscoguttatus at a spawning aggregation in Papua New Guinea. Protection of the resultant catchment area of approximately 16 km(2) using a no-take LMMA is socially untenable here and throughout much of the Pacific region. However, we found that spawning migrations were skewed towards shorter distances. Consequently, expanding the current 0.2 km(2) no-take LMMA to 1-2 km(2) would protect approximately 30-50% of the spawning population throughout the non-spawning season. Contrasting with current knowledge, our results demonstrate that species with moderate reproductive migrations can be managed at scales congruous with spatially restricted management tools.

  14. Large Outbreaks of Ciguatera after Consumption of Brown Marbled Grouper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Y. K. Chan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Brown marbled grouper (Epinephelus fuscoguttatus is an apex predator from coral reefs of the Indo-Pacific region. All five published case series of ciguatera after consumption of brown marbled grouper were reviewed to characterize the types, severity and chronicity of ciguatera symptoms associated with its consumption. Three of these case series were from large outbreaks affecting over 100–200 subjects who had eaten this reef fish served at banquets. Affected subjects generally developed a combination of gastrointestinal, neurological and, less commonly, cardiovascular symptoms. Gastrointestinal symptoms occurred early and generally subsided in 1–2 days. Some neurological symptoms (e.g., paresthesia of four limbs could last for weeks or months. Sinus bradycardia and hypotension occurred early, but could be severe and prolonged, necessitating the timely use of intravenous fluids, atropine and dopamine. Other cardiovascular and neurological features included atrial ectopics, ventricular ectopics, dyspnea, chest tightness, PR interval >0.2 s, ST segment changes, polymyositis and coma. Concomitant alcohol consumption was associated with a much higher risk of developing bradycardia, hypotension and altered skin sensation. The public should realize that consumption of the high-risk fish (especially the ciguatoxin-rich parts and together with alcohol use and repeated ciguatoxin exposures will result in more severe and chronic illness.

  15. Gonad Histology and Spawning Pattern of the White Grouper (Epinephelus aeneus) from İskenderun Bay (Turkey)

    OpenAIRE

    Gökçe, Mahmut Ali; CENGİZLER, İbrahim; ÖZAK, A. Argun

    2014-01-01

    The gonad histology and spawning pattern of the white grouper (Epinephelus aeneus) were determined from fish sampled from commercial catches. Histological, microscopic and macroscopic techniques were used to examine the ovaries of E. aeneus. A six stage maturity scale based on morphology was proposed to classify ovarian development. The results showed that the white grouper has an asynchronous mode of ovarian development, and the histological study of oocyte development in the white grouper i...

  16. A standard deviation selection in evolutionary algorithm for grouper fish feed formulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai-Juan, Soong; Ramli, Razamin; Rahman, Rosshairy Abdul

    2016-10-01

    Malaysia is one of the major producer countries for fishery production due to its location in the equatorial environment. Grouper fish is one of the potential markets in contributing to the income of the country due to its desirable taste, high demand and high price. However, the demand of grouper fish is still insufficient from the wild catch. Therefore, there is a need to farm grouper fish to cater to the market demand. In order to farm grouper fish, there is a need to have prior knowledge of the proper nutrients needed because there is no exact data available. Therefore, in this study, primary data and secondary data are collected even though there is a limitation of related papers and 30 samples are investigated by using standard deviation selection in Evolutionary algorithm. Thus, this study would unlock frontiers for an extensive research in respect of grouper fish feed formulation. Results shown that the fitness of standard deviation selection in evolutionary algorithm is applicable. The feasible and low fitness, quick solution can be obtained. These fitness can be further predicted to minimize cost in farming grouper fish.

  17. Susceptibility of Chinese Perch Brain (CPB) Cell and Mandarin Fish to Red-Spotted Grouper Nervous Necrosis Virus (RGNNV) Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Jiagang; Chen, Wenjie; Fu, Xiaozhe; Lin, Qiang; Chang, Ouqin; Zhao, Lijuan; Lan, Jiangfeng; Li, Ningqiu; Lin, Li

    2016-05-19

    Nervous necrosis virus (NNV) is the causative agent of viral encephalopathy and retinopathy (VER), a neurological disease responsible for high mortality of fish species worldwide. Taking advantage of our established Chinese perch brain (CPB) cell line derived from brain tissues of Mandarin fish (Siniperca chuatsi), the susceptibility of CPB cell to Red-Spotted Grouper nervous necrosis virus (RGNNV) was evaluated. The results showed that RGNNV replicated well in CPB cells, resulting in cellular apoptosis. Moreover, the susceptibility of Mandarin fish to RGNNV was also evaluated. Abnormal swimming was observed in RGNNV-infected Mandarin fish. In addition, the cellular vacuolation and viral particles were also observed in brain tissues of RGNNV-infected Mandarin fish by Hematoxylin-eosin staining or electronic microscopy. The established RGNNV susceptible brain cell line from freshwater fish will pave a new way for the study of the pathogenicity and replication of NNV in the future.

  18. Susceptibility of Chinese Perch Brain (CPB Cell and Mandarin Fish to Red-Spotted Grouper Nervous Necrosis Virus (RGNNV Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiagang Tu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Nervous necrosis virus (NNV is the causative agent of viral encephalopathy and retinopathy (VER, a neurological disease responsible for high mortality of fish species worldwide. Taking advantage of our established Chinese perch brain (CPB cell line derived from brain tissues of Mandarin fish (Siniperca chuatsi, the susceptibility of CPB cell to Red-Spotted Grouper nervous necrosis virus (RGNNV was evaluated. The results showed that RGNNV replicated well in CPB cells, resulting in cellular apoptosis. Moreover, the susceptibility of Mandarin fish to RGNNV was also evaluated. Abnormal swimming was observed in RGNNV-infected Mandarin fish. In addition, the cellular vacuolation and viral particles were also observed in brain tissues of RGNNV-infected Mandarin fish by Hematoxylin-eosin staining or electronic microscopy. The established RGNNV susceptible brain cell line from freshwater fish will pave a new way for the study of the pathogenicity and replication of NNV in the future.

  19. Preparation of Modified Films with Protein from Grouper Fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Valdivia-López

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A protein concentrate (PC was obtained from Grouper fish skin and it was used to prepare films with different amounts of sorbitol and glycerol as plasticizers. The best performing films regarding resistance were then modified with various concentrations of CaCl2, CaSO4 (calcium salts, and glucono-δ-lactone (GDL with the purpose of improving their mechanical and barrier properties. These films were characterized by determining their mechanical properties and permeability to water vapor and oxygen. Formulations with 5% (w/v protein and 75% sorbitol and 4% (w/v protein with a mixture of 15% glycerol and 15% sorbitol produced adequate films. Calcium salts and GDL increased the tensile fracture stress but reduced the fracture strain and decreased water vapor permeability compared with control films. The films prepared represent an attractive alternative for being used as food packaging materials.

  20. Preparation of Modified Films with Protein from Grouper Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tecante, A.; Granados-Navarrete, S.; Martínez-García, C.

    2016-01-01

    A protein concentrate (PC) was obtained from Grouper fish skin and it was used to prepare films with different amounts of sorbitol and glycerol as plasticizers. The best performing films regarding resistance were then modified with various concentrations of CaCl2, CaSO4 (calcium salts), and glucono-δ-lactone (GDL) with the purpose of improving their mechanical and barrier properties. These films were characterized by determining their mechanical properties and permeability to water vapor and oxygen. Formulations with 5% (w/v) protein and 75% sorbitol and 4% (w/v) protein with a mixture of 15% glycerol and 15% sorbitol produced adequate films. Calcium salts and GDL increased the tensile fracture stress but reduced the fracture strain and decreased water vapor permeability compared with control films. The films prepared represent an attractive alternative for being used as food packaging materials. PMID:27597950

  1. Edge detection of red hind grouper vocalizations in the littorals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Cameron A.; Beaujean, Pierre-Philippe

    2016-05-01

    Littoral regions typically present to passive sensors as a high noise acoustic environment, particularly with respect to port and harbor regions where tidal variation, often characterized as pink, mixes with reverberation from on-shore business and commercial shipping, often characterized as white. Some fish in these regions, in particular epiphenalius Guttatus or more commonly the red hind grouper, emit relatively narrowband tones in low frequencies to communicate with other fish in such regions. The impact of anthropogenic noise sources on the red Hind and other fish is a topical area of interest for wildlife fisheries, private sportsmen and military offices that is not considered here; the fact that fish species continue to populate and communicate in these regions in the presence of high noise content lends some study to the signal content and modeling of a potential biologically inspired receiver structure.

  2. Acoustic Tonal and Vector Properties of Red Hind Grouper Vocalizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Cameron Anthony

    Vertebrates are the most prodigious vocalizing animals in existence, and the most diverse methods of acoustic communication among vertebrates can be found in the ocean. Relatively many teleost fish are gifted with the ability to communicate acoustically, and the family of serranidae often performs this as a function of the swim bladder. Epinephelus Guttatus (E. guttatus), or more commonly the red hind grouper, is equipped with a drum shaped swim bladder acting as a monopole under typical ocean conditions. This configuration allows for what is understood to be omnidirectional projection of tones approximately centered between 40 and 440 Hz and spanning anywhere from 40 to 200 Hz of bandwidth and modulation effects based on observed data provided by researchers. Prior studies on many other fish show correlation in acoustic communication profile with length, size and sexual identity. In the red hind, sexual dimorphism leads to an inherent female identity in all juvenile fish which converts to male according to environmental factors, recommending at least consistent organs across both sexes be assumed even if not in use. Much research has been performed on male fish vocalization in terms of spectral content. Communication in fish is a complex multi-modal process, with acoustic communication being important for many of the species, particularly those in the littoral regions of the worlds' oceans. If identifying characteristics of the red hind vocalization can be isolated based on detection, classification, tracking and localizing methodologies, then these identifying characteristics may indeed lead to passive feature identification that allows for estimation of individual fish mass. Hypotheses based on vector, cyclostationary and classical tonal mechanics are presented for consideration. A battery of test data collection events, applying pre-recorded fish vocalizations to a geolocated undersea sound source were conducted. The results are supplied with the intent of

  3. Does copepods influence dusky grouper (Epinephelus marginatus early development?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Mateus

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Good knowledge on the development of early life stages is essential for successful conservation programs of threatened fish species. Diet and rearing system affects early life survival and juvenile quality. Copepods are the natural food of fish larvae in the wild possessing high nutritional value, when compared with live feeds used in aquaculture (rotifers and artemia, and a wide range of size classes. Rearing systems with low water column disturbance and low larval densities enhanced the survival of fragile fish larvae. The aim of this work is to evaluate the effect of the introduction of copepods in the diet of early dusky grouper larvae reared in controlled mesocosm systems using larval development and juvenile quality as indicators. Two feeding protocols were tested, one composed only by rotifers (Brachionus plicatilis, brine shrimp (Artemia spp. and dry feed and the other supplemented with copepods (Paracartia grani from mouth opening (2 day after hatching - DAH to 8 DAH. Feeding behavior, growth, survival, skeletal malformations and digestive enzymes activity was assessed at different developmental stages. The addition of copepods to the early larvae diet of dusky grouper resulted in faster development and higher survival rates. Larvae fed with copepods improved their development. At 20 DAH all larvae reared at the mesocosm with copedods were already at the stage of post-flexion while in the system without copepods this stage was attained later. At 25 DAH only 64% of the larvae were in post flexion in the mesoscosm without copepods. At 30 DAH larvae supplemented with copepods attained an acidic digestion (high specific activity of pepsin earlier than at the system without copepods. In this last system alkaline digestion (trypsin specific activity, characteristic of early larval stages, was significantly higher reinforcing the faster development of larvae fed with copepods. In both systems the incidence of skeletal malformations was low.

  4. Isolation and Characterization of an Iridovirus from Sick Giant Salamander (Andrias davidianus )%患病中国大鲵中分离到一株虹彩病毒及其特性的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江育林; 张旻; 景宏丽; 高隆英

    2011-01-01

    virus possessed an envelope and DNA as the genome. Electron-microscopic observation of thinsection showed numerous hexagonal viral particles measuring 130 nm to 150 nm in diameter orderly arranged in a lattice form in cytoplasm of BF-2 cells. The particles showed typical iridovirus morphology. A 413 bp fragment was amplified from the viral main capsid protein gene by PCR. The fragments was sequenced and analysed. The results showed the isolate shared more than 96 % nucleotide identity with some Ranaviruses. We suggested that this virus was named as Andrias davidianus iridovirus (ADIV) tentatively.

  5. Temperature effect on gastric emptying time of hybrid grouper (Epinephelus spp.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De, Moumita; Ghaffar, Mazlan Abd. [School of Environmental and Natural Resource Sciences, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 UKM Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Das, Simon K. [School of Environmental and Natural Resource Sciences, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 UKM Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia and Marine Ecosystem Research Centre (EKOMAR), Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti (Malaysia)

    2014-09-03

    Knowledge of fish gastric emptying time is a necessary component for understanding the fish feeding rates, energy budgets and commercial production of fishes in aquaculture. The hybrid grouper Epinephelus spp. is getting popular as a culture species in Malaysia for their faster growth rate compared to commonly cultured grouper species (giant grouper Epinephelus lanceolatus and tiger grouper Epinephelus fuscoguttatus). There are data suggests that elevated sea water temperature affects gastric emptying time (GET) of fishes. Hence, this study aims to study the GET of hybrid grouper at different temperature (22, 26, 30, 34°C) in laboratory condition with commercial diet pellet. The gastric emptying times (GETs) at different temperatures were determined X-radiographically, using barium sulfate (BaSO{sub 4}) as a contrast medium food marker. The food marker and X-radiography showed that initial voidance of fecal matter began 4-6 h after feeding at all temperature. The fastest GET (13 h) was obsereved in the 30°C group, whereas the longest (17 h) GET was seen in 22°C group fed with artificial diet pellet. Not much differences in GET were recorded between the 26 and 34°C groups as 34°C groups fed lesser amount compared to 26°C groups. Nevertheless a substantial delay in GET was observed in the 22°C group. The findings of this study suggest to culture hybrid grouper between 26 to 30°C with commercial diet pellet as this temperature ranges proliferate the faster digestion process which may contribute faster growth rate of this commerical important fish species. Overall, these findings may have important consequences for optimization of commercial production of hybrid grouper.

  6. Temperature effect on gastric emptying time of hybrid grouper (Epinephelus spp.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    De, Moumita; Ghaffar, Mazlan Abd.; Das, Simon K.

    2014-09-01

    Knowledge of fish gastric emptying time is a necessary component for understanding the fish feeding rates, energy budgets and commercial production of fishes in aquaculture. The hybrid grouper Epinephelus spp. is getting popular as a culture species in Malaysia for their faster growth rate compared to commonly cultured grouper species (giant grouper Epinephelus lanceolatus and tiger grouper Epinephelus fuscoguttatus). There are data suggests that elevated sea water temperature affects gastric emptying time (GET) of fishes. Hence, this study aims to study the GET of hybrid grouper at different temperature (22, 26, 30, 34°C) in laboratory condition with commercial diet pellet. The gastric emptying times (GETs) at different temperatures were determined X-radiographically, using barium sulfate (BaSO4) as a contrast medium food marker. The food marker and X-radiography showed that initial voidance of fecal matter began 4-6 h after feeding at all temperature. The fastest GET (13 h) was obsereved in the 30°C group, whereas the longest (17 h) GET was seen in 22°C group fed with artificial diet pellet. Not much differences in GET were recorded between the 26 and 34°C groups as 34°C groups fed lesser amount compared to 26°C groups. Nevertheless a substantial delay in GET was observed in the 22°C group. The findings of this study suggest to culture hybrid grouper between 26 to 30°C with commercial diet pellet as this temperature ranges proliferate the faster digestion process which may contribute faster growth rate of this commerical important fish species. Overall, these findings may have important consequences for optimization of commercial production of hybrid grouper.

  7. 75 FR 62488 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Fishery off the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-12

    ... (ACLs), and accountability measures (AMs) for eight snapper- grouper species undergoing overfishing.... This proposed rule is intended to address overfishing of eight snapper-grouper species while..., FMPs for the fisheries determined by the Secretary to be subject to overfishing must establish...

  8. 75 FR 76873 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Fishery Off the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-09

    ... Council is exploring, through Amendment 22 to the Snapper- Grouper FMP, alternative strategies for... the proposed area closure could push effort inshore or offshore and thus negatively impact juvenile... exploring through draft Amendment 22 to the Snapper-Grouper FMP, alternative strategies for managing red...

  9. 76 FR 12882 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Fishery of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-09

    ..., Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Fishery of the South Atlantic; Closure AGENCY..., fax: 727-824-5308, e-mail: Catherine.Bruger@noaa.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The snapper-grouper fishery of the South Atlantic is managed under the Fishery Management Plan for the Snapper-...

  10. 78 FR 76285 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Fishery Off the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-17

    ... Plan for the Snapper-Grouper Fishery in the South Atlantic Region (74 FR 1621, January 13, 2009) and... Regulatory Amendment 17 was published in the Federal Register on December 4, 2013 (78 FR 72867) and requested..., and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Fishery Off the South Atlantic States; Regulatory Amendment...

  11. 78 FR 10102 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Resources of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-13

    ... Office of the Federal Register. As implemented by the final rule for Regulatory Amendment 12 (77 FR 61295..., Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Resources of the South Atlantic; Trip Limit... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The snapper-grouper fishery includes golden tilefish in the South Atlantic and...

  12. 77 FR 11477 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Fishery off the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-27

    ... ACLs were implemented through Amendment 17B to the FMP (75 FR 82280, December 30, 2010), before black..., Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Fishery off the Southern Atlantic States; Amendment... Snapper- Grouper Fishery of the South Atlantic Region (FMP) for review, approval, and implementation...

  13. 76 FR 23930 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Fishery of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-29

    ... Snapper and Gag Commercial Trip Limits Amendment 17B to the FMP (75 FR 82280, December 30, 2010), recently... Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Fishery of the South Atlantic; Snapper...) to the Fishery Management Plan for the Snapper-Grouper Fishery of the South Atlantic Region...

  14. 78 FR 46923 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Fishery off the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-02

    ... (76 FR 101). The NOI listed several options the Council could consider when addressing long-term..., and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Fishery off the South Atlantic States; Amendment 22 AGENCY... broadened scope of Amendment 22 to the Fishery Management Plan for the Snapper-Grouper Fishery in the...

  15. 76 FR 78879 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Fishery Off the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-20

    ... (December 30, 2010, 75 FR 82280). This ACL prohibits all harvest and possession of speckled hind and warsaw..., Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Fishery Off the Southern Atlantic States; Snapper... Management Plan for the Snapper-Grouper Fishery of the South Atlantic Region (FMP), as prepared by the...

  16. 78 FR 57337 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Fishery Off the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-18

    ..., 2011, NMFS published a notice of agency action (76 FR 78245) designating the South Atlantic Council as..., Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Fishery Off the Southern Atlantic States; Amendment... Plan for the Snapper-Grouper Fishery of the South Atlantic Region (FMP) for review, approval,...

  17. 76 FR 5325 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Fishery Off the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-31

    ... snapper-grouper fishery of October 14, 2005 (70 FR 60058; October 14, 2005), was almost five years old..., Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Fishery Off the Southern Atlantic States; Control.... SUMMARY: NMFS announces that it is establishing a new control date to control future access to the...

  18. 78 FR 72868 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Fishery Off the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-04

    ... bass commercial and recreational ACLs were increased through Regulatory Amendment 19 to the FMP (78 FR..., and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Fishery Off the South Atlantic States; Regulatory Amendment 16... Snapper-Grouper Fishery of the South Atlantic Region (Regulatory Amendment 16). Regulatory Amendment...

  19. Molecular cloning, characterization and functional analysis of QRFP in orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Hu; Chen, Huapu; Liu, Yun; Yang, Lidong; Yang, Yuqing; Zhang, Haifa

    2014-10-01

    The peptide QRFP plays an important role in the regulation of vertebrate feeding behavior. In this study, we cloned the full length cDNA of a QRFP precursor in a teleost fish, the orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides). Sequence analysis has shown that the functional regions of QRFP in other vertebrates (QRFP-25 and QRFP-7) are conserved in orange-spotted grouper. RT-PCR demonstrated that the pre-processed mRNA of QRFP is widely expressed in orange-spotted grouper. Three days of food deprivation did not change the hypothalamic pre-processed QRFP expression. However, QRFP expression significantly increased when the fish were reefed after three days of fasting. Intraperitoneal injection of QRFP-25 peptide to orange-spotted grouper suppressed expression of orexin, but elevated expression of pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) in the hypothalamus. We also investigated the effects of QRFP-25 on the expression of reproductive genes. The peptide suppressed the expression of seabream-type gonadotropin-releasing hormones (sbGnRH), luteinizing hormone beta subunit (LHβ) and follicle-stimulating hormone beta subunit (FSHβ) in vivo, as well as inhibited the expression of LHβ and FSHβ in pituitary cells in primary culture. Our results indicate that QRFP may play an inhibitory role in the regulation of feeding behavior and reproduction in orange-spotted grouper.

  20. Molecular cloning and functional characterization of spexin in orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shuisheng; Liu, Qiongyu; Xiao, Ling; Chen, Huapu; Li, Guangli; Zhang, Yong; Lin, Haoran

    2016-01-01

    Spexin is a newly discovered neuropeptide in vertebrates. Comprehensive comparative studies are required to unveil its biological functions. In order to ascertain the neuroendocrine function of spexin in orange-spotted grouper, its full-length cDNA and genomic DNA sequences were cloned and analyzed. Sequence analyses showed that the spexin gene structure is composed of six exons and five introns, and the amino acids of mature peptide (spexin-14) in grouper are identical to that of other fish. Tissue expression analysis found that grouper spexin is highly expressed in the brain, liver and ovary. Real time-PCR analysis demonstrated that the hypothalamic expression of spexin declined gradually during the ovarian development, and was up-regulated by food deprivation. Intraperitoneal administration of spexin-14 peptides to grouper significantly elevated the mRNA levels of proopiomelanocortin (pomc) and suppressed the orexin expression in the hypothalamus, but could not change the hypothalamic expression of gonadotropin releasing hormone 1 (gnrh1). Both in vivo and in vitro administration of spexin could not significantly influence the expression of follicle-stimulating hormone β (fshβ) and luteinizing hormone β (lhβ) in the pituitary with the exception of an inhibition of gh expression. Our data suggested that the spexin has a significant role in the regulation of energy metabolism and food intake in orange-spotted grouper.

  1. REPRODUCTIVE ASPECTS OF CULTURED HUMPBACK GROUPER (Cromileptes altivelis FOR SUPPORTING SEED PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sari Budi Moria Sembiring

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Humpback grouper (Cromileptes altivelis has been successfully spawned in 2000 by IMRAD (Institute of Mariculture Research and Development and there are already the third generation (F3 currently. The reproductive aspects need to be studied to support the success of seed production. Humpback grouper reared in floating cage (F1 and F3 had matured (gonad stage 4 while F2 fish reared in concrete tanks has spawned. Gonadal maturity stage of 38 fishes from first generation (F1 and 35 fishes from the third generation were observed in June 2013 and compared to gonadal maturity stage of 18 fishes from the second generation observed in June 2009. Samples were measured in total length and body weight and gonads were taken for histology preparation to determine gonadal maturity stage and the sex. From the histological observation of the gonads, it showed that all female humpback grouper were in early maturity stage (stage I and II with gonadal maturity index between 0.12% and 5.45%. Further, it was observed that the same gonad was found in different maturity stage and concluded that humpback groupers were multiple spawners (asynchronous. By determining gonadal maturity level, it was also known the minimum size for grouper ready to spawn.

  2. Re-examining the relationship between invasive lionfish and native grouper in the Caribbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abel Valdivia

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Biotic resistance is the idea that native species negatively affect the invasion success of introduced species, but whether this can occur at large spatial scales is poorly understood. Here we re-evaluated the hypothesis that native large-bodied grouper and other predators are controlling the abundance of exotic lionfish (Pterois volitans/miles on Caribbean coral reefs. We assessed the relationship between the biomass of lionfish and native predators at 71 reefs in three biogeographic regions while taking into consideration several cofactors that may affect fish abundance, including among others, proxies for fishing pressure and habitat structural complexity. Our results indicate that the abundance of lionfish, large-bodied grouper and other predators were not negatively related. Lionfish abundance was instead controlled by several physical site characteristics, and possibly by culling. Taken together, our results suggest that managers cannot rely on current native grouper populations to control the lionfish invasion.

  3. Sperm cryopreservation in different grouper subspecies and application in interspecific hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Q H; Xiao, Z Z; Wang, X Y; Xu, S H; Guan, S G; Xu, C A; Zhang, H S; Li, J

    2016-05-01

    The present study established and confirmed an efficient technology for groupers: giant grouper Epinephelus lanceolatus, orange-spotted grouper E. coioides, seven-band grouper, E. septemfasciatus, and kelp grouper E. moara sperm cryopreservation and successfully applied the cryopreserved E. lanceolatus sperm into interspecific hybridization with E. coioides. For both E. lanceolatus and E. coioides, the best motility of postthaw sperm were achieved using 6% to 10% DMSO, 6% to 16% propylene glycol, and 6% ethylene glycol as cryoprotectants. Furthermore, we have successfully applied this method into the other two species of E. septemfasciatus (74.56 ± 5.45%) and E. moara (71.67 ± 5.10%) sperm cryopreservation and obtained high motility, respectively. Computer-assisted sperm motion analysis showed that the postthaw sperm of the four species of grouper could keep 30 to 35 minutes motile state in nature seawater. And the freezing-thawing process decreased the sperm motility, speed, and longevity but did not significantly change the sperm movement pattern, and the progressive linear motion still was the dominant movement pattern. For the four species of grouper, the ultrastructural analysis showed 70% to 80% of the spermatozoa had intact morphology with a little of swelling; 20% to 30% were damaged, such as swelling or rupture of head, midpiece, and tail region; and 10% to 20% were severely damaged. Whereas, by the microscopic observation, more than 90% of the postthaw sperm presented normal morphology. In the artificial insemination and hybridization experiment, high fertilization rates and hatching rates were achieved when using 10% DMSO (88.7 ± 5.3%, 85.3 ± 7.4%) and 10% propylene glycol (86.8 ± 3.3%, 83.1 ± 6.6%), with no significant difference in comparison with control (92.2 ± 1.4%, 87.9 ± 4.2%). In addition, we found the embryos from postthaw sperm of E. lanceolatus and E. coioides eggs developed and grew normally as reported in previous

  4. Establishment of rock bream Oplegnathus fasciatus embryo (RoBE-4) cells with cytolytic infection of red seabream iridovirus (RSIV).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, So-Young; Nishizawa, Toyohiko

    2016-12-01

    Red seabream iridovirus (RSIV) is a member of genus Megalocytivirus in the family Iridoviridae. RSIV infection causes significant economic losses of marine-fishes in East Asian countries. Grunt fin (GF) cell line has been commonly used for culturing RSIV. However, it is not suitable for definite evaluation of infectivity titer of RSIV because cells infected with RSIV are not completely cytolysed. Thus, we established a new cell line, RoBE-4, from rock bream (Oplegnathus fasciatus) eyed-egg embryos in this study. Morphologically, RoBE-4 cells were fibroblastic-like. They have been stably grown over two-years with 60 passages using Leibovitz's L-15 medium containing 10% (v/v) fetal bovine serum. RoBE-4 cells infected with RSIV exhibited cytopathic effects (CPE) with cell rounding. They were cytolysed completely after ≥2 weeks of culture. Numerous RSIV particles with icosahedral morphology of approximately 122nm in diameter were observed in cytoplasmic area of infected RoBE-4 cells. The RSIV-suceptibility and amount of extracellular RSIV released by RoBE-4 cells were 100-fold higher than those by GF cells. RSIV cultured with RoBE-4 cells was highly virulent to rock bream in infection experiments. Therefore, using RoBE-4 cells instead of GF cells will enable accurate and sensitive measurement of RSIV infectivity. In addition, RoBE-4 cells might be used to produce RSIV vaccine in the future with significant reduction in cost.

  5. Study on the Release of Grouper Epinephelus for Stock Enhancement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bo Zhili; Zhou Wanxia

    2003-01-01

    Two methods, tagging and ink injection, are used in the grouper releasing experiment. The studied fishes are the juvenile of Epinephelus akaara and Epinephelus awoara both artificially cultivated and caught from natural waters, and their wild adults. Experimental results show that the inhabiting behaviours for both juvenile and adult fishes show distinct regionality, which move within an area of 2 n mile diameter 651 days and 48 days after being released, respectively. With the tagging method, the tagged fishes could only be recaptured in the year of release while, with the injection method, they could be caught in the lst, 2nd and 3rd years. It is confirmed that in the cement tank, the tagged fishes lose their 1/3 tags. That means that the tagging method is not fit for the release research while the injection method is. Generally, the recaptured rates of injected fishes are 1.4 ~ 4.5 %, 3.1 ~ 13.4 % and 2.7 % for the 1st, 2nd and 3rd years, respectively.

  6. DNA barcoding approaches for fishing authentication of exploited grouper species including the endangered and legally protected goliath grouper Epinephelus itajara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo A. Torres

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Fishing strategies are constantly changing to meet the needs for new or alternative food sources. Consequently, management of fishing activities regarding rates of exploitation is essential, as a number of resources have reached situations of overexploitation. The aim of the present study was to use DNA barcoding from the goliath grouper and other exploited epinephelids in order to provide procedures for DNA authentication to be used as evidence for combating putative illegal fishing. The species studied were Epinephelus adscensionis, Mycteroperca bonaci, Mycteroperca interstitialis, Epinephelus itajara, Mycteroperca venenosa, Epinephelus mystacinus, Dermatolepis inermis, Alphestes afer, Cephalopholis fulva, Mycteroperca acutirostris, Rypticus saponaceus, Mycteroperca marginata and Epinephelus morio. Four of these species are the main epinephelids fished in the Atlantic Ocean. Differential patterns of polymerase chain reaction–restriction fragment length polymorphism were obtained from the species and additional single nucleotide polymorphisms were also detected among the four main epinephelids studied. The procedures proved very efficient and we suggest their applicability to the other fish groups as a way to control illegal capture and retail around the world, especially in cases in which filleting and other forms of de-characterization cause a lack of morpho-anatomical key characters.

  7. Morphology of Andrias davidianus iridovirus and characterization of its inclusion bodies%大鲵虹彩病毒的形态结构及其包涵体特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周小愿; 张星朗; 吉红; 韩亚慧; 贾秋红; 高宏伟

    2015-01-01

    Electron microscope and immunofluorescence microscope were used to observe and study the purified Chinese giant salamanders iridovirus (CGSIV) viral particles and infected EPC cells with CGSIV and visceral tissue samples of sick Chinese giant salamanders.The negatively stained electron micrographs revealed that CGSIV was ball -shape with envelops and about 150 nm in diameter.The electron micrographs of ultra -thin section of infected cells suggested that CGSIV virions showed typically morphological character of iridovirus , which possessed icosahedral symmetry with member envelopes , and CGSIV was composed of the capsid and nucleoid .Its capsid was regular hexagon in shape and (150 ±5) nm(N =30) in diameter, and the thickness of capsid was about 5 nm and the nucleoid was (98 ±18) nm (N =27) in diameter.CGSIV virions were found in lung and kidney of sick Chinese giant salamanders and possessed the similar ultrastructure as that ob -served in electron micrographs of ultra -thin section of infected cells.A large number of red fluorescent signals were detec -ted in CGSIV -infected cells by immunofluorescence assay , which were distributed as patches in cytoplasm .Based on the observation of ultra -thin section of infected EPC cells and fluorescence microscopy images , it was believed that different types of CGSIV inclusion bodies could be found in cytoplasm of the infected cells .%运用电镜和免疫荧光技术,对纯化的大鲵(Andrias davidianus)虹彩病毒粒子、感染病毒的 EPC 细胞以及确诊感染病毒的病鲵组织样品进行观察和分析。结果表明,纯化的大鲵虹彩病毒负染后电镜下显示球形结构,具囊膜,直径约150 nm;感染 EPC 细胞中的病毒颗粒呈典型的正二十面体结构,由核衣壳和核心构成,核衣壳呈正六边形,对角直径为(150±5) nm (N =30),核衣壳厚度约5 nm,核心直径为(98±18) nm (N =27)。在病鲵病变的肺和肾组织中发现

  8. 78 FR 36113 - Snapper-Grouper Fishery Off the Southern Atlantic States; Regulatory Amendment 13

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-17

    ... unnecessary negative socio-economic impacts to participants in the snapper-grouper fishery and fishing... environmental assessment, regulatory impact review, Regulatory Flexibility Act analysis, and fishery impact... would not have a significant economic impact on a substantial number of small entities. The...

  9. Wnt4 in protogynous hermaphroditic orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides): identification and expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Huapu; Li, Shuisheng; Xiao, Ling; Zhang, Yong; Li, Guangli; Liu, Xiaochun; Lin, Haoran

    2015-05-01

    Wnt4 (Wingless-type MMTV integration site family member 4) has been demonstrated to play critical roles in ovarian development in mammals, but its function in fish reproduction is still unclear. In the present study, two full-length wnt4 cDNA sequences (named wnt4a and wnt4b) were cloned from the orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides). Amino acid alignment analysis showed that both orange-spotted grouper Wnt4s proteins had the typical characteristics of the Wnt family. RT-PCR revealed that both wnt4a and wnt4b were highly expressed in the ovaries of the orange-spotted grouper. Temporal expression profiles of both wnt4 genes during embryonic and ovarian development were examined. The expressions of wnt4a and wnt4b genes were first detected at the embryonic morula stage, but the gens showed different expression patterns. During ovarian development, high expression of wnt4a was observed in the ovarian lumen formation and gonium proliferation stage, while wnt4b exhibited strong expression in the early developmental stage of oocytes. Taken together, the present study indicates that the two wnt4 genes are involved in the regulation of ovarian development in the orange-spotted grouper.

  10. Utilization of seagrass habitats by juvenile groupers and snappers in Banten Bay, Banten Province, Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nuraini, S.; Carballo, E.C.; Densen, van W.L.T.; Machiels, M.A.M.; Lindeboom, H.J.; Nagelkerke, L.A.J.

    2007-01-01

    Coastal development in Banten Bay, Indonesia, decreased seagrass coverage to only 1.5% of its surface area. We investigated the importance of seagrass as habitat for juvenile groupers (Serranidae) and snappers (Lutjanidae), by performing beam trawl hauls on a weekly basis in two seagrass locations a

  11. Possibility of culturing Pacific goliath grouper Epinephelus quinquefasciatus in water with different salinities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lury García N.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To assess the survival and growth of juvenile Pacific goliath grouper (Epinephelus quinquefasciatus in captivity at low salinities. Materials and methods. We randomly selected twelve juvenile goliath groupers with an average standard length of 44.2 ± 6.1 cm and 1492 ± 476 g in body weight, and raised them for three months in the laboratory in waters of 32-26, 20, 10 and 5 parts per thousand of salinity. Results. All juvenile Pacific goliath groupers tolerated the initial gradual transfer from full strength seawater to salinities of 32-26, 20, 10, and 5 parts per thousand, which was done over a period of four days. All of them survived and grew in body weight and length during the course of the three-month experiment, in all the treatments of high and low salinity water. The body condition factor (K for each fish was between 1.5 and 2.4. Conclusions. This is a first time trial that documents a randomized, controlled experiment demonstrating the ability of Pacific juvenile goliath grouper to gradually transfer from full strength seawater to water of lower salinity, and survive and grow well in these brackish waters.

  12. Spatial and temporal characteristics of grouper spawning aggregations in marine protected areas in Palau, western Micronesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golbuu, Yimnang; Friedlander, Alan M.

    2011-04-01

    In Palau, Ngerumekaol and Ebiil Channels are spawning aggregation sites that have been protected from fishing since 1976 and 2000, respectively. Groupers and other targeted fisheries species were monitored monthly over a 1.5 year period at these two spawning aggregations and two nearby exploited reference sites where grouper formerly aggregated to spawn. At the protected aggregation sites, three grouper species ( Plectropomus areolatus, Epinephelus polyphekadion, and Epinephelus fuscoguttatus) accounted for 78% of the abundance and 85% of the biomass of all resource species surveyed but comprised <1% of the total abundance and biomass at reference sites not protected from fishing that formally harbored spawning aggregations. Abundance and biomass of grouper species pooled were 54% and 72% higher, respectively, at Ngerumekaol compared to Ebiil. Comparisons with data from the same locations in 1995-1996 showed order of magnitude declines in abundance of E. polyphekadion at both locations. The lower numbers of E. fuscoguttatus and the near absence of E. polyphekadion at Ebiil may reflect the effects of previous and current overexploitation.

  13. Age, growth, and natural mortality of yellowfin grouper (Mycteroperca venenosa) from the southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potts, Jennifer C.; Carr, Daniel R.

    2015-01-01

    Ages of yellowfin grouper (n = 306) from the southeastern United States coast from 1979–2014 were determined using sectioned sagittal otoliths. Opaque zones were annular, forming January–June (peaking in February–March). Yellowfin grouper ranged in age from 3 to 31 years; the largest fish measured 1,000 mm fork length (FL). Body size relationships for yellowfin grouper were: W = 1.22 × 10−5 FL3.03 (n = 229, r2 = 0.92); TL = 1.06 FL − 14.53 (n = 60, r2 = 0.99); and FL = 0.93 TL + 18.63 (n = 60, r2 = 0.99), where W = whole weight in grams, FL in mm, and TL = total length in mm. The von Bertalanffy growth equation was: Lt = 958 (1 − e−0.11(t+2.94)) (n = 306). The point estimate of natural mortality for yellowfin grouper was M = 0.14, while age-specific estimates of M ranged from 1.59 to 0.17 for ages 1–31. PMID:26244111

  14. The impact of Nassau grouper size and abundance on scuba diver site selection and MPA economics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rudd, M.A.; Tupper, M.H.

    2002-01-01

    Since many fisheries are size-selective, the establishment of marine protected areas (MPAs) is expected to increase both the average size and abundance of exploited species, such as the valuable but vulnerable Nassau grouper ( Epinephelus striatus ). Increases in mean size and/or abundance of

  15. The impact of Nassau grouper size and abundance on scuba diver site selection and MPA economics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rudd, M.A.; Tupper, M.H.

    2002-01-01

    Since many fisheries are size-selective, the establishment of marine protected areas (MPAs) is expected to increase both the average size and abundance of exploited species, such as the valuable but vulnerable Nassau grouper ( Epinephelus striatus ). Increases in mean size and/or abundance of protec

  16. Patterns of color phase indicate spawn timing at a Nassau grouper Epinephelus striatus spawning aggregation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Stephanie K ARCHER; Scott A HEPPELL; Brice X SEMMENS; Christy V PATTENGILL-SEMMENS; Phillippe G BUSH; Croy M MCCOY; Bradley C JOHNSON

    2012-01-01

    Nassau grouper Epinephelus striatus are a large bodied,top level predator that is ecologically important throughout the Caribbean.Although typically solitary,Nassau grouper form large annual spawning aggregations at predictable times in specific locations.In 2003,The Cayman Islands Marine Conservation Board established protection for a newly rediscovered Nassau grouper spawning aggregation on Little Cayman,British West Indies.The large size of this aggregation provides a unique opportunity to study the behavior of Nassau grouper on a relatively intact spawning aggregation.During non-spawning periods Nassau grouper display a reddish-brown-and-white barred coloration.However,while aggregating they exhibit three additional color phases:“bicolor”,“dark”,and “white belly”.We video sampled the population on multiple days leading up to spawning across five spawning years.Divers focused a laser caliper equipped video camera on individual fish at the aggregation.We later analyzed the video to determine the length of the fish and record the color phase.Our observations show that the relative proportion of fish in the bicolor color phase increases significantly on the day leading up to the primary night of spawning.The increase in the proportion of the bicolor color phase from 0.05 early in the aggregation to 0.40 on the day of spawning suggests that this color phase conveys that a fish is behaviorally and physiologically prepared to spawn.Additionally,82.7% of fish exhibiting dark or white belly coloration early in the aggregation period suggests that these color phases are not only shown by female fish as was previously posited [Current Zoology 58 (1):73-83,2012].

  17. Rock bream iridovirus (RBIV) replication in rock bream (Oplegnathus fasciatus) exposed for different time periods to susceptible water temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Myung-Hwa; Nikapitiya, Chamilani; Vinay, Tharabenahalli-Nagaraju; Lee, Jehee; Jung, Sung-Ju

    2017-09-15

    Rock bream iridovirus (RBIV) is a member of the Megalocytivirus genus that causes severe mortality to rock bream. Water temperature is known to affect the immune system and susceptibility of fish to RBIV infection. In this study, we evaluated the time dependent virus replication pattern and time required to completely eliminate virus from the rock bream body against RBIV infection at different water temperature conditions. The rock bream was exposed to the virus and held at 7 (group A1), 4 (group A2) and 2 days (group A3) at 23 °C before the water temperature was reduced to 17 °C. A total of 28% mortality was observed 24-35 days post infection (dpi) in only the 7 day exposure group at 23 °C. In all 23 °C exposure groups, virus replication peaked at 20 to 22 dpi (10(6)-10(7)/μl). In recovery stages (30-100 dpi), the virus copy number was gradually reduced, from 10(6) to 10(1) with faster decreases in the shorter exposure period group at 23 °C. When the water temperature was increased in surviving fish from 17 to 26 °C at 70 dpi, they did not show any mortality or signs of disease and had low virus copy numbers (below 10(2)/μl). Thus, fish need at least 50 days from peaked RBIV levels (approximately 20-25 dpi) to inhibit the virus. This indicates that maintaining the fish at low water temperature (17 °C) for 70 days is sufficient to eradicate RBIV from fish body. Thus, RBIV could be eliminated slowly from the fish body and the virus may be completely eliminated under the threshold of causing mortality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Differential expression analysis of nuclear oligomerization domain proteins NOD1 and NOD2 in orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Qing-Hua; Yi, Shi-Bai; Ding, Xu; Zhang, Hui-Xian; Sun, Yan; Zhang, Yong; Liu, Xiao-Chun; Lu, Dan-Qi; Lin, Hao-Ran

    2012-11-01

    Nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-containing proteins-1 and -2 (NOD1 and NOD2) are members of the NOD-like receptors (NLRs) family. They are both cytoplasmic receptors, and sense microbial infections/danger molecules to induce host innate immune response. In this study, the full-length ORF sequences of NOD1 and NOD2 were cloned, and the putative amino acid sequences were identified in orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides). The complete open reading frame (ORF) of grouper NOD1 contained 2823 bp encoding a 940 amino acid protein. Grouper NOD2 cDNA contained a 2967 bp ORF, encoding a protein of 988 amino acid residues. Both grouper NOD1 and NOD2 had similar domains to human and fish counterparts. Phylogenetic tree analysis showed that grouper NOD1 clustered with grass carp, zebrafish and channel catfish, while NOD2 was most closely related to fugu. Expression patterns of grouper NOD1 and NOD2 were next studied. NOD1 had the highest level of expression in skin while NOD2 in trunk kidney. Post Vibrio alginolyticus (strain EcGS020401), lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or PolyI:C challenges, gene expression of grouper NOD1 and NOD2 was stimulated to different extents. NOD1 showed a significant enhancement after LPS stimulation, but NOD2 increased more significantly after PolyI:C invasion, indicating that NOD1 and NOD2 may exert different effects on the eradication of bacteria and virus. The adaptor protein RIP-like-interacting CLARP kinase (RICK) and downstream molecule interleukin-8 (IL-8) were also induced at different levels after stimulation, which indicated that NOD1 and NOD2 signal transduction was involved in grouper innate immune protection against bacterial and viral infections.

  19. Stimulatory effects of chitinase on growth and immune defense of orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanhong; Feng, Shaozhen; Chen, Jun; Qin, Chaobin; Lin, Haoran; Li, Wensheng

    2012-05-01

    Chitinase, belonging to either family 18 or family 19 of the glycosylhydrolases, hydrolyze chitin into oligosaccharides. In the present study, the cDNA fragment encoding orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides) chitinase1 was subcloned into pPIC3.5K vector and expressed in Pichia pastoris GS115. The results showed that a band with the size of about 53 kDa could be detected by SDS-PAGE and Western blot. The recombinant protein of grouper chitinase1 (rgChi1) was added into the fish diet containing shrimp shell chitin for feeding experiment lasting 8 weeks. The weight of orange-spotted grouper, fed with diets containing rgChi1 at 0, 5, 10 and 20 μg/g was calculated on the 2nd, 4th, 6th and 8th weeks, and difference in growth rates was first observed in the 6th week of the feeding period and it kept until the end of the feeding experiment. At the end of 8 weeks feeding trial, the percent weight gain (PWG), growth rate (GR) and specific growth rate (SGR) of fish fed with 10 and 20 μg rgChi1/g feed were significantly higher compared to the control group. The neuropeptide Y (NPY), growth-hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH), growth-hormone (GH), interleukin-1beta (IL-1β), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), superoxide dismutase (SOD) (Cu/Zn) and SOD (Mn) mRNA expression of fish fed with diet containing 10 μg/g or/and 20 μg/g rgChi1 were obviously higher than the control group. The lysozyme (LZM) and total SOD activity of fish fed with diet containing rgChi1 at 10 and 20 μg/g were significantly higher than that of the control. The aspartate aminotransferase (AST)/glutamic oxalacetic transaminases (GOT) activity in 20 μg/g group decreased compared to the control group. These results indicated that the grouper chitinase1 was successfully produced using the P. pastoris expression system and the recombinant protein had obvious effects on growth and immune defense. The mRNA expression and protein secretion of grouper chitinase1 and chitinase2 were significantly stimulated in

  20. Pseudorhabdosynochus species (Monogenoidea, Diplectanidae parasitizing groupers (Serranidae, Epinephelinae, Epinephelini in the western Atlantic Ocean and adjacent waters, with descriptions of 13 new species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kritsky Delane C.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Seventeen of twenty-three species of groupers collected from the western Atlantic Ocean and adjacent waters were infected with 19 identified species (13 new of Pseudorhabdosynochus Yamaguti, 1958 (Dactylogyridea, Diplectanidae; specimens of the Spanish flag Gonioplectrus hispanus, coney Cephalopholis fulva, marbled grouper Dermatolepis inermis, mutton hamlet Alphestes afer, and misty grouper Hyporthodus mystacinus were not infected; the yellowmouth grouper Mycteroperca interstitialis and yellowfin grouper Mycteroperca venenosa were infected with unidentified species of Pseudorhabdosynochus; the Atlantic creolefish Paranthias furcifer was infected with an unidentified species of Diplectanidae that could not be accommodated in Pseudorhabdosynochus. The following species of Pseudorhabdosynochus are described or redescribed based entirely or in part on new collections: Pseudorhabdosynochus americanus (Price, 1937 Kritsky & Beverley-Burton, 1986 from Atlantic goliath grouper Epinephelus itajara; Pseudorhabdosynochus yucatanensis Vidal-Martínez, Aguirre-Macedo & Mendoza-Franco, 1997 and Pseudorhabdosynochus justinella n. sp. from red grouper Epinephelus morio; Pseudorhabdosynochus kritskyi Dyer, Williams & Bunkley-Williams, 1995 from gag Mycteroperca microlepis; Pseudorhabdosynochus capurroi Vidal-Martínez & Mendoza-Franco, 1998 from black grouper Mycteroperca bonaci; Pseudorhabdosynochus hyphessometochus n. sp. from Mycteroperca interstitialis; Pseudorhabdosynochus sulamericanus Santos, Buchmann & Gibson, 2000 from snowy grouper Hyporthodus niveatus and Warsaw grouper Hyporthodus nigritus (new host record; Pseudorhabdosynochus firmicoleatus n. sp. from yellowedge grouper Hyporthodus flavolimbatus and snowy grouper H. niveatus; Pseudorhabdosynochus mcmichaeli n. sp., Pseudorhabdosynochus contubernalis n. sp., and Pseudorhabdosynochus vascellum n. sp. from scamp Mycteroperca phenax; Pseudorhabdosynochus meganmarieae n. sp. from graysby Cephalopholis

  1. Estimating natural mortality rates and simulating fishing scenarios for Gulf of Mexico red grouper (Epinephelus morio) using the ecosystem model OSMOSE-WFS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grüss, Arnaud; Schirripa, Michael J.; Chagaris, David; Velez, Laure; Shin, Yunne-Jai; Verley, Philippe; Oliveros-Ramos, Ricardo; Ainsworth, Cameron H.

    2016-02-01

    The ecosystem model OSMOSE-WFS was employed to evaluate natural mortality rates and fishing scenarios for Gulf of Mexico (GOM) red grouper (Epinephelus morio). OSMOSE-WFS represents major high trophic level (HTL) groups of species of the West Florida Shelf, is forced by the biomass of plankton and benthos groups, and has a monthly time step. The present application of the model uses a recently developed 'stochastic mortality algorithm' to resolve the mortality processes of HTL groups. OSMOSE-WFS predictions suggest that the natural mortality rate of juveniles of GOM red grouper is high and essentially due to predation, while the bulk of the natural mortality of adult red grouper results from causes not represented in OSMOSE-WFS such as, presumably, red tides. These results were communicated to GOM red grouper stock assessments. Moreover, OSMOSE-WFS indicate that altering the fishing mortality of GOM red grouper may have no global impact on the biomass of the major prey of red grouper, due to the high complexity and high redundancy of the modeled system. By contrast, altering the fishing mortality of GOM red grouper may have a large impact on the biomass of its major competitors. Increasing the fishing mortality of red grouper would increase the biomass of major competitors, due to reduced competition for food. Conversely, decreasing the fishing mortality of red grouper would diminish the biomass of major competitors, due to increased predation pressure on the juveniles of the major competitors by red grouper. The fishing scenarios that we evaluated may have slightly different impacts in the real world, due to some discrepancies between the diets of red grouper and its major competitors predicted by OSMOSE-WFS and the observed ones. Modifications in OSMOSE-WFS are suggested to reduce these discrepancies.

  2. Cloning, expression, and ligand-binding characterization of two neuropeptide Y receptor subtypes in orange-spotted grouper, Epinephelus coioides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fei; Chen, Weimin; Lin, Haoran; Li, Wensheng

    2014-12-01

    As one of the most important multifunctional peptides, neuropeptide Y (NPY) performs its physiological functions through different subtype receptors. In this study, full-length cDNAs of two NPY receptors (YRs) in orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides) were cloned and named npy8br (y8b) and npy2r (y2). Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the Y8b receptor is an ortholog of the teleostean Y8b receptor, which belongs to the Y1 subfamily, and the Y2 receptor is an ortholog of the teleostean Y2 receptor, which belongs to the Y2 subfamily. Both of the YRs have G protein-coupled receptor family profiles. Multiple alignments demonstrate that the extracellular loop regions of YRs have distinctive residues of each species. Expression profile analysis revealed that the grouper Y8b receptor mRNA is primarily expressed in the brain, stomach and intestine, while the grouper Y2 receptor mRNA is primarily expressed in the brain, ovary, liver and heart. Double immunofluorescence analysis determined that the grouper YRs interact with the grouper NPY around the human embryonic kidney 293T cell surface. Furthermore, site-directed mutagenesis in a phage display system revealed that Asp(6.59) might be a common NPY-binding site, while Asp(2.68) of the Y8b receptor and Glu(5.24) of the Y2 receptor could be likely involved in subtype-specific binding. Combining the expression profile and ligand-binding feature, the grouper Y8b receptor could be involved in regulating food intake via the brain-gut axis and the grouper Y2 receptor might play a role in balancing the regulatory activity of the Y8b receptor and participate in metabolism in the liver and ovary.

  3. Stimulatory effects of neuropeptide Y on the growth of orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shuge; Li, Bo; Lin, Haoran; Li, Wensheng

    2012-11-01

    Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is a member of the pancreatic polypeptide family which is a potent orexigenic peptide known to date in mammals and teleost. This study was carried out to investigate the effects of NPY on food intake and growth of orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides). Synthetic grouper NPY (gNPY) was given orally at the dose of 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 μg/g feed for 50 days, results showed that NPY treatment (1.0 and 2.0 μg/g feed) significantly increased growth rate, weight gain, feed conversion efficiency (FCE) and pituitary growth hormone (GH) mRNA level than the control group (pgrouper as in other teleost fish, also indicate that recombinant gNPY from P. pastoris has the same bioactivity as synthetic gNPY and has the potential to be used as a feed additive for both research and aquatic application.

  4. Ciguatoxic Potential of Brown-Marbled Grouper in Relation to Fish Size and Geographical Origin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Thomas Y. K.

    2015-01-01

    To determine the ciguatoxic potential of brown-marbled grouper (Epinephelus fuscoguttatus) in relation to fish size and geographical origin, this review systematically analyzed: 1) reports of large ciguatera outbreaks and outbreaks with description of the fish size; 2) Pacific ciguatoxin (P-CTX) profiles and levels and mouse bioassay results in fish samples from ciguatera incidents; 3) P-CTX profiles and levels and risk of toxicity in relation to fish size and origin; 4) regulatory measures restricting fish trade and fish size preference of the consumers. P-CTX levels in flesh and size dependency of toxicity indicate that the risk of ciguatera after eating E. fuscoguttatus varies with its geographical origin. For a large-sized grouper, it is necessary to establish legal size limits and control measures to protect public health and prevent overfishing. More risk assessment studies are required for E. fuscoguttatus to determine the size threshold above which the risk of ciguatera significantly increases. PMID:26324735

  5. Ciguatoxic Potential of Brown-Marbled Grouper in Relation to Fish Size and Geographical Origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Thomas Y K

    2015-11-01

    To determine the ciguatoxic potential of brown-marbled grouper (Epinephelus fuscoguttatus) in relation to fish size and geographical origin, this review systematically analyzed: 1) reports of large ciguatera outbreaks and outbreaks with description of the fish size; 2) Pacific ciguatoxin (P-CTX) profiles and levels and mouse bioassay results in fish samples from ciguatera incidents; 3) P-CTX profiles and levels and risk of toxicity in relation to fish size and origin; 4) regulatory measures restricting fish trade and fish size preference of the consumers. P-CTX levels in flesh and size dependency of toxicity indicate that the risk of ciguatera after eating E. fuscoguttatus varies with its geographical origin. For a large-sized grouper, it is necessary to establish legal size limits and control measures to protect public health and prevent overfishing. More risk assessment studies are required for E. fuscoguttatus to determine the size threshold above which the risk of ciguatera significantly increases.

  6. Distinct functions of neuromedin u and neuromedin s in orange-spotted grouper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shuisheng; Xiao, Ling; Liu, Qiongyu; Zheng, Binbin; Chen, Huapu; Liu, Xiaochun; Zhang, Yong; Lin, Haoran

    2015-10-01

    Neuromedin U (NMU) and neuromedin S (NMS) play inhibitory roles in the regulation of food intake and energy homeostasis in mammals. However, their functions are not clearly established in teleost fish. In the present study, nmu and nms homologs were identified in several fish species. Subsequently, their cDNA sequences were cloned from the orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides). Sequence analysis showed that the orange-spotted grouper Nmu proprotein contains a 21-amino acid mature Nmu peptide (Nmu-21). The Nms proprotein lost the typical mature Nms peptide, but it retains a putative 34-amino acid peptide (Nmsrp). In situ hybridization revealed that nmu- and nms-expressing cells are mainly localized in the hypothalamic regions associated with appetite regulation. Food deprivation decreased the hypothalamic nmu mRNA levels but induced an increase of nms mRNA levels. Periprandial expression analysis showed that hypothalamic expression of nmu increased significantly at 3 h post-feeding, while nms expression was elevated at the normal feeding time. I.p. injection of synthetic Nmu-21 peptide suppressed the hypothalamic neuropeptide y (npy) expression, while Nmsrp administration significantly increased the expression of npy and orexin in orange-spotted grouper. Furthermore, the mRNA levels of LH beta subunit (lhβ) and gh in the pituitary were significantly down-regulated after Nmu-21 peptide administration, while Nmsrp was able to significantly stimulate the expression of FSH beta subunit (fshβ), prolactin (prl), and somatolaction (sl). Our results indicate that nmu and nms possess distinct neuroendocrine functions and pituitary functions in the orange spotted grouper.

  7. Ciguatoxic Potential of Brown-Marbled Grouper in Relation to Fish Size and Geographical Origin

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas Y. K. Chan

    2015-01-01

    To determine the ciguatoxic potential of brown-marbled grouper (Epinephelus fuscoguttatus) in relation to fish size and geographical origin, this review systematically analyzed: 1) reports of large ciguatera outbreaks and outbreaks with description of the fish size; 2) Pacific ciguatoxin (P-CTX) profiles and levels and mouse bioassay results in fish samples from ciguatera incidents; 3) P-CTX profiles and levels and risk of toxicity in relation to fish size and origin; 4) regulatory measures r...

  8. Vaccination of grouper broodfish (Epinephelus tukula) reduces the risk of vertical transmission by nervous necrosis virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kai, Yu-Hsuan; Su, Huei-Meei; Tai, Kun-Tsai; Chi, Shau-Chi

    2010-01-22

    Nervous necrosis virus (NNV) has caused mass mortality in many species of cultured fish at larval stage. Strong evidence of vertical transmission of NNV has been reported in the carrier broodstock of striped jack and sea bass. An effective immunization program was developed and monitored in adult groupers (Epinephelus coioides) with average body weight of 1.35kg. The highest neutralizing antibody titers were found in the fish intramuscularly injected with adjuvanted NNV vaccine at 10(9)TCID(50)kg(-1), and the enhanced 2-fold neutralization activity could sustain up to 17 months post-vaccination (mpv). An immunization program was applied in the broodstocks of grouper (Epinephelus tukula) with body weight of 35-60kg. The levels of NNV-specific antibodies detected, from 1 to 5 mpi, in the homogenates of the eggs from the vaccinated broodfish were elevated than that from non-vaccinated fish. By nested RT-PCR, NNV was detectable in the eggs from the non-vaccinated fish at Month 5, but not in the eggs from vaccinated fish. It is therefore suggested that vaccination will be a potentially practical measure to reduce the risk of vertical transmission of NNV of grouper broodfish under stress of repeated spawning.

  9. Interspecific communicative and coordinated hunting between groupers and giant moray eels in the Red Sea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redouan Bshary

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Intraspecific group hunting has received considerable attention because of the close links between cooperative behaviour and its cognitive demands. Accordingly, comparisons between species have focused on behaviours that can potentially distinguish between the different levels of cognitive complexity involved, such as "intentional" communication between partners in order to initiate a joint hunt, the adoption of different roles during a joint hunt (whether consistently or alternately, and the level of food sharing following a successful hunt. Here we report field observations from the Red Sea on the highly coordinated and communicative interspecific hunting between the grouper, Plectropomus pessuliferus, and the giant moray eel, Gymnothorax javanicus. We provide evidence of the following: (1 associations are nonrandom, (2 groupers signal to moray eels in order to initiate joint searching and recruit moray eels to prey hiding places, (3 signalling is dependent on grouper hunger level, and (4 both partners benefit from the association. The benefits of joint hunting appear to be due to complementary hunting skills, reflecting the evolved strategies of each species, rather than individual role specialisation during joint hunts. In addition, the partner species that catches a prey item swallows it whole immediately, making aggressive monopolisation of a carcass impossible. We propose that the potential for monopolisation of carcasses by one partner species represents the main constraint on the evolution of interspecific cooperative hunting for most potentially suitable predator combinations.

  10. Spatial distribution and conservation of speckled hind and warsaw grouper in the Atlantic Ocean off the southeastern U.S.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas A Farmer

    Full Text Available There is broad interest in the development of efficient marine protected areas (MPAs to reduce bycatch and end overfishing of speckled hind (Epinephelus drummondhayi and warsaw grouper (Hyporthodus nigritus in the Atlantic Ocean off the southeastern U.S. We assimilated decades of data from many fishery-dependent, fishery-independent, and anecdotal sources to describe the spatial distribution of these data limited stocks. A spatial classification model was developed to categorize depth-grids based on the distribution of speckled hind and warsaw grouper point observations and identified benthic habitats. Logistic regression analysis was used to develop a quantitative model to predict the spatial distribution of speckled hind and warsaw grouper as a function of depth, latitude, and habitat. Models, controlling for sampling gear effects, were selected based on AIC and 10-fold cross validation. The best-fitting model for warsaw grouper included latitude and depth to explain 10.8% of the variability in probability of detection, with a false prediction rate of 28-33%. The best-fitting model for speckled hind, per cross-validation, included latitude and depth to explain 36.8% of the variability in probability of detection, with a false prediction rate of 25-27%. The best-fitting speckled hind model, per AIC, also included habitat, but had false prediction rates up to 36%. Speckled hind and warsaw grouper habitats followed a shelf-edge hardbottom ridge from North Carolina to southeast Florida, with speckled hind more common to the north and warsaw grouper more common to the south. The proportion of habitat classifications and model-estimated stock contained within established and proposed MPAs was computed. Existing MPAs covered 10% of probable shelf-edge habitats for speckled hind and warsaw grouper, protecting 3-8% of speckled hind and 8% of warsaw grouper stocks. Proposed MPAs could add 24% more probable shelf-edge habitat, and protect an additional

  11. Infection and pathology in Queensland grouper, Epinephelus lanceolatus, (Bloch), caused by exposure to Streptococcus agalactiae via different routes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delamare-Deboutteville, J; Bowater, R; Condon, K; Reynolds, A; Fisk, A; Aviles, F; Barnes, A C

    2015-12-01

    Since 2007, 96 wild Queensland groupers, Epinephelus lanceolatus, (Bloch), have been found dead in NE Australia. In some cases, Streptococcus agalactiae (Group B Streptococcus, GBS) was isolated. At present, a GBS isolate from a wild grouper case was employed in experimental challenge trials in hatchery-reared Queensland grouper by different routes of exposure. Injection resulted in rapid development of clinical signs including bilateral exophthalmia, hyperaemic skin or fins and abnormal swimming. Death occurred in, and GBS was re-isolated from, 98% fish injected and was detected by PCR in brain, head kidney and spleen from all fish, regardless of challenge dose. Challenge by immersion resulted in lower morbidity with a clear dose response. Whilst infection was established via oral challenge by admixture with feed, no mortality occurred. Histology showed pathology consistent with GBS infection in organs examined from all injected fish, from fish challenged with medium and high doses by immersion, and from high-dose oral challenge. These experimental challenges demonstrated that GBS isolated from wild Queensland grouper reproduced disease in experimentally challenged fish and resulted in pathology that was consistent with that seen in wild Queensland grouper infected with S. agalactiae.

  12. Immunocytochemical Study on Blood and Organ Suspension of Tiger Grouper (Epinephelus fuscoguttatus Infected with Field Isolate of Viral Nervous Necrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artanti Tri Lestari

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available One potential marine cultures that have been developed and started to show the international market is grouper. Grouper culture can not be separated from factors that can affect disease and thwart cultivation. One of the diseases that has been reported by researchers is viral nervous necrosis (VNN causing mass mortality in fish, especially grouper larvae and juvenile stadia. Laboratory of Balai KIPM kelas l Denpasar develop rapid diagnostic techniques, precise and accurate test using immunocytochemistry of blood and organs as one of the initial inspection. Tiger grouper sized 150-300 g as much as 50 and acclimatized, then 10 fishes used as controls, 40 fishes were injected with inoculum VNN 101.5 reared without water replacement cycle for ten days. Clinical observation and organ sampling performed 12 hours post-infection and consecutive every 12 hours. Blood samples and organs were collected for immunocytochemical (streptavidin-biotin and a confirmatory test using RT - PCR using kit IQ -2000 VNN. Immunocytochemistry and RT-PCR showed positive results against VNN blood smears and suspensions organs of grouper fish with 24 hours post-infection . Based on the test results, the immunocytochemistry test on the blood and organ suspensions can be used as a detection technique VNN which is rapid, precise and accurate.

  13. Comparative Transcriptomic Study of Muscle Provides New Insights into the Growth Superiority of a Novel Grouper Hybrid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ying; Huang, Yu; Hu, Guojun; Zhang, Xinhui; Ruan, Zhiqiang; Zhao, Xiaomeng; Guo, Chuanyu; Tang, Zhujing; Li, Xiaofeng; You, Xinxin; Lin, Haoran; Zhang, Yong; Shi, Qiong

    2016-01-01

    Grouper (Epinephelus spp.) is a group of fish species with great economic importance in Asian countries. A novel hybrid grouper, generated by us and called the Hulong grouper (Hyb), has better growth performance than its parents, E. fuscoguttatus (Efu, ♀) and E. lanceolatus (Ela, ♂). We previously reported that the GH/IGF (growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor) system in the brain and liver contributed to the superior growth of the Hyb. In this study, using transcriptome sequencing (RNA-seq) and quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR), we analyzed RNA expression levels of comprehensive genes in the muscle of the hybrid and its parents. Our data showed that genes involved in glycolysis and calcium signaling in addition to troponins are up-regulated in the Hyb. The results suggested that the activity of the upstream GH/IGF system in the brain and liver, along with the up-regulated glycolytic genes as well as ryanodine receptors (RyRs) and troponins related to the calcium signaling pathway in muscle, led to enhanced growth in the hybrid grouper. Muscle contraction inducing growth could be the major contributor to the growth superiority in our novel hybrid grouper, which may be a common mechanism for hybrid superiority in fishes.

  14. Development of Pedigree Classification Using Microsatellite and Mitochondrial Markers for Giant Grouper Broodstock (Epinephelus lanceolatus Management in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiao-Che Kuo

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Most giant groupers in the market are derived from inbred stock. Inbreeding can cause trait depression, compromising the animals’ fitness and disease resistance, obligating farmers to apply increased amounts of drugs. In order to solve this problem, a pedigree classification method is needed. Here, microsatellite and mitochondrial DNA were used as genetic markers to analyze the genetic relationships among giant grouper broodstocks. The 776-bp fragment of high polymorphic mitochondrial D-loop sequence was selected for measuring sibling relatedness. In a sample of 118 giant groupers, 42 haplotypes were categorized, with nucleotide diversity (π of 0.00773 and haplotype diversity (HD of 0.983. Furthermore, microsatellites were used for investigation of parentage. Six out of 33 microsatellite loci were selected as markers based on having a high number of alleles and compliance with Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Microsatellite profiles based on these loci provide high variability with low combined non-exclusion probability, permitting practical use in aquaculture. The method described here could be used to improve grouper broodstock management and lower the chances of inbreeding. This approach is expected to lead to production of higher quality groupers with higher disease resistance, thereby reducing the need for drug application.

  15. Development of pedigree classification using microsatellite and mitochondrial markers for Giant grouper broodstock (Epinephelus lanceolatus) management in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Hsiao-Che; Hsu, Hao-Hsuan; Chua, Chee Shin; Wang, Ting-Yu; Chen, Young-Mao; Chen, Tzong-Yueh

    2014-04-30

    Most giant groupers in the market are derived from inbred stock. Inbreeding can cause trait depression, compromising the animals' fitness and disease resistance, obligating farmers to apply increased amounts of drugs. In order to solve this problem, a pedigree classification method is needed. Here, microsatellite and mitochondrial DNA were used as genetic markers to analyze the genetic relationships among giant grouper broodstocks. The 776-bp fragment of high polymorphic mitochondrial D-loop sequence was selected for measuring sibling relatedness. In a sample of 118 giant groupers, 42 haplotypes were categorized, with nucleotide diversity (π) of 0.00773 and haplotype diversity (HD) of 0.983. Furthermore, microsatellites were used for investigation of parentage. Six out of 33 microsatellite loci were selected as markers based on having a high number of alleles and compliance with Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Microsatellite profiles based on these loci provide high variability with low combined non-exclusion probability, permitting practical use in aquaculture. The method described here could be used to improve grouper broodstock management and lower the chances of inbreeding. This approach is expected to lead to production of higher quality groupers with higher disease resistance, thereby reducing the need for drug application.

  16. Negative regulation of the innate antiviral immune response by TRIM62 from orange spotted grouper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ying; Huang, Youhua; Yu, Yepin; Zhou, Sheng; Wang, Shaowen; Yang, Min; Qin, Qiwei; Huang, Xiaohong

    2016-10-01

    Increased reports uncovered that mammalian tripartite motif-containing 62 (TRIM62) exerts crucial roles in cancer and innate immune response. However, the roles of fish TRIM62 in antiviral immune response remained uncertain. In this study, a TRIM62 gene was cloned from orange spotted grouper (EcTRIM62) and its roles in grouper RNA virus infection was elucidated in vitro. EcTRIM62 shared 99% and 83% identity to bicolor damselfish (Stegastes partitus) and human (Homo sapiens), respectively. Sequence alignment indicated that EcTRIM62 contained three domains, including a RING-finger domain, a B-box domain and a SPRY domain. In healthy grouper, the transcript of EcTRIM62 was predominantly detected in brain and liver, followed by heart, skin, spleen, fin, gill, intestine, and stomach. Subcellular localization analysis indicated that bright fluorescence spots were observed in the cytoplasm of EcTRIM62-transfected grouper spleen (GS) cells. During red-spotted grouper nervous necrosis (RGNNV) infection, overexpression of EcTRIM62 significantly enhanced the severity of CPE and increased viral gene transcriptions. Furthermore, the ectopic expression of EcTRIM62 significantly decreased the transcription level of interferon signaling molecules, including interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3), IRF7, interferon-stimulated gene 15 (ISG15), melanoma differentiation-associated protein 5 (MDA5), myxovirus resistance gene MXI, and MXII, suggesting that the negative regulation of interferon immune response by EcTRIM62 might directly contributed to its enhancing effect on RGNNV replication. Furthermore, our results also demonstrated that overexpression of EcTRIM62 was able to differently regulate the expression levels of pro-inflammation cytokines. In addition, we found the ectopic expression of EcTIRM62 negatively regulated MDA5-, but not mediator of IRF3 activation (MITA)-induced interferon immune response. Further studies showed that the deletion of RING domain and SPRY domain

  17. Orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides) adiponectin receptors: molecular characterization, mRNA expression, and subcellular location.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Chaobin; Wang, Bin; Sun, Caiyun; Jia, Jirong; Li, Wensheng

    2014-03-01

    Adiponectin is an abundantly secreted adipokine from adipose tissue in mammals, which plays important roles in the regulation of glucose and lipid metabolism. The biological function of adiponectin is mediated by at least two receptors (AdipoR1 and AdipoR2). Although both of them were identified in mammals, there are few researches about adiponectin and its receptors in teleosts. In this study, two types of adiponectin receptors have been isolated and characterized in the orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides). The cDNAs of grouper AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 are 1444 and 2034 bp in length, encoding proteins of 376 amino acids and 375 amino acids, respectively. Multiple alignment results showed that there was a variable region at the N-terminal of AdipoR1/R2, which has never been reported. Both AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 were found to be widely expressed in various tissues of grouper. Compared to AdipoR2, AdipoR1 expressed at higher levels in the nervous system and pituitary gland, but at lower levels in some peripheral tissues, including heart, liver, adipose tissue, stomach, intestine and especially gonad. Fasting and refeeding experiments showed that the mRNA expressions of AdipoR1/R2 were up-regulated by fasting in the muscle and adipose tissue of grouper, and restored rapidly to normal levels after refeeding. However, the mRNA expressions of AdipoR1/R2 in the hypothalamus and liver of grouper were insensitive to fasting. By indirect immunofluorescence, we demonstrated that grouper AdipoR1/R2 were integral membrane proteins; the C-terminals were extracellular, while the N-terminals were intracellular.

  18. Functional analysis of an orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides) interferon gene and characterisation of its expression in response to nodavirus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Young-Mao; Kuo, Cham-En; Chen, Guan-Ru; Kao, Yu-Ting; Zou, Jun; Secombes, Chris J; Chen, Tzong-Yueh

    2014-10-01

    We cloned and sequenced 2C I-IFN, a two-cysteine containing type I interferon (I-IFN) gene, in orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides). The cDNA has 769 base pairs, the protein has 172 amino acids, and the predicted signal peptide has 18 amino acids with two cysteines. This gene is similar to I-FNs from sea bass and other teleosts. 2C I-IFN has 5 exons and 4 introns, also similar to other teleost I-IFNs. Immunohistochemical (IHC) analysis indicated that expression is predominantly membrane-localized in healthy grouper, but has a zonal distribution in nodavirus-infected grouper. Grouper infected with nodavirus had elevated levels of 2C I-IFN at 72 h and Mx at days 6-7. Recombinant 2C I-IFN activated grouper Mx, leading to upregulated antiviral activity. The grouper Mx promoter was highly induced after treatment with recombinant 2C I-IFN. The present results suggest that expression of grouper 2C I-IFN may participate in the immunologic barrier function against nodavirus.

  19. Development of novel tetra- and trinucleotide microsatellite markers for giant grouper Epinephelus lanceolatus using 454 pyrosequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Keun-Sik; Noh, Choong Hwan; Moon, Shin-Joo; Han, Seung-Hee; Bang, In-Chul

    2016-06-01

    Giant grouper (Epinephelus lanceolatus) is a commercially important species, but its wild population has recently been classified as vulnerable. This species has significant potential for use in aquaculture, though a greater understanding of population genetics is necessary for selective breeding programs to minimize kinship for genetically healthy individuals. High-throughput pyrosequencing of genomic DNA was used to identify and characterize novel tetra- and trinucleotide microsatellite markers in giant grouper from Sabah, Malaysia. In total, of 62,763 sequences containing simple sequence repeats (SSRs) were obtained, and 78 SSR loci were selected to possibly contain tetra- and trinucleotide repeats. Of these loci, 16 had tetra- and 8 had trinucleotide repeats, all of which exhibited polymorphisms within easily genotyped regions. A total of 143 alleles were identified with an average of 5.94 alleles per locus, with mean observed and expected heterozygosities of 0.648 and 0.620, respectively. Among of them, 15 microsatellite markers were identified without null alleles and with Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. These alleles showed a combined non-exclusion probability of 0.01138. The probability of individual identification (PID) value combined with in descending order 12 microsatellite markers was 0.00008, which strongly suggests that the use of the microsatellite markers developed in this study in various combinations would result in a high resolution method for parentage analysis and individual identification. These markers could be used to establish a broodstock management program for giant grouper and to provide a foundation for genetic studies such as population structure, parentage analysis, and kinship selection.

  20. FERMENTED BLOOD MEAL USE FOR TIGER GROUPER, Epinephelus fuscoguttatus GROW-OUT DIET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usman Usman

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The experiment aimed to evaluate the optimal level of fermented blood meal used in grow-out diets for tiger grouper, as an alternative protein source to fish meal. Juvenile tiger grouper, initial weight 31.1 ± 2.1 g, were stocked into 1 m x 1 m x 2 m floating net cages at 20 fish cage-1. The treatment applied was isoprotein and isocaloric diets formulated to contain fermented blood meal (FBM of 0%, 7.5%, 15.0%, 22.5%, and 30.0% replacement of fish meal protein. The diets were fed to the fish twice a day to satiation for 20 weeks. Based on the Tukey test, the fish fed 0%–15.0% FBM demonstrated similar performance (P>0.05 to those fed the control diet (FBM0 in terms of specific growth rate, weight gain, and feed and protein efficiency. Specific growth rate, weight gain, feed efficiency and protein efficiency of the fish fed 22.5%–30.5% FBM were significantly lower (P<0.05 than those of the fish fed control diet (FBM0. However, there was a significant culvilinier decliner in overall fish performance with increasing inclusion of FPM and most notable for weight gain, feed efficiency and feed consumption. Based on regression analysis, the asymptote where fish growth deteriorates as a function of FBM inclusion was determined to be 8.9%. Tiger grouper diets incorporating up to 9% FBM as fish meal replacement had no adverse affects on fish growth and survival.

  1. Substitution of fishmeal with soybean meal in humpback Grouper, Cromileptes altivelis juvenile diets supplemented with phytase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachman Syah

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Feeding experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of replacing fishmeal with soybean meal in diet on growth of humpback grouper. Fifteen cages of 1 x 1 x 1.2 m3 each stocked with 16 humpback grouper juveniles (61.3 ± 0.4 g/pc were set up randomly in seawater. Fish were fed to satiation twice daily for 112 days. The control diet contained 61.9% fishmeal (63.34% crude protein. Four isonitrogenous (48% crude protein and isocaloric (4.7 kcal/g feed diets supplemented with commercial phytase “Rhonozyme-P” at 0.075% were formulated to contain different levels (8%, 16%, 24%, and 32% soybean meal (43.65% crude protein as a partial replacement for fishmeal. These diets contained total phosphorus levels between 3.6—4.5 (±0.4 % and 0.7—1.5 (±0.04 % available phosphorus. Replacement of fishmeal with soybean meal (8 to 32% replacement was not significantly different (P>0.05 to the control diet on daily growth rate (DGR, food conversion ratio (FCR, protein efficiency ratio (PER, and daily food consumption (DFC. However, the dietary levels of soybean meal significantly affected (P<0.05 whole body protein and phosphorus retention (Table 1. These data suggest that addition of phytase in diets could improve protein and phosphorus availability and reduce nitrogen and phosphorus loading in the environment. Phytase can therefore play an important role in formulating eco-friendly feed for humpback grouper. Based on P loading, supplementation of phytase enable up to 24% fishmeal replacement with soybean meal.

  2. Hydroacoustics for the discovery and quantification of Nassau grouper ( Epinephelus striatus) spawning aggregations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egerton, J. P.; Johnson, A. F.; Le Vay, L.; McCoy, C. M.; Semmens, B. X.; Heppell, S. A.; Turner, J. R.

    2017-06-01

    Fish spawning aggregations (FSAs) are vital life-history events that need to be monitored to determine the health of aggregating populations; this is especially true of the endangered Nassau grouper ( Epinephelus striatus). Hydroacoustics were used to locate Nassau grouper FSAs at sites on the west end of Little Cayman (LCW), and east ends of Grand Cayman (GCE) and Cayman Brac (CBE). Fish abundance and biomass at each FSA were estimated via echo integration and FSA extent. Acoustic mean fish abundance estimates (±SE) on the FSA at LCW (893 ± 459) did not differ significantly from concurrent SCUBA estimates (1150 ± 75). Mean fish densities (number 1000 m-3) were significantly higher at LCW (33.13 ± 5.62) than at the other sites (GCE: 7.01 ± 2.1, CBE: 4.61 ± 1.16). We investigate different acoustic post-processing options to obtain target strength (TS), and we examine the different TS to total length (TL) formulas available. The SCUBA surveys also provided measures of TL through the use of laser callipers allowing development of an in situ TS to TL formula for Nassau grouper at the LCW FSA. Application of this formula revealed mean fish TL was significantly higher at LCW (65.4 ± 0.7 cm) than GCE (60.7 ± 0.4 cm), but not CBE (61.1 ± 2.5 cm). Use of the empirical TS to TL formula resulted in underestimation of fish length in comparison with diver measurements, highlighting the benefits of secondary length data and deriving specific TS to TL formulas for each population. FSA location examined with reference to seasonal marine protected areas (Designated Grouper Spawning Areas) showed FSAs were partially outside these areas at GCE and very close to the boundary at CBE. As FSAs often occur at the limits of safe diving operations, hydroacoustic technology provides an alternative method to monitor and inform future management of aggregating fish species.

  3. 77 FR 59129 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Fishery Off the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-26

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 622 RIN 0648-AY74 Fisheries of the Caribbean... and imported groupers, snappers, and other fish. Further, most of the important inputs (e.g., fuel... Rico, Reporting and recordkeeping requirements, Virgin Islands. Dated: September 20, 2012. Alan...

  4. 76 FR 61285 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; South Atlantic Snapper-Grouper...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-04

    ... reduce overfishing of the South Atlantic black sea bass resource. DATES: This rule is effective October 4... overfishing and prevent overfishing from occurring. AMs are management controls to prevent ACLs from being... ACLs for eight snapper-grouper species in the FMP that are undergoing overfishing, including black...

  5. 75 FR 57734 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Fishery off the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-22

    ...-grouper species, eight of which are undergoing overfishing; specify recreational and commercial... procedure. The actions contained in Amendment 17B are intended to address overfishing of eight snapper... stock or stock complex in an FMP is undergoing overfishing, the FMP must establish by 2010 a...

  6. 76 FR 66273 - Snapper-Grouper Fishery Off the Southern Atlantic States and Coral and Coral Reefs Fishery in the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-26

    ... Atlantic States and Coral and Coral Reefs Fishery in the South Atlantic; Exempted Fishing Permit AGENCY... conditions, various species of reef fish and live rock in Federal waters off North Carolina. The specimens... Plan (FMP) for the Snapper-Grouper Fishery of the South Atlantic Region and the FMP for Coral, Coral...

  7. A record of an adult Warsaw grouper, Hyporthodus nigritus (Perciformes: Ephinephelidae), in a deep reef of the Colombian Caribbean

    OpenAIRE

    Bustos Montes, Diana; Viaña Tous, Jorge; Acero-P., Arturo; Pardo, Elkin R.; Garrido, Manuel; Rueda, Mario; Alonso, David

    2013-01-01

    The Warsaw grouper (Hyporthodus nigritus) has been reported from the western Atlantic between Massachusetts (United States) and Mexico, including a few South American reports to Brasil. In Colombia a juvenile specimen was reported from nearby Cartagena in 2003. Herein, we report an adult fish caught near to deep-water reefs in the Golfo de Morrosquillo, Colombian Caribbean.

  8. 77 FR 61559 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife; 90-Day Finding on a Petition To List Nassau Grouper as...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-10

    ... Randall, 1993; Foley et al., 2007). Nassau grouper are generally found near high-relief coral reefs and... population to coral reef area (rather than population size) to give an overall decline figure. This method... threatened destruction, modification, or curtailment of habitat or range; overutilization for commercial...

  9. 78 FR 31511 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Fishery Off the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-24

    ... also applies in the South Atlantic on board a vessel for which a valid Federal commercial or charter... provide socio-economic benefits to snapper-grouper fishermen and communities that utilize the snapper... not distinguish charter vessels from headboats but an estimated 75 headboats are believed to possess...

  10. 75 FR 60009 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Fishery of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-29

    ..., Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Fishery of the South Atlantic; Closure of the July- December 2010 Commercial Sector for Vermilion Snapper in the South Atlantic AGENCY: National Marine...: Temporary rule; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS closes the commercial sector for vermilion snapper in the...

  11. 77 FR 1908 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Fishery Off the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-12

    ... Amendment (Comprehensive ACL Amendment) published on December 1, 2011 (76 FR 74757), and would implement an... Comprehensive ACL Amendment on December 30, 2011 (76 FR 82264) to implement the revised wreckfish ABC and ACL of..., Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Fishery Off the Southern Atlantic States;...

  12. 75 FR 11068 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Fishery of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-10

    ..., Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Fishery of the South Atlantic; Closure AGENCY.... ACTION: Temporary rule; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS closes the commercial fishery for vermilion snapper in the... snapper resource. DATES: This rule is effective 12:01 a.m., local time, March 19, 2010, through June...

  13. 78 FR 50394 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Fishery off the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-19

    ... supplemental NOI to Amendment 22, published at 78 FR 46923, August 2, 2013, should be submitted on or before...Marie.Eich@noaa.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: In FR Doc. 2013-18676, appearing on page 46924, in the..., and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Fishery off the South Atlantic States; Amendment 22;...

  14. 78 FR 72867 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Fishery Off the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-04

    ..., queen snapper, and silk snapper) beyond a depth of 240 ft (73 m) (75 FR 82280, December 30, 2010...) harvest prohibition on six deep-water snapper-grouper species (77 FR 27374, May 10, 2012) and concluded... prohibited (74 FR 1621, January 13, 2009). The intent of the eight MPAs is to protect long-lived, deep-...

  15. 78 FR 49183 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Fishery Off the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-13

    ... 15 and requested public comments (78 FR 31511). The proposed rule and the regulatory amendment... small business size standards for several industries effective July 22, 2013 (78 FR 37398). The rule..., Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Fishery Off the Southern Atlantic...

  16. 76 FR 68310 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Fishery Off the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-04

    ...), and (b)(2); Sec. 622.8(a)(6); and Sec. 622.18(b)(1)(ii) published at 74 FR 58902 (November 16, 2009... CONTACT: Kate Michie, telephone: (727) 824- 5305. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: On November 16, 2009 (74 FR... the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Fishery Off the Southern...

  17. 76 FR 12605 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Fishery Off the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-08

    ... On December 30, 2010, a final rule was published to implement Amendment 17B (75 FR 82280). That final..., Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Fishery Off the Southern Atlantic States; Amendment... the final rule that implemented Amendment 17B to the Fishery Management Plan (FMP) for the...

  18. 76 FR 12883 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Fishery of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-09

    ..., Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Fishery of the South Atlantic; Closure AGENCY.... ACTION: Temporary rule; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS closes the commercial sector for vermilion snapper in the... snapper resource. DATES: This rule is effective 12:01 a.m., local time, March 10, 2011, until 12:01...

  19. 77 FR 56563 - Snapper-Grouper Fishery of the South Atlantic; Reopening of the 2012 Commercial Sector for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-13

    ..., 2012, and closed the commercial sector for yellowtail snapper on that date (77 FR 53776, September 4... (77 FR 15916). In part, the final rule for the Comprehensive ACL Amendment specified ACLs and AMs for... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 622 RIN 0648-XC229 Snapper-Grouper Fishery...

  20. 76 FR 59063 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Fishery of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-23

    ..., 2011 (76 FR 34892). This trip limit, specified in 50 CFR 622.44(c)(6), remains in effect until the..., Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Fishery of the South Atlantic; Closure AGENCY.... ACTION: Temporary rule; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS closes the commercial sector for vermilion snapper in...

  1. 77 FR 11775 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Fishery of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-28

    ..., Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Fishery of the South Atlantic; Closure AGENCY.... ACTION: Temporary rule; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS closes the commercial sector for vermilion snapper in the... snapper resource. DATES: This rule is effective 12:01 a.m., local time, February 29, 2012, until 12:01...

  2. 76 FR 12883 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Fishery Off the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 622 RIN 0648-AY10 Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Fishery Off the Southern Atlantic States;...

  3. 77 FR 50672 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Fishery Off the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-22

    ... 18A, implemented through final rulemaking on July 1, 2012, (77 FR 32408, June 1, 2012), included a... the establishment of an endorsement program. The proposed rule for Amendment 18A (77 FR 06991, March..., Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Fishery Off the Southern Atlantic...

  4. 78 FR 61939 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Resources of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-07

    ... Office of the Federal Register, as implemented by the final rule for Regulatory Amendment 18 (78 FR 47574..., Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Resources of the South Atlantic; Trip Limit... trip limit for vermilion snapper in or from the exclusive economic zone (EEZ) of the South Atlantic...

  5. 76 FR 23205 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Fishery of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-26

    ... FR 12883, March 9, 2011). However, based on current statistics, NMFS has determined that only 83..., Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Fishery of the South Atlantic; Reopening of the Commercial Sector for Vermilion Snapper in the South Atlantic AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service...

  6. 75 FR 49447 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Fishery off the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-13

    ... snapper, as well as other management measures that will help rebuild the stock. Management Measures... management decisions and would likely contribute to improved management of the stock. Rebuilding Plan The... to implement Amendment 17A to the Fishery Management Plan for the Snapper-Grouper Fishery of...

  7. Conditioning of broodstock of tiger grouper, Epinephelus fuscoguttatus, in a recirculating aquaculture system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saleem Mustafa

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Closing the cycle of commercial species of fish in a recirculating aquaculture system is gaining importance for a number of practical advantages. Founder broodstock originating from the wild population is conditioned to live in hatchery tanks under suitable environmental and feeding conditions and is induced to breed. The juveniles are grown to maturity and facilitated to spawn in captivity to close the life cycle in the hatchery. This experiment was carried out on tiger grouper (Epinephelus fuscoguttatus. After preliminary observations, it was possible to identify appropriate environmental conditions in terms of water quality parameters, volume of broodstock tanks and ration. Growth was nearly isometric (growth exponent = 2.9185 and the condition factor = 1.86. This reflected good management conditions. Cues that trigger sex reversal in this protogynous fish in the hatchery were different from those that operate in nature. It appears that the differentiation of some individuals of a cohort into male sex is linked to socio-demographic cues as well as internal condition of the fish because it related to age and physiological condition. This view was reinforced by a lack of response in young fish to similar cues. The information generated through this study defines what is required for optimum conditioning of tiger grouper broodstock and explains the cues involved in sex differentiation.

  8. TEMPORAL VARIATION IN THE RED GROUPER, EPINEPHELUS MORIO, DEMOGRAPHIC STRUCTURE FROM SOUTHERN GULF OF MEXICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doralice Caballero-Arango

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Changes in the demographic structure of red grouper Epinephelus morio from the southern part of the Gulf of Mexico, were evaluated during periods when total catches, CPUE and annual yields of the specie decreased. Fishery-dependent samples (n = 1887 were obtained between August 1989 and February 2004 from the Campeche Bank, and size-frequency distributions by sex, sex ratios and sizes of sexual maturation and sex change were compared between three periods: P11989-1992 (n = 886; P21996-1998 (n = 413; and P32003-2004 (n = 588. The temporal stability of size-frequency distribution by sex, with males always being larger than females, and the sex ratios always biased towards females, were consistent with this species’ type of sexuality. Size for females and males, as well as sizes at first sexual maturity and at sex reversal all decreased from the oldest period to the more recent one and could be a consequence of the fishing intensity applied to this stock. The reductions in size of females and males associated with a relatively stable sex ratio and the lack of any drastic decrease in the number of males can be explained by this species’ reproductive ecology. Results are discussed regarding the capacity for reproductive resilience of red grouper in response to fishing pressure like that currently experienced by the Campeche Bank stock.

  9. Molecular cloning and characterization of orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides) CXC chemokine ligand 12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chen-Shiou; Wang, Ting-Yu; Liu, Chin-Feng; Lin, Hao-Ping; Chen, Young-Mao; Chen, Tzong-Yueh

    2015-12-01

    Chemokines are a family of soluble peptides that can recruit a wide range of immune cells to sites of infection and disease. The CXCL12 is a chemokine that binds to its cognate receptor CXCR4 and thus involved in multiple physiological and pathophysiological processes. In this study, we cloned and characterized CXCL12 from Epinephelus coioides (osgCXCL12). We found that the open reading frame of osgCXCL12 consists of 98 amino acid residues with the small cytokine C-X-C domain located between residues 29 and 87. Higher expression levels for osgCXCL12 were detected at the kitting stage, compared with the prolarva and larva shape stages. The expression patterns revealed that osgCXCL12 may play a key role in early grouper development. We detected mRNA transcripts for osgCXCL12 in healthy tissues and found the highest osgCXCL12 expression in the head kidney. Furthermore, a time-course analysis revealed significantly increased osgCXCL12 and osgCXCR4 expression levels after the nervous necrosis virus (NNV) challenge. In addition, expression of osgCXCL12 was affected by injection with microbial mimics [LPS and poly(I:C)]. These results suggest that osgCXCL12 is associated with inflammatory and developmental processes in the grouper.

  10. Spawning aggregations of three protogynous groupers in the southern Gulf of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuz-Sulub, A; Brulé, T

    2015-01-01

    Spawning aggregations of red hind Epinephelus guttatus, tiger grouper Mycteroperca tigris and yellowfin grouper Mycteroperca venenosa were identified at two coral-reef systems: Arrecife Alacranes (emergent bank reef) and Bajos del Norte (submerged bank reef) on the continental shelf of the Yucatan Peninsula (Campeche Bank), Mexico. At both reefs, E. guttatus forms large spawning aggregations between February and March. At Bajos del Norte, M. tigris reproduces in a small, low-density aggregation in May, while M. venenosa aggregates at high densities for spawning between March and May. Multi-species use of an aggregation site by E. guttatus and M. venenosa was observed at Bajos del Norte. The identified spawning aggregations are apparently stable in location over time, and all three species were commonly observed to spawn within 1 week following the full moon. Development and survival of the larvae spawned in these aggregations are probably aided by a seasonal (spring-summer) upwelling in the north-east Campeche Bank. A permanent area closure at Bajos del Norte, currently outside any specific fisheries management area or regulations, would provide protection needed for the spawning aggregations of these three species.

  11. Efficacies of inactivated vaccines against betanodavirus in grouper larvae (Epinephelus coioides) by bath immunization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kai, Yu-Hsuan; Chi, Shau-Chi

    2008-03-10

    Betanodavirus is the pathogen of viral nervous necrosis (VNN) disease that has caused mass mortality among many species of marine fish at larval stage. In this study, the efficacy of inactivated betanodavirus was evaluated by bath-immunization and bath-challenge of orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides) at early larval stage. Two kinds of chemicals were used for inactivation of the virus, and the relative percent survival (RPS) values of 0.4mM binary ethylenimine (BEI)-inactivated vaccine was revealed to be 79-95, higher than that of 0.1-0.2% formalin-inactivated vaccines (39-43). Three lengths of bath immunization time were tested, and 20 min immersion of BEI-inactivated betanodavirus at a concentration of 10(6)TICD(50)/ml was sufficient to induce high protection (RPS > 75). Protection of the BEI-inactivated vaccine was evaluated at different time post immunization, and the peak of protection was observed 30 days post vaccination, and retained for at least 3 months. The efficacies of formalin-inactivated vaccines with or without encapsulation were compared, and the result revealed that the efficacy of formalin-inactivated vaccine could be significantly improved by nano-encapsulation (RPS = 85). All these data strongly suggested that bath immunization with nano-encapsulated formalin-inactivated or BEI-inactivated betanodavirus vaccines is an effective strategy to protect grouper larvae against VNN.

  12. Characterization and expression analysis of an allograft inflammatory factor-1 homologue in yellow grouper (Epinephelus awoara)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Li; SHI Dawei; WU Xinzhong

    2008-01-01

    Allograft inflammatory factor-1 (AIF-1) is a cytoplasmic calcium-binding protein involved in iullammatory response-related dis-eases in mammals.Previously an identified AIF-1 gene was simply reported in yellow grouper.The characterization of AIF-1 gene and its expression at the gene and protein level are further described.Yellow grouper AIF-1 is composed of 147 amino acids,and 64% ~ 84% identical to other homologues.Basal level AIF-I mRNA expression was noted in spleen,anterior kid-ney and kidney,using reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR).After stimulation of LPS,the AIF-1 mRNA expression was up-regulated in tissues examined:spleen,anterior kidney,kidney,heart and liver,but not in muscle.The re-combinant AIF-1 protein was expressed in Escherichia coli,and then purified for the development of antiserum.Western blotting analysis revealed a band with a molecular mass of about 17 ku.

  13. In situ observation data from the grouper roi (Cephalopholis argus) removal project in West Hawaii from 2010-2011 (NODC Accession 0082197)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In situ observations of the introduced predatory grouper roi (Cephalopholis argus) were taken within the coral reef ecosystem of Puako, northwest side of the Island...

  14. Mercury and histopathology of the vulnerable goliath grouper, Epinephelus itajara, in U.S. waters: a multi-tissue approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Douglas H; Sonne, Christian

    2013-10-01

    Goliath grouper have undergone significant global population declines with potential biological extinction for some subpopulations. Although overfishing and habitat loss are important drivers of these declines, the negative effects of contaminants may also play a role. The life history patterns of goliath grouper may make this species especially prone to exposure to contaminants and may exacerbate bioaccumulation of toxic substances, including mercury, which has documented detrimental health effects. Therefore, we analyzed mercury (in muscle, liver, kidney, gonad, and brain tissue) and the histology of key organs (liver, kidney and gill tissue) in 56 goliath groupers from U.S. waters. Total mercury concentration was greatest in liver tissue, followed by kidney, muscle, gonad, and brain. Maximum mercury concentration ranged from 22.68 μg/g in liver tissue to 0.89 μg/g in brain tissue. Mean mercury concentration ranged from 2.87 μg/g in liver tissue to 0.37 μg/g in brain tissue with a mean of 0.63 μg/g in muscle. Mean mercury concentrations observed in goliath grouper from U.S. waters were within the range known to cause direct health effects in fish after long-term exposure. The lesions and histological changes observed in the liver, kidney, and gills of goliath groupers were similar to those found in other fish following laboratory mercury-exposure trials and to those found in mercury-contaminated fish in wild populations carrying similar or even lower concentrations. We suggest that exposure to mercury and other environmental influences such as pathogens and reduced temperatures could be co-factors in the histological effects or anomalies observed in the present study, and resulting stresses may be involved in the observed population declines in the species.

  15. Dietary supplementation of Pediococcus pentosaceus enhances innate immunity, physiological health and resistance to Vibrio anguillarum in orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jian-Bin; Wu, Yu-Chi; Chi, Shau-Chi

    2014-08-01

    Groupers (Epinephelus spp.) are economically important fish species in Southeast Asian aquaculture. Vibriosis caused by Vibro spp. is one of the severe bacterial diseases that devastate the grouper aquaculture industry. Probiotics have been reported to show the potential to enhance fish immunity and to antagonize pathogens. In our previous study, a lactic acid bacterium Pediococcus pentosaceus strain 4012 (LAB4012), isolated from cobia intestine, protects cobia from photobacteriosis after a 2-week feeding. In this study, we examined the potential of LAB4012 to be a probiotic for the orange-spotted grouper through feeding, thus to guard against vibriosis. In vitro, LAB4012 culture supernatant with low pH suppressed the growth of Vibrio anguillarum, and lactic acid in the metabolite of LAB4012 appeared to be the major factor to the growth inhibition of V. anguillarum. In vivo, the challenge test showed that the cumulative mortality of the LAB4012-fed groupers was significantly lower than that of the control fish after V. anguillarum infection. Supplementation of LAB4012 in commercial diet not only enhanced the growth rate and erythrocyte numbers of the groupers, but also regulated the gene expression of the pro-/anti-inflammatory cytokines. One day post-infection of V. anguillarum, the leukocyte numbers in the peripheral blood and the phagocytic activity of the head-kidney phagocytes in the LAB4012-fed groupers were found significantly increased, when compared with those without LAB4012-feeding. These results suggested that LAB4012 can be a dietary probiotic for groupers in modulating the immunity and protecting the groupers from V. anguillarum infection.

  16. Molecular characterization of the GHRH/GHRH-R and its effect on GH synthesis and release in orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Yuehua; Yan, Aifen; Lin, Haoran; Li, Wensheng

    2012-10-01

    Growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) is a hypothalamic neuropeptide that stimulates growth hormone (GH) synthesis and secretion in the pituitary gland. In this paper, the full-length cDNAs of orange-spotted grouper GHRH and its receptor (GHRH-R) were cloned. The grouper GHRH cDNA is 713 bp in length and encodes a 141-aa precursor that includes an 18-aa signal peptide, a 27-aa mature GHRH mature peptide and a 47-aa carboxyl terminus. The grouper GHRH-R cDNA sequence is 1495 bp in length, encoding a 422-aa receptor with seven transmembrane domains. Tissue distribution analyses showed that both GHRH and GHRH-R mRNAs were predominantly expressed in the brain, while the GHRH-R mRNA was also abundantly detected in the pituitary gland. Both GHRH and GHRH-R mRNAs were expressed throughout embryonic development from the multi-cell stage to the newly hatched larvae stage, and the highest GHRH and GHRH-R expressions appeared at the brain vesicle stage and the heart stage, respectively. In vitro studies performed on the grouper pituitary primary cells showed that a synthetic grouper GHRH-NH(2) increased both GH mRNA expression and GH protein release in a dose-dependent manner. Together, these results suggest that the newly obtained grouper GHRH was able to stimulate GH synthesis and release, similar to its mammalian counterparts.

  17. Genetic Diversity and Differentiation of the Orange-Spotted Grouper (Epinephelus coioides Between and Within Cultured Stocks and Wild Populations Inferred from Microsatellite DNA Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haoran Lin

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, we employed microsatellite DNA markers to analyze the genetic diversity and differentiation between and within cultured stocks and wild populations of the orange-spotted grouper originating from the South China Sea and Southeast Asia. Compared to wild populations, genetic changes including reduced genetic diversity and significant differentiation have taken place in cultured grouper stocks, as shown by allele richness and heterozygosity studies, pairwise Fst, structure, molecular variance analysis, as well as multidimensional scaling analysis. Although two geographically adjacent orange-spotted grouper populations in China showed negligible genetic divergence, significant population differentiation was observed in wild grouper populations distributed in a wide geographical area from China, through Malaysia to Indonesia. However, the Mantel test rejected the isolation-by-distance model of genetic structure, which indicated the genetic differentiation among the populations could result from the co-effects of various factors, such as historical dispersal, local environment, ocean currents, river flows and island blocks. Our results demonstrated that microsatellite markers could be suitable not only for genetic monitoring cultured stocks but also for revealing the population structuring of wild orange-spotted grouper populations. Meanwhile, our study provided important information for breeding programs, management of cultured stocks and conservation of wild populations of the orange-spotted grouper.

  18. 大鲵感染虹彩病毒的诊断和治疗%Diagnosis and treatment of iridovirus disease of the giant salamarder Andrias davidanus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾秋红

    2014-01-01

    2013年7月,陕西省汉中某大鲵养殖场发生以大鲵体表和四肢多处溃烂并伴有出血为特征的疾病,染病大鲵大量死亡。经临床观察、病理解剖及实验室检测,最后确诊病原为大鲵虹彩病毒。通过采取综合防治措施,养殖场大鲵疫情得到有效控制。%2013 July ,Hanzhoung of Shaanxi province in a giant salamander breeding field occur in giant salamander body and limbs multiple ulcers and bleeding associated with disease characterized by a large number of deaths ,diseases of giant salamander .Through clinical observation ,pathological anat‐omy and laboratory test ,the final diagnosis of pathogenic for giant salamander iridovirus .By adopting comprehensive treatment measures ,the epidemic has been effectively controlled farms salamander .

  19. Evaluation of lethal and non-lethal sampling methods for the detection of white sturgeon iridovirus infection in white sturgeon, Acipenser transmontanus (Richardson).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drennan, J D; Lapatra, S E; Samson, C A; Ireland, S; Eversman, K F; Cain, K D

    2007-06-01

    Pectoral fin tissue of white sturgeon was investigated as a potential non-lethal sample source for the detection of white sturgeon iridovirus (WSIV) infection. Histopathology and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) results using fin tissue were compared with the standard lethal histopathology sampling method that utilizes head tissue. Tissues for each of the three sampling methods were collected weekly for 8 weeks from individual sturgeon undergoing an experimental cohabitation challenge with fish infected with the Abernathy isolate of WSIV. Non-lethal fin histopathological evaluation did not reveal infection during the first 3 weeks of sampling, while non-lethal PCR and the lethal method were variable. However, all three sampling methods were equally capable of identifying infection from 4 to 8 weeks post-exposure. Of the survivors tested, all were negative by PCR and the lethal method, and only one fish was identified as being positive by non-lethal fin histopathology. In another experiment, all three sampling methods were applied to asymptomatic WSIV carriers in a case study conducted at the Kootenai Tribal Sturgeon Conservation Hatchery. Results showed that both lethal and non-lethal fin histopathology were equally effective in detecting infection, but PCR was unable to identify this strain of WSIV. Depending on the virus isolate, these results suggest that non-lethal sampling of fin tissue (histopathology or PCR) is comparable with the lethal sampling method at identifying WSIV infection once infection is established, and under certain circumstances may provide an alternative to lethal sampling.

  20. Dietary administration of sodium alginate ameliorated stress and promoted immune resistance of grouper Epinephelus coioides under cold stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Pai-Po; Lin, Yu-Hung; Chen, Min-Chieh; Cheng, Winton

    2017-06-01

    Grouper, Epinephelus coioides, fed a diet containing sodium alginate at 0 (control, named C) and 1.0 g kg(-1) (named S) at a temperature of 28 °C for 12 days, were then further individually transferred to 28 (two groups named C-28 and S-28) or 20 °C (two groups named C-20 and S-20), and immune parameters and stress indexes were measured at the beginning and after 6, 12, 24 and 48 h of exposure. Examination of immune parameters revealed that the alternative complement activity (ACH50), lysozyme activity, phagocytic activity, superoxide dismutase, and respiratory bursts significantly increased in groupers fed the sodium alginate-containing diet for 12 days, and were higher in the S-28 than those of the C-28 and S-20 groups, which were higher than those of the C-20 group from 6 to 48 h except for ACH50 at 48 h, respiratory bursts at 48 h, and lysozymes at 6 h. For the assessment of stress indicators, cortisol, glucose, and lactate levels of serum significantly decreased in grouper fed the sodium alginate-containing diet for 12 days, and were higher in the C-20 group than those of the C-28 and S-20 groups, which were higher than those of the S-20 group at 6-48 h. In another experiment, grouper fed the test diet for 12 days at a temperature of 28 °C were challenged with Photobacterium damselae subsp. piscicida at a dose of 5 × 10(3) colony-forming units (cfu) (g fish)(-1), and then individually transferred to 28 or 20 °C. The survival rate of challenged fish of the C-28 group was significantly lower than those of challenged fish of the C-20 and S-28 groups, which were significantly lower than that of challenged fish of the S-20 group. All challenged fish of the S-20 group survived. Survival rates over 144 h were 30.0%, 70.0%, and 56.7% for the C-28, C-20, and S-28 groups, respectively. Our results indicated that dietary sodium alginate administration downregulated stress response indicators, enhanced immune responses, and prevented impacts of

  1. DISEASE RESISTANCE AND HUMORAL IMMUNOMODULATORY EFFECTS OF VITAMIN C ON GROUPER, EPINEPHELUS AWOARA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The disease resistance and humoral immunomodulatory effects of vitamin C administered orally to grouper, Epinephelus awoara maintained on a frozen fish diet supplemented with vitamin C at 500, 1000, 1500 and 2000 mg/kg were investigated. After 20 weeks, the growth rates of the groups with high level of vitamin C apparently increased. The untreated fish had symptoms of vitamin C deficiency. The endogenous liver tissue vitamin C levels were found to reflect well the dietary treatments. After intraperitoneal injection or bath challenge with a virulent strain of Vibrio vulnificus, fish fed with high level vitamin C showed significantly higher survival rate compared with the normal control group. Vaccination with formalin inactivated V. vulnificus significantly enhanced the specific antibody production in fish treated with vitamin C, and completely protected from strong bacterial challenge the groups fed on fish with vitamin C 1500 and 2000 mg/kg diet.

  2. A phylogenetic re-analysis of groupers with applications for ciguatera fish poisoning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte Schoelinck

    Full Text Available Ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP is a significant public health problem due to dinoflagellates. It is responsible for one of the highest reported incidence of seafood-borne illness and Groupers are commonly reported as a source of CFP due to their position in the food chain. With the role of recent climate change on harmful algal blooms, CFP cases might become more frequent and more geographically widespread. Since there is no appropriate treatment for CFP, the most efficient solution is to regulate fish consumption. Such a strategy can only work if the fish sold are correctly identified, and it has been repeatedly shown that misidentifications and species substitutions occur in fish markets.We provide here both a DNA-barcoding reference for groupers, and a new phylogenetic reconstruction based on five genes and a comprehensive taxonomical sampling. We analyse the correlation between geographic range of species and their susceptibility to ciguatera accumulation, and the co-occurrence of ciguatoxins in closely related species, using both character mapping and statistical methods.Misidentifications were encountered in public databases, precluding accurate species identifications. Epinephelinae now includes only twelve genera (vs. 15 previously. Comparisons with the ciguatera incidences show that in some genera most species are ciguateric, but statistical tests display only a moderate correlation with the phylogeny. Atlantic species were rarely contaminated, with ciguatera occurrences being restricted to the South Pacific.The recent changes in classification based on the reanalyses of the relationships within Epinephelidae have an impact on the interpretation of the ciguatera distribution in the genera. In this context and to improve the monitoring of fish trade and safety, we need to obtain extensive data on contamination at the species level. Accurate species identifications through DNA barcoding are thus an essential tool in controlling CFP since

  3. Immunomodulatory effect of sodium alginate enriched diet in kelp grouper Epinephelus brneus against Streptococcus iniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harikrishnan, Ramasamy; Kim, Man-Chul; Kim, Ju-Sang; Han, Yong-Jae; Jang, Ik-Soo; Balasundaram, Chellam; Heo, Moon-Soo

    2011-02-01

    The effect of diets containing sodium alginate at 0, 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 g kg⁻¹ following challenge with Streptococcus iniae in kelp grouper Epinephelus bruneus were assessed with reference to survival rate and innate immune parameters such as alternative complement, lysozyme, natural haemagglutination, respiratory burst, superoxide dismutase, and phagocytic activities on week 1, 2, and 4. Fish fed with sodium alginate containing diet at 1.0 and 2.0 g kg⁻¹ after being challenged with S. iniae had higher survival rates of 75% and 60%, respectively than those fed with control diet (0 g kg⁻¹). With any enriched diet the percentage of macrophages significantly decreased from week 1-4, while the percentage of neutrophils and lymphocytes significantly increased. The alternate complement activity, natural haemagglutination, and phagocytic activities of infected fish fed with sodium alginate containing diet at 1.0 g kg⁻¹ on week 2 and 1.0 and 2.0 g kg⁻¹ diets on week 4 were significantly higher when compared to the control. The lysozyme, respiratory bursts, and superoxide dismutase activities of fish fed with enriched diets at 1.0 and 2.0 g kg⁻¹ were significantly increased on week 2 and 4. We therefore recommend that at 1.0 or 2.0 g kg⁻¹ dietary administration of sodium alginate can enhance innate immunity and disease resistance in kelp grouper against S. iniae. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Behavior, color change and time for sexual inversion in the protogynous grouper (Epinephelus adscensionis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard J Kline

    Full Text Available Hermaphroditism, associated with territoriality and dominance behavior, is common in the marine environment. While male sex-specific coloration patterns have been documented in groupers, particularly during the spawning season, few data regarding social structure and the context for these color displays are available. In the present study, we define the social structure and male typical behavior of rock hind (Epinephelus adscensionis in the wild. In addition, we detail the captive conditions and time period necessary to induce the onset of the sex-specific coloration and sexual change. At six oil production platform locations in the Gulf of Mexico, rock hind social group size and typical male rock hind social behavior were documented. We observed a rapid temporary color display in rock hind that could be turned on and off within three seconds and was used for confronting territory intruders and displays of aggression towards females. The male-specific "tuxedo" pattern consists of a bright yellow tail, a body with alternating dark brown and white patches and a dark bar extending from the upper mandible to the operculum. Identification and size ranges of male, female and intersex fish collected from oil platforms were determined in conjunction with gonadal histology. Rock hind social order is haremic with one dominant male defending a territory and a linear dominance hierarchy among individuals. In five captive experiments, the largest remaining female rock hind displayed the male specific color pattern within 32d after dominant male removal from the social group. To our knowledge, this is the first evidence in a grouper species of color patterning used to display territoriality and dominance outside of spawning aggregations. The behavioral paradigm described here is a key advance that will enable mechanistic studies of this complex sex change process.

  5. Behavior, color change and time for sexual inversion in the protogynous grouper (Epinephelus adscensionis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kline, Richard J; Khan, Izhar A; Holt, G Joan

    2011-01-01

    Hermaphroditism, associated with territoriality and dominance behavior, is common in the marine environment. While male sex-specific coloration patterns have been documented in groupers, particularly during the spawning season, few data regarding social structure and the context for these color displays are available. In the present study, we define the social structure and male typical behavior of rock hind (Epinephelus adscensionis) in the wild. In addition, we detail the captive conditions and time period necessary to induce the onset of the sex-specific coloration and sexual change. At six oil production platform locations in the Gulf of Mexico, rock hind social group size and typical male rock hind social behavior were documented. We observed a rapid temporary color display in rock hind that could be turned on and off within three seconds and was used for confronting territory intruders and displays of aggression towards females. The male-specific "tuxedo" pattern consists of a bright yellow tail, a body with alternating dark brown and white patches and a dark bar extending from the upper mandible to the operculum. Identification and size ranges of male, female and intersex fish collected from oil platforms were determined in conjunction with gonadal histology. Rock hind social order is haremic with one dominant male defending a territory and a linear dominance hierarchy among individuals. In five captive experiments, the largest remaining female rock hind displayed the male specific color pattern within 32d after dominant male removal from the social group. To our knowledge, this is the first evidence in a grouper species of color patterning used to display territoriality and dominance outside of spawning aggregations. The behavioral paradigm described here is a key advance that will enable mechanistic studies of this complex sex change process.

  6. Local ecological knowledge on the goliath grouper epinephelus itajara (teleostei: serranidae in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leopoldo Cavaleri Gerhardinger

    Full Text Available The goliath grouper Epinephelus itajara is a large sized (> 400 kg and critically endangered marine fish, which is protected in many countries, including Brazil. Through the application of semi-structured interviews, we investigated the local ecological knowledge of seven fishermen specialist on catching E. itajara from the Babitonga bay, Santa Catarina, Brazil. Local long-line fisheries for E. itajara seemed to be a disappearing tradition in the studied site, with a detailed inherent local ecological knowledge system, which is also being lost. Our study also showed that fishermen engaged in recent fisheries, such as spear-fishing, can also possess a detailed local ecological knowledge system. Through the analysis of fishermen local ecological knowledge, several aspects of E. itajara life history were registered. This species is found in the inner and outer Babitonga bay, from saline waters to areas with a large input of freshwater, and inhabits submerged wooden substrates and artificial reefs such as shipwrecks, mooring pillars and cargo containers. It is known to spawn in December and subsequent summer months in the studied area. Spawning aggregations are usually seen in December (during full moon, being also eventually observed in January and February by our informants. While lobsters, spadefishes and octopuses seem to constitute the most important food items of inner bay E. itajara, outer bay individuals may feed on catfishes, crustaceans and other fish species. The goliath grouper is regarded as pacific and curious fish, but frequently display agonistic behavior in the presence of divers. Based on the perception of well experienced spear fishermen, we hypothesize that E. itajara undertakes seasonal migrations from the inner to the outer bay during summer, and that the studied population is suffering from growth over-fishing. Our data provides a practical evidence of how joining scientific and local ecological knowledge will likely benefit E

  7. Behavior, Color Change and Time for Sexual Inversion in the Protogynous Grouper (Epinephelus adscensionis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kline, Richard J.; Khan, Izhar A.; Holt, G. Joan

    2011-01-01

    Hermaphroditism, associated with territoriality and dominance behavior, is common in the marine environment. While male sex-specific coloration patterns have been documented in groupers, particularly during the spawning season, few data regarding social structure and the context for these color displays are available. In the present study, we define the social structure and male typical behavior of rock hind (Epinephelus adscensionis) in the wild. In addition, we detail the captive conditions and time period necessary to induce the onset of the sex-specific coloration and sexual change. At six oil production platform locations in the Gulf of Mexico, rock hind social group size and typical male rock hind social behavior were documented. We observed a rapid temporary color display in rock hind that could be turned on and off within three seconds and was used for confronting territory intruders and displays of aggression towards females. The male-specific “tuxedo” pattern consists of a bright yellow tail, a body with alternating dark brown and white patches and a dark bar extending from the upper mandible to the operculum. Identification and size ranges of male, female and intersex fish collected from oil platforms were determined in conjunction with gonadal histology. Rock hind social order is haremic with one dominant male defending a territory and a linear dominance hierarchy among individuals. In five captive experiments, the largest remaining female rock hind displayed the male specific color pattern within 32d after dominant male removal from the social group. To our knowledge, this is the first evidence in a grouper species of color patterning used to display territoriality and dominance outside of spawning aggregations. The behavioral paradigm described here is a key advance that will enable mechanistic studies of this complex sex change process. PMID:21647429

  8. Characterization and functional analysis of voltage-dependent anion channel 1 (VDAC1) from orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yan; Zhao, Zhe; Hong, Xiaoyou; Chen, Kunci; Zhu, Xinping

    2014-07-01

    The voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC) is a highly conserved integral protein of mitochondria in different eukaryotic species. It forms a selective channel in the mitochondrial outer membrane that serves as the controlled pathway for small metabolites and ions. In this study, a VDAC gene, EcVDAC1, was isolated from orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides). The EcVDAC1 exhibits ubiquitous expression in various tissues of orange-spotted grouper and is upregulated in liver, gill, and spleen after stimulation with lipopolysaccharides (LPS). Subcellular localization analysis shows that the EcVDAC1 protein colocalized with the mitochondria. A caspase-3 assay demonstrates that overexpression of the EcVDAC1 induced apoptotic cell death in fathead minnow cells. The data presented in this study provide new information regarding the relationship between LPS and the EcVDAC1 gene, suggesting that the fish VDAC1 gene may play an important role in antibacterial immune response.

  9. Groupers on the edge: Shelf edge spawning habitat in and around marine reserves of the northeastern Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, F.C.; Scanlon, K.M.; Koenig, C.C.

    2011-01-01

    The northeastern Gulf of Mexico contains some of the most diverse and productive marine habitat in the United States. Much of this habitat, located on the shelf edge in depths of 50 to 120 m, supports spawning for many economically important species, including groupers. Here, we couple acoustic surveys with georeferenced videography to describe the primary spatial and geologic features of spawning aggregation sites for four economically important species: gag (Mycteroperca microlepis), scamp (M. phenax), red grouper (Epinephelus morio), and red snapper (Lutjanus campechanus), with notes on fish distribution and abundance and spawning activities. We provide information on movement patterns of reef fish determined using acoustic telemetry. Finally, we discuss the possible coupling of geomorphology with hydrographic features to influence the overall productivity of the region and the importance of spatial fishery management in sustaining that productivity. ?? 2011 by Association of American Geographers.

  10. Mercury concentrations in dusky grouper Epinephelus marginatus in littoral and neritic habitats along the Southern Brazilian coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condini, Mario V; Hoeinghaus, David J; Roberts, Aaron P; Soulen, Brianne K; Garcia, Alexandre M

    2017-02-15

    Our study incorporated a comprehensive suite of parameters (i.e., body size, age, diet and trophic position) to investigate mercury concentration in dusky groupers Epinephelus marginatus. This study was carried out in rocky bottoms in littoral and neritic habitats along the Southern Brazilian coast. We also determined spatial variation in mercury concentrations in individuals inhabiting both zones, which may provide insights into how dietary differences or potential pollution sources affect bioaccumulation. A total of 244 dusky groupers was analyzed to determine total mercury concentrations. Our study revealed that when considering similar body sizes, individuals inhabiting littoral rocky habitats had higher concentrations of mercury probably due to proximity to pollution sources associated with human activities in the estuary and its drainage basin. Furthermore, large individuals (>650mm and >8years old) showed mercury contamination levels that are potentially harmful for this endangered fish species and above the acceptable limits for human consumption.

  11. Immunity to nervous necrosis virus infections of orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides) by vaccination with virus-like particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Kebing; Zhu, Zhihuang; Ge, Hui; Zheng, Leyun; Huang, Zhongchi; Wu, Shuiqing

    2016-09-01

    Nervous necrosis virus (NNV) is a kind of the betanodaviruses, which can cause viral nervous necrosis (VNN) and massive mortality in larval and juvenile stages of orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides). Due to the lack of viral genomes, virus-like particles (VLPs) are considered as one of the most promising candidates in vaccine study to control this disease. In this study, a type of VLPs, which was engineered on the basis of orange-spotted grouper nervous necrosis virus (OGNNV), was produced from prokaryotes. They possessed the similar structure and size to the native NNV. In addition, synthetic oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN) containing CpG motif was added in vaccines, and the expression patterns of several genes were analyzed after injecting with VLP and VLP with adjuvant (VA) to assess the regulation effect of vaccine for inducing immune responses. RT-PCR assays showed that six related genes in healthy tissues were ubiquitously expressed in all nine tested tissues. The vaccine alone was able to enhance the expression of genes, including MHCIa, MyD88, TLR3, TLR9 and TLR22 after vaccination, indicating that the vaccine was able to induce immune response in grouper. In liver, spleen and kidney, the gene expressions of VA group were all significantly higher than that of VLP group at 72 h post-stimulation, showing that the fish of VA challenge group obtained the longer-lasting protective immunity and resistance to pathogen challenge than that of VLP group. The data indicated that the efficacy of vaccine could be further enhanced by CpG ODN after vaccination and provided the reference for the development of future viral vaccine in grouper.

  12. Fishery of the Goliath grouper, Epinephelus itajara (Teleostei: Epinephelidae) based on local ecological knowledge and fishery records in Yucatan, Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Aguilar-Perera, Alfonso; González-Salas, Carlos; Tuz-Sulub, Armin; Villegas-Hernández, Harold

    2008-01-01

    The Goliath grouper, Epinephelus itajara, a large-bodied (~ 2.5 m TL, > 400 kg) and critically endangered fish (Epinephelidae), is highly vulnerable to overfishing. Although protected from fishing in many countries, its exploitation in Mexico is unregulated; a situation that puts its populations at risk. Fishery records of E. itajara are scarce, which prevents determination of its fishery status. This work aimed to elucidate the E. itajara fishery in the northern Yucatan Peninsula by 1) ana...

  13. Increase in estrogen signaling in the early brain of orange-spotted grouper Epinephelus coioides: a mini-review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagarajan, Ganesan; Aruna, Adimoolam; Chang, Ching-Fong

    2013-02-01

    Despite neurosteroidogenic enzymes are playing important roles in the regulation of brain development and function, the potential link between brain and gonad by the action of steroid hormones during gonadal sex differentiation is still not clear in teleosts. In this mini-review, we summarized our understanding on the early brain development related to the synthesis of neurosteroids and receptor signaling during gonadal sex differentiation in protogynous orange-spotted grouper, Epinephelus coioides (functional females for the first 6 years of life and start to sex change around the age of 7 years) and protandrous black porgy (functional males for the first 2 years of life but begin to change sex during the third year). We found a similar profile in the increased expression of brain aromatase gene (aromatatse B or cyp19a1b), aromatase activity, estradiol (E(2)), and estrogen signaling in the brain of both grouper and black porgy fish during gonadal sex differentiation. In contrast to mammals, teleost fish Cyp19a1b expressed in a unique cell type, a radial glial cell, which is acted as progenitors in the brain of developing and adult fish. In agreement with these pioneer studies, we demonstrated that the grouper cyp19a1b/Cyp19a1b was expressed in radial glial cells. Further, in vivo data in the grouper brain showed that exogenous E(2) upregulated Cyp19a1b immunoreactivity (ir) in radial glial cells. These data suggest the possible roles of Cyp19a1b and E(2) in early brain development which is presumably related to gonadal sex differentiation.

  14. Ultrastructure of the anterior intestinal epithelia of the orange-spotted grouper Epinephelus coioides larvae under different feeding regimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primavera-Tirol, Y H; Coloso, R M; Quinitio, G F; Ordonio-Aguilar, R; Laureta, L V

    2014-04-01

    Enterocytes of the anterior to midsection of the intestine in grouper Epinephelus coioides larvae were compared among different treatments: unfed to the point-of-no-return (PNR), fed natural food only, and co-fed natural food and artificial diet. On day 3, the nutritional condition of unfed grouper larvae regressed with its reduced enterocyte heights which were further degraded on day 4, the PNR, when all the enterocytes were in advanced stages of apoptosis. The apoptosis appeared to be internally directed via the mitochondria. Among day 3 fed larvae, enterocyte heights of those fed artificial diet did not differ from those fed natural food only. Dietary phospholipid deficiency was indicated in larvae co-fed artificial diet on day 3 with an unusually large chylomicron opening into the inter-enterocyte space, and on days 6 and 33 by intestinal steatosis. On day 19, scant to absent lipid droplets in enterocytes of larvae disclosed heightened nutritional requirement preparatory to metamorphosis. As observed in unfed day 3 and premetamorphic day 19 E. coioides, larvae undergoing critical periods and starvation during development employ apoptosis to dispose of degenerated enterocytes that are phagocytosed by adjacent healthy enterocytes without causing inflammatory distress. Upon metamorphosis, grouper larval gut develops better immunity fitness with eosinophilic granule cells observed in the intestinal epithelia of day 33 larvae. Future studies on grouper larval nutrition may consider the appropriate dietary phospholipid levels and larval competence to biosynthesize highly unsaturated fatty acid from linoleic acid vis-à-vis the use of plant ingredients in artificial diet formulations. In vivo challenge tests may validate appropriate dietary nutrient supplementation and lead to better feed formulation, matching the varying energetic demands and digestive capacities of developing E. coioides larvae.

  15. UII and UT in grouper: cloning and effects on the transcription of hormones related to growth control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Caiyun; Duan, Da; Li, Bo; Qin, Chaobin; Jia, Jirong; Wang, Bin; Dong, Haiyan; Li, Wensheng

    2014-01-01

    Urotensin II (UII) is a cyclic peptide that was originally extracted from the caudal neurosecretory system (CNSS) of fish. UII is well known to exhibit cardiovascular, ventilatory, and motor effects in vertebrates. Studies have reported that UII exerts mitogenic effects and can act as an autocrine/paracrine growth factor in mammals. However, similar information in fish is limited. In this study, the full-length cDNAs of UII and its receptor (UT) were cloned and characterized in the orange-spotted grouper. UII and UT were expressed ubiquitously in various tissues in grouper, and particularly high levels were observed in the CNSS, CNS, and ovary. A functional study showed that UT was coupled with intracellular Ca2+ mobilization in HEK293 cells. Studies carried out using i.p. injections of UII in grouper showed the following: i) in the hypothalamus, UII can significantly stimulate the mRNA expression of ghrh and simultaneously inhibit the mRNA expression of somatostatin 1 (ss1) and ss2 3 h after injection; ii) in the pituitary, UII also significantly induced the mRNA expression of gh 6 and 12  h after injection; and iii) in the liver, the mRNA expression levels of ghr1/ghr2 and igf1/igf2 were markedly increased 12 and 3  h after the i.p. injection of UII respectively. These results collectively indicate that the UII/UT system may play a role in the promotion of the growth of the orange-spotted grouper.

  16. The biofunction of orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides) CC chemokine ligand 4 (CCL4) in innate and adaptive immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Yi-Jiou; Hou, Chia-Yi; Lin, Shih-Jie; Kuo, Wan-Ching; Lin, Han-Tso; Lin, John Han-You

    2013-12-01

    CC chemokine (motif) ligand 4 (CCL4) is indispensable to the chemoattraction of macrophages, natural killer cells, and lymphocytes in mammals; however, it has only been cloned in a limited number of fish species and information related to its biofunction remains ambiguous with regard to teleosts. To explore the role of teleost CCL4, we first evaluated the mRNA expression of the Epinephelus coioides CCL4 (gCCL4) gene in various organs under LPS and poly (I:C) stimulated; secondary, we evaluated the immune-related genes expression of fish under the recombinant gCCL4 protein stimulated. Our results revealed an increase in the mRNA of gCCL4 in immune organs immediately following stimulation by poly (I:C); however, in LPS stimulated fish, the expression did not increase until nearly 24 h after induction. In biofunction assays, recombinant gCCL4 was found to induce chemotactic activity in the peripheral blood leukocytes of groupers and up-regulate the gene expressions of grouper TNFA1 (TNF-α1), TNFA2 (TNF-α2), IFNG (IFN-γ), MX, TBX21 (T-bet), CD8 (α and β chain). These findings indicate that grouper CCL4 attracts leukocytes, induces an inflammatory response, and drives lymphocyte differentiation into the Th1 pathway.

  17. Interferon regulatory factor 10 (IRF10): Cloning in orange spotted grouper, Epinephelus coioides, and evolutionary analysis in vertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Bei; Jia, Qin Qin; Liang, Ying; Huang, Wen Shu; Nie, P

    2015-10-01

    IRF10 gene was cloned in orange spotted grouper, Epinephelus coioides, and its expression was examined following poly(I:C) stimulation and bacterial infection. The cDNA sequence of grouper IRF10 contains an open reading frame of 1197 bp, flanked by 99 bp 5'-untranslated region and 480 bp 3'- untranslated region. Multiple alignments showed that the grouper IRF10 has a highly conserved DNA binding domain in the N terminus with characteristic motif containing five tryptophan residues. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis revealed that the expression of IRF10 was responsive to both poly(I:C) stimulation and Vibrio parahemolyticus infection, with a higher increase to poly(I:C), indicating an important role of IRF10 in host immune response during infection. A phyletic distribution of IRF members was also examined in vertebrates, and IRF10 was found in most lineages of vertebrates, not in modern primates and rodents. It is suggested that the first divergence of IRF members might have occurred before the evolutionary split of vertebrate and cephalochordates, producing ancestors of IRF (1/2/11) and IRF (4/8/9/10)[(3/7) (5/6)], and that the second and/or third divergence of IRF members occurred following the split, thus leading to the subsets of the IRF family in vertebrates.

  18. Parasite fauna of wild and cultured dusky-grouper Epinephelus marginatus (Lowe, 1834 from Ubatuba, Southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Roumbedakis

    Full Text Available This study aimed at identifying and quantifying the parasites of wild and cultured dusky grouper Epinephelus marginatus. During a year and thereby all four seasons, 20 wild and 20 cultured groupers were examined for the presence of parasites, except in the last season, in which 19 wild and 20 cultured fish were examined, totalling 159 groupers analysed from Ubatuba, southeastern Brazil. Prevalence, mean intensity of infection, mean abundance and mean relative dominance were calculated. Five species of parasites were identified in fish from both origins: Pseudorhabdosynochus beverleyburtonae (Monogenea, Neobenedenia melleni (Monogenea, Pseudempleurosoma sp. (Monogenea, Helicometrina nimia (Digenea and larvae of Contracaecum sp. (Nematoda. The prevalence of ectoparasites, in most cases, was higher than endoparasites. The most abundant parasite was the monogenea Pseudorhabdosynochus beverleyburtonae in both wild and cultured fish, along all seasons. Neobenedenia melleni was observed in wild and cultured fish in all seasons, with a gradual increase in the number of parasites from the coldest to the hottest seasons, with the highest prevalence and mean intensity in the summer. Helicometrina nimia was found in all seasons in both wild and cultured fish, except for summer, where its presence was detected only in wild fish. Pseudempleurosoma sp. and larvae of Contracaecum sp. showed low prevalence occurring in wild and cultured fish in the autumn and spring, respectively. This study revealed high intensities of potentially pathogenic parasites that could favour disease outbreaks in culture conditions.

  19. Molecular identification of Atlantic goliath grouper Epinephelus itajara (Lichtenstein, 1822 (Perciformes: Epinephelidae and related commercial species applying multiplex PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júnio S. Damasceno

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The Atlantic goliath grouper, Epinephelus itajara , is a critically endangered species, threatened by illegal fishing and the destruction of its habitats. A number of other closely related grouper species found in the western Atlantic are also fished intensively. While some countries apply rigorous legislation, illegal harvesting followed by the falsification of fish products, which impedes the correct identification of the species, is a common practice, allowing the catch to be marketed as a different grouper species. In this case, molecular techniques represent an important tool for the monitoring and regulation of fishery practices, and are essential for the forensic identification of a number of different species. In the present study, species-specific primers were developed for the Cytochrome Oxidase subunit I gene, which were applied in a multiplex PCR for the simultaneous identification of nine different species of Epinephelidae: Epinephelus itajara , E. quinquefasciatus , E. morio , Hyporthodus flavolimbatus , H. niveatus , Mycteroperca acutirostris , M. bonaci , M. marginata , and M. microlepis . Multiplex PCR is a rapid, reliable and cost-effective procedure for the identification of commercially-valuable endangered fish species, and may represent a valuable tool for the regulation and sustainable management of fishery resources.

  20. 虹彩病毒和柱状黄杆菌混合感染大鲵的诊治%Diagnosis and Treatment on Andrias davidianuss Mixed Infected with Iridovirus and Flabobacterium columnare

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王芳; 余波; 史开志; 杨莉; 徐景峨; 谭诗文

    2013-01-01

    In July 2012,a case of disease occurred with typical clinical signs including ulcers in the skin,swell in the limbs,internal organs hyperemia and hemorrhage at A ndrias davidianus farm in Guizhou.After the clinical symptoms observation,the pathological anatomy and laboratory diagnosis,this disease was diagnosed of mixed infection of Iridovirus and Flabobacterium columnare.Through taking the synthesis effective preventive measure,the epidemic situation of A.davidimus had been effectively controlled.%2012年7月,贵州省某大鲵养殖场发生了以大鲵体表和四肢多处溃烂、内脏器官出现充血、出血为特征的疾病,经过临床症状观察、病理剖检及实验室诊断,诊断为虹彩病毒(Iridovirus)和柱状黄杆菌(Flabobacterium columnare)的混合感染.通过采取综合有效的防治措施,大鲵疫情得到有效控制.

  1. Effects of a Dissostichus mawsoni-CaM recombinant proteins feed additive on the juvenile orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides) under the acute low temperature challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Sheng-Wei; Wang, Wei-Na; Cai, Luo; Qi, Zeng-Hua; Wang, Cong; Liu, Yuan; Peng, Chang-Lian; Chen, Liang-Biao

    2015-10-01

    The effects of Dissostichus mawsoni-Calmodulin (Dm-CaM) on growth performance, enzyme activities, respiratory burst, MDA level and immune-related gene expressions of the orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides) exposed to the acute low temperature stress were evaluated. The commercial diet supplemented with Dm-CaM protein was fed to the groupers for 6 weeks. No significant difference was observed in the specific growth rates, weight gains and survivals. After the feeding trial, the groupers were exposed to acute low temperature challenge. The groupers fed with Dm-CaM additive diet showed a significant decrease in the respiratory burst activity, while the blood cell number increased significantly at 25 °C by comparing with the control and additive control group. The enzymatic activity of SOD, ACP and ALP increased significantly in Dm-CaM additive group, while MDA level maintained stable with the lowest value. qRT-PCR analysis indicated that the up-regulated transcript expressions of CaM, C3, SOD2, LysC and HSPA4 were observed in Dm-CaM additive group. These results indicated that Dm-CaM additive diet may regulate the grouper immune response to the acute low temperature challenge.

  2. Modeling the potential spread of the recently identified non-native panther grouper (Chromileptes altivelis in the Atlantic using a cellular automaton approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew W Johnston

    Full Text Available The Indo-pacific panther grouper (Chromileptes altiveli is a predatory fish species and popular imported aquarium fish in the United States which has been recently documented residing in western Atlantic waters. To date, the most successful marine invasive species in the Atlantic is the lionfish (Pterois volitans/miles, which, as for the panther grouper, is assumed to have been introduced to the wild through aquarium releases. However, unlike lionfish, the panther grouper is not yet thought to have an established breeding population in the Atlantic. Using a proven modeling technique developed to track the lionfish invasion, presented is the first known estimation of the potential spread of panther grouper in the Atlantic. The employed cellular automaton-based computer model examines the life history of the subject species including fecundity, mortality, and reproductive potential and combines this with habitat preferences and physical oceanic parameters to forecast the distribution and periodicity of spread of this potential new invasive species. Simulations were examined for origination points within one degree of capture locations of panther grouper from the United States Geological Survey Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Database to eliminate introduction location bias, and two detailed case studies were scrutinized. The model indicates three primary locations where settlement is likely given the inputs and limits of the model; Jupiter Florida/Vero Beach, the Cape Hatteras Tropical Limit/Myrtle Beach South Carolina, and Florida Keys/Ten Thousand Islands locations. Of these locations, Jupiter Florida/Vero Beach has the highest settlement rate in the model and is indicated as the area in which the panther grouper is most likely to become established. This insight is valuable if attempts are to be made to halt this potential marine invasive species.

  3. Gene expression regulation of the TLR9 and MyD88-dependent pathways in rock bream against rock bream iridovirus (RBIV) infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Myung-Hwa; Jung, Sung-Ju

    2017-09-13

    Rock bream iridovirus (RBIV), which is a member of the Megalocytivirus genus, causes severe mass mortalities in rock bream in Korea. To date, the innate immune defense mechanisms of rock bream against RBIV is unclear. In this study, we assessed the expression levels of genes related to TLR9 and MyD88-dependent pathways in RBIV-infected rock bream in high, low or no mortality conditions. In the high mortality group (100% mortality at 15 days post infection (dpi)), high levels of TLR9 and MyD88 expressions (6.4- and 2.4-fold, respectively) were observed at 8 d and then reduced (0.6- and 0.1-fold, respectively) with heavy viral loads at 10 dpi (2.21 × 10(7)/μl). Moreover, TRAF6, IRF5, IL1β, IL8, IL12 and TNFα expression levels showed no statistical significance until 10 dpi. Conversely, in the low mortality group (28% expected mortality at 35 dpi), TLR9, MyD88 and TRAF6 expression levels were significantly higher than those in the control group at several sampling points until 30 dpi. Higher levels of IRF5, IL1β, IL8, IL12 and TNFα expression were also observed, however, these were not significantly different from those of the control group. In the no mortality group (0% mortality at 40 dpi), significantly higher levels of MyD88 (2 d, 4 d and 40 dpi), TRAF6 (2 dpi), IL1β (4 dpi) and IL8 (2 d and 4 dpi) expression were observed. In summary, RBIV-infected rock bream induces innate immune response, which could be a major contributing factor to effective fish control over viral transcription. MyD88, TRAF6, IL1β and IL8-related immune responses were activated in fish survivor condition (low or no mortality group). This is a critical factor for RBIV disease recovery; however, these immune responses did not efficiently respond in fish dead condition (high mortality group). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. CpG ODN 1668 induce innate and adaptive immune responses in rock bream (Oplegnathus fasciatus) against rock bream iridovirus (RBIV) infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Myung-Hwa; Jung, Sung-Ju

    2017-10-01

    Rock bream iridovirus (RBIV) causes severe mass mortalities in rock bream in Korea. CpG ODN 1668 showed promise as immunoprotective agents against RBIV infection in rock bream. In this study, we assessed innate/adaptive-related gene expression patterns in RBIV-infected rock bream with and without CpG ODN 1668 administration to determine important immune defense related factors that may affect fish survival. In the CpG ODN 1668+virus-injected group, virus copies were more than 7.4- to 790591-fold lower than in the virus-injected group at 4 d (8.79 × 10(4) and 6.58 × 10(5)/μl, respectively), 7 d (5.30 × 10(2) and 2.29 × 10(7)/μl, respectively) and 10 dpi (7.79 × 10(1) and 6.16 × 10(7)/μl, respectively). Furthermore, in the CpG ODN 1668+virus-injected group, significantly higher levels of MyD88 (6 h, 1 d, 4 d and 7 dpi), IL1β (1 d, 2 d and 7 dpi) and perforin/granzyme (1 dpi) expression were observed, whereas these genes were not significantly expressed in the virus-injected group at that time points. Mx, ISG15 and PKR were significantly highly expressed at 4 d and 7 dpi and reduced when low viral loads at 10 dpi in the CpG ODN 1668+virus-injected group. Conversely, in the virus-injected group, Mx, ISG15 and PKR expression were significantly higher than the control group until 10 dpi. However, MHC class I, CD8, Fas, Fas ligand and caspases (3, 8 and 9) expression levels showed no statistically significant differences between virus- and CpG ODN 1668+virus-injected group. In summary, CpG ODN 1668 administration in fish induces innate immune response or cell death pathway, which could be a major contributing factor to effective fish control over viral transcription on 4 d to 10 dpi. Expression of MyD88, IL1β, perforin and granzyme-related immune gene response is critical factor for inhibition of RBIV replication. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Detection of benzo[a]pyrene-induced immunotoxicity in orange spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaniyan, Maryam; Salamat, Negin; Safahieh, Alireza; Movahedinia, Abdolali

    2016-03-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) on immune status of orange spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides). Fish were injected with 2, 20 and 35 mg/kg-bw of BaP and were kept under laboratory conditions for 14 days. Blood samples were taken at days 1, 4, 7, and 14 and changes in total WBC and RBC, phagocytosis, lysozyme activity, lysosomal membrane stability, immunoglobulin M (IgM) level and antibacterial activity were evaluated. Also BaP bioaccumulation in fish muscle was measured. BaP concentration in the muscle of treated fish reached a maximum level after 4 days (P < 0.05). Exposure of fish to BaP resulted in a significant decrease of total RBC and WBC, lysozyme activity, lysosomal membrane stability, IgM level and antibacterial activity after 4 days and phagocytosis after 7 days of the experiment (P < 0.05). Totally, the results revealed BaP ability to suppress the fish immune function.

  6. Dispersal of grouper larvae drives local resource sharing in a coral reef fishery

    KAUST Repository

    Almany, Glenn R.

    2013-04-01

    In many tropical nations, fisheries management requires a community-based approach because small customary marine tenure areas define the spatial scale of management [1]. However, the fate of larvae originating from a community\\'s tenure is unknown, and thus the degree to which a community can expect their management actions to replenish the fisheries within their tenure is unclear [2, 3]. Furthermore, whether and how much larval dispersal links tenure areas can provide a strong basis for cooperative management [4, 5]. Using genetic parentage analysis, we measured larval dispersal from a single, managed spawning aggregation of squaretail coral grouper (Plectropomus areolatus) and determined its contribution to fisheries replenishment within five community tenure areas up to 33 km from the aggregation at Manus Island, Papua New Guinea. Within the community tenure area containing the aggregation, 17%-25% of juveniles were produced by the aggregation. In four adjacent tenure areas, 6%-17% of juveniles were from the aggregation. Larval dispersal kernels predict that 50% of larvae settled within 14 km of the aggregation. These results strongly suggest that both local and cooperative management actions can provide fisheries benefits to communities over small spatial scales. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Dispersal of grouper larvae drives local resource sharing in a coral reef fishery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almany, Glenn R; Hamilton, Richard J; Bode, Michael; Matawai, Manuai; Potuku, Tapas; Saenz-Agudelo, Pablo; Planes, Serge; Berumen, Michael L; Rhodes, Kevin L; Thorrold, Simon R; Russ, Garry R; Jones, Geoffrey P

    2013-04-08

    In many tropical nations, fisheries management requires a community-based approach because small customary marine tenure areas define the spatial scale of management [1]. However, the fate of larvae originating from a community's tenure is unknown, and thus the degree to which a community can expect their management actions to replenish the fisheries within their tenure is unclear [2, 3]. Furthermore, whether and how much larval dispersal links tenure areas can provide a strong basis for cooperative management [4, 5]. Using genetic parentage analysis, we measured larval dispersal from a single, managed spawning aggregation of squaretail coral grouper (Plectropomus areolatus) and determined its contribution to fisheries replenishment within five community tenure areas up to 33 km from the aggregation at Manus Island, Papua New Guinea. Within the community tenure area containing the aggregation, 17%-25% of juveniles were produced by the aggregation. In four adjacent tenure areas, 6%-17% of juveniles were from the aggregation. Larval dispersal kernels predict that 50% of larvae settled within 14 km of the aggregation. These results strongly suggest that both local and cooperative management actions can provide fisheries benefits to communities over small spatial scales.

  8. MS2Grouper: Group Assessment and Synthetic Replacement of Duplicate Proteomic Tandem Mass Spectra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tabb, Dave L [ORNL; Thompson, Melissa R [ORNL; Khalsa-Moyers, Gurusahai K [ORNL; Verberkmoes, Nathan C [ORNL; McDonald, W Hayes [ORNL

    2005-01-01

    Shotgun proteomics experiments require the collection of thousands of tandem mass spectra; these sets of data will continue to grow as new instruments become available that can scan at even higher rates. Such data contain substantial amounts of redundancy with spectra from a particular peptide being acquired many times during a single LC-MS/MS experiment. In this article, we present MS2Grouper, an algorithm that detects spectral duplication, assesses groups of related spectra, and replaces these groups with synthetic representative spectra. Errors in detecting spectral similarity are corrected using a paraclique criterion -- spectra are only assessed as groups if they are part of a clique of at least three completely interrelated spectra or are subsequently added to such cliques by being similar to all but one of the clique members. A greedy algorithm constructs a representative spectrum for each group by iteratively removing the tallest peaks from the spectral collection and matching to peaks in the other spectra. This strategy is shown to be effective in reducing spectral counts by up to 20% in LC-MS/MS datasets from protein standard mixtures and proteomes, reducing database search times without a concomitant reduction in identified peptides.

  9. Production of recombinant orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides) follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) in single-chain form and dimer form by Pichia pastoris and their biological activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jun; Zhang, Yanhong; Tang, Zhiguo; Mao, Jiewei; Kuang, Zhonglei; Qin, Chaobin; Li, Wensheng

    2012-09-01

    FSH is a key regulator of steroidogenesis and gonadal growth in teleosts. However, function of FSH is elusive in grouper due to the lack of purified and native FSH. In the present study, we reported production of bioactive orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides) FSH in dimer form and single-chain form by Pichia pastoris. Dimer form of recombinant grouper FSH (rgFSHba) was accomplished by co-expressing mature FSHb-subunit and a-subunit genes. Fusion of mature FSHb-subunit and a-subunit genes together linking with a polypeptide (4×(Gly-Ser)-Gly-Thr) gene generated single-chain form of recombinant grouper FSH (rgFSHb-a). Recombinant grouper common α-subunit (rgCga) and FSHb-subunit (rgFSHb) were also separately produced. Recombinant proteins were verified by Western blot and mass spectrometry assays, and characterized by deglycosylation analysis. Deglycosylation assay suggested that glycosylation of recombinant FSH mainly occurred on common a-subunit. Bioactivities of recombinant proteins were initially evaluated by activating grouper FSH receptor, and further demonstrated by incubating ovarian fragments of adult grouper and intraperitoneal injection in juvenile female grouper. Two forms of recombinant FSH presented similar biological activities of activating FSH receptor and stimulating in vitro testosterone (T) and estradiol-17β (E2) secretion, though the dimer form functioned slightly weaker than the single-chain form. However, injections of rgFSHb-a or rgFSHba could significantly increase serum T and E2 levels, induce early ovarian development, reduce hypothalamic gnrh1 mRNA level, and increase hypothalamic cyp19a1b mRNA level. Data in this study suggested that recombinant gonadotropin could be produced in dimer form or single-chain form by P. pastoris, and FSH could regulate steroidogenesis and early ovarian development in juvenile grouper.

  10. Orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides) toll-like receptor 22: molecular characterization, expression pattern and pertinent signaling pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Xu; Lu, Dan-qi; Hou, Qing-hua; Li, Shui-sheng; Liu, Xiao-chun; Zhang, Yong; Lin, Hao-ran

    2012-09-01

    The toll-like receptors (TLRs) are an important gene family in host innate immunologic surveillance. The TLR22 gene is an essential member of the TLRs that is only found in aquatic animals and has been detected in some bony fish. Here, a TLR22 homolog, EcTLR22, was characterized in the orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides) via homology cloning. The 3321 bp full-length cDNA sequence of EcTLR22 was obtained, which included an open reading frame of 2880 bp encoding a putative peptide of 960 amino acids containing three highly typical domains with the characteristics of TLR family members. The deduced amino acid sequence of EcTLR22 showed a relatively high similarity to flounder TLR22. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the orange-spotted grouper TLR22 sequence was clustered with those of Perciforme, such as flounder and croaker. Real-time quantitative PCR analysis revealed broad expression of EcTLR22, with relatively high expression detected in the head kidney, trunk kidney, spleen, peripheral blood leukocytes (PBLs) and heart of orange-spotted grouper. After injection with Vibrio alginolyticus, there was significant up-regulation of the expression of EcTLR22 in the spleen. In evaluating unstimulated/stimulated head kidney leukocytes and spleen leukocytes, a significant increase in EcTLR22 mRNA expression was detected, which implied a sensitive immune response. Furthermore, four important molecules for signal transduction, MyD88, TRIF, TNF-α and IRF3, were chosen to analyze the role of the EcTLR22 signaling pathway in anti-pathogen responses. Upon LPS or Poly I:C challenge, expression of the four genes was induced, with an increasing tendency detected in head kidney leukocytes, suggesting that the four genes might work with EcTLR22 in host defense against pathogenic microbes.

  11. Polymorphisms of Leptin-b Gene Associated with Growth Traits in Orange-Spotted Grouper (Epinephelus coioides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai Huang

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In mammals, leptin has been demonstrated to perform important roles in many physiological activities and to influence development, growth, metabolism and reproduction. However, in fish, its function is still unclear. Duplicate leptin genes, leptin-a and leptin-b, have been identified in the orange-spotted grouper. In the present study, the polymorphisms in the leptin-b gene of the orange-spotted grouper were detected, and the relation between these polymorphisms and 12 growth traits were analyzed. Six polymorphisms (including 3 single nucleotide polymorphisms (c.14G>A, c.93A>G, c.149G>A in exon 1, 2 SNPs (c.181A>G, c.193G>A in intron 1, and 1 SNP (c.360C>T in exon 2 were identified and genotyped from 200 different individuals. The results revealed that the SNP c.149G>A was significantly associated with growth traits, that the heterozygous mutation genotype GA having negative effects on growth traits. However, the other five SNPs (c.14G>A, c.93A>G, c.181A>G, c.193G>A, c.360C>T did not show significant associations with all the growth traits. Compared with our findings in leptin-a gene, the results suggested that the leptin-a hormone has more important physiological effects in fish bodies than the leptin-b type. Moreover, leptin genes were supposed to be one class of major candidate genes of regulating growth traits in the orange-spotted grouper.

  12. Polymorphisms of leptin-b gene associated with growth traits in orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hai; Wei, Yun; Meng, Zining; Zhang, Yong; Liu, Xiaochun; Guo, Liang; Luo, Jian; Chen, Guohua; Lin, Haoran

    2014-07-07

    In mammals, leptin has been demonstrated to perform important roles in many physiological activities and to influence development, growth, metabolism and reproduction. However, in fish, its function is still unclear. Duplicate leptin genes, leptin-a and leptin-b, have been identified in the orange-spotted grouper. In the present study, the polymorphisms in the leptin-b gene of the orange-spotted grouper were detected, and the relation between these polymorphisms and 12 growth traits were analyzed. Six polymorphisms (including 3 single nucleotide polymorphisms (c.14G>A, c.93A>G, c.149G>A) in exon 1, 2 SNPs (c.181A>G, c.193G>A) in intron 1, and 1 SNP (c.360C>T) in exon 2) were identified and genotyped from 200 different individuals. The results revealed that the SNP c.149G>A was significantly associated with growth traits, that the heterozygous mutation genotype GA having negative effects on growth traits. However, the other five SNPs (c.14G>A, c.93A>G, c.181A>G, c.193G>A, c.360C>T) did not show significant associations with all the growth traits. Compared with our findings in leptin-a gene, the results suggested that the leptin-a hormone has more important physiological effects in fish bodies than the leptin-b type. Moreover, leptin genes were supposed to be one class of major candidate genes of regulating growth traits in the orange-spotted grouper.

  13. Identification and characterization of three TLR1 subfamily members from the orange-spotted grouper, Epinephelus coioides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan-Wei; Xu, Dong-Dong; Li, Xia; Mo, Ze-Quan; Luo, Xiao-Chun; Li, An-Xing; Dan, Xue-Ming

    2016-08-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs), which play important roles in host defense against pathogen infection, are the most intensively studied pattern recognition receptors (PRRs). In this study, we identified three novel TLR1 subfamily members, including TLR1 (EcTLR1b), TLR2 (EcTLR2b) and TLR14 (EcTLR14), from the orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides). EcTLR1b and EcTLR2b displayed low sequence identity with the previously reported grouper TLR1 (EcTLR1a) and TLR2 (EcTLR2a), respectively. The open reading frames (ORFs) of EcTLR1b, EcTLR2b and EcTLR14 contain 2484 bp, 2394 bp and 2640 bp, which encode the corresponding 827 amino acids (aa), 797 aa and 879 aa, respectively. All three TLRs have leucine-rich repeat (LRR) domains (including an LRR-NT (except for EcTLR1b), several LRR motifs and an LRR-CT), a trans-membrane region and a Toll/interleukin-1 receptor (TIR) domain. The TIR domains of the three TLRs exhibited conserved boxes, namely box1, box2 and box3, and their 3D models were similar to those of human TLR1 or TLR2. Sequence alignment demonstrated that the TIR domains of the three TLRs shared higher sequence identity with those of other species than the full-length receptors. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that EcTLR1s and EcTLR2s are characterized by their differing evolutionary status, whereas EcTLR14 was found to be in the same group as other piscine TLR14/18s. The three TLRs were ubiquitously expressed in seven tested tissues of healthy groupers, although their expression profiles were different. Post Cryptocaryon irritans infection, TLR1s expression was up-regulated in the gills. The expression of TLR2b was mainly increased in the spleen, but decreased in the gills, which was similar to the expression pattern of TLR2a post C. irritans infection. Unlike EcTLR1b and EcTLR2b, however, the grouper TLR14 transcript was substantially induced in both tissues post challenge. These findings may be helpful in understanding the innate immune mechanism of host

  14. Innate immune responses and efficacy of using mushroom beta-glucan mixture (MBG) on orange-spotted grouper, Epinephelus coioides, aquaculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ching-Sheng; Huang, Shih-Ling; Chen, Sherwin; Chen, Shiu-Nan

    2013-07-01

    This study attempts to describe the effects of innate immunity responses and field application of mushroom beta-glucan mixture (MBG) in cultured orange-sported grouper, Epinephelus coioides. Chemical analysis for MBG showed that the mixture contains 34.06% of macro-molecular polymers with bio-active linkage such as 3-; 3,4- and 4,6-glucopyranosyl and 6-linked galactopyranosyl residues. Study performed on the innate immunity showed that oral ingestion of MBG at 1.0 g and 2.0 g per kilogram of feed levels may significantly enhance the lysozyme activity, alternative complement activity, phagocytic activity and respiration burst of the experimental groupers. Observation on the experimental challenge of pathogen showed that uses of MBG at 0.1% and 0.2% levels in feed might significantly enhance the protection of grouper against Vibrio alginolyticus. Field trials performed on short and long-term culture showed that feeding of diet containing 0.1% or 0.2% of MBG may significantly enhance the survival of cultured groupers up to 16% when compared with those obtained from controls.

  15. Institutional analysis of marine reserves and fisheries governance policy experiments : a case study of Nassau grouper conservation in the Turks and Caicos Islands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rudd, M.A.

    2003-01-01

    Keywords: Ecosystem-based fisheries management; marine reserves; marine protected areas; social capital; institutional analysis; Turks and Caicos Islands; Nassau grouper Many tropical fisheries around the world are in crisis because of the depletion of valuable reef species and the destruction of ha

  16. Molecular cloning and characterization of PTEN in the orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Sheng-Wei; Wang, Wei-Na; Xie, Ren-Chong; Xie, Fu-Xing; Kong, Jing-Rong; Xiao, Yu-Chao; Huang, Di; Sun, Zuo-Ming; Liu, Yuan; Wang, Cong

    2016-11-01

    PTEN is a key tumor suppressor gene that can play a regulatory role in the cellular proliferation, survival and apoptosis. In this study, the full-length PTEN (EcPTEN) was obtained, containing a 5'UTR of 745 bp, an ORF of 1269 bp and a 3'UTR of 106 bp. The EcPTEN gene encoded a polypeptide of 422 amino acids with an estimated molecular mass of 49.14 KDa and a predicted isoelectric point (pI) of 6.34. The deduced amino acid sequence analysis showed that EcPTEN comprised the conserved residues and the characteristic domains known to the critical functionality of PTEN. qRT-PCR analysis revealed that EcPTEN mRNA was broadly expressed in all the examined tissues, while the highest expression level was observed in liver, followed by the expression in blood, kidney, spleen, heart, gill, muscle and intestine. The groupers challenged with Vibrio alginolyticus showed a sharp increase of EcPTEN mRNA expression in immune tissues. In addition, western blotting analysis confirmed that the up-regulation of EcPTEN protein expression was steadily induced in liver. Subcellular localization analysis indicated that EcPTEN was localized in both nucleus and cytoplasm. Overexpression of EcPTEN can activate the apoptotic cascade and abrogate NF-kB, AP-1, Stat3 and Myc promoter activity in Hela cells. These results indicated that EcPTEN harboring highly-conserved domains with a close sequence similarity to those of PTP superfamily may disrupt the mammalian signalings and play a regulatory role in the apoptotic process.

  17. Optimum temperature for the growth performance of juvenile orange-spotted grouper ( Epinephelus coioides H.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xiangzhi; Xie, Shouqi; Su, Yongquan; Cui, Yibo

    2008-02-01

    Effects of water temperature (17, 21, 25, 30 and 35°C) and body size (14.75-281.41 g initial body weight) on food consumption, growth, feed conversion, and dry matter content in orange-spotted grouper fed to satiation were investigated. The combined effect of temperature ( T, °C) and body weight ( W, g) on maximum food consumption ( C max, g/day) was described as: ln C max=-7.411+0.828 ln W+0.317 T-0.004 7 T 2, and the optimum feeding temperature was 33.9°C. The combined effect of temperature and body weight on growth ( G) was described as: ln G=-4.461-0.208ln W+0.394 T-0.006 3 T 2. The optimum growth temperature was 31.4°C, whereas overall growth rates were high at 25, 30 and 35 °C. Feed conversion efficiencies ( FCE, %), increasing first and then decreasing with increasing temperature, averaged from 1.8 to 2.1 in terms of dry weight of food fish. The optimum temperature for FCE tended to be lower than that for growth or feeding. Dry matter content increased with both increasing water temperature (17, 25, 30 and 35°C) and body weight, and the combined effect of temperature and body weight on dry matter content ( DM, %) was described as: ln DM=3.232+0.01 4 ln W-0.004 4 T+0.001 2 Tln W.

  18. THE DIGESTIVE TRACT DEVELOPMENT OF THE TIGER GROUPER Epinephelus fuscoguttatus LARVAE TREATED WITH THYROXINE HORMONE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Muzaki

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Thyroxin administration in tiger grouper larval rearing was conducted to determine its effect on development of digestive tract of the larvae. Newly hatched larvae were treated with 0 mg/L (control, 0.1 mg/L, and 0.2 mg/L of thyroxin for 2 hours in a 30 L tank before were transferred into a 1 m3 rearing tank. Samples were collected daily until 10 DAH and every 3 days until 40 DAH. Development of digestive tract was observed using histological method. For all treatments, the digestive tract was the same on 1 DAH and 2 DAH. The digestive tract of 1 DAH larvae was still closed and still in the form of a simple tube. The mouth, buccopharynx, liver, pancreas, and rectum were found on 2 DAH. On 3 DAH, the esophagus, stomach, intestines, and anus started to develop. At this stage, the digestive tract of larvae treated with and without thyroxin started to become distinguishable. Several goblet cells were noticed in the rectum of the treated larvae but not in the control. Digestive tract developed earlier in treated larvae compared to the control group, such as appearance of tongue, gill raker, fundic, and cardiac stomach development, formation of pharyngeal tooth, and gastric gland. Metamorphosis of larvae into juvenile on treated larvae occurred than that the control larvae earlier.

  19. Hybridisation among groupers (genus Cephalopholis) at the eastern Indian Ocean suture zone: taxonomic and evolutionary implications

    KAUST Repository

    Payet, Samuel D.

    2016-08-05

    Hybridisation is a significant evolutionary process that until recently was considered rare in the marine environment. A suture zone in the eastern Indian Ocean is home to numerous hybridising sister species, providing an ideal opportunity to determine how hybridisation affects speciation and biodiversity in coral reef fishes. At this location, hybridisation between two grouper (Epinephelidae) species: Cephalopholis urodeta (Pacific Ocean) and C. nigripinnis (Indian Ocean) was investigated to determine the genetic basis of hybridisation and to compare the ecology and life history of hybrids and their parent species. This approach aimed to provide insights into the taxonomic and evolutionary consequences of hybridisation. Despite clear phenotypic differences, multiple molecular markers revealed hybrids, and their parent species were genetically homogenous within and (thousands of kilometres) outside of the hybrid zone. Hybrids were at least as fit as their parent species (in terms of growth, reproduction, and abundance) and were observed in a broad range of intermediate phenotypes. The two species appear to be interbreeding at Christmas Island due to inherent biological and ecological compatibilities, and the lack of genetic structure may be explained by three potential scenarios: (1) hybridisation and introgression; (2) discordance between morphology and genetics; and (3) incomplete lineage sorting. Further molecular analyses are necessary to discriminate these scenarios. Regardless of which applies, C. urodeta and C. nigripinnis are unlikely to evolve in reproductive isolation as they cohabit where they are common (Christmas Island) and will source congeneric mates where they are rare (Cocos Keeling Islands). Our results add to the growing body of evidence that hybridisation among coral reef fishes is a dynamic evolutionary factor. © 2016 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg

  20. Early Osteological Development of Larvae and Juveniles in Red Spotted Grouper, Epinephelus akaara (Pisces: Serranidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jong Youn; Han, Kyeong Ho; Cho, Jae Kwon; Myeong, Jeong In; Park, Jae Min

    2016-06-01

    We observed the osteological development of larval and juvenile red spotted grouper (Epinephelus akaara) in order to generate data for the assessment of skeletal deformities and to inform phylogenetic systematics research. Larvae and juveniles were obtained from a aquafarm in Muan-gun, Jeolla-namdo Province, Korea. The average water temperature at the time of breeding was 23.0°C and average water salinity was 33.0 psu. Freshly hatched fish larvae had not undergone any ossification, but ossification of the parasphenoid bone, which forms the base of the cranium, occurred as the juveniles reached an average body length (BL) of 2.49 mm. At the same time, ossification of the preopercle and opercle occurred in the operculum, and ossification of the maxilla, which forms the upper jaw, and the dentary bones, which form the lower jaw, began. In addition, ossification of the vertebra occurred by formation of 7 vertebral centra and the neural spine in the abdominal vertebra. When the juveniles reached an average (BL) of 5.22 mm, ossification of the nasal, lateral ethmoid, and alisphenoid bones occurred in the cranium; ossification of the endopterygoid and metapterygoid bones began in the palatine region; and ossification of the hypohyal and interhyal bones occurred in the hyoid arch. At an average (BL) of 20.9 mm, ossification of the basisphenoid bone in the cranium and the suborbital bone in the orbital region occurred. Ossification of the vertebra then occurred by the formation of long pairs of ribs from the third to the ninth abdominal vertebrae, completing osteological development.

  1. Optimum temperature for the growth performance of juvenile orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides H.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Xiangzhi; XIE Shouqi; SU Yongquan; CUI Yibo

    2008-01-01

    Effects of water temperature (17,21,25,30 and 35℃) and body size (14.75-281.41 g initial body weight) on food consumption,growth,feed conversion,and dry matter content in orange-spotted grouper fed to satiation were investigated.The combined effect of temperature (T,℃) and body weight (W, g) on maximum food consumption (Cmax,g/day) was described as:InCmax=-7.411+0.828 InW+0.317T-0.004 7T2,and the optimum feeding temperature was 33.9℃.The combined effect of temperature and body weight on growth (G) was described as: InG=-4.461-0.208lnW+0.394T-0.006 3T2.The optimum growth temperature was 31.4℃,whereas overall growth rates were high at 25,30 and 35℃.Feed conversion efficiencies (FCE,%),increasing first and then decreasing with increasing temperature,averaged from 1.8 to 2.1 in terms of dry weight of food fish.The optimum temperature for FCE tended to be lower than that for growth or feeding.Dry matter content increased with both increasing water temperature (17,25,30 and 35℃) and body weight,and the combined effect of temperature and body weight on dry matter content (DM,%) was described as:InDM =3.232+0.01 4 lnW-0.004 4T+0.001 2TlnW.

  2. Hybridisation among groupers (genus Cephalopholis) at the eastern Indian Ocean suture zone: taxonomic and evolutionary implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payet, Samuel D.; Hobbs, Jean-Paul A.; DiBattista, Joseph D.; Newman, Stephen J.; Sinclair-Taylor, Tane; Berumen, Michael L.; McIlwain, Jennifer L.

    2016-12-01

    Hybridisation is a significant evolutionary process that until recently was considered rare in the marine environment. A suture zone in the eastern Indian Ocean is home to numerous hybridising sister species, providing an ideal opportunity to determine how hybridisation affects speciation and biodiversity in coral reef fishes. At this location, hybridisation between two grouper (Epinephelidae) species: Cephalopholis urodeta (Pacific Ocean) and C. nigripinnis (Indian Ocean) was investigated to determine the genetic basis of hybridisation and to compare the ecology and life history of hybrids and their parent species. This approach aimed to provide insights into the taxonomic and evolutionary consequences of hybridisation. Despite clear phenotypic differences, multiple molecular markers revealed hybrids, and their parent species were genetically homogenous within and (thousands of kilometres) outside of the hybrid zone. Hybrids were at least as fit as their parent species (in terms of growth, reproduction, and abundance) and were observed in a broad range of intermediate phenotypes. The two species appear to be interbreeding at Christmas Island due to inherent biological and ecological compatibilities, and the lack of genetic structure may be explained by three potential scenarios: (1) hybridisation and introgression; (2) discordance between morphology and genetics; and (3) incomplete lineage sorting. Further molecular analyses are necessary to discriminate these scenarios. Regardless of which applies, C. urodeta and C. nigripinnis are unlikely to evolve in reproductive isolation as they cohabit where they are common (Christmas Island) and will source congeneric mates where they are rare (Cocos Keeling Islands). Our results add to the growing body of evidence that hybridisation among coral reef fishes is a dynamic evolutionary factor.

  3. Spatial dynamics of the red grouper Epinephelus morio (Pisces: Serranidae on the Campeche Bank, Gulf of Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge A. López-Rocha

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The spatial dynamics of the red grouper Epinephelus morio plays a fundamental role in the fishery management on the Campeche Bank, where it is overfished. The objective of this study was to characterize the spatial dynamics of this population. We used a dynamic model of spatial distribution to estimate population movement rates between adjacent areas. The model was applied using information on catch per unit effort and length-frequency distributions for the Mexican mid-sized fleet that operated in the area in the period 1973-1977. These data were chosen to ensure that the information would reflect the condition of the resource before overfishing. It was possible to quantify the spatial dynamics of the red grouper and the results were consistent with previously known movement patterns. The results showed different movement rates and temporal patterns of movement for different population sectors. The spawning aggregations and the seasonal upwelling occurring in the eastern part of the Bank were considered as key factors influencing the pattern of population movements.

  4. Microsatellite analysis of the genetic relationships between wild and cultivated giant grouper in the South China Sea

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    QING WANG; XIANG WANG; ZHENZHEN XIE; YIQ ILI; LING XIAO; CHENG PENG; HAIFA ZHANG; SHUISHENG LI; YONG ZHANG; HAORAN LIN

    2016-06-01

    The giant grouper (Epinephelus lanceolatus) is a coral fish with high commercial value in Southeast Asia. In the present study, we isolated 11 microsatellite DNA markers, and analysed the genetic diversity and differentiation between cultured stocks and wild populations of the giant grouper originating from the South China Sea. A total of 390 alleles at 11 microsatellite loci were detected in 130 individuals from five different populations. The expected heterozygosity varied from 0.131 to 0.855 with a mean value of 0.623 and the observed heterozygosity varied from 0.145 to 0.869 with a mean value of 0.379. The allelic richness and heterozygosity studies revealed that the genetic diversity of the cultured population was significantly reduced when compared with that of the wild population. The Fis,pairwise Fst values, analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA), three- dimensional factorial correspondence analysis and structure analysis revealed significant population differentiation between the cultured stocks and the wild populations, among the three cultured populations and between the two wild populations. These differences may be caused by random genetic drift, the effects of artificial selection and founder effects. Our results will be useful in the management of cultured stocks and conservation of wild populations of the giant group

  5. Molecular characterization and functional analysis of Toll-like receptor 3 gene in orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Kebing; Ge, Hui; Lin, Qi; Wu, Jianshao; He, Libin; Fang, Qiongshan; Zhou, Chen; Sun, Minqiu; Huang, Zhongchi

    2013-09-15

    Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) plays an important role in activating innate immune responses during viral infection. In this report, TLR3 (EcTLR3) was characterized and analyzed for the first time in Epinephelus coioides. The full-length EcTLR3 cDNA is predicted to encode a 909 amino acid polypeptide that contains a signal peptide sequence, 18 leucine-rich repeat (LRR) motifs, a transmembrane region and a Toll/interleukin-1 receptor (TIR) domain. Quantitative real-time PCR revealed that the EcTLR3 mRNA was much more abundant in the liver than in other immune organs, and that the expression levels were very low in hemocyte and muscle. During development of the grouper, the levels of EcTLR3 transcripts increased with age, with very low expression levels at the early stages of development. EcTLR3 mRNA levels were examined in the liver at different times after treatment with polyriboinosinic polyribocytidylic acid (Poly I:C), and in nervous necrosis virus (NNV)-infected larval groupers. The results suggested that EcTLR3 plays an important role in a fish's defense against viral infection.

  6. Immune responses of orange-spotted grouper, Epinephelus coioides, against virus-like particles of betanodavirus produced in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Yu-Xiong; Jin, Bao-Lei; Xu, Yu; Huang, Li-Jie; Huang, Run-Qing; Zhang, Yong; Kwang, Jimmy; He, Jian-Guo; Xie, Jun-Feng

    2014-01-15

    Betanodaviruses are the causative agents of viral nervous necrosis (VNN), a serious disease of cultured marine fish worldwide. Virus-like particles (VLPs) are one of the good novel vaccine candidates to control this disease. Until now, betanodavirus vaccine studies mainly focused on the humoral immune response and mortality after virus challenge. However, little is known about the activation of genes responsible for cellular and innate immunity by vaccines. In the present study, VLPs of orange-spotted grouper nervous necrosis virus (OGNNV) were produced in prokaryotes and their ability to enter Asian sea bass cells was the same as native virus, suggesting that they possess a similar structure to OGNNV. VLPs immunogenicity was then determined by intramuscularly vaccinating Epinephelus coioides at different concentrations (1.5 or 15 μg g(-1) fish body weight, FBW) and immunizing frequencies (administration once, twice and thrice). A single vaccination with the dosage of 1.5 μg g(-1) FBW is enough to provoke high titer antibodies (average 3 fold higher than that of negative control) with strong neutralizing antibody titer as early as 1 week post immunization. Furthermore, quantitative PCR analysis revealed that eleven genes associated with humoral, cellular and innate immunities were up-regulated in the liver, spleen and head kidney at 12h post immunization, correlating with the early antibody response. In conclusion, we demonstrated that VLP vaccination induced humoral immune responses and activated genes associated with cellular and innate immunity against betanodavirus infection in orange-spotted grouper.

  7. cDNA cloning and mRNA expression of neuropeptide Y in orange spotted grouper, Epinephelus coioides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Rong; Li, Wensheng; Lin, Haoran

    2005-09-01

    A full-length cDNA encoding the neuropeptide Y (NPY) was cloned from the hypothalamus of orange spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides) by rapid amplification of cDNA ends approaches. The NPY cDNA sequence is 688 bp long and has an open reading frame of 300 bp encoding prepro-NPY with 99 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequences contain a 28-amino-acids signal peptide followed by a 36-amino-acids mature NPY peptide. mRNA expression of NPY was determined using semi-quantitative RT-PCR followed by Southern blot analysis. NPY mRNA was expressed in olfactory bulb, telencephalon, pituitary, hypothalamus, optic tectum-thalamus, medulla oblongata, cerebellum and spinal cord. Low levels of NPY mRNA expression were found in retina, ovary and stomach, while much lower levels of expression were detected in liver, heart, gill, skin, anterior intestine, thymus and blood. No NPY mRNA expression was observed in unfertilized eggs, newly fertilized eggs, 16-cells stage and morula stage of the embryo and lower levels of expression were detected in the blastula, gastrula and neurula stages. It was highly expressed from lens formation stage to 52-day-old larval stage. NPY might be involved in the late embryonic and larval development of the orange spotted grouper.

  8. Examining Social Adaptations in a Volatile Landscape in Northern Mongolia via the Agent-Based Model Ger Grouper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia K. Clark

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The environment of the mountain-steppe-taiga of northern Mongolia is often characterized as marginal because of the high altitude, highly variable precipitation levels, low winter temperatures, and periodic droughts coupled with severe winter storms (known as dzuds. Despite these conditions, herders have inhabited this landscape for thousands of years, and hunter-gatherer-fishers before that. One way in which the risks associated with such a challenging and variable landscape are mitigated is through social networks and inter-family cooperation. We present an agent-based simulation, Ger Grouper, to examine how households have mitigated these risks through cooperation. The Ger Grouper simulation takes into account locational decisions of households, looks at fission/fusion dynamics of households and how those relate to environmental pressures, and assesses how degrees of relatedness can influence sharing of resources during harsh winters. This model, coupled with the traditional archaeological and ethnographic methods, helps shed light on the links between early Mongolian pastoralist adaptations and the environment. While preliminary results are promising, it is hoped that further development of this model will be able to characterize changing land-use patterns as social and political networks developed.

  9. Nucleic acids digestion by enzymes in the stomach of snakehead (Channa argus) and banded grouper (Epinephelus awoara).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu; Zhang, Yanfang; Jiang, Wei; Wang, Jing; Pan, Xiaoming; Wu, Wei; Cao, Minjie; Dong, Ping; Liang, Xingguo

    2017-02-01

    Dietary nucleic acids (NAs) were important nutrients. However, the digestion of NAs in stomach has not been studied. In this study, the digestion of NAs by enzymes from fish stomach was investigated. The snakehead pepsins (SP) which were the main enzymes in stomach were extracted and purified. The purity of SP was evaluated by SDS-PAGE and HPLC. The snakehead pepsin 2 (SP2) which was the main component in the extracts was used for investigating the protein and NAs digestion activity. SP2 could digest NAs, including λ DNA and salmon sperm DNA. Interestingly, the digestion could be inhibited by treatment of alkaline solution at pH 8.0 and pepstatin A, and the digestion could happen either in the presence or absence of hemoglobin (Hb) and BSA as the protein substrates. Similarly, the stomach enzymes of banded grouper also showed the NAs digestion activity. NAs could be digested by the stomach enzymes of snakehead and banded grouper. It may be helpful for understanding both animal nutrition and NAs metabolic pathway.

  10. Investigating the origin of vagrant dusky groupers, Epinephelus marginatus (Lowe, 1834), in coastal waters of Réunion Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Kerry; Crochelet, Estelle; Bloomer, Paulette; Hoareau, Thierry B

    2016-10-01

    Due to their geographic isolation, biotas of oceanic islands are likely influenced by episodic long distance dispersal events, but such observations are scarce. In June 2012, fishermen from Réunion Island caught an unknown specimen of grouper, identified as dusky grouper Epinephelus marginatus (Lowe, 1834). This was highly unexpected considering the large distance of its closest verified occurrence (South Africa, ∼2500km). To identify the origin of this specimen and the mechanisms driving this potential long distance colonization, we combined genetic analyses and hydrodynamic connectivity modeling approaches. Molecular markers and samples from various locations across the distribution range resulted in the identification of three putative source populations. The Réunion specimen clustered genetically with South Africa. The estimated spawning period in relation to the connectivity modeling of larvae showed no possible direct connection between South Africa and Réunion. However, connectivity was predicted through intermediate stepping stone populations likely located around the southern tip of Madagascar, where the occurrence of the species has yet to be verified. The results further highlight the potential role of the cyclone Bingiza (February 2011) in the connection between Madagascar and Réunion. This shows that cyclones may be an important driver in long distance colonization of oceanic islands.

  11. The ups and downs of coral reef fishes: the genetic characteristics of a formerly severely overfished but currently recovering Nassau grouper fish spawning aggregation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, A. M.; Feldheim, K. A.; Nemeth, R.; Kadison, E.; Blondeau, J.; Semmens, B. X.; Shivji, M. S.

    2016-03-01

    The Nassau grouper ( Epinephelus striatus) has sustained large declines across its distribution, including extirpation of many of its fish spawning aggregations (FSAs). Within US Virgin Islands (USVI) waters, Nassau grouper FSAs were overfished until their disappearance in the 1970s and 1980s. In the early 2000s, however, Nassau grouper were found gathering at Grammanik Bank, USVI, a mesophotic coral reef adjacent to one of the extinct aggregation sites, and regulatory protective measures were implemented to protect this fledgling FSA. The population genetic dynamics of this rapid FSA deterioration followed by protection-facilitated, incipient recovery are unknown. We addressed two objectives: (1) we explored which factors (i.e., local vs. external recruitment) might be key in shaping the USVI FSA recovery; and (2) we examined the consequences of severe past overfishing on this FSA's current genetic status. We genotyped individuals (15 microsatellites) from the USVI FSA comprising three successive spawning years (2008-2010), as well as individuals from a much larger, presumably less impacted, Nassau grouper FSA in the Cayman Islands, to assess their comparative population dynamics. No population structure was detected between the USVI and Cayman FSAs ( F ST = -0.0004); however, a temporally waning, genetic bottleneck signal was detected in the USVI FSA. Parentage analysis failed to identify any parent-offspring matches between USVI FSA adults and nearby juveniles, and relatedness analysis showed low levels of genetic relatedness among USVI FSA individuals. Genetic diversity across USVI FSA temporal collections was relatively high, and no marked differences were found between the USVI and Cayman FSAs. These collective results suggest that external recruitment is an important driver of the USVI FSA recovery. Furthermore, despite an apparent genetic bottleneck, the genetic diversity of USVI Nassau grouper has not been severely compromised. Our findings also provide a

  12. Cytoplasmic localization of Lrh-1 down-regulates ovarian follicular cyp19a1a expression in a teleost, the orange-spotted grouper Epinephelus coioides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Huijie; Zhang, Shen; Liu, Qiongyou; Zhang, Lihong; Zhang, Weimin

    2014-08-01

    Liver receptor homolog-1 (LRH-1) is a conserved member of the NR5A subfamily in vertebrates and a potential regulator of estrogen synthesis in the ovarian granulosa cells. An Lrh-1 homologue was obtained from the orange-spotted grouper Epinephelus coioides that contains the conserved structural features of NR5A and is phylogenetically closely related to NR5A2. The expression of the orange-spotted grouper Lrh-1 is tissue-specific with relatively higher levels in the liver and ovary. The immunoreactive signals for Lrh-1 and Cyp19a1a were present in the ovarian follicular cells and germ cells. In the ovarian follicular cells, Lrh-1 was present both in the nucleus and cytoplasm, and colocalized with Cyp19a1a. The expression levels of both increased during vitellogenesis whereas only Cyp19a1a dramatically decreased toward maturation when Lrh-1 was localized almost exclusively to the cytoplasm of the follicular cells. The orange-spotted grouper Lrh-1 could up-regulate cyp19a1a transcription in vitro via the two conserved Ftz-f1 sites in cyp19a1a promoter. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis showed that the orange-spotted grouper Lrh-1 could bind cyp19a1a promoter in vivo with a higher abundance in the vitellogenic ovary, whereas the binding was dramatically decreased in the mature ovary. Taken together, the results of present study demonstrate that Lrh-1 plays an important role in up-regulating cyp19a1a gene in the ovarian follicular cells during vitellogenesis, and the sequestration of Lrh-1 to the cytoplasm may down-regulate cyp19a1a expression in the mature ovary. This mechanism for modifying transcriptional roles of the orange-spotted grouper Lrh-1 may shed new light on the regulation of Cyp19a1 expression in other vertebrates as well.

  13. Mitochondrial DNA evidences reflect an incipient population structure in Atlantic goliath grouper (Epinephelus itajara, Epinephelidae in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júnio S. Damasceno

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Atlantic goliath grouper is a critically endangered species that inhabits estuarine and reef environments and is threatened primarily by fishing activities and habitat destruction. Despite the urgent need for protection, its genetic conservation status remains unknown. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the gene flow among the populations of the species along the coast of Brazil based on the control region of the mitochondrial DNA. The results indicate low haplotype diversity (0.40-0.86 and very low nucleotide diversity (0.1-0.5%. They also show that the genetic diversity of the species varies considerably along the coast and that this finding may be especially important for the identification of priority areas for its conservation. The population analyses indicate a low but significant degree of genetic structuring (ΦST =0.111, probably due to the occurrence of rare haplotypes at some locations, although the genetic differentiation between sites was not correlated with geographic distance (r=0.0501; p=0.7719, and the shared haplotypes indicate that gene flow occurs among all locations along the Brazilian coast. The results of the pairwise FST indicate a high degree of genetic differentiation between locations. The incipient population structuring detected in the present study is not related systematically to the geological or physical features of the Brazilian coast. The complex interaction of fluctuations in sea level, marine currents, and the reproductive characteristics of the species hampers the identification of the specific role of each of these processes in the gene flow dynamics of the population units of the Atlantic goliath grouper. The low overall levels of genetic diversity, the pairwise FST values and the significant population structuring among groups (ΦCT identified in the present study all reinforce the critically endangered status of the species and are inconsistent with the presence of a single, panmictic

  14. Molecular Cloning and mRNA Profile of Insulin-like Growth Factor Type 1 Receptor in Orange-spotted Grouper, Epinephelus coioides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yue-Mei KUANG; Wen-Sheng LI; Hao-Ran LIN

    2005-01-01

    The insulin-like growth factor type 1 receptor (IGF-IR) belongs to the tyrosine kinase (TK)receptor family. Besides being mitogenic, IGF-IR plays a crucial role in cell survival, transformation and maintenance of the malignant phenotype. In this study, we cloned the cDNA from the hypothalamus of the orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides) using reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) and the rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) method. The deduced amino acid sequence showed that the receptor comprises 1413 amino acid residues. It contains cysteine-rich domains in its α-subunit, and a conserved transmembrane domain and TK domains in its β-subunit. Comparison of the amino acid sequence with those of other species showed that the grouper IGF-IR shares 90.2%, 89.6%, 71.9% and 72% similarity with the IGF-IR of the Japanese flounder, turbot, zebrafish-a and zebrafish-b, respectively. When compared with its mammalian homologue, grouper IGF-IR contains a large insertion at its C-terminus. Phylogenetic analysis has revealed that the grouper IGF-IR belongs to the b-type IGF-IRs and has a higher similarity with flounder and turbot IGF-IR, and a lower similarity (<70%) with human, mouse and avian IGF-IR. Grouper IGF-IR transcripts were detected in the brain, peripheral tissues, embryos and early development larvae by semi-quantitative RT-PCR assay. It was observed that IGF-IR mRNA expression was greater in the brain than in peripheral tissues. The level of IGF-IR mRNA expression was much higher in retina, gonad, skeletal muscle and gill tissues than in liver, heart and thymus tissues. The expression of IGF-IR can be visualized as a ubiquitous signalin unfertilized eggs, embryos and early development larvae. The distribution pattern of IGF-IR mRNA in grouper development suggests that IGF-IR plays an important role in the embryo and early larval development stages.

  15. Molecular characterization and functional analysis of TRAF6 in orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan-Wei; Li, Xia; Xiao, Xi-Xi; Zhao, Fei; Luo, Xiao-Chun; Dan, Xue-Ming; Li, An-Xing

    2014-05-01

    Tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR)-associated factor 6 (TRAF6) is a crucial signal transducer in both the TNFR superfamily and Toll-like receptor/interleukin 1R family. Although significant progress has been made in clarifying the role of TRAF6 in mammals, the function of TRAF6 in fish is still poorly understood. In this study, we cloned the orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides) TRAF6 (EcTRAF6) cDNA, with an open reading frame of 1713bp encoding 570 amino acids. Sequence analysis indicated that EcTRAF6 contains the four characteristic domains conserved in the TRAF family, including an N-terminal RING finger, two zinc fingers, a coiled-coil domain, and a C-terminal MATH domain. Homology alignment and phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that EcTRAF6 shares high sequence identity with TRAF6 of other fish species. The EcTRAF6 gene contains seven exons and six introns, which is similar to the organization in ayu, but not in the common carp, human, or mouse (six exons and five introns). EcTRAF6 transcripts were broadly expressed in all tissues tested, and increased after infection with Cryptocaryon irritans. Intracellular localization showed EcTRAF6 was distributed mainly in the cytoplasm. Over-expression of wild type (WT) EcTRAF6, truncated forms of EcTRAF6, including ΔZinc finger 2 and ΔMATH, and a mutant of C78A activated NF-κB strongly in HEK293T cells; whereas truncations, including ΔRING, ΔZinc finger 1 and Δcoiled-coiled, and a mutant of K132R induced the activity of NF-κB slightly compared to WT EcTRAF6, implying the latter has a more crucial role in downstream signal transduction. Together, these results suggested EcTRAF6 functions like that of mammals to activate NF-κB, and it might have an important role in host defense against parasitic infections.

  16. 大鲵虹彩病毒TaqMan实时荧光定量PCR检测方法的建立%Establishment of a TaqMan real-time PCR assay for detecting the giant salamander iridovirus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周勇; 曾令兵; 孟彦; 周群兰; 张辉; 高正勇; 肖艺; 孙建滨

    2012-01-01

    利用PCR技术扩增出大鲵虹彩病毒(giant salamander iridovirus,GSIV)主要衣壳蛋白(MCP)编码区长度为1 392 bp的片段,克隆到pMD19-T载体上,构建重组质粒pMD 19-T-MCP.经PCR鉴定确认正确后,以10倍梯度稀释pMD19-T-MCP重组质粒,作为标准模板进行TaqMan实时荧光定量PCR扩增,制作标准曲线,建立了大鲵虹彩病毒的TaqMan实时荧光定量PCR检测方法.制作的标准曲线有极好的线性关系,且线性范围宽,相关系数为0.990 19.组内重复试验的CT值标准偏差为0.52%.检测结果显示,该方法对大鲵虹彩病毒的检测有高度的特异性,与锦鲤疱疹病毒、弗氏柠檬酸杆菌、嗜水气单胞菌以及鲤上皮瘤细胞基因组DNA之间均无交叉反应,特异性好,检测总DNA灵敏度为10个病毒核酸分子拷贝数,约1.1×10-3 pg/μL病毒核酸,较之常规PCR的敏感度高出约1 000倍.研究建立的大鲵虹彩病毒TaqMan实时荧光定量PCR方法灵敏度高、特异性强,对大鲵虹彩病毒病的快速诊断与病毒病原定量检测有重要意义.%A 1 392 bp coding region of giant salamander iridovirus(GSIV)MCP protein was amplified by PCR and cloned into pMD19-T vector for the construction of recombinant plasmid pMD19-T-MCP. After being identified and confirmed by PCR reaction, 10-fold serial dilutions of plasmid pMD19-T-MCP were used as standard templates for TaqMan real-time PCR to generate standard curve for quantifying the virus genomic copy number. A good linear correlation was demonstrated in the standard curve for the real-time PCR assay. The coefficients of variance (CV) were 0.52% for intra-assay tests, which indicated good reliability. The detection results showed that the specificity of this assay was high for giant salamander iridovirus without cross-reactions with DNA templates from KHV, Aeromonas hydrophila, Citrobacter freundii and EPC cells. A minimum of 10 copies of GSIV DNA (l.l×10-3 pg/μL total DNA) could be detected, which

  17. 真鲷虹彩病毒实时定量PCR检测方法的建立与应用%Development and application of a real-time PCR assay for the detection of red-sea bream iridovirus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵玉然; 岳志芹; 谭乐义; 刘荭; 赵巍; 梁成珠; 史秀杰; 徐彪; 朱来华; 何俊强

    2011-01-01

    以真鲷虹彩病毒(Red-sea bream iridovirus,RSIV)主要衣壳蛋白(Major capsid protein,MCP)的基因保守片段为靶序列,利用Primer Express 3.0软件设计定量PCR引物,建立了RSIV的SYBR Green I实时定量PCR检测方法.将RSIV MCP基因连接pMD18-T载体,构建重组质粒,经过梯度稀释后作为标准品,根据标准品拷贝数(X)与Ct值的关系绘制了标准曲线,为Ct=-3.184 1gX+40.270,相关系数R2=0.996 9.熔解曲线分析表明,定量PCR产物的Tm值为82.5℃.该方法的检测限为2.20×102拷贝/反应,对流行性造血器官坏死病毒、淋巴囊肿病毒、蛙病毒3、甲鱼虹彩病毒都没有扩增反应,具有特异性.利用该方法对84批海水鱼类(石鲽、大菱鲆、鲈鱼)进行检测,其中5批鱼样品感染RSIV,并利用标准曲线对病毒含量进行了定量分析.%A sensitive and specific SYBR Green Ⅰ real-time PCR assay for the detection of red-sea bream iridovirus (RSIV) was established.The real-time PCR primers were designed according to the conserved region of major capsid protein (MCP) gene by using Primer Express 3.0 software.The RSIV MCP gene was inserted into pMD18-T vector to construct the recombinant plasmid.The resulted plasmid was serially diluted and used as the standards.The relationship between plasmid copy number(X)and Ct value was described as a standard curve: Ct=-3.184 lgX+40.270(with an R2 value of 0.996 9).The detection limit of the assay was 2.20×102 virus copies per reaction.The assay showed specificity and could not be amplified with RSIV and epizootic haematopoietic necrosis virus (EHNV), lymphocystis disease virus (LCDV), frog virus 3 (FV 3) ,or soft-shelled turtle iridovirus (STIV).The Tm of the specific product was obtained as 82.5 ℃ through the melting curve analysis.This assay was applied in detecting whether the sea fish samples (stone flounder, turbot, and weever) of 84 batches were infected by RSIV.It was found that the samples of 5 batches presented positive

  18. [Cloning and promoter analysis of gonadotrophin-releasing hormone Ⅱ in the orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ji; Luo, Yu-Shan; Zhu, Zuo-Yan; Hu, Wei

    2013-07-01

    Gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) is a key regulator of reproduction in all vertebrates. We first cloned the cDNA and genomic DNA sequences coding for GnRHⅡ gene in the orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelis coioides), an economically important marine fish, and then cloned its promoter sequence. The region responsible for the cell-specific expression of GnRHⅡ was located between -2005 bp to -956 bp from the translation start site. GnRHⅡ promoter driven EGFP expression in transgenic zebrafish showed that GnRHⅡ-positive neurons were primarily located in the midbrain and in the eyes. Our results provide an improved understanding of the regulatory mechanism and function of GnRHⅡ of E. coioides.

  19. Identification of the Bcl-2 family protein gene BOK from orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides) involved in SGIV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Jia; Yu, Dapeng; Wei, Shina; Tang, Jufen; Lu, Yishan; Wu, Zaohe; Qin, Qiwei; Jian, Jichang

    2016-05-01

    Apoptosis plays vital roles in many physiological process and immune response. BOK is one of the central regulators in apoptosis. In this study, a new BOK homolog (Ec-BOK) was cloned and characterized from Orange-spotted grouper, Epinephelus coioides. Ec-BOK encoded a 210 amino acid peptides which shared 97% identity to Stegastes partitus BOK protein, contained four BH domains and one transmembrane region. Ec-BOK widely expressed in all analyzed tissues with the higher expressions in kidney and spleen. Its expression level was up-regulated after SGIV infection in vitro. Further analysis revealed that overexpression of Ec-BOK inhibited viral genes transcriptions and virus replication in fish cell. Our findings suggested that Ec-BOK might play a role in the immune response against virus.

  20. Corticosteroid biosynthesis in vitro by testes of the grouper (Epinephelus coioides) after 17alpha-methyltestosterone-induced sex inversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S T; Lam, T J; Tan, C H

    2000-11-01

    This study reports the unique compartmentalization of cortisol and 11-deoxycortisol biosynthesis in vitro from [(3)H]17alpha-hydroxyprogesterone (17P) in testicular tissues of groupers after sex inversion induced by 17alpha-methyltestosterone (MT). Before MT implantation, the ovarian tissues produced only nonpolar metabolites. Following sex inversion some 6 months later, synthesis of these nonpolar metabolites was not detectable. Instead, cortisol and 11-deoxycortisol, with yields of about 3% and 14%, respectively, were synthesized together with two other polar metabolites. The corticosteroids and polar metabolites were distinctly nondetectable in ovarian tissues of the control fish throughout the experiment. While the significance of this testicular synthesis of corticosteroids is presently unclear, it could be related to the increased energy demands arising from the reorganization of gonadal tissues during sex inversion.

  1. Fish and fisher behaviour influence the vulnerability of groupers (Epinephelidae) to fishing at a multispecies spawning aggregation site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, J.; Graham, N. A. J.; Cinner, J. E.; Almany, G. R.; Waldie, P.

    2015-06-01

    Targeted fishing of spawning aggregations is a major contributor to extinction risk in numerous species of grouper (Epinephelidae). Marine reserves are often used to protect spawning aggregation sites, including multispecies sites shared by several species of grouper. However, marine reserves may be biologically, socioeconomically or culturally unviable in some fisheries, and alternative management actions must be explored. Implementing effective management actions that control rather than prohibit fishing requires an improved understanding of how species vary in their vulnerability to fishing gears and respond to changes in fishing effort. To estimate sources of variability in vulnerability to fishing (i.e. catchability), catch-per-unit-effort (CPUE) and other fisheries data were collected in parallel with underwater visual census-derived estimates of aggregation size at a multispecies spawning site of Epinephelus fuscoguttatus and E. polyphekadion. Despite having similar abundances, E. polyphekadion was eightfold more vulnerable to capture by hook-and-line gear, clearly outcompeting its congener for bait. Contrasting with the common assumption of a proportional relationship, the CPUE of both species was unrelated to the size of their respective aggregations. Moreover, the CPUE of each species was unrelated to hook size and depth fished. However, E. polyphekadion CPUE declined as the density of fishing effort increased at the site, with gear saturation identified as the likely mechanism for this effect. E. fuscoguttatus CPUE was negatively related to the size of aggregations formed by its congener, stemming from the superior competitiveness and therefore higher selectivity of the gear for E. polyphekadion. Our findings demonstrate that CPUE is an unreliable indicator of spawning aggregation status. The other sources of variation in CPUE that we identify have implications for gear-based management, which must be based on understanding of gear selectivity for

  2. Cathepsin L in the orange-spotted grouper, Epinephelus coioides: molecular cloning and gene expression after a Vibrio anguillarum challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Jing-Zhen; Rao, Ying-Zhu; Lun, Zhao-Rong; Yang, Ting-Bao

    2012-12-01

    The orange-spotted grouper, Epinephelus coioides, is an important fish maricultured in many Asian countries. In the present study, the full-length cDNA of cathepsin L, an immunity related gene of fishes, was isolated from E. coioides using rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). It is 1,443 bp in length, including an open reading frame (ORF) of 1,011 bp. The open reading frame encoded a preproprotein of 336 amino acids (aa), which consisted of a signal peptide of 16 aa, a proregion peptide of 98 aa and a mature peptide of 222 aa. The preproprotein contained an oxyanion hole (Gln), a catalytic triad formed by Cys, His and Asn, and the conserved ERWNIN, GNFD and GCNGG motifs, all characteristic of cathepsin L. Homology analysis revealed that the deduced amino acid sequence of E. coioides cathepsin L shared 80.1-94.8 % identity with those of reported fishes. Tissue-dependent mRNA expression analysis showed that the cathepsin L transcript was expressed in all the examined tissues of the healthy E. coioides, being highest in the liver and moderate in the heart, gonad and intestine. After Vibrio anguillarum stimulation, the mRNA expression of cathepsin L in E. coioides was significantly increased in the skin, fin, gills, liver, blood, spleen, head kidney and intestine, with the highest observed in the spleen (10.6-fold) at 12 h post-injection and the next in blood (7.5-fold) at 8 h post-injection. These results provided initial information for further studies on the physiological and immunological roles of the cathepsin L gene in the orange-spotted grouper.

  3. Application of biomarkers in Epaulet grouper (Epinephelus stoliczkae) to assess chromium pollution in the Chabahar Bay and Gulf of Oman

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadeghi, Parvin, E-mail: parvin.sadeghi@gmail.com [Marine Biology Department, Marine Science Faculty, Chabahar Maritime University, Chabahar (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Kazerouni, Faranak [Department of Laboratory Medicine, Faculty of Paramedical Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Savari, Ahmad; Movahedinia, Abdolali; Safahieh, Alireza [Marine Biology Department, Marine and Oceanic Science Faculty, Khorramshahr University of Marine Science and Technology, Khorramshahr (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ajdari, Daniel [Iranian Fisheries Research Organization, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-06-15

    In the present study plasma levels of erythropoietin (EPO) hormone and kidney histological changes were assessed as biomarkers to evaluate the chromium pollution in Epaulet grouper (Epinephelus stoliczkae) obtained from different areas in Chabahar Bay and Gulf of Oman. Chemical analyses included the evaluation of chromium in the fish kidney tissue and sediment. The highest and lowest concentrations of chromium were measured in the kidney of fish and sediment collected from Konarak (47.53 ± 1.23 and 110 ± 1.4 μg g{sup –1}) and the mouth of Chabahar Bay (3.43 ± 1.31 and 13.5 ± 3.23 μg g{sup –1}), respectively. There was significant difference (P < 0.05) of EPO plasma levels between Konarak, Beris and Ramin stations with the mouth of Chabahar Bay as the cleanest station. Reduction of Bowman's space, occlusion of the tubule lumen, leukocytes infiltration, melanomacrophage centers aggregation, nuclear vacuolation, nuclei hypertrophy of tubule cells, necrosis of the tubules, lifting of the tubular basement membrane and dilatation of glomerular capillaries were the most alterations observed in the kidney. The HAI values of Epaulet grouper from Konarak, Beris and Ramin stations were significantly higher than other stations (P < 0.05). It was concluded that selected biomarkers as a first investigation could be useful tools to environmental biomonitoring programs. - Highlights: • Plasma EPO level and kidney HAI were assessed as Cr biomarkers in E. stoliczkae. • Chromium was measured in the sediment and kidney of E. stoliczkae in the Gulf of Oman. • Highest Cr concentration was in the sediment and E. stoliczkae kidney from Konarak. • The analyzed biomarkers in E. stoliczkae are suitable to monitor Cr pollution.

  4. Viral Encephalopathy and Retinopathy in groupers (Epinephelus spp. in southern Italy: a threat for wild endangered species?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vendramin Niccolò

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Betanodaviruses are the causative agents of Viral Encephalopathy and Retinopathy (VER. To date, more than 50 species have proved to be susceptible and among them, those found in genus Epinephelus are highly represented. Clinical disease outbreaks are generally characterized by typical nervous signs and significant mortalities mainly associated with aquaculture activities, although some concerns for the impact of this infection in wild fish have been raised. In this study, the authors present the first documented report describing an outbreak of VER in wild species in the Mediterranean basin. Case presentation In late summer - early winter 2011 (September-December, significant mortalities affecting wild Dusky grouper (Epinephelus marginatus, Golden grouper (Epinephelus costae and European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax were reported in the municipality of Santa Maria di Leuca (Northern Ionian Sea, Italy. The affected fish showed an abnormal swimming behavior and swollen abdomens. During this epizootic, five moribund fish showing clear neurological signs were captured and underwent laboratory investigations. Analytical results confirmed the diagnosis of VER in all the specimens. Genetic characterization classified all betanodavirus isolates as belonging to the RGNNV genotype, revealing a close genetic relationship with viral sequences obtained from diseased farmed fish reared in the same area in previous years. Conclusion The close relationship of the viral sequences between the isolates collected in wild affected fish and those isolated during clinical disease outbreaks in farmed fish in the same area in previous years suggests a persistent circulation of betanodaviruses and transmission between wild and farmed stocks. Further investigations are necessary to assess the risk of viral transmission between wild and farmed fish populations, particularly in marine protected areas where endangered species are present.

  5. [Species identification of grouper and snapper in Taiwan Strait using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis and lab-on-a-chip system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shuangya; Zhang, Jin; Chen, Weiling; Xu, Dunming; Zhou, Yu

    2011-07-01

    Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis and lab-on-a-chip system were used to identify grouper and snapper species in Taiwan Strait. A fragment of 464 bp length of mitochondrial cytochrome b gene was amplified by PCR and the products were digested with restriction enzymes Dde I , Hae III and NLa III, individually. The fragments generated after digestion were further resolved on the DNA Chip. Eight grouper species and five snapper species were successfully identified. The results demonstrated that PCR-RFLP analysis and lab-on-a-chip system provide a fast, easy, automated, and reliable analysis approach. This approach is potential for the purpose of fish adulteration control.

  6. Day-night and reproductive cycle profiles of melatonin receptor, kiss, and gnrh expression in orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Ke; Liu, Xiaochun; Zhang, Yong; Lin, Haoran

    2013-07-01

    It is suggested that the MT1 melatonin receptor mediates the effects of melatonin on reproduction in rodents. Three melatonin receptor types, MT1, MT2, and Mel1c, have been identified in fish. To understand the potential roles of each type of melatonin receptor on reproduction, we explored the day-night and reproductive cycle profiles of melatonin receptor, kiss, and gnrh expression in the orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides). cDNAs encoding melatonin receptors (MT1, MT2, and Mel1c) were first isolated from the brain of the orange-spotted grouper. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis demonstrated that the expression levels of MT1 and MT2 were higher in most of the brain areas and pituitary, while mel1c mRNA was mainly distributed in some peripheral tissues and the pituitary. The expression levels of MT1 were much higher than those of MT2 and mel1c in most of the brain regions, and the day-night expression variations of MT1 were counter to those of kiss2 and gnrh1. Reproductive cycle variations in MT1 daytime expression were different from those for kiss2 and gnrh1, and contrary to ovarian fecundity. Our results suggest that MT1 may modulate gnrh1 expression through kiss2, or may directly influence it. Together, these signal cascades may regulate the seasonal breeding of the orange-spotted grouper. As the day-length variations were consistent with the ovarian fecundity variation observed during the reproductive cycle, we infer that photoperiod affects ovarian development of the orange-spotted grouper through MT1.

  7. A new host record of Sphaerospora epinepheli (Myxosporea: Bivalvulida) occurring on orange-spotted grouper Epinephelus coioides from Thailand: epidemiology, histopathology and phylogenetic position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    U-taynapun, Kittichon; Chirapongsatonkul, Nion; Maneesaay, Phudit; Itami, Toshiaki; Tantikitti, Chutima

    2012-09-10

    In 1991, the first record of Sphaerospora epinepheli was described as a kidney parasite of wild and cultured malabar grouper, Epinephelus malabaricus, along coastlines of Thailand, the Gulf of Thailand and the Andaman Sea. However, the present study detected high infection of this parasite in kidney renal tubes of orange spotted grouper, Epinephelus coioides, collected from Andaman Sea. The highest infection rate of 36.82% was observed during the rainy season in 2009 in Phang-Nga Bay, in the north of Andaman Sea, which is an important grouper production site in Thailand. The biological and histopathological data of the parasite in this new host record are presented. Species classification is described based on morphological data of mature spore and molecular analysis of myxosporean 18S rDNA phylogeny including that of S. epinepheli which infected E. malabaricus. The genetic position of this parasite found in two host species was also studied. The phylogenetic tree analysis of small-subunit rDNA sequences of S. epinepheli from both infected hosts was constructed using two algorithms, maximum likelihood (ML) and Bayesian inference (BI). They were placed in the clustered basal sphaerosporid clade that contain four long SSU rDNA sphaerosporid species including Sphaerospora truttae, Sphaerospora elegans, Sphaerospora ranae, Sphaerospora fugu and Bipteria formosa with strong bootstrap supports. Histopathologically, renal intratubular myxosporean spores were associated with tubulonephosis, tubular necrosis, chronic interstitial nephritis and mimic membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis. This myxosporean parasite appears to be a significant pathogen on the basis of pathological changes in the renal tubules and is highly distributed in orange-spotted grouper.

  8. Characterization and expression analysis of Calmodulin (CaM) in orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides) in response to Vibrio alginolyticus challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Sheng-Wei; Xie, Fu-Xing; Liu, Yuan; Wang, Wei-Na

    2015-10-01

    Vibrio alginolyticus containing the highly toxic extracellular product is one of the most serious threats to grouper survival and its minimum lethal dose is approximately 500 CFU/g fish body weight in grouper. To study the toxic effects of V. alginolyticus on the immune system in teleost, Calmodulin (CaM), an important molecular indicator gene, was cloned from the orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides). The full-length Ec-CaM consisted of a 5'-UTR of 103 bp, an ORF of 450 bp and a 3'-UTR of 104 bp. The Ec-CaM gene encoded a protein of 149 amino acids with an estimated molecular mass of 16.4 kDa and a predicted isoelectric point of 3.93. The deduced amino acid sequence showed that Ec-CaM contained four highly conserved EF-hand domains known to be critical for the function of CaM. Ec-CaM was widely expressed and the highest expression level was observed in liver. Following V. alginolyticus challenge, a sharp increase level of respiratory burst activity and apoptosis ratio were observed. Further analyses of CaM expression and p53 expression in liver, kidney and spleen by qRT-PCR demonstrated that the up-regulated expression of CaM and p53 were observed in the vibrio challenge group. Western blotting analysis confirmed that the Ec-CaM protein was strongly induced in liver at 12 h post-injection, while a sharp increase of p53 protein expression was observed at 24 h post-injection. These results showed CaM expression serving as a potential molecular indicator may help to assess the toxicological effects of V. alginolyticus on the ROS generation and apoptotic process in grouper.

  9. Genetic variation and balancing selection at MHC class II exon 2 in cultured stocks and wild populations of orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Z N; Yang, S; Fan, B; Wang, L; Lin, H R

    2012-11-12

    Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules play vital roles in triggering adaptive immune responses and are considered the most variable molecules in vertebrates. Recently, many studies have focused on the polymorphism and evolution mode of MHC in both model and non-model organisms. Here, we analyzed the MHC class II exon 2-encoding β chain in comparison with the mitochondrial Cytb gene and our previously published microsatellite data set in three cultured stocks and four wild populations of the orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides) in order to investigate its genetic variation and mechanism of evolution. We detected one to four alleles in one individual, suggesting that at least two loci exist in the orange-spotted grouper, as well as a particularly high level of allelic diversity at the MHC loci. Furthermore, the cultured stocks exhibited reduced allelic diversity compared to the wild counterparts. We found evidence of balancing selection at MHC class II exon 2, and codon sites under positive selection were largely correspondent to the protein-binding region. In addition, MHC class II exon 2 revealed significant differences between population differentiation patterns from the neutral mitochondrial Cytb and microsatellites, which may indicate local adaptation at MHC loci in orange-spotted grouper originating from the South China Sea and Southeast Asia.

  10. Identification and characterization of TRP14, a thioredoxin-related protein of 14 kDa from orange-spotted grouper, Epinephelus coioides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Jingguang; Ji, Huasong; Guo, Minglan; Yan, Yang; Qin, Qiwei

    2013-11-01

    Thioredoxin (abbreviated as Trx) is an important ubiquitous disulfide reductase, which can protect organisms against various oxidative stresses. In the present study, a thioredoxin-related protein of 14 kDa (named as Ec-TRP14) was identified from the marine fish grouper, Epinephelus coioides by RACE PCR. The full-length cDNA of Ec-TRP14 was comprised of 1066 bp with a 372 bp open reading frame that encodes a putative protein of 123 amino acids. Similar to most TRP14s, Ec-TRP14 contained the conserved motif C-P-D-C. Ec-TRP14 mRNA is predominately expressed in liver, brain and muscle. The expression of Ec-TRP14 was up-regulated in the liver of grouper challenged with SGIV. Ec-TRP14 was recombined and expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3), and the rEc-Ec-TRP14 fusion protein was demonstrated to possess the antioxidant activity. The grouper spleen (GS) cells were treated with a high concentration of rEc-TRP14 (8.3 μg/ml), which significantly enhanced cells viability under damage caused by viral infection. These results together indicated that Ec-TRP14 could function as an important antioxidant in a physiological context, and might be involved in the responses to viral challenge.

  11. Molecular cloning of the insulin-like growth factor 3 and difference in the expression of igf genes in orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Huirong; Chen, Huapu; Zhao, Huihong; Liu, Li; Xie, Zhenzhen; Xiao, Ling; Li, Shuisheng; Zhang, Yong; Lin, Haoran

    2015-08-01

    Insulin-like growth factor (Igf) is the key regulator for development, growth, and reproduction. In most vertebrate species, the Igf family has two forms: Igf1 and Igf2. A novel form of Igf, termed Igf3, was recently discovered in fish. In the present study, we isolated igf3 from the orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides). The orange-spotted grouper igf3 consisted of a full-length cDNA of 1014 nucleotides with an open reading frame (ORF) of 597 bp, encoding for proteins of 199 amino acid residues in length. Tissue distribution analysis showed that igf1 widely expressed with the highest expression in the pituitary and liver. igf2 was expressed highly in all the tissues except the olfactory bulb, while igf3 showed the highest expression in the ovary, and moderate expression in brain areas. The expression profiles of three igf genes during the ovarian development and growth hormone (Gh) and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) treatment were also investigated. Three igf genes exhibited different expression patterns during the ovarian development, and showed different responses to the Gh and hCG treatments, appearing to play distinct roles in ovarian development. The present study provides further evidence for the existence of an intraovarian Igf system in orange-spotted grouper.

  12. Reproductive Biology and Fishery-Related Characteristics of the Malabar Grouper (Epinephelus malabaricus Caught in the Coastal Waters of Mafia Island, Tanzania

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    Lydia Gaspare

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The reproductive biology and fishery-related characteristics of the Malabar grouper (Epinephelus malabaricus (Bloch and Schneider, 1801 specimens were investigated. The size of females ranged from 25 to 113 cm total length (LT, with 50% sexually mature at 79 cm LT, and the males (97 cm to 114 cm LT were larger than the females. Due to the sex ratios and size distribution of the sample, it appeared that the groupers change sex between 97 and 113 cm LT. However, the gonadal histology data lacked specimens in the transitional stage. The spawning peak occurred in November, as defined by the presence of ripe females, and the spawning season lasted from September to February. The size of the fish correlated positively with the water depth at capture, which is also related to oxygen levels in deep water being more favourable for larger fish. Larger specimens (>100 cm LT were targeted by fishers between December and February, when the northeast monsoon coincides with calmer weather and the spawning season. Fishers were interviewed, and observations were made on fishing gear, vessels, and grounds. There was no indication that small-scale fishers targeted spawning aggregations; therefore, fisheries independent research is recommended in order to verify the time, location, and behaviour of the spawning of Malabar groupers for management and conservation purposes.

  13. Non-lethal approach identifies variability of δ15N values in the fin rays of Atlantic Goliath Grouper, Epinephelus itajara

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    Orian E. Tzadik

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The Atlantic Goliath Grouper, Epinephelus itajara, is critically endangered throughout its range but has begun to show initial signs of recovery in Florida state waters. As the population continues to rebound, researchers face a pressing need to fill the knowledge gaps about this iconic species. Here, we examined the δ15N isotopic records in fin rays collected from Atlantic Goliath Grouper, and related changes of isotopic ratios over time to life history characteristics. Fin-ray analysis was used as a non-lethal technique to sample individuals from two locations at similar latitudes from the west and east coasts of Florida, USA. δ15N data were acquired by mechanically separating the annuli of each fin ray and then analyzing the material in an Irradiance Elemental Analyzer Mass Spectrometer. The δ15N values were consistent among individuals within populations from each coast of Florida, and mirrored the expected changes over the lives of the fish. Overall, differences were found between δ15N values at juvenile life history phases versus adult phases, but the patterns associated with these differences were unique to each coastal group. We demonstrated, for the first time, that δ15N values from fin rays can be used to assess the life histories of Atlantic Goliath Grouper. The non-lethal strategies outlined here can be used to acquire information essential to the management of species of concern, such as those that are threatened or endangered.

  14. Non-lethal approach identifies variability of δ15N values in the fin rays of Atlantic Goliath Grouper, Epinephelus itajara

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goddard, Ethan A.; Hollander, David J.; Koenig, Christopher C.; Stallings, Christopher D.

    2015-01-01

    The Atlantic Goliath Grouper, Epinephelus itajara, is critically endangered throughout its range but has begun to show initial signs of recovery in Florida state waters. As the population continues to rebound, researchers face a pressing need to fill the knowledge gaps about this iconic species. Here, we examined the δ15N isotopic records in fin rays collected from Atlantic Goliath Grouper, and related changes of isotopic ratios over time to life history characteristics. Fin-ray analysis was used as a non-lethal technique to sample individuals from two locations at similar latitudes from the west and east coasts of Florida, USA. δ15N data were acquired by mechanically separating the annuli of each fin ray and then analyzing the material in an Irradiance Elemental Analyzer Mass Spectrometer. The δ15N values were consistent among individuals within populations from each coast of Florida, and mirrored the expected changes over the lives of the fish. Overall, differences were found between δ15N values at juvenile life history phases versus adult phases, but the patterns associated with these differences were unique to each coastal group. We demonstrated, for the first time, that δ15N values from fin rays can be used to assess the life histories of Atlantic Goliath Grouper. The non-lethal strategies outlined here can be used to acquire information essential to the management of species of concern, such as those that are threatened or endangered. PMID:26082864

  15. Single-beam acoustic seabed classification in coral reef environments with application to the assessment of grouper and snapper habitat in the upper Florida Keys, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleason, Arthur C. R.

    A single-beam acoustic seabed classification system was used to map coral reef environments in the upper Florida Keys, USA, and the Bahamas. The system consisted of two components, both produced by the Quester Tangent Corporation. A QTCView Series V, operating with a 50 kHz sounder, was used for data acquisition, and IMPACT software was used for data processing and classification. First, methodological aspects of system performance were evaluated. Second, the system was applied to the assessment of grouper and snapper habitat. Two methodological properties were explored: transferability (i.e. mapping the same classes at multiple sites) and reproducibility (i.e. surveying one site multiple times). The transferability results showed that a two-class scheme of hard bottom and sediment could be mapped at four sites with overall accuracy ranging from 73% to 86%. The locations of most misclassified echoes had one of two characteristics: a thin sediment veneer overlying hard bottom or within-footprint relief on the order of 0.5 m or greater. Reproducibility experiments showed that consistency of acoustic classes between repeat transects over the same area on different days varied, for the most part, between 50% and 65%. Consistency increased to between 78% and 92% when clustering was limited to two acoustic classes, to between approximately 70% and 100% when only echoes acquired within two degrees of nadir in the pitch direction were used, and to between 81% and 87% when a limited set of features was used for classification. The assessment of grouper and snapper habitat addressed the question whether areas of high fish abundance were associated with characteristic acoustic or geomorphological signatures. The results showed, first, that the hard bottom/sediment classification scheme was a useful first step for stratifying survey areas to increase efficiency of grouper census efforts. Second, an index of acoustic variability complemented the hard bottom

  16. 石斑鱼β-防御素的酵母表达及其产物抗菌活性分析%THE YEAST EXPRESSION OF GROUPER β-DEFENSIN AND ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF THE RECOMBINANT PROTEIN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金俊琰; 周莉; 桂建芳

    2011-01-01

    防御素是一类阳离子抗菌肽.研究从石斑鱼垂体SMART cDNA文库中扩增出129 bp石斑鱼β-防御素成熟肽序列,将其克隆到毕赤酵母表达载体pPCIZαA中,构建了石斑鱼β-防御素的真核表达载体,电击转化毕赤酵母GS115.Western Blot分析表明石斑鱼β-防御素在酵母菌中获得了表达.体外抗菌实验表明纯化的重组蛋白具有抑制大肠杆菌以及嗜水气单胞菌的作用,但是对革兰氏阳性菌,如金黄色葡萄球菌和藤黄微球菌的生长没有抑制作用.实验结果表明酵母表达的石斑鱼β-防御素能够特异地抑制革兰氏阴性菌的生长.%Defensin, a small cationic peptide, is an antimicrobial peptide, exhibit broad-spectrum antibacterial activity. They spread widely in plants, invertebrate and vertebrate animals, which can rapidly kill bacteria, fungi and viruses etc. Bacteria and viruses limited the production of grouper (Epinephelus coioides). In this study, we cloned grouper P-defensin open reading frame, to express in the Pichia pastoris, and detect the bioactive of recombinant protein against bacteria. First, grouper P-defensin cDNA was amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) from pituitary cDNA library of a protogynous hermaphroditic orange-spotted grouper. The 129 bp DNA fragment encoding mature grouper P-defensin peptide was subcloned into vector PMD18-T, then inserted into the yeast expression vector pPClZaA and transfected into Pichia pastoris GS115 expression host by electroporation. The genome of Pichia pastoris clone was extracted as template for screened the positive clone by using PCR. After grouper p-defensin was secreted by GS 115 by small-scale culture, the recombinant grouper P-defensin was induced by methanol for large scale. The supernatant was collected in 24h, 48h and 72h post induction for the recombinant protein detection. Subsequently, the grouper p-defensin peptide was detected in the supernatant of transfected yeast by Western Blot

  17. Pharmacokinetics of florfenicol and behaviour of its metabolite florfenicol amine in orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides) after oral administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, J-B; Huang, D-R; Zhong, M; Liu, P; Dong, J-D

    2016-07-01

    Pharmacokinetics and elimination of florfenicol and florfenicol amine in grouper held in sea water at 23.3 ± 0.8 °C were studied using HPLC method after they were given a single peroral dose of florfenicol at 24 mg kg(-1) body weight. Florfenicol was rapidly absorbed from intestine and distributed extensively to all the tissues examined. The maximum concentrations (Cmax , μg g(-1) or μg mL(-1) ) in plasma and tissues were observed at 2-6 h (the time to reach maximum concentration, Tmax ) except for bile (Tmax  = 24 h) and were in the order of intestine (52.02 ± 25.07) > bile (49.41 ± 28.16) > gill (45.12 ± 11.10) > plasma (28.28 ± 5.43) > liver (21.97 ± 12.08) > muscle (21.63 ± 6.12) > kidney (20.88 ± 11.28) > skin (19.10 ± 5.88). The drug distribution level was higher in plasma than in extravascular tissues except for bile, based on the ratios of the area under concentration-time curve between tissue and plasma (AUCtissue/plasma ). The elimination of florfenicol was rapid in fish, and the corresponding half-lives (T1/2β ) in the order of magnitude were bile (13.92 h) > muscle or liver (12.31 h) > skin (11.77 h) > plasma (11.57) > gill (11.04 h) > intestine (10.55 h) > kidney (10.05 h). The delayed Tmax , lower Cmax and longer T1/2β for florfenicol amine compared with florfenicol were measured in grouper.

  18. Fishery of the Goliath grouper, Epinephelus itajara (Teleostei: Epinephelidae) based on local ecological knowledge and fishery records in Yucatan, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar-Perera, Alfonso; González-Salas, Carlos; Tuz-Sulub, Armin; Villegas-Hernández, Harold

    2009-09-01

    The Goliath grouper, Epinephelus itajara, a large-bodied (approximately 2.5 m TL, > 400 kg) and critically endangered fish (Epinephelidae), is highly vulnerable to overfishing. Although protected from fishing in many countries, its exploitation in Mexico is unregulated; a situation that puts its populations at risk. Fishery records of E. itajara are scarce, which prevents determination of its fishery status. This work aimed to elucidate the E. itajara fishery in the northern Yucatan Peninsula by 1) analyzing available catch records and 2) interviewing veteran fishermen (local ecological knowledge) from two traditional landing sites: Dzilam de Bravo and Puerto Progreso. Historic fishery records from two fishing cooperatives were analyzed in order to elucidate the current situation and offer viable alternatives for conservation and management. Catches have decreased severely. Local knowledge obtained from fishermen represented a very important source of information for reconstructing the fisheries history of this species. Conservation measures that incorporate regional and international regulations on critically endangered fish species are suggested.

  19. Molecular cloning and expression of a C-type lectin-like protein from orange-spotted grouper Epinephelus coioides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, H; Wei, J; Wei, S; Yan, Y; Huang, Y; Huang, X; Zhou, S; Zhou, Y; Qin, Q

    2014-02-01

    A C-type lectin-like protein (Ec-CTLP) was cloned from the grouper Epinephelus coioides. The full-length cDNA of Ec-CTLP was composed of 905 bp with a 522 bp open reading frame that encodes a 174-residue protein. The putative amino acid sequence of Ec-CTLP contains a signal peptide of 19 residues at the N-terminus and a CLECT domain from Cys43 to Arg169 and a conserved imperfect WND (Trp-Asn-Asp) motif. The homologous identity of deduced amino acid sequences is from 32 to 42% with other fishes. The expression of Ec-CTLP was differently upregulated in E. coioides spleen (germline stem) cells after being challenged at 16 and 4° C. Intracellular localization revealed that Ec-CTLP was distributed only in the cytoplasm. Recombinant Ec-CTLP (rEc-CTLP) was expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) and purified for mouse Mus musculus anti-Ec-CTLP serum preparation. The rEc-CTLP fusion protein does not possess haemagglutinating activity, but improves survival from frozen bacteria. The survival of bacteria (including gram-negative E. coli and gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus) was positively correlated with the concentration of the rEc-CTLP. These findings can provide clues to help understand the probable C-type lectin in marine fish innate immunity.

  20. Aspects of fishing and reproduction of the black grouper Mycteroperca bonaci (Poey, 1860 (Serranidae: Epinephelinae in the Northeastern Brazil

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    Simone Ferreira Teixeira

    Full Text Available The reproductive biology of the black grouper Mycteroperca bonaci, caught by artisanal fishermen using hook and line or compressor - assisted spear fishing, from the Northeastern shelf and oceanic banks of Brazil, was studied between August 1996 and April 1998. The sexual pattern, gonadal development, the spawning mode and seasonality were investigated. The gonadal stages indicated that this species is a protogynous hermaphrodite and that transition from female to male occurs through simultaneous re-absorption of ovarian tissue and proliferation of testicular tissue in the gonads. The specie is a multiple spawner and frequency analysis of gonadal stages and gonadosomatic index suggest that the spawning season occurs between April and September. Considerations about the fisheries, related to size structure of fishes caught, were based on length frequency distribution. The phenomenon of "correção" was described based on ethnobiology studies and informations from the Northeast Fisheries Statistics Bulletin of the Brazilian Environmental Institute (IBAMA. The phenomenon of the "correção" undergone by Mycteroperca bonaci seems to be a Southward chain reaction (of the State of Ceará to Bahia and is a feeding aggregation.

  1. Dietary onion and ginger enhance growth, hemato-immunological responses, and disease resistance in brown-marbled grouper, Epinephelus fuscoguttatus

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    Mary Jane S. Apines-Amar

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A 12-week (September to December 2009 feeding trial was conducted to evaluate theimmunostimulatory effects of different substances administered orally through the diet in the brownmarbledgrouper, Epinephelus fuscoguttatus. Five experimental diets containing either onion, ginger, β–glucan, or vitamin C and a control diet (without immunostimulants were fed to the fish weighing about44 g for 12 weeks. Onion-fed fish showed significantly increased weight gain, hematocrit, and total Igcompared to the control group; however, leukocyte differential count and ROS production wereunaffected. Ginger-fed fish likewise significantly increased total Ig, ROS production and lysozymeactivity. However, it did not affect growth and hematocrit value. β-glucan significantly increased growthand total Ig but had no effect on the other parameters. Vitamin C significantly increased hematocrit, totalIg and ROS production but did not increase growth. Upon challenge with a bacterial pathogen Vibrioharveyi, mortality was significantly reduced in the onion, ginger and vitamin C-fed fish but not in the β–glucan-fed fish. This study demonstrated that onion and ginger could positively affect the innate immuneresponses and protect grouper against Vibrio harveyi infection.

  2. Four species of Pseudorhabdosynochus (Monogenea: Diplectanidae) from the camouflage grouper Epinephelus polyphekadion (Perciformes: Serranidae) off New Caledonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoelinck, Charlotte; Justine, Jean-Lou

    2011-05-01

    Gill diplectanid monogeneans from the camouflage grouper Epinephelus polyphekadion (Bleeker) collected in the coral reef lagoon of New Caledonia, South Pacific, comprise four species. Very few monogeneans were found in most fish examined. Pseudorhabdosynochus dionysos n. sp. has a sclerotised vagina with a robust trumpet, a robust primary canal and two chambers of similar size; it is close to P. bacchus Sigura, Chauvet & Justine, 2007. P. viscosus n. sp. has a sclerotised vagina with a robust trumpet, long primary canal with an extremely thin wall and two small chambers, and a male quadriloculate organ with a characteristic thickening at the extremity of its cone. P. crassus n. sp., the most abundant species, has a sclerotised vagina with a thin-walled trumpet, thin-walled primary canal which is always coiled anteriorly and two small chambers. P. huitoe Justine, 2007, P. manifestus Justine & Sigura, 2007 and P. crassus have very similar sclerotised vaginae; however, species of this 'huitoe complex' can be distinguished by measurements of the haptoral hard parts. A few diplectanid specimens found in a single specimen of E. polyphekadion were attributed to P. huitoe, a species originally described from E. maculatus (Bloch) and also rarely found in E. cyanopodus Richardson in New Caledonia; specimens from these three fish species are morphologically indistinguishable.

  3. The bioactivity of teleost IL-6: IL-6 protein in orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides) induces Th2 cell differentiation pathway and antibody production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hsin-Hung; Lin, Han-Tso; Foung, Yi-Fan; Han-You Lin, John

    2012-10-01

    Interleukin 6 (IL-6) is a protein secreted by T cells and macrophages and plays an important role in immune response. IL-6 regulates the proliferation and differentiation of T cells, and elicits immunoglobulin production in B cells. In this study, the cDNA il-6 (gil-6) sequence of the orange spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides) was obtained. The deduced IL-6 (gIL-6) protein comprised 223 amino acids, the sequence shared approximately 30% similarity with mammalian IL-6, and between 47% and 69% similarity with other available teleost IL-6. The protein comprises the signal peptide, the IL-6 family signature, and conserved amino acid residues found in IL-6 sequences of other teleost. In order to understand the bioactivity and influence of gIL-6 on humoral immune response, recombinant gIL-6 (rgIL-6) synthesized by prokaryotes was injected into orange spotted groupers, and the immune-related gene expression at various times in various organs was observed. Our results revealed that the Th1 specific transcription factor t-bet was down-regulated and Th2 specific transcription factors gata3, and c-maf were up-regulated in immune organs, following IL-6 stimulation. Additionally, higher levels of igm mRNA and translated protein were detected in rgIL-6 stimulated fish. These results indicate that IL-6 in groupers regulates the differentiation of naїve T helper cells into Th2 cells and elicits the production of antibodies.

  4. Molecular cloning, characterization and expression analysis of tumor suppressor protein p53 from orange-spotted grouper, Epinephelus coioides in response to temperature stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Zeng-Hua; Liu, Yu-Feng; Luo, Sheng-Wei; Chen, Chu-Xian; Liu, Yuan; Wang, Wei-Na

    2013-11-01

    The tumor suppressor protein p53 is a critical component of cell cycle checkpoint responses. It upregulates the expression of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors in response to DNA damage and other cellular perturbations, and promotes apoptosis when DNA repair pathways are overwhelmed. In the present study, the cDNA of p53 from the orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides) (Ec-p53) was cloned by the combination of homology cloning and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) approaches. The full-length cDNA of Ec-p53 was of 1921 bp, including an open reading frame (ORF) of 1143 bp encoding a polypeptide of 380 amino acids with predicted molecular weight of 42.3 kDa and theoretical isoelectric point of 7.0. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) assays revealed that Ec-p53 was ubiquitously expressed in all the examined tissues but with high levels in intestine and liver of the orange-spotted grouper. In addition, we measured the DNA damage and apoptosis in the blood cells and the percentage of dead and damaged blood cells. Our results suggest that oxidative stress and DNA damage occurred in grouper in conditions where the temperature was 15 ± 0.5 °C. Furthermore, qRT-PCR and western blot confirmed that low temperature stress induced upregulation of Ec-p53 in the mRNA and protein levels. These results suggest that low temperature-induced oxidative stress may cause DNA damage or apoptosis, and cooperatively stimulate the expression of Ec-p53, which plays a critical role in immune defense and antioxidant responses.

  5. Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in the Leptin-a Gene and Associations with Growth Traits in the Orange-Spotted Grouper (Epinephelus coioides

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    Haoran Lin

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Leptin is a multifunctional protein involved in processes such as body weight regulation, energy expenditure, fat metabolism, food intake, and appetite regulation. Duplicate leptin genes, leptin-a and leptin-b, were previously detected in the orange-spotted grouper. In this study, we cloned the full-length open reading frame (ORF of the leptin-a gene in the orange-spotted grouper, searched for polymorphisms, and performed association analyses between these polymorphisms and seven growth traits. Six polymorphisms, consisting of 2 SNPs in intron 1 (c.182T > G, c.183G > T and 4 SNPs in exon 2 (c.339C > G, c.345C > T, c.447G > A, c.531C > T, were identified and genotyped in 200 individuals. The c.182T > G and c.183G > T polymorphisms showed complete linkage and were analyzed together. Association analyses revealed that the c.182 + 183TG > GT polymorphism was significantly associated with body weight (BWT and body width (BWH, with the AB (TG/GT genotype showing positive effects on growth traits. Additionally, the SNP c.447G > A was significantly associated with BWT, BWH, overall length (OL, trunk width (TW, and head length (HL, with the GA genotype displaying positive effects on growth traits. The c.531C > T SNP showed a close association between the TT genotype and decreased growth. Our results demonstrate that several polymorphisms in the leptin-a gene are associated with growth traits and can be used for marker-assisted selection (MAS in orange-spotted grouper populations.

  6. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in the leptin-a gene and associations with growth traits in the orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yun; Huang, Hai; Meng, Zining; Zhang, Yong; Luo, Jian; Chen, Guohua; Lin, Haoran

    2013-04-22

    Leptin is a multifunctional protein involved in processes such as body weight regulation, energy expenditure, fat metabolism, food intake, and appetite regulation. Duplicate leptin genes, leptin-a and leptin-b, were previously detected in the orange-spotted grouper. In this study, we cloned the full-length open reading frame (ORF) of the leptin-a gene in the orange-spotted grouper, searched for polymorphisms, and performed association analyses between these polymorphisms and seven growth traits. Six polymorphisms, consisting of 2 SNPs in intron 1 (c.182T > G, c.183G > T) and 4 SNPs in exon 2 (c.339C > G, c.345C > T, c.447G > A, c.531C > T), were identified and genotyped in 200 individuals. The c.182T > G and c.183G > T polymorphisms showed complete linkage and were analyzed together. Association analyses revealed that the c.182 + 183TG > GT polymorphism was significantly associated with body weight (BWT) and body width (BWH), with the AB (TG/GT) genotype showing positive effects on growth traits. Additionally, the SNP c.447G > A was significantly associated with BWT, BWH, overall length (OL), trunk width (TW), and head length (HL), with the GA genotype displaying positive effects on growth traits. The c.531C > T SNP showed a close association between the TT genotype and decreased growth. Our results demonstrate that several polymorphisms in the leptin-a gene are associated with growth traits and can be used for marker-assisted selection (MAS) in orange-spotted grouper populations.

  7. FEEDING INCIDENCE, GROWTH AND SURVIVAL RATE IN THE EARLY STAGE OF THE RED-SPOTTED GROUPER, Epinephelus akaara, IN RELATION TO TANK COLOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eri Setiadi

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The red-spotted grouper, Epinephelus akaara, is one of marine fish species targeted for mariculture in Japan. The artificial mass seedling production of these species has been largely successful. However, the survival is still unstable. The effect of tank colors on the feeding incidence, feeding proportion, growth and survival rates in the early stage of the red-spotted grouper were examined. The results showed the feeding incidence, feeding proportion, growth, and survival rates at different tank colors were highly significantly different (P<0.001. Post hoc multiple comparisons based on Tukey’s test showed significant differences (P<0.05 regarding feeding incidence between yellow (70.45% compared to white (55.83%, black (48.42%, green (41.67%, blue (35.17%, and red (32.50%. The highest feeding proportion (number of rotifer in the stomach/larvae was found at yellow (5.62, followed by white (2.47, black (1.97, green (1.92, blue (1.71, and red (1.28. The specific growth rate showed significant differences (P<0.05 were found at yellow (2.14% and white (1.84% compared to black (1.46%, green (1.20%, blue (1.15%, and red (1.13%. The survival rate at yellow color (1.22% was the highest, followed by white (1.09%, black (0.79%, green (0.57%, blue (0.38%, and red (0.37%. Yellow was suitable as tank wall color for rearing of red-spotted grouper larvae.

  8. Effects of a recombinant complement component C3b functional fragment α2MR (α2-macroglobulin receptor) additive on the immune response of juvenile orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides) after the exposure to cold shock challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Sheng-Wei; Cai, Luo; Qi, Zeng-Hua; Wang, Cong; Liu, Yuan; Wang, Wei-Na

    2015-08-01

    The effects of Ec-α2MR (Epinephelus coiodes-α2-macroglobulin receptor) on growth performance, enzymatic activity, respiratory burst, MDA level, total antioxidant capacity, DPPH radical scavenging percentage and immune-related gene expressions of the juvenile orange-spotted grouper were evaluated. The commercial diet supplemented with α2MR additive was used to feed the orange-spotted grouper for six weeks. Although a slight increase was observed in the specific growth rate, survival rate and weight gain, no significance was observed among different group. After the feeding trial, the groupers were exposed to cold stress. Respiratory burst activity and MDA level decreased significantly in α2MR additive group by comparing with the control and additive control group, while a sharp increase of ACP activity, ALP activity, total antioxidant capacity and DPPH radial scavenging percentage was observed in α2MR additive group. qRT-PCR analyses confirmed that the up-regulated mRNA expressions of C3, TNF1, TNF2, IL-6, CTL, LysC, SOD1 and SOD2 were observed in α2MR additive group at 20 °C. These results showed that α2MR additive may moderate the immune response in grouper following cold shock challenge.

  9. Soluble interleukin-1 receptor, a potential negative regulator of orange-spotted grouper Epinephelus coioides interleukin-1 system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, D Q; Yao, M; Yi, S B; Li, Y W; Liu, X C; Zhang, Y; Lin, H R

    2013-09-01

    In this study, the cDNA sequence encoding interleukin-1 (Il-1) receptor-like protein of orange-spotted grouper Epinephelus coioides was obtained. The newly identified sequence was named soluble type I Il-1 receptor (sIl-1rI) owing to its structural composition, which had two Ig-like domains, lack of transmembrane region and the Toll/interleukin-1 receptor (TIR) domain, similar to the brown rat Rattus norvegicus soluble Il-1rI. In addition, sequence comparison and phylogenetic analysis indicated that E. coioides sequence had a closer relationship with Il-1rI than Il-1rII. Real-time PCR revealed that sil-1rI mRNA expression presented a process of decrease, restoration and increase in Cryptocaryon irritans-infected E. coioides. The negative correlation between Il-1β and sil-1rI mRNA in C. irritans-infected head-kidney implied the potential negative regulatory role of sil-1rI in E. coioides Il-1 system. The leucocytes incubated with lipopolysaccharide or polyriboinosinic polyribocytidylic acid exhibited different expression profiles of sil-1rI. Recombinant Il-1β (rIl-1β) protein was capable of inducing sil-1rI mRNA under the concentration of 100 ng ml(-1) , suggesting that high dosage or excess Il-1β would stimulate the expression of sil-1rI to maintain the homoeostasis of E. coioides Il-1 system. For the first time, the role of teleost Il-1rI in parasite infection has been identified, and soluble Il-1r was found in fish.

  10. Immune responses and immune-related gene expression profile in orange-spotted grouper after immunization with Cryptocaryon irritans vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dan, Xue-Ming; Zhang, Tuan-Wei; Li, Yan-Wei; Li, An-Xing

    2013-03-01

    In order to elucidate the immune-protective mechanisms of inactivated Cryptocaryon irritans vaccine, different doses of C. irritans theronts were used to immunize orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides). We measured serum immobilization titer, blood leukocyte respiratory burst activity, serum alternative complement activity, and serum lysozyme activity weekly. In addition, the expression levels of immune-related genes such as interleukin-1β (IL-1β), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), major histocompatibility complexes I and II (MHC I and II), and transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) were determined in spleen and gills. The results showed that the immobilization titer, respiratory burst activity, and alternative complement activity of immunized fish were significantly increased, and the levels of the last two immune parameters in the high-dose vaccine group were significantly higher than in the low-dose vaccine group. Serum lysozyme activity in the high-dose vaccine group was significantly higher than in the PBS control group. Vaccination also regulated host immune-related gene expression. For example, at 2- and 3- weeks post immunization, IL-1β expression in the high-dose vaccine group spleen was significantly increased. At 4-weeks post immunization, the fish were challenged with a lethal dose of parasite, and the survival rates of high-dose vaccine group, low-dose vaccine group, PBS control group, and adjuvant control group were 80%, 40%, 0%, and 10% respectively. These results demonstrate that inactivated C. irritans vaccination improves specific and nonspecific immune responses in fish, enhancing their anti-parasite ability. These effects are vaccine antigen dose-dependent.

  11. Connectivity of the Longfin Grouper (Epinephelus Quoyanus) in a marine reserve in the Great Keppel Island Group

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Salamah, Manalle

    2014-12-01

    With a dramatic decrease of biodiversity as a result of the increase in exploitation of marine ecosystems, the establishment of marine protected areas (MPAs) serves as an important means of protecting those resources. Although there is support for the effectiveness of these MPAs and MPA networks, there is room for improvement in terms of MPA management and design. For example, a better understanding of the dispersal dynamics of targeted species across these MPAs will serve as a more accurate means of reserve as well as fisheries management. While there have been many methods used to determine the larval dispersal of a certain species, parentage analysis is becoming the most robust. In this thesis, I attempt to determine the patterns of self-recruitment and larval dispersal of the Longfin Grouper (Epinephelus quoyanus) in one focal marine reserve within the Great Keppel Island group through the method of parentage. For this, I developed 14 microsatellite markers and with those, genotyped 610 adults as well as 478 juveniles from the study site. These genotypes allowed me to assign offspring to their potential parents, which then allowed me to measure the self-recruitment, local retention as well as larval dispersal percentages of this species from and within the reserve. My results indicate that there is 32% local retention to the reserve while 68% of the assigned juveniles were dispersed to other areas (4% of which dispersed to another reserve). Previous studies conducted in the same area showed higher reserve self-recruitment rates for both Plectropomus maculatus (~30%) and Lutjanus carponotatus (64%) despite their similar life history traits. The results from this study add to the growing evidence that dispersal patterns cannot be generalized across marine systems or even between species within a single system.

  12. So Long and Thanks for All the Fish: Overexploitation of the Regionally Endemic Galapagos Grouper Mycteroperca olfax (Jenyns, 1840)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedlander, Alan M.; Koike, Haruko; Zimmerhackel, Johanna; Schuhbauer, Anna; Eddy, Tyler; Salinas-de-León, Pelayo

    2016-01-01

    The regionally endemic Galapagos Grouper, locally known as bacalao, is one of the most highly prized finfish species within the Galapagos Marine Reserve (GMR). Concerns of overfishing, coupled with a lack of fishing regulations aimed at this species raises concerns about the current population health. We assessed changes in population health over a 30-year period using three simple indicators: (1) percentage of fish below reproductive size (Lm); (2) percentage of fish within the optimum length interval (Lopt); and (3) percentage of mega-spawners in the catch. Over the assessed period, none of the indicators reached values associated with healthy populations, with all indicators declining over time. Furthermore, the most recent landings data show that the vast majority of the bacalao caught (95.7%,) were below Lm, the number of fish within the Lopt interval was extremely low (4.7%), and there were virtually no mega-spawners (0.2%). Bacalao fully recruit to the fishery 15 cm below the size at which 50% of the population matures. The Spawning Potential Ratio is currently 5% of potential unfished fecundity, strongly suggesting severe overfishing. Our results suggest the need for bacalao-specific management regulations that should include minimum (65 cm TL) and maximum (78 cm TL) landing sizes, slot limits (64–78 cm TL), as well as a closed season during spawning from October to January. It is recognized that these regulations are harsh and will certainly have negative impacts on the livelihoods of fishers in the short term, however, continued inaction will likely result in a collapse of this economically and culturally valuable species. Alternative sources of income should be developed in parallel with the establishment of fishing regulations to limit the socio-economic disruption to the fishing community during the transition to a more sustainable management regime. PMID:27780213

  13. Artificial Spawning Behavior and Development of Eggs, Larvae and Juveniles of the Red Spotted Grouper, Epinephelus akaara in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jong Youn; Cho, Jae Kwon; Son, Maeng Hyun; Kim, Kyong Min; Han, Kyeong Ho; Park, Jae Min

    2016-03-01

    This study was conducted in order to examine the egg development in red spotted grouper, Epinephelus akaaraand the morphological development of its larvae and juveniles, and to obtain data for taxonomic research. This study was conducted in June 2013, and 50 male and female fish were used for the study. One hundred μg/kg of LHRHa was injected into the body of the fish for inducing spawning, and the fish were kept in a small-sized fish holder (2×2×2 m). Eggs were colorless transparent free pelagic eggs, 0.71-0.77 mm large (mean 0.74±0.02 mm, n=30), and had an oil globule. Hatching started within 27 h after fertilization. Pre-larvae that emerged just after hatching were 2.02-2.17 mm in total length (mean 2.10±0.11 mm), their mouth and anus were not opened yet, and the whole body was covered with a membrane fin. Post-larvae that emerged 15 days post hatching were 3.88-4.07 mm in total length (mean 3.98±0.13 mm), and had a ventral fin with two rays and a caudal fin with eight rays. Juveniles that were formed at 55 d post hatching, were 31.9-35.2 mm in total length (mean 33.6±2.33 mm), with red color deposited over the entire body, and black chromophores deposited in a spotted pattern. The number of fin rays, body color, and shape were the same as that in the adult fish.

  14. Diet enriched with mushroom Phellinus linteus extract enhances the growth, innate immune response, and disease resistance of kelp grouper, Epinephelus bruneus against vibriosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harikrishnan, Ramasamy; Balasundaram, Chellam; Heo, Moon-Soo

    2011-01-01

    The effect of diet supplemented with Phellinus linteus fed for 30 days was investigated in grouper Epinephelus bruneus challenged with Vibrio anguillarum, Vibrio harveyi, Vibrio alginolyticus, and Vibrio carchariae; infected and treated fish had a significantly higher percent weight gain and feed efficiency. In groups fed with enriched diet and challenged with V. anguillarum and V. harveyi the mortality rate declined with a consequent rise in survival rate than with other pathogens. On the other hand, in groups fed with P. linteus enriched diet and challenged with V. anguillarum, V. harveyi, and V. alginolyticus the cellular and humoral immune responses, such as the alternative complement activity (ACH(50)), serum lysozyme activity, phagocytic activity (PA), phagocytic index (PI) significantly higher than in the control group. The respiratory bursts (RB), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities were found significantly enhanced when the groups fed with enriched diet against V. anguillarum and V. harveyi. The results reveal that kelp grouper fed for 30 days with P. linteus enriched diet had higher cellular and humoral immune response and disease protection from vibriosis than the group fed on basal diet with the protection linked to stimulation of immune system.

  15. Expression and functional characterization of a gene associated with retinoid-interferon-induced mortality 19 (GRIM-19) from orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yan; Zhao, Zhe; Zhu, Xinping; Chen, Kunci; Zhang, Qiya

    2013-01-01

    GRIM-19 is a nuclear encoded subunit of complex I that has been implicated in apoptosis. The protein participates in multiple functions including the innate immune response. GRIM-19 has been studied in humans and other mammals; however, fish GRIM-19 has not been well characterized. In this study, a new GRIM-19 gene, EcGRIM-19, was isolated from the orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides) cDNA library, which was constructed following LPS treatment. EcGRIM-19 is a 582-bp gene that encodes a 144-amino acid protein. The gene is a true ortholog of mammalian GRIM-19. EcGRIM-19 exhibits ubiquitous and constitutive expression in the different tissues of the orange-spotted grouper. The expression levels of EcGRIM-19 are altered in the gill, spleen, kidney and liver after induction with LPS. The subcellular localization analysis demonstrated that the EcGRIM-19 protein is localized predominantly in the mitochondria. In addition, amino acids 30-50 of the protein are responsible for the mitochondrial localization of EcGRIM-19. The caspase assay demonstrated that the overexpression of GRIM-19 enhanced the cellular sensitivity to interferon(IFN)-β- and retinoic acid (RA)-induced death in HeLa cells. The data presented in this study are important for further understanding the EcGRIM-19 gene function in fish.

  16. Molecular characterization of two trypsinogens in the orange-spotted grouper, Epinephelus coioides, and their expression in tissues during early development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chun-Hung; Chen, Ya-Huei; Shiu, Ya-Li

    2013-04-01

    In this study, we cloned two trypsinogens of the orange-spotted grouper, Epinephelus coioides, and analyzed their structure, expression, and activity. Full-length trypsinogen complementary (c)DNAs, named T1 and T2, were 900 and 875 nucleotides, and translated 242 and 244 deduced amino acid peptides, respectively. Both trypsinogens contained highly conserved residues essential for serine protease catalytic and conformational maintenance. Results from isoelectric and phylogenetic analyses suggested that both trypsinogens were grouped into trypsinogen group I. Both trypsinogens had similar expression patterns of negative relationship with body weight; expression was first detected at 1 day post-hatching (DPH) and exhibited steady-state expression during early development at 1-25 DPH. Both expression and activity levels significantly increased after 30 DPH due to metamorphosis. Grouper larval development is very slow with insignificant changes in total length and body weight before 8 DPH. The contribution of live food to an increase in the trypsin activity profile may explain their importance in food digestion and survival of larvae during early larval development.

  17. Administration of recombinant Reishi immunomodulatory protein (rLZ-8) diet enhances innate immune responses and elicits protection against nervous necrosis virus in grouper Epinephelus coioides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuan, Yen-Chou; Sheu, Fuu; Lee, Guo-Chi; Tsai, Ming-Wei; Hung, Chih-Liang; Nan, Fan-Hua

    2012-06-01

    Nervous necrosis virus (NNV) infection during larvae and juvenile stage in grouper (Epinephelus coioides) has caused severe economic losses in the aquaculture industry in Asia. The aims of this study were to evaluate the influence of recombinant Reishi protein, rLZ-8, on the innate immune responses and the viral resisting ability in fish. Groupers were fed with rLZ-8 supplemented diet (1.25-37.5 mg (rLZ-8)/kg(diet)), and the cytokine gene expression, innate immune responses, and survival rate after NNV challenge were examined. The fish fed with rLZ-8 diet showed 6- to 11-fold upregulated TNF-α and IL-1β gene expression, along with significant increased respiratory burst and phagocytic activity. Moreover, feeding the fish with 37.5 mg/kg rLZ-8 diet elicited significant improvement in post viral challenge survival rate (85.7%). These discoveries indicated that rLZ-8 could be utilized as an ant-pathogen immunostimulant, and provided a new candidate to fight against NNV infection in fish.

  18. Rapid and sensitive detection of redspotted grouper nervous necrosis virus (RGNNV) infection by aptamer-coat protein-aptamer sandwich enzyme-linked apta-sorbent assay (ELASA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, L; Li, P; Ni, S; Yu, Y; Yang, M; Wei, S; Qin, Q

    2017-07-26

    Redspotted grouper nervous necrosis virus (RGNNV) is one of the most devastating pathogens in the aquaculture of the grouper, Epinephlus sp., worldwide. The early and rapid diagnosis of RGNNV is important for the prevention of RGNNV infection. In this study, an aptamer (A10)-based sandwich enzyme-linked apta-sorbent assay (ELASA) was developed for RGNNV diagnosis. This sandwich ELASA showed high specificity for the RGNNV coat protein (CP) and virions in virus-infected cells and tissues. At the optimized working concentration of 200 nM of aptamer, the ELASA could detect RGNNV in the lysates of as few as 4 × 10(3) RGNNV-infected GB cells. Incubation for 10 min was sufficient to produce accurate results. The sandwich ELASA was most stable at incubation temperatures of 4-25°C, but could still distinguish RGNNV-infected samples from the controls at 37°C. It could detect RGNNV infection in brain lysates diluted 1/10, with results consistent with those of reverse transcription PCR, although with 10% less sensitivity. The main equipment required includes dissection tools, a water bath, Pierce™ Streptavidin Coated Plates and a microplate reader. The sandwich ELASA has great potential utility for the rapid and sensitive diagnosis of RGNNV in its early stages by fish farmers. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Orexin-A stimulates the expression of GLUT4 in a glucose dependent manner in the liver of orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Cong; Sun, Caiyun; Wang, Bin; Yan, Peipei; Wu, Amin; Yang, Guokun; Li, Wensheng

    2016-09-01

    Orexins are hypothalamic neuropeptides involved in the central regulation of feeding behavior, sleep-wake cycle and other physiological functions. Orexin-A can regulate energy metabolism and increase glucose uptake, suggesting a role in glucose metabolism. In this study, we investigated the effects of orexin-A on GLUT4 mRNA and protein levels and the intracellular signaling mechanisms mediating orexin-A activity in the hepatocytes of grouper. Our results demonstrate that intraperitoneal injection of orexin-A increased the expression of GLUT4 in the liver, and this effect was significantly enhanced by co-injection of glucose. Treatment of primary cultured hepatocytes with either orexin-A or glucose alone had no effect on the expression of GLUT4, while co-treatment with orexin-A and glucose significantly increased the expression of GLUT4. This stimulatory effect was partially blocked by inhibitors to ERK1/2, JNK or p38 MAPK and was further blocked by an orexin receptor antagonist, which indicates that orexin-A could stimulate the expression of GLUT4 in a glucose dependent manner in primary hepatocytes via ERK1/2, JNK and p38 signaling. Our results suggest that orexin-A could play a pivotal role in stimulating glucose utilization in grouper, for a long-term goal, which might be useful in reducing costs in the aquaculture industry.

  20. Diet and feeding strategy of the dusky grouper Mycteroperca marginata (Actinopterygii: Epinephelidae in a man-made rocky habitat in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario V. Condini

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The dusky grouper (Mycteroperca marginata is a marine species usually associated with rocky bottoms and reefs. The present work investigated the diet and feeding strategy of a dusky grouper population inhabiting a 4.5 km long pair of rocky jetties located in the mouth of Patos Lagoon estuary. No prior research has been conducted in such man-made habitat and the current study provides a basis for comparative studies on the diet of the dusky grouper populations inhabiting natural vs. man-made rocky habitats. Similarly with previous studies on natural substrates, crabs and fishes were the main food categories consumed (%IRI = 85.1 and %IRI = 12.6, respectively, whereas shrimps and mollusks had lower importance in the diet (%IRI = 1.9 and 0.4, respectively. As previously reported for dusky grouper populations inhabiting reefs and rocky bottoms, the present work revealed conspicuous size related dietary shifts. Blue crabs and fishes become increasingly important food items in the diet of larger individuals (> 500 mm, TL. Finally, it was found that the studied dusky population has a generalist feeding strategy with a high between-individual variation in prey consumption. Such strategy remained similar across the size increment of the species. Our findings suggest that man-made rocky substrates provide suitable feeding grounds for the dusky grouper in southern Brazil and could be used as an additional tool in the conservation efforts of this endangered species.A garoupa-verdadeira (Mycteroperca marginata é uma espécie marinha geralmente associada a fundos rochosos e recifes. O presente trabalho investiga a dieta e estratégia alimentar de uma população da garoupa-verdadeira que habita um longo (4,5 km par de molhes de pedra na desembocadura do estuário da laguna dos Patos, sul do Brasil. Não há trabalhos anteriores realizados nesse tipo de habitat construído pelo homem e este trabalho fornece uma base de comparação com estudos de dieta de

  1. Molecular cloning, characterization and expression analysis of PPAR gamma in the orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides) after the Vibrio alginolyticus challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Shengwei; Huang, Youhua; Xie, Fuxing; Huang, Xiaohong; Liu, Yuan; Wang, Weina; Qin, Qiwei

    2015-04-01

    PPAR gamma was a key nuclear receptor, playing an important role in the immune defense and the anti-inflammatory mechanism. In this study, the full-length PPAR gamma (EcPPAR gamma) was obtained, containing a 5'UTR of 133 bp, an ORF of 1602 bp and a 3'UTR of 26 bp besides the poly (A) tail. The EcPPAR gamma gene encoded a protein of 533 amino acids with an estimated molecular mass of 60.02 KDa and a predicted isoelectric point (pI) of 6.26. The deduced amino acid sequence showed that EcPPAR gamma consisted of the conserved residues and the domains known to be critical for the PPAR gamma function. The quantitative real-time PCR analysis revealed that EcPPAR gamma transcript was expressed in all the examined tissue, while the strong expression was observed in intestine, followed by the expression in liver, gill, spleen heart, kidney and muscle. Vibrio challenge could stimulate the inflammatory response in grouper and induce a sharp increase of pro-inflammatory cytokines expression, lipid peroxidation and DNA damage, while the up-regulation of vibrio-induced inflammation could also increase the non-specific immune defense. The groupers challenged with Vibrio alginolyticus showed a sharp increase of EcPPAR gamma transcript in immune tissues. Subcellular localization analysis revealed that EcPPAR gamma was distributed in the nucleus. Furthermore, overexpression of EcPPAR gamma could down-regulated the expression of IL1b, IL6, TNF1 and TNF2. In addition, the administration of PPAR gamma antagonist, GW9662, could up-regulate the expression of pro-inflammatory genes, including IL1b, IL6, TNF1 and TNF2. Together, these results indicated that EcPPAR gamma serving as a negative regulator of pro-inflammatory cytokines may play an important role in the immune defense against vibrio-induced inflammation in grouper.

  2. Molecular identification of GnIH/GnIHR signal and its reproductive function in protogynous hermaphroditic orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qingqing; Qi, Xin; Guo, Yin; Li, Shuisheng; Zhang, Yong; Liu, Xiaochun; Lin, Haoran

    2015-05-15

    Gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH) and its receptor (GnIHR) play an important role in reproduction regulation in birds, mammals and some teleost species. In protogynous hermaphroditic orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides), the GnIH/GnIHR signaling pathway and its reproductive function have not been addressed yet. In this study, GnIH and GnIHR in orange-spotted grouper were characterized. gGnIH possessed three putative peptides (gGnIH-I, -II, -III), while gGnIHR showed the characteristics of G protein-coupled receptor and was clustered with GPR147. Functional assays demonstrated that three synthetic gGnIH peptides significantly decreased the forskolin-induced CRE promoter activity, but only gGnIH-I could significantly decrease SRE promoter activity in COS-7 cells transfected with gGnIHR. During the process of ovarian differentiation and development, gGnIH mRNA level in hypothalamus was low at the gonadal primordium stage with gonia, then increased significantly at the early differentiated gonad with primary growth oocytes, while decreased significantly at the developing gonads with cortical-alveolus and vitellogenic stage oocytes. During MT-induced sex reversal, gGnIH mRNA level in hypothalamus increased significantly when the fish completely reversed from female to male. However, gGnIHR mRNA level in pituitary decreased significantly in intersex and completely reversed male fish. Intraperitoneal injection (i.p.) of three gGnIH peptides significantly decreased GnRH1 mRNA levels in hypothalamus, and gGnIH-II significantly inhibited synthesis of LHβ in pituitary. In summary, we firstly identified the GnIH/GnIHR signal in protogynous orange-spotted grouper, which might be involved in the regulation of the reproductive function of sex differentiation, gonadal development and sex reversal via regulating the synthesis of both GnRH and GtH.

  3. Effects of cysteamine on mRNA levels of growth hormone and its receptors and growth in orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yun; Liu, Xiaochun; Zhang, Yong; Ma, Xilan; Lin, Haoran

    2013-06-01

    Effects of cysteamine (CS) on growth hormone (GH) mRNA, two types of growth hormone receptor (GHR) mRNAs and growth rate in orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides) were investigated. CS could cause a modification in the structure of somatostatin, which is the most important neuroendocrine inhibitor of basal and stimulated growth hormone synthesis and release, and renders it nonimmunoreactive probably through interaction with the disulfide bonds. In the present study, cysteamine hydrochloride (CSH) enhanced the level of pituitary GH mRNA in a dose-dependent manner through attenuating or deleting the inhibiting action of somatostatin on GH mRNA expression. CSH at relatively low doses (from 1 to 3 mg/g diet) enhanced the levels of two types of GHR mRNAs in dose-dependent manner, whereas the stimulation induced by CSH declined from the peak at higher dose of CSH (4 mg/g diet). It might be attributed to the variation in GH-induced up-regulation of GHRs at different doses of GH. Feeding of CSH could induce remarkable enhancement of growth rate in orange-spotted grouper. In addition, the stimulatory effect of CSH could be potentiated by the additive effect of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone analog (LHRH-A). Compared with individual treatments, combined feeding of CSH and LHRH-A caused more efficient elevation of growth rate after 8 weeks of feeding. CSH and LHRH-A individually and in combination remarkably increased the levels of GH and GHR mRNAs compared with the control. The combined administration of CSH and LHRH-A in diet was most effective to enhance the level of GH and GHR1 mRNA. The morphological characteristics of the experimental fish were evaluated. Compared with control, the ratios of muscle RNA/DNA, condition factors (CF) and feed conversion efficiency (FCE) were significantly enhanced in the treated groups, while the highest values were observed in the combined treatment. All the results suggested that CSH (1-3 mg/g diet) is an effective

  4. Gonapodasmius epinepheli observed in cage cultured orange spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides in Southern Thailand: geographical distribution of parasite and host response

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    Kidchakan Supamattaya

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Gonapodasmius epinepheli Abdul-Salam, Sreelatha & Farah, 1990, a didymozoid trematode, was found in orange spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides, Hamilton, 1822 cultured in cages in Southern Thailand, both on the east coast (Gulf of Thailand and the west coast (Indian Ocean. The parasite encysted on the primary lamellae of the gills. Histological sections revealed that larvae were primarily embedded underneath the gill epithelium and eggs of the parasite were distributed in some organs such as gill epithelium, heart and macrophage centers in the head kidney. Pathological changes and host response were shown mainly on gill lamellae, e.g. reduction and destruction of secondary lamellae. Prevalence of parasite and its life cycle are discussed in this report.

  5. In vivo treatment of the gill monogenean Pseudorhabdosynochus lantauensis (Monogenea, Diplectanidae on orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides cultured in the Philippines

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    Erlinda R. Cruz-Lacierda

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The gill monogenean Pseudorhabdosynochus lantauensis has been consistently observed oncultured orange spotted-grouper (Epinephelus coioides fingerlings. The tolerance level of E. coioides toformalin (H2CO solution and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2, two of the chemicals most commonly used totreat ectoparasites, was determined. The computed 3h and 6h LC10 of formalin were 322 mg L-1 and 275mg L-1 while the 9h LC10 and LC50 of H2O2 were 255 and 298 mg L-1, respectively, at 28oC. The efficacyof freshwater, hypersalinity, formalin and H2O2 bath treatment against P. lantauensis was determined invivo. Hydrogen peroxide at 200 mg L-1 for 1h was effective in eliminating P. lantauensis on E. coioidesfingerlings with no apparent adverse effect on the host fish.

  6. Molecular cloning of glucose transporter 1 in grouper Epinephelus coioides and effects of an acute hyperglycemia stress on its expression and glucose tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongyu; Dong, Xiaohui; Chi, Shuyan; Yang, Qihui; Zhang, Shuang; Chen, Liqiao; Tan, Beiping

    2017-02-01

    The glucose transporter family proteins play pivotal roles in glucose metabolism. In this study, we successfully cloned the orange spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides) glucose transporter 1 (EcGlut1) gene (GenBank accession: JQ623903). The full-length EcGlut1 cDNA was 2126 bp with a 1476 bp ORF, a 437bp5'-UTR and 223bp3'-UTR. EcGlut1 is predicted to encode a 491 amino acid protein with a MW of 53.9 kDa, a pI of 8.66 and a Pfam domain. Bioinformatics analysis revealed that EcGlut1 was evolutionally conserved between fishes with 80-89 % amino acid identities. EcGlut1 was expressed predominantly in heart and liver and at lower levels in muscle, intestine, stomach and brain. We also investigated the effect of acute hyperglycemia stress on EcGlut1 expression. In glucose tolerance test, changes in EcGlut1 mRNA expression in response to glucose injection and glucose metabolism-related indictors were assessed at the same time. Glucose injection significantly suppressed EcGlut1 mRNA expression in liver at 12 h and in brain at 24 h postinjection (P < 0.05). EcGlut1 mRNA levels in heart were increased at 6 h (P < 0.05). Plasma glucose level increased significantly and reached its maximum at 3 h postinjection (P < 0.05). The spatiotemporal expression of EcGlut1 and glucose metabolism suggested that orange spotted grouper might rely on fat anabolism to reduce acute hyperglycemia stress and the delayed transcription of EcGlut1 gene might be one reason for glucose intolerance in E. coioides.

  7. Genetic variation in the mitochondrial genome of the giant grouper Epinephelus lanceolatus (Bloch, 1790 and its application for the identification of broodstock

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    Seng S. Cheng

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA markers are ideal for the validation of maternal inheritance and the identification of brood-stock in aquaculture breeding programs. The complete mitochondrial genomes of 11 species of grouper are currently available at the GenBank. This study was directed towards the characterization of mtDNA loci which can be applied for identification of interspecific F1 hybrids developed from Epinephelus fuscoguttatus and Epinephelus lanceolatus in aquaculture breeding programs. DNA was extracted from the fin clip of one specimen of E. lanceolatus which the source of sperm for the artificial spawning of the interspecific F1 hybrid E. fuscoguttatus × E. lanceolatus. Specific primers were designed to amplify the DNA after comparative analysis of the mtDNA genomes available at the GenBank. The primers were applied to test for cross-amplification in F1 hybrids as well as in the maternal parent E. fuscoguttatus (Forsskål, 1775 and the genetically related species Epinephelus coioides and Epinephelus corallicola (Valenciennes, 1828. DNA sequence analysis revealed that the Malaysian variety of E. lanceolatus exhibited variation at 11 of the 13 ORFs when compared to the variety from Taiwan. A distinct segmented duplication was observed in the D-loop region which was determined to be unique to the E. lanceolatus specimen obtained from Sabah, Malaysia. Cross amplification of mtDNA loci in the groupers E. fuscoguttatus, E. coioides, E. corallicola and the F1 hybrid of E. fuscoguttatus × E. lanceolatus revealed distinct profiles for each of the species with a clear indication that mtDNA were inherited from the maternal parent of the F1 hybrid.. mtDNA loci can be applied by fish breeders to determine interspecific hybridization events.

  8. Modulatory effect of CpG oligodeoxynucleotide on a DNA vaccine against nervous necrosis virus in orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shiang-Peng; Peng, Ran-Hong; Chiou, Pinwen P

    2015-08-01

    We report the development of a DNA vaccine pcMGNNV2 against nervous necrosis virus (NNV), a leading cause of mass mortality in grouper larvae. In addition, the modulatory effect of CpG oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN), a Toll-like receptor 9 agonist, on the DNA vaccine was evaluated. The DNA vaccine alone elicited the production of NNV-specific antibodies, indicating that the vaccine was capable of triggering adaptive humoral response. Furthermore, significant induction of TLR9, Mx and IL-1β was observed in the spleen on day 7 post-vaccination, supporting that the vaccine could trigger TLR9 signaling. The incorporation of CpG ODN at high dose did not significantly affect the level of NNV-specific antibodies, but was able to moderately enhance the expression of Mx and IL-1β on day 7, indicating its ability in modulating innate response. After challenge with NNV, the vaccine alone enhanced the survival rate in infected larvae at both 1 and 2 weeks post-vaccination. The combination of CpG ODN further increased the survival rate at week 1 but not week 2. Interestingly, at week 2 the ODN appeared to induce a Th1-like response, as indicated by upregulation of T-bet (a Th1 marker) and downregulation of GATA-3 (a Th2 marker). Thus, the results suggest that the boosted Th1 response by CpG ODN does not augment the protection efficacy of pcMGNNV2 vaccine. To our best knowledge, this is the first report of a successful DNA vaccine against NNV in grouper.

  9. Molecular Cloning, Functional Characterization and Nutritional Regulation of the Putative Elongase Elovl5 in the Orange-Spotted Grouper (Epinephelus coioides.

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    Songlin Li

    Full Text Available The enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs are widely studied in fish species, as fish are the main source of n-3 LC-PUFAs for human beings. In the present study, a putative gene for elovl5, which encodes a key enzyme involved in LC-PUFA synthesis, was cloned and functionally characterized, and its transcription in response to dietary n-3 LC-PUFA exposure was investigated. Moreover, cell transfection and luciferase assays were used to explore the mechanism underlying the regulation of elovl5. The full-length cDNA of elovl5 was 1242 bp (excluding the polyA tail, including an 885 bp coding region encoding a 295 amino acid protein that possesses all of the characteristic features of elovl proteins. Functional characterization of heterologously expressed grouper Elovl5 indicated that it effectively elongates both C18 (18:2n-6, 18:3n-3, 18:3n-6 and 18:4n-3 and C20 (20:4n-6 and C20:5n-3 PUFAs, but not the C22 substrates. The expression of elovl5 was significantly affected by dietary n-3 LC-PUFA exposure: a high n-3 LC-PUFA level repressed the expression of elovl5 by slightly down-regulating the expression of sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP-1 and liver X receptor (LXR α, which are major regulators of hepatic lipid metabolism. Promoter studies showed that grouper elovl5 reporter activity was induced by over-expression of LXRα but not SREBP-1. This finding suggests that elovl5 is a direct target of LXRα, which is involved in the biosynthesis of PUFAs via transcriptional regulation of elovl5. These findings may contribute to a further understanding of the mechanism underlying the regulation of LC-PUFA biosynthesis in marine fish species.

  10. Protective immunity of orange-spotted grouper(Epinephelus coioids) against a nervous necrosis virus isolated from China, and determination of the complete sequences of the virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Xiaoyan; WENG Shaoping; CHEN Shengping; CHEN Zhaoming; HE Jianguo

    2007-01-01

    On the basis of the sequence and analysis of genome from the orange-spotted nervous necrosis virus(OGNNV), China strain, a pair of special primers were designed according to the nucleotide sequences of RNA2 from OGNNV. The major capsid protein(MCP)gene of OGNNV was cloned by means of reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR)and ligated into the pET32a expression plasmid. The MCP gene of OGNNV was 1 017 bases, encoded a protein of 338 amino acid with a molecular mass of 37.1 kDa. Recombinant protein with a molecular mass of 57.4 kDa was expressed in E.coli BL21(DE3). Vaccine was prepared from the recombinant protein expressed in recombinant cells. The juvenile orange-spotted groupers (8 cm in average length) were immunized by intraperitoneal injection. Group A was challenged with infected tissue filtrates 25 d post-vaccination. The mortality in the vaccined group (A1, 30%) was a little higher than the unvaccined group (B2, 27.8%). Group B was challenged after three vaccine injections. The mortality in the vaccined group (B1, 16.7%) was lower than the unvaccined group (B2, 27.8%), And the relative percentage survival (RPS) value of vaccined group, compared with the unvaccined group, was 40%. The anti-recombinant protein sera with a 1∶100 dilution were mixed with double volume of infected tissue filtrates and incubated at 4 ℃ for 12 h and then intramuscularly injected into the juvenile orange-spotted grouper. Treatment of infected tissue filtrates with anti-recombinant protein serum resulted in a significantly lower mortality of fish (Group C1, mortality of 18.18%), compared with the fish (Group C2, mortality of 40%) which received infected tissue filtrates treated with control serum. Results implied the potential use of the capsid protein in immunization against OGNNV.

  11. Molecular Cloning, Functional Characterization and Nutritional Regulation of the Putative Elongase Elovl5 in the Orange-Spotted Grouper (Epinephelus coioides).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Songlin; Yuan, Yuhui; Wang, Tianjiao; Xu, Wei; Li, Mingzhu; Mai, Kangsen; Ai, Qinghui

    2016-01-01

    The enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs) are widely studied in fish species, as fish are the main source of n-3 LC-PUFAs for human beings. In the present study, a putative gene for elovl5, which encodes a key enzyme involved in LC-PUFA synthesis, was cloned and functionally characterized, and its transcription in response to dietary n-3 LC-PUFA exposure was investigated. Moreover, cell transfection and luciferase assays were used to explore the mechanism underlying the regulation of elovl5. The full-length cDNA of elovl5 was 1242 bp (excluding the polyA tail), including an 885 bp coding region encoding a 295 amino acid protein that possesses all of the characteristic features of elovl proteins. Functional characterization of heterologously expressed grouper Elovl5 indicated that it effectively elongates both C18 (18:2n-6, 18:3n-3, 18:3n-6 and 18:4n-3) and C20 (20:4n-6 and C20:5n-3) PUFAs, but not the C22 substrates. The expression of elovl5 was significantly affected by dietary n-3 LC-PUFA exposure: a high n-3 LC-PUFA level repressed the expression of elovl5 by slightly down-regulating the expression of sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP)-1 and liver X receptor (LXR) α, which are major regulators of hepatic lipid metabolism. Promoter studies showed that grouper elovl5 reporter activity was induced by over-expression of LXRα but not SREBP-1. This finding suggests that elovl5 is a direct target of LXRα, which is involved in the biosynthesis of PUFAs via transcriptional regulation of elovl5. These findings may contribute to a further understanding of the mechanism underlying the regulation of LC-PUFA biosynthesis in marine fish species.

  12. Effects of small peptides, probiotics, prebiotics, and synbiotics on growth performance, digestive enzymes, and oxidative stress in orange-spotted grouper, Epinephelus coioides, juveniles reared in artificial seawater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tao; Cheng, Yongzhou; Chen, Xiaoyan; Liu, Zhaopu; Long, Xiaohua

    2016-04-01

    Aquaculture production efficiency may increase by using feed additives. This study investigated the effects of diff erent dietary additives [w/w: 2% small peptides, 0.01% probiotics (Bacillus licheniformis) and 0.2% prebiotics (inulin)] on growth performance, digestive enzyme activities, and oxidative stress in juvenile Epinephelus coioides reared in artificial seawater of two salt concentrations (13.5 vs. 28.5). Weight gain rate was significantly higher in fish fed the diet supplemented with small peptides, B. licheniformis, inulin, or synbiotics than that in fish fed the basal diet; the greatest weight gain rate was found in fish fed the small peptide treatment [56.0% higher than basal diet]. Higher feed efficiency was detected in fish fed the diet supplemented with small peptides than that of fish in the other dietary treatments. Total protease activity in the stomach and intestines was highest in fish fed the small peptide-treated diet, whereas lipase activity was highest in those fed synbiotics (combination of Bacillus licheniformis and inulin) than that in fish fed the other treatments. Antioxidant enzyme (total superoxide dismutase and catalase) activities and hepatic malondialdehyde content were higher in fish receiving the dietary supplements and maintained in artificial seawater containing 13.5 salinity compared with those in the control (28.5). Hepatic catalase activity in grouper fed the diets with small peptides or synbiotics decreased significantly compared with that in control fish. Overall, the three types of additives improved growth rate of juvenile grouper and digestive enzymes activities to varying degrees but did not effectively improve antioxidant capacity under low-salinity stress conditions.

  13. Single or combined effects of Lactobacillus sakei and inulin on growth, non-specific immunity and IgM expression in leopard grouper (Mycteroperca rosacea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Becerril, Martha; Ascencio, Felipe; Gracia-Lopez, Vicente; Macias, Ma Esther; Roa, Marcos Cadena; Esteban, María Ángeles

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the single or combined effects of Lactobacillus sakei with inulin suitable for immunological in vivo studies in farmed fish. By in vitro assays, L. sakei strain 5-4 showed antibacterial activities against all assayed fish pathogens (except the Vibrio harveyi strain CAIM-1793). L. sakei was able to survive at high fish bile concentrations. Fermentation of the agave inulin resulted in a large increase in number of lactobacilli. For the in vivo study, fish were fed for 8 weeks four practical diets: control diet (control), L. sakei 5-4 (10(7) CFU/g), inulin (1% or 10 g/kg) and L. sakei + inulin (10(7) CFU/g + 10 g/kg). The weight gain showed clearly the synergistic effect of L. sakei 5-4 and inulin at 6 and 8 weeks of treatments. Leopard grouper fed with L. sakei alone or combined with inulin have significantly increased the assayed physiological and humoral immune parameters. By real-time PCR assays, the mRNA transcripts of immunoglobulin M (IgM) were found to be higher expressed in intestine, head kidney, mucus, gill, spleen and skin. Moreover, mRNA expression levels of IgM in head kidney and anterior intestine were measured by real-time PCR. L. sakei 5-4 and L. sakei + inulin supplemented diet up-regulated the expression of IgM at week 4 and 8 in intestine and head kidney, respectively. These results support the idea that the L. sakei 5-4 alone or combined with agave inulin improved growth performance and stimulates the immune system of leopard grouper.

  14. Effects of small peptides, probiotics, prebiotics, and synbiotics on growth performance, digestive enzymes, and oxidative stress in orange-spotted grouper, Epinephelus coioides, juveniles reared in artificial seawater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tao; Cheng, Yongzhou; Chen, Xiaoyan; Liu, Zhaopu; Long, Xiaohua

    2017-01-01

    Aquaculture production efficiency may increase by using feed additives. This study investigated the effects of different dietary additives [w/w: 2% small peptides, 0.01% probiotics ( Bacillus licheniformis) and 0.2% prebiotics (inulin)] on growth performance, digestive enzyme activities, and oxidative stress in juvenile Epinephelus coioides reared in artificial seawater of two salt concentrations (13.5 vs. 28.5). Weight gain rate was significantly higher in fish fed the diet supplemented with small peptides, B. licheniformis, inulin, or synbiotics than that in fish fed the basal diet; the greatest weight gain rate was found in fish fed the small peptide treatment [56.0% higher than basal diet]. Higher feed efficiency was detected in fish fed the diet supplemented with small peptides than that of fish in the other dietary treatments. Total protease activity in the stomach and intestines was highest in fish fed the small peptide-treated diet, whereas lipase activity was highest in those fed synbiotics (combination of Bacillus licheniformis and inulin) than that in fish fed the other treatments. Antioxidant enzyme (total superoxide dismutase and catalase) activities and hepatic malondialdehyde content were higher in fish receiving the dietary supplements and maintained in artificial seawater containing 13.5 salinity compared with those in the control (28.5). Hepatic catalase activity in grouper fed the diets with small peptides or synbiotics decreased significantly compared with that in control fish. Overall, the three types of additives improved growth rate of juvenile grouper and digestive enzymes activities to varying degrees but did not effectively improve antioxidant capacity under low-salinity stress conditions.

  15. Pleurocidin Peptide Enhances Grouper Anti-Vibrio harveyi Immunity Elicited by Poly(lactide-co-glycolide-Encapsulated Recombinant Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate Dehydrogenase

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    Shu-Chun Chuang

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Outer membrane proteins, such as glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH, are considered immunodominant antigens for eliciting protective immunity against Vibrio harveyi, the main etiological agent of vibriosis in fish. Cationic antimicrobial peptides (AMPs, such as pleurocidin (PLE, play important roles in activating and recruiting immune cells, thereby contributing to subsequent innate and adaptive immune responses. In the present study, we aimed to use PLE peptide as a potent adjuvant to improve the immunogenicity of V. harveyi recombinant GAPDH (rGAPDH. In order to prepare a controlled-release vaccine, PLE peptide and rGAPDH protein were simultaneously encapsulated into polymeric microparticles made from the biodegradable poly(lactide-co-glycolide (PLG polymer. The resulting PLG-encapsulated PLE plus rGAPDH (PLG-PLE/rGAPDH microparticles, 3.21–6.27 μm in diameter, showed 72%–83% entrapment efficiency and durably released both PLE and rGAPDH for a long 30-day period. Following peritoneal immunization in grouper (Epinephelus coioides, PLG-PLE/rGAPDH microparticles resulted in significantly higher (p < 0.05, nested design long-lasting GAPDH-specific immunity (serum titers and lymphocyte proliferation than PLG-encapsulated rGAPDH (PLG-rGAPDH microparticles. After an experimental challenge of V. harveyi, PLG-PLE/rGAPDH microparticles conferred a high survival rate (85%, which was significantly higher (p < 0.05, chi-square test than that induced by PLG-rGAPDH microparticles (67%. In conclusion, PLE peptide exhibits an efficacious adjuvant effect to elicit not only improved immunity, but also enhanced protection against V. harveyi in grouper induced by rGAPDH protein encapsulated in PLG microparticles.

  16. Optimization for Prokaryotic Expression of MCP Gene of Red-spotted Grouper Nervous Necrosis Virus%赤点石斑鱼神经坏死病毒MCP基因原核表达条件优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏友禄; 冯娟; 孙秀秀; 郭志勋; 闫云锋; 黄剑南

    2008-01-01

    [Objective] To optimize the prokaryotic expression of MCP gene of red-spotted grouper nervous necrosis virus. [Method] The MCP gene was amplified from red-spotted grouper nervous necrosis viral genome by RT-PCR. The recombinant expression vector pRSET A-MCP was constructed and transformed into BL21(DE3)plysS to express proteins with induction in different media, at different pH, or at different temperatures. [Result] The expression level of recombinant bacteria reached a peak with induction under the following condition: SOB or LB medium, pH 7.0, 37 ℃ while the fusion protein was about 44.5 kD in molecular weight. [Conclusion] This study provided a basis for the development of RGNNV-MCP vaccine.

  17. Genes involved in fatty acid metabolism: molecular characterization and hypothalamic mRNA response to energy status and neuropeptide Y treatment in the orange-spotted grouper Epinephelus coioides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Zhiguo; Sun, Caiyun; Yan, Aifen; Wu, Shuge; Qin, Chaobin; Zhang, Yanhong; Li, Wensheng

    2013-08-25

    As in mammals, fatty acid (FA) metabolism plays diverse and vital roles in regulating food intake in fish. Multiple lines of evidence suggest that the effect of FA metabolism on food intake is linked to changes in the level of neuropeptide Y (NPY) in the hypothalamus of the rainbow trout. In mammals, the evidence suggests that FA metabolism regulates feeding via hypothalamic NPY. NPY is therefore considered an important factor that mediates the modulation of food intake by FA metabolism in vertebrates. The stimulatory effect of NPY on food intake is well known. However, to the best of our knowledge, the effect of NPY on FA metabolism in the hypothalamus has not been examined. In this study, we cloned the cDNA of four key enzymes involved in FA metabolism and assessed the effect of energy status and NPY on their mRNA expression in the hypothalamus of grouper. The full-length cDNAs of UCP2 and CPT1a and the partial coding sequence (CDS) of ACC1 and FAS were isolated from the grouper hypothalamus. These genes are expressed in the hypothalamus and during the organogenetic stage of embryogenesis. A feeding rhythm study showed that the hypothalamic expression level of NPY and CPT1a was highly correlated with feeding rhythm. Long-term fasting was found to significantly induce the hypothalamic mRNA expression of NPY, CPT1a and UCP2. An in vitro study demonstrated that NPY strongly stimulated CPT1a and UCP2 mRNA expression in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Collectively, these results suggest that these four genes related to FA metabolism may play a role in regulating food intake in grouper and, that NPY modulates FA metabolism in the grouper hypothalamus. This study showed, for the first time in vertebrates, the effect of NPY on the gene expression of FA metabolism-related enzymes.

  18. 两种杂交石斑鱼子一代杂种优势的微卫星标记分析%SSR analysis of the heterosis in the two grouper hybrids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周翰林; 张勇; 齐鑫; 张海发; 张磊; 王乐; 蒙子宁; 刘晓春; 林浩然

    2012-01-01

    使用6对微卫星引物对两种杂交子一代(青龙斑和虎龙斑)及其亲本(斜带石斑鱼、棕点石斑鱼和鞍带石斑鱼)共5个群体进行微卫星分析,计算等位基因频率、有效等位基因数、基因杂合度、多态信息含量、相似指数和Nei氏遗传距离.结果显示,在5种石斑鱼中,棕点石斑鱼的平均有效等位基因数最大(6.849 3),最小的是鞍带石斑鱼(2.608 6).6对微卫星引物在这5个群体中具有丰富的多态性,平均多态信息含量(PIC)分别为0.6667、0.751 3、0.441 9、0.6640、0.5426.在平均观测杂合度(Ho)中,虎龙斑和青龙斑的最高均为0.9400,鞍带石斑鱼的最低为0.508 3.遗传距离和遗传相似率结果显示,青龙斑和虎龙斑均与父本鞍带石斑鱼的亲缘关系较近.杂交子一代群体的等位基因基本来自父母本群体双方,可推断杂交子一代的遗传物质来自父母双方,属两性融合生殖,是真正意义上的杂交种.杂交后代的遗传变异水平明显增强,这是杂种优势得以形成的重要遗传物质基础.%The marine grouper species are considered high value food fish in Southeast Asia. Aimed to get some new types of grouper, we have successfully cross-bred three species of grouper. The hybrid grouper was produced by fertilising the eggs of the orange-spotted grouper ( Epinephelus coioides) , tiger grouper (Epinephelus lanceolatus) with the sperm of the giant grouper (E. lanceolatus) through the in vitro fertilisation technique. The hybrids combine morphological features of the two parent species. And they are healthy and growing well in sea cages and the finding will be good news for the aquaculture industry. The genetic diversity among orange-spotted grouper, tiger grouper, giant grouper and their hybrid F, generation population(Qinglong grouper and Hulong grouper) were tested by 6 microsatellite loci. The gene frequency, effective number of alleles(Ae), observed heterozygosity (Ho) .polymorphism

  19. Aspects of fishing and reproduction of the black grouper Mycteroperca bonaci (Poey, 1860 (Serranidae: Epinephelinae in the Northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Ferreira Teixeira

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available The reproductive biology of the black grouper Mycteroperca bonaci, caught by artisanal fishermen using hook and line or compressor - assisted spear fishing, from the Northeastern shelf and oceanic banks of Brazil, was studied between August 1996 and April 1998. The sexual pattern, gonadal development, the spawning mode and seasonality were investigated. The gonadal stages indicated that this species is a protogynous hermaphrodite and that transition from female to male occurs through simultaneous re-absorption of ovarian tissue and proliferation of testicular tissue in the gonads. The specie is a multiple spawner and frequency analysis of gonadal stages and gonadosomatic index suggest that the spawning season occurs between April and September. Considerations about the fisheries, related to size structure of fishes caught, were based on length frequency distribution. The phenomenon of "correção" was described based on ethnobiology studies and informations from the Northeast Fisheries Statistics Bulletin of the Brazilian Environmental Institute (IBAMA. The phenomenon of the "correção" undergone by Mycteroperca bonaci seems to be a Southward chain reaction (of the State of Ceará to Bahia and is a feeding aggregation.A biologia reprodutiva do sirigado Mycteroperca bonaci, capturado na pesca artesanal com uso de linha e arpão, na plataforma e bancos oceânicos do nordeste do Brasil, foi estudada entre agosto de 1996 e abril de 1998. O padrão sexual, o desenvolvimento gonadal e o modo e período de desova foram investigados. Os estágios gonadais indicam que esta espécie é hermafrodita protogínica e que a transição de fêmea para macho ocorre simultaneamente através da reabsorção do tecido ovariano e da proliferação do tecido testicular nas gônadas. A espécie apresenta desova múltipla e a análise da freqüência dos estágios gonadais e do índice gonadassomático sugerem que a desova ocorre entre abril e setembro. Considera

  20. Age, growth, and reproductive aspects of the dusky grouper Mycteroperca marginata (Actinopterygii: Epinephelidae in a man-made rocky habitat in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Seyboth

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The dusky grouper, Mycteroperca marginata, is an important commercial marine fish that is currently considered an endangered species worldwide and listed as overexploited in Brazil. Although its reproductive biology has been studied elsewhere, no information is available for populations in its southernmost distribution limit on the Brazilian coast. The present work investigates age structure, growth and reproduction of individuals inhabiting a pair of rocky jetties, about 4.5 km long each, located in the mouth of Patos Lagoon in the municipality of Rio Grande, in the southwestern Atlantic Ocean. A total of 130 individuals obtained between February 2007 and May 2009 were analyzed, with total length ranging from 260 to 800 mm. The growth coefficient found in the present study (K: 0.069 was lower than values reported for dusky grouper populations from the Mediterranean Sea (0.087 and southeast Africa (0.09. This difference could be related to higher average water temperatures in these regions compared to the current study site or due to poorer habitat quality in terms of the shelters available for dusky grouper individuals to establish their territories. Microscopic ovarian analyses of individuals during three years of sampling revealed only the occurrence of immature and resting females. The absence of ripe or post-spawning individuals, associated with low GSI values (A garoupa-verdadeira, Mycteroperca marginata, é uma espécie de importância comercial que atualmente é considerada como ameaçada mundialmente e sobre-explotada no Brasil. Embora sua biologia reprodutiva tenha sido estudada em outras regiões, nenhuma informação está disponível sobre populações que habitam o extremo sul da sua distribuição na costa brasileira. O presente trabalho investiga a estrutura de idade, crescimento e reprodução de indivíduos que habitam dois molhes de pedra, com cerca de 4,5 km de extensão cada, localizados na desembocadura da laguna dos Patos

  1. Development of Real-Time PCR Assay for the Detection of Red Sea Bream Iridovirus (RSIV)%一种真鲷虹彩病毒实时荧光定量PCR检测方法的建立

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张旻; 景宏丽; 方珍珍; 高隆英; 江育林; 林祥梅

    2011-01-01

    Red sea bream iridovirus(RSIV) is a pathogen causing high mortalities of red sea bream(Pagrosomus major) and more than 30 other species of culture marine fish belongs mainly to the orders Perciformes and Pleuronectiformes.So the red sea bream iridovirus disease had been in diseases list by OIE(World Organisation for Animal Health).At genetic level,RSIV cannot been distinguished from Infectious spleen and kidney necrosis virus(ISKNV) which is the representative species of Megalocytivir and both of them could be detected by PCR using same primers.A number of diagnostic methods on detection of RSIV are used in Manual of Diagnostic Tests for Aquatic Animal diseases,such as the histopathological observation of smears or tissue sections,IFAT using a MAb,and polymerase chain reactions(PCR).In order to establish a high efficient and reliable diagnostic method,a Real-time PCR assay for detection of RSIV was developed in this paper.The primers and TaqMan probes were designed according to the conserved regions of major capsid protein(MCP) gene of ISKNV.And the MCP gene was ligated into the pGEM-T plasmid vector to prepare of recombinant plasmid pGEM-T/RSIV as positive control.The Real-time PCR was carried out with viral DNA template in a 25-μL reaction mixture under the conditions of 45 cycles of denaturation(95 ℃ for 30 s),annealing(60 ℃ for 30 s).A good linear correlation was demonstrated in the standard curve for the Real-time PCR assay at the range of 102-106 copies of recombinant plasmid pGEM-T/RSIV template.The slope of standard curve was-3.496,correlation coefficient was 0.991,and efficiency was 93.2%.The detection limit of this Real-time PCR assay was 100 copies of viral gene segment(in pGEM-T/RSIV),and there was no cross reaction with other 6 aquatic viruses such as Epizootic haematopoietic necrosis(EHNV),Softshell turtle iridovirus(STIV) and Tiger frog virus(TFV) etc.In contrast,the cell culture method for

  2. Sexual Fate Reprogramming in the Steroid-Induced Bi-Directional Sex Change in the Protogynous Orange-Spotted Grouper, Epinephelus coioides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Guan-Chung; Tey, Wei-Guan; Li, Hau-Wen; Chang, Ching-Fong

    2015-01-01

    Androgen administration has been widely used for masculinization in fish. The mechanism of the sex change in sexual fate regulation is not clear. Oral administration or pellet implantation was applied. We orally applied an aromatase inhibitor (AI, to decrease estrogen levels) and 17α-methyltestosterone (MT, to increase androgen levels) to induce masculinization to clarify the mechanism of the sex change in the protogynous orange-spotted grouper. After 3 mo of AI/MT administration, male characteristics were observed in the female-to-male sex change fish. These male characteristics included increased plasma 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT), decreased estradiol (E2) levels, increased male-related gene (dmrt1, sox9, and cyp11b2) expression, and decreased female-related gene (figla, foxl2, and cyp19a1a) expression. However, the reduced male characteristics and male-to-female sex change occurred after AI/MT-termination in the AI- and MT-induced maleness. Furthermore, the MT-induced oocyte-depleted follicle cells (from MT-implantation) had increased proliferating activity, and the sexual fate in a portion of female gonadal soma cells was altered to male function during the female-to-male sex change. In contrast, the gonadal soma cells were not proliferative during the early process of the male-to-female sex change. Additionally, the male gonadal soma cells did not alter to female function during the male-to-female sex change in the AI/MT-terminated fish. After MT termination in the male-to-female sex-changed fish, the differentiated male germ cells showed increased proliferating activities together with dormancy and did not show characteristics of both sexes in the early germ cells. In conclusion, these findings indicate for the first time in a single species that the mechanism involved in the replacement of soma cells is different between the female-to-male and male-to-female sex change processes in grouper. These results also demonstrate that sexual fate determination

  3. Sexual Fate Reprogramming in the Steroid-Induced Bi-Directional Sex Change in the Protogynous Orange-Spotted Grouper, Epinephelus coioides.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guan-Chung Wu

    Full Text Available Androgen administration has been widely used for masculinization in fish. The mechanism of the sex change in sexual fate regulation is not clear. Oral administration or pellet implantation was applied. We orally applied an aromatase inhibitor (AI, to decrease estrogen levels and 17α-methyltestosterone (MT, to increase androgen levels to induce masculinization to clarify the mechanism of the sex change in the protogynous orange-spotted grouper. After 3 mo of AI/MT administration, male characteristics were observed in the female-to-male sex change fish. These male characteristics included increased plasma 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT, decreased estradiol (E2 levels, increased male-related gene (dmrt1, sox9, and cyp11b2 expression, and decreased female-related gene (figla, foxl2, and cyp19a1a expression. However, the reduced male characteristics and male-to-female sex change occurred after AI/MT-termination in the AI- and MT-induced maleness. Furthermore, the MT-induced oocyte-depleted follicle cells (from MT-implantation had increased proliferating activity, and the sexual fate in a portion of female gonadal soma cells was altered to male function during the female-to-male sex change. In contrast, the gonadal soma cells were not proliferative during the early process of the male-to-female sex change. Additionally, the male gonadal soma cells did not alter to female function during the male-to-female sex change in the AI/MT-terminated fish. After MT termination in the male-to-female sex-changed fish, the differentiated male germ cells showed increased proliferating activities together with dormancy and did not show characteristics of both sexes in the early germ cells. In conclusion, these findings indicate for the first time in a single species that the mechanism involved in the replacement of soma cells is different between the female-to-male and male-to-female sex change processes in grouper. These results also demonstrate that sexual fate

  4. Molecular cloning, characterization and expression profiles of multiple leptin genes and a leptin receptor gene in orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huixian; Chen, Huapu; Zhang, Yong; Li, Shuisheng; Lu, Danqi; Zhang, Haifa; Meng, Zining; Liu, Xiaochun; Lin, Haoran

    2013-01-15

    Leptin plays key roles in body weight regulation, energy metabolism, food intake, reproduction and immunity in mammals. However, its function in teleosts is still unclear. In the present study, two leptin genes (gLepA and gLepB) and one leptin receptor gene (gLepR) were cloned and characterized in orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides). The cDNAs of gLepA and gLepB were 671 bp and 684 bp in length, encoding for proteins of 161 amino acid (aa) and 158 aa, respectively. The three-dimensional (3D) structures modeling of gLepA and gLepB showed strong conservation of tertiary structure with that of other vertebrates. The total length of gLepR cDNA was 4242 bp, encoding a protein of 1169 aa which contained all functionally important domains conserved among vertebrate LEPR. Tissue distribution analysis showed that gLepA was highly expressed in cerebellum, liver and ovary, while gLepB mRNA abundantly in the brain regions, as well as in the ovary with some extend. The gLepR was mainly expressed in kidney, head kidney and most of brain regions. Analysis of expression profiles of gLep and gLepR genes during the embryonic stages showed that high expression of gLepR was observed in the brain vesicle stage, while neither gLepA nor gLepB mRNA was detected during different embryonic stages. Finally, fasting and refeeding experiments were carried out to investigate the possible function of leptin genes in food intake and energy metabolism, and the results showed that a significant increase of gLepA expression in the liver was induced by food deprivation in both short-term (7 days) and long-term (3 weeks) fasting and gLepA mRNA upregulation was eliminated after refeeding, while gLepB wasn't detected in the liver of grouper during fasting. No significant differences in hypothalamic leptin and leptin receptor expression were found during short-term fasting and refeeding. Hepatic expression of gLepA mRNA increased significantly 9h after a single meal. These results suggested g

  5. Molecular identification of StAR and 3βHSD1 and characterization in response to GnIH stimulation in protogynous hermaphroditic grouper (Epinephelus coioides).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qingqing; Qi, Xin; Tang, Haipei; Guo, Yin; Li, Shuisheng; Li, Gaofei; Yang, Xiaoli; Zhang, Haifa; Liu, Xiaochun; Lin, Haoran

    2017-04-01

    Gonadal steroids are critical factors in reproduction and sex reverse process. StAR (steroidogenic acute regulatory protein), transferring the cholesterol from the outer mitochondrial membrane to the inner membrane, is the rate-limiting factor of steroidogenesis. 3βHSD (3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/Δ5-Δ4 isomerase), converting Δ5-steroids into Δ4-steroids, is an important oxidoreductase in steroidogenesis. In the present study, StAR and 3βHSD1 were cloned and characterized from protogynous orange-spotted grouper. StAR cDNA contains an 861bp open reading frame (ORF), encoding a predicted protein of 286 amino acids, and the ORF of 3βHSD1 was 1125bp, encoding a predicted protein of 374 amino acids. The transcript of StAR was mainly expressed in gonad, while 3βHSD1 mRNA was predominantly detected in brain and gonad. In the previous study, we found the expression of GnIH mRNA level in male, as well as in 17 alpha-methyltestosterone (MT)-induced male fish was significantly higher than in female fish, this indicating that GnIH/GnIHR signaling might be involved in the regulation of sex reversal and male maintenance. In order to figure out the function of GnIH in steroidogenesis, the expression of StAR and 3βHSD1 regulated by GnIH was examined. In vitro study showed that treatment of cultured ovary fragments with gGnIH peptides significantly stimulated the expression of StAR and 3βHSD1. In addition, the mRNA levels of StAR and 3βHSD1 were significantly increased after intraperitoneal injection (i.p.) with gGnIH peptides. Moreover, during MT-induced sex change from female to male, the levels of StAR mRNA significantly increased by 5.2, 24.8 and 353.5 folds, and that of 3βHSD1 mRNA by 3.5, 32.5 and 55.4 folds at the 2nd, 4th and 6th week after MT implantation, respectively. Collectively, our results indicate that GnIH may be involved in the regulation of sex reversal or male maintenance by stimulating the expression of StAR and 3βHSD1 in protogynous grouper.

  6. Molecular and morphometric characteristics of Ceratomyxa hamour n. sp. (Myxosporea: Bivalvulida) infecting the gallbladder of the orange-spotted grouper Epinephelus coioides from the Arabian Gulf, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansour, Lamjed; Al-Qahtani, Hussain A; Al-Quraishy, Saleh; Abdel-Baki, Abdel-Azeem S

    2015-01-01

    Ceratomyxa hamour n. sp. was found to infect the gallbladder of the orange-spotted grouper, Epinephelus coioides located off the Saudi Arabian coast of the Arabian Gulf. The infection was reported as a free-floating spore in the bile, and pseudoplasmodia were not observed. Mature spores were crescent-shaped and measured on average 7 μm in length and 16 μm in thickness. The polar capsule, meanwhile, had length to width measurements of 4 μm and 3 μm on average. A periodical survey was conducted throughout a sampling period between December 2012 and December 2013, with the results showing that the parasite was present throughout the year with a mean prevalence of 32.6%. The objective of this study was to characterize this new species based on its morphological and molecular differences from previously described species. Molecular analysis based on the partial sequence of the SSU rDNA gene, showed the highest similarity (97.8%) to Ceratomyxa buri, reported in the cultured yellow tail Seriola quinqueradiata in Japan. Indeed, C. buri and the new species described here formed an individual cluster with a high degree of bootstrap support. This is the first reported species of genus Ceratomyxa from the Arabian Gulf fishes off Saudi Arabia.

  7. GHRH, PRP-PACAP and GHRHR Target Sequencing via an Ion Torrent Personal Genome Machine Reveals an Association with Growth in Orange-Spotted Grouper (Epinephelus coioides).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Liang; Xia, Junhong; Yang, Sen; Li, Mingming; You, Xinxin; Meng, Zining; Lin, Haoran

    2015-11-02

    Growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) and the receptor, GHRHR, constitute important components of the hypothalamus-pituitary growth axis and act on the downstream growth hormone (GH). PACAP-related peptide/pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PRP-PACAP) is a paralog of GHRH. These genes all play key roles in development and growth patterns. To improve the quality of cultured fish strains, natural genetic variation must be examined and understood. A mixed linear model has been widely used in association mapping, taking the population structures and pairwise kinship patterns into consideration. In this study, a mass cross population of orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides) was examined. These candidate genes were found to harbor low nucleotide diversity (θw from 0.00154 to 0.00388) and linkage disequilibrium levels (delay of 50% within 2 kbp). Association mapping was employed, and two single-nucleotide polymorphisms (KR269823.1:g.475A>C and KR269823.1:g.2143T>C) were found to be associated with growth (false discovery rate Q C was also found via haplotype-based association (p < 0.05). The identified associations offer new insights into gene functions, and the associated single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) may be used for breeding purposes.

  8. Age estimation and growth pattern of the island grouper, Mycteroperca fusca (Serranidae in an island population on the northwest coast of Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocío Bustos

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Mycteroperca fusca is one of the main predators of the Canarian archipelago coastal marine ecosystem. Nothing is known on the life history or population dynamics of this predatory serranid fish. In this study, age and growth of M. fusca were investigated by annual growth increment counts from 214 fish collected between January 2004 and December 2005. A year’s growth is represented by one opaque and one translucent ring. The island grouper is a slow-growing and long-lived species, with ages up to twenty years recorded. Length at age was described by the von Bertalanffy growth model (L∞=898 mm; k=0.062 year-1; and t0= −3.83 year, the Schnute growth model (y1=262 mm; y2=707 mm; a=0.008; and b=1.98, and the seasonalised von Bertalanffy growth model (L∞=908 mm; k=0.061 year-1; t0= −3.83 year; C=2.58; and ts=0.542. Males and females show differences in growth.

  9. Genetic Analyses and Simulations of Larval Dispersal Reveal Distinct Populations and Directional Connectivity across the Range of the Hawaiian Grouper (Epinephelus quernus

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    Malia Ana J. Rivera

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Integration of ecological and genetic data to study patterns of biological connectivity can aid in ecosystem-based management. Here we investigated connectivity of the Hawaiian grouper Epinephelus quernus, a species of management concern within the Main Hawaiian Islands (MHI, by comparing genetic analyses with simulated larval dispersal patterns across the species range in the Hawaiian Archipelago and Johnston Atoll. Larval simulations revealed higher dispersal from the MHI to the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI than in the opposite direction and evidence for a dispersal corridor between Johnston and the middle of the Hawaiian Archipelago. Genetic analyses using mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA control region sequences and microsatellites revealed relatively high connectivity across the Hawaiian Archipelago, with the exception of genetically distinct populations and higher mtDNA diversity in the mid-Archipelago. These analyses support the preservation of the mid-archipelago as a source of genetic diversity and a region of connectivity with locations outside the Hawaiian Archipelago. Additionally, our evidence for directional dispersal away from the MHI lends caution to any management decisions that would rely on the NWHI replenishing depleted MHI stocks.

  10. OBSERVATION ON SKELETAL DEFORMITY IN HATCHERY-REARED RED SPOTTED GROUPER, Epinephelus akaara (Temmick et Schlegel FROM LARVAL TO JUVENILE STAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eri Setiadi

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Skeletal deformity is a significant problem in fish culture. The skeletal deformities in red spotted grouper from yolk-sac to juvenile stages were examined through clearing and staining of the cartilage and bone using Alcian Blue and Alizarin Red S. The overall results showed that the pattern of incidence of deformities showed an increase from preflexion to juvenile stages. The rate of deformities based on ten elements of bone from preflexion to juvenile stages were as follows: vertebral (42.6%—9.0%, dorsal proximal radials (4.8%—25.2%, neural spine (0%—8.4%, haemal spine (0%—6.8%, hypural (1.3%—5.4%, anal proximal radials (0%—5.4%, epural (1.3%—4.9%, arypural (2.0%—4.5%, lower jaw (1.3%—2.5%, and upper jaw (0%. Vertebral and dorsal proximal radials were recognized as the most susceptible parts to deformation. The main types of bone deformity were lordosis, scoliosis, fusion, shortening, branching, supernumerary elements, and saddleback syndrome. Development of saddleback syndrome was detected initially in preflexion stage, which was accompanied by deformity of the neural spines, dorsal proximal radials, and disposition of the distal radials and dorsal spines in later life stages. The skeletal deformity encountered during the larval rearing period could be caused by water surface tension.

  11. GHRH, PRP-PACAP and GHRHR Target Sequencing via an Ion Torrent Personal Genome Machine Reveals an Association with Growth in Orange-Spotted Grouper (Epinephelus coioides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Guo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH and the receptor, GHRHR, constitute important components of the hypothalamus-pituitary growth axis and act on the downstream growth hormone (GH. PACAP-related peptide/pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PRP-PACAP is a paralog of GHRH. These genes all play key roles in development and growth patterns. To improve the quality of cultured fish strains, natural genetic variation must be examined and understood. A mixed linear model has been widely used in association mapping, taking the population structures and pairwise kinship patterns into consideration. In this study, a mass cross population of orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides was examined. These candidate genes were found to harbor low nucleotide diversity (θw from 0.00154 to 0.00388 and linkage disequilibrium levels (delay of 50% within 2 kbp. Association mapping was employed, and two single-nucleotide polymorphisms (KR269823.1:g.475A>C and KR269823.1:g.2143T>C were found to be associated with growth (false discovery rate Q < 0.05, explaining 9.0%–17.0% of the phenotypic variance. The association of KR269823.1:g.2143T>C was also found via haplotype-based association (p < 0.05. The identified associations offer new insights into gene functions, and the associated single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs may be used for breeding purposes.

  12. Molecular identification of an androgen receptor and its changes in mRNA levels during 17α-methyltestosterone-induced sex reversal in the orange-spotted grouper Epinephelus coioides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yu; Liu, Xiaochun; Zhang, Haifa; Zhang, Yong; Lu, Danqi; Lin, Haoran

    2012-09-01

    Androgens play a crucial role in sex differentiation, sexual maturation, and spermatogenesis in vertebrates. The action of androgens is mediated via androgen receptors (ARs). The present study reports the cloning of the cDNA sequence of the ar in the orange-spotted grouper, with high expression in testis and relatively low in subdivision of brain areas. The cDNA sequence of ar was 2358 bp, encoding a protein of 759 amino acids (aa). Phylogenetic analysis showed that the ar cDNA sequence was closely related to that of threespot wrasse (Halichoeres trimaculatus) and medaka (Oryzias latipes) arβ. As deduced from the phylogenetic tree and the high amino acid identity with the ARβ subtype of other teleosts, grouper ar seems to be more closely related to the beta than the alpha subtype cloned to date. In the first week after 17α-methyltestosterone (MT) implantation, the transcript levels of ar in the hypothalamus declined significantly, and consistently stayed at low level expression to the second week, but increased back to the control levels in the third and fourth week. In the gonad, the mRNA expression of ar was not changed in the first week compared with the control, but increased significantly in the second week, consistently reached the highest level in the third week, dropped slightly but still higher than that of the control in the fourth week. The expression pattern of ar in hypothalamus and gonad during MT-induced sex reversal suggests the involvement of ar in regulating this process in the orange-spotted grouper. The present study provides the data of the changes in the mRNA levels of ar during MT-induced sex reversal in detail to help understand the complicated signals under sex reversal.

  13. Pemberian Fikosianin Spirulina Meningkatkan Jumlah Sel Darah, Aktivitas Fagositosis, dan Pertumbuhan Ikan Kerapu Bebek Juvenil (ADMINISTRATION OF SPIRULINA PHYCOCYANIN ENHANCES BLOOD CELLS, PHAGOCYTIC ACTIVITY AND GROWTH IN HUMPBACK GROUPER JUVENILE

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    Woro Hastuti Satyantini

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate effects of Spirulina phycocyanin on the total  blood cell count,phagocytic activity, and growth of humpback grouper fish, Cromileptes altivelis juvenil.  Fishes were fedwith a diet containing   0, 150, 250, 350 dan 450 mg  phycocyanin per kg diet for four weeks and eachtreatment was triplicates.  Initial body weight  of  grouper was  8.46 ± 0.22 g with a density of 10 fish per56 litre volume. The total count of  erythrocytes and leucocytes increased until the fourth week of rearingperiod. The highest of total erythrocyte and leucocytes were observed in fish treated with 150 mg phycocyaninper kg diet ( 13.17 x  105 cells/mm3 and 8.93 x 105 cells/mm3 respectively which were not significantlydifferent (P>0.05 to those treated with 250 mg phycocyanin per kg diet. The total leucocytes and phagocyticactivity of fish fed diet containing  250 mg phycocyanin  per kg diet (8.49 x 105 cells/mm3 and 59.67%respectively were significantly higher  (P <0.05 to those of control group. The highest of final weight(Wt=14.32 g and weight growth (G=5.89g and lowest of feed conversion ratio (FCR=1.13 were obtainedin fish treated with  250 mg phycocyanin per kg diet which were  significantly  higher  (P <0.05 than thosefed control diet. The data showed that  the addition of  phycocyanin 250 mg/kg diet enhances the totalleukocyte count, phagocytic activity and the growth of humpback grouper juvenil.

  14. Pseudorhabdosynochus sulamericanus (Monogenea, Diplectanidae, a parasite of deep-sea groupers (Serranidae occurs transatlantically on three congeneric hosts (Hyporthodus spp., one from the Mediterranean Sea and two from the western Atlantic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amira Chaabane

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Little is known of the diversity of the monogenean parasites infesting deep-sea groupers, and there is even less information available about their geographic distributions within the ranges of their hosts. To improve our understanding of these host-parasite relationships we conducted parasitological evaluations of the deep-water Haifa grouper Hyporthodus haifensis from the southern Mediterranean off Tunisia and Libya. We collected more than one species of diplectanid monogeneans from this host, but among these only one dominant species was abundant. This proved to be morphologically very similar to Pseudorhabdosynochus sulamericanus Santos, Buchmann & Gibson, 2000, a species originally described from the congeneric host H. niveatus off Brazil and also recorded from H. niveatus and H. nigritus off Florida. Here, we conducted a morphological comparison between newly collected specimens and those previously deposited in museum collections by other authors. Further, we used COI barcoding to ascertain the specific identity of the three host species to better elucidate the circumstances that might explain the unexpectedly broad distribution of P. sulamericanus. We assigned our specimens from H. haifensis to P. sulamericanus primarily on the basis of morphological characteristics of the sclerotized vagina. We also noted morphological characteristics of eastern and western Atlantic specimens that are not clearly described or not given in previous descriptions and so prepared a redescription of the species. We confirmed, by COI barcoding, that no sister-species relationships were evident among the three hosts of P. sulamericanus. Our observation that P. sulamericanus infects unrelated host species with putatively allopatric distributions was unexpected given the very limited dispersive capabilities and the high degree of host specificity common to members of Pseudorhabdosynochus. This transatlantic distribution raises questions with regard to

  15. 77 FR 4754 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Fishery off the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-31

    ... anonymous). You may submit attachments to electronic comments in Microsoft Word, Excel, WordPerfect, or... allocation formula implemented through the final rule for Amendment 13C to the FMP (71 FR 55096, September...

  16. Electronics and electronic systems

    CERN Document Server

    Olsen, George H

    1987-01-01

    Electronics and Electronic Systems explores the significant developments in the field of electronics and electronic devices. This book is organized into three parts encompassing 11 chapters that discuss the fundamental circuit theory and the principles of analog and digital electronics. This book deals first with the passive components of electronic systems, such as resistors, capacitors, and inductors. These topics are followed by a discussion on the analysis of electronic circuits, which involves three ways, namely, the actual circuit, graphical techniques, and rule of thumb. The remaining p

  17. Formation of diploid and triploid hybrid groupers (hybridization of Epinephelus coioides ♀ × Epinephelus lanceolatus ♂) and their 5S gene analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wen; Qin, Qinbo; Yang, Huirong; Li, Shuisheng; Hu, Chaoqun; Wang, Yude; Zhang, Yong; Liu, Shaojun; Lin, Haoran

    2016-10-07

    Interspecies hybridization is widely used to achieve heterosis or hybrid vigor, which has been observed and harnessed by breeders for centuries. Natural allopolyploid hybrids generally exhibit more superior heterosis than both the diploid progenies and their parental species. However, polyploid formation processes have been long ignored, the genetic basis of heterosis in polyploids remains elusive. In the present study, triploid hybrids had been demonstrated to contain two sets of chromosomes from mother species and one set from father species. Cellular polyploidization process in the embryos had been traced. The triploid hybrids might be formed by failure formation of the second polarized genome during the second meiosis stage. Four spindle centers were observed in anaphase stage of the first cell division. Three spindle centers were observed in side of cell plate after the first cell division. The 5S rDNA genes of four types of groupers were cloned and analyzed. The diploid and triploid hybrids had been proved to contain the tandem chimera structures which were recombined by maternal and paternal monomer units. The results indicated that genome re-fusion had occurred in the hybrid progenies. To further elucidate the genetic patterns of diploid and triploid hybrids, fluorescence chromosome location had been carried out, maternal 5S gene (M-386) were used as the probe. The triploid hybrids contained fewer fluorescence loci numbers than the maternal species. The results indicated that participation of paternal 5S gene in the triploid hybrid genome had degraded the match rates of M-386 probe. Our study is the first to investigate the cellular formation processes of natural allopolyploids in hybrid fish, the cellular polyploidization process may be caused by failure formation of the second polarized genome during the meiosis, and our results will provide the molecular basis of hybrid vigor in interspecies hybridization.

  18. Dietary administration of sodium alginate and kappa-carrageenan enhances the innate immune response of brown-marbled grouper Epinephelus fuscoguttatus and its resistance against Vibrio alginolyticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Ann-Chang; Chen, Yu-Yuan; Chen, Jiann-Chu

    2008-02-15

    Brown-marbled grouper Epinephelus fuscoguttatus which had been fed diets containing sodium alginate and kappa (kappa)-carrageenan at 5, 10 and 20gkg(-1), respectively after 0, 2, 4, 6, 8 and 14 weeks were examined for survival, growth, innate cellular and humoral responses as compared to the fish that fed control non-supplemented diet. Survival was 100% for the fish that fed all diets after 14 weeks and no significant difference in growth was observed among seven diets. The fish that fed a diet containing sodium alginate at 10gkg(-1), and fed a diet containing kappa-carrageenan at 5gkg(-1) over 2-8 weeks showed significantly increased leucocyte count, respiratory burst, phagocytic activity and phagocytic index, The fish that fed a diet containing sodium alginate at 5gkg(-1), and fed a diet containing kappa-carrageenan at 5gkg(-1) over 2-8 weeks showed significantly increased alternative complement activity (ACH50) and lysozyme activity. In another experiment, E. fuscoguttatus, which had been fed control diet, and all diets containing sodium alginate, and kappa-carrageenan after 14 weeks were challenged with Vibrio alginolyticus at 5.0x10(9) colony-forming units (cfu) fish(-1) and then placed in seawater of 34 per thousand. The survival of fish that fed a diet containing sodium alginate at 10gkg(-1) and kappa-carrageenan at 5gkg(-1) was significantly higher than that of fish which fed the control diet over 96-168h. It was concluded that E. fuscoguttatus which fed a diet containing sodium alginate at 10gkg(-1) or less, or fed a diet containing kappa-carrageenan at 5gkg(-1) enhance the innate immunity, and increase the resistance from V. alginolyticus infection.

  19. Anatomia e histologia gastrintestinal da garoupa-verdadeira Epinephelus marginatus (Lowe, 1834 (Teleostei, Serranidae = Dusky grouper Epinephelus marginatus (Lowe, 1834 (Teleostei, Serranidae gastrintestinal anatomy and histology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Roberto Machado Cunha da Silva

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available A garoupa-verdadeira (Epinephelus marginatus é uma espécie de serranídeo com grande importância ecológica e boas perspectivas para o cultivo. A investigação da morfologia do trato digestório, associada à atividade alimentar, é fundamental para a compreensão da biologia dessa espécie e premissa básica para pesquisas sobrerequerimentos nutricionais, desenvolvimento de rações e práticas adequadas de manejo alimentar. O presente trabalho descreve a anatomia e, por meio da microscopia de luz, as variações histológicas ao longo do tubo digestório de juvenis de Epinephelus marginatus, correlacionando a histologia de cada seguimento com as respectivas funções e o hábito alimentar. Verificou-se que essa espécie possui elevado número de tipos celulares ao longo do tubo digestório que estão intimamente relacionados com a resposta imunológica inata e adaptativa, permitindo o hábito alimentar detritívoro.grouper (Epinephelus marginatus is a serranida species with great ecological importance and good perspectives for rearing. The investigation of the digestive tract morphology associatedto the feeding activity is essential for the understanding of the biology of this species and a basic premise for research on feed requirements, feed development and appropriate feeding methods. The present study describes the anatomy and histological variations along the digestive tract of Epinephelus marginatus juveniles associating the histology with function and feeding habit. It was verified that this species possesses a high number of different cellular types along the digestive tube intimately related with the innate and adaptative immunological responses.

  20. Genome-Wide Mapping of Growth-Related Quantitative Trait Loci in Orange-Spotted Grouper (Epinephelus coioides) Using Double Digest Restriction-Site Associated DNA Sequencing (ddRADseq).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hui; You, Xinxin; Li, Jia; Liu, Hankui; Meng, Zining; Xiao, Ling; Zhang, Haifa; Lin, Hao-Ran; Zhang, Yong; Shi, Qiong

    2016-04-06

    Mapping of quantitative trait loci (QTL) is essential for the discovery of genetic structures that related to complex quantitative traits. In this study, we identified 264,072 raw SNPs (single-nucleotide polymorphisms) by double digest restriction site associated DNA sequencing (ddRADseq), and utilized 3029 of these SNPs to construct a genetic linkage map in orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides) using a regression mapping algorithm. The genetic map contained 24 linkage groups (LGs) spanning a total genetic distance of 1231.98 cM. Twenty-seven significant growth-related QTLs were identified. Furthermore, we identified 17 genes (fez2, alg3, ece2, arvcf, sla27a4, sgk223, camk2, prrc2b, mchr1, sardh, pappa, syk, tert, wdrcp91, ftz-f1, mate1 and notch1) including three (tert, ftz-f1 and notch1) that have been reported to be involved in fish growth. To summarize, we mapped growth-related QTLs in the orange-spotted grouper. These QTLs will be useful in marker-assisted selection (MAS) efforts to improve growth-related traits in this economically important fish.

  1. Genome-Wide Mapping of Growth-Related Quantitative Trait Loci in Orange-Spotted Grouper (Epinephelus coioides Using Double Digest Restriction-Site Associated DNA Sequencing (ddRADseq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Yu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Mapping of quantitative trait loci (QTL is essential for the discovery of genetic structures that related to complex quantitative traits. In this study, we identified 264,072 raw SNPs (single-nucleotide polymorphisms by double digest restriction site associated DNA sequencing (ddRADseq, and utilized 3029 of these SNPs to construct a genetic linkage map in orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides using a regression mapping algorithm. The genetic map contained 24 linkage groups (LGs spanning a total genetic distance of 1231.98 cM. Twenty-seven significant growth-related QTLs were identified. Furthermore, we identified 17 genes (fez2, alg3, ece2, arvcf, sla27a4, sgk223, camk2, prrc2b, mchr1, sardh, pappa, syk, tert, wdrcp91, ftz-f1, mate1 and notch1 including three (tert, ftz-f1 and notch1 that have been reported to be involved in fish growth. To summarize, we mapped growth-related QTLs in the orange-spotted grouper. These QTLs will be useful in marker-assisted selection (MAS efforts to improve growth-related traits in this economically important fish.

  2. Homologues of sox8 and sox10 in the orange-spotted grouper Epinephelus coioides: sequences, expression patterns, and their effects on cyp19a1a promoter activities in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qiongyou; Lu, Huijie; Zhang, Lihong; Xie, Jun; Shen, Wenying; Zhang, Weimin

    2012-09-01

    Sox8 and Sox10 are members of group E Sox proteins involved in a wide range of developmental processes including sex determination and neurogenesis in vertebrates. The orange-spotted grouper sox8a and sox10a homologues were isolated and characterized in the present study. Both sox8a and sox10a genes contain three exons and two introns, and encode putative proteins with typical structures of group E Sox. Sox8a was expressed in diverse tissues including the central nervous system and some peripheral tissues. In contrast, sox10a mRNA was detected primarily in the central nervous system. During embryogenesis, sox8a mRNA seemed to be de novo synthesized in the embryos from otic vesicle stage. However, sox10a mRNA was only detectable in juvenile fish 35 days post hatching and thereafter. The mRNA levels of sox8a in the gonads were not significantly different among ovarian developmental stages but increased in the testis. In vitro transfection assays showed that the Sox10a but not Sox8a up-regulated cyp19a1a promoter activities. Taken together, these results suggested that the sox8a may play roles in diverse tissues and during embryogenesis, whereas sox10a may be mainly involved in the neural regulation of juvenile and adult fish, and that certain Sox homologues may regulate the orange-spotted grouper cyp19a1a promoter.

  3. 78 FR 39700 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Fishery off the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-02

    ...). Attachments to electronic comments will be accepted in Microsoft Word, Excel, or Adobe PDF file formats only... an OY formula of ABC = OY = ACL, using values from SEDAR 25 (2011) and the SSC's ABC recommendation at that time. ] Regulatory Amendment 19 proposes to change the formula to ACL = OY. For 3...

  4. 78 FR 15672 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Fishery Off the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-12

    ... during a given fishing year. Amendment 28 specifies the process and formula for setting commercial and... anonymous). Attachments to electronic comments will be accepted in Microsoft Word, Excel, or Adobe PDF file... in formulas approved by the Council in Amendment 28. If NMFS determines that the estimated...

  5. Effects of Different Salinities on Growth and Physiology of Orange-Spotted Grouper, Epinephelus coioides%不同盐度对斜带石斑鱼幼鱼生长和生理的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王素久; 张海发; 赵俊; 杨宇晴; 杨少森

    2011-01-01

    Effects of different salinities on growth and physiology of orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides) reared in recirculating systems was studied. Juvenile orange-spotted groupers, with initial weight 56 ± 7.2 g (mean ± standard error, and the same below) at five different levels of salinity (6, 12, 18, 24 and 30) for 65 days. The special growth rate (SGR) of the grouper at salinity of 12 and 18 was 0.80 ± 0.05 %/d and 0.77 ± 0.07 %/d, respectively, and were significantly higher compared to other groups (P 0.05). The Na+-K+-ATPase activity in gill of the grouper reared at salinity 12 was significantly lower than other groups (P 0.05). Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and lysozyme activity in blood at salinity 12 and 18 were significantly higher than other groups (P> 0.05). Farming economics could be improved by rearing orange-spotted grouper at lower salinities, with respect to growth rate, food conversion and physiology.%设置6、12、18、24、30等5个盐度梯度,在循环水养殖条件下饲养体质量56±7.2g(平均值±标准差,下同)、的斜带石斑鱼幼鱼65d,研究工厂化养殖条件下,盐度对斜带石斑鱼幼鱼生长、渗透压调节、消化酶活性等的影响.结果表明:盐度12和18组的特定生长率分别为(0.80±0.05)%/d(0.77±0.07)%/d,显著高于其他盐度组(P<0.05),且两者的特定生长率差异不显著(P>0.05);盐度12和18组饵料系数分别为1.20±0.08、1.16±0.03,显著低于其余盐度组(P<0.05),两者的饵料系数差异不显著(P>0.05);鳃丝Na+-K+-ATP酶活性在盐度12时最低;消化酶活性在盐度24时最高;血清中谷草转氨酶(GOT)活性在盐度6时活性最高,其余盐度组之间差异不显著(P>0.05);盐度12与18组血清超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)活性和溶菌酶(lysozyme)活性显著高于其他组(P<0.05).综合各盐度条件下的生长、饵料转化、生理变化情况,适当降低盐度可提高斜带石斑鱼养殖效益.

  6. 大鲵虹彩病毒流行株的分离及其主衣壳蛋白编码基因序列比较分析%Isolation and analysis of MCP gene in giant salamander iridovirus epidemic strains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐进; 张辉; 肖汉兵; 曾令兵

    2014-01-01

    Giant salamander iridovirus (GSIV) is a viral pathogen, recently discovered in China, that causes mass mortal-ity of farmed giant salamander (Andrias davidianus). Our objective was to evaluate the epidemiology of the disease and document genotype differences among strains isolated during epidemics at the major giant salamander breeding areas in China between 2010 and 2012. We performed molecular detection, virus isolation and propagation, and viral titer determi-nation. Additionally, the major capsid protein (MCP) genes of the virus strains were sequenced and analyzed. The 10 sam-ples that were collected from Shaanxi, Hubei, Hunan, Zhejiang, Jiangxi, and Fujian provinces tested positive. We subse-quently obtained 10 GSIV epidemic strains by cell culture. Sequencing and comparative analysis of the MCP genes of the 10 epidemic strains revealed the nucleotide sequences had 99.7%–100%similarity and there was little difference among the deduced amino acid sequences. This suggests that all the epidemic strains are of the same genotype. The phylogenetic analysis suggested that the GSIV and frog virus strains clustered into different two branches, but the distance between branches was relatively minor. Our results provide a foundation for the development of a GSIV vaccine.%大鲵虹彩病毒(giant salamander iridovirus, GSIV)是近年中国大陆新发现的引起人工养殖大鲵(Andrias david-ianus)大规模死亡的病毒病原。为了揭示大鲵虹彩病毒流行株的基因型差异,本研究对2010-2012年采集自全国不同大鲵养殖区域的患虹彩病毒病的大鲵样本进行了分子检测、病毒分离培养以及病毒主衣壳蛋白(major capsid protein, MCP)基因测序与比对分析。结果显示,采自陕西、湖北、湖南、浙江、江西、福建等省的10个样本检测为阳性,通过细胞培养获得10株病毒流行株。对该10株流行株MCP基因的测序与比对分析发现,核苷酸序列相似性达到99.7%~100%,其推测

  7. Spawning aggregation of white-streaked grouper Epinephelus ongus: spatial distribution and annual variation in the fish density within a spawning ground

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Taku; Kawabata, Yuuki; Okuyama, Junichi

    2017-01-01

    White-streaked grouper (Epinephelus ongus) is an important fisheries target and forms spawning aggregations at particular spawning grounds. The aims of the present study were to investigate the ecological characteristics of annual spawning aggregations such as (1) spatial variations in the density of E. ongus at the spawning ground, (2) the relationship between fish density and environmental variables, (3) inter-annual variations in the spawning aggregation, (4) the proportion of males to females at the spawning ground for several days pre—and post-spawning and (5) the relationship between male density and female density at the protected spawning ground, based on observations over five years at an Okinawan coral reef. Although the protected spawning ground area was large (ca. 2,500 m × 700 m), high density of E. ongus (over 25 individuals per 100 m2) was found in a limited area (within c.a. 750 m × 50 m). Current velocity and coverage of rocks had significant positive effects on the spatial distribution of E. ongus at the spawning ground. Inter-annual variation in the degree of aggregation was found and this variation was explained by the annual variation of mean seawater temperature during 40 days before the spawning day. The male–female ratio (male:female) at the spawning ground was ca. 3:1 for three years (May 2012, May 2014 and May 2015) whereas >13:1 for one year (May 2013). Significant positive relationships between male density and female density were found at the aggregation sites. It is suggested that E. ongus use aggregation sites with greater current velocity to reduce the risk of egg predation and seawater temperature is one of the main factors that is responsible for determining the degree of aggregation. It is also suggested that females possibly select sites with a greater density of males and this selection behavior might be the reason why females arrived at the spawning ground after the arrival of the males. For effective management of

  8. Alternative Splicing of Toll-Like Receptor 9 Transcript in Teleost Fish Grouper Is Regulated by NF-κB Signaling via Phosphorylation of the C-Terminal Domain of the RPB1 Subunit of RNA Polymerase II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Frank Fang-Yao; Hui, Cho-Fat; Chang, Tien-Hsien; Chiou, Pinwen Peter

    2016-01-01

    Similar to its mammalian counterparts, teleost Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) recognizes unmethylated CpG DNA presented in the genome of bacteria or DNA viruses and initiates signaling pathway(s) for immune responses. We have previously shown that the TLR9 pathway in grouper, an economically important teleost, can be debilitated by an inhibitory gTLR9B isoform, whose production is mediated by RNA alternative splicing. However, how does grouper TLR9 (gTLR9) signaling impinge on the RNA splicing machinery to produce gTlr9B is unknown. Here we show that the gTlr9 alternative splicing is regulated through ligand-induced phosphorylation of the C-terminal domain (CTD) of the largest subunit of RNA polymerase II (Pol II). We first observed that ligand-activated NF- κB pathway biased the production of the gTlr9B isoform. Because NF- κB is known to recruit p-TEFb kinase, which phosphorylates the Pol II CTD at Ser2 residues, we examined p-TEFb’s role in alternative splicing. We found that promoting p-TEFb kinase activity significantly favored the production of the gTlr9B isoform, whereas inhibiting p-TEFb yielded an opposite result. We further showed that p-TEFb-mediated production of the gTlr9B isoform down-regulates its own immune responses, suggesting a self-limiting mechanism. Taken together, our data indicate a feedback mechanism of the gTLR9 signaling pathway to regulate the alternative splicing machinery, which in turn produces an inhibitor to the pathway. PMID:27658294

  9. Supplementation of Lactic Acid Bacteria in Feed Induced Non-Specific Immune Response of Tiger Grouper (SUPLEMENTASI BAKTERI ASAM LAKTAT PADA PAKAN MERANGSANG TANGGAP KEBAL NON SPESIFIK IKAN KERAPU MACAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nursyirwani .

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Lactic acid bacteria (LAB have an ability to enhance innate responses in fish. The aim of this studywas to study the effect of three LAB isolates (Kerapu Situbondo Usus: KSBU 12C, KSBU 5Da, and KSBU9 on non-specific immune responses of tiger grouper (Epinephelus fuscoguttatus. The fish were fed dietsupplemented with each of the bacterial isolates at final concentration of 108 CFU mL-1 twice every day.The haematology parameters (haematocrit, leucocyte count, heterophils/neutrophils, monocytes,lymphocytes, phagocytic activity and total LAB were measured every seven days. After 28 days, the fishwere challenged with Vibrio alginolyticus. During the feeding period, the haematocrit values of fish fed withLAB isolates were higher than those of control group, and values ranged from 24.67±8.33 % to 40.50±7.09%. The leucocyte counts increased, mainly after being challenged with V. alginolyticus, and the valuesranged from 40.33 ±6.03 × 1000 cell mL-1 to 139.33±15.57 × 1000 cell mL-1. With the exception oflymphocytes, proportion of heterophils and monocytes, and phagocytic activity were higher in fish fed withLAB isolates than those of control. The presence of LAB in the gastrointestinal tract of fish fed with LABresulted in higher haematology parameters and phagocytic activity in comparison to fish fed control diet.In conclusion, supplementation of LAB in diet could enhance non-specific immune response of tiger grouper.

  10. Hard electronics; Hard electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    In the fields of power conversion devices and broadcasting/communication amplifiers, high power, high frequency and low losses are desirable. Further, for electronic elements in aerospace/aeronautical/geothermal surveys, etc., heat resistance to 500degC is required. Devices which respond to such hard specifications are called hard electronic devices. However, with Si which is at the core of the present electronics, the specifications cannot fully be fulfilled because of the restrictions arising from physical values. Accordingly, taking up new device materials/structures necessary to construct hard electronics, technologies to develop these to a level of IC were examined and studied. They are a technology to make devices/IC of new semiconductors such as SiC, diamond, etc. which can handle higher temperature, higher power and higher frequency than Si and also is possible of reducing losses, a technology to make devices of hard semiconducter materials such as a vacuum microelectronics technology using ultra-micro/high-luminance electronic emitter using negative electron affinity which diamond, etc. have, a technology to make devices of oxides which have various electric properties, etc. 321 refs., 194 figs., 8 tabs.

  11. Trypanosoma epinepheli n. sp. (Kinetoplastida) from a farmed marine fish in China, the brown-marbled grouper (Epinephelus fuscoguttatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Youlu; Feng, Juan; Jiang, Jingzhe; Guo, Zhixun; Liu, Guangfeng; Xu, Liwen

    2014-01-01

    An outbreak of trypanosomosis occurred in farmed Epinephelus fuscoguttatus in Xincun Bay, province of Hainan, South China Sea. The infected fish showed loss of appetite, lethargy, emaciation, severe anemia, and splenomegaly. Light and scanning electron microscopic examination of bloodstream trypomastigotes revealed morphological features typical for small-sized marine fish trypanosomes. The trypanosome possesses a short body length (mean 22.3 μm, range 17.6-25.9 μm) and narrow body width (mean1.7 μm, range 1.3-2.0 μm), a central nucleus, a narrow but distinct undulating membrane, and a relatively long free flagellum (mean 10.1 μm, range 7.4-13.3 μm). The kinetoplast is situated at approximately one quarter of body length from posterior extremity. The division process of this trypanosome was observed in the peripheral blood of the host, and occurred by transverse constriction at a point between the kinetoplasts. Comparison of the small subunit rDNA (SSU rDNA) sequences revealed that the trypanosome from E. fuscoguttatus showed 93.4-97.1% identity with the available sequences from Trypanosoma spp. from other piscine hosts. Phylogenetic analysis supported the existence of an aquatic clade, and the present trypanosome grouped with other marine fish trypanosomes, in a subclade together with Trypanosoma senegalense. Based on the differences in morphological characteristics, host species, and molecular data, the trypanosome infecting E. fuscoguttatus is considered to be a new species, for which we propose the name Trypanosoma epinepheli n. sp.

  12. Electronic Cigarettes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... New FDA Regulations Text Size: A A A Electronic Cigarettes Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are battery operated products designed ... more about: The latest news and events about electronic cigarettes on this FDA page Electronic cigarette basics ...

  13. Monogeneans of the speckled blue grouper, Epinephelus cyanopodus (Perciformes, Serranidae), from off New Caledonia, with a description of four new species of Pseudorhabdosynochus and one new species of Laticola (Monogenea : Diplectanidae), and evidence of monogenean faunal changes according to the size of fish

    OpenAIRE

    Sigura, A.; Justine, Jean-Lou

    2008-01-01

    Nine species were identified among 1500 monogeneans collected on the gills of 17 speckled blue groupers, Epinephelus cyanopodus, caught off New Caledonia, South Pacific. A new method for describing squamodiscs in tables is proposed. Diplectanids included one new species of Laticola, which was the most abundant species, and six species of Pseudorhabdosynochus, including four new species, which were differentiated mainly on the basis of morphology of the sclerotised vagina. Laticola cyanus n. s...

  14. The Electron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomson, George

    1972-01-01

    Electrons are elementary particles of atoms that revolve around and outside the nucleus and have a negative charge. This booklet discusses how electrons relate to electricity, some applications of electrons, electrons as waves, electrons in atoms and solids, the electron microscope, among other things.

  15. Hard electronics; Hard electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    Hard material technologies were surveyed to establish the hard electronic technology which offers superior characteristics under hard operational or environmental conditions as compared with conventional Si devices. The following technologies were separately surveyed: (1) The device and integration technologies of wide gap hard semiconductors such as SiC, diamond and nitride, (2) The technology of hard semiconductor devices for vacuum micro- electronics technology, and (3) The technology of hard new material devices for oxides. The formation technology of oxide thin films made remarkable progress after discovery of oxide superconductor materials, resulting in development of an atomic layer growth method and mist deposition method. This leading research is expected to solve such issues difficult to be easily realized by current Si technology as high-power, high-frequency and low-loss devices in power electronics, high temperature-proof and radiation-proof devices in ultimate electronics, and high-speed and dense- integrated devices in information electronics. 432 refs., 136 figs., 15 tabs.

  16. Description of Acleotrema maculatus sp. nov. (Monogenea: Diplectanidae infecting the spotted coral grouper Plectropomus maculatus (F:Serranidea from the Red Sea and its histopathological impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kareem Morsy

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Acleotrema maculatus sp. nov. (Monogenea: Diplectanidae was described from the gills of The spotted coral grouper Plectropomus maculatus (F:Serranidea, Forsskal, 1775. Fish were collected from boot landing sites and fishermen at different water locations along the Red Sea at Hurghada City, Egypt. The morphology and morphometric characterization of the recovered worms were described by means of light microscopy. Eight (53.3% out 15 specimens of P. maculatus were infected. Most of the infected fish had very pale gills. Morphologically, the adult worm of A. maculatus sp. nov., possessed a body which was elongated, fusiform with a total length 0.86–0.90 (0.88 ± 0.02 mm, and a maximum width 0.09–0.13 (0.11 ± 0.02 mm at the level of ovary. Haptor, broad, differentiated from the rest of the body, measured 0.04–0.08 (0.06 ± 0.02 mm and provided with continuous rows of squamodiscs. Two pairs of lateral hamuli, three bars and 14 marginal hooklets were also observed. Lateral (dorsal bars two, stout, dumbbell-shaped, measured 0.052–0.056 (0.054 ± 0.002 mm in length. Ventral bar slender, with transverse groove, measured 0.09–0.11 (0.10 ± 0.01 mm in length. Ventral hamuli measured 0.02–0.06 (0.04 ± 0.02 mm in total length with an outer root that was very long measured 0.016–0.02 (0.018 ± 0.002, stout, slightly notched at broad proximal end; inner root was conical and measured 0.013–0.017 (0.015 ± 0.002 mm, with shaft measured 0.025–0.029 (0.027 ± 0.002 mm and point length 0.007–0.009 (0.008 ± 0.002 mm. Dorsal hamuli measured 0.034–0.038 (0.036 ± 0.002 in total length; base large, stout, with only lateral rudiment of roots; blade and point were long and curved with shaft length measured 0.024–0.028 (0.026 ± 0.002 mm and 0.02–0.06 (0.04 ± 0.02 mm point length. The worm is hermaphrodite, male copulatory organ measured 0.058–0.062 (0.060 ± 0.002 mm in length with a sclerotized part composed of

  17. Complete genome sequence of a Megalocytivirus (family Iridoviridae associated with turbot mortality in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Bing

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Turbot reddish body iridovirus (TRBIV causes serious systemic diseases with high mortality in the cultured turbot, Scophthalmus maximus. We here sequenced and analyzed the complete genome of TRBIV, which was identified in Shandong province, China. Results The genome of TRBIV is a linear double-stranded DNA of 110,104 base pairs, comprising 55% G + C. Total 115 open reading frames were identified, encoding polypeptides ranging from 40 to 1168 amino acids. Amino acid sequences analysis revealed that 39 of the 115 potential gene products of TRBIV show significant homology to other iridovirus proteins. Phylogenetic analysis of conserved genes indicated that TRBIV is closely related to infectious spleen and kidney necrosis virus (ISKNV, rock bream iridovirus (RBIV, orange-spotted grouper iridovirus (OSGIV, and large yellow croaker iridovirus (LYCIV. The results indicated that TRBIV belongs to the genus Megalocytivirus (family Iridoviridae. Conclusions The determination of the genome of TRBIV will provide useful information for comparative study of Megalocytivirus and developing strategies to control outbreaks of TRBIV-induced disease.

  18. Effect of feeding frequency on growth and feed utilization of juvenile dragon-tiger grouper%投喂频率对龙虎斑幼鱼生长和饵料利用的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王成桂; 梁华芳; 黄东科; 曹伏君

    2014-01-01

    在室内车间采用4种不同的投喂频率养殖龙虎斑幼鱼(47.6±5.2 g),分析和比较不同投喂频率对其生长和饵料利用的影响。试验设S1、S2、S3、S4共4组,分别按照1、2、3、4次/d进行投喂,共进行60 d。结果显示:(1)投喂频率显著影响龙虎斑幼鱼的生长(P<0.05)。 S1的平均体质量显著低于S2、S3、S4(P<0.05),为149.7 g;S2、S3、S4组间差异不显著(P>0.05),S4最大(168.7 g),其次为S3(168.0 g)和S2(162.2 g);S1日增体质量、增重率、特定生长率显著小于S2、S3、S4(P<0.05),分别为1.68 g,204.83%,1.86%/d,S2、S3、S4组间差异不显著(P>0.05),S2特定生长率最大,为2.12%/d;S2的体质量回归方程斜率最大,为1.915,S1最小,为1.532。(2)投喂频率对龙虎斑幼鱼的饵料利用影响显著(P<0.05)。 S2的摄食率和饵料系数显著小于S1、S3、S4(P<0.05),分别为1.31%/d、0.70;S4摄食率最大,为1.64%/d;S1、S3、S4组间饵料系数差异不显著(P>0.05),分别为0.88、0.84、0.88。因此,综合养殖效果和劳动强度考虑,S2的投喂频率最适合龙虎斑的养殖,建议在龙虎斑的养殖生产中,最适宜的投喂频率为2次/d。%The growth and feed utilization of juvenile dragon-tiger grouper (initial average body weight of 47.6± 5.2 g ) at four different feeding frequency in the indoor workshop was analyzed and compared. The fish were divided into 4 groups:S1 , S2 , S3 and S4 , which were fed at 1, 2, 3 and 4 times every day respectively for 60 days. The results showed that: (1) There was a significant effect of feeding frequency on growth of juvenile dragon-tiger grouper (P0.05), among which the average body weight of S4 was maximum(168.7 g), followed by that of S3 and S2 (168.0 g and 162.2 g, respectively). The mass daily gain, weight gain rate

  19. Ambient Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekitani, Tsuyoshi; Someya, Takao

    2012-10-01

    We report the recent research progress and future prospects of flexible and printed electronics, focusing on molecular electronic material-based thin-film transistors, which are expected to usher in a new era of electronics.

  20. Analysis of Genetic Variability of mtDNA CO I Genes between two grouper hybrids and their parents%两种杂交石斑鱼子一代及其亲本的线粒体COⅠ基因遗传变异分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周翰林; 杨森; 高川; 张磊; 张海发; 李水生; 张勇; 蒙子宁; 刘晓春; 林浩然

    2012-01-01

    对两种杂交石斑鱼子一代(青龙斑和虎龙斑)及其亲本(斜带石斑鱼、棕点石斑鱼和鞍带石斑鱼)的线粒体DNA细胞色素氧化酶Ⅰ(COⅠ)基因序列进行了测序分析。在15个样本中,同源序列片段(1551bp)中共检测到9个单倍型和249个核苷酸多态位点。序列差异分析和遗传距离比较结果显示,核苷酸序列同源性在88.1%-100%之间,无明显遗传分化。虎龙斑的2个COⅠ基因单倍型与母本棕点石斑鱼单倍型的同源性为99%和100%,而与父本鞍带石斑鱼的同源性均为88.1%。青龙斑的2个单倍型与母本斜带石斑鱼的3个单倍型的同源性在99.7%-100%之间,而与父本鞍带石斑鱼的同源性分别为89.3%和89.4%,结果表明两种杂交子一代在线粒体DNACOⅠ基因上严格遵循母性遗传规律。%In order to identify the phylogenetic relationship among two grouper hybrids ( Qinglong grouper and Hulong grouper) and their parents ( Epinephelus coioides 9, Epinephelus coioides ♀ and E. lanceolatus ♂ ), their mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I (CO I ) gene fragments were amplified by PCR, and the 1551 base-pair nucleotide sequences of CO I were examined. The results show that all 15 sequences are grouped into 9 haplotypes and 249 nucleotide polymorphic loci in CO I gene fragments. Sequence divergences and genetic distance analysis showed all the groupers shared 88.1% to 100% similarities in nucleotide sequence, indicating there is no significant genetic difference among these groupers. The two CO I haplotypes of Hulong grouper showed 99% and 100% similarities with the haplotype of the female parent E. fuscoguttatus, respectively, but only 88.1% similarity with the male parent E. lanceolatus. The two CO I haplotypes in Qinglong grouper had similarities of 99.7% to 100% with the three haplotypes of the female parent E. coioides, and only of 89.3% and 89.4% with the male

  1. Electron cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meshkov, I.; Sidorin, A.

    2004-10-01

    The brief review of the most significant and interesting achievements in electron cooling method, which took place during last two years, is presented. The description of the electron cooling facilities-storage rings and traps being in operation or under development-is given. The applications of the electron cooling method are considered. The following modern fields of the method development are discussed: crystalline beam formation, expansion into middle and high energy electron cooling (the Fermilab Recycler Electron Cooler, the BNL cooler-recuperator, cooling with circulating electron beam, the GSI project), electron cooling in traps, antihydrogen generation, electron cooling of positrons (the LEPTA project).

  2. Requirement of dietary arginine for juvenile orange-spotted grouper, Epinephelus coioides%斜带石斑鱼幼鱼的饲料精氨酸需求量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩凤禄; 张琴; 黄国强; 迟淑艳; 谭北平; 董晓慧; 杨奇慧; 刘泓宇; 章双

    2016-01-01

    通过配制7种含不同水平精氨酸(2.13%、2.42%、2.71%、2.95%、3.20%、3.48%、3.74%干物质)的等氮、等脂的实验饲料,研究精氨酸对斜带石斑鱼(Epinephelus coioides)幼鱼生长、饲料利用和血清一氧化氮合酶等的影响。每组设3个重复,每个重复30尾鱼(7.52±0.02g),饲喂8周。结果显示,饲料精氨酸水平对各组存活率无显著影响(P>0.05);精氨酸水平为2.95%的斜带石斑鱼获得最大增重率和特定生长率,显著高于其他各组(P0.05). However, the weight gain rate and specific growth rate were significantly higher in the 2.95% arginine group than in the other groups (P<0.05). The feed coefficient of the fish fed 2.95% arginine was significantly lower than that of the fish fed 2.13%, 2.42%, or 2.71% arginine (P<0.05). The whole-body protein of the fish fed 3.20% arginine was signifi-cantly higher than that of the fish fed 2.13% arginine (P<0.05). Serum glucose tended to decrease as dietary ar-ginine increased, and was significantly higher in the fish fed 2.13% or 2.42% arginine than in those of the other groups (P<0.05). Total protein and total nitric oxide synthase were significantly higher in the sera of fish fed 2.95% arginine than those in the sera of fish in the other groups (P<0.05). These results indicate that dietary ar-ginine not only promotes growth and body protein synthesis, but also improves the immunity of the grouper. A quadratic regression analysis of the specific growth rate against dietary arginine indicated that the optimum argin-ine level for the maximum growth of the juvenile grouper is 3.06%, corresponding to 6.07% of dietary protein on a dry weight basis.

  3. Collaborative approach in the study of the reproductive biology of the dusky grouper Epinephelus marginatus (Lowe, 1834 (Perciformes: Serranidae = Abordagem colaborativa no estudo da biologia reprodutiva da garoupa verdadeira Epinephelus marginatus (Lowe, 1834 (Perciformes: Serranidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leopoldo Cavaleri Gerhardinger

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Several aspects of the reproductive biology of the dusky grouper Epinephelus marginatus were investigated using a collaborative methodology. 193 specimens of dusky groupers were obtained in collaboration with fish market personnel in the city of São Francisco do Sul, Santa Catarina State, Southern Brazil. Fish market staff were trained and encouraged to collect biological material required for reproductive studies, giving access to many specimens which otherwise would have been unavailable. E. marginatus was found to reproduce in early summer, spawning between November and December. Females reachedsexual maturity at approximately 460 mm total length. Sampled males ranged from 900-1000 mm and females from 300-960 mm in total length. No transitional (i.e. sex changing males were observed. The regression equation for the relationship between total length (TL (mm and total weight (TW (g was TW = 4.4x10-5TL2.8. Suggestions to improve the performance of future collaborative sampling projects are discussed.Diversos aspectos da biologia reprodutiva da garoupa verdadeira Epinephelus marginatus foram abordados através de uma metodologia colaborativa. Ao todo, 193 exemplares da garoupa verdadeira foram obtidas em peixarias colaboradoras no município de São Francisco do Sul, Estado de Santa Catarina, Brasil. Os funcionários das peixarias foram treinados e incentivados a realizar a coleta de todo material biológico necessário para estudos reprodutivos, possibilitando o acesso a um grande número de vísceras que teriam de outra maneira sido dispensadas. Epinephelus marginatus esteve em atividade reprodutiva no inicio do verão, com desova provável entre novembro e dezembro. Fêmeas atingiram a maturidade sexual com aproximadamente 460 mm de comprimento total. Machos variaram de 900mm a 1000 mm e fêmeas de 300 mm a 960 mm. Não foram observados machos em transição sexual. A equação de regressão da relação entre o comprimento total (CT (mm e

  4. Growth, feed intake and immune responses of orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides) exposed to low infectious doses of ectoparasite (Cryptocaryon irritans).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Fei; Dan, Xue-Ming; Sun, Peng; Shi, Zhao-Hong; Gao, Quan-Xin; Peng, Shi-Ming; Li, An-Xing

    2014-01-01

    To explore the effect of low-dose Cryptocaryon irritans infection on growth, feeding and antiparasitic immunity of orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides), this study utilized C. irritans at concentrations of 5500 theronts/fish (Group I, 1/10 of 96 h LC50) or 11,000 theronts/fish (Group II) to infect E. coioides weighing 38 g on average at week 0, 2 and 4, respectively. Food consumption was recorded daily; the fish were weighed weekly; serum immobilizing titer (SIT), and acid phosphatase (ACP), alkaline phosphatase (AKP), superoxide dismutase (SOD), lysozyme (LZM) activity were recorded every 2 weeks; the fish were treated with lethal dose (70,000 theronts/fish) of C. irritans in the 8th week and death number were recorded. The result shows that in the 1st week after the first infection, the fish's weight gain (WG), length gain (LG), and specific growth rate (SGR) dropped as parasite dose increased, and WG, SGR values were negative; while, after the 2nd and the 3rd infection, no significant differences were detected among the three groups. These results indicated that the 1st infection affected the fish most, while the following infections were protected by some immunity. In the 3rd, 7th, and 8th week, condition factor (CF) increased with the increased infectious dose, indicating that the parasite affected body length more than body weight. As the experiment went on, accumulated food consumption (AFC) of all three groups steadily grew (control > Group I > Group II). But on the 2nd day after the first infection, daily food consumption (DFC) of Group I and II significantly dropped, the decline of Group II was greater than that of Group I, DFC recovered in the following week, with Group I earlier than Group II. After the 2nd infection, DFC of Group I and II dropped again, Group II still dropped more than Group I, and both groups recovered on the 3rd day after infection. The 3rd infection caused no significant difference in week food consumption (WFC). These

  5. 大鲵虹彩病毒主衣壳蛋白MCP基因DNA疫苗的构建及其免疫效果%Construction and immune efficacy of an MCP-containing DNA vac-cine for Chinese giant salamander iridovirus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾宪辉; 曾令兵; 周勇; 范玉顶; 陈倩; 刘文枝; 张雪萍; 张琳琳

    2015-01-01

    Based on major capsid protein (MCP) gene sequences of Chinese giant salamander iridovirus (GSIV) in GenBank, specific primers were designed, and the full-length MCP sequence (1392 bp) was amplified by PCR. Then, MCP was cloned into the eukaryotic expression vector pcDNA3.1 (+) to construct the recombinant expression vector pcDNA-MCP. Giant salamander (Andrias davidianus) muscle (GS-M) cells were transfected with the recombinant ex-pression vector, pcDNA-MCP. At 48 h and 72 h post-transfection, MCP protein expressions in GS-M cells were de-tected by indirect immunofluorescence assay. The results showed that the protein expression level at 72 h post-transfection was significantly higher than that at 48 h post-transfection;western blot assay also confirmed the spe-cific expression of MCP in GS-M cells at 72 h post-transfection. The eukaryotic plasmid pcDNA-MCP was used as a DNA vaccine to immunize Chinese giant salamanders by injection in dorsal muscle at a dose of 20 µg/ind;then, pe-ripheral blood from Chinese giant salamanders in both tested and control groups was collected on day 1, day 3, day 7, day 14, day 21, day 28, and day 35 post-immunization for hemocyte count, classification, and serum-neutralizing anti-body titration. The red and white blood cell counts showed significant increase in numbers of erythrocytes and leuko-cytes in the peripheral blood of immunized Chinese giant salamanders on day 5 and day 7 post-immunization (P<0.01). Additionally, the differential leukocyte counts of neutrophils and monocytes were (26.33±1.04)%and (15.83±0.76)%, respectively, at day 5 and day 7 post-immunization, and both significantly changed compared with the control group (P<0.01). The percentage of lymphocytes was (68.33±1.53)%at day 28 (P<0.01). The serum neutralization assay dem-onstrated that the antibody titer peaked on day 28 post-immunization [1︰(370.01±31.55)]. PCR results revealed that pcDNA-MCP was distributed in the muscle, liver, spleen, and kidney from

  6. Expression and Purification of Major Capsid Protein of Orange-spotted Grouper Nervous Necrosis Virus%斜带石斑鱼神经坏死病毒主衣壳蛋白的原核表达与纯化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈晓艳; 翁少萍; 殷志新; 何建国

    2005-01-01

    将含有斜带石斑鱼Epinephelus coioides神经坏死病毒(orange-spotted grouper nervous necrosis virus,OGNNV)主衣壳蛋白(major capsid protein, MCP)基因的重组表达质粒载体pET32a-MCP转化到大肠杆菌BL21(DE3)中进行融合表达,经SDS-PAGE分析和Western-blot鉴定,证实了重组大肠杆菌融合表达了斜带石斑鱼神经坏死病毒主衣壳蛋白.表达的融合蛋白主要以不可溶的包涵体形式存在,提取的包涵体中融合蛋白含量占60%以上,经柱层析纯化蛋白,纯化度达90%以上.

  7. 斜带石斑鱼MyD88基因的克隆与表达%Cloning and Expression of MyD88 Gene in Orange-spotted Grouper Epinephelus coioides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韦友传; 高谦; 昌明先; 罗廷荣

    2011-01-01

    The full cDNA sequence of myeloid differentiation factor 88(MyD88) in the orange-spotted grouper Epinephelus coioides,designated as EcMyD88,has been isolated by using RACE-PCR method.The EcMyD88 consisted of 1 795 bp,including an 870 bp open reading frame%本研究运用RACE-PCR技术获得斜带石斑鱼(Epinephelus coioides)髓样分化因子88(myeloid differentiation factor 88,MyD88)基因,并对该基因进行生物信息学和表达模式分析。研究结果表明1795bp的cDNA全长序列,包括ORF 870 bp、5'UTR 243 bp和3'UTR 682 bp,3'UTR存在1个多聚腺苷酸加尾信号(AATAAA)和两个mRNA不稳定基序(ATTTA)。SMART软件预测该蛋白N端和C端分别存在死亡结构域和TIR结构

  8. Evidence of sexual transition in Leopard Grouper (Mycteroperca rosacea individuals held in captivity Evidencia de transición sexual en individuos de cabrilla sardinera (Mycteroperca rosacea mantenidos en cautiverio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita Kiewek-Martínez

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study describes histological observations of the gonads of 12 captive leopard grouper, M. rosacea maintained in captivity. Monthly gonad samples during February to April 2003, were obtained by catheterization and analyzed to determine sex and degree of ovarian development. Oocytes were classified into 5 stages of development and the frequencies were obtained to describe the oocyte distribution in the ovary. Two fish that were females in February were in a bisexual stage in March and functional males in April. The transitional stage was observed during the reproductive season and included degeneration of primary oocytes and proliferation of spermatogonia.Este estudio describe las observaciones histológicas del desarrollo gonadal de 12 individuos de la cabrilla sardinera, en condiciones de cautiverio. De febrero a abril del 2003 se obtuvieron muestras mensuales de la gónada mediante un catéter flexible, las cuales fueron analizadas para determinar el sexo del organismo y el estadio de desarrollo gonadal. Los ovocitos fueron clasificados en 5 etapas de desarrollo y se calcularon las frecuencias para determinar su distribución dentro del ovario. Dos individuos que fueron identificados como hembras en febrero, se encontraron en estadio bisexual en marzo y fueron machos funcionales en abril. Este estadio de transición se observó durante el periodo reproductor y se caracterizó por la degeneración de ovocitos primarios y la proliferación de espermatogonias.

  9. Electron Microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beer, Michael

    1980-01-01

    Reviews technical aspects of structure determination in biological electron microscopy (EM). Discusses low dose EM, low temperature microscopy, electron energy loss spectra, determination of mass or molecular weight, and EM of labeled systems. Cites 34 references. (CS)

  10. Electron Microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beer, Michael

    1980-01-01

    Reviews technical aspects of structure determination in biological electron microscopy (EM). Discusses low dose EM, low temperature microscopy, electron energy loss spectra, determination of mass or molecular weight, and EM of labeled systems. Cites 34 references. (CS)

  11. Understand electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Bishop, Owen

    2013-01-01

    Understand Electronics provides a readable introduction to the exciting world of electronics for the student or enthusiast with little previous knowledge. The subject is treated with the minimum of mathematics and the book is extensively illustrated.This is an essential guide for the newcomer to electronics, and replaces the author's best-selling Beginner's Guide to Electronics.The step-by-step approach makes this book ideal for introductory courses such as the Intermediate GNVQ.

  12. Electronic components

    CERN Document Server

    Colwell, Morris A

    1976-01-01

    Electronic Components provides a basic grounding in the practical aspects of using and selecting electronics components. The book describes the basic requirements needed to start practical work on electronic equipment, resistors and potentiometers, capacitance, and inductors and transformers. The text discusses semiconductor devices such as diodes, thyristors and triacs, transistors and heat sinks, logic and linear integrated circuits (I.C.s) and electromechanical devices. Common abbreviations applied to components are provided. Constructors and electronics engineers will find the book useful

  13. Electronic Prescribing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Do you prescribe electronically?” For more information about electronic prescribing, call 1-800-MEDICARE (1-800-633- ... TTY users should call 1-877-486-2048 . Electronic eRx Prescribing I went to the pharmacy, and ...

  14. Iridovirus and microsporidian linked to honey bee colony decline.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerry J Bromenshenk

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In 2010 Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD, again devastated honey bee colonies in the USA, indicating that the problem is neither diminishing nor has it been resolved. Many CCD investigations, using sensitive genome-based methods, have found small RNA bee viruses and the microsporidia, Nosema apis and N. ceranae in healthy and collapsing colonies alike with no single pathogen firmly linked to honey bee losses. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used Mass spectrometry-based proteomics (MSP to identify and quantify thousands of proteins from healthy and collapsing bee colonies. MSP revealed two unreported RNA viruses in North American honey bees, Varroa destructor-1 virus and Kakugo virus, and identified an invertebrate iridescent virus (IIV (Iridoviridae associated with CCD colonies. Prevalence of IIV significantly discriminated among strong, failing, and collapsed colonies. In addition, bees in failing colonies contained not only IIV, but also Nosema. Co-occurrence of these microbes consistently marked CCD in (1 bees from commercial apiaries sampled across the U.S. in 2006-2007, (2 bees sequentially sampled as the disorder progressed in an observation hive colony in 2008, and (3 bees from a recurrence of CCD in Florida in 2009. The pathogen pairing was not observed in samples from colonies with no history of CCD, namely bees from Australia and a large, non-migratory beekeeping business in Montana. Laboratory cage trials with a strain of IIV type 6 and Nosema ceranae confirmed that co-infection with these two pathogens was more lethal to bees than either pathogen alone. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These findings implicate co-infection by IIV and Nosema with honey bee colony decline, giving credence to older research pointing to IIV, interacting with Nosema and mites, as probable cause of bee losses in the USA, Europe, and Asia. We next need to characterize the IIV and Nosema that we detected and develop management practices to reduce honey bee losses.

  15. Iridovirus and microsporidian linked to honey bee colony decline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromenshenk, Jerry J; Henderson, Colin B; Wick, Charles H; Stanford, Michael F; Zulich, Alan W; Jabbour, Rabih E; Deshpande, Samir V; McCubbin, Patrick E; Seccomb, Robert A; Welch, Phillip M; Williams, Trevor; Firth, David R; Skowronski, Evan; Lehmann, Margaret M; Bilimoria, Shan L; Gress, Joanna; Wanner, Kevin W; Cramer, Robert A

    2010-10-06

    In 2010 Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD), again devastated honey bee colonies in the USA, indicating that the problem is neither diminishing nor has it been resolved. Many CCD investigations, using sensitive genome-based methods, have found small RNA bee viruses and the microsporidia, Nosema apis and N. ceranae in healthy and collapsing colonies alike with no single pathogen firmly linked to honey bee losses. We used Mass spectrometry-based proteomics (MSP) to identify and quantify thousands of proteins from healthy and collapsing bee colonies. MSP revealed two unreported RNA viruses in North American honey bees, Varroa destructor-1 virus and Kakugo virus, and identified an invertebrate iridescent virus (IIV) (Iridoviridae) associated with CCD colonies. Prevalence of IIV significantly discriminated among strong, failing, and collapsed colonies. In addition, bees in failing colonies contained not only IIV, but also Nosema. Co-occurrence of these microbes consistently marked CCD in (1) bees from commercial apiaries sampled across the U.S. in 2006-2007, (2) bees sequentially sampled as the disorder progressed in an observation hive colony in 2008, and (3) bees from a recurrence of CCD in Florida in 2009. The pathogen pairing was not observed in samples from colonies with no history of CCD, namely bees from Australia and a large, non-migratory beekeeping business in Montana. Laboratory cage trials with a strain of IIV type 6 and Nosema ceranae confirmed that co-infection with these two pathogens was more lethal to bees than either pathogen alone. These findings implicate co-infection by IIV and Nosema with honey bee colony decline, giving credence to older research pointing to IIV, interacting with Nosema and mites, as probable cause of bee losses in the USA, Europe, and Asia. We next need to characterize the IIV and Nosema that we detected and develop management practices to reduce honey bee losses.

  16. Basic electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Holbrook, Harold D

    1971-01-01

    Basic Electronics is an elementary text designed for basic instruction in electricity and electronics. It gives emphasis on electronic emission and the vacuum tube and shows transistor circuits in parallel with electron tube circuits. This book also demonstrates how the transistor merely replaces the tube, with proper change of circuit constants as required. Many problems are presented at the end of each chapter. This book is comprised of 17 chapters and opens with an overview of electron theory, followed by a discussion on resistance, inductance, and capacitance, along with their effects on t

  17. Electronic Government and Electronic Participation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tambouris, E.; Scholl, H.J.; Janssen, M.F.W.H.A.; Wimmer, M.A.; Tarabanis, K.; Gascó, M.; Klievink, A.J.; Lindgren, I.; Milano, M.; Panagiotopoulos, P.; Pardo, T.A.; Parycek, P.; Sæbø, O.

    2015-01-01

    Electronic government and electronic participation continue to transform the public sector and society worldwide and are constantly being transformed themselves by emerging information and communication technologies. This book presents papers from the 14th International Federation for Information P

  18. Electron Tree

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Appelt, Ane L; Rønde, Heidi S

    2013-01-01

    The photo shows a close-up of a Lichtenberg figure – popularly called an “electron tree” – produced in a cylinder of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA). Electron trees are created by irradiating a suitable insulating material, in this case PMMA, with an intense high energy electron beam. Upon discharge......, during dielectric breakdown in the material, the electrons generate branching chains of fractures on leaving the PMMA, producing the tree pattern seen. To be able to create electron trees with a clinical linear accelerator, one needs to access the primary electron beam used for photon treatments. We...... appropriated a linac that was being decommissioned in our department and dismantled the head to circumvent the target and ion chambers. This is one of 24 electron trees produced before we had to stop the fun and allow the rest of the accelerator to be disassembled....

  19. Electron Tree

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Appelt, Ane L; Rønde, Heidi S

    2013-01-01

    The photo shows a close-up of a Lichtenberg figure – popularly called an “electron tree” – produced in a cylinder of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA). Electron trees are created by irradiating a suitable insulating material, in this case PMMA, with an intense high energy electron beam. Upon discharge......, during dielectric breakdown in the material, the electrons generate branching chains of fractures on leaving the PMMA, producing the tree pattern seen. To be able to create electron trees with a clinical linear accelerator, one needs to access the primary electron beam used for photon treatments. We...... appropriated a linac that was being decommissioned in our department and dismantled the head to circumvent the target and ion chambers. This is one of 24 electron trees produced before we had to stop the fun and allow the rest of the accelerator to be disassembled....

  20. Electronic Commerce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavko Đerić

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Electronic commerce can be defined in different ways. Any definition helps to understand and explain that concept as better as possible.. Electronic commerce is a set of procedures and technologies that automate the tasks of financial transactions using electronic means. Also, according to some authors, electronic commerce is defined as a new concept, which is being developed and which includes process of buying and selling or exchanging products, services or information via computer networks, including the Internet. Electronic commerce is not limited just to buying and selling, but it also includes all pre-sales and after-sales ongoing activities along the supply chain. Introducing electronic commerce, using the Internet and Web services in business, realizes the way to a completely new type of economy - internet economy.

  1. Micropower electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Keonjian, Edward

    1964-01-01

    Micropower Electronics deals with the operation of modern electronic equipment at micropower levels and the problems associated with micropower electronics. Topics covered include the relations between minimum required power density and frequency response for semiconductor triode amplifiers; physical realization of digital logic circuits; micropower microelectronic subsystems; and metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect devices for micropower logic circuitry. This book is comprised of 10 chapters and begins with an analysis of fundamental relationships and basic requirements pertinent to the ph

  2. Microfluidic electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Shi; Wu, Zhigang

    2012-08-21

    Microfluidics, a field that has been well-established for several decades, has seen extensive applications in the areas of biology, chemistry, and medicine. However, it might be very hard to imagine how such soft microfluidic devices would be used in other areas, such as electronics, in which stiff, solid metals, insulators, and semiconductors have previously dominated. Very recently, things have radically changed. Taking advantage of native properties of microfluidics, advances in microfluidics-based electronics have shown great potential in numerous new appealing applications, e.g. bio-inspired devices, body-worn healthcare and medical sensing systems, and ergonomic units, in which conventional rigid, bulky electronics are facing insurmountable obstacles to fulfil the demand on comfortable user experience. Not only would the birth of microfluidic electronics contribute to both the microfluidics and electronics fields, but it may also shape the future of our daily life. Nevertheless, microfluidic electronics are still at a very early stage, and significant efforts in research and development are needed to advance this emerging field. The intention of this article is to review recent research outcomes in the field of microfluidic electronics, and address current technical challenges and issues. The outlook of future development in microfluidic electronic devices and systems, as well as new fabrication techniques, is also discussed. Moreover, the authors would like to inspire both the microfluidics and electronics communities to further exploit this newly-established field.

  3. Paper electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobjörk, Daniel; Österbacka, Ronald

    2011-05-03

    Paper is ubiquitous in everyday life and a truly low-cost substrate. The use of paper substrates could be extended even further, if electronic applications would be applied next to or below the printed graphics. However, applying electronics on paper is challenging. The paper surface is not only very rough compared to plastics, but is also porous. While this is detrimental for most electronic devices manufactured directly onto paper substrates, there are also approaches that are compatible with the rough and absorptive paper surface. In this review, recent advances and possibilities of these approaches are evaluated and the limitations of paper electronics are discussed.

  4. Electron holography

    CERN Document Server

    Tonomura, Akira

    1993-01-01

    Holography was devised for breaking through the resolution limit of electron microscopes The advent of a "coherent" field emission electron beam has enabled the use of Electron Holography in various areas of magnetic domain structures observation, fluxon observation in superconductors, and fundamental experiments in physics which have been inaccessible using other techniques After examining the fundamentals of electron holography and its applications to the afore mentioned fields, a detailed discussion of the Aharonov-Bohm effect and the related experiments is presented Many photographs and illustrations are included to elucidate the text

  5. Polymer electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Hsin-Fei, Meng

    2013-01-01

    Polymer semiconductor is the only semiconductor that can be processed in solution. Electronics made by these flexible materials have many advantages such as large-area solution process, low cost, and high performance. Researchers and companies are increasingly dedicating time and money in polymer electronics. This book focuses on the fundamental materials and device physics of polymer electronics. It describes polymer light-emitting diodes, polymer field-effect transistors, organic vertical transistors, polymer solar cells, and many applications based on polymer electronics. The book also disc

  6. Electronic Photography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Meredith Lindsay

    1995-01-01

    The main objective was to assist in the production of electronic images in the Electronic Photography Lab (EPL). The EPL is a new facility serving the electronic photographic needs of the Langley community. The purpose of the Electronic Photography lab is to provide Langley with access to digital imaging technology. Although the EPL has been in operation for less than one year, almost 1,000 images have been produced. The decision to establish the lab was made after careful determination of the centers needs for electronic photography. The LaRC community requires electronic photography for the production of electronic printing, Web sites, desktop publications, and its increased enhancement capabilities. In addition to general use, other considerations went into the planning of the EPL. For example, electronic photography is much less of a burden on the environment compared to conventional photography. Also, the possibilities of an on-line database and retrieval system could make locating past work more efficient. Finally, information in an electronic image is quantified, making measurements and calculations easier for the researcher.

  7. Electron Bifurcation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, John W.; Miller, Anne-Frances; Jones, Anne K.; King, Paul W.; Adams, Michael W. W.

    2016-04-01

    Electron bifurcation is the recently recognized third mechanism of biological energy conservation. It simultaneously couples exergonic and endergonic oxidation-reduction reactions to circumvent thermodynamic barriers and minimize free energy loss. Little is known about the details of how electron bifurcating enzymes function, but specifics are beginning to emerge for several bifurcating enzymes. To date, those characterized contain a collection of redox cofactors including flavins and iron-sulfur clusters. Here we discuss the current understanding of bifurcating enzymes and the mechanistic features required to reversibly partition multiple electrons from a single redox site into exergonic and endergonic electron transfer paths.

  8. Variación espacial de larvas de lutjánidos y serránidos en la Plataforma de Yucatán Spatial variation of Snapper and Grouper larvae in Yucatan Shelf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsa Falfán-Vázquez

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo fue analizar la abundancia y distribución de los serránidos y lutjánidos en la Península de Yucatán. Se analizaron 45 muestras de ictioplancton colectadas durante una campaña oceanográfica (Yucatán03-A en el mes de septiembre del 2003, los arrastres fueron superficiales con una red tipo Bongo. Un total de 3,963 organismos fueron colectados, pertenecientes a 50 familias, tres (Carangidae, Gobiidae y Clupeidae representaron más del 50% de la densidad. Las familias Lutjanidae y Serranidae estuvieron dentro de las nueve más abundantes con una densidad total de 713.8 ±60 org./100 m³. Serranidae estuvo representada por especies de los géneros Anthias, Diplectrum, Liopropoma, Serranus y Epinephelus fulvus, mientras que Lutjanidae por Lutjanus analis, L. campechanus, L. griseus y L. synagris. La especie con mayor densidad fue L. synagris, representando el 28.9% del material revisado, seguida de E. fulvus, L. analis y L. campechanus. El análisis de agrupación de las estaciones permitió identificar tres zonas oceanográficas a nivel horizontal: Oeste, Centro y Surgencia (en el este. Las larvas de serránidos se distribuyeron principalmente en la zona Centro, mientras que las de los lutjánidos en el este de la plataforma de Yucatán, sugiriéndose que los desoves de peces de estas familias ocurren en distintas zonas de la plataforma, evitando así la competencia por el alimento en sus primeras etapas larvarias. La corriente de Yucatán provoca un transporte de Ekman que produce un afloramiento que genera un incremento de fitoplancton, zooplancton e ictioplancton que favorece el reclutamiento de los peces, un rápido crecimiento y disminución de su estadio larval.The objective was to analyze the abundance and distribution of snappers and groupers in the Yucatan shelf. We analyzed forty-five samples of ichthyoplankton that were taken from oceanographic research (Yucatan03-A during September 2003. Superficial tows were made with

  9. Printed Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crain, John M. (Inventor); Lettow, John S. (Inventor); Aksay, Ilhan A. (Inventor); Korkut, Sibel (Inventor); Chiang, Katherine S. (Inventor); Chen, Chuan-Hua (Inventor); Prud'Homme, Robert K. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    Printed electronic device comprising a substrate onto at least one surface of which has been applied a layer of an electrically conductive ink comprising functionalized graphene sheets and at least one binder. A method of preparing printed electronic devices is further disclosed.

  10. 斜带石斑鱼 IFN-γ基因的克隆与表达分析%Molecular characterization and expression of interferon gamma (IFN-γ) in orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄贝; 陈善楠; 黄文树; 聂品

    2013-01-01

       IFN-γ在天然免疫和适应性免疫应答中均发挥着重要的作用.由于低等脊椎动物 IFN-γ与哺乳动物 IFN-γ相似性非常低,硬骨鱼类的 IFN-γ近年来才得到鉴定.本研究报道了斜带石斑鱼(Epinephelus coioides)的 IFN-γ基因,并对其表达进行了分析.斜带石斑鱼 IFN-γ cDNA 全长为867 bp,编码200个氨基酸.其基因组全长为5104 bp,由4个外显子、3个内含子组成.氨基酸序列比对显示斜带石斑鱼 IFN-γ与高等脊椎动物 IFN-γ的序列相似性较低,仅为32.5%~39%,与其他硬骨鱼类的 IFN-γ相似性为38.0%~68.5%.序列分析结果显示,斜带石斑鱼 IFN-γ分子 C末端中存在 IFN-γ的特征序列以及核定位基序.二级结构分析结果显示斜带石斑鱼 IFN-γ序列中包含6个α螺旋结构,其排列与高等脊椎动物的 IFN-γ类似.应用荧光定量 PCR 检测了 IFN-γ基因在 Poly I:C 诱导后的表达变化.发现在肾、脾、鳃、头肾、皮肤和胸腺组织中, Poly I:C 能显著诱导 IFN-γ的表达,在胸腺中上调倍数最高,其次为头肾、脾、肾、皮肤和鳃,而在脑和心脏组织中没有显著变化.据此推测, IFN-γ在斜带石斑鱼抵抗病毒感染的过程中起有十分重要的作用.%IFN-γ is a typeⅡinterferon that plays an important role in both innate and cell-mediated immune re-sponses. Because of the low similarity with their mammalian homologues, IFN-γ in teleost fish has only recently been identified. In this study, the cDNA sequence encoding the IFN-γ molecule was cloned from the or-ange-spotted grouper, Epinephelus coioides, and its gene organization was revealed. Its expression in response to Poly I:C stimulation was also examined. The IFN-γ cDNA sequence consists of 867 bp, which encodes a putative protein of 200 amino acids. The gene is 5-kb long and contains four exons, which are comparable in size with IFN-γ genes in other vertebrates. This IFN-γ was only 32.5%−39% similar to its

  11. Electron optics

    CERN Document Server

    Grivet, Pierre; Bertein, F; Castaing, R; Gauzit, M; Septier, Albert L

    1972-01-01

    Electron Optics, Second English Edition, Part I: Optics is a 10-chapter book that begins by elucidating the fundamental features and basic techniques of electron optics, as well as the distribution of potential and field in electrostatic lenses. This book then explains the field distribution in magnetic lenses; the optical properties of electrostatic and magnetic lenses; and the similarities and differences between glass optics and electron optics. Subsequent chapters focus on lens defects; some electrostatic lenses and triode guns; and magnetic lens models. The strong focusing lenses and pris

  12. Electronic diagrams

    CERN Document Server

    Colwell, Morris A

    1976-01-01

    Electronic Diagrams is a ready reference and general guide to systems and circuit planning and in the preparation of diagrams for both newcomers and the more experienced. This book presents guidelines and logical procedures that the reader can follow and then be equipped to tackle large complex diagrams by recognition of characteristic 'building blocks' or 'black boxes'. The goal is to break down many of the barriers that often seem to deter students and laymen in learning the art of electronics, especially when they take up electronics as a spare time occupation. This text is comprised of nin

  13. Digital electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Morris, John

    2013-01-01

    An essential companion to John C Morris's 'Analogue Electronics', this clear and accessible text is designed for electronics students, teachers and enthusiasts who already have a basic understanding of electronics, and who wish to develop their knowledge of digital techniques and applications. Employing a discovery-based approach, the author covers fundamental theory before going on to develop an appreciation of logic networks, integrated circuit applications and analogue-digital conversion. A section on digital fault finding and useful ic data sheets completes th

  14. Electronic identity

    CERN Document Server

    de Andrade, Norberto Nuno Gomes; Argles, David

    2014-01-01

    With the increasing availability of electronic services, security and a reliable means by which identity is verified is essential.Written by Norberto Andrade the first chapter of this book provides an overview of the main legal and regulatory aspects regarding electronic identity in Europe and assesses the importance of electronic identity for administration (public), business (private) and, above all, citizens. It also highlights the role of eID as a key enabler of the economy.In the second chapter Lisha Chen-Wilson, David Argles, Michele Schiano di Zenise and Gary Wills discuss the user-cent

  15. Stretchable electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Someya, Takao

    2012-01-01

    With its comprehensive coverage this handbook and ready reference brings together some of the most outstanding scientists in the field to lay down the undisputed knowledge on how to make electronics stretchable.As such, it focuses on gathering and evaluating the materials, designs, models and technologies that enable the fabrication of fully elastic electronic devices which can sustain high strain. Furthermore, it provides a review of those specific applications that directly benefit from highly compliant electronics, including transistors, photonic devices and sensors. In addition to stre

  16. Starting electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Brindley, Keith

    2005-01-01

    Starting Electronics is unrivalled as a highly practical introduction for hobbyists, students and technicians. Keith Brindley introduces readers to the functions of the main component types, their uses, and the basic principles of building and designing electronic circuits. Breadboard layouts make this very much a ready-to-run book for the experimenter; and the use of multimeter, but not oscilloscopes, puts this practical exploration of electronics within reach of every home enthusiast's pocket. The third edition has kept the simplicity and clarity of the original. New material

  17. Polymer electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Geoghegan, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Polymer electronics is the science behind many important new developments in technology, such as the flexible electronic display (e-ink) and many new developments in transistor technology. Solar cells, light-emitting diodes, and transistors are all areas where plastic electronics is likely to, or is already having, a serious impact on our daily lives. With polymer transistors and light-emitting diodes now being commercialised, there is a clear need for a pedagogic text thatdiscusses the subject in a clear and concise fashion suitable for senior undergraduate and graduate students. The content

  18. Power Electronics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iov, Florin; Ciobotaru, Mihai; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2008-01-01

    is to change the electrical power production sources from the conventional, fossil (and short term) based energy sources to renewable energy resources. The other is to use high efficient power electronics in power generation, power transmission/distribution and end-user application. This paper discuss the most...... emerging renewable energy sources, wind energy, which by means of power electronics are changing from being a minor energy source to be acting as an important power source in the energy system. Power electronics is the enabling technology and the presentation will cover the development in wind turbine...... technology from kW to MW, discuss which power electronic solutions are most feasible and used today....

  19. Electronic Elections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schürmann, Carsten

    2009-01-01

    Electronic voting technology is a two edged sword. It comes with many risks but brings also many benefits. Instead of flat out rejecting the technology as uncontrollably dangerous, we advocate in this paper a different technological angle that renders electronic elections trustworthy beyond...... the usual levels of doubt. We exploit the trust that voters currently have into the democratic process and model our techniques around that observation accordingly. In particular, we propose a technique of trace emitting computations to record the individual steps of an electronic voting machine...... for a posteriori validation on an acceptably small trusted computing base. Our technology enables us to prove that an electronic elections preserves the voter’s intent, assuming that the voting machine and the trace verifier are independent....

  20. Electronic plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavrinidou, Eleni; Gabrielsson, Roger; Gomez, Eliot; Crispin, Xavier; Nilsson, Ove; Simon, Daniel T.; Berggren, Magnus

    2015-01-01

    The roots, stems, leaves, and vascular circuitry of higher plants are responsible for conveying the chemical signals that regulate growth and functions. From a certain perspective, these features are analogous to the contacts, interconnections, devices, and wires of discrete and integrated electronic circuits. Although many attempts have been made to augment plant function with electroactive materials, plants’ “circuitry” has never been directly merged with electronics. We report analog and digital organic electronic circuits and devices manufactured in living plants. The four key components of a circuit have been achieved using the xylem, leaves, veins, and signals of the plant as the template and integral part of the circuit elements and functions. With integrated and distributed electronics in plants, one can envisage a range of applications including precision recording and regulation of physiology, energy harvesting from photosynthesis, and alternatives to genetic modification for plant optimization. PMID:26702448

  1. ELECTRONIC SIGNATURES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    10332324

    'electronic signature' means data attached to, incorporated in, or logically ... See Cwele v S 2012 4 All SA 497 (SCA); Mohlabeng v Minister of Safety and Security ... ZAKZPHC 51 (2 September 2010); Delta Finance, a Division of Wesbank, ...

  2. Electron Microprobe

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The JEOL JXA-8600 is a conventional hairpin filament thermal emission electron microprobe that is more than 20 years old. It is capable of performing qualitative and...

  3. Electronic commerce

    OpenAIRE

    Veselková, Zdeňka

    2012-01-01

    The thesis deals with a description of electronic commerce from its beginning up to present situation in this area. It explains basic terms connected with electronic commerce and it summarizes the relevant legislation. Moreover it describes e-contracts and rights and duties of both contractual parties. The main view is the view of Internet retailer, which is reflected in the practical part focused on concrete problems of retailers.

  4. Molecular Electronics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jennum, Karsten Stein

    This thesis includes the synthesis and characterisation of organic compounds designed for molecular electronics. The synthesised organic molecules are mainly based on two motifs, the obigo(phenyleneethynylenes) (OPE)s and tetrathiafulvalene (TTF) as shown below. These two scaffolds (OPE and TTF......) are chemically merged together to form cruciform-like structures that are an essential part of the thesis. The cruciform molecules were subjected to molecular conductance measurements to explore their capability towards single-crystal field-effect transistors (Part 1), molecular wires, and single electron......, however, was obtained by a study of a single molecular transistor. The investigated OPE5-TTF compound was captured in a three-terminal experiment, whereby manipulation of the molecule’s electronic spin was possible in different charge states. Thus, we demonstrated how the cruciform molecules could...

  5. Power Electronics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iov, Florin; Ciobotaru, Mihai; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2008-01-01

    energy at the end-user should also be set up. Deregulation of energy has in the past lowered the investment in larger power plants, which means the need for new electrical power sources will be high in the near future. Two major technologies will play important roles to solve the future problems. One...... is to change the electrical power production sources from the conventional, fossil (and short term) based energy sources to renewable energy resources. The other is to use high efficient power electronics in power generation, power transmission/distribution and end-user application. This paper discuss the most...... emerging renewable energy sources, wind energy, which by means of power electronics are changing from being a minor energy source to be acting as an important power source in the energy system. Power electronics is the enabling technology and the presentation will cover the development in wind turbine...

  6. Electron Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegbahn, Kai

    Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen's discovery of X radiation in 1895 in Wörzburg resulted in an immediate break-through not only in physics but also in Society, the latter mainly because of its sensational radiological applications. Within a short time it furthermore indirectly led to the discovery of radioactivity by Henri Becquerel. The discovery of X radiation opened the gate to modern atomic physics, and radioactivity to nuclear physics. Later on, the discovery of X-ray diffraction by Laue, Friedrich and Knipping in 1912 initiated the field of X-ray spectroscopy with its fundamental contributions to atomic and crystal structures. Secondary electrons were early observed in the scattered radiation when X-rays were hitting a sample. The development of the corresponding electron spectroscopy had to wait a much longer time for its maturity. A survey of electron spectroscopy is presented.

  7. Electronic Commerce

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laird, N. [NRG Information Services Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    1995-11-01

    The concept of electronic commerce in the gas industry was discussed. It was defined as the integration of communication technology, advanced information processing capability and business standards, to improve effectiveness of the business process. Examples of electronic data interchange from the automotive, airline, and banking industry were given. The objective of using this technology in the gas industry was described as the provision of one electronic facility to make seamless contractual and operational arrangements for moving natural gas across participating pipelines. The benefit of seamless integration - one readily available standard system used by several companies - was highlighted. A list of value-added services such as the free movement of bulletins, directories, nominations,and other documents was provided.

  8. Spin electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Buhrman, Robert; Daughton, James; Molnár, Stephan; Roukes, Michael

    2004-01-01

    This report is a comparative review of spin electronics ("spintronics") research and development activities in the United States, Japan, and Western Europe conducted by a panel of leading U.S. experts in the field. It covers materials, fabrication and characterization of magnetic nanostructures, magnetism and spin control in magnetic nanostructures, magneto-optical properties of semiconductors, and magnetoelectronics and devices. The panel's conclusions are based on a literature review and a series of site visits to leading spin electronics research centers in Japan and Western Europe. The panel found that Japan is clearly the world leader in new material synthesis and characterization; it is also a leader in magneto-optical properties of semiconductor devices. Europe is strong in theory pertaining to spin electronics, including injection device structures such as tunneling devices, and band structure predictions of materials properties, and in development of magnetic semiconductors and semiconductor heterost...

  9. Molecular Electronics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jennum, Karsten Stein

    ) are chemically merged together to form cruciform-like structures that are an essential part of the thesis. The cruciform molecules were subjected to molecular conductance measurements to explore their capability towards single-crystal field-effect transistors (Part 1), molecular wires, and single electron......This thesis includes the synthesis and characterisation of organic compounds designed for molecular electronics. The synthesised organic molecules are mainly based on two motifs, the obigo(phenyleneethynylenes) (OPE)s and tetrathiafulvalene (TTF) as shown below. These two scaffolds (OPE and TTF......, however, was obtained by a study of a single molecular transistor. The investigated OPE5-TTF compound was captured in a three-terminal experiment, whereby manipulation of the molecule’s electronic spin was possible in different charge states. Thus, we demonstrated how the cruciform molecules could...

  10. Molecular Cloning and Expression Analysis of Transforming Growth Factor-β1(TGF-β1)from Orange-Spotted Grouper(Epinephelus coioides)%斜带石斑鱼转化生长因子β1(TGF-β1)基因的克隆及表达分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    平海林; 吴金英; 徐胜威; 胡开顺; 段志刚

    2011-01-01

    Transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) is a highly conserved pleiotropic cytokine.In this study, we presented the bioinformatics analysis of TGF-β1 full-length cDNA sequences from orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides).The full length cDNA is 2477 bp, which contains an ORF of 1161 bp, encoding a 386 amino acids protein.Real-time PCR results showed that TGF-β1 mRNA was predominantly expressed in the kidney, followed by head kidney and spleen of the healthy orange-spotted grouper.The expression of TGF-β1 in isolated headkidney lymphocytes was up-regulated treated with PolyI: C or ConA, and peaked at 4 hours after stimulation.Lymphocytes groups which were treated with PolyI: C had little TGF-β1 expression after 16 and 24 hours, while the expression of TGF-β1 was significantly higher than the control groups during the whole experimental processing time treated with ConA.In conclusion, we found the structure and expression pattern of grouper TGF-β1 was similar to those of other fish.%转化生长因子β1(TG-β1)是一种高度保守的多效细胞因子.通过分子克隆得到了斜带石斑鱼Epi nephelus coioidesTGF-β1 cDNA全长序列,全长为2477 bp,开放阅读框为116lbp,编码一种含386个氨基酸的多肽.ReMtime PCR分析表明,TGF-β1基因在健康斜带石斑鱼所取组织中均有表达,肾脏中表达最高,其次是头肾和脾脏.用PolyI:C或ConA刺激斜带石斑鱼头肾淋巴细胞,TGF-β1表达量明显上升,且在刺激4 h后达到最高值.用PolyI:C刺激16、24 h后,TGF-β1几乎不表达,而用ConA刺激实验组,TGF-β1表达量一直高于对照组.结果说明,斜带石斑鱼TGF-β1基因结构和表达特征与其他硬骨鱼类具有高度相似性.

  11. Greening Electronics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pizzol, Massimo; Søes Kokborg, Morten; Thomsen, Marianne

    Based on a literature review with focus on hazardous substances in waste electric and electronic equipment (WEEE) and numbers from a Danish treatment facility a flow analysis for specific substances has been conducted. Further, the accessible knowledge on human and environmental effects due...

  12. Superconducting electronics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rogalla, Horst

    1994-01-01

    During the last decades superconducting electronics has been the most prominent area of research for small scale applications of superconductivity. It has experienced quite a stormy development, from individual low frequency devices to devices with high integration density and pico second switching

  13. Electronic Portfolios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purves, Alan C.

    1996-01-01

    Outlines three forms of electronic portfolio based on a student's work, a class project about a specific topic, and a class seminar on a broad topic. Discusses logistical problems of management, access, and cross-referencing; technical problems of input, access, and copying; and theoretical issues of the lack of realia, of ownership and copyright,…

  14. Electronic Money.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilling, Tim

    Thirty years ago a cashless society was predicted for the near future; paper currency and checks would be an antiquated symbol of the past. Consumers would embrace a new alternative for making payments: electronic money. But currency is still used for 87% of payments, mainly for "nickel and dime" purchases. And checks are the payment…

  15. Electronic spectroscopies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weckhuysen, B.M.; Schoonheydt, R.A.

    2000-01-01

    Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) in the ultraviolet, visible and near-infrared region is a versatile spectroscopic technique, as both d-d and charge transfer transitions of supported TMI can be probed. One of the advantages of electronic spectroscopy is that the obtained information is

  16. Electronic Homework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Fong-lok; Heyworth, Rex M.

    The Electronic Homework assistant system is composed of two components: the Computer Tutor and the Homework Administrator. The Computer Tutor is an intelligent tutoring system that can provide personal assistance like supplying hints, checking errors, providing remediation and prioritizing problems. The Homework Administrator is a teacher's…

  17. Greening Electronics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pizzol, Massimo; Søes Kokborg, Morten; Thomsen, Marianne

    Based on a literature review with focus on hazardous substances in waste electric and electronic equipment (WEEE) and numbers from a Danish treatment facility a flow analysis for specific substances has been conducted. Further, the accessible knowledge on human and environmental effects due to po...

  18. Electronic Government

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wimmer, Maria A.; Traunmüller, Roland; Grönlund, Åke

    This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Electronic Government, EGOV 2005, held in Copenhagen, Denmark, in August 2005. The 30 revised papers presented were carefully reviewed and selected from numerous submissions, and assess the state-of-the-art in e...

  19. Electronic detectors for electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faruqi, A R; McMullan, G

    2011-08-01

    Electron microscopy (EM) is an important tool for high-resolution structure determination in applications ranging from condensed matter to biology. Electronic detectors are now used in most applications in EM as they offer convenience and immediate feedback that is not possible with film or image plates. The earliest forms of electronic detector used routinely in transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were charge coupled devices (CCDs) and for many applications these remain perfectly adequate. There are however applications, such as the study of radiation-sensitive biological samples, where film is still used and improved detectors would be of great value. The emphasis in this review is therefore on detectors for use in such applications. Two of the most promising candidates for improved detection are: monolithic active pixel sensors (MAPS) and hybrid pixel detectors (of which Medipix2 was chosen for this study). From the studies described in this review, a back-thinned MAPS detector appears well suited to replace film in for the study of radiation-sensitive samples at 300 keV, while Medipix2 is suited to use at lower energies and especially in situations with very low count rates. The performance of a detector depends on the energy of electrons to be recorded, which in turn is dependent on the application it is being used for; results are described for a wide range of electron energies ranging from 40 to 300 keV. The basic properties of detectors are discussed in terms of their modulation transfer function (MTF) and detective quantum efficiency (DQE) as a function of spatial frequency.

  20. Ultrastructure of peripheral blood cells of highfin grouper Cromileptes altivelis%驼背鲈血细胞的超微结构

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王静香; 李加儿; 区又君; 王永翠

    2011-01-01

    利用电镜技术对驼背鲈(Cromileptes altivelis)外周血细胞的超微结构进行了研究.结果表明,电镜下可区分6种类型的细胞:红细胞、粒细胞、单核细胞、淋巴细胞、血栓细胞和浆细胞.红细胞呈圆形或椭圆形,可见线粒体、少数囊泡;根据细胞中的颗粒形态大小和细胞核的形态,可将粒细胞分为4种类型:Ⅰ型粒细胞、Ⅱ型粒细胞、Ⅲ型粒细胞和Ⅳ型粒细胞.单核细胞圆形,表面较平整,偶有伪足伸出,空泡多见;淋巴细胞的胞质少,仅在细胞核边缘处形成薄薄的一层,细胞器少;血栓细胞异染色质丰富,沿核膜呈带状分布,胞质中有较多大小不等的空泡和少量的线粒体;浆细胞中粗面内质网成层分布包绕在核周围.此外可见到嗜曙红细胞吞噬红细胞、血栓细胞成群聚集分布的现象.%Using electron microscopy, we studied the ultrastructure of peripheral blood cells of Cromileptes allivelis. Six types of cells ( erythrocyte, granulocyte, monocyte, lymphocyte, thrombocyte and plasma cell) were detected under the electron microscope. Eryth rocyte is round or oval with visible mitochondria and a few vesicles. According to the size, shape of particles and form of nucleus, gran ulocytes can be divided into 4 types: Ⅰ-type granulocyte, Ⅱ-type granulocyte, Ⅲ-type granulocyte and Ⅳ-type granulocyte. Monocyte is round with smooth surface and vacuoles, occasionally holding out pseudopodia. Lymphocyte has a few organelles and little cytoplasm which only forms a thin layer around the nucleolus. Thrombocyte is rich in heterochromatins which distribute zonally along the nuclear membrane. There are many vacuoles at various sizes and a small amount of mitochondria. Rough endoplasmic reticulum distributes hi erarchically around the nucleolus in plasma cell. In addition, erythrocytes could be seen to be phagocytized by eosinophils and throm bocytes gathered in groups.

  1. Electronic Aggression

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2007-11-20

    Aggression is no longer limited to the school yard. New forms of electronic media, such as blogs, instant messaging, chat rooms, email, text messaging, and the internet are providing new arenas for youth violence to occur.  Created: 11/20/2007 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, Division of Violence Prevention.   Date Released: 11/28/2007.

  2. Interacting Electrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Richard M.; Reining, Lucia; Ceperley, David M.

    2016-06-01

    Preface; Part I. Interacting Electrons: Beyond the Independent-Particle Picture: 1. The many electron problem: introduction; 2. Signatures of electron correlation; 3. Concepts and models for interacting electrons; Part II. Foundations of Theory for Many-Body Systems: 4. Mean fields and auxiliary systems; 5. Correlation functions; 6. Many-body wavefunctions; 7. Particles and quasi-particles; 8. Functionals in many-particle physics; Part III. Many-Body Green's Function Methods: 9. Many-body perturbation theory: expansion in the interaction; 10. Many-body perturbation theory via functional derivatives; 11. The RPA and the GW approximation for the self-energy; 12. GWA calculations in practice; 13. GWA calculations: illustrative results; 14. RPA and beyond: the Bethe-Salpeter equation; 15. Beyond the GW approximation; 16. Dynamical mean field theory; 17. Beyond the single-site approximation in DMFT; 18. Solvers for embedded systems; 19. Characteristic hamiltonians for solids with d and f states; 20. Examples of calculations for solids with d and f states; 21. Combining Green's functions approaches: an outlook; Part IV. Stochastic Methods: 22. Introduction to stochastic methods; 23. Variational Monte Carlo; 24. Projector quantum Monte Carlo; 25. Path integral Monte Carlo; 26. Concluding remarks; Part V. Appendices: A. Second quantization; B. Pictures; C. Green's functions: general properties; D. Matsubara formulation for Green's functions for T ̸= 0; E. Time-ordering, contours, and non-equilibrium; F. Hedin's equations in a basis; G. Unique solutions in Green's function theory; H. Properties of functionals; I. Auxiliary systems and constrained search; J. Derivation of the Luttinger theorem; K. Gutzwiller and Hubbard approaches; References; Index.

  3. Toxic Effects of Cupric Acetate and Avermectins on Orange Spotted Grouper Epinephelus coioides%乙酸铜和阿维菌素对斜带石斑幼鱼毒性效应的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程敏红; 杨小立; 庞强; 黄建荣; 黎祖福

    2014-01-01

    In this study ,the activities of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) ,superoxide dismutase (SOD) ,and aspartate transaminase (GOT ) and glutathione (GSH ) content were studied in liver of orange spotted grouper Epinephelus coioides exposed to cupric acetate and Avermectins at various concentrations to evaluate acute toxicity of cupric acetate and Avermectins .The results showed that the 24 h LC50 and 48 h LC50 were 103 .51 mg/L and 50 .86 mg/L in cupric acetate and 0 .02543 mg/L and 0 .01726 mg/L in Avermectins , with safe concentration of 3 .684 mg/L for cupric acetate and 0 .00239 mg/L for Avermectins .Cupric acetate and Avermectins stress resulted in significant changes in AChE ,SOD ,and GOT activities in liver (P0 .05) ,but higher than that in the control group in 96 h cupric acetate exposure (P< 0 .05) .There were significantly lower liver GSH contents in 2 .5μg/L ,4 .25μg/L ,7 .25 μg/L and 12 .25 μg/L Avermectins groups than that in the control group . The findings indicate that cupric acetate and Avermectins stress affect AChE , SOD and GOT activities and GSH content ,and that biological effects of pesticides on orange spotted grouper are reflected in changes in activities of AChE ,SOD and GOT and GSH content .%采用静水生物法,研究了乙酸铜和阿维菌素对斜带石斑鱼的急性毒性并进行安全评价;依据急性试验结果,设计一系列质量浓度梯度进行暴露试验,探讨了乙酸铜和阿维菌素暴露对斜带石斑鱼肝脏中乙酰胆碱酯酶、超氧化物歧化酶、谷草转氨酶活性和谷胱甘肽含量的毒性影响。试验结果表明,乙酸铜和阿维菌素对斜带石斑鱼的24 h半致死质量浓度、48 h半致死质量浓度分别为103.51、50.86 mg/L和0.02543、0.01726 mg/L ,安全质量浓度分别为3.684 mg/L和0.00239 mg/L ;除阿维菌素对谷草转氨酶作用不明显外,乙酸铜和阿维菌素胁迫均引起肝脏乙酰胆碱酯酶、超氧化物歧化酶和谷草转

  4. 谷氨酰胺对点带石斑鱼免疫细胞免疫力的影响%Effects of Glutamine on Immune Responses of Immunocytes in Grouper Epinephelus malabaricus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程镇燕; 李建; 雷五长; 于宏; 王庆奎; 郭永军; 乔秀亭

    2014-01-01

    将从平均体质量400 g的点带石斑鱼中肾分离出的白细胞培养在添加0、0.5、1、2 mmol/L 谷氨酰胺的培养基中2、6、12、24 h后,测定白细胞的吞噬和呼吸爆发活力,结果发现,添加谷氨酰胺后白细胞的吞噬和呼吸爆发活力显著提高,随着培养时间的延长,吞噬和呼吸爆发活力进一步提高,最高值均在培养12 h后的1 mmol/L组。在培养12、24 h后测定了白细胞的增殖能力,发现培养12 h后,添加谷氨酰胺的各组增殖效果明显优于未添加谷氨酰胺组(对照组)( P<0.05),但添加谷氨酰胺的各组之间差异不显著(P>0.05),最高值在1 mmol/L组;培养48 h后,除2 mmol/L组外,其他处理组的增殖效果均下降。白细胞对迟钝爱德华氏菌杀菌率变化趋势与吞噬活力相符,1、2 mmol/L 组杀菌率显著高于对照组(P<0.05),而0.5 mmol/L组与对照组之间差异不显著(P>0.05)。试验结果表明,谷氨酰胺是石斑鱼有效的免疫增强剂,在培养基中添加1 mmol/L 谷氨酰胺培养12 h效果最佳。%An ivitro experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of glutamine (0 ,0 .5 ,1 ,2 mmol/L) on immune responses of kidney leukocytes in grouper (Epinephelus malabaricus) .After the leukocytes were cultured primarily in 2 ,6 ,12 ,24 h ,the phagocytosis and respiratory burst activity of leukocytes were determined ,respectively .Phagocytosis and respiratory burst activity of leukocytes were significantly enhanced with glutamine supplemented into the culture medium ,and increased further with the increasing culture time .The peak was occurred in 1 mmol/L glutamine group 12 h after incubation .The proliferation of leukocytes was determined 12 and 24 h after incubation in medium supplemented with glutamine .After 12 h incubation ,the proliferation effects in the groups supplemented with glutamine were significantly im-proved compared with

  5. ELECTRON GUN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christofilos, N.C.; Ehlers, K.W.

    1960-04-01

    A pulsed electron gun capable of delivering pulses at voltages of the order of 1 mv and currents of the order of 100 amperes is described. The principal novelty resides in a transformer construction which is disposed in the same vacuum housing as the electron source and accelerating electrode structure of the gun to supply the accelerating potential thereto. The transformer is provided by a plurality of magnetic cores disposed in circumferentially spaced relation and having a plurality of primary windings each inductively coupled to a different one of the cores, and a helical secondary winding which is disposed coaxially of the cores and passes therethrough in circumferential succession. Additional novelty resides in the disposition of the electron source cathode filament input leads interiorly of the transformer secondary winding which is hollow, as well as in the employment of a half-wave filament supply which is synchronously operated with the transformer supply such that the transformer is pulsed during the zero current portions of the half-wave cycle.

  6. 斜带石斑鱼神经坏死病毒基因组RNA1和RNA2序列测定及分析%Sequences of RNA1 and RNA2 from Orange-spotted Grouper (Epinephelus coioids ) Nervous Necrosis Virus, China Strain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈晓艳; 翁少萍; 吕玲; 黄剑南; 殷志新; 何建国

    2005-01-01

    根据GenBank数据库公布的鱼类神经坏死病毒(nervous necrosis virus,NNV)同源序列设计了7对特异性引物,采用RT-PCR方法扩增出目的片断,将PCR产物测序和分析.斜带石斑鱼Epinephelus coioides神经坏死病毒(orange-spotted NNV,OGNNV)基因组由两个片断(RNA1和RNA2)组成,RNA1由3 103个核苷酸组成,含有一个开放阅读框,编码982个氨基酸;RNA2由1 433个核苷酸组成,含有一个开放阅读框,编码338个氨基酸.OGNNV基因组与新加坡GGNNV(greasy grouper NNV)的基因组有高度的相似性.分析病毒的RNA2序列发现:OGNNV与DGNNV(dragon grouper NNV)、RGNNV(redspotted NNV)和GGNNV的亲缘关系很近,并且具有相同的中和位点;分析病毒的RNA1序列,发现在OGNNV的RNA1序列中同样可以找到依赖RNA的RNA聚合酶的6个模序(motif).根据同源性比较和系统进化分析,OGNNV属于RGNNV血清型的成员.

  7. Basic electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Tayal, DC

    2010-01-01

    The second edition of this book incorporates the comments and suggestions of my friends and students who have critically studied the first edition. In this edition the changes and additions have been made and subject matter has been rearranged at some places. The purpose of this text is to provide a comprehensive and up-to-date study of the principles of operation of solid state devices, their basic circuits and application of these circuits to various electronic systems, so that it can serve as a standard text not only for universities and colleges but also for technical institutes. This book

  8. Electronic materials

    CERN Document Server

    Kwok, H L

    2010-01-01

    The electronic properties of solids have become of increasing importance in the age of information technology. The study of solids and materials, while having originated from the disciplines of physics and chemistry, has evolved independently over the past few decades. The classical treatment of solid-state physics, which emphasized classifications, theories and fundamental physical principles, is no longer able to bridge the gap between materials advances and applications. In particular, the more recent developments in device physics and technology have not necessarily been driven by new conc

  9. Electronic Router

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crusan, Jason

    2005-01-01

    Electronic Router (E-Router) is an application program for routing documents among the cognizant individuals in a government agency or other organization. E-Router supplants a prior 14 NASA Tech Briefs, May 2005 system in which paper documents were routed physically in packages by use of paper slips, packages could be lost, routing times were unacceptably long, tracking of packages was difficult, and there was a need for much photocopying. E-Router enables a user to create a digital package to be routed. Input accepted by E-Router includes the title of the package, the person(s) to whom the package is to be routed, attached files, and comments to reviewers. Electronic mail is used to notify reviewers of needed actions. The creator of the package can, at any time, see the status of the package in the routing structure. At the end of the routing process, E-Router keeps a record of the package and of approvals and/or concurrences of the reviewers. There are commercial programs that perform the general functions of E-Router, but they are more complicated. E-Router is Web-based, easy to use, and does not require the installation or use of client software.

  10. Dietary Lipid Requirements of Orange-Spotted Grouper (Epinephelus coioides) in Juvenile and Grow Out Stages%幼鱼和养成阶段斜带石斑鱼对饲料中脂肪的需要量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董晓慧; 杨俊江; 谭北平; 杨奇慧; 迟淑艳; 刘泓宇

    2015-01-01

    The present study was performed to investigate the dietary lipid requirements of grouper in two growth stages ( juvenile and grow out stages) . Five isonitrogenous diets were formulated with five lipid levels (7.07%, 9.92%, 12.92%, 15.95% and 19.04%), which were regulated by fish oil. Fish with the body weight of 9.1 g (juvenile stage) were fed the 5 diets for 8 weeks, and fish with the body weight of 102.6 g ( grow out stage) were fed the 5 diets for 10 weeks. In the same growth stage, each diet had 3 replicates, and each replicate in juvenile and grow out stages had 25 and 20 fish, respectively. The results showed as follows:1) with the dietary lipid level increasing, the weight gain rate ( WGR) , specific growth rate ( SGR) , protein efficiency rate ( PER) , condition factor ( CF) and viscerasomatic index ( VSI) of fish in juvenile and grow out stages were firstly increased and then decreased, while the feed conversion ratio ( FCR) showed an opposite trend, and all of them obtained the extreme when dietary lipid level was 12.92%. 2) With the dietary lipid lev-el increasing, the content of crude protein in whole body of fish in juvenile and grow out stages was gradually decreased, the content of crude lipid in whole body and muscle was gradually increased, and the content of moisture in whole body and muscle had no significant difference ( P>0.05) , while the other indices in whole body and muscle had no regular changes. 3) With the dietary lipid level increasing, the contents of plasma total protein ( TP) and low density lipoprotein ( LDLC) of fish in juvenile and grow out stages were gradually de-creased, while the content of plasma high density lipoprotein ( HDLC) was gradually increased. The contents of plasma triglyceride ( TG) and total cholesterol ( CHOL) of fish in juvenile and grow out stages had linear or curvilinear relationships with dietary lipid level, repectively. 4) With the dietary lipid level increasing, the ac-tivities of liver hepaticlipase

  11. Practical electronics handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Sinclair, Ian R

    2013-01-01

    Practical Electronics Handbook, Third Edition provides the frequently used and highly applicable principles of electronics and electronic circuits.The book contains relevant information in electronics. The topics discussed in the text include passive and active discrete components; linear and digital I.C.s; microprocessors and microprocessor systems; digital-analogue conversions; computer aids in electronics design; and electronic hardware components.Electronic circuit constructors, service engineers, electronic design engineers, and anyone with an interest in electronics will find the book ve

  12. 斜带石斑鱼MyD88基因的克隆与表达%Cloning and Expression of MyD88 Gene in Orange-spotted Grouper Epinephelus coioides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韦友传; 高谦; 昌明先; 罗廷荣

    2011-01-01

    本研究运用RACE-PCR技术获得斜带石斑鱼(Epinephelus coioides)髓样分化因子88 (myeloid differentiation factor 88,MyD88)基因,并对该基因进行生物信息学和表达模式分析.研究结果表明1 795 bp的cDNA全长序列,包括ORF 870 bp、5' UTR 243 bp和3' UTR 682 bp,3' UTR存在1个多聚腺苷酸加尾信号(AATAAA)和两个mRNA不稳定基序(ATTTA).SMART软件预测该蛋白N端和C端分别存在死亡结构域和TIR结构域(Toll/IL-1 receptor homology domain,TIR);与其它脊椎动物MyD88的序列同一性达57.1%~78.7%;用NJ法构建的系统进化树中,斜带石斑鱼MyD88和其它已报导的鱼类MyD88聚为一枝.qPCR检测结果显示MyD88基因mRNA主要表达于肝脏、脾脏、头肾和胸腺等组织.本研究为进一步探讨MyD88在斜带石斑鱼TLR信号传导中的作用奠定基础.%The full cDNA sequence of myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88) in the orange-spotted grouper Epinephelus coioides, designated as EcMyD88, has been isolated by using RACE-PCR method. The EcMyD88 consisted of 1 795 bp, including an 870 bp open reading frame (ORF), a 243 bp 5’ UTR and a 682 bp 3’ UTR. The 3’ UTR contained a polyadenylation-tailed signal (AATAAA) and 2 mRNA instable motifs (ATTTA). The EcMyD88 protein comprised a death domain on N terminal and a TIR domain on C terminal by using SMART program. Putative amino acid sequence of EcMyD88 shared 57.1%~78.7% identity with its counterparts from other vertebrates. Phylogenetic tree was constructed by using neighbor-joining method which revealed that EcMyD88 was clustered with MyD88 from other teleost fish reported previously. The transcription of EcMyD88 was examined by real-time quantitative PCR, and its mRNA was mainly expressed in liver, spleen, thymus and head kidney. This study will lay a foundation for further exploring the role of MyD88 in the TLR signalling in Epinephelus coioides.

  13. 驼背鲈脑垂体显微和超微结构的观察%Microstructural and ultrastructural study of pituitary in highfin grouper Cromileptes altivelis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王静香; 李加儿; 区又君; 王刚

    2011-01-01

    采用PAS、Mallory三色法和腺垂体不同细胞改良染色法3种组织学染色方法,以及透射电镜技术,对驼背鲈(Cromileptes altivelis)脑垂体的形态、组织结构和超微结构进行了研究.结果表明,驼背鲈脑垂体为圆球形实心腺体,位于间脑腹面,由神经垂体和腺垂体2部分组成.根据神经纤维中所含分泌颗粒形态和大小把神经分泌纤维分为A1、A2和B型.神经纤维中存在2种垂体细胞,即呈椭圆形的Ⅰ型垂体细胞和呈梭形的Ⅱ型垂体细胞.腺垂体由3部分组成:前外侧部(RPD)、中外侧部(PPD)和中间部(PI).腺垂体部可以鉴别出6种内分泌细胞,其中RPD有2种内分泌细胞:促肾上腺皮质激素(ACTH)分泌细胞和催乳激素(PRL)分泌细胞;PPD有3种内分泌细胞:生长激素(GH)分泌细胞、促性腺激素(GTH)分泌细胞和促甲状腺激素(TSH)分泌细胞;PI只有1种内分泌细胞,即促黑激素(MSH)分泌细胞.此外,腺垂体还有1种非分泌细胞星状细胞(SC).驼背鲈腺垂体中6种内分泌细胞的分布情况为:前外侧部分布有2种细胞,即嗜酸性的PRL分泌细胞和嗜碱性的ACTH分泌细胞;中外侧部有GH、GTH、TSH 3种分泌细胞;MSH分泌细胞分布在中间部.驼背鲈脑垂体中只有1种GTH分泌细胞,只是呈多种形态.本研究有助于进一步了解鱼类脑垂体的结构,为驼背鲈的繁育和养殖提供理论依据.%Pituitary was one of most complicated endocrine gland, the function of it was diversification. Pituitary could modulate the activities of the body organs and tissues. It was necessary to investigate structure offish pituitary in order to provide the basis for histological morphology, reproductive biology and pathology. Using improved staining, Mallory and PAS staining method, and transmission electron microscopy technique, the microstructure and the ultrastructure of the pituitary of Cromileptes altivelis was examined. Results showed that: the pituitary of the C

  14. Electronic Preprints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanisch, R.

    1999-12-01

    Despite the tremendous advances in electronic publications and the increasing rapidity with which papers are now moving from acceptance into ``print,'' preprints continue to be an important mode of communication within the astronomy community. The Los Alamos e-preprint service, astro-ph, provides for rapid and cost-free (to authors and readers) dissemination of manuscripts. As the use of astro-ph has increased the number of paper preprints in circulation to libraries has decreased, and institutional preprint series appear to be waning. It is unfortunate, however, that astro-ph does not function in collaboration with the refereed publications. For example, there is no systematic tracking of manuscripts from preprint to their final, published form, and as a centralized archive it is difficult to distribute the tracking and maintenance functions. It retains documents that have been superseded or have become obsolete. We are currently developing a distributed preprint and document management system which can support both distributed collections of preprints (e.g., traditional institutional preprint series), can link to the LANL collections, can index other documents in the ``grey'' literature (observatory reports, telescope and instrument user's manuals, calls for proposals, etc.), and can function as a manuscript submission tool for the refereed journals. This system is being developed to work cooperatively with the refereed literature so that, for example, links to preprints are updated to links to the final published papers.

  15. Megalocytiviruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuhiro Nakajima

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The genus Megalocytivirus, represented by red sea bream iridovirus (RSIV, the first identified and one of the best characterized megalocytiviruses, Infectious spleen and kidney necrosis virus (ISKNV, the type species of the genus, and numerous other isolates, is the newest genus within the family Iridoviridae. Viruses within this genus are causative agents of severe disease accompanied by high mortality in multiple species of marine and freshwater fish. To date outbreaks of megalocytivirus-induced disease have occurred primarily in south-east Asia and Japan, but infections have been detected in Australia and North America following the importation of infected ornamental fish. The first outbreak of megalocytiviral disease was recorded in cultured red sea bream (Pagrus major in Japan in 1990 and was designated red sea bream iridovirus disease (RSIVD. Following infection fish became lethargic and exhibited severe anemia, petechiae of the gills, and enlargement of the spleen. Although RSIV was identified as an iridovirus, sequence analyses of RSIV genes revealed that the virus did not belong to any of the four known genera within the family Iridoviridae. Thus a new, fifth genus was established and designated Megalocytivirus to reflect the characteristic presence of enlarged basophilic cells within infected organs. Indirect immunofluorescence tests employing recently generated monoclonal antibodies and PCR assays are currently used in the rapid diagnosis of RSIVD. For disease control, a formalin-killed vaccine was developed and is now commercially available in Japan for several fish species. Following the identification of RSIV, markedly similar viruses such as infectious spleen and kidney necrosis virus (ISKNV, dwarf gourami iridovirus (DGIV, turbot reddish body iridovirus (TRBIV, Taiwan grouper iridovirus (TGIV, and rock bream iridovirus (RBIV were isolated in East and Southeast Asia. Phylogenetic analyses of the major capsid protein (MCP and

  16. Sustainable Management of Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    To provide information on EPAs strategy for electronics stewardship, certified electronics recyclers and the Challenge; as well as where to donate unwanted electronics, how to calculate benefits, and what's going on with electronics mgmt in their states.

  17. EDITORIAL: Synaptic electronics Synaptic electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demming, Anna; Gimzewski, James K.; Vuillaume, Dominique

    2013-09-01

    Conventional computers excel in logic and accurate scientific calculations but make hard work of open ended problems that human brains handle easily. Even von Neumann—the mathematician and polymath who first developed the programming architecture that forms the basis of today's computers—was already looking to the brain for future developments before his death in 1957 [1]. Neuromorphic computing uses approaches that better mimic the working of the human brain. Recent developments in nanotechnology are now providing structures with very accommodating properties for neuromorphic approaches. This special issue, with guest editors James K Gimzewski and Dominique Vuillaume, is devoted to research at the serendipitous interface between the two disciplines. 'Synaptic electronics', looks at artificial devices with connections that demonstrate behaviour similar to synapses in the nervous system allowing a new and more powerful approach to computing. Synapses and connecting neurons respond differently to incident signals depending on the history of signals previously experienced, ultimately leading to short term and long term memory behaviour. The basic characteristics of a synapse can be replicated with around ten simple transistors. However with the human brain having around 1011 neurons and 1015 synapses, artificial neurons and synapses from basic transistors are unlikely to accommodate the scalability required. The discovery of nanoscale elements that function as 'memristors' has provided a key tool for the implementation of synaptic connections [2]. Leon Chua first developed the concept of the 'The memristor—the missing circuit element' in 1971 [3]. In this special issue he presents a tutorial describing how memristor research has fed into our understanding of synaptic behaviour and how they can be applied in information processing [4]. He also describes, 'The new principle of local activity, which uncovers a minuscule life-enabling "Goldilocks zone", dubbed the

  18. Molecular characterization of IgM, IgZ and IgD heavy chain genes in orange-spotted grouper(Epinephelus coioides)%斜带石斑鱼IgM、IgZ和IgD重链基因的克隆

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄贝; 陈善楠; 徐镇; 聂品

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, the membrane-bound immunoglobulin M (mIgM), mIgD and secretory IgZ (sIgZ) have been identified by using RACE-PCR from the orange-spotted grouper, Epinephelus coioides. The mIgM and sIgZ are comparable with their counterparts in other teleost in terms of their heavy chain cDNA sequences and gene structures. The constant region of the mlgM had three CH domains, i.e., CHI, CH2, CH3, and two transmembrane domains, TM1 and TM2. The TM1 exon is spliced into the regular donor site at the 3' terminus of the CH3 domain. When comparing the amino acid sequence of mlgM with those in teleost fish, it is found that the grouper mIgM CH region shares highest identity with that in the Oliver flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus), with CHI, CH2, CH3 having 53% - 78% identity with those in the flounder, respectively. The complete transcript of the grouper mIgD contains 3 375 bp, including a 3 006 bp open reading frame, and the constant region of the mIgD consists serially of a μl domain, seven 8 domains (81 to 87), and a TM region. The degree of amino acid sequence identity, in domain-by-domain comparison with other teleost fishes, reveals an overall higher identity between the IgD in the grouper and that in mandarin fish (Siniperca chuatsi), with 81 to 87 having 75.5%, 75.8%, 65.4%, 76.6%, 88.1%, 90.6%, 82.8% identity, and the transmembrane domain having 82.7% identity, respectively. The sIgZ has a four exon structure in genome, with the introns being 222, 129, and 458 bp in length, respectively. The semi-quantitative RT-PCR was performed to examine the expressions of IgZ, IgM, and IgD in various organs / tissues of the grouper. Transcripts encoding the mIgM were detected in all examined samples. IgD was mainly detected in pronephros, kidney, spleen and thymus, with week expression in intestine. IgZ was expressed in lymphoid tissues such as pronephros, kidney and spleen, with relatively low expression detected in gills, thymus and heart.%应用RACE方法获得斜

  19. 饲料中大豆卵磷脂/鱼油比例对斜带石斑鱼稚鱼生长发育及肠道组织的影响%Influence of Different Dietary Soybean Lecithin /Fish Oil Ratios on Growth Performance and Histology of Juvenile Grouper Epinephelus coioides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯煜; 吴小易; 陈国华; 王珺; 李伟峰; 朱仙龙

    2013-01-01

    Four formulated microdiets supplemented with different soybean lecithin / fish oil (SL/FO) ratios:Diet 1 (0%/22%),Diet 2 (5%/14%),Diet 3 (10%/8%) and Diet 4 (15%/7%) were fed to 40-day-old juvenile grouper Epinephelus coioides after hatching.Each experimental diet was distributed in triplicate tanks.The survival,feed efficiency,growth performance and intestine histology of the grouper juveniles were monitored after a 40-day growth trial.Results showed that different dietary SL/FO ratios significantly affected the growth and survival (P ≤0.05) of the grouper juveniles.The juveniles fed Diet 3 (10%/8%,SL/FO) and Diet 4 (15/7,SL/FO) gave significantly higher weight gain (WG) than those fed Diet 1 (0%/22%,SL/FO).The juveniles fed Diet1 (0%/22%,SL/FO) had obviously lower whole body lipid content than those fed other diets (P≤0.05),but had significantly higher whole body protein content than those fed other diets (P < O.05).For all treatments no significant differences were observed in feed efficiency (FE),hepatosomatic index (HSI),viscerosomatic index (VSI) and condition factor (CF),specific growth rate (SGR),feed intake (FI),protein efficiency ratio (PER),and final body weight (FBW).Increase in dietary soybean lecithin/fish oil (SL/FO) ratio reduced lipid droplets in intestine enterocytes of grouper juvenile.It is concluded that the grouper juvenile microdiets should have a high dietary soybean lecithin/fish oil ratio (15%/7%).%为探讨饲料中不同大豆卵磷脂/鱼油比例对斜带石斑鱼稚鱼成活率、生长行为、饲料利用以及肠道组织学的影响,本实验设计了4种添加不同大豆卵磷脂/鱼油比率的微颗粒饲料:0%/22%(饲料1),5%/14%(饲料2),10%/8%(饲料3)以及15%/7%(饲料4),饲喂斜带石斑鱼稚鱼.每种实验饲料均设3个平行.试验持续40 d.结果表明,饲料中不同大豆卵磷脂/鱼油比例对斜带石斑鱼稚鱼生长以

  20. Electronic Mimosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Sanjay; Datta, Meera S.; Rana, Vivek; Grover, Shailesh

    1996-04-01

    This paper describes the design of a low-cost, 2D, electromagnetic tracking device for personal computers. This interface makes use of the well-known principle of electromagnetic induction to locate the position of a transmitter in an x-y plane. This device has a ring which is worn by the user on the index finger. The computer monitor is overlaid with a transparent screen equipped with tuned electromagnetic sensors. These sensors pick up the signals transmitted by the transmitter coil on the finger. The receiver circuit extracts the envelope of the received signal and digitizes it. These digitized values of x and y axis signals are read by the computer through the standard parallel port. The system software running on the computer calculates the x and y co-ordinates of the transmitter coil and displays a cursor at that location. The transmitter also has a button which can be used like a mouse button. This keypress information is also transmitted by the electromagnetic means. The device driver for this tracker replaces the standard mouse driver. Hence most applications which use a mouse can also use this tracker. Its name `Mimosa' indicates that the user need not touch the screen (Mimosa Pudica is the Latin name of a plant whose leaves wilt when touched). Presently work is on to achieve uniform sensitivity over the entire screen and reducing transmitter power consumption. In order to demonstrate its working, a small, 3D game was written. The player has to reach a pre-defined location after traversing through a maze. The paper describes the interface electronics, system software, mechanical design and the sample application.

  1. Carbon Nanotube Electron Gun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Cattien V. (Inventor); Ribaya, Bryan P. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    An electron gun, an electron source for an electron gun, an extractor for an electron gun, and a respective method for producing the electron gun, the electron source and the extractor are disclosed. Embodiments provide an electron source utilizing a carbon nanotube (CNT) bonded to a substrate for increased stability, reliability, and durability. An extractor with an aperture in a conductive material is used to extract electrons from the electron source, where the aperture may substantially align with the CNT of the electron source when the extractor and electron source are mated to form the electron gun. The electron source and extractor may have alignment features for aligning the electron source and the extractor, thereby bringing the aperture and CNT into substantial alignment when assembled. The alignment features may provide and maintain this alignment during operation to improve the field emission characteristics and overall system stability of the electron gun.

  2. Monitoring of irradiated food products marketed in Italy and evaluation of electron spin resonance signal sensitivity of experimentally irradiated fish scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaele Marrone

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Many countries, in order to authorise the use of food irradiation, claim the availability of methods to detect the occurred treatment in addition to the respect of safe use of this technology. Among physical methods, the electron spin resonance (ESR measuring the number of free radicals that are formed during irradiation can be applied only to those foods with cellulose, a crystalline or bone structure, in which free radicals have a shelf life greater than irradiated product. The aim of this study was to highlight an irradiation treatment in European and extra-European foods marketed in Southern Italy by the means of ESR technique. Furthermore, in order to optimise the preparation procedures the efficacy of the above mentioned method in fish scales experimentally irradiated has been evaluated. From February to September 2012, a total number of 83 samples of food products of animal and plant origin were taken at the border inspection post and at retail market and finally analysed. At the same time, the scales of grouper and barracuda have been experimentally irradiated at 0.5 kGy and were subsequently analysed using ESR. Results showed 5 frog legs out of 83 samples positive for treatment and confirm the applicability of ESR also for fish scales.

  3. 饲料中锌含量对斜带石斑鱼(Epinephelus coioides)生长、饲料效率、矿物质含量和体组成的影响%EFFECT OF DIETARY ZINC ON GROWTH, FEED EFFICIENCY, MINERAL CONTENT AND BODY COMPOSITION OF JUVENILE GROUPER EPINEPHELUS COIOIDES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶超霞; 刘永坚; 田丽霞; 周立斌; 阳会军; 梁桂英

    2013-01-01

    以ZnSO4·7H2O为锌源,用锌添加量为0、20、40、60、80和100mg/kg的实验饲料投喂斜带石斑鱼12周,研究其对斜带石斑鱼生长、饲料效率、矿物质含量和体组成的影响.结果表明,各实验组的增重率,饲料效率,存活率和全鱼、脊椎骨、鳞片的锌含量无显著差异.全鱼、脊椎骨和鳞片的锰含量均随着饲料中锌的添加而降低,锰和锌存在明显的拮抗关系.全鱼的铁含量随着饲料中锌的添加而降低.全鱼、脊椎骨和鳞片的钙、磷、镁含量均不受饲料中锌含量的影响.饲料中添加锌对全鱼水分、灰分,肌肉水分、脂肪,形态学指标,红细胞比容和血红蛋白含量没有显著影响.饲料中不添加锌时,全鱼的蛋白、脂肪和肌肉的蛋白、灰分含量较低.实验结果表明基础饲料中33mg/kg的锌已经满足斜带石斑鱼生长的需求,能使鱼体锌达到饱和.%This study was conducted to investigate the effect of dietary zinc on growth, mineral concentration and body composition of juvenile grouper, Epinephelus coioides. Six diets were prepared by supplementing a casein-gelatin-based diet with 0, 20, 40, 60, 80 and l00mg/kg zinc from ZnSO4·7H2O. The analyzed zinc contents of the diets were 33, 64, 98, 123, 163, 190mg/kg respectively. Grouper with an initial weight of (8.5±0.1)g were fed to satiation for 12 weeks. Growth, feed efficiency, survival, zinc concentrations of whole body, vertebrae and scale were not significantly affected by dietary zinc supplements. Manganese concentrations of whole body, vertebrae and scale were all significantly deceased by dietary zinc supplements. Whole body ferrum decreased with increasing dietary zinc. Calcium, phosphorus and magnesium concentrations of whole body, vertebrae and scale were not significantly affected by dietary zinc supplements. Dietary zinc concentration had no significant effect on whole body moisture and ash, muscle moisture and lipid, morphological and

  4. Controle de Neobenedenia melleni (MacCallum, 1927 (Monogenea: Capsalidae em garoupa-verdadeira, Epinephelus marginatus (Lowe, 1834, cultivada em tanques-rede Control of Neobenedenia melleni (MacCallum, 1927 (Monogenea: Capsalidae in dusky grouper, Epinephelus marginatus (Lowe, 1834, reared in floating net cages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Gomes Sanches

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available O diagnóstico precoce de patologias no meio aquático constitui-se em uma necessidade vital para o sucesso dos cultivos. Considerados como parasitos oportunistas, surtos de infestação de monogenóides capsalídeos podem ocasionar mortalidades massivas gerando enormes prejuízos nos cultivos. Exemplares de garoupa-verdadeira Epinephelus marginatus (Lowe, 1834, com peso médio de 142,74 ± 38,65 g, apresentaram recusa da alimentação e sintomas como o escurecimento do corpo, natação errática, opacidade dos olhos, exoftalmia e hemorragias em diversas áreas do corpo. Alguns peixes apresentavam lesões no globo ocular e cegueira. Após análises dos peixes foi identificada a ocorrência do parasito Neobenedenia melleni. Este trabalho teve por objetivo testar o efeito de diferentes tratamentos por imersão em diferentes concentrações de formalina e água doce na erradicação de monogenoides capsalideos na garoupa-verdadeira. Foram testados três tratamentos em forma de banhos: T1 (água doce por 10 minutos; T2 (formalina: 1:2.000 por 10 minutos e T3: (formalina: 1:4.000 por 10 minutos. Os tratamentos foram avaliados através de raspado de tecido epitelial, montados entre lâminas e lamínulas e observado ao microscópio de luz. Observou-se que nas condições testadas o T1 e o T2 foram eficientes na eliminação dos monogenóides capsalídeos na garoupa-verdadeira.The precocious diagnosis of pathologies in the aquatic way is constituted in a vital need for the success of the cultivations. Considered as parasites opportunists, infestations of monogeneans capsalides can cause missal mortalities resulting in enormous damages in the cultivations. Juveniles of dusky grouper Epinephelus marginatus (Lowe, 1834, with medium weight of 142.74 ± 38.65 g, presented refusal of the feeding and symptoms as the darkening of the body, erratic swimming, opacity of the eyes and hemorrhages in several areas of the body. Some fishes presented lesions in the

  5. EFFECTS OF CYSTEAMINE ON mRNA LEVELS OF GROWTH HORMONE AND ITS RECEPTORS IN ORANGE-SPOTTED GROUPER EPINEPHELUS COIOIDES%半胱胺对斜带石斑鱼(Epinephelus coioides)生长激素及其受体mRNA水平的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李云; 蔡生力

    2011-01-01

    In present research, we found that cysteamine hydrochloride (CSH) administrated in diet could significantly enhance growth of orange-spotted grouper Epinephelus coioides. Both CSH administrated through diet and injection could enhance the levels of growth hormone (GH) mRNA and two types of growth hormone receptors (GHR) mRNA in or- ange-spotted grouper in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, changes of the levels of two GHRs mRNA induced by the injection of CSH at different doses/hours were investigated. Injection of CSH at 20 gg/g b.w. could only enhance gGHR2 mRNA level significantly; in contrast the medium dose of CSH (50gg/g b.w.) could significantly enhance two types of GHR mRNA levels. Furthermore, two hours after injection of CSH at 50gg/g b.w., the levels of two GHR mRNA were increased significantly and gGHR2 mRNA level was much higher than that of gGHR1, gGHR2 mRNA level reached maximum 6 hours after injection, while gGHR1 got to the peak value 12 hours after injection. So, gGHR2 seemed more sensitive to the stimulation induced by the injection of CSH.%以海水硬骨鱼类斜带石斑鱼为研究对象,通过投喂和腹腔注射半胱胺盐酸盐(CSH),研究半胱胺对斜带石斑鱼生长激素(GH)及其受体(GHR)mRNA水平的影响,以初步揭示半胱胺促进斜带石斑鱼生长的作用机理。结果表明,长期投喂CSH可以显著提高斜带石斑鱼的相对体重增长率。投喂和腹腔注射不同剂量的CSH均能明显促进斜带石斑鱼脑垂体GHmRNA水平及肝脏2种gGHRmRNA水平,且促进效果与CSH浓度呈剂量依存关系。本研究还就CSH对斜带石斑鱼2种不同类型GHR作用的剂量效应和时间效应进行了初步探讨。通过注射不同剂量

  6. Establishment of a cell line from kidney of seabass, Lates calcarifer (Bloch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phromkunthong, W.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary cell culture from caudal fin and kidney of seabass (Lates calcarifer Bloch using tissue explant method were cultured in three different medias with various salt concentrations. Only seabass kidney (SK cells grew well in Leibovitze's-15 medium containing 8 g/l of NaCl supplemented with 10 % fetal bovine serum at an optimum temperature of 25 oC. Over a period of 24 months, SK cells were subcultured over than 75 passages and exhibited epithelial-like cells. The chromosome number of SK cells was 42. The cells were found to be free from bacterial, fungal and mycoplasma contamination. Seabass cells can be kept at -80 oC and/or in liquid nitrogen (-196 oC for at least 24 months with a survival rate of 83.20 and 74.50 %, respectively. Nine fish viruses were tested for their infectivity and this SK cells were susceptible to sand goby virus (SGV, chub reovirus (CRV, snake-head rhabdovirus (SHRV, red seabream iridovirus (RSIV, seabass iridovirus (SIV and grouper iridovirus-2 (GIV-2.

  7. Nano-Electronics and Bio-Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Deepak; Kwak, Dochan (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Viewgraph presentation on Nano-Electronics and Bio-Electronics is discussed. Topics discussed include: NASA Ames nanotechnology program, Potential Carbon Nanotube (CNT) application, CNT synthesis,Computational Nanotechnology, and protein nanotubes.

  8. Electronics for LHC Experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    This document gathers the abstracts of most presentations made at this workshop on electronics for the large hadron collider (LHC) experiments. The presentations were arranged into 6 sessions: 1) electronics for tracker, 2) trigger electronics, 3) detector control systems, 4) data acquisition, 5) electronics for calorimeters and electronics for muons, and 6) links, power systems, grounding and shielding, testing and quality assurance.

  9. 鲑点石斑鱼皮肤抗菌活性蛋白的纯化及抗菌活性%Purification and Antimicrobial Activity of Antimicrobial Protein from Brown-spotted Grouper, Epinephelus fario

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张英霞; 邹瑗徽; 满初日嘎; 周永灿; 王世峰

    2008-01-01

    近年来在多种生物体中都发现有抗菌活性蛋白和多肽.由于其具有生物化学多样性,抗病毒、微生物、真菌、原生动物、肿瘤,促进伤口愈合等生物学活性,而引起研究者的极大兴趣.抗菌活性蛋白和多肽在动物的先天免疫中具有重要作用,它们直接作用于细菌,并将其杀死.鲑点石斑鱼(Epinephelus fario)是中国南方水产养殖中重要的海水鱼.近年来,由于细菌和病毒引发的病害造成鲑点石斑鱼大量死亡,但其抗菌活性蛋白及多肽目前还未见报道.本研究发现鲑点石斑鱼皮肤具有抗菌活性成分,鲑点石斑鱼皮肤匀浆物经胰蛋白酶水解后抗菌活性丧失,说明该活性是由蛋白质引起的.经离子交换层析及凝胶过滤层析,从鲑点石斑鱼皮肤中分离纯化到抗菌活性蛋白(Efap).SDS-PAGE显示,Efap为单链蛋白,分子量约41 kD.该成分能同时抑制革兰氏阳性菌,如金黄色葡萄球菌、滕黄微球菌、枯草牙胞杆菌和革兰氏阴性菌,如溶藻弧菌、副溶血弧菌、河流弧菌、多杀性巴氏杆菌、嗜水气单胞菌、大肠杆菌和铜绿假单胞菌.革兰氏阴性菌中,溶藻弧菌、副溶血弧菌、河流弧菌和多杀性巴氏杆菌对Efap较敏感,MIC20 mol/L.另外,Efap显示出较强的抗金黄色匍萄球菌的活性,MIC为5-10 mol/L.Efap的广谱抗菌性,说明其在鲑点石斑鱼免疫防御中具有一定的作用.%Antimicrobial proteins and peptides had been found from a wide variety of organisms in the last few years. These molecules have attracted much research interest because of their biochemical diversity, broad specificity on anti-viral, anti-bacterial, anti-fungi, anti-protozoan parasites, anti-tumoural, and wound-healing effects. Antimicrobiai proteins and peptides play key roles in innate immunity. They interact directly with bacteria and kill them. The brown-spotted grouper, Epinephelusfario, is an important marine fish cultured in southern

  10. 中药和泰药提取物对褐点石斑鱼的免疫效果%Natural Immunostimulants from Chinese herbal Medicine and Thai Medicine for Brown Spotted Grouper

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴小连; Jumroensri Thawonsuwan; 李宏; Jiraporn Jarungsriapisit; 王世锋; 郭伟良; 周永灿; 谢珍玉

    2012-01-01

    that with the extraction concentration of 10 g · L-1, Lentinan group showed the best immune effect; with the extraction concentration of 5 g · L-1 , all experimental groups showed no significant immune effects; with the extraction concentration of 2. 5 g · L-1 and 1.25 g · L-1, group Radix astragali, Lentinan, Radix ginseng rubra and compound 1 obtained the most prominent immune effects; with the extraction concentration of 0.625 g · L-l, the immune effects of Radix astragali, Eucommia bark, and Turmeric group were optimal; the white blood cell phagocytic activity of Radix astragali, Lentinan, Radix ginseng rubra and compound1, were significantly higher than that of the control group. So, four kinds of natural immunostimulants for brown spotted grouper, Radix astragali, Lentinan, Radix ginseng rubra and Shengmai Yu Ping Feng San, respectively, were obtained in our report. These data were also very helpful for screening a new security immunostimulant for reared fish in future.

  11. Interface Electronic Circuitry for an Electronic Tongue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keymeulen, Didier; Buehler, Martin

    2007-01-01

    Electronic circuitry has been developed to serve as an interface between an electronic tongue and digital input/output boards in a laptop computer that is used to control the tongue and process its readings. Electronic tongues can be used for a variety of purposes, including evaluating water quality, analyzing biochemicals, analyzing biofilms, and measuring electrical conductivities of soils.

  12. Electron beam focusing system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dikansky, N.; Nagaitsev, S.; Parkhomchuk, V.

    1997-09-01

    The high energy electron cooling requires a very cold electron beam. Thus, the electron beam focusing system is very important for the performance of electron cooling. A system with and without longitudinal magnetic field is presented for discussion. Interaction of electron beam with the vacuum chamber as well as with the background ions and stored antiprotons can cause the coherent electron beam instabilities. Focusing system requirements needed to suppress these instabilities are presented.

  13. Electronics and Information

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Previously founded as CCPITMachinery and Electronics Sub-council and CCOIC Machinery and Electronics Chamber of Corn-merce in June, 1988, CCPIT Electronics Sub-Council and CCOIC Electronics Chamber of Commerce were established in May, 1993, and then renamed as CCPIT Electronics and Information Industry Sub-council and CCOIC Electronics and Infor-mation Industry Chamber of Commerce (CCPITECC) in September 1999.

  14. Electronic Correlations in Electron Transfer Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulla, Ralf; Tornow, Sabine; Anders, Frithjof

    Electron transfer processes play a central role in many chemical and biological systems. Already the transfer of a single electron from the donor to the acceptor can be viewed as a complicated many-body problem, due to the coupling of the electron to the infinitely many environmental degrees of freedom, realized by density fluctuations of the solvent or molecular vibrations of the protein matrix. We focus on the quantum mechanical modelling of two-electron transfer processes whose dynamics is governed by the Coulomb interaction between the electrons as well as the environmental degrees of freedoms represented by a bosonic bath. We identify the regime of parameters in which concerted transfer of the two electrons occurs and discuss the influence of the Coulomb repulsion and the coupling strength to the environment on the electron transfer rate. Calculations are performed using the non-perturbative numerical renormalization group approach for both equilibrium and non-equilibrium properties.

  15. Electron Microscopy Center (EMC)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Electron Microscopy Center (EMC) at Argonne National Laboratory develops and maintains unique capabilities for electron beam characterization and applies those...

  16. Investigations on Electronic Materials

    OpenAIRE

    E. Pugnor; T. Kormány

    1982-01-01

    Electronics has been described as a materials oriented technology. In this sense a short review is given concerning: the connection of materials characterization to the design and processing of electronic components; the most important materials characterization methods used for electronic materials; the strategy of organizing a complete material characterization system for selected electronic components.

  17. Electron-attachment processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christophorou, L. G.; McCorkle, D. L.; Christodoulides, A. A.

    Topics covered include: modes of production of negative ions, techniques for the study of electron attachment processes, dissociative electron attachment to ground state molecules, dissociative electron attachment to hot molecules (effects of temperature on dissociative electron attachment), molecular parent negative ions, and negative ions formed by ion pair processes and by collisions of molecules with ground state and Rydberg atoms.

  18. Electronic Health Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Loss Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Electronic Health Records KidsHealth > For Teens > Electronic Health Records Print A A A What's in ... t happen overnight, they are coming. Understanding EHRs Electronic health records (EHR) — also called electronic medical records ( ...

  19. Introduction to electronics

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2005-01-01

    Electronics in HEP experiments: specificities and evolution The Art of Electronics: is there something beyond Ohm's law? Basic building blocks of Analog electronics: quickly understanding a schematic Charge preamps, current preamps and future preamps, shaping and the rest Electronics noise: fundamental and practical Evolution of technology: ASICs, FPGAs...

  20. Introduction to Electronics course

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva HR-RFA

    2006-01-01

    Electronics in HEP experiments: specificities and evolution The Art of Electronics: is there something beyond Ohm's law? Basic building blocks of Analog electronics: quickly understanding a schematic Charge preamps, current preamps and future preamps, shaping and the rest Electronics noise: fundamental and practical Evolution of technology: ASICs, FPGAs...

  1. Electronic Health Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Loss Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Electronic Health Records KidsHealth > For Teens > Electronic Health Records A A A What's in this ... t happen overnight, they are coming. Understanding EHRs Electronic health records (EHR) — also called electronic medical records ( ...

  2. Introduction to Electronic Marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilbeck, Lettie

    These materials for a five-unit course were developed to introduce secondary and postsecondary students to the use of electronic equipment in marketing. The units cover the following topics: electronic marketing as a valid marketing approach; telemarketing; radio electronic media marketing; television electronic media marketing; and cable TV…

  3. Hybrid printed electronics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koetse, M.; Smits, E.; Rubingh, E.; Teunissen, P.; Kusters, R.; Abbel, R.; Brand, J. van den

    2016-01-01

    Although many electronic functionalities can be realized by printed or organic electronics, short-term marketable products often require robust, reproducible, and nondisturbing technologies. In this chapter we show how hybrid electronics, a combination of printed circuitry, thin-film electronics,

  4. Electron transfer reactions

    CERN Document Server

    Cannon, R D

    2013-01-01

    Electron Transfer Reactions deals with the mechanisms of electron transfer reactions between metal ions in solution, as well as the electron exchange between atoms or molecules in either the gaseous or solid state. The book is divided into three parts. Part 1 covers the electron transfer between atoms and molecules in the gas state. Part 2 tackles the reaction paths of oxidation states and binuclear intermediates, as well as the mechanisms of electron transfer. Part 3 discusses the theories and models of the electron transfer process; theories and experiments involving bridged electron transfe

  5. Electronics engineer's reference book

    CERN Document Server

    Mazda, F F

    1989-01-01

    Electronics Engineer's Reference Book, Sixth Edition is a five-part book that begins with a synopsis of mathematical and electrical techniques used in the analysis of electronic systems. Part II covers physical phenomena, such as electricity, light, and radiation, often met with in electronic systems. Part III contains chapters on basic electronic components and materials, the building blocks of any electronic design. Part IV highlights electronic circuit design and instrumentation. The last part shows the application areas of electronics such as radar and computers.

  6. Species identification of grouper and snapper in Taiwan Strait using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis and lab-on-a-chip system%聚合酶链式反应-限制性片段长度多态性和芯片生物分析技术用于台湾海峡常见石斑鱼和鲷鱼的品种鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈双雅; 张津; 陈伟玲; 徐敦明; 周昱

    2011-01-01

    Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism ( PCR-RFLP )analysis and lab-on-a-chip system were used to identify grouper and snapper species in Taiwan Strait. A fragment of 464 bp length of mitochondrial cytochrome b gene was amplified by PCR and the products were digested with restriction enzymes Dde Ⅰ, Hae Ⅲ and Nla Ⅲ , individually. The fragments generated after digestion were further resolved on the DNA Chip. Eight grouper species and five snapper species were successfully identified. The results demonstrated that PCR-RFLP analysis and lab-on-a-chip system provide a fast , easy, automated, and reliable analysis approach. This approach is potential for the purpose of fish adulteration control.%应用聚合酶链式反应-限制性片段长度多态性分析(PCR-RFLP)和芯片生物分析系统建立了台湾海峡常见石斑鱼和鲷鱼的分子生物学品种鉴定新方法.首先提取鱼的基因组脱氧核糖核酸(DNA)进行细胞色素b基因特定片段的PCR扩增,然后用Dde Ⅰ、Hae Ⅲ和Nla Ⅲ 3种限制性内切酶进行酶切,在Agilent DNA 1000芯片上对酶切片段进行分离.该方法成功鉴定了台湾海峡常见的8种石斑鱼品种和5种鲷鱼品种,是一种快速、简便、有效的鱼类品种鉴定分析手段.

  7. Practical microwave electron devices

    CERN Document Server

    Meurant, Gerard

    2013-01-01

    Practical Microwave Electron Devices provides an understanding of microwave electron devices and their applications. All areas of microwave electron devices are covered. These include microwave solid-state devices, including popular microwave transistors and both passive and active diodes; quantum electron devices; thermionic devices (including relativistic thermionic devices); and ferrimagnetic electron devices. The design of each of these devices is discussed as well as their applications, including oscillation, amplification, switching, modulation, demodulation, and parametric interactions.

  8. Electronics engineer's reference book

    CERN Document Server

    Turner, L W

    1976-01-01

    Electronics Engineer's Reference Book, 4th Edition is a reference book for electronic engineers that reviews the knowledge and techniques in electronics engineering and covers topics ranging from basics to materials and components, devices, circuits, measurements, and applications. This edition is comprised of 27 chapters; the first of which presents general information on electronics engineering, including terminology, mathematical equations, mathematical signs and symbols, and Greek alphabet and symbols. Attention then turns to the history of electronics; electromagnetic and nuclear radiatio

  9. Single electron-ics with carbon nanotubes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Götz, G.T.J.

    2010-01-01

    We experimentally investigate Quantum Dots, formed in Carbon Nanotubes. The first part of this thesis deals with charge sensing on such quantum dots. The charge sensor is a metallic Single-electron-transistor, sensitive to the charge of a single electron on the quantum dot. We use this technique for

  10. Electron-electron interactions in disordered systems

    CERN Document Server

    Efros, AL

    1985-01-01

    ``Electron-Electron Interactions in Disordered Systems'' deals with the interplay of disorder and the Coulomb interaction. Prominent experts give state-of-the-art reviews of the theoretical and experimental work in this field and make it clear that the interplay of the two effects is essential, especially in low-dimensional systems.

  11. VIRTUAL ELECTRONIC COMPONENTS OF THE ELECTRONIC EQUIPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Lazarevich

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is present new idea of the creation, developments and improvements of the electronic equipment of complex systems by means of the virtual electronic components. The idea of the virtual electronic components is a presentation and perception of the creation and developments of the equipment on two forming: real – in the manner of standard marketed block of the intellectual property and image – in the manner of virtual component. The real component in most cases slows the development of the electronic equipment. The imaginary component is the «locomotive» of development of the electronic equipment. The Imaginary component contains the scientific has brushed against developer. The scientific has brushed against developer reveals of itself in the manner of virtual component on the modern level of the design rates of microelectronics.

  12. Electron transporting semiconducting polymers in organic electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xingang; Zhan, Xiaowei

    2011-07-01

    Significant progress has been achieved in the preparation of semiconducting polymers over the past two decades, and successful commercial devices based on them are slowly beginning to enter the market. However, most of the conjugated polymers are hole transporting, or p-type, semiconductors that have seen a dramatic rise in performance over the last decade. Much less attention has been devoted to electron transporting, or n-type, materials that have lagged behind their p-type counterparts. Organic electron transporting materials are essential for the fabrication of organic p-n junctions, organic photovoltaic cells (OPVs), n-channel organic field-effect transistors (OFETs), organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) and complementary logic circuits. In this critical review we focus upon recent developments in several classes of electron transporting semiconducting polymers used in OLEDs, OFETs and OPVs, and survey and analyze what is currently known concerning electron transporting semiconductor architecture, electronic structure, and device performance relationships (87 references).

  13. Electronics for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Shamieh

    2015-01-01

    Explore the basic concepts of electronics, build your electronics workbench, and begin creating fun electronics projects right away! Electronics For Dummies, 3rd Edition is your guide to the world of electronics. Spanning circuitry, wiring, robotics, transmitters, amplifiers, and more, this book demystifies electricity basics and beyond. The third edition offers new content revised to reflect the latest advancements in the electronics field, and it offers full color project examples to spark your creativity and inspire you to put your new skills to use! Packed with projects that can be comple

  14. High energy electron cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parkhomchuk, V. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

    1997-09-01

    High energy electron cooling requires a very cold electron beam. The questions of using electron cooling with and without a magnetic field are presented for discussion at this workshop. The electron cooling method was suggested by G. Budker in the middle sixties. The original idea of the electron cooling was published in 1966. The design activities for the NAP-M project was started in November 1971 and the first run using a proton beam occurred in September 1973. The first experiment with both electron and proton beams was started in May 1974. In this experiment good result was achieved very close to theoretical prediction for a usual two component plasma heat exchange.

  15. RHIC electron lenses upgrades

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gu, X. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Altinbas, Z. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Bruno, D. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Binello, S. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Costanzo, M. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Drees, A. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Fischer, W. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Gassner, D. M. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Hock, J. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Hock, K. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Harvey, M. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Luo, Y. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Marusic, A. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Mi, C. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Mernick, K. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Minty, M. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Michnoff, R. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Miller, T. A. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Pikin, A. I. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Robert-Demolaize, G. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Samms, T. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Shrey, T. C. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Schoefer, V. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Tan, Y. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Than, R. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Thieberger, P. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; White, S. M. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.

    2015-05-03

    In the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) 100 GeV polarized proton run in 2015, two electron lenses were used to partially compensate for the head-on beam-beam effect for the first time. Here, we describe the design of the current electron lens, detailing the hardware modifications made after the 2014 commissioning run with heavy ions. A new electron gun with 15-mm diameter cathode is characterized. The electron beam transverse profile was measured using a YAG screen and fitted with a Gaussian distribution. During operation, the overlap of the electron and proton beams was achieved using the electron backscattering detector in conjunction with an automated orbit control program.

  16. Electronic Commerce and Competitive Procurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-06-01

    Explains the application of electronic commerce techniques (electronic data interchange (EDI), electronic mail (E-mail), electronic bulletin boards...purchase procedures of the Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR). Changes to the FAR to recognize electronic commerce are recommended. Also discussed...are opportunities to use electronic commerce and small business and legal considerations of electronic commerce . This report describes how electronic

  17. Certified Electronics Recyclers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn how EPA encourages all electronics recyclers become certified by demonstrating to an accredited, independent third-party auditor and that they meet specific standards to safely recycle and manage electronics.

  18. Chapter 9: Electronics

    OpenAIRE

    Spieler, Helmuth G

    2008-01-01

    Sophisticated front-end electronics are a key part of practically all modern radiation detector systems. This chapter introduces the basic principles and their implementation. Topics include signal acquisition, electronic noise, pulse shaping (analog and digital), and data readout techniques.

  19. Chapter 9: Electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grupen, Claus; Shwartz, Boris A.

    2006-12-19

    Sophisticated front-end electronics are a key part of practically all modern radiation detector systems. This chapter introduces the basic principles and their implementation. Topics include signal acquisition, electronic noise, pulse shaping (analog and digital), and data readout techniques.

  20. Presidential Electronic Records Library

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Archives and Records Administration — PERL (Presidential Electronic Records Library) used to ingest and provide internal access to the Presidential electronic Records of the Reagan, Bush, and Clinton...

  1. THE ELECTRONIC SIGNATURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voiculescu Madalina Irena

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Article refers to significance and the digital signature in electronic commerce. Internet and electronic commerce open up many new opportunities for the consumer, yet, the security (or perceived lack of security of exchanging personal and financial data

  2. Electronic Submission of Labels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesticide registrants can provide draft and final labels to EPA electronically for our review as part of the pesticide registration process. The electronic submission of labels by registrants is voluntary but strongly encouraged.

  3. Chapter 9: Electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grupen, Claus; Shwartz, Boris A.

    2006-12-19

    Sophisticated front-end electronics are a key part of practically all modern radiation detector systems. This chapter introduces the basic principles and their implementation. Topics include signal acquisition, electronic noise, pulse shaping (analog and digital), and data readout techniques.

  4. Laboratory Handbook Electronics

    CERN Multimedia

    1966-01-01

    Laboratory manual 1966 format A3 with the list of equipment cables, electronic tubes, chassis, diodes transistors etc. One of CERN's first material catalogue for construction components for mechanical and electronic chassis.

  5. Electron shuttles in biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Kazuya; Manefield, Mike; Lee, Matthew; Kouzuma, Atsushi

    2009-12-01

    Electron-shuttling compounds (electron shuttles [ESs], or redox mediators) are essential components in intracellular electron transfer, while microbes also utilize self-produced and naturally present ESs for extracellular electron transfer. These compounds assist in microbial energy metabolism by facilitating electron transfer between microbes, from electron-donating substances to microbes, and/or from microbes to electron-accepting substances. Artificially supplemented ESs can create new routes of electron flow in the microbial energy metabolism, thereby opening up new possibilities for the application of microbes to biotechnology processes. Typical examples of such processes include halogenated-organics bioremediation, azo-dye decolorization, and microbial fuel cells. Herein we suggest that ESs can be applied widely to create new microbial biotechnology processes.

  6. Electronics materials research

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    The electronic materials and is aimed at the establishment of quantitative relationships underlying crystal growth parameters, materials properties, electronic characteristics and device applications. The overall program evolves about the following main thrust areas: (1) crystal growth novel approaches to engineering of semiconductor materials; (2) investigation of materials properties and electronic characteristics on a macro and microscale; (3) surface properties and surface interactions with the bulk and ambients; (4) electronic properties controlling device applications and device performance.

  7. Thermography of electronic devices

    OpenAIRE

    Panfilova S. P.; Vlasov A. I.; Gridnev V. N.; Chervinsky A. S.

    2007-01-01

    The possibility of application of thermography to diagnose the electronic devices is analyzed in the article. Typical faults of electronic devices which can be found by means of thermography are given. Advantages of noncontact thermal inspection in comparison with the contact one are described. Some features of thermography of electronic devices are considered. Thermography apparatus is viewed and some pieces of advice about choosing it for electronic devices diagnosis are given. An example o...

  8. Electronics and computer acronyms

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, Phil

    1988-01-01

    Electronics and Computer Acronyms presents a list of almost 2,500 acronyms related to electronics and computers. The material for this book is drawn from a number of subject areas, including electrical, electronics, computers, telecommunications, fiber optics, microcomputers/microprocessors, audio, video, and information technology. The acronyms also encompass avionics, military, data processing, instrumentation, units, measurement, standards, services, organizations, associations, and companies. This dictionary offers a comprehensive and broad view of electronics and all that is associated wi

  9. Extreme environment electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Cressler, John D

    2012-01-01

    Unfriendly to conventional electronic devices, circuits, and systems, extreme environments represent a serious challenge to designers and mission architects. The first truly comprehensive guide to this specialized field, Extreme Environment Electronics explains the essential aspects of designing and using devices, circuits, and electronic systems intended to operate in extreme environments, including across wide temperature ranges and in radiation-intense scenarios such as space. The Definitive Guide to Extreme Environment Electronics Featuring contributions by some of the world's foremost exp

  10. Mechanical Engineering for Electronics.

    OpenAIRE

    Was, Loïc

    2012-01-01

    Schlumberger drilling tools are exposed to very hard loading conditions (shocks, vibrations, thermal cycling) while performing a job. As these tools are full of electronics, issues can quickly come from electronics failure. Mechanisms of failure occurring in electronics are very complex but can be predicted in some cases. The first part of the thesis describes in which context mechanical engineering applied to electronics is used in Schlumberger. The different kinds of failure which will be i...

  11. Handbook on electronic commerce

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaw, M. [Illinois Univ., Urbana, IL (United States). Beckman Inst. for Advanced Science and Technology; Blanning, R. [Vanderbilt Univ., Nashville, TN (United States). Owen Graduate School of Management; Strader, T. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States). Management Information Systems; Whinston, A. [eds.] [Texas Univ., Austin, TX (United States). Dept. of Management Science and Information Systems

    2000-07-01

    The world is undergoing a revolution to a digital economy, with pronounced implications for corporate strategy, marketing, operations, information systems, customer services, global supply-chain management, and product distribution. This handbook examines the aspects of electronic commerce, including electronic storefront, on-line business, consumer interface, business-to-business networking, digital payment, legal issues, information product development, and electronic business models. Indispensable for academics, students and professionals who are interested in Electronic Commerce and Internet Business. (orig.)

  12. Atomicity in Electronic Commerce,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    tremendous demand for the ability to electronically buy and sell goods over networks. Electronic commerce has inspired a large variety of work... commerce . It then briefly surveys some major types of electronic commerce pointing out flaws in atomicity. We pay special attention to the atomicity...problems of proposals for digital cash. The paper presents two examples of highly atomic electronic commerce systems: NetBill and Cryptographic Postage Indicia.

  13. Syringe-injectable electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jia; Fu, Tian-Ming; Cheng, Zengguang; Hong, Guosong; Zhou, Tao; Jin, Lihua; Duvvuri, Madhavi; Jiang, Zhe; Kruskal, Peter; Xie, Chong; Suo, Zhigang; Fang, Ying; Lieber, Charles M

    2015-07-01

    Seamless and minimally invasive three-dimensional interpenetration of electronics within artificial or natural structures could allow for continuous monitoring and manipulation of their properties. Flexible electronics provide a means for conforming electronics to non-planar surfaces, yet targeted delivery of flexible electronics to internal regions remains difficult. Here, we overcome this challenge by demonstrating the syringe injection (and subsequent unfolding) of sub-micrometre-thick, centimetre-scale macroporous mesh electronics through needles with a diameter as small as 100 μm. Our results show that electronic components can be injected into man-made and biological cavities, as well as dense gels and tissue, with >90% device yield. We demonstrate several applications of syringe-injectable electronics as a general approach for interpenetrating flexible electronics with three-dimensional structures, including (1) monitoring internal mechanical strains in polymer cavities, (2) tight integration and low chronic immunoreactivity with several distinct regions of the brain, and (3) in vivo multiplexed neural recording. Moreover, syringe injection enables the delivery of flexible electronics through a rigid shell, the delivery of large-volume flexible electronics that can fill internal cavities, and co-injection of electronics with other materials into host structures, opening up unique applications for flexible electronics.

  14. Technology of Electronic Signatur

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    An electronic signature uses a hash of message and an asymetrical algorithm of encryption for its generation. During verification of message on receiver side the hash of original message must be identical with the hash of received message. Electronic message is secured autentization of author and integrity of transmission date. By electronic signature it is possible to sign everything what is in digital form.

  15. ELECTRONS IN NONPOLAR LIQUIDS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HOLROYD,R.A.

    2002-10-22

    Excess electrons can be introduced into liquids by absorption of high energy radiation, by photoionization, or by photoinjection from metal surfaces. The electron's chemical and physical properties can then be measured, but this requires that the electrons remain free. That is, the liquid must be sufficiently free of electron attaching impurities for these studies. The drift mobility as well as other transport properties of the electron are discussed here as well as electron reactions, free-ion yields and energy levels, Ionization processes typically produce electrons with excess kinetic energy. In liquids during thermalization, where this excess energy is lost to bath molecules, the electrons travel some distance from their geminate positive ions. In general the electrons at this point are still within the coulombic field of their geminate ions and a large fraction of the electrons recombine. However, some electrons escape recombination and the yield that escapes to become free electrons and ions is termed G{sub fi}. Reported values of G{sub fi} for molecular liquids range from 0.05 to 1.1 per 100 eV of energy absorbed. The reasons for this 20-fold range of yields are discussed here.

  16. Syringe injectable electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Guosong; Zhou, Tao; Jin, Lihua; Duvvuri, Madhavi; Jiang, Zhe; Kruskal, Peter; Xie, Chong; Suo, Zhigang; Fang, Ying; Lieber, Charles M.

    2015-01-01

    Seamless and minimally-invasive three-dimensional (3D) interpenetration of electronics within artificial or natural structures could allow for continuous monitoring and manipulation of their properties. Flexible electronics provide a means for conforming electronics to non-planar surfaces, yet targeted delivery of flexible electronics to internal regions remains difficult. Here, we overcome this challenge by demonstrating syringe injection and subsequent unfolding of submicrometer-thick, centimeter-scale macroporous mesh electronics through needles with a diameter as small as 100 micrometers. Our results show that electronic components can be injected into man-made and biological cavities, as well as dense gels and tissue, with > 90% device yield. We demonstrate several applications of syringe injectable electronics as a general approach for interpenetrating flexible electronics with 3D structures, including (i) monitoring of internal mechanical strains in polymer cavities, (ii) tight integration and low chronic immunoreactivity with several distinct regions of the brain, and (iii) in vivo multiplexed neural recording. Moreover, syringe injection enables delivery of flexible electronics through a rigid shell, delivery of large volume flexible electronics that can fill internal cavities and co-injection of electronics with other materials into host structures, opening up unique applications for flexible electronics. PMID:26053995

  17. Arduino electronics blueprints

    CERN Document Server

    Wilcher, Don

    2015-01-01

    This book is intended for those who want to learn about electronics and coding by building amazing devices and gadgets with Arduino. If you are an experienced developer who understands the basics of electronics, then you can quickly learn how to build smart devices using Arduino. The only experience needed is a desire to learn about electronics, circuit breadboarding, and coding.

  18. Electron measurement in PHENIX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akiba, Y. [Univ. of Tokyo, Tanashi (Japan)

    1995-07-15

    Electron Measurement in PHENIX detector at RHIC is discussed. The yield and S/N ratio at vector meson peaks ({phi}, {omega}, {rho}{sup o}, and J/{psi}) are evaluated. The electrons from open charm decay, and its consequence to the di-electron measurements is discussed.

  19. EFFECTIVE ELECTRONIC TUTORIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei A. Fedoseev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes effective electronic tutorials creation and application based on the theory of pedagogy. Herewith the issues of necessary electronic tutorial functional, ways of the educational process organization with the use of information and communication technologies and the logistics of electronic educational resources are touched upon. 

  20. 斜带石斑鱼(Epinephelus coioides)两种催乳素受体基因的cDNA克隆和mRNA表达分析%cDNAs CLONING AND mRNA EXPRESSION OF TWO PROLACTIN RECEPTORS IN ORANGE-SPOTTED GROUPER EPINEPHELUS COIOIDES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张勇; 马细兰; 陈勇智; 李水生; 陈华谱; 刘晓春; 林浩然

    2012-01-01

    Prolactin (PRL) has many important physiological roles in the control of growth, osmoregulation and reproduction, which is mediated by prolactin receptor (PRLR). In this study, two cDNAs encoding PRLR were isolated from the gill of orange-spotted grouper Epinephelus coioides. The two cDNAs, one consisting of 1947bp and the other of 1749bp, encoding for putative 649- and 487-amino acid PRLR (designated PRLR1 and PRLR2, respectively), shared 40.4% identity in deduced amino acid sequence. PRLR1 and PRLR2 showed the conserved structural characteristics of PRLR family, including the WS motif, the box1 region, extracellular cysteine residues and intracellular tyrosine residues. However, there were differences of structural features between the two receptors as well. PRLR1 has 13 intracellular tyrosine residues while PRLR2 only has 8. The structural discrepancies thus undoubtedly indicated the distinct biological functions of PRLR1 and PRLR2. Real-time RT-PCR analysis showed that both PRLR1 and PRLR2 mRNAs were presented in all tissues tested and expressed extremely highly in gill, kidney and intestine, lowly in pituitary and hypothalamus. The expressions of PRLR1 and PRLR2 in different embryo developmental stages were also detected by real-time PCR. The strongest signal was detected in the fertilized egg stage for PRLR1, while in the stage of optic vesicle and smoite formation for PRLR2. The expression level of PRLR2 is much higher than PRLR1 in all stages examined except in the fertilized egg stage. The expression distinction of PRLR1 and PRLR2 suggested that they may play different roles during early development of orange-spotted grouper.%采用RT-PCR方法克隆了斜带石斑鱼两种催乳素受体(Prolactin receptor,PRLR)的cDNA序列,序列分析表明:PRLR1开放阅读框为1947bp,共编码649个氨基酸,PRLR2开放阅读框为1749bp,共编码487个氨基酸,PRLR1与PRLR2的氨基酸同源性为40.4%。用Real-time RT-PCR方法研究了PRLR1

  1. 蛋氨酸钴对珍珠龙胆石斑鱼幼鱼生长、矿物元素沉积及肝脏酶活力的影响%Effects of dietary cobalt methionine on growth performance, mineral deposition, and hepatic enzyme activities in juvenile pearl gentian grouper (Epinephelus lanceolatus♂ ×E. fuscoguttatus♀)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘云; 王际英; 李宝山; 乔洪金; 柳旭东; 郝甜甜; 王晓艳

    2016-01-01

    在基础饲料中添加不同梯度的蛋氨酸钴(CoMet),制成钴含量分别为0.30 mg/kg、1.75 mg/kg、3.42 mg/kg、6.73 mg/kg、12.56 mg/kg、25.50 mg/kg的6组实验饲料(记作D1、D2、D3、D4、D5、D6组),饲喂初始体重(60.02±0.42) g的珍珠龙胆石斑鱼(Epinephelus lanceolatu♂×E. fuscoguttatus♀)幼鱼8周,研究蛋氨酸钴对其生长、矿物元素沉积和肝脏酶活力的影响。结果表明,随饲料中蛋氨酸钴含量的增加,实验鱼增重率(WGR)和特定生长率(SGR)均先升后降, D3组显著高于其他组(P0.05);粗蛋白含量呈降低的趋势, D5、D6组显著低于D1~D4组(P0.05);粗脂肪含量先降后升, D4组显著低于其他组(P0.05)。本实验条件下,以SGR为评价指标,经折线回归分析,珍珠龙胆石斑鱼幼鱼对钴的最适需求量为3.25 mg/kg,即53.28 mg(CoMet)/kg(饲料)。%Cobalt (Co) is one of the essential elements for fish, with various biological functions, including in growth promotion, blood production, reproduction, and immunity. In this study, we evaluated the effects of dietary cobalt me-thionine (CoMet) on growth performance, mineral deposition, and hepatic enzyme activities in the juvenile pearl gen-tian grouper (Epinephelus lanceolatus♂ ×E. fuscoguttatus♀). Six extruded isonitrogenous and isoenergetic diets (51% crude protein and 13% crude lipid) were formulated by supplementing the basal diet with CoMet, providing actual Co contents of 0.30, 1.75, 3.42, 6.73, 12.56, or 25.50 mg/kg diet, which were fed to groups designated D1, D2, D3, D4, D5, and D6, respectively. Each diet was randomly assigned to triplicate groups of 20 juveniles (initial weight, 60.02±0.42 g). The experiment was conducted for 8 weeks in plastic cylindrical tanks in an indoor recirculated feeding system. The weight gain rate (WGR) and specific growth rate (SGR) of the juveniles both increased and then decreased with higher CoMet levels, and both were significantly higher in the D3 group than in

  2. Cloning and promoter analysis of gonadotrophin-releasing hormone Ⅱ in the orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides)%斜带石斑鱼(Epmephelus coioides)GnRH Ⅱ基因的克隆及启动子分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈戟; 罗余山; 朱作言; 胡炜

    2013-01-01

    促性腺激素释放激素(Gonadotrophin-releasing hormone,GnRH)是调控脊椎动物生殖的关键因子之一.文章克隆了经济鱼类斜带石斑鱼(Epinephelus coioides)GnRHⅡ基因的cDNA、基因组序列及其启动子,发现GnRHⅡ基因启动子中与组织特异性表达相关的区域位于距转录起始点上游-2005 bp~-956 bp之间.以GnRHⅡ启动子驱动绿色荧光蛋白在斑马鱼胚胎中表达的结果显示,GnRH Ⅱ神经元主要分布在中脑附近和眼部.文章为深入了解GnRHⅡ基因表达的调控机制及GnRH-Ⅱ基因的功能提供了基础信息.%Gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) is a key regulator of reproduction in all vertebrates.We first cloned the eDNA and genomic DNA sequences coding for GnRHⅡ gene in the orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelis coioides),an economically important marine fish,and then cloned its promoter sequence.The region responsible for the cell-specific expression of GnRH-Ⅱ was located between-2005 bp to-956 bp from the translation start site.GnRHⅡ promoter driven EGFP expression in transgenic zebrafish showed that GnRH Ⅱ-positive neurons were primarily located in the midbrain and in the eyes.Our results provide an improved understanding of the regulatory mechanism and function of GnRH Ⅱ ofE.coioides.

  3. Anatomia e histologia gastrintestinal da garoupa-verdadeira Epinephelus marginatus (Lowe, 1834 (Teleostei, Serranidae - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v32i4.4462 Dusky grouper Epinephelus marginatus (Lowe, 1834 (Teleostei, Serranidae gastrintestinal anatomy and histology - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v32i4.4462

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Roberto Machado Cunha da Silva

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available A garoupa-verdadeira (Epinephelus marginatus é uma espécie de serranídeo com grande importância ecológica e boas perspectivas para o cultivo. A investigação da morfologia do trato digestório, associada à atividade alimentar, é fundamental para a compreensão da biologia dessa espécie e premissa básica para pesquisas sobre requerimentos nutricionais, desenvolvimento de rações e práticas adequadas de manejo alimentar. O presente trabalho descreve a anatomia e, por meio da microscopia de luz, as variações histológicas ao longo do tubo digestório de juvenis de Epinephelus marginatus, correlacionando a histologia de cada seguimento com as respectivas funções e o hábito alimentar. Verificou-se que essa espécie possui elevado número de tipos celulares ao longo do tubo digestório que estão intimamente relacionados com a resposta imunológica inata e adaptativa, permitindo o hábito alimentar detritívoro.The dusky grouper (Epinephelus marginatus is a serranida species with great ecological importance and good perspectives for rearing. The investigation of the digestive tract morphology associated to the feeding activity is essential for the understanding of the biology of this species and a basic premise for research on feed requirements, feed development and appropriate feeding methods. The present study describes the anatomy and histological variations along the digestive tract of Epinephelus marginatus juveniles associating the histology with function and feeding habit. It was verified that this species possesses a high number of different cellular types along the digestive tube intimately related with the innate and adaptative immunological responses.

  4. Polarized Electron Source Developments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charles K. Sinclair

    1990-02-23

    Presently, only two methods of producing beams of polarized electrons for injection into linear accelerators are in use. Each of these methods uses optical pumping by circularly polarized light to produce electron polarization. In one case, electron polarization is established in metastable helium atoms, while in the other case, the polarized electrons are produced in the conduction band of appropriate semiconductors. The polarized electrons are liberated from the helium metastable by chemi-ionization, and from the semiconductors by lowering the work function at the surface of the material. Developments with each of these sources since the 1988 Spin Physics Conference are reviewed, and the prospects for further improvements discussed.

  5. Soldering in electronics assembly

    CERN Document Server

    Judd, Mike

    2013-01-01

    Soldering in Electronics Assembly discusses several concerns in soldering of electronic assemblies. The book is comprised of nine chapters that tackle different areas in electronic assembly soldering. Chapter 1 discusses the soldering process itself, while Chapter 2 covers the electronic assemblies. Chapter 3 talks about solders and Chapter 4 deals with flux. The text also tackles the CS and SC soldering process. The cleaning of soldered assemblies, solder quality, and standards and specifications are also discussed. The book will be of great use to professionals who deal with electronic assem

  6. Ultracold Ordered Electron Beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habs, D.; Kramp, J.; Krause, P.; Matl, K.; Neumann, R.; Schwalm, D.

    1988-01-01

    We have started an experimental program to develop an ultracold electron beam, which can be used together with a standard electron cooling device in the Heidelberg Test Storage Ring TSR. In contrast to the standard-type design using electron beam extraction from a heated cathode, the ultracold beam is produced by photoemission of electrons from a cooled semiconductor crystal irradiated with an intense near-infrared laser light beam. Adiabatic acceleration is expected to provide ordering of the electron beam itself. Besides the cooling of ion beams to extremely low temperatures, with the aim of obtaining crystallization, the ultracold beam will constitute an excellent target for atomic physics experiments.

  7. Ultracold ordered electron beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Habs, D.; Kramp, J.; Krause, P.; Matl, K.; Neumann, R.; Schwalm, D.

    1988-01-01

    We have started an experimental program to develop an ultracold electron beam, which can be used together with a standard electron cooling device in the Heidelberg Test Storage Ring TSR. In contrast to the standard-type design using electron beam extraction beam extraction from a heated cathode, the ultracold beam is produced by photoemission of electrons from a cooled semiconductor crystal irradiated with an intense near-infrared laser light beam. Adiabatic acceleration is expected to provide ordering of the electron beam itself. Besides the cooling of ion beams to extremely low temperatures, with the aim of obtaining crystallization, the ultracold beam will constitute an excellent target for atomic physics experiments.

  8. Electronic equipment packaging technology

    CERN Document Server

    Ginsberg, Gerald L

    1992-01-01

    The last twenty years have seen major advances in the electronics industry. Perhaps the most significant aspect of these advances has been the significant role that electronic equipment plays in almost all product markets. Even though electronic equipment is used in a broad base of applications, many future applications have yet to be conceived. This versatility of electron­ ics has been brought about primarily by the significant advances that have been made in integrated circuit technology. The electronic product user is rarely aware of the integrated circuits within the equipment. However, the user is often very aware of the size, weight, mod­ ularity, maintainability, aesthetics, and human interface features of the product. In fact, these are aspects of the products that often are instrumental in deter­ mining its success or failure in the marketplace. Optimizing these and other product features is the primary role of Electronic Equipment Packaging Technology. As the electronics industry continues to pr...

  9. Advanced adhesives in electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Bailey, C

    2011-01-01

    Adhesives are widely used in the manufacture of electronic devices to act as passive and active components. Recently there has been considerable interest in the use of conductive adhesives. This book reviews key types of conductive adhesives, processing methods, properties and the way they can be modelled as well as potential applications.$bAdhesives for electronic applications serve important functional and structural purposes in electronic components and packaging, and have developed significantly over the last few decades. Advanced adhesives in electronics reviews recent developments in adhesive joining technology, processing and properties. The book opens with an introduction to adhesive joining technology for electronics. Part one goes on to cover different types of adhesive used in electronic systems, including thermally conductive adhesives, isotropic and anisotropic conductive adhesives and underfill adhesives for flip-chip applications. Part two focuses on the properties and processing of electronic ...

  10. Electron crystallography and aquaporins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Andreas D; Hite, Richard K; Engel, Andreas; Fujiyoshi, Yoshinori; Walz, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Electron crystallography of two-dimensional (2D) crystals can provide information on the structure of membrane proteins at near-atomic resolution. Originally developed and used to determine the structure of bacteriorhodopsin (bR), electron crystallography has recently been applied to elucidate the structure of aquaporins (AQPs), a family of membrane proteins that form pores mostly for water but also other solutes. While electron crystallography has made major contributions to our understanding of the structure and function of AQPs, structural studies on AQPs, in turn, have fostered a number of technical developments in electron crystallography. In this contribution, we summarize the insights electron crystallography has provided into the biology of AQPs, and describe technical advancements in electron crystallography that were driven by structural studies on AQP 2D crystals. In addition, we discuss some of the lessons that were learned from electron crystallographic work on AQPs.

  11. Automotive electronics design fundamentals

    CERN Document Server

    Zaman, Najamuz

    2015-01-01

    This book explains the topology behind automotive electronics architectures and examines how they can be profoundly augmented with embedded controllers. These controllers serve as the core building blocks of today’s vehicle electronics. Rather than simply teaching electrical basics, this unique resource focuses on the fundamental concepts of vehicle electronics architecture, and details the wide variety of Electronic Control Modules (ECMs) that enable the increasingly sophisticated "bells & whistles" of modern designs.  A must-have for automotive design engineers, technicians working in automotive electronics repair centers and students taking automotive electronics courses, this guide bridges the gap between academic instruction and industry practice with clear, concise advice on how to design and optimize automotive electronics with embedded controllers.

  12. Medan Electronic Mall Arsitektur Ikonik

    OpenAIRE

    David,, A.

    2014-01-01

    With present the Medan Electronic Mall is intended to meet the needs of electronic goods from electronic of communication, Office Electronics, Household Electronics, Hobbies or electronic game, Medan Electronic Mall also hosts for the people of North Sumatra Province especially for people of Medan City to get particular information will be the development of electronic goods and also enjoy all kinds of things related to electronics such as Game Center, Cyber/Virtual Game, Internet...

  13. Engineered phages for electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yue

    2016-11-15

    Phages are traditionally widely studied in biology and chemistry. In recent years, engineered phages have attracted significant attentions for functionalization or construction of electronic devices, due to their specific binding, catalytic, nucleating or electronic properties. To apply the engineered phages in electronics, these are a number of interesting questions: how to engineer phages for electronics? How are the engineered phages characterized? How to assemble materials with engineered phages? How are the engineered phages micro or nanopatterned? What are the strategies to construct electronics devices with engineered phages? This review will highlight the early attempts to address these questions and explore the fundamental and practical aspects of engineered phages in electronics, including the approaches for selection or expression of specific peptides on phage coat proteins, characterization of engineered phages in electronics, assembly of electronic materials, patterning of engineered phages, and construction of electronic devices. It provides the methodologies and opens up ex-cit-ing op-por-tu-ni-ties for the development of a variety of new electronic materials and devices based on engineered phages for future applications.

  14. Scanning ultrafast electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ding-Shyue; Mohammed, Omar F; Zewail, Ahmed H

    2010-08-24

    Progress has been made in the development of four-dimensional ultrafast electron microscopy, which enables space-time imaging of structural dynamics in the condensed phase. In ultrafast electron microscopy, the electrons are accelerated, typically to 200 keV, and the microscope operates in the transmission mode. Here, we report the development of scanning ultrafast electron microscopy using a field-emission-source configuration. Scanning of pulses is made in the single-electron mode, for which the pulse contains at most one or a few electrons, thus achieving imaging without the space-charge effect between electrons, and still in ten(s) of seconds. For imaging, the secondary electrons from surface structures are detected, as demonstrated here for material surfaces and biological specimens. By recording backscattered electrons, diffraction patterns from single crystals were also obtained. Scanning pulsed-electron microscopy with the acquired spatiotemporal resolutions, and its efficient heat-dissipation feature, is now poised to provide in situ 4D imaging and with environmental capability.

  15. Scanning ultrafast electron microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ding-Shyue; Mohammed, Omar F.; Zewail, Ahmed H.

    2010-01-01

    Progress has been made in the development of four-dimensional ultrafast electron microscopy, which enables space-time imaging of structural dynamics in the condensed phase. In ultrafast electron microscopy, the electrons are accelerated, typically to 200 keV, and the microscope operates in the transmission mode. Here, we report the development of scanning ultrafast electron microscopy using a field-emission-source configuration. Scanning of pulses is made in the single-electron mode, for which the pulse contains at most one or a few electrons, thus achieving imaging without the space-charge effect between electrons, and still in ten(s) of seconds. For imaging, the secondary electrons from surface structures are detected, as demonstrated here for material surfaces and biological specimens. By recording backscattered electrons, diffraction patterns from single crystals were also obtained. Scanning pulsed-electron microscopy with the acquired spatiotemporal resolutions, and its efficient heat-dissipation feature, is now poised to provide in situ 4D imaging and with environmental capability. PMID:20696933

  16. Metamaterials for Ballistic Electrons

    CERN Document Server

    Dragoman, D; Dragoman, Daniela; Dragoman, Mircea

    2007-01-01

    The paper presents a metamaterial for ballistic electrons, which consists of a quantum barrier formed in a semiconductor with negative effective electron mass. This barrier is the analogue of a metamaterial for electromagnetic waves in media with negative electrical permittivity and magnetic permeability. Besides applications similar to those of optical metamaterials, a nanosized slab of a metamaterial for ballistic electrons, sandwiched between quantum wells of positive effective mass materials, reveals unexpected conduction properties, e.g. single or multiple room temperature negative differential conductance regions at very low voltages and with considerable peak-to-valley ratios, while the traversal time of ballistic electrons can be tuned to larger or smaller values than in the absence of the metamaterial slab. Thus, slow and fast electrons, analogous to slow and fast light, occur in metamaterials for ballistic electrons.

  17. Electrons in Nanostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flindt, Christian

    2007-01-01

    or a few electrons. Such few-electron devices are expected to form the building blocks of future electrical circuits and it is thus necessary to develop a thorough theoretical understanding of the physics of electrons in nanostructures. Re- garding applications there is a particular interest......-based communication. The statistical description of electron transport through nanostructures is based on rate equations, and the primary contribution of the thesis in that respect is the development of a method that allows for the calculation of the distribution of electrons passing through a device. The method......This thesis concerns theoretical aspects of electrons in man-made nanostruc- tures. Advances in nanofabrication technology during recent decades have made it possible to produce electrical devices on the nano-scale, whose func- tionality is determined by the quantum mechanical nature of a single...

  18. Single electron spintronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dempsey, Kari J; Ciudad, David; Marrows, Christopher H

    2011-08-13

    Single electron electronics is now well developed, and allows the manipulation of electrons one-by-one as they tunnel on and off a nanoscale conducting island. In the past decade or so, there have been concerted efforts in several laboratories to construct single electron devices incorporating ferromagnetic components in order to introduce spin functionality. The use of ferromagnetic electrodes with a non-magnetic island can lead to spin accumulation on the island. On the other hand, making the dot also ferromagnetic introduces new physics such as tunnelling magnetoresistance enhancement in the cotunnelling regime and manifestations of the Kondo effect. Such nanoscale islands are also found to have long spin lifetimes. Conventional spintronics makes use of the average spin-polarization of a large ensemble of electrons: this new approach offers the prospect of accessing the quantum properties of the electron, and is a candidate approach to the construction of solid-state spin-based qubits.

  19. Electron transfer in proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farver, O; Pecht, I

    1991-01-01

    Electron migration between and within proteins is one of the most prevalent forms of biological energy conversion processes. Electron transfer reactions take place between active centers such as transition metal ions or organic cofactors over considerable distances at fast rates and with remarkable...... specificity. The electron transfer is attained through weak electronic interaction between the active sites, so that considerable research efforts are centered on resolving the factors that control the rates of long-distance electron transfer reactions in proteins. These factors include (in addition......-containing proteins. These proteins serve almost exclusively in electron transfer reactions, and as it turns out, their metal coordination sites are endowed with properties uniquely optimized for their function....

  20. Nanocrystals for electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panthani, Matthew G; Korgel, Brian A

    2012-01-01

    Semiconductor nanocrystals are promising materials for low-cost large-area electronic device fabrication. They can be synthesized with a wide variety of chemical compositions and size-tunable optical and electronic properties as well as dispersed in solvents for room-temperature deposition using various types of printing processes. This review addresses research progress in large-area electronic device applications using nanocrystal-based electrically active thin films, including thin-film transistors, light-emitting diodes, photovoltaics, and thermoelectrics.